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Multiple response free-word association and the syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift in Japanese adults learning… Leicester, Peter Frederick 1981

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MULTIPLE RESPONSE FREE-WORD ASSOCIATION AND THE SYNTAGMATIC-PARADIGMATIC SHIFT IN JAPANESE ADULTS LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE by PETER FREDERICK LEICESTER B. Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST 1981 @ P e t e r F r e d e r i c k L e i c e s t e r , 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of LANGUAGE EDUCATION The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date JULY 12. 19 81 3 E - 6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT Research has shown t h a t E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g a d u l t s tend t o g i v e response a s s o c i a t e s of the same gr a m m a t i c a l and semantic c l a s s as the s t i m u l u s word on a w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t , whereas c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y do n o t , i n s t e a d r e s p o n d i n g s y n t a c t i c a l l y (Thumb and Marbe, 1901; E s p e r , 1918; Deese, 1962; F i l l e n b a u m and Jones, 1965; E n t w i s l e , 1966). T h i s p a t t e r n of r e s p o n d i n g seems t o h o l d f o r many langu a g e s , i n c l u d i n g F r e n c h , I t a l i a n , S p a n i s h , P o l i s h and German. T h i s s h i f t from s y n t a c t i c r e s p o n d i n g t o same f o r m - c l a s s r e s p o n d i n g i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as the s y n t a g m a t i c - p a r a d i g m a t i c s h i f t . Moran and Murakawa (1968) and Moran (1973) found t h a t Japanese a d u l t s r e s p o n d i n g i n Japanese t o w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s t i m u l i respond s y n t a c t i c a l l y , t h a t i s , they seem not t o e x p e r i e n c e the S-P s h i f t . Two main hypotheses were t e s t e d . 1. That Japanese a d u l t s b e g i n n i n g t o l e a r n E n g l i s h would g i v e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s y n t a g m a t i c responses t o nouns, v e r b s , and a d j e c t i v e s i n E n g l i s h , and thus d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from n a t i v e - E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . 2. That advanced Japanese s t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h would g i v e fewer s y n t a g m a t i c responses i n E n g l i s h than the b e g i n n e r group and more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l n a t i v e -E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . Two s u b s i d i a r y hypotheses t e s t e d were: 3. That the a b s o l u t e count of responses t o s t i m u l i would c o r r e l a t e w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on a t e s t of language p r o f i c i e n c y by the Japanese s u b j e c t s . 4. That the p r i m a r y responses of the Japanese advanced group would more c l o s e l y resemble the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h r e sponses than would those of the Japanese b e g i n n e r s . A timed m u l t i p l e - r e s p o n s e f r e e - w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t c o m p r i s i n g e i g h t nouns, e i g h t v e r b s , and e i g h t a d j e c t i v e s was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o f o r t y a d u l t n a t i v e - E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and f o r t y - s e v e n Japanese ESL s t u d e n t s . The Japanese s t u d e n t s were a l s o g i v e n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Language I n s t i t u t e Placement t e s t . On the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s of t h i s language t e s t , the t o p f i f t e e n s c o r e r s were a s s i g n e d t o the Japanese advanced group, w h i l e the bottom f i f t e e n s c o r e r s were a s s i g n e d t o the Japanese b e g i n n e r group. The s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d w e l l w i t h the language i n s t r u c t o r ' s own t e s t s of language a b i l i t y . The w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s were s c o r e d by two independent markers, and mean p a r a d i g m a t i c response t a b l e s were c o m p i l e d . A n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e and Pearson's p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were performed on the a p p r o p r i a t e d a t a . R e s u l t s p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t Japanese b e g i n n e r s would respond s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y t o nouns, a d j e c t i v e s and v e r b s . Because t h i s group responded i v p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y t o nouns the c o n c l u s i o n reached was t h a t they were p a r a l l e l i n g n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r development. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g between the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group and the Japanese advanced group, the c o n c l u s i o n b e i n g t h a t the more f l u e n t a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t becomes i n E n g l i s h , the more p a r a d i g m a t i c responses w i l l be g i v e n . The a b s o l u t e count of responses c o r r e l a t e d o v e r a l l w i t h s c o r e s on the language t e s t , but i n i s o l a t i o n the Japanese b e g i n n e r group responses d i d not c o r r e l a t e w i t h the l a n g u a g e - t e s t s c o r e . I t was thought t h a t the reason f o r the n o n - c o r r e l a t i o n was a s a m p l i n g e r r o r . The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y of the t h r e e most f r e q u e n t responses f o r nouns was i d e n t i c a l between the Japanese groups, but f o r a l l f o r m - c l a s s e s the Japanese advanced group was much c l o s e r t o the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group. T h i s convergence of commonality i s taken as e v i d e n c e t h a t i d i o d y n a m i c s e t s a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by the language b e i n g used. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 CHAPTER 2 Survey of the L i t e r a t u r e 8 CHAPTER 3 Methodology 48 CHAPTER 4 A n a l y s i s and R e s u l t s 62 CHAPTER 5 D i s c u s s i o n 89 A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i L i s t of F i g u r e s ' v i i B i b l i o g r a p h y 104 Appendix 112 A. Comparison of t h r e e most common res p o n s e s . 112-114 B. P r o p o r t i o n of p a r a d i g m a t i c responses by form c l a s s and s u b j e c t -n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group. 115 C. P r o p o r t i o n of p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s , by f o r m - c l a s s and s u b j e c t - Japanese s u b j e c t s . ( L a n g u a g e T e s t Score i n c l u d e d ) . 116 D. Sample of the t e s t i n s t r u m e n t . 117-118 v i TABLE I TABLE I I TABLE I I I TABLE IV TABLE V TABLE VI TABLE V I I TABLE V I I I TABLE IX TABLE X TABLE XI TABLE X I I TABLE X I I I LIST OF TABLES Mean p r o p o r t i o n of same c l a s s r e s p o n s e s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t i m u l u s words. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t i m u l u s words by f o r m - c l a s s . Page 20 50 52 Mean p r o p o r t i o n s of a s s o c i a t e s f o r each s t i m u l u s word, by gr a m m a t i c a l c l a s s -nouns. 63-65 Mean p r o p o r t i o n s of a s s o c i a t e s f o r each s t i m u l u s word, by gr a m m a t i c a l c l a s s -a d j e c t i v e s . 66-68 Mean p r o p o r t i o n s of a s s o c i a t e s f o r each s t i m u l u s word, by gr a m m a t i c a l c l a s s -ve r b s 69-71 Mean p r o p o r t i o n s of a s s o c i a t e s i n each grammatical c l a s s . 72 A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e : Nouns, A d j e c t i v e s and V e r b s , by group. 73-75 Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s by language group, v a r i a b l e b e i n g nouns, a d j e c t i v e s and v e r b s . 80 Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of language t e s t s c o r e s and t o t a l number of responses t o t w e n t y - f o u r s t i m u l u s words f o r Japanese s t u d e n t s . 81 Comparison of t h r e e most common resp o n s e s . 112-114 P r o p o r t i o n of p a r a d i g m a t i c r esponses by form c l a s s and s u b j e c t - n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group. 1 1 5 P r o p o r t i o n of p a r a d i g m a t i c responses by form c l a s s and s u b j e c t - Japanese s u b j e c t s . ( l a n g u a g e - t e s t s c o r e i n c l u d e d ) . 116 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Page FIGURE 1. Chart showing the corre s p o n d e n c e between the a b s o l u t e number of responses g i v e n by Japanese s t u d e n t s on w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on an E n g l i s h placement t e s t . 82 FIGURE 2. Graph showing the number of f i r s t t h r e e p r i m a r y responses which c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the f i r s t t h r e e p r i m a r y responses of the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group. 83 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a d d r e s s i t s e l f t o the scope of the study and w i l l d e a l w i t h the background t o the s t u d y , c i t i n g h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r the u t i l i t y of word-a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s , i n c l u d i n g the s p e c i a l case of the s y n t a g m a t i c - p a r a d i g m a t i c s h i f t . BACKGROUND W o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n as a f i e l d of r e s e a r c h i s an o f f s h o o t of the t h e o r y of the a s s o c i a t i o n of i d e a s which i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Esper (1973), the o l d e s t t h e o r y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n terms of l e a r n i n g . In f a c t , G u t h r i e remarked t h a t : " A s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g has been r e c o g n i z e d i n some form or o t h e r by every w r i t e r i n ps y c h o l o g y s i n c e A r i s t o t l e " ( G u t h r i e , 1935, p . v i i ) . The concept of the a s s o c i a t i o n of i d e a s appears f i r s t i n P l a t o , and A r i s t o t l e made the p r i n c i p l e of a s s o c i a t i o n by c o n t i g u i t y and freq u e n c y the b a s i s of h i s d o c t r i n e of l e a r n i n g . B e g i n n i n g w i t h Thomas Hobbes i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y many B r i t i s h p h i l o s o p h e r s used the a s s o c i a t i o n of i d e a s concept t o e x p l a i n the e m p i r i c a l o r i g i n s of human knowledge. S u b s e q u e n t l y , John Locke, D a v i d Hume, D a v i d H a r t l e y , and James and John S t u a r t M i l l a l l became exponents of " A s s o c i a t i o n i s m " . The f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of word-2 a s s o c i a t i o n was p u b l i s h e d i n 1879 by F r a n c i s G a l t o n . U s i n g h i m s e l f as a s u b j e c t , G a l t o n responded t o s e v e n t y -f i v e words - m o s t l y nouns - and obse r v e d t h a t : " [ t h e d a t a ] l a y bare the f o u n d a t i o n s of a man's thoughts ... and e x h i b i t h i s mental anatomy w i t h ... v i v i d n e s s and t r u t h " ( G a l t o n , 1879, p.160). L i k e G a l t o n , James C a t t e l l was impressed by the d i a g n o s t i c p o t e n t i a l of the word a s s o c i a t i o n method. C a t t e l l and Bryant (1889) c a r r i e d out e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n of 465 s u b j e c t s , and were the f i r s t t o demonstrate t h a t any f a m i l i a r s t i m u l u s word evokes the same response from many s u b j e c t s . They were a l s o the f i r s t t o c o n s t r u c t a f r e q u e n c y t a b l e , which gave the responses o c c u r r i n g t e n t i m e s or more t o t e n c o n c r e t e and ten a b s t r a c t nouns. Immediately f o l l o w i n g G a l t o n ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s , German e x p e r i m e n t e r s e n t e r e d the f i e l d , and among o t h e r f i n d i n g s they r e p o r t e d t h a t the responses of a d u l t s t o s t i m u l u s words of a g i v e n f o r m - c l a s s ( l i m i t e d t o s u b s t a n t i v e s , a d j e c t i v e s and v e r b s ) tended t o be words of the same form - c l a s s ( K r a e p e l i n , 1883; M u n s t e r b e r g , 1892; A s c h a f f e n b e r g , 1895). Thumb and Marbe (1901), i n summarizing the r e s u l t s of w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s conducted i n Germany up t o the b e g i n n i n g of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c o n c l u d e d t h a t : 1. s t i m u l u s words c o m p r i s i n g nouns and a d j e c t i v e s e l i c i t e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y responses from the same f o r m - c l a s s ; 2. r e c i p r o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n a l l word c l a s s e s ; 3 3. s t r o n g - v e r b s t i m u l i tend t o e l i c i t s t r o n g - v e r b r e s p o n s e s , w h i l e weak-verb s t i m u l i tend t o e l i c i t weak-ver b r e s p o n s e s ; 4. r e c i p r o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of a d j e c t i v a l o p p o s i t e s ( o l d -young) may r e s u l t from t h e i r use t o g e t h e r i n speech; 5. the more f r e q u e n t a r e s p o n s e , the s h o r t e r was i t s r e a c t i o n t i m e . These c o n c l u s i o n s of Thumb and Marbe a r e i n t e r e s t i n g because they have been s u b s e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d many tim e s by r e s e a r c h e r s of n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g a d u l t s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t German a d u l t s respond i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o word-a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s as w i l l be shown do E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g a d u l t s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , on the b a s i s of s t u d i e s conducted i n E n g l i s h , L a t i n , and German, Thumb and Marbe s p e c u l a t e d t h a t r e l a t i o n s between a s s o c i a t i o n and ana l o g y f o r m a t i o n found i n one language may have u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y . In t h i s they were p a r t l y c o r r e c t ; as w i l l be seen l a t e r , t h e i r s p e c u l a t i o n h o l d s f o r most European language groups, but not f o r Mandarin or Japanese (Moran, 1973, 1975). A l t h o u g h Thumb and Marbe were not w i t h o u t t h e i r d e t r a c t o r s , t h e i r s t u d i e s , combining as they d i d l i n g u i s t i c s and p s y c h o l o g y , were slow i n s t i m u l a t i n g s i m i l a r s t u d i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . In f a c t , i t was not u n t i l the p u b l i c a t i o n of John C a r r o l l ' s The Study of  Language i n 1953 t h a t any s y s t e m a t i c attempt was made t o r e l a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h t o l i n g u i s t i c s . There had 4 been w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n r e s e a r c h performed i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s p r i o r t o 1953, n o t a b l y by C a t t e l l , but t h i s was undertaken most o f t e n by c l i n i c i a n s such as Kent and R o s a n o f f , who sampled the a s s o c i a t i o n s of a thousand normal a d u l t s i n 1910. They d i d t h i s p u r e l y t o e s t a b l i s h a b a s e - l i n e s e t of norms a g a i n s t which t o compare t h e i r p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s . F o l l o w i n g p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n the American J o u r n a l of I n s a n i t y (1910), the Kent-Rosanoff data remained the a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e f e r e n c e f o r many y e a r s , and t h e i r word l i s t s e t the p a t t e r n f o r a s s s o c i a t i o n l i s t s u n t i l the 1960's. Only c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y have w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s t u d i e s been i n s p i r e d by o t h e r than c l i n i c a l h y p o t h e s e s . W o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s a re now p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g r e l e v a n t not o n l y t o problems of v e r b a l l e a r n i n g and concept f o r m a t i o n , but a l s o t o e f f i c i e n c y i n problem s o l v i n g and t o c r e a t i v i t y ( J e n k i n s e t a l . , 1958; Deese, 1959; Johnson, 1964; E n t w i s l e , 1966). In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e the Brown and Berko (1960) study which r e l a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s t o the a c q u i s i t i o n of s y n t a x , a s s o c i a t i o n s have been seen as c o r r e l a t e s of p a t t e r n s of l i n g u i s t i c development. The term a s s o c i a t i o n may be p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g ambiguous. On the one hand, t h e r e i s the use of the term a s s o c i a t i o n i n the broad t r a d i t i o n of A r i s t o t l e as the name of a g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e of mental o r g a n i z a t i o n , and of t e c h n i q u e s f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l study of l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n . On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s the s p e c i a l f i e l d 5 of r e s e a r c h , t h a t of w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n , i n the t r a d i t i o n of G a l t o n and C a t t e l l , i n which the assumption i s made t h a t the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s , or a s s o c i a t i o n s , between v a r i o u s u n i t s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i n g u i s t i c r e p e r t o i r e have been p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the c o u r s e of h i s l i f e h i s t o r y . I t i s i n t h i s l a t t e r sense t h a t the word a s s o c i a t i o n i s used i n t h i s s t u d y . THE SYNTAGMATIC-PARADIGMATIC SHIFT Under the a e g i s of the g e n e r a l f i e l d of word-a s s o c i a t i o n s l i e s the s p e c i a l case of the s y n t a g m a t i c -p a r a d i g m a t i c s h i f t ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the S-P s h i f t ) . I t has been l o n g known t h a t responses t o s t i m u l u s words i n a f r e e w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k t e n d t o be e i t h e r from the same grammatical f o r m - c l a s s as the s t i m u l u s word ( p a r a d i g m a t i c ) , or from a f o r m - c l a s s t h a t i s o f t e n found i n c o n t i g u i t y w i t h the s t i m u l u s words i n s y n t a c t i c sequence ( s y n t a g m a t i c ) . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e r m i n o l o g y was a p p a r e n t l y f i r s t d e s i g n a t e d by Saussure (1916), the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two terms b e i n g n i c e l y s t a t e d by J e n k i n s (1954): W o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e s u l t of r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s t i m u l i and re s p o n s e s . The s i m i l a r i t y between any two words can be c o n c e i v e d l i n g u i s t i c a l l y as the degree of s i m i l a r i t y i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . However, i t seems apparent t h a t t h i s s i m i l a r i t y may be p r o f i t a b l y d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s , p a r a d i g m a t i c and s y n t a g m a t i c . Two words a r e c o n s i d e r e d p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o the e x t e n t t h a t they a r e s u b s t i t u t a b l e i n the i d e n t i c a l frame ... 6 and s y n t a g m a t i c t o the e x t e n t t h a t they f o l l o w one another i n u t t e r a n c e s . ( J e n k i n s , 1954, p.115) S i n c e Thumb and Marbe (1901), the phenomenon of the S-P s h i f t has been r e p o r t e d by v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t e r s , a l t h o u g h terms used have v a r i e d . The s h i f t r e f e r s t o the tendency of a d u l t s t o g i v e response a s s o c i a t e s of the same gr a m m a t i c a l and semantic c l a s s as the s t i m u l u s words, whereas c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y do n o t , i n s t e a d r e s p o n d i n g s y n t a c t i c a l l y . The s h i f t from c h i l d t o a d u l t response t y p e s g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s w i t h i n the 5 - 9 y e a r - o l d range. Most s t u d i e s showing t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s responses f o l l o w a s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n f o r most l e x i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , and t h a t a d u l t s tend t o f o l l o w a replacement p a t t e r n , have been of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s . However, s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t language backgrounds such as Japanese (Moran, 1968, 1973); K p e l l e (Sharp and C o l e , 1972); Mandarin (Moran and Huang, 1975); and F a r s i ( C r a b l e and Johnson, 1976), have shown t h a t c h i l d and a d u l t f r e e w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e n d e n c i e s d i f f e r m arkedly, j u s t as they do i n E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . But, whereas the a s s o c i a t i o n r esponses of c h i l d r e n of v a r i o u s language backgrounds a r e g e n e r a l l y s y n t a g m a t i c , a d u l t a s s o c i a t i v e b e h a v i o u r v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the dominant language. For example, Japanese a d u l t s g i v e p r e d o m i n a n t l y i c o n i c ( s y n t a g m a t i c ) responses i n Japanese t o Japanese s t i m u l u s words, ( e . g . , a p p l e - r e d , p a n t s - r i p ) as do M andarin-s p e a k i n g a d u l t s r e s p o n d i n g i n M a n d a r i n , whereas E n g l i s h -7 s p e a k i n g Chinese a d u l t s r e s p o n d i n g i n Mandarin respond p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y ( e . g . , a p p l e - f r u i t , p a n t s - s h i r t ) (Moran and Huang, 1975). The S-P s h i f t i s of i n t e r e s t f o r a number of r e a s o n s , i n c l u d i n g i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n , and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the c o g n i t i v e and l i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n i n g of c h i l d r e n , i n whom the S-P s h i f t seems t o c o i n c i d e w i t h P i a g e t ' s s h i f t from p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l thought t o l o g i c a l - c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s (1970). A l s o , a s u b s t a n t i a l number of s t u d i e s have demonstrated a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r a d i g m a t i c responses and academic achievement ( B i c k l e y , 1971; Dinnan, 1971; B r o s i e r , 1974; Achenbach, 1975). More s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the c o n c e r n s of t h i s s t u d y , the S-P s h i f t i s seen as an i n d i c a t o r of l i n g u i s t i c development (Brown and Berko, 1960; M c N e i l l , 1966; C l a r k , 1970; Moran, 1974). For example, Brown and Berko s t a t e t h a t : I t i s our g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t , as u t i l i z a t i o n of syntax d e v e l o p s i n c h i l d r e n , s y n t a c t i c s i m i l a r i t y i n words becomes an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of word a s s o c i a t i o n , and t h a t the d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d from heterogeneous ( s y n t a g m a t i c ) responses toward homogeneous ( p a r a d i g m a t i c ) responses i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s g r e a t s t e p f o r w a r d i n t o s y n t a c t i c o p e r a t i o n s . (Brown and Berko, 1960, p.4.) Many i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n s a r i s e from the above-mentioned r e s e a r c h , and those q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h i s s t udy w i l l be posed a t the end of Chapter 2. 8 CHAPTER 2. SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE Because of the p a u c i t y of s t u d i e s comparing E n g l i s h and f o r e i g n - l a n g u a g e a s s o c i a t i v e r e s p o n s e s , and the d e a r t h of w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h l e a r n e r s of E n g l i s h as a second language, the survey w i l l c o m p rise an o v e rview of r e l a t e d l i n e s of i n q u i r y . I t must a l s o be added t h a t a l t h o u g h t h i s s tudy i s concerned w i t h a d u l t w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n r e s p o n s e s , the r e p o r t i n g of a s s o c i a t i o n r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t o s u p port the h y p o t h e s i s of the S-P d e v e l o p m e n t a l s h i f t i n the n a t u r e of a s s o c i a t i v e responses from c h i l d h o o d t o a d u l t h o o d , and second, t o l e n d s u p p o r t t o the view h e l d by many r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d t h a t second language l e a r n e r s r e c a p i t u l a t e t o some e x t e n t the s t a g e s through which c h i l d r e n pass as they a c q u i r e t h e i r f i r s t language. The r e v i e w of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e w i l l g i v e e v i d e n c e of the S-P s h i f t phenomenon and w i l l i n c l u d e the major c h i l d a s s o c i a t i o n r e s e a r c h , f o l l o w e d by a d u l t a s s o c i a t i o n r e s e a r c h . These s t u d i e s have been conducted i n E n g l i s h on n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e s p e a k e r s , and by and l a r g e were undertaken i n the 1960's. I t was not u n t i l the 1970's t h a t N o r t h American r e s e a r c h e r s became i n t e r e s t e d i n the word a s s o c i a t i o n responses of s p eakers of languages o t h e r than E n g l i s h . These r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , f o l l o w e d by a statement of the p o s s i b l e t h e o r e t i c a l bases 9 f o r the S-P s h i f t and a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the S-P phenomenon t o c o g n i t i v e and l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s . CHILD STUDIES E a r l y i d e a s stemming from G a l t o n (1879) a t t r i b u t e d a s s o c i a t i o n t o f r e q u e n t c o n t i g u o u s o c c u r r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g . T h i s n o t i o n was w i d e l y h e l d u n t i l the mid-1960's when c o n t i g u i t y began t o be q u e s t i o n e d as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r a s s o c i a t i v e r e s p o n s e s ; f o r words of a d i f f e r e n t g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of c o n t i g u i t y i s a p o s s i b i l i t y , m o d i f y i n g i t t o form r a t h e r than f u n c t i o n words i n s e n t e n c e s , but i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s e s i n terms of c o n t i g u i t y , f o r reasons which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n the c h a p t e r . Woodrow and L o w e l l (1916) obse r v e d t h a t 9 - 12 year o l d c h i l d r e n tended t o make a s s o c i a t i o n s on a c o n t i g u i t y b a s i s , w h i l e a d u l t a s s o c i a t i o n s were d e s c r i b e d i n terms of g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s s i m i l a r i t y , semantic s i m i l a r i t y , or c o n t r a s t , these d i f f e r e n c e s b e i n g seen as e q u i v a l e n t t o s y n t a g m a t i c and p a r a d i g m a t i c responses r e s p e c t i v e l y . But i t was not u n t i l the Brown and Berko ( i 9 6 0 ) study t h a t an e x p l a n a t i o n was o f f e r e d f o r the S-P s h i f t i n l i n g u i s t i c terms. Brown and Berko's study d i f f e r e d from the subsequent s t a n d a r d paradigm by a n a l y z i n g the responses as homogeneous (from the same form c l a s s , eg., 10 noun-noun) and heterogeneous (from a d i f f e r e n t form c l a s s , eg., noun-verb). The study a l s o used s i x form c l a s s e s i n s t e a d of the u s u a l t h r e e of a d j e c t i v e s , nouns, and v e r b s . Brown and Berko d e s c r i b e d c h i l d r e n ' s responses as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y heterogeneous by p a r t of speech, and a d u l t responses as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y homogeneous; the a u t h o r s a l s o r e p o r t e d a steady change from a low freq u e n c y of homogeneous responses by c h i l d r e n i n e a r l y p r i m a r y grades t o a h i g h f r e q u e n c y by a d u l t s . The ord e r of f r e q u e n c y of homogeneous responses over a l l groups was as f o l l o w s : count nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s , t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s , a d v e r b s , and mass nouns. I t has been p o i n t e d out q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e l y by E n t w i s l e , F o r s y t h and Muus (1964), and Deese (1965), t h a t the h e t e r o g e n e o u s - s y n t a g m a t i c c o r r e l a t i o n i s not p a r a l l e l , as heterogeneous responses may not r e p r e s e n t word c l a s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n s y n t a c t i c sequence. For example, 'hard' g i v e n i n response t o ' d i f f i c u l t y ' i s heterogeneous (noun-a d j e c t i v e ) , but not s y n t a g m a t i c . N e v e r t h e l e s s , on the b a s i s of t h e i r s t u d y , Brown and Berko i n t e r p r e t e d the s h i f t from heterogeneous ( s y n t a g m a t i c ) t o homogeneous ( p a r a d i g m a t i c ) as i n d i c a t i v e of s y n t a c t i c l e a r n i n g : as u t i l i z a t i o n of syntax d e v e l o p s i n c h i l d r e n , s y n t a c t i c s i m i l a r i t y i n words becomes an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of word-a s s o c i a t i o n and t h a t the development t r e n d from heterogeneous responses toward homogeneous responses i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s g r e a t s t e p f o r w a r d i n t o s y n t a c t i c o p e r a t i o n s . (Brown and Berko, 1960, p.4) 11 But as has been shown by Brown (1957), young c h i l d r e n of t h r e e y e a r s are a b l e t o a s s i g n new words t o the a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m - c l a s s . The q u e s t i o n s a r i s e : Why a r e w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s r e o r g a n i z e d o n l y a t mid-to l a t e c h i l d h o o d as found by Brown and Berko? Does the S-P s h i f t r e f l e c t a g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , or does i t r e f l e c t a l i n g u i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s i t s e l f a p a r t of c o g n i t i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g ? In an attempt t o answer q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by the Brown and Berko (1960) s t u d y , E r v i n (1961) r e p l i c a t e d t h e i r r e s u l t s u s i n g c h i l d r e n from K - Gr. 6, d e s c r i b i n g the s h i f t i n s y n t a g m a t i c - p a r a d i g m a t i c t e r m i n o l o g y . E r v i n e x p l a i n e d the s y n t a g m a t i c r esponses on the b a s i s of m o d i f i e d c o n t i g u i t y i n speech, and the p a r a d i g m a t i c responses on the b a s i s of l e a r n e d c o n t e x t u a l s i m i l a r i t y . She r e f e r r e d t o response c o m p e t i t i o n i n l e a r n i n g as a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of p a r a d i g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n , but as F r a n c i s (1972) p o i n t s o u t , t h i s i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because i t examines n e i t h e r the source of the p a r a d i g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i v e s t r e n g t h , nor the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n a s s o c i a t i v e r e c a l l . E r v i n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n of the s h i f t i n terms of language e x p e r i e n c e and s c h o o l i n g a l s o seems u n s a t i s f a c t o r y as c h i l d r e n w e l l under seven y e a r s of age, the age a t which the s h i f t becomes marked, have a c o n s i d e r a b l e v o c a b u l a r y and range of s e n t e n c e s . A l s o , n o n - l i t e r a t e Navaho a d u l t s d i s p l a y a p r e f e r e n c e f o r p a r a d i g m a t i c responses i n E n g l i s h ( M a s t e r s , 1969), which 1 2 c o u l d not have been shaped by s c h o l a s t i c e x p e r i e n c e s . Both Brown and Berko ( i 9 6 0 ) and E r v i n (1961), found t h a t t h e i r s i x year o l d s u b j e c t s gave l a r g e l y p a r a d i g m a t i c r e sponses t o f a m i l i a r count nouns. T h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d as though the s h i f t towards the p a r a d i g m a t i c mode had been undergone p r e v i o u s l y . An a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s uggested by Nelson (1977), which i s presumably based on E n t w i s l e ' s (1966) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s t h a t nouns a r e always and t y p i c a l l y , p a r a d i g m a t i c and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , no s h i f t need o c c u r . T h i s view i s not e n t i r e l y s u p p o r t e d by the a d m i t t e d l y sparse d a t a c o l l e c t e d on v e r y young c h i l d r e n , and E n t w i s l e h e r s e l f has s a i d t h a t i t may be a m i s t a k e t o c a l l e a r l y noun responses ' a s s o c i a t i o n s ' because her data i n d i c a t e t h a t the e a r l i e s t and most p r i m i t i v e k i n d of a s s o c i a t i o n i s a noun, no m a t t e r what the form c l a s s of the s t i m u l u s word. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s of Brown and F r a s e r (1964) who r e p o r t t h a t v e r y young c h i l d r e n a r e prone t o say a noun when asked t o say a word w i t h no s t i m u l u s p r e c e d i n g . As a r e f i n e m e n t t o the p a r a d i g m a t i c noun argument, Emerson and G e k o s k i (1976) suggest a s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p a r a d i g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between two p o s s i b l e t y p e s of noun-noun a s s o c i a t e s . They suggest the f u n c t i o n a l - s e m a n t i c l a b e l s ' i n t e r a c t i v e ' and ' c a t e g o r i c a l ' t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e r e s p e c t i v e l y between responses t h a t are a r e s u l t of p u t t i n g the s t i m u l u s i n t o an a c t i o n sequence, from those responses based on s h a red c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t i m u l u s . 13 E n t w i s l e , F o r s y t h , and Muuss (1964) p r e s e n t e d h i g h f r e q u e n c y ( T h o r n d i k e - L o r g e , 1944) nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , and v e r b s t o c h i l d r e n f i v e , s i x , e i g h t , and ten y e a r s of age. They found t h a t commonality and number of p a r a d i g m a t i c responses i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y w i t h a d v a n c i n g age. They suggest t h a t e a r l y heterogeneous r e s p o n s e s , t h a t i s , those not b e l o n g i n g t o the same form c l a s s as the s t i m u l u s word, are not n e c e s s a r i l y s y n t a c t i c , but may be randomly s e l e c t e d . Homogeneous r e s p o n s e s , however, a r e more n e a r l y e q u i v a l e n t t o p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s . Thus the s h i f t w i t h age and e d u c a t i o n might best be d e s c r i b e d as from non-p a r a d i g m a t i c t o p a r a d i g m a t i c . The a u t h o r s suggest however t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e i n which heterogeneous responses become i n c r e a s i n g l y s y n t a c t i c . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n problem i s i m p o r t a n t because a phase of s y n t a c t i c r e s p o n d i n g suggests much more about the n a t u r a l p r o c e s s of language a c q u i s i t i o n than a phase of heterogeneous r e s p o n d i n g . A phase of s y n t a c t i c r e s p o n d i n g s u g g e s t s ... t h a t language may f i r s t be i n t e r n a l i z e d i n f u n c t i o n a l chunks t h a t become d i s s e c t e d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d w i t h c o n t i n u e d exposure and usage. The u n i t s of language comprehension may be p h r a s e s or l a r g e r p a r t s of s e n t e n c e s , s i n c e young c h i l d r e n have no means of knowing what a word i s d e f i n e d t o be except by h e a r i n g i t preceded and f o l l o w e d by v a r i o u s o t h e r sounds. T h i s must be t r u e e s p e c i a l l y f o r p a r t s of speech o t h e r than nouns. ( E n t w i s l e e t a l . , 1964, p.21) The a u t h o r s suggest t h a t nouns a r e most e a s i l y i s o l a t e d by c h i l d r e n and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h r e f e r e n t s . E n t w i s l e e t a l . c o n s i d e r t h e i r r e s u l t s t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h E r v i n ' s (1963) g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t low c o n t e x t u a l 1 4 v a r i e t y f o l l o w i n g the s t i m u l u s word produces s y n t a g m a t i c a s s o c i a t e s . They see t h i s statement of E r v i n ' s u s e f u l i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r the f a c t t h a t h i g h f r e q u e n c y a d j e c t i v e s a p p a r e n t l y y i e l d h i g h e r l e v e l s of p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g than h i g h f r e q u e n c y nouns, because c o n t e x t u a l v a r i e t y must be g r e a t e r f o r a d j e c t i v e s . In her study of 1963, E r v i n s u g g ested t h a t the freque n c y of any p a r t i c u l a r response word f o r a h i g h frequency s t i m u l u s may be p r e d i c t e d as a f u n c t i o n of f o u r v a r i a b l e s : i t s f r e q u e n c y as a s u b s t i t u t e ; i t s f r e q u e n c y j u s t p r e c e d i n g the s t i m u l u s word i n s e n t e n c e s ; i t s frequency j u s t f o l l o w i n g i n s e n t e n c e s ; and i t s r e l a t i v e f r equency i n s i n g l e - w o r d u t t e r a n c e s . The q u e s t i o n may a r i s e whether o c c u r r e n c e or s u b s t i t u t i o n i n s e n t e n c e s i n f l u e n c e s a s s o c i a t i o n , or the o t h e r way around. In an i m p o r t a n t study p u b l i s h e d i n 1966, E n t w i s l e a n a l y s e d the responses of over one thousand c h i l d r e n , K Gr. 5, t o n i n e t y - s i x s t i m u l u s words, c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s b e i n g grade, sex, I.Q., and socio-economic s t a t u s . A l t h o u g h E n t w i s l e ' s a n a l y s i s was based on f o r m - c l a s s , she showed t h a t p a r a d i g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s were based on f e a t u r e s o t h e r than g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s , and t h a t the S-P s h i f t i s complex and r a t h e r p r o t r a c t e d . For example, common a d j e c t i v e s which p o s s e s s antonyms are g i v e n many p a r a d i g m a t i c s . For l e s s f r e q u e n t l y used a d j e c t i v e s r a r e l y used by c h i l d r e n , a d u l t s i n c l i n e even more t o s y n t a g m a t i c s , p r o b a b l y because t h e r e a r e few synonyms or 15 antonyms a v a i l a b l e . A d d i t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s e v o l v e t o d i f f e r e n t words at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s , i s c i t e d by J e n k i n s and Palermo (1964). With r a r e l y used a d j e c t i v e s as a s t i m u l u s , a d u l t s respond s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y w i t h nouns. These f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t t h e r e may be a c o n s t a n t p a t t e r n f o r the e v o l u t i o n of a s s o c i a t e s ; a word a c q u i r e d v e r y e a r l y , f o r example, ' c h a i r ' , y i e l d s p a r a d i g m a t i c s (house, t a b l e ) from a f o u r year o l d . Thus i t may be, as E n t w i s l e p o i n t s o u t , t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s are not a f u n c t i o n of age. I n s t e a d : " A l l k i n d s of r esponses are found a t any age because at a l l ages words a r e b e i n g a c q u i r e d and c o n s o l i d a t e d l i n g u i s t i c a l l y " ( E n t w i s l e , 1966, p.74). Now w h i l e i t may be t r u e t h a t a l l k i n d s of responses are found at any age, t h e r e i s a c l e a r p a t t e r n of preponderant responses which a r e g i v e n a t any p a r t i c u l a r age. E n t w i s l e ' s l e a n i n g towards a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y of l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i s a t odds w i t h her d i s c o u n t i n g the age c o r r e l a t i o n as c o i n c i d e n t a l . A d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n subsumes i p s o f a c t o a t e m p o r a l component; the age c o r r e l a t i o n may be i n t r i n s i c a l l y c o i n c i d e n t a l , but the e x t r i n s i c d e v e l o p m e n t a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s s t i l l i n e x t r i c a b l y c o n j o i n t w i t h age. E n t w i s l e found a h i g h r a t e of p a r a d i g m a t i c r esponses t o nouns f o r a l l ages, and a marked i n c r e a s e i n p a r a d i g m a t i c responses between Grades 1 and 3 f o r a d j e c t i v e s , v e r b s , a d v e r b s , and pronouns. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , 16 she found a l o w e r i n g of p a r a d i g m a t i c responses between Grade 5 and C o l l e g e l e v e l f o r h i g h f r e q u e n c y nouns and v e r b s , compared w i t h Grades 1 t o 5. A l s o , a d u l t p a r a d i g m a t i c responses were n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o fre q u e n c y f o r nouns and v e r b s , t h a t i s , low frequ e n c y nouns and ve r b s a c q u i r e d more p a r a d i g m a t i c responses than d i d h i g h frequency nouns and v e r b s . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s t o those of E n t w i s l e were r e p o r t e d by Palermo (1971) who a n a l y z e d the responses made by s i x t o t en year o l d c h i l d r e n t o one hundred common words from s i x form c l a s s e s . No change i n p a r a d i g m a t i c responses was noted between age s i x and age ten f o r nouns, but a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t from s y n t a g m a t i c t o p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g was noted f o r o t h e r word c l a s s e s . The s t u d i e s c i t e d thus f a r a r e i n g e n e r a l agreement c o n c e r n i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n . There i s a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n p a r a d i g m a t i c s f o r v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s between K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 6, w h i l e noun r e s p o n s e s , a l r e a d y h i g h l y p a r a d i g m a t i c , i n c r e a s e but l i t t l e i n pa r ad i gma t i c i t y. ADULT STUDIES T u r n i n g now t o a d u l t s t u d i e s of n a t i v e - E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s , the two most i m p o r t a n t p i e c e s of r e s e a r c h were those undertaken by James Deese (1962) and by F i l l e n b a u m and Jones (1965). 1 7 Deese's study was based on the a s s o c i a t i o n s made by one hundred a d u l t s t o s i x hundred E n g l i s h words from the Th o r n d i k e - L o r g e (1944) word l i s t i n such a way as t o p r o v i d e a r o u g h l y r e c t i l i n e a r d i s t r i b u t i o n on the G-count. That i s , the s i x hundred words were made up from one hundred words t a k e n from each of the s i x c a t e g o r i e s of freque n c y of usage on the G-count, thus e n s u r i n g t h a t h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y words were b a l a n c e d by medium and low fre q u e n c y words. Each word was coded t o one of s i x gram m a t i c a l c l a s s e s by the F r i e s (1952) sentence t e s t -frame s u b s t i t u t i o n method. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s Deese s t a t e s : The o l d e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t a d u l t a s s o c i a t i o n s a re l a r g e l y p a r a d i g m a t i c i s u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y t r u e o n l y f o r nouns. A d j e c t i v e s and v e r b s a r e about e q u a l l y s y n t a g m a t i c and p a r a d i g m a t i c ; adverbs y i e l d l a r g e l y s y n t a g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . (Deese, 1962, p.81) I t c o u l d be argued t h a t the h i g h degree of sy n t a g m a t i c response was due t o low frequ e n c y s t i m u l u s words. But as Deese's d a t a show, a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n f o r fr e q u e n c y o n l y a p p l i e s t o a d j e c t i v e s . Deese thought t h a t the s y n t a g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r v e r b s , a d v e r b s , and a d j e c t i v e s were s e q u e n t i a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , t h u s 'amazingly' y i e l d e d ' b r i g h t ' , 'new', ' s t r o n g ' , and ' r e a l ' . L e x i c a l or p a r a d i g m a t i c responses were found t o be g e n e r a l f o r nouns and h i g h f r e q u e n c y a d j e c t i v e s . To e x p l a i n the s y n t a g m a t i c a s s o c i a t e s t o nouns, eg., s k y - b l u e , g r a s s - g r e e n , Deese suggests q u i t e l o g i c a l l y t h a t 18 the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a d j e c t i v e a s s o c i a t e s t o a Sequence = d o u g h t y - w a r r i o r . = Synonym = doughty-brave. = C o n t r a s t s = do u g h t y - c o w a r d l y . L = Low frequency H = High f r e q u e n c y Syn = Syntagmatic Para = P a r a d i g m a t i c » = y i e l d i n g . From t h i s , i t would appear then t h a t a s s o c i a t i v e meaning i n h i g h f r e q u e n c y a d j e c t i v e s i s independent of the immediate v e r b a l environment. F i l l e n b a u m and Jones (1965) used one hundred n i n e s t i m u l u s words, one hundred of which were words found t o appear w i t h g r e a t e s t f r e q u e n c y i n the spoken TAT (Thematic A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t ) responses of t w e l v e normal a d u l t s . S i n c e o n l y one a d j e c t i v e and few nouns were among the one hundred words, f i v e a d j e c t i v e s and f o u r nouns were added. The words were d i v i d e d i n t o t w e l v e main g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s e s (based on Jo n e s , Goodman, and Wepman, 1963). The r e s u l t s of the study showed a h i g h v a r i a t i o n of same-form-class r e s p o n s e s , p a r a d i g m a t i c responses v a r y i n g from 70 per cent f o r .nouns, 43 per cent f o r v e r b s , 66 per cent f o r pronouns, 65 per cent f o r a d j e c t i v e s , 42 per cen t f o r p r e p o s i t i o n s , 29 per cen t f o r c o n j u n c t i o n s and 23 per cent f o r a r t i c l e s . t h ese responses r e f l e c t the noun. He a l s o reduced f o r m u l a i c s e r i e s : Ad j L * Syn. A d j L » P a r a . A d j u * P a r a . 19 R e p o r t i n g on t h e i r f i n d i n g s , F i l l e n b a u m and Jones f e l t t h a t the da t a were not i n d i c a t i v e of a s i m p l e c o n t r a s t between l e x i c a l words and f u n c t i o n words, s i n c e the r e s u l t s f o r pronouns h a r d l y d i f f e r from those f o r a d j e c t i v e s or nouns, w h i l e v e r b s a r e s i m i l a r t o c o n j u n c t i o n s . As w e l l as d i f f e r e n c e s among form c l a s s e s , t h e r e were a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a s s o c i a t i o n s among members of any s i n g l e form c l a s s . These d a t a prompted F i l l e n b a u m and Jones t o c o n c l u d e t h a t c o n d i t i o n s of semantic use as w e l l as g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s a r e i n v o l v e d i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n or d i s p e r s i o n of a s s o c i a t i o n . I n s o f a r as d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e x t e n t t o which words y i e l d p a r a d i g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s have been taken as e v i d e n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s of a c q u i s i t i o n and usage i n f r e e speech {Brown and Berko, 1960; E r v i n , 1961; M c N e i l l , 1963), such d i f f e r e n c e s i n a s s o c i a t i v e p a t t e r n i n g may have i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o the f u n c t i o n i n g of d i f f e r e n t g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s e s . M i l l e r (1958, 1962) found t h a t a s s o c i a t i v e responses of a d u l t s i n both England and A u s t r a l i a c o r r e s p o n d e d v e r y c l o s e l y t o those of a d u l t s r e p o r t e d by F i l l e n b a u m and Jones. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , adapted from F i l l e n b a u m and Jones, i n d i c a t e s the g e n e r a l tendency of a d u l t a s s o c i a t i v e responses i n E n g l i s h , over the p a s t e i g h t y y e a r s ( c h i l d 2 0 d a t a added f o r c o m p a r i s o n ) . TABLE 1 MEAN PROPORTIONS OF SAME-CLASS RESPONSES Nouns A d j e c t i v e s Verbs Thumb and Marbe, 1901 .80 .88 .42 Wreschner, 1907 .76 .56 .34 Crane, 1915 .68 .20 .14 E s p e r , 1918 .77 .85 .70 Jung, 1919 .73 .52 .33 Woodworth, 1938 .70 .50 .35 Deese, 1962 .79 .50 .52 F i l l e n b a u m and Jones, 1965 .79 .65 .43 E n t w i s l e , 1966 .77 .65 .60 E n t w i s l e , 1966 [Grade 1 ] .63 .31 .20 E n t w i s l e , 1966 [Grade 5] .78 .78 .60 (Adapted from F i l l e n b a u m and Jones, 1965, p.253) B e a r i n g i n mind t h a t the means i n T a b l e 1 a r e compressed means, t h a t i s , no d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e c o r d e d of responses made, f o r example, t o h i g h f r e q u e n c y or low f r e q u e n c y a d j e c t i v e s , c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn. Nouns produce more p a r a d i g m a t i c responses than do a d j e c t i v e s or v e r b s i n most s t u d i e s . The a d j e c t i v e r a t e v a r i e s q u i t e c o n s i d e r a b l y from study t o s t u d y , a l t h o u g h on b a l a n c e p r o d u c i n g more p a r a d i g m a t i c responses than v e r b s , which seem c o n s i s t e n t l y t o produce more s y n t a g m a t i c than p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s . From the e v i d e n c e of s t u d i e s c i t e d so f a r f o r n a t i v e -E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s , both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s , the S-P s h i f t may be s a i d t o be most pronounced f o r h i g h f r e q u e n c y a d j e c t i v e s , w h i l e nouns seem t o e l i c i t p a r a d i g m a t i c 21 responses a t a l l ages, and v e r b s s y n t a g m a t i c responses a t a l l ages. The frequ e n c y of s y n t a g m a t i c and p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g appears t o be the r e s u l t of a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s , d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s v a r i o u s l y a t t r i b u t i n g the e f f e c t i v e f a c t o r as b e i n g f o r m - c l a s s , c o n t i g u i t y , f r e q u e n c y , or s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t i m u l u s words. FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDIES Thus f a r , the d i s c u s s i o n has f o c u s e d on r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . Do the r esponses of c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s whose n a t i v e language i s not E n g l i s h d i f f e r from t h e i r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s ? I f so, what a r e the d i f f e r e n c e s , and how may the d i f f e r e n c e s be e x p l a i n e d ? U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e have been few s t u d i e s conducted on the word a s s o c i a t i o n s of s p e a k e r s of languages o t h e r than E n g l i s h ( t h a t have been r e p o r t e d i n E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e j o u r n a l s ) , and no p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s of word a s s o c i a t i o n s of e i t h e r c h i l d r e n or a d u l t s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language. The f i n d i n g s of the German e x p e r i m e n t e r s of the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , summarized by Thumb and Marbe (1901) have a l r e a d y been mentioned. The German-speaker's a s s o c i a t i o n s seem t o p a r a l l e l t h o s e of E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s (see Table 1 ) , and a more r e c e n t study by R u s s e l l and Meseck (1958) of the German word a s s o c i a t i o n s 22 of over 300 German-speaking a d u l t s showed r e s u l t s v a r y i n g l i t t l e from e a r l i e r German s t u d i e s . In a s e r i e s of ex p e r i m e n t s u t i l i z i n g t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Kent-Rosanoff l i s t , the responses of a d u l t s from a number of European c o u n t r i e s were r e c o r d e d , a l l showing a g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y t o the E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e a d u l t d a t a . Kurcz (1966) t e s t e d one thousand m o n o l i n g u a l - P o l i s h u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ; B a n i s s o n i and N e n c i n i (1957) and C h i a r i (1959), t e s t e d I t a l i a n a d u l t s ; and Rosenzweig (1964) compared the word a s s o c i a t i o n s of one hundred f i f t e e n F rench c o n s t r u c t i o n workers and two hundred e i g h t y - e i g h t s t u d e n t s w i t h the e q u i v a l e n t numbers of U.S. workmen and s t u d e n t s . In a l l t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t w h i l e the p r i m a r y response p a t t e r n s v a r i e d , the response f o r m - c l a s s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h U.S. d a t a . The one anomalous note i s t h a t the F r e n c h workmen i n Rosenzweig's study responded s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y t o many noun and a d j e c t i v e s t i m u l i , t h u s r e s e m b l i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s . Rosenzweig a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t o s o c i a l c l a s s , as l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n amongst the workmen seemed to make l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e t o the n a t u r e of the r e s p o n s e s . Rosenzweig's s t u d y sparked an i n t e r e s t i n g experiment by Lambert and Moore (1966), i n which M o n t r e a l c o l l e g e and h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were g i v e n a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s . The s u b j e c t s were taken from t h r e e l i n g u i s t i c groups: F r e n c h -Canadian m o n o l i n g u a l s , E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n m o n o l i n g u a l s , and E n g l i s h - F r e n c h b i l i n g u a l s . The b i l i n g u a l s were g i v e n both 23 the E n g l i s h and F r e n c h v e r s i o n s of the t e s t , w i t h a t h r e e week i n t e r v a l between the two. Lambert and Moore were not i n v e s t i g a t i n g the S-P s h i f t as such, but were i n t e r e s t e d i n comparing the response c o n t e n t e q u i v a l e n c e between t h e i r t e s t groups, and between e s t a b l i s h e d norms f o r American and European F r e n c h a d u l t s . The e x p e r i m e n t e r s found t h a t the degree of p a r a d i g m a t i c i t y of responses between the t h r e e language groups was v e r y s i m i l a r , but t h a t the d i v e r s i t y of p r i m a r y responses d i f f e r e d i n t h a t the b i l i n g u a l group behaved more l i k e E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n s and Americans when r e s p o n d i n g i n E n g l i s h , but more l i k e French-Canadians and F r e n c h -F r e n c h when r e s p o n d i n g i n F r e n c h . One can o n l y s p e c u l a t e about the reasons f o r the s i m i l a r i t y of f o r m - c l a s s responses of European language word a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the d i v e r s i t y of p r i m a r y r e s p o n s e s . I t has been suggested t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e (Lambert and Moore, 1966), or perhaps the d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t a more g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l c o n t r a s t between l i n g u i s t i c groups (Rosenzweig, 1964). N e v e r t h e l e s s , these f i n d i n g s c o u l d be seen as s u p p o r t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t Japanese speakers l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h may respond i n c r e a s i n g l y l i k e n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s as t h e i r f l u e n c y i n c r e a s e s . In an a r t i c l e r e p o r t i n g on Japanese and American a s s o c i a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s , Moran and Murakawa (1968) p l a c e d 24 a s s o c i a t e s t o o r a l s t i m u l u s words i n t o one of f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : P e r c e p t u a l r e f e r e n t , a d j e c t i v e - n o u n or noun-a d j e c t i v e ( eg., a p p l e - r e d , h o r s e - b i g ) , O b j e c t r e f e r e n t ( " f u n c t i o n a l " eg., f o o t - s h o e ) , Concept r e f e r e n t , synonym or s u p e r o r d i n a t e (eg., s m a l l - l i t t l e , c a b b a g e - v e g e t a b l e ) , or Dimension r e f e r e n t , c o n t r a s t or c o - o r d i n a t e ( e g . , d a r k -l i g h t , b l u e - y e l l o w ) . T y p i c a l l y , a s u b j e c t w i l l t e n d t o g i v e some a s s o c i a t e s of each t y p e , but those s u b j e c t s who gave one type of a s s o c i a t e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , Moran c l a s s e d as h a v i n g an i d i o d y n a m i c a s s o c i a t i v e s e t . (Moran, M e f f e r d , and K i m b l e , 1964; Moran and Murakawa, 1968). Moran made a c l a i m f o r the u n i v e r s a l i t y of the f o u r i d i o d y n a m i c s e t s s u g g e s t i n g fundamental a s s o c i a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s common t o a l l language u s e r s , independent of the language used: One might expect t h i s f a c t of s t r u c t u r e t o be r e l a t i v e l y u n a f f e c t e d by the language i n which the word a s s o c i a t i o n experiment i s conducted ... s i n c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e d a r e e x p r e s s e d i n a l l languages. (Moran, 1966, p.20) To t e s t f o r t h i s u n i v e r s a l i t y of the f o u r i d i o d y n a m i c a s s o c i a t i v e s e t s , Moran and Murakawa (1968), compared the fre e - w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n s of two hundred f i f t y - e i g h t m o n o l i n g u a l Japanese c o l l e g e women r e s p o n d i n g i n Japanese t o Japanese word s t i m u l i , w i t h the a s s o c i a t i o n s of the e q u i v a l e n t number of American c o l l e g e women t o common nouns, v e r b s , and a d j e c t i v e s . The s u b j e c t s had f i v e seconds t o w r i t e t h e i r response t o the o r a l l y p r e s e n t e d s t i m u l u s . 