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Relationships between two methods of vocabulary instruction, vocabulary achievement, reading attitude,.. Tolsma, Catherine Colette 1982

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION, VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT, READING ATTITUDE, AND LOCUS OF CONTROL IN A COMMUNITY COLLEGE READING COURSE by CATHERINE COLETTE TOLSMA B.B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1962 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language'Educationj  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d :  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia February 1982 ©Catherine C o l e t t e Tolsma, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  the L i b r a r y s h a l l  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  University  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  for  financial  shall  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  DE-6  (2/79)  'cm Columbia  my  It is thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  thesis  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  gain  further  copying of t h i s  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood that  I  make  written  ABSTRACT The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to  examine  e f f e c t s of  i n t e r a c t i o n s between l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and  approaches  Aptitude variables  on v o c a b u l a r y s k i l l development.  instructional  i n c l u d e d language background ( E n g l i s h f i r s t or second p r i o r v o c a b u l a r y achievement, a t t i t u d e toward of  control.  Dependent  achievement,  attitude  variables toward  language),  r e a d i n g , and l o c u s  included  reading,  vocabulary  satisfaction  with  vocabulary  were  i n s t r u c t i o n , and achievement a t t r i b u t i o n . Two methods of t e a c h i n g developed  which  varied  in  l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , designed control  construct.  general  reading  instructional to  Treatment  interact A  task with  and format of the  locus  c e n t e r e d around the use of a  d a i l y newspaper, and was i n t e n d e d t o c a p i t a l i z e on s t r e n g t h s internal  locus  of c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s by f o s t e r i n g  and d e c i s i o n making. vocabulary  exercises  was d e s i g n e d control  to  Treatment B developed  facilitate  individuals.  used  in a  Approximately  for external  community  of  period. college  students  r e a d i n g and study s k i l l s c o u r s e a t the grade 11  b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s a t t h e same s c h o o l . 35  locus  twelve hours of v o c a b u l a r y  l e v e l . .The c o n t r o l group was composed of s t u d e n t s  included  self-direction  wordlist-classification  i n s t r u c t i o n were d e l i v e r e d d u r i n g an eight-week  enrolled  of  e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h i s s t u d y , and  learning  Treatment group s u b j e c t s were  of  enrolled  The f i n a l  in  sample  s t u d e n t s i n Treatment A, 37 i n Treatment B, and 17  in  the c o n t r o l  percent  group.  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  Measuring the  post  from the  B e h a v i o r a l R e a d i n g A t t i t u d e Measure  (used  f o r both  pre  measures);  Rotter  this  study,  (satisfaction  to  detect  the  regression  and  Vocabulary  measure)  the dependent were  t o be  found  and  two Study  Vocabulary  initial  the  significant  aptitude  and  effect  found  with  locus  the  regression.  The  significant  f o r any  multiple analyses  and  on  two  attitude  of  of  when  the  control Treatment of  were  control.  A  combined group  the  the dependent  prior  for  vocabulary achievement attribution vocabulary  significant treatment  treatment  groups  were  achievement  contrast  variables.  dependent reading.  prior  B  model  a p t i t u d e ma i n  i n the v o c a b u l a r y  A-Treatment  reported  full  vocabulary  were s i g n i f i c a n t ;  variables  are  toward  significant  prior  treatment regression  The  f o r l a n g u a g e b a c k g r o u n d and  reading a t t i t u d e  achievement  aptitude  variables.  vocabulary,  for reading a t t i t u d e ,  and  stepwise  significant  achievement  variable  and  Regression  dependent  found  vocabulary  effects  forward  inclusion. four  was  achievement;  main  c o n s i s t e d of  e a c h of  was  for  Scale;  Scale.  hierarchical  variables,  Internal-External  developed  Questionnaire  interactions  compared  subtests 2;  Analysis  effects  65  study.  i n c l u d e d the v o c a b u l a r y  Reading  for  1 and  Attribution  For  language  Forms  Evaluation  for  the n a t i v e  T e s t s , L e v e l F,  questionnaires  with  i n the  instruments  Gates-MacGinitie  Mikulecky and  E n g l i s h was  was  not  iv  Four a p t i t u d e by treatment attitude  x  i n t e r a c t i o n s are discussed:  (1)  group (treatment v e r s u s c o n t r o l ) on v o c a b u l a r y , (2)  vocabulary  x  group  on  attitude,  (3)  (Treatment  A  v e r s u s Treatment B) on a t t r i b u t i o n , and (4) l o c u s  of c o n t r o l x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n .  attitude  x  treatment  V  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS Page  Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of F i g u r e s Acknowledgements  i i v i i viii ix  CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTION Statement  1 of the Problem  2  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Overview  II.  REVIEW  OF  5 6 7  LITERATURE  8  Vocabulary Instruction Methods of t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y Summary a n d c o n c l u s i o n s Research i n the teaching of vocabulary Context-wordlist D i r e c t - i n c i d e n t a l . . .' Assoc i a tion ATI r e s e a r c h Summary a n d c o n c l u s i o n s Materials f o r vocabulary study  .  Aptitude Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n Research I n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments A p t i t u d e and outcome v a r i a b l e s Prior learning/achievement Attitude Locus of c o n t r o l A t t r i b u t i o n theory Summary a n d c o n c l u s i o n s  III.  D E S I G N AND  8 8 13 16 16 18 19 21 22 26 28 29 30 31 32 32 35 39  METHODOLOGY  41  'Sample Treatment groups C o n t r o l group  41 41 42  Instructional Strategies Development of experimental Treatment A Treatment B  materials ...  43 45 48 49  vi  Design  50  A p t i t u d e a n d outcome m e a s u r e s Data A n a l y s i s IV.  V.  51 53  RESULTS  55  Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s Sample A p t i t u d e a n d outcome m e a s u r e s Regression Analysis Vocabulary Reading a t t i t u d e Satisfaction Attribution  55 55 58 64 65 68 70 72  A p t i t u d e Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n s  74  SUMMARY,  LIMITATIONS,  CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS  82  Summary  82  Limitations Sampling l i m i t a t i o n s  84 84  Methodological limitations  85  Conclusions  86  Recommendations Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r Recommendations  instruction  research  92 92  . .•  94  REFERENCES  96  APPENDIX A: T r e a t m e n t B V o c a b u l a r y E x e r c i s e s  103  APPENDIX B: T r e a t m e n t A R e c o r d i n g Form  132  APPENDIX C: S a t i s f a c t i o n  134  Scale  APPENDIX D: A t t r i b u t i o n  Scale  136  APPENDIX E: C o r r e l a t i o n  Matrices  138  APPENDIX F: R e g r e s s i o n Summary T a b l e s  141  vii  LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g methods  15  2.  Summary of ten r e c e n t v o c a b u l a r y instruction studies  25  W e i n e r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r the p e r c e i v e d d e t e r m i n a n t s of achievement b e h a v i o r  36  Treatment B e x e r c i s e s : c a t e g o r i e s , grade l e v e l r a n g e s , and average d i f f i c u l t y of words i n each e x e r c i s e  47  5.  Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample  56  6.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p t i t u d e and outcome measures  59  Mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , and sample s i z e by group on a l l measuring i n s t r u m e n t s f o r cases used i n r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s  60  3. 4.  7.  8.  9.  10.  11.  12.  13.  14.  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s and c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h outcome v a r i a b l e s , treatment and c o n t r o l groups  ....  63  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s and c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h outcome v a r i a b l e s , treatment groups o n l y  63  Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of v o c a b u l a r y a c h i e v e m e n t : main e f f e c t s t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l groups  67  and A T I ,  Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e : main e f f e c t s and A T I , t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l groups  69  Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of s a t i s f a c t i o n : main e f f e c t s and A T I , t r e a t m e n t groups o n l y  71  Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of a t t r i b u t i o n s c o r e s : main e f f e c t s and A T I , t r e a t m e n t groups o n l y  73  Residualized criterion for ATI terms  regressions •  ...  77  viii  LIST OF FIGURES Page FIGURE 1. 2.  3.  4.  Representation of ATI f o r a t t i t u d e x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n scores  78  Representation of ATI f o r locus of c o n t r o l x treatment on a t t r i b u t i o n scores  79  Representation of ATI f o r vocabulary x group (treatment versus on reading a t t i t u d e p o s t t e s t scores  control)  Representation of ATI f o r a t t i t u d e x group (treatment versus c o n t r o l ) on vocabulary achievement p o s t t e s t scores  80  81  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  would  Reading  like  t o thank  and Study S k i l l s ,  cooperation  i n making  B e t t y P l e t c h e r (Department Head,  King this  Edward  Campus)  f o r both  her  study p o s s i b l e and f o r g e n e r o u s l y  s e r v i n g as an e x p e r t c o n s u l t a n t i n t h e f i e l d of a d u l t  reading.  I  am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o t h e King Edward t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d  at  v a r i o u s s t e p s of the s t u d y : Ruth  Kathy  Chiko,  Peter  Ajello,  and  Bigsby. The  contributions  acknowledged;  of  Sharon  her a s s i s t a n c e  Jeroski  throughout  this  are  gratefully  project  was  invaluable. I. would  also  like  t o thank  t h e members of my committee,  e s p e c i a l l y D r . Robert C h e s t e r , who a s s i s t e d stages of t h e study, and Dr. the manuscript Financial  i n the  beginning  Robert Conry, who p a t i e n t l y  guided  to i t s completion. support  f o r the p r o j e c t was p r o v i d e d through a  grant from t h e E d u c a t i o n a l Research  I n s t i t u t e of B. C.  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Researchers an  attempt  to  have spent v a s t amounts of time and discover  how best t o t e a c h v o c a b u l a r y .  b i b l i o g r a p h y of v o c a b u l a r y Razik,  1963)  prompted  s t u d i e s l i s t i n g 3,125 t i t l e s  (Petty, Herold,  committee  selected  and  any other method.  reviews  and  A 1963 (Dale  &  &  Stoll,  analyzed  a study of v o c a b u l a r y  1968).  The  investigating  e i g h t y s t u d i e s and concluded  t h a t , t o t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n , no p a r t i c u l a r method to  in  the E x e c u t i v e Committee of the N a t i o n a l  C o u n c i l of Teachers of E n g l i s h t o i n i t i a t e research  effort  was  superior  The s e a r c h f o r a b e t t e r method c o n t i n u e s ,  b i b l i o g r a p h i e s of ' v o c a b u l a r y  studies  continue  (Bowker, 1980; D a l e , R a z i k , & P e t t y , 1973; F a i r b a n k s , 1977), but still  t h e r e a r e o n l y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  s p e c i f i c vocabulary The  m a j o r i t y of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the area  instruction factors.  attempt A  interaction (ATI)  t e a c h i n g methods.  more  and  measure  fruitful  research  research,  J . Cronbach  to  a  method  of  vocabulary  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i s o l a t e d  approach  design.  of  might  be  to  Aptitude  treatment  inquiry  attributed  adopt  an  interaction to  Lee  h i s c o l l e a g u e s , has e v o l v e d from a c o n t i n u i n g  attempt by e d u c a t o r s  t o determine how and why i n d i v i d u a l s  di f ferently. The s c i e n t i f i c problem i s t o l o c a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s of individual differences among learners with i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s , t h a t i s A p t i t u d e x Treatment  learn  2  interactions. To establish the existence of i n t e r a c t i o n r e q u i r e s a s p e c i a l s t y l e of e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . Two broad l i n e s of b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e , the e x p e r i m e n t a l and the c o r r e l a t i o n a l , have been the s t a n d a r d ways of i n v e s t i g a t i n g instructional methods and aptitudes, respectively. Interaction r e s e a r c h combines the two. (Cronbach & Snow, 1977, p. 2) Although  results  individualizing especially  in  Hoose, 1972),  from  ATI  r e s e a r c h can p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r  instruction reading  few ATI  (Carrier  instruction  &  McNergney,  (Rodriguez,  s t u d i e s a t the secondary  1979),  1978;  or  Wood &  adult  level  have been r e p o r t e d .  Statement of the This  Problem  f i e l d - b a s e d study uses ATI methodology t o i n v e s t i g a t e  i n t e r a c t i o n s between s p e c i f i c l e a r n e r vocabulary  instructional  methods  characteristics  introduced  u n i t s i n a community c o l l e g e r e a d i n g and study The  two  structure  methods and  of  teaching  format  newspaper-context,  of  used  used  preselected  learning a  s e l e c t i n g words t o study.  daily  system,  investigator.  Students  using  vary  newspaper  study  as  word  course.  in  amount of  Treatment a  A,  source f o r  list-association,  words  materials  two  supplementary  skills  materials.  Treatment B,  vocabulary  classification  vocabulary  as  and  in  an  embedded  developed  by  e n r o l l e d in business education  the  courses  s e r v e d as a c o n t r o l group i n the study. Learner v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d v o c a b u l a r y achievement, attitude,  locus  of  control,  achievement a t t r i b u t i o n , and a  satisfaction categorical  with  variable,  reading  treatment, language  3  background ( E n g l i s h f i r s t or second language).  Demographic data  were  E f f e c t i v e n e s s of  also  collected  the v o c a b u l a r y two  to d e s c r i b e the sample.  i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods was  forms of a v o c a b u l a r y  s u b t e s t from  t e s t e d by a d m i n i s t e r i n g a  standardized  reading  t e s t as p r e - and p o s t t e s t s . Specifically, e f f e c t s of prior  four  vocabulary  l o c u s of  control)  variables  this  independent  and  examined variables  achievement, on  (vocabulary  satisfaction,  study  each  initial  of  a  attribution).  as:  and  (language reading  series  achievement,  hypotheses were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h i s  The  main  The  interaction background,  attitude,  of. four reading following  and  dependent attitude, research  study:  H.1  Students i n the treatment groups w i l l demonstrate g r e a t e r g a i n s i n v o c a b u l a r y achievement than students i n the u n i n s t r u c t e d c o n t r o l groups.  H.2  Treatments A and B will not be differentially e f f e c t i v e in i n c r e a s i n g vocabulary achievement when averaged a c r o s s l e v e l s of a p t i t u d e .  H.3  Treatment A w i l l be of g r e a t e r b e n e f i t i n i n c r e a s i n g v o c a b u l a r y achievement f o r s t u d e n t s with relatively high internal l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c o r e s , whereas Treatment B w i l l be of g r e a t e r b e n e f i t f o r those with r e l a t i v e l y greater external scores.  joint  e f f e c t s of these t h r e e hypotheses can be  illustrated  4  Treatment B  Treatment A  Vocabulary Gain  Control  Internal External Locus of C o n t r o l  This i s to i l l u s t r a t e  the  general  form  of  the  hypothesized  i n t e r a c t i o n s ; e x a c t s l o p e s a r e not h y p o t h e s i z e d . In  addition  to  the  two  principle  a n c i l l a r y r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were  addressed:  hypotheses,  influence reading  three  Q.1  How does language background vocabulary achievement, s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a t t r i b u t i o n ?  s c o r e s on attitude,  Q.2  Does p r i o r a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g interact with instructional treatment on v o c a b u l a r y achievement r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , or a t t r i b u t i o n ?  Q.3  Does p r i o r v o c a b u l a r y achievement interact with instructional treatment on v o c a b u l a r y achievement, r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , or a t t r i b u t i o n ?  5  S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e Problem The  1980 B r i t i s h Columbia  weakness  Assessment  revealed  i n v o c a b u l a r y s k i l l s a t the grade 12 l e v e l  K e n d a l l , 1980b). items  Reading  A mean percentage  (Tuinman &  s c o r e of 62 was r e p o r t e d  t e s t i n g m u l t i p l e meanings, which the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  r a t e d as m a r g i n a l performance.  The  importance  a  of  on  panel  vocabulary  s k i l l s was emphasized: There i s l i t t l e doubt i n our minds t h a t t h e performance of the s t u d e n t s i n t h i s domain i s cause for concern. The o b j e c t i v e s i n v o l v e d a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t ; they r e p r e s e n t s k i l l s which a r e a key t o independent p r o g r e s s as a r e a d e r . (p. 78) In  a d d i t i o n , t h e a u t h o r s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the 62% mean score f o r  items  testing  multiple  graduates  of  dictionary  (Tuinman & K e n d a l l ,  Students teachers its  grade  need  would  are  indicated  instruction  vocabulary  to  academic  skills.  i n vocabulary.  or  Few  the  and r e a d i n g comprehension. method  reading  relationship  However, r a r e l y for  improving  Agreement might be reached on t h e r e l a t i v e of t e c h n i q u e s f o r l e a r n e r s  s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but a t p r e s e n t the t e a c h e r  must r e l y h e a v i l y upon i n t u i t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e s t u d e n t s t o methods and m a t e r i a l s . research  many  of an adequate v o c a b u l a r y ,  success,  m e r i t s of t e c h n i q u e s or c o m b i n a t i o n s possessing  too  1980a).  would r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s agree on one best vocabulary  that  l i k e l y t o have problems u s i n g the  argue the importance  contribution  between  12  meanings  when  I n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from ATI  could provide d i r e c t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g  instruct ion.  assigning  vocabulary  6  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms In an vocabulary  attempt  to  research,  control  some  researchers  Burmeister  the  ambiguities  in  have d e f i n e d " v o c a b u l a r y "  d e s i g n a t i n g subsets of words s t u d e n t s dimension.  of  know  according  to  by  some  (1978) contends t h a t  We a l l have two types of v o c a b u l a r i e s - - r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e . Our r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y i s composed of the words we r e c o g n i z e through reading and listening. T h i s v o c a b u l a r y i s u s u a l l y s e v e r a l times l a r g e r than our e x p r e s s i v e v o c a b u l a r y , which i s made up of the words we use when we speak and w r i t e . Our t o t a l v o c a b u l a r y i s composed of the words we r e c o g n i z e and/or use i n r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e ways. (p. 127) F i v e d i f f e r e n t types of v o c a b u l a r i e s i n v o l v e d are  discussed  by  &  0'Rourke,  1971)  t o "I know i t . "  vocabulary  into  from  a  subset  of  groupings and  Reading  vocabulary.  understood 2.  Vocabulary  never  researchers  such  3.  Reading  it  achievement.  tended  to  study  also  D e f i n i t i o n s of c o n s t r u c t s .  below.  Includes  when encountered  This  words  recognized  and  i n w r i t t e n prose. Level  of competence i n word  r e c o g n i t i o n as measured by a s u b t e s t of a reading  saw  as the v o c a b u l a r i e s of  reading.  vocabulary.  a p p l i c a b l e t o the study are l i s t e d 1.  "I  In t h e i r a n a l y s i s of e i g h t y v o c a b u l a r y  speaking, w r i t i n g , l i s t e n i n g , addresses  scheme  f o l l o w s four l e v e l s of comprehension  s t u d i e s , P e t t y et a l . (1968) noted t h a t break  listening,  Another c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n v o l v e d i n word knowledge which range before"  communication  Olson and Ames (1972): n o n v e r b a l ,  r e a d i n g , s p e a k i n g , and s p e l l i n g . (Dale  in  standardized  test. attitude.  F e e l i n g s toward  r e a d i n g as measured  by a b e h a v i o r a l l y o r i e n t e d i n s t r u m e n t .  7  4.  Locus of c o n t r o l .  A personality construct  whereby  an  i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s a reinforcement as contingent upon his  own  behavior  control 5.  (internal)  or as being o u t s i d e h i s  (external).  Language  background.  according learned  to  first  English  Classification  Vocabulary  students  language l e a r n e d : n a t i v e  as  a  first  language,  students l e a r n e d E n g l i s h as a second 6.  of  i n s t r u c t ion.  speakers  whereas  ESL  language.  Activity  designed  a c c e l e r a t e a c q u i s i t i o n of word meanings and  to  concepts.  Overview The  present  interactions  is  between  instructional Chapter  study  to  examine  on  vocabulary  literature  skill  provide  f o r the study.  methodology instructional  is  base  outlined, strategies  including and  r e s u l t s of the study are presented summarized in Chapter  and  two  r e l a t i n g to the problem, synthesizes previous  conceptual  of  development.  c o n s t r u c t s d e f i n e d above, and a  effects  learner . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  approaches  II reviews  designed  In Chapter  experimental  V, and c o n c l u s i o n s and  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h complete the r e p o r t .  research  development  i n Chapter  develops to  III the of  the  materials.  The  IV.  The  study  is  recommendations f o r  8  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE Literally published.  thousands  The  first  of  vocabulary  section  of  this  studies chapter  have  been  reviews  a  s e l e c t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the t e a c h i n g of v o c a b u l a r y at the secondary, of  concern  c o l l e g e , and a d u l t l e v e l s , a d d r e s s i n g t h r e e areas  in  the  present  study:  (1)  methods  of t e a c h i n g  v o c a b u l a r y , (2) r e s e a r c h i n the t e a c h i n g of v o c a b u l a r y , and materials  f o r vocabulary study.  r e s e a r c h i s reviewed  Aptitude-treatment  (1) i n s t r u c t i o n a l  and  prior  aptitude  interaction  i n the second s e c t i o n of the c h a p t e r , which  i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : (2)  (3)  variables  of  a t t i t u d e , l o c u s of c o n t r o l , and a t t r i b u t i o n Vocabulary  treatments,  learning/achievement, theory.  