Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of pictures in a visually structured lesson on the comprehension and recall of grade 5 and… McComb, Bonnie Jean 1987

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1987_A8 M32.pdf [ 13.08MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0078292.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0078292-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0078292-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0078292-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0078292-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0078292-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0078292-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0078292-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0078292.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECT OF PICTURES IN A VISUALLY STRUCTURED LESSON ON THE COMPREHENSION AND RECALL OF GRADE 5 AND GRADE 7 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXT by BONNIE JEAN McCOMB B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1987 ®Bonnie Jean McComb, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date QdrihsJ 7 DE-6(3/81) i i A b stract The e f f e c t s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n t e g r a t i n g p i c t o r i a l and t e x t u a l components i n a f i f t h and a seventh grade S o c i a l Studies lesson were i n v e s t i g a t e d . Measures of r e c a l l were examined both immediately a f t e r the lesson and a f t e r a tuo week delay. Experimental i n s t r u c t i o n f o c u s i n g on the i n t e g r a t i o n of i l l u s t r a t i o n s with the exp o s i t o r y t e x t was compared to the more conventional classroom procedure of f o c u s i n g on the w r i t t e n text through guided s i l e n t reading. The f i f t h grade experimental group outperformed the conventional group on a l l measures of immediate and delayed r e c a l l . The seventh grade experimental group had higher scores than the conventional group on one delayed measure of r e c a l l , a short ansuier t e s t . No p a r t i c u l a r reading a b i l i t y l e v e l was b e n e f i t e d more than another by the experimental treatment i n e i t h e r grade. An examination of gender d i f f e r e n c e s revealed that f i f t h grade females i n the experimental group outscored males on one immediate measure of r e c a l l , a short ansuer t e s t . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and f u r t h e r research are discussed. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Acknowledgement i x CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 A. Statement of the Problem 1 B. Ra t i o n a l e f o r the Study 1 Summary 8 C. Purpose of the Study 8 D. D e f i n i t i o n s 13 E. Assumptions 14 F. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 15 G. Organization of the Thesis ...15 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 16 A. P i c t u r e E f f e c t i n I l l u s t r a t e d vs. N o n - i l l u s t r a t e d Text IB B. Eye Movements and P i c t u r e Viewing Behaviour .29 C. V i s u a l Imagery Research 34 D. Learning Theory and A p p l i c a t i o n t o P i c t o r i a l I n s t r u c t i o n 42 E. Summary 50 CHAPTER I I I : METHOD 5B A. Design and Data A n a l y s i s 56 B. S e l e c t i o n of the Sample 58 1. S e l e c t i o n of Subjects 58 iv Z. School Selection BO 3. Teachers BO C. Instructional Materials 61 1. Teacher Instructional Handbooks Bl a) Conventional Lesson Materials Bl b) Experimental Lesson Materials 62 Z. Student Text Booklets B7 a) Grade 5 67 b) Grade 7 B8 3. Testing Instructions Booklets for Teachers 69 0. Testing Instruments 70 1. Standardized Measures 70 a) Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test (Grade 5 ) . . . . 70 b) Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (Grade 7) 7Z Z. Non-Standardized Measures 73 a) Multiple Choice Test 74 b) Short Answer Recall Test 75 E. Procedures 76 1. Pi lot Study 76 Z. Main Study 78 a) Lesson and Immediate Testing 78 b) Delayed Testing 79 c) Collection of Standardized Reading Scores 80 V o d) Scoring 80 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS 84 A. Standardized Measures 84 1. Gates-MacGinitie (Grade 5 reading scores) 84 Z. Stanford Diagnostic (Grade 7 reading scores) 85 B. Scoring R e l i a b i l i t y 8B C. Hypotheses and Results of Non-Standardized Measures 89 1. A n a l y s i s of Data f o r Grade 5 89 Z. A n a l y s i s of Data f o r Grade 7 10Z CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS 115 A. Summary 115 1- Purpose ..115 Z. Ra t i o n a l e 115 3. Method 116 4. Di s c u s s i o n of Results 117 a) Grade 5 117 b) Grade 7 118 c) Both samples 119 B. L i m i t a t i o n s 1Z1 C. Conclusions 1ZZ 1. Grade 5 -1ZZ Z. Grade 7 1Z3 v i D. I m p l i c a t i o n s 1Z4 1. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Classroom Teacher 124 2. Suggestions f o r Further Research 125 B i b l i o g r a p h y 127 Appendices 139 Appendix A: Vancouver School Board L e t t e r of Permission 139 Appendix B-' U. B. C. E t h i c s Committee C e r t i f i c a t e of Approval 141 Appendix C: Lesson Procedure I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Each Treatment Group and f o r Each Grade 143 Appendix D'- L e t t e r s of Permission from P u b l i s h e r s Concerned 172 Appendix E: Text Booklets f o r Grade 5 and Grade 7 175 Appendix F~- Testing I n s t r u c t i o n s Booklets f o r Immediate and Delayed Testing 189 Appendix G: Examples of Immediate and Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Tests Used f o r Each Grade Level 208 Appendix H: Examples of Immediate and Delayed Short Answer Tests Used f o r Each Grade Level 219 Appendix 1= Templates Used i n Standardized Scoring of Short Answer Tests.. 22G v i i LIST OF TABLES Table 1= Grade 5 Non-Standardized Test Means f o r Each Treatment Group SO Table 1- Summary of Treatment E f f e c t Results f o r Grade 5 90 Table 3: E f f e c t of Treatment on Reading A b i l i t y Levels -Grade 5 91 Table 4= C e l l Means f o r Reading A b i l i t y Groups on M u l t i p l e Choice Tests - Grade 5 9Z Table 5 : C e l l Means f o r Reading A b i l i t y Groups on Short Ansuer Tests - Grade 5 93 Table B : Treatment E f f e c t on Gender Performance - Grade 5 94 Table 7-" C e l l Means f o r Treatment Cond i t i o n by Gender - Grade 5 95 Table 8 : Grade 7 Non-Standardized Test Means f o r Each Treatment Group 103 Table 9= Summary of Treatment E f f e c t Results f o r Grade 7 ..103 Table 10= E f f e c t of Treatment on Reading A b i l i t y Levels -Grade 7 104 Table 11= C e l l Means f o r Reading A b i l i t y Groups on M u l t i p l e Choice Tests - Grade 7 105 Table 1Z : C e l l Means f o r Reading A b i l i t y Groups on Short Ansuer Tests - Grade 7 106 Table 13: Treatment E f f e c t on Gender Performance - Grade 7 107 Table 14: C e l l Means f o r treatment Con d i t i o n by Gender - Grade 7 108 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1= Grade 5 experimental treatment - v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson: one p i c t u r e example .....63 Figure 1- Grade 5 c o n t r o l treatment - guided reading l e s s o n : one text s e c t i o n example 64 Figure 3: Grade 7 experimental treatment - v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson: one p i c t u r e example ...65 Figure 4: Grade 7 c o n t r o l treatment - guided s i l e n t reading lesson"-one t e x t s e c t i o n example .66 Figure 5: Grade 5 short answer r e c a l l t e s t - question types and scores 8Z Fi g u r e 6: Grade 7 short answer r e c a l l t e s t -questions types and scores . 83 Figure 7~ Summary of Gates-MacGinitie t-scores f o r grade 5 87 Figure 8: Summary of Stanford D i a g n o s t i c grade equivalent scores f o r grade 7 88 i x Acknowledgements I am extremely g r a t e f u l f o r the encouragement and support of members of the Language Education Department during the process of conducting and r e p o r t i n g t h i s research. In p a r t i c u l a r I should l i k e to express my thanks to Dr. Florence Pieronek whose thoughts regarding i l l u s t r a t i o n s and content area reading provided the i n i t i a l frame of reference f o r t h i s study, and whose patience, humour, and advice provided c o n t i n u i n g focus. Dr. v i c t o r Froese's i n s i g h t f u l suggestions r e l a t i n g to data a n a l y s i s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t h e s i s have been most h e l p f u l . Dr. Ronald McGregor's comments regarding eye movement research have been much appreciated. As w e l l , Dr. Jane Catterson has k i n d l y provided u s e f u l suggestions concerning the design of the study. I should a l s o l i k e to thank Dr. Nand Kishor and Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f f o r t h e i r k i nd and p a t i e n t guidance i n the area of measurement, design, and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . In a d d i t i o n , Mr. Alan Moodie of the Vancouver School Board has been of the utmost help i n arranging the study. The kindness and cooperation of the p r i n c i p a l s and teachers i n v o l v e d i n the study, too, has been exemplary. F i n a l l y , the counsel and encouragement of f r i e n d s and f a m i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y my husband, are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. 1 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION fl. Statement of the Problem This study examines the question of whether or not p i c t u r e s i n S o c i a l Studies textbooks could serve a f a c i l i t a t i v e f u n c t i o n on comprehension and r e c a l l of t e x t passages. Would students who are re q u i r e d to process the p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r S o c i a l Studies textbooks i n a s t r u c t u r e d manner achieve b e t t e r comprehension and r e c a l l than those who pay only i n c i d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n to the p i c t u r e s ? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , would those students who r e c e i v e s t r u c t u r e d questions f o c u s i n g on both p i c t u r e s and connected prose perform b e t t e r on measures of comprehension and r e c a l l than those students who r e c e i v e guided questions f o c u s i n g on the connected prose only? B. Ra t i o n a l e f o r the Study Considerable research has been d i r e c t e d towards the e f f e c t s of p i c t u r e s through the comparison of i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n - i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t s (Borges & Robins, 1380; Covey & C a r r o l l , 1985; Duchastel, 1980; Hayes & Readance, 1983; Joseph & Dwyer, 1969; Levie & Lentz, 197Z; Levin, Shriberg, & Berry, 1983) and towards the nature of p i c t u r e viewing behaviour (Haber, 1970; Flagg & Weaver, 1981; Kaufman & Richards, 19B9; Lo f t u s , 1971; Neisser, 1968; Nesbit, 1981; Pribram, 1969; Tversky, 1974). z A great deal of research has a l s o been focused on v i s u a l imagery processes (Anderson & Kulhavy, 197Z; Craik & Lockhart, 197Z; Kaufman, 1979; Kosslyn, Holyoak, & Huffman, 1976; P a i v i o , 1969; Reese, 1970; Rohuer, 1970) and on aspects of l e a r n i n g theory (Berry, 1980; Bradshau & N e t t l e t o n , 1981; Hittleman, 1985; L u r i a , 1973). Although a need f o r p i c t u r e - r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n has been recognized, very feu s t u d i e s have been concerned u i t h developing methods of i n s t r u c t i o n uhich u i l l enhance the e f f e c t i v e use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s (Brody, 1984; Snouman & Cunningham, 1975). While i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d that p i c t u r e s may serve as a i d s to comprehension and r e c a l l , i n the l i g h t of knouledge about imagery and l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s , a number of i n s t r u c t i o n a l aspects r e l a t e d t o p i c t u r e / t e x t i n s t r u c t i o n should be addressed i n order to ensure that p i c t u r e s do f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . These i n c l u d e : guaranteed p i c t u r e processing, v i s u a l and verbal i n t e g r a t i o n , p r e l i m i n a r y v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , and grade l e v e l to uhich i n s t r u c t i o n i s d i r e c t e d . For many years reading methologists have suggested that from grade 4 upuards c h i l d r e n need to l e a r n to read t h e i r textbooks (Herber, 1970; McKee, 1948; Spache & Spache, 1973; Summers, 1965). One of the most common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l textbooks i n use from the intermediate grades up, apart from the presence of extensive prose passages, i s the i n c l u s i o n of various types of p i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s . I t has been suggested that p i c t o r i a l aids o f f e r an important adjunct i n prose comprehension. For example, some research i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o n t r i b u t i o n of p i c t u r e s to comprehension i n d i c a t e s at l e a s t a modest p o s i t i v e e f f e c t (Borges & Robins, 1980; B l u t h , 197Z; Covey & C a r r o l l , 1985; Rankin & Culhane, 1970; Royer & Cable, 1976; Wardle, 1977), u h i l e 3 others have found p i c t u r e s a i d r e t e n t i o n more i n delayed than immediate r e c a l l (Borges & Robins, 1980; Duyer, 1980; Haring, 198Z; Hayes & Readance, 1983; Levin, Shriberg, & Berry, 1983; Rusted & C o l t h e a r t , 1979). Studies have been conducted to determine the nature of students' p i c t u r e viewing behaviour. Loftus (1971) found that i t was the number of eye f i x a t i o n s , r e g a r d l e s s of value given to a p i c t u r e and of length of time exposure, that determined memory performance. Summers (1965) suggests that the kind of d i r e c t i o n s given at the time subjects look at p i c t u r e s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s the perceptual p a t t e r n and length of f i x a t i o n s . Based on a study conducted by Friedman (1969) i t i s pointed out that much research has i n d i c a t e d people normally n o t i c e only the g l o b a l aspects of a p i c t u r e , and f a i l to attend to and encode most of the d e t a i l e d f e a t u r e s . I t has been suggested that although most students probably do look at t e x t i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n most s i t u a t i o n s , they u s u a l l y do not "study" the p i c t u r e s unless prompted to do so ( L e v i e & Lentz, 198Z). Many students may simply not view p i c t u r e s as s e r i o u s sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . N i c h o l s (1983) draws a t t e n t i o n to t h i s shortcoming and p o i n t s out that a p i c t u r e can f u n c t i o n as the basis of a most e f f e c t i v e lesson. In e f f e c t , i t appears that i t i s the r o l e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment that needs to be examined (Brody, 1984); i t should not be assumed that students w i l l attend to i l l u s t r a t i o n s simply because they are i n c l u d e d i n t e x t s (Dean & Kulhavy, 1981). fls s t a t e d by Summers (1969, p. 146-147), "Students should be taught to l e a r n from p i c t u r e s ; . . . i n s t r u c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n i n hou t o use p i c t u r e s can r e s u l t i n c l o s e r s c r u t i n y of them." 4 The use of v i s u a l imagery as a means of f a c i l i t a t i n g r e c a l l has been demonstrated i n a number of v e r b a l / p i c t o r i a l p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s t u d i e s (Davidson, 1964, Levin & Kaplan, 197Z; Lynch & Rohuer, 1971; P a i v i o , 1969; Reese, 1965). Findings from these s t u d i e s may have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r determining uhat might be the most e f f e c t i v e methods of p i c t u r e - r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n . F i r s t , i t has been documented that memory performance i s b e t t e r u i t h p i c t u r e s than u i t h uords (Nelson, Reed, & w a l l i n g , 1976; P a i v i o , 1975). As suggested by P a i v i o and Csapo (1973) p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i may provide a q u a l i t a t i v e l y s u p e r i o r sensory code. This f i n d i n g h i g h l i g h t s the need to recognize the p o s i t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l textbook p i c t u r e s have to o f f e r and t o develop techniques to maximize t h i s p o t e n t i a l . Second, i t has been hypothesized i n P a i v i o ' s " d u a l - t r a c e " theory that the reason p i c t u r e s are remembered b e t t e r than uords i s because a p i c t u r e can t r i g g e r a s u b j e c t s ' imaginal and verbal systems and thus has the advantage of having tuo, redundant copies of the memory tr a c e l a i d doun. P a i v i o (1969) suggests that i t i s more than simple r e p e t i t i o n at uork. I t i s , f o r example, not merely that i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n a p i c t u r e may be repeated i n the t e x t and thus f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l . I t i s more l i k e l y that r e c a l l i s f a c i l i t a t e d by manipulations uhich induce deeper or more e l a b o r a t i v e processing (Craik & Lockhart, 197Z), processing uhich i n v o l v e s both the verbal and imaginal memory systems proposed by P a i v i o . Based on t h i s research, the i m p l i c a t i o n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n suggested i s that c h i l d r e n should be taught the use of both verbal and v i s u a l e l a b o r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n an i n t e g r a t e d manner (Rohuer, 1970) s i n c e 5 f a c i l i t a t i o n of r e t e n t i o n r e s u l t s from " i n t e g r a t e d imagery," aroused by ma t e r i a l s i n context. A t h i r d f i n d i n g i s that r e c a l l i s f a c i l i t a t e d i f imagery encoding occurs f i r s t before verbal processing <Koslyn, Holyoak, & Huffman, 1976). Supporting t h i s concept, Rohuer (1970) s t a t e s that given a choice, the stimulus or cue f o r some d e s i r e d response should be concrete r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t , p i c t o r i a l r a t h e r than v e r b a l . This f i n d i n g i s a l s o i n keeping with P a i v i o ' s "conceptual-peg" hypothesis: the image serves as a "peg" f o r storage and r e t r i e v a l of the response item (Reese, 1970). Thus, i t would appear that i n s t r u c t i o n should f i r s t focus on p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l before r e l a t i n g the informat i o n t o the accompanying w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l . Another f a c t o r from the r e l a t e d research has been the notio n that a c h i l d ' s c a p a c i t y to make e f f e c t i v e use of v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and storage i s developmental i n nature. Based on a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s , Rohuer (1970) concludes that the c a p a c i t y to make use of v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n develops l a t e r than i s the case f o r verbal modes of rep r e s e n t i n g and s t o r i n g information. Reese (1970) notes that young c h i l d r e n s t o r e imagery m a t e r i a l s as separate elements because of a f a i l u r e to observe the i n t e r a c t i o n depicted. Related to t h i s i s s u e , the i n f l u e n c e of imagery i n s t r u c t i o n i s p r e d i c t e d to f a c i l i t a t e the performance of c h i l d r e n as they increase i n age (Palermo, 1970; Reese, 1970; Rohwer, 1970). These f i n d i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , suggest that c h i l d r e n i n the intermediate grades would p r o f i t more from p i c t o r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n than primary grade c h i l d r e n . There i s a l s o evidence i n the l i t e r a t u r e that hemispheric d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes e x i s t which have a bearing on the extent to which males and females develop imagery s k i l l s (Bradshaw & Gates, 1978; 6 Lukatela, C a r e l l o , Savic, & Turvey, 1986). Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p a t i a l s k i l l s are widely supported by a number of s t u d i e s which have been reviewed (Maccoby & J a c k l i n , 1974; McGee, 1979). Although research has not c l e a r l y demonstrated than one sex i s more " v i s u a l " than another, Ernest (1968) found that d i f f e r e n c e s between high and low imagers i s g r e a t e r f o r females than males. From adolescence onwards, however, s p a t i a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n has been reported to be an area of male stre n g t h (Maccoby & J a c k l i n , 1974). Some authors have suggested that p i c t u r e s could serve f u n c t i o n s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with n o n - p i c t o r i a l forms of i n s t r u c t i o n (Brody & Legenza, 1980; Duchastel, 1981; H a r t l e y & Davies, 1976). I t has been suggested that p i c t u r e s could serve as v i s u a l advance organizers ( H a r t l e y & Davies, 1976), i n a s i m i l a r manner to t h e i r verbal e q u i v a l e n t s . I t has been shown that relevant contextual knowledge i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r comprehending prose passages (Bransford & Johnson, 197Z); p i c t u r e s could serve as concrete v i s u a l sources f o r b u i l d i n g t h i s p r e r e q u i s i t e schema p r i o r t o the l e a r n i n g of a b s t r a c t verbal m a t e r i a l . P i c t u r e s could a l s o serve a review f u n c t i o n , s i m i l a r to questions placed at the end of a chapter (Brody & Legenza, 1980); p i c t u r e s could serve as cues f o r the r e t r i e v a l of verbal ideas a s s o c i a t e d with them (Duchastel, 1981). In t h e i r study u s i n g a map as an advance organizer to expository m a t e r i a l , Dean and Kulhavy (1981) found that the students who outperformed a l l other groups on m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e , f r e e - r e c a l l and short answer measures a l i k e , were those who had been forced to process the map p r i o r to reading. The key f a c t o r t o note here i s that the best performers were fo r c e d t o process the v i s u a l through the use of r e l a t e d verbal i n s t r u c t i o n . This 7 study, t h e r e f o r e , supports Pavio's " d u a l - t r a c e " theory and h i g h l i g h t s the need f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of verbal and v i s u a l components i n p r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n . Current research about human memory i n d i c a t e s that i t i s a m u l t i p l e storage system u i t h three main components: 1) a sensory r e g i s t e r , Z) a short-term memory, and 3> a long-term memory (Andre, 1979", Gagne and White, 1978); d i f f i c u l t i e s u i t h long-term memory storage of p i c t u r e infor m a t i o n u i l l occur i f images are not t r a n s l a t e d i n t o semantic forms (Be r r y , 1980). For c h i l d r e n to v e r b a l l y r e c a l l i n f o r m a t i o n from an i l l u s t r a t i o n , they must have s t o r e d simultaneously the image and the verbal code (language) f o r that image. E f f e c t i v e storage occurs uhen the p i c t u r e c h i l d r e n are to remember i s immediately a s s o c i a t e d u i t h uords, f i r s t o r a l and then u r i t t e n (Hittleman, 1985). Accompanying verbal i n s t r u c t i o n should not only be d i r e c t e d at hel p i n g students l i n k background knouledge u i t h the p i c t u r e content, but should a l s o help students to i n t e g r a t e graphic i n f o r m a t i o n u i t h that found i n the text (Reinking, 198G). In a s e r i e s of experiments ( E r d e l y i , F i n k e l s t e i n , H e r r e l l , M i l l e r , & Thomas, 1976; E r d e l y i & K l e i n b a r d , 1978; Shapiro & E r d e l y i , 1974) an unusual memory phenomenon has been obtained. Instead of the c l a s s i c Ebbinghausian f u n c t i o n i n uhich memory decreases u i t h time, researchers have been able to produce the opposite of f o r g e t t i n g (hypermnesia i n s t e a d of amnesia) such that r e c a l l p r o g r e s s i v e l y increases u i t h time over successive r e c a l l attempts. When the s t i m u l i to be remembered are p i c t u r e s (but not, apparently, uhen they are uords) the e f f e c t i s both h i g h l y r e l i a b l e and p o u e r f u l . This research h i g h l i g h t s the importance of 8 delayed measures of r e c a l l i n a study concerned with p i c t u r e s . Further s t u d i e s (Duyer, 1973; Rusted & C o l t h e a r t , 1979) have shown that performance i s not a f f e c t e d so much by f a c t o r s such as the type of i l l u s t r a t i o n , or placement p o s i t i o n i n the t e x t , but more by the method of i n s t r u c t i o n which i s u t i l i z e d . Summary: In summary, the body of l i t e r a t u r e has recognized the need to examine the e f f e c t of u s i n g p i c t u r e s (which are not merely present but are processed both v i s u a l l y and v e r b a l l y ) as aids to the comprehension and r e t e n t i o n of the accompanying t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . There have been feu attempts on the part of those i n t e r e s t e d i n prose l e a r n i n g to explore the i m p l i c a t i o n s of employing both types of s t i m u l i ( v i s u a l and v e r b a l ) (Beck, 1984; Snowman & Cunningham, 1975). C. Purpose of the Study I t i s apparent that intermediate grade students r e c e i v e l i t t l e i n s t r u c t i o n i n how to comprehend t h e i r S o c i a l Studies textbooks through the i n t e g r a t e d use of both v i s u a l and verbal s t i m u l i (Beck, 1984; Hayes & Readence, 1983; Kunen & Duncan, 1983; Reynolds, 19B8; Snowman & Cunningham, 1975; Summers, 19B5). Contemporary research suggests that the mere presence of p i c t u r e s i n a textbook may, i n some cases, improve comprehension and r e c a l l of the accompanying t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l , but, i n order to maximize the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l of i l l u s t r a t i o n s , a more 9 s t r u c t u r e d approach nay be what i s r e q u i r e d . A v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson mould: l ) focus f i r s t on concrete, p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l r a t h e r than the more a b s t r a c t , verbal m a t e r i a l , 2) u t i l i z e p i c t u r e s to a c t i v a t e e x i s t i n g schema, 3) employ p i c t u r e s to provide a s t r u c t u r e , or conceptual "peg" f o r o r g a n i z i n g and r e l a t i n g the more a b s t r a c t , verbal m a t e r i a l , and 4) use p i c t u r e s as review frameworks f o r r e c a l l i n g and rehearsing the content of the accompanying t e x t . I t was the purpose of t h i s study to determine whether students who are r e q u i r e d to process the p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r S o c i a l Studies textbooks, i n a s t r u c t u r e d manner ( i n t e g r a t i n g p i c t u r e with t e x t c o n t e n t ) , would achieve b e t t e r comprehension and r e c a l l of the accompanying connected prose than those who pay only i n c i d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n to the p i c t u r e s ( f o c u s i n g , i n s t e a d , s o l e l y on t e x t content). A l s o examined i s whether such i n s t r u c t i o n i s best d i r e c t e d at a p a r t i c u l a r reading a b i l i t y group or gender. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the questions were: 1. Would grade f i v e and grade seven students, who are exposed to a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n , demonstrate s u p e r i o r comprehension of a chapter from t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d S o c i a l Studies textbook, over students r e c e i v i n g t e x t processing i n s t r u c t i o n only, on an immediate and a delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t ? 2. Would grade f i v e and grade seven students, who are exposed to a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson demonstrate s u p e r i o r comprehension of the connected prose i n a chapter of t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d S o c i a l Studies textbooks, over students r e c e i v i n g t e x t processing i n s t r u c t i o n only, on an immediate and delayed short answer r e c a l l t e s t ? 3. Would there be an i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment c o n d i t i o n and reading a b i l i t y l e v e l s as observed on measures of both immediate and delayed comprehension? That i s , would the performance of students of low, middle, and high reading a b i l i t y l e v e l s be a f f e c t e d depending on the type of i n s t r u c t i o n received? 4. Would the gender of grade f i v e and grade seven students a f f e c t performance on measures of both immediate and delayed comprehension of the connected prose, u i t h or without the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson? To answer these questions, s i x n u l l hypotheses were formulated f o r each grade: Hypothesis 1= There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on an immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t measuring immediate l e v e l s of comprehension. Hypothesis 2- There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on a short answer r e c a l l t e s t measuring ' immediate l e v e l s of comprehension. Hypothesis 3: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the 11 treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on a delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t measuring delayed l e v e l s of comprehension. Hypothesis 4: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on a delayed short answer r e c a l l t e s t measuring delayed l e v e l s of comprehension. Hypotheses 5 and B, as they deal with a number of i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g sub-hypotheses: Hypothesis 5 ( i ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups (low, middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean po s t t e s t performance on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . Hypothesis 5 ( i i ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups (low, middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean po s t t e s t performance on the immediate short answer t e s t . Hypothesis 5 ( i i i ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups (low, middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean post t e s t performance on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . Hypothesis 5 ( i v ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups (low, middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean po s t t e s t performance on the delayed short answer t e s t . Hypothesis 6 ( i ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance of males and females on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . Hypothesis 6 ( i i ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance of males and females on the immediate short answer t e s t . Hypothesis G ( i i i ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between -treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance of males and females on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . Hypothesis B ( i v ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance of males and females on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . D. D e f i n i t i o n s comprehension: f o r the purposes of t h i s study, comprehension uas measured by the amount of r e c a l l demonstrated on both a m u l t i p l e choice and short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t . experimental treatment: i n the experimental c o n d i t i o n students were exposed to a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson concerned u i t h one chapter segment from t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d S o c i a l Studies t e x t . c o n t r o l treatment: i n the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n students uere exposed to a guided s i l e n t reading l e s s o n , concerned u i t h the same S o c i a l Studies chapter segment i n i d e n t i c a l format to the experimental treatment. v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson (experimental): i n t h i s lesson students uere r e q u i r e d t o : 1. study and ansuer questions about a p i c t u r e , 2. r e l a t e p i c t u r e content to e x i s t i n g knowledge, 3. read s i l e n t l y the r e l a t e d connected prose, 4. restudy the p i c t u r e while answering questions which sought to i n t e g r a t e text content with p i c t u r e content, 5. study the p i c t u r e while answering questions which sought t o st i m u l a t e r e c a l l of the connected prose G. f o l l o w t h i s procedure f o r the next p i c t u r e and text segment Students answered questions i n both o r a l and w r i t t e n form. guided s i l e n t reading lesson (control)-" i n t h i s lesson students were r e q u i r e d t o : 1. d i s c u s s a purpose f o r reading segment of the chapter 2. read s i l e n t l y f o r s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n (prequestion) 3. g i v e the answer to the pre-question (postquestion) 4. answer f u r t h e r questions checking comprehension and r e c a l l 5. f o l l o w t h i s same procedure f o r the next t e x t segments, which were i d e n t i c a l to those d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d (experimental) lesson Students responded i n both o r a l and w r i t t e n form. E. Assumptions I t was assumed tha t : 1. The tasks which were r e q u i r e d of students i n t h i s study had some r e l a t i o n to the types of tasks r e q u i r e d of students i n a r e g u l a r school s e t t i n g . 15 Z. The i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t instruments used i n t h i s study provided an adequate method f o r assessing immediate and delayed r e c a l l of info r m a t i o n . 3. fl weighted r e c a l l t e s t s c o r i n g system i s an appropriate and r e l i a b l e method f o r assessing immediate and delayed r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n . F. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study This i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s seen as having p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . The study adds to the i n f o r m a t i o n base of content area research by p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the extent that processing p i c t u r e s may have on both the immediate and delayed r e c a l l of grade 5 and grade 7 students. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study may c o n t r i b u t e to knowledge about types of content area i n s t r u c t i o n , o f f e r i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedure which i n c l u d e s the combining of v i s u a l and verbal elements i n a s t r u c t u r e d lesson. G. Organization of the Thesis The t h e s i s i s organized i n f i v e chapters. Chapter One presents the problem and the r a t i o n a l e f o r the study. Chapter Two reviews the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . Chapter Three describes the design and methodology of the study. Chapter Four presents the r e s u l t s of the data analyses. Chapter F i v e i n c l u d e s a summary of the study and s t a t e s the l i m i t a t i o n s , c o n c l u s i o n s , and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e research. IE CHAPTER I I . Review of the L i t e r a t u r e In examining the question of whether or not p i c t u r e s i n S o c i a l Studies textbooks could serve a f a c i l i t a t i v e f u n c t i o n on comprehension of connected prose, i t i s important to consider the p e r t i n e n t research that has already been conducted. This review w i l l focus on four main areas of the l i t e r a t u r e . The f i r s t s e c t i o n deals with s t u d i e s which have examined the i n f l u e n c e of i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n - i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t s . The second s e c t i o n presents l i t e r a t u r e which i s r e l a t e d t o eye movements and p i c t u r e viewing behaviour. The t h i r d s e c t i o n i s concerned with s e v e r a l aspects of v i s u a l imagery research, and the f i n a l s e c t i o n discusses s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to l e a r n i n g theory. In the m a j o r i t y of the s t u d i e s reviewed here, the subjects that were inv o l v e d were intermediate grade students or o l d e r . In a d d i t i o n , unless otherwise s t i p u l a t e d , an attempt has been made to confine the s t u d i e s reviewed, f o r the most part, to those d e a l i n g with content r a t h e r than n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s . Those s t u d i e s that are concerned with n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s , were s e l e c t e d because t h e i r focus was not on l e a r n i n g how to read, but on reading comprehension. A. P i c t u r e E f f e c t i n I l l u s t r a t e d versus N o n - I l l u s t r a t e d Text Studies comparing i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n - i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t can be 0 d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , l e a r n i n g to read uords, and l e a r n i n g to read both n a r r a t i v e and ex p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l f o r comprehension and r e c a l l . For the purposes of t h i s study, the review of the l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be confined t o the l a t t e r category, l e a r n i n g to read prose m a t e r i a l s f o r comprehension and r e c a l l . In t h e i r r e v i e u of 155 experimental comparisons of l e a r n i n g from i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t versus text alone, Levie and Lentz (197Z) found that the i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t v e r s i o n uas c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r than the t e x t alone v e r s i o n . D i f f e r e n c e s found uere more pronounced i n some st u d i e s than i n others. As one example, i n tuo s t u d i e s undertaken by Vernon (1953) the e f f e c t of p i c t u r e s on the l e a r n i n g of c h i l d r e n aged 11-12 uas i n v e s t i g a t e d . Researcher-designed i n s t r u c t i v e m a t e r i a l u i t h or uithout p i c t u r e s uas read to or read by c h i l d r e n from grammar and secondary modern schools. Although spontaneous r e c a l l s and questions f a i l e d to shou that any of the p i c t u r e s a s s i s t e d e i t h e r understanding or remembering of the p r i n t e d t e x t , there uas a s l i g h t tendency f o r c e r t a i n i s o l a t e d items to be r e c a l l e d b e t t e r uhen they uere s p e c i f i c a l l y presented i n p i c t u r e s . Another study, although p i c t u r e s s p e c i f i c a l l y uere not used, can be c l a s s i f i e d under the t o p i c of i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n - i l l u s t r a t e d text s t u d i e s . This study (Weisberg, 1970) i n v e s t i g a t e d whether advance organizers i n the form of v i s u a l aids might serve the same f u n c t i o n as Ausubel's verbal advance org a n i z e r s . The b a s i c design of the study c o n s i s t e d of a 4 x 3 x 2 ANOVA f a c t o r i a l design. N i n e t y - s i x grade eight 18 students were in v o l v e d i n the study. One group was exposed to a physiographic diagram or map of the North A t l a n t i c Ocean F l o o r . A second group was exposed to a topographic p r o f i l e or graph of the North A t l a n t i c Ocean F l o o r . A t h i r d group read a 500 word passage which covered the same informat i o n as the advance organizers of the other two groups. A f o u r t h group functioned as a c o n t r o l group, and was not exposed to any form of advance organizer. A f t e r examining the o r g a n i z e r s , a l l students read a t e x t passage d e a l i n g with c o n t i n e n t a l d r i f t which used ocean f l o o r f e a t u r e s to i l l u s t r a t e the theory. ANOVA treatment of the p o s t - t e s t scores i n d i c a t e d that v i s u a l advance o r g a n i z e r s , both the map and the graph of groups one and two, functioned at a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l whereas the e x p o s i t o r y organizer d i d not f u n c t i o n f o r any of the groups (low, medium, and high c a t e g o r i e s of p r i o r knowledge) i n the study. Post-hoc comparisons, however, revealed that the greatest group mean d i f f e r e n c e appeared between those students who were exposed to the map organizer and the c o n t r o l group. The graph, used f o r the second group, functioned almost as w e l l as the map as an advance organizer. Experimenter-provided p i c t u r e s were found to produce s i g n i f i c a n t r e c a l l e f f e c t s over subject-generated e l a b o r a t i o n or experimenter-provided verbal e l a b o r a t i o n i n a study conducted by DeRose (1976). The sample c o n s i s t e d of 19Z f i f t h - g r a d e students. Based on scores obtained from s t a n d a r i z e d reading t e s t s , s u bjects were d i v i d e d i n t o those above and those below grade l e v e l . Each c h i l d read a s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbook passage under one experimental c o n d i t i o n and answered 14 short-answer questions about i t . Results revealed that f o r questions based on elaborated t e x t , the only s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t uas f o r experimenter-provided p i c t u r e s ; f o r questions based on unelaborated parts of the t e x t , there were no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . I t uas a l s o found that the l o u and high a b i l t y groups b e n i f i t e d from i l l u s t r a t i o n s about the same amount compared to the c o n t r o l , although an examination