25 W h i l e the Japanese s u b j e c t s e v i d e n c e d the same f o u r i d i o d y n a m i c s e t s as the Americans, thus a d d i n g t o the n o t i o n of u n i v e r s a l i t y , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e t 'types' between the groups was markedly d i f f e r e n t . The Japanese s u b j e c t s responded p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n the • p e r c e p t u a l and o b j e c t r e f e r e n t s e t t y p e s , w h i l e the Americans responded p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n the dimension r e f e r e n t s e t t y p e , but s i g n i f i c a n t l y , both groups had many responses i n the o t h e r r e f e r e n t s e t s , a r g u i n g a g a i n s t a common a s s o c i a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . Moran and Murakawa's f i n d i n g s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y i n i d i o d y n a m i c a s s o c i a t i v e s e t s and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o p o r t i o n s of response set t y p e s c r e a t e d problems f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l account of how words a c q u i r e h i e r a r c h i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r words. Rosen and R u s s e l l (1957) echo the t r a d i t i o n a l view by s t a t i n g : The c u l t u r a l f r e q u e n c y of a response i n f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s i s an index of the s t r e n g t h of t h a t response among the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the p o p u l a t i o n sampled. (Rosen and R u s s e l l , 1957,p.120) J e n k i n s ( i 9 6 0 ) has t h i s t o say about common a s s o c i a t i v e s t r u c t u r e : Commonality can be thought of as r e p r e s e n t i n g the degree t o which one i s l i k e the " s t a n d a r d " of the v e r b a l c u l t u r e ... Because the v e r b a l h a b i t s a r e l e a r n e d i n the c o n t e x t of d a i l y l i v i n g , commonality must depend on, and r e f l e c t a w e a l t h of common e x p e r i e n c e s , common a t t i t u d e s , and common a t t r i b u t e s . ( J e n k i n s , 1960, p.311) I t would be i n keeping w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w s , 26 t h e n , t o suggest t h a t the members of a s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c community would a c q u i r e a common a s s o c i a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , which was shown not t o be the case i n the Moran and Murakawa s t u d y . Moran (1966) had p r e s e n t e d an opp o s i n g view of commonality by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t commonality norms a r e a r t i f a c t s , and a r e an a r b i t r a r y average a c r o s s s e v e r a l s t a b l e s u b h i e r a r c h i e s ( t h e s e s u b h i e r a r c h i e s ' b e i n g e x e m p l i f i e d by Moran's f o u r i d i o d y n a m i c s t r u c t u r e s ) . As shown i n Moran's s t u d y , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f o u r d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s i n the nor m a t i v e sample has an impact on the r e s u l t i n g w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n commonality norm h i e r a r c h y . A c c o r d i n g t o the ' a r t i f a c t ' v i e w , the composite f r e q u e n c i e s i n such norm t a b l e s do not r e p r e s e n t the h i e r a r c h i c a l a s s o c i a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o be ex p e c t e d of a normal p e r s o n ; nor a r e the f r e q u e n c i e s r e l i a b l e i n d i c e s of the a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e n g t h of word p a i r s f o r people i n g e n e r a l . A common sense t h i r d view would seem t o be one t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t i d i o d y n a m i c a s s o c i a t i v e h i e r a r c h i e s w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a c q u i r i n g the common a s s o c i a t i o n h i e r a r c h y d e s c r i b e d by Rosen and R u s s e l l (1957) and J e n k i n s (1960), the i d i o d y n a m i c h i e r a r c h y b e i n g t r i g g e r e d by the s e t t o " a s s o c i a t e " ; the common h i e r a r c h y b e i n g t r i g g e r e d by the s e t t o "communicate". T h i s t h i r d view i s b o l s t e r e d by the f a c t t h a t , i n the Moran and Murakawa s t u d y , the s u b j e c t s a r e 27 t o l d t o w r i t e the f i r s t word t h a t comes t o mind, which i s , as Moran p o i n t s o u t , c o n d u c i v e t o p u r e l y p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , w i t h no c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n s be m e a n i n g f u l ( a l t h o u g h they i n v a r i a b l y a r e ) . A l s o , as Horton e t a l . (1963) found, s u b j e c t s have a c c e s s t o the common h i e r a r c h y when the t a s k i n v o l v e s communication, as e v i d e n c e d by w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s i n which the i n s t r u c t i o n s have been t o g i v e ' p o p u l a r ' r e s p o n s e s , t h a t i s , t o a n t i c i p a t e the responses of o t h e r s . The v a r i a b l e i n c i d e n c e of i d i o d y n a m i c s e t s i n Japanese and American p o p u l a t i o n s was f u r t h e r examined by Moran (1973) i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of 80 American f a m i l i e s and 24 m o n o l i n g u a l - J a p a n e s e f a m i l i e s . The s i x t y -s i x s t i m u l u s words c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y of nouns, w i t h some a d j e c t i v e s and v e r b s were p r e s e n t e d , and responded t o , o r a l l y , i n the s u b j e c t s ' n a t i v e language. Moran used a somewhat d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme to the one used i n the 1968 s t u d y , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the f o l l o w i n g f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : I c o n i c (a word p a i r a s c r i b i n g a q u a l i t y t o the r e f e r e n t , a d j e c t i v e - n o u n or n o u n - a d j e c t i v e , eg., a p p l e - r e d , sour-lemon, e a g l e - b o l d ) , E n a c t i v e (a word p a i r d e s c r i p t i v e of a c t i o n upon the r e f e r e n t , noun-verb or verb-noun, eg., a p p l e - e a t , r i p - p a n t s ) , F u n c t i o n a l ( c o -f u n c t i o n a l p h y s i c a l r e f e r e n t s , eg., p i p e - t o b a c c o , t a b l e -c h a i r ) , L o g i c a l (synonyms, s u p e r o r d i n a t e s , c o n t r a s t s , or c o - o r d i n a t e s ) . I t may be noted t h a t Moran's I c o n i c and 28 E n a c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s p a r a l l e l t he s y n t a g m a t i c mode, w h i l e the F u n c t i o n a l and L o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s p a r a l l e l the P a r a d i g m a t i c mode. Moran found t h a t the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s of the American a d u l t s were p r e d o m i n a n t l y L o g i c a l , w h i l e the responses of the Japanese a d u l t s were p r e d o m i n a n t l y I c o n i c , a p i v o t a l f i n d i n g f o r t h i s s t u d y . The dominant a s s o c i a t i v e mode of both the American and Japanese c h i l d r e n was E n a c t i v e . The s h i f t from E n a c t i v e t o L o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s shown by the American c h i l d r e n , and the s h i f t from E n a c t i v e t o I c o n i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s by the Japanese c h i l d r e n i s taken by Moran t o be, " c l e a r l y c u l t u r a l l y p r e -d e t e r m i n e d ( i . e . p a r t of becoming an a d u l t i n t h e i r own s o c i e t y " ) . The major unanswered q u e s t i o n thus becomes, what i s i t i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s o c i e t i e s t h a t causes Japanese and American c h i l d r e n t o branch out i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s ( L o g i c a l and I c o n i c r e s p e c t i v e l y ) from the same ( E n a c t i v e ) s t a r t i n g p o i n t ? C o u l d i t be something as si m p l e as M a s t e r s (1969) s u g g e s t e d , t h a t b e i n g t aught not t o g i v e f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s but r a t h e r , synonymous ones, e x e r t s p r e s s u r e on the American c h i l d ' s i n t e r n a l h i e r a r c h i e s of a s s o c i a t i o n r e s p o n s e s , c h a n g i n g them from s y n t a g m a t i c t o p a r a d i g m a t i c ? That t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s p o s s i b l y o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t may be adduced from r e s e a r c h showing t h a t French and K p e l l e a d u l t s w i t h v e r y l i t t l e or no s c h o o l i n g o f t e n respond p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y 29 (Rosenzweig, 1964; Sharp and C o l e , 1977). The i n d i c a t i o n of c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c , or language-s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s was f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d by Moran and Huang (1974; 1975), Sharp and C o l e (1972), and C r a b l e and Johnson (1976). In the Moran and Huang (1974) s t u d y , the same word l i s t as was used i n the Japanese study (Moran, 1973) was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Mandarin and s e v e n t y - f o u r m o n o l i n g u a l M a n d a r i n - C h i n e s e - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n aged f o u r t o s i x y e a r s were t e s t e d . The a s s o c i a t i o n s of th e s e c h i l d r e n were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y E n a c t i v e , t h u s p u t t i n g C hinese c h i l d r e n on the same f o o t i n g as American and Japanese c h i l d r e n v i s - a -v i s a s s o c i a t i v e r e s p o n s e s . In t h e i r 1975 s t u d y , Moran and Huang a c q u i r e d a sample of a d u l t f r e e - w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n s from t h i r t y - f i v e n o n - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Chinese a d u l t s . These s u b j e c t s y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g p r i m a r y a s s o c i a t i v e modes: I c o n i c ( 1 4 ) , E n a c t i v e ( 1 1 ) , F u n c t i o n a l ( 4 ) , L o g i c a l ( 2 ) , and f o u r w i t h t i e d modes, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s were e q u a l l y I c o n i c and E n a c t i v e . These a s s o c i a t i v e modes are s i m i l a r t o those r e p o r t e d by Moran i n the a d u l t Japanese s t u d y . In another sample of t h i r t y - f i v e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C h i n e s e s e n i o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , Moran and Huang found q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r i n g of a s s o c i a t i v e modes; I c o n i c ( 1 0 ) , E n a c t i v e ( 0 ) , F u n c t i o n a l ( 5 ) , L o g i c a l ( 1 9 ) , w i t h one t i e d mode. T h i s i s a v e r y s u g g e s t i v e f i n d i n g , and an i m p o r t a n t m o t i v a t i n g f i n d i n g f o r the s t u d y , i n t h a t the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g 30 Chinese responded i n Mandarin t o Mandarin word s t i m u l i q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y from n o n - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C h i n e s e ; i n f a c t the responses p a r a l l e l t hose of American a d u l t s . The language a b i l i t y of the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Chinese i s not s t a t e d , n e i t h e r a re the c r i t e r i a which were used t o a s s i g n a s u b j e c t ' s responses t o a p a r t i c u l a r mode, but even though the d a t a are too few, and v u l n e r a b l e , i t would not be s i m p l i s t i c t o suggest t h a t the observed d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses of the two Chinese groups c o u l d be due e i t h e r t o the e f f e c t s of E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e t r a i n i n g , or t o the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l ( d e s p i t e s u g g e s t i o n s t o the c o n t r a r y ) , or t o a c o m b i n a t i o n of language t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n . C r a b l e (1975) makes the c l a i m t h a t , "the amount of p a r a d i g m a t i c responses of f o r e i g n graduate s t u d e n t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than n a t i v e born g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s " ( p . 4 ) . T h i s i s h a r d t o i n t e r p r e t when the E n g l i s h language a b i l i t y of the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i s not mentioned; n e i t h e r i s the n a t i v e language of the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s p e c i f i e d . When C r a b l e i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r a d i g m a t i c responses and v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , as measured by the v e r b a l s e c t i o n of the Graduate Record Exam she found a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the two, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the more f l u e n t a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t becomes i n E n g l i s h , the more p a r a d i g m a t i c responses w i l l be g i v e n on a w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t . T h i s i s another i m p o r t a n t m o t i v a t i n g f i n d i n g f o r 31 the p r e s e n t s t u d y . C r a b l e and Johnson (1976) s e t out t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether or not a person e x h i b i t i n g c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t i v e b e h a v i o r i n a second language would e x h i b i t the same type of a s s o c i a t i v e b e h a v i o r i n h i s f i r s t language. P e n f i e l d (1969) had remarked t h a t t h e r e a r e two s e t s of t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s when d e a l i n g w i t h a n o ther language. He f e l t t h a t a person's l e a r n i n g a f o r e i g n language a c t i v a t e s a s e r i e s of n e u r a l c o n n e c t i o n s t h a t form a ' s e t ' . These p a t t e r n s or ' s e t s ' a r e n o r m a l l y kept s e p a r a t e by p e o p l e , p a r t l y by m u l t i s e n s o r y c l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each language. The C r a b l e and Johnson study was a l s o t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s w i t c h i n g of the s e ' s e t s ' , and whether or not each s e t evoked a d i f f e r e n t response on a s y n t a g m a t i c / p a r a d i g m a t i c w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t . The s u b j e c t s of the experiment were t w e n t y - t h r e e I r a n i a n s whose p r i m a r y language was F a r s i , but a l l were c o n s i d e r e d f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h , and were of above average i n t e l l i g e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r I r a n i a n s p o n s o r s . The s u b j e c t s were g i v e n the P a r a d i g m a t i c / S y n t a g m a t i c I n v e n t o r y (Dinnan, 1971), f i r s t i n E n g l i s h , and f o u r days l a t e r , i n F a r s i . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d " t h a t the p a r a d i g m a t i c t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s f o r the [ I r a n i a n s ] d i f f e r e d when g i v e n an i d e n t i c a l word-a s s o c i a t i o n [ t e s t ] i n F a r s i and E n g l i s h . " In what way they d i f f e r e d i s not r e p o r t e d , but i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n , C r a b l e and Johnson suggest t h a t a s w i t c h i n g i n t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s as i m p l i e d by P e n f i e l d (1969) had o c c u r r e d . The 32 a u t h o r s go on t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t when one language i s c l e a r l y dominant, d i f f e r e n c e s i n a s s o c i a t i o n b e h a v i o r w i l l be e x h i b i t e d , but whether t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were of form-c l a s s , or p r i m a r y response p a t t e r n s i s not s t a t e d . W ith so few d e t a i l s b e i n g s u p p l i e d i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p l a c e t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r r e s e a r c h , but on the s u r f a c e i t would appear t h a t the C r a b l e and Johnson d a t a match those of Lambert and Moore (1966). I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know how I r a n i a n c h i l d r e n respond t o word-a s s o c i a t i o n , however, t o see whether the c h i l d - a d u l t development i s p a r a l l e l e d by the r e p o r t e d European-language S-P s h i f t , or whether the c h i l d - a d u l t development p a r a l l e l s the Syntagmatic^-Syntagmatic;*, (Japanese/Mandarin) s h i f t . I f the former, then one may s p e c u l a t e t h a t the C r a b l e and Johnson d i f f e r e n c e s would be more of p r i m a r y response p a t t e r n s , but i f the l a t t e r , then the d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d w e l l be d i f f e r e n c e s of f o r m - c l a s s . C r a b l e and Johnson f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t e t h a t : S u b j e c t s not v e r y f l u e n t i n a second language would have d i f f i c u l t y making c o n t r a s t a s s o c i a t i o n s ( p a r a d i g m a t i c ) , i m p o r t a n t i n academic s u c c e s s i n a language ... the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t needs t o be aware t h a t h i s E n g l i s h t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n may be s y n t a g m a t i c [as] i n a b i l i t y t o make r e l a t i o n s can cause f a i l u r e i n a r e a s i n v o l v i n g v e r b a l a b i l i t y , both o r a l and w r i t t e n , i n a second language. ( C r a b l e and Johnson, 1976,p.7) C r a b l e and Johnson assume t h a t p a r a d i g m a t i c responses are symptomatic of more mature, or s u p e r i o r t h i n k i n g , a view s u p p o r t e d by Deese (1959a) and by J e n k i n s e t a l . 33 (1958), w h i l e Johnson (1964) found t h a t people g i v i n g more p a r a d i g m a t i c responses are s u p e r i o r problem s o l v e r s compared w i t h those p e o p l e who gave fewer p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s . C r a b l e and Johnson a l s o assume t h a t t u i t i o n i n c o n t r a s t i n g and a s s o c i a t i n g m a t e r i a l w i l l enhance p a r a d i g m a t i c thought. The q u e s t i o n of what e f f e c t has e d u c a t i o n on p a r a d i g m a t i c responses has been d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d by Sharp and C o l e (1972). These two e x p e r i m e n t e r s s t u d i e d the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s of K p e l l e s p e a k i n g t r i b e s m e n of L i b e r i a . They s t u d i e d educated and uneducated groups a t t h r e e age l e v e l s t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t s of s c h o o l i n g on p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g . Sharp and C o l e found t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a s m a l l p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of i n c r e a s e d age and e d u c a t i o n on the p r o p o r t i o n of p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s , the e f f e c t of e d u c a t i o n i s not u n i f o r m . The a d u l t non-educated and educated groups showed the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between them, l e n d i n g s u p p o r t t o the n o t i o n t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n some way a f f e c t s the response mode. In a d i f f e r e n t experiment w i t h educated s u b j e c t s who spoke E n g l i s h and K p e l l e ( t o what degree i s not s t a t e d ) , Sharp and C o l e (1972) found t h a t o l d e r s u b j e c t s gave more p a r a d i g m a t i c responses than the younger s u b j e c t s , w h i l e those r e s p o n d i n g i n E n g l i s h gave more p a r a d i g m a t i c responses than those s u b j e c t s r e s p o n d i n g i n K p e l l e . T h e i r two s t u d i e s e s t a b l i s h the S-P s h i f t as 34 o c c u r r i n g i n a language s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r languages i n which the S-P s h i f t has been documented. The s t u d i e s a l s o suggest t h a t age and e d u c a t i o n both c o n t r i b u t e t o the d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s o b s e r v e d i n o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s . However, the age a t which s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g o c c u r r e d f o r v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s was s t a t e d t o be l a t e r than p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d , and o n l y the h i g h s c h o o l educated s u b j e c t s showed l e v e l s of p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g t o v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s comparable w i t h European and U.S. samples p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d . Sharp and C o l e (1974) r e p l i c a t e d t h e i r 1972 study w i t h l i t e r a t e and n o n - l i t e r a t e c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s from Mayan and S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g groups i n Mexico. Secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s responded w i t h a g r e a t e r d i s p o s i t i o n towards p a r a d i g m a t i c responses than d i d c h i l d r e n or uneducated a d u l t s . The s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g s p e a k e r s of languages o t h e r than E n g l i s h i n d i c a t e t h a t language ( c u l t u r e ) , age, and e d u c a t i o n , i n d e p e n d e n t l y or i n c o m b i n a t i o n , a l l a f f e c t the d i s p o s i t i o n t o respond p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y . Japanese, C h i n e s e , and I r a n i a n m o n o l i n g u a l a d u l t s respond i n a d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i v e s e t than do n a t i v e s p eakers of E n g l i s h , P o l i s h , F r e n c h , German, S p a n i s h and K p e l l e ( a l t h o u g h p r i m a r y response p a t t e r n s v a r y both w i t h i n and among the s e language g r o u p s ) . C h i l d r e n , a p p a r e n t l y , of whatever n a t i v e - l a n g u a g e background, respond i n a s i m i l a r 35 ( s y n t a g m a t i c ) mode t o each o t h e r . The two s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g b i l i n g u a l s ( E n g l i s h - F r e n c h and E n g l i s h - F a r s i ) i n d i c a t e t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n response i s a f f e c t e d by the language of the s t i m u l u s , but o n l y t o the e x t e n t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r i m a r y r e s p o n s e s , not d i f f e r e n c e s i n form-c l a s s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h i s p r e s e n t study t o the f i e l d of w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , and t o the S-P s h i f t i n p a r t i c u l a r s h o u l d now be a p p a r e n t , but what has not been mentioned are some of the t h e o r e t i c a l bases upon which r e s t s the a s s o c i a t i v e e d i f i c e . THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS Ne l s o n (1977) has suggested f o u r contemporary t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s , which w i l l be used as sub-headings t o d i s c u s s b r i e f l y the t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s of w o r d - a s s o c i a t i v e b e h a v i o u r . 1. T r a d i t i o n a l Theory - d e r i v i n g from the laws of a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y c o n t i g u i t y , and em p h a s i z i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of f r e q u e n c y , commonality, and a s s o c i a t i v e s t r e n g t h . 2. Semantic F e a t u r e Theory - based on t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l -g e n e r a t i v e grammar, and r e f l e c t i n g l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e . 3. C o g n i t i v e - L i n g u i s t i c Theory - r e f l e c t i n g the 36 s t r u c t u r e of the s u b j e c t i v e l e x i c o n . 4. L o g i c a l O p e r a t i o n s Theory - e m p h a s i z i n g the word-a s s o c i a t i o n s r e f l e c t i o n of c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e s . TRADITIONAL THEORY T h i s t h e o r y proposes t h a t word a s s o c i a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t the r e c a l l of a word which has f r e q u e n t l y been e x p e r i e n c e d i n c o n t i g u i t y w i t h the s t i m u l u s word, and i t has had c r i t i c s from the b e g i n n i n g . Wreschner (1907) r e j e c t e d the e x p l a n a t i o n s of a s s o c i a t i o n i n terms of c o n t i g u i t y or o b j e c t i v e s i m i l a r i t y , c l a i m i n g such a t h e o r y : e x c l u d e s from our i d e a t i o n a l sequences a l l i n v e n t i o n , d i s c o v e r y , and new c o m b i n a t i o n s . B l a c k i s not always b l a c k : i t may on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s r e l e a s e the i d e a s of d a r k n e s s , sorrow, a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t , a c o l o u r , a l i n g u i s t i c form ... (Wreschner, 1907, p.577) More r e c e n t l y , r e j e c t i o n of the c o n t i g u i t y e x p l a n a t i o n has been espoused by Deese (1965), M c N e i l l (1966), and Lippman (1971) on the grounds t h a t p a r a d i g m a t i c responses g i v e n by s u b j e c t s a r e o f t e n o p p o s i t e s , and would r a r e l y o c c u r c o n t i g u o u s l y . As Deese s a i d , " I t i s hard t o t h i n k of the word hot as p r o v i d i n g the p r i n c i p a l or even a m o d e r a t e l y f r e q u e n t l i n g u i s t i c environment f o r the word c o l d ." (Perhaps Deese, M c N e i l l and Crippman were not t h i n k i n g about hot and c o l d r u n n i n g water, t o blow hot and c o l d , t h r o u g h t h i c k and t h i n , here and t h e r e , young and o l d , i n b l a c k and w h i t e , or o t h e r f r e q u e n t c o l l o c a t i o n s ) . A l s o , say the c r i t i c s , words from 37 the same p a r t of speech r a r e l y appear t o g e t h e r i n s e n t e n c e s , or do not f r e q u e n t l y o ccur t o g e t h e r i n n a t u r e , eg., t a b l e and c h a i r . Words from the same p a r t of speech have a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o ther d i f f e r e n t from s i m p l e c o - o c c u r r e n c e . Words of the same g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s share p r i v i l e g e s of o c c u r r e n c e , meaning t h a t they r e p l a c e one a nother i n speech. "Thus the o p p o r t u n i t y of l e a r n i n g p a r a d i g m a t i c responses seems t o be absent under o r d i n a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s of s p e a k i n g or l i s t e n i n g t o speech" ( M c N e i l l , 1966). Deese (1965) argues t h a t E r v i n ' s (1963) e x p l a n a t i o n of the i n c r e a s e , w i t h the age of c h i l d r e n , of p a r a d i g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s at the expense of s y n t a g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s -namely, the e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t t h i s r e s u l t s from the i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t y of c o n t e x t s - cannot be a p p l i e d t o the a s s o c i a t i o n s of a d u l t s , because he found no c o r r e l a t i o n i n a d u l t s between s y n t a g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s and f r e q u e n c y of usage. But i f , as s e v e r a l w r i t e r s have s u g g e s t e d , v e r b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a d u l t s becomes a s y m p t o t i c , Deese's o b j e c t i o n becomes i r r e l e v a n t . A l s o , Deese's use of r a r e l y used words perhaps t a k e s him o u t s i d e the system of o r d i n a r y language i n which o c c u r the normal p r o c e s s e s of l i n g u i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . Deese a l s o uses the word s y n t a g m a t i c t o r e f e r t o a s s o c i a t i o n s w h ich, he c l a i m s , do not r e s u l t from s y n t a c t i c c o n t i g u i t i e s , and which a r e , t h e r e f o r e , l i k e p a r a d i g m a t i c a s s o c i a t e s , a l t h o u g h not b e l o n g i n g t o the same form c l a s s as the s t i m u l u s word. 38 E r v i n (1961) had a l s o proposed a h y p o t h e s i s f o r p a r a d i g m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n based on erroneous a n t i c i p a t o r y c o n t i g u i t y . C o n t i g u i t i e s o ccur i n t h i s paradigm when a l i s t e n e r h e a r i n g , f o r example, 'the r i v e r i s too a n t i c i p a t e s 'deep', but hears ' s h a l l o w ' . Thus the s t r e n g t h of any p a r a d i g m a t i c response w i l l depend on the number of t i m e s i t has been e r r o n e o u s l y a n t i c i p a t e d f o r i t s s t i m u l u s . One of the problems w i t h E r v i n ' s t h e s i s i s , of c o u r s e , t h a t the more common frames, such as "see the ..." are n o n - s p e c i f i c . A f t e r c o n d u c t i n g an experiment t o e v a l u a t e E r v i n ' s h y p o t h e s i s , M c N e i l l (1966) c h a l l e n g e d the whole s y n t a c t i c b a s i s of a n a l y s i s , and put f o r w a r d an a l t e r n a t i v e view, the Semantic F e a t u r e Theory. SEMANTIC FEATURE THEORY M c N e i l l ' s (1966) r e v i s e d t h e o r y of the S-P s h i f t u t i l i z e d the n o t i o n of semantic f e a t u r e s based on Chomsky's (1965) l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r i e s . F i r s t , M c N e i l l proposed t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n i s a form of a c t i v e p r o d u c t i o n r a t h e r than p a s s i v e r e c a l l , (which does not i n i t s e l f i n v a l i d a t e E r v i n ' s h y p o t h e s i s ) , but he r e j e c t e d the view t h a t the S-P s h i f t was based on s y n t a c t i c l e a r n i n g , p r o p o s i n g i n s t e a d t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n was based on semantic p r i n c i p l e s . C h i l d r e n under seven y e a r s , c l a i m e d M c N e i l l , show i n s u f f i c i e n t l e a r n i n g of the semantic c l a s s f e a t u r e s 3 9 t o make a s s o c i a t i o n s l i k e a d u l t s . For example, 'man' may be r e p r e s e n t e d i n a d i c t i o n a r y by a s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e (common noun), and a c o l l e c t i o n of semantic f e a t u r e s ( p h y s i c a l o b j e c t ) , (human), ( l i v i n g ) , ( m a l e ) . When few semantic f e a t u r e s have been a c q u i r e d , a s s o c i a t i o n s c r o s s f o r m - c l a s s b o u n d a r i e s . But as F r a n c i s (1972) p o i n t s o u t , the problem w i t h both form c l a s s and semantic c l a s s hypotheses i s t h a t they a r e based on c l a s s e s i d e n t i f i e d by a d u l t s i n a b s t r a c t terms. F o r m - c l a s s i s d e f i n e d by p r i v i l e g e of o c c u r r e n c e i n sentence p a t t e r n s , w h i l e semantic c l a s s i s d e f i n e d by systems of c o n t r a s t s based on f e a t u r e s such as ' l i v i n g ' , 'human', 'male'. Nel s o n (1977) q u e s t i o n s t h a t the f e a t u r e - m a t c h i n g h y p o t h e s i s can account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n s y n t a g m a t i c - p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g by a d u l t s f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b s t a n t i v e f o r m - c l a s s e s on the b a s i s t h a t the c r u c i a l assumption f o r the f e a t u r e h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t the word a s s o c i a t i o n r e s p o n s e s match t h e i r s t i m u l i s e m a n t i c a l l y . A l s o , i t i s w e l l known t h a t young c h i l d r e n can use f a m i l i a r words a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n c o n t e x t , s u g g e s t i n g a semantic knowledge perhaps u n d e r e s t i m a t e d by M c N e i l l . The i d e a t h a t word a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e not formed i d e n t i c a l l y t o s e n t e n c e s , and may i n d i c a t e a commonality w i t h thought and memory must now be a d d r e s s e d . 40 COGNITIVE LINGUISTIC THEORY Anderson and Bower (1973) emphasize t h a t the t h e o r y t h a t word a s s o c i a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t the way i n which c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t r u c t u r e d i n memory i s a modern e x t e n s i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n t h e o r y . What makes the t h e o r y modern i s the a d d i t i o n of the n o t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s t o the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of cont i g u i t y . In a c o g n i t i v e - l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e x t , M i l l e r (1969) had t h i s t o say about word a s s o c i a t i o n s : We f i r s t l e a r n how t o produce and u n d e r s t a n d s e n t e n c e s , and t h a t e x p l a i n s why we g i v e the word a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t we do. The s i m p l e s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e bonds between words t h a t seem t o be demonstrated i n w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s are not the p s y c h o l o g i c a l atoms out of which a l l speech i s b u i l t . R a t h e r , they a r e a consequence of making peo p l e use t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c competence i n an u n u s u a l t e s t s i t u a t i o n . I f we c o u l d c h a r a c t e r i z e how a p e r s o n uses s e n t e n c e s , then we might be a b l e t o e x p l a i n why he behaves as he does on word-a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t . ( M i l l e r , 1969, p.235) M i l l e r ' s comment seems t o be t h a t d e r i v a t i o n s of language f u n c t i o n , r a t h e r than language s t r u c t u r e may y i e l d p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g a s s o c i a t i o n responses r e l a t e d t o c o g n i t i v e development and l o g i c a l t h o u g h t . But the s t e p s needed to y i e l d such p r i n c i p l e s have not y e t been t a k e n . 