Instruction  Methods of t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y Vocabulary i s gained from e x p e r i e n c e s and the a s s o c i a t i o n of these e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o words. Stated w i t h some o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , the p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s sensory p e r c e p t i o n of an o b j e c t or the a t t r i b u t e s of an o b j e c t , or p e r c e p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of o b j e c t s w i t h one another. Each new perception i s added t o e a r l i e r p e r c e p t i o n s , the composite then b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the words whose meanings are a l r e a d y known or w i t h new words spoken or w r i t t e n by another person. ( P e t t y et a l . , 1968, p. 14) Vocabulary  a c q u i s i t i o n i s an ongoing, human p r o c e s s  r e s e a r c h has shown, can be a c c e l e r a t e d by i n s t r u c t i o n . of  teaching  which, Methods  v o c a b u l a r y are l a b e l e d and c a t e g o r i z e d i n a number  9  of ways. In t h e NCTE i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v o c a b u l a r y directly  with  pedagogical  studies  concerned  method, P e t t y e t a l . (1968) observed  t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g of v o c a b u l a r y  u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of  (1) t h e t e a c h i n g of words and t h e i r meanings through use (2) a  their  i n the c o n t e x t of other words, process  of word a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s i n which the  meanings of word elements a r e t a u g h t , and (3) the d i r e c t t e a c h i n g of the meanings words thought t o be After  noting  under  listings  of  important.  the v a r i a t i o n s  s t u d i e s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s  from  i n teaching  classified  procedures  the various  i n the  procedures  the t w o . g e n e r a l headings of d i r e c t and c o n t e x t methods.  Included parts  i n t h e d i r e c t methods were  approaches;  subcategories  t h e word within  lists  context  and  word  methods were  c o n t e x t c l u e s and i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g . In an attempt t o update the P e t t y Bowker  (1980)  grouped  teaching  recently published studies.  et  methods  a l . (1968)  reports,  employed i n f o u r t e e n  Bowker's c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d  (1) concept l e a r n i n g , (2) imagery (use of v i s u a l (3) n a t u r a l  word  aids),  learning  (an  experience  approach  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r young c h i l d r e n ) , and (4) c o g n i t i v e s t y l e Eisenberg  (1979)  teaching vocabulary  (analytic/holistic claims  that  approach).  the various techniques f o r  tend t o endorse f o u r common t a c t i c s :  (1) e t y m o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y ,  10  (2) m o r p h o l o g i c a l components of words, (3) sentence  c o n t e x t , and  (4) d i c t i o n a r y Kingston  (1965) d i s c u s s e s i n c i d e n t a l and d i r e c t  recommends  that  c o n c r e t e toward complex. basis  drills.  procedures  a b s t r a c t and from s i m p l e  Four  for  instructional  basic  another  approaches  should  move  associations  and from  to  more  a i d s i n a t t a c k i n g unknown words form the classification  system  for  vocabulary  development (Olson & Ames, 1972): (1) c o n t e x t , (2) s t r u c t u r e , (3) sound, and (4) d i c t i o n a r y . Several  authors  discussed  v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g methods by  i l l u s t r a t i n g s p e c i f i c teaching s t r a t e g i e s .  Dale  and  O'Rourke  (1971, p. 5) emphasize t h a t vocabulary development i n s c h o o l must be a planned program. The r e s e a r c h i n the field i n d i c a t e s that this i s a sound p r i n c i p l e . Incidental teaching, a l o n e , tends to become a c c i d e n t a l t e a c h i n g . T h e i r t e x t b o o k , Techniques of illustrates  seventeen  emphasizing  the o r d e r i n g of  Another  excellent  categories  development,  Vocabulary, of  word  lists  and  development,  concepts.  reference  s t r a t e g i e s ( B u r m e i s t e r , 1978) vocabulary  Teaching  and  areas: (1) d e n o t a t i o n s of words,  for. d e v e l o p i n g  vocabulary  s u p p o r t s t e a c h i n g concepts illustrates  strategies  through in  four  11  (2) word c o n n o t a t i o n s and f i g u r a t i v e  language,  (3) d i a c h r o n i c (language as i t changes through t i m e ) , and "(4) p h o n i c s . Based structure,  upon  cognitive  hierarchial  techniques  (1978-1979)  developed  f o r t e a c h i n g word meanings which  each of these t h r e e v i e w s . as  for associative  memory  memory s t r u c t u r e , and i n t e r a c t i v e l o n g -  term memory s t r u c t u r e , Gipe three  theories  and  tested  represented  The t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s were  described  follows: The assoc i a t i o n method p a i r e d the unknown, or t a r g e t , word w i t h a f a m i l i a r synonym or brief definition. The t a s k r e q u i r e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s memorize the p a i r i n g s i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o w r i t e the o r i g i n a l p a i r s w i t h o u t r e f e r r i n g t o the study s h e e t . The c a t e g o r y method r e q u i r e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s add t o a l i s t of words f i t t i n g a g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y . Each l i s t p r o v i d e d f o r the s u b j e c t c o n t a i n e d 1 t a r g e t word and 3 f a m i l i a r words. The s u b j e c t s were asked t o study the lists, t o add words from t h e i r own background t o each l i s t , and then to recategorize a random l i s t i n g of a l l t h e p r e v i o u s l y p r o v i d e d words w i t h o u t r e f e r r i n g t o t h e study l i s t . The c o n t e x t method u t i l i z e d the t a r g e t words i n meaningful sentences. T h i s method r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s read a 3-sentence passage i n which each sentence used the t a r g e t word i n a d e f i n i n g c o n t e x t . The c o n t e x t of the sentences were of a s i m p l e sentence s t r u c t u r e and c o n t a i n e d common words t o make the context familiar. Each s u b j e c t was asked t o respond i n w r i t i n g t o a q u e s t i o n a t t h e end of the passage "with a word or phrase from h i s p e r s o n a l background e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f i e d the t a r g e t word, (p. 627)  In a d d i t i o n t o the t h r e e methods r e f l e c t i n g the views fourth  method,  labeled  dictionary,  on  word  was  also  learning,  a  described.  U s i n g t h i s method, s t u d e n t s would l o o k up t h e t a r g e t  words i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y , copy t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s , and then a sentence c o n t a i n i n g the new word.  write  12  A three-step categorization strategy, (1) word f l u e n c y , (2) l i s t - g r o u p - l a b e l l e s s o n , and (3) f e a t u r e a n a l y s i s , i s d e s c r i b e d by Readence and S e a r f o s s both  to  assist  improve  prediction  students  classification  and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  in ordering technique  was  ( C a t t e r s o n , 1960; C o r c o r a n ,  (1980), which was  their  own  also  used  designed  s k i l l s and t o  experiences. by  two  1962) when comparing  The  researchers  inductive  and  d e d u c t i v e methods of t e a c h i n g word a n a l y s i s . Analogies,  according  to  Ignoffo  (1980),  are  effective  acuity  but  also  the  points  out  that  the  student  because they not o n l y d e v e l o p v o c a b u l a r y skills  of  thinking  a n a l o g i e s c a r r y an create  thought  reasoning. (1980)  and. r e a d i n g .  Ignoffo  implied, context,  patterns,  and  effect  require  i n d u c t i v e and d e d u c t i v e  S i m i l a r t o a n a l o g i e s , a s t r a t e g y d e s c r i b e d by  suggests  t h a t c a t e g o r i e s of meaning developed  descriptions  presented to  Osgood's  which can be used t o d e v e l o p  twenty  program.  categories  are  l e s s o n s which, a c c o r d i n g  K u r t h , g i v e s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e i n u s i n g words i n c o n t e x t  enable  and  s t u d e n t s t o see r e l a t i o n s h i p s between words.  Vocabulary  strategies  (1980) were developed to  of  Kurth  by Osgood  c o u l d be used as a b a s i s f o r a developmental v o c a b u l a r y Modified  to  described  by  Kaplan  and  t o more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s  f o s t e r independent l e a r n i n g s k i l l s .  Students  and  association  activities.  i n order  are required to  s e l e c t t h e i r own words f o r study, and l e a r n them u s i n g prediction,  Tuchman  A similar  context, procedure,  1 3  recommended by Hoover  (1979),  was  designed  for  students  to  improve t h e i r v o c a b u l a r i e s by s e l e c t i n g words from t h e i r r e a d i n g and l e a r n i n g them v i a a c a r e f u l l y designed w r i t i n g e x e r c i s e . Summary techniques  and are  conclusions. available  to  Numerous the  vocabulary  reading  teaching  teacher,  and  a  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group of those methods which c o u l d be adapted f o r the a d u l t l e a r n e r have been d i s c u s s e d above. the t e c h n q i u e s reviewed alone.  Only  the  The major f a u l t of  i s t h a t they p r e s e n t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s  methods  developed  by Gipe  (1978-1979) were  based d i r e c t l y upon t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e r e l e v a n t  to  learning  word meanings. Vance  (1979)  reviewed  recent  psychological  r e l a t i n g v o c a b u l a r y and memory and concluded t h a t techniques  endorsed  v i v i d examples, and c a t e g o r i z i n g be  part  of  any  methods f o r advancing What  is  conducted  research  It  can  teaching  using  trips,, imagery,  wordsteacher's  is  that helps  gives  foun'dation t o support (p.  context,  r e p e r t o i r e of  s t u d e n t s ' knowledge which  and  in  good  significant  assumptions,  teaching  by e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s - - f i e l d  e x p e r i e n t i a l learning, vocabulary may  the  research  their  of  words.  psychologists to  teachers  verify an  pedagogical  have those  empirical decisions,  51) be  concluded,  methods  can,  therefore, in  fact,  t h a t many of the v o c a b u l a r y be  directly  related  to  p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on p r o c e s s i n g and memory. Further  inspection  of  the t e a c h i n g methods d e s c r i b e d and  l i s t e d above r e v e a l s t h a t they v a r y i n two d i m e n s i o n s ,  selection  of v o c a b u l a r y study words and format of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Recent s t u d i e s (Kaplan & Tuchman, 1980; Hoover, 1979)  recommend  14  strategies  which  require  the  students  to  v o c a b u l a r y study words? however, the t e a c h e r the  majority  variability study  in  words.  of  the  techniques.  techniques,  format,  their  own  selects  words  in  second  concerns  dimension  presented  either  of  presentation  A l t h o u g h most of the t e c h n i q u e s reviewed  p o l a r p o s i t i o n s of words isolation,  The  select  in  context  of  adopted or  in  more r e c e n t s t u d i e s p r e s e n t words w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n s .  Vance (1979) contends  that  it would be e a s i e r t o l e a r n s e v e r a l words from a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y than a random l i s t . This suggests t h a t c a t e g o r i z i n g and g r o u p i n g words would be a good a c t i v i t y for vocabulary b u i l d i n g . (p. 48). The  s e l e c t i o n / f o r m a t schema can be  methods d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n classified  in  associations,  terms or  of  words  format in  applied  (see Table  1).  to  vocabulary  Each method i s  (words i n c o n t e x t , words w i t h  isolation)  ( t e a c h e r s e l e c t e d or l e a r n e r s e l e c t e d ) .  and  source  of  words  15  Table  1.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g methods  1  Source of words f o r study Teacher Selected  Format  1.  Words i n c o n t e x t -- words i n sentences  * *  -- wide r e a d i n g -- c l o z e procedures  2.  *  Words w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n s -- c a t e g o r y  techniques  imagery (audio v i s u a l )  3.  Learner Selected  * *  -- n a t u r a l word l e a r n i n g  *  -- a n a l o g i e s  *  -- synonyms/antonyms  *  Words i n i s o l a t i o n -- word  *  lists  -- d i c t i o n a r y  study  *  -- s t r u c t u r a l  analysis  *  1  "*" i n d i c a t e s source of words.  *  16  Research i n the t e a c h i n g of In  reviewing  the  vocabulary  l i t e r a t u r e on v o c a b u l a r y  the secondary and a d u l t l e v e l s , i t was reference  books  contained  basic  found  that  information  w h i l e a m u l t i t u d e of j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s p r o v i d e d teaching  techniques.  The  S t a t e of Knowledge about the Teaching  the  more  comprehensive  of  on methodology, more  innovative  Vocabulary,  research.  research  efforts  doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n s in reading. which have d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the  professional  by P e t t y et a l . ( 1 9 6 8 ) ,  review  e x c e l l e n t background i n v o c a b u l a r y  i n s t r u c t i o n at  Ten two  Since  of those  many of  r e s u l t e d from recent s t u d i e s ,  treatments  designed  t h i s study, are examined i n d e t a i l i n t h i s s e c t i o n . are reviewed  provides  1968  have  The  The  for  studies  from four i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s :  (1) c o n t e x t - w o r d l i s t , (2) d i r e c t - i n c i d e n t a l , (3) a s s o c i a t i o n , and (4) ATI  research.  Context-wordlist. achievement  S e v e r a l s t u d i e s were designed  r e s u l t i n g from t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s  i n c o n t e x t as opposed t o word l i s t s .  Two  (1) new  words  introduced  developed  as with  contextual  words i n t r o d u c e d i n o r g a n i c a l l y w i t h o u t  contextual  r e l a t i o n s h i p s deveoped, (2) new  p r e s e n t i n g words  treatments  i n a study by Brown (1978) were d e s c r i b e d  t o compare  organically and  relationships. Analysis  of  statistically  pretest-posttest significant  s c o r e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was  difference  between  the  a  language  17  acquisition  change s c o r e s of a d u l t s taught by t h e two methods.  G r e a t e r g a i n s were made by where  students  i n the i n o r g a n i c  group,  s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d words from i n s t r u c t o r - p r e p a r e d w o r d l i s t s  which had no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the remainder Also,  females  demonstrated  of t h e i r  classwork.  greater vocabulary a c q u i s i t i o n  males, as d i d s t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d as average and h i g h i n ability  as compared w i t h those of lower a b i l i t y .  differences  were  than  mental  No s i g n i f i c a n t  found, however, when comparisons  were made by  student age. An i d e n t i c a l group of words was taught secondary  to  two  groups  of  (1978).  No  scores  of  s t u d e n t s t o compare  (1) a m o d i f i e d c l o z e s t o r y procedure and • (2) i s o l a t e d l i s t s w i t h d e f i n i t i o n s in  an  eighteen  week  study  conducted  by  Swing  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the g a i n the  cloze  group  and  the t r a d i t i o n a l  s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t ( G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading a c r i t e r i o n referenced vocabulary Nichols  (1977)  conducted  English  course.  on  either  Test-Survey  a  F ) or  test.  a study designed t o improve both  s p e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s and v o c a b u l a r y freshman  group  comprehension  The  in a  experimental  college  group  read  i n v e s t i g a t o r - p r e p a r e d passages i n which s e l e c t e d words were used at  l e a s t three times.  study  sheets  S t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n t r o l group were  c o n t a i n i n g a l i s t of t h e s e l e c t e d words and t h e i r  meanings f o r m e m o r i z a t i o n . experiment,  given  there  At the c o n c l u s i o n of t h e  four  week  was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o r of the  c o n t r o l group on both s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y  and v o c a b u l a r y  ability.  18  Direct-incidental.  Varied  f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d when  two  e v a l u a t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s were used t o compare the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of three  approaches  three  approaches,  to  vocabulary  improvement  i n grade 9.  The  (1) d i r e c t - t e a c h i n g , (2) i n t e r e s t - i n - w o r d s , and (3) w i d e - r e a d i n g , were used i n e i g h t c l a s s e s i n a f o u r t e e n Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t , when  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  When the D i a g n o s t i c  week study.  Using  the  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found  groups were compared t o a c o n t r o l group.  Reading Test  was  used  to  make  the  same  c o m p a r i s o n s , the " i n t e r e s t - i n - w o r d s " approach showed improvement significant  a t the .05 l e v e l .  concluded that further research approaches t o vocabulary  teaching  measuring  Achievement  The i n v e s t i g a t o r (Hammack, 1971) i s needed i n s p e c i f i c  vocabulary  as  well  structured  as  in  improving  methods  of  vocabulary  Blevins  (1971).  instruments.  resulting  from  three  instruction, (1) c o n t r i v e d  contextual,  (2) wide r e a d i n g , and (3) p r a c t i c a l h i g h s c h o o l  English,  was compared i n a t h i r t e e n week study by  The  c o n t r i v e d c o n t e x t u a l method was found t o be i n f e r i o r t o the wide reading scores  and  traditional  c o u r s e when p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t  from The Nelson-Denny Reading Test were a n a l y z e d .  concluded that vocabulary study  English  instruction  i n t h e broader n a t u r a l c o n t e x t  that  provides  I t was  f o r word  of the message conveyed by  19  connected words was  superior  to i s o l a t e d (contrived)  vocabulary  instruction. Wright (1974) d e s i g n e d and differential  effectiveness  conducted a study t o compare the of  three  developmental  t r e a t m e n t s upon the r a t e , v o c a b u l a r y , and of  white  and  d e l i v e r y and  black  students.  The  reading  comprehension  skills  three t r e a t m e n t s v a r i e d i n  materials:  (1) t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d ,  large  group  instruction  plus  workbook, (2) t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d ,  large  group  i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n and  instruction  workbook,  (3) i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n p l u s m u l t i  plus  and  leveled,  multi  answer  twenty  media u t i l i z a t i o n . A  multiple  research  regression  questions.  analysis  Statistical  i n d i c a t e d an o r d i n a l  was  between  e f f e c t i n g the c r i t e r i o n v o c a b u l a r y  exercises  was  1120  during  The the  week  m a t e r i a l s : l o o k i n g up meanings, and specific  and  treatment  by  set  of  vocabulary  D'Abre  (1977).  words, u s i n g a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  control classes seven  designed  tested  l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , and  format.  the  and  race  scores.  carefully  designed  exercises u t i l i z e d team  A  to  f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g to v o c a b u l a r y  interaction  Assoc i a t i o n .  used  spent  period  the  using in  same  the  i n v e s t i g a t o r designed t e s t , revealed  amount  of  time  t r a d i t i o n a l methods  dictionaries,  w r i t i n g the words i n s e n t e n c e s . of  technique,  a self-directing, self-correcting  meanings  vocabulary  The  study,  writing  and out  Gains i n l e a r n i n g  when  measured by  an  a s i g n i f i c a n t difference in  20  f a v o r of the group  experimental  group.  Although  the  experimental  a l s o r e g i s t e r e d s l i g h t g a i n s i n v o c a b u l a r y as measured by  the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t , the g a i n s were magnitude  to  be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  method was q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g the the s t u d y , but d i d not produce a t r a n s f e r A  traditional  and  a  mnemonic  development were compared by Johnston selected  sample  of  The  of  a  categorization  words  selected  for  effect. method  (1975)  of  vocabulary  using  a  randomly  96 average a b i l i t y grade 10 s t u d e n t s .  t r a d i t i o n a l group r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n the use word  not  of  The  -synonyms,  a n a l y s i s , and c o n t e x t c l u e s ; the mnemonic group r e c e i v e d a  l i m i t e d amount of t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n p l u s artificial  memory  aid;  and  the  s p e c i f i c vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n . were a d m i n i s t e r e d : (1) p r e t e s t ,  control  the  group  use  of  an  received  no  Four t e a c h e r - c o n s t r u c t e d t e s t s (2) p o s t t e s t ,  (3) f o l l o w - u p , and  (4) a second  f o l l o w - u p t e s t i n g cognates  There  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between means on T e s t s 1  were  of words on  the  and 4, but s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the .05 l e v e l on and  3.  Johnston  concluded  list.  Tests  t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l and mnemonic  methods were e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e f o r the s p e c i f i e d word l i s t , for  the word cognates  2  n e i t h e r method produced  but  g a i n s g r e a t e r than  the c o n t r o l group. The  relationship  between  l e a r n i n g at d i f f e r e n t stages of •Dumlao-Valisno  (1972).  Two  a p t i t u d e f a c t o r s and practice  was  vocabulary  investigated  by  forms of v o c a b u l a r y m a t e r i a l s were  used: (1) word meanings taught through the use of synonyms, and  21  (2) word meanings taught through the use of d e f i n i t i o n s  of  words found i n the d i c t i o n a r y . A  battery  of  f a c t o r s was  ten  ability  tests  measuring  p e r c e p t u a l speed  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o each s t u d e n t , and  then  classes  grade 10 s t u d e n t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o the two Students  of  treatments.  were r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n f o u r words per day, w i t h s c o r e s  from timed d a i l y c r i t e r i o n achievement t e s t s , and l e n g t h of time each s u b j e c t spent c o m p l e t i n g each s e t serving  as  c r i t e r i o n measures.  day i n v e s t i g a t i o n was phenomenon:  the  of  learning  materials,  A major f i n d i n g i n the  evidence f o r the " l e a r n i n g how  students  improved  to  ATI ' r e s e a r c h .  1977).  One  Krevoy  vocabulary  study  (1978)  was  holistic  recall. more  encoding  Students  competent  progressed  strategies  l o c a t e d which  model  investigated  between i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y and  the  to  (Cronbach  utilize  analytic  and v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g  and  (n = 161) were f i r s t t e s t e d and c l a s s i f i e d  as  i n e i t h e r a n a l y t i c or h o l i s t i c p r o c e s s i n g , then  analytic-sequential holistic-simultaneous of  a  &  relationships  randomly a s s i g n e d t o e x p e r i m e n t a l ( i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k s  Results  and  groups.  