of the means shous a s l i g h t tendency that poor readers may b e n e f i t more from the presence of p i c t u r e s than good readers. In another study (Peeck, 1974) c i t e d by Levie and Lentz, u i t h n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l , a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t f o r i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n - i l l u s t r a t e d text uas found, but a l s o u i t h c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Subjects used uere seventy-one f o u r t h graders. They uere given e i t h e r an i l l u s t r a t e d or n o n - i i l u s t r a t e d v e r s i o n of a "Rupert Bear" s t o r y to read s i l e n t l y . fl r e t e n t i o n t e s t uas given immediately a f t e r the s t o r y , one day l a t e r , or a f t e r one ueek. Although a more pronounced e f f e c t at delayed t e s t i n g uas evident, r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that at a l l three of these t e s t i n g times the experimental c o n d i t i o n ( t e x t u i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s ) produced higher scores than the c o n t r o l ( t e x t uithout i l l u s t r a t i o n s ) but only f o r questions concerning e x c l u s i v e l y p i c t o r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r questions concerning c o r r e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e d text contents. No d i f f e r e n c e s uere found f o r questions covering u n i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t contents. In c o n t r a s t , Rusted and C o l t h e a r t (1979) uere able to demonstrate i n tuo separate s t u d i e s that the presence of p i c t u r e s increased the r e c a l l of both p i c t o r i a l and n o n p i c t o r i a l features from d e s c r i p t i v e text passages. In the f i r s t study seventy-tuo nine year o l d c h i l d r e n uere d i v i d e d i n t o good and poor readers on the ba s i s of the Schonell Graded Reading Vocabulary Test. The experiment i n v o l v e d a Z(sex) by Z(reading age) by Z ( p i c t u r e or no p i c t u r e at presentation) s p l i t - p l o t a n a l y s i s of variance u s i n g reading age and sex as betueen-subjects v a r i a b l e s , the l a t t e r u i t h unequal group s i z e , and pr e s e n t a t i o n c o n d i t i o n as a u i t h i n - s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e . Six f a c t u a l passages uere randomly d i v i d e d i n t o tuo sets of three. Each subject r e c e i v e d both sets of passages, one u i t h p i c t u r e s and one without. A f t e r reading each passage o r a l l y t wice, subjects uere asked t o r e c a l l o r a l l y a l l they could about the t o p i c i n question. A second, delayed r e c a l l uas again completed o r a l l y betueen 5 and 7 minutes l a t e r . F i n a l l y a p i c t u r e - u o r d a s s o c i a t i o n task, uhere l a b e l s and p i c t u r e s had t o be matched, uas introduced to the su b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s revealed that on immediate r e c a l l , the c h i l d r e n r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more features from passages presented with p i c t u r e s than from those presented without IF(1,68)=4.E9, p <.031. There uas no main e f f e c t of reading a b i l i t y , nor d i d i t i n t e r a c t with presence/absence of p i c t u r e s . This p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s uas repeated i n delayed r e c a l l , uhere the p i c t u r e / n o - p i c t u r e e f f e c t uas more pronounced [F(1,G8)=ZZ.58, p < .013. The sex of the subject d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t r e c a l l under any c o n d i t i o n . The proportions of c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d f e a t u r e s uere a l s o analyzed i n terms of t h e i r q u a l i t i e s , e i t h e r p i c t o r i a l or n o n p i c t o r i a l . There uere s i g n i f i c a n t l y more of both types of features r e c a l l e d i n the p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n than i n the no-picture c o n d i t i o n . A n a l y s i s of performance on the p i c t u r e - u o r d a s s o c i a t i o n task demonstrated Z l s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s of p r e s e n t a t i o n c o n d i t i o n and of sex; performance was be t t e r on p i c t u r e s seen p r i o r to the task ( w i t h the passages), and females were superior to males at t h i s task. The authors suggest that the b e t t e r performance i n the p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n on delayed r e c a l l than immediate r e c a l l was as a r e s u l t of the p i c t u r e s h e l p i n g subjects to r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n more a c c u r a t e l y over longer periods of time. They do not o f f e r any p o s s i b l e explanations as to why, i n the p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n , the females outperformed males on the picture-word a s s o c i a t i o n task. The f a i l u r e to f i n d an e f f e c t f o r reading a b i l i t y i n the f i r s t study, l e d the authors to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s t o p i c f u r t h e r i n a second study. One hundred nine year o l d c h i l d r e n from J u n i o r Schools i n Reading, England served as s u b j e c t s . This time, however, d i f f e r e n t than the f i r s t study, reading a b i l i t y was measured with a non-oral, comprehension t e s t . The procedure was i d e n t i c a l to that followed i n Experiment 1, with the omission of the picture-word a s s o c i a t i o n task, and with the i n c l u s i o n of three experimental groups ( l i n e drawings or no p i c t u r e s , colour drawings or no p i c t u r e s , colour and background or no p i c t u r e s ) i n s t e a d of two. Analyses of covariance were completed on the r e s u l t i n g data. Results were s i m i l a r t o the f i r s t experiment. For a l l three experimental groups, p i c t u r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhanced r e c a l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n delayed r e c a l l . R e c a l l was not a f f e c t e d by the type of p i c t u r e i n v o l v e d or by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, reading age, or sex of the sub j e c t , although there was a s l i g h t trend towards p i c t u r e s b e n e f i t i n g the performance of the poor readers more than the good readers. Contrary to the f i r s t study, where more fea t u r e s of both p i c t o r i a l and n o r t p i c t o r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n were r e c a l l e d i n the p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n , i n t h i s second study, more n o n p i c t o r i a l features were r e c a l l e d under a l l c o n d i t i o n s . The authors conclude that p i c t u r e s may be used e f f e c t i v e l y t o enhance comprehension and r e t e n t i o n of p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s , and that t h i s enhancement i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the p i c t o r i a l aspects of the passage. In another study conducted by Haring and Fry (1979) p i c t u r e s were found t o f a c i l i t a t e both the immediate and delayed r e c a l l (5 days l a t e r ) of n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . Subjects were f o u r t h and s i x t h grade students, exposed to a s t o r y with or without p i c t u r e s . Results showed that p i c t u r e f a c i l i t a t i o n of r e c a l l occurred only i n the r e c a l l of main ideas but not of nonessential d e t a i l s . Not u n l i k e other s t u d i e s of t h i s nature, the p i c t u r e e f f e c t was more pronounced at delayed r e c a l l than i n immediate r e c a l l . The researchers suggest that f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of delayed p i c t u r e b e n e f i t s be i n v e s t i g a t e d , to help determine the maximum length of time p i c t u r e f a c i l i t a t i o n of r e c a l l of prose m a t e r i a l w i l l endure. In Levie and Lentz's review (197Z) of i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n i 1 l u s t r a t e d text s t u d i e s , not only was i t found that the i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t v e r s i o n was c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r than the t e x t - a l o n e v e r s i o n , but two trends were i d e n t i f i a b l e . F i r s t , the s u p e r i o r i t y of the i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t v e r s i o n was more pronounced i n delayed r e c a l l than i n immediate r e c a l l , and second, i t was more pronounced f o r poor readers than f o r good readers. As p r e v i o u s l y discussed, the more pronounced e f f e c t of the presence of p i c t u r e s on delayed r e c a l l uas seen i n the Peeck (1974), Rusted and C o l t h e a r t (1979), and Haring and Fry (1979) s t u d i e s . In a l i s t of 24 comparisons of immediate and delayed t e s t s , Levie and Lentz (1972) i l l u s t r a t e that of these 24 s t u d i e s , 19 shou that p i c t u r e s helped more i n delayed than i n immediate r e c a l l . O v e r a l l , the average group f a c i l i t a t i o n from p i c t u r e s uas 45% i n delayed t e s t i n g , compared u i t h 9% i n immediate t e s t i n g . In most cases, houever, the comparison uas betueen t e s t and r e t e s t , and o f t e n the t e s t delay uas rather b r i e f (Haring & Fry, 1979, Rusted & C o l t h e a r t , 1979). The t r e n d touards p i c t u r e s f a c i l i t a t i n g r e c a l l more f o r poor readers than f o r good readers uas seen i n the s t u d i e s of DeRose (1976) and Rusted and Coltheart (1979). In Rusted and C o l t h e a r t ' s study (1979), f o r example, there uas evidence that f o r good readers, the p i c t u r e s f a c i l i t a t e d r e t e n t i o n of the passage as a uhole, s i n c e good readers shoued e q u a l l y enhanced r e t e n t i o n f o r p i c t u r e and nonpicture i n f o r m a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , the enhanced r e t e n t i o n of poor readers seemed to be caused mainly by an increase i n r e c a l l of p i c t u r e i n f o r m a t i o n . Indeed, the researchers i n another a r t i c l e (Rusted & C o l t h e a r t , 1979) observed that poor readers during the experiment f r e q u e n t l y moved t h e i r eyes from the passage to the p i c t u r e . In c o n t r a s t , the good readers paid l i t t l e or no a t t e n t i o n to the p i c t u r e s during t h e i r reading. This suggests, based on the data, that increased r e c a l l i n the p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n r e f l e c t e d i n c i d e n t a l use of p i c t u r e s by the good readers, and a more i n t e n t i o n a l usage by the poor readers. Only one researcher l i s t e d by Levie and Lentz, houever, produced a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n betueen reading 24 a b i l i t y and the presence/absence of p i c t u r e s ; Wardle (1977) found that i l l u s t r a t i o n s helped belou-median readers but had no e f f e c t on above-median readers. A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s , not discussed i n Levie and Lentz's review have a l s o demonstrated a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t f o r i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t . Borges and Robins (1980) conducted a study uhich examined the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t types of i n t r o d u c t o r y m a t e r i a l s on comprehension and r e c a l l of a n a r r a t i v e passage. Six groups of 20 subjects (undergraduate students) were each presented d i f f e r e n t p r e l i m i n a r y m a t e r i a l , appropriate context p i c t u r e , p a r t i a l context p i c t u r e , no p i c t u r e , c h a r a c t e r - m o t i v a t i o n s t o r y , or no s t o r y , i n a 3 x 2 design. Both the p i c t u r e s and the s t o r y increased the r a t i n g s of comprehension, but only the p i c t u r e s increased performance at r e c a l l . The authors suggest that whether a p a r t i c u l a r type of i n t r o d u c t o r y m a t e r i a l m i l l produce a schema that enhances r e c a l l may be a f u n c t i o n of the nature of the to-be-remembered passage. A study conducted by L e v i n , Shriberg, and Berry (1983), u i t h content m a t e r i a l s , found that i l l u s t r a t i o n s uere not h e l p f u l compared t o a n o n i 1 l u s t r a t e d c o n d i t i o n unless the p i c t u r e s uere presented u i t h key words. This r e s u l t uas found across four experiments u i t h eighth grade students. Keyword i l l u s t r a t i o n s proved to be h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e f a c i l i t a t o r s of students' memory f o r and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l passage information. 25 In another study, Covey and C a r r o l l (1985) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of p i c t u r e s on reading comprehension under d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of text o r g a n i z a t i o n . One hundred and t h i r t y - t u o s i x t h graders read three science passages, presented u i t h or uithout p i c t u r e s . The p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n uas crossed u i t h three l e v e l s of text o r g a n i z a t i o n . M u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t scores uere analyzed u s i n g reading comprehension scores from the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test as a c o v a r i a t e . A n a l y s i s revealed that p i c t u r e s f a c i l i t a t e comprehension f o r some science t e x t s , but there uas no evidence to support a hypothesis that p i c t u r e s uould be more h e l p f u l f o r l e s s u e l l organized t e x t s than f o r b e t t e r organized t e x t s . Joseph and Duyer (1984) found support f o r the idea that c e r t a i n types of v i s u a l s may be more e f f e c t i v e than others. In a study i n v o l v i n g 414 tenth grade students, r e s u l t s provide evidence that students u i t h a lo u l e v e l of p r i o r knouledge may f i n d s e v e r a l types of v i s u a l s (simple l i n e drauing, r e a l i s t i c photograph, h y b r i d p r e s e n t a t i o n / r e a l i s t i c u i t h l i n e drauing superimposed, tuo i l l u s t r a t i o n s / o n e r e a l i s t i c and one l i n e drauing) e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . Students u i t h moderate and high l e v e l s of p r i o r knouledge of the subje c t , houever, be n e f i t e d more from the r e a l i s t i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s . A l l types of v i s u a l s produced b e t t e r r e c a l l than no v i s u a l s on both immediate and delayed measures. Tuo st u d i e s conducted by Hayes and Readence (1982, 1983) a l s o found a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s , but groups u i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s d i d not b e n e f i t more from one type of i n s t r u c t i o n than another. In the f i r s t study, the authors sought to determine not only whether i l l u s t r a t i o n s would help c h i l d r e n understand prose m a t e r i a l but whether g i v i n g then o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to look at the i l l u s t r a t i o n s would make a d i f f e r e n c e . Subjects used were 8Z eighth graders i n a r u r a l school i n Georgia, f i l l s u bjects were exposed to four d i f f e r e n t treatments. In the f i r s t treatment c o n d i t i o n the subjects read a text without i l l u s t r a t i o n s and performed study e x e r c i s e s without any i n s t r u c t i o n s other than to r e f e r to the t e x t to complete problems. In the second treatment c o n d i t i o n , the t e x t s were augmented by l i n e drawings d e p i c t i n g t e x t content; no i n s t r u c t i o n s were given to look at these drawings. In the t h i r d treatment c o n d i t i o n , the t e x t s a l s o contained the l i n e drawings but t h i s time the students were advised t o pay c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to the p i c t u r e s . In the f i n a l treatment c o n d i t i o n the text had no i l l u s t r a t i o n s , but subjects were i n s t r u c t e d to t r y to imagine t h e i r own p i c t u r e s t o accompany the t e x t content. Analyses of r e s u l t s showed that subjects performed b e t t e r on t e x t s augmented u i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s than on t e x t s without i l l u s t r a t i o n s . No e f f e c t , however, was noted f o r i n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n , e i t h e r t o attend to i l l u s t r a t i o n s when they uere present or to imagine the content uhen they were not present. The second study (Hayes & Readence, 1983) was s i m i l a r t o the f i r s t , i n that the four treatment c o n d i t i o n s were the same. This time, however, an attempt was made to determine uhether v a r y i n g degrees of a t e x t ' s dependence on i l l u s t r a t i o n s uould a f f e c t a d d i t i o n a l reading on a t o p i c . Seventh graders used i n t h i s study read four passages of d i f f e r i n g degrees of i l l u s t r a t i o n dependency under the four d i f f e r e n t treatment c o n d i t i o n s . The i n t e r a c t i o n s between treatment c o n d i t i o n s and l e v e l of i l l u s t r a t i o n dependence suggest that subjects given t e x t s f o r uhich i l l u s t r a t i o n dependence uas moderate to high b e n e f i t e d from the presence of i l l u s t r a t i o n s . For those s u b j e c t s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more informati o n uas r e c a l l e d i f the r e l a t e d t e x t uas i l l u s t r a t e d ; a l s o , those subjects i n c l u d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater p r o p o r t i o n of reader-based i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r r e c a l l of t r a n s f e r passages. Although i n s t r u c t i o n s to attend t o t e x t i l l u s t r a t i o n s d i d appear to enhance performance on t r a n s f e r t a s k s , such i n s t r u c t i o n s d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve performance beyond uhat uas achieved by the mere p r o v i s i o n of i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n - d e p e n d e n t t e x t s . The authors c a u t i o n , houever, that i t should not be assumed that readers u i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y g i v e a t t e n t i o n to i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n content area t e x t s , and as a matter of sound educational p r a c t i c e , teachers should continue t o c a l l readers' a t t e n t i o n to t e x t i l l u s t r a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l support f o r the s u p e r i o r f a c i l i t a t i o n of delayed r e c a l l u i t h i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t i s provided i n a study by Duchastel (1980). I t uas found u i t h 15 year o l d students that those exposed to e x p o s i t o r y passages u i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s outperformed those without, on a t o t a l c u e d - r e c a l l t e s t , but only i n the case of delayed t e s t i n g (tuo weeks a f t e r ) and not uhen t e s t i n g uas immediate. Those uho completed the delayed t e s t d i d not r e c e i v e immediate t e s t i n g . Nevertheless, the author s t a t e s that t h i s study does not o f f e r s o l i d c o n f i r m a t i o n of a r e t e n t i o n a l r o l e f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n text s i n c e there uas no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n obtained on a t o p i c a l - r e c a l l t e s t as uas expected. A study undertaken by Donald (1983) lends a d d i t i o n a l support to 28 the idea that poor readers nay b e n e f i t more from i l l u s t r a t i o n s than good readers. From 1,868 c h i l d r e n across grades one to f i v e , 120 good and poor readers at reading ages of 7 and 9 uere s e l e c t e d . Subjects read n a r r a t i v e passages u i t h or without p i c t u r e s . Results demonstrated that i l l u s t r a t i o n s were a d a p t i v e l y used f o r t e x t u a l message i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n processing s t r a t e g y , and comprehension by good readers at a reading age of 7. Poor readers p a r t i c u l a r l y at a reading age of 9 showed s i g n i f i c a n t i l l u s t r a t i o n e f f e c t s but s t r a t e g y r e s u l t s suggested a non-adaptive f u n c t i o n . Good readers at a reading age of 9 uere l e a s t a f f e c t e d , appearing independent of i l l u s t r a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . Hou i s i t that p i c t u r e s might f u n c t i o n t o enhance comprehension and r e c a l l ? One suggestion ( L e v i e & Lentz, 1982) i s that p i c t u r e s provide i n f o r m a t i o n that i s redundant to t e x t i n f o r m a t i o n , a f f o r d i n g a second l e a r n i n g opportunity. The r e p e t i t i o n may reduce f o r g e t t i n g . There i s evidence, however, that more than simple r e p e t i o n i s at uork. Levin, Bender, and Lesgold (1976) compared c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l of o r a l n a r r a t i v e prose presented once, the same prose presented twice, and prose presented once u i t h p i c t u r e s . While the l i s t e n i n g r e p e t i t i o n d i d help, the p i c t u r e s helped to an even greater extent. Ruch and Levin (1977) a l s o found that r e p e t i t i o n of o r a l n o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l prose compared u i t h r e p e t i t i o n of prose and p i c t u r e s produced q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t r e c a l l p a t t e r n s , f u r t h e r demonstrating that the f a c i l i t a t i o n of memory due t o p i c t u r e s i n v o l v e s more than mere r e p e t i t i o n . The study of eye movements and v i s u a l memory processes o f f e r s a r e l e v a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the understanding of hou p i c t u r e s might f u n c t i o n t o enhance l e a r n i n g . Z9 B. Eve Movements and P i c t u r e Viewing Behaviour I t has been noted ( N e s b i t , 1981) that the reading process i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the p i c t u r e - v i e w i n g process. Reading i s a somewhat regimented process of f i x a t i n g words l e f t - t o - r i g h t , l i n e - b y - l i n e , whereas p i c t u r e viewing i s an unstructured and e x p l o r a t o r y process. Furthermore, the p i c t u r e s themselves i n f l u e n c e the l o o k i n g behavior considerably more than uords i n f l u e n c e scanning behaviour. ft number of researchers have i n v e s t i g a t e d the nature of eye movements during p i c t u r e v i e u i n g . One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the vieuer uhich has been i s o l a t e d i s the tendency to look f i r s t at the center of i n t e r e s t . Kaufman (1969) s t u d i e d the spontaneous f i x a t i o n tendencies of the eyes uhen confronted u i t h very simple forms. Among the f i n d i n g s uas that f o r f i g u r e s subtending angles l e s s than 5 degrees the eye i s d i r e c t e d touard the center of the f i g u r e , and not touard i t s edge. A second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p i c t u r e v i e u i n g i s that the su b j e c t ' s eyes u i l l next rove widely over the p i c t u r e . Such eye movements are necessary because the area of c l e a r v i s i o n a v a i l a b l e to the s t a t i o n a r y eye i s se v e r e l y l i m i t e d ( N e i s s e r , 1968). Only a small region around the f i x a t i o n point u i l l be c l e a r . Only i n the fovea, the small c e n t r a l part of the r e t i n a , are the receptor c e l l s packed c l o s e enough together (and a p p r o p r i a t e l y organized) to make a high degree of v i s u a l a c u i t y p o s s i b l e . Although people are unaware of t h e i r oun eye movements and see a p i c t u r e or a scene as a whole, f a r from simply being a copy of the r e t i n a l d i s p l a y , the p i c t u r e i s somehow constructed on the b a s i s of information taken i n during many d i f f e r e n t f i x a t i o n s . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of eye movement patterns during p i c t u r e viewing has been observed by Mackuorth and Morandi (19G7). Their v i s u a l f i x a t i o n data revealed that subjects spent more time f i x a t i n g on the u n p r e d i c t a b l e or unusual features of a p i c t u r e ; more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the p e r i p h e r a l r e t i n a q u i c k l y screened o f f the redundant and more p r e d i c t a b l e f e a t u r e s , l e a v i n g the fovea f r e e to process the un p r e d i c t a b l e and unusual s t i m u l i . Examining the nature of eye movements has l e d researchers to ask do the number of eye f i x a t i o n s d i r e c t e d towards a p i c t u r e i n f l u e n c e how we l l a subject w i l l perform on l a t e r measures of r e c a l l ? Is the number of eye f i x a t i o n s , i n f a c t , a r e l i a b l e e x t e r n a l i n d i c a t o r of i n t e r n a l c o g n i t i v e processes? This i s a t o p i c which has been i n v e s t i g a t e d by a number of researchers. Loftus (1971) found that the number of eye f i x a t i o n s made by a subject while i n i t i a l l y viewing a p i c t u r e was the best i n d i c a t o r of subsequent p i c t u r e r e c o g n i t i o n . I t was found that higher-valued p i c t u r e s both r e c e i v e d more f i x a t i o n s and were remembered b e t t e r than low-valued p i c t u r e s , but when number of f i x a t i o n s was held constant, memory performance was independent of value. I t was a l s o found that when p i c t u r e s are viewed f o r a f i x e d amount of time, memory performance i s a p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n of number of f i x a t i o n s on the p i c t u r e , and with number of f i x a t i o n s held constant, performance i s independent of exposure time. Flagg & Weaver (1981) a l s o found s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between f i x a t i o n s and r e c a l l of f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l u i t h t h i r d and f i f t h grade c h i l d r e n . Although the r e c a l l of high importance m a t e r i a l (main ideas) uas not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d u i t h the percent of time or percent of f i x a t i o n s on the p i c t u r e s , there uere s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s betueen p i c t u r e usage and r e c a l l of l o u importance text u n i t s ( d e t a i l s ) . For both f r e e and probed s i t u a t i o n s , r e c a l l of l o u importance text uas s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d u i t h percent of time spent l o o k i n g at the p i c t u r e s and u i t h percent of f i x a t i o n s . A n a l y s i s of the eye movement data of the c o n d i t i o n u i t h p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i e d a uide range of p i c t u r e usage patter n s uhich crossed boundaries of grade, reading s k i l l , and t e x t category. Eight percent of 48 c h i l d r e n ignored the p i c t u r e completely, 17% looked at the p i c t u r e both before and a f t e r reading but not u h i l e reading the passage, 23% e i t h e r examined the p i c t u r e completely before or a f t e r they read the t e x t through without i n t e r r u p t i o n , and f i n a l l y , 52% of the c h i l d r e n i n t e r r u p t e d t h e i r reading at l e a s t once to scan the p i c t u r e . Thus, no c o n s i s t e n t , homogeneous v i e u i n g p a t t e r n could be i d e n t i f i e d . Nesbit (1981) a l s o found a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n betueen the number of eye f i x a t i o n s , measured u n o b t r u s i v e l y , and subsequent r e c a l l i n a study conducted u i t h c o l l e g e students as s u b j e c t s . An a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g uas that there uas no r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen type of v i s u a l s used and eye movements. This i s i n contrast to uhat Tversky (1974) found i n her study. U i t h the use of simple l i n e drauings, those subjects uho f i x a t e d on the ma t e r i a l s feuer times had the highest r e c a l l on l a t e r memory tasks. I t has been suggested (Nesbit, 1981) that t h i s r e s u l t could be r e l a t e d to Mackuorth and Morandi's (1967) f i n d i n g s that complex p i c t u r e s r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n than simple r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Related to hou p i c t u r e s are viewed i s hou p i c t u r e s are remembered or stored. I t has been s a i d that v i s u a l perception i s as much concerned with remembering what we have seen as i t i s with the act of seeing i t s e l f (Haber, 1970). I n v e s t i g a t i o n s concerned with v i s u a l memory have suggested that the ca p a c i t y of memory f o r p i c t u r e s may be u n l i m i t e d . In one such experiment subjects were able to recognize as many as GOO p i c t u r e s they had seen f o r only a short time. In another experiment (Standing, 1973) were able to demonstrate that at l e a s t four times t h i s amount of mat e r i a l can be recognized. I t has been noted, however, that although a person may remember almost any p i c t u r e he has ever seen, he f r e q u e n t l y i s unable to r e c a l l d e t a i l s from a s p e c i f i c p i c t u r e i f asked to do so. Haber suggests that the reason f o r t h i s i n a b i l i t y i s that the p i c t u r e uas not o r i g i n a l l y s t ored i n the form of words. Based on h i s experiments, one i m p l i c a t i o n of h i s f i n d i n g s advanced i s that i f techniques could be found to f a c i l i t a t e an a t t a c h i n g of words to v i s u a l images, r e c a l l might d r a m a t i c a l l y improve. When p i c t o r i a l memory i s compared to the uay i n uhich uords, numbers, and other symbols are remembered, again, l i k e the processes of v i s u a l and l i n g u i s t i c p erception, i t i s evident that the tuo systems are very d i f f e r e n t . Each kind of memory handles m a t e r i a l that i s perceived uhen l i g h t s t i m u l a t e s the r e t i n a , generating impulses that are then coded, organized, and sent to the b r a i n . In the case of p i c t u r e s , the image i s re c e i v e d and stored permanently i n p i c t o r i a l form. With uords 33 or other symbols, however, the f i r s t step of memory i s to take the stimulus out of i t s v i s u a l , p i c t o r i a l form, code the items, and e x t r a c t t h e i r meaning (Haber, 1970). Pribram (19G9) advances a more elaborate theory of v i s u a l memory based on a l a r g e number of experiments u i t h monkeys. According to t h i s theory uhat ue see i s not a pure and simple coding of the l i g h t patterns that are focused on the r e t i n a . Someuhere between the r e t i n a and the v i s u a l cortex the i n f l o u i n g s i g n a l s are modified to provide information that i s already l i n k e d to a learned response. What reaches the v i s u a l cortex i s evoked by the e x t e r n a l u o r l d but, u n l i k e Haber, i s hardly a d i r e c t or simple r e p l i c a of i t . As u e l l , the i n f o r m a t i o n inherent i n the input becomes d i s t r i b u t e d over uide regions of the v i s u a l c ortex. Pribram suggests that the b r a i n may e x p l o i t the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r i n c i p l e of information storage yet known: the p r i c i p l e of the hologram. In a hologram the in f o r m a t i o n i n a scene or p i c t u r e i s recorded on a photographic p l a t e i n the form of a complex i n t e r f e r e n c e , or d i f f r a c t i o n , p a t t e r n that appears meaningless. When the p a t t e r n i s i l l u m i n a t e d by coherent l i g h t , however, the o r i g i n a l image i s reconstructed. Thus, remembering or r e c o l l e c t i n g l i t e r a l l y i m p l i e s a r e c o n s t r u c t i v e process. Whether students a c t u a l l y make use of p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r textbooks i s an i s s u e which a r i s e s from t h i s research. Findings which demonstrate a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n betueen memory performance and number of f i x a t i o n s point out the need f o r teachers to address themselves to students' p i c t u r e v i e u i n g behaviour. Summers (1971) suggests that the k i n d of d i r e c t i o n s given at the time subjects look at p i c t u r e s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s the 34 perceptual viewing patterns and length of f i x a t i o n s . Other authors have pointed out that many students nay not view p i c t u r e s as ser i o u s sources of inf o r m a t i o n , and that i t should not be assumed that students w i l l attend to i l l u s t r a t i o n s simply because they are i n t h e i r textbooks (Dean & Kulhavy, 1981," Friedman, 1969; Levie & Lentz, 198Z; N i c h o l s , 1983). C. V i s u a l Imagery Research V i s u a l images are assumed to be f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to v i s u a l perception and are s p e c i a l i z e d f o r s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; v i s u a l imagery i s p r i m a r i l y a p a r a l l e l processing system ( P a i v i o , 1969). Many of the stu d i e s concerned with imagery demonstrate that the use of imagery i n s t r u c t i o n , and p i c t u r e s , i n p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e t a s k s , enhances r e c a l l . Explanations f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s have been proposed by P a i v i o (1969) i n h i s dual-coding hypothesis, and by Kosslyn, Holyoak, and Huffman (1976) i n t h e i r semantic e l a b o r a t i o n hypothesis. fls a r e s u l t of some of the st u d i e s on imagery, developmental and gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n su b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y to use imagery have a l s o been observed. F i n a l l y , suggestions which seek to r e l a t e t h i s body of research to classroom i n s t r u c t i o n have been given. Snodgrass and McClure (1973) s t u d i e d the storage and r e t r i e v a l p r o p e r t i e s of p i c t u r e s and words, with undergraduate students. The r e s u l t i n g data revealed that o l d p i c t u r e s are remembered b e t t e r than o l d words, the form of the t e s t item, whether p i c t u r e or word, has no e f f e c t 35 on r e c o g n i t i o n memory, and imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s improve r e c o g n i t i o n of words over verbal i n s t u c t i o n s , but verbal i n s t r u c t i o n s do not improve r e c o g n i t i o n of p i c t u r e s over imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s . In another study which explored the e f f e c t s of imagery and text o r g a n i z a t i o n on what i s learned, S t e i n g a r t and Block (1979) found that r e g a r d l e s s of t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n , imagery i n s t r u c t e d subjects r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o r r e c t t e x t r e l a t i o n s than subjects i n s t r u c t e d t o repeat passage information to themselves. Further support f o r the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of imagery i s provided by Levin (1973) i n a study i n v o l v i n g f o u r t h graders. I t was found that imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s were f a c i l i t a t i v e f o r s t o r y comprehension compared to r e c e i v i n g the s t o r y e n t i r e l y i n p i c t u r e s with no verbal l a b e l s , or the s t o r y by i t s e l f with no p i c t u r e s or i n s t r u c t i o n s to image. However, f o r older students ( h i g h school s e n i o r s ) , Anderson and Kulhavy (1972) found that imagery i n s t r u c t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d prose l e a r n i n g t o a l e s s e r extent. Although students who reported having generated images while reading the passage r e c a l l e d more about the passage than students who d i d not, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l main e f f e c t was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Many other s t u d i e s have found that imagery can f u n c t i o n as an extremely potent mnemonic with a wide v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s , ranging from p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s to sentences and paragraphs (Anderson, 1971; Bower, 1972; B u g e l s k i , 1968; Johnson, 1970; Morris & Reid, 1972; P a i v i o , 1970). From p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s t u d i e s there i s much evidence that f i r s t , p i c t u r e s are maintained more durably i n memory than words, and secondly, that i n f o r m a t i o n coded both i c o n i c a l l y and v e r b a l l y tends to s u f f e r l e s s 36 memory l o s s than information coded s o l e l y i n e i t h e r system. In a p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e task, a c o l l e c t i o n of d i s c r e t e item p a i r s are p a s s i v e l y presented to the s u b j e c t . The p a i r s are then removed and upon p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f i r s t member of the p a i r (the stimulus term), the l e a r n e r must r e c a l l or recognize the second member of the p a i r (the response term). The success'of the l e a r n e r i s dependent upon the permanency of a s s o c i a t i o n betueen the p a i r s ( L e v i n , 1972). With young c h i l d r e n , much of the p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e research has centred around presenting the p a i r e d items as uords, as p i c t u r e s of the items, or as p i c t u r e - u o r d p a i r s , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y varying the concreteness both betueen and u i t h i n the p a i r s (Rohuer, 1970). Research has rather c o n s i s t e n t l y shoun that p i c t u r e s are s u p e r i o r as stimulus items over uords f o r both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s ( D i l l e y & P a i v i o , 1968; L e v i e , 1973; L e v i n , 1974). As an example, D i l l e y and P a i v i o (1968) conducted a p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e task u i t h f i v e and s i x year o l d c h i l d r e n to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of p i c t u r e s and uords as both stimulus and response items. They found that p i c t u r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g as stimulus items, but that uords had a negative e f f e c t as response items. In s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i t has been shoun that subjects uho are i n s t r u c t e d to e i t h e r evoke images or use a mnemonic uhen a s s o c i a t i n g p a i r e d objects r e g u l a r l y outperform those l e f t to t h e i r oun s t r a t e g i e s (Anderson & Kulhavy, 1972; B o u t u e l l , 1972; Bouer, 1970; Rasco, Tennyson, & B o u t u e l l , 1973). Such experiments seem to suggest that i n f o r m a t i o n coded both i c o n i c a l l y and v e r b a l l y tends to s u f f e r l e s s memory l o s s than informa t i o n coded s o l e l y i n e i t h e r system. Rohuer and others (1968) have s t a t e d , f o r example, that the a b i l i t y to p r o f i t from s t o r e d images i s contingent upon a subject's a b i l i t y to s t o r e an appropriate verbal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the object along u i t h i t s image. Odom and Nesbit (1974) found that f o r subjects presented both verbal and v i s u a l e l a b o r a t i o n , performance uas be t t e r than uhen only one mode of e l a b o r a t i o n uas presented. Reese (1970) concurs u i t h t h i s concept uhen he s t a t e s that f a c i l i t a t i o n of r e t e n t i o n r e s u l t s not so much from imagery, and hence meaning, i n general, but from i n t e g r a t e d imagery, and hence contextual meaning. Integrated imagery i s aroused by m a t e r i a l s i n context, uhether i n a sentence or smaller uord-group. I t has been suggested (Bransford & M c C a r r e l l , 1972) that meaningful r e l a t i o n s among items may be a more important v a r i a b l e f o r memory than concreteness and abstractness r a t i n g s f o r i s o l a t e d uords. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , f o r older s u b j e c t s , high school students and undergraduate students, Snodgrass, V o l v o v i t z , and W a i f i s h (1972) found no improvement i n r e c o g n i t i o n memory performance uhen both a p i c t u r e and i t s corresponding uord uere presented as s t i m u l i over the pr e s e n t a t i o n of a p i c t u r e alone. They suggest that one p o s s i b l e explanation of t h i s r e s u l t i s that t h e i r s u b j e c t s , by t h i s age, a u t o m a t i c a l l y engaged i n dual coding of p i c t u r e s . Several t h e o r e t i c a l approaches have attempted to account f o r the f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t of p i c t u r e s , or imagery a r o u s a l . Craik and Lockhart (1972) suggest that r e p e t i t i o n u i l l a i d r e c a l l only i f the second p r e s e n t a t i o n induces the l e a r n e r to process the ma t e r i a l at a d i f f e r e n t semantic or sensory l e v e l . They suggest that long-term r e c a l l i s f a c i l i t a t e d by manipulations uhich induce deeper or more e l a b o r a t i v e processing. S i m i l a r l y , Kosslyn, Holyoak, and Huffman (1976) hypothesize that the processes l e a d i n g to greater r e c a l l under imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s are not s p e c i f i c a l l y l i n k e d to e i t h e r a c o u s t i c or v i s u a l processing, but, r a t h e r , image formation may improve r e c a l l by i n c r e a s i n g semantic e l a b o r a t i o n . Another approach, the dual-code model ( P a i v i o , 1971), proposes tuo memory systems, an imaginal system and a verbal system, and p r e d i c t s that a memory t r a c e i n both systems u i l l be b e t t e r than i n only one. P a i v i o contended that v i s u a l imagery and verbal processes are a l t e r n a t i v e mental coding systems f o r the symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of meaning. Central to the notion of mental imagery as a comprehension s t r a t e g y i s the "conceptual peg" hypothesis ( P a i v i o , 1983; Sadouski, 1983,1985), uhich contends that key images serve as mental "pegs" to uhich a s s o c i a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s hooked f o r storage and r e t r i e v a l . Evidence f o r the dual encoding hypothesis has been supported by f i n d i n g s that verbal and p i c t o r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n may be independently acquired, coded, stored and r e t r i e v e d , u i t h minimal mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e and independent and i d i o s y n c r a t i c f o r g e t t i n g f u n c t i ons (Anderson, 1976; P a i v i o , 1971; Sherman, Kulhavy, & Burns, 1976). I t has been s t a t e d that arguments i n favour of an u n d e r l y i n g p r o p o s i t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p i c t u r e s and images (uhich would make the imaginal system operate s i m i l a r l y , i f not i d e n t i c a l l y , t o the verbal system) are not compelling, though e m p i r i c a l l y i t may never prove p o s s i b l e to decide f i n a l l y between an u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n imaginal or p r o p o s i t i o n a l terms (Bradshau & N e t t l e t o n , 1981). 39 In a f r e e - r e c a l l experiment, P a i v i o and Csapo (19G9) found that presenting a concept once as a uord and once as a p i c t u r e uas s u p e r i o r to presenting the concept t u i c e as word or t u i c e as a p i c t u r e . According t o P a i v i o , a p i c t u r e that i s named has the advantage of having tuo, redundant copies of the memory t r a c e l a i d doun. The redundancy prolongs memory i n comparison to a b s t r a c t items, s i n c e the second, imaginal t r a c e i s l i k e l y t o s u r v i v e a f t e r the i n i t i a l verbal t r a c e has decayed. Not only are there tuo t r a c e s , but the one i n the imaginal system seems more r e s i s t a n t to f o r g e t t i n g ( H i l g a r d & Bouer, 1975). Some research suggests that i t i s the concrete aspect of the i n i t i a l stimulus uhich i s important. I t has been found that r e c a l l i s f a c i l i t a t e d i f imagery encoding occurs f i r s t before verbal processing (Kbsslyn, Holyoak, & Huffman, 1976). Rohuer (1970) s t a t e s that given a choice, the stimulus or cue f o r some d e s i r e d response shoud be concrete r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t , p i c t o r i a l r ather than v e r b a l . The image serves, l i k e P a i v i o ' s conceptual peg hypothesis, as a "peg" f o r storage and r e t r i e v a l of the response item (Reese, 1970). While P a i v i o ' s v i e u of imagery uas c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the i t s emphasis on the concrete aspects of a s i t u a t i o n , Kaufman (1979) t h e o r i z e d that imagery i s evoked uhen the task i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by novelty. I t has been s t a t e d that the theory of mental imagery as s t a t i c , immobile, and concrete has given uay to a current conception of imagery as an a c t i v e information-handling process (Gambrell and Bales, 198G). Not u n l i k e Neisser's (1972) analogy of a hologram, imagery i s represented by " l a y o u t s , " not p i c t u r e s . Kaufman (1979) t h e o r i z e d that imagery i s u s e f u l i n general problem-solving, and p a r t i c u l a r l y uhen the task i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by novelty, uhich induces a c o n f l i c t and demands a change i n t h i n k i n g . Huttenlocher (1968) and Sadouski (1983) have concluded, too, that mental imagery i s u s e f u l i n both s p a t i a l and verbal problem-solving i n reading s i t u a t i o n s . Counter to uhat uas e a r l i e r thought (Bruner, 1966), more recent work i n the f i e l d of imagery suggests that the c a p a c i t y to make e f f e c t i v e use of v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and storage develops l a t e r than i s the case f o r verbal modes of re p r e s e n t i n g and s t o r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n (Baine, 1982; Danner & Taylo r , 1973; Haring, 198Z; Reese, 1974; Rohuer, 1970). Rohuer, (1970) speculates uhy t h i s occurs. He s t a t e s that while language i s a coherent, well-orgnanized system, imagery i s not. The c a p a c i t y f o r u s i n g more we l l - o r g a n i z e d systems i s e a s i e r t o acquire than the cap a c i t y f o r u s i n g more ad hoc means of c o n t r o l l i n g one's own behavior, and of s t o r i n g and r e p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Thus the a b i l i t y to use l i n g u i s t i c or verbal means f o r s t o r i n g and pre s e r v i n g information emerges e a r l i e r developmentally than the a b i l i t y to use v i s u a l or imagery processes f o r accomplishing the same ends. Although the evidence s t r o n g l y suggests that there i s a developmental s h i f t toward the a b i l i t y to "read" p i c t o r i a l e l a b o r a t i o n , the age at which t h i s occurs i s not c l e a r and may be a f u n c t i o n of the task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, by the age of 7 or 8, most c h i l d r e n are able to b e n e f i t from imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s (Jensen & Rohwer, 1965; Levin, Davidson, Wolff, & C i t r o n , 1973; Wolff & L e v i n , 197Z). As w e l l , D i r k s and Neisser (1977) found that memory f o r informa t i o n i n p i c t u r e s increased from age 6 t o adulthood. 41 fl number of imagery s t u d i e s have explored the r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen imagery a b i l i t y and sex d i f f e r e n c e s . Ernest (1968) found that these tuo f a c t o r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r a c t e d i n a p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g task such that d i f f e r e n c e s betueen high and l o u imagers uere g r e a t e r f o r females than males. High imagery a b i l i t y uas p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to l e a r n i n g i n the female sample, uhereas the converse uas found u i t h males. Ernest and P a i v i o (1971) conducted an experiment to f u r t h e r explore these d i f f e r e n c e s . Their data suggests that i n some t a s k s , females 'use' imaginal processes to f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l uhereas males do not. They a l s o found that high-imagery males uere s u p e r i o r t o lou-imagery males i n r e c a l l i n g uords; the r e s u l t s f o r females uere i n the reverse d i r e c t i o n . In gen e r a l , houever, i t has been concluded from t h e i r r e v i e u of many s t u d i e s , that no sex i s more " v i s u a l " than the other (Maccoby & Jack 1 i n , 1971). No sex d i f f e r e n c e s are d i s c e r n a b l e from these s t u d i e s i n younger su b j e c t s ; B r o u n f i e l d (1965), houever, found that u i t h a d u l t s , men appear to have longer after-images. Findings from imagery s t u d i e s have l e d to a number of p r a c t i c a l suggestions f o r improved classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . I t has been suggested that performance i s enhanced i f imagery encoding occurs f i r s t before verbal processing; thus, i t uould appear that i n s t r u c t i o n should f i r s t focus on p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l before the accompanying u r i t t e n m a t e r i a l i s processed. Reynolds (1968) suggests, based on r e s u l t s from tuo experiments (1966, 1968), that the i n t e g r a t i o n of verbal and p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i i n t o a s i n g l e meaningful s t r u c t u r e , rather than f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n u i t h these components s e p a r a t e l y , u i l l a i d l e a r n i n g . Based on h i s experimenial data, Beck (1984) a l s o supports t h i s concept, concluding that uhen p i c t o r i a l and t e x t u a l a t t r i b u t e s are cued together, t h i s combined cueing s t r a t e g y may f a c i l i t a t e the l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t y to remember these c r i t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s . I t uas found that f o u r t h grade students uho rec e i v e d combinational treatment ( p i c t o r i a l and t e x t u a l cues) u i t h content m a t e r i a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y outscored the students uho r e c e i v e d non-cued treatment. Kunen and Duncan (1983) suggest that verbal l a b e l i n g i s a simple pedagogical technique that teachers can use to s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhance c h i l d r e n ' s auareness of the meaning i n p i c t u r e s . S t e i n g a r t and Glock (1979) suggest that the a p p l i c a t i o n of an imagery s t r a t e g y may markedly f a c i l i t a t e comprehension of te x t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n b r i e f , concrete, h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d t e x t s . fin examination of the work done i n the f i e l d of l e a r n i n g theory o f f e r s f u r t h e r suggestions f o r p r a c t i c a l classroom a p p l i c a t i o n . D. Learning Theory and A p p l i c a t i o n to P i c t o r i a l I n s t r u c t i o n Research on human memory or l e a r n i n g o f f e r s knowledge about gender d i f f e r e n c e s and e f f e c t i v e methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . Some instances can be found uhere p i c t u r e s uere examined to determine uhether they could serve f u n c t i o n s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d u i t h n o n p i c t o r i a l forms of i n s t r u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the use of d i f f e r e n t combinations of p r e s e n t a t i o n media has been s t u d i e d , as u e l l as d i f f e r e n t ^ y p e s and features of v i s u a l s . The d i s t i n c t i o n betueen l e a r n i n g and memory i s an a r b i t r a r y one. What i s remembered roust have been learned. What has been learned can u s u a l l y only be determined through asking subjects t o r e c a l l or recognize the learned m a t e r i a l . Maccoby and J a c k l i n (1974) do not regard memory as a " c a p a c i t y " but as a set of processes, processes uhich i n d i v i d u a l s make use of to d i f f e r e n t degrees. I f there are sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r e s t s , areas of knouledge, and a b i l i t i e s , these u i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n memory. Summarizing a number of s t u d i e s , Maccoby and J a c k l i n (1974) conclude that g i r l s shou someuhat b e t t e r memory f o r verbal content. More than h a l f the st u d i e s c i t e d found no sex d i f f e r e n c e s , but uhen d i f f e r e n c e s are found, g i r l s have higher scores i n every case. The s u p e r i o r i t y of g i r l s i n verbal memory i s e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r a f t e r about the age of 7. By c o n t r a s t , sex d i f f e r e n c e s , i n s t u d i e s examined by Maccoby and J a c k l i n , have seldom been found f o r the memory of objects or d i g i t s . The s t u d i e s that used tasks c a l l i n g f o r memory of both verbal and nonverbal m a t e r i a l s present a mixed p i c t u r e , but by and l a r g e do not shou s u p e r i o r i t y of e i t h e r sex. L u r i a (1973) s t a t e s that the process of memory i s a complex one c o n s i s t i n g of a s e r i e s of succesive stages, d i f f e r i n g i n t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n the volume of traces capable of f i x a t i o n , and i n the du r a t i o n of t h e i r storage, and extending over a pe r i o d of time. The process begins u i t h the i m p r i n t i n g of sensory cues, a stage described as u l t r a s h o r t memory; houever, i t has been pointed out that the t r a c e s of s t i m u l i r e c e i v e d i n t h i s p eriod can be g r e a t l y extended i n volume i n cases of v i s u a l s t i m u l i ( S p e r l i n g , I960; 1963). In the next stage of the memorizing process, s t i m u l i perceived are converted i n t o v i s u a l images. This i s f o l l o u e d by the l a s t stage, the complex coding of tra c e s or t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t o a system of c a t e g o r i e s . This stage i n v o l v e s the storage of informati o n i n t o long-term memory. This long -term memory i s considered to c o n s i s t of three sub-units: e p i s o d i c memory, semantic memory, and imagery memory. The images i n imagery memory do not seem to be stored i n any verbal code, yet they can be a c t i v a t e d by a s s o c i a t i o n s from other subunits. For example, f o r c h i l d r e n to v e r b a l l y r e c a l l i n f o r m a t i o n from an i l l u s t r a t i o n , they must have simultaneously s t o r e d the image and the verbal code (language) f o r that image (Hittleman, 1985). The coding which takes place i n t h i s l a s t stage i s a complex process and, u i t h regard to the processing of verbal versus v i s u a l m a t e r i a l , there may not be a d i s t i n c t dichotomy as has been proposed by P a i v i o . w i t h i n the context of r i g h t and l e f t hemispheric processing, there i s evidence against the verbal/nonverbal dichotomy, or P a i v i o ' s dual-coding hypothesis which i s a k i n to t h i s . The repeated observation that a right-hemisphere s u p e r i o r i t y i s not an i n e v i t a b l e concomitant of nonverbal s t i m u l a t i o n i n gene r a l , or of face-processing tasks i n p a r t i c u l a r (Bevilacqua, C a p i t a n i , L u z z a t t i , & S p i n n l e r , 1979; Marzi, & B e r l u c c h i , 1977; Patt e r s o n , & Bradshaw, 1975), but depends upon such f a c t o r s as task or stimulus f a m i l i a r i t y , complexity, or d i f f i c u l t y ( B esiach, N i c h e l l i , & S a l a , 1979; Ornstein, Johnstone, Herron, & Swencionis, 1980), or r e q u i r e d storage d u r a t i o n (Mocovitch, S c u l l i o n , & C h r i s t i e , 197B), a l l favour some more general d i s t i n c t i o n such as the a n a l y t i c / h o l i s t i c view (Bradshau, & N e t t l e t o n , 1981). With regard to the disappearance of memory t r a c e s or f o r g e t t i n g , previous views that f o r g e t t i n g i s the n a t u r a l r e s u l t of the gradual e x t i n c t i o n or decay of the t r a c e have been r e v i s e d ( L u r i a , 1973). More r e c e n t l y , the view i s held that f o r g e t t i n g i s the r e s u l t of i n h i b i t o r y i n f l u e n c e s of i r r e l e v a n t or i n t e r f e r i n g a c t i o n s on the t r a c e s , i n h i b i t i n g t h e i r normal r e c a l l , r a t h e r than the r e s u l t of t h e i r gradual decay (Keppel, 1968; Postman, 1963; Underwood, 1957; Underwood, & Postman, 1960). R e c a l l i s a s p e c i a l form of mnestic a c t i v i t y , determined by s p e c i a l motives and by the task of r e c a l l i n g the appropriate m a t e r i a l . C e r t a i n s t r a t e g i e s and appropriate methods or codes are used uhich increase the volume of r e c a l l a b l e m a t e r i a l , increase the time during uhich i t can be r e t a i n e d , and sometimes, a b o l i s h the i n h i b i t o r y a c t i o n or i r r e l e v a n t , i n t e r f e r i n g agents. E r d e l y i and K l e i n b a r d (1978), conducted experiments uhich support the id e a that c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of s t i m u l i , p a r t i c u l a r l y meaningful p i c t u r e s , may be hypermnesic r a t h e r than amnesic, i n c r e a s i n g over time and r e c a l l attempts. Important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p i c t o r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n a r i s e from research about memory processes. I t has been noted by Berry (1980) that c h i l d r e n may experience problems i n remembering i n f o r m a t i o n from i l l u s t r a t i o n s unless the images are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o semantic forms. While t h i s may occur a u t o m a t i c a l l y f o r some c h i l d r e n , a number of suggestions are made by Hittleman (1985) to enhance the use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s . He suggests that e f f e c t i v e storage u i l l occur i f the p i c t u r e c h i l d r e n are to remember i s immediately a s s o c i a t e d u i t h words, f i r s t o r a l then u r i t t t e n . Further, i t i s suggested that the language used should l i n k the info r m a t i o n i n an i l l u s t r a t i o n to some s p e c i f i c context, should provide an opportunity f o r c h i l d r e n to rehearse t h e i r knouledge, and should be 46 s p e c i f i c a l l y confined to the processing of one p i c t u r e at a t i n e i n order to avoid memory i n t e r f e r e n c e . In a study conducted by Carr, Bacharach, and Mehner (1977) i t uas found that advance verbal d e s c r i p t i o n s enhanced c h i l d r e n ' s r e t e n t i o n of component informa t i o n from p i c t u r e s . D e s c r i p t i o n r e s u l t e d i n higher r e t e n t i o n of a l l components, i n c l u d i n g unmentioned items. Koenke (1980) s t a t e s that one should not assume that c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y poor readers, are capable of apprehending and i n t e g r a t i n g p i c t o r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n independently. I t has been s a i d that a c l e a r conception of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l of p i c t u r e s i s missing (Brody, 1984). Some research, houever, has been d i r e c t e d touards uhether p i c t u r e s could serve f u n c t i o n s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d u i t h n o n p i c t o r i a l methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . In some stu d i e s p i c t u r e s have been used as v i s u a l advance organizers i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to t h e i r counterparts^ verbal or exp o s i t o r y organizers. Weisberg (1970), as discussed p r e v i o u s l y , reported that a map and and a graph functioned e f f e c t i v e l y as v i s u a l advance or g a n i z e r s . N i c h o l s (1983) notes that the use of p i c t u r e s t o induce p r e d i c t i o n i n advance of a lesson i s an e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l device, ftusubel (1963) has long advocated the use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s as organizers uhen the mat e r i a l to be learned i s complex; p i c t u r e s can serve, i n t h i s uay, to a c t i v a t e the student's background knouledge and e x i s t i n g schema. Dean and Kulhavy (1981), i n experiments u i t h undergraduates, found that those l e a r n e r s uho uere forced to process a map p r i o r t o reading s i g n i f i c a n t l y outperformed on r e c a l l measures those given no map, or those given a map but not i n s t r u c t e d to study i t . These authors make the point 47 that l e a r n e r s do not process an organizer merely because i t i s presented, and that such an unwarranted assumption may account f o r the no d i f f e r e n c e v e r d i c t o f t e n shown with advance o r g a n i z e r s . As another example, subject-generated p i c t u r e s or maps, created c o n c u r r e n t l y u i t h t e x t processing, may serve a note-taking or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . In a number of s t u d i e s , evidence has been found that c r e a t i n g a map-like s t r u c t u r e while l e a r n i n g a passage can s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhance r e t e n t i o n (Snouman, &. Cunningham, 1975; Dean, & Kulhavy, 1981). Brody and Legenza <1980) suggest that p i c t u r e s may serve a review f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r to the general r e v i e u f u n c t i o n served by questions that are placed a f t e r reading passages (R i c k a r d s , 1979). Some st u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the use of d i f f e r e n t combinations of media on l e a r n i n g . For example, Duyer (1973;1971) has conducted se v e r a l s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i f f e r e n t methods of presenting v i s u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n . In one study (1971) the use of u r i t t e n questions as advance organizers to v i s u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n was examined. Based on the r e s u l t s Duyer concluded that questions uere not an e f f e c t i v e means f o r i n c r e a s i n g students' achievement on d i f f e r e n t types of c r i t e r i a l measures. In another study (1973), again u i t h c o l l e g e students, u r i t t e n questions, uhich were designed to focus a t t e n t i o n on relevant l e a r n i n g cues i n an i l l u s t r a t i o n , were placed before content, a f t e r content, or uere omitted. Results showed that subjects r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n without questions achieved as w e l l as subjects r e c e i v i n g v i s u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n complemented 48 by questions. Although questions uere used i n these s t u d i e s , they uere presented i n the sane nedia as the content, that i s , i n u r i t t e n form. fl study uhere questions uere o r a l l y presented as an accompaniment to f a c t u a l discourse uas conducted by Rohuer and H a r r i s (1974) u i t h high socioeconomic s t a t u s (SES) u h i t e and lou-SES black fourth-grade c h i l d r e n . R e s ults from experiments shoued t h a t , on short-ansuer and f r e e r e c a l l methods, f o r the lou-SES black c h i l d r e n , performance i n the combined media c o n d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n o r a l plus p i c t u r e s , uas s u p e r i o r to that i n single-media c o n d i t i o n s , uhereas among high-SES u h i t e s ubjects combinations of media uere of l i t t l e b e n e f i t . In another study Snouman and Cunningham (1975) compared the e f f e c t s of p i c t o r i a l and u r i t t e n questions i n t e r s p e r s e d through t e x t on f a c t u a l r e c a l l . Students r e c e i v e d one of the f o l l o u i n g forms of t e x t : questions before r e l e v a n t passage, questions a f t e r , p i c t u r e s before, p i c t u r e s a f t e r , questions and p i c t u r e s before, questions and p i c t u r e s a f t e r , no adjunct a i d s . Adjunct aids appearing a f t e r the t e x t u a l passage uere found to be superio r to those appearing before, except i n the case of p i c t u r e s before uhich uere s u p e r i o r to p i c t u r e s a f t e r on p r a c t i c e d items. The s u p e r i o r i t y of p r a c t i c e d items over nonpracticed items uas a l s o demonstrated. In gen e r a l , reader-generated p i c t u r e s and experimenter- provided questions uere e q u a l l y f a c i l i t a t i v e and r e s u l t e d i n increased r e t e n t i o n over the c o n t r o l group. The authors conclude, houever, that there have been feu attempts on the part of those i n t e r e s t e d i n prose l e a r n i n g to explore the i m p l i c a t i o n s of employing both types of s t i m u l i , v i s u a l and v e r b a l , so that even t e n t a t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s cannot be draun. 49 The comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i f f e r e n t types of i l l u s t r a t i o n s has a l s o been i n v e s t i g a t e d . Duyer (1973) found evidence that the use of colour and more r e a l i s m i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the heart f a c i l i t a t e d achievement, but only f o r a programmed method of i n s t r u c t i o n as opposed to a s l i d e / a u d i o t a p e d method of i n s t r u c t i o n . In another experiment Duyer (1971) found that simple l i n e drauings uere most e f f i c i e n t i n f a c i l i t a t i n g achievement. Joseph and Duyer (1984) concluded from an experiment that students u i t h moderate and high l e v e l s of knowledge may b e n e f i t from r e a l i s t i c v i s u a l i z a t i o n , depending on the pacing of i n s t r u c t i o n and o b j e c t i v e s to be achieved. In another study, reviewed e a r l i e r (Rusted, & C o l t h e a r t , 1979), the i n c l u s i o n of colour and a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l u i t h i n p i c t u r e s had no e f f e c t on any of the measures analyzed. Fau and Nunelly (1967), however, conducted a s e r i e s of experiments with c o l l e g e students and found that the subjects paid the most a t t e n t i o n to complex and novel p i c t u r e s . The study was r e p l i c a t e d (Fau and Nunelly ,1968) u i t h elementary school c h i l d r e n u i t h the same r e s u l t s . The i s s u e of complexity i s not as w e l l defined, however, as t h i s and other research (Hochberg, & Brooks, 1978 Mackworth, & Morandi, 1967; ; Zusne, & Michels, 1964) uould seem t o i n d i c a t e . Wolf (1970) found that complexity seems to a t t r a c t more eye f i x a t i o n s , but only up to a p o i n t . When the stimulus becomes extremely complex, the subject may tend to avoid the s t i m u l i or to f i x a t e c e n t r a l l y . P r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s i s d i f f i c u f t s i n c e i t i s probably not so much whether i l l u s t r a t i o n s are simple or r e a l i s t i c , or colour or black and white, which i n f l u e n c e s t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , but more 50 the i n t e r a c t i o n between the method of i n s t r u c t i o n , the l e a r n e r ' s l e v e l of background knowledge, and type of t e x t m a t e r i a l which i s used that determines the u l t i m a t e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s . E. Summary Four avenues of p i c t o r i a l research have been discussed^ the e f f e c t s of i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n - i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of eye movements and p i c t u r e viewing behaviour, the r e l e v a n t aspects of imagery research, and the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of l e a r n i n g and memory theory. A number of points emerge from the research e x p l o r i n g the e f f e c t s of i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n - i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t . F i r s t , t e x t accompanied by i l l u s t r a t i o n s appears to f a c i l i t a t e b e t t e r comprehension and r e c a l l of passages than t e x t without i l l u s t r a t i o n s . This e f f e c t has been shown i n s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g subjects from the age of 7 to 15. This p o s i t i v e e f f e c t has been demonstrated f o r both m a t e r i a l which i s i l l u s t r a t e d , and f o r m a t e r i a l only found i n the t e x t . Second, experimenter-provided p i c t u r e s are more e f f e c t i v e than subject-generated e l a b o r a t i o n or experimenter-provided verbal e l a b o r a t i o n . V i s u a l s , as advance o r g a n i z e r s , appear to produce super i o r r e c a l l of m a t e r i a l than ex p o s i t o r y advance o r g a n i z e r s . Females may outperform males on picture/word a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k s . The d i f f e r e n c e s found between i l l u s t r a t e d and n o n - i l l u s t r a t e d c o n d i t i o n s are greater i n delayed r e c a l l measures than i n immediate r e c a l l . Poor readers may make more use of p i c t u r e s than good readers. Text o r g a n i z a t i o n does not appear to a f f e c t the degree t o which p i c t u r e s may produce a f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t . Students with high p r i o r knowledge may b e n e f i t more from r e a l i s t i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s . And, f i n a l l y , i n s t r u c t i o n to look at or pay a t t e n t i o n to p i c t u r e s does not appear to enhance t h e i r p o s i t i v e efFect on r e c a l 1 . The types of text used i n these s t u d i e s i n c l u d e both n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y . Twelve of the s t u d i e s reviewed i n t h i s s e c t i o n employed conten* m a t e r i a l s (Covey, & C a r r o l l , 1985; DeRose, 197B; Duchastel, 1980; t Flagg & Weaver, 1981; Joseph, & Dwyer, 1984; Hayes, & Readence, 1982, 1983; L e v i n , Shriberg, & Berry, 1978; Rusted, & C o l t h e a r t , 1979; Weisberg, 1970), while f i v e of the s t u d i e s reviewed dealt with n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s (Borges, & Robins, 1980; Donald, 1983; Haring, & Fry, 1979; L e v i n , Bender, & Lesgold, 1976; Peeck, 1974). The n a r r a t i v e s t u d i e s s e l e c t e d were inc l u d e d because of t h e i r focUs on l e a r n i n g from reading, rather than on l e a r n i n g how to read. Although the m a j o r i t y of the s t u d i e s reviewed were concerned u i t h e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l , the s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l represent only a very small p r o p o r t i o n of s i m i l a r s t u d i e s . Brody (1981), f o r example, p o i n t s out that i n the f i e l d of p i c t o r i a l research, most verbal treatments used are u r i t t e n i n n a r r a t i v e or prose s t y l e s r a t h e r than the e x p o s i t o r y s t y l e u s u a l l y found i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e x t s ; he adds that t h i s tendency i s evidence of the u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e betueen l e a r n i n g to read and l e a r n i n g from reading. Brody (1981) cau t i o n s , however, that 52 even uhen Materials, u r i t t e n i n an e x p o s i t o r y s t y l e , are included they nay not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of those found i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e x t s . In a d d i t i o n , Brady (1971) a l s o draus a t t e n t i o n to the need f o r s t u d i e s based on acadenic areas other than science or nathenatics, such as language a r t s or s o c i a l s t u d i e s . While the s t u d i e s reviewed here have found at l e a s t a modest f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t f o r the use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n conprehending and r e c a l l i n g prose passages, there are numerous s t u d i e s uhich have f a i l e d to shou a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . In f a c t , i t has been asserted that among the attempts to confirm the value of t e x t i l l u s t r a t i o n , more seem to have f a i l e d than to have succeeded (Ouchastel, 1980). Yet, r a t h e r than a continued focus on uhether or not the mere presence of p i c t u r e s i n text i s b e n e f i c i a l , there i s a need f o r research to be d i r e c t e d , i n s t e a d , on methods of i n s t r u c t i o n that can enhance the f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s of p i c t u r e s . As Denburg s t a t e s (1977), i t i s not enough to examine uhether i l l u s t r a t i o n s can enhance l e a r n i n g ; one nust a l s o examine uhy or hou they can do so. In the ma j o r i t y of s t u d i e s revieued i n t h i s s e c t i o n , the m a t e r i a l s used uere experimenter-designed, and o f t e n the passages used uere u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y b r i e f . Brody (1981) s t a t e s that the development of meaningful r e s u l t s i n the area of i l l u s t r a t e d versus n o n - i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t i s made more d i f f i c u l t by the use of p i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of those found i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l textbooks. Thus, there appears to be a need to i n v e s t i g a t e p i c t u r e e f f e c t s u i t h i n the t y p i c a l 53 textbooks students encounter i n t h e i r classroom. In a l l but one study (Duchastel, 1980) reviewed, the t e s t i n g of delayed r e c a l l was often measured w i t h i n a few hours or days of the i n i t i a l exposure and immediate t e s t i n g . In view of the trend towards greater p i c t u r e f a c i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t s on delayed r e c a l l compared t o immediate r e c a l l , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g that the e f f e c t s i n delayed r e c a l l have not been f u r t h e r t e s t e d by arranging longer delays from the time of i n i t i a l exposure. The s t u d i e s concerned with eye movements and p i c t u r e viewing behaviour h i g h l i g h t a number of points"- i t i s not the exposure time given t o i l l u s t r a t i o n s but the number of eye f i x a t i o n s which occur that i n f l u e n c e r e c a l l performance, observed patterns of p i c t u r e viewing behaviour during the reading of t e x t m a t e r i a l s are i d i o s y n c r a t i c and haphazard, the cap a c i t y f o r remembering p i c t u r e s i s su p e r i o r to that f o r remembering l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l , and f i n a l l y , teachers should be concerned with student viewing behaviour of p i c t u r e s , s i n c e the i n s t r u c t i o n s given at the time of viewing, i n f l u e n c e the degree of p i c t o r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n processing. As po i n t e d out by Dean and Kulhavy (1981) and H o l l i d a y (1976) to ensure that d e t a i l e d t e x t i l l u s t r a t i o n s are inspected c a r e f u l l y and "deep processed," very strong a t t e n t i o n a l prompts may be r e q u i r e d . The research s t u d i e s employing imagery techniques reveal several trends. F i r s t , the a b i l i t y to use imagery i s developmental, beginning about the age of 7 or 8. Second, older students may not b e n e f i t to the 54 sane extent f r o n imagery i n s t r u c t i o n as younger students, since i t i s hypothesized that older subjects may a u t o m a t i c l l y engage i n dual-encoding without prompting. T h i r d , gender d i f f e r e n c e s suggest that high-imagery females may b e n e f i t from imagery i n s t r u c t i o n more than males. F i n a l l y , t h e o r i e s which seek to e x p l a i n the f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t of p i c t u r e s i n c l u d e the id e a that p i c t u r e s o f f e r a medium that r e q u i r e s more than one l e v e l of processing, and that methods of i n s t r u c t i o n that which u t i l i z e the i n t e g r a t i o n of verbal and v i s u a l s t i m u l i w i l l enhance the f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t of imagery or p i c t o r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n . Among the points presented i n the review of l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to t h e o r i e s of l e a r n i n g and suggested i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s uas the concept that i n t e r f e r i n g , i r r e l e v a n t i n f l u e n c e s lead to f o r g e t t i n g . Thus, i f one were to r e v i s e P a i v i o ' s d u a l - t r a c e theory i n the l i g h t of t h i s theory, the verbal t r a c e does not decay but i s , i n s t e a d , not so r e s i s t a n t to i n t e r f e r i n g i n f l u e n c e s as the imaginal t r a c e . An i n s t r u c t i o n a l suggestion made uas that a method combining o r a l adjuncts with p i c t u r e s i s superior to a method combining u r i t t e n adjuncts u i t h p i c t u r e s . Although the complexity of S o c i a l Studies t e x t s cannot be compared to the s i n g l e words and p i c t u r e s used i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s t u d i e s , such s t u d i e s have p o s s i b l e relevance f o r content area methods of i n s t r u c t i o n by suggesting procedures uhich may enhance l e a r n i n g . In sum, there have been r e l a t i v e l y feu s t u d i e s d i r e c t e d to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of methods of i n s t r u c t i o n uhich u i l l enhance and maximize 55 p i c t u r e b e n e f i t s . Feu s t u d i e s have u t i l i z e d a c t u a l t e x t m a t e r i a l used i n r e g u l a r classrooms. In a d d i t i o n , the adequate t e s t i n g of delayed r e c a l l i n p i c t u r e - r e l a t e d s t u d i e s appears to be missing from these s t u d i e s . CHAPTER I I I : Method 56 The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e whether students who are r e q u i r e d to process the p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r S o c i a l Studies textbooks i n a s t r u c t u r e d manner ( i n t e g r a t i n g p i c t u r e with t e x t content) would achieve b e t t e r comprehension and r e c a l l of the accompanying connected prose than those who pay only i n c i d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n to the p i c t u r e s ( f o c u s i n g , i n s t e a d , on t e x t content). Also examined was whether such i n s t r u c t i o n i s best d i r e c t e d at a p a r t i c u l a r reading a b i l i t y group or gender. Data obtained were examined to determine whether there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n e i t h e r grade i n performance between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups on e i t h e r immediate or delayed t e s t measures. This chapter w i l l d e s cribe the research design and data a n a l y s i s , the s e l e c t i o n and nature of the sample, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , the t e s t i n g instruments, and the procedures of the p i l o t and the main study. A. Design and Data A n a l y s i s To examine the e f f e c t s of a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson with f i f t h and seventh grade students, a "quasi-experimental p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t non-equivalent c o n t r o l group" design was used (Borg & G a l l , 1983, pp. B8Z-G84; Campbell & Stanley, 19B9, pp. 4B-50), a l s o known as a "compromise experimental group-control group" design ( K e r l i n g e r , 1986, pp. 315-316). This design was chosen because i t was not p o s s i b l e to randomly as s i g n students to the experimental group ( s t r u c t u r e d t r a i n i n g ) or to the conventional group ( d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g ) , but r a t h e r , the use of i n t a c t classroom groups uas n e c e s s i t a t e d . To c o n t r o l f o r the main th r e a t to i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y (Borg & G a l l , 1983; K e r l i n g e r , 198B) that i n i t i a l group d i f f e r e n c e s i n reading comprehension might pose, the standardized measures, the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test ( f o r the grade 5 students) and the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Comprehension subtest ( f o r the grade 7 s t u d e n t s ) , functioned as p r e t e s t scores. These scores uere used as c o v a r i a t e s i n the A n a l y s i s of Covariance t e s t to f a c t o r out i n i t i a l reading d i f f e r e n c e s , i n an e f f o r t to ensure that any d i f f e r e n c e s observed on the p o s t t e s t s (immediate and delayed m u l t i p l e choice and short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t s ) uere not a t t r i b u t a b l e to pre-experimental group d i f f e r e n c e s i n reading comprehension. For the a n a l y s i s of covariance and the F t e s t to be appropriate, three assumptions are made: l ) normality, Z) homogeneity of variance, and 3) random sampling (Spatz & Johnston, 1984). To consider these i n the present study, normality i s met uhen the dependent v a r i a b l e i s normally d i s t r i b u t e d i n the populations from uhich samples are draun. Research has suggested that comprehension and r e c a l l of the type r e q u i r e d by the dependent v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study, are normally d i s t r i b u t e d (Danner, 1976; Meyer, 1984; Meyer, Brandt & B l u t h , 1980; Taylor, 1980). The homogeneity of variance assumption uas met i n t h i s study by c a l c u l a t i n g the t e s t s t a t i s t i c F f o r each measure. F i n a l l y , to consider the t h i r d assumption, although the samples uere not randomly s e l e c t e d they can be considered reasonably r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of f i f t h and seventh grade students i n Canada uhen t h e i r standardized reading scores are compared u i t h l o c a l and n a t i o n a l norms. Six hypotheses concerned u i t h performance on p o s t - t e s t s , subsequent to treatment c o n d i t i o n , uere s t a t e d . A n a l y s i s of Covariance, u s i n g scores obtained from the standardized reading t e s t s as c o v a r i a t e s , uere employed to t e s t each hypothesis. The independent v a r i a b l e s uere c o n d i t i o n ( c o n t r o l , experimental), reading a b i l i t y ( l o u , middle, high), and gender (male, female). The dependent v a r i a b l e uas the performance or achievement l e v e l a t t a i n e d as measured by each of the four t e s t i n g instruments (Immediate t e s t s : M u l t i p l e Choice and Short Ansuer R e c a l l ; Delayed t e s t s : M u l t i p l e Choice and Short Ansuer R e c a l l ) . The l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t e s t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s uas set at p ( .05. The data uere analyzed us i n g the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r S o c i a l Sciences (SPSS), at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre. B. S e l e c t i o n of the Sample In t h i s s e c t i o n the s u b j e c t s , the schools, and the teachers i n v o l v e d i n the study are described. 