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Relationships between two methods of vocabulary instruction, vocabulary achievement, reading attitude,.. 1982

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION, VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT, READING ATTITUDE, AND LOCUS OF CONTROL IN A COMMUNITY COLLEGE READING COURSE by CATHERINE COLETTE TOLSMA B.B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1962 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language'Educationj We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia February 1982 ©Catherine C o l e t t e Tolsma, 1982 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f 'cm The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to examine e f f e c t s of i n t e r a c t i o n s between lea r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches on vocabulary s k i l l development. Aptitude v a r i a b l e s included language background (E n g l i s h f i r s t or second language), p r i o r vocabulary achievement, a t t i t u d e toward reading, and locus of c o n t r o l . Dependent v a r i a b l e s included vocabulary achievement, a t t i t u d e toward reading, s a t i s f a c t i o n with i n s t r u c t i o n , and achievement a t t r i b u t i o n . Two methods of teaching general reading vocabulary were developed which v a r i e d in i n s t r u c t i o n a l task and format of le a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , designed to i n t e r a c t with the locus of c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t . Treatment A centered around the use of a d a i l y newspaper, and was intended to c a p i t a l i z e on strengths of i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l students by f o s t e r i n g s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and d e c i s i o n making. Treatment B used w o r d l i s t - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n vocabulary e x e r c i s e s developed e s p e c i a l l y f or t h i s study, and was designed to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g for e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l i n d i v i d u a l s . Approximately twelve hours of vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n were d e l i v e r e d during an eight-week p e r i o d . Treatment group subjects were community c o l l e g e students e n r o l l e d i n a reading and study s k i l l s course at the grade 11 l e v e l . .The c o n t r o l group was composed of students e n r o l l e d i n business education courses at the same school. The f i n a l sample included 35 students i n Treatment A, 37 i n Treatment B, and 17 in the c o n t r o l group. E n g l i s h was the n a t i v e language f o r 65 percent of p a r t i c i p a n t s in the study. Measuring instruments i n c l u d e d the vocabulary s u b t e s t s from the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2; the Mikulecky B e h a v i o r a l Reading A t t i t u d e Measure (used f o r both pre and post measures); Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l S c a l e ; and two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s developed f o r t h i s study, Vocabulary Study E v a l u a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s a t i s f a c t i o n measure) and Vocabulary A t t r i b u t i o n S c a l e . A n a l y s i s to d e t e c t main e f f e c t s and a p t i t u d e treatment i n t e r a c t i o n s c o n s i s t e d of forward stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n with h i e r a r c h i c a l i n c l u s i o n . Regression analyses are r e p o r t e d fo r each of the four dependent v a r i a b l e s . The f u l l model r e g r e s s i o n was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t on two of the dependent v a r i a b l e s , vocabulary achievement and a t t i t u d e toward reading. For the dependent v a r i a b l e vocabulary, s i g n i f i c a n t a p t i t u d e ma in e f f e c t s were found f o r language background and p r i o r vocabulary achievement; f o r reading a t t i t u d e , p r i o r vocabulary achievement and i n i t i a l reading a t t i t u d e were s i g n i f i c a n t ; f o r a t t r i b u t i o n the s i g n i f i c a n t a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s were p r i o r vocabulary achievement and locus of c o n t r o l . A s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t was found when the combined treatment groups were compared with the c o n t r o l group in the vocabulary achievement r e g r e s s i o n . The Treatment A-Treatment B c o n t r a s t was not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r any of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . i v Four a p t i t u d e by treatment i n t e r a c t i o n s are discussed: (1) a t t i t u d e x group (treatment versus c o n t r o l ) on vocabulary, (2) vocabulary x group on a t t i t u d e , (3) a t t i t u d e x treatment (Treatment A versus Treatment B) on a t t r i b u t i o n , and (4) locus of c o n t r o l x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i i A c knowledgements i x CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 2 S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e P r o b l e m 5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 6 O v e r v i e w 7 I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 8 V o c a b u l a r y I n s t r u c t i o n 8 Methods of t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y 8 Summary and c o n c l u s i o n s 13 R e s e a r c h i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y 16 C o n t e x t - w o r d l i s t 16 D i r e c t - i n c i d e n t a l . . .' 18 A s s o c i a t i o n . 19 ATI r e s e a r c h 21 Summary and c o n c l u s i o n s 22 M a t e r i a l s f o r v o c a b u l a r y s t u d y 26 A p t i t u d e T r e a t m e n t I n t e r a c t i o n R e s e a r c h 28 I n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s 29 A p t i t u d e and outcome v a r i a b l e s 30 P r i o r l e a r n i n g / a c h i e v e m e n t 31 A t t i t u d e 32 L o c u s of c o n t r o l 32 A t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y 35 Summary and c o n c l u s i o n s 39 I I I . DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 41 'Sample 41 T r e a t m e n t g r o u p s 41 C o n t r o l g r o u p 42 I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t r a t e g i e s 43 Development of e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s 45 T r e a t m e n t A . . . 48 T r e a t m e n t B 49 v i Design 50 A p t i t u d e and outcome measures 51 Data A n a l y s i s 53 IV. RESULTS 55 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s 55 Sample 55 A p t i t u d e and outcome measures 58 R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s 64 V o c a b u l a r y 65 Reading a t t i t u d e 68 S a t i s f a c t i o n 70 A t t r i b u t i o n 72 A p t i t u d e Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n s 74 V. SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 82 Summary 82 L i m i t a t i o n s 84 Sampling l i m i t a t i o n s 84 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s 85 C o n c l u s i o n s 86 Recommendations 92 Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h 92 Recommendations i n s t r u c t i o n . .• 94 REFERENCES 96 APPENDIX A: Treatment B V o c a b u l a r y E x e r c i s e s 103 APPENDIX B: Treatment A R e c o r d i n g Form 132 APPENDIX C: S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e 134 APPENDIX D: A t t r i b u t i o n S c a l e 136 APPENDIX E: C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c e s 138 APPENDIX F: R e g r e s s i o n Summary T a b l e s 141 v i i LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of vocabulary teach ing methods 15 2. Summary of ten recent vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n s tud ie s 25 3. Weiner ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme for the p e r c e i v e d determinants of achievement behavior 36 4. Treatment B e x e r c i s e s : c a t e g o r i e s , grade l e v e l ranges, and average d i f f i c u l t y of words in each e x e r c i s e 47 5. Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample 56 6. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p t i t u d e and outcome measures 59 7. Mean, s tandard d e v i a t i o n , and sample s i z e by group on a l l measuring instruments for cases used i n r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s 60 8. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s and c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h outcome v a r i a b l e s , treatment and c o n t r o l groups . . . . 63 9. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s and c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h outcome v a r i a b l e s , treatment groups only 63 10. Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of vocabulary achievement: main e f f e c t s and A T I , treatment and c o n t r o l groups 67 11. Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of reading a t t i t u d e : main e f f e c t s and A T I , treatment and c o n t r o l groups 69 12. Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of s a t i s f a c t i o n : main e f f e c t s and A T I , treatment groups only 71 13. Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of a t t r i b u t i o n s core s : main e f f e c t s and A T I , treatment groups only 73 14. R e s i d u a l i z e d c r i t e r i o n regre s s ions for ATI terms • . . . 77 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Page FIGURE 1. Representation of ATI for attitude x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n scores 78 2. Representation of ATI for locus of control x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n scores 79 3. Representation of ATI for vocabulary x group (treatment versus control) on reading attitude posttest scores 80 4. Representation of ATI for attitude x group (treatment versus control) on vocabulary achievement posttest scores 81 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Betty P l e t c h e r (Department Head, Reading and Study S k i l l s , King Edward Campus) for both her cooperation i n making t h i s study p o s s i b l e and for generously serving as an expert consultant i n the f i e l d of adult reading. I am a l s o g r a t e f u l to the King Edward teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d at various steps of the study: Ruth Chiko, Peter A j e l l o , and Kathy Bigsby. The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Sharon J e r o s k i are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged; her as s i s t a n c e throughout t h i s p r o j e c t was in v a l u a b l e . I. would a l s o l i k e to thank the members of my committee, e s p e c i a l l y Dr. Robert Chester, who a s s i s t e d i n the beginning stages of the study, and Dr. Robert Conry, who p a t i e n t l y guided the manuscript to i t s completion. F i n a n c i a l support for the p r o j e c t was provided through a grant from the Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B. C. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Researchers have spent vast amounts of time and e f f o r t i n an attempt to discover how best to teach vocabulary. A 1963 bi b l i o g r a p h y of vocabulary s t u d i e s l i s t i n g 3,125 t i t l e s (Dale & Razik, 1963) prompted the Executive Committee of the Nat i o n a l Council of Teachers of E n g l i s h to i n i t i a t e a study of vocabulary research (Petty, Herold, & S t o l l , 1968). The i n v e s t i g a t i n g committee s e l e c t e d and analyzed eighty studies and concluded t h a t , to t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n , no p a r t i c u l a r method was superior to any other method. The search for a bet t e r method continues, reviews and b i b l i o g r a p h i e s of ' vocabulary s t u d i e s continue (Bowker, 1980; Dale, Razik, & P e t t y , 1973; Fairbanks, 1977), but s t i l l there are only g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s p e c i f i c vocabulary teaching methods. The m a j o r i t y of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the area of vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n attempt to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i s o l a t e d f a c t o r s . A more f r u i t f u l approach might be to adopt an i n t e r a c t i o n research design. Aptitude treatment i n t e r a c t i o n (ATI) research, a method of i n q u i r y a t t r i b u t e d to Lee J . Cronbach and h i s colleagues, has evolved from a continuing attempt by educators to determine how and why i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n d i f f e r e n t l y . The s c i e n t i f i c problem i s to loc a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among l e a r n e r s with i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments, that i s Aptitude x Treatment 2 i n t e r a c t i o n s . To e s t a b l i s h the existence of i n t e r a c t i o n requires a s p e c i a l s t y l e of e d u c a t i o n a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l research. Two broad l i n e s of behavioral science, the experimental and the c o r r e l a t i o n a l , have been the standard ways of i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and a p t i t u d e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r a c t i o n research combines the two. (Cronbach & Snow, 1977, p. 2) Although r e s u l t s from ATI research can provide d i r e c t i o n for i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ( C a r r i e r & McNergney, 1979), e s p e c i a l l y i n reading i n s t r u c t i o n (Rodriguez, 1978; Wood & Hoose, 1972), few ATI s t u d i e s at the secondary or adult l e v e l have been reported. Statement of the Problem This f i e l d - b a s e d study uses ATI methodology to i n v e s t i g a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s between s p e c i f i c l earner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and two vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods introduced as supplementary u n i t s i n a community c o l l e g e reading and study s k i l l s course. The two methods of teaching vocabulary vary i n amount of s t r u c t u r e and format of l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s . Treatment A, newspaper-context, used a d a i l y newspaper as a source for s e l e c t i n g words to study. Treatment B, word l i s t - a s s o c i a t i o n , used p r e s e l e c t e d vocabulary study words i n an embedded c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, using m a t e r i a l s developed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . Students e n r o l l e d in business education courses served as a c o n t r o l group i n the study. Learner v a r i a b l e s included vocabulary achievement, reading a t t i t u d e , locus of c o n t r o l , s a t i s f a c t i o n with treatment, achievement a t t r i b u t i o n , and a c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e , language 3 background ( E n g l i s h f i r s t or second language). Demographic data were a l s o c o l l e c t e d to describe the sample. E f f e c t i v e n e s s of the vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods was t e s t e d by a d m i n i s t e r i n g two forms of a vocabulary subtest from a standardized reading t e s t as pre- and p o s t t e s t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study examined main and i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s of four independent v a r i a b l e s (language background, p r i o r vocabulary achievement, i n i t i a l reading a t t i t u d e , and locus of c o n t r o l ) on each of a s e r i e s of. four dependent v a r i a b l e s (vocabulary achievement, reading a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a t t r i b u t i o n ) . The f o l l o w i n g research hypotheses were constructed for t h i s study: H.1 Students i n the treatment groups w i l l demonstrate greater gains in vocabulary achievement than students in the u n i n s t r u c t e d c o n t r o l groups. H.2 Treatments A and B w i l l not be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e in i n c r e a s i n g vocabulary achievement when averaged across l e v e l s of a p t i t u d e . H.3 Treatment A w i l l be of greater b e n e f i t i n i n c r e a s i n g vocabulary achievement for students with r e l a t i v e l y high i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l scores, whereas Treatment B w i l l be of greater b e n e f i t for those with r e l a t i v e l y greater e x t e r n a l scores. The j o i n t e f f e c t s of these three hypotheses can be i l l u s t r a t e d as: 4 Vocabulary Gain Treatment B Treatment A Control I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l This i s to i l l u s t r a t e the general form of the hypothesized i n t e r a c t i o n s ; exact slopes are not hypothesized. In a d d i t i o n to the two p r i n c i p l e hypotheses, three a n c i l l a r y research questions were addressed: Q.1 How does language background i n f l u e n c e scores on vocabulary achievement, reading a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a t t r i b u t i o n ? Q.2 Does p r i o r a t t i t u d e toward reading i n t e r a c t with i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment on vocabulary achievement reading a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , or a t t r i b u t i o n ? Q.3 Does p r i o r vocabulary achievement i n t e r a c t with i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment on vocabulary achievement, reading a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , or a t t r i b u t i o n ? 5 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem The 1980 B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Assessment revealed a weakness i n vocabulary s k i l l s at the grade 12 l e v e l (Tuinman & Ke n d a l l , 1980b). A mean percentage score of 62 was reported on items t e s t i n g m u l t i p l e meanings, which the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n panel rated as marginal performance. The importance of vocabulary s k i l l s was emphasized: There i s l i t t l e doubt i n our minds that the performance of the students i n t h i s domain i s cause for concern. The o b j e c t i v e s involved are very important; they represent s k i l l s which are a key to independent progress as a reader. (p. 78) In a d d i t i o n , the authors speculated that the 62% mean score for items t e s t i n g m u l t i p l e meanings i n d i c a t e d that too many graduates of grade 12 are l i k e l y to have problems using the d i c t i o n a r y (Tuinman & K e n d a l l , 1980a). Students need i n s t r u c t i o n i n vocabulary. Few reading teachers would argue the importance of an adequate vocabulary, i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to academic success, or the r e l a t i o n s h i p between vocabulary and reading comprehension. However, r a r e l y would reading teachers agree on one best method for improving vocabulary s k i l l s . Agreement might be reached on the r e l a t i v e merits of techniques or combinations of techniques for l e a r n e r s possessing s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but at present the teacher must r e l y h e a v i l y upon i n t u i t i o n and experience when a s s i g n i n g students to methods and m a t e r i a l s . Information derived from ATI research could provide d i r e c t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n . 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms In an attempt to c o n t r o l some of the ambiguities i n vocabulary research, researchers have defined "vocabulary" by designating subsets of words students know according to some dimension. Burmeister (1978) contends that We a l l have two types of v o c a b u l a r i e s - - receptive and expressive. Our r e c e p t i v e vocabulary i s composed of the words we recognize through reading and l i s t e n i n g . This vocabulary i s u s u a l l y s e v e r a l times l a r g e r than our expressive vocabulary, which i s made up of the words we use when we speak and w r i t e . Our t o t a l vocabulary i s composed of the words we recognize and/or use in receptive and expressive ways. (p. 127) Five d i f f e r e n t types of vocabularies involved i n communication are discussed by Olson and Ames (1972): nonverbal, l i s t e n i n g , reading, speaking, and s p e l l i n g . Another c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme (Dale & 0'Rourke, 1971) f o l l o w s four l e v e l s of comprehension involved i n word knowledge which range from "I never saw i t before" to "I know i t . " In t h e i r a n a l y s i s of eighty vocabulary s t u d i e s , Petty et a l . (1968) noted that researchers tended to break vocabulary i n t o groupings such as the vocabularies of speaking, w r i t i n g , l i s t e n i n g , and reading. This study a l s o addresses a subset of vocabulary. D e f i n i t i o n s of constructs. a p p l i c a b l e to the study are l i s t e d below. 1. Reading vocabulary. Includes words recognized and understood when encountered i n w r i t t e n prose. 2. Vocabulary achievement. Level of competence i n word r e c o g n i t i o n as measured by a subtest of a standardized reading t e s t . 3. Reading a t t i t u d e . F e e l i n g s toward reading as measured by a b e h a v i o r a l l y o r i e n t e d instrument. 7 4. Locus of control. A personality construct whereby an individual perceives a reinforcement as contingent upon his own behavior (internal) or as being outside his control (external). 5. Language background. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of students according to f i r s t language learned: native speakers learned English as a f i r s t language, whereas ESL students learned English as a second language. 6. Vocabulary instruct ion. A c t i v i t y designed to accelerate acquisition of word meanings and concepts. Overview The present study is designed to examine effects of interactions between learner . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and two i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches on vocabulary s k i l l development. Chapter II reviews l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to the problem, develops constructs defined above, and synthesizes previous research to provide a conceptual base for the study. In Chapter III the methodology is outlined, including development of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies and experimental materials. The results of the study are presented in Chapter IV. The study is summarized in Chapter V, and conclusions and recommendations for further research complete the report. 