f o l l o w e d the a p t i t u d e - t r e a t m e n t - i n t e r a c t i o n Snow,  learn"  on the achievement t e s t  took l e s s time i n l e a r n i n g the m a t e r i a l as the study in both of the treatment  fifteen  organization  treatment  and  encoding  increases  in  vocabulary  test  strategy learning  c o m p a t i b i l i t y between encoding  an  or i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k s w i t h a  organization)  Newman-Keuls  with  or  showed  control  t h a t a match between  resulted and  strategies  treatments.  in  retention, and  significant suggesting  teaching  method  22  may  be  an  learning.  important  contributor  Furthermore,  significantly  vocabulary  t o the c o n t r o l  summarized  recent  research  list  two  retention  strategies  treatments. The  ten  efforts  comparing  studies  reviewed  different  In the c o n t e x t - w o r d  s t u d i e s (Brown, 1978;  above  d i f f e r e n c e s between word l i s t and  1978)  modified  approaches  in  l i s t group, r e s u l t s  N i c h o l s , 1977)  t r e a t m e n t ; a t h i r d study (Swing,  Results  and  i n Table 2 were s e l e c t e d because they r e p r e s e n t  vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n . from  learning  vocabulary  i n both a n a l y t i c and h o l i s t i c  Summary and c o n c l u s i o n s . and  successful  i n c r e a s e d under t r e a t m e n t s c a l l i n g f o r g e n e r a t i v e  e l a b o r a t i o n of concepts in comparison  to  f a v o r e d the word  found no cloze  significant procedures.  from these t h r e e s t u d i e s suggest t h a t word l i s t methods  are e q u a l t o or s u r p a s s c o n t e x t methods. (1968)  in  their  accumulating  review  evidence  of  eighty  supporting  When  vocabulary  the  teaching  Petty  et  al.  s t u d i e s found of  words  in  isolation  over  "something  of a f l u k e " due t o inadequate measurement i n s t r u m e n t s  or  words i n c o n t e x t , they regarded t h a t f i n d i n g as  i n e f f e c t i v e context treatments.  method seems  to  contradict  t h e o r y , but i f evidence  S u p e r i o r i t y of the word  conclusions  drawn  from  list  learning  i n i t s f a v o r c o n t i n u e s t o accumulate, i t  s h o u l d not be d i s r e g a r d e d . The of  Petty e t . a l .  (1968) review r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s i n g amounts  support f o r d i r e c t v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g methods as opposed t o  i n c i d e n t a l methods; the a u t h o r s seemed t o "wide  reading"  vocabulary.  approach  view  dispelling  the  as a p o s i t i v e s t e p i n the t e a c h i n g of  G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s cannot  be drawn from t h r e e  direct-  23  incidental  studies  reviewed  somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e . Blevins  (1971) based  treatment  groups;  upon  r e s u l t s tenuous. to  Results  as  from  only  36  the s m a l l Results  appear  t o be  reported  by  prose t r e a t m e n t s , but the  subjects sample  reported  the vocabulary  results  the study  f a v o r e d t h e connected  study was  according  here,  divided  would  by  into  three  certainly  Hammack  render  (1971)  varied  instrument used: s i g n i f i c a n t  gains  f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups u s i n g t h e Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t , but no s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s u s i n g Perhaps,  as  Hammack  t e s t s of v o c a b u l a r y lie  the D i a g n o s t i c  concludes,  i s suspect.  i n the method  used  validity  Test.  of the s t a n d a r d i z e d  On t h e other  to analyze  Reading  hand,  fault  may  the d a t a , as the t - t e s t  s t a t i s t i c was used r e p e a t e d l y . Three of t h e s t u d i e s reviewed p r e s e n t e d words favored  a  with  t e s t e d t e a c h i n g methods which  associations.  D'Abre's  (1977)  results  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n method over t r a d i t i o n a l methods on a  corpus of 1120 words, but no s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s were shown standardized instruction effective effect  and  test.  an  for a  when  association  reading  experimental  specified  students method  Johnston  were  (1975) found  mnemonic  word tested  list, on  only  with  a  traditional  treatment  equally  but a g a i n no t r a n s f e r word  cognates.  An  (synonyms) was a l s o found as e f f e c t i v e as a  t r a d i t i o n a l method ( d e f i n i t i o n s ) by Dumlao-Valisno again  on  a  selected  group of words.  (1972),  but  I t appears from  these t h r e e s t u d i e s t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n methods a r e e f f e c t i v e f o r learning a specified  group of words, but q u e s t i o n a b l e i f a i m i n g  24  for  a  g e n e r a l t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g as measured by s t a n d a r d i z e d  vocabulary  tests.  R e s u l t s from the suggest  that  ATI  study  compatibility  conducted  between  by  encoding  Krevoy  strategies  t e a c h i n g methods c o n t r i b u t e t o s u c c e s s f u l v o c a b u l a r y However,  the  results  reported  t e s t s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t data variance  techniques;  were  regression  s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n ATI s t u d i e s .  were  based  analyzed analysis  (1978)  upon using is  and  learning. Newman-Keuls analysis  the  of  preferred  Table  2.  Summary  Research area and I n v e s t i g a t o r  of  ten  recent  vocabulary  Instruction  studies  Grade Level  Number o f Ss  2 year c o l 1ege  unknown  1) 2) 3)  organic contextual Inorganic noncontextual control  1st col  20  1)  Incidental reading of s e l e c t e d passages word l i s t  Treatments/groups  Treatment Length  Vocab.  unknown  unknown  Treatment 2 s u p e r i o r to  1  1  Instruments  Results  Context-Wordl1st Brown  (1978)  Nlchols  ( 1977)  yr 1ege  4  weeks  unknown  Treatment 2 s u p e r i o r to  1 ) modlfled cloze 2) w o r d 1 I s t s  18  weeks  Gates-MacG1n1tle  No.  total  1) 2) 3)  contrived contextual wide r e a d i n g p u b l i s h e d program  13  weeks  Nelson-Denny  Treatments superior  130 34  exp. con.  1) 2) 3) 4)  d i r e c t teaching . I n t e r e s t 1n r e a d i n g wide r e a d i n g control  14  weeks  Nelson-Denny D i a g n o s t i c Rdg  Test  74 25  exp. con.  1) 2) 3) 4)  d i r e c t e d large group l a r g e group+se1f- 1nst. Individual1zed self-lnst. control  1  sem.  Diagnostic  Test  128 136  1) 2)  category control  7  weeks  Gates-MacG1nit1e  No  classes  1) 2)  definition synonym  days  Researcher  developed  Evid. how  weeks  Researcher  developed  Treatments 1 & 2 equally effective f o r word 11st  classes  2) Swing  (1978)  45 49  high school  sig.  d1ff.  D1rect-1nc1 denta 1 Blevlns  ( 1971)  Hammack  (1971)  Wright  ( 1974)  adult  9  36  col lege  Rdg  2 & 3 to 1  No s i g . d i f f . Treatment 2 s u p e r i o r to 1,3, and 4 S1g.  interactions  Assoc 1 at ion D'Abre  (1977)  Dumlao-Va11sno (1972)  10  Johnston ( 1975)  10  ATI  5  96  1) t r a d i t i o n a l 2) mnemonic 3) c o n t r o l  15  8  sig.  of to  gains  "learning learn"  Research  Krevoy  (  1978)  1st col  yr 1ege  161  1) 2) 3)  analytic-sequential holistic-simultaneous control  unknown  unknown  Sig.  ATI's  to  26  M a t e r i a l s for vocabulary  study  Numerous p u b l i s h e d v o c a b u l a r y programs are a v a i l a b l e t o the reading  teacher.  repetition  and  Most  of  the  memorization  upon frequency c o u n t s .  programs  rely  heavily  of words s e l e c t e d from l i s t s  Dale and O'Rourke (1971) suggest  v o c a b u l a r y development t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s s h o u l d on  "almost  known"  "almost  programs? words,  known"  that in  concentrate  What  proportion  words are c o n t a i n e d i n p u b l i s h e d v o c a b u l a r y  Students can best i d e n t i f y t h e i r own  and  based  words--words s t u d e n t s have heard of or seen  b e f o r e but are unsure of t h e i r exact meanings. of  on  "almost  i n an e f f o r t t o l e a d s t u d e n t s t o become  learners, several professionals Kaplan  &  in  the  Tuchman,  field  1980;  known"  independent  (Hoover,  Moore,  1979)  1979;  Johnson,  1969;  have  suggested  t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d assume, g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y development. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s (Johnson, report  1969;  Kamal, 1981;  Moore,  s u c c e s s f u l use of the newspaper i n v o c a b u l a r y  Moore (1979) l i s t s  1979)  building.  f o u r advantages of u s i n g the newspaper:  (1) i t c o n t a i n s i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l ; (2) i t  uses  reinforces (3) i t  will  language;  a  somewhat  repetitious  addition,  the  which  learning; help  students  r e a l i z e the v a l u e of s u c c i n c t  and  (4) i t has a p o s i t i v e a f f e c t i v e In  vocabulary,  newspaper  route  effect. to  promotes a l i f e l o n g h a b i t of v o c a b u l a r y  vocabulary growth:  .collection  27  A f t e r h i g h s c h o o l , some s t u d e n t s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o read books; very few ( i f any) will read vocabulary workbooks; however, most of them w i l l read the newspaper. (Moore, 1979, p. 37) A  six-week  a s s e s s the  study conducted  impact  of  two  by Kamal (1981) was  different  types  of  designed  to  instructional  m a t e r i a l f o r r e a d i n g s k i l l s development:, (1)  the newspaper and newspaper r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ,  and  (2) b a s a l reader and workbook a c t i v i t i e s . The  sample  i n c l u d e d 161 language a r t s s t u d e n t s i n grades 6,  and 8.  H i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were  change  scores  comprehension  in  found  between  l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y , i n f e r e n t i a l , and  for  students  in  the  newspaper  group;  7, the  total no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the changes o c c u r r e d i n the same areas  f o r s t u d e n t s u s i n g the b a s a l reader approach.  the study i n d i c a t e t h a t the newspaper i s an for  R e s u l t s of  effective  resource  d e v e l o p i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s and t h a t newspaper a c t i v i t i e s have  a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t i n the c l a s s r o o m . The  importance  of  B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Kendall,  1980a).  r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e was. emphasized i n the Assessment Summary  Report  (Tuinman ti  I n c l u d e d i n the twenty-one recommendations t o  r a i s e s t u d e n t s ' o v e r a l l performance  were  two  in  the  reading  a t t i t u d e domain: Rec.  15. We recommend t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e programs t h a t encourage and r e q u i r e s t u d e n t s t o engage i n independent r e a d i n g , both i n and out of c l a s s .  Rec.  16. We recommend t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s take active measures t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n reading with the g o a l of i n c r e a s i n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward reading. (Tuinman & K e n d a l l , 1980a, p. 63)  28  A  newspaper  through  a  vocabulary popular  building  medium and  approach,  presenting  words  i n an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t e x t ,  would  address those g o a l s . A p t i t u d e Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n Research  I n t e r a c t i o n r e s e a r c h as a form of i n q u i r y i s r e f e r r e d t o by a  variety  of  terms,  person-situation  including  or  person-environment  attribute-treatment  or  terms  but  may  differ,  trait-treatment  aptitude-treatment  interaction,  interaction,  and  interaction.  The  i n t e r a c t i o n r e s e a r c h has a common g o a l  which, s t a t e d s i m p l i s t i c a l l y , i s f i n d i n g out what  instructional  method  An  works  best w i t h which t y p e s of s t u d e n t s .  number of a r t i c l e s have appeared d u r i n g the report  interaction  research.  e f f o r t s i n t h i s a r e a and was  provided  by  An e x t e n s i v e  s t a t i s t i c a l and  the  1977  last  Lee  J . Cronbach  and  methodological  issues  E. Snow.  review  of  Apt i tudes  recognized  and  on  Interactions  Their  terminology,  A p t i t u d e x Treatment i n t e r a c t i o n , s h o r t e n e d to ATI, the most w i d e l y  which  research  publication  Richard  decade of  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods: A Handbook f o r Research by  increasing  has  become  cognomen f o r i n t e r a c t i o n r e s e a r c h .  P a r k h u s t (1975) p r o v i d e s a s u c c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n of  ATI:  An a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e can be any p e r s o n o l o g i c a l or organismic v a r i a b l e upon which i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r (e.g., IQ, a n x i e t y , dogmatism, e t c . ) . A treatment i s any instructional strategy or combination of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s that structures information for the purpose of h a v i n g students learn that i n f o r m a t i o n . An a p t i t u d e - t r e a t m e n t - i n t e r a c t ion e x i s t s when, as a r e s u l t of a g i v e n t r e a t m e n t , i n d i v i d u a l s at one end of an a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e perform a t one level on a c r i t e r i o n measure. Also, i n d i v i d u a l s at the other end of the a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e perform at -a  29  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l on the c r i t e r i o n measure and the r e v e r s e trend holds true f o r a second treatment. (p. 172) Instructional  treatments  D e s i g n i n g ATI r e s e a r c h  requires simultaneous  of l e a r n e r a t r i b u t e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l o p t i o n s . noting  t h e l a c k of c o n c e p t u a l  1.  based  upon  (1972),  ATI r e s e a r c h ,  the  function  of  treatment:  Remedial—treatments  lead  d e f i c i e n t subordinate 2.  Salomon  tools f o r designing  developed t h r e e h e u r i s t i c models instructional  consideration  t o mastery  modality  mediators,  the l e a r n e r s with  organization  and the l i k e , which they  themselves;  or  necessary  objectives.  Compensatory-treatments provide necessary  of  circumventing  of  cannot  the  materials, provide  for  d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of  c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s or s t a t e s . 3.  Preferential--treatments learners'  higher  call  aptitudes,  upon neither  and  utilize  making  up f o r  d e f i c i e n c i e s nor compensating f o r them. The  f a c t t h a t many i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s tend t o  function,  contends  Salomon,  does  not  preclude  overlap  in  the need t o  c l a r i f y those f u n c t i o n s . The  need  treatments  from  Cronbach and Handbook,  for a  Snow  a  taxonomic  stimulus (1S77).  analysis  point Readers  of of  of  instructional  view i s p o i n t e d Cronbach  and  out by Snow's  a f t e r e n c o u n t e r i n g what seems l i k e an e n d l e s s l i s t of  i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment d e s c r i p t i o n s - guided-discovery/didactic,  30  convent iona1/programmed, directive/nondirective, inductive/deductive, self-discovery/structural, etc. —would  certainly  powerfully,  agree.  until  such  developed and a c c e p t e d , studies  will  remain  Cronbach  and  a taxonomy or theory comparisons  difficult,  must be approached w i t h Aptitude  As  and  Snow  point  out  of i n s t r u c t i o n i s  replications  of ATI  and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of r e s u l t s  caution.  and outcome v a r i a b l e s  A purposely  broad c o n c e p t i o n  of a p t i t u d e s  i s put  forth  by  Cronbach and Snow (1977): . . . " a p t i t u d e " i s here d e f i n e d as any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a person t h a t f o r e c a s t s h i s p r o b a b i l i t y of success under a g i v e n treatment. We e m p h a t i c a l l y do not c o n f i n e our i n t e r e s t t o " a p t i t u d e t e s t s . " P e r s o n a l i t y as w e l l as a b i l i t y i n f l u e n c e s response t o a given i n s t r u c t i o n . Nontest v a r i a b l e s ( s o c i a l c l a s s , e t h n i c background, e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y ) may serve as p r o x i e s for c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e l e a r n e r t h a t a r e not d i r e c t l y measurable. (p. 6) As  a  research  strategy  a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e and d e s i g n likely  to  interact  with  the  investigator  i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatments that  variable.  p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e , was chosen as t h e study.  can s e l e c t an are  Locus of c o n t r o l , a  key  variable  in  this  I t i s g e n e r a l l y recommended ( C a r r i e r & McNergney, 1979;  Cronbach & Snow, 1977; P a r k h u s t , 1975) t h a t ATI s t u d i e s s e v e r a l measures of the p e r s o n ,  and  entering  be  methods.  that  t h e main Within  hypothesis these  guidelines,  also  that  appraised the  the by  consider construct  a t l e a s t two  following  aptitude  31  v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  study:  (1) l o c u s of c o n t r o l (key v a r i a b l e of i n t e r e s t ) , (2) v o c a b u l a r y  achievement  (general  measure  of a b i l i t y ;  p r e t e s t used as c o v a r i a t e ) , (3) r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e ( a f f e c t i v e measure;  pretest  used  as  c o v a r i a t e ) , and (4) language  background  (to s t a t i s t i c a l l y  control  for  d i f f e r e n c e s i n experimental population). Outcome  measures  (dependent  variables)  in  the  study  included: (1) v o c a b u l a r y achievement ( a l t e r n a t e form of p r e t e s t ) , (2) r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e ( p r e t e s t r e p e a t e d ) , (3) achievement  attribution  (an index r e l a t e d t o l o c u s of  c o n t r o l ) , and (4) s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n instructional Literature  was  (student  evaluation  of  units). reviewed  t o s e l e c t and d e s i g n measures f o r  the a p t i t u d e and outcome v a r i a b l e s . P r i o r learning/achievement.  Tobias  (1976), a f t e r  a number of ATI s t u d i e s , e s t a b l i s h e d a g e n e r a l the  higher  the  instructional objectives. students'  level  support Parkhust  prior  of  prior  required  hypothesis  achievement, to  reviewing  accomplish  the  that  lower the  instructional  (1975) c o n c u r s , and s u p p o r t s the n o t i o n of  knowledge  v a r i a b l e i n ATI r e s e a r c h .  of  subject  matter  T h i s v a r i a b l e can  be  as an a p t i t u d e defined  p r e t e s t s c o r e , and sometimes e a s i l y measured as such.  as  a  32  Attitude. an  outcome  A t t i t u d e can be used e i t h e r as an a p t i t u d e or as  of  instruction  i n ATI r e s e a r c h d e s i g n .  A recent  "Study u s i n g a community c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n (Tolsma, 1981) found a  correlation  of. . 1 9 between s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g s c o r e s  M a c G i n i t i e ) and  their  attitude  scores  (Mikulecky  Reading A t t i t u d e Measure) on p r e t e s t measures. was  lower  than expected, reading  attitude,  Behavioral  Reading  Attitude  competency.  Behavioral  This c o r r e l a t i o n  tending to confirm Mikulecky's  c l a i m that  from r e a d i n g  (Gates-  as  measured  Measure,  Further  by  t h e Mi kulec ky  i s a construct  research  (1976)  separate  i s necessary  to  determine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e and a p t i t u d e and treatment v a r i a b l e s . Locus  of  control.  The  concept of l o c u s of c o n t r o l as a  p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t was f i r s t put f o r t h by R o t t e r part  of  a s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory.  i n d i v i d u a l ' s ' perception punishments action  in life—whether  or  are t o t a l l y  constructed  and  Locus of C o n t r o l according  of  to  of  h i s rewards  are a to  and  consequence of h i s  h i s behavior.  Rotter  v a l i d a t e d a t e s t , The R o t t e r I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Scale,  to  order  people  along  a  continuum  the e x t e n t t o which they p e r c e i v e t h e e f f e c t s of  reward or r e i n f o r c e m e n t hypothesized  unrelated  as  T h i s c o n s t r u c t r e f e r s t o an  the b a s i s they  (1966)  on p r e c e d i n g b e h a v i o r .  Rotter  further  that  this variable i s of major significance u n d e r s t a n d i n g the nature of l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . (p. 1)  in in  33  The the  1966 p u b l i c a t i o n of R o t t e r ' s theory and t e s t has formed  conceptual  base  f o r thousands  i n s t r u m e n t s have been generated  of  studies.  t o measure the e x t e n t  people accept p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r events Atkinson control  (1976) tests  education.  conducted and  He  an  with  In  recommended concur  as  locus by  in their  review  of  secondary  lives.  l o c u s of  level  educators  to  person-environment  of r e s e a r c h .  strategies  which  of  of c o n t r o l was a v i a b l e improve  and  interaction  Morgan and C u l v e r  t h a t t h e l o c u s of c o n t r o l concept  instructional  to  r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s were o u t l i n e d ,  and  methods  the  utilized  addition,  multiple-moderator  at  that  c o n s t r u c t , which s h o u l d be instruction.  extensive  literature  concluded  Additional  recommend  (1978)  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n continued  research  c o n c e r n i n g a f f e c t and r e a d i n g . An locus  ATI of  study conducted  control  instrument)  as  an  by D a n i e l s and Stevens (1976) used  aptitude  variable  (Rotter's  I-E  and d e s i g n e d two i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, t r a d i t i o n a l  l e a r n i n g and s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g , as  treatments.  A  strong  i n t e r a c t i o n was found between l o c u s of c o n t r o l and i n s t r u c t i o n a l method,  and  additional  research  was  recommended  to further  i n v e s t i g a t e what k i n d of s t u d e n t s b e n e f i t most from a p a r t i c u l a r method of i n s t r u c t i o n . Reading significantly  achievement higher  than  for internal-oriented  students  e x t e r n a l - o r i e n t e d students  at the  c o n c l u s i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d community c o l l e g e r e a d i n g i n a study r e p o r t e d by Drummond,  Smith,  and  Pinette  Based upon these f i n d i n g s , Drummond e t a l . urged  that  was  course  (1975).  34  if t h e i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l of the student c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e success or f a i l u r e of h i s performance i n an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d reading course, then d e c i s i o n s about i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and t e a c h e r behavior s h o u l d be made on t h e b a s i s of t h i s type of i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as on t h e b a s i s of s c h o l a s t i c information. (p. 37) Fisher  and  Dyer  (1978)  continued  this  l i n e of i n q u i r y w i t h  c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n a r e a d i n g improvement course t o determine (1) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c u s of c o n t r o l achievement  and  under two methods of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  reading teacher-  d i r e c t e d c l a s s r o o m and s e l f - d i r e c t e d l a b o r a t o r y , and (2) the r e l a t i o n s h i p preference  between  locus  of  control  and  f o r hardware ( e x t e r n a l d e v i c e s ) or s o f t w a r e  (internal devices). Although  results  laboratory observed  or on  preferred  indicated  no  significant  preference  instruction,  d i f f e r e n c e s were  teacher-directed  the hardware-software  using  hardware  (mechanical  l i s t e n i n g tapes) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y using  those  devices  as  materials,  Externals  reading  improved t h e i r  opposed t o s o f t w a r e  e x e r c i s e s , and t e x t b o o k s ) . for  comparisons.  