1. S e l e c t i o n of Subjects Subjects uere from four l a r g e p u b l i c schools i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t ; a t o t a l of 363 students uere in v o l v e d i n the study. Of these, 214 uere grade f i v e students, and 149 uere grade seven students. Based on informa t i o n obtained from School Board o f f i c i a l s , a l l four schools may be considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of l o u to middle socioeconomic l e v e l s . Houever, because the schools have l a r g e student populations, each school has tuo i n t a c t c l a s s e s at the grade 5 and 7 l e v e l , and thus, i t uas p o s s i b l e , i n the sane school, to have one c l a s s f u n c t i o n as a part of the c o n t r o l group and one c l a s s f u n c t i o n as part of the experimental group. In t h i s way, i t uas hoped, socioeconomic f a c t o r s uere even f u r t h e r c o n t r o l l e d . Eight grade 5 c l a s s e s and s i x grade 7 c l a s s e s uere i n v o l v e d i n the study. Based on data obtained from the students, 30% of the grade 5 students speak E n g l i s h at home, 41% speak Chinese, 19% speak H i n d i , and 10% speak some other language. Among the grade 7 students, 26% speak E n g l i s h at home, 45% speak Chinese, 22% speak H i n d i , and 7% speak some other language. Vancouver School Board Survey data obtained i n 1982 revealed that 45.5% of the t o t a l school population spoke E n g l i s h as a second language. Thus, the l a r g e ESL population i n Vancouver schools i s rath e r d r a m a t i c a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n these schools s e l e c t e d , u i t h approximately 70% of the sub j e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study speaking a language other than E n g l i s h at home. The grade 5 and 7 l e v e l s uere s e l e c t e d because^ 1) feu st u d i e s have been conducted at e i t h e r of these grade l e v e l s uhich focus on the e f f e c t s of i n t e g r a t e d p i c t u r e / t e x t i n s t r u c t i o n , Z) content area t e x t s are i n c r e a s i n g l y used from grade 4 upuards, 3) feu st u d i e s i n v o l v i n g p i c t u r e s have u t i l i z e d a c t u a l textbooks i n current classroom use, and 4) the developmental aspects of the a b i l i t y to make use of p i c t o r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n have not been f u l l y c l a r i f i e d . I t has been reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e that the a b i l i t y to make use of p i c t u r e s i s u s u a l l y apparent by the age of 7 or 8, and increases u i t h age ( D i r k s , & Neisser, 1977; Jensen, & Rohuer, 1965; L e v i n , Davidson, Wolff, & C i t r o n , 1973; Wolff, & Le v i n , 1972). I t has been suggested that older students may not b e n e f i t from attempts to promote t h i s a b i l i t y , as dual p i c t u r e encoding becomes automatic u i t h these students (Snodgrass, V o l v o v i t z , & W a i f i s h , 1972). Thus, tuo grades, one u i t h younger students, and one u i t h o l d e r , more mature students, uere examined i n an e f f o r t to explore these developmental aspects. 2. School S e l e c t i o n The schools uere s e l e c t e d on the ba s i s of number of c l a s s e s at the grade 5 and grade 7 l e v e l , fill the schools have at l e a s t tuo i n t a c t , non-streamed grade 5 and grade 7 c l a s s e s . In a d d i t i o n , permission to conduct the study uas re q u i r e d from the Vancouver School Board (see Appendix A f o r copy of l e t t e r ) , and from the school p r i n c i p a l s and the teachers i n v o l v e d . Permission to conduct the study uas a l s o obtained from the U.B.C. Human Subjects Committee (see Appendix B f o r permission form). Each of the tuo c l a s s e s at the same grade l e v e l and school uere randomly assigned to one of tuo treatment groups, c o n t r o l or experimental. 3. Teachers The r e g u l a r classroom teachers conducted the lessons and administered a l l t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s . In both the c o n t r o l and experimental groups, the teachers uho uere i n v o l v e d uere experienced teachers u i t h at l e a s t 5 years of teaching experience. In order to avoid the Hauthorne E f f e c t the i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d not conduct any of the less o n s , or administer any of the t e s t s . The teachers uere given i n s t r u c t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s by the i n v e s t i g a t o r as to hou to conduct the lesson and administer the non-standardized t e s t s , i n three separate s e s s i o n s : At the f i r s t s e s s i o n , one ueek before the study, teachers uere acquainted u i t h the m a t e r i a l s and the time allotments r e q u i r e d of the study. At the second s e s s i o n , one to three hours before conducting the l e s s o n , teachers uere i n s t r u c t e d i n hou to conduct the ac t u a l l e s s o n , and i n the manner of t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . An appointment f o r delayed t e s t i n g tuo ueeks l a t e r uas a l s o arranged at t h i s time. At the t h i r d and f i n a l s e s s i o n , ranging from 30 minutes to Z hours before a d m i n i s t e r i n g the delayed t e s t s , teachers uere i n s t r u c t e d i n hou to conduct the delayed t e s t i n g . C. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s The i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s used i n the study uere prepared by the i n v e s t i g a t o r f o r each grade and treatment group, and included: 1) teacher i n s t r u c t i o n a l handbooks, Z) student t e x t booklets, and 3) t e s t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s booklets f o r teachers. 1. Teacher I n s t r u c t i o n a l Handbooks A l l teachers uere provided u i t h a Lesson Procedure booklet and Te s t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s booklets f o r both the immediate and delayed t e s t i n g . The lesson procedure booklets contained general i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature and extent of the study, s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r conducting one 30 minute S o c i a l Studies l e s s o n , and a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of the lesson i t s e l f . The c o n t r o l and experimental group teachers r e c e i v e d i d e n t i c a l b o o k l e t s , except that the l e s s o n o u t l i n e s d i f f e r e d , a) Conventional Lesson M a t e r i a l s GZ The lesson o u t l i n e f o r the c o n t r o l group c o n s i s t e d of s p e c i f i c questions that the teacher uas t o address to the c l a s s , uhich uere to be in t e r s p e r s e d u i t h the students' s i l e n t reading of text passages. A l l questions focused on t e x t content only. Some questions uere to be ansuered by the students i n u r i t t e n form, u h i l e most ansuers uere t o be given o r a l l y . In much the sane manner as a guided s i l e n t reading lesson, subjects i n t h i s group uere set purposes f o r reading a s e c t i o n of the t e x t passage and uere then asked questions a f t e r u a r d s to check t h e i r conprehension and r e c a l l <see Figures Z and 4 f o r exanples at each grade l e v e l ) . b) Experimental Lesson M a t e r i a l s The lesson o u t l i n e f o r the experimental group uas i d e n t i c a l to the c o n t r o l group except that some questions, uhich uere s i m i l a r i n nature t o the c o n t r o l group, focused on o b t a i n i n g ansuers from the p i c t u r e s , i n s t e a d of s o l e l y from the t e x t . Again, the teacher's questions uere i n t e r s p e r s e d u i t h students' reading of the t e x t pages, and i n t h i s uay, p i c t u r e content ( v i s u a l ) uas i n t e g r a t e d u i t h the text m a t e r i a l ( v e r b a l ) . In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to the c o n t r o l group, some of the teacher questions uere ansuered i n u r i t t e n form, u h i l e most ansuers uere given o r a l l y . The experimental/ p i c t u r e group uere asked t o look at the p i c t u r e s before and a f t e r reading the t e x t . The p i c t u r e s not only served a p r e l i m i n a r y schema-activating and p r e d i c t i v e f u n c t i o n before reading, but a l s o provided concrete v i s u a l frameworks, or s t r u c t u r e s f o r questioning a f t e r reading. For t h i s reason, the experimental lesson uas considered a " v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d " lesson. The subjects i n t h i s group uere f i r s t asked questions seeking to r e l a t e 63 Figure 1. Grade 5 experimental treatment - v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson: one p i c t u r e example. Teacher Question or D i r e c t i o n Purpose Look at the p i c t u r e on page 347. Is t h i s a p a i n t i n g or a photograph? > A c t i v a t e Schema Why do you think i t ' s a p a i n t i n g ? What i s happening i n the p i c t u r e ? Can you guess uhat they are buil d i n g ? > E l i c i t Main Idea of P i c t u r e Read the word under the p i c t u r e to see i f you can f i n d out uho the Integrate P i c t u r e / T e x t Content school i s f o r . What are immigrants? Check Vocabulary Comprehension Read page 346 to see i f you can f i n d out hou the Ukainians f e l t about having a school. I f you f i n i s h before other people, read the page again because you u i l l be asked some questions about i t l a t e r . Set a Purpose f o r Reading Stop reading nou. Hou d i d the Ukrainians f e e l about having a school b u i l t ? Check Comprehension and R e c a l l Can you see i n the p i c t u r e uhere the teacher uould l i v e ? > Why not? Where d i d the teacher l i v e ? 1.Integrate P i c t u r e / T e x t Content Z . V i s u a l l y S t r u c t u r e d Revieu Could there be any t r u s t e e s i n the p i c t u r e ? Why? > 1. Integrate P i c t u r e / T e x t Content Z. V i s u a l l y S t r u c t u r e d Revieu 64 Figure Z. Grade 5 c o n t r o l treatment - guided s i l e n t reading lesson: one text s e c t i o n example. Teacher Question or D i r e c t i o n Purpose This booklet i s about the c h i l d r e n of U k r a i n i a n immigrants and uhat happened to them at school. What are immigrants? Read j u s t t h i s f i r s t page, page 346, to see i f you can f i n d out hou the Ukrainians f e l t about having a school. I f you f i n i s h before other people, read the page again because you u i l l be asked some questions about i t l a t e r . Stop reading nou. Hou d i d the Ukrainians f e e l about having a school b u i l t ? Where d i d the teacher l i v e ? Do you remember uhose f a t h e r uas a school t r u s t e e ? State Main Idea of Text Check Vocabulary Comprehension Set a Purpose f o r Reading 1. Check Comprehension and R e c a l l Z. Revieu 65 Figure 3. Grade 7 experimental treatment - v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson^ one p i c t u r e example. Teacher Question or D i r e c t i o n Purpose ( P i c t u r e on page Z85) What are some things i n t h i s p i c t u r e that are d i f f e r e n t than A c t i v a t e Schema uhat you uould see i n t h i s country? Nou read from the middle of page Z84 t o the l a s t page of the booklet. Try to f i n d out uhat are some of the things the Mbuti make. I f you f i n i s h ahead of others, read these pages again. Stop reading nou, and look at the p i c t u r e on page Z85 again. Can you see tuo things the Mbuti make u i t h bark? What might one man be making from vine? What tuo things do they make from s a p l i n g s ? You can see only one. What tuo things on the ground are made from uood s l o u l y hardened i n a f i r e ? Well done! Set a Purpose f o r Reading > 1. Integrate P i c t u r e / T e x t Content Z. Provide Stuctured Revieu P o s i t i v e Reinforcement 66 Figure 4. Grade 7 c o n t r o l treatment - guided s i l e n t reading lesson: one t e x t s e c t i o n example. Teacher Question or Purpose D i r e c t i o n Nou read from the middle of page 284 to the l a s t page of the booklet. Try to f i n d out uhat are some of the things the Mbuti make. I f you f i n i s h ahead of others read these pages again. Stop reading nou. Can you t e l l me tuo thin g s the Mbuti make u i t h bark? What do the Mbuti make u i t h vine? Can you think of tuo things they make from sap l i n g s ? What tuo things do the Mbuti make u i t h uood uhich has been s l o u l y hardened over a f i r e ? Well done! Set a Purpose f o r Reading } Check comprehension and r e c a l l Revieu P o s i t i v e Reinforcement 67 the p i c t u r e content u i t h t h e i r oun background knowledge, the main i d e a of the p i c t u r e uas discussed, and a purpose r e l a t e d to the p i c t u r e uas set f o r reading a s e c t i o n of the t e x t . A f t e r most of the c l a s s had had s u f f i c i e n t time to read the text s e c t i o n , students uere again asked t o look at the p i c t u r e u h i l e ansuering questions. Questions uere designed i n order that the p i c t u r e uould serve a r e v i e u f u n c t i o n ; students had to examine the p i c t u r e s c a r e f u l l y f o r evidence of i n f o r m a t i o n read about i n the t e x t . Students uere then asked to look at the next p i c t u r e , and the same procedure uas f o l l o u e d f o r each text s e c t i o n (see Figures 1 and 3 f o r examples at each grade l e v e l ) . In both lesson o u t l i n e s , the questions focused on drauing out the main ideas and d e t a i l s of the t e x t passages. Both groups r e c e i v e d approximately the same number of questions, u i t h one group f o c u s i n g s o l e l y on the t e x t , and the other group f o c u s i n g on the t e x t and p i c t u r e s . The t e x t f o r each group, experimental and c o n t r o l , uas parsed i n i d e n t i c a l s e c t i o n s f o r question and d i s c u s s i o n . Both treatment groups uere allowed e x a c t l y 30 minutes to complete the lesson. C a r e f u l t i m i n g uas s t r e s s e d . The Lesson Procedure i n s t r u c t i o n s and lesson o u t l i n e s f o r each treatment group and f o r each grade are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix C. Z. Student Text Booklets A l l students uere provided u i t h researcher produced t e x t booklets c o n t a i n i n g pages reproduced from S o c i a l Studies textbooks. The t e x t s used i n the study are those designated by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education f o r grade 5 and grade 7 S o c i a l Studies (see Conner, 1386; Neering, & Grant, 1986), and uhich are c u r r e n t l y i n use i n most of the 68 elementary schools of the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . The pages s e l e c t e d uere from the l a t t e r h a l f of these textbooks, and the students had not been exposed to them p r e v i o u s l y . These pages uere reproduced e x a c t l y as they appeared i n the textbooks themselves, i n c l u d i n g colour photographs, and colour headings (see Appendix D f o r l e t t e r s of permission from the p u b l i s h e r s concerned). Both the c o n t r o l and experimental groups rece i v e d the same t e x t booklets. For the grade 5 students, the booklets c o n s i s t e d of four black and u h i t e and colour p i c t u r e s (tuo black and u h i t e photographs, and tuo colour reproductions of p a i n t i n g s ) , and four pages of e x p o s i t o r y text (see Appendix E). The tuo black and u h i t e photographs are reasonably l a r g e , occupying approximately h a l f of one page each. Both cont a i n many d e t a i l s , and are l i k e l y to a t t r a c t a high l e v e l of i n t e r e s t as t h e i r subject i s of common i n t e r e s t to students: f e l l o u students, but at schools i n the e a r l y 1900's, are p i c t u r e d . The tuo colour reproductions of p a i n t i n g s c o n t a i n a l e s s e r amount of d e t a i l , and d i f f e r i n t h e i r s i z e ; one p i c t u r e occupies a f u l l page of the t e x t , u h i l e the other, i s a r e l a t i v e l y small p i c t u r e of approximately 2" x 2". Appearing above or belou a l l four p i c t u r e s are adjunct questions. The accompanying connected prose i s u r i t t e n at a Dale-C h a l l r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l of grade 5.4, u s i n g the C o r r e c t i o n Table, at a 5th to 6th grade l e v e l (Dale & C h a l l , 1948). For the grade 7 students, the booklets c o n s i s t e d of f i v e black and u h i t e and colour p i c t u r e s ( a l l photographs, except f o r tuo black and u h i t e o u t l i n e drauings), and 5 pages of expository t e x t (see Appendix E). Of the three photographs, tuo are i n colour and one i s black and u h i t e . The tuo colour photographs are very s m a l l , approximately 2" x 2" i n s i z e , u h i l e the black and white p i c t u r e i s l a r g e r , approximately 3" x 4" i n s i z e . Because the colour photographs are so s m a l l , c l a r i t y and d e t a i l s u f f e r s . The black and white photograph i s more complex, r e v e a l i n g more d e t a i l . The two black and white o u t l i n e drawings are more simple, and l e s s complex than any of the photographs; one of these i l l u s t r a t e s animals of the I t u r i r a i n f o r e s t and occupies almost a f u l l page of t e x t . The other, p i c t u r i n g a Mbuti n a t i v e c o l l e c t i n g honey from a t r e e , i s sm a l l e r , occupying a quarter of one page. Because of the i n c l u s i o n of these black and white o u t l i n e drawings and of the two colour photographs that are very small i n s i z e i n the grade 7 t e x t b o o k l e t s , the o v e r a l l complexity of the p i c t u r e s represented i s probably l e s s than that of the grade 5 t e x t booklets. A l l the p i c t u r e s are accompanied by adjunct questions. The accompanying ex p o s i t o r y text i s u r i t t e n at a Dale-Chall r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l of grade 5.9, and u i t h the use of the Dale-Chall C o r r e c t i o n Table, i s considered to be at a 5th to Bth grade l e v e l (Dale, & C h a l l , 1948). Compared u i t h the grade 5 t e x t , then, t h i s t e x t i s , f o r grade 7 students, r e l a t i v e l y l e s s d i f f i c u l t t o read. 3. Tes t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s Booklets f o r Teachers The Immediate Testing I n s t r u c t i o n s booklets contained s p e c i f i c , s tandardized i n s t r u c t i o n s o u t l i n i n g i n d e t a i l hou the m u l t i p l e choice t e s t s and short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t s uere to be administered. The Delayed Tes t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s booklets contained i d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s t o the immediate t e s t i n g booklets, but the i n i t i a l uording of the i n s t r u c t i o n s t o the c l a s s d i f f e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y . For both the Immediate and Delayed Testing I n s t r u c t i o n s booklets, tuo versions e x i s t e d . In one booklet, the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t uas to be administered before the Short Ansuer R e c a l l 70 t e s t , and i n the other, the order uas reversed. The t e s t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s booklets f o r immediate and delayed t e s t i n g are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix F. D. T e s t i n g Instruments The t e s t i n g instruments used d i f f e r e d betueen grade l e v e l s . For the grade 5 sample, f i v e instruments uere used i n the study: one standardized t e s t , the Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary and Comprehension t e s t , Level D, Form 1, and four non-standardized t e s t s , 1) an Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t , 2) an Immediate Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t , 3) a Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t , and 4) a Delayed Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t . For the grade 7 sample, f i v e instruments uere a l s o used: o n e standardized t e s t , the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Comprehension subtest, and four non-standarized t e s t s , 1) an Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t , 2) an Immediate Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t , 3) a Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t , and 4) a Delayed Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t . In both grades, the delayed t e s t s uere administered tuo ueeks a f t e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the lesson and the immediate t e s t s . 1. Standardized Measures a) Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test <Grade 5 students) The Gates-MacGinitie Reading t e s t , Level D, Form 1 (Canadian E d i t i o n , 1978-1S79) uas administered, during the three ueek p e r i o d a l l o u e d f o r the study, to a l l grade 5 c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d i n order to provide a c o v a r i a t e to be used u i t h scores obtained from the non-standardized measures. I t uas a l s o used to d e l i n e a t e three reading groups i n order to 71 ansuer the question about reading a b i l i t y l e v e l . Students uho obtained a combined (Vocabulary and Comprehension) t-score of 49 or higher uere c l a s s i f i e d as high a b i l i t y readers, those u i t h a combined t-score between 41 and 48 uere c l a s s i f i e d as middle a b i l i t y readers, and those u i t h a combined t-score of 40 or louer uere c l a s s i f i e d as l o u a b i l i t y readers. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading t e s t uas chosen f o r a number of reasons. The t e s t items have been developed so that they have an " i n t e r n a t i o n a l character," an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the l i g h t of the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of ESL students i n the sample s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study. The content of the t e s t items uas designed to be u i t h i n the experience of students from d i v e r s e backgrounds, so that items u i t h apparent b i a s uere e l i m i n a t e d . Comprehension subject matter i s comprised of 60% content m a t e r i a l , and 40% n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . This u e i g h t i n g r e f l e c t s the uide amount of content area reading that intermediate grade students encounter i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . Canadian norms uere d e r i v e d based on a t o t a l sample of 46,000 students. The sample uas draun to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t urban s e t t i n g s and d i f f e r e n t types of schools. The norming group uas chosen to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of English-speaking students i n Canadian schools at each grade l e v e l . Because of the i n c l u s i o n of schools of d i f f e r e n t urban s e t t i n g s , the t e s t seemed appropriate f o r use i n the present study. The t e s t uas constructed to assure v a l i d i t y f o r most school reading programs. A l l items uere c a r e f u l l y examined by a group of Canadian educators, items being modified or omitted on the b a s i s of t h e i r recommendations. The standard time allotment f o r t h i s t e s t enables a l l 72 but the slowest students to attempt each question. The t e s t uas a l s o deemed t o have acceptable l e v e l s of r e l i a b i l i t y , the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s on the Canadian E d i t i o n , Level D or grade 5 l e v e l , are 9.0 on the Vocabulary t e s t , and 8.9 on the Comprehension t e s t . This t e s t i s u i d e l y used u i t h i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t and i s an accepted measure of reading vocabulary and comprehension. b> Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (Grade 7 students) The Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (197G) i s administered i n September t o a l l grade 7 c l a s s e s of the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , fill the grade 7 c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the study used the Broun L e v e l , Form B i n September of 198G. Scores from Test 2 Reading Comprehension uere obtained from the s i x classroom teachers i n v o l v e d , and used as a c o v a r i a t e i n the a n a l y s i s of the non-standardized t e s t scores. Scores uere a l s o used to create reading groups to i n v e s t i g a t e reading a b i l i t y e f f e c t s . Those students u i t h grade equ i v a l e n t s of 8.G and above uere c l a s s i f i e d as high a b i l i t y readers, those u i t h grade equ i v a l e n t s ranging from B.4 to 8.5 uere c l a s s i f i e d as middle a b i l i t y readers, and those u i t h grade equ i v a l e n t s of G.3 or l e s s uere c l a s s i f i e d as l o u a b i l i t y readers. The t e s t uas developed by the authors t o serve as a d i a g n o s t i c and i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l , uhich i n i t s e d i t i n g and revieus sought to e l i m i n a t e sources of e t h n i c , c u l t u r a l , r a c i a l , and sex b i a s . Each item i n the t e s t uas revieued and e d i t e d f o r content and s t y l e and f o r i t s appropriateness f o r measuring s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . In s t a n d a r d i z i n g the t e s t , school systems uere s e l e c t e d u s i n g a s t r a t i f i e d random sompling technique, u i t h socioeconomic s t a t u s , school system enrollment, and geographic area as the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n v a r i a b l e . In grades 2 through 9, Z5,000 students uere t e s t e d . The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample uas chosen to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the United States n a t i o n a l school population. The t e s t , houever, i s u i d e l y i n use i n Canadian schools, and i s r o u t i n e l y used by the schools of the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . The content v a l i d i t y of the t e s t must be determined by i n s p e c t i n g the t e s t ' s content and matching i t u i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of the l o c a l reading program. The o b j e c t i v e s u r i t t e n by the authors uere u r i t t e n to r e f l e c t the content of reading programs i n common use throughout the United S t a t e s . The c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y of t h i s t e s t uas e s t a b l i s h e d by c o r r e l a t i n g scores of the Stanford D i a g n o s t i c Test u i t h scores from another standardized t e s t . The r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the reading comprehension subtest, c a l c u l a t e d by the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 i s .95 f o r the grade 7 l e v e l , Form B, an acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y . 2. Non-Standarized Measures Tuo t e s t s , a M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t and a Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t uere designed f o r each grade l e v e l to measure comprehension of the connected prose appearing i n the student text booklets. These tuo t e s t uere administered immmediately a f t e r the 30 minute S o c i a l Studies les s o n . These same tuo t e s t s uere a l s o administered tuo ueeks l a t e r , but . the format of the t e s t s uas a l t e r e d . The same question items appeared, but i n d i f f e r e n t sequence to the i n i t i a l t e s t s . The p r e l i m i n a r y personal 74 data that uas asked f o r a l s o d i f f e r e d . The colour of the paper used uas a l s o d i f f e r e n t to f u r t h e r d i s g u i s e the f a c t that the sane t e s t s uere being used. a) M u l t i p l e Choice Test The M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t uas included as a t e s t i n g measure along u i t h the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t because a n u l t i p l e choice t e s t has the advantage of avoiding the ambiguity and vagueness uhich, i t has been s a i d , f r e q u e n t l y are present u i t h short ansuer items (Gronlund, 1976). The M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s c o n s i s t e d of ten questions, each u i t h four options. Several p r i n c i p l e s uere observed i n designing the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , based on suggestions from a number of authors ( E b e l , 1979; Gronlund, 1976; Hopkins, & Antes, 1985; L i e n , 1980; S a t t e r l y , 1981). F i r s t , the stem f o r each question on the grade 5 t e s t uas u r i t t e n i n the form of a d i r e c t question as t h i s i s considered e a s i e r f o r younger p u p i l s to understand. The stems on the grade 7 t e s t , uere u r i t t e n i n the form of incomplete statements, a more appropriate form f o r t h i s grade l e v e l (Gronlund, 1977). Second, i t uas decided to i n c l u d e four choices f o r each question. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , four or more choices help r e l i a b i l i t y . As the number of a l t e r n a t i v e s i s reduced the chance of guessing the c o r r e c t response increases. T h i r d , textbook wording uas avoided i n order to go beyond r o t e l e a r n i n g and more s t r i n g e n t l y t e s t comprehension. A l l the options i n each question uere kept to roughly the same length, and each uas u r i t t e n to be mutually e x c l u s i v e . An attempt uas made to make a l l the options f o r each question e q u a l l y p l a u s i b l e , and a l t e r n a t i v e s uere arranged i n a l p h a b e t i c a l , numerical, or appropriate order uhenever there uas a c e r t a i n sequence among them (see Apendix G f o r examples of the 75 Immediate and Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s used at each grade l e v e l ) . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the immediate t e s t s uas assessed by c a l c u l a t i n g the degree of c o r r e l a t i o n betueen scores obtained on t h i s measure u i t h scores obtained on the delayed measure. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y uas measured as .6 f o r the grade f i v e group and .7 f o r the grade 7 group, uhich represent moderate to high l e v e l s of r e l i a b i l i t y . b) Short Ansuer R e c a l l Test The Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s c o n s i s t e d of one page of s i x questions f o r the grade 5 students, and one page of seven questions f o r the grade 7 students. Students uere asked to r e c a l l as much inf o r m a t i o n as they could remember. This type of t e s t uas i n c l u d e d i n the study si n c e u r i t t e n r e c a l l apparently y i e l d s a c l e a r e r p e r s p e c t i v e of a l e a r n e r ' s comprehension (Brooks, 1983; H o l l y et a l . , 1981) than measures that r e q u i r e students to s e l e c t an appropriate ansuer. Examples of the immediate and delayed Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s used at each grade l e v e l appear i n Appendix H. With respect to the question of content v a l i d i t y , the main ideas and d e t a i l s of each passage uere e x t r a c t e d and from these, items uere s e l e c t e d f o r the tuo t e s t s to g i v e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sampling of the passage content. The question of c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y of these t e s t s uas addressed by comparing students' r e l a t i v e amount of achievement obtained on these non-standardized t e s t s u i t h the r e l a t i v e amount of achievement obtained on the standardized measures. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the immediate t e s t s i s assessed by c a l c u l a t i n g 7B the degree t o uhich performance on these t e s t s c o r r e l a t e s u i t h performance on the delayed t e s t s . On the short ansuer t e s t s the t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n (Pearson r ) uas .8 f o r the f i f t h graders and .7 f o r the seventh graders. These are considered moderate to high l e v e l s of c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h i s type of t e s t . E. Procedures P r i o r to the main study, a p i l o t study uas conducted. The main study uas conducted i n four stages: 1) the 30 minute S o c i a l Studies lesson coupled u i t h the immediate t e s t i n g , Z) the delayed t e s t i n g , 3) the c o l l e c t i o n of standardized reading scores, and 4) the s c o r i n g . 1. P i l o t Study: The p i l o t study uas conducted p r i m a r i l y to assess the t i m i n g , i n s t r u c t i o n a l c l a r i t y , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y of the lessons and t e s t i n g instruments. One grade 5 c l a s s and one grade 7 c l a s s from each of tuo p r i v a t e p a r o c h i a l schools i n Vancouver uere i n v o l v e d . One school uas i n a l o u socioeconomic area and the other uas i n a high socioeconomic area. In s p i t e of these d i f f e r e n c e s , houever, i t uas f e l t expedient to use these schools s i n c e the main purpose of the p i l o t study uas not t o i n v e s t i g a t e treatment e f f e c t s , but to assess and r e f i n e the procedures and m a t e r i a l s . The c l a s s e s uhich functioned as the c o n t r o l groups i n the p i l o t study uere given no i n s t r u c t i o n but simply t o l d to read and study the t e x t 77 pages. In the experimental groups, the teachers asked o r a l questions f o c u s i n g on p i c t u r e content. Both groups uere exposed to the m a t e r i a l s f o r 30 minutes. Based on classroom observations of the p i l o t study lessons and t e s t i n g periods, a number of changes were made to the m a t e r i a l s and t o the lesson procedures f o r the main study. F i r s t , i t uas observed that the c o n t r o l groups had more than an adequate amount of time to study the m a t e r i a l s and became r e s t l e s s . The experimental groups, on the other hand, d i d not have an adequate amount of time to independently read the t e x t passages. I t uas decided, t h e r e f o r e , to a l t e r the lesson o u t l i n e s so that both groups uould r e c e i v e the same amount of i n s t r u c t i o n a l time, and the same amount of independent time to read the text passages. Introducing i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o the c o n t r o l lesson uas considered to improve the v a l i d i t y of the study comparison as u e l l ; v a r i a b l e s were more t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d (both groups uere to r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ) s i n c e the only d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment groups uas to be the focus g i v e to p i c t u r e s i n the experimental groups. I t uas a l s o decided to r e f i n e the lesson o u t l i n e s so that i n s t e a d of questioning before a t e x t s e c t i o n only, subjects uere to be asked questions before and a f t e r t e x t s e c t i o n s . As u e l l , both treatment groups uould read the same text s e c t i o n s . The t i m i n g a l l o u e d f o r each t e s t uas a l t e r e d from 10 minutes to 8 minutes f o r the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t , and from 8 minutes to B minutes f o r the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t . These time allouances uere found to be adequate f o r a l l students i n these c l a s s e s to complete the t e s t s and check t h e i r answers. 78 Because the r a t e of achievement uas rat h e r high on the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , several l i t e r a l question items uere removed and replaced u i t h questions seeking i n f e r e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , based on the responses obtained, a number of questions on the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s uere r e u r i t t e n to c l a r i f y t h e i r meaning. Questions on both t e s t s uere s c r u t i n i z e d to ensure that no questions uere i d e n t i c a l to those asked i n the lesson o u t l i n e s . In summary, the f o l l o w i n g changes uere made: 1) Lesson o u t l i n e s uere a l t e r e d so that both groups (experimental and c o n t r o l ) uould r e c e i v e that same amounts of i n s t r u c t i o n a l and independent reading time. Z) Questions to be asked a f t e r the reading of a t e x t s e c t i o n uere added to the lesson o u t l i n e s . 3) Timing f o r both the M u l t i p l e Choice and Short Ansuer t e s t s uas adjusted, from 8 minutes d u r a t i o n to G minutes, and from 10 minutes t o 8 minutes, r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r each t e s t . 4) Several l i t e r a l m u l t i p l e choice questions uere rep l a c e d u i t h those demanding i n f e r e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . 5) Some questions from the short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t uere r e u r i t t e n t o c l a r i f y t h e i r meaning. Z. Main Study: a) Lesson and Immediate T e s t i n g Tuo teacher o r i e n t a t i o n meetings uere held u i t h each i n d i v i d u a l teacher before they conducted the 30 minute lesson. At the f i r s t meeting, each teacher uas provided u i t h a general overvieu of the study and an 79 appointment time f o r the second meeting and lesson implementation Lias scheduled. At the second meeting, teachers uere given standard i n s t r u c t i o n s about the lesson p r e s e n t a t i o n , and the teacher's i n s t r u c t i o n a l booklet uas explained. Testing procedures uere a l s o o u t l i n e d , and the Testing I n s t r u c t i o n s Booklet, explained. S h o r t l y a f t e r the second meeting, aluays on the same day, the teachers conducted the 30 minute S o c i a l Studies l e s s o n and administered the tuo Immediate t e s t s , the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t , and the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d not enter the classrooms u h i l e the lessons uere being conducted. M a t e r i a l s and t e s t i n g instruments uere c o l l e c t e d a f t e r use on the day of the lesson , and an appointment time uas arranged f o r the delayed t e s t i n g . This appointment time uas, i n a l l cases, e x a c t l y tuo ueeks a f t e r the lesson and i n i t i a l t e s t s had been given. b) Delayed Testing On the day arranged f o r delayed t e s t i n g , tuo ueeks a f t e r the les s o n , each teacher r e c e i v e d the delayed t e s t s and a Testing I n s t r u c t i o n s booklet. The tuo t e s t s uere administered i n the reverse order to the i n i t i a l t e s t i n g . In the grade 5 sample, h a l f the c l a s s e s i n the c o n t r o l group and h a l f the c l a s s e s i n the experimental group completed the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s f i r s t i n the i n i t i a l t e s t i n g , and the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s f i r s t i n the delayed t e s t i n g . The remaining c l a s s e s f o l l o u e d the opposite procedure. In the grade 7 sample, three schools and s i x c l a s s e s uere i n v o l v e d . Because of t h i s , the t e s t i n g procedure uas d i v i d e d unevenly u i t h tuo c o n t r o l c l a s s e s completing the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t f i r s t i n the immediate t e s t i n g and the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t f i r s t i n 80 the delayed t e s t i n g , and tuo experimental c l a s s e s completing the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t f i r s t i n the immediate t e s t i n g and the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t f i r s t i n the delayed t e s t i n g . c) C o l l e c t i o n of Standardized Reading Scores Over the three ueek p e r i o d the study uas conducted, a record of the end of September, 1S8B Stanford D i a g n o s t i c Scores uere c o l l e c t e d from the grade 7 teachers. These t e s t s are administered r o u t i n e l y i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t at the grade 7 l e v e l , and had been scored by the Vancouver School Board. These scores uere used because they represented the only reading comprehension scores a v a i l a b l e uhich uere common to a l l schools, and uhich uere administered during a common time p e r i o d of the school year. Since there i s no t e s t uhich i s given r o u t i n e l y across schools at the grade 5 l e v e l , the grade 5 teachers i n v o l v e d i n the study administered the Gates- M a c G i n i t i e Reading t e s t t o t h e i r c l a s s e s i n May, 1987, during the three ueek p e r i o d of the study. These t e s t s uere then c o l l e c t e d and scored by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . d) Scoring The Gates-MacGinitie reading t e s t s uere scored according t o procedures o u t l i n e d i n the manual. Composite Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension rau scores uere recorded and converted to t- s c o r e s . T-scores uere used i n the a n a l y s i s of the data, as they f u l f i l l e d the requirements f o r an equal i n t e r v a l s c a l e . The Stanford D i a g n o s t i c Reading Comprehension subtest scores uere converted from rau scores to grade e q u i v a l e n t s . These uere used i n the 81 a n a l y s i s of data, as being the most appropriate form t o use. Although not s t r i c t l y r e p r e s e n t i n g an equal i n t e r v a l s c a l e , these scores uere the c l o s e s t most r e l i a b l e approximation obtainable from the t a b l e s l i s t e d i n the Stanford D i a g n o s t i c Reading Test Manual. On the non-standardized t e s t s , a d i f f e r e n t method of s c o r i n g uas re q u i r e d depending on t e s t type, m u l t i p l e choice or short ansuer. Each question on the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s had one c o r r e c t ansuer. Students r e c e i v e d one mark f o r each c o r r e c t ansuer i n d i c a t e d . Questions omitted uere counted as e r r o r s . Each question on the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s had a d i f f e r e n t maximum obtainable score. Some questions asked f o r main ideas, and others demanded the r e c a l l of d e t a i l s . Figures 5 and 6 summarize f o r each grade the types of questions appearing on these t e s t s and the maximum score obtainable f o r each question item. One mark uas auarded each d e t a i l r e c a l l e d , and tuo marks uere auarded each c o r r e c t main i d e a s t a t e d . An incomplete main idea statement uas auarded one mark. Templates used i n the s t a n d a r i z e d s c o r i n g of these t e s t s are included i n Appendix I. Scores obtained on the nonstandardized measures uere recorded on each subject's t e s t and then t r a n s f e r r e d t o a master data sheet uhich i n c l u d e d i d e n t i t y number, s c h o o l , grade, gender, language spoken at home, age, immediate m u l t i p l e choice and short ansuer scores, delayed m u l t i p l e choice and short ansuer scores, grade 5 reading t - s c o r e s , and grade 7 reading grade equivalent scores. Data uere then entered on computer and analyzed. 