8 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE L i t e r a l l y thousands of vocabulary s t u d i e s have been published. The f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter reviews a s e l e c t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e concerning the teaching of vocabulary at the secondary, c o l l e g e , and a d u l t l e v e l s , addressing three areas of concern i n the present study: (1) methods of teaching vocabulary, (2) research in the teaching of vocabulary, and (3) m a t e r i a l s for vocabulary study. Aptitude-treatment i n t e r a c t i o n research i s reviewed in the second s e c t i o n of the chapter, which i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : (1) i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments, and (2) a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s of p r i o r learning/achievement, a t t i t u d e , locus of c o n t r o l , and a t t r i b u t i o n theory. Vocabulary I n s t r u c t i o n Methods of teaching vocabulary Vocabulary i s gained from experiences and the a s s o c i a t i o n of these experiences i n t o words. Stated with some o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , the process involves sensory perception of an object or the a t t r i b u t e s of an o b j e c t , or perception of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of objects with one another. Each new perception i s added to e a r l i e r p erceptions, the composite then being a s s o c i a t e d with the words whose meanings are already known or with new words spoken or w r i t t e n by another person. (Petty et a l . , 1968, p. 14) Vocabulary a c q u i s i t i o n i s an ongoing, human process which, research has shown, can be a c c e l e r a t e d by i n s t r u c t i o n . Methods of teaching vocabulary are l a b e l e d and c a t e g o r i z e d i n a number 9 of ways. In the NCTE i n v e s t i g a t i o n of vocabulary s t u d i e s concerned d i r e c t l y with pedagogical method, Petty et a l . (1968) observed that the teaching of vocabulary u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of (1) the teaching of words and t h e i r meanings through t h e i r use in the context of other words, (2) a process of word a n a l y s i s and synthesis i n which the meanings of word elements are taught, and (3) the d i r e c t teaching of the meanings from l i s t i n g s of words thought to be important. A f t e r noting the v a r i a t i o n s i n teaching procedures in the s t u d i e s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s c l a s s i f i e d the various procedures under the two.general headings of d i r e c t and context methods. Included i n the d i r e c t methods were the word l i s t s and word parts approaches; subcategories w i t h i n context methods were context clues and i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g . In an attempt to update the Petty et a l . (1968) r e p o r t s , Bowker (1980) grouped teaching methods employed i n fourteen r e c e n t l y published s t u d i e s . Bowker's ca t e g o r i e s included (1) concept l e a r n i n g , (2) imagery (use of v i s u a l a i d s ) , (3) n a t u r a l word l e a r n i n g (an experience approach appropriate for young c h i l d r e n ) , and (4) c o g n i t i v e s t y l e ( a n a l y t i c / h o l i s t i c approach). Eisenberg (1979) claims that the various techniques for teaching vocabulary tend to endorse four common t a c t i c s : (1) etymological h i s t o r y , 10 (2) morphological components of words, (3) sentence context, and (4) d i c t i o n a r y d r i l l s . Kingston (1965) discusses i n c i d e n t a l and d i r e c t approaches and recommends that i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures should move from concrete toward abstract and from simple a s s o c i a t i o n s to more complex. Four basic a i d s in a t t a c k i n g unknown words form the b a s i s f o r another c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system for vocabulary development (Olson & Ames, 1972): (1) context, (2) s t r u c t u r e , (3) sound, and (4) d i c t i o n a r y . Several authors discussed vocabulary teaching methods by i l l u s t r a t i n g s p e c i f i c teaching s t r a t e g i e s . Dale and O'Rourke (1971, p. 5) emphasize that vocabulary development i n school must be a planned program. The research in the f i e l d i n d i c a t e s that t h i s i s a sound p r i n c i p l e . I n c i d e n t a l teaching, alone, tends to become a c c i d e n t a l teaching. Their textbook, Techniques of Teaching Vocabulary, l i s t s and i l l u s t r a t e s seventeen c a t e g o r i e s of word development, emphasizing the ordering of concepts. Another e x c e l l e n t reference for. developing vocabulary s t r a t e g i e s (Burmeister, 1978) supports teaching concepts through vocabulary development, and i l l u s t r a t e s s t r a t e g i e s in four areas: (1) denotations of words, 11 (2) word connotations and f i g u r a t i v e language, (3) d i a c h r o n i c (language as i t changes through time), and "(4) phonics. Based upon c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s for a s s o c i a t i v e memory s t r u c t u r e , h i e r a r c h i a l memory s t r u c t u r e , and i n t e r a c t i v e long- term memory s t r u c t u r e , Gipe (1978-1979) developed and t e s t e d three techniques for teaching word meanings which represented each of these three views. The three techniques were described as f o l l o w s : The assoc i a t ion method paired the unknown, or t a r g e t , word with a f a m i l i a r synonym or b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n . The task required that the subjects memorize the p a i r i n g s i n order to be able to w r i t e the o r i g i n a l p a i r s without r e f e r r i n g to the study sheet. The category method required that the subjects add to a l i s t of words f i t t i n g a general category. Each l i s t provided for the subject contained 1 t a r g e t word and 3 f a m i l i a r words. The subjects were asked to study the l i s t s , to add words from t h e i r own background to each l i s t , and then to re c a t e g o r i z e a random l i s t i n g of a l l the p r e v i o u s l y provided words without r e f e r r i n g to the study l i s t . The context method u t i l i z e d the target words i n meaningful sentences. This method required that the subjects read a 3-sentence passage i n which each sentence used the targ e t word i n a d e f i n i n g context. The context of the sentences were of a simple sentence s t r u c t u r e and contained common words to make the context f a m i l i a r . Each subject was asked to respond in w r i t i n g to a question at the end of the passage "with a word or phrase from h i s personal background experiences that f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f i e d the target word, (p. 627) In a d d i t i o n to the three methods r e f l e c t i n g the views on word l e a r n i n g , a fourth method, l a b e l e d d i c t i o n a r y , was a l s o described. Using t h i s method, students would look up the targ e t words in the d i c t i o n a r y , copy t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s , and then w r i t e a sentence c o n t a i n i n g the new word. 1 2 A three-step c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y , (1) word fluency, (2) l i s t - g r o u p - l a b e l lesson, and (3) feature a n a l y s i s , i s described by Readence and Searfoss (1980), which was designed both to improve p r e d i c t i o n and problem-solving s k i l l s and to a s s i s t students in ordering t h e i r own experiences. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n technique was a l s o used by two researchers (Catterson, 1960; Corcoran, 1962) when comparing i n d u c t i v e and deductive methods of teaching word a n a l y s i s . Analogies, according to Ignoffo (1980), are e f f e c t i v e because they not only develop vocabulary a c u i t y but a l s o the s k i l l s of t h i n k i n g and. reading. Ignoffo p o i n t s out that analogies c a r r y an implied, context, require the student to create thought p a t t e r n s , and e f f e c t i n d u c t i v e and deductive reasoning. S i m i l a r to analogies, a strategy described by Kurth (1980) suggests that c a t e g o r i e s of meaning developed by Osgood could be used as a basi s for a developmental vocabulary program. Modif i e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of Osgood's twenty c a t e g o r i e s are presented which can be used to develop lessons which, according to Kurth, give students p r a c t i c e i n using words in context and enable students to see r e l a t i o n s h i p s between words. Vocabulary s t r a t e g i e s described by Kaplan and Tuchman (1980) were developed to more a c t i v e l y involve students i n order to f o s t e r independent l e a r n i n g s k i l l s . Students are required to s e l e c t t h e i r own words f o r study, and le a r n them using context, p r e d i c t i o n , and a s s o c i a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . A s i m i l a r procedure, 1 3 recommended by Hoover (1979), was designed for students to improve t h e i r v ocabularies by s e l e c t i n g words from t h e i r reading and l e a r n i n g them v i a a c a r e f u l l y designed w r i t i n g e x e r c i s e . Summary and c o n c l u s i o n s . Numerous vocabulary teaching techniques are a v a i l a b l e to the reading teacher, and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group of those methods which could be adapted for the a d u l t learner have been discussed above. The major f a u l t of the technqiues reviewed i s that they present teaching s t r a t e g i e s alone. Only the methods developed by Gipe (1978-1979) were based d i r e c t l y upon t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e relevant to l e a r n i n g word meanings. Vance (1979) reviewed recent p s y c h o l o g i c a l research r e l a t i n g vocabulary and memory and concluded that the teaching techniques endorsed by educational p s y c h o l o g i s t s - - f i e l d trips,, e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g , vocabulary i n context, using imagery, v i v i d examples, and c a t e g o r i z i n g w o r d s - may be part of any good teacher's r e p e r t o i r e of methods for advancing students' knowledge of words. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t i s that p s y c h o l o g i s t s have conducted research which helps to v e r i f y those assumptions, and gives teachers an e m p i r i c a l foun'dation to support t h e i r pedagogical d e c i s i o n s , (p. 51) I t can be concluded, t h e r e f o r e , that many of the vocabulary teaching methods can, i n f a c t , be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to p s y c h o l o g i c a l research on processing and memory. Further i n s p e c t i o n of the teaching methods described and l i s t e d above reveals that they vary i n two dimensions, s e l e c t i o n of vocabulary study words and format of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Recent s t u d i e s (Kaplan & Tuchman, 1980; Hoover, 1979) recommend 1 4 s t r a t e g i e s which require the students to s e l e c t t h e i r own vocabulary study words? however, the teacher s e l e c t s words i n the m a j o r i t y of the techniques. The second dimension of v a r i a b i l i t y i n techniques, format, concerns presentation of study words. Although most of the techniques reviewed adopted polar p o s i t i o n s of words presented e i t h e r i n context or in i s o l a t i o n , more recent studies present words with a s s o c i a t i o n s . Vance (1979) contends that i t would be e a s i e r to l e a r n s e v e r a l words from a s i n g l e category than a random l i s t . This suggests that c a t e g o r i z i n g and grouping words would be a good a c t i v i t y for vocabulary b u i l d i n g . (p. 48). The selection/format schema can be a p p l i e d to vocabulary methods discussed i n t h i s s e c t i o n (see Table 1). Each method i s c l a s s i f i e d in terms of format (words i n context, words with a s s o c i a t i o n s , or words in i s o l a t i o n ) and source of words (teacher s e l e c t e d or learner s e l e c t e d ) . 15 Table 1. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of vocabulary teaching methods 1 Source of words for study Teacher Learner Format Selected Selected 1. Words i n context -- words in sentences * -- wide reading * -- c l o z e procedures * 2. Words with a s s o c i a t i o n s -- category techniques * imagery (audio v i s u a l ) * -- n a t u r a l word l e a r n i n g * * -- analogies * -- synonyms/antonyms * 3. Words i n i s o l a t i o n -- word l i s t s * -- d i c t i o n a r y study * -- s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s * 1"*" i n d i c a t e s source of words. 16 Research in the teaching of vocabulary In reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n at the secondary and adult l e v e l s , i t was found that p r o f e s s i o n a l reference books contained basic information on methodology, while a multitude of j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s provided more innovative teaching techniques. The review by Petty et a l . ( 1 9 6 8 ) , The State of Knowledge about the Teaching of Vocabulary, provides e x c e l l e n t background i n vocabulary research. Since 1968 many of the more comprehensive research e f f o r t s have r e s u l t e d from d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s in reading. Ten of those recent s t u d i e s , which have d i r e c t bearing on the two treatments designed for t h i s study, are examined i n d e t a i l in t h i s s e c t i o n . The studies are reviewed from four i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s : (1) c o n t e x t - w o r d l i s t , (2) d i r e c t - i n c i d e n t a l , (3) a s s o c i a t i o n , and (4) ATI research. C o n t e x t - w o r d l i s t . Several studies were designed to compare achievement r e s u l t i n g from teaching techniques presenting words i n context as opposed to word l i s t s . Two treatments developed in a study by Brown (1978) were described as (1) new words introduced o r g a n i c a l l y with contextual r e l a t i o n s h i p s deveoped, and (2) new words introduced i n o r g a n i c a l l y without contextual r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A n a l y s i s of p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t scores revealed that there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the language 1 7 a c q u i s i t i o n change scores of ad u l t s taught by the two methods. Greater gains were made by students i n the inorganic group, where students learned words from i n s t r u c t o r - p r e p a r e d w o r d l i s t s which had no r e l a t i o n s h i p to the remainder of t h e i r classwork. A l s o , females demonstrated greater vocabulary a c q u i s i t i o n than males, as d i d students c l a s s i f i e d as average and high in mental a b i l i t y as compared with those of lower a b i l i t y . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found, however, when comparisons were made by student age. An i d e n t i c a l group of words was taught to two groups of secondary students to compare (1) a modified c l o z e story procedure and • (2) i s o l a t e d l i s t s with d e f i n i t i o n s i n an eighteen week study conducted by Swing (1978). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the gain scores of the c l o z e group and the t r a d i t i o n a l group on e i t h e r a standardized t e s t ( Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test-Survey F ) or a c r i t e r i o n referenced vocabulary t e s t . N i c h o l s (1977) conducted a study designed to improve both s p e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s and vocabulary comprehension i n a c o l l e g e freshman E n g l i s h course. The experimental group read i n v e s t i g a t o r - p r e p a r e d passages in which s e l e c t e d words were used at l e a s t three times. Students i n the c o n t r o l group were given study sheets c o n t a i n i n g a l i s t of the selecte d words and t h e i r meanings for memorization. At the conclusion of the four week experiment, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n favor of the c o n t r o l group on both s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y and vocabulary a b i l i t y . 18 D i r e c t - i n c i d e n t a l . Varied f i n d i n g s were reported when two e v a l u a t i v e instruments were used to compare the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of three approaches to vocabulary improvement in grade 9. The three approaches, (1) d i r e c t - t e a c h i n g , (2) i n t e r e s t - i n - w o r d s , and (3) wide-reading, were used i n eight c l a s s e s i n a fourteen week study. Using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found when the experimental groups were compared to a c o n t r o l group. When the Diagnostic Reading Test was used to make the same comparisons, the " i n t e r e s t - i n - w o r d s " approach showed improvement s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The i n v e s t i g a t o r (Hammack, 1971) concluded that f u r t h e r research i s needed i n s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e d approaches to teaching vocabulary as w e l l as i n improving vocabulary measuring instruments. Achievement r e s u l t i n g from three methods of vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n , (1) c o n t r i v e d c o n t e x t u a l , (2) wide reading, and (3) p r a c t i c a l high school E n g l i s h , was compared in a t h i r t e e n week study by B l e v i n s (1971). The c o n t r i v e d contextual method was found to be i n f e r i o r to the wide reading and t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h course when p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t scores from The Nelson-Denny Reading Test were analyzed. I t was concluded that vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n that provides for word study i n the broader n a t u r a l context of the message conveyed by 19 connected words was superior to i s o l a t e d (contrived) vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n . Wright (1974) designed and conducted a study to compare the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of three developmental reading treatments upon the r a t e , vocabulary, and comprehension s k i l l s of white and black students. The three treatments v a r i e d in d e l i v e r y and m a t e r i a l s : (1) t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d , l a r g e group i n s t r u c t i o n plus workbook, (2) t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d , large group i n s t r u c t i o n plus i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n and workbook, and (3) i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n plus m u l t i l e v e l e d , m u l t i media u t i l i z a t i o n . A m u l t i p l e regression a n a l y s i s was used to answer twenty research questions. S t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g to vocabulary i n d i c a t e d an o r d i n a l i n t e r a c t i o n between race and treatment e f f e c t i n g the c r i t e r i o n vocabulary scores. Assoc i a t i o n . A c a r e f u l l y designed set of vocabulary e x e r c i s e s was designed and t e s t e d by D'Abre (1977). The e x e r c i s e s u t i l i z e d 1120 words, using a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n technique, team l e a r n i n g techniques, and a s e l f - d i r e c t i n g , s e l f - c o r r e c t i n g format. The c o n t r o l c l a s s e s spent the same amount of time during the seven week period using t r a d i t i o n a l methods and m a t e r i a l s : l o o k i n g up meanings i n d i c t i o n a r i e s , w r i t i n g out meanings, and w r i t i n g the words i n sentences. Gains in l e a r n i n g the s p e c i f i c vocabulary of the study, when measured by an i n v e s t i g a t o r designed t e s t , revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n 20 favor of the experimental group. Although the experimental group a l s o r e g i s t e r e d s l i g h t gains i n vocabulary as measured by the Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary Test, the gains were not of a magnitude to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n method was q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n teaching the words s e l e c t e d for the study, but d i d not produce a t r a n s f e r e f f e c t . A t r a d i t i o n a l and a mnemonic method of vocabulary development were compared by Johnston (1975) using a randomly s e l e c t e d sample of 96 average a b i l i t y grade 10 students. The t r a d i t i o n a l group received i n s t r u c t i o n in the use of -synonyms, word a n a l y s i s , and context c l u e s ; the mnemonic group received a l i m i t e d amount of t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n plus the use of an a r t i f i c i a l memory a i d ; and the c o n t r o l group received no s p e c i f i c vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n . Four teacher-constructed t e s t s were administered: (1) p r e t e s t , (2) p o s t t e s t , (3) follow-up, and (4) a second follow-up t e s t i n g cognates of words on the l i s t . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between means on Tests 1 and 4, but s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the .05 l e v e l on Tests 2 and 3. Johnston concluded that the t r a d i t i o n a l and mnemonic methods were e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e for the s p e c i f i e d word l i s t , but for the word cognates n e i t h e r method produced gains greater than the c o n t r o l group. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between aptitude f a c t o r s and vocabulary l e a r n i n g at d i f f e r e n t stages of p r a c t i c e was i n v e s t i g a t e d by •Dumlao-Valisno (1972). Two forms of vocabulary m a t e r i a l s were used: (1) word meanings taught through the use of synonyms, and 21 (2) word meanings taught through the use of d e f i n i t i o n s of words found i n the d i c t i o n a r y . A battery of ten a b i l i t y t e s t s measuring perceptual speed f a c t o r s was administered to each student, and then c l a s s e s of grade 10 students were randomly assigned to the two treatments. Students were required to learn four words per day, with scores from timed d a i l y c r i t e r i o n achievement t e s t s , and length of time each subject spent completing each set of l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , serving as c r i t e r i o n measures. A major f i n d i n g in the f i f t e e n day i n v e s t i g a t i o n was evidence for the " l e a r n i n g how to l e a r n " phenomenon: the students improved on the achievement t e s t and took l e s s time in l e a r n i n g the m a t e r i a l as the study progressed in both of the treatment groups. ATI ' research. One vocabulary study was l o c a t e d which followed the a p t i t u d e - t r e a t m e n t - i n t e r a c t i o n model (Cronbach & Snow, 1977). Krevoy (1978) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e a n a l y t i c and h o l i s t i c encoding s t r a t e g i e s and vocabulary l e a r n i n g and r e c a l l . Students (n = 161) were f i r s t t e s t e d and c l a s s i f i e d as more competent in e i t h e r a n a l y t i c or h o l i s t i c processing, then randomly assigned to experimental ( i n s t r u c t i o n a l tasks with an a n a l y t i c - s e q u e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n or i n s t r u c t i o n a l tasks with a h o l i s t i c - s i m u l t a n e o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n ) or c o n t r o l treatments. Results of a Newman-Keuls t e s t showed that a match between treatment and encoding strategy r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t increases i n vocabulary l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n , suggesting c o m p a t i b i l i t y between encoding s t r a t e g i e s and teaching method 22 may be an important c o n t r i b u t o r to s u c c e s s f u l vocabulary l e a r n i n g . Furthermore, vocabulary l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased under treatments c a l l i n g for generative e l a b o r a t i o n of concepts i n both a n a l y t i c and h o l i s t i c s t r a t e g i e s in comparison to the c o n t r o l treatments. Summary and conclusions. The ten s t u d i e s reviewed above and summarized i n Table 2 were s e l e c t e d because they represent recent research e f f o r t s comparing d i f f e r e n t approaches i n vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n . In the context-word l i s t group, r e s u l t s from two studies (Brown, 1978; N i c h o l s , 1977) favored the word l i s t treatment; a t h i r d study (Swing, 1978) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between word l i s t and modified c l o z e procedures. Results from these three s t u d i e s suggest that word l i s t methods are equal to or surpass context methods. When Petty et a l . (1968) i n t h e i r review of eighty vocabulary s t u d i e s found accumulating evidence supporting the teaching of words in i s o l a t i o n over words i n context, they regarded that f i n d i n g as "something of a f l u k e " due to inadequate measurement instruments or i n e f f e c t i v e context treatments. S u p e r i o r i t y of the word l i s t method seems to c o n t r a d i c t conclusions drawn from l e a r n i n g theory, but i f evidence i n i t s favor continues to accumulate, i t should not be disregarded. The Petty e t . a l . (1968) review reported i n c r e a s i n g amounts of support for d i r e c t vocabulary teaching methods as opposed to i n c i d e n t a l methods; the authors seemed to view d i s p e l l i n g the "wide reading" approach as a p o s i t i v e step i n the teaching of vocabulary. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s cannot be drawn from three d i r e c t - 23 i n c i d e n t a l s t u d i e s reviewed here, as r e s u l t s appear to be somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e . Results from the study reported by Bl e v i n s (1971) favored the connected prose treatments, but the study was based upon only 36 subjects d i v i d e d i n t o three treatment groups; the small sample would c e r t a i n l y render r e s u l t s tenuous. Results reported by Hammack (1971) v a r i e d according to the vocabulary instrument used: s i g n i f i c a n t gains f o r the experimental groups using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, but no s i g n i f i c a n t gains using the Diagnostic Reading Test. Perhaps, as Hammack concludes, v a l i d i t y of the standardized t e s t s of vocabulary i s suspect. On the other hand, f a u l t may l i e i n the method used to analyze the data, as the t - t e s t s t a t i s t i c was used repeatedly. Three of the studies reviewed t e s t e d teaching methods which presented words with a s s o c i a t i o n s . D'Abre's (1977) r e s u l t s favored a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n method over t r a d i t i o n a l methods on a corpus of 1120 words, but no s i g n i f i c a n t gains were shown on a standardized reading t e s t . Johnston (1975) found t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n and an experimental mnemonic treatment e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e f or a s p e c i f i e d word l i s t , but again no t r a n s f e r e f f e c t when students were tes t e d on word cognates. An a s s o c i a t i o n method (synonyms) was a l s o found as e f f e c t i v e as a t r a d i t i o n a l method ( d e f i n i t i o n s ) by Dumlao-Valisno (1972), but again only with a s e l e c t e d group of words. I t appears from these three s t u d i e s that a s s o c i a t i o n methods are e f f e c t i v e f o r l e a r n i n g a s p e c i f i e d group of words, but questionable i f aiming 24 for a general t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g as measured by standardized vocabulary t e s t s . Results from the ATI study conducted by Krevoy (1978) suggest that c o m p a t i b i l i t y between encoding s t r a t e g i e s and teaching methods c o n t r i b u t e to s u c c e s s f u l vocabulary l e a r n i n g . However, the r e s u l t s reported were based upon Newman-Keuls t e s t s , i n d i c a t i n g that data were analyzed using a n a l y s i s of variance techniques; r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i s the p r e f e r r e d s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n ATI s t u d i e s . T a b l e 2. Summary of t e n r e c e n t v o c a b u l a r y I n s t r u c t i o n s t u d i e s R e s e a r c h a r e a Grade and I n v e s t i g a t o r L e v e l Number of Ss Treatments/groups Treatment Length Vocab. Instruments R e s u l t s C o n t e x t - W o r d l 1 s t Brown (1978) Swing (1978) 2 y e a r c o l 1ege N l c h o l s ( 1977) 1st y r c o l 1ege h i g h s c h o o l unknown 20 c l a s s e s 45 49 1) o r g a n i c c o n t e x t u a l 2) I n o r g a n i c n o n c o n t e x t u a l 3) c o n t r o l 1) I n c i d e n t a l r e a d i n g of s e l e c t e d passages 2) word l i s t 1 ) m o d l f l e d c l o z e 2) word 1 I s t s unknown unknown 4 weeks unknown 18 weeks Gates-MacG1n1tle Treatment 2 s u p e r i o r t o 1 Treatment 2 s u p e r i o r t o 1 No. s i g . d 1 f f . D 1 r e c t - 1 n c 1 d e n t a 1 B l e v l n s ( 1971) a d u l t Hammack (1971) 9 Wright ( 1974) c o l l e g e 36 t o t a l 130 exp. 34 con. 74 exp. 25 con. 1) c o n t r i v e d c o n t e x t u a l 13 weeks 2) wide r e a d i n g 3) p u b l i s h e d program 1) d i r e c t t e a c h i n g . 14 weeks 2) I n t e r e s t 1n r e a d i n g 3) wide r e a d i n g 4) c o n t r o l 1) d i r e c t e d l a r g e group 1 sem. 2) l a r g e group+se1f- 1nst. 3) I n d i v i d u a l 1 z e d s e l f - l n s t . 4) c o n t r o l Nelson-Denny Nelson-Denny D i a g n o s t i c Rdg T e s t D i a g n o s t i c Rdg T e s t Treatments 2 & 3 s u p e r i o r to 1 No s i g . d i f f . Treatment 2 s u p e r i o r t o 1,3, and 4 S1g. i n t e r a c t i o n s A s s o c 1 a t i o n D'Abre (1977) Dumlao-Va11sno (1972) J o h n s t o n ( 1975) 10 10 128 136 5 c l a s s e s 96 1) 2) c a t e g o r y c o n t r o l 1) d e f i n i t i o n 2) synonym 1) 2) 3) t r a d i t i o n a l mnemonic c o n t r o l 7 weeks 15 days 8 weeks Gates-MacG1nit1e No s i g . g a i n s R e s e a r c h e r d e v e l o p e d E v i d . of " l e a r n i n g how to l e a r n " R e s e a r c h e r d e v e l o p e d Treatments 1 & 2 e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e f o r word 11st ATI R e s e a r c h K r e v o y ( 1978) 1st y r c o l 1ege 161 1) a n a l y t i c - s e q u e n t i a l 2) h o l i s t i c - s i m u l t a n e o u s 3) c o n t r o l unknown unknown S i g . ATI's to 26 M a t e r i a l s for vocabulary study Numerous published vocabulary programs are a v a i l a b l e to the reading teacher. Most of the programs r e l y h e a v i l y on r e p e t i t i o n and memorization of words s e l e c t e d from l i s t s based upon frequency counts. Dale and O'Rourke (1971) suggest that i n vocabulary development teachers and students should concentrate on "almost known" words--words students have heard of or seen before but are unsure of t h e i r exact meanings. What proportion of "almost known" words are contained in published vocabulary programs? Students can best i d e n t i f y t h e i r own "almost known" words, and i n an e f f o r t to lead students to become independent l e a r n e r s , s e v e r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d (Hoover, 1979; Johnson, 1969; Kaplan & Tuchman, 1980; Moore, 1979) have suggested that students should assume, greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r vocabulary development. Several studies (Johnson, 1969; Kamal, 1981; Moore, 1979) report s u c c e s s f u l use of the newspaper i n vocabulary b u i l d i n g . Moore (1979) l i s t s four advantages of using the newspaper: (1) i t contains i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l ; (2) i t uses a somewhat r e p e t i t i o u s vocabulary, which r e i n f o r c e s l e a r n i n g ; (3) i t w i l l help students r e a l i z e the value of s u c c i n c t language; and (4) i t has a p o s i t i v e a f f e c t i v e e f f e c t . In a d d i t i o n , the newspaper route to vocabulary . c o l l e c t i o n promotes a l i f e l o n g h abit of vocabulary growth: 27 A f t e r high school, some students w i l l continue to read books; very few ( i f any) w i l l read vocabulary workbooks; however, most of them w i l l read the newspaper. (Moore, 1979, p. 37) A six-week study conducted by Kamal (1981) was designed to assess the impact of two d i f f e r e n t types of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l for reading s k i l l s development:, (1) the newspaper and newspaper r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and (2) basal reader and workbook a c t i v i t i e s . The sample included 161 language a r t s students in grades 6, 7, and 8. Highly s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the change scores i n l i s t e n i n g vocabulary, i n f e r e n t i a l , and t o t a l comprehension for students in the newspaper group; no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the changes occurred in the same areas for students using the basal reader approach. Results of the study i n d i c a t e that the newspaper i s an e f f e c t i v e resource for developing reading s k i l l s and that newspaper a c t i v i t i e s have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t i n the classroom. The importance of reading a t t i t u d e was. emphasized i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Assessment Summary Report (Tuinman ti K e n d a l l , 1980a). Included i n the twenty-one recommendations to r a i s e students' o v e r a l l performance were two i n the reading a t t i t u d e domain: Rec. 15. We recommend that a l l teachers provide programs that encourage and r e q u i r e students to engage i n independent reading, both i n and out of c l a s s . Rec. 16. We recommend that a l l teachers take a c t i v e measures to stimulate i n t e r e s t i n reading with the goal of i n c r e a s i n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward reading. (Tuinman & K e n d a l l , 1980a, p. 63) 28 A newspaper vocabulary b u i l d i n g approach, presenting words through a popular medium and i n an i n t e r e s t i n g context, would address those goals. Aptitude Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n Research I n t e r a c t i o n research as a form of i n q u i r y i s r e f e r r e d to by a v a r i e t y of terms, i n c l u d i n g t r a i t - t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n , p e r s o n - s i t u a t i o n or person-environment i n t e r a c t i o n , and a t t r i b u t e - t r e a t m e n t or aptitude-treatment i n t e r a c t i o n . The terms may d i f f e r , but i n t e r a c t i o n research has a common goal which, st a t e d s i m p l i s t i c a l l y , i s f i n d i n g out what i n s t r u c t i o n a l method works best with which types of students. An i n c r e a s i n g number of a r t i c l e s have appeared during the l a s t decade which report i n t e r a c t i o n research. An extensive review of research e f f o r t s i n t h i s area and s t a t i s t i c a l and methodological issues was provided by the 1977 p u b l i c a t i o n of Apt i tudes and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods: A Handbook f o r Research on I n t e r a c t i o n s by Lee J . Cronbach and Richard E. Snow. Their terminology, Aptitude x Treatment i n t e r a c t i o n , shortened to ATI, has become the most widely recognized cognomen for i n t e r a c t i o n research. Parkhust (1975) provides a s u c c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n of ATI: An a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e can be any p e r s o n o l o g i c a l or organismic v a r i a b l e upon which i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r (e.g., IQ, a n x i e t y , dogmatism, e t c . ) . A treatment i s any i n s t r u c t i o n a l s trategy or combination of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s that s t r u c t u r e s information for the purpose of having students l e a r n that information. An a p t i t u d e - t r e a t m e n t - i n t e r a c t ion e x i s t s when, as a r e s u l t of a given treatment, i n d i v i d u a l s at one end of an a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e perform at one l e v e l on a c r i t e r i o n measure. A l s o , i n d i v i d u a l s at the other end of the aptitude v a r i a b l e perform at -a 29 s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l on the c r i t e r i o n measure and the reverse trend holds true for a second treatment. (p. 172) I n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments Designing ATI research r e q u i r e s simultaneous c o n s i d e r a t i o n of learner a t r i b u t e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l options. Salomon (1972), noting the lack of conceptual t o o l s for designing ATI research, developed three h e u r i s t i c models based upon the fu n c t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment: 1. Remedial—treatments lead to mastery of necessary d e f i c i e n t subordinate o b j e c t i v e s . 2. Compensatory-treatments provide the lea r n e r s with the necessary mediators, o r g a n i z a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s , modality and the l i k e , which they cannot provide for themselves; or circumventing d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s or s t a t e s . 3. P r e f e r e n t i a l - - t r e a t m e n t s c a l l upon and u t i l i z e l e a r n e r s ' higher a p t i t u d e s , n e i t h e r making up for d e f i c i e n c i e s nor compensating f o r them. The f a c t that many i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments tend to overlap i n f u n c t i o n , contends Salomon, does not preclude the need to c l a r i f y those f u n c t i o n s . The need for a taxonomic a n a l y s i s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments from a stimulus point of view i s pointed out by Cronbach and Snow (1S77). Readers of Cronbach and Snow's Handbook, a f t e r encountering what seems l i k e an endless l i s t of i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment d e s c r i p t i o n s - - g u i d e d - d i s c o v e r y / d i d a c t i c , 30 convent iona1/programmed, d i r e c t i v e / n o n d i r e c t i v e , i n d u c t i v e / d e d u c t i v e , s e l f - d i s c o v e r y / s t r u c t u r a l , e t c . — w o u l d c e r t a i n l y agree. As Cronbach and Snow point out powerfully, u n t i l such a taxonomy or theory of i n s t r u c t i o n i s developed and accepted, comparisons and r e p l i c a t i o n s of ATI studies w i l l remain d i f f i c u l t , and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of r e s u l t s must be approached with c a u t i o n . Aptitude and outcome v a r i a b l e s A purposely broad conception of apti t u d e s i s put f o r t h by Cronbach and Snow (1977): ..."a p t i t u d e " i s here defined as any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a person that f o r e c a s t s h i s p r o b a b i l i t y of success under a given treatment. We emphatically do not confine our i n t e r e s t to "aptitude t e s t s . " P e r s o n a l i t y as w e l l as a b i l i t y i n f l u e n c e s response to a given i n s t r u c t i o n . Nontest v a r i a b l e s ( s o c i a l c l a s s , ethnic background, educational h i s t o r y ) may serve as proxies for c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the learner that are not d i r e c t l y measurable. (p. 6) As a research s t r a t e g y the i n v e s t i g a t o r can s e l e c t an aptitude v a r i a b l e and design i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments that are l i k e l y to i n t e r a c t with that v a r i a b l e . Locus of c o n t r o l , a p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e , was chosen as the key v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study. I t i s g e n e r a l l y recommended ( C a r r i e r & McNergney, 1979; Cronbach & Snow, 1977; Parkhust, 1975) that ATI st u d i e s consider several measures of the person, and a l s o that the construct e n t e r i n g the main hypothesis be appraised by at l e a s t two methods. Within these g u i d e l i n e s , the f o l l o w i n g aptitude 31 v a r i a b l e s were included i n t h i s study: (1) locus of c o n t r o l (key v a r i a b l e of i n t e r e s t ) , (2) vocabulary achievement (general measure of a b i l i t y ; p r e t e s t used as c o v a r i a t e ) , (3) reading a t t i t u d e ( a f f e c t i v e measure; p r e t e s t used as c o v a r i a t e ) , and (4) language background (to s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l for d i f f e r e n c e s in experimental p o p u l a t i o n ) . Outcome measures (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) i n the study included: (1) vocabulary achievement ( a l t e r n a t e form of p r e t e s t ) , (2) reading a t t i t u d e (pretest repeated), (3) achievement a t t r i b u t i o n (an index r e l a t e d to locus of c o n t r o l ) , and (4) s a t i s f a c t i o n with i n s t r u c t i o n (student e v a l u a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s ) . L i t e r a t u r e was reviewed to s e l e c t and design measures for the apti t u d e and outcome v a r i a b l e s . P r i o r learning/achievement. Tobias (1976), a f t e r reviewing a number of ATI s t u d i e s , e s t a b l i s h e d a general hypothesis that the higher the l e v e l of p r i o r achievement, the lower the i n s t r u c t i o n a l support required to accomplish i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . Parkhust (1975) concurs, and supports the notion of students' p r i o r knowledge of subject matter as an aptitude v a r i a b l e i n ATI research. This v a r i a b l e can be defined as a pr e t e s t score, and sometimes e a s i l y measured as such. 32 A t t i t u d e . A t t i t u d e can be used e i t h e r as an aptitude or as an outcome of i n s t r u c t i o n i n ATI research design. A recent "Study using a community c o l l e g e population (Tolsma, 1981) found a c o r r e l a t i o n of. .19 between students' reading scores (Gates- M a c G i n i t i e ) and t h e i r a t t i t u d e scores (Mikulecky Behavioral Reading A t t i t u d e Measure) on p r e t e s t measures. This c o r r e l a t i o n was lower than expected, tending to confirm Mikulecky's ( 1 9 7 6 ) c l a i m that reading a t t i t u d e , as measured by the Mi kulec ky Behavioral Reading A t t i t u d e Measure, i s a construct separate from reading competency. Further research i s necessary to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading a t t i t u d e and aptitude and treatment v a r i a b l e s . Locus of c o n t r o l . The concept of locus of c o n t r o l as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l construct was f i r s t put f o r t h by Rotter ( 1 9 6 6 ) as part of a s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory. This construct r e f e r s to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s ' perception of the basis of h i s rewards and punishments i n l i f e — w h e t h e r they are a consequence of h i s a c t i o n or are t o t a l l y unrelated to h i s behavior. Rotter constructed and v a l i d a t e d a t e s t , The Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of Con t r o l Scale, to order people along a continuum according to the extent to which they perceive the e f f e c t s of reward or reinforcement on preceding behavior. Rotter f u r t h e r hypothesized that t h i s v a r i a b l e i s of major s i g n i f i c a n c e in understanding the nature of l e a r n i n g processes i n d i f f e r e n t kinds of l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . (p. 1) 33 The 1966 p u b l i c a t i o n of Rotter's theory and t e s t has formed the conceptual base for thousands of s t u d i e s . A d d i t i o n a l instruments have been generated to measure the extent to which people accept personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for events i n t h e i r l i v e s . Atkinson (1976) conducted an extensive review of locus of c o n t r o l t e s t s and l i t e r a t u r e at the secondary l e v e l of education. He concluded that locus of c o n t r o l was a v i a b l e c o n s t r u c t , which should be u t i l i z e d by educators to improve i n s t r u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , research d i r e c t i o n s were o u t l i n e d , with multiple-moderator and person-environment i n t e r a c t i o n recommended as methods of research. Morgan and Culver (1978) concur that the locus of c o n t r o l concept should be considered in i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s and recommend continued research concerning a f f e c t and reading. An ATI study conducted by Daniels and Stevens (1976) used locus of c o n t r o l as an ap t i t u d e v a r i a b l e (Rotter's I-E instrument) and designed two i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g and s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g , as treatments. A strong i n t e r a c t i o n was found between locus of c o n t r o l and i n s t r u c t i o n a l method, and a d d i t i o n a l research was recommended to f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e what kind of students b e n e f i t most from a p a r t i c u l a r method of i n s t r u c t i o n . Reading achievement for i n t e r n a l - o r i e n t e d students was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than e x t e r n a l - o r i e n t e d students at the conclusion of an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d community c o l l e g e reading course in a study reported by Drummond, Smith, and P i n e t t e (1975). Based upon these f i n d i n g s , Drummond et a l . urged that 34 i f the i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l of the student c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the success or f a i l u r e of h i s performance in an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d reading course, then d e c i s i o n s about i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and teacher behavior should be made on the basis of t h i s type of information as w e l l as on the basis of s c h o l a s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . (p. 37) Fisher and Dyer (1978) continued t h i s l i n e of i n q u i r y with c o l l e g e students i n a reading improvement course to determine (1) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and reading achievement under two methods of i n s t r u c t i o n , teacher- d i r e c t e d classroom and s e l f - d i r e c t e d l a b o r a t o r y , and (2) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and preference for hardware ( e x t e r n a l devices) or software ( i n t e r n a l d e v i c e s ) . Although r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t preference for labora t o r y or te a c h e r - d i r e c t e d i n s t r u c t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s were observed on the hardware-software comparisons. E x t e r n a l s p r e f e r r e d using hardware (mechanical reading pacers and l i s t e n i n g tapes) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved t h e i r reading rate using those devices as opposed to software (workbooks, s k i l l e x e r c i s e s , and textbooks). I n t e r n a l s d i d not show a preference for m a t e r i a l s , but evidenced greater reading improvement when using software devices. Locus of c o n t r o l and mode of pres e n t a t i o n were a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d in a recent ATI study conducted by Rodriguez (1981). The experiment, designed to a i d i n i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o l l e g e reading labs and c l a s s e s , involved s i x treatment groups ( t o t a l n = 144) using various forms of mat e r i a l s - - a u d i o , p r i n t , or a combined form--together with or 35 without a mathemagenic device ( i n s e r t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a t t e n t i o n a l a i d ) , i n a two-part lesson on the concept of the s y l l a b l e . Three student t r a i t s were considered: locus of c o n t r o l , reading comprehension, and p r i o r achievement as measured by a s y l l a b l e p r e t e s t . A n a l y s i s of variance techniques were employed to t e s t for i n t e r a c t i o n s and main e f f e c t s . One two-way i n t e r a c t i o n , mode (form of m a t e r i a l ) x reading comprehension, was observed, but four main-effect d i f f e r e n c e s on the dependent v a r i a b l e ( s y l l a b l e p r e t e s t ) emerged: (1) locus of c o n t r o l in favor of i n t e r n a l s , (2) p r e t e s t i n favor of high s c o r e r s , (3) mathemagenic device i n favor of those who used the device, and (4) reading comprehension i n favor of the high a b i l i t y group. Webster (1981) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading achievement l e v e l (Nelson-Denny Reading Test) and locus of c o n t r o l (Scale to Measure I n t e r n a l versus E x t e r n a l Control) with a sample of 320 f i r s t year c o l l e g e students. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between locus of c o n t r o l , reading achievement, or any of the several demographic v a r i a b l e s considered. A t t r i b u t i o n theory. A t t r i b u t i o n theory, a r e l a t i v e l y recent development i n psychology, concerns perception of c a u s a l i t y . A subset of the l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s area r e l a t e s a t t r i b u t i o n theory and achievement mo t i v a t i o n . In developing a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme for perceived causes of success and 36 f a i l u r e . Bernard Weiner was guided by Rotter's i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l concept and four causes of success and f a i l u r e — a b i l i t y , e f f o r t , task d i f f i c u l t y , and l u c k — o u t l i n e d by Heider (Weiner, Heckhausen, Meyer & Cook, 1972; Weiner, 1974a, 1974b). The r e s u l t i n g two-dimensional taxonomy c l a s s i f i e s a b i l i t y and e f f o r t as p r o p e r t i e s i n t e r n a l to the person, while task d i f f i c u l t y and luck are e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . The second dimension of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s s t a b i l i t y ; a b i l i t y and task d i f f i c u l t y are seen as s t a b l e causes, while e f f o r t and luck are c l a s s i f i e d as being unstable. Table 3 d e l i n e a t e s the 2 x 2 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, which Weiner contends i s a key to the understanding of achievement s t r i v i n g . Table 3. Weiner's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme for the perceived determinants of achievement behavior Locus of Control S t a b i 1 i t y I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l Stable A b i l i t y Task d i f f i c u l t y Unstable E f f o r t Luck C o n t r a d i c t i o n s appear when Rotter's locus of c o n t r o l construct and Weiner's achievement a t t r i b u t i o n theory are compared. Some researchers (Cosner, Chandler, & Spies, 1980; L e f c o u r t , 1976) suggest that Weiner has "added to" locus of c o n t r o l theory. Ickes and Layden (1978) disagree: 37 I t i s nearly impossible to meaningfully, compare and i n t e g r a t e the f i n d i n g s of the l o c u s - o f - c o n t r o l l i t e r a t u r e with the f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t to perceived locus of c a u s a l i t y . (p. 126) D i f f e r e n c e s between the two t h e o r i e s , according to Weiner, Nierenberg, and G o l d s t e i n (1976), are evident i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of expectancy of success: On the one hand, s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory makes use of concepts from reinforcement theory to f u r n i s h an explanation of c l i n i c a l phenomena. In c o n t r a s t , a t t r i b u t i o n theory u t i l i z e s concepts that evolved from "everyday l i f e " to provide an a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l p e rception. (p. 52) Both t h e o r i e s , then, are concerned with personal c o n t r o l . S o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory (Locus of c o n t r o l ) examines a person's perceptions of c o n t r o l over the p o s i t i v e and negative reinforcements he r e c e i v e s , while a t t r i b u t i o n theory (locus of c a u s a l i t y ) analyzes a person's perceptions of the cause of h i s successes and f a i l u r e s . Thomas (1980) discussed the r o l e of a t t r i b u t i o n theory as i t r e l a t e s to achievement: Causal a t t r i b u t i o n s then, act as a moderating v a r i a b l e between c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students ( a t t i t u d e s , a b i l i t i e s , and need for achievement) and experiences of success and f a i l u r e in school. Success-oriented students tend to a t t r i b u t e t h e i r successes to a b i l i t y and e f f o r t and t h e i r f a i l u r e s to lack of a b i l i t y . F a i l u r e - a v o i d i n g students tend to a t t r i b u t e t h e i r f a i l u r e s to a lack of a b i l i t y . When s u c c e s s f u l , however, these students have a tendency to a t t r i b u t e t h i s success to luck or to the easiness of the task, (p. 227-228) Research reviewed by Thomas (1980) and Weiner (1980) i n d i c a t e s that to p r o f i t academically from successes and f a i l u r e s , students must a t t r i b u t e success to i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and 38 view lack of e f f o r t as the cause of f a i l u r e . These f i n d i n g s have l e d educators to " a t t r i b u t i o n t r a i n i n g " - - a n attempt to a l t e r academically o r i e n t e d a t t r i b u t i o n s . T r a i n i n g programs based upon a t t r i b u t i o n p r i n c i p l e s u s u a l l y attempt to change a l o w - a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n for f a i l u r e to a lack of e f f o r t a s c r i p t i o n . A t t r i b u t i o n t r a i n i n g s t u d i e s reviewed by Thomas (1980) report s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s with students in elementary grades. Although Weiner's model of causal a t t r i b u t i o n s for success and f a i l u r e has generated a great deal of research, few of the stud i e s have been based in the community c o l l e g e classroom. A study conducted by Duby (1981) i n v e s t i g a t e d the mediating r o l e of causal a t t r i b u t i o n s with community c o l l e g e students taught under two methods: (1) mastery l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and (2) conventional i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures. I t was found that a t t r i b u t i o n s could be a l t e r e d by i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , and Duby concludes: The major i m p l i c a t i o n s to be drawn from t h i s work are that i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f o r t s should be d i r e c t e d at p r o v i d i n g the student with l e a r n i n g experiences which encourage him to c l a r i f y and define h i s r o l e in achievement s i t u a t i o n s . Therefore, use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches which provide evidence of personal involvement as w e l l as s u c c e s s f u l performance should be encouraged since they tend to r e s u l t i n both academic and a t t r i b u t i o n a l development. (p. 3066A) Based upon Cronbach and Snow's ATI model, Cosner, Chandler, and Spies (1980) reported t h e o r i e s and instruments for student assessment at the community c o l l e g e l e v e l . A t t r i b u t i o n theory was discussed, and although no commercially produced instrument 39 i s a v a i l a b l e , Cosner et a l . report t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s which recommend matching student academic a t t r i b u t i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach. Using an experimental instrument, i t was found that a p e r s o n a l i z e d system of i n s t r u c t i o n was more compatible with students e x h i b i t i n g i n t e r n a l - e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n s , while students with e x t e r n a l - c o n t e x t a t t r i b u t i o n s performed at a higher l e v e l i n a l e c t u r e course. An innovative a p p l i c a t i o n of a t t r i b u t i o n theory p r i n c i p l e s was described by Legare (1980): the use of a t t r i b u t i o n theory as a guide i n the c o l l e c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data when eva l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of educational programs. Information concerning success or f a i l u r e of a program and causal explanations of p a r t i c i p a n t s can be obtained by q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Guidelines for a t t r i b u t i o n q uestionnaires have been provided by E l i g and F r i e z e (1979). Causal a t t r i b u t i o n s for a manipulated s u c c e s s - f a i l u r e event were c o l l e c t e d on f i v e d i f f e r e n t measuring instruments. A f t e r c a r e f u l comparisons, s t r u c t u r e d independent r a t i n g scales were found to be superior to open-ended or i p s a t i v e measures. Summary and conclusions The ATI approach appears to be a v i a b l e method of i n q u i r y i n the area of vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n . C a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n must be given to designing and d e f i n i n g the two i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments which, using Salomon's (1972) models, would most approximate p r e f e r e n t i a l treatments. According to Tobias' (1976) general hypothesis (the higher the l e v e l of p r i o r achievement, the lower the i n s t r u c t i o n a l support required to 40 accomplish i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s ) , the two treatments designed f o r the present study are l i k e l y to i n t e r a c t with vocabulary achievement l e v e l . The i n c l u s i o n of a t t i t u d e as an aptitude v a r i a b l e i s f o r e x p l o r a t o r y reasons. Locus of c o n t r o l appears to have impact on l e a r n i n g (Daniels & Stevens, 1976; Drummond, Smith, & P i n e t t e , 1975; F i s h e r & Dyer, 1978; Rodriguez, 1981) and i s most commonly measured by The Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale. A t t r i b u t i o n theory can be used both as a b a s i s for e v a l u a t i o n and as a measure as s o c i a t e d with locus of c o n t r o l . Both i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments emphasize personal involvement and encourage s u c c e s s f u l performance, as recommended by Duby (1981). Therefore, students in both treatments should a t t r i b u t e t h e i r success in vocabulary development to the i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a b i l i t y and e f f o r t . 41 CHAPTER I I I DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY • The present study uses ATI methodology to i n v e s t i g a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s p e c i f i c l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and two vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods introduced as supplementary u n i t s i n a reading and study s k i l l s course o f f e r e d in a community c o l l e g e . Although the ATI approach focuses on i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s , an u n i n s t r u c t e d c o n t r o l group was a l s o included in t h i s study. Sample Treatment groups Students e n r o l l e d i n two reading and study s k i l l s courses during the f a l l 1981 term at Vancouver Community Colle g e , King Edward Campus, served as treatment group subjects f or t h i s study. The day and evening reading and study s k i l l s courses are of f e r e d by the College Foundations D i v i s i o n and both c a r r y grade 11 c r e d i t i n an adult secondary program leading to a B r i t i s h Columbia grade 12 equivalency c e r t i f i c a t e . Course d e s c r i p t i o n s from the King Edward calendar are as f o l l o w s : Reading & Study S k i l l s 077. An i n d i v i d u a l i z e d course, Reading & Study S k i l l s 077 i s designed to help students whose reading a b i l i t y i s weak, to p r a c t i s e and develop the s k i l l s necessary for e f f i c i e n t reading and studying. Lecture time i s l i m i t e d ; most of the f i v e hours per week are spent working i n the la b o r a t o r y . P r e r e q u i s i t e : A de s i r e to improve one's 42 reading and a score of 79 or lower on the Gates- M a c G i n i t i e Reading Assessment. Reading & Study S k i l l s 097. This course helps the student who can read reasonably w e l l to become e f f i c i e n t in a l l reading and study areas. The student lea r n s a v a r i e t y of methods i n d e a l i n g with p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as some basic s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g / w r i t i n g work. A t t e n t i o n a l s o i s given to speed. P r e r e q u i s i t e : A score of 80 or higher on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Assessment, or completion of Reading & Study S k i l l s 077. Note: Students do not have to take both Reading & Study S k i l l s 077 and 097. C r e d i t i s granted for one or the other, not both. Five s ections of the 077 course, one s e c t i o n of Reading & Study S k i l l s 097, and one 077-097 mixed s e c t i o n were o f f e r e d during the f a l l term. Enrollment i n the seven s e c t i o n s ranged from 10 to 21 students. In t a c t c l a s s e s were assigned to each of the two treatments, attempting to equate the groups i n terms of day-evening c l a s s e s , 0.77-097 students, and sample s i z e . Four experienced reading teachers i n s t r u c t e d the seven reading and study s k i l l s s e c t i o n s . Control group A person's vocabulary increases merely as a f u n c t i o n of l i v i n g i n a s o c i a l environment; that increase i s f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t e d w i t h i n an educational environment. To o f f s e t t h i s maturational f a c t o r a c o n t r o l group, r e c e i v i n g no s p e c i a l vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n , was included i n the present study. Students i n the c o n t r o l group were e n r o l l e d i n three day and evening s e c t i o n s of beginning and intermediate touch typing courses and received no d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n vocbulary improvement. Class l i s t s were cross-checked to assure that no 43 students were con c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n a reading and study s k i l l s course and e i t h e r of the typing courses. I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t r a t e g i e s Two eight-week u n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n vocabulary s k i l l s were developed based upon synthesis of the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e on vocabulary teaching methods, c o n s i d e r a t i o n of procedures which were l i k e l y to i n t e r a c t with a p t i t u d e s , and experience teaching i n the f i e l d . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments have a common o b j e c t i v e - - t o increase.reading vocabulary--and a number of common components. D i f f e r e n c e s i n the treatments are in the nature of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l tasks and m a t e r i a l s used to present those tasks. Treatment A (newspaper-context) centered around the use of a d a i l y newspaper, intending to c a p i t a l i z e on strengths of i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l students. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l task required that the student s e l e c t three words from the newspaper each day for vocabulary study; t h i s s e l f - s e l e c t i o n task fostered independent d e c i s i o n making. A f t e r s e l e c t i n g study words, the student used a d i c t i o n a r y to complete a s e c t i o n of a recording form (see Appendix B) for each word, then constructed a sentence using the new word. Teachers o f f e r e d a s s i s t a n c e upon request, but d i d not mark or evaluate the students' vocabulary work. Treatment B ( w o r d l i s t - a s s o c i a t i o n ) used vocabulary e x e r c i s e s developed e s p e c i a l l y for t h i s study. Each ex e r c i s e c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y words, varying i n d i f f i c u l t y , which were to be c l a s s i f i e d i n one of three r e l a t e d c a t e g o r i e s . The task was more s t r u c t u r e d than in- Treatment A, and was designed to 44 f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g for e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l students. A f t e r c l a s s i f y i n g the t h i r t y words students were given immediate feedback by marking t h e i r own papers. Next, they chose three words for i n t e n s i v e study and completed a recording form (see Appendix A) s i m i l a r to that used in Treatment A. The e x e r c i s e s were then submitted to i n s t r u c t o r s for marking. S t r u c t u r e was imposed i n Treatment B by the m a t e r i a l s used (word l i s t provided as opposed to s e l f - s e l e c t i n g words) and by teacher monitoring (marking of sentences). Students assigned to Treatment A (newspaper-context) would, of course, be exposed to l a r g e r bodies of discourse during the experimental p e r i o d . However, since the t h i r t y minute vocabulary u n i t used only one-fourth of the two hour c l a s s p e r i o d , l e a v i n g an a d d i t i o n a l ninety minutes of time for i n s t r u c t i o n i n reading improvement each day, the d i f f e r e n c e in amount of discourse encountered during the experimental period was not expected to e f f e c t performance on the vocabulary achievement outcome measure. Both treatments required use of a d i c t i o n a r y , afforded p r a c t i c e i n sentence c o n s t r u c t i o n , and provided for regular review. In a d d i t i o n , both treatments were i n n o v a t i v e , departed from the t r a d i t i o n a l workbook approach, and were designed to motivate adult students. A l l students i n the reading and study s k i l l s courses received i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e d using context clues during the week before the experiment began. In a d d i t i o n , a general d i c t i o n a r y s k i l l s u n i t preceded the treatment e x e r c i s e s , 45 i n t r o d u c i n g students to entry format of The Oxford Paperback D i e t i o n a r y (1979) and i t s pronunciation key; i n d i v i d u a l copies of that ~ d i c t i o n a r y were a v a i l a b l e in the classroom for student use throughout the study. Development of experimental m a t e r i a l s The vocabulary e x e r c i s e s for Treatment B, the word l i s t - a s s o c i a t i o n method, were developed by f i r s t s e l e c t i n g three major c a t e g o r i e s which were r e l a t e d i n some dimension (beginning-middle-end, happy-sad-angry, e t c . ) , and then compiling l i s t s of words for each category. The L i v i n g Word Vocabulary (Dale & O'Rourke, 1976) was then consulted to determine the grade l e v e l at which the s p e c i f i c meaning of each of the words could be r e a d i l y understood. The i n i t i a l l i s t of t h i r t y words chosen for each ex e r c i s e represented grade l e v e l s ranging from 4 to 16, with the ma j o r i t y of words at the grades 10 and 12 l e v e l s . The ex e r c i s e s were t e s t e d i n two se c t i o n s of the reading and study s k i l l s courses during the King Edward summer 1981 term. Students were q u i t e r e c e p t i v e to the format and required t a s k s ; however, 25-35 percent of the l i s t words on some ex e r c i s e s were t o t a l l y u n f a m i l i a r to the students. In order to make the task l e s s formidable, and so that i t could be accomplished w i t h i n the time allo t m e n t , the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of the e x e r c i s e s was lowered by r e p l a c i n g some grade 12, 13, and 16 words with lower grade l e v e l words. The re v i s e d e x e r c i s e s were used with students i n a t h i r d reading and study s k i l l s s e c t i o n and found to be at a s a t i s f a c t o r y d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l . 46 Median grade l e v e l s f or the f i n a l set of fourteen e x e r c i s e s ranged from 8.50 to 11.27; mean grade l e v e l s ranged from 8.03 to 10.57, with the majority of e x e r c i s e s (eight of fourteen) at the grade 9 l e v e l . The f i r s t seven e x e r c i s e s contain general c a t e g o r i e s while the remaining seven c a t e g o r i e s represent content area reading vocabulary: business, h e a l t h , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , science, and math. Categories, grade l e v e l range, median, and mean for each e x e r c i s e are reported in Table 4, and copies of the exe r c i s e s are included i n Appendix A. 47 T a b l e 4. Treatment B e x e r c i s e s : c a t e g o r i e s , grade l e v e l ranges, and average d i f f i c u l t y of words i n each e x e r c i s e 1 E x e r c i s e No. C a t e g o r i e s Range Median Mean 1 happy/sad/angry 4- 1 6 10. 44 9. 33 2 b e g i n n i n g / m i d d l e / e n d 4- 1 6 10. 1 7 8. 70 3 f r iend/enemy/stranger 4- 1 3 8. 83 8. 03 4 p a s t / p r e s e n t / f u t u r e 4- 1 6 10. 38 9. 27 5 female/male/male or female 4- 1 6 10. 50 9. 27 6 f o o l i s h / w o r t h l e s s / c r u e l 4- 1 6 9. 1 4 9. 07 7 t a s t e / t o u c h / s m e l l 4- 16 9. 00 8. 97 8 labor-management/ i n s u r a n c e / i n v e s t m e n t s 4- 16 1 1 . 27 10. 25 9 government/education r e l i g i o n 4- 16 10. 75 9. 70 1 0 d a t a p r o c e s s i n g / e c o n o m i c s r e a l e s t a t e 4-•16 10. .83 9. ,86 1 1 a i r t r a v e l / l a n d t r a v e l / water t r a v e l 4-•16 8. ,50 9. ,20 1 2 n u t r i t i o n / s t r e s s / f i t n e s s 4-•16 8. ,65 8. .53 1 3 m u s i c / a r t / l i t e r a t u r e 4--16 8. ,90 9. .07 1 4 h i s t o r y / s c ience/math 6- -16 10, .75 10, .57 ^ r a d e l e v e l s from The L i v i n g Word V o c a b u l a r y (Dale & O'Rourke, 1976). 48 T r e a t m e n t A Based on t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s would p r e f e r T r e a t m e n t A. U s i n g a d a i l y newspaper, s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d t h e i r own words f o r v o c a b u l a r y s t u d y , w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e y assume p a r t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own v o c a b u l a r y d e v e l o p m e n t . S t u d e n t s were e n c o u r a g e d t o s e l e c t b o t h words w i t h w h i c h t h e y may be somewhat f a m i l i a r b u t d o n ' t know t h e i r e x a c t meanings and t o t a l l y unknown words. A l t h o u g h words c o u l d be c h o s e n from any p a r t of t h e newspaper, s t u d e n t s were a d v i s e d t h a t t h e more d i f f i c u l t words a r e u s u a l l y f o u n d on t h e e d i t o r i a l page. A c l a s s s e t of the c u r r e n t e d i t i o n of The P r o v i n c e was a v a i l a b l e e a c h day. A r e c o r d i n g form was d e s i g n e d f o r use i n t h i s t r e a t m e n t ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) . S t u d e n t s were t o s e l e c t t h r e e v o c a b u l a r y s t u d y words p e r day, t h e n c o m p l e t e a s e c t i o n of t h e r e c o r d i n g f o r m f o r e a c h word as f o l l o w s : 1. W r i t e t h e word y o u have c h o s e n t o s t u d y on t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l i n e . 