pacers  and  reading  rate  (workbooks,  skill  I n t e r n a l s d i d not show a  but evidenced  for  preference  g r e a t e r r e a d i n g improvement when  using software devices. Locus  of  investigated (1981).  in a  and mode  recent  The experiment,  instruction treatment  control  i n college  ATI  of study  designed  presentation conducted  to a i d i n  were  also  by Rodriguez individualizing  r e a d i n g l a b s and c l a s s e s , i n v o l v e d s i x  groups  (total  n  materials--audio,  print,  or  =  144) u s i n g  various  a combined form--together  forms  of  w i t h or  35  without  a  mathemagenic  attentional  aid),  syllable.  Three  control,  reading  in  device a  (inserted  two-part  student  traits  organizational  and  l e s s o n on the concept of  the  were  comprehension,  measured by a s y l l a b l e p r e t e s t .  considered:  and  prior  interaction,  comprehension, was  mode  observed,  of  achievement  as  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  were employed t o t e s t f o r i n t e r a c t i o n s and two-way  locus  (form  of  main  techniques  effects.  material)  x  One  reading  but four m a i n - e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e s on  the dependent v a r i a b l e ( s y l l a b l e p r e t e s t ) emerged: (1) l o c u s of c o n t r o l i n f a v o r of  internals,  (2) p r e t e s t i n f a v o r of h i g h s c o r e r s , (3) mathemagenic d e v i c e i n f a v o r device,  of  those  favor  of  who  used  the  and  (4) r e a d i n g  comprehension  in  the h i g h  ability  group. Webster reading  (1981)  investigated  achievement l e v e l  the  relationship  (Nelson-Denny Reading Test) and  of c o n t r o l ( S c a l e to Measure I n t e r n a l v e r s u s with  a  sample  of  320  between  first  year  External  college  locus  Control)  students.  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between l o c u s  of  No  control,  r e a d i n g achievement, or any of the s e v e r a l demographic v a r i a b l e s considered. Attribution recent  theory.  development  causality.  A  in  subset  Attribution  psychology, of  the  theory,  concerns  a  relatively  perception  l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s area  relates  a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y and achievement m o t i v a t i o n .  In d e v e l o p i n g  classification  of  scheme  for  perceived  causes  of  success  a and  36  f a i l u r e . Bernard locus  of  Weiner was  control  guided  concept  by R o t t e r ' s i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l  and  four  causes  f a i l u r e — a b i l i t y , e f f o r t , t a s k d i f f i c u l t y , and Heider  (Weiner,  1974b). ability  The and  of  two-dimensional  and  l u c k — o u t l i n e d by  Heckhausen, Meyer & Cook, 1972;  resulting  success  Weiner, 1974a,  taxonomy  classifies  e f f o r t as p r o p e r t i e s i n t e r n a l t o the person,  task d i f f i c u l t y and  luck  are  external  factors.  The  while second  d i m e n s i o n of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s s t a b i l i t y ; a b i l i t y  and  task d i f f i c u l t y are seen as s t a b l e causes, w h i l e e f f o r t and  luck  are  2x2  c l a s s i f i e d as being u n s t a b l e .  Table 3 d e l i n e a t e s the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, which Weiner contends i s understanding  Table 3.  of achievement  a  key  to  the  striving.  Weiner's classification scheme f o r d e t e r m i n a n t s of achievement behavior  the  perceived  Locus of C o n t r o l Internal  Stable  Ability  Task d i f f i c u l t y  Unstable  Effort  Luck  Contradictions construct  External  Stabi1ity  and  appear  Weiner's  compared.  Some r e s e a r c h e r s  Lefcourt,  1976)  c o n t r o l theory.  suggest  when  Rotter's  achievement (Cosner, that  locus  attribution  Chandler,  Weiner  has  &  of  control  theory Spies,  are 1980;  "added t o " l o c u s of  Ickes and Layden (1978) d i s a g r e e :  37  I t i s n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o m e a n i n g f u l l y , compare and integrate the findings of the locus-of-control l i t e r a t u r e w i t h the f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t t o p e r c e i v e d l o c u s of c a u s a l i t y . (p. 126) Differences  between  the  two  theories,  according  N i e r e n b e r g , and G o l d s t e i n (1976), are e v i d e n t i n of expectancy  t o Weiner,  interpretation  of s u c c e s s :  On the one hand, s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y makes use of concepts from r e i n f o r c e m e n t t h e o r y t o f u r n i s h an explanation of c l i n i c a l phenomena. In c o n t r a s t , a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y u t i l i z e s concepts t h a t e v o l v e d from "everyday l i f e " t o p r o v i d e an a n a l y s i s of social perception. (p. 52) Both  t h e o r i e s , t h e n , are concerned  with personal c o n t r o l .  S o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y (Locus of c o n t r o l ) perceptions  of  control  over  the  examines  positive  a  person's  and  negative  r e i n f o r c e m e n t s he r e c e i v e s , w h i l e a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y causality)  analyzes  s u c c e s s e s and  (locus  of  a person's p e r c e p t i o n s of the cause of h i s  failures.  Thomas (1980) d i s c u s s e d the r o l e of a t t r i b u t i o n  theory  as  i t r e l a t e s t o achievement: C a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s t h e n , a c t as a moderating v a r i a b l e between characteristics of students (attitudes, a b i l i t i e s , and need f o r achievement) and experiences of s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e in school. Success-oriented s t u d e n t s tend to a t t r i b u t e t h e i r s u c c e s s e s t o ability and e f f o r t and their f a i l u r e s t o l a c k of a b i l i t y . Failure-avoiding s t u d e n t s tend t o a t t r i b u t e their failures t o a l a c k of a b i l i t y . When s u c c e s s f u l , however, these s t u d e n t s have a tendency t o a t t r i b u t e this success t o l u c k or t o the e a s i n e s s of the t a s k , (p. 227-228) Research that  to  reviewed by Thomas (1980) and Weiner profit  academically  from  (1980)  successes  and  indicates failures,  s t u d e n t s must a t t r i b u t e success t o i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and  38  view  lack  of  effort  have l e d e d u c a t o r s alter  as the cause of f a i l u r e .  to  academically  "attribution  oriented  low-ability ascription. (1980)  attribution Attribution  report  for  failure  to  a  studies  results  attempt  to  T r a i n i n g programs  u s u a l l y attempt  training  successful  training"--an  attributions.  based upon a t t r i b u t i o n p r i n c i p l e s  These f i n d i n g s  to  change  a  lack  of  effort  reviewed  by  Thomas  w i t h s t u d e n t s i n elementary  grades. A l t h o u g h Weiner's model of c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s and  failure  conducted  two  classroom.  by Duby (1981) i n v e s t i g a t e d the m e d i a t i n g  of c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s under  success  has generated a g r e a t d e a l of r e s e a r c h , few of the  s t u d i e s have been based i n the community c o l l e g e study  for  methods:  w i t h community (1)  conventional  instructional  attributions  could  mastery  college  role  taught  l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and  procedures.  be a l t e r e d  students  It  was  A  found  (2) that  by i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , and  Duby c o n c l u d e s : The major i m p l i c a t i o n s t o be drawn from t h i s work are that i n s t r u c t i o n a l efforts s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d at p r o v i d i n g the student w i t h l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s which encourage him to c l a r i f y and define his role in achievement situations. Therefore, use of instructional approaches which p r o v i d e evidence of p e r s o n a l involvement as w e l l as s u c c e s s f u l performance s h o u l d be encouraged s i n c e they tend t o r e s u l t i n both academic and a t t r i b u t i o n a l development. (p. 3066A) Based upon Cronbach and Snow's ATI model, Cosner, and S p i e s (1980) r e p o r t e d t h e o r i e s and assessment was  at  instruments  the community c o l l e g e l e v e l .  Chandler,  for  Attribution  d i s c u s s e d , and a l t h o u g h no c o m m e r c i a l l y produced  student theory  instrument  39  is  available,  recommend  Cosner  matching  instructional was  et  a l . report  student  approach.  academic  Using  with  attributions  students  of  instruction  exhibiting  was  more  attributions  at a h i g h e r l e v e l i n a l e c t u r e c o u r s e .  An was  and  internal-effort  a t t r i b u t i o n s , while students with external-context performed  which  an e x p e r i m e n t a l i n s t r u m e n t , i t  found t h a t a p e r s o n a l i z e d system  compatible  tentative findings  i n n o v a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y p r i n c i p l e s  d e s c r i b e d by Legare  a guide i n  the  evaluating  (1980): the use of a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y as  collection  the  and  effectiveness  I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g success causal  interpretation  explanations  of  of  or  failure  participants  been  by  different  of can  Guidelines for a t t r i b u t i o n  for a manipulated  data  educational  questionnaire. provided  of  a be  programs. program  Causal  s t r u c t u r e d independent  After  careful  r a t i n g s c a l e s were found t o  by have  attributions  s u c c e s s - f a i l u r e event were c o l l e c t e d instruments.  and  obtained  questionnaires  E l i g and F r i e z e (1979).  measuring  when  on  five  comparisons, be  superior  t o open-ended or i p s a t i v e measures. Summary and c o n c l u s i o n s The  ATI  approach  appears t o be a v i a b l e method of  i n the a r e a of v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n . be  given  to  designing  t r e a t m e n t s which, u s i n g approximate (1976)  the  the  (the  the  (1972)  treatments.  hypothesis lower  defining  Salomon's  preferential  general  achievement,  and  Careful  higher  attention  two  must  instructional  models, According the  inquiry  level  would to  most  Tobias' of  prior  i n s t r u c t i o n a l support r e q u i r e d t o  40  accomplish designed  instructional for  the  present  v o c a b u l a r y achievement aptitude appears  objectives), study  level.  The  the  are  two  l i k e l y to interact with  i n c l u s i o n of a t t i t u d e  v a r i a b l e i s f o r e x p l o r a t o r y reasons. t o have impact on l e a r n i n g  Drummond,  Smith,  &  Pinette,  (Daniels 1975;  R o d r i g u e z , 1981) and i s most commonly Internal-External  Locus  of  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o c u s of c o n t r o l . emphasize performance,  personal  involvement  &  measured  evaluation  as recommended by Duby (1981).  1976;  &  Dyer,  1978;  by  The  effort.  to  the  internal  Rotter  A t t r i b u t i o n theory and  as  encourage  a  measure  treatments successful  Therefore, students  i n both t r e a t m e n t s s h o u l d a t t r i b u t e t h e i r success i n development  an  Stevens,  Both i n s t r u c t i o n a l and  as  Locus of c o n t r o l  Fisher  Control Scale.  can be used both as a b a s i s f o r  treatments  characteristics  of  vocabulary ability  and  41  CHAPTER I I I DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY • The p r e s e n t relationships  study  uses  between  in a  community interaction  reading  college.  methods  and  study  Although  analysis,  included i n t h i s  methodology  to  investigate  s p e c i f i c l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and two  vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n a l units  ATI  an  introduced skills  t h e ATI  uninstructed  as  course approach  supplementary offered  in a  focuses  on  c o n t r o l group was a l s o  study. Sample  Treatment groups S t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n two r e a d i n g and study during  the f a l l  as  treatment  group  subjects  for this  The day and evening r e a d i n g and study s k i l l s c o u r s e s a r e  o f f e r e d by t h e C o l l e g e F o u n d a t i o n s 11  courses  1981 term a t Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , K i n g  Edward Campus, served study.  skills  credit  i n an  a d u l t secondary  D i v i s i o n and both c a r r y grade program l e a d i n g t o a B r i t i s h  Columbia grade 12 e q u i v a l e n c y c e r t i f i c a t e .  Course d e s c r i p t i o n s  from t h e K i n g Edward c a l e n d a r a r e as f o l l o w s : Reading & Study S k i l l s 077. An i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c o u r s e , Reading & Study Skills 077 i s d e s i g n e d to help s t u d e n t s whose r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i s weak, t o p r a c t i s e and d e v e l o p t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f i c i e n t r e a d i n g and studying. L e c t u r e time i s l i m i t e d ; most of t h e f i v e hours per week a r e spent working i n the laboratory. P r e r e q u i s i t e : A d e s i r e t o improve one's  42  r e a d i n g and a score of 79 or M a c G i n i t i e Reading Assessment.  lower  on  the  Gates-  Reading & Study Skills 097. T h i s course h e l p s the s t u d e n t who can read r e a s o n a b l y w e l l to become e f f i c i e n t i n a l l r e a d i n g and study a r e a s . The student l e a r n s a v a r i e t y of methods i n d e a l i n g w i t h p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , as well as some basic skills in r e a d i n g / w r i t i n g work. A t t e n t i o n a l s o i s given to speed. P r e r e q u i s i t e : A s c o r e of 80 or h i g h e r on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Assessment, or c o m p l e t i o n of Reading & Study S k i l l s 077. Note: Students do not have t o take both Reading & Study S k i l l s 077 and 097. C r e d i t i s g r a n t e d f o r one or the o t h e r , not both. Five  sections  of the 077 c o u r s e , one  Study S k i l l s 097, and one during  the  077-097  mixed  s e c t i o n of Reading  section  were  &  offered  f a l l term.  E n r o l l m e n t i n the seven s e c t i o n s ranged  from 10 t o 21 s t u d e n t s .  I n t a c t c l a s s e s were a s s i g n e d t o each of  the two t r e a t m e n t s , a t t e m p t i n g t o equate the groups i n terms day-evening  classes,  0.77-097  s t u d e n t s , and sample s i z e .  e x p e r i e n c e d r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s i n s t r u c t e d the study s k i l l s  seven  of Four  reading  and  sections.  C o n t r o l group A living  person's in  accelerated maturational vocabulary  a  vocabulary  social within  increases  environment;  merely as a f u n c t i o n of  that  increase  an e d u c a t i o n a l environment.  factor  a  control  instruction,  was  group,  included  Students  i n the c o n t r o l group were e n r o l l e d  evening  sections  courses  and  improvement.  of  beginning  received Class  no  and  direct  l i s t s were  further  To o f f s e t  receiving in  is  no  special  the p r e s e n t in  three  this  study. day  and  i n t e r m e d i a t e touch t y p i n g  instruction  in  vocbulary  c r o s s - c h e c k e d t o a s s u r e t h a t no  43  students  were  concurrently  enrolled  s k i l l s course and e i t h e r of the t y p i n g  in a  r e a d i n g and study  courses.  Instructional Strategies Two eight-week u n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n were  developed  l i t e r a t u r e on procedures experience have  a  based  upon  vocabulary  which  were  likely  teaching i n the f i e l d .  of  skills  the p r o f e s s i o n a l  methods,  consideration  of  t o i n t e r a c t w i t h a p t i t u d e s , and The i n s t r u c t i o n a l  treatments  common o b j e c t i v e - - t o i n c r e a s e . r e a d i n g vocabulary--and  the nature  present  synthesis  teaching  number of common components. in  i n vocabulary  those  D i f f e r e n c e s i n the treatments  a  are  of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k s and m a t e r i a l s used t o  tasks.  Treatment A (newspaper-context) c e n t e r e d around t h e use of a  daily  newspaper,  i n t e r n a l l o c u s of required  intending  control  t h a t the student  each day f o r v o c a b u l a r y  students.  used  The  on s t r e n g t h s of  instructional  task  s e l e c t t h r e e words from the newspaper  study; t h i s s e l f - s e l e c t i o n task f o s t e r e d  independent d e c i s i o n making. student  to capitalize  A f t e r s e l e c t i n g study  words, the  a d i c t i o n a r y t o complete a s e c t i o n of a r e c o r d i n g  form (see Appendix B) f o r each word, then c o n s t r u c t e d a sentence u s i n g t h e new word.  Teachers o f f e r e d a s s i s t a n c e  upon  but d i d not mark or e v a l u a t e the s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y Treatment  B  (wordlist-association)  e x e r c i s e s developed e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h i s consisted  vocabulary  Each  exercise  of t h i r t y words, v a r y i n g i n d i f f i c u l t y , which were t o  be c l a s s i f i e d i n one of t h r e e r e l a t e d c a t e g o r i e s . more  work.  used  study.  request,  structured  than  i n - Treatment  A,  and  The task  was  was  designed t o  44  f a c i l i t a t e learning for external  locus  of  control  students.  A f t e r c l a s s i f y i n g the t h i r t y words s t u d e n t s were g i v e n immediate feedback  by  marking  t h e i r own  papers.  Next, they chose t h r e e  words f o r i n t e n s i v e study and completed a Appendix  recording  A) s i m i l a r t o t h a t used i n Treatment A.  were then s u b m i t t e d t o i n s t r u c t o r s f o r marking.  form  The e x e r c i s e s Structure  imposed i n Treatment B by the m a t e r i a l s used (word l i s t as  opposed  (marking  to  of  s e l f - s e l e c t i n g words) and by t e a c h e r  monitoring  sentences).  of c o u r s e , be exposed t o l a r g e r bodies of d i s c o u r s e experimental  period.  However,  v o c a b u l a r y u n i t used o n l y leaving  an  since  one-fourth  additional  the  of  ninety  the  two  minutes  was  of  not  d i s c o u r s e encountered expected  to  effect  would,  during  thirty  the  minute  hour of  i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e a d i n g improvement each day, the amount  was  provided  Students a s s i g n e d to Treatment A (newspaper-context)  period,  (see  class  time  difference  for in  d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d  performance  on  the  vocabulary  achievement outcome measure. Both  treatments  p r a c t i c e i n sentence review.  required  use  of  c o n s t r u c t i o n , and  a dictionary, afforded provided  for  regular  In a d d i t i o n , both t r e a t m e n t s were i n n o v a t i v e , departed  from the t r a d i t i o n a l workbook approach,  and  were  designed  to  motivate adult students. All  students  in  the  reading  and  study  skills  courses  clues  during  r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e d u s i n g  context  the  In a d d i t i o n , a g e n e r a l  week  dictionary  before skills  the experiment unit  preceded  began. the  treatment  exercises,  45  introducing  students  to  entry  format of The O x f o r d Paperback  D i e t i o n a r y (1979) and i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n  key;  individual  of  t h a t ~ d i c t i o n a r y were a v a i l a b l e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m  use  throughout t h e study.  Development of e x p e r i m e n t a l The  vocabulary  association major  categories  were  which  (beginning-middle-end, compiling  developed were  (Dale  &  by  O'Rourke,  related  in  was  list-  s e l e c t i n g three some  dimension  etc.),  category. 1976)  the word  first  happy-sad-angry,  l i s t s of words f o r each  Vocabulary  f o r student  materials  e x e r c i s e s f o r Treatment B,  method,  copies  and  The then  then  Living  Word  consulted  determine t h e grade l e v e l a t which t h e s p e c i f i c meaning of of  the words c o u l d be r e a d i l y u n d e r s t o o d .  The i n i t i a l  t h i r t y words chosen f o r each e x e r c i s e r e p r e s e n t e d ranging  from  each  l i s t of  grade  levels  4 t o 16, w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y of words a t t h e grades  10 and 12 l e v e l s .  The e x e r c i s e s were t e s t e d i n two s e c t i o n s  the  study  reading  and  summer 1981 term. and  skills  Students were q u i t e r e c e p t i v e t o  some e x e r c i s e s were t o t a l l y  of  c o u r s e s d u r i n g t h e K i n g Edward  r e q u i r e d t a s k s ; however, 25-35 percent  order  to  unfamiliar  t o make the task l e s s f o r m i d a b l e ,  to  the  format  of the l i s t words on the  students.  In  and so t h a t i t c o u l d be  a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h i n the time a l l o t m e n t , the d i f f i c u l t y  level  of  the e x e r c i s e s was lowered by r e p l a c i n g some grade 12, 13, and 16 words  w i t h lower grade l e v e l words.  used w i t h s t u d e n t s and  The r e v i s e d e x e r c i s e s were  i n a t h i r d r e a d i n g and study  found t o be a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y d i f f i c u l t y  skills  level.  section  46  Median grade l e v e l s f o r the f i n a l s e t of f o u r t e e n  exercises  ranged from 8.50 t o 11.27; mean grade l e v e l s ranged from 8.03 t o 10.57, w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y of e x e r c i s e s ( e i g h t of f o u r t e e n )  at the  grade  general  9  level.  categories content  The  while area  seven  t h e remaining  reading  s t u d i e s , s c i e n c e , and median,  first  seven  vocabulary: math.  exercises  categories  business,  Categories,  contain  health,  social  level  range,  grade  and mean f o r each e x e r c i s e a r e r e p o r t e d  represent  i n T a b l e 4, and  c o p i e s of t h e e x e r c i s e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A.  47  T a b l e 4.  Treatment B e x e r c i s e s : c a t e g o r i e s , grade l e v e l ranges, and a v e r a g e d i f f i c u l t y o f w o r d s i n e a c h e x e r c i s e 1  Exercise No.  Categories  Range  Median  Mean  1  happy/sad/angry  4- 1 6  10. 44  9. 33  2  beginning/middle/end  4- 1 6  10. 1 7  8. 70  3  f r iend/enemy/stranger  4- 1 3  8. 83  8. 03  4  past/present/future  4- 1 6  10. 38  9. 27  5  female/male/male female  4- 1 6  10. 50  9. 27  6  foolish/worthless/cruel  4- 1 6  9. 1 4  9. 07  7  taste/touch/smell  4- 16  9. 00  8. 97  8  labor-management/ insurance/investments  4- 16  1 1 .27  10. 25  9  government/education religion  4- 16  10. 75  9. 70  10  data processing/economics real estate  4-•16  10..83  9.,86  1 1  air travel/land water t r a v e l  4-•16  8.,50  9.,20  12  nutrition/stress/fitness  4-•16  8.,65  8..53  13  music/art/literature  4--16  8.,90  9..07  14  h i s t o r y / s c ience/math  6 - -16  10,.75  10,.57  ^rade levels O'Rourke, 1976).  from  or  travel/  The  Living  Word  Vocabulary  (Dale  &  48  Treatment  A  Based internal Using  on  the  research  l o c u s of c o n t r o l  a  daily  vocabulary  for  were  to select  encouraged  totally part  familiar unknown  of  the  difficult class each  words.  day.  of A  recording  study  words  form  the  word  appropriate Copy  4.  Before  as  you  meanings  and  from  that  were  complete  a  t h e more page.  was  for  any  A  available  use  in  to select  this three  section  of  the  study  on  the  occurs  and  follows: have  chosen  to  line.  the e n t i r e  underline 3.  word  then  be  editorial  designed  Students may  chosen  Province  Students  per day,  f o r each  Write  B).  the  A.  partial  they  advised  o f The  was  be  that  words f o r  assume  exact  could  were on  own  which  their  words  found  their  development.  with  students  form  vocabulary  2.  know  the c u r r e n t e d i t i o n  Appendix  1.  don't  are usually  (see  recording  words  expected Treatment  they  vocabulary  Although  treatment  that  both  newspaper,  words  set  but  own  prefer  selected  required  their  i t was  would  students  which  responsibility  somewhat  students  newspaper,  study,  literature,  sentence  t h e word  look ing  up  i n which  t h e word  in question. t h e word,  and  try  to determine  down  your  prediction.  