82 Figure 5. Grade 5 short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t - question types and scores. Question Type of Information E l i c i t e d Ansuer Maximum Score Obtainable What country d i d the Ukr a i n i a n immigrants come from? Main Idea (Western) Ukraine 2. What tuo jobs d i d the school t r u s t e e s do? D e t a i l s b u i l d a school h i r e teachers 3. What language d i d Maria, Eva, and Wasyl speak at home? Main Idea U k r a i n i a n 4. Hou d i d Petro Humeniuk f e e l on h i s f i r s t day at school? D e t a i l s l o n e l y , shy, beui l d e r e d , ( f r i g h t e n e d ) G. I f you uent to school i n the e a r l y 1900's, uhat things uould be d i f f e r e n t ? L i s t as many d i f f e r e n c e s as you can remember. D e t a i I s What uere some of the things the c h i l d r e n d i d at a school concert? D e t a i I s only one teacher 10 many grades on one c l a s s school only i n u i n t e r a long uay to ualk d i f f e r e n t c l o t h i n g c h i l d r e n uere U k r a i n i a n s m a l l , uooden schoolhouse d i f f e r e n t desks teachers s l e p t i n people's houses d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , games sang songs 5 r e c i t e d tongue t u i s t e r s sang "God Save the King," "Maple Leaf Forever" sang U k r a i n i a n songs 83 Figure S. Grade 7 short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t - question type and scores. Type of Information Maximum Score Question E l i c i t e d Answer Obtainable 1. The Mbuti depend Main Idea the ( I t u r i ) ( r a i n ) f o r e s t f o r a l l t h e i r needs. Z. One main a c t i v i t y of Main Idea hunting the Mbuti i s ? 3. Name as many animals as you can remember that are found uhere the Mbuti l i v e . D e t a i l s elephant, leopard, antelope, monkey, b u f f a l o , uoodpecker, bees, b i r d s , f i s h , i n s e c t s , t e r m i t e s u i l d hog, okapi, pangolin 9 - 1 4 Besides the animals that are hunted, uhat other foods do the Mbuti f i n d i n the jungle? D e t a i l s s a l t , r o o t s , nuts, 7 -f r u i t s , mushrooms, honey, b e r r i e s , ( i n s e c t s ) , * ( t e r m i t e s ) * ( f i sh),*(bees),»(bi r d s ) * 12 5. Can you describe three methods the Mbuti use to hunt animals? D e t a i l s t r a p u i t h a net 3 shoot u i t h bou and arrou d i g a p i t t r a p Why i s i t easy f o r the Mbuti t o move to a neu campsite? Main Idea they have very feu possessions 7. Name as may things as you can that the Mbuti Make. D e t a i l s nets, bous, arrows, 11 c l o t h i n g , dyes, huts, necklaces, baskets, c u t t i n g t o o l s , spears, armbands, ( s a l t ) * 12 * These items r e c e i v e d a mark only i f not p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d . CHAPTER IV. Results I t uas the purpose of t h i s study to determine uhether students uho are r e q u i r e d to process the p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r S o c i a l Studies textbooks i n a s t r u c t u r e d manner ( i n t e g r a t i n g p i c t u r e u i t h t ext c ontent), would achieve b e t t e r comprehension and r e c a l l of the accompanying connected prose than those uho pay only i n c i d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n to the p i c t u r e s ( f o c u s i n g , i n s t e a d , on t e x t content). A l s o examined i s uhether such i n s t r u c t i o n i s best d i r e c t e d at a p a r t i c u l a r reading a b i l i t y group or gender. This chapter u i l l present the r e s u l t s of the study i n three s e c t i o n s . F i r s t , the r e s u l t s of the standardized Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (Vocabulary and Comprehension), and Stanford D i a g n o s t i c Reading Comprehension subtest u i l l be described. Second, the r e l i a b i l i t y measures used i n s c o r i n g u i l l be discussed. T h i r d , the s i x hypotheses u i l l be r e s t a t e d and the r e s u l t s of the non-standardized measures reported f o r each grade. A. Standardized Measures 1. Gates-MacGinitie (Grade 5 reading scores) Scores from the Gates-MacGinitie Reading t e s t s (Level D, Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension subtests) uere used f o r tuo purposes. F i r s t , the scores uere used to create reading groups of l o u , average, or high a b i l i t y i n the grade 5 sample. Since t-scores uere used i t uas p o s s i b l e to d e l i n e a t e groups on the basis of approximately equal numbers i n each group. Those u i t h scores ranging from 4 to 40 uere r1 c l a s s i f i e d as l o u a b i l i t y readers, those u i t h scores from 41 t o 48 uere c l a s s i f i e d as average a b i l i t y readers, and those u i t h scores ranging from 49 to G8 uere c l a s s i f i e d as high a b i l i t y readers. Thus, scores ranged from 4 to 69; the mean score uas 45.36, u i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 9.Z6. Figure 7 provides a summary of a l l scores, the range, the mean, the standard d e v i a t i o n , and the numbers of students i n each reading a b i l i t y group f o r each treatment c o n d i t i o n . Data uere obtained f o r Z14 out of Z15 su b j e c t s i n the sample. One student uas e l i m i n a t e d from the study because only one subtest of the tuo uas completed. Secondly, scores from the Gates-MacGinitie Reading t e s t s a l s o functioned as p r e t e s t measures to c o n t r o l f o r i n i t i a l reading d i f f e r e n c e s betueen the c o n t r o l and experimental groups; the scores uere used as c o v a r i a t e s t o f a c t o r out i n i t i a l reading d i f f e r e n c e s that may have i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s on the p o s t t e s t measures (immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t , immediate short ansuer t e s t , delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t , delayed short ansuer t e s t ) . Z. Stanford Diagnostic (Grade 7 reading scores) Scores from the Stanford Diagnotic Reading Comprehension subtest uere a l s o used to create reading a b i l i t y groups and as c o v a r i a t e s to f a c t o r out i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the grade 7 sample. As t-scores uere not a v a i l a b l e , grade equivalent scores uere used and three approximately equal groups uere d e l i n e a t e d . Those u i t h scores ranging from 3 to 6.3 uere c l a s s i f i e d as l o u a b i l i t y readers, those u i t h scores ranging from 6.4 to 8.5 uere c l a s s i f i e d as average readers, and those u i t h scores ranging from 8.6 to 14 uere c l a s s i f i e d as high a b i l i t y readers. Thus, scores 86 ranged from 3 to 14: the combined mean f o r both treatment groups uas 7.69 and the standard d e v i a t i o n uas Z.4. Data uere obtained f o r 149 out of 153 su b j e c t s , scores f o r four students not being a v a i l a b l e . These four subjects uere t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t e d from the study. Figure 8 provides a summary of range, mean, standard d e v i a t i o n , grade equivalent scores, and numbers of students i n each reading a b i l i t y group f o r each treatment c o n d i t i o n . B. Scoring R e l i a b i l i t y fill i n i t i a l s c o r i n g uas done by the i n v e s t i g a t o r ; a t o t a l of 4Z8 immediate and delayed M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , and 4Z8 immediate and delayed Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s uere scored f o r the grade 5 sample. In the grade 7 sample, a t o t a l of 298 immediate and delayed M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , and Z98 immediate and delayed Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s uere scored. Ten percent of the immediate and delayed Short Ansuer Tests f o r each treatment group i n each grade uere then randomly s e l e c t e d . To determine r e l i a b i l i t y these uere remarked by another i n v e s t i g a t o r u n f a m i l i a r u i t h the study, u s i n g a b l i n d s c o r i n g method. I n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y uas .99 (81% agreement) f o r the grade 5 m u l t i p l e choice t e s t s , and .99 (81% agreement) f o r the grade 5 short ansuer t e s t s . I n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y uas 1.0 (100% agreement) f o r the grade 7 m u l t i p l e choice t e s t s , and .99 (81% agreement) f o r the grade 7 short ansuer t e s t s . 87 Figure 7. Summary of Gates-MacGinitie t-scores f o r grade 5. Count Midpoint One Symbol Equals Approximately -80 Occurrences z 3. 33 0 6. 67 0 10. 00 0 13. 33 0 IB. 67 0 ZO. 00 0 Z3. 33 z ZB. 67 *•« 7 30. 00 *»#**#•*» 9 33. 33 #»***»»*»* Z8 36. 67 **#**#*#»* ZS 40. 00 »*#*####»* 34 43. 33 #*##»***** 35 46. 67 •*#*•*•**# ZO 50. 00 **#*##**#* 14 53. 33 ****»**»#» 19 56. 67 #***#•»*#** 9 60. 00 #*•*»*###** 9 63. 33 * * * » * • »** 0 66. 67 1 70. 00 I. 0 .1. 8 . . + I + I + I, 16 Z4 3Z Histogram Frequency . .1 40 Mean Mode K u r t o s i s Maximum 45.346 44.000 Z.57Z 69.000 Std E r r Std Dev Range Sum .633 9.Z60 65.000 9704.000 Median Variance Skeuness Minimum 44.500 85.739 -.528 4.000 Note. Total cases = Z14. Std E r r = Standard E r r o r ; Std Dev = Standard D e v i a t i o n . Figure 8. Summary of Stanford D i a g n o s t i c grade equivalent scores f o r grade 7. Count Midpoint One Symbol Equals Approximately .40 Occurrences 0 2.5 2 3.0 ##** 2 3.5 ***** 3 4.0 ******** 5 4.5 ************ *# 11 5.0 **************** *********** 15 5.5 **********#******** *•**•**•***•*••*••** g 5.0 ****#****************** 12 G.5 ************************** *** 1Z 7.0 *****#***#****#********#***** 10 7.5 ************************* 13 8.0 ******#*********#************* ** 5 8.5 ************* 9 9.0 *********************** 5 9.5 *************** 4 10.0 ********** 8 10.5 ******»**»*#*## #•#» 0 11.0 6 11.5 ******** ****** 15 1Z.0+ ***** ******************************** I + I + I + I + I + I 0 4 8 1Z IB Z0 Histogram Frequency Mean 7.693 Std E r r .198 Median 7.400 Mode 1Z.000 Std Dev Z.411 Variance 5.815 K u r t o s i s -.848 Range 9.000 Skeuness .353 Maximum 1Z.000 Sum 1146.ZOO Minimum 3.000 Note. Total cases = 149. Std E r r = Standard E r r o r ; Std Dev = Standard D e v i a t i o n . 89 C. Hypotheses and Results of Non-Standardized Measures Six n u l l hypotheses uere s t a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the f i n a l p o s t t e s t measures, four p e r t a i n i n g to treatment e f f e c t s and tuo, addressing reading a b i l i t y and gender e f f e c t s . These u i l l be considered s e p a r a t e l y f o r each grade. 1. A n a l y s i s of Data f o r 6rade 5 The r e s u l t s f o r the grade 5 sample are shoun i n Tables 1 - 7 . The data p e r t a i n i n g to hypotheses 1 to 4 can be found i n Tables 1 and Z; r e s u l t s p e r t a i n i n g t o hypothesis 5 can be found i n Tables 3, 4 and 5, and data concerned u i t h hypothesis B can be found i n Tables B and 7. Hoi: There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on an immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t measuring immediate l e v e l s of comprehension. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , i n favour of the experimental group, uas found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s on the M u l t i p l e choice measure of immediate comprehension and r e c a l l F(1, Z10) =12.471, p ( .001. The n u l l hypothesis uas t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d . Thus, on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t , those students exposed to the s t r u c t u r e d lesson (experimental treatment) demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r comprehension of the i n f o r m a t i o n presented than those students exposed to the guided s i l e n t reading less o n ( c o n t r o l treatment). 90 Table 1 Grade 5 Non-Standardized Teat Means f o r Each Treatment Group Test Condition Mean Std Dev N MCI Experimental 7.380 1.609 105 Control G.587 1.665 109 SFU Experimental 8.619 Z.6Z3 105 Control 5.908 Z.611 109 MCZ Experimental 6.666 1.807 105 Control 5.917 1.676 109 SAZ Experimental 8.799 Z.700 105 Control 4.816 Z.171 109 Note. Std Dev = Standard D e v i a t i o n . MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA1 = Immediate Short Answer Test. MCZ = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SAZ = Delayed Short Answer Test. Table Z Summary of Treatment E f f e c t Results f o r Grade 5 V a r i a b l e F value S i g n i f i c a n c e of F df = 1, 210 MCI 12.4714 .001* SA1 57.0918 .000** MC2 9.8782 .002* SA2 141.6994 .000** Note.MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA1 = Immediate Short Answer Test. MC2 = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA2 = Delayed Short Answer Test. *p_ < -005. **g < .001. 91 Table 3 E f f e c t of Treatment on Reading A b i l i t y Levels - Grade 5 V a r i a b l e F Value S i g n i f i c a n c e of F df = 1, Z08 MCI 8.94G .003** SA1 53.583 .000** MCZ 5.949 .016* SAZ 139.867 .000** Note. MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA1 = Immediate Short Ansuer Test. MCZ = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SAZ = Delayed Short Ansuer Test. * a < .05. **_, < .005. 32 Table 4 C e l l Means f o r Readdino. A b i l i t y Groups on M u l t i p l e Choice Tests - Grade 5 Rdg Grp Condition Mean Std Dev N Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test Lou Exp 6.368 1.731 32 Cont 5.743 1.534 39 Mid Exp 6.965 1.721 29 Cont 6.809 1.656 42 High Exp 7.954 1.275 44 Cont 7.428 1.317 28 Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test Lou Exp 5.625 1.844 32 Cont 5.153 1.442 39 Mid Exp 6.655 1.343 29 Cont 5.785 1.522 42 High Exp 7.431 1.676 44 Cont 7.178 1.492 28 Note. Rdg Grp = Reading A b i l i t y Group. Std Dev = Standard De v i a t i o n . Exp = Experimental treatment. Cont = Control treatment. Table 5 C e l l Means f o r Reading A b i l i t y Groups on Shorty Ansuer Testa - Grade 5 Rdg Grp Condition Mean Std Dev N Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test Lou Exp 7.250 2.805 3Z Cont 4.307 2.141 39 Mid Exp 8.310 2.479 29 Cont 5.904 1.948 42 High Exp 9.818 2.082 44 Cont 8.142 2.548 28 Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test Lou Exp 7.687 3.052 32 Cont 3.794 1.975 39 Mid Exp 8.206 2.127 29 Cont 4.523 1.611 42 High Exp 10.000 2.342 44 Cont 6.869 2.037 28 Note. Rdg Grp = Reading A b i l i t y Group. Std Dev = Standard Deviation. Exp = Experimental treatment. Cont = Control treatment. Table 6 Treatment E f f e c t on Gender Performance - Grade 5 V a r i a b l e F Value S i g n i f i c a n c e of F df = 1, 210 MCI .21898 .640 SA1 4.07321 .045* MC2 .24533 .621 SA2 1.55852 .213 Note. MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA1 = Immediate Short Ansuer Test. MC2 = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA2 = Delayed Short Ansuer Test. *a < .05. 95 Table 7 C e l l Means f o r Treatment Condition bv Gender - Grade 5 V a r i a b l e C o n d i t i o n Gender Mean Std Dev MCI Exp Males Females 7.40 7.3G 1.4Z 1.8Z 55 50 Cont Males Females 6.70 6.45 1.64 1.70 60 49 SA1 Exp Males Females 8.Z4 9.04 Z.78 Z.45 55 50 Cont Males Females 6.Z0 5.55 Z.78 Z.40 60 49 MCZ Exp Males Females 6.67 6.66 1.7Z 1.90 55 50 Cont Males Females 5.8Z 6.04 1.65 1.71 60 49 SAZ Exp Males Females 8.44 9.Z0 Z.54 Z.86 55 60 Cont Males Females 4.85 4.78 Z.Z4 Z.10 60 49 Note. Std Dev = Standard D e v i a t i o n . MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA1 = Immediate Short Answer Test. MCZ = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SAZ = Delayed Short Ansuer Test. Exp = Exoerimental Treatment. Cont = Control Treatment. Total cases f o r each t e s t = Z14. 96 HoZ: There m i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on a short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t measuring immediate l e v e l s of comprehension. ft s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , i n favour of the experimental group, uas found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s on the Short Ansuer measure of immediate comprehension and r e c a l l F ( l , 210) = 57.091, p < .000. The n u l l hypothesis uas r e j e c t e d . In other uords, those students exposed to the s t r u c t u r e d lesson s i g n i f i c a n t l y outperformed those exposed to the guided s i l e n t reading lesson on the immediate short ansuer t e s t of reading comprehension; those students i n the experimental group had a be t t e r understanding of the t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l , as measured by the short ansuer t e s t , than those i n the conventional or c o n t r o l group. Ho3= There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on a delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t measuring delayed l e v e l s of comprehension, ft s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , i n favour of the experimental group uas found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s on the M u l t i p l e Choice measure of delayed comprehension and r e c a l l F(1, 210) = 9.878, p < .002. The n u l l hypothesis uas r e j e c t e d . Once again, those students exposed to the experimental treatment s i g n i f i c a n t l y outperformed those exposed to the conventional treatment on the m u l t i p l e choice t e s t of delayed comprehension. The experimental 97 group appear to have b e t t e r r e t a i n e d the informat i o n a f t e r a tuo ueek delay than the c o n t r o l group, although the d i f f e r e n c e betueen the c o n t r o l and the experimental groups i s not as pronounced as on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . Ho4: There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on a delayed short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t measuring delayed l e v e l s of comprehension. A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t uas found, favouring the experimental group, betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s on the Short Ansuer measure of delayed comprehension and r e c a l l <F = 141. 699, df = 1/Z10, p < .000). The n u l l hypothesis uas r e j e c t e d . Thus, here too, on the short ansuer t e s t of delayed comprehension the experimental group s i g n i f i c a n t l y outperformed the conventional group. The supe r i o r r e t e n t i o n of the experimental group, over the c o n t r o l group, a f t e r a tuo ueek delay i s demonstrated to an even gr e a t e r degree on t h i s delayed short ansuer t e s t than on the immediate short ansuer t e s t . The f o i l o w i n g four hypotheses are considered together: Ho5 ( i > : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups ( l o u , middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean po s t t e s t performance on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . 98 Hp5 ( i i ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups ( l o u , middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on the immediate short ansuer t e s t . Ho5 ( i i i ) - " There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups ( l o u , middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . Ho5 ( i v ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups ( l o u , middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean po s t t e s t performance on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . With regard to a l l four of the above hypotheses, a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t betueen treatment and reading a b i l i t y , i n favour of the experimental c o n d i t i o n , uas found f o r a l l three reading a b i l i t y groups on a l l four measures of comprehension and r e c a l l : Ho5 (i> immediate m u l t i p l e choice F ( l , Z08) = 8.946, p ( .003, ( i i ) immediate short ansuer F ( l , Z08) = 53.583, p ( .000), ( i i i ) delayed m u l t i p l e choice F ( l , Z08) = 5.949, p ( .016, ( i v ) delayed short ansuer F<1, Z08) = 139.867, p ( .000. The n u l l hypotheses, i n the four cases above, uere t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d (see Table 5). 93 Thus, as measured by a l l four t e s t s , immediately a f t e r the lesson and a f t e r a tuo ueek delay, the l o u , middle, and high a b i l i t y readers of the experimental group demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r comprehension than the l o u , middle, and high a b i l i t y readers of the c o n t r o l group. That i s , the experimental treatment appears to have promoted the comprehension of a l l three a b i l i t y l e v e l s of readers. Although no p a r t i c u l a r reading a b i l i t y l e v e l uas b e n e f i t e d more than another by the experimental treatment, by examining the means, some trends can be observed (see Tables G and 7 ) . On a l l but the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t , the l o u a b i l i t y readers of the experimental c o n d i t i o n appear to have b e n e f i t e d most. On the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t the middle a b i l i t y readers of the experimental c o n d i t i o n appear to be helped most. HoG ( i ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance of males and females on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . There uas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s and performance of males and females on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t , F<1, 210) = .218, p > .640. Males and females performed s i m i l a r l y on t h i s t e s t , r e g a r d l e s s of treatment. The n u l l hypothesis uas accepted. Neither treatment (experimental or c o n t r o l ) b e n i f i t e d one gender more than another, as measured by the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . 100 HoB ( i i ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l i n the adjusted mean pos t t e s t performance of male and females on the immediate short ansuer t e s t . There uas a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s and the performance of males and females on the immediate short ansuer t e s t : F ( l , 210) = 4.073, p ( .045. The females scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than males i n the experimental group; males, higher than females i n the c o n t r o l group. The n u l l hypothesis uas r e j e c t e d . As evidenced by the immediate short ansuer t e s t , females appear to have b e n e f i t e d more from the experimental treatment than males. The opposite appears to be the case f o r the conventional treatment, uhere males outperformed females on t h i s measure of comprehension. HoB ( i i i ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean po s t t e s t performance of males and females on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . There uas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s and the performance of males and females on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t : F ( l , 210) = .245 , p > .621. Males and females performed s i m i l a r l y on t h i s t e s t , r e g a r d l e s s of treatment. The n u l l hypothesis uas ther e f o r e accepted. 101 A f t e r a tuo ueek delay, n e i t h e r treatment (experimental or c o n t r o l ) b e n i f i t e d one gender more than another, as evidenced by the r e s u l t s on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . HoB (iv)= There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance of males and females on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . There uas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s and the performance of males and females on the delayed short ansuer t e s t : F ( l , Z10 = 1.558, p > .Z13. Males and females performed s i m i l a r l y , r e g a r d l e s s of treatment, on t h i s t e s t . The n u l l hypothesis uas th e r e f o r e accepted. A f t e r a tuo ueek delay, n e i t h e r treatment (experimental or c o n t r o l ) b e n i f i t e d one gender more than another, as evidenced by the r e s u l t s on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . By examining the means, houever, (see Table 9) the tendency that uas seen i n the immediate short ansuer t e s t f o r the females of the experimental group to outperform males, can be seen although i t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s case. 102 2. A n a l y s i s of Data f o r Grade 7 The r e s u l t s f o r the grade 7 sample are shoun i n Tables 8 to 14. Tables 8 and 9 shou r e s u l t s r e l a t e d to hypotheses 1 t o 4, Tables 10, 11 and 12 co n t a i n data r e l a t e d to hypothesis 5, and Tables 13 and 14 concern data r e l a t e d to hypothesis G. Hoi: There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on an immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t measuring immediate l e v e l s of comprehension. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e uas found betueen treatment groups on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice measure of comprehension and r e c a l l ( F ( 1 , 145) = .657, p > .419. The n u l l hypothesis uas accepted. Treatment c o n d i t i o n d i d not e f f e c t performance on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . Ho2 : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e hetueen the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on a short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t measuring immediate l e v e l s of comprehension. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e uas found betueen treatment groups on the short ansuer measure of immediate comprehension and r e c a l l ( F ( l , 145) = 2.762, p > .09. The n u l l hypothesis uas accepted. The type of treatment d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t performance on the immediate short ansuer t e s t , although i n comparison to the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t , there uas a tendency f o r those students subjected to 1 Table 8 Grade 7 Non-Standardized Test Means f o r Each Treatment Group Test Condition Mean Std Dev MCI SA1 MCZ SAZ Experimental Control Experimental Control Experimental Control Experimental Control G.133 G.381 Z5.457 Z4.Z07 5.416 5.09Z 8.799 4.816 1.896 1.876 4.913 4.3ZZ 1.876 Z.113 4.9Z7 5.ZZ5 76 73 76 73 76 73 76 73 Note. Std Dev = Standard D e v i a t i o n . MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA1 = Immediate Short Answer Test. MCZ = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SAZ = Delayed Short Answer Test. Table 9 Summary of Treatment E f f e c t Results f o r Grade 7 Va r i a b l e F value S i g n i f i c a n c e of F df = 1, 145 MCI SA1 .657 Z.76Z .419 .099 MCZ SAZ .836 Z1.388 .36Z .000* Note.MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA1 = Immediate Short Answer Test. MCZ = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SAZ = Delayed Short Answer Test *E < .001. 104 Table 10 E f f e c t of Treatment on Reading A b i l i t y Levels - Grade 7 V a r i a b l e F Value S i g n i f i c a n c e of F df = 1. 208 MCI .568 .452 SA1 3.571 .061 MC2 1.445 .231* SAZ 29.363 .000* Note. MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. 5A1 = Immediate Short Ansuer Test. MC2 = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SAZ = Delayed Short Ansuer Test. * g. < .01. 105 Table 11 C e l l Means f o r Readdino A b i l i t y Groups on M u l t i p l e Choice  Tests - Grade 7 Rdg Grp Condition Mean Std Dev N Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test Lou Exp 5.000 1.74Z Z8 Cont 5.174 1.613 Z3 Mid Exp 6.Z17 1.536 23 Cont 6.333 1.73Z 21 High Exp 7.Z80 1.646 25 Cont 7.G08 1.588 23 Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test Lou Exp 4.464 1.643 28 Cont 3.565 1.375 23 Mid Exp 5.391 1.725 23 Cont 5.185 1.687 27 High Exp 6.400 1.914 25 Cont 6.478 2.Z1Z 23 Note. Rdg Grp = Reading A b i l i t y Group. Std Dev = Standard De v i a t i o n . Exp = Experimental treatment. Cont = Control treatment. 106 Table 1Z C e l l Means f o r Reading A b i l i t y Groups on Shorty Ansuer Tests - Grade 7 Rdg Grp Condition Mean Std Dev N Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test Lou Exp 23.357 4.6Z0 Z8 Cont Z2.000 3.931 Z3 Mid Exp 25.043 4.587 Z3 Cont 23.814 4.350 27 High Exp Z8.3Z0 4.337 Z5 Cont 2G.95G 3.336 Z3 Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test Lou Exp 19.428 4.90Z Z8 Cont 14.086 5.409 Z3 Mid Exp 21.478 4.419 Z3 Cont 17.407 3.703 Z7 High Exp Z4.400 4.Z6Z 25 Cont 21.869 4.148 23 Note. Rdg Grp = Reading A b i l i t y Group. Std Dev = Standard D e v i a t i o n . Exp = Experimental treatment. Cont = Control treatment. 107 Table 13 Treatment E f f e c t on Gender Performance - Grade 7 V a r i a b l e F Value S i g n i f i c a n c e of F df = 1, 145 MCI .09Z37 .7GZ SA1 .014GG .904 MCZ .33715 .5GZ SAZ 1.13847 .288 Note. MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA1 = Immediate Short Ansuer Test. MC2 = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA2 = Delayed Short Ansuer Test. 108 Table 14 C e l l Means f o r Treatment Cond i t i o n by Gender - Grade 7 V a r i a b l e Condition Gender Mean Std Dev N MCI Exp Males Females G.31 5.95 1.92 1.87 35 41 Cont Males Females 6.65 6.10 1.71 2.03 35 38 SA1 Exp Males Females 24.91 26.00 4.71 5.10 35 41 Cont Males Females 23.57 24.84 4.06 4.57 35 38 MC2 Exp Males Females 5.85 4.97 1.80 1.94 35 41 Cont Males Females 5.34 4.84 2.27 1.95 35 38 SA2 Exp Males Females 21.60 21.75 4.44 5.40 35 41 Cont Males Females 18.62 16.97 4.28 6.16 35 38 Note. Std Dev = Standard D e v i a t i o n . MCI = Immediate M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA1 = Immediate Short Answer Test. MC2 = Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Test. SA2 = Delayed Short Ansuer Test. Exp = Experimental Treatment. Cont = Control Treatment. Total cases f o r each t e s t = 149. 1(99 the experimental treatment t o perform b e t t e r on t h i s t e s t than those subjected to the conventional or c o n t r o l treatment. Ho3= There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on a delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t measuring delayed l e v e l s of comprehension. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment groups uas found on the m u l t i p l e choice measure of delayed comprehension and r e c a l l F ( l , 145) = .835, p > .352. The n u l l hypothesis uas accepted. A f t e r a tuo ueek delay, n e i t h e r treatment s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d performance on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . By examining the c e l l means (see Table 10) d i f f e r e n c e s betueen treatment groups appears t o be more pronounced on the delayed, ra t h e r than the immediate t e s t measure. Ho4: There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen the treatment groups on t h e i r adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on a delayed short ansuer r e c a l l t e s t measuring delayed l e v e l s of comprehension. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e uas found betueen treatment groups, i n favour of the experimental group, on the short ansuer r e c a l l measure of delayed comprehension and r e c a l l F ( l , 45) = 21.388, p ( .000. The n u l l hypothesis uas r e j e c t e d . A f t e r a tuo ueek delay, the trend towards improved performance f o r the experimental group that uas seen on the immediate short ansuer t e s t , becomes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . On t h i s t e s t , the students exposed to the experimental treatment outperformed those exposed to the conventional treatment. 110 Ho5 There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups ( l o u , middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean po s t t e s t performance on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . There uas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n and the performance of reading a b i l i t y groups on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t : F ( l , 143) = .568, p > .452. The n u l l hypothesis uas accepted. Neither treatment a f f e c t e d the performance of d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups, fls u e l l , no p a r t i c u l a r reading group performed b e t t e r than another u i t h e i t h e r treatment. Ho5 ( i i ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment co n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups ( l o u , middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on the immediate short ansuer t e s t . There uas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n and the performance of reading a b i l i t y groups on the immediate short ansuer t e s t : F ( l , 143) = 3.571, p > .061. The n u l l hypothesis uas accepted. Although ne i t h e r treatment s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d the performance of d i f f e r e n t reading groups on t h i s t e s t , there uas a trend, i n favour of the experimental c o n d i t i o n , touards the superior performance of a l l three I l l r e ading groups < see Table 14 d e s c r i b i n g c e l l means). Houever, no -trend towards a p a r t i c u l a r reading group being b e n i f i t e d more than another by the experimental treatment was revealed. A l l three reading groups were e q u a l l y b e n i f i t e d , regardless of treatment. Ho5 ( i i i ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups (low, middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between treatment c o n d i t i o n and the performance of d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t : F ( l , 143) = 1.445, p ) .231. The n u l l hypothesis was accepted. A f t e r a two week delay, the treatment c o n d i t i o n s t i l l d i d not a f f e c t the performance of d i f f e r e n t reading groups on t h i s t e s t . Neither d i d one p a r t i c u l a r reading group perform b e t t e r than another with e i t h e r treatment c o n d i t i o n . Ho5 ( i v ) : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the performance of the d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups ( l o u , middle, high) as measured by adjusted mean p o s t t e s t performance on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e uas found betueen treatment and reading a b i l i t y on the delayed short ansuer t e s t : F ( l , 143) = 29.354, p ( .000. 11Z U h i l e no p a r t i c i l a r reading a b i l i t y group b e n i f i t e d from the experimental treatment, a l l three reading a b i l i t y groups uere s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e n e f i t e d by t h i s treatment as d i s p l a y e d by t h e i r performance on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . The n u l l hypothesis uas t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d . A f t e r a tuo ueek delay, the trend that uas seen on the immediate short ansuer t e s t touards the su p e r i o r performance of reading a b i l i t y groups from the experimental c o n d i t i o n , becomes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on t h i s t e s t . The reading comprehension of a l l three reading a b i l i t y groups uas helped by the experimental treatment. No p a r t i c u l a r reading group, houever, uas b e n e f i t e d more than another. HoB ( i ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean pos t t e s t performance of males and females on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . There uas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s and performance of males and females on the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t , F(1, 145) = .092, p > .762. Males and females performed s i m i l a r l y on t h i s t e s t , r e g a r d l e s s of treatment. The n u l l hypothesis uas accepted. Neither treatment (experimental or c o n t r o l ) b e n i f i t e d one gender more than another, as measured by the immediate m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . Ho6 ( i i ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l i n the adjusted mean pos t t e s t performance of male and females on the immediate short ansuer t e s t . 113 There uas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s and the performance of males and females on the immediate short ansuer t e s t : F(1, 145) = .014, p < .904. Males and females performed s i m i l a r l y on t h i s t e s t , r e g a r d l e s s of treatment. The n u l l hypothesis uas accepted. Neither treatment (experimental or c o n t r o l ) b e n i f i t e d one gender more than another, as measured by the immediate short ansuer t e s t . HoG ( i i i ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean pos t t e s t performance of males and females on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . There uas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s and the performance of males and females on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t : F( 1, 145) = .337, p > .5GZ. Males and females performed s i m i l a r l y on t h i s t e s t , r e g a r d l e s s of treatment. The n u l l hypothesis uas th e r e f o r e accepted. A f t e r a tuo ueek delay, n e i t h e r treatment (experimental or c o n t r o l ) b e n i f i t e d one gender more than another, as evidenced by the r e s u l t s on the delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t . HoG ( i v ) : There u i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n s (experimental, c o n t r o l ) i n the adjusted mean pos t t e s t performance of males and females on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . There uas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found betueen treatment 114 c o n d i t i o n s and the performance of males and females on the delayed short ansuer t e s t : F ( l , 145 = 1.138, p > .288. Males and females performed s i m i l a r l y , r egardless of treatment, on t h i s t e s t . The n u l l hypothesis was th e r e f o r e accepted. A f t e r a two week delay, n e i t h e r treatment (experimental or c o n t r o l ) b e n i f i t e d one gender more than another, as evidenced by the r e s u l t s on the delayed short answer t e s t . The r e s u l t s f o r the grade 7 sample are summarized i n Tables 10 -15. This chapter presented the r e s u l t s of the study i n three s e c t i o n s : 1) the r e s u l t s of the standardized t e s t measures used, 2) the s c o r i n g r e l i a b i l i t y , and 3) the hypotheses, i n conjunction with the r e s u l t s of the non-standardized t e s t measures used. Chapter 5 w i l l d i s c u s s the r e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s i s presented i n t h i s chapter. 115 CHAPTER V"- Summary, L i m i t a t i o n s , Conclusions , I m p l i c a t i o n s In t h i s chapter a summary of the study, i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , the concl u s i o n s , and i m p l i c a t i o n s u i l l be presented. The summary u i l l r e v i e u the purpose, the r a t i o n a l e , and the methodology of the study. A d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s u i l l a l s o be included. The l i m i t a t i o n s u i l l deal u i t h the extent to uhich the r e s u l t s may be g e n e r a l i z e d . Conclusions u i l l be o u t l i n e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r the tuo grade l e v e l s : grade 5 and grade 7. F i n a l l y , the i m p l i c a t i o n s u i l l address the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s , and suggest areas f o r f u t u r e research. A. Summary 1. Purpose The purpose of t h i s study uas to determine uhether students uho are re q u i r e d to process the p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r S o c i a l Studies textbooks, i n a s t r u c t u r e d manner, uould achieve b e t t e r comprehension and r e c a l l of the accompanying connected prose than those uho pay only i n c i d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n to the p i c t u r e s . Also examined uas uhether such i n s t r u c t i o n i s best d i r e c t e d at a p a r t i c u l a r reading group or gender. Z. Ra t i o n a l e The r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d approach uas based on research uhich suggests that p i c t u r e s c a r r y i n s t r u c t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l that 116 could be enhanced through the p r a c t i c e of a number of p r i n c i p l e s . These p r i n c i p l e s i n c l u d e the use of: concrete s t i m u l i p r i o r to a b s t r a c t m a t e r i a l , p i c t u r e s to a c t i v a t e e x i s t i n g schema, p i c t u r e s as devices f o r r e l a t i n g t e x t information, and p i c t u r e s as r e v i e u frameuorks f o r s t i m u l a t i n g r e c a l l . To determine the f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s of using a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n , four questions uere asked: l ) & 2) Would grade 5 and grade 7 students exposed to a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n , demonstrate supe r i o r comprehension and r e c a l l of a passage from t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d S o c i a l Studies textbook over students r e c e i v i n g t e x t processing i n s t r u c t i o n only, on immediate and delayed measures? 3) Would there be an i n t e r a c t i o n betueen treatment c o n d i t i o n and reading a b i l i t y l e v e l s as observed on measures of both immediate and delayed comprehension and r e c a l l ? 4) Would the gender of grade 5 and 7 students a f f e c t performance, u i t h or uithout the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n , on measures of both immediate and delayed comprehension and r e c a l l ? 