2. Copy t h e e n t i r e s e n t e n c e i n w h i c h t h e word o c c u r s and u n d e r l i n e t h e word i n q u e s t i o n . 3. B e f o r e l o o k i n g up t h e word, r e a d t h e s e n t e n c e c a r e f u l l y and t r y t o d e t e r m i n e what t h e word m i g h t mean. W r i t e down y o u r p r e d i c t i o n . 4. F i n d t h e word i n y o u r d i c t i o n a r y and (a) copy t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n , (b) copy t h e e n t i r e d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n , and (c) l i s t " o t h e r forms of t h e word" i f any a r e l i s t e d . 49 5. Reread the newspaper sentence c o n t a i n i n g the word and u n d e r l i n e the d e f i n i t i o n which seems to c l a r i f y the sentence best. 6. Check your p r e d i c t i o n of what the word might mean. 7. Compose and w r i t e your own sentence using the word. Students were allowed a maximum of t h i r t y minutes to complete the above assignment, which was repeated fourteen times d u r i n g the experimental p e r i o d , with each f i f t h p e r i o d used f o r review. Treatment B Treatment B, the word l i s t - a s s o c i a t i o n method, was designed to maximize achievement f o r e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d students. S t r u c t u r e d vocabulary study e x e r c i s e s were provided f o r the students, and progress was c a r e f u l l y monitored. The fourteen vocabulary e x e r c i s e s each c o n t a i n e d t h i r t y words, l i s t e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order, and the student used a two-step procedure to c l a s s i f y the words i n t o three r e l a t e d c a t e g o r i e s . A f t e r completing the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n task the student r e c e i v e d immediate feedback by marking h i s own paper, then s e l e c t e d three words from the l i s t f o r i n t e n s i v e study. Information concerning the three words was l o c a t e d i n a d i c t i o n a r y and recorded on the e x e r c i s e sheet, the student c o n s t r u c t e d a sentence using each word, and the i n s t r u c t o r marked the sentence, p r o v i d i n g the student with a d d i t i o n a l feedback concerning h i s understanding of the word i n q u e s t i o n . Students were to f o l l o w these i n s t r u c t i o n s when completing the vocabulary e x e r c i s e s : 1. Write each l i s t word under one of the three c a t e g o r i e s , 50 using a two-step procedure: (a) F i r s t , go through the l i s t and for the words that you already know, wri t e them i n the appropriate category. (b) Then, go back and look up the unknown words i n your d i c t i o n a r y and add them to the category l i s t s . 2. Mark your paper by f o l d i n g down the upper t h i r d and comparing your responses to the answer key. 3. Choose three words from the l i s t that you missed or words whose meanings you are unsure of, and l i s t them in the appropriate places on the back of t h i s e x e rcise sheet. 4. For each word, f i n d i t i n your d i c t i o n a r y and (a) copy the pro n u n c i a t i o n . (b) copy the e n t i r e d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n , and (c) l i s t "other forms of the word" i f any are l i s t e d . 5. Compose and w r i t e your own sentence using the word. 6. Submit your paper to your i n s t r u c t o r for marking. Again, students were allowed a maximum of t h i r t y minutes to complete each of the fourteen assignments. Every f i f t h period was used for review. Design This quasi-experimental study uses a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t design, with two experimental groups and a c o n t r o l group. I n t a c t c l a s s e s were assigned to each of the experimental treatments. Independent v a r i a b l e s included, language background, 51 vocabulary achievement, reading a t t i t u d e , and locus of c o n t r o l . Dependent v a r i a b l e s included post vocabulary achievement and post reading a t t i t u d e for a l l groups with a d d i t i o n a l measures o~f s a t i s f a c t i o n and a t t r i b u t i o n f or the two experimental groups. Aptitude and outcome measures Three aptitud e measures were administered to experimental and c o n t r o l groups during the f i r s t week of the study. 1. Vocabulary achievement: The vocabulary subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level F, form 1, Canadian E d i t i o n , was used as a vocabulary measure. The 45-item m u l t i p l e choice t e s t c o n s i s t s of items composed of a t e s t word followed by f i v e words or phrases; students choose the word or phrase that means most nearly the same as the t e s t word. Kuder- Richardson Formula 20 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f or the norming group of 3500-4000 students ranged from .85 to .94. 2. Reading a t t i tude: The Mikulecky Behavioral Reading A t t i t u d e Measure (MBRAM) was administered for a measure of reading a t t i t u d e . A s e l f - r e p o r t measure, the MBRAM c o n s i s t s of 20 statements, each b r i e f l y d e s c r i b i n g a s p e c i f i c behavioral s i t u a t i o n r e l a t e d to reading, which the student responds to on a 5-point scale between the poles of VERY UNLIKE ME and VERY LIKE ME. Mikulecky (1976) reported t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of .91 during i n i t i a l norming of the instrument. A recent f i e l d study (Tolsma, 1981), using a • community c o l l e g e 52 population comparable to the sample in t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , reported an estimated r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .87 (Cronbach's Alpha) for the a t t i t u d e measure. 3. Locus of C o n t r o l : The Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale was used as a measure of locus of c o n t r o l . The scale i s a 23-item forced choice qu e s t i o n n a i r e with 6 a d d i t i o n a l f i l l e r items, scored i n the e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n . Acceptable t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( i n the ,70's and .80's) are reported i n s t u d i e s with college-age students (Daniels & Stevens, 1976). Outcome measures were administered during the week f o l l o w i n g the study. Form 2 of the Gates-MacGinit i e Reading Tests was used as a post-vocabulary measure, and the MBRAM was repeated for a p o s t - a t t i t u d e measure. Students in the experimental groups completed two a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s developed e s p e c i a l l y for t h i s study: 1. Sat i s f a c t ion: The s a t i s f a c t i o n scale (Vocabulary Study Ev a l u a t i o n Questionnaire, Appendix C) c o n s i s t e d of 7 items with a 4-point L i k e r t - t y p e response format. 2. A t t r ibut ion: A vocabulary improvement a t t r i b u t i o n scale was constructed based upon Weiner's (1974a) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme for perceived causes of success and f a i l u r e . Four items with a 4-point L i k e r t - t y p e response format were included for each of the quadrants, r e s u l t i n g i n four subtests: a b i l i t y , e f f o r t , 53 task d i f f i c u l t y , and luck. The questionnaire was scored i n the i n t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n by r e v e r s i n g the p o l a r i t y of responses on the two e x t e r n a l subtests, task d i f f i c u l t y and l u c k . The a t t r i b u t i o n s c a l e , p i l o t e d i n two sections of the reading and study s k i l l s course, was r e v i s e d on the basis of those r e s u l t s , and appears i n f i n a l form i n Appendix D. Since E n g l i s h i s the second language of a large proportion of King Edward students, information concerning language background was c o l l e c t e d so that r e s u l t s of the study could be adjusted to account for variance due to that c a t e g o r i c a l var i a b l e . Data A n a l y s i s The data were analyzed i n three steps. F i r s t , a l l measurement instruments were scored and r e l i a b i l i t y and t e s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were determined by computer a n a l y s i s using the Laboratory of Educat ion Research Test A n a l y s i s Package (Nelson, 1974). Subprograms from the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the S o c i a l . Sciences (SPSS) (Nie, H u l l , Jenkins, Steinbrenner, & Bent, 1975) were used to tabulate d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s and c a l c u l a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s between independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s . Second, the a n a l y s i s to detect main e f f e c t s and ATI's c o n s i s t e d of forward stepwise m u l t i p l e regression with h i e r a r c h i c a l i n c l u s i o n , again using an SPSS subprogram. Regression i s the p r e f e r r e d method of a n a l y s i s for ATI s t u d i e s . Cronbach and Snow (1977) s t a t e : Regression a n a l y s i s i s always the method of 54 choice. Past studies have often r e l i e d on a n a l y s i s of variance and have clouded t h e i r r e s u l t s in so doing. Even i n the extreme groups design to which i t i s l o g i c a l l y a ppropriate, anova has no advantage, (p. 514-515) When a study uses m u l t i p l e outcome measures the researcher has s e v e r a l data a n a l y s i s options. In t h i s study the four outcome measures were considered s i n g l y as dependent v a r i a b l e s ; t h i s i s a common choice of researchers because i t provides the greatest amount of d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r p r e t a b l e r e s u l t s . Language background was the f i r s t entry of the regression equation i n order to s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l for that c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e . Orthogonal coding was used to make two comparisons: (1) Treatment A versus Treatment B, and (2) Treatment A + Treatment B versus C o n t r o l . As recommended by K e r l i n g e r and Pedhazur (1973), raw d e v i a t i o n scores were used for a l l continuous independent v a r i a b l e s . T h i r d , each aptitude treatment i n t e r a c t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n step two was fur t h e r examined by c o r r e l a t i n g r e s i d u a l s with independent v a r i a b l e d e v i a t i o n scores. This r e l a t i o n s h i p i s then presented g r a p h i c a l l y for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Chapter IV. 55 CHAPTER IV RESULTS The o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s chapter p a r a l l e l s the.three data a n a l y s i s steps o u t l i n e d in Chapter I I I : (1) d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s concerning the sample and measurement instruments, (2) regression a n a l y s i s , and (3) ap t i t u d e treatment i n t e r a c t i o n s . D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s Sample One hundred t h i r t y - f o u r students completed the pr e t e s t measures, r e s u l t i n g in i n i t i a l sample s i z e s of 55 students i n Treatment A, 50 in Treatment B, and 29 in the c o n t r o l group. Demographic information was tabulated to describe the sample and analyzed to determine c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the three groups. Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample are presented in Table 5. The composition of the three groups was s i m i l a r i n terms of age and educational background. Ages of the students ranged from 15 to 56 years, with a median age of 20.9. The average school grade completed was 10.71, although a wide range of educational l e v e l s (grade 7 to u n i v e r s i t y graduates) was represented. A majority of the students (71.5%) l i s t e d t h e i r educational l e v e l as having completed grade .11 or lower. 56 Table 5. Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample Group Trt.A Trt.B Co n t r o l T o t a l n=55 n=50 n=29 n=!34 Age under 18 years 18-25 years over 25 years 1 1 63 26 8 70 22 1 0 60 30 1 5 60 25 Educational background 2 below grade 10 grade 10 grade 11 grade 12 and above 23 37 20 .20- .2 0 34 1 6 30 0 34 22 42 18 35 19 28 Native language E n g l i s h Chinese French Japanese Other 62 1 3 5 2 18 70 6 2 0 22 61 20 3 7 9 65 1 2 4 2 1 7 Sex male female 47 53 46 54 10 90 38 62 Class time day n ight 80 20 72 28 55 44 72 28 'Frequencies have been converted to percentages. 2 L a s t grade completed. The r a t i o of native E n g l i s h speakers to E n g l i s h second language (ESL) speakers was a l s o s i m i l a r across the three 57 groups. E n g l i s h was the nati v e language for 62 percent of students in Treatment A, 70 percent i n Treatment B, and 61 percent i n the c o n t r o l group. When native language of ESL students was ta b u l a t e d , the l a r g e s t group (34%) l i s t e d Chinese as f i r s t language learned, followed by French (11%). Crossbreak a n a l y s i s of two a t t r i b u t e s , sex and c l a s s time, showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the three groups. However, w i t h i n the two treatment groups the day-evening and male-female proportions were comparable. Therefore, the d i f f e r e n c e s between the combined treatment groups and the c o n t r o l group, on these two dimensions, would not influ e n c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s i n treatment comparisons, but should be noted i n treatment-control comparisons. The regression model chosen for t h i s study employs reading a t t i t u d e and vocabulary achievement p r e t e s t scores as independent v a r i a b l e s , e f f e c t i v e l y t r e a t i n g them as c o y a r i a t e s . A n a l y s i s of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare means for the three groups on the Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Scale. The ANOVA for the locus of c o n t r o l p r e t e s t showed no d i f f e r e n c e s across the three groups, F(2,131) = .49, p > .05. Pos t t e s t data were c o l l e c t e d for a t o t a l of 94 students, 35 in Treatment A, 38 i n Treatment B, and 21 i n the c o n t r o l group. The p o s t t e s t data included scores for f i v e students who had joi n e d the se c t i o n s subsequent to the p r e t e s t i n g sessions. Complete pre-post data were a v a i l a b l e , then, for 89 students (A = 35, B = 37, C = 17), a 34 percent reduction of the o r i g i n a l sample due to a t t r i t i o n . In order to maximize s t a t i s t i c a l 58 power, cases which had complete data concerning the v a r i a b l e s i n question were used i n the data analyses which f o l l o w . Aptitude and outcome measures Means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , standard e r r o r s of measurement, and i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s for a l l aptitude and outcome measures are presented i n Table 6. R e l i a b i l i t i e s for the instruments ranged from .74 to .92, a l l w i t h i n an acceptable range for f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . Although forms 1 and 2 of the Gates-MacGinitie vocabulary subtest are p a r a l l e l forms, they are not e q u i v a l e n t . Form 2 was s l i g h t l y more d i f f i c u l t than Form 1. Since the forms were not eq u i v a l e n t , they were not counterbalanced as pre- and post t e s t s in t h i s study; to do so would have introduced a d d i t i o n a l measurement e r r o r . Vocabulary scores i n T-score u n i t s (based upon t a b l e s of norms from the t e s t manual) are shown i n Table 7. The T-score u n i t s more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the change i n scores from p r e t e s t to p o s t t e s t . 59 Table 6. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ap t i t u d e and outcome measures Instrument Mean SD SEM r 1 n Vocabulary achievement Prete s t 28.88 9.26 2.66 .92 134 Po s t t e s t 27.81 9.61 2.70 .92 94 Reading a t t i t u d e P r e t e s t 67.36 15.36 5.24 .88 134 Pos t t e s t 70.67 13.87 4.51 .89 94 Locus of c o n t r o l 8.57 4.07 2.02 .74 134 S a t i s f a c t i o n 20.16 4.09 1.40 .86 73 A t t r i b u t i o n 47.15 5.80 2.59 .79 73 'I n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . 60 Table 7. Mean, standard d e v i a t i o n , 1 and sample s i z e by group on a l l measuring instruments for cases used i n regression a n a l y s i s Groups Instrument A B C A+B A+B+C Vocabulary p r e t e s t (T-scores) 46. (9. n = 97 83) 35 52 .84 ( 14.47) n = 37 48. (13. n= 53 53) 1 7 50. 03 (12.73) n = 72 49.74 (12.82) n = 89 Vocabulary p o s t t e s t (T-scores) 47. (9. n= 66 87) 35 53.63 (11.07) n = 38 45. (13. n = 38 53) 21 50.77 (10.86) n = 73 49.56 (11.65) n = 94 Reading a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t (raw scores) 63. (14. n = 80 28) 35 70.57 (15.68) n = 37 71 . (13. n = 53 55) 1 7 67.28 (15.29) n = 72 68.09 (15.00) n = 89 Reading a t t i t u d e p o s t t e s t (raw scores) 67. (13. n = 66 92) 35 73.45 (13.41) n = 38 72. (14. n = 52 25) 21 70.67 (13.87) n = 73 71 .09 (13.90) n = 94 Locus of c o n t r o l p r e t e s t (raw scores) 9. (3. n= 57 78) 35 8.70 (3.61) n = 37 8. (3. n = 53 76) 17 9.13 (3.70) n = 72 9.01 (3.69) n = 89 S a t i s f a c t i o n p o s t t e s t (raw scores) 20. (4. n = 1 4 14) :35 20. 18 (4.10) n = 38 20. 1 6 (4.09) n = 73 A t t r ibut ion p o s t t e s t (raw scores) 45. (6. n = 86 07) = 35 48.34 (5.34) n = 38 47 . 1 5 (5.80) n = 73 1Standard d e v i a t i o n s are shown i n parentheses. 61 In t a b l e 7 the sample i s a l s o p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o groups which served as u n i t s on the various regression analyses, a l l o w i n g mean comparisons. The mean vocabulary scores for the two treatment groups (A and B) and the combined treatment groups (A + B) show s l i g h t increases from pre- to p o s t t e s t i n g , while mean scores decreased for the c o n t r o l group (C) and the t o t a l sample (A + B + C). Post reading a t t i t u d e mean scores are higher than p r e t e s t means on a l l groups and group combinations. Locus of c o n t r o l mean scores are highest i n treatment group A (9.57), almost one point lower f o r treatment group B (8.70), and j u s t s i g h t l y lower (8.53) i n group C. S a t i s f a c t i o n mean scores for the two treatment groups are nearly equal, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , o v e r a l l , the treatments were equivalent in terms of i n t e r e s t and a f f e c t i v e impact. According to a t t r i b u t i o n s c a l e means, students in Treatment B a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r vocabulary improvement more to i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than d i d students i n Treatment A. C o r r e l a t i o n s among ap t i t u d e s and outcome v a r i a b l e s are shown i n Table 8. A r e l a t i v e l y strong r e l a t i o n s h i p (r = .46) i s shown between vocabulary and a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t s ; the c o r r e l a t i o n between the same two v a r i a b l e s as p o s t t e s t measures i s somewhat lower (r = .32). stronger than a n t i c i p a t e d . Locus of c o n t r o l c o r r e l a t e s n e g a t ively with a l l v a r i a b l e s , with strongest r e l a t i o n s h i p s shown with reading a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t (r = -.27) and reading a t t i t u d e p o s t t e s t (r = -.28). I t must be noted, however, that the locus of c o n t r o l scale i s scored i n the ex t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n , which accounts for negative c o r r e l a t i o n s . 62 C o r r e l a t i o n s among aptitude and outcome measures, based upon only the two treatment groups, are presented i n Table 9. C o r r e l a t i o n s among the f i r s t f i v e v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r only s l i g h t l y from those reported i n Table 8 f o r the e n t i r e sample. A d d i t i o n of the two t r e a t m e n t - s p e c i f i c dependent v a r i a b l e s ( s a t i s f a c t i o n and a t t r i b u t i o n ) creates i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The two scales c o r r e l a t e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l y with each other (r = .35). S a t i s f a c t i o n and p o s t - a t t i t u d e show a s l i g h t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p (r = . 1 0 ) , but the other four v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e with s a t i s f a c t i o n in a negative d i r e c t i o n . In general the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s a t i s f a c t i o n and the other v a r i a b l e s , with the exception of a t t r i b u t i o n , appear to be minimal, i n d i c a t i n g l i t t l e correspondence between achievement and s a t i s f a c t i o n . A moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p (r = -.20) i s shown between a t t r i b u t i o n ( i n t e r n a l l y scored) and locus of c o n t r o l ( e x t e r n a l l y scored). The c o r r e l a t i o n s between a t t r i b u t i o n and a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t and a t t i t u d e are p u z z l i n g . A t t r i b u t i o n and p r e - a t t i t u d e appear to be unrelated (r = .04) while a t t r i b u t i o n and post- a t t i t u d e are moderately c o r r e l a t e d i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n (r = .32). This apparent inc o n s i s t e n c y may i n d i c a t e an ATI. 63 Table 8. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s 1 of aptitude v a r i a b l e s and c o r r e l a t i o n s with outcome v a r i a b l e s , treatment and c o n t r o l groups V a r i a b l e 1 2 3 4 5 1. Vocabulary pret e s t (.92) .46 -.12 .93 .37 2. A t t i t u d e p r e t e s t (.88) -.27 .42 .65 3. Locus of c o n t r o l (.74) -.17 -.28 4. Vocabulary p o s t t e s t (.92) .32 5. A t t i t u d e p o s t t e s t (.89) 1 R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are shown i n parentheses. Table 9. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s 1 of aptitude v a r i a b l e s and c o r r e l a t i o n s with outcome v a r i a b l e s , treatment groups only V a r i a b l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. Vocabulary, pre (.92) .51 -.16 .91 .33 -.12 ,25 2. A t t i t u d e , pre ( .88) -.25 .44 .62 -.16 .04 3. Locus of c o n t r o l ( .74) -.18 -.29 -.05 -.20 4. Vocabulary, post (.92) .25 -.10 .23 5. A t t i t u d e , post ( .89) . 1 0 .32 6. Sat i s f a c t ion (.86) .35 7. A t t r i b u t i o n ( .79) R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are shown in parentheses. 