Find  t h e word  (a)  copy  the p r o n u n c i a t i o n ,  (b)  copy  the e n t i r e  (c)  list  "other  i n your  what  read  t h e word  dictionary  dictionary  forms  of  the sentence might  carefully  mean.  Write  and  definition,  t h e word"  i f any  and are  listed.  49  5.  R e r e a d t h e newspaper s e n t e n c e underline sentence  the  definition  Check your  7.  Compose and w r i t e y o u r  complete during  which  word  and  seems t o c l a r i f y  the  best.  6.  Students  c o n t a i n i n g the  prediction  were  allowed  o f what  a  sentence  maximum  t h e above a s s i g n m e n t , the experimental  own  t h e word m i g h t mean.  of  w h i c h was  period, with  u s i n g t h e word. thirty  repeated  each  fifth  minutes  fourteen  to  times  p e r i o d used f o r  review. Treatment  B  Treatment to  maximize  Structured students,  achievement vocabulary  classify completing  words the  the l i s t  sheet,  the  with  word  instructions 1.  externally exercises  carefully  each  into  the  each  task  categories. the  paper,  study.  feedback  list  the  student then  received three  concerning  and r e c o r d e d  sentence,  to  After  selected  Information  concerning  Students  fourteen  words, l i s t e d i n  on  the  using  each  providing  the  c o n s t r u c t e d a sentence  marked  question.  The  f o r the  a two-step procedure  related  h i s own  student  when c o m p l e t i n g  Write  used  designed  students.  provided  thirty  located in a dictionary  additional in  three  were  monitored.  contained  for intensive  word, and t h e i n s t r u c t o r student  oriented  by m a r k i n g  t h r e e words was  exercise  for  classification  feedback  words from  method, was  o r d e r , and t h e s t u d e n t  the  immediate  was  exercises  alphabetical  list-association  study  and p r o g r e s s  vocabulary  the  B, t h e word  h i s understanding  were  to  follow  of  these  the v o c a b u l a r y e x e r c i s e s :  word under  one of t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ,  50  u s i n g a two-step p r o c e d u r e : (a)  F i r s t , go through the l i s t and f o r the words you  already  know,  that  w r i t e them i n the a p p r o p r i a t e  category. (b)  Then, go back and look up your  dictionary  and  the  add  unknown  them  to  the  upper  words  in  the c a t e g o r y  lists. 2.  Mark your paper by f o l d i n g down  comparing your responses t o the answer 3.  Choose  three  words  from  third  key.  the l i s t t h a t you missed or  words whose meanings you a r e unsure o f , and in  and  list  them  the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s on the back of t h i s e x e r c i s e  sheet. 4.  For each word, f i n d i t i n your d i c t i o n a r y and (a)  copy the p r o n u n c i a t i o n .  (b)  copy the e n t i r e d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n ,  (c)  list  and  "other forms of the word" i f any a r e l i s t e d .  5.  Compose and w r i t e your own sentence u s i n g the word.  6.  Submit your paper  Again,  students  were  to  allowed  your a  instructor  for  marking.  maximum of t h i r t y minutes t o  complete each of the f o u r t e e n a s s i g n m e n t s .  Every  fifth  period  was used f o r r e v i e w . Design This  quasi-experimental  d e s i g n , w i t h two Intact  classes  treatments.  experimental were  assigned  study groups to  uses  a  pretest-posttest  and  a  control  each  of  the  group.  experimental  Independent v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d , language background,  51  vocabulary  achievement, r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e , and l o c u s of c o n t r o l .  Dependent v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d  post  vocabulary  achievement  and  post r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e f o r a l l groups w i t h a d d i t i o n a l measures o~f s a t i s f a c t i o n and a t t r i b u t i o n f o r the two e x p e r i m e n t a l  groups.  A p t i t u d e and outcome measures Three  aptitude  measures were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e x p e r i m e n t a l  and c o n t r o l groups d u r i n g the f i r s t week of the study. 1.  Vocabulary  achievement: The v o c a b u l a r y  Gates-MacGinitie  Reading  Tests,  Canadian E d i t i o n , was used as The  45-item  multiple  composed of a t e s t phrases; most  a  choice  word  subtest  Level  F,  vocabulary test  followed  of t h e form  1,  measure.  c o n s i s t s of items by  five  words  or  s t u d e n t s choose the word or phrase t h a t means  nearly  Richardson  the  same  as  the  Formula 20 r e l i a b i l i t y  test  word.  Kuder-  c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the  norming group of 3500-4000 s t u d e n t s ranged from .85 t o .94. 2.  Reading  a t t i tude:  The  Mikulecky  Behavioral  A t t i t u d e Measure (MBRAM) was a d m i n i s t e r e d of r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e . consists  of  20  Reading  f o r a measure  A s e l f - r e p o r t measure, the MBRAM  statements,  each b r i e f l y d e s c r i b i n g a  s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g , which the student poles  of  responds t o on a 5-point VERY  s c a l e between  UNLIKE ME and VERY LIKE ME.  (1976) r e p o r t e d t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y initial study  norming (Tolsma,  of  the  1981),  instrument.  using  a  of  the  Mikulecky .91  during  A recent  • community  field  college  52  population  comparable  investigation, coefficient  to  reported  of .87  the  an  sample  in  estimated  this  reliability  (Cronbach's Alpha) f o r the a t t i t u d e  measure. 3.  Locus of C o n t r o l : The Control Scale control.  was  The  R o t t e r I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of  used  as  scale  is  a  measure  a  23-item  questionnaire with 6 additional f i l l e r the  external  reliabilities  direction.  of  locus  forced  and  choice  i t e m s , scored i n  Acceptable  ( i n the ,70's  of  test-retest  .80's) a r e r e p o r t e d i n  studies with college-age students  (Daniels  &  Stevens,  1976). Outcome  measures  f o l l o w i n g the s t u d y . Tests  was  repeated  1.  Form 2  administered of  the  during  for  a  Gates-MacGinit i e  p o s t - a t t i t u d e measure.  groups  completed  especially for t h i s Sat i s f a c t i o n : Evaluation  The  two  Students  additional  week  Reading  was  s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e (Vocabulary  A vocabulary  constructed  classification and  failure.  the  study:  Questionnaire,  A t t r ibut ion:  in  questionnaires  Appendix  based  scheme Four items were  Study  C) c o n s i s t e d of 7  items w i t h a 4-point L i k e r t - t y p e response 2.  the  used as a p o s t - v o c a b u l a r y measure, and the MBRAM was  experimental developed  were  format.  improvement a t t r i b u t i o n s c a l e upon  Weiner's  f o r p e r c e i v e d causes of with  a  included  4-point for  (1974a) success  Likert-type  response  format  each  quadrants,  r e s u l t i n g i n four s u b t e s t s : a b i l i t y ,  of  the  effort,  53  task  difficulty,  scored  in  and  the  luck.  internal  p o l a r i t y of responses on task  difficulty  p i l o t e d i n two c o u r s e , was  and  The  direction the  luck.  of  King  was  r e v e r s i n g the  external  The  attribution  s e c t i o n s of the r e a d i n g and  r e v i s e d on the b a s i s of those  subtests, scale,  study  skills  results,  and  D.  E n g l i s h i s the second language of a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n Edward  background adjusted  by  two  appears i n f i n a l form i n Appendix Since  questionnaire  was to  students,  information  concerning  language  c o l l e c t e d so t h a t r e s u l t s of the study c o u l d  account  for  variance  due  to  that  be  categorical  var i a b l e . Data A n a l y s i s The  data  were  analyzed  measurement i n s t r u m e n t s characteristics Laboratory  were  in  three  were scored  and  steps.  First,  reliability  and  1974).  Subprograms from the S t a t i s t i c a l  Sciences  (SPSS) ( N i e , H u l l , J e n k i n s , S t e i n b r e n n e r , to  test  determined by computer a n a l y s i s u s i n g  of Educat i o n Research Test A n a l y s i s Package  were used  all  tabulate  descriptive  the  (Nelson,  Package f o r the S o c i a l .  statistics  & Bent, and  1975)  calculate  c o r r e l a t i o n s between independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s . Second, consisted  of  hierarchical Regression  the  analysis  forward  to  detect  stepwise  inclusion,  again  main  e f f e c t s and  multiple using  an  regression SPSS  with  subprogram.  i s the p r e f e r r e d method of a n a l y s i s f o r ATI  Cronbach and  studies.  Snow (1977) s t a t e :  Regression  analysis  is  always  the  ATI's  method  of  54  choice. Past s t u d i e s have o f t e n r e l i e d on a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and have c l o u d e d t h e i r r e s u l t s i n so d o i n g . Even i n t h e extreme groups d e s i g n t o which i t i s logically appropriate, anova has no advantage, (p. 514-515) When a study uses m u l t i p l e has  several  data  analysis  outcome measures the  options.  In  researcher  t h i s study t h e four  outcome measures were c o n s i d e r e d s i n g l y as dependent this  i s a common c h o i c e of r e s e a r c h e r s because i t p r o v i d e s the  greatest  amount of d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r p r e t a b l e  Language background was the f i r s t e n t r y equation variable. (1)  O r t h o g o n a l c o d i n g was used t o make  Treatment  Pedhazur  A  versus  (1973),  raw  c o n t i n u o u s independent  Treatment  was  further  As  B,  and  recommended  deviation  the  scores  two  regression categorical  comparisons:  (2) Treatment A + by  were  Kerlinger used  for  and a l l  variables.  T h i r d , each a p t i t u d e two  of  results.  i n order to s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l for that  Treatment B v e r s u s C o n t r o l .  step  variables;  treatment examined  independent v a r i a b l e d e v i a t i o n then p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y  interaction  identified  by c o r r e l a t i n g r e s i d u a l s  scores.  This  relationship  f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Chapter IV.  in with is  55  CHAPTER IV RESULTS The  organization  analysis  steps  statistics (2)  of t h i s c h a p t e r p a r a l l e l s t h e . t h r e e data  outlined  concerning  regression  i n Chapter  the  III:  (1)  descriptive  sample and measurement i n s t r u m e n t s ,  analysis,  and  (3)  aptitude  treatment  interactions. Descriptive  Statistics  Sample One  hundred  thirty-four  students  completed  measures, r e s u l t i n g i n i n i t i a l sample s i z e s of Treatment  A,  50  55  the p r e t e s t students  in  i n Treatment B, and 29 i n the c o n t r o l group.  Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n was t a b u l a t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e sample and a n a l y z e d t o determine  c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the t h r e e  groups.  Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample a r e p r e s e n t e d Table  5.  The  composition  of the t h r e e groups was s i m i l a r i n  terms of age and e d u c a t i o n a l background. ranged  from  15  to  56  educational  represented.  levels  Ages of  the  students  y e a r s , w i t h a median age of 20.9. The  average s c h o o l grade completed of  in  (grade  was 10.71, a l t h o u g h a wide 7  range  t o u n i v e r s i t y graduates)  A m a j o r i t y of the s t u d e n t s  e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l as h a v i n g completed  (71.5%)  listed  grade .11 or lower.  was  their  56  Table 5.  Demographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample Group Trt.A n=55  Age  Trt.B n=50  Control n=29  Total n=!34  1 1 63 26  8 70 22  10 60 30  15 60 25  23 37 20 .20-  .2 0 34 16 30  0 34 22 42  18 35 19 28  62 13 5 2 18  70 6 2 0 22  61 20 3 7 9  65 12 4 2 17  male female  47 53  46 54  10 90  38 62  C l a s s time day n ight  80 20  72 28  55 44  72 28  under 18 y e a r s 18-25 y e a r s over 25 y e a r s  Educational background below grade 10 grade 10 grade 11 grade 12 and above  2  N a t i v e language English Chinese French Japanese Other Sex  'Frequencies have been c o n v e r t e d t o p e r c e n t a g e s . 2  L a s t grade completed. The  ratio  of  native  language (ESL) speakers  was  English also  speakers t o E n g l i s h second similar  across  the  three  57  groups.  English  was  the n a t i v e  s t u d e n t s i n Treatment A, 70 percent  i n the c o n t r o l  language  percent  group.  f o r 62 p e r c e n t of  i n Treatment When  B,  and 61  n a t i v e language of ESL  s t u d e n t s was t a b u l a t e d , the l a r g e s t group (34%) l i s t e d as f i r s t language l e a r n e d , f o l l o w e d by French Crossbreak showed  within  d i f f e r e n c e s between  t h e two  male-female  proportions  differences  between  of  the t h r e e  groups.  treatment groups the day-evening and  were  comparable.  the combined  c o n t r o l group, on these interpretation  (11%).  a n a l y s i s of two a t t r i b u t e s , sex and c l a s s t i m e ,  significant  However,  Chinese  two  Therefore,  treatment  dimensions,  would  groups  the  and the  not i n f l u e n c e  r e s u l t s i n treatment comparisons,  but s h o u l d  be noted i n t r e a t m e n t - c o n t r o l comparisons. The  r e g r e s s i o n model chosen f o r t h i s study employs  attitude independent  and  vocabulary  achievement  pretest  scores  as  v a r i a b l e s , e f f e c t i v e l y t r e a t i n g them as c o y a r i a t e s .  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was used t o compare means three  reading  groups  on the R o t t e r I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l S c a l e .  f o r the l o c u s of c o n t r o l p r e t e s t showed  no  f o r the The ANOVA  differences  across  the t h r e e groups, F(2,131) = .49, p > .05. P o s t t e s t d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f o r a t o t a l of 94 s t u d e n t s , 35 i n Treatment A, 38 i n Treatment B, and 21 i n t h e c o n t r o l group. The  posttest  data  j o i n e d the s e c t i o n s Complete  pre-post  included subsequent data  were  scores to  f o r f i v e s t u d e n t s who had the p r e t e s t i n g  sessions.  a v a i l a b l e , t h e n , f o r 89 s t u d e n t s  (A = 35, B = 37, C = 17), a 34 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n of the o r i g i n a l sample due t o a t t r i t i o n .  In  order  t o maximize  statistical  58  power, cases which had complete  data c o n c e r n i n g the v a r i a b l e s i n  q u e s t i o n were used i n the data a n a l y s e s which  follow.  A p t i t u d e and outcome measures Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , s t a n d a r d e r r o r s of measurement, and  internal  aptitude  and  consistency outcome  Reliabilities  for  the  reliability  measures  are  coefficients  presented  i n s t r u m e n t s ranged  from  w i t h i n an a c c e p t a b l e range f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s .  in  for a l l Table  .74 t o .92, a l l Although  1 and 2 of t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t a r e forms,  they  are  not  d i f f i c u l t than Form 1. they  were  not  norms  Vocabulary from  S i n c e the  counterbalanced  s t u d y ; t o do so would error.  equivalent.  have  Form forms  2 were  posttest.  forms  parallel  was s l i g h t l y more not  equivalent,  as p r e - and post t e s t s i n t h i s  introduced  s c o r e s i n T-score  additional  measurement  u n i t s (based upon t a b l e s of  the t e s t manual) a r e shown i n Table 7.  The  u n i t s more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the change i n s c o r e s from to  6.  T-score pretest  59  Table 6.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p t i t u d e  Instrument  and outcome measures  Mean  SD  SEM  r  Pretest  28.88  9.26  2.66  .92  134  Posttest  27.81  9.61  2.70  .92  94  Pretest  67.36  15.36  5.24  .88  134  Posttest  70.67  13.87  4.51  .89  94  Locus of c o n t r o l  8.57  4.07  2.02  .74  134  Satisfaction  20.16  4.09  1.40  .86  73  Attribution  47.15  5.80  2.59  .79  73  Vocabulary  1  n  achievement  Reading a t t i t u d e  'Internal consistency  reliability coefficient.  60  Table 7.  Mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , and sample s i z e by group on a l l measuring i n s t r u m e n t s f o r cases used i n r e g r e s s i o n analysis 1  Groups Instrument  A  B  C  A+B  A+B+C  Vocabulary pretest (T-scores)  46. 97 (9. 83) n = 35  52 .84 ( 14.47) n = 37  48. 53 (13. 53) n= 1 7  50. 03 (12.73) n = 72  49.74 (12.82) n = 89  Vocabulary posttest (T-scores)  47. 66 (9. 87) n= 35  53.63 (11.07) n = 38  45. 38 (13. 53) n = 21  50.77 (10.86) n = 73  49.56 (11.65) n = 94  Reading a t t i t u d e 63. 80 (14. 28) pretest n = 35 (raw s c o r e s )  70.57 (15.68) n = 37  71 .53 (13. 55) n=1 7  67.28 (15.29) n = 72  68.09 (15.00) n = 89  Reading a t t i t u d e 67. 66 (13. 92) posttest n =35 (raw s c o r e s )  73.45 (13.41) n = 38  72. 52 (14. 25) n = 21  70.67 (13.87) n = 73  71 .09 (13.90) n = 94  Locus of c o n t r o l pretest (raw s c o r e s )  9. 57 (3. 78) n= 35  8.70 (3.61) n = 37  8. 53 (3. 76) n =17  9.13 (3.70) n = 72  9.01 (3.69) n = 89  Satisfaction posttest (raw s c o r e s )  20. 1 4 (4. 14) n =:35  20. 18 (4.10) n = 38  20. 1 6 (4.09) n = 73  A t t r ibut ion posttest (raw s c o r e s )  45. 86 (6. 07) n == 35  48.34 (5.34) n = 38  47 . 1 5 (5.80) n = 73  1  S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e shown i n p a r e n t h e s e s .  61  In t a b l e 7 the sample i s a l s o p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o groups which served  as  units  on  mean comparisons. treatment  the various regression analyses, a l l o w i n g  The  groups  (A  mean  and  vocabulary  scores  decreased  sample (A + B + C ) .  f o r the two  B) and t h e combined treatment  (A + B) show s l i g h t i n c r e a s e s from p r e mean  scores  groups  to p o s t t e s t i n g ,  while  f o r the c o n t r o l group (C) and the t o t a l  Post  reading  attitude  mean  scores  are  h i g h e r than p r e t e s t means on a l l groups and group c o m b i n a t i o n s . Locus  of  control  mean s c o r e s a r e h i g h e s t i n treatment group A  ( 9 . 5 7 ) , almost one p o i n t lower f o r treatment group B ( 8 . 7 0 ) , and j u s t s i g h t l y lower (8.53) i n group C. for  S a t i s f a c t i o n mean  scores  t h e two treatment groups a r e n e a r l y e q u a l , i n d i c a t i n g  that,  o v e r a l l , t h e t r e a t m e n t s were e q u i v a l e n t i n terms of i n t e r e s t and affective  impact.  students  According  to  attribution  scale  means,  i n Treatment B a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y improvement  more t o i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than d i d s t u d e n t s i n Treatment A. Correlations shown i n Table 8.  among  aptitudes  and  outcome  v a r i a b l e s are  A r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .46) i s  shown between v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t s ; the between lower  correlation  t h e same two v a r i a b l e s as p o s t t e s t measures i s somewhat  (r = . 3 2 ) . s t r o n g e r than a n t i c i p a t e d .  correlates  negatively  with  Locus  a l l variables,  with  of  control  strongest  r e l a t i o n s h i p s shown w i t h r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t ( r = -.27) and reading however,  attitude that  posttest  the l o c u s  (r = -.28). of  control  e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n , which accounts  I t must scale  be  noted,  i s scored i n the  f o r negative c o r r e l a t i o n s .  62  Correlations upon  only  the  Correlations  among a p t i t u d e two  and  outcome  measures,  treatment groups, are p r e s e n t e d i n Table  among the  first  five variables  d i f f e r only  of  the two  treatment-specific  and  a t t r i b u t i o n ) creates correlate and  relationship  (r = . 1 0 ) ,  post-attitude  with s a t i s f a c t i o n in  the  interesting  r e l a t i v e l y highly  Satisfaction  relationships  dependent v a r i a b l e s  a  but  scored).  correlate  pretest  and  relationship  correlations  direction.  general  the  the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ,  with  (r = -.20)  a t t i t u d e are p u z z l i n g .  (r = .32).  are  In  moderately  indicating  satisfaction.  is  shown  l o c u s of c o n t r o l  between  appear to be u n r e l a t e d (r = .04) attitude  .35).  the o t h e r four v a r i a b l e s  ( i n t e r n a l l y scored) and The  two  positive  of a t t r i b u t i o n , appear to be m i n i m a l ,  moderate  attribution  The  slight  negative  a  l i t t l e correspondence between achievement and A  (satisfaction  w i t h each o t h e r (r =  between s a t i s f a c t i o n and  exception  Addition  relationships.  show  9.  slightly  from those r e p o r t e d i n Table 8 f o r the e n t i r e sample.  scales  based  attribution  A t t r i b u t i o n and while  correlated  T h i s apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c y  (externally and  may  a  attitude  pre-attitude  attribution in  between  and  positive i n d i c a t e an  post-  direction ATI.  63  Table 8.  Intercorrelations and r e l i a b i l i t y coefficients of aptitude variables and c o r r e l a t i o n s with outcome v a r i a b l e s , treatment and c o n t r o l groups 1  Variable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Vocabulary pretest Attitude pretest Locus of c o n t r o l Vocabulary posttest Attitude posttest 1  2  (.92)  3 .46 (.88)  4  -.12 -.27 (.74)  5  .93 .42 -.17 (.92)  .37 .65 -.28 .32 (.89)  R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e shown i n p a r e n t h e s e s .  Table 9.  Intercorrelations and r e l i a b i l i t y coefficients of aptitude variables and c o r r e l a t i o n s with outcome v a r i a b l e s , treatment groups o n l y  Variable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  1  V o c a b u l a r y , pre A t t i t u d e , pre Locus of c o n t r o l V o c a b u l a r y , post A t t i t u d e , post Sat i s f a c t i o n Attribution  1  1 (.92)  2  3  4  5  .33 .91 .51 -.16 ( .88) -.25 .44 .62 ( .74) -.18 -.29 (.92) .25 ( .89)  R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e shown i n  6  7  -.12 ,25 -.16 .04 -.05 -.20 -.10 .23 .1 0 .32 (.86) .35 ( .79)  parentheses.  64  Regression A n a l y s i s  A g e n e r a l i z e d r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was performed on each the  four  dependent v a r i a b l e s .  The r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e chosen  was a f o r w a r d s t e p w i s e procedure so t h a t the amount of accounted  f o r would  equation.  A  variables  were  (English  personality to  computed  hierarchical always  first  (vocabulary  be  or  as  model  ordered second  pretest),  was the  ( l o c u s of c o n t r o l ) .  as . a  e n t e r e d the  and  independent  prior  achievement  ( r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t ) , and T h i s sequence  was  established  F i r s t , entering  language  controlling  the magnitude  background/criterion variable relationship and  term  used,  s t e p i s comparable t o  covariate;  variance  same: language background  r e f l e c t two purposes of the s t u d y .  variable  each  language),  attitude  background i n the f i r s t  of  can  the  that  language  be  established  " p a r t i a l l e d out" a t the onset of the a n a l y s i s .  Second, the  r e m a i n i n g t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s were o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g p r e d i c t e d o v e r a l l impact on v o c a b u l a r y improvement to  of  e x p l a i n v a r i a n c e i n the c r i t e r i o n As  to  i n an attempt  variables.  recommended by Cronbach and Snow (1977), v a r i a b l e s were  added i n t h r e e s e t s : (1) a p t i t u d e s , (2) treatment c o n t r a s t s , and (3)  ATI  terms.  background  Effect  variable,  coding  made  by  creating  weighted f o r unequal differences  between  used  f o r the  language  and d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s were e n t e r e d f o r the  r e m a i n i n g t h r e e independent were  was  variables.  