3. Method Data uere c o l l e c t e d from eight c l a s s e s of grade 5 students attending four p u b l i c elementary schools, and from s i x c l a s s e s of grade 7 students atte n d i n g 3 p u b l i c elementary schools, a l l i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . fl p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t non-equivalent c o n t r o l group design uas used to t e s t s i x hypotheses f o r each grade. The c o n t r o l groups r e c e i v e d text processing i n s t r u c t i o n only, u h i l e the experimental groups r e c e i v e d i n t e g r a t e d p i c t u r e / t e x t i n s t r u c t i o n . Data on immediate and delayed measures of comprehension and r e c a l l uere analyzed u s i n g a n a l y s i s of covariance, u i t h Gates-MacGinitie and Stanford D i a g n o s t i c scores f u n c t i o n i n g as c o v a r i a t e s f o r each grade. 117 4. D i s c u s s i o n of Results a) Grade 5 For the grade 5 sample, r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d comprehension and r e c a l l of t e x t content uere s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhanced f o r those i n the experimental group; t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t uas observed on a l l four measures of immediate and delayed comprehension and r e c a l l . The more pronounced f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t of p i c t u r e s on comprehension i n delayed r e c a l l has been observed by many authors (Duchastel, 1980; Levie & Lentz, 1972; Peeck, 1974; Rusted & C o l t h e a r t , 1979; and Haring & Fry, 1979). Although the grade 5 r e s u l t s r e v e a l such a tendency uas not apparent on the m u l t i p l e choice t e s t s , the r e s u l t s on the short ansuer t e s t s support t h i s concept. That i s , the experimental ( p i c t o r i a l ) treatment s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a c i l i t a t e d comprehension on the immediate short ansuer t e s t , but the most s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s of the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d treatment uere seen a f t e r a delay of tuo ueeks, on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . For the short ansuer t e s t s , at any r a t e , the b e n e f i t s of the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n uere most apparent i n delayed r e c a l l . While no reading group ( l o u , average, or high) b e n e f i t e d more than another as a r e s u l t of treatment, a l l three reading groups exposed to the experimental treatment outperformed the three reading groups of the c o n t r o l group. A s l i g h t t rend, not s i g n i f i c a n t , uas observed, houever; the l o u a b i l i t y readers appeared to be most helped by the experimental treatment. Support f o r i d e a that poorer readers may b e n e f i t more from p i c t o r i a l l y r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n has been noted i n a number of s t u d i e s (Donald, 1983; Haring & Fry, 1979; and Rusted & C o l t h e a r t , 1979). F i n a l l y , one s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t uas found betueen 118 gender and treatment-" females i n the experimental group outperformed males on one measure of comprehension and r e c a l l , the immediate short ansuer t e s t . The s u p e r i o r performance of females over males i n the experimental group on t h i s t e s t measure lends support t o the a s s e r t i o n by Ernest (1968) that high imagery a b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d to l e a r n i n g u i t h females but not u i t h males. P a i v i o (1971), too, has suggested that females use imaginal processes to f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l uhereas males do not. F i n a l l y , Rusted and Colheart (1979) found that at age 9 (a s i m i l a r age to the grade 5 sample of t h i s study) females outperformed males on p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e tasks u i t h p i c t u r e s . That there uas no d i f f e r e n c e betueen males and females on the delayed measure may be r e l a t e d to B r o u n f i e l d ' s (1965) f i n d i n g that males have longer a f t e r -i mages. b) 6rade 7 For the grade 7 sample, r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e u h i l e treatment made no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e to the comprehension and r e c a l l of t e x t on three measures (immediate m u l t i p l e choice, delayed m u l t i p l e choice, immediate short ansuer), on one delayed measure, the short ansuer t e s t , the experimental group outperformed the c o n t r o l . This r e s u l t provides f u r t h e r evidence f o r the idea that delayed r e c a l l i s enhanced more than immediate r e c a l l i n p i c t u r e r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n (Haring & Fry, 1979; Rusted & C o l t h e a r t , 1979; Duchastel, 1980; Peeck, 1974). I t uas found that no p a r t i c u l a r reading a b i l i t y group's comprehension uas s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhanced more than another, on any of the four t e s t measures. Instead, on the delayed short ansuer t e s t , i t uas found that a l l three reading a b i l i t y groups ( l o u , middle, and high) i n the 119 experimental group s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e n e f i t e d from the treatment. Uardle (1977) and Donald (1983), i n t h e i r p i c t u r e - r e l a t e d research, were able to detect a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betueen r e c a l l performance of d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y l e v e l s , f a v o u r i n g the poorer readers i n p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n s . D i f f e r e n c e s betueen the performance of d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y groups are reported r a r e l y , houever ( L e v i e , & Lentz, 1972), so that such a r e s u l t , here, i s not unexpected. F i n a l l y , no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s uere found betueen c o n d i t i o n and gender. Although females uere seen to outperform males under the experimental c o n d i t i o n on the grade 5 delayed short ansuer t e s t , no such d i f f e r e n c e s uere found i n the grade 7 sample. This r e s u l t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , houever, s i n c e the research concerned u i t h gender d i f f e r e n c e s presents an unresolved p i c t u r e . Maccoby and J a c k l i n (1971), f o r example, conclude that no sex i s more " v i s u a l " than another. c) Both samples A s t a t i s t i c a l comparison betueen grades uas not p o s s i b l e due to the v a r i e d nature of the t e s t i n g instruments, and the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ; some comments may be i n order, houever. The experimental treatment appeared to be more e f f e c t i v e u i t h the grade 5 students than u i t h the grade 7 students. This r e s u l t might have sev e r a l explanations. F i r s t , the grade 7 exp o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l uas r e l a t i v e l y e a s i e r to read than the grade 5 t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l . This may have a l l o u e d both treatment groups i n the grade 7 sample e x t r a time to study the p i c t u r e s , and, or the t e x t , thus d i l u t i n g the e f f e c t of the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d 120 less o n . Secondly, because the r e a d a b i l i t y of the grade 7 t e s t made the prose r e l a t i v e l y e a s i e r to comprehend than i n the grade 5 case, the grade 7 t e x t may not have been dependent upon the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to the same degree as the grade 5 t e x t passages. Hayes and Readence (1983) demonstrated that comprehension i s a f f e c t e d by the degree of t e x t dependency on i l l u s t r a t i o n s . I f the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the grade 7 text were not as important to the understanding of the connected prose as i n the case of the grade 5 t e x t , the grade 7 students' comprehension and r e c a l l performance may have been a f f e c t e d . T h i r d , the i l l u s t r a t i o n s contained i n the grade 7 text may have been l e s s complex, and l e s s r e a l i s t i c , on the uhole, than those contained i n the grade 5 t e x t . Since i t has been p o s t u l a t e d that complex, r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e s r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n than simple r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , (Mackuorth, & Morandi, 1967) and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of medium to high prior-knouledge students (Joseph, & Duyer, 1984), the grade 7 students may not have attended to the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to the same degree as the grade 5 sample. Another s i d e to t h i s i s s u e , i s suggested by Tversky's research (1974) uhich revealed that the feuer the number of eye f i x a t i o n s given to simple l i n e drauings, the higher the r e s u l t i n g r e c a l l . The grade 7 te x t booklets contained tuo simple l i n e drauings; i f the conventional group gave l e s s a t t e n t i o n to them perhaps t h e i r r e c a l l performance uas a f f e c t e d favourably compared to the experimental group. F i n a l l y , i t has a l s o been suggested that the a b i l i t y to make use of p i c t u r e s i s developmental. Snodgrass, V o l v o v i t z , and Waif i s h (1972) 121 suggest that u i t h high school students, tuo s t i m u l i ( p i c t u r e s and uords) are not b e t t e r than p i c t u r e s alone, s i n c e , by t h i s age students a u t o m a t i c a l l y engage i n the dual coding of p i c t u r e s . Perhaps t h i s trend i s r e f l e c t e d here, u i t h the o l d e r , seventh grade students appearing not to b e n e f i t from the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson to the same degree as the younger, f i f t h grade students. Perhaps r e l a t e d t o t h i s , too, may be the f i n d i n g s of Anderson and Kulhavy (1972) that imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s f a c i l i t a t e prose l e a r n i n g to a l e s s e r extent u i t h high school students, than u i t h younger grade l e v e l s . B. L i m i t a t i o n s The f o l l o u i n g l i m i t a t i o n s should be noted uhen i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s study. G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s i s l i m i t e d to the type of m a t e r i a l s used i n the study, the grade l e v e l s of students uho p a r t i c i p a t e d , and the type of measurements used to assess immediate and delayed comprehension and r e c a l l . The m a t e r i a l s used uere t e x t passages from p r e s c r i b e d S o c i a l Studies textbooks. The students uho p a r t i c i p a t e d uere f i f t h and seventh graders r e p r e s e n t i n g a uide range of reading l e v e l s , and c u l t u r a l backgrounds. Comprehension and r e c a l l of text uas measured by m u l t i p l e choice and short ansuer t e s t s , used as both immediate and delayed instruments. A l i m i t a t i o n i n random sampling took place i n the s e l e c t i o n of students. I t uas necessary to use i n t a c t c l a s s e s from schools u i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. An attempt t o c o n t r o l the socioeconomic 1ZZ v a r i a b l e , houever, uas wade i n having one c l a s s i n each school f u n c t i o n as part of the experimental group, and one c l a s s as part of the c o n t r o l . Teacher involvement i n the study l i m i t e d the c o n t r o l of i n s t r u c t i o n g i ven t o students. n i l eight c l a s s e s of the grade 5 sample and a l l s i x c l a s s e s of the grade 7 sample had a d i f f e r e n t teacher. Thus, although standardized lesson o u t l i n e s uere provided, none of the c l a s s e s uould have had i d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . The p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n s could not be c o n t r o l l e d . One l i m i t a t i o n i s noted i n the t e s t s used i n t h i s study. The short ansuer and m u l t i p l e choice t e s t s , although found to have acceptable l e v e l s r e l i a b i l i t y , could have been f u r t h e r r e f i n e d through item a n a l y s i s and repeated t r i a l s i n order to improve t h e i r l e v e l s of r e l i a b i l i t y . F i n a l l y , one other l i m i t a t i o n p e r t a i n s to the r o l e of students' e x i s t i n g schema. Although the text passages used i n t h i s study uere not seen by the students beforehand, the student's l e v e l s of e x i s t i n g background knowledge uere not taken i n t o account as a p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e i n f l u e n c i n g comprehension and r e c a l l . C. Conclusions 1. Grade 5 Based on the f i n d i n g s from the f i f t h grade sample, the f i r s t c o n c l u s i o n that can be draun i s that a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson appears to f a c i l i t a t e the comprehension and r e c a l l of text content as measured by m u l t i p l e choice and short ansuer t e s t s . Students exposed to i n s t r u c t i o n uhich sought to i n t e g r a t e v i s u a l and verbal content i n a s t r u c t u r e d manner scored higher on m u l t i p l e choice and short ansuer t e s t s . Performance uas not only f a c i l i t a t e d on immediate t e s t s , but a l s o on delayed measures tuo ueeks a f t e r the lesson. Another conclusion draun from the f i n d i n g s i s that l o u , average, and high a b i l i t y readers appear to b e n e f i t e q u a l l y from the use of the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson. No s i n g l e reading a b i l i t y group i s helped by such an approach more than another. A l l three reading a b i l i t y groups exposed to the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n scored higher on a l l four measures of comprehension and r e c a l l . The f i n a l c o nclusion that the f i n d i n g s of the study suggest i s t h a t , on some measures, females may score higher than males u i t h the use of the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson. Females exposed t o the experimental c o n d i t i o n outperformed males on the short ansuer t e s t measuring immediate comprehension and r e c a l l . Z. Grade 7 Based on the f i n d i n g s from the seventh grade sample, one conclusion that may be draun i s that the v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n approach does not appear to f a c i l i t a t e immediate comprehension and r e c a l l , or delayed comprehension and r e c a l l as measured by a delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t , but i t does appear to f a c i l i t a t e delayed comprehension and r e c a l l , uhen t h i s i s measured by a short ansuer t e s t . Subjects i n the experimental group scored higher than the c o n t r o l on the delayed short ansuer t e s t . One other c o n c l u s i o n that can be draun from the f i n d i n g s i s that l o u , average, and high a b i l i t y readers can b e n e f i t e q u a l l y from the experimental treatment as measured by the delayed short ansuer t e s t , but 124 there appears to be no d i f f e r e n c e , r e g a r d l e s s of treatment, i n the uay l o u , middle, and high a b i l i t y readers perform on other t e s t measures (immediate m u l t i p l e choice and short ansuer, delayed m u l t i p l e choice t e s t s ) . The f i n a l c o nclusion draun i s that n e i t h e r males nor females perform b e t t e r uhen exposed to e i t h e r the experimental or c o n t r o l treatment. D. I m p l i c a t i o n s Based on the conclusions and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are suggested. The i m p l i c a t i o n s are d i v i d e d i n t o implicatons f o r the classroom teacher and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research. 1. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Classroom Teacher Teachers could devise v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lessons f o r s e c t i o n s of t h e i r science and s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks so that students uould focus more c a r e f u l l y on the p i c t u r e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the t e x t . Once a teacher has i d e n t i f i e d a s e c t i o n and s t u d i e d the i l l u s t r a t i o n s , questions could be devised to 1) a c t i v a t e e x i s t i n g schema, 2) i n t e g r a t e p i c t u r e / t e x t content, and 3) provide and opportunity f o r r e h e a r s a l and r e v i e u . I f students uere t o become f a m i l i a r u i t h t h i s technique, as a next step, the teacher could e x p l a i n the question purposes to the students, and the students could l e a r n to develop t h e i r oun questions as a type of study guide f o r i l l u s t r a t e d content area textbooks. T r a i n i n g i n hou to make use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s may b e n e f i t comprehension and r e c a l l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y delayed r e c a l l f o r older students, i n a l l content area s u b j e c t s where i l l u s t r a t i o n s appear. 1Z5 2. Suggestions f o r Further Research Based on the conclusions and the l i m i t a t i o n s f o r the study several i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r futher research are sugggested. Further research should be conducted to determine at uhat age l e v e l students could e f f e c t i v e l y make use of a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n , and at uhat age the use of t h i s approach uould be i n e f f e c t u a l . L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s comparing several s t r a t e g i e s could be constructed. The maximum delay of r e c a l l has not been determined. Studies i n v e s t i g a t i n g hou long students are able to r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t treatment c o n d i t i o n s could be conducted. The r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l of connected prose and the p o t e n t i a l of accompanying p i c t u r e s to enhance comprehension has not been f u l l y explored. Studies comparing d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of text r e a d a b i l i t y accompanied by the same p i c t u r e s could be undertaken. Another f a c t o r uhich has not been f u l l y assessed i n p i c t u r e r e l a t e d research i s the e f f e c t of p i c t u r e complexity or type of v i s u a l on text comprehension i n combination u i t h a v i s u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d lesson. Although Duyer <1973) has conducted a number of s t u d i e s i n the area of d i f f e r e n t forms of i l l u s t r a t i o n and the e f f e c t of t h e i r presence, no attempt has been made to explore the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t types of v i s u a l s uhen i n s t r u c t i o n i s included. Although f i f t h grade females outperformed males on one measure of immediate comprehension and r e c a l l , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e d i d not appear on any of the delayed measures. The f i n d i n g s f o r the immediate t e s t are i n 126 keeping u i t h Ernest & P a i v i o ' s (1971) suggestion that i n some cases females may 'use' imaginal processes to f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l , but the females i n a b i l i t y to maintain t h i s lead on the delayed t e s t measure i s perhaps r e l a t e d to B r o u n f i e l d ' s (1965) f i n d i n g s that adult males have longer after-images. More research needs to be conducted to explore uhy and under uhat c o n d i t i o n s these gender d i f f e r e n c e s occur. This study d i d not employ the use of u r i t i n g t o any great extent i n the l e s s o n . Further s t u d i e s could be conducted to compare the e f f e c t s of u s i n g d i f f e r e n t combinations of response procedures on l e v e l s of comprehension and r e c a l l . 127 B i b l i o g r a p h y Anderson, R. C. (1971). Encoding processes i n the storage and r e t r i e v a l of sentences. Journal of Experiwental Psychology. 91. 338-341. Anderson, R. C , & Kulhavy R. W. (1972). Imagery and prose l e a r n i n g . Journal of Educational Psychology. B3. 242-243. Andre, T. (1979). Does answering h i g h - l e v e l questions uhen reading f a c i l i t a t e productive l e a r n i n g . Revieu of Educational Research. 49. 280-318. Ausubel, D. P. (1963). The psychology of meangingful verbal l e a r n i n g . Neu York: Grune & S t r a t t o n . Baine, D.(1982). Using p i c t u r e s to teach concepts to handicapped l e a r n e r s . S p e c i a l Education i n Canada. 56(3), 19-21. Beck, C. R. (1984). V i s u a l cueing s t r a t e g i e s : P i c t o r i a l , t e x t u a l , and combinational e f f e c t s . Educational Communications and Technology  J o u r n a l . 32(4), 207-21B. Berry, M. F. (1980). Teaching l i n g u i s t i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n . Engleuood C l i f f s , NJ: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Bevilacque, L., C a p i t a n i , E., L u z z a t t i , C , & S p i n n l e r , H. J . (1979). Does the hemisphere s t i m u l a t e d play a s p e c i f i c r o l e i n delayed r e c o g n i t i o n of complex a b s t r a c t patterns? A t a c h i s t o s c o p i c study. Neuropsvcholppia. 17. 93-97. B i s i a c h , E., N i c h e l l i , P., & S a l a , C. (1979). Recognition of random shapes i n u n i l a t e r a l b r a i n damaged p a t i e n t s : A r e a p p r a i s a l . Cortex. 15. 491-99. B l u t h , L. F. (1972). A comparison of the reading comprehension of good and poor readers i n the second grade u i t h and uithout i l l u s t r a t i o n . Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s at Urbana-Champaign. D i s s e r t a i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 34. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 73-17, 122). Borg, W. R., & G a l l , M. D. (1983). Educational Research. An I n t r o d u c t i o n (4 t h ed.). Neu York: Longman. Borges, M. A., & Robins, S. L. (1980). Contextual and m o t i v a t i o n a l cue e f f e c t s on the comprehension and r e c a l l of prose. P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Reports. £7, 263-268. Bouer, G. H. (1970). Imagery as a r e l a t i o n a l organizer i n a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g . Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour. 9. 529-533. 128 Bower, 6. H. (1972). Mental imagery and a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g . In L. Gregg (Ed.), Cognition i n learning, and memory. New York: Wiley. Bradshau, J . L., & Gates, E. A. (1978). v i s u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n verbal t a s k s : e f f e c t s of task f a m i l i a r i t y and sex of s u b j e c t . B r a i n and  Language. 5, IBB-187. Bradshau, J . L., & N e t t l e t o n , N. C. (1981). The nature of hemispheric s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n man. The Behavioural and B r a i n Sciences. 4(1), 51-63. Bransford, J . D., & M c C a r r e l l , N. S. (1972). A sketch of a c o g n i t i v e approach to comprehension: Some thoughts about understanding uhat i t means to comprehend. In D. Palermo, W. Weimer (Eds.), C o g n i t i o n and  the symbolic processes. Washington, D. C.: Winston-Wiley. Brody, P. J . (1981). Research on p i c t u r e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e x t s : The need f o r a broadened pe r s p e c t i v e . Educational and Communications Technology  J o u r n a l , 29(2), 93-100. Brody, P. J . (1984). In search of i n s t r u c t i o n a l u t i l i t y : fl function-based approach t o p i c t o r i a l research. I n s t r u c t i o n ! Science. 13, 1947-1961. Brooks, L. N., et a l . (1983). E f f e c t s of embedded t e x t headings on r e c a l l . Contemporary Educational Psychology. 8(2). 103-108. B r o u n f i e l d , M. K. (19B5). Sex and stimulus time d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f t e r image durati o n s . Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s . 21(2), 446-430. Bruner, J . S. (1966). On c o g n i t i v e grouth"- I & I I . In J . S. Bruner, R. R. Olver, fk P. M. G r e e n f i e l d , et a l . , Studies i n c o g n i t i v e orouth. Neu York: Wiley. B u g e l s k i , B. R. (19B8). Learning theory and the reading process. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Conference on Reading, U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h . B u s u e l l , G. T. (1936). Learning to look at p i c t u r e s . P r ogressive  Education. 13. 422-436. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1969). Experimental and q u a s i -experimental designs f o r research (2nd ed.). Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Rand McNally. Carr, T. H., Bacharach, V. R., & Mehner, D. S. (1977). P r e p a r i n g c h i l d r e n to look at pictures-" Advance d e s c r i p t i o n s d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n and f a c i l i t a t e a c t i v e processing. C h i l d Development. 48, 22-27. Conner, D. C. G. (1986). Canada: B u i l d i n g Our Nation. Scarborough, Ontario: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . 1Z9 Covey, R. E., & C a r r o l l , J . L. (1985). The e f f e c t s of adjunct p i c t u r e s on  comprehension of grade s i x science t e x t s under three l e v e l s of text  o r g a n i z a t i o n . (Report No. SE-045-9Z5). San F r a n c i s c o , CA: E v a l u a t i o n Research S o c i e t y . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED Z59 946) C r a i k , F. I . , & Lockhart, R. S. (197Z). Levels of processing: A framework f o r memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, i i , 671-684. Dale, E., & C h a l l , J . S. (1948). A formula f o r p r e d i c t i n g r e a d a b i l i t y : I n s t r u c t i o n s . Educational Research B u l l e t i n . Z7. 37-54. Danner, F. W. (1976). C h i l d r e n ' s understanding of intersentence o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r e c a l l of short d e s c r i p t i v e passages. Journal of  Educational Psychology. 68( Z), 174-183. Danner, F. W., & Taylor, A. M. (1973). Integrated p i c t u r e s and r e l a t i o n a l imagery t r a i n i n g i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g . Journal of Experimental C h i l d  Psychology. 16, 47-54. Davidson, R. E. (1964). Mediation and a b i l i t y i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . Journal of Educational Psychology. 55. 35Z-35B. Dean, R. S., & Kulhavy, R. U. (1981). Influence of s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n prose l e a r n i n g . Journal of Educational Psychology. 73(1), 57-B4. Denburg, S. (1977). The i n t e r a c t i o n of p i c t u r e and p r i n t i n reading i n s t r u c t i o n . Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y . 1Z. 176-189. DeRose, T. (1976). The e f f e c t s of v e r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l v induced and  imposed s t r a t e g i e s on c h i l d r e n ' s memory f o r t e x t . Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Research and Development Center f o r C o g n i t i v e Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 133 709). D i l l e y , M. G., & P a i v i o , A. (1968). P i c t u r e s and uords as stimulus and response items i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g of young c h i l d r e n . Journal  of Experimental C h i l d Psychology. 6, Z31-Z40. D i r k s , J . , & Neisser, U. (1977). Memory of objects i n r e a l scenes: the development of r e c o g n i t i o n and r e c a l l . Journal of Experimental C h i l d  Psychology. Z3, 315-3Z8. Donald, D. R. (1983). The use and value of i l l u s t r a t i o n s as contextual i n f o r m a t i o n f o r readers at d i f f e r e n t progress and developmental l e v e l s . B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology. 53. 175-185. Duchastel, P. C. (1980). Test of the r o l e i n r e t e n t i o n of i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n t e x t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports. 47. Z04-Z0B. 130 Duchastel, P. C. <1981). I l l u s t r a t i o n s i n text"- a r e t e n t i o n a l r o l e . Programmed Learning and Educational Technology. 18(1), 11-15. Duyer, F. M. (1971). Questions as advanced organizers i n v i s u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n . The Journal of Psychology. 78, ZB1-ZG4. Duyer, F. M. (1973). The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of tuo methods of presenting v i s u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n . The Journal of Psychology. §5, Z97-300. Duyer, F. M. (1980). The e f f e c t s of p r i o r knouledge, p r e s e n t a t i o n mode, and v i s u a l r e a l i s m on student achievement. Journal of Experimental  Education. 5_( Z), 110-121. Eb e l , R. L. (1979). E s s e n t i a l s of educational measurement (3rd ed.). Neu Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . E r d e l y i , M. H., F i n k e l s t e i n , S., H e r r e l l , N., M i l l e r , B., & Thomas, J. (197B). Coding modality vs. input modality i n hypermnesia: Is a rose a rose a rose? Cognition. 4, 311-319. E r d e l y i , M. H., & Kl e i n b a r d , J . (1978). Has ebbinghaus decayed u i t h time?: The grouth of r e c a l l (hypermnesia) over days. Journal of Experimental  Psychology. 4(4), Z75-Z81. Ernest, C. H. (1968). I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n imagery a b i l i t y and compound stimulus e f f e c t s i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s l e a r n i n g . Unpublished master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. Ernest, C. H., & P a i v i o , A. (1971). Imagery and sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n c i d e n t a l r e c a l l . B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology. 6Z<1), 67-7Z. Fau, T., & Nunelly, J . (1967). The e f f e c t s on eye movements of complexity, novelty, and a f f e c t i v e tone. P e r c e p t i o n and Psvchophvsics. Z(11). Z63-Z67. Fau, T., & Nunelly, J . (1968). The i n f l u e n c e of stimu l u s , complexity, novelty, and a f f e c t i v e value on c h i l d r e n ' s v i s u a l f i x a t i o n . Journal of  Experimental C h i l d Psychology. 6. 141-153. Flagg, B. N., & Weaver, P. A. (1981). Comprehension of t e x t and p i c t u r e s . F i n a l r e p o r t . (Report No. CS-006-Z58). Cambridge, MASS: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , National I n s t i t u t e of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED Z07 013) Friedman, A. (1969). Framing p i c t u r e s : The r o l e of knouledge i n automatized encoding and memory f o r g i s t . Journal of Experimental  Psychology: General. 108. 316-355. Gagne, R. M., & White, R. T. (1978). S t r u c t u r e and l e a r n i n g outcomes. Revieu of Eductional Research. 48. 196-ZZZ. 131 Gambrell, L. B., & Bales, R. J . (1986). Mental imagery and the comprehension-monitoring performance of 4th and Sth grade poor readers. Reading Res earch Quarterly. Z1(4). 454—4B4. Gronlund, N. E. (197B). Measurement and e v a l u a t i o n i n teaching <3rd ed.KNeu York: Macmillan. Haber, R. N, (1970). Hou ue remember uhat ue see. S c i e n t i f i c American. ZZZ(5). 104-11Z. Haring, M. J . (198Z). P i c t u r e enrichment of delayed r e c a l l : Support from a unique source. B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology. 52. 104-108. Haring, M. J . , & Fry, M. A. (1979). E f f e c t of p i c t u r e s on c h i l d r e n ' s comprehension of u r i t t e n t e x t . Educational Communications and  Technology J o u r n a l . 22.(3), 185-190. Ha r t l e y , J . , & Davies, I. K. (197B). P r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s : The r o l e of p r e t e s t s , behavioural o b j e c t i v e s , overvieus and advance or g a n i z e r s . Revieu of Educational Research. 46(2), 239-2B5. Hayes, D. A., & Readence, J . E. (1982). E f f e c t s of cued a t t e n t i o n to i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n t e x t . In J . A. N i l e s & L. A. H a r r i s (Eds.) Neu  E n q u i r i e s i n Reading Research and I n s t r u c t i o n . T h i r t y - F i r s t Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. B0-B3). Hayes, D. A., & Readence, J . E. (1983). Transfer of l e a r n i n g from i l l u s t r a t i o n - d e p e n d e n t t e x t . Journal of Educational Research. 76(4), 245-248. H i l g a r d , E. R., & Bouer, G. H. (Eds.).(1975). Theories of l e a r n i n g . Neu Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Hittlemah, D. R. (1985). A p i c t u r e i s uorth a thousand u o r d s . . . i f you knou the uords. Childhood Education. 62(1), 32-36. Hochberg, J . , & Brooks, V. (1978). F i l m c u t t i n g and v i s u a l momentum. In J . Senders, D. F i s h e r , & R. Monty (Eds.), Eye movements and the higher  p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s . Neu York: Erlbaum. H o i l i d a y , W. G. (1976). C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g and evaluationg l e a r n e r a p t i t u d e s r e l a t e d to i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t i m u l i i n science education. Journal of  Research i n Science Teaching. 13. 101-109. H o l l y , C. D., Dancereau, D. F., Evans, S. H., C o l l i n s , K. W., Brooks, L., Larson, 0. (1981). U t i l i z i n g i n t a c t and embedded headings as processing a i d s u i t h non-narrative t e x t . Contemporary Psychology. 6, 227-236. Hopkins, C. D. (1985). Classroom measurement and e v a l u a t i o n (2nd ed.). I l l i n o i s : Peacock. 13Z Huttenlocher, J . <19B8). Con s t r u c t i n g s p a t i a l images: fl s t r a t e g y i n reasoning. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Revieu. 75. 550-560. Jensen, A. R., & Rohuer, W. D. (1965). S y n t a c t i c a l mediation of s e r i a l and pa i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g as a f u n c t i o n of age. C h i l d Development. 36. 601-608. Johnson, R. B. (1968). Images as mediators i n f r e e r e c a l l . Journal of  Experimental Psychology. 84, 5Z3-5Z6. Joseph, J . H., & Duyer, F. M. (1984). The e f f e c t s of p r i o r knouledge, p r e s e n t a t i o n mode, and v i s u a l r e a l i s m on student achievement. Journal  of Experimental Education. 5Z, 11Q-1Z1. Kaufman, L., & Richards, W. (1969). Spontaneous f i x a t i o n tendencies f o r v i s u a l forms. Perception and Psvchophvsics. 5(Z), 85-93. Kaufman, G. (1979). V i s u a l imagery and i t s r e l a t i o n to problem s o l v i n g . Neu York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press. Keppel, G., et a l . (1968). D i r e c t and i n d i r e c t i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the r e c a l l of p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e s . Journal of Experimental Psychology. 88( 3). 414-4ZZ. K e r l i n g e r , F. N. (1986). Foundations of behavioural research (3rd ed.), Neu York: Holt Rinehart and Winston. Koenke, K. (1980). P i c t u r e s and reading. Journal of Reading. 650-653. Kosslyn, S. M., Holyoak, K. J . , & Huffman, C. S. (1976). ft processing approach to the dual coding hypothesis. Journal of Experimental  Psychology; Human Learning and Memory. Z(3), ZZ3-Z33. Kunen, S., & Duncan, E. M. (1983). Do verbal d e s c r i p t i o n s f a c i l i t a t e v i s u a l inferences? Journal of Educational Research. 76(6), 37)-373. L i e n , ft. J . (1980). Measurement and e v a l u a t i o n of l e a r n i n g (4th ed.). Ioua: Wm. C. Broun. L e v i e , W. H. (1973). P i c t o r i a l research: fin overvieu. V i e u p o i n t s . 49, 37-45. Le v i e , W. H. & Lentz, R. (197Z). E f f e c t s of t e x t i l l u s t r a t i o n s : A r e v i e u of research. Educational Communications and Technology J o u r n a l . 30, 195-Z3Z. Le v i n , J . R. (1973). Inducing comprehension i n poor readers: ft t e s t of a recent model. Journal of Psychology. 65. 19-Z4. Lev i n , J . R. (1974). V i s u a l imagery as a pr o s e - l e a r n i n g process. Journal of Reading Behaviour. 6, Z3-30. 133 L e v i n , J . R., Bender, B. G., & Lesgold, A. M. (1976). P i c t u r e s , r e p e t i t i o n , and young c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l prose l e a r n i n g . fW Communication  Revieu. __• 367-380. L e v i n , J . R., Davidson, R, E., Wolff, P., & C i t r o n , M. (1973). A comparison of induced imagery and sentence s t r a t e g i e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . Journal of Educational Psvcholoov. 64. 306-309. L e v i n , J . R., & Kaplan, S. A. (197Z). Imaginal f a c i l i t a t i o n of p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e : A l i m i t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . Journal of Educational  Psychology. 6_(5), 4Z9-43Z. L e v i n , J . R., S h r i b e r g , L. K., & Berry, J . K. (1983). A concrete s t r a t e g y f o r remembering abstract prose. American Educational Research J o u r n a l . _ 0 ( Z ) , Z77-Z90. L o f t u s , 6. R. (1971). Eye f i x a t i o n patterns and r e c o g n i t i o n memory f o r  p i c t u r e s . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a . L u k a t e l a , G., C a r e l l o , C , Savic, M., & Turvey, M. T. (1986). Hemispheric asymmetries i n phonological processing. Neuropsvcholopia. Z4(3), 341-350. L u r i a , A. R. (1973). The uorking brain-' An i n t r o d u c t i o n to neuropsychology. Great B r i t a i n : H a z e l l Watson & Viney. Lynch, S., & Rohuer, W. D. (1971). E f f e c t s of verbal and p i c t o r i a l e l a b o r a t i o n s on a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g and response l e a r n i n g i n a c h i l d r e n ' s p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e task. Journal of Educational Psychology. 6Z(4), 339-344. Maccoby, E. E., & J a c k l i n , C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex  d i f f e r e n c e s . Stanford, CA: Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press. McGee, M. G. (1979). Human S p a t i a l A b i l i t i e s : Sources of sex d i f f e r e n c e s . Neu York: Praeger. McKee, P. G. (1948). The teaching of reading i n the elementary school. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n . Mackuorth, N. H., & Morandi, A. J . (1967). The gaze s e l e c t s i n f o r m a t i v e d e t a i l s u i t h i n p i c t u r e s . P e r c e p t i o n and Psvchophvsics. Z d l ) , 547-551. Marzi, I . A., & B e r l u c c h i , G. (1977). Right v i s u a l f i e l d s u p e r i o r i t y f o r accuracy of r e c o g n i t i o n of famous face i n normals. Neuropsvcholopia. 1_,751-756. 134 Meyer, B. J . F. & Freedle, R. 0. (1984). The e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t discourse types on r e c a l l , American Educational Research J o u r n a l . Z l . 1Z1-143. Meyer, B. J . F., Brandt, D. H., & B l u t h , G. J . (1978). Use of author's t e x t u a l schema: Key f o r n i n t h graders' comprehension. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educationcation Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Toronto. M o r r i s , P. E., & Reid, R. L. (197Z). Imagery and the r e c a l l of a d j e c t i v e s and nouns from meaningful prose. Psvchonomic Science. Z7. 117-118. Moscovitch, M., S c u l l i o n , D., & C h r i s t i e , D. (1976). E a r l y versus l a t e stages of processing and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to f u n c t i o n a l hemispheric asymmetries i n face r e c o g n i t i o n . Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Human Perception and Performance. Z. 401-416. Neering, r . , & Grant, P. (1986). Other P l a c e s . Other Times. Toronto, Ontario: Gage Educational P u b l i s h i n g . N e i s s e r , U. (1968). The processes of v i s i o n . S c i e n t i f i c American. 219(3). Z04-Z14. Neisse r , U. (197Z). Changing conceptions of imagery. In P. U. Sheehan(Ed.), The f u n c t i o n and nature of imagery (pp. Z33-Z51). New York: Academic Press. Nelson, D. L. Reed, V. S. & Wall i n g , J . R. (1976). P i c t o r i a l s u p e r i o r i t y e f f e c t . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 2(5), 523-528. Nesbit, L. L. (1981). R e l a t i o n s h i p betueen eye movement, l e a r n i n g , and p i c t u r e complexity. Educational Communications and Technology J o u r n a l . 29(2), 109-116. N i c h o l s , J. N. (1983). Using p r e d i c t i o n to increase content area i n t e r e s t and understanding. Journal of Reading. December, 225-228. N i t k o , A. J . (1983). Educational t e s t s and measurement: An i n t r o d u c t i o n . Neu York: Harcourt Brace Johanovich. Odom, P. B. & Nesbit, N. H. (1974). Some processes i n c h i l d r e n ' s comprehension of l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and v i s u a l l y depicted r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Journal of Experimental C h i l d Psychology. 17, 399-408. Ornste i n , R., Johnstone, J . , Herron, J . , & Suencionis, C. (1980). D i f f e r e n t i a l r i g h t hemisphere engagement i n v i s u o s p a t i a l t a s k s . Neuropsvcholopia. 18. 49-64. Palermo, D. S. (1970). Imagery i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g : D i s c u s s i o n . In H. W. Reese (Chm.), Imagery i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g : A symposium. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 73(6), 415-421. 135 P a i v i o , A. (1963). Mental imagery i n a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g and memory. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Revieu. 76(3), Z41-Z6Z. P a i v i o , A. (1370). On the f u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of imagery. In H. W. Reese (Chm.), Imagery i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g : A symposium. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 23(6), 385-39Z. P a i v i o , A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. Neu York: H o l t , Rinehart, & Winston. P a i v i o , A. (1975). Coding d i s t i n c t i o n s and r e p e t i t i o n e f f e c t s i n memory. In G. Bouer (ed.), The psychology of l e a r n i n g and motivation. Neu York: Academic Press. P a i v i o , A. (1983). The mind's eye i n a r t and science. P o e t i c s . 1Z. 1-18. P a i v i o , A. & Csapo, K. (1969). Concrete image and verbal memory codes. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 80. Z79-Z85. P a i v i o , A. & Csapo, K. (1973). P i c t o r i a l s u p e r i o r i t y i n f r e e r e c a l l : Imagery or dual coding? C o g n i t i v e Psychology. 