64 Regression A n a l y s i s A g e n e r a l i z e d r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was performed on each of the four dependent v a r i a b l e s . The regression technique chosen was a forward stepwise procedure so that the amount of variance accounted for would be computed as each term entered the equation. A h i e r a r c h i c a l model was used, and independent v a r i a b l e s were always ordered the same: language background (E n g l i s h f i r s t or second language), p r i o r achievement (vocabulary p r e t e s t ) , a t t i t u d e (reading a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t ) , and p e r s o n a l i t y (locus of c o n t r o l ) . This sequence was e s t a b l i s h e d to r e f l e c t two purposes of the study. F i r s t , e n t e r i n g language background i n the f i r s t step i s comparable to c o n t r o l l i n g that v a r i a b l e as . a c o v a r i a t e ; the magnitude of the language background/criterion v a r i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p can be e s t a b l i s h e d and " p a r t i a l l e d out" at the onset of the a n a l y s i s . Second, the remaining three independent v a r i a b l e s were ordered according to pr e d i c t e d o v e r a l l impact on vocabulary improvement i n an attempt to e x p l a i n variance in the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s . As recommended by Cronbach and Snow (1977), v a r i a b l e s were added i n three s e t s : (1) a p t i t u d e s , (2) treatment c o n t r a s t s , and (3) ATI terms. E f f e c t coding was used for the language background v a r i a b l e , and d e v i a t i o n scores were entered for the remaining three independent v a r i a b l e s . Treatment comparisons were made by c r e a t i n g two orthogonal c o n t r a s t s which were weighted f o r unequal sample s i z e . Comparison 1 t e s t s for d i f f e r e n c e s between Treatment A and Treatment B, while 65 comparison 2 compares the combined treatment groups, A + B, with the c o n t r o l group, C. I n t e r a c t i o n terms are computed by m u l t i p l y i n g a p t i t u d e d e v i a t i o n scores by comparison codes. C o r r e l a t i o n s between a l l v a r i a b l e s included i n the regression analyses are presented i n Appendix E. Vocabulary Variance i n vocabulary achievement accounted for by main e f f e c t s and ATI's i s shown in Table 10 (see Appendix F for summary t a b l e s of regression a n a l y s e s ) . The f u l l model accounted for 91.61 percent (F = 57.68, p < .01) of the variance in vocabulary p o s t t e s t scores, i n d i c a t i n g that vocabulary p o s t t e s t scores can qu i t e a c c u r a t e l y be p r e d i c t e d from the independent v a r i a b l e s . Language background had a s u b s t a n t i a l impact upon p r e d i c t e d scores, as 25.85 percent of the f u l l model variance was accounted for by that v a r i a b l e . As expected, p r i o r achievement (vocabulary p r e t e s t ) i s the s i n g l e best p r e d i c t o r , accounting for 63.50 percent of variance (F = 559.76, p < .01). Adding reading a t t i t u d e and locus of c o n t r o l to the equation r e s u l t e d in only a s l i g h t increase i n p r e d i c t i o n p r e c i s i o n . Although accounting for only 1.10 percent of varian c e , t e s t i n g of the comparisons (F = 5.37, p < .05) showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Comparison 2, c o n t r a s t i n g the treatment and c o n t r o l groups, was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l (F = 9.34). The mean for the combined treatment groups on the vocabulary p o s t t e s t , 50.77, was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the •control group mean of 45.53 (see Table 7), i n d i c a t i n g a main e f f e c t for treatment. Comparison 1, c o n t r a s t i n g the two 66 treatment groups, was not s i g n i f i c a n t ; the treatments were eq u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g vocabulary achievement. The e n t i r e set of ATI terms accounted for l e s s than one percent of variance i n vocabulary scores. One i n t e r a c t i o n , a t t i t u d e by comparison 2, was found s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l (F = 5.37) and w i l l be f u r t h e r discussed i n the ATI sect i o n of t h i s chapter. 67 Table 10. Summary of regression a n a l y s i s of vocabulary achievement: main e f f e c t s and ATI, treatment and c o n t r o l groups % variance V a r i a b l e i n regression df accounted for F s i g . F u l l model 14 Aptitudes 4 Language background 1 Vocabulary pretest 1 Reading a t t i t u d e 1 Locus of c o n t r o l 1 Comparisons 2 A versus B (C1) 1 A + B versus C (C2) 1 A l l ATI 8 Language background x C1 Language background x C2 Vocabulary x Cl Vocabulary x C2 A t t i t u d e x C2 A t t i t u d e x C1 Locus of c o n t r o l x C2 Locus of c o n t r o l x C1 Residual 7 4 91.61 57.68 .01 89..66 224.48 .01 25.85 227.88 .01 63.50 559.76 .01 .02 .16 .29 2.57 1.10 5.37 .05 .04 .34 1 .06 9.34 .01 .85 .93 .00 .04 .00 .04 .02 .19 .00 .04 .61 5.37 .05 .08 .72 .03 .29 .09 .77 8.40 Reading a t t i t u d e As shown i n Table 11, j u s t over h a l f (50.83%) of the variance in reading a t t i t u d e p o s t t e s t scores can be explained by the a p t i t u d e , treatment, and ATI sets of terms in the regression equation, and the f u l l model i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l (F = 5.46). The aptitude set of v a r i a b l e s (F = 19.12, p < .01) accounted for 44.76 percent of v a r i a n c e . Language background, however, accounted for l e s s than one percent of f u l l model variance, i n d i c a t i n g l i t t l e impact on reading a t t i t u d e . P r i o r a t t i t u d e was the strongest p r e d i c t o r , accounting for 28.21 percent of variance (F = 42.45, p < .01). The c o n t r i b u t i o n of vocabulary p r e t e s t scores (F = 22.39, p < .01) a l s o added s i g n i f i c a n t l y to p r e d i c t i o n . Locus of c o n t r o l was not a strong p r e d i c t o r of reading a t t i t u d e . Neither df the comparisons between groups were s i g n i f i c a n t . Apparently reading a t t i t u d e was not a f f e c t e d by group membership. The set of ATI terms accounted for 5.97 percent of variance, nearly 12 percent of the f u l l model variance. Again only one of the eight terms detected a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n , vocabulary by comparison 2 (F = 3.74, p < .10). 69 Table 11 Summary of main e f f e c t s regression a n a l y s i s of reading a t t i t u d e : and ATI, treatment and c o n t r o l groups V a r i a b l e i n regression % variance df accounted for s i g , F u l l model Aptitudes 1 4 Language background Vocabulary p r e t e s t Reading a t t i t u d e Locus of c o n t r o l 50.83 44.76 .22 1 4.88 28.21 1 .45 5.46 19.12 .33 22.39 42.45 2.19 01 01 01 01 Compar i sons A versus B (C1) A + B versus C (C2) 2 1 1 .09 .02 .07 .08 .03 . 1 1 A l l ATI 5.97 1.12 Language background Language background Vocabulary x C2 Vocabulary x C1 A t t i t u d e x C1 A t t i t u d e x C2 Locus of c o n t r o l x Locus of c o n t r o l x C l C2 C2 C1 08 94 48 80 40 , 1 7 .08 ,02 12 42 74 71 60 26 , 1 1 .02 1 0 Res i d u a l 74 49. 1 7 70 Sat i s f a c t ion The s a t i s f a c t i o n scale was administered to both treatment groups at the completion of the study. The scale was designed to determine whether the students found the vocabulary e x e r c i s e s i n t e r e s t i n g and worthwhile. The v a r i a b l e s entered i n the regression a n a l y s i s accounted for only 8.8 percent of .the variance i n s a t i s f a c t i o n scores, as reported i n Table 12. Given a students' scores on a l l p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , an accurate p r e d i c t i o n of s a t i s f a c t i o n cannot be made. Consulting Table 7, i t can be seen that the s a t i s f a c t i o n scale mean was 20.14 for Treatment A, 20.18 for Treatment B, and 20.16 for the combined groups. The two groups, then, perceived t h e i r treatment e x e r c i s e s almost e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g and worthwhile. Degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n appeared to be r e l a t e d very . l i t t l e to language background, p r i o r vocabulary a b i l i t y , i n i t i a l reading a t t i t u d e , or locus of c o n t r o l (see Table 9). A d d i t i o n a l l y , there were no ATI's. 71 Table 12. Summary of regression a n a l y s i s of s a t i s f a c t i o n : main e f f e c t s and ATI, treatment groups only V a r i a b l e i n regression df % variance accounted for s i g , F u l l model 8.88 .67 Aptitudes 5.51 94 Language background Vocabulary p r e t e s t Reading a t t i t u d e Locus of c o n t r o l 3.54 .21 1 .32 .44 2.41 . 1 4 1 .32 .30 Treatment Contrast (C1) 1 1 .07 A l l ATI 3.26 .55 Lang, background x C1 1 Vocabulary x C1 1 A t t i t u d e x Cl 1 Locus of c o n t r o l x C1 1 . 14 .29 .03 2.80 . 1 0 .20 .02 1 .90 Residual 62 91.12 72 A t t r i b u t i o n As shown i n Table 13, the f u l l regression model d i d not produce a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t i o n for a t t r i b u t i o n (F = 1.89). A t o t a l of 21.49 percent of variance i n a t t r i b u t i o n scores was accounted for by the model, with that amount d i v i d e d approximately equally between aptitude (9.53%) and ATI (10.05%) sets of v a r i a b l e s . Reading a t t i t u d e was not r e l a t e d to a t t r i b u t i o n scores ( l e s s than .01 percent variance accounted for) and language background accounted for l e s s than one percent (.35%) of variance. The remaining two a p t i t u d e s , vocabulary (F = 3.85, p < .10) and locus of c o n t r o l (F = 3.39, p < .10) co n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the p r e d i c t i o n . The ATI . set of v a r i a b l e s accounted for s l i g h t l y more variance than the aptitude set of v a r i a b l e s , 10.05 percent as opposed to 9.53 percent. The strongest i n t e r a c t i o n was found for a t t i t u d e by treatment (F =. 4.06, p < .05). A l e s s e r but s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 3.39, p < .10) i n t e r a c t i o n was revealed by the locus of c o n t r o l by treatment term. 73 Table 13. Summary of regression a n a l y s i s of a t t r i b u t i o n scores: main e f f e c t s and ATI, treatment groups only V a r i a b l e i n regression % variance df accounted for s i g F u l l model 21 .49 1 .89 Apt i tudes Language background Vocabulary p r e t e s t Reading a t t i t u d e Locus of c o n t r o l 9.53 .35 4.88 -0- 4.29 1 .88 .28 3.85 -0- 3.39 1 0 1 0 Treatment Contrast (C1) 1 .92 1.51 A l l ATI 1 0.05 1 .98 Lang, background x C1 1 Vocabulary x C1 1 A t t i t u d e x C1 1 Locus of c o n t r o l x C1 1 1 .50 .24 5.15 3.16 1.18 . 1 9 4.06 3.39 05 10 Res i d u a l 62 78.51 74 Aptitude Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n s Although the design of ATI s t u d i e s a l l o w s t e s t i n g main e f f e c t s and d e t e c t i n g treatment e f f e c t s , the primary o b j e c t i v e i s to explore for aptitude by treatment i n t e r a c t i o n s . Four such i n t e r a c t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n s requires that slopes be determined for each of the groups contained in the s i g n i f i c a n t ATI term at that step of the a n a l y s i s . To accomplish t h i s the researcher has two choices: (1) disembed the regression equation to obtain separate regression equations ( K e r l i n g e r & Pedhazur, 1973), or (2) analyze r e s i d u a l s at the step preceding the i n t e r a c t i o n . The second method was used i n t h i s study. F i r s t , regression analyses were rerun to the step j u s t p r i o r to the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n ; second, raw r e s i d u a l scores were c a l c u l a t e d at that point and s p l i t i n t o the comparison groups of i n t e r e s t ; f i n a l l y , r e s i d u a l s were c o r r e l a t e d with d e v i a t i o n scores of the i n t e r a c t i n g independent v a r i a b l e w i t h i n each group. Results of those analyses appear in Table 14. Two i n t e r a c t i o n s involved comparisons between the two treatment groups, both with a t t r i b u t i o n as the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . Slopes for the a t t i t u d e by treatment i n t e r a c t i o n are i n d i c a t e d by the regression weights (b) in Table 14. Inspection of Figure 1, a g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n , reveals that the i n t e r a c t i o n i s d i s o r d i n a l (the two l i n e s cross w i t h i n the range of i n t e r e s t ) , as expected. D i s o r d i n a l i t y i s an a r t i f a c t of i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s which c o r r e l a t e s raw r e s i d u a l s scores with independent v a r i a b l e d e v i a t i o n scores, since both 75 sets of scores have a mean of zero. Students in Treatment A (newspaper) with high positive reading attitude scores tend to attribute success in vocabulary to internal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and low reading attitude is associated with external a t t r i b u t i o n s . Attribution residual scores correlate negatively (r = -.21) with reading attitude in Treatment B ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) and a reverse of the Treatment A high-low relationship is shown. A r e l a t i v e l y strong disordinal interaction between locus of control and treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n i s shown in Figure 2. Students in Treatment A (newspaper) with low locus of control scores have high a t t r i b u t i o n scores, while low a t t r i b u t i o n scores are associated with high locus of control scores. When this interaction is considered in terms of the scoring d i r e c t i o n of the instruments, a d e f i n i t e relationship emerges: i n t e r n a l l y controlled students attributed their success to more internal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , whereas externally controlled students perceived more external influence. Just the opposite was true for students in Treatment B ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . Internal locus of control was associated with external a t t r i b u t i o n s , and externally controlled students under Treatment B attributed their success in vocabulary study to internal a t t r i b u t i o n s . The two remaining interactions which emerged in this study involved comparisons of the combined treatment groups with the control group. Although these interactions have l i t t l e impact in terms of choosing between the two vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures used in the study, both i n t e r a c t i o n s — a t t i t u d e x comparison 2 on vocabulary and vocabulary x comparison.2 on 76 a t t i t u d e - - i n v o l v e d vocabulary achievement and reading a t t i t u d e , p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l information on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two v a r i a b l e s . A t t i t u d e r e s i d u a l scores for the combined treatment groups c o r r e l a t e d -.09 with vocabulary achievement, whereas the c o r r e l a t i o n between c o n t r o l group r e s i d u a l s and vocabulary was .52. The i n t e r a c t i o n i s d i s o r d i n a l , and as shown i n Figure 3, the c o n t r o l group slope i s p o s i t i v e and q u i t e steep as compared to the treatment group slope. For the c o n t r o l groups, low vocabulary scores are as s o c i a t e d with low reading a t t i t u d e scores, whereas high vocabulary scores correspond with high a t t i t u d e scores. The opposite i s shown for the combined treatment groups, but to a much l e s s e r degree, as shown by the s l i g h t negative slope (b = -.11) of the regression l i n e . When vocabulary r e s i d u a l s f or the comparison groups are c o r r e l a t e d with a t t i t u d e d e v i a t i o n scores the c o e f f i c i e n t s are of approximately equal strength, but i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s : r = .14 for the c o n t r o l group and r = -.13 for the treatment groups. As shown i n Figure 4, the i n t e r a c t i o n i s o r d i n a l . The o r d i n a l nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n i s due to unequal sample s i z e s (Control group, n = 17; Treatment group, n = 72) and i n d i c a t e s that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between vocabulary r e s i d u a l s and a t t i t u d e d e v i a t i o n scores for the two groups i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Greater d i s p a r i t y e x i s t s between the groups when a t t i t u d e scores are high. High a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l group scores correspond with high vocabulary scores, while high a t t i t u d e treatment group scores correspond with low vocabulary scores. 77 Table 14. R e s i d u a l i z e d c r i t e r i o n regressions for ATI terms R e s i d u a l i z e d c r i t e r i o n var i a b l e ATI Group A t t r i b u t i o n A t t i t u d e x C1 A B .307 .101 090 070 .223 .208 A t t r i b u t i o n L of Co n t r o l x Cl A .111 B -.019 264 268 . 179 . 1 93 Att i tude Vocabulary x C2 A+B C -.198 .275 1 1 4 337 .090 .523 Vocabulary A t t i t u d e x C2 A+B C .161 2.680 028 024 . 1 34 . 1 40 78 10.00 * 8 .00 6.00 -H a 6.0O 8 .00 -10.OC * I I * *. « v + * + • + • * + + + • + + + + + • . -25.OO -20.001 ' -15.OO -10.00 -5.00 -0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 A t t i t u d e Deviation Scores F i g u r e 1. Representation of ATI f o r a t t i t u d e x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n scores 79 io.oo * 8.00 6.00 •6.00 -a. oo -10.00 *. I I * -5.00 -4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 -0.00 I.OO 2.00 3.00 4.00 ,3.00 Locus of Control Deviation Ecores Figure 2. Representation of ATI for locus of c o n t r o l x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n scores 80 O 3 +1 < e -H •a a o « •a id 3 a Control Group Treatment. Groups -6.00 -3.O0 -0.0O 3.00 .6 OO Vocabulary Deviation Scores Figure 3. Representation of ATI f o r vocabulary x group (treatment versus c o n t r o l ) on reading a t t i t u d e p o s t t e s t scores 81 Control Group Treatment Groups -25.00 -20.00 -15.00 -10.00 -5.00 -0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 A t t i t u d e Deviation Scores Figure 4. Representation of ATI f o r a t t i t u d e x group (treatment versus c o n t r o l ) on vocabulary achievement p o s t t e s t scores. 82 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purpose of t h i s f i e l d based study was to examine i n t e r a c t i o n s between le a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches i n vocabulary s k i l l development. L i t e r a t u r e was reviewed i n two areas, vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n and ATI research. Method of teaching vocabulary, recent research i n the f i e l d , and ma t e r i a l s for vocabulary study were discussed. The ATI review concentrated on s e l e c t i o n of aptitude v a r i a b l e s and development of i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments. Two eight-week u n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n vocabulary s k i l l s , intended to maximize upon l o c i of c o n t r o l , were designed which d i f f e r e d i n learner tasks and m a t e r i a l s . In Treatment A students used a d a i l y newspaper as a source for s e l f - s e l e c t i o n of vocabulary study words. Treatment B was more s t r u c t u r e d , and co n s i s t e d of a word-category c l a s s i f i c a t i o n task designed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The c o n t r o l group received no i n s t r u c t i o n i n vocabulary development. Aptitude v a r i a b l e s included language background ( E n g l i s h f i r s t or second language), p r i o r vocabulary achievement (as measured by the vocabulary subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level F, Form 1, Canadian e d i t i o n ) , reading a t t i t u d e (as measured by the Mi kulecky Behavioral Reading 83 A t t i t u d e Measure), and locus of c o n t r o l (as measured by the Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l S c a l e ) . Outcome v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t e d of a vocabulary t e s t (Form 2 of G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ) , reading a t t i t u d e (Mikulecky measure repeated), and two i n v e s t i g a t o r - c o n s t r u c t e d questionnaires designed to measure s a t i s f a c t i o n and achievement a t t r i b u t i o n . Subjects in the study were community c o l l e g e students e n r o l l e d i n a reading and study s k i l l s course at the grade 11 l e v e l (treatment groups) or typing courses ( c o n t r o l group). P r e t e s t measures were completed by 134 students, and p o s t t e s t data were c o l l e c t e d for 94 students. Complete data were a v a i l a b l e for 35 students in Treatment A, 37 i n Treatment B, and 17 i n the c o n t r o l group. E n g l i s h was the n a t i v e language for approximately 65 percent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were presented for a l l aptitude and outcome measures i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of the r e s u l t s chapter. Next, four regression analyses were reported, one for each of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . The f u l l model regression on vocabulary p o s t t e s t scores was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , as were the aptitude and comparison sets of v a r i a b l e s . Both the f u l l model and aptitude set produced s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s on the reading a t t i t u d e p o s t t e s t r e g r e s s i o n . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were found i n the regression on s a t i s f a c t i o n with i n s t r u c t i o n , and the f u l l model accounted for only 8.88 percent of variance in s a t i s f a c t i o n scores. Although the f u l l model for a t t r i b u t i o n was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the vocabulary and locus of c o n t r o l aptitudes 84 accounted f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n s of variance. A s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t was found when the combined treatment groups were compared to "the c o n t r o l group on the vocabulary achievement r e g r e s s i o n . The Treatment A-Treatment B contrast was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Four ATI's were reported, (1) a t t i t u d e x comparison 2 on vocabulary, (2) vocabulary x comparison 2 on a t t i t u d e , (3) a t t i t u d e x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n , and (4) locus of c o n t r o l x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n . The i n t e r a c t i o n s were discussed and g r a p h i c a l l y presented. L i m i t a t i o n s Sampling l i m i t a t i o n s The most serious l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study was the small sample s i z e . Cronbach and Snow (1977) recommend sample s i z e s of 100 cases per treatment, much l a r g e r than customary in experimental research, i n order to detect i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . With smaller samples the researcher r i s k s committing a Type I e r r o r , i . e . , r e j e c t i n g a true n u l l hypothesis. Considering the explora t o r y nature of the present study, and i n an attempt to decrease the p r o b a b i l i t y of making a Type I e r r o r , a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of .10 was chosen to adjust for the small sample. The corresponding increase i n the p r o b a b i l i t y of a Type II e r r o r , not r e j e c t i n g a f a l s e n u l l hypothesis, was viewed as le s s s e r i o u s i n the context of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Although i n t a c t c l a s s e s were assigned to treatments i n t h i s study, i t was not p o s s i b l e to t e s t f or c l a s s e f f e c t s , again, 85 because of the small sample. V a r i a t i o n between and w i t h i n cl a s s e s - - f o r m a t i o n of c l a s s e s (reasons why students e n r o l l e d in a p a r t i c u l a r day or night s e c t i o n ) , teacher e f f e c t s , contamination e f f e c t s , and chance e f f e c t s that operate s y s t e m a t i c a l l y on members of a c l a s s - - a r e unavoidably confounded. E v a l u a t i n g c l a s s e f f e c t s i s p o s s i b l e , according to Cronbach and Snow (1977), only i f there are f i v e or more c l a s s e s per treatment. That requirement was not met i n t h i s study, and i t was necessary to pool c l a s s e s for a n a l y s i s . A l b e i t the sample was s m a l l , i t appears to be re p r e s e n t a t i v e . Results obtained i n t h i s study can be gene r a l i z e d to other groups of adult l e a r n e r s , p r o v i d i n g those groups possess the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the experimental population. The sample used i n t h i s study, a d u l t s pursuing an academic secondary c e r t i f i c a t e and e n r o l l e d i n a reading improvement c r e d i t course, i s a r e l a t i v e l y unique subset of a la r g e r population of adu l t students. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n to a d u l t s e n r o l l e d i n grade 12 v o c a t i o n a l or general equivalency programs would not be appr o p r i a t e . Methodological 1imi t a t ions V a l i d i t y of experimental r e s u l t s i s questionable when nonstandardized instruments are used. Instruments used ( Gates- M a c G i n i t i e Reading Tests, Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Scale, and Mikulecky Behavioral Reading A t t i t u d e Measure ) to t e s t the three hypotheses i n t h i s study have been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n previous research, v e r i f y i n g t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . However, two instruments were developed e s p e c i a l l y for t h i s 86 study to measure s a t i s f a c t i o n and a t t r i b u t i o n . Although both instruments were tested and r e v i s e d p r i o r to the study, t h e i r psychometric q u a l i t i e s are not f i r m l y grounded by previous research. Therefore, f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to a t t r i b u t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n must be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n . S e l f - r e p o r t q u estionnaires were used as measurement instruments for some v a r i a b l e s . Reading a t t i t u d e , locus of c o n t r o l , s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a t t r i b u t i o n were a l l assessed v i a s e l f - r e p o r t ; data for these v a r i a b l e s would n e c e s s a r i l y be confounded by v a l i d i t y problems inherent to that method of data c o l l e c t i o n . Given that the student i s able to s e l e c t the proper option ( d e s c r i p t i o n of himself) for the items, the quest i o n n a i r e s s t i l l r e q uire honesty and frankness on the part of the student. Since a l l t e s t i n g was done by the regular classroom teacher, and even though students were t o l d that marking would be done by an independent researcher, i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e that students' responses were inf l u e n c e d by a desi r e for teacher approval. Conclusions This study c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y to vocabulary research by departing from t r a d i t i o n a l research design to employ ATI methodology. Hopefully, t h i s venture i n t o ATI w i l l p r e c i p i t a t e a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s . I t i s time for researchers to r e d i r e c t t h e i r energies from a search for the "best" vocabulary teaching method to i n v e s t i g a t i o n s concentrating on matching students and methods. As Cronbach and Snow (1977) conclude, ATI has come of age. Research on i n s t r u c t i o n 87 w i l l need to incorporate i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s in theory and i n p r a c t i c e , regardless of how one u l t i m a t e l y proceeds with i n s t r u c t i o n a l adaptation. ATI methods and ideas have a fundamental r o l e to play in educational e v a l u a t i o n as w e l l as i n educational design, and in p s y c h o l o g i c a l science g e n e r a l l y . As t h i s r o l e continues to un f o l d , we can expect new l i n e s of research to reopen o l d questions, as w e l l as to define issues not considered by the t r a d i t i o n a l experimental and c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s working se p a r a t e l y . (p. 424) Perusal of reading research reveals a profusion of vocabulary s t u d i e s , but few of those studies use ad u l t s as sub j e c t s . This study i s d i s t i n c t i v e not only i n i t s methodology but.also i n the population assessed. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study was designed to t e s t three research hypotheses and probe three areas v i a the a n c i l l a r y research questions posed i n Chapter I. The remainder of t h i s s e c t i o n i s correspondingly presented i n s i x subsections, d i s c u s s i n g r e s u l t s of the study and drawing conclusions stemming from the research hypotheses and questions. H.1 Students i n the treatment groups w i l l demonstrate greater gains i n vocabulary achievement than students in the uni n s t r u c t e d c o n t r o l groups. Hypothesis one was accepted. Results of the regression a n a l y s i s on vocabulary p o s t t e s t scores d i d reveal s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s when the combined treatment group was compared to the c o n t r o l group. Acceptance of hypothesis one, which g e n e r a l l y s t a t e s that some teaching e f f o r t r e s u l t s i n greater gains than no teaching e f f o r t , would l o g i c a l l y be expected; u n f o r t u n a t e l y , that i s not always the case i n vocabulary research. I t might be concluded that the treatment group gains in t h i s study can be a t t r i b u t e d to an adequate research design 88 and c a r e f u l l y developed i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and m a t e r i a l s . H.2 Treatments A and. B w i l l not be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g vocabulary achievement when averaged across l e v e l s of a p t i t u d e . Hypothesis ' two was accepted. The orthogonal contrast of Treatment A-Treatment B means was not s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g that gains i n vocabulary achievement were approximately equal. This f i n d i n g i s i n l i n e with the ATI philosophy upon which the study was designed: i n t e r a c t i o n research seeks a match between student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and treatments as opposed to searching for a superior method of i n s t r u c t i o n that i s s u i t a b l e for a l l students. H.3 Treatment A w i l l be of greater b e n e f i t in i n c r e a s i n g vocabulary achievement for students with r e l a t i v e l y high i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l scores, whereas Treatment B w i l l be of greater b e n e f i t for those with r e l a t i v e l y greater e x t e r n a l scores. Hypothesis three was r e j e c t e d . No i n t e r a c t i o n was found between locus of c o n t r o l and treatment i n the a n a l y s i s of vocabulary scores. Several reasons can be conjectured for the lack of i n t e r a c t i o n between the p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e and vocabulary. C e r t a i n l y the sample s i z e l i m i t e d s t a t i s t i c a l power for d e t e c t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . P o s s i b l y measurement of the locus of c o n t r o l construct i s at f a u l t . The Rotter I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Scale, although s t i l l widely used i n research with adolescents and a d u l t s , was developed i n 1966. Perhaps statements chosen i n 1966 to r e f l e c t the i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l continuum are not appropriate for use i n 1981. I t i s p o s s i b l e that the a t t r i b u t i o n v a r i a b l e included in t h i s study i s a more contemporary i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l 89 index. The Vocabulary A t t r i b u t i o n Scale was designed to measure students' perceptions of causes f o r success i n vocabulary improvement: whether they succeeded due to i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Results of the a n a l y s i s on a t t r i b u t i o n scores, then, are encouraging. The locus of c o n t r o l by treatment i n t e r a c t i o n term was found s i g n i f i c a n t in the a t t r i b u t i o n r e g r e s s i o n , p a r t i a l l y a f f i r m i n g a premise on which the two treatments were designed. Using Treatment A, the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d newspaper e x e r c i s e s , i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d students a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r vocabulary improvement to i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s , whereas e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d students c i t e d more e x t e r n a l reasons for t h e i r success. This f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s correspondence between student sense of i n t e r n a l personal c o n t r o l and perceived i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s for success, a d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t i n i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . When the regression slope for Treatment B ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) was examined, however, r e s u l t s were opposite to those expected: i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d - e x t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s and e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d - i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s . One explanation for t h i s r e v e r s a l might be that the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n task i t s e l f may have conveyed an element of luck--chances were one i n three of p u t t i n g each word in the c o r r e c t category. This may have caused i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d students to tend to a t t r i b u t e success to chance to a greater degree than i n Treatment A. Another explanation for the r e v e r s a l might be that locus of c o n t r o l i s a greater determinant of success and perceived success i n unstructured tasks than i n more d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n . 90 Q.1 How does language background i n f l u e n c e scores on vocabulary achievement, reading a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a t t r i b u t i o n ? Only on the regression of vocabulary p o s t t e s t scores d i d language background prove to be a s i g n i f i c a n t determiner of r e s u l t s i n the study. A s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n (25.85 percent) of variance i n students' . vocabulary scores can be explained by knowing whether E n g l i s h i s the student's f i r s t or second language. Language background d i d not approach s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the regressions on a t t i t u d e p o s t t e s t , s a t i s f a c t i o n , or a t t r i b u t i o n , nor d i d any of the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n terms contain language background. This represents an important f i n d i n g : i t appears that the two vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments used i n t h i s study do not require m o d i f i c a t i o n for use with ESL students who have a. minimum grade 10 reading l e v e l . Q.2 Does p r i o r a t t i t u d e toward reading i n t e r a c t with i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment on vocabulary achievement, reading a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , or a t t r i b u t i o n ? Two of the aptitude-treatment i n t e r a c t i o n s reported i n the study involved reading a t t i t u d e . The a t t i t u d e x treatment term i n the regression a n a l y s i s of a t t r i b u t i o n produced s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . A d i s o r d i n a l i n t e r a c t i o n was shown, where high a t t i t u d e students i n Treatment A a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r vocabulary success to i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and low a t t i t u d e scores were as s o c i a t e d with more e x t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s ; the reverse was true for Treatment B. I t appears that using the newspaper i n the classroom may tend to increase i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s for success. 91 The second a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n occurred when the combined treatment groups were contrasted with the c o n t r o l group i n the regression on vocabulary p o s t t e s t scores. Although unrelated to method of p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n the c o n t r o l group (students not e n r o l l e d i n a reading course) the c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e r e s i d u a l scores and vocabulary achievement i s .52, but in the treatment groups (students e n r o l l e d i n a reading course) the comparable c o r r e l a t i o n i s -.09. Further research i s necessary on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and achievement for students e n r o l l e d in reading improvement courses. Q.3 Does p r i o r vocabulary achievement i n t e r a c t with i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment on vocabulary achievement, reading a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , or a t t r i b u t i o n ? I n t e r a c t i o n s between p r i o r vocabulary achievement and treatment were not observed in. the study. An i n t e r a c t i o n between p r i o r vocabulary achievement between experimentals and c o n t r o l s was revealed i n the regression on post reading a t t i t u d e scores, p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of a complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two v a r i a b l e s . 92 Recommendat ions Although thousands of vocabulary s t u d i e s have been reported, as pointed out by Petty et a l . (1968, p. 85), "the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the most s a t i s f a c t o r y methods for teaching vocabulary appears to remain a rather 'wide open' area of research." The current study c o n t r i b u t e s s u b s t a n t i v e l y to vocabulary research: i t provides a foundation f o r a method and theory of vocabulary i n t e r a c t i o n research. At the same time, i t reveals areas i n ATI methodology which must be r e f i n e d through f u r t h e r research. Recommendations for f u r t h e r research Rec. 1 R e p l i c a t e the present study with a l a r g e r sample, i n c l u d i n g at l e a s t 100 students and f i v e c l a s s e s per treatment. One paradox in the ATI design i s that as e r r o r variance i s minimized (as when aptitude v a r i a b l e s e x p l a i n large proportions of variance i n outcome measures) small and p r a c t i c a l l y unimportant treatment e f f e c t s and i n t e r a c t i o n s are more l i k e l y to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e to speculate that the main e f f e c t for treatment reported i n t h i s study i s an a r t i f a c t of such a small e r r o r term. Accuracy and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these f i n d i n g s can only be determined through r e p l i c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , r e p l i c a t i o n would f u r t h e r v a l i d a t e .the a t t r i b u t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e s developed f o r t h i s study. Class u n i t s were assigned to treatments i n t h i s study, but the a n a l y s i s was done at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . I t would be •desirable, although perhaps not f e a s i b l e , to enlarge the sample 93 to the point where data a n a l y s i s could be done at the c l a s s l e v e l . Cronbach and Snow (1977) recommend 100 observations i n each treatment and at l e a s t f i v e c l a s s e s per treatment. By repeating the experiment over s e v e r a l terms, at the cost of adding temporal e r r o r s , i t would be p o s s i b l e to achieve a l a r g e r sample. Rec. 2 Lengthen the treatment period to include the e n t i r e fourteen-week term. R e l a t i v e l y high c o r r e l a t i o n s between pre- and p o s t t e s t s were reported i n t h i s study. Outcome measures w i l l c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y with beginning l e v e l a p t i t u d e s i n ATI research unless treatments are powerfully d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e . Lengthening the treatment p e r i o d might allow d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s to become more apparent. However, another v a r i a b l e r e l a t e d to time, e s p e c i a l l y i n adult education s t u d i e s , i s a t t r i t i o n . As the treatment length i s extended the researcher must be prepared to accept a greater shrinkage i n sample s i z e . Rec. 3 Examine and r e f i n e the a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s included i n the study. An attempt should be made to i s o l a t e aptitude v a r i a b l e s which are only moderately c o r r e l a t e d with one another but which c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y with vocabulary achievement. The reading attitude-achievement r e l a t i o n s h i p needs f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n ; development of reading a t t i t u d e methods other than s e l f - r e p o r t i s recommended. I t may be p o s s i b l e that language background, defined as a dichotomous v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study, obscures c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the ESL subgroup. With a l a r g e r sample i t 94 might be p o s s i b l e to break down the ESL group i n t o s p e c i f i c language groups, thereby c o n s i d e r i n g c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s with more p r e c i s i o n . Rec. 4 Compare d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s of words students s e l e c t e d to study i n Treatments A and B. In t h i s study students in both treatment groups chose t h e i r own vocabulary study words from e i t h e r a d a i l y newspaper or from a provided l i s t of t h i r t y words. An i n t e r e s t i n g extension of t h i s study would be to determine the d i f f i c u l t y of the s e l f - s e l e c t e d words and compare the r e s u l t s between treatments. Inspection of word d i f f i c u l t i e s suggests that there are no d i f f e r e n c e s between average d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of words chosen for study under the two treatments. In a d d i t i o n , the d i f f i c u l t y of i n d i v i d u a l student- choices could be compared with vocabulary achievement l e v e l to check the v a l i d i t y of the s e l f - s e l e c t i o n format. Recommendat ions for i n s t r u c t ion Rec. 5 Use the two vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s developed for t h i s study i n reading and study s k i l l s courses. This study has shown that both treatments are ge n e r a l l y sound, and each s i g n i f i c a n t l y increases vocabulary achievement. While the sample in t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of a d u l t s , i t i s reasonable to conclude that the i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s could a l s o be used i n secondary classrooms. A d i s t i n c t advantage of the two u n i t s i s that they are not as boring as many of the commercially a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s . The newspaper-context treatment (Treatment A) might e s p e c i a l l y appeal to secondary 95 students, r e s u l t i n g in a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on reading a t t i t u d e as w e l l as vocabulary achievement. Rec. 6 Combine the two vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s for use i n the classroom. The two treatments for t h i s study were designed to d i f f e r e n t i a l l y enhance achievement by i n t e r a c t i n g with the locus of c o n t r o l personaity v a r i a b l e ; however, that ATI was not confirmed. 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Causal a s c r i p t i o n s and achievement behavior: A conceptual a n a l y s i s of e f f o r t and r e a n a l y s i s of locus of c o n t r o l . Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 1972, 2j_ 239-248. Weiner, B., Nierenberg, R., & G o l d s t e i n , M. S o c i a l l e a r n i n g (locus of c o n t r o l ) versus a t t r i b u t i o n a l (causal s t a b i l i t y ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of expectancy of success. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y , 1976, 44, 52-6.8. Wood, J . A., & Hoose, A. M. Aptitude i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s : A ne c e s s i t y in reading research. In F. B. Greene (Ed.), I n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e l a t ing to mature reading, 21st yearbook of The N a t i o n a l Reading. Conference, 1972. 