two  sample  Treatment  orthogonal size.  Treatment  contrasts  Comparison A  and  comparisons  1  Treatment  which were tests for B,  while  65  comparison 2 compares t h e combined treatment groups, A + B, w i t h the  control  multiplying  group,  C.  aptitude  Interaction  deviation  terms  scores  by  are presented  by  comparison codes.  C o r r e l a t i o n s between a l l v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d analyses  a r e computed  i n the  regression  i n Appendix E.  Vocabulary Variance  i n vocabulary  achievement accounted f o r by main  e f f e c t s and ATI's i s shown i n Table summary  tables  of  regression  accounted f o r 91.61 percent in  vocabulary  posttest  posttest  scores  can  (see Appendix  analyses).  The  scores,  indicating  accurately  be  Language background  accounting  of v a r i a n c e  Adding r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e and l o c u s of r e s u l t e d i n only a s l i g h t  testing  of  significant  accounting the  vocabulary  a  substantial  of the f u l l model As e x p e c t e d , p r i o r  (F = 559.76, p < .01).  control  to  the  f o r only  1.10  percent  (F = 5.37,  Comparison  2,  of v a r i a n c e ,  p < .05)  vocabulary •control effect  .01  the level  mean f o r the combined treatment groups on t h e  p o s t t e s t , 50.77, was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  group  showed  contrasting  t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l groups, was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the The  equation  increase i n p r e d i c t i o n p r e c i s i o n .  comparisons  differences.  (F = 9.34).  model  p r e t e s t ) i s t h e s i n g l e best p r e d i c t o r ,  f o r 63.50 percent  Although  that  had  v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by t h a t v a r i a b l e . (vocabulary  full  p r e d i c t e d from t h e  impact upon p r e d i c t e d s c o r e s , as 25.85 percent  achievement  F for  (F = 57.68, p < .01) of the v a r i a n c e  quite  independent v a r i a b l e s .  10  mean  of  f o r treatment.  higher  than  the  45.53 (see Table 7 ) , i n d i c a t i n g a main Comparison  1,  contrasting  the  two  66  treatment  groups,  was  not  equally effective in increasing The e n t i r e of  variance  attitude  by comparison  in  vocabulary  2, was  and w i l l be f u r t h e r  t h i s chapter.  the  treatments were  v o c a b u l a r y achievement.  set of ATI terms accounted  percent  (F = 5.37)  significant;  for  scores.  less One  than  interaction,  found s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 d i s c u s s e d i n the ATI  one  section  level of  67  T a b l e 10.  Variable  Summary of regression achievement: main e f f e c t s c o n t r o l groups  i n regression  df  analysis and ATI,  % variance accounted f o r  of v o c a b u l a r y t r e a t m e n t and  F  sig.  14  91.61  57.68  .01  4  89..66  224.48  .01  1 1 1 1  25.85 63.50 .02 .29  227.88 559.76 .16 2.57  .01 .01  2  1.10  5.37  .05  A v e r s u s B (C1)  1  .04  .34  A + B v e r s u s C (C2)  1  1 .06  9.34  8  .85  .93  .00 .00 .02 .00 .61 .08 .03 .09  .04 .04 .19 .04 5.37 .72 .29 .77  F u l l model Aptitudes Language background Vocabulary pretest Reading a t t i t u d e Locus of c o n t r o l Comparisons  A l l ATI Language background x C1 Language background x C2 Vocabulary x Cl V o c a b u l a r y x C2 A t t i t u d e x C2 A t t i t u d e x C1 Locus of c o n t r o l x C2 Locus of c o n t r o l x C1 Residual  74  8.40  .01  .05  Reading a t t i t u d e As  shown  in  Table  11,  just  over  half  (50.83%) of  the  v a r i a n c e i n r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e p o s t t e s t s c o r e s can be e x p l a i n e d the a p t i t u d e , t r e a t m e n t ,  and ATI  s e t s of terms i n the r e g r e s s i o n  e q u a t i o n , and  the f u l l model i s s i g n i f i c a n t  (F = 5.46).  The  however,  at  accounted  for  of v a r i a n c e .  percent  was  the  less  than  strongest  of v a r i a n c e  vocabulary  .01  Language  one  percent  v a r i a n c e , i n d i c a t i n g l i t t l e impact on r e a d i n g attitude  the  level  a p t i t u d e set of v a r i a b l e s (F = 19.12, p <  accounted f o r 44.76 p e r c e n t  predictor,  (F = 42.45, p < .01).  pretest  scores  (F = 22.39,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y to p r e d i c t i o n . p r e d i c t o r of r e a d i n g  by  background, of f u l l  attitude.  accounting The  .01)  model Prior  for  28.21  contribution  p < .01)  Locus of c o n t r o l was  also not a  of  added strong  attitude.  N e i t h e r df the comparisons between groups were s i g n i f i c a n t . Apparently  reading  membership.  The  variance,  nearly  attitude  set of ATI  was  not  affected  terms accounted f o r 5.97  12 p e r c e n t  by comparison 2 (F = 3.74,  p <  .10).  group  percent  of the f u l l model v a r i a n c e .  o n l y one of the e i g h t terms d e t e c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t vocabulary  by  of Again  interaction,  69  Table 11  Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e : main e f f e c t s and ATI, treatment and c o n t r o l groups  Variable in regression  df  Full  14  sig,  50.83  5.46  01  44.76  19.12  01  .22 1 4.88 28.21 1 .45  .33 22.39 42.45 2.19  01 01  2  .09  .08  A v e r s u s B (C1)  1  .02  .03  A + B v e r s u s C (C2)  1  .07  .1 1  model  Aptitudes Language background Vocabulary p r e t e s t Reading a t t i t u d e Locus of c o n t r o l Compar i sons  All  % variance accounted f o r  5.97  ATI  08 94 48 80 40 ,17 .08 ,02  Language background Cl Language background C2 V o c a b u l a r y x C2 V o c a b u l a r y x C1 A t t i t u d e x C1 A t t i t u d e x C2 Locus of c o n t r o l x C2 Locus of c o n t r o l x C1 Res i d u a l  74  49. 1 7  1.12 12 42 74 71 60 26 , 1 1 .02  10  70  Sat i s f a c t i o n The groups  s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o at  t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e s t u d y .  both  treatment  The s c a l e was d e s i g n e d  to determine  whether the s t u d e n t s found the v o c a b u l a r y e x e r c i s e s  interesting  and  regression  worthwhile.  analysis  The  accounted  variables  f o r only  8.8  entered  i n the  percent  of .the  v a r i a n c e i n s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s , as r e p o r t e d i n Table 12. a students' scores prediction  on  a l l predictor  of s a t i s f a c t i o n cannot  variables,  be made.  groups.  A, The  exercises  two  20.14 f o r  groups,  then,  perceived  their  treatment  almost e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g and w o r t h w h i l e . related  p r i o r vocabulary a b i l i t y ,  or l o c u s of c o n t r o l ATI's.  was  20.18 f o r Treatment B, and 20.16 f o r the combined  s a t i s f a c t i o n appeared t o be background,  accurate  C o n s u l t i n g Table 7,  i t can be seen t h a t the s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e mean Treatment  an  Given  very . l i t t l e initial  to  Degree of language  reading a t t i t u d e ,  (see Table 9 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e were  no  71  Table 12.  Variable  Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of s a t i s f a c t i o n : main e f f e c t s and ATI, t r e a t m e n t groups o n l y  in regression  df  % variance accounted f o r  sig,  F u l l model  8.88  .67  Aptitudes  5.51  94  3.54 .21 1 .32 .44  2.41 .14 1 .32 .30  Language background Vocabulary p r e t e s t Reading a t t i t u d e Locus of c o n t r o l Treatment C o n t r a s t All  (C1)  1 1  ATI Lang, background x C1 V o c a b u l a r y x C1 A t t i t u d e x Cl Locus of c o n t r o l x C1  Residual  1 1 1 1 62  .07  3.26  .55  . 14 .29 .03 2.80  .1 0 .20 .02 1 .90  91.12  72  Attribution As  shown i n Table 13, t h e f u l l  produce  a  statistically  (F = 1.89).  regression  model  significant prediction  d i d not  for attribution  A t o t a l of 21.49 p e r c e n t of v a r i a n c e i n a t t r i b u t i o n  s c o r e s was accounted f o r by the model, w i t h t h a t amount approximately sets  of  equally  variables.  attribution  between a p t i t u d e Reading  scores  (less  (9.53%) and ATI (10.05%)  attitude  than  divided  was  not  related  to  .01 p e r c e n t v a r i a n c e accounted  f o r ) and language background accounted f o r l e s s than one p e r c e n t (.35%) of v a r i a n c e .  The  aptitudes,  p < .10)  contributed  s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the p r e d i c t i o n .  variance  than  of  the  variables aptitude  opposed t o 9.53 p e r c e n t . for  attitude  statistically  by  locus  two  (F = 3.85,  The ATI . s e t  and  remaining  of c o n t r o l  accounted  treatment  (F = 3.39, p < .10)  for slightly  s e t of v a r i a b l e s ,  The s t r o n g e s t  vocabulary  more  10.05 p e r c e n t as  interaction  was  found  (F =. 4.06, p < .05). A l e s s e r but  s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 3.39,  p < .10)  interaction  r e v e a l e d by the l o c u s of c o n t r o l by treatment term.  was  73  Table 13.  Variable  Summary of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of a t t r i b u t i o n s c o r e s : main e f f e c t s and ATI, t r e a t m e n t groups o n l y  in regression  df  % variance accounted f o r  sig  F u l l model  21 .49  1 .89  Apt i tudes  9.53  1 .88  .35 4.88 -04.29  .28 3.85 -03.39  1 .92  1.51  1 0.05  1 .98  1 .50 .24 5.15 3.16  1.18 .1 9 4.06 3.39  Language background Vocabulary pretest Reading a t t i t u d e Locus of c o n t r o l Treatment C o n t r a s t All  (C1)  ATI Lang, background x C1 V o c a b u l a r y x C1 A t t i t u d e x C1 Locus of c o n t r o l x C1  Res i d u a l  1 1 1 1 62  78.51  10 10  05 10  74  A p t i t u d e Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n s Although  the  design  of  ATI  s t u d i e s a l l o w s t e s t i n g main  e f f e c t s and d e t e c t i n g treatment e f f e c t s , the  primary  objective  i s to explore  f o r a p t i t u d e by t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . Four such  interactions  were  i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  i n t e r a c t i o n s r e q u i r e s t h a t s l o p e s be determined f o r each of  the  groups c o n t a i n e d  the  analysis. (1)  To  accomplish  disembed  regression  i n the s i g n i f i c a n t ATI  the  t h i s the r e s e a r c h e r  regression  equations  equation  (Kerlinger  &  r e s i d u a l s at the s t e p p r e c e d i n g  second  method  analyses  used  in  this  to  p o i n t and  split  residuals  two  study.  1973),  or  (2)  interaction.  The  First, to  regression  the  significant  r e s i d u a l s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d at t h a t  correlated  with  deviation  scores  i n t e r a c t i n g independent v a r i a b l e w i t h i n each group.  Two  appear i n Table  interactions  treatment  groups,  variable.  with  reveals  comparisons attribution  the of  between as  the  the  two  criterion  Slopes f o r the a t t i t u d e by treatment i n t e r a c t i o n are  1, a  graphical  representation  of  the  Inspection interaction,  t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n i s d i s o r d i n a l (the two  w i t h i n the range of i n t e r e s t ) , as e x p e c t e d .  with  independent  lines  cross  D i s o r d i n a l i t y i s an  a r t i f a c t of i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s which c o r r e l a t e s raw scores  of  14.  involved  both  finally,  Results  i n d i c a t e d by the r e g r e s s i o n weights (b) i n Table 14. of F i g u r e  separate  i n t o the comparison groups of i n t e r e s t ;  were  those a n a l y s e s  choices:  obtain  the  were rerun to the s t e p j u s t p r i o r  i n t e r a c t i o n ; second, raw  has  Pedhazur,  analyze  was  term at t h a t s t e p of  residuals  v a r i a b l e d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s , s i n c e both  75  sets of scores have a mean of z e r o . (newspaper)  with  Students  in  high p o s i t i v e reading a t t i t u d e  Treatment  A  scores tend to  a t t r i b u t e success in vocabulary to i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and low reading a t t i t u d e  i s a s s o c i a t e d with e x t e r n a l  attributions.  A t t r i b u t i o n r e s i d u a l scores c o r r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y (r = -.21) reading  attitude  i n Treatment  of the Treatment  A high-low  A relatively  Students  in  B ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) and a reverse  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s shown.  strong d i s o r d i n a l  c o n t r o l and treatment  i n t e r a c t i o n between locus of  on a t t r i b u t i o n  Treatment  is  shown  in  Figure  A (newspaper) with low l o c u s of  scores have  high  scores  a s s o c i a t e d with high locus of c o n t r o l  are  with  attribution  scores,  while  low  2.  control  attribution scores.  When  t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of the s c o r i n g d i r e c t i o n of the instruments, a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p emerges: controlled  students  characteristics, perceived  attributed  whereas  more  control  was  externally their  externally  associated controlled  controlled  Just the o p p o s i t e was  B (classification). with  external  students  students  under  Internal  true  locus of  attributions,  Treatment  and  B attributed  success i n vocabulary study to i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s . The  two  involved  remaining  comparisons  c o n t r o l group. in  t h e i r success to more i n t e r n a l  external influence.  for students i n Treatment  internally  terms  of  procedures  used  comparison  2  i n t e r a c t i o n s which emerged in t h i s of the combined treatment  Although  these i n t e r a c t i o n s have  study  groups with the little  impact  choosing between the two vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n a l in on  the  study,  vocabulary  both and  interactions—attitude  x  vocabulary x comparison.2 on  76  attitude--involved providing  v o c a b u l a r y achievement and r e a d i n g  additional  information  attitude,  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  the two v a r i a b l e s . Attitude correlated  r e s i d u a l s c o r e s f o r t h e combined treatment -.09  with  vocabulary  achievement,  c o r r e l a t i o n between c o n t r o l group r e s i d u a l s and .52.  The  groups  whereas  the  vocabulary  was  i n t e r a c t i o n i s d i s o r d i n a l , and as shown i n F i g u r e 3,  the c o n t r o l group s l o p e i s p o s i t i v e and q u i t e s t e e p as to  the  treatment  group  vocabulary scores scores,  are  whereas  attitude  high  scores.  treatment  The  groups,  slope.  For  the c o n t r o l groups, low  associated  with  vocabulary  scores  opposite  compared  low  i s shown  reading  attitude  correspond  with high  f o r the  combined  but t o a much l e s s e r degree, as shown by t h e  s l i g h t n e g a t i v e s l o p e (b = -.11) of t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e . When v o c a b u l a r y r e s i d u a l s f o r the correlated  with  comparison  groups  are  a t t i t u d e d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s the c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal s t r e n g t h , but i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s : r = .14 f o r t h e c o n t r o l group and r = -.13 f o r t h e treatment  groups.  As shown i n F i g u r e 4, t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s o r d i n a l .  The  ordinal  nature  sample s i z e s  of  the  interaction  i s due  to  unequal  ( C o n t r o l group, n = 17; Treatment group, n = 72) that  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v o c a b u l a r y  and  indicates  r e s i d u a l s and a t t i t u d e  d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s f o r the two groups i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . d i s p a r i t y e x i s t s between the groups high.  High  when  scores  are  a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l group s c o r e s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h h i g h  vocabulary scores, while high a t t i t u d e correspond  attitude  Greater  w i t h low v o c a b u l a r y  scores.  treatment  group  scores  77  Table 14.  R e s i d u a l i z e d c r i t e r i o n r e g r e s s i o n s f o r ATI  terms  Residualized criterion var i a b l e  ATI  Attribution  A t t i t u d e x C1  A B  .307 .101  090 070  .223 .208  Attribution  L of C o n t r o l x C l  A B  .111 -.019  264 268  . 179 . 1 93  A t t i tude  V o c a b u l a r y x C2  A+B C  -.198 .275  11 4 337  .090 .523  Vocabulary  A t t i t u d e x C2  A+B C  .161 2.680  028 024  . 1 34 . 1 40  Group  78  10.00 * 8 .00 6.00  -H a  6.0O 8 .00 -10.OC * I I * *. « v + * + • + • * + + + • + + + + + •. -25.OO -20.001 ' -15.OO -10.00 -5.00 -0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 Attitude Deviation  F i g u r e 1.  Scores  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of ATI f o r a t t r i b u t i o n scores  attitude  x  treatment  on  79  io.oo * 8.00 6.00  •6.00 -a. oo -10.00 *. -5.00  -4.00  -3.00  -2.00  I  -1.00  -0.00  I.OO  Locus o f C o n t r o l D e v i a t i o n  F i g u r e 2.  I  2.00  3.00  4.00  * ,3.00  Ecores  Representation of ATI for locus t r e a t m e n t on a t t r i b u t i o n s c o r e s  of  control  x  80  Control Group  O 3 +1 <  e  Treatment. Groups  -H •a a o « •a  id 3 a  -6.00  -3.O0 -0.0O  3.00  Vocabulary Deviation  F i g u r e 3.  .6 OO  Scores  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of ATI f o r v o c a b u l a r y x group (treatment versus c o n t r o l ) on r e a d i n g attitude posttest scores  81  Control Group  Treatment Groups  -25.00  -20.00 -15.00 -10.00  -5.00 -0.00 Attitude Deviation  F i g u r e 4.  5.00  10.00 15.00 20.00  25.00  Scores  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of ATI f o r a t t i t u d e x group ( t r e a t m e n t v e r s u s c o n t r o l ) on v o c a b u l a r y achievement p o s t t e s t scores.  82  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purpose of interactions  this  between  field  study  was  to  examine  l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  approaches i n v o c a b u l a r y reviewed  based  skill  development.  Literature  was  i n two a r e a s , v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n and ATI r e s e a r c h .  Method of t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y , r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d , and materials  f o r v o c a b u l a r y study were d i s c u s s e d .  The ATI review  c o n c e n t r a t e d on s e l e c t i o n of a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s and of  instructional Two  treatments.  eight-week  u n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n v o c a b u l a r y  i n t e n d e d t o maximize upon l o c i of c o n t r o l , were differed  i n learner  tasks  and m a t e r i a l s .  s t u d e n t s used a d a i l y newspaper as a source of  development  v o c a b u l a r y study words.  designed In  skills, which  Treatment  A  for self-selection  Treatment B was more s t r u c t u r e d , and  c o n s i s t e d of a word-category c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k d e s i g n e d by t h e investigator. vocabulary  The  control  group  or  second  measured by Reading attitude  no i n s t r u c t i o n i n  development.  Aptitude variables included first  received  language),  the v o c a b u l a r y  Tests,  Level  (as measured  F, by  language  prior subtest  Form  1,  background  (English  v o c a b u l a r y achievement (as of  the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Canadian e d i t i o n ) , r e a d i n g  the Mi k u l e c k y  Behavioral  Reading  83  Attitude  Measure),  and  locus  of  c o n t r o l (as measured by  the  Rotter Internal-External Scale). Outcome v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t e d of a v o c a b u l a r y Gates-MacGinitie), repeated), designed  and  two  enrolled  in  in a  (treatment  Pretest data  the  study  were  r e a d i n g and  study  groups) or  typing  measures  were  in  (Mikulecky  investigator-constructed  were  collected  the  for  94  questionnaires  65 p e r c e n t  outcome  measures  college  courses  (control  students.  Complete  E n g l i s h was  i n the f i r s t  variables.  posttest scores  were  aptitude  s e c t i o n of the r e s u l t s  The  was  full  for  on  significant,  as  results  posttest  statistically  satisfaction  for  o n l y 8.88 the  w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n , and  percent full  s i g n i f i c a n t , the  of  variance  in  and  locus  significant  the  No  regression  the f u l l model accounted satisfaction  model f o r a t t r i b u t i o n was  vocabulary  Both the  regression.  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were found i n  on  Although  attitude  chapter.  regression  model  statistically  and  of  and comparison s e t s of v a r i a b l e s .  reading  and  each  statistically  the  were  study.  for a l l aptitude  f u l l model and a p t i t u d e set produced on  data  the n a t i v e language f o r  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  vocabulary the  group).  134 s t u d e n t s , and p o s t t e s t  Next, f o u r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were r e p o r t e d , one dependent  students  s k i l l s course a t the grade 11  D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were p r e s e n t e d  the  measure  i n Treatment A, 37 i n Treatment B,  c o n t r o l group.  approximately  community  completed by  a v a i l a b l e f o r 35 s t u d e n t s 17  attitude  to measure s a t i s f a c t i o n and achievement a t t r i b u t i o n .  Subjects  level  reading  t e s t (Form 2 of  of  not  scores.  statistically  control  aptitudes  84  accounted f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n s of v a r i a n c e . A  s i g n i f i c a n t treatment  treatment  e f f e c t was found when t h e combined  groups were compared  vocabulary  to "the c o n t r o l  achievement r e g r e s s i o n .  group  on the  The Treatment A-Treatment B  c o n t r a s t was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Four ATI's were r e p o r t e d , (1) a t t i t u d e x vocabulary,  (2) v o c a b u l a r y  a t t i t u d e x treatment treatment  on  graphically  x  comparison  comparison 2  2  on a t t i t u d e , (3)  on a t t r i b u t i o n , and (4) l o c u s of c o n t r o l  attribution.  on  x  The i n t e r a c t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d and  presented. Limitations  Sampling l i m i t a t i o n s The most s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s  study  was  the  small  sample s i z e .  Cronbach and Snow (1977) recommend sample s i z e s of  100  per  cases  experimental With  larger  than  samples  decrease  nature  the  significance  customary  of  the p r e s e n t  probability level  of  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g  of  .10  a  Type  I  error,  not  a  was chosen t o a d j u s t f o r t h e s m a l l  i n c r e a s e i n the p r o b a b i l i t y of a Type viewed  as  investigation.  i n t a c t c l a s s e s were a s s i g n e d t o t r e a t m e n t s  i t was  the  study, and i n an attempt t o  making  l e s s s e r i o u s i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s  study,  a Type I  Considering  II e r r o r , not r e j e c t i n g a f a l s e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , was  Although  in  effects.  the researcher r i s k s committing  i . e . , rejecting a true n u l l hypothesis.  exploratory  sample.  much  r e s e a r c h , i n order t o d e t e c t i n t e r a c t i o n  smaller  error,  treatment,  in this  possible to test f o r class e f f e c t s , again,  85  because of the  small  classes--formation a  particular  sample.  between  and  within  of c l a s s e s (reasons why s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n  day  or  night  contamination  effects,  systematically  on  confounded.  Variation  section),  and  chance  members  of  teacher  effects  a  effects,  that  class--are  operate  unavoidably  Evaluating class e f f e c t s i s p o s s i b l e , according to  Cronbach and Snow (1977), o n l y i f t h e r e a r e f i v e or more c l a s s e s per t r e a t m e n t .  That requirement  i t was necessary Albeit  representative.  