5, 176-Z06. Pa t t e r s o n , K., & Bradshau, J . L. (1975). D i f f e r e n t i a l hemisphere engagement i n v i s u o s p a t i a l t a s k s . Neuropsvcholooia. 18. 49-64. Peeck, J . (1974). Retention of p i c t o r i a l and verbal content of a te x t u i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Journal of Educational Psychology. 66(6). 880-888. Postman, L. (1963). Does i n t e r f e r e n c e theory p r e d i c t much f o r g e t t i n g ? Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour. Z, 40-48. Pribram, K. H. (1969). The neurophysiology of remembering. S c i e n t i f i c  American. ZZ0<1), 73-86. Rankin, E. F., & Culhane, J . W. (1970). One p i c t u r e equals 1,000 uords? Reading Improvement. 7 ( 2 ) , 37-40. Rasco, R. W., Tennyson, R. D., & B o u t u e l l , R. C. (1973). Imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s and drauings i n l e a r n i n g prose. Journal of Educational  Psychology. 67(2). 188-19Z. Reese, H. W. (1965). Imagery i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g i n c h i l d r e n . Journal of Experimental C h i l d Psychology. Z_, Z90-Z96. Reese, H. W. (1970). Imagery and contextual meaning. P s y c h o l o g i c a l  B u l l e t i n . 7.3(6), 404-414. Reese, H. W. (1974). Cohort, age, and imagery i n c h i l d r e n ' s p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . C h i l d Development. 4Jj(4), 1176-1180. 13G Reinking, D. <198G>. I n t e g r a t i n g graphic aids i n t o content area i n s t r u c t i o n : The graphic i n f o r m a t i o n lesson. Journal of Reading. 30(2), 146-151. Reynolds, J . H. (1968). C o g n i t i v e t r a n s f e r i n verbal l e a r n i n g : t r a n s f e r e f f e c t s a f t e r prefami 1 i a r i z a t i o n u i t h i n t e g r a t e d versus p a r t i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d verbal-perceptual s t r u c t u r e s . Journal of Experimental  Psychology. 5JK2), 133-138. Rickard s , J . P. (1979). Adjunct postquestions i n t e x t : A c r i t i c a l review of methods and processes. Review of Educational Research. 49, 181-196, Rohuer, W. D., et a l . (1968). Grade l e v e l , school s t r a t a , and l e a r n i n g e f f i c i e n c y . Journal of Educational Psychology. 59., 26-31. Rohuer, W. D. (1970). Images and p i c t u r e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g : research r e s u l t s and educational i m p l i c a t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 73(6), 393-403. Rohuer, U. D. & H a r r i s , W. J . (1974). Media e f f e c t s on prose l e a r n i n g i n tuo populations of c h i l d r e n . Journal of Educational Psychology. 67. 651-657. Royer, J . M. & Cable, G. W. (1976). I l l u s t r a t i o n s , a nalogies, and f a c i l i t a t i v e t r a n s f e r i n prose l e a r n i n g . Journal of Educational  Psychology. 68, 205-209. Ruch, M. D. & Levin, J . R. (1977). P i c t o r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n versus verbal r e p e t i t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s prose : Evidence f o r processing d i f f e r e n c e s . AV Communication Revieu. 25, 269-280. Rusted, J . & C o l t h e a r t , M. (1979). F a c i l i t a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s prose r e c a l l by the presence of p i c t u r e s . Memory and Cogn i t i o n . 7 ( 5 ) , 354-359. Sadouski, C. J . , and Uooduard, H. R., Davis, S. F., & Elsbury, D. L. (1983). Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n adjustment c o r r e l a t e s of locus of c o n t r o l dimensions. Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment. 47(B), 627-631. Sadouski, C. J . , & Black w e l l , M. W. (1985). Locus of c o n t r o l and student teacher performance. Education. 1Q5(4). 391-393. S a t t e r l y , D. (1981). Assessment i n schools. Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k u e l l . Shapiro, S. R. & E r d e l y i , M. H. (1974). Hypermnesia f o r p i c t u r e s but not uords. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103. 1218-1219. 137 Sherman, J. L., Kulhavy, R. W. , & Burns, K. (197B). Cerebral l a t e r a l i t y and verbal processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning  and Memory. Z. 7Z0-7Z7. Snodgrass, J . G. & McClure, P. (1975). Storage and r e t r i e v a l p r o p e r t i e s of dual codes f o r p i c t u r e s and words i n r e c o g n i t i o n memory. Journal of  Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 1.(5), 5Z1-5Z9. Snodgrass, J . G., V o l v o v i t z , R., & Wa i f i s h , E. R. (197Z). Recognition memory f o r uords, p i c t u r e s , and uords + p i c t u r e s . Psvchonomic Science. Z7(B). 345-347. Snowman, J. & Cunningham, D. J . (1975). A comparison of p i c t o r i a l and u r i t t e n adjunct aids i n l e a r n i n g from t e x t . Journal of Experimental  Psychology. 67(Z), 307-311. Spache, E. B., & Spache, G. D. (1973). Reading i n the elementary school (3rd ed.). Boston: A l l y n & Bacon. Spatz, C. & Johnson, J. 0. (1984). B a s i c s t a t i s t i c s : Tales of d i s t r i b u t i o n (3rd ed.). Monterey, C a l i f o r n i a : Brooks Cole. S p e r l i n g , G. (I960). The in f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n b r i e f v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monographs: General and Applied. 74<1D, 498-S p e r l i n g , G. (19G3). A model f o r v i s u a l memory ta s k s . Human Factors. 5, 78-94. Standing, L. (1973). Learning 10,000 p i c t u r e s . Quarterly Journal of  Experimental Psychology. Z5. Z07-ZZZ. S t e i n g a r t , S. K. & Glock, M. D. (1979). Imagery and the r e c a l l of connected discourse. Reading Research Quarterly. _£( 1), 66-91. Summers, E. G. (1965). U t i l i z i n g v i s u a l aids i n reading m a t e r i a l s f o r e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g . In H. L. Herber (ed.), Developing study s k i l l s i n  secondary schools. Neuark, DEIaware: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n . Taylor, B. M. (1980). C h i l d r e n ' s memory f o r expository t e x t a f t e r reading. Reading Research Quarterly. 15(3), 399-411. Tversky, B. (1974). Eye f i x a t i o n s i n p r e d i c t i o n of r e c o g n i t i o n and r e c a l l . Memory and Cognition. Z, Z75-Z78. Underuood, B. J . (1957). I n t e r f e r e n c e and f o r g e t t i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Revieu. §4. 49-60. Underuood, B. J . , & Postman, L. (1960). Extraexperimental sources of i n t e r f e r e n c e and f o r g e t t i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Revieu. 67. 41-5Z. 138 Vernon, M. D. (1953). The i n s t r u c t i o n of c h i l d r e n by p i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t i o n . B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology. 23. 180-187. Wardle, K. F. (1977). Textbook i l l u s t r a t i o n s : Do they a i d reading comprehension? Paper presented at the annual convention of the American P s y c h o l o l i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Weisberg, J . S. (1970). The use of v i s u a l advance organizers f o r l e a r n i n g  e a r t h sciene concepts. (Report No. SE-008-434). Neu Jersey: Jersey C i t y State College, Neu Jersey Department of Geoscience. (ERIC Document No. Ed 040 054) Wolf, W. (1970). A study of eve movement i n t e l e v i s i o n v i e u i n g . F i n a l  r e p o r t . Columbus: Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 04B 254). Wolff, P. & Levin, J . R. (1972). The r o l e of overt a c t i v i t y i n c h i l d r e n ' s imagery production. C h i l d Development. 43. 537-547. Zusne, L. & Michels, K. M. (1964). Non-representational shapes and eye movements. Perception and Motor S k i l l s . 18 11-20. 139 Appendix fl Vancouver School Board Permission L e t t e r Appendix B U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia E t h i c s Committ Approval C e r t i f i c a t e 143 Appendix C Lesson Procedure I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Each Grade and Each Treatment C o n d i t i o n 144 Grade 5 Lesson Procedure I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the Experimental Treatment 145 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS Please read these p r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s before you conduct the lesson. 1. As you read the questions and i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h i s handbook to your c l a s s t r y not to a l t e r your normal teaching s t y l e . I f you u i s h , you may gi v e p o s i t i v e reinforcement, and repeat answers f o r c l a r i t y . Z. I f any question does not e l i c i t the d e s i r e d response, b r i e f l y e x p l a i n the c o r r e c t ansuer to the c l a s s y o u r s e l f . (The d e s i r e d ansuer u i l l appear i n the o u t l i n e ) . 3. Timing i s important. Please adhere to the 30 minutes a l l o u e d f o r the 4. I t i s important to keep the lesson moving at a reasonable pace, or students may not have adequate time to read the t e x t . 5. A b r i e f plan of the lesson you u i l l f o l l o u i s o u t l i n e d , here, as an overview. 5. A b r i e f plan of the lesson you w i l l f o l l o w i s o u t l i n e d , here, as an lesso n . overview. Hand out m a t e r i a l s . ( S o c i a l Studies b o o k l e t s , paper) PICTURE/ Begin t i m i n g . TEXT Conduct the Guided Reading of the t e x t . PROCESSING In time remaining, students reread t e x t to themselves. A f t e r 30 minutes, booklets and papers c o l l e c t e d . 146 Hand out f i r s t t e s t , and conduct according to TESTING i n s t r u c t i o n s . These t e s t s are c o l l e c t e d , a f t e r t i n e a l l o c a t e d has elapsed. Hand out second t e s t , and conduct according to i n s t r u c t i o n s . These t e s t s are c o l l e c t e d a f t e r a l l o c a t e d t i n e has elapsed. PROCEDURE: Step 1 : Each student should have a S o c i a l Studies booklet, and a piece of l i n e d paper. Have these n a t e r i a l s handed out. Step Z: As they are being handed out, say: THESE ARE SOME SOCIAL STUDIES BOOKLETS THAT UE ARE GOING TO READ. Step 3: Uhen everyone has a booklet and a piece of l i n e d paper, say: PLEASE LOOK AT PAGE 347 IN YOUR BOOKLET. Step 4: At t h i s point nake a note of the STARTING TIME. ( T o t a l exposure t i n e to the n a t e r i a l s should be e x a c t l y 30 ninutes f r o n t h i s point onuards). Step 5: Proceed u i t h the p i c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n of page 347. You nay repeat students' ansuers f o r c l a r i t y and give p o s i t i v e reinforcement f o r co r r e c t reponses. Do not change your usual teaching s t y l e , houever. Uhere the question does not appear to e l i c i t the de s i r e d response, you may g i v e and/ or e x p l a i n the c o r r e c t ansuer. Try to ensure that the c o r r e c t ansuer has been heard by the uhole c l a s s before moving on to the next question. 147 Teacher says: Expected student response: LOOK AT THE PICTURE ON PAGE 347. DO YOU THINK THIS IS A PAINTING OR A PHOTOGRAPH? WHY DO YOU THINK IT'S A PAINTING? A p a i n t i n g . Because i t ' s not r e a l i s t i c enough. UHAT IS HAPPENING IN THE PICTURE? CAN YOU GUESS WHAT THEY ARE BUILDING? Men are working on, or completing a buiding. A school. READ THE WORDS UNDER THE PICTURE TO SEE IF YOU CAN FIND OUT WHO THE SCHOOL IS FOR. WHO IS IT FOR? WHAT ARE IMMIGRANTS? UHO IS BUILDING THE SCHOOL? READ PAGE 346 TO SEE IF YOU CAN FIND OUT HOU THE UKRAINIANS FELT ABOUT HAVING A SCHOOL. IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHER PEOPLE, READ THE PAGE AGAIN BECAUSE YOU UILL BE ASKED SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT IT LATER. (Alloui enough time f o r most of the c l a s s to read t h i s page, and then say,) For the c h i l d r e n of Uk r a i n i a n immigrants. People from another country wh come to a neu country to l i v e . U k r a i n i a n parents. STOP READING NOU. HOU DID THE UKARAINIANS FEEL ABOUT HAVING THE SCHOOL BUILT? Everyone whanted a school, whe they heard they would be f i n e d i f they didn't send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to school. CAN YOU SEE IN THE PICTURE UHERE THE TEACHER UOULD LIVE? No. UHY NOT? WHERE DID THE TEACHER LIVE? The teacher took turns l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t students' homes. COULD THERE BE ANY TRUSTEES IN THE PICTURE? Yes. WHY? Because some of the parents were e l e c t e d as school t r u s t e e s . 148 Teacher says: Expected student response: NOW TURN THE PAGE, AND LOOK AT THE PICTURE AT THE BOTTOM OF PAGE 348. IS THIS A PAINTING OR A PHOTOGRAPH? WHY IS IT BLACK AND WHITE? GOOD! a photograph colour photography had not been invented yet COULD THIS BE A PHOTOGRAPH OF YOUR CLASS AT SCHOOL TODAY? no LET'S SEE IF YOU ARE A GOOD DETECTIVE, THEN. ON YOUR PICE OF PAPER, WRITE DOWN AS MANY CLUES AS YOU CAN FIND IN THIS PICTURE THAT IT IS A LONG TIME AGO. SEE IF YOU CAN FIND 1Z. (Give students a minute or tuo to uork on t h i s , and then say,) STOP NOW AND CHECK TO SEE IF YOU WROTE DOWN ANY OF THESE: Then read the c o r r e c t ansuers as l i s t e d > HOW DID YOU DO? DID ANYONE FIND 1Z? 11? 10? GOOD! Correct Ansuers: 1. vests Z. suspenders 3. t i e s 4. f l a g - Union Jack 5. pin a f o r e s G. hairdos 7. lace-up boots 8. one teacher/many grades 9. uooden b u i l d i n g , uindous 10. boys and g i r l s standing s e p a r a t e l y 11. teacher's double-breasted j a c k e t 1Z. teacher's old-fashioned g l a s s e s READ PAGE 348 NOW TO SEE WHAT IT WAS LIKE FOR THREE UKRAINIAN CHILDREN WHO WENT TO SCHOOL. THEIR NAMES ARE WASYL, PETRO, AND MARIA. IF (When most c h i l d r e n have YOU FINISH READING BEFORE OTHERS, READ THE PAGE had time to read t h i s page AGAIN BECAUSE IT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER IT. resume the d i s c u s s i o n ) STOP READING NOW AND LOOK AT THE SAME PICTRUE AT THE BOTTOM OF PAGE 348 AGAIN. IF YOU WERE PETRO OR MARIA IN THIS CLASS, HOU WOULD YOU FEEL? WHY UOULD YOU FEEL THIS WAY? l o n e l y , shy, beu i l d e r e d because i n Petro and Maria' c l a s s , they uere the only tuo c h i l d r e n uho could not speak E n g l i s h IF YOU WERE WASYL IN THIS CLASS, WOULD YOU FEEL BETTER? WHY? yes - because none of the students could speak E n g l i s h i n h i s c l a s s : they uere a l l Ukrainian 0 149 Teacher s a y s : Expected student response: LOOK AT THE PICTURE AT THE TOP OF THIS PAGE NOW. <page 349) IS THIS A PAINTING OR A PHOTOGRAPH? p a i n t i n g WHY? not r e a l enough WHY ELSE? no colour photos at t h i s time WHAT DO YOU THINK IS HAPPENING IN THIS PICTURE? (accept any reasonable responses) READ THIS PAGE TO SEE IF YOU ARE RIGHT. IF YOU HAVE EXTRA TIME, READ THE PAGE AGAIN. (Allow enough time f o r most c h i l d r e n to read the page, and then say,) STOP READING NOW, AND TELL ME WERE YOU RIGHT7 WHAT DO YOU THINK IS HAPPENING IN THE PICTURE? Mother teaching her son the CAN YOU ANSER THE QUESTION UNDER THE PICTURE? (Teacher reads i t ) "IF YOU WERE A UKRAINIAN PARENT IN CANADA WHICH LANGUAGE WOULD YOU MOST WANT YOUR CHILDREN TO LEARN TO READ AND WRITE — ENGLISH OR UKRAINIAN? WHY?" E n g l i s h , because i t i s the E n g l i s h alphabet language that most people speak i n Canada. 150 Teacher says: Expected student response: NOW TURN TO THE LAST PASE AND LOOK AT THIS PICTURE. IS IT A PHOTOGRAPH OR A PAINTING? WHY ISN'T IT IN COLOUR? A photograph. No colour photography at t h i s t i n e . WHAT DOES THE PICTURE SHOW? Ch i l d r e n i n a classroom. READ THE WORDS UNDER THE PICTURE TO HELP YOU DECIDE IF THIS IS A CLASS LIKE MARIA AND PETRO'S, OR A CLASS LIKE WASYL'S. WHICH IS IT? WHY DO YOU SAY IT'S A CLASS LIKE WASYL'S? A c l a s s l i k e Wasyl's. Because only the teacher speaks E n g l i s h ; a l l the c h i l d r e n are Ukrainian. READ THIS PAGE NOW TO FIND OUT WHEN THESE CHILDREN WENT TO SCHOOL. (Allow enough t i n e f o r most of the c l a s s t o read the page.) WHEN DID THESE CHILDREN GO TO SCHOOL? WHY? WHY DID THEY GO IN WINTER? In winter. Because they had to help t h e i r parents on farms the re s t of the year. THESE STUDENTS DO NOT LOOK VERY HAPPY. GOING TO SCHOOL UAS DIFFICULT FOR THEM. WHAT WERE SOME OF THE PROBLEMS THEY HAD THAT EVA WROTE ABOUT? GOOD. WELL DONE. They may have had to walk long d i s t a n c e s to school. They couldn't speak E n g l i s h so i t uas hard to l e a r n . There uas only one teacher f o r many d i f f e r e n t grades. I f t i n e remains out of the 30 minutes allowed, say to the c l a s s : I WILL GIVE YOU ANOTHER MINUTES TO READ OVER THESE PAGES AND STUDY THE PICTURES. AFTER THAT YOU WILL BE ASKED TO ANSWER SOME QUESTIONS. When the 30 minutes habe elapsed, say: STOP READING NOW PLEASE. Then have a l l the booklets c o l l e c t e d . Proceed to TESTING. Grade 5 Lesson Procedure I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the Conventional Treatment 152 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS Please read these p r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s before you conduct the lesson. 1. As you read the questions and i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h i s handbook to your c l a s s t r y not to a l t e r your normal teaching s t y l e . I f you u i s h , you may g i v e p o s i t i v e reinforcement, and repeat answers f o r c l a r i t y . 2. I f any question does not e l i c i t the de s i r e d response, b r i e f l y e x p l a i n the c o r r e c t ansuer to the c l a s s y o u r s e l f . (The d e s i r e d ansuer u i l l appear i n the o u t l i n e ) . 3. Timing i s important. Please adhere to the 30 minutes allowed f o r the 4. I t i s important to keep the lesson moving at a reasonable pace, or students may not have adequate time to read the t e x t . 5. A b r i e f plan of the lesson you u i l l f o l l o u i s o u t l i n e d , here, as an overvieu. 5. A b r i e f plan of the lesson you u i l l f o l l o u i s o u t l i n e d , here, as an lesson. overvieu. Hand out m a t e r i a l s . ( S o c i a l Studies b o o k l e t s , paper) PICTURE/ Begin t i m i n g . TEXT Conduct the Guided Reading of the t e x t . PROCESSING In time remaining, students reread t e x t to themselves. A f t e r 30 minutes, booklets and papers c o l l e c t e d . 153 Hand out f i r s t t e s t , and conduct according to TESTING i n s t r u c t i o n s . These t e s t s are c o l l e c t e d , a f t e r t i n e a l l o c a t e d has elapsed. Hand out second t e s t , and conduct according to i n s t r u c t i o n s . These t e s t s are c o l l e c t e d a f t e r a l l o c a t e d t i n e has elapsed. PROCEDURE: Step 1: Each student should have a S o c i a l Studies booklet, and a piece of l i n e d paper. Have these m a t e r i a l s handed out. Step Z: As they are being handed out, say: THESE ARE SOME SOCIAL STUDIES BOOKLETS THAT UE ARE GOING TO READ. Step 3 : Uhen everyone has a booklet and a piece of l i n e d paper, say: PLEASE LOOK AT PAGE 346 IN YOUR BOOKLET. Step 4: At t h i s point make a note of the STARTING TIME. ( T o t a l exposure time to the m a t e r i a l s should be e x a c t l y 30 minutes from t h i s point onuards). Step 5 : Proceed u i t h the Guided Reading of page 346. You may repeat students' ansuers f o r c l a r i t y and give p o s i t i v e reinforcement f o r co r r e c t reponses. Do not change your usual teaching s t y l e , houever. Uhere the question does not appear to e l i c i t the d e s i r e d response, you may g i v e and/ or e x p l a i n the c o r r e c t ansuer. Try to ensure that the c o r r e c t ansuer has been heard by the uhole c l a s s before moving on to the next question. B4 Teacher says: Expected student response: THIS BOOKLET IS ABOUT THE CHILDREN OF UKRAINIAN IMMIGRANTS AND UHAT HAPPENED TO THEM AT SCHOOL. UHAT ARE "IMMIGRANTS"? People from another country uho cone to a neu country t o 1 i ve. READ JUST THIS FIRST PAGE, PAGE 34G, TO SEE IF YOU CAN FIND OUT HOU THE UKRAINIANS FELT ABOUT HAVING A SCHOOL. IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHER PEOPLE, READ THE PAGE AGAIN BECAUSE YOU UILL BE ASKED SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT IT LATER. ( A l l o u enough t i n e f o r nost of the c l a s s to read t h i s page, and then say, ) STOP READING NOU. HOU DID THE UKRAINIANS Everyone uanted a school, FEEL ABOUT HAVING A SCHOOL BUILT? uhen they heard they uould be f i n e d i f they didn't send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to school. UHERE DID THE TEACHER LIVE? The teacher took turns l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t students' hones. DO YOU REMEMBER UHOSE FATHER UAS A SCHOOL TRUSTEE? Uasyl's 155 Teacher says: NOU TURN TO PAGE 348. WHAT DO YOU THINK THIS PAGE WILL BE ABOUT? JREAD THIS PAGE NOW, PAGE 348 ONLY, TO ISEE IF YOU ARE RIGHT. IF YOU FINISH 1 BEFORE OTHERS, READ THE PAGE AGAIN BECAUSE 1 IT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER IT. I f (Uhen most c h i l d r e n have had t i n e to Iread t h i s page once, resume the d i s c u s s i o n ) Expected student response-" accept any reasonable ansuers jfSTOP READING NOU. CAN YOU TELL ME THE FIRST NAMES OF THREE • UKRAINIAN CHILDREN THAT YOU READ ABOUT? Uasyl, Petro, and Maria GOOD! 1 HOU UOULD YOU FEEL AT SCHOOL IF YOU UERE PETRO OR MARIA? l o n e l y , shy, beuildered UHY UOULD YOU FEEL THIS UAY? UOULD YOU FEEL BETTER IF YOU UERE UASYL AT SCHOOL? UHY? ON YOUR PIECE OF PAPER SEE IF YOU CAN URITE DOUN THE ANSUERS TO THESE QUESTIONS: 1. HOU OLD UAS UASYL UHEN HE STARTED SCHOOL? Z. HOU OLD UAS PETRO UHEN HE FIRST UENT TO SCHOOL? because i n Petro and Maria's c l a s s , they uere the only tuo c h i l d r e n uho could not speak E n g l i s h . yes - because none of the students could speak E n g l i s h i n h i s c l a s s ; they uere a l l Ukrainian 3. HOU OLD UAS MARIA? 4. CAN YOU REMEMBER THE UKRAINIAN UORD FOR HORSE? 5. UHAT UAS THE NAME OF THE GAME THE CHILDREN UERE PLAYING OUTSIDE AT PETRO'S SCHOOL? (You may a l l o u students to r e f e r to the text u h i l e they are attempting to ansuer these questions), MARK YOUR OUN. I UILL READ YOU THE ANSUERS. 1. UASYL UAS 10 Z. PETRO UAS 11 3. MARIA UAS B 4. THE UORD FOR HORSE IS KIN (keen) 5. THE GAME THEY PLAYED UAS "ANTE ANTE OVER" HOU DID YOU DO? DID ANYONE GET ALL 5 CORRECT? 4? UELL DONE! 156 Teacher says : Expected student response: READ THE FIRST LINE ON PAGE 3.49. UHAT DO YOU THINK THIS PAGE UILL BE ABOUT? about hou Petro learned to read E n g l i s h READ THIS PAGE TO SEE IF YOU ARE RIGHT. IF YOU HAVE EXTRA TIME, READ THE PAGE AGAIN. ( A l l o u enough t i n e f o r most c h i l d r e n to read the page, and then say,) STOP READING NOU, AND TELL ME UERE YOU RIGHT? UHAT UAS THIS PAGE ABOUT? i t uas about hou Petro learned to read E n g l i s h HOU DID PETRO'S PARENTS HELP HIM TO READ ENGLISH? they taught h i n the l e t t e r s of the E n g l i s h alphabet IF YOU UERE A UKRAINIAN PARENT IN CANADA UHICH LANGUAGE UOULD YOU MOST UANT YOUR CHILDREN TO LEARN TO READ AND URITE — ENGLISH OR UKRAINIAN ? E n g l i s h UHY? because i t i s the language that nost people speak i n Canada. 157 Teacher says: Expected student response: NOU TURN TO THE LAST PAGE. READ THIS PAGE NOU TO FIND OUT UHEN UKRAINIAN CHILDREN WENT TO SCHOOL. (Allow enough t i n e f o r most of the c l a s s to read the page). UHEN DID UKRAINIAN CHILDREN GO TO SCHOOL? In winter. UHY? UHY DID THEY GO IN UINTER? GOING TO SCHOOL UAS DIFFICULT FOR UKRAINIAN CHILDREN. UHAT UERE SOME OF THE PROBLEMS THEY HAD THAT EVA UROTE ABOUT? Because they had to help t h e i r parents on farms the re s t of the year. They may have had to walk long d i s t a n c e s to school. They couldn't speak E n g l i s h so i t was hard to l e a r n . There was only one teacher f o r many d i f f e r e n t grades. GOOD. UELL DONE! I f time remains out of the 30 minutes allowed, say to the c l a s s : I UILL GIVE YOU ANOTHER MINUTES TO READ AND STUDY THESE PAGES AGAIN. AFTER THAT YOU UILL BE ASKED TO ANSUER SOME QUESTIONS. Uhen 30 minutes have elapsed, say: STOP READING NOU PLEASE, have a l l the booklets c o l l e c t e d . Then Proceed to TESTING. 158 Grade 7 Lesson Procedure I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the Experimental Treatment 159 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS Please read these p r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s before you conduct the lesson. 1. As you read the questions and i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h i s handbook to your c l a s s t r y not to a l t e r your normal teaching s t y l e . I f you u i s h , you may g i v e p o s i t i v e reinforcement, and repeat answers f o r c l a r i t y . Z. I f any question does not e l i c i t the d e s i r e d response, b r i e f l y e x p l a i n the c o r r e c t ansuer to the c l a s s y o u r s e l f . (The d e s i r e d ansuer u i l l appear i n the o u t l i n e ) . 3. Timing i s important. Please adhere to the 30 minutes allowed f o r the 4. I t i s important to keep the lesson moving at a reasonable pace, or students may not have adequate time to read the t e x t . 5. A b r i e f plan of the lesson you u i l l f o l l o u i s o u t l i n e d , here, as an overvieu. 5. A b r i e f plan of the lesson you u i l l f o l l o u i s o u t l i n e d , here, as an lesson. overvieu. Hand out m a t e r i a l s . ( S o c i a l Studies booklets, paper) PICTURE/ Begin t i m i n g . TEXT Conduct the Guided Reading of the t e x t . PROCESSING In time remaining, students reread t e x t to themselves. A f t e r 30 minutes, booklets and papers c o l l e c t e d . 160 Hand out f i r s t t e s t , and conduct according to TESTING i n s t r u c t i o n s . These t e s t s are c o l l e c t e d , a f t e r t i n e a l l o c a t e d has elapsed. Hand out second t e s t , and conduct according to i n s t r u c t i o n s . These t e s t s are c o l l e c t e d a f t e r a l l o c a t e d t i n e has elapsed. PROCEDURE: Step 1: Each student should have a S o c i a l Studies booklet, and a piece of l i n e d paper. Have these m a t e r i a l s handed out. Step Z: As they are being handed out, say: THESE ARE SOME SOCIAL STUDIES BOOKLETS THAT WE ARE GOING TO READ. Step 3- When everyone has a booklet and a piece of l i n e d paper, say: PLEASE LOOK AT PAGE Z81 IN YOUR BOOKLET. Step 4: At t h i s point make a note of the STARTING TIME. (T o t a l exposure time to the m a t e r i a l s should be e x a c t l y 30 minutes from t h i s point onuards). Step 5: Proceed u i t h the p i c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n of page 281. You may repeat students' ansuers f o r c l a r i t y and g i v e p o s i t i v e reinforcement f o r c o r r e c t reponses. Do not change your usual teaching s t y l e , houever. Where the question does not appear to e l i c i t the d e s i r e d response, you may g i v e and/ or e x p l a i n the c o r r e c t ansuer. Try to ensure that the c o r r e c t ansuer has been heard by the uhole c l a s s before moving on to the next question. 161 Teacher says: LOOK AT THE PICTURE ON PAGE 281, DOES THIS LOOK LIKE IT IS IN CANADA? WHY NOT? Expected student response: no C l o t h i n g , people, trees are d i f f e r e n t . WHY DO YOU THINK THE LADY IS TALKING TO THESE MBUTI (en bu tee) NATIVES? She i s probably t r y i n g t o f i n d out about then and t h e i r way of l i f e . SEE WHAT YOU CAN FIND OUT ABOUT THE MBUTI PEOPLE. READ FROM THE MIDDLE OF THIS PAGE (point out the passage below the t i t l e ) TO THE TOP OF PAGE Z83. IF YOU FINISH READING BEFORE OTHERS, READ THIS PART AGAIN BECAUSE YOU WILL BE ASKED SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT IT LATER. (Allow enough t i n e f o r nost of the c l a s s to read t h i s part and then resume the d i s c u s s i o n ) STOP READING NOW AND LOOK AT THE PICTURE ON PAGE 281 AGAIN. YOU CAN SEE SOMETHING IN THE PICTURE THAT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO THE MBUTI IF YOU LOOK CLOSELY. WHAT IS IT? The ( I t u r i ) ( r a i n ) f o r e s t . ON YOUR PIECE OF PAPER SEE IF YOU CAN WRITE DOWN 5 REASONS THE ITURI FOREST IS IMPORTANT TO THE MBUTI. WHAT 5 THINGS DOES THE FOREST PROVIDE FOR THE MBUTI? STOP NOW. CHECK YOUR OWN ANSWERS. I WILL Correct Answers: READ THE 5 THINGS THE FOREST PROVIDES FOR 1. food THE MBUTI. 2. housing 3. c l o t h i n g - teacher reads c o r r e c t answers > 4. water 5. f i r e HOW DID YOU DO? WHO HAD THE 5 ANSWERS? 4? UELL DONE! NOW TURN THE PAGE AND LOOK AT THE PICTURE ON PAGE 283. 1 Teacher says: Expected student response: ( P i c t u r e on page Z83) THIS PICTURE SHOUS AN MBUTI UOMAN AND SOME CHILDREN. THE UOMAN IS CARRYING A BASKET. IS THIS HOW YOU UOULD CARRY A BASKET? WHY IS IT A GOOD IDEA FOR THE WOMAN TO CARRY A BASKET USING THE HEAD STRAP AND KEEPING HER HANDS FREE? START READIN6 FROM THE TOP OF THIS PAGE AND PUT YOUR HAND UP AS SOON AS YOU THINK YOU'VE FOUND A REASON. LOOK AT THE PICTURE ON PAGE Z8Z NOW. HERE ARE SOME ANIMALS THAT LIVE IN THE ITURI RAIN FOREST. HAVE YOU SEEN ANY OF THESE ANIMALS AT A ZOO? WHICH ONES? NOU READ THE REST OF PAGE Z83 TO THE TOP OF PAGE Z84 TO FIND OUT HOU THE MBUTI HUNT THESE ANIMALS. IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHERS, READ THIS PART AGAIN BECAUSE YOU WILL BE ASKED SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT IT LATER. No. I uould c a r r y i t u i t h my hand or arm. The uomen need to have t h e i r hands f r e e to gather food i n the f o r e s t . < Have Z or 3 c h i l d r e n respond ( A l l o u time f o r most of the c l a s s to read t h i s ) STOP READING NOU AND LOOK AT THE PICTURE ON PAGE Z8Z AGAIN. - (gai n ansuers as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e ) -UHICH ANIMAL IS TOO FIERCE TO HUNT? UHICH ANIMAL IS TOO LARGE TO CATCH IN A NET? WHICH TUO ANIMALS UOULD BE KILLED USING A BOU AND ARROU? UHICH TUO ANIMALS UOULD BE CAUGHT IN NETS? CAN YOU NAME TUO OTHER ANIMALS NOT SHOWN IN THE PICTURE THAT THE MBUTI HUNT? CAN YOU NAME AN ANIMAL NOT SHOWN THAT IS TOO FIERCE FOR THE MBUTI TO HUNT? the leopard the elephant woodpecker, monkey antelope, okapi u i l d hogs, pangolin f o r e s t b u f f a l o UELL DONE I TURN THE PAGE AND LOOK AT THE PICTURE ON PAGE Z84 NOU. 163 Teacher says: ( P i c t u r e on page Z84) CAN YOU FIGURE OUT UHAT THIS MAN IS DOING? READ THE UORDS UNDER THE PICTURE FOR A CLUE. CAN YOU FIND THE AXE IN THE PICTURE THAT IS USED TO MAKE THE HOLE IN THE TREE LARGER? PUT YOUR FINGER ON IT. PUT YOUR FINGER ON THE HONEYCOMB AND DEAD BEES IN THE BASKET. PUT YOUR FINGER ON THE EMBERS WRAPPED IN LEAVES THAT MAKE THE SMOKE. PUT YOUR FINGER ON THE BEES. GOOD! NOW READ FROM THE TOP OF THIS PAGE HALFWAY DOWN TO NUMBER 3, AND FIND OUT WHAT OTHER FOODS THE MBUTI EAT. SEE IF YOU CAN FIND 10 THINGS. IF YOU HAVE TIME YOU MAY WRITE THEM DOWN. (Allow enough t i n e f o r nost of the c l a s s to do t h i s , and then say), STOP READING NOU. DID YOU FIND 10 THINGS? CHECK YOUR OUN. I WILL READ THE ANSWERS FOR YOU. - teacher reads answers > HOW DID YOU DO? ANYONE WITH 10 OUT OF 10? 9? 8? GOOD! LOOK AT THE PICTURE ON PAGE 285 NOW. Expected student response: He i s c o l l e c t i n g honey. ( C o l l e c t i v e response) i [Correct Answers: nushroons, r o o t s , b e r r i e s , f r u i t s , nuts, i n s e c t s , s a l t , t e r n i t e s , b i r d s , f i s h ! 164 Teacher says: Expected student response: ( P i c t u r e on page Z85) UHAT ARE SOME THINGS IN THIS PICTURE THAT ARE DIFFERENT THAN WHAT YOU WOULD SEE IN THIS COUNTRY? c l o t h i n g , hut YES, GOOD. NOW READ FROM THE MIDDLE OF PAGE 284 TO THE LAST PAGE OF THE BOOKLET, HERE, (point out the stopping place on the l a s t page j u s t above the t i t l e "Mbuti S o c i e t y " ) . TRY TO FIND OUT UHAT ARE SOME OF THE THINGS THE MBUTI MAKE. IF YOU FINISH AHEAD OF OTHERS, READ THESE PAGES AGAIN. (Allow enough t i n e f o r nost of the c l a s s to read t h i s passage once). STOP READING NOU, AND LOOK AT THE PICTURE ON PAGE 285 AGAIN. CAN YOU SEE TUO THINGS THE MBUTI MAKE UITH BARK? c l o t h i n g , dyes to decorate thei> WHAT MIGHT ONE MAN BE MAKING FROM VINE? a net UHAT TUO THINGS DO THEY MAKE FROM SAPLINGS, GREEN, BENDABLE UOOD? YOU CAN SEE ONLY ONE. huts, bows to shoot arrows UHAT TUO THINGS ON THE GROUND ARE MADE FROM UOOD SLOULY HARDENED IN A FIRE? arrows, spears UELL DONE. Check t i n e . I f t i n e remains out of the 30 ninutes allowed, say: I UILL GIVE YOU ANOTHER MINUTES TO READ THESE PAGES AGAIN AND STUDY THE PICTURES. AFTER THAT, YOU UILL BE ASKED TO ANSUER SOME QUESTIONS. Uhen 30 ninutes have elapsed, say: STOP READING NOU PLEASE. Then have a l l the booklets c o l l e c t e d . Proceed t o TESTING. 165 Grade 7 Lesson Procedure I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the Conventional Treatment 166 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS Please read these p r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s before you conduct the lesson. 1. As you read the questions and i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h i s handbook to your c l a s s t r y not to a l t e r your normal teaching s t y l e . I f you u i s h , you may gi v e p o s i t i v e reinforcement, and repeat answers f o r c l a r i t y . Z. I f any question does not e l i c i t the de s i r e d response, b r i e f l y e x p l a i n the c o r r e c t ansuer to the c l a s s y o u r s e l f . (The d e s i r e d ansuer u i l l appear i n the o u t l i n e ) . 3. Timing i s important. Please adhere to the 30 minutes a l l o u e d f o r the 4. I t i s important to keep the lesson moving at a reasonable pace, or students may not have adequate time to read the t e x t . 5. A b r i e f plan of the lesson you u i l l f o l l o u i s o u t l i n e d , here, as an overvieu. 5. A b r i e f plan of the lesson you u i l l f o l l o u i s o u t l i n e d , here, as an lesso n . overvieu. Hand out m a t e r i a l s . ( S o c i a l Studies booklets, paper) PICTURE/ Begin t i m i n g . TEXT Conduct the Guided Reading of the t e x t . PROCESSING In time remaining, students reread t e x t to themselves. A f t e r 30 minutes, booklets and papers c o l l e c t e d . 167 Hand out f i r s t t e s t , and conduct according to TESTING i n s t r u c t i o n s . These t e s t s are c o l l e c t e d , a f t e r time a l l o c a t e d has elapsed. Hand out second t e s t , and conduct according to i n s t r u c t i o n s . These t e s t s are c o l l e c t e d a f t e r a l l o c a t e d t i n e has elapsed. PROCEDURE: Step 1: Each student should have a S o c i a l Studies booklet, and a piece of l i n e d paper. Have these n a t e r i a l s handed out. Step 2: As they are being handed out, say" THESE ARE SOME SOCIAL STUDIES BOOKLETS THAT WE ARE GOING TO READ. Step 3: When everyone has a booklet and a piece of l i n e d paper, say: PLEASE LOOK AT PAGE 281 IN YOUR BOOKLET. Step 4: At t h i s point nake a note of the STARTING TIME. ( T o t a l exposure t i n e to the n a t e r i a l s should be e x a c t l y 30 ninutes f r o n t h i s point onwards). Step 5: Proceed with the Guided Reading of page 281. You nay repeat students' answers f o r c l a r i t y and give p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e n e n t f o r c o r r e c t reponses. Do not change your usual teaching s t y l e , however. Where the question does not appear to e l i c i t the d e s i r e d response, you nay g i v e and/ or e x p l a i n the c o r r e c t answer. Try to ensure that the c o r r e c t answer has been heard by the whole c l a s s before noving on to the next question. 168 Teacher says: Expected student response: LOOK AT THE FIRST PAGE, PAGE Z81. DO YOU SEE THE TITLE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PAGE? UHAT DO YOU THINK THESE PAGES UILL BE ABOUT? about the Mbuti (en bu tee) people and t h e i r way l i f e - i n the f o r e s t SEE UHAT YOU CAN FIND OUT ABOUT THE MBUTI <en bu tee) PEOPLE. READ FROM THE MIDDLE OF THIS PAGE (point out the passage beloui the t i t l e ) TO THE TOP OF PAGE Z83. IF YOU FINISH READING BEFORE OTHERS, READ THIS PART AGAIN BECAUSE YOU WILL BE ASKED SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT IT LATER. ( A l l o u enough t i n e f o r nost of the c l a s s to read t h i s part and then resune the d i s c u s s i o n ) STOP READING NOW. ON YOUR PIECE OF PAPER SEE IF YOU CAN WRITE DOWN 5 REASONS THE ITURI FOREST IS IMPORTANT TO THE MBUTI. UHAT 5 THINGS DOES THE FOREST PROVIDE FOR THE MBUTI? ( a l l o u a feu ninutes f o r the students to uork on t h i s ) STOP NOU. CHECK YOUR OUN ANSUERS. I UILL READ THE 5 THINGS THE FOREST PROVIDES FOR THE MBUTI. - teacher reads c o r r e c t ansuers > Correct Ansuers: 1. food Z. housing 3. c l o t h i n g 4. uater 5. f i r e HOU DID YOU DO? UHO HAD THE 5 ANSUERS? 4? UELL DONE! NOU TURN THE PAGE TO PAGE Z83. 169 Teacher says: Expected student response: WHAT DO YOU THINK THE WOMEN USE BASKETS FOR? READ FROM THE TOP OF THIS PAGE AND PUT YOUR HAND UP AS SOON AS YOU THINK YOU HAVE FOUND THE ANSWER. (gi v e the c l a s s t i n e to do t h i s , then ask) DID YOU FIND OUT? WHAT DO THE WOMEN USE BASKETS FOR? f o r hol d i n g food that they BEFORE OTHERS, READ THIS PART AGAIN BECAUSE YOU UILL BE ASKED SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT IT LATER. STOP READING NOW AND SEE IF YOU CAN REMEMBER SOMETHING ABOUT THE ANIMALS YOU READ ABOUT. UHICH ANIMAL IS TOO FIERCE TO HUNT? the leopard (or f o r e s t b u f f a l o ) UHICH ANIMAL IS TOO LARGE TO CATCH IN A NET? the elephant WHICH TUO ANIMALS ARE KILLED USING A BOU AND ARROW? woodpecker, nonkey gather i n the f o r e s t NOU READ THE REST OF PAGE Z83 TO THE TOP OF PAGE Z84 TO FIND OUT HOU THE MBUTI HUNT ANIMALS. IF YOU FINISH (Allow t i n e f o r nost of the c l a s s to read t h i s ) UHICH ANIMALS ARE CAUGHT IN NETS? antelope, okapi, pangolin, w i l d hogs CAN YOU NAME ANOTHER ANIMAL THAT IS TOO FIERCE FOR THE MBUTI TO HUNT? f o r e s t b u f f a l o (or leopard) UELL DONE! TURN TO PAGE Z84 NOU. Teacher s a y s : Expected student response: (page Z84) THIS PAGE UILL TELL YOU ABOUT SOME OTHER FOODS THE MBUTI EAT. READ FROM THE TOP OF THIS PAGE NOU HALFWAY DOWN, TO NUMBER 3, AND FIND OUT UHAT OTHER FOODS THE MBUTI EAT. SEE IF YOU CAN FIND 10 THINGS. IF YOU HAVE TIME YOU MAY WRITE THEM DOWN. ( A l l o u enough t i n e f o r nost of the c l a s s to do t h i s , and then say), STOP READING NOW. DID YOU FIND 10 THINGS? CHECK YOUR OWN. I UILL READ THE ANSUERS FOR YOU. - teacher reads ansuers > HOU DID YOU DO? ANYONE UITH 10 OUT OF 10? 9? 8? GOOD! [Correct Ansuers: mushrooms, r o o t s , b e r r i e s , f r u i t s , nuts, i n s e c t s , s a l t , t e r m i t e s , b i r d s , f i s h ] 171 Teacher says: Expected student response* NOU READ FROM THE MIDDLE OF PAGE Z84 TO THE LAST PAGE OF THE BOOKLET, HERE, (point out the stopping place on the l a s t page j u s t above the t i t l e "Mbuti S o c i e t y " ) . TRY TO FIND OUT UHAT ARE SOME OF THE THINGS THE MBUTI MAKE. IF YOU FINISH AHEAD OF OTHERS, READ THESE PAGES AGAIN. ( A l l o u enough t i n e f o r most of the c l a s s to read t h i s passage once). STOP READING NOU. CAN YOU TELL ME TUO THINGS THE MBUTI MAKE UITH BARK? c l o t h i n g , dyes to decorate then UHAT DO THE MBUTI MAKE UITH VINE? nets CAN YOU THINK OF TUO THINGS THEY MAKE FROM SAPLINGS - GREEN, BENDABLE UOOD? huts, bous t o shoot arrous UHAT TUO THINGS DO THE MBUTI MAKE UITH UOOD UHICH HAS BEEN SLOULY HARDENED OVER A FIRE? arrous, spears UELL DONE. Check t i n e . I f t i n e remains out of the 30 minutes a l l o u e d , say: I UILL GIVE YOU ANOTHER MINUTES TO READ AND STUDY THESE PAGES AGAIN. AFTER THAT, YOU UILL BE ASKED TO ANSUER SOME QUESTIONS. Uhen 30 minutes have elapsed, say: STOP READING NOU PLEASE. Then have a l l the booklets c o l l e c t e d . Proceed t o TESTING. 172 Appendix D L e t t e r s of Permission from P u b l i s h e r s Concerned 175 Appendix E Text Booklets f o r F i f t h and Seventh Grade Students Text Booklet f o r F i f t h Grade Students Going to School 17 The customs and traditions Ukrainian families continued in Canada were a special way of remembering their old country. Parents wanted their children to grow up knowing abouf Western Ukraine. The Ukrainian settlers also wanted their children to learn about Canada. As they became more settled on their home-steads many Ukrainians wanted to send their children to school. One Ukrainian boy, Wasyl Shandro, whose family settled northeast of Edmonton, explained how his first school was built: People began coming into our area in 1899, and by 1905 it was quite settled. The community was called Shandro after my father who was one of the first settlers here. My father called a meeting at our house about building a school. All the Ukrainian homesteaders came. There were some who did not want a school because they would have to pay school taxes. They said "We came to Canada to get away from all those taxes." However, when they heard that it was the law in Alberta that children must go to school or parents could be fined, they changed their minds. Then everyone wanted a school. The homesteaders elected a small group of people called school trustees to build a school and hire a teacher. Our first teacher came to stay at our home because my father was a school trustee. During the year the teacher also stayed with the families of other schoolchildren. The room and board they provided were part of the teacher's wages. 