102 Wright, M. L. An experimental study comparing the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of three developmental reading treatments upon the r a t e , vocabulary and comprehension s k i l l s of white and black c o l l e g e students. (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Southern - I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y , 1973). Di s s e r t a t ion A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1974, 34, 5811A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 74-6257) 1 03 APPENDIX A Vocabulary E x e r c i s e s used i n Treatment B Note: Student e x e r c i s e s were p r i n t e d back-to-back. 104 EXERCISE #1 WORDS: annoyed b l i s s buoyant c o n v i v i a l d e j e c t e d d e l i g h t e d d o l e f u l e c s t a s y e l a t e d e nraged e x a s p e r a t e d f r o l i c s o m e g l e e gloomy glum g r i e f i n d i g n a n t i n f u r i a t e i r a s c i b l e i r a t e j o v i a l j u b i l a t i o n m a u d l i n m e rriment m o u r n f u l p a t h e t i c p o i g n a n t r a n k l e r e j o i c i n g w r a t h CATEGORIES: happy sad angry BuTOxoCax ^usurrxxaui uoTq.BXTqnC ^ueuBxod X ^ T A O C ox^aii^ed aq.:ex-r Xniuxnoui euiosoxxoxj uTXpneui paa^xa a^Bxaniux I 3 T X 6 Aseq-soa umxB paq.qbTX3p AuiooxB X H T A T A U O O psBnxua Xnjsxop q.ueAonq paAotiue paq.osCap ssxxq Ax Sue. . pes Addpq ord: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : eanings: t h e r forms of the word: our own sentence: u s i n g the word: ord: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : eanings: t h e r forms of the word: •' •. . our own sentence u s i n g the word: ord: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : eanings: t h e r forms of t h e word: our own sentence u s i n g the word: 106 EXERCISE #2 WORDS: a d j o u r n c e n t e r c o n c l u d e c o r e debut d e s t i n a t i o n embark e p i l o g u e e x p i r e f i n a l e g e n e s i s hub i n a u g u r a t e i n c i p i e n t i n c o m p l e t e i n i t i a l i n i t i a t e l a u n c h mean midway n u c l e u s p a r t i a l p i v o t p r e l i m i n a r y p r e l u d e p r i m e r q u i e t u s r e t i r e t e r m i n a t i o n u l t i m a t e CATEGORIES: b e g i n n i n g m i d d l e end 107 9q.HUiTq.xn uoxqeuxuuaq. snqaxnb a;cxdxa anboxxda uoxq.euxq.sap apnxouoo ujnoCpe pua q o A x d X e x q . a c d s n a x o n u A H A v p x u i u e a u i a q a x d u i o o u x q n q 9 I O O • l a q u a o a x p p x u i a a u i x j d a p n x a ^ d A a t J U x u i x x s J d i i o u r i B x a q . e x q x u x X e x q x u x q . u a x d x o u x aq.e;m6nEux s x s a u a b q n q a p B u x u u x b a q Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings Other forms o f t h e word: Your own se n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings Other forms o f t h e word: Your own se n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: tford: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : l e a n i n g s : ) t h e r forms o f the word: four own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: 108 EXERCISE #3 WORDS: a d v e r s a r y companion o p p r e s s o r a d v o c a t e comrade o u t l a n d e r a l i e n c o n f i d a n t o u t s i d e r a l l y c r o n y p a r t n e r a n t a g o n i s t d i s t a n t r i v a l archenemy f o e s c o u n d r e l a s s o c i a t e f o r e i g n t y r a n t buddy h o s t i l e u n f a m i l i a r chum newcomer unknown c o l l e a g u e opponent v i l l a i n CATEGORIES: f r i e n d enemy s t r a n g e r UttOU3{UTt a e j T jure J i m jrapxsqno jcapuexqno u B x a ^ o g : qu_: ) . sxp u a x ^ g U X H X X X A qu-jAq Xa_punoos X - A X „ j o s s a a d d o •quauoddo axxqsoq a o j Auiauaiip_e q.sxuo6_:iup A__S_aAP- Auiaua _ a u q „ _ d Attojo g u - p x j u o o a p - _ u i o o U O X _ _ d u i O O an6_axxoo uiriTJO Appnq a q . x o o s s e Axxe a q . _ o o A p p p u a x a i 109 W o r d : P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms o f t h e word: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: O t h e r forms o f t h e word: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: tford: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : l e a n i n g s : } t h e r forms o f t h e word: f o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: 110 EXERCISE #4 WORDS: a n c e s t r y e x p e c t a n t o b s o l e t e a n t i c i p a t e e x i s t i n g p r e v a i l i n g a n t i q u i t y e x t i n c t p r e v a l e n t a r c h a i c f o r e t e l l p r o s p e c t i v e bygones h e r e a f t e r r e t r o s p e c t contemporary h i s t o r i c t o d ay c u r r e n t h i t h e r t o tomorrow doomsday impending t o p i c a l e l a p s e d m i l l e n n x u m u l t i m a t e l y e v e n t u a l l y modern y e s t e r d a y CATEGORIES;- p a s t p r e s e n t f u t u r e MOJixouioq. aATq.oadso.id uiriTUuaxixui BuxpuaduiT _:aq.:r_-a_:aq X i a ^ a x o j qu_q.oadxa A x x B n : 1 - U 9 A 3 ABpsuioop aq.gdTOTq.ug aanq.ni X^OTdoq. Agpoq. q.uaxBAaad 6uTXT B A a : r c2 uxapoui 6uTq.STxa q.uaajno Ajgjoduiaquoo q.uasaad A-paa^saA q.oadsoaq.ax aq.aXOsqo oq.aaqq.Tq OT-ZOqSTU q.ouTq.xa p a s d ^ x 3 sauoBAq OT_UO;T_- Aq.TnbTq.ug Axq.saoug q-sed 111 Word: Pronunciation: Meanings: Other forms of the word: Your own sentence using the word: tford: Pronunciation: 4eanings : ______ Dther forms of the word: four own sentence using the word: jord: Pronunciation: leanings: . (ther forms of the word: 'our own sentence using the word: WORDS: 112 EXERCISE #5 a c t r e s s adolescent androgynous angel a t h l e t e bachelor baronet beau cha i r p e r s o n damsel dowager egomaniac feminine gaucho hussy marionette martyr maternal p a t e r n a l p a t r i a r c h p r i n c e s s sheik s p i n s t e r spouse swain vagabond vampire veteran wench widower CATEGORIES: female male male or female a „ T d u r _ A u _ „ a q . a A p u o q _ 6 e A a s n o d s j a M o p x / A qouawi JcAq.„Bui U T B M S j r a q s u x d s a q . q.3UOT „ _ u i i f r a q s s s a o u x a d D_TU_ U I 0 6 a q o a e T _ q e d X - u ; r a : ) . e u i u o s j c a d _ T _ q o X - U J a q - d A s s n q e q . a i q q . _ o u p r t - B a u T U T U i a g : X a 6 u _ n _ a q . x a B e M o p snouABoapu- q . a u o _ _ q X a s u r e p q u a o s a x o p e j o x a q o e q s s a „ q . o _ a X - u i a j ao a x - u i a X - u i a X - i u a i Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms o f t h e word: Your own sen t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms o f th e word: Your own sen t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Dther forms o f t h e word: _our own sen t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: 114 EXERCISE #6 WORDS: a b u s i v e a s i n i n e a t r o c i o u s b a r b a r i t y b a r r e n b r u t a l d i s p e n s a b l e dunce f a t u o u s f i e n d i s h f r u i t l e s s f u t i l e h a r s h ignoramus i m b e c i l e i n a n e i n e f f e c t u a l inhumane m a l e v o l e n t m a l i c i o u s m o ronic o b t u s e r e f u s e r u b b i s h r u t h l e s s savage s i m p l e t o n s u p e r f l u o u s v a l u e l e s s venomous CATEGORIES: f o o l i s h w o r t h l e s s c r u e l snouiouaA a 6_A_s ssaxq+nx snoxoxxeui ssexanx^A uoq.axduixs q.uaxoA3XBur snonxjxadns asn^qo aueuinqux usxqqrtx OXUOXOUI qsxeq asnjax au_ux qsxpuaxi Xen^oaiiaux axxoaquix Xeq.n_q aXT^nj snurexouBx Aq.xjc_qxgq ssax^xrixj snonqgj snoxooxq.B axqesuadsxp aourip aATsnqe uax^Bq auxuxsp Xsnxo ssaxqq-xoM qsxxooi 115 P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms of the. word: Your own sentence u s i n g the word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Dther forms o f the word: four own sentence using the word: ford: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : leanings: (ther forms of the Word: 'our own sentence using the word: 116 EXERCISE #7 WORDS: a b u t t i n g a m b r o s i a aroma b i t t e r b l a n d b o r d e r i n g c o n t a c t c o n t i g u o u s f e e l f l a v o r f r a g r a n t fume i n s i p i d m alodorous m a n i p u l a t i o n massage od o r o l f a c t o r y p a l a t a b l e p a l p a b l e r e d o l e n t r e e k s a c c h a r i n e s c e n t s o u r s n i f f s t e n c h s t r o k e t a c t i l e t a r t CATEGORIES: t a s t e t o u c h s m e l l 117 J I T U S quaos X_a_ quaxopaa Aaoqo-jx 0 aopo sno_opox_ui aumj q.U__6HXI - U I O „ - XX^uis aXxqo_q avoaqs axq-dx^d a6_ss_ui uoTq._xndTU_ui snonBxquoo q.oeq.uoo 6ux„ap„oq 6uTq.qnqe tpnoq. i n o s auxj_qooes axqeqexnd prdTsuT „ O A _ X 5 pu_xq „aq.qxq • Tsojcqui- aqseq. Word: Pronunciation.: Meanings: Other forms of the. word: Your own sentence using the word: Word: Pr o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Dther forms of the word: .our own sentence using the word: ford: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : leanings: Jther forms of the word: 'our own sentence using the word: 118 EXERCISE #8 WORDS: actuary annuity a r b i t r a t i o n b e n e f i c i a r y blue c h i p bond broker bumping claimant coverage d i v e r s i f i e d f u t u r e s grievance hedge i n c e n t i v e i n j u n c t i o n n e g o t i a t i o n p i c k e t p o l i c y p o r t f o l i o premium proxy scab s e c u r i t i e s s e n i o r i t y slowdown speculate s t r i k e u nderwriter waive CATEGORIES: labor-management insurance investments saxq.T„noas Axo„d oxxojq.„od afipaq sa.inq.nj p a x i x s j a A T p d x i p anxq „a5[oa:q puoq sq.uaurqsaAUT 3ATEM „aq.x„A_iapun uxnxuiajd Aoxxod aB_„aAOO q.uHuiT_x3 A__-xoxjauaq Aq-xnuue AJHnqjg aou_„nsux a>[x:rq.s UMOp/AOXS Aq.T„oxuas qeos q.a>pxd uoxq.BTq.o6au uoxq.ounC.UT 3ATq.uaouT aou_AaTa6 Buxdumq UQTq.Bj:q.TqjB q.uauia6BUBui-j:oq_x 119 Word: Pronunciat ion: Meanings: Other forms of the word: Your own sentence using the word: Word: Pronunciat ion: Meanings: Other forms of the word: Your own sentence using the word: Word: Pronunciat ion: Meanings: Other forms of the word: _our own sentence using the word: 120 EXERCISE #9 WORDS: alderman e v a n g e l i s t p r o f e s s o r alumni f i l i b u s t e r regime b i b l i c a l gerrymander s c r i p t u r e s bureaucracy hymn semester caucus in a u g u r a l sermon constituency l e c t u r e s u p ernatural c u r r i c u l u m mandate theology d e i t y m a t r i c u l a t e t r u a n t diploma monotheism t u i t i o n embassy pious worship CATEGORIES: government education r e l i g i o n ABoxoaua XB_nq._u„adns uouuas saan^d-paos snoxd uisxaq^ououi uuiAq q.STia5u_Aa Aq.axp I.OTTqxq uox6T"i;aJ 121 uox^xnq. ^uenaq. aaqsauias _ossajo_d a„nq.oax a H\_X n oT ; t^ E U I isuioxdxp umxnoxajcno xuuinxg uoxq._onpa auix6a:t aq._pu_ui XT2~ri6ripux aapu_uiAj„a6 „aq.snqxxxj A"ss_quia Aouan^xq.suoo snon_o AoBjronBajnq uguijapxg q.uauiuaaAo6 Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms of the word: Your own sentence using the word: Word: Pro n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms of the word: your own sentence using the word: tford: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : 4eanings )ther forms of the word: four own sentence using the word: EXERCISE 122 #10 WORDS: b a r t e r bungalow c a p i t a l i s m c a r t e l c o l l a t o r commodity- c o m p i l e computer c u r r e n c y debug deed d e p r e s s i o n d e v a l u a t i o n d u p l e x easement encumbrance e n t r e p r e n e u r escrow f o r e c l o s u r e hardware l i e n memory monopoly mortgage o l i g o p o l y programmer r e c e s s i o n s o f t w a r e t i t l e v e r i f i e r CATEGORIES:, d a t a p r o c e s s i n g economics r e a l e s t a t e 3 T W a£_6q.„oui uaxx a_nsoxoa„oi A O J O S 9 eouBjqumoua q.uauiasea xsxdnp p a a p rtOXeBunq aq._q.sa x B 3 : r uoxssaoaa A x o d o B j x o Axodououi anaua„da„qua uoTq.enxHAap uoTssaadap Aoua„_mo Aqxpouiuioo Xaqaeo uiSTxeqTdeo •laqjgq soxuiouooa 123 XBXJXXQA aa^Mq-jos „auiure„6oad A„ouiaui 3„BMp„_TJ 6nqap aXT^uioo jaqnduioo j o q e X I 0 0 BuTssaocad eqep Word: Pronunciation: Meanings: Other forms of the word: Your own sentence using the word: Word: Pronunciation: Meanings: Other forms of the word: Your own sentence using the word: Word: Pronunciation: Meanings: Other forms of the word: Your own sentence using the word: 124 EXERCISE #11 WORDS: aerodynamics f l o t i l l a p a r a c h u t e a l t i m e t e r freeway p e d e s t r i a n a v i a t i o n f u s e l a g e p e r a m b u l a t o r barge hangar schooner b o u l e v a r d h y d r o f o i l sedan bow kayak s e i n e r caboose l i m o u s i n e s k i f f catamaran. m a r i n e toboggan cosmonaut m o n o r a i l t r a w l e r d i r i g i b l e omnibus z e p p e l i n CATEGORIES: a i r t r a v e l l a n d t r a v e l w a t e r t r a v e l 3 ?TX S a a u x a s j a u o o q o s auT__ui XxogoapAu; ueaeureq-eo «noq a6xBq XaAB_q. „aq:/_AV ueBBoqoq uepas „oq.Bxnqure„ad uex_qsapad snqxuuio XXBJOUOUI auTsnouiTx AeMaaag: asooqeo pj-Aaxt ioq XaAH_q puex uxxaddaz atj.nipeji'ed „T_6UT2U. afi^xasnj axqT_ T „Tp q.npuouisoo UOTtJ. BTA aaq.auiTq.xe soTureuApojae XaABorq. XXT9 Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms o f the word: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms o f t h e word: Your own sente n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms o f t h e word: Your own sente n c e u s i n g t h e word: 1 2 6 EXERCISE #12 WORDS: a c t i v i t y d i s t r a u g h t p r o t e i n a e r o b i c enzyme p s y c h o s o m a t i c a n x i e t y e x e r c i s e r o b u s t c a l i s t h e n i c s f l e x i b i l i t y s t a m i n a c a r b o h y d r a t e s f r u s t r a t i o n s u p p l e n e s s c h o l e s t e r o l g l u c o s e t e n s i o n c o n f l i c t i n s o m n i a t r a n q u i l i z e r s d e p r e s s i o n j o g g i n g u p s e t d i e t a r y m e t a b o l i s m v i t a m i n s d i g e s t i o n n u t r i e n t s w o r r y CATEGORIES: n u t r i t i o n s t r e s s f i t n e s s ssauaxddns B U X U I _ q . S q.sngoa 6ux65oC Aq.xxxqxxaxJ 9 S T O J S X 9 soxuaqq.sxxeo oxqoia- Aq.TAxq.oe ssauq.xj A a a o A V q . a s d n s a a _ x x x n b u _ _ q u o x s u a q . o x q - B U i o s o u o A s d HXUUIOSUX u o x q . _ a q . s n a j q.q6neaq.sxp u o x s s a a d a p q . o x x j u o o A q a x x u . s s a a q . s 127 suxureq-XA uxaq.oad sq.uaxaq.nu _sxxoq_q .aui asoonx^ auiAzua uoxq.sa6xp Aapq.axp Xoaaq.saxoqo s aq. _ opAjqo_qxeo uoxqxaqxiu W o r d : P r o n u n c i a t i o n : M e a n i n g s : O t h e r f o r m s o f t h e w o r d : Y o u r o w n s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d ; W o r d : P r o n u n c i a t i o n : M e a n i n g s O t h e r f o r m s o f t h e w o r d : Y o u r o w n s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d : W o r d : P r o n u n c i a t i o n : M e a n i n g s O t h e r f o r m s o f t h e w o r d : Y o u r o w n s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d : 128 EXERCISE #13 WORDS: a l l e g o r y f a b l e opera a l l e g r o f i c t i o n p a l e t t e anthology f r e s c o p o r t r a i t autobiography i l l u s t r a t i o n reggae ba r i t o n e l i t h o g r a p h s c u l p t u r e bass j a z z soprano cantata memoir st a c c a t o e t c h i n g mural syncopated e x h i b i t i o n myth tenor e x p o s i t o r y n a r r a t i v e woodcut CATEGORIES: music a r t l i t e r a t u r e aAxqeaxeu qqAui JTouiaui uoTqo-ri a i q e j A„oq.Tsodxa AudejrBoTqoqne ABoxoqq.u'e sanq-HJaq-Tx qnopooM aanqdxnos q.TB„q„od aqqaX^d XPJnui qde„6otrq.TX uoxq.B„qsnxXT o o s a a j uOTq.TqTqx3 Buxqpqa q „ B „ouaq paqedoouAs oq.HOOBq.s oui_;rdos eeBBaa eaado z z _ C eq.eq.ueo s s e q euoqxaeq QjBaxx^ OTsnui 129 Word; P r o n u n c i a t i o n " : Meanings Other forms o f t h e word; Your own sente n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Dther forms o f t h e word: _our own se n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: ford: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : l e a n i n g s : ) t h e r forms o f t h e word: four own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: EXERCISE #14 WORDS: a n g l e b i n o m i a l chromosome covenant d e n d r i t e embargo enzyme e q u i l a t e r a l exponent g e r m i n a t e hemoglobin hypotenuse i n s u r r e c t i o n i n t e g e r j u r i s d i c t i o n legume metamorphosis monarchy neuron n o n p a r t i s a n n u t r i e n t o s m o sis p a l i n d r o m e p a r l i a m e n t p r e m i e r q u o t i e n t s o v e r e i g n theorem t r i n o m i a l t y r a n n y CATEGORIES: h i s t o r y s c i e n c e math X-TUIOUTJTq. u i a a o a u q . q .uaxq .onb a u i o a p u x x e d _a6aq .uT a s n u a q . o d A t { q . u a u o d x a X H a a q . _ x x n b a XHTUIOUTq ax_6u£ q q _ _ STSOUISO q . u a x „ q n u u o a n a u s x s o u d a oure q aui auir iBax U T q o x B o u i a q a q . _ U T U i a a 6 auxAzua a q . T „ p u a p a u i o s o u i o - i q o a o u a x o s A_u__A"q. uBxajaAos j a t u i a a d q.uaui-_xxjed u_sxq.a_duou Aqo„_uoui uoTq.OTpsxanC uoTq.oa„ansux o6„_q_a q u e u e A o o Aaoqsxq 131 Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings Other forms o f t h e word: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Meanings: Other forms o f t h e word: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n Meanings: O t h e r forms o f t h e word: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: 132 APPENDIX B Recording Form used i n Treatment A 133 Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Newspaper s e n t e n c e c o n t a i n i n g t h e word: What you t h i n k t h e word might mean: D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s : . O ther forms o f t h e v/ord: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: Word: P r o n u n c i a t i o n : Newspaper s e n t e n c e c o n t a i n i n g t h e word: What you t h i n k t h e word m i g h t mean: D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s : O ther forms o f t h e word: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word: APPENDIX C S a t i s f a c t i o n Scale 135 NAME VOCABULARY STUDY EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE The following questions deal with how i n t e r e s t i n g and how valuable you found your vocabulary exercises so f a r t h i s term. Please c i r c l e your answer to each Question. ? The exercises were h e l p f u l i n expanding my vocabulary NOT AT ALL A LITTLE QUITE A BIT A LOT Most of the exercises were i n t e r e s t i n g NOT AT ALL A LITTLE QUITE A BIT A LOT 6. The vocabulary study was a NOT worthwhile use of my time. AT ALL The new words I've learned w i l l NOT be u s e f u l to me AT ALL As a r e s u l t of completing the exercises, my vocabulary has NOT increased AT ALL I l i k e d doing the vocabulary NOT exercises. AT ALL I expect my work i n other courses to improve as a r e s u l t of my NOT vocabulary study AT ALL A LITTLE A LITTLE A LITTLE A LITTLE A LITTLE QUITE A BIT QUITE A BIT QUITE A BIT QUITE A BIT QUITE A BIT A LOT A LOT A LOT A LOT A LOT APPENDIX D A t t r i b u t i o n Scale VOCABULARY ATTRIBUTION SCALE NAME 137 During the past two months your vocabu la ry has i n c r e a s e d . Why? Below are. 16 reasons which might p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n why you have l ea rned new vocabu la ry words . P lease c o n s i d e r each s t a tement , then c i r c l e the number which t e l l s how much or how o f t e n you t h i n k t h a t s ta tement d e s c r i b e s y o u . SOME- ALMOST NEVER TIMES USUALLY ALWAYS 1. I f I work h a r d enough- I can l e a r n new words . — 1 2 3 4 2 . Much of my v o c a b u l a r y improvement i s probably j u s t a m a t t e r o f chance 1 2 3 4 3. I put a l o t o f e f f o r t i n t o v o c a b u l a r y • ' s tudy 1 2 3 4 4 . My v o c a b u l a r y improvement i s p robab ly due to a run o f good l u c k 1 2 3 4 5 . I understood how to do the v o c a b u l a r y e x e r c i s e s 1 2 3 4 6. The v o c a b u l a r y e x e r c i s e s were q u i t e easy f o r me t o c o m p l e t - 1 2 3 4 7. I t r i e d v e r y h a r d to remember new v o c a b u l a r y words . 1 2 3 4 8. I f i n d i t easy t o l e a m new words 1 . 2 3 4 9. The d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e e x e r c i s e s were c l e a r and easy to f o l l o w . . , . 1 2 3 4 10. I 'm j u s t one o f those people who f i n d s s c h o o l easy , so r e a d i n g and v o c a b u l a r y are easy s u b j e c t s f o r me. 1 2 3 4 11 . I l e a r n f a s t e r than t h e average per son . . . 1 2 3 4 12. When I remember new words i t ' s u s u a l l y j u s t because I ' m l u c k y . 1 2 3 4 13. I worked v e r y hard on v o c a b u l a r y . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 4 14. I u s u a l l y do q u i t e w e l l i n a l l of my s c h o o l work, and v o c a b u l a r y i s j u s t l i k e the r e s t of i t 1 2 3 4 15. I found i t easy to choose which • . vocabu la ry words I wanted to s t u d y . 1 2 3 4 16. I seem to be l u c k y l a t e l y , so my vocabu la ry improvement i s p r o b a b l y due to good f o r t u n e . . 1 2 3 4 APPENDIX E C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c e s Appendix E.1 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x 1 of v a r i a b l e s used i n r e g r e s s i o n analyses of reading a t t i t u d e and vocabulary achievement: main e f f e c t s and ATI, treatment and c o n t r o l groups V a r i a b l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 Lang back 2 Post vocab 51 3 Post rdg a t t 05 4 Comparison 1 -03 -22 -18 5 Comparison 2 14 20 -06 -02 6 Pre vocab 37 93 38 -27 09 7 Locus of c -10 -19 -29 11 06 -13 8 Pre rdg a t t 09 43 65 -20 -11 47 -28 9 Lang x C l -03 -09 -10 29 -02 -10 -06 -21 -01 10 Lang x C2 -00 -15 -09 -01 01 -18 -01 04 -01 11 Vocab x C l -04 -11 -20 04 -14 -11 09 -12 26 -03 12 Vocab x C2 -18 -15 -19 -12 -12 -12 04 -01 -04 56 13 A t t x C l -17 -11 -04 -06 -10 -11 12 -08 09 -08 44 -04 -07 14 A t t x C2 07 -03 -07 -11 19 -02 03 11 -12 05 <-10 50 15 Locus x C l -09 08 07 03 05 08 02 13 -10 -05 ' -09 03 -24 16 Locus x C2 -02 07 04 06 -10 05 02 03 -03 -11 06 -19 08 ^Decimal points are i m p l i c i t . Appendix E.2 C o r r e l a t i o n matrix-*- o f v a r i a b l e s used i n r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and a t t r i b u t i o n : main e f f e c t s and A T I , t r e a t m e n t groups o n l y V a r i a b l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Language background 2 S a t i s f a c t i o n -19 3 A t t r i b u t i o n 06 ' 4 Comparison 1 -03 -01 -22 5 V o c a b u l a r y 27 -09 23 -31 6 Locus o f c o n t r o l -12 -01 -22 12 -12 "7 1 Reading a t t i t u d e 12 -15 10 -22 47 -25 8 Language back x C l -03 07 -15 29 -12 -06 -23 9 V o c a b u l a r y x C l -03 -02 -11 -01 -10 10 -14 25 10 Rdg a t t i t u d e x C l -18 01 12 -01 -14 15 -12 11 43 11 Locus o f con x. C l -10 -16 -20 00 10 02 15 -11 -08 -23 D e c i m a l p o i n t s a r e i m p l i c i t . APPENDIX F Regression Summary Tables 142 Appendix F.I Summary table: regression of vocabulary posttest Variable M u l t i p l e R R 2 AR 2 Simple R b Language background .50844 .25851 .25851 .50844 2 .19337 Vocabulary pretest .94525 .89351 .63499 .92574 .86685 Reading a t t i t u d e pretest .94535 .89369 .00018 .43040 .02799 Locus of con t r o l .94689 .89660 .00292 -.19089 -.17018 Comparison 2 (A vs. B) .95247 .90720 .01060 .19758 1 .29845 Comparison 1 (A+B vs. c ) .95268 .90760 .00039 -.22304 .25001 Language background x C l .95270 .90764 .00004 -.09492 -.11960 Language background x C2 .95272 .90768 .00004 -.15438 -.52991 Vocabulary x C l .95284 .90790 .00022 -.11024 -.00295 Vocabulary x C2 .95286 .90794 .00004 -.14887 - .09357 Attitude x C2 .95605 .91403 .00609 -.03443 - .07264 Attitude x C l .95648 .91485 .00082 -.11441 -.02872 Locus of con t r o l x C2 .95665 .91518 .00033 .06542 .05003 Locus of con t r o l x C l .95710 .91605 .00087 .07761 .09124 (Constant) 27 .31457 Appendix F.2 Summary table: regression of reading a t t i t u d e posttest Variable M u l t i p l e R R 2 AR2 Simple R b Language background .04690 .00220 .00220 .04690 -.77863 Vocabulary pretest .38857 .15098 .14878. .37712 .09841 Reading a t t i t u d e pretest .65809 .43308 .28210 .65189 .54542 Locus of control .66905 .44762 .01454 -.29212 -.37997 Comparison 2 (A vs. B) .66920 .44783 .00021 -.05580 -.10101 Comparison 1 (A+B vs. C) -.66974 .44855 .00072 -.18321 -1.11835 Language background, x C l .67035 .44937 .00082 -.10378 .97433 Language background x C2 .67736 .45882 .00945 -.09071 -.11748 Vocabulary x C2 .69546 .48366 .02484 -.19135 -.22292 Vocabulary x C l .70831 .50170 .01804 -.20024 -.32268 At t i t u d e x C l .71110 .50567 .00396 -.04276 .07870 Att i t u d e x C2 .71230 .50737 .00171 -.06952 -.07267 Locus of con t r o l x C2 .71283 .50813 .00076 .03657 -.11594 Locus of con t r o l x C l .71294 .50828 .00015 .07260 .05494 (Constant) 70.83770 143 Appendix F.3 Summary t a b l e : regression of s a t i s f a c t i o n posttest Variable M u l t i p l e R R 2 AR2 Simple R b Language background .18825 .03544 .03544 -.18825 -.90045 Vocabulary pretest .19382 .03756 .00213 -.09463 .00469 Reading a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t .22534 .05078 ' .01322 -.14517 -.03218 Locus of c o n t r o l .23489 .05517 .00439 -.01188 -.04566 Treatment contrast (Cl) .23712 .05623 .00106 -.00509 -.17518 Language background x C l .24009 .05764 .00141 .06918 .17396 Vocabulary x C l .24606 .06054 .00290 -.02287 -.01870 Att i t u d e x Cl. .24657 .06080 .00025 .00821 -.01803 Locus of c o n t r o l x C l .29792 .08876 .02796 -.15936 -.19760 (Constant) 20.39813 Appendix F.4 Summary t a b l e : regression of a t t r i b u t i o n scores Variable M u l t i p l e R R 2 AR2 Simple R b Language background .05920 .00350 .00350 .05920 -.07852 Vocabulary pretest .22875 .05233 .04882 .22874 .15454 Reading a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t .22882 .05236 .00003 .10228 -.03149 Locus of c o n t r o l .30864 .09526 .04290 -.22477 -.36244 Treatment contrast (Cl) .33825 .11442 .01916 -.21555 -.55724 Language background x C l .35971 .12939 .01498 -.14890 -.77393 Vocabulary x Cl. .36298 .13175 .00236 -.10651 -.10208 Attitude x C l .42810 .18327 .05152 .12020 .08068 Locus of c o n t r o l x C l .46356 .21488 .03161 -.20303 -.29797 (Constant) 47.24648

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