41 LOGICAL OPERATIONS THEORY S t o l z and T i f f a n y (1972) proposed the n o t i o n t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge about the outcome of l o g i c a l s e t o p e r a t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o p a r t i c u l a r words i s the major s t i m u l u s f o r the S-P s h i f t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n terms of P i a g e t i a n t h e o r y t h a t the l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i v e responses i n c r e a s e over the same age p e r i o d as the s h i f t t o c o n c r e t e l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s . R i e g a l (1970) a l s o emphasized l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s , but when he s t a t e s t h a t the r e s u l t s of w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s show what s u b j e c t s a r e d i s p o s e d t o do, not what they a r e c a p a b l e of d o i n g , he i m p l i e s t h a t u n d e r l y i n g c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s a r e not e l i c i t e d . T h i s , as Nel s o n (1977) p o i n t s o u t , would i n d i c a t e t h a t w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n r e s u l t s a re more r e l e v a n t as a measure of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e or s e t . I t i s apparent t h a t t h e r e i s no c l e a r - c u t a c c o u n t i n g f o r the S-P s h i f t i n w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n r e s p o n s e s . There seems t o be some consensus t h a t the S-P s h i f t s u g g e s t s , "a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of e x i s t i n g knowledge, or a t l e a s t a d i f f e r e n c e i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n , r a t h e r than the a c q u i s i t i o n of new i n f o r m a t i o n about the semantic f e a t u r e s of s y n t a c t i c c l a s s e s of words" ( N e l s o n , 1977). The c h a n g i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of word a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h age and language, may s i g n i f y a change i n c o n c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a l s o a change i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i v e t a s k . 42 LITERATURE SUMMARY The e v i d e n c e accumulated from the v a r i o u s s t u d i e s examined i s t h a t f o r a d u l t n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s , nouns tend t o e l i c i t p a r a d i g m a t i c responses on w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s , whereas a d j e c t i v e s e l i c i t p a r a d i g m a t i c responses i f h i g h f r e q u e n c y , and v e r b s t e n d t o e l i c i t p r e d o m i n a n t l y s y n t a g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s . For Japanese and Mandarin m o n o l i n g u a l a d u l t s , s y n t a g m a t i c responses predominate, but f o r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Chinese r e s p o n d i n g i n Mandarin the a s s o c i a t i v e r e s u l t s p a r a l l e l e d U.S. d a t a . I t has been suggested by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s t h a t a person a t any stage i n h i s development has d i f f e r e n t s t r a t a of f u n c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r any c o n c e p t , meaning t h a t the responses t o a w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t w i l l depend on the p e r c e i v e d s a l i e n c e of p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r word c o n c e p t . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a d u l t s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language may tend t o respond a c c o r d i n g to the p e r c e i v e d s a l i e n c e of the E n g l i s h word concept i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s i n E n g l i s h language a b i l i t y . I f s c h o o l i n g has an e f f e c t on a s s o c i a t i v e r e s p o n s e s , i t i s l i k e l y t o be d e r i v e d from the s t u d e n t ' s g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h v e r b a l t a s k s and t e a c h e r demands, and w i l l as N e l s o n (1977) s a y s , r e f l e c t g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n or i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of c o n c e p t u a l 43 i n f o r m a t i o n . In o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e new sentences the s t u d e n t of E n g l i s h l e a r n s s e t s of l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s : c o n c e p t s and e x c e p t i o n s . The second-language l e a r n e r must become aware of the c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t o p e r a t e i n s u c c e s s i v e words i n the language, so t h a t as he a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d a spoken s e n t e n c e , he can p r o c e s s the r e c e i v e d a c o u s t i c s i g n a l s e f f i c i e n t l y . R u l e s reduce the u n c e r t a i n t y i n the system, and, t h e r e f o r e , i t may be t h a t Japanese s t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h as a second language w i l l p a r a l l e l the c h i l d r e n of E n t w i s l e ' s (1966) s t u d y i n t h a t the language l e a r n e r f i r s t a c q u i r e s w h a t - f o l l o w s - w h a t ( s y n t a c t i c r e s p o n d i n g ) , and then w h a t - s u b s t i t u t e s - f o r - w h a t ( p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g ) . P a r a d i g m a t i c c l a s s e s have some p r o p e r t i e s t h a t are e n t i r e l y semantic and o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s d e t e r m i n e d from both grammar and s e m a n t i c s . These two s t a g e s may c o r r e s p o n d t o l e a r n i n g s e t s of g r a m m a t i c a l r u l e s and semantic r u l e s , two s e t of r u l e s mentioned by M i l l e r and I s a r d (1963). Thus i t may be, t h a t when the language l e a r n e r responds p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y , he i s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he knows something of the r u l e s g o v e r n i n g a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m - c l a s s , t h a t he knows w h a t - s u b s t i t u t e s - f o r - w h a t . T h i s n o t i o n extends t o the d a t a a n a l y s i s , i n which i t w i l l be assumed t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between word a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h more knowledge of r u l e s on the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t p a r a d i g m a t i c r esponses are equated w i t h 44 an i n c r e a s e d awareness of such r u l e s . An a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t may, t h e r e f o r e , be a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r of the Japanese language l e a r n e r s p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y t o emit d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of words from t h o s e he has h e a r d . T h i s p r o v i d e s i n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e of knowledge of the u n c e r t a i n t y - r e d u c i n g r u l e s t h a t make p o s s i b l e the g e n e r a t i o n of new, but p e r m i s s i b l e , c o m b i n a t i o n s of words. T h i s t h e n , a l o n g w i t h the p i v o t a l s t u d i e s of Moran and Huang (1975), Moran and Murakawa (1968), and C r a b l e (1975), w i l l be seen t o be j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r two of the f o u r hypotheses s p e c i f i e d i n the next s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . The o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t language b e h a v i o u r e v o l v e s t o g e t h e r w i t h exposure t o spoken language can be extended t o the assumption t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the E n g l i s h language environment w i l l i n f l u e n c e the development of the Japanese s t u d e n t ' s response p a t t e r n s . The more advanced Japanese s t u d e n t , by v i r t u e of g r e a t e r exposure t o E n g l i s h , and g e n e r a l i z i n g t h a t g r e a t e r exposure l e a d s t o i n c r e a s e d competence ( E r v i n - T r i p p , 1967), w i l l presumably have a g r e a t e r s t o c k of v o c a b u l a r y items from which t o choose responses on a w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t . I t would, t h e r e f o r e , seem r e a s o n a b l e t o be a b l e t o p r e d i c t t h a t the a b s o l u t e count of responses t o the s t i m u l u s words w i l l c o r r e l a t e w i t h the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the language placement t e s t . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h l e n d i n g s u pport t o t h i s i d e a i n c l u d e s t h a t of C r a b l e (1975) and t h a t of N o t t and 45 Lambert (1968) who r e p o r t e d t h a t b i l i n g u a l s r e c a l l e d fewer words from l i s t s i n t h e i r weaker language, p o s s i b l y because the s u b j e c t s had more d i f f i c u l t y d e t e c t i n g c a t e g o r i e s and r e s h u f f l i n g the words i n t o c a t e g o r i e s f o r s t o r a g e . Macnamara (1967a) found t h a t E n g l i s h - F r e n c h b i l i n g u a l s u b j e c t s who were dominant i n E n g l i s h c o u l d match a word w i t h i t s p i c t u r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r i n E n g l i s h than i n F r e n c h , perhaps because the semantic v a l u e of words was decoded more s l o w l y i n a weaker language. The w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t used i n t h i s s t u d y , b e i n g a timed t e s t , would thus d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t Japanese b e g i n n e r s i n the p o s s i b l e number of r e s p o n s e s . D a v i s and Wertheimer (1967) gave a w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t t o non-b a l a n c e d F r e n c h - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l s and r e p o r t e d t h a t , " i n c r e a s e d competence i n the second language seemed t o have made words i n t h a t language more a v a i l a b l e t o the s u b j e c t s " (p.580). And f i n a l l y , Johnson (1953) and Macnamara (1967b) both used a t a s k i n which s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o say as many d i f f e r e n t words as they c o u l d i n one language (and l a t e r i n t h e i r second language) w i t h i n a l i m i t e d p e r i o d , t h i s as a language f l u e n c y t e s t . In the d a t a a n a l y s i s , c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the groups, t h a t i s , Japanese advanced and Japanese b e g i n n e r s w i l l be l o o k e d a t , as w e l l as the t o t a l - g r o u p c o r r e l a t i o n . R e s earch c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , i n c l u d i n g Rosenzweig (1964), and Moran and Murakawa (1968) mention p r i m a r y response d i f f e r e n c e s between d i f f e r e n t language 46 groups, but more apropos t o the c o n c e r n s of t h i s paper a r e the f i n d i n g s of Lambert and Moore (1966) who r e p o r t e d t h a t b i l i n g u a l French-Canadians r e s p o n d i n g i n E n g l i s h behaved more l i k e E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n s w i t h r e g a r d t o p r i m a r y r e s p o n s e s , but more l i k e F rench-Canadians when r e s p o n d i n g i n F r e n c h . C r a b l e ' s (1976) comment t h a t , "when a pers o n m a i n t a i n s e q u a l a b i l i t y i n two languages ... h i s a s s o c i a t i v e p a t t e r n s w i l l be i d e n t i c a l " ( p . 6 ) , c o u l d be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the c l o s e r the Japanese s t u d e n t s come t o n a t i v e - E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y , the c l o s e r w i l l be the p r i m a r y r e s p o n s e s . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY T h i s study w i l l examine the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . 1. How do the responses of Canadian n a t i v e - E n g l i s h s p e akers compare t o those of o t h e r n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s who have been t e s t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s u s i n g nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , and v e r b s i n a p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e paradigm? 2. G i v e n e x i s t i n g d a t a i n d i c a t i n g how a d u l t n a t i v e -J a p a n e s e - s p e a k e r s respond i n Japanese i n a p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e paradigm t o nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , and v e r b s , how do a d u l t n a t i v e - J a p a n e s e - s p e a k e r s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language respond i n a p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e paradigm, i n E n g l i s h ? 3. R e l a t e d t o ( 2 ) , i s t h e r e a d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e 47 between n a t i v e Japanese a d u l t s b e g i n n i n g t o l e a r n E n g l i s h , and more advanced E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Japanese? 4. I s the a b s o l u t e count of res p o n s e s from b e g i n n e r s and advanced Japanese s t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h r e l a t e d t o language a b i l i t y , as measured by o t h e r language t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ? Four hypotheses are t o be t e s t e d , the f i r s t two b e i n g main hy p o t h e s e s , the t h i r d and f o u r t h b e i n g s u b s i d i a r y . H y p o t h e s i s 1. That Japanese a d u l t s b e g i n n i n g t o l e a r n E n g l i s h as a second language w i l l g i v e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s y n t a g m a t i c responses i n E n g l i s h t o nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , and v e r b s , i n a w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t w i l l d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 . That advanced Japanese s t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h w i l l g i v e fewer s y n t a g m a t i c and more p a r a d i g m a t i c responses i n E n g l i s h t o nouns, a d j e c t i v e s and v e r b s than the b e g i n n e r s , thus more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n g n a t i v e -E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s . H y p o t h e s i s 3. That the a b s o l u t e count of responses t o the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t w i l l c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by the Japanese s u b j e c t s on a t e s t of language p r o f i c i e n c y . H y p o t h e s i s 4. That the p r i m a r y responses of the advanced Japanese s t u d e n t s w i l l more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l the p r i m a r y responses of the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s than w i l l the b e g i n n i n g Japanese s t u d e n t s . 48 CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY THE TEST INSTRUMENT A t o t a l of t w e n t y - f o u r word s t i m u l i were used w i t h a l l the s u b j e c t s . These t w e n t y - f o u r words were s e l e c t e d t o o v e r - l a p as f a r as p o s s i b l e l i s t s used p r e v i o u s l y by ot h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e i r n o r m a t i v e d a t a be used as u s e f u l c o r r e l a t i v e measures. The word s t i m u l i were s e l e c t e d from words t h a t appear on one or more of the f o l l o w i n g l i s t s : 1. The Kent-Rosanoff (1910) o r i g i n a l l i s t ; 2. The l i s t used by Deese (i960;1962) i n s t u d i e s of und e r g r a d u a t e s ; 3. The R u s s e l l and J e n k i n s (1954) l i s t ; 4. The Palermo and J e n k i n s (1964) l i s t ; 5. The F i l l e n b a u m and Jones (1965) l i s t ; 6. The E n t w i s l e (1966) l i s t ; 7. The Moran (1973) l i s t . The Howes (1966) count based on 250,000 spoken words has not been used i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s of v e r b a l l e a r n i n g and was, t h e r e f o r e , not c o n s i d e r e d . Frequency of the s t i m u l u s words was de t e r m i n e d from the T h o r n d i k e - L o r g e (1944) g e n e r a l and j u v e n i l e (G- and J -co u n t s ) l i s t s . The T h o r n d i k e - L o r g e was chosen because of the w e a l t h of p u b l i s h e d n o r m a t i v e d a t a u s i n g the Th o r n d i k e - L o r g e f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s . E i g h t nouns, e i g h t 49 a d j e c t i v e s , and e i g h t v e r b s were sampled r e p r e s e n t i n g t h r e e f r e q u e n c y ranges: H i g h , Medium, and Low. TABLE II STIMULUS WORDS NOMINAL _ FORM CLASS3-CHARACTERISTICS OF J-COUNT FREQUENCY* THE STIMULUS WORDS J-COUNT0 G-COUNT^ PREVIOUSLY USED BY e allow verb (trans.) High M AA D, E begin verb (in trans.) High M AA E bi t t e r adjective Low 240 A M, K-R,R-J,P-J,E black adjective High M AA M,D,K-R,R-J,P-J,E butterfly noun Low 138 22 M,D,K-R,R-J,P-J,E chair noun Medium 700 AA D,K-R,R-J,P-J,E deceive verb (trans.) Low 150 33 E hand noun High M AA F-J, D,K-R,R-J,P-J,E high adjective High M AA F-J,M,D,K-R,R-J,P-J,E inquire verb (in trans.) Low 230 A E loud adjective Medium 560 A K-R,R-J,P-J,E man noun High M AA F-J, M, D, K-R, R-J, P-J, E, B-B music noun Medium 660 AA K-R,R-J,P-J,E needle noun Low 153 34 M, K-R,R-J,P-J,E,B-B rough adjective Low 345 A M,D,K-R,R-J,P-J,E run verb (in trans.) High M AA D, E salt noun Medium 534 AA M, K-R,R-J,P-J,E s e l l verb (trans.) Medium 500 AA D, P-J,E s i t verb (in trans.) High M AA D, P-J,E sour adjective Low 50 15 M, K-R,R-J,P-J,E table noun High M AA M, K-R,R-J,P-J,E,B-B,EV t e l l verb (trans.) High M AA F-J, D, P-J,E thirsty adjective Low 34 11 M, K-R,R-J,P-J,E yellow adjective Medium 526 AA M,D,K-R,R-J,P-J,E (Adapted from Entwisle (1966). 51 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STIMULUS WORDS - NOTES a. T h i s i s the form c l a s s as c o n s i d e r e d f o r a n a l y s i s i n t h i s s t u d y . b. Frequency as d e f i n e d i n terms of the T h o r n d i k e - L o r g e J - c o u n t : High = 1000 or more i n s t a n c e s per m i l l i o n words; Medium = 500-999; Low = Fewer than 500. ( J -count based on words found i n 120 J u v e n i l e Books.) C. M = more than 1000 i n s t a n c e s / m i l l i o n words. d. A = 50-99 o c c u r r e n c e s / m i l l i o n words; AA = 100 or more o c c u r r e n c e s / m i l l i o n words. (G-count i s the T h o r n d i k e - L o r g e g e n e r a l count and i s a summary of the T h o r n d i k e ( T ) , Lorge ( L ) , J u v e n i l e ( J ) , and Semantic ( S ) , l i s t s . e. F-J = F i l l e n b a u m and Jones (1964); M = Moran (1973); D = Deese (1960, 1962); K-R = Kent and Rosanoff (1919); R-J = R u s s e l l and J e n k i n s (1954); P-J = Palermo and J e n k i n s (1964); E = E n t w i s l e (1966); B-B = Brown and Berko ( i 9 6 0 ) ; EV = E r v i n (1961). TABLE III FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF STIMULUS WORDS BY FORM CLASS Form Class J-Count G-Count >1000 500-1000 <500 AA A <A Nouns Adjectives Verbs 5 1 2 6 1 1 2 2 4 3 3 2 5 1 2 6 1 1 53 Comparison of the J-Count and the G-Count r e v e a l s t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between h i g h - f r e q u e n c y and medium-freque n c y words i s not c l e a r c u t f o r a d u l t s , but t h i s f a c t o r i s not c r u c i a l t o the s t u d y , as the d a t a a n a l y s i s w i l l compress the f o r m - c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s t o s i n g l e e n t i t i e s , thus t r e a t i n g r e sponses t o a d j e c t i v e s , f o r example, as e q u a l . W h i l e i t would have been a t i d i e r d e s i g n t o r e p r e s e n t the f u l l range of f r e q u e n c i e s , i t was not p o s s i b l e g i v e n o t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s , t o do so. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , c o n t r o l of f r e q u e n c y i n the word l i s t s i s not e s s e n t i a l t o the d e s i g n of the expe r i m e n t , or i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The v e r b s a r e e v e n l y d i v i d e d between t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e forms. WORD CLASS C a t e g o r i z a t i o n of s t i m u l u s words a c c o r d i n g t o form c l a s s was d i f f i c u l t because usage cannot always be det e r m i n e d when a word i s not p l a c e d i n c o n t e x t . Hence, the word g i v e n s i n g l y can o n l y be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o nominal form c l a s s membership. For example, ' t a b l e ' can be e i t h e r noun, a d j e c t i v e , or v e r b depending upon c o n t e x t , a l t h o u g h i t i s u s u a l l y used i n noun form. Some words te n d not t o be ambiguous, such as ' b u t t e r f l y ' . To overcome the problem of a m b i g u i t y of word f o r m - c l a s s , the i n t e n d e d f o r m - c l a s s of each s t i m u l u s word was p r i n t e d a t the t o p of 54 each t e s t sheet a d j a c e n t t o the s t i m u l u s word [see Appendix D ] . WORD ORDER M u l t i p l e - r e s p o n s e f r e e - a s s o c i a t i o n may be p r o c u r e d by one of two methods; c o n t i n u o u s or c o n t i n u e d a s s o c i a t i o n . In c o n t i n u o u s a s s o c i a t i o n the s u b j e c t responds t o the s t i m u l u s by g i v i n g as many responses as he can w i t h i n a s t i p u l a t e d p e r i o d of time (Woodworth and S c h l o s s b e r g , 1954). The problem w i t h t h i s method i s t h a t the s u b j e c t may not be r e s p o n d i n g t o the o r i g i n a l s t i m u l u s , but i n s t e a d may be r e s p o n d i n g t o p r e v i o u s r e s p o n s e s . C o n t i n u e d a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e those which a re s u c c e s s i v e l y e l i c i t e d by the same s t i m u l u s ( N o b l e , 1952). In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , i n o r d e r t o produce c o n t i n u e d a s s o c i a t i o n s , the o r i g i n a l s t i m u l u s word i s w r i t t e n f i f t e e n t i m e s down the l e f t s i d e of each page of the t e s t b o o k l e t so t h a t the s u b j e c t r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g from l e f t t o r i g h t i s more l i k e l y t o r e t u r n t o the s t i m u l u s word a f t e r each response than t o t r e a t the l a s t response as a s t i m u l u s . The s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e each of t h e i r responses b e s i d e the p r i n t e d s t i m u l u s word, both o r a l and w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s ( H u l l , 1 9 7 8 ) e m p h a s i z i n g the r e a d i n g of the s t i m u l u s word, w r i t i n g the re s p o n s e , r e a d i n g the s t i m u l u s word, e t c . [See Appendix D f o r i n s t r u c t i o n sheet and sample t e s t page.] 55 To guard a g a i n s t c o n t i n u o u s responses between d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l u s words, the word s h e e t s were randomly assembled i n t o the t e s t b o o k l e t s , such t h a t no two b o o k l e t s p r e s e n t e d the s t i m u l u s words i n the same o r d e r . TEST ADMINISTRATION The consensus of e a r l y work a c c o r d i n g t o E n t w i s l e (1966), i s t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t . With c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , C l o u s i n g (1927) found e s s e n t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between w r i t t e n and o r a l response methods, and subsequent word a s s o c i a t i o n s t u d i e s w i t h a d u l t s have tended t o use s t i m u l u s words w r i t t e n i n b o o k l e t s or on s l i d e s , w i t h the s u b j e c t s w r i t i n g t h e i r own r e s p o n s e s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e have been e x c e p t i o n s . There appears t o have been o n l y one study d u p l i c a t i n g C l o u s i n g ' s 1927 experiment which found t h a t g r o u p - w r i t t e n responses do not d i f f e r from i n d i v i d u a l - o r a l r e s p o n s e s . E n t w i s l e (1966) compared the responses of c o l l e g e women under a g r o u p - w r i t t e n p r o c e d u r e w i t h the responses under an i n d i v i d u a l - o r a l p r o c e d u r e . She found the numbers of c o n t r a s t responses i d e n t i c a l between p r o c e d u r e s when the i n d i v i d u a l - o r a l p r o c e d u r e was conducted by a female p e e r , but t h a t when the i n d i v i d u a l - o r a l p r o c e d u r e was conducted by a male c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r , t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n c o n t r a s t r e s p o n s e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s not the o r a l v e r s u s w r i t t e n dichotomy t h a t 56 i n f l u e n c e s r e s p o n s e s , but the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t s and e x p e r i m e n t e r , i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the f o r m - c l a s s of responses was not a f f e c t e d . The w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t used i n t h i s study was a d m i n i s t e r e d as a g r o u p - w r i t t e n t e s t . The s u b j e c t s were each g i v e n a t e s t b o o k l e t which was p r e f a c e d by a page of w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s , [see Appendix D ] . A f t e r the s u b j e c t s had read the i n s t r u c t i o n s the e x p e r i m e n t e r emphasized the importance of r e a d i n g the s t i m u l u s word each time p r i o r t o r e s p o n d i n g . The s i g n a l t o b e gin was g i v e n . A f t e r t h i r t y seconds, and a f t e r each subsequent t h i r t y second p e r i o d the e x p e r i m e n t e r had the s u b j e c t s t u r n t o the next page of s t i m u l u s words. The experiment c o n t i n u e d i n t h i s manner u n t i l each of the t w e n t y - f o u r s t i m u l u s words had been responded t o . THE SUBJECTS The n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g sample comprised two c l a s s e s of E n g l i s h - e d u c a t i o n undergraduates t o t a l l i n g f o r t y s t u d e n t s who were s t u d y i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia. The s u b j e c t s were m a i n l y f i f t h year t r a n s f e r s t o the secondary E n g l i s h t r a i n i n g programme, and they ranged i n age from t w e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s t o t h i r t y - p l u s y e a r s . A l l the s u b j e c t s had E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. There were ten males and t h i r t y f e m a l e s . 57 Whereas i t would have made f o r a more b a l a n c e d sample had the sexes been d i v i d e d e q u a l l y , i t has been shown t h a t a f t e r the age of s i x y e a r s , sex d i f f e r e n c e s p l a y a n e g l i g i b l e r o l e i n the S-P s h i f t r e s ponses ( T r e s s e l t , Leeds, and Mayzner, 1955; Menyuk, 1964; J e n k i n s , 1965). Three c l a s s e s of Japanese s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h as a second language a t the Language I n s t i t u t e of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were g i v e n a Language I n s t i t u t e placement t e s t c o m p r i s i n g twenty d i s c r e t e i t e m s . T h i s t e s t i s not an e x h a u s t i v e b a t t e r y , nor i s i t s t a n d a r d i z e d . However, over the y e a r s t h a t i t has been i n use, the placement t e s t has been found t o be, f o r a m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s , an adequate measure of the s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n i n the E n g l i s h language. The r e s u l t s of the placement t e s t c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the w i d e l y acknowledged placement t e s t b a t t e r y d e v e l o p e d a t the K i n g Edward Campus of the Vancouver Community C o l l e g e . The f o r t y - s e v e n Japanese were t e s t e d on r e a d i n g , grammar, and l i s t e n i n g , the maximum s c o r e b e i n g one hundred. On a subsequent day, a l l f o r t y - s e v e n s t u d e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t i n an i d e n t i c a l f a s h i o n t o the m o n o l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s . In o r d e r t o c r e a t e two m a x i m a l l y d i s t i n c t groups the f i f t e e n s t u d e n t s w i t h the l o w e s t placement t e s t s c o r e s were a s s i g n e d t o the group d e s i g n a t e d Japanese b e g i n n e r s , w h i l e those f i f t e e n s t u d e n t s s c o r i n g h i g h e s t on the 58 placement t e s t were a s s i g n e d t o the group d e s i g n a t e d Japanese advanced. The placement t e s t s c o r e s f o r the b e g i n n e r s ranged from 20% t o 50%, w h i l e the advanced group s c o r e d from 70% t o 100%. Wh i l e a l l the f o r t y - s e v e n Japanese s t u d e n t s had t h e i r w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s s c o r e d and r e c o r d e d , o n l y the s c o r e s and responses from the t h i r t y advanced and b e g i n n e r s t u d e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , r e s u l t s , and d i s c u s s i o n . The Japanese s t u d e n t s had a l l completed a t l e a s t the e q u i v a l e n t of Grade 12, and a l l had been exposed t o E n g l i s h i n Japan, some more so than o t h e r s ; a l l had Japanese as t h e i r f i r s t language. The Japanese advanced group was composed of n i n e females and s i x males w h i l e the begi n n e r group comprised f i v e females and ten males. CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONSES A problem t h a t has been e n c o u n t e r e d by many word-a s s o c i a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t e r s ( E r v i n , 1961; Deese, 1962b; F i l l e n b a u m and Jones, 1965; E n t w i s l e , 1966) i s the l a c k of l i n g u i s t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t and e x h a u s t i v e c a t e g o r i e s t o which response words may be a s s i g n e d . In f a c t , as E n t w i s l e (1966) s t a t e s , "not knowing the r e l e v a n t d i m e n s i o n s of la n g u a g e - u s e r s hampers the e n t i r e study of language a c q u i s i t i o n i n c l u d i n g the development of m a t h e m a t i c a l models" ( p . 3 3 ) . F r i e s (1952) a t t e m p t e d t o impose a schema 59 i n d u c t i v e l y , h i s major d i c h o t o m i e s b e i n g i n terms of l e x i c a l , v e r s u s f u n c t i o n words, a d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t does not account f o r major v a r i a t i o n s i n a s s o c i a t i o n . However, the s t i m u l u s l i s t used i n t h i s study i s composed of l e x i c a l i t e m s . The meaning of any u t t e r a n c e c o n s i s t s , a t the v e r y l e a s t , of l e x i c a l meanings of the s e p a r a t e words p l u s the s t r u c t u r a l meanings. I t ' i s t h e i r l a t t e r meanings which are h a r d t o study u s i n g i s o l a t e d words, but l e x i c a l i t e m s , t o o , can be ambiguous. In t h i s s tudy the f o r m - c l a s s e s of responses have l a r g e l y f o l l o w e d F r i e s ' s c a t e g o r i e s : Nouns, A d j e c t i v e s , V e r b s , Adverbs, Pronouns, P r e p o s i t i o n s and R e s i d u a l s ( a l l o t h e r s ) . SCORING THE RESPONSE O b j e c t i o n s have been r a i s e d t h a t the schemes of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s r e s t upon l o g i c a l , r a t h e r than p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s , or t h a t they c l a s s i f y the r e l a t i o n s between o b j e c t i v e d a t a r a t h e r than the a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . One d i f f i c u l t y has been t h a t of the a m b i g u i t y of many responses i n terms of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . S h o u l d the a s s o c i a t i o n 'man-animal 1 be s c o r e d as a s u p r a o r d i n a t e or c o o r d i n a t e , c o n t r a s t , or s i m i l a r i t y ? F o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h i s s t u d y , the problems w i t h these two examples a r e not en c o u n t e r e d as the c r i t e r i o n i s 60 whether or not the response i s s y n t a g m a t i c or p a r a d i g m a t i c However, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of response-words i n t o g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s i s o f t e n u n c e r t a i n . For example, i s the response r e c o r d t o the s t i m u l u s music t o be c l a s s e d as a noun or verb? The response d a t a were s c o r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y by two s c o r e r s , both of whom had a l i n g u i s t i c s background. Most d e c i s i o n s were seen as b e i n g s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as many word responses commonly used as nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , or v e r b s , were so c l a s s i f i e d . In c a s e s of a m b i g u i t y , f o r example, s t i m u l u s ' f l o w e r ' e l i c i t i n g the response ' p l a n t ' , where ' p l a n t ' c o u l d be a noun or v e r b , the response was e n t e r e d i n the c a t e g o r y noun/verb, which i n e f f e c t , a s s i g n e d the response t o the s y n t a g m a t i c c a t e g o r y by v i r t u e of i t b e i n g e x c l u d e d from the noun c a t e g o r y . By d o i n g t h i s the power of the experiment i s s t r e n g t h e n e d v i s - a - v i s the hypotheses as the p a r a d i g m a t i c s c o r e s w i l l be c o n s e r v a t i v e . Responses were judged t o be p a r a d i g m a t i c i f they belonged t o the same f o r m - c l a s s as the s t i m u l u s word, w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s o s : 1. A l l c a s e s i n which the s t i m u l u s word was r e p e a t e d , eg., rough-rough sea, were counted as s y n t a g m a t i c . 2. A l l c a s e s where, even though the nominal form c l a s s of s t i m u l u s and response were the same, a s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n was o b v i o u s , were counted as b e i n g s y n t a g m a t i c . eg., f l o w e r - p o t , t a b l e - c l o t h . 61 Responses not b e l o n g i n g t o the same f o r m - c l a s s as the s t i m u l u s word were c o n s i d e r e d s y n t a g m a t i c , thus any response t o a noun s t i m u l u s t h a t was not a noun was c o n s i d e r e d a s y n t a g m a t i c response. 62 CHAPTER 4. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Three unequal n, one-way a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e were performed on the d a t a w i t h f o r m - c l a s s as the independent v a r i a b l e i n each. The f i x e d e f f e c t s model was used, and the S c h e f f e m u l t i p l e range t e s t a p p l i e d t o g i v e ranges f o r the 0.05 l e v e l . As shown i n T a b l e 8, the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the Japanese b e g i n n e r group f o r p a r a d i g m a t i c responses t o v e r b s t i m u l i , F(2,67) = 3.683, p<0.05, and a l s o f o r p a r a d i g m a t i c responses t o a d j e c t i v e s t i m u l i , F(2,67) = 6.259, p<0.0l. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between any of the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups f o r p a r a d i g m a t i c responses t o noun s t i m u l i . The mean p r o p o r t i o n s of a s s o c i a t e s f o r each s t i m u l u s word, g i v e n by g r a m m a t i c a l form c l a s s , a r e shown i n T a b l e s 4,5, and 6. The n a t i v e - E n g l i s h d a t a f o r the s t i m u l u s word ' b u t t e r f l y ' i n T a b l e 4, f o r example, may be read as f o l l o w s : the f o r t y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s responded t o the s t i m u l u s word w i t h a noun 172 t i m e s , w i t h an a d j e c t i v e 76 t i m e s , w i t h a v e r b 33 t i m e s , and so on, f o r a t o t a l number of 305 responses t o the s t i m u l u s word. The means are i m m e d i a t e l y underneath these f i g u r e s so t h a t the mean noun response e q u a l s .56, the a d j e c t i v e response .25, v e r b response .11, and so on. The 7.6 i n d i c a t e s the mean number of responses by a l l the s u b j e c t s t o ' b u t t e r f l y ' . The d a t a f o r the Japanese advanced and Japanese b e g i n n e r groups may be read i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . The mean response TABLE IV MEAN PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES FOR EACH NOUN STIMULUS FOR ENGLISH SPEAKERS ENGLISH TOTAL N AJ V AV N/V AJ/N PRO PRE MEAN b u t t e r f l y 172 76 33 0 13 1 0 10 305 .56 .25 .11 0 .04 0 0 .03 7.6 chair 162 58 40 3 1 3 0 23 290 .56 .20 .14 .01 0 .01 2 .08 7.2 hand 158 38 66 0 8 1 .01 26 299 .53 .13 .22 0 .03 0 0 .09 7.5 man 190 45 9 3 3 15 0 6 271 .70 .17 .03 .01 .01 .06 0 .02 6.7 music 220 45 40 0 17 9 0 6 337 .65 .13 .12 0 .05 .03 0 .02 8.4 needle 168 32 73 0 19 1 5 9 307 .55 .10 .24 0 .06 0 .02 .03 7.7 s a l t 201 45 18 0 4 1 0 27 296 .68 .15 .06 0 .01 0 0 .09 7.4 table 217 30 33 0 6 1 0 24 311 .70 .10 .11 0 .02 0 0 .08 7.8 MEANS .62 .15 .12 .03 .01 .05 7.5 N = Nouns AJ = Adjective V = Verbs AJ/N = Adjective-noun ambiguous AV = Adverbs N/V = Noun-verb ambiguous PRE = Prepositions PRO = Pronouns * =<0.01 TABLE IV MEAN PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES FOR EACH NOUN STIMULUS FOR JAPANESE ADVANCED N AJ V JAPANESE ADVANCED AV N/V AJ/N PRO PRE TOTAL MEAN b u t t e r f l y 42 24 3 0 5 0 0 2 76 .55 .31 .04 0 .07 0 0 .03 5.1 chair 49 7 7 0 1 1 0 2 67 .74 .10 .10 0 .01 .01 0 .03 4.5 hand 45 13 7 0 3 1 0 4 73 .62 .18 .10 0 .04 .01 0 .05 4.9 man 42 29 1 0 0 4 0 1 77 .54 .38 .01 0 0 .05 0 .01 5.1 music 56 16 4 0 3 1 0 1 81 .69 .20 .05 0 .04 .01 0 .01 5.4 needle 37 11 6 0 5 0 0 0 59 .63 .19 .10 0 .08 0 0 0 3.9 s a l t 49 12 2 0 3 0 0 0 66 .74 .18 .03 0 .04 0 0 0 4.4 table 61 5 5 0 1 0 0 7 79 .77 .06 .06 0 .01 0 0 .09 5.3 MEANS .66 .20 .06 * .04 .01 * .03 4.8 N = Nouns AV = Adverbs AJ = Adjective N/V = Noun-verb ambiguous V = Verbs PRE = Prepositions AJ/N = Adjective-noun ambiguous PRO = Pronouns TABLE IV MEAN PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES FOR EACH NOUN STIMULUS FOR JAPANESE BEGINNERS N AJ V JAPANESE BEGINNER AV N/V AJ/N PRO PRE TOTAL MEAN b u t t e r f l y 22 18 1 1 3 0 0 0 45 .49 .40 .02 .02 .06 0 0 0 3.0 chair 29 4 9 0 0 0 0 1 43 .67 .06 .21 0 0 0 0 .02 2.9 hand 26 4 4 0 0 0 0 4 38 .68 .10 .10 0 0 0 0 .10 2.5 man 29 10 2 0 3 0 0 1 45 .64 .22 .04 0 .06 0 0 .02 3.0 music 36 10 1 0 8 0 0 2 57 .63 .17 .02 0 .14 0 0 .03 3.8 needle 15 6 1 0 3 0 0 0 25 .60 .24 .04 0 .12 0 0 0 1.7 s a l t 22 7 2 0 3 0 0 0 34 .65 .20 .06 0 .09 0 0 0 2.3 table 37 3 3 0 0 0 0 6 49 .75 .06 .06 0 0 0 0 .12 3.3 MEANS .64 .18 .07 * .06 * * .04 2.8 N = Nouns , AV = Adverbs AJ = Adjective N/V = Noun-verb ambiguous V = Verbs PRE = Prepositions AJ/N = Adjective-noun ambiguous PRO = Pronouns TABLE V MEAN PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES FOR EACH