population. academic  sample  small,  obtained  in this  the  secondary credit  same  characteristics  appears study  to can  be be  as  the  experimental  sample used i n t h i s study, a d u l t s p u r s u i n g an certificate course,  and  enrolled  in a  reading  i s a r e l a t i v e l y unique subset of a  l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n of a d u l t s t u d e n t s . enrolled  it  o t h e r groups of a d u l t l e a r n e r s , p r o v i d i n g those  The  improvement  was  Results  to  groups possess  and  to pool classes f o r a n a l y s i s .  the  generalized  was not met i n t h i s s t u d y ,  Generalization  to  adults  i n grade 12 v o c a t i o n a l o r g e n e r a l e q u i v a l e n c y programs  would not be a p p r o p r i a t e . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l 1imi t a t i o n s Validity nonstandardized MacGinitie  of  experimental  results  i n s t r u m e n t s a r e used.  Reading  Tests,  hypotheses  in  this  two  instruments  used ( Gates-  Measure  )  to  test  the  study have been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n  previous research, v e r i f y i n g t h e i r However,  Instruments  when  R o t t e r I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l S c a l e , and  M i k u l e c k y B e h a v i o r a l Reading A t t i t u d e three  i s questionable  were  reliability developed  and  validity.  especially for this  86  study t o measure s a t i s f a c t i o n and instruments  were  tested  psychometric  qualities  research.  Therefore,  attribution.  Although  both  and r e v i s e d p r i o r t o the s t u d y , t h e i r  are  not  firmly  findings  grounded  related  to  by  previous  attribution  and  s a t i s f a c t i o n must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . Self-report instruments  questionnaires  f o r some  were  variables.  used  Reading  c o n t r o l , s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a t t r i b u t i o n self-report;  data  f o r these  measurement  a t t i t u d e , l o c u s of  were  variables  as  a l l assessed v i a  would  n e c e s s a r i l y be  confounded by v a l i d i t y problems i n h e r e n t t o t h a t method of collection. option  Given t h a t the student i s a b l e t o s e l e c t the proper  (description  questionnaires s t i l l of  the  student.  of  himself)  for  the  Since  a l l testing  even  though  students  would be done by an independent  the  the part  was done by t h e r e g u l a r were  told  that  researcher, i t i s s t i l l  p o s s i b l e t h a t s t u d e n t s ' responses were i n f l u e n c e d for  items,  r e q u i r e honesty and f r a n k n e s s on  c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , and marking  data  by  a  desire  teacher approval. Conclusions T h i s study c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o v o c a b u l a r y r e s e a r c h  by  departing  methodology. additional  from  traditional  research  d e s i g n t o employ ATI  H o p e f u l l y , t h i s v e n t u r e i n t o ATI w i l l studies.  It  i s time  precipitate  f o r researchers to redirect  t h e i r e n e r g i e s from a s e a r c h f o r the " b e s t " v o c a b u l a r y method methods.  t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o n c e n t r a t i n g on matching  teaching  s t u d e n t s and  As Cronbach and Snow (1977) c o n c l u d e , ATI has come of  age.  Research  on  instruction  87  will need t o i n c o r p o r a t e i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e o r y and i n p r a c t i c e , r e g a r d l e s s of how one u l t i m a t e l y proceeds w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l a d a p t a t i o n . ATI methods and i d e a s have a fundamental r o l e t o play in e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n as w e l l as i n e d u c a t i o n a l d e s i g n , and i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e g e n e r a l l y . As t h i s r o l e c o n t i n u e s t o u n f o l d , we can expect new l i n e s of r e s e a r c h t o reopen o l d q u e s t i o n s , as w e l l as t o define i s s u e s not c o n s i d e r e d by the traditional experimental and c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s working separately. (p. 424) Perusal  of  reading  vocabulary  studies,  subjects.  T h i s study  research  but  research  this  hypotheses  of  those  a  is  of  s t u d i e s use a d u l t s as  and  assessed. study  was  probe  designed  three  correspondingly  to  test  three  areas v i a the a n c i l l a r y  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed i n Chapter I . The section  profusion  i s d i s t i n c t i v e not o n l y i n i t s methodology  b u t . a l s o i n the population Specifically,  few  reveals  presented  remainder  of  this  i n s i x subsections,  d i s c u s s i n g r e s u l t s of the study and drawing c o n c l u s i o n s stemming from the r e s e a r c h hypotheses and q u e s t i o n s . H.1  Students i n the treatment groups w i l l demonstrate g r e a t e r g a i n s i n v o c a b u l a r y achievement than s t u d e n t s i n t h e u n i n s t r u c t e d c o n t r o l groups.  Hypothesis analysis  on  one was a c c e p t e d .  vocabulary  Results  control  group.  Acceptance  group  of  than  no  unfortunately, research.  teaching that  effort,  i s not  regression  compared  results  one, in  to  which  greater  would l o g i c a l l y be expected;  always  I t might be concluded  was  hypothesis  g e n e r a l l y s t a t e s t h a t some t e a c h i n g e f f o r t gains  the  p o s t t e s t scores d i d reveal s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s when the combined treatment the  of  the case  in  t h a t the treatment  i n t h i s study can be a t t r i b u t e d t o an adequate  vocabulary group g a i n s  research  design  88  and c a r e f u l l y developed H.2  i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and m a t e r i a l s .  Treatments A and. B w i l l not be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g vocabulary achievement when averaged a c r o s s l e v e l s of a p t i t u d e .  H y p o t h e s i s ' two  was  accepted.  Treatment A-Treatment B means was that  The o r t h o g o n a l c o n t r a s t of  not  significant,  indicating  g a i n s i n v o c a b u l a r y achievement were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n l i n e w i t h the ATI p h i l o s o p h y upon study  was  designed:  a  superior  which  the  i n t e r a c t i o n r e s e a r c h seeks a match between  student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t r e a t m e n t s for  equal.  as opposed  to  searching  method of i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t i s s u i t a b l e f o r a l l  students. H.3  Treatment A w i l l be of g r e a t e r b e n e f i t i n i n c r e a s i n g vocabulary achievement f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y high internal l o c u s of c o n t r o l scores, whereas Treatment B w i l l be of g r e a t e r b e n e f i t f o r those w i t h r e l a t i v e l y greater external scores.  Hypothesis between  locus  t h r e e was r e j e c t e d . of  control  vocabulary  scores.  lack  interaction  of  vocabulary. for  and  No  interaction  treatment  was  i n the a n a l y s i s of  S e v e r a l reasons can be c o n j e c t u r e d between  the  found  personality  f o r the  variable  and  C e r t a i n l y t h e sample s i z e l i m i t e d s t a t i s t i c a l power  detecting interactions.  P o s s i b l y measurement of  the  locus  of c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t i s a t f a u l t . The  Rotter  I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Scale, although  used i n r e s e a r c h w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s , was 1966.  Perhaps  statements  chosen  in  1966  to  still  widely  developed  in  reflect  the  i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l continuum a r e not a p p r o p r i a t e for  use i n 1981.  included  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the  i n t h i s study  attribution  variable  i s a more contemporary i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l  89  index.  The V o c a b u l a r y A t t r i b u t i o n S c a l e was d e s i g n e d t o measure  students'  perceptions  improvement:  of  causes  f o r success  i n vocabulary  whether they succeeded due t o i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l  characteristics.  R e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s on a t t r i b u t i o n s c o r e s ,  then, are encouraging. The found  l o c u s of c o n t r o l  significant  in  by  the  treatment  interaction  term  attribution  regression,  partially  a f f i r m i n g a premise on which the two t r e a t m e n t s were Using  Treatment  internally  A,  the  controlled  improvement  to  less  students  attributed  their  vocabulary  i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s , whereas e x t e r n a l l y  indicates  correspondence  i n t e r n a l p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l and  between  perceived  controlled  success.  student  internal  for success, a d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t i n i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g When  designed.  s t r u c t u r e d newspaper e x e r c i s e s ,  s t u d e n t s c i t e d more e x t e r n a l reasons f o r t h e i r finding  the r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e f o r Treatment  controlled-external  controlled-internal reversal conveyed  might  attributions.  attributions instruction.  of  controlled a  and  externally  explanation  luck--chances  were  p u t t i n g each word i n the c o r r e c t c a t e g o r y .  chance t o  expected:  for  this  be t h a t the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i t s e l f may have  an element  internally  of  B (classification)  attributions One  This  sense  was examined, however, r e s u l t s were o p p o s i t e t o those internally  was  greater  one  in  three  of  T h i s may have caused  s t u d e n t s t o tend t o a t t r i b u t e success t o degree  than  i n Treatment  A.  Another  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r e v e r s a l might be t h a t l o c u s of c o n t r o l i s a greater  determinant  of  success  and  u n s t r u c t u r e d t a s k s than i n more d i r e c t  perceived  instruction.  success  in  90  Q.1  How does language background vocabulary achievement, s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a t t r i b u t i o n ?  influence reading  Only on the r e g r e s s i o n of v o c a b u l a r y language results  background i n the study.  variance knowing  in  is  posttest  scores  a s i g n i f i c a n t determiner portion  (25.85  scores  the  percent)  on  nor  attitude  did  language  first  i t appears  posttest,  or  that  the  of  second  satisfaction,  any of the s i g n i f i c a n t  background.  of  can be e x p l a i n e d by  student's  interaction  This  represents  two  vocabulary  t r e a t m e n t s used i n t h i s study do not  require  an  in or  terms  important  instructional  modification for  use w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s who have a. minimum grade 10 r e a d i n g  level.  Q.2  Does p r i o r attitude toward r e a d i n g interact with instructional treatment on v o c a b u l a r y achievement, r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , or a t t r i b u t i o n ?  Two  of the a p t i t u d e - t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s  study i n v o l v e d r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e . in  did  Language background d i d not approach s i g n i f i c a n c e  attribution,  finding:  be  A sizeable  English  regressions  contain  to  students' . vocabulary  whether  language. the  prove  scores on attitude,  the  results. attitude  The a t t i t u d e  A  disordinal  students  in  interaction Treatment  was  f o r Treatment B. may  to  increase  term  significant where  their  and low a t t i t u d e  I t appears t h a t u s i n g tend  shown,  A attributed  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more e x t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s ;  success.  x treatment  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of a t t r i b u t i o n produced  success t o i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  classroom  r e p o r t e d i n the  high  vocabulary s c o r e s were  the r e v e r s e was t r u e  the  internal  newspaper  in  attributions  the for  91  The  second a t t i t u d e  treatment  groups  i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d when the  were c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the c o n t r o l group i n the  r e g r e s s i o n on v o c a b u l a r y  posttest  scores.  Although  method of p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note control  group  (students  c o r r e l a t i o n between achievement enrolled -.09.  is  in  not e n r o l l e d  attitude  .52,  a  but  in  the  r e a d i n g course)  and  achievement  for  u n r e l a t e d to in  the  i n a r e a d i n g course)  the  residual  scores  treatment  the comparable  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s necessary  attitude  combined  that  and  vocabulary  groups  (students  correlation  is  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  students  enrolled  in  reading  improvement c o u r s e s . Q.3  Does prior vocabulary achievement i n t e r a c t with instructional treatment on v o c a b u l a r y achievement, r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , or a t t r i b u t i o n ?  Interactions treatment  were  between not  between  prior  controls  was  scores,  providing  observed  prior  vocabulary  i n . the  study.  achievement An  interaction  v o c a b u l a r y achievement between e x p e r i m e n t a l s  r e v e a l e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n on post r e a d i n g further  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two  substantiation variables.  of  and  a  and  attitude complex  92  Recommendat i o n s Although  thousands  of  vocabulary  r e p o r t e d , as p o i n t e d out by P e t t y et a l . investigation vocabulary  of  the  appears to  research."  The  vocabulary  further  (1968,  satisfactory  remain  current  a  rather  study  areas  have  been  p. 85),  "the  methods f o r t e a c h i n g 'wide  contributes  research: i t provides a foundation  t h e o r y of v o c a b u l a r y reveals  most  studies  i n t e r a c t i o n research.  open'  area  of  substantively  to  for a  method  and  At the same time, i t  i n ATI methodology which must be r e f i n e d through  research.  Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h Rec.  One  1  paradox i n the ATI  minimized of  R e p l i c a t e the p r e s e n t i n c l u d i n g at l e a s t per treatment. design  i s t h a t as e r r o r v a r i a n c e  is  (as when a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s e x p l a i n l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s  variance  unimportant  in  outcome  treatment  measures)  e f f e c t s and  to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . that  study w i t h a l a r g e r sample, 100 s t u d e n t s and f i v e c l a s s e s  of  such  generalizability  a of  small these  and  practically  i n t e r a c t i o n s are more l i k e l y  It is  the main e f f e c t f o r treatment  artifact  small  possible  to  speculate  r e p o r t e d i n t h i s study  error  findings  term. can  i s an  Accuracy  only  be  and  determined  through r e p l i c a t i o n . In  addition,  a t t r i b u t i o n and Class  would  further  validate  s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e s developed f o r t h i s  u n i t s were a s s i g n e d  the a n a l y s i s was •desirable,  replication  done at the  although  t o treatments  individual  study.  i n t h i s study,  level.  It  .the  would  but be  perhaps not f e a s i b l e , to e n l a r g e the sample  93  to the p o i n t where data a n a l y s i s c o u l d level.  Cronbach  each treatment repeating  experiment  adding temporal  done  at  the  class  and Snow (1977) recommend 100 o b s e r v a t i o n s i n  and at l e a s t  the  be  five  classes  over  several  per  treatment.  By  terms, at the c o s t of  e r r o r s , i t would be p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e a l a r g e r  sample. Rec.  2  Lengthen the treatment fourteen-week term.  R e l a t i v e l y high c o r r e l a t i o n s were  reported  in  t h i s study.  p e r i o d to i n c l u d e the between  pre-  and  in  ATI  treatment  treatment  unless  Lengthening  p e r i o d might a l l o w d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s t o become  more apparent. especially  correlate  research  t r e a t m e n t s are p o w e r f u l l y d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e . the  posttests  Outcome measures w i l l  highly with beginning l e v e l aptitudes  entire  However,  in  adult  another  education  variable  related  to  studies, i s a t t r i t i o n .  time, As  the  l e n g t h i s extended the r e s e a r c h e r must be prepared  to  accept a g r e a t e r s h r i n k a g e i n sample s i z e . Rec.  3  Examine and r e f i n e the a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y .  An attempt which  s h o u l d be made  are o n l y moderately  correlate  highly  with  attitude-achievement  to  isolate  aptitude  variables  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one another  vocabulary  relationship  achievement.  but which  The  reading  needs f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n ;  development of r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e methods o t h e r  than  self-report  i s recommended. It  may  be p o s s i b l e t h a t language background, d e f i n e d as a  dichotomous  variable  differences  within  in the  this ESL  study,  subgroup.  obscures  cultural  With a l a r g e r sample i t  94  might be p o s s i b l e t o break down language  groups,  thereby  the  ESL  group  into  specific  considering c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s with  more p r e c i s i o n . Rec.  4  Compare d i f f i c u l t y levels of words s e l e c t e d t o study i n Treatments A and B.  students  In t h i s study s t u d e n t s i n both treatment groups chose t h e i r own v o c a b u l a r y study words from e i t h e r a d a i l y newspaper or from a  provided  list  of t h i r t y words.  t h i s study would be t o determine selected  words  and  I n s p e c t i o n of word  compare  An i n t e r e s t i n g e x t e n s i o n of  the d i f f i c u l t y  the  difficulties  suggests  under the two t r e a t m e n t s .  level  to  self-  that  there  a r e no  l e v e l of words chosen f o r  In a d d i t i o n , the d i f f i c u l t y of  i n d i v i d u a l student- c h o i c e s c o u l d achievement  the  r e s u l t s between t r e a t m e n t s .  d i f f e r e n c e s between average d i f f i c u l t y study  of  be  compared  with  vocabulary  check t h e v a l i d i t y of the s e l f - s e l e c t i o n  format. Recommendat ions f o r i n s t r u c t i o n Rec.  5  Use t h e two vocabulary developed for this study s k i l l s courses.  T h i s study has shown t h a t  both  instructional units i n r e a d i n g and study  treatments  are generally  sound, and each s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e s v o c a b u l a r y achievement. While  the  sample  in this  study  consisted  of a d u l t s , i t i s  r e a s o n a b l e t o conclude t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s be  used  i n secondary  two u n i t s i s t h a t commercially treatment  they  available  (Treatment  classrooms. are  not  also  A d i s t i n c t advantage of the as  boring  materials.  A) might  could  especially  The  as  many  of the  newspaper-context  appeal  to  secondary  95  students,  r e s u l t i n g i n a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e  as  w e l l as v o c a b u l a r y achievement. Rec.  6  The  Combine the two v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s use i n the c l a s s r o o m . two  differentially  treatments  for  this  study  were  designed  for to  enhance achievement by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the l o c u s  of c o n t r o l  personaity  confirmed.  S i n c e t h e r e appears t o be n o t h i n g m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e  about  the  two  variable;  treatments,  achievement might be r e a l i z e d i f combination.  Both  treatments  c o u l d be lengthened or s h o r t e n e d  however,  greater the are  that  gains  treatments flexible  ATI  in are  was  not  vocabulary used  in  in length; either  in developing a  composite.  96  REFERENCES A t k i n s o n , W. E. Locus of c o n t r o l : I m p l i c a t i o n s for secondary remediation. U n p u b l i s h e d master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. B l e v i n s , M. L. 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Guide t o LERTAP Use and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Dunedin, New Z e a l a n d : Department of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Otago, 1974. N i c h o l s , M. T. A s t u d y of the s p e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s and v o c a b u l a r y comprehension of freshman E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s and the i m p r o v i n g of t h e s e a b i l i t i e s and t h i s comprehension by means of i n c i d e n t a l r e a d i n g of passages as compared t o memorizing words and word meanings. (Doctoral dissertation, University of South C a r o l i n a , 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977, 38, 1945A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 77-22,438)  100  N i e , N. H., H u l l , C. H., J e n k i n s , J . G., S t e i n b r e n n e r , K., & Bent, D. H. S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e Soc i a l Sc i e n c e s , 2nd ed. New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1975. Olson, A. V. & Ames, W. S. Teaching Reading S k i l l s i n Secondary Schools. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Intext E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. P a r k h u s t , P. E. G e n e r a t i n g m e a n i n g f u l hypotheses w i t h a p t i t u d e treatment i n t e r a c t i o n s . AV Communication Review, 1975, 23, 171-184. P e t t y , W. T., H e r o l d , C. P., & S t o l l , E. The S t a t e of Knowledge about the Teaching of V o c a b u l a r y . Champaign, I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers of E n g l i s h , 1968. Readence, J . E., & S e a r f o s s , L. W. Teaching s t r a t e g i e s f o r v o c a b u l a r y development. E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , 1980, 69, 43-46. Rodriguez, J. Abstract of "trait-treatment interaction r e s e a r c h : A v a l u a b l e source for individualizing reading i n s t r u c t i o n . " Reading World, 1978, V8j_ 148-155. Rodriguez, J . H. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h r e e student t r a i t s , t h r e e modes of p r e s e n t a t i o n , and an i n s e r t e d mathemagenic d e v i c e t o l e a r n i n g from p r o s e . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , New Mexico S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1980). Di s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s International, 1981, 41, 2038A-2039A. [University M i c r o f i l m s No. 8023874) R o t t e r , J . B. Generalized expectancies f o r i n t e r n a l versus external control of reinforcements. Psycholog i c a l Monographs, 1966, 80(1, Whole No. 609). Salomon, G. H e u r i s t i c models f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of a p t i t u d e treatment i n t e r a c t i o n h y p o t h e s e s . Review of Educat i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1972, 42^ 327-342. Swing, M. J . Two programs designed t o i n c r e a s e the v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n of secondary s t u d e n t s . (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Northern Colorado, 1978). Dissertation A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1978, 39, 2108A. (University M i c r o f i l m s No. 7819030) Thomas, J . W. Agency and achievement: Self-management and s e l f regard. Review of Educat i o n a l Research, 1980, 50, 213-240. Tobias, S. Achievement treatment interactions. E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1976, 46, 61-74.  Review  of  101  Tolsma, C. E v a l u a t i n g c o l l e g e r e a d i n g programs: An af f e e t i v e approach. In G. Enright ( E d . ) , Proceedings of the F o u r t e e n t h Annual Conference of the Western C o l l e g e Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981. Tuinman, J . , & K e n d a l l , J . R. The B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Assessment Summary R e p o r t . Victoria, B.C.: Learning Assessment Branch, M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , September 1980. Tuinman, J . , & K e n d a l l , J . R. 