179 In some schools the students only spoke Ukrainian and the teacher only spoke English. Wasyl Shandro described what his class and teacher did in their first lessons together: When school started I was ten years old. On my first day, the teacher opened a big trunk and pulled out some pictures. First there was a picture of a horse. So all the children said "kin" in Ukrainian. The teacher "; - said "horse". We repeated "horse". Then he took out. > other pictures: "cat", "dog", "boy", "girl". W e - ; ^. repeated the words after him. In about two weeks we ; . could speak some English. ~ \ -. In other schools there were only a few Ukrainian stu-dents. Petro Humeniuk wrote about his first day at the school near Stuartburn. The school had been built in 1888 for the .children of British settlers. When I first went to school in 1906 I was already 11 years old. On my first school day I dressed in neat, clean clothes and took a sandwich my mother had made for me. In the school yard there were many English-speaking children I did not know. They seemed to be . running in all directions. Some were shouting "Ante Ante Over" and throwing a ball over the school roof to children waiting on the other side. I stood by myself near the door and felt very lonely and bewildered. Soon the teacher appeared in the doorway and rang a bell. All the children ran inside. Because I was shy I was almost the last to go in. I stood inside the door until the teacher beckoned me to come to her desk. She asked me something I did not understand so she called a little six-year-old girl named Maria Wachna to help her. In Ukrainian Maria asked me my name and age. Right there and then I lost my name "Petro". The teacher wrote my name differently in her book. Pointing at me she told the class "This is "Peter"." [Peter is the English way of spelling my name.] Out of all the children in the class Maria and I were the only two Ukrainians. Petro described how he learned to read English: At home my parents had taught me the letters of the English alphabet. I knew one sound for each letter. That is the way the Ukrainian alphabet works. If people can memorize the sound of each letter they can easily learn to read any Ukrainian words or sentences in a few days. I thought English would be the same. On my first day at school, the teacher gave me a book with written and printed words and pictures of a large shaggy dog. I read the page about the dog for the teacher without knowing how to say the words properly. "Dog. A dog. This is Duke. I like my dog." All the children laughed at my reading at first, but each day in school gave me more confidence. Soon I knew the meaning of single words, then short sentences. Within two months I was able to talk to the children. On the last day of my first year at school we had a concert and the parents of all the children came. Maria Wachna sang a song in Ukrainian and I recited a tongue twister: Betty Botter bought a bit of bitter butter. But it made her batter bitter. So she bought another bit of butter better than the bitter butter and made her bitter batter better. All the students sang Canadian songs. We sang "The Maple Leaf Forever" and "Cod Save The King". If you were a Ukrainian parent in Canada which language would yoi. most want your children to learn t( read and write — English or Ukrainian? Why? How would you feel if you were Petro Humeniuk or Maria Wachna going to school with so many English-speaking students? 1 ' i l i l l • 11 . i l l 181 C h i l d r e n o n the homesteads w e n t to school in w i n t e r w h e n the g r o u n d was frozen a n d there was no w o r k to be d o n e i n the fields. T h e y were taught E n g l i s h , reading, w r i t i n g a n d a r i t h m e t i c . F o r s o m e U k r a i n i a n students, going to school was dif-ficult . M a n y d i d not e v e n finish grade five. One girl n a m e d E v a K r e t z e l , w h o s e f a m i l y settled near S m o k y Lake, A l b e r t a , e x p l a i n e d the p r o b l e m s c h i l d r e n h a d i n her s c h o o l : Some of the children had to walk as far as six miles [10 kmj to school. It was hard for us to learn. We didn 't know English and there were eight or nine grades in one room with only one teacher. I spent two and a half years in grade one. It took me two \ears to learn how to read. If Ukiainian Mud cms like those could net Ir.irn .it school because ihcii Icachci only spoke Etigtisli. v\l>. llu* school ttiistcvs do Iii solve itie problem ' Text Booklet f o r Seventh Grade Students 183 The Mbuti of the Ituri For the 1950s, he lived with the Mbuti for more than a year. He hunted with them, joined in their celebrations, observed their arguments and agreements and filled notebook after notebook with observations on their life. Since then, Turnbull has returned many times to visit and live with the people he considers his friends. He has provided us with a great deal of information about the Mbuti. Much of the infor-mation in this chapter comes from Colin Turnbull's observa-tions. 1. Suggest reasons why the Mbuti were not able to successfully compete for land with the Bantu and so were pushed back into the forests. 2. Anthropologists study groups of people by living near them or with them. What might be some of the problems with this research method? 3. Suppose you were the first anthropologist to ever study the Mbuti. Make a list of five questions you would want answers to before you were finished with your work. We owe our understanding of the Mbuti way of life to field studies carried out in the rain forest of Zaire. THE FOREST ECONOMY AND THE MBUTI WAY OF LIFE The Mbuti call themselves the children of the forest. They say the forest is their father and their mother because it provides for all their needs: food, housing, clothing, water and fire. The Mbuti share in all the gifts of the forest. They relate closely to the physical environment in all their activities and beliefs. The Mbuti economy centres on the hunt. Some Mbuti groups hunt with bows and arrows, others with nets. The night before a net hunt, men and women gather around a fire to decide where they will hunt in the morning. Early the next day, the group sets out, with the adult male in each family carrying a net made with forest vines. Each net is up to 100 m long. The men and teenage boys go first and fastest. When they arrive at the place chosen for the hunt, they set up their nets. Each net is joined to its neighbor, 2 184 Other Places, Other Times FAUNA OF THE ITURI FOREST Some of the plants and animals of the Ituri forest are shown on these pages. In their traditional way of life, the Mbuti depended on the forest for almost everything in their lives. Look at these pictures and read the information. Some questions you should answer are: 1. What might the Mbuti eat? 2. How might they obtain their food? 3. What might their houses be made of? 4. What might they wear? What might their clothes be made of? 5. How might they use vines, leaves, roots and tree bark? 6. How might they use other products they obtain in the forest? 282 185 The Mbuti of the Ituri Fo: Suggest one advantage in using a bark tumpline to carry baskets through the rain forest. so that a semicircle is enclosed by nets. Since a semicircle must be large to do its job properly, each net-hunting camp must contain at least six families, each with a net. The women follow, gathering mushrooms, roots, nuts, berries and grubs on the way. They place these in the bark baskets they carry on their backs. When everyone arrives at the hunting site, the women move quietly out into the forest. For a while, there is no sound. The men stand carefully beside their nets. Then, the noise begins: the women shout and stamp on the ground as they move toward the nets, trying to stampede animals toward the male hunters. An antelope breaks out of the forest, headed straight for the centre of the nets. It does not see them, and is quickly trapped in the mesh. Three Mbuti stand over it and spear it to death. To left and right, other hunters deal with other game, perhaps another antelope, wild hogs or okapi, that have been chased into the net. At the end of the nets stand the teenage boys; their job is to net or spear any animals that escape the semicircle. Once the hunt is over, the men cut the meat up into pieces small enough to go into the women's baskets. The villagers divide the meat according to the custom of the village. Usually, the hunter whose net caught the animal receives the best pieces: the heart and the liver. No one goes without; each family receives some of the catch. Bow hunters usually act in pairs or in groups of three. Pango-lin, monkeys and other animals that live in trees must be killed with bow and arrow, since they cannot be stampeded into a net. The arrows are often coated with a poison made from a forest plant, the kilabo. This poison is harmless to people once the meat has been cooked. Bow hunters share the meat with every-one in the camp. Bow-hunting camps are usually smaller than net-hunting camps, since hunting with bow and arrow does not demand the co-operation of many people. Most often, the Mbuti hunt and kill antelope or some of the smaller animals you saw on page 282. If they are very lucky, hunters may kill an elephant. They do this either by digging a pit trap, then spearing the elephant when it falls into the pit, or by 283 186 Other Places. Other Time$ l_ •••v.._.—-<-4^.t certain times of the year, the Mbuti scour the forest looking for honey trees. When they find one, a man climbs the tree, using a vine to help haul himself upward. He carries with him burning embers wrapped in leaves to smoke the bees into a stupor. He then scoops out the honey. Sometimes he enlarges the hole where the honey is by using an axe to chop away the surrounding wood. Honey combs, dead bees and all are quickly eaten, along with the liquid honey. creeping up on the elephant and cutting the tendons in its hind legs. When the elephant sinks to its knees, Mbuti hunters rush in to spear it to death. Mbuti do not try to k i l l leopards or forest buffalo, the fiercest and most dangerous animals in the forest. Much of the Mbuti diet comes from gathering mushrooms, roots, berries, fruits, nuts and insects in the forest. Both males and females are expert in finding and gathering these resources. Their favorite root comes from the itaba vine; it is sweet-tasting, and can be roasted or stewed. Honey is a great favorite, as are termites. The finding of a termite nest is a special occasion. The termites are toasted over the fire and eaten. To obtain salt, the Mbuti burn the green branches of the "salt tree," then collect and boil the ashes for a day. When the water evaporates, a type of salt remains. . ,•. The Mbuti eat birds they shoot with arrows, and occasionally fish, although they prefer meat. 1. List the advantages and disadvantages of hunting with a net. 2. Compare net and bow hunting using these headings: number of people involved, equipment needed, animals hunted. 3. Describe how the Mbuti get salt. The forest also supplies the Mbuti with clothing. They make their simple clothing from bark, scraped and boiled to make it soft, then decorated with red and black dyes, made from the bark of the nkula (nku'la) tree and from the kangay (kan'ga) plant. Adults wear a breechcloth, held up by a fibre belt. They also may wear fibre armbands arid necklaces. Children generally go naked. The forest environment also provides the raw materials for hunters. Nets are woven from the nkusa vine. Women shred the vine, then roll pieces together to make a strong cord that the men can weave into a net. Bows are made from saplings, and spears and arrow tips from wood that has been slowly hardened in a fire. The hunters make a poison from a local plant which they use 284 187 The Mbuti of the huii Foresi on their arrows. Pieces of bamboo can be used as cutting tools, and sticks are used to dig honey out of a bees' nest or tree. Each Mbuti group lives at one site in the forest for only a month, until they have gathered most of the edible plants in the area and animals are becoming scarce. Because they do not have toilets or latrines, their water supply could easily become pol-luted. When they move to a new site, somewhere else in their section of the forest, and build a new camp, they avoid the problem of pollution. Moving is easily accomplished because they have few possessions, just a few tools and nets. The forest in the new location will supply resources for all their other needs. Fire is important to the Mbuti, for cooking and for making weapons. Yet the Mbuti do not know how to start a fire. They are careful always to have at least one fire burning, so that they may start new fires from the old. When the camp moves, women carry smoldering coals wrapped in special leaves that do not catch fire. When the group arrives at the new campsite, or when The Mbuti iely on the forest for materials to meet their needs. How are the Mbuti pictured here making use of their 188 Qthei Places, Other Times the group stops on the trail for a rest, each woman carefully ' * • makes a new fire. To do this, the women add dry twigs to the coal v ^ and blow on the twigs until they catch fire. The Mbuti make their huts from young, straight saplings and the leaves of the mogongo tree. As soon as they arrive at the new site, the women go into the forest to cut down saplings and collect leaves. Usually working in pairs, they quickly drive the saplings into the ground, to make a beehive-shaped framework. Then they tie the large leaves onto the framework, making a waterproof shelter for their family. 1 Mbuti children have no formal schools; instead, they learn such tasks as fire-building, hunting and hut-building by copying the older people in the village. They play in the bopi, a special area just outside the village, away from the adults but close enough for help should trouble occur. Here, they may play in the trees, or pretend to be hunting or building houses. 1. List the foods the Mbuti eat. How do they find their food in the forest? 2. Explain why the forest is so important to the Mbuti. What does it provide them with? 3. Try making a model of a Mbuti house using natural things you find outdoors. MBUTI SOCIETY The Mbuti have no chiefs to tell everyone else what to do. Every [ \ decision in a Mbuti village is made through discussion and J agreement. Everyone, including children, takes part in deciding where to hunt, when to move or where to move to. Some people's views may carry more weight than others. The best hunter in a \ camp will have more say over where the group should hunt. In some cases, the men may want to hunt in a certain area, but the .... women will know there are no plants to collect there. The women will then usually persuade the men to hunt elsewhere. What happens if the group cannot agree? Then the family that ' does not want to go along with the group may leave and join a 189 Appendix F T e s t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s Booklets, f o r Immediate and Delayed Testing 190 Grade 5 Immediate and Delayed Te s t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s 191 TESTING INSTRUCTIONS There are tuo t e s t a ' 1) a Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t , and, 2) a M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t . PROCEDURE: Step 1" Hand out the Short flnsuer R e c a l l t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step 2- Uhen a l l students have a paper, ask the c l a s s to t u r n t h e i r papers over and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, t h e i r gender, and the language spoken at home. Step 3" Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the top of the t e s t paper and ensure that a l l students understand uhat they are to do. Step 4" Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHERS, GO BACK OVER YOUR PAPER AND CHECK YOUR ANSWERS. TRY TO REMEMBER AS MUCH AS YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 8 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOW. Step 5: A f t e r e x a c t l y 8 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPER OVER. Then have a l l papers c o l l e c t e d . Step 6" (continued over.... ) Stop 6: 192 Hand out the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t a , one f o r each student. Place face doun on desks. Step 1- Uhen a l l students have a t e s t paper, ask the c l a s s t o t u r n over t h e i r papers and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, and t h e i r gender. Step 8 : Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t e s t and make sure that a l l students knou they are to mark only one ansuer f o r each question. Step 9: Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH THE QUESTIONS BEFORE OTHERS, 60 OVER YOUR ANSWERS AND CHECK THAT YOU MARKED ONLY ONE CHOICE FOR EACH QUESTION. DO THE BEST THAT YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 5 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 10: A f t e r e x a c t l y 5 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPERS OVER. Then have a l l the papers c o l l e c t e d . TESTING INSTRUCTIONS 193 There are tuo t e s t s ' 1) a M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t . and, Z) a Short flnsuer R e c a l l t e s t . PROCEDURE: Step 1: Hand out the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step Z: Uhen a l l students have a t e s t paper, ask the c l a s s t o t u r n over t h e i r papers and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, and t h e i r gender. Step 3: Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t e s t and make sure that a l l students knou they are to mark only one ansuer f o r each question. Step 4: Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH THE QUESTIONS BEFORE OTHERS, GO OVER YOUR ANSUERS AND CHECK THAT YOU MARKED ONLY ONE CHOICE FOR EACH QUESTION. DO THE BEST THAT YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 5 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 5: A f t e r e x a c t l y 5 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPERS OVER. Then have a l l the papers c o l l e c t e d . 194 Stop 6-" Hand out the Short Answer R e c a l l t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face down on desks. Step 7: When a l l students have a paper, ask the c l a s s to t u r n t h e i r papers over and w r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, t h e i r gender, and the language spoken at hone. Step 8"- Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the top of the t e s t paper and ensure that a l l students understand uhat they are to do. Step 9-' When the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHERS, GO BACK OVER YOUR PAPER AND CHECK YOUR ANSWERS. TRY TO REMEMBER AS MUCH AS YOU CAN. YOU WILL HAVE 8 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 10: A f t e r e x a c t l y 8 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP WHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPER OVER. Then have a l l papers c o l l e c t e d . 195 TESTING INSTRUCTIONS There are tuo t e s t s " 1) a Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t , and, Z) a M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t . PROCEDURE" Step 1: Teacher says, DO YOU REMEMBER THE SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON UE DID TUO UEEKS AGO ABOUT THE UKRAINIANS? THESE ARE SOME TESTS TO SEE HOU MUCH YOU CAN STILL REMEMBER. Step Z" Hand out the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step 3" Uhen a l l students have a paper, ask the c l a s s to t u r n t h e i r papers over and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, t h e i r gender, and the language spoken at home. Step 4"- Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the top of the t e s t paper and ensure that a l l students understand uhat they are to do. Step S- Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHERS, GO BACK OVER YOUR PAPER AND CHECK YOUR ANSUERS. TRY TO REMEMBER AS MUCH AS YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 8 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. 196 Step B : A f t e r e x a c t l y 8 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPER OVER. Then have o i l papers c o l l e c t e d . Step 7: Hand out the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face down on desks. Step 8: Uhen a l l students have a t e s t paper, ask the c l a s s t o t u r n over t h e i r papers and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, and t h e i r gender. Step 9: Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t e s t and make sure that a l l students knou they are to mark only one ansuer f o r each q u e s t i o n . Step 10: Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH THE QUESTIONS BEFORE OTHERS, 60 OVER YOUR ANSUERS AND CHECK THAT YOU MARKED ONLY ONE CHOICE FOR EACH QUESTION. DO THE BEST THAT YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 5 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOW. Step 11: A f t e r e x a c t l y 5 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP WHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPERS OVER. Then have a l l the papers c o l l e c t e d . 197 TESTING INSTRUCTIONS There are tuo t e s t s " 1) a M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t , and, 2) a Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t . PROCEDURE". Step l: Teacher says, DO YOU REMEMBER THE SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON UE DID TWO UEEKS AGO ABOUT THE UKRAINIANS? THESE ARE SOME TESTS TO SEE HOU MUCH YOU CAN STILL REMEMBER. Step 2- Hand out the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step 3' When a l l students have a t e s t paper, ask the c l a s s t o t u r n over t h e i r papers and w r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, and t h e i r Qender. Step 4' Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t e s t and make sure that a l l students knou they are to nark only one ansuer f o r each question. Step 5' When the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH THE QUESTIONS BEFORE OTHERS, 60 OVER YOUR ANSWERS AND CHECK THAT YOU MARKED ONLY ONE CHOICE FOR EACH QUESTION. DO THE BEST THAT YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 5 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 6" (continued over.....) 198 Step 6: A f t e r e x a c t l y 5 ninutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPERS OVER. Then have a l l the papers c o l l e c t e d . Step 7: Hand out the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step 8: Uhen a l l students have a paper, ask the c l a s s to t u r n t h e i r papers over and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, t h e i r gender, and the language spoken at home. Step 9: Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the top of the t e s t paper and ensure that a l l students understand uhat they are to do. Step 10: Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHERS, GO BACK OVER YOUR PAPER AND CHECK YOUR ANSUERS. TRY TO REMEMBER AS MUCH AS YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 8 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 11: A f t e r e x a c t l y 8 ninutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPER OVER. Then have a l l papers c o l l e c t e d . Grade 7 Immediate and Delayed Testing I n s t r u c t i o n s 200 TESTING INSTRUCTIONS There are tuo t e s t a " 1) a M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t , and, 2) a Short flnsuer R e c a l l t e s t . PROCEDURE: Step 1" Hand out the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , one f o r each student. Place face doun on desks. Step 2' When a l l students have a t e s t paper, ask the c l a s s t o t u r n over t h e i r papers and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, and t h e i r gender. Step 3" Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t e s t and make sure that a l l students knou they are to mark only one ansuer f o r each question. Step 4'- When the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH THE QUESTIONS BEFORE OTHERS, GO OVER YOUR ANSWERS AND CHECK THAT YOU MARKED ONLY ONE CHOICE FOR EACH QUESTION. DO THE BEST THAT YOU CAN. YOU WILL HAVE 5 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 5" A f t e r e x a c t l y 5 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOW AND TURN YOUR PAPERS OVER. Then have a l l the papers c o l l e c t e d . Step 6" (continued over ) 201 Step B: Hand out the Short Answer R e c a l l t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step 1- Uhen a l l students have a paper, ask the c l a s s to t u r n t h e i r papers over and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, t h e i r Qender, and the language spoken at home. Step 8= Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the top of the t e s t paper and ensure that a l l students understand uhat they are to do. Step 9: Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHERS, GO BACK OVER YOUR PAPER AND CHECK YOUR ANSUERS. TRY TO REMEMBER AS MUCH AS YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 8 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 10: A f t e r e x a c t l y 8 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPER OVER. Then have a l l papers c o l l e c t e d . 20Z TESTING INSTRUCTIONS There are two t e s t s " 1) a Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t , and, Z> a M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t . PROCEDURE: Step 1: Hand out the Short Answer R e c a l l t e s t s , one f o r each student. Place face doun on desks. Step 2- Uhen a l l students have a paper, ask the c l a s s to t u r n t h e i r papers over and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, t h e i r gender, and the language spoken at home. Step 3: Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the top of the t e s t paper and ensure that a l l students understand uhat they are to do. Step 4: Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHERS, GO BACK OVER YOUR PAPER AND CHECK YOUR ANSUERS. TRY TO REMEMBER AS MUCH AS YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 8 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 5: A f t e r e x a c t l y 8 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPER OVER. Then have a l l papers c o l l e c t e d . Step 6'- (continued over ) 203 Stop G-" Hand out the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step 7: Uhen a l l students have a t e s t paper, ask the c l a s s to t u r n over t h e i r papers and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, and t h e i r gender. Step 8: Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t e s t and make sure that a l l students knou they are to mark only one ansuer f o r each q u e s t i o n . Step 9- When the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH THE QUESTIONS BEFORE OTHERS, GO OVER YOUR ANSUERS AND CHECK THAT YOU MARKED ONLY ONE CHOICE FOR EACH QUESTION. DO THE BEST THAT YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 5 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 10: A f t e r e x a c t l y 5 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOW AND TURN YOUR PAPERS OVER. Then have a l l the papers c o l l e c t e d . 204 TESTING INSTRUCTIONS There are "tuo t e s t s : 1) a Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t , and, Z> a M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t . PROCEDURE: Step 1: Teacher says, DO YOU REMEMBER THE SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON WE DID TUO WEEKS AGO ABOUT THE MBUTI? THESE ARE SOME TESTS TO SEE HOU MUCH YOU CAN STILL REMEMBER. Step 2"- Hand out the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step 3: Uhen a l l students have a paper, ask the c l a s s to t u r n t h e i r papers over and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, t h e i r gender, and the language spoken at home. Step 4: Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the top of the t e s t paper and ensure that a l l students understand uhat they are to do. Step 5: Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHERS, GO BACK OVER YOUR PAPER AND CHECK YOUR ANSUERS. TRY TO REMEMBER AS MUCH AS YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 8 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step £• .205 A f t e r e x a c t l y 8 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPER OVER. Then have a l l papers c o l l e c t e d . Step 1- Hand out the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , one f o r each student. Place face doun on desks. Step 8" Uhen a l l students have a t e s t paper, ask the c l a s s t o t u r n over t h e i r papers and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, and t h e i r gender. Step 9" Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t e s t and make sure that a l l students knou they are to nark only one ansuer f o r each question. Step 10" Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Time and say, IF YOU FINISH THE QUESTIONS BEFORE OTHERS, GO OVER YOUR ANSUERS AND CHECK THAT YOU MARKED ONLY ONE CHOICE FOR EACH QUESTION. DO THE BEST THAT YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 5 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 11: A f t e r e x a c t l y 5 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPERS OVER. Then have a l l the papers c o l l e c t e d . TESTING INSTRUCTIONS 206 There are iuo t e s t s : 1) a M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t , and, 2) a Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t . PROCEDURE: Step l : Teacher says, DO YOU REMEMBER THE SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON WE DID TWO WEEKS AGO ABOUT THE MBUTI? THESE ARE SOME TESTS TO SEE HOW MUCH YOU CAN STILL REMEMBER. Step 2: Hand out the M u l t i p l e Choice t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step 3: When a l l students have a t e s t paper, ask the c l a s s t o t u r n oven t h e i r papers and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, and t h e i r gender. Step 4-" Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t e s t and make sure that a l l students knou they are to nark only one ansuer f o r each q u e s t i o n . Step 5"- Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Tine and say, IF YOU FINISH THE QUESTIONS BEFORE OTHERS, GO OVER YOUR ANSWERS AND CHECK THAT YOU MARKED ONLY ONE CHOICE FOR EACH QUESTION. DO THE BEST THAT YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 5 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step G: (continued over ) 207 Step B- A f t e r e x a c t l y 5 minutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP WHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPERS OVER. Then have a l l the papers c o l l e c t e d . Step 7" Hand out the Short Ansuer R e c a l l t e s t s , one f o r each student. P l a c e face doun on desks. Step 8- Uhen a l l students have a paper, ask the c l a s s to t u r n t h e i r papers over and u r i t e i n t h e i r school's name, t h e i r name, t h e i r gender, and the language spoken at hone. Step 3- Read the i n s t r u c t i o n s at the top of the t e s t paper and ensure that a l l students understand uhat they are to do. Step 10" Uhen the i n s t r u c t i o n s are understood, make a note of the S t a r t i n g Tine and say, IF YOU FINISH BEFORE OTHERS, 60 BACK OVER YOUR PAPER AND CHECK YOUR ANSUERS. TRY TO REMEMBER AS MUCH AS YOU CAN. YOU UILL HAVE 8 MINUTES. YOU MAY BEGIN NOU. Step 11: A f t e r e x a c t l y 8 ninutes have elapsed, say, PLEASE STOP UHAT YOU ARE DOING NOU AND TURN YOUR PAPER OVER. Then have a l l papers c o l l e c t e d . 208 Appendix G Immediate and Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Tests Z09 Grade 5 Immediate and Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Testa 21fi SCHOOL. NAME. M. F. 1. Uho uanted to have a school? FOR EACH QUESTION, CIRCLE ONE (A) a feu of the school trustees BEST CHOICE: A, B, C, OR D. (B) nost of the Ukrainian parents (C) some of the English settlers (D) the children living on homesteads Z. Uhen did many Ukrainian families settle in Canada? <A) about ZO years ago (B) during the 1940's (C) in the mid 1850's (D) in the early 1900's 3. Uhere did the teacher live? (A) in a boarding house provided (B) in different families' homes (C> in homes of English settlers (D> in a separate part of the school 4. Uho uas given an English name at school? (A) Eva (B) Maria (C) Petro (D) Uasyl 5. Uhat subjects uere taught at school? (A) arithmetic, English, reading, uriting (B) English, reading, uriting, social studies (C) reading, uriting, English, spelling <D) uriting, reading, arithmetic, spelling 211 G. Uhat happened to Petro on his f irst day at school? (A) the children laughed at his reading (B) the students stared at his clothes (C) the teacher gave him a desk to sit at (D) the children played games uith him 7. Uhat uas the main reason school uas so diff icult for Ukrainian students? (A) one class had many different grades in it <B) English uasn't the language they uere used to (C) there uere many neu and strange- customs to learn (D) Ukrainian alphabet is different than the English 8. Hou many students uere Ukrainian in Waeyl's c l a s s 7 (A) only tuo <B) just a feu (C) most of them (0) a l l of them 9. Why did Ukrainian children go to school only in uinter? <A) the ground uas frozen <B) it uas too hot in summer (C) it uas hard to get a teacher (D> there uas no farm uork 10. Hou many different grades uere in Eva's class at school? <A> six ' . (B) seven • (C) eight (D) nine 212 SCHOOL NAME, F. 1. What subjects uere taught at school? FOR EACH QUESTION, CIRCLE (A) a r i t h m e t i c , E n g l i s h , reading, u r i t i n g ONE CHOICE: A, B, C, OR D. (B) E n g l i s h , reading, u r i t i n g , s o c i a l s t u d i e s (C) reading, u r i t i n g , E n g l i s h , s p e l l i n g (D) u r i t i n g , reading, a r i t h m e t i c , s p e l l i n g Z. Uhat uas the main reason school uas so d i f f i c u l t f o r U k r a i n i a n students? (A) one c l a s s had many d i f f e r e n t grades i n i t (B) E n g l i s h uasn't the language they uere used to (C) there "uere many neu and strange customs to l e a r n (D> U k r a i n i a n alphabet i s d i f f e r e n t than the E n g l i s h 3. Hou many d i f f e r e n t grades uere i n Eva's c l a s s at school? <A> s i x (B) seven (C) eight (D) nine 4. When d i d many Ukrainian f a m i l i e s s e t t l e i n Canada? (A) about ZO years ago (B) d u r i n g the 1940's (C) i n the mid 1850's (D) i n the e a r l y 1900's 5. Why d i d Ukrainian c h i l d r e n go to school only i n u i n t e r ? (A) the ground uas frozen (B) i t uas too hot i n summer (C) i t uas hard to get a teacher (D) there uas no farm uork 213 6. Uho USB given an E n g l i s h name at school? (ft) Eva (B> Maria (C) P e t r o (D) Uasyl 7. Hou many students uere U k r a i n i a n i n Uasyl's c l a s s ? (ft) only tuo (B) j u s t a feu (C) most of them (D) a l l of them 8. Who uanted to have a school? (ft) a feu of the school t r u s t e e s (B) most of the Ukrainian parents (C> some of the E n g l i s h s e t t l e r s (D) the c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on homesteads 9. Where d i d the teacher l i v e ? (ft) i n a boarding house provided (B) i n d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s ' homes (C) i n homes of E n g l i s h s e t t l e r s CD) i n a separate part of the school 10. What happened t o Petro on h i s f i r s t day at school? (ft) the c h i l d r e n laughed at h i s reading (B) the students s t a r e d at h i s c l o t h e s (C) the teacher gave him a desk to s i t at (D) the c h i l d r e n played games u i t h him Grade 7 Immediate and Delayed M u l t i p l e Choice Tests 215 SCHOOL: NAME: M F 1. Each not-hunting camp must contain at least FOR EACH QUESTION, CIRCLE (A) 3 families ONE CHOICE: A, B, C, OR •. (B> 4 families (C) 5 families (D) 5 families 2. Why do the Mbuti call themselves the "children of the forest?" (A) the forest has aluays been their home (B) the Mbuti are excellent tree climbers (C) the forest is worshipped by the Mbuti (D) a l l they need to live is in the forest 3. The heart and liver are kept by the hunter whose (A) family chased the animal (B) net caught the animal (C) spear kil led the animal (D) shouts frightened the animal 4. Tuo animals that the Mbuti catch in nets are <A> elephant, leopard (B) monkey, okapi . <C) buffalo, pangolin (0) antelope, uild hog 5. Kilabo poison is harmless uhen meat containing i t is (A) cooked over the f ire ."v;''. • (B) coated uith nkula ~ <C) uashed carefully r <D) left to dry in the sun 216 B. Animals that the Mbuti hunt are (A) birds, hyenas, snakes (B) okapi, monkey, leopard (C) pangolin, woodpecker, antelope (0) buffalo, elephant, uiild hog 7. Foods uhich are special favourites of the Mbuti are (A) honey, uild hog, kangay plant (B) itaba root, honey, termites (C) birds, toasted termites, fish (•) liver, salt, mushrooms 8. The Mbuti move to a neu campsite after (A) Z ueeks (B) 1 month (C) 6 ueeks (D) Z months 9. The Mbuti use forest materials to make (A) mats, arrous, tools (B) huts, poison, seats (C) nets, spears, legbands (D) necklaces, dyes, cord 10. The Mbuti children learn hou to (A) copy the older people te l l stories (B) build huts and make fires (C) hunt animals and ueave cloth (0) play bopi and hide in the grass 217 SCHOOL: NAME: M. F 1. Animals t h a i the Mbuti hunt are FOR EACH QUESTION, CIRCLE (A) b i r d s , hyenas, snakes ONE CHOICE: A, B, C, OR D. (B) o k a p i , monkey, leopard (C) p a n g o l i n , woodpecker, antelope <D> b u f f a l o , elephant, w i l d hog Z. Two animals t h a i the Mbuti catch i n nets are (A) elephant, leopard (B) monkey, okapi (C) b u f f a l o , pangolin (D) antelope, w i l d hog 3. The Mbuti move i o a new campsite a f t e r (A) Z weeks <B) 1 month (C) G weeks <D) Z months 4. Why do the Mbuti c a l l themselves the " c h i l d r e n of the f o r e s t ? " (A) the f o r e s t has always been t h e i r home (B) the Mbuti are e x c e l l e n t t r e e climbers (C) the f o r e s t i s worshipped by the Mbuti (D) a l l they need to l i v e i s i n the f o r e s t 5. The Mbuti c h i l d r e n l e a r n hou to (A) copy the o l d e r people t e l l s t o r i e s (B) b u i l d huts and make f i r e s <C) hunt animals and weave c l o t h (D) p l a y bopi and hide i n the grass 6. Each net-hunting canp must c o n t a i n at l e a s t (A) 3 f a m i l i e s (B) 4 f a m i l i e s (C) 5 f a m i l i e s (D) B f a m i l i e s 7. Foods uhich are s p e c i a l f a v o u r i t e s of the Mbuti are (A) honey, u i l d hog, kangay plant (B) i t a b a r o o t , honey, ter m i t e s (C) b i r d s , toasted t e r m i t e s , f i s h (D) l i v e r , s a l t , mushrooms 8. K i l a b o poison i s harmless uhen meat c o n t a i n i n g i t i s (A) cooked over the f i r e (B) coated u i t h nkula (C) uashed c a r e f u l l y (D) l e f t to dry i n the sun 9. The Mbuti use f o r e s t m a t e r i a l s t o make (A) mats, arrous, t o o l s <B) huts, poison, seats (C) nets, spears, legbands (D) necklaces, dyes, cord 10. The heart and l i v e r are kept by the hunter uhose (A) f a m i l y chased the animal (B) net caught the animal (C) spear k i l l e d the animal (D) shouts f r i g h t e n e d the animal Appendix H Immediate and Delayed Short flnsuer Tests 220 SCHOOL: NAME: : M F UHAT LANGUAGE DO YOU SPEAK AT HOME? Ansuer each question i n a feu uords. Try t o remember as much as you can. 1. Uhat country d i d the U k r a i n i a n immigrants come from? 2. Uhat tuo jobs d i d the school t r u s t e e s do? 3. Uhat language d i d Maria, Eva, U a s y l , and Pet r o speak at home? 4. Hou d i d Pet r o Humeniuk f e e l on h i s f i r s t day at school? 5. I f you went to school i n the e a r l y 1900's, uhat t h i n g s uould be d i f f e r e n t ? L i s t as many d i f f e r e n c e s as you can remember. G. Uhat uere some of the t h i n g s the c h i l d r e n d i d at a school concert? L i s t as many as you remember. ; ; '. Uhen i s your birthday? Hou o l d are you nou? flnsuer each question i n a feu uords. Try to remember as much as you can. 1. Hou d i d Petro Humeniuk f e e l on h i s f i r s t day at school? 2. Uhat uere some of the t h i n g s the c h i l d r e n d i d at a school concert? L i s t as many as you remember 3. Uhat tuo jobs d i d the school t r u s t e e s do? 4. I f you uent to school i n the e a r l y 1900's, uhat t h i n g s uould be d i f f e r e n t ? L i s t as many d i F Ferences as you can remember 5. Uhat country d i d the U k r a i n i a n immigrants come From? G. Uhat language d i d Maria, Eva, Uas y l , and Petro speak at home? Ill Grade 5 Immediate and Delayed Short flnsuer Tests i Grade 7 Immediate and Delayed Short flnsuer Tests 224 SCHOOL: NAME: M F . WHAT LANGUAGE DO YOU SPEAK AT HOME? . Ansuer each question i n a feu uords. Try t o remember as much as you can. 1. The Mbuti depend on f o r a l l t h e i r needs. Z. One main a c t i v i t y of the Mbuti i s 3. Name as many animals as you can remember th a t are found uhere the Mbuti l i v e . 4. Besides the animals t h a t are hunted, uhat other foods do the Mbuti f i n d i n the jungle? (Name as many as you can remember) . 5. Can you d e s c r i b e three methods the Mbuti use t o hunt animals? E. Why i s i t easy f o r the Mbuti to move- t o a neu campsite? 7. Name as many t h i n g s as you can t h a t the Mbuti make. When i s your birthday? Hou o l d are you nou? flnsuer each question i n a feu uords. Try to remember as much as you can. 1. Name as many animals as you can remember that are found uhere the Mbuti l i v e . Z. Can you des c r i b e three methods the Mbuti use t o hunt animals? 3. Why i s i t easy f o r the Mbuti to move to a neu campsite? 4. Name as many things as you can that the Mbuti make. 5. The Mbuti depend on f o r a l l t h e i r needs. E. Besides the animals that are hunted, uhat other foods do the Mbuti f i n d i n the j u n g l e ? (Name as many as you can remember) 7. One main a c t i v i t y of the Mbuti i s ZZB Appendix I Scoring Templates and Ansuer Keys f o r Short Ansuer Tests Grade 7 Short Ansuer Test - Ansuer Key Question Correct Ansuer 1. the ( I t u r i ) ( r a i n ) f o r e s t trees hunting, <to hunt) 3. pangolin, elephant, b u f f a l o , leopard, antelope, okapi, monkey, uoodpecker, ( u i l d ) hog (boar), b i r d s , * bees,*fish,» te r m i t e s , * i n s e c t s * 4. r o o t s , s a l t , nuts, f r u i t , b e r r i e s , honey, mushrooms, i n s e c t s , * t e r m i t e s , * b i r d s , * f i s h , * bees* 5. nets ( n e t t i n g ) bou and arrow d i t c h ( d i g p i t t r a p s ) 6. they have feu possessions 7. c l o t h i n g , necklaces, armbands, bous, arrows, dye, spears, nets, baskets, t o o l s , huts ( s h e l t e r ) (houses), s a l t * * only auard one point f o r each of these Maximum Total P o s s i b l e 228 Grade 5 Short flnsuer Test - flnsuer Key Question Correct flnsuer Score 1. (Western) Ukrain(e) Z U k r a i n i a n , U k r a i n i a 1 2 h i r e a teacher 1 b u i l d a school 1 3. Ukrainian Z 4. shy, embarrassed 1 l o n e l y , alone, l e f t out 1 b e u i l d e r e d , confused 1 5. school b u i l d i n g d i f f e r e n t school had only one room > 1 8 or 9 grades ( c l a s s e s ) i n one room 1 d i f f e r e n t c l o t h i n g ( c l o t h e s ) 1 only one teacher 1 d i f f e r e n t desks 1* d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , (games) 1 school uas only held i n u i n t e r 1 long d i s t a n c e to ualk to school - 1 teachers s l e p t i n people's houses 1 most of the c h i l d r e n uere Ukrainian 1 G. sang songs 1 sang Uk r a i n i a n and (Canadian) songs 1 r e c i t e d ( s a i d ) tongue t u i s t e r s 1 sang "Maple Leaf Forever" 1 sang "God Save the King" 1 Maximum Total P o s s i b l e ' Z4 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0078292/manifest

Comment

Related Items