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A c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s of l o c u s of c o n t r o l . In B. Weiner ( E d . ) , Achievement M o t i v a t i o n and A t t r i b u t i o n Theory. M o r r i s t o w n , New J e r s e y : G e n e r a l Learning Press, 1974b. Weiner, B. The r o l e of a f f e c t in rational (attributional) approaches t o human m o t i v a t i o n . Educat i o n a l Researcher, 1980, 9 ( 7 ) , 4-11. Weiner, B., Heckhausen, H., Meyer, W., & Cook, R. Causal a s c r i p t i o n s and achievement b e h a v i o r : A c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s of e f f o r t and r e a n a l y s i s of l o c u s of c o n t r o l . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 2j_ 239-248. Weiner, B., N i e r e n b e r g , R., & G o l d s t e i n , M. S o c i a l l e a r n i n g ( l o c u s of c o n t r o l ) v e r s u s a t t r i b u t i o n a l ( c a u s a l stability) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of expectancy of s u c c e s s . 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(University M i c r o f i l m s No. 74-6257)  1 03  APPENDIX A V o c a b u l a r y E x e r c i s e s used i n Treatment  B  Note: Student e x e r c i s e s were p r i n t e d back-to-back.  104 EXERCISE #1  WORDS: annoyed  exasperated  jovial  bliss  frolicsome  jubilation  buoyant  glee  maudlin  convivial  gloomy  merriment  dejected  glum  mournful  delighted  grief  pathetic  doleful  indignant  poignant  ecstasy  infuriate  rankle  elated  irascible  rejoicing  enraged  irate  wrath  CATEGORIES: happy  sad  angry  ^ueuBxod ox^aii^ed Xniuxnoui uTXpneui  aq.:ex-r a^Bxaniux  I 3 T X 6  umxB AuiooxB Xnjsxop paq.osCap pes  psBnxua paAotiue Ax Sue. .  ord:  Pronunciation:  eanings:  t h e r forms o f t h e w o r d : our own sentence: u s i n g t h e word:  ord:  Pronunciation:  eanings:  t h e r forms o f t h e w o r d :  •' •. .  our own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word:  ord: eanings:  t h e r forms o f t h e w o r d : our own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d :  Pronunciation:  BuTOxoCax ^usurrxxaui uoTq.BXTqnC X^TAOC  euiosoxxoxj paa^xa Aseq-soa paq.qbTX3p XHTATAUOO  q.ueAonq ssxxq Addpq  106 EXERCISE #2  WORDS: adjourn  genesis  nucleus  center  hub  partial  conclude  inaugurate  pivot  core  incipient  preliminary  debut  incomplete  prelude  destination  initial  primer  embark  initiate  quietus  epilogue  launch  retire  expire  mean  termination  finale  midway  ultimate  middle  end  CATEGORIES: beginning  107 9q.HUiTq.xn  uoxqeuxuuaq.  qoAxd Xexq.acd snaxonu AHAvpxui ueaui aqaxduiooux qnq  snqaxnb a;cxdxa anboxxda uoxq.euxq.sap apnxouoo ujnoCpe pua  sxsauab qnqap  axppxui  Buxuuxbaq  Pronunciation:  O t h e r forms o f t h e word: t h e word:  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings  Other forms o f t h e word: t h e word:  Pronunciation:  tford: leanings:  )ther forms o f t h e word: f o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  aq.e;m6nEux  •laquao  Meanings  Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  iiouriBx aq.exqxux Xexqxux q.uaxdxoux  9IOO  Word:  Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  aauixjd apnxa^d AatJUxuixxsJd  t h e word:  108 E X E R C I S E #3  WORDS: adversary  companion  oppressor  advocate  comrade  outlander  alien  confidant  outsider  ally  crony  partner  antagonist  distant  rival  archenemy  foe  scoundrel  associate  foreign  tyrant  buddy  hostile  unfamiliar  chum  newcomer  unknown  colleague  opponent  villain  enemy  stranger  CATEGORIES: friend  UXHXXXA  qu-jAq Xa_punoos  UttOU3{UTt  X-AX„  a e j T jure J i m jrapxsqno jcapuexqno  jossaaddo •quauoddo axxqsoq aoj Auiauaiip_e q.sxuo6_:iup A__S_aAPAuiaua  uBxa^og: qu_:).sxp uax^g  W  o  r  d  Pronunciation:  :  Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  tford:  Pronunciation:  leanings:  }ther forms o f t h e word: f o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  _ a u q „ _ d  Attojo gu-pxjuoo ap-_uioo UOX__duiOO  an6_axxoo uiriTJO  Appnq aq.xoosse Axxe aq._ooApp  puaxai  109  EXERCISE  WORDS: ancestry  expectant  obsolete  anticipate  existing  prevailing  antiquity  extinct  prevalent  archaic  foretell  prospective  bygones  hereafter  retrospect  contemporary  historic  today  current  hitherto  tomorrow  doomsday  impending  topical  elapsed  millennxum  ultimately  eventually  modern  yesterday  present  future  CATEGORIES;past  110 #4  MOJixouioq. aATq.oadso.id uiriTUuaxixui BuxpuaduiT _:aq.:r_-a_:aq Xia^axoj qu_q.oadxa  Axx  B n :  1-  U 9 A 3  ABpsuioop  aq.gdTOTq.ug aanq.ni  A-paa^saA q.oadsoaq.ax aq.aXOsqo oq.aaqq.Tq OT-ZOqSTU q.ouTq.xa  X^OTdoq. Agpoq. q.uaxBAaad  pasd^x  6uTXT 2 uxapoui 6uTq.STxa q.uaajno Ajgjoduiaquoo q.uasaad  Word:  B A a : r c  sauoBAq OT_UO;T_-  Aq.TnbTq.ug Axq.saoug q-sed  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f the word: Your own sentence u s i n g t h e word:  tford: 4eanings :  Pronunciation: ______  Dther forms o f the word: four own sentence u s i n g t h e word:  jord: leanings:  (ther forms o f the word: 'our own sentence u s i n g t h e word:  3  Pronunciation: .  111  112  EXERCISE #5  WORDS: actress  dowager  princess  adolescent  egomaniac  sheik  androgynous  feminine  spinster  angel  gaucho  spouse  athlete  hussy  swain  bachelor  marionette  vagabond  baronet  martyr  vampire  beau  maternal  veteran  chairperson  paternal  wench  damsel  patriarch  widower  male  male o r female  CATEGORIES: female  a„Tdur_A u_„aq.aA puoq_6eA asnods  jaMopx/A  qouawi  JcAq.„Bui  UTBMS  aq.q.3UOT„_ui D_TU_UI06a uosjcad_T_qo  ifraqs qoaeT_qed X-UJaq-d  jraqsuxds ssaouxad X-u;ra:).eui Assnq  eq.aiqq._  ouprt-B  auTUTUiag:  Xa6u_  n_aq q.auo__q joxaqoeq  .xaBeMop Xasurep ssa„q.o_  aX-ui  aX-iuai  snouABoapuquaosaxope aX-uiaj  ao  ax-ui  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d :  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d :  Word: Meanings:  Dther forms o f t h e word: _ o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d :  Pronunciation:  114 EXERCISE #6  WORDS: abusive  fruitless  moronic  asinine  futile  obtuse  atrocious  harsh  refuse  barbarity  ignoramus  rubbish  barren  imbecile  ruthless  brutal  inane  savage  dispensable  ineffectual  simpleton  dunce  inhumane  superfluous  fatuous  malevolent  valueless  fiendish  malicious  venomous  worthless  cruel  CATEGORIES: foolish  snouiouaA  115  a6_A_s  ssaxq+nx snoxoxxeui q.uaxoA3XBur  aueuinqux qsxeq qsxpuaxi Xeq.n_q Aq.xjc_qxgq snoxooxq.B aATsnqe  Xsnxo  ssexanx^A snonxjxadns usxqqrtx asnjax Xen^oaiiaux aXT^nj ssax^xrixj axqesuadsxp uax^Bq ssaxqq-xoM  Pronunciation: Meanings:  Other forms o f the. w o r d : Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d :  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Dther forms o f t h e word: four own sentence u s i n g t h e word:  ford: leanings:  (ther forms o f the Word: 'our own sentence u s i n g the word:  Pronunciation:  uoq.axduixs asn^qo OXUOXOUI  au_ux axxoaquix snurexouBx snonqgj aourip auxuxsp qsxxooi  116 E X E R C I S E #7  WORDS: abutting  fragrant  redolent  ambrosia  fume  reek  aroma  insipid  saccharine  bitter  malodorous  scent  bland  manipulation  sour  bordering  massage  sniff  contact  odor  stench  contiguous  olfactory  stroke  feel  palatable  tactile  flavor  palpable  tart  touch  smell  CATEGORIES: taste  117 JITUS  quaos X_a_ quaxopaa Aaoqo-jx aopo sno_opox_ui aumj 0  aXxqo_q avoaqs axq-dx^d a6_ss_ui uoTq._xndTU_ui  q.U__6HXI -UIO„-  XX^uis  Word:  snonBxquoo q.oeq.uoo 6ux„ap„oq 6uTq.qnqe tpnoq.  Pronunciation.:  Meanings:  Other forms o f the. word: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d :  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Dther forms o f t h e word: .our own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word:  ford: leanings:  Jther forms o f t h e word: 'our own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e w o r d :  Pronunciation:  inos auxj_qooes axqeqexnd prdTsuT „OA_X5  pu_xq „aq.qxq  • Tsojcqui-  aqseq.  118 EXERCISE #8  WORDS: actuary  diversified  premium  annuity  futures  proxy  arbitration  grievance  scab  beneficiary  hedge  securities  blue chip  incentive  seniority  bond  injunction  slowdown  broker  negotiation  speculate  bumping  picket  strike  claimant  policy  underwriter  coverage  portfolio  waive  insurance  investments  CATEGORIES: labor-management  a>[x:rq.s UMOp/AOXS  saxq.T„noas  Axo„d oxxojq.„od  afipaq sa.inq.nj paxixsjaATp d x i p anxq  „a5[oa:q puoq  sq.uaurqsaAUT  3ATEM  „aq.x„A_iapun uxnxuiajd Aoxxod  uoxq.ounC.UT  q.uHuiT_x A__-xoxjauaq Aq-xnuue AJHnqjg aou_„nsux  3ATq.uaouT aou_AaTa6  3  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f the word: t h e word:  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f the word: Your own sentence u s i n g  the word:  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms of the word: _our own sentence u s i n g  uoxq.BTq.o6au  aB_„aAOO  Word:  Your own sentence u s i n g  Aq.T„oxuas qeos q.a>pxd  t h e word:  Buxdumq  UQTq.Bj:q.TqjB q.uauia6BUBui-j:oq_x  119  120  EXERCISE #9  WORDS: alderman  evangelist  professor  alumni  filibuster  regime  biblical  gerrymander  scriptures  bureaucracy  hymn  semester  caucus  inaugural  sermon  constituency  lecture  supernatural  curriculum  mandate  theology  deity  matriculate  truant  diploma  monotheism  tuition  embassy  pious  worship  education  religion  CATEGORIES: government  121  ABoxoaua XB_nq._u„adns uouuas saan^d-paos snoxd uisxaq^ououi uuiAq q.STia5u_Aa Aq.axp I.OTTqxq uox6T"i;aJ  Word:  uox^xnq. ^uenaq. aaqsauias _ossajo_d a„nq.oax a \_X T ^ isuioxdxp umxnoxajcno xuuinxg uoxq._onpa no  ;t  EUI  H  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: Your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word:  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: your own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word:  tford: 4eanings  ) t h e r forms o f t h e word: four own s e n t e n c e u s i n g t h e word:  Pronunciation:  auix6a:t aq._pu_ui  XT2~ri6ripux  aapu_uiAj„a6 „aq.snqxxxj A"ss_quia Aouan^xq.suoo snon_o AoBjronBajnq uguijapxg q.uauiuaaAo6  122 #10 EXERCISE  WORDS: barter  deed  lien  bungalow  depression  memory  capitalism  devaluation  monopoly  cartel  duplex  mortgage  collator  easement  oligopoly  commodity-  encumbrance  programmer  compile  entrepreneur  recession  computer  escrow  software  currency  foreclosure  title  debug  hardware  verifier  economics  real  CATEGORIES:, data processing  estate  3TW a£_6q.„oui uaxx a_nsoxoa„oi  AOJOS9 eouBjqumoua  q.uauiasea xsxdnp paap  rtOXeBunq aq._q.sa x B  3  :  r  123  uoxssaoaa AxodoBjxo  Axodououi anaua„da„qua uoTq.enxHAap uoTssaadap Aoua„_mo Aqxpouiuioo Xaqaeo uiSTxeqTdeo •laqjgq soxuiouooa  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f the word: Your own sentence u s i n g t h e word:  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Other forms o f the word: Your own sentence u s i n g t h e word:  Word: Meanings:  Other forms o f the word: Your own sentence u s i n g t h e word:  Pronunciation:  XBXJXXQA  aa^Mq-jos „auiure„6oad A„ouiaui 3„BMp„_TJ  6nqap aXT^uioo jaqnduioo joqeXI BuTssaocad eqep 0 0  EXERCISE  WORDS: aerodynamics  flotilla  parachute  altimeter  freeway  pedestrian  aviation  fuselage  perambulator  barge  hangar  schooner  boulevard  hydrofoil  sedan  bow  kayak  seiner  caboose  limousine  skiff  catamaran.  marine  toboggan  cosmonaut  monorail  trawler  dirigible  omnibus  zeppelin  land  water  CATEGORIES: air  travel  travel  travel  124 #11  3?TX  S  aauxas jauooqos  auT__ui  XxogoapAu; ueaeureq-eo «noq a6xBq XaAB_q.  „aq:/_AV  ueBBoqoq uepas „oq.Bxnqure„ad uex_qsapad snqxuuio XXBJOUOUI auTsnouiTx AeMaaag: asooqeo pj-Aaxtioq XaAH_q puex  Pronunciation:  Word: Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  Pronunciation:  Word: Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  Pronunciation:  Word: Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  uxxaddaz atj.nipeji'ed „T_6UT2U.  afi^xasnj axqT_T„Tp q.npuouisoo UOTtJ. BTA aaq.auiTq.xe soTureuApojae XaABorq. XXT9  126  EXERCISE  WORDS: activity  distraught  protein  aerobic  enzyme  psychosomatic  anxiety  exercise  robust  calisthenics  flexibility  stamina  carbohydrates  frustration  suppleness  cholesterol  glucose  tension  conflict  insomnia  tranquilizers  depression  jogging  upset  dietary  metabolism  vitamins  digestion  nutrients  worry  stress  fitness  CATEGORIES: nutrition  #12  127  AaaoAV q.asdn  ssauaxddns  saa_xxxnbu__q uoxsuaq. oxq-BUiosouoAsd  BUXUI_q.S  q.sngoa  6ux65oC Aq.xxxqxxaxJ  HXUUIOSUX uoxq._aq.snaj  q.q6neaq.sxp  9STOJSX9  soxuaqq.sxxeo oxqoia-  uoxssaadap q.oxxjuoo  Aq.TAxq.oe  Aqaxxu.  ssauq.xj  ssaaq.s  P r o n u n c i a t i o n :  Word: Meanings:  Other Your  forms own  of  the  sentence  w o r d : u s i n g  the  word;  P r o n u n c i a t i o n :  Word: Meanings  Other Your  forms own  of  the  sentence  w o r d : u s i n g  the  word:  Word:  P r o n u n c i a t i o n :  Meanings  Other Your  forms own  of  the  sentence  w o r d : u s i n g  the  w o r d :  suxureq-XA  uxaq.oad sq.uaxaq.nu _sxxoq_q.aui  asoonx^ auiAzua uoxq.sa6xp Aapq.axp Xoaaq.saxoqo s aq. _ opAjqo_qxeo uoxqxaqxiu  128 EXERCISE #13  WORDS: allegory  fable  opera  allegro  fiction  palette  anthology  fresco  portrait  autobiography  illustration  reggae  baritone  lithograph  sculpture  bass  jazz  soprano  cantata  memoir  staccato  etching  mural  syncopated  exhibition  myth  tenor  expository  narrative  woodcut  art  literature  CATEGORIES: music  qnopooM aanqdxnos q.TB„q„od aqqaX^d XPJnui qde„6otrq.TX uoxq.B„qsnxXT oosaaj uOTq.TqTqx3 Buxqpqa  aAxqeaxeu qqAui JTouiaui  uoTqo-ri aiqej A„oq.Tsodxa AudejrBoTqoqne ABoxoqq.u'e  q„B  sanq-HJaq-Tx  Pronunciation":  Word; Meanings  Other forms o f t h e word; Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  Dther forms o f t h e word: _our own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  Pronunciation:  ford:  leanings:  )ther forms o f t h e word: f o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  „ouaq paqedoouAs oq.HOOBq.s oui_;rdos eeBBaa eaado zz_ C eq.eq.ueo sseq euoqxaeq QjBaxx^ OTsnui  129  EXERCISE  WORDS: angle  hemoglobin  nutrient  binomial  hypotenuse  osmosis  chromosome  insurrection  palindrome  covenant  integer  parliament  dendrite  j urisdiction  premier  embargo  legume  quotient  enzyme  metamorphosis  sovereign  equilateral  monarchy  theorem  exponent  neuron  trinomial  germinate  nonpartisan  tyranny  science  math  CATEGORIES: history  #14  STSOUISO  X-TUIOUTJTq.  q.uax„qnu  uiaaoauq.  uoanau  q.uaxq.onb  s x s o u d a oure q aui  auioapuxxed  _a6aq.uT  auiriBax  asnuaq.odAt{  UTqoxBouiaq  q.uauodxa  aq._UTUiaa6  A_u__A"q. uBxajaAos jatuiaad q.uaui-_xxjed u_sxq.a_duou Aqo„_uoui uoTq.OTpsxanC uoTq.oa„ansux o6„_q_a  XHaaq._xxnba  auxAzua  XHTUIOUTq  aq.T„puap  ax_6u£  auiosouio-iqo  queueAoo  aouaxos  Aaoqsxq  qq__  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  Word:  Pronunciation:  Meanings:  O t h e r forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  Word:  Pronunciation  Meanings:  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  131  132  APPENDIX B R e c o r d i n g Form used i n Treatment A  133  Word:  Pronunciation:  Newspaper s e n t e n c e c o n t a i n i n g t h e word:  What y o u t h i n k t h e w o r d m i g h t mean:  Dictionary  definitions:.  O t h e r f o r m s o f t h e v/ord: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  Word:  Pronunciation:  Newspaper s e n t e n c e c o n t a i n i n g t h e word:  What y o u t h i n k t h e w o r d m i g h t mean:  Dictionary  definitions:  Other forms o f t h e word: Y o u r own s e n t e n c e u s i n g  t h e word:  APPENDIX C Satisfaction  Scale  135 NAME VOCABULARY STUDY EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE  The  f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s d e a l w i t h how i n t e r e s t i n g and how v a l u a b l e you found  your v o c a b u l a r y e x e r c i s e s so f a r t h i s term. each Q u e s t i o n .  6.  P l e a s e c i r c l e your answer t o ?  The e x e r c i s e s were h e l p f u l i n expanding my v o c a b u l a r y  NOT AT ALL  A LITTLE  QUITE A BIT  A LOT  Most o f the e x e r c i s e s were interesting  NOT AT ALL  A LITTLE  QUITE A BIT  A LOT  The v o c a b u l a r y study was a worthwhile use o f my time.  NOT AT ALL  A LITTLE  QUITE A BIT  A LOT  The new words I've l e a r n e d w i l l be u s e f u l t o me  NOT AT ALL  A LITTLE  QUITE A BIT  A LOT  As a r e s u l t o f completing the e x e r c i s e s , my v o c a b u l a r y has increased  NOT AT ALL  A LITTLE  QUITE A BIT  A LOT  I l i k e d doing the v o c a b u l a r y exercises.  NOT AT ALL  A LITTLE  QUITE A BIT  A LOT  I expect my work i n o t h e r courses to improve as a r e s u l t o f my v o c a b u l a r y study  NOT AT ALL  A LITTLE  QUITE A BIT  A LOT  APPENDIX D Attribution  Scale  VOCABULARY ATTRIBUTION SCALE  137  NAME  D u r i n g the p a s t two months y o u r v o c a b u l a r y has i n c r e a s e d . Why? Below are. 16 reasons w h i c h m i g h t p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n why you have l e a r n e d new v o c a b u l a r y w o r d s . P l e a s e c o n s i d e r e a c h s t a t e m e n t , t h e n c i r c l e the number w h i c h t e l l s how much o r how o f t e n you t h i n k t h a t s t a t e m e n t d e s c r i b e s y o u .  1. 2. 3. 4.  NEVER  SOMETIMES  USUALLY  ALMOST ALWAYS  I f I work h a r d enough- I can l e a r n new words. —  1  2  3  4  Much o f my v o c a b u l a r y improvement p r o b a b l y j u s t a m a t t e r o f chance  1  2  3  4  3  4  I put a l o t o f e f f o r t study  is  i n t o vocabulary  My v o c a b u l a r y improvement i s due t o a r u n o f good l u c k  • 1  ' 2  probably 1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  vocabulary words.  1  2  3  4  8.  I f i n d i t e a s y t o l e a m new words  1 .  2  3  4  9.  The d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e e x e r c i s e s were c l e a r and e a s y t o f o l l o w . I ' m j u s t one o f t h o s e p e o p l e who f i n d s s c h o o l e a s y , so r e a d i n g and v o c a b u l a r y are easy s u b j e c t s f o r me.  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  3  4  5. 6. 7.  10.  I u n d e r s t o o d how t o do t h e exercises  vocabulary  The v o c a b u l a r y e x e r c i s e s were easy f o r me t o c o m p l e t -  quite  I t r i e d v e r y h a r d t o remember new  11.  I l e a r n f a s t e r t h a n t h e average p e r s o n .  12.  When I remember new words i t ' s j u s t because I ' m l u c k y .  .,.  .  .  1  2  usually 2  3  4  1  2  3  4  13.  I worked v e r y h a r d o n v o c a b u l a r y .  14.  I u s u a l l y do q u i t e w e l l i n a l l o f my s c h o o l w o r k , and v o c a b u l a r y i s j u s t l i k e the r e s t o f i t  1  2  3  4  I found i t e a s y t o c h o o s e w h i c h • . v o c a b u l a r y words I w a n t e d t o s t u d y .  1  2  3  4  I seem t o be l u c k y l a t e l y , so my v o c a b u l a r y improvement i s p r o b a b l y due t o good f o r t u n e . .  1  2  3  4  15. 16.  ........  1  APPENDIX E Correlation Matrices  Appendix E.1 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x o f v a r i a b l e s used i n r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s o f r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e and v o c a b u l a r y achievement: main e f f e c t s and ATI, t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l groups 1  Variable  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  -03  1 2 3 4  Lang back P o s t vocab P o s t rdg a t t Comparison 1  51 05 -03  -22  -18  5 6 7 8  Comparison 2 Pre vocab Locus o f c Pre rdg a t t  14 37 -10 09  20 93 -19 43  -06 38 -29 65  -02 -27 11 -20  09 06 -11  -13 47  -28  9 10 11 12  Lang x C l Lang x C2 Vocab x C l Vocab x C2  -03 -00 -04 -18  -09 -15 -11 -15  -10 -09 -20 -19  29 -01 04 -12  -02 01 -14 -12  -10 -18 -11 -12  -06 -01 09 04  -21 04 -12 -01  -01 26 -04  -01 56  13 14 15 16  Att x Att x Locus Locus  -17 07 -09 -02  -11 -03 08 07  -04 -07 07 04  -06 -11 03 06  -10 19 05 -10  -11 -02 08 05  12 03 02 02  -08 11 13 03  09 -12 -10 -03  44 -08 05 <-10 -05 ' -09 -11 06  Cl C2 x Cl x C2  ^Decimal p o i n t s are  implicit.  12  13  -04 50 03 -19  -07 -24 08  Appendix  E.2  Correlation  matrix-*- o f v a r i a b l e s u s e d i n r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and a t t r i b u t i o n : m a i n e f f e c t s and A T I , t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s o n l y 4  5  6  7  8  9  2  3  -03  -01  -22  27  -09  23  -31  control  -12  -01  -22  12  -12  attitude  12  -15  10  -22  47  -25  8 Language back x C l  -03  07  -15  29  -12  -06  -23  9 Vocabulary x C l  -03  -02  -11  -01  -10  10  -14  25  x Cl  -18  01  12  -01  -14  15  -12  11  43  11 L o c u s o f c o n x. C l  -10  -16  -20  00  10  02  15  -11  -08  1  Variable  10  1 Language background -19  2 Satisfaction  06 '  3 Attribution 4 Comparison  1  5 Vocabulary 6 Locus of "7 1  Reading  10 Rdg  attitude  Decimal p o i n t s are  implicit.  -23  APPENDIX F R e g r e s s i o n Summary T a b l e s  142 Appendix F . I Summary t a b l e :  Variable  Language background Vocabulary pretest Reading a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t Locus o f c o n t r o l Comparison 2 (A v s . B) Comparison 1 (A+B v s . c ) Language background x C l Language background x C2 Vocabulary x C l V o c a b u l a r y x C2 A t t i t u d e x C2 Attitude x C l Locus o f c o n t r o l x C2 Locus o f c o n t r o l x C l  regression  of v o c a b u l a r y  posttest  AR  Multiple R  R  .50844 .94525 .94535 .94689 .95247 .95268 .95270 .95272 .95284 .95286 .95605 .95648 .95665 .95710  .25851 .89351 .89369 .89660 .90720 .90760 .90764 .90768 .90790 .90794 .91403 .91485 .91518 .91605  2  Simple R  2  .50844 .92574 .43040 -.19089 .19758 -.22304 -.09492 -.15438 -.11024 -.14887 -.03443 -.11441 .06542 .07761  .25851 .63499 .00018 .00292 .01060 .00039 .00004 .00004 .00022 .00004 .00609 .00082 .00033 .00087  b  2 .19337 .86685 .02799 .17018 1 .29845 .25001 - .11960 - .52991 - .00295 - .09357 - .07264 - .02872 .05003 .09124 27 .31457  (Constant)  Appendix F.2 Summary t a b l e :  regression  Variable  Language background Vocabulary pretest Reading a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t Locus o f c o n t r o l Comparison 2 (A v s . B) Comparison 1 (A+B v s . C) Language background, x C l Language background x C2 V o c a b u l a r y x C2 Vocabulary x C l Attitude x C l A t t i t u d e x C2 Locus o f c o n t r o l x C2 Locus o f c o n t r o l x C l (Constant)  of reading a t t i t u d e  Multiple R  R  .04690 .38857 .65809 .66905 .66920 -.66974 .67035 .67736 .69546 .70831 .71110 .71230 .71283 .71294  .00220 .15098 .43308 .44762 .44783 .44855 .44937 .45882 .48366 .50170 .50567 .50737 .50813 .50828  2  AR  posttest  2  .00220 .14878. .28210 .01454 .00021 .00072 .00082 .00945 .02484 .01804 .00396 .00171 .00076 .00015  Simple R  .04690 .37712 .65189 -.29212 -.05580 -.18321 -.10378 -.09071 -.19135 -.20024 -.04276 -.06952 .03657 .07260  b  -.77863 .09841 .54542 -.37997 -.10101 -1.11835 .97433 -.11748 -.22292 -.32268 .07870 -.07267 -.11594 .05494 70.83770  143  Appendix F.3 Summary t a b l e :  Variable  r e g r e s s i o n of s a t i s f a c t i o n  Multiple R  R  .18825 .19382 .22534 .23489 .23712 .24009 .24606 .24657 .29792  .03544 .03756 .05078 .05517 .05623 .05764 .06054 .06080 .08876  Language background Vocabulary p r e t e s t Reading a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t Locus of c o n t r o l Treatment c o n t r a s t ( C l ) Language background x C l Vocabulary x C l A t t i t u d e x Cl. Locus o f c o n t r o l x C l  2  posttest  AR  2  .03544 .00213 ' .01322 .00439 .00106 .00141 .00290 .00025 .02796  Simple R  -.18825 -.09463 -.14517 -.01188 -.00509 .06918 -.02287 .00821 -.15936  b  -.90045 .00469 -.03218 -.04566 -.17518 .17396 -.01870 -.01803 -.19760 20.39813  (Constant)  Appendix F.4 Summary t a b l e :  Variable  Language background Vocabulary p r e t e s t Reading a t t i t u d e p r e t e s t Locus of c o n t r o l Treatment c o n t r a s t ( C l ) Language background x C l V o c a b u l a r y x Cl. Attitude x C l Locus of c o n t r o l x C l (Constant)  r e g r e s s i o n of a t t r i b u t i o n  Multiple R  R  .05920 .22875 .22882 .30864 .33825 .35971 .36298 .42810 .46356  .00350 .05233 .05236 .09526 .11442 .12939 .13175 .18327 .21488  2  AR  2  .00350 .04882 .00003 .04290 .01916 .01498 .00236 .05152 .03161  scores  Simple R  .05920 .22874 .10228 -.22477 -.21555 -.14890 -.10651 .12020 -.20303  b  -.07852 .15454 -.03149 -.36244 -.55724 -.77393 -.10208 .08068 -.29797  47.24648  

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