ADJECTIVE STIMULUS FOR ENGLISH SPEAKERS ENGLISH TOTAL N AJ V AV N/V AJ/N PRO PRE MEAN bit t e r 143 .86 6 0 3 2 0 2 242 .59 .35 .02 0 .01 .01 0 .01 6.0 black 224 77 3 0 2 4 0 2 312 .72 .25 .01 0 .01 .01 0 .01 7.8 high 162 66 36 10 6 3 0 10 293 .55 .22 .12 .03 .02 .01 0 .03 7.3 loud 160 87 18 1 16 5 1 0 288 .56 .30 .06 0 .06 .02 0 0 7.2 rough 141 110 14 1 13 0 0 1 280 .50 .39 .05 0 .05 0 0 0 7.0 sour 182 68 8 0 6 1 0 3 268 .68 .25 .03 0 .02 0 0 .01 6.7 thirsty 171 67 18 2 32 0 0 1 291 .59 .23 .06 .01 .11 0 0 0 7.3 yellow 198 81 6 0 10 2 0 0 297 .67 .27 .02 0 .03 .01 0 0 7.4 MEANS .61 .28 .05 * .04 * * * 7.1 N = Nouns AJ = Adjective V = Verbs AJ/N = Adjective-noun ambiguous AV = Adverbs N/V = Noun-verb ambiguous PRE = Prepositions PRO = Pronouns * = <0.01 TABLE V MEAN PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES FOR EACH ADJECTIVE STIMULUS FOR JAPANESE ADVANCED JAPANESE ADVANCED TOTAL N AJ V AV N/V AJ/N PRO PRE MEAN b i t t e r 47 11 2 0 4 0 1 0 65 .72 .17 .03 0 .06 0 .01 0 4.3 black 58 26 2 0 0 0 0 0 86 .67 .30 .02 0 0 0 0 0 5.7 high 47 19 0 1 1 0 0 0 68 .69 .28 0 .01 .01 0 0 0 4.5 loud 45 18 3 1 6 1 0 0 74 .61 .24 .04 .01 .08 .01 0 0 4.9 rough 34 17 3 0 0 0 0 0 54 .63 • 31 .05 0 0 0 0 0 3.6 sour 41 19 1 0 1 0 0 0 62 .66 .31 .02 0 .02 0 0 0 4.1 t h i r s t y 68 8 2 4 0 0 0 0 82 .83 .10 .02 ?04 0 0 0 0 5.5 yel low 47 21 0 0 0 1 0 0 70 .67 .30 0 0 0 .01 0 .01 4.7 MEANS .68 .25 .02 * .02 * * * 4.7 N = Nouns AJ = Adject ives V = Verbs AJ/N = Adjective-noun ambiguous AV = Adverbs N/V = Noun-verb ambiguous PRE = Preposi t ions PRO = Pronouns * = <0.01 TABLE V MEAN .PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES FOR EACH ADJECTIVE STIMULUS FOR JAPANESE BEGINNERS JAPANESE BEGINNER TOTAL N AJ V AV N/V AJ/N PRO PRE MEAN b i t t e r 11 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 23 .48 .30 .04 0 0 .13 0 .04 1.5 black 49 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 59 .83 .15 .02 0 0 0 0 0 3.9 high 48 8 1 1 1 0 0 1 60 .80 .13 .02 .02 .02 0 0 .02 4.0 loud 16 9 4 0 1 0 0 0 30 .53 .30 .13 0 .03 0 0 0 2.0 rough 13 3 2 2 1 0 0 0 21 .62 .14 .09 .09 .05 0 0 0 1.4 sour 29 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 33 .88 .09 0 .03 0 0 0 0 2.2 t h i r s t y 16 3 1 0 1 2 0 0 23 .70 .13 .04 0 .04 .09 0 0 1.5 yellow 47 4 1 1 0 2 0 0 55 .85 .07 .02 .02 0 .04 0 0 3.7 MEANS - .71 .16 .04 .02 .02 .03 * * 2.5 N = Nouns AJ = Adjectives V = Verbs AJ/N = Adjective-noun ambiguous AV = Adverbs N/V = Noun-verb ambiguous PRE = Prepositions PRO = Pronouns * = <0.01 TABLE VT MEAN PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES FOR EACH VERB STIMULUS FOR ENGLISH SPEAKERS ENGLISH TOTAL N AJ V AV N/V AJ/N PRO PRE MEAN allow 47 11 117 15 11 0 14 5 220 .21 .05 .53 .06 .05 0 .06 .02 5.5 begin 46 17 140 22 21 1 0 5 252 .18 .07 .56 .09 .08 0 0 .02 6.3 deceive 47 29 122 4 5 0 7 0 214 .22 .14 .57 .02 .02 0 .03 0 5.4 inquire 74 18 116 12 2 0 0 6 228 .32 .08 .51 .05 .01 0 0 .03 5.7 run 90 32 81 51 15 0 0 46 315 .29 .10 .26 .16 .05 0 0 .15 7.9 s e l l 157 10 65 0 16 1 4 4 257 .61 .04 .25 0 .06 0 .02 .02 6.4 s i t 100 28 76 27 2 0 0 51 284 .35 .10 .27 .10 .01 0 0 .18 7.1 t e l l 125 7 85 2 15 0 30 3 267 .47 .03 .32 .01 .06 0 .11 .01 6.7 MEANS .33 .08 .41 .06 .04 * .03 .05 6.4 N = Nouns AJ = Adjectives V = Verbs AJ/N = Adjective-noun ambiguous AV = Adverbs N/V = Non-verb ambiguous PRE = Prepositions PRO = Pronouns * = <0.01 TABLE VE MEAN PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES FOR EACH VERB STIMULUS FOR JAPANESE ADVANCED JAPANESE ADVANCED N AJ V AV N/V AJ/N PRO PRE MEAN allow 19 1 24 0 4 1 0 1 50 .38 .02 .48 0 .08 .02 0 .02 3.3 begin 14 8 33 0 9 0 0 0 64 .22 .12 .52 0 .14 0 0 0 4.3 deceive 18 6 11 0 3 0 0 0 38 .47 .16 .29 0 .08 0 0 0 2.5 inquire 24 2 11 0 1 0 0 0 38 .63 .05 .29 0 .03 0 0 0 2.5 run 27 5 14 1 10 4 0 2 63 .43 .08 .22 .02 .16 .06 0 .03 4.2 s e l l 51 1 14 0 2 1 0 2 71 .72 .01 .20 0 .03 .01 0 .03 4.7 s i t 43 2 14 1 2 0 0 7 69 .62 .03 .20 .01 .03 0 0 .10 4.6 t e l l 32 7 21 0 2 0 0 1 63 .51 .11 .33 0 .03 0 0 .02 4.2 MEANS .50 .07 .32 * .07 .01 .02 3.8 N = = Nouns AJ = = Adjectives AV = Adverbs V = = Verbs N/V = Non-verb ambiguous AJ/N = Adjective-noun ambiguous PRE = Prepositions PRO = Pronouns TABLE VI MEAN PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES FOR EACH VERB STIMULUS FOR JAPANESE BEGINNERS N AJ V JAPANESE AV BEGINNER N/V AJ/N PRO PRE TOTAL MEAN allow 5 2 9 0 3 0 1 0 20 .25 .10 .45 0 .15 0 .05 0 1.3 begin 21 3 14 0 3 0 0 7 48 .44 .06 .29 0 .06 0 0 .15 3.2 deceive 3 3 1 0 1 0 0 2 10 .30 .30 10 0 .10 0 0 .20 0.7 inquire 3 1 8 0 1 0 0 3 16 .19 .06 .50 0 .06 0 0 .19 1.1 run 18 2 11 12 3 1 0 7 54 .33 .04 .20 .22 .05 .02 0 .13 3.6 s e l l 29 0 7 1 1 0 0 3 41 .71 0 .17 .02 .02 0 0 .07 2.7 s i t 29 1 5 0 0 0 1 17 53 .55 .02 .10 0 0 0 .02 .32 3.5 t e l l 13 0 17 1 3 0 7 0 41 .32 0 .41 .02 .07 0 .17 0 2.7 MEANS .39 .07 .28 .03 .06 * .03 .13 2.3 N = Nouns AJ = Adjectives V = Verbs AJ/N = Adjective-noun ambiguous AV = Adverbs N/V = Non-verb ambiguous PRO = Propositions PRE = Prepositions * =<0.01 TABLE VII MEAN PROPORTIONS OF ASSOCIATES IN EACH GRAMMATICAL CLASS NOUN ADJECT. VERB ADVERB N/V ADJ/N PRO. PREP. MEAN TOTAL RESPONSE NOUN 1 .62 .15 .12 * .03 .01 * .05 7.5 TOTALS 2 .66 .20 .06 * .04 .01 * .03 4.8 3 .64 .18 .07 * .06 * * .04 2.8 ADJECT. 1 .61 .28 .05 * .04 * * * 7.1 TOTALS 2 .68 .25 .02 * .02 * * * 4.7 3 .71 .16 .04 .02 .02 .03 * * 2.5 VERB 1 .33 .08 .41 .06 .04 * .03 .05 6.4 TOTALS 2 .50 .07 .32 * .07 .01 * .02 3.8 3 .39 .07 .28 .03 .06 * .03 .13 2.3 1 = Native English speakers n=40 2 = Japanese Advanced n-15 3 = Japanese Beginners n=15 *<0.01 TABLE VTII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE BY GROUP NOUNS SOURCE D.F. S.S. M.S. F. P(F) . Between groups 2 132.91 66.45 0.296 0.7444 Within groups 67 15018.23 224.15 Total 69 15151.15 One way, unequal n's, fixed effects model. TABLE VIII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE1 BY GROUP AEuTCTIVES SOURCE D.F. S.S. M.S. F. P(F) . Between groups 2 2009.72 1004.86 ** 6.259 0.0032 Within groups 67 10757.87 160.55 Total 69 12766.59 Multiple range test (Scheffe) showed native English group d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the 0.05 l e v e l from Japanese beginner group for verbs and adjectives. 1 One way, unequal n's,fixed effects model. ** p< .01 TABLE VTII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE1 BY GROUP VERBS SOURCE D.F. S.S. M.S. F. P(F) . Between group 2 2781.66 1390.83 3.683* 0.0304 Within groups 67 25302.85 377.65 -Total 69 28084.51 Multiple range test (Scheffe) showed native English group d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the 0.05 l e v e l from Japanese beginner group f o r verbs and adjectives. "'"One way, unequal n's, f i x e d effects model. * p<.05 76 f i g u r e s were o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g the form c l a s s t o t a l s f o r each s t i m u l u s word by the t o t a l number of responses t o t h a t s t i m u l u s . The p a r a d i g m a t i c responses f o r each s t i m u l u s word, and f o r each group of s u b j e c t s can be read under the a p p r o p r i a t e form c l a s s column. For example, i n Ta b l e 4, showing the p r o p o r t i o n s of a s s o c i a t i o n s t o noun s t i m u l i , p a r a d i g m a t i c r esponses may be read under the noun column, and i n t h i s example, the mean t o t a l p a r a d i g m a t i c response t o nouns f o r n a t i v e - E n g l i s h speakers i s .62. A summary of these r e s u l t s showing t o t a l mean p r o p o r t i o n s of a s s o c i a t e s i s g i v e n i n Ta b l e 7, w h i l e a breakdown of the mean p r o p o r t i o n of p a r a d i g m a t i c responses by form c l a s s f o r each of the seventy s u b j e c t s i s g i v e n i n Appendices B and C, i n T a b l e s 12 and 13. I t may be seen t h a t f o r the E n g l i s h - n a t i v e s p e a k e r , Japanese advanced, and Japanese b e g i n n e r groups ( T a b l e s 4 and 7) responses a re l a r g e l y p a r a d i g m a t i c o n l y f o r noun s t i m u l i . T h i s i s i n accordance w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s f o r n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s (see T a b l e 1 ) , and w i t h Deese's (1962) statement t h a t , "the o l d e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t a d u l t a s s o c i a t i o n s a re l a r g e l y p a r a d i g m a t i c i s u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y t r u e o n l y f o r nouns" (p . 8 1 ) . As h y p o t h e s i z e d , the responses of the Japanese advanced group p a r a l l e l e d the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group, i n f a c t b e i n g s l i g h t l y more p a r a d i g m a t i c (.66 mean p a r a d i g m a t i c responses compared t o .62 mean p a r a d i g m a t i c 77 r e s p o n s e s ) . The Japanese b e g i n n e r group, however, responded more h i g h l y i n the p a r a d i g m a t i c mode than was a n t i c i p a t e d . T h i s group a l s o was s l i g h t l y more p a r a d i g m a t i c than the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group (.64 mean p a r a d i g m a t i c responses compared t o .62 mean p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s ) . An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (Table 8) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the .05 l e v e l between groups f o r p a r a d i g m a t i c responses t o nouns. For a d j e c t i v e s ( T a b l e s 5 and 7) mean p r o p o r t i o n s of p a r a d i g m a t i c responses f o r the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h and Japanese advanced groups were v e r y c l o s e , b e i n g .28 and .25 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (Table 8) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these two groups. There was, however, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group and the Japanese b e g i n n e r group f o r p a r a d i g m a t i c responses t o a d j e c t i v e s , F (2,67) = 6.259, p<0.0l. The degree of p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g t o a d j e c t i v e s by the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group was lower than r e p o r t e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (see Ta b l e 1 ) . Even f o r h i g h f r e q u e n c y a d j e c t i v e s which p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have shown t o y i e l d h i g h p a r a d i g m a t i c s ( R u s s e l l and J e n k i n s , 1954; Deese, 1962; E n t w i s l e , 1966) the p a r a d i g m a t i c responses r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s tudy a re low; w i t h no a d j e c t i v e s t i m u l u s word was the p r o p o r t i o n of p a r a d i g m a t i c responses h i g h e r than .39. I n s p e c t i o n of the s y n t a g m a t i c a s s o c i a t e s t o a d j e c t i v e s 78 l e a v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t these a r e s e q u e n t i a l l y d e t e r m i n e d . The a d j e c t i v e y e l l o w , f o r example, y i e l d e d 'submarine', ' b e l l y ' , ' d r e s s ' , 'sun', ' b i r d ' . I t i s te m p t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e r e may be a p o s t - p a r a d i g m a t i c stage i n the e v o l u t i o n of a s s o c i a t e s , a l a t e - s y n t a g m a t i c stage of c h i l d h o o d . These l a t e s y n t a c t i c s of a d u l t h o o d may, t h e n , r e f l e c t enlargements of meaning, a more f l e x i b l e and r i c h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a co n c e p t . Thus, a response, such as 'drugs' t o the s t i m u l u s ' h i g h ' , or 'grapes' t o 'sour' s u g g e s t s t h a t the s t i m u l u s words a r e a c t u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as d i f f e r e n t words ( a l t h o u g h homonyms) from the same words p r e s e n t e d t o c h i l d r e n . The problems w i t h t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n a r e , however, t w o f o l d . F i r s t , the h i g h degree of s y n t a g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g f o r t h i s n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group compared t o o t h e r n a t i v e - E n g l i s h r e s e a r c h groups i s not acc o u n t e d f o r , and second, the Japanese be g i n n e r group would not be e x p e c t e d t o e x h i b i t the more f l e x i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of an E n g l i s h s t i m u l u s word and s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , respond more p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y than the .16 mean r e c o r d e d f o r t h a t group, u n l e s s of c o u r s e they a r e r e s p o n d i n g as they would ( a c c o r d i n g t o Moran (1973)) i n Japanese. The responses of the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group t o v e r b s t i m u l i were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n t h a t they were l a r g e l y , but not o v e r w h e l m i n g l y , s y n t a g m a t i c ( T a b l e s 1,6, and 7 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group and the Japanese advanced group 79 (.41 and .32 mean p a r a d i g m a t i c responses r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were shown not t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l by a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group and the Japanese b e g i n n e r group f o r p a r a d i g m a t i c responses t o v e r b s , F(2,67) = 3.683, p<0.05. Thus, i t may be seen t h a t f o r v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s , but not f o r nouns, s u p p o r t i s g i v e n t o h y p o t h e s i s one t h a t b e g i n n i n g Japanese s t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h w i l l g i v e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s y n t a g m a t i c responses t o nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , and v e r b s and thus s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r from n a t i v e -E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . H y p o t h e s i s two i s a l s o g i v e n s u p p o r t by the data i n t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the .05 l e v e l between n a t i v e - E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s and the Japanese advanced group f o r responses t o nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , and v e r b s . As another way of l o o k i n g a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the p a r a d i g m a t i c responses of the t h r e e groups T a b l e 9 shows Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s by language group, w i t h the v a r i a b l e s b e i n g nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , and v e r b s . I t i s im m e d i a t e l y apparent t h a t the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group and the Japanese advanced group a r e much more s i m i l a r i n response c o r r e l a t i o n than a r e e i t h e r the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h and Japanese b e g i n n e r s , or the Japanese advanced and Japanese b e g i n n e r groups. These f i n d i n g s l e n d s u p p o r t t o hypotheses one and two. The s u b s i d i a r y h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the a b s o l u t e count of 80 TABLE IX PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BY  IiANGUAGE GROUP, VARIABLES BEING NOUNS, ADuTCTrVES, AND VERBS. V N A Native-English Speakers V N .3868 p = .007 -A .6383 p = .000 .3001 p = .030 -Japanese Advanced V -N .4015 p = .069 -A .4705 p = .038 .3665 p = .090 -Japanese Beginner V -N .1865 p = .253 -A -0.0649 p = .409 .3381 p = .109 -V = Verbs N = Nouns A = Adjectives TABLE X PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR  LANGUAGE TEST SCORES AND TOTAL NUMBER  OF RESPONSES TO IWENTY-FOUR STIMULUS WORDS FOR JAPANESE STUDENTS. n Test score sum Test score mean Tota l resp. sum Tota l resp. mean r Japanese beginners 15 570 38.00 918.0 61.2 .33 Japanese advanced 15 1265 84.33 1596.0 106.4 * .73 Tota l Japanese 30 1835 61.17 2514.0 83.8 * .73 * = p =<0.05 Lower confidence l i m i t .507 , \ when r = .73, n - 30 Upper confidence l i m i t .861 I FIG. 11 IcBTAINEDi ON I.I 440--75~ 50 -25" to- 10 3D 50 !AN CORRESP(M)ENCE BETWEEN -THE CNSES iGIVEN BY SOCIATION TEST; PLACEMENT TEST1! CHART SHOWING; THE (ABSOLUTE NUMBER. OF- RESPONSES iGIVEN BY JAPANESE 'STUDENTS: ON .THE;WORD-A SOCIA TEST. WITH SCORES! ENGLISH ABSOLUTE NUMBER t>F 90 _; i m RESPONSES 1301 83 I i | | ! | ! I I j I I I I I T T T T T i i i J i I I I ! i I I I I i I I 1 I I I M M M i l l ! ' ! i I i I i l i i I ! i I - L U i • i i i i M i l M i l I ! I ! ! I i I l ! I I I i I I - t ! i TTTT i ! I ! 1 I I I i I I I I i I M l . L L L i I I M M I I ! I I I I i ! M 1 I I j - U - U -J-M • ' ' 1 I ! M M M I ! I i ! 1.1... M M M M M ! I i I i I I j I ! 1 I : I I I I I I I M i l M ! i ! M i l M M ! M I I I I M M i i I M I I ; M M M i I M M ' I ! I M M ' M I 1 I ! BUTTERFEyrr» CHAIR i i I ' : HAND ! MAN-MUSIC: NEEDLE ' 1 :H SflLTlT ! I ! -TABLE; :rrr BITTERrr BLACKS HIGHT LOUD-ROUGHr SQURL 34 THIRSTY--YELLOW-i i i i BEGIN—4-rJECEIVE-i—Xl JNQU-IRE , ; 3d i 1 1 | SELLr SITZ •ytjPCTJr-• ' M M ;GJ5AIH^ SH0WT1|G-THE ; jTHREE PRIMAI&: RESPONSES. 1 1 1 M M M =t=t=ff M M ! • 2^] 3-i ! I ! 1 i I i I I M M I M I i i T i - r - j -I i i , i [ .M M M M M T i j i I M ' I II to • a v CO I... * % \ p. a ; * M M 10 I I NUM8ER- OF FIRST-iWHICH:. 'CORRESPONDED; - m THE-FIRST- T H R E ER - T 1 PRIMARY- RESPmSES-OFj-TSB M i l l I I _i_L t J ^ e e l - w e p r e ^ t h e - s a m e f '. i I i i £ i I i I 1.1 I i f ' i I I M ! t M ! i M I II M I i i NATIVE-M i i i -M L I M M I I I I i M I M ' i I I I i I I ! I i ! : 84 responses t o the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t would c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by the Japanese s u b j e c t s on a t e s t of language p r o f i c i e n c y was t e s t e d by p e r f o r m i n g the Pearson p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n on the l a n g u a g e - t e s t s c o r e and the t o t a l number of responses t o the s t i m u l u s words (Table 10). The c o r r e l a t i o n between t e s t s c o r e and the a b s o l u t e number of responses as e x p e c t e d , was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the 0.05 l e v e l f o r a l l t h i r t y Japanese as a s i n g l e group. Taken i n groups, however, the Japanese be g i n n e r g r o u p - c o r r e l a t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t , a l t h o u g h the Japanese advanced group-c o r r e l a t i o n was. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the non-c o r r e l a t i o n of the Japanese b e g i n n e r t e s t s c o r e s and a s s o c i a t i o n responses l i e s i n the r e a l i t y t h a t a language placement t e s t cannot be r e g a r d e d as a c o m p l e t e l y a c c u r a t e measure of language a b i l i t y . F i g u r e 1 shows the correspondence between the a b s o l u t e number of responses g i v e n by the Japanese s u b j e c t s on the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t w i t h the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the language placement t e s t . I t i s apparent t h a t t h e r e a r e some a b e r r a n t s c o r e s . I f the t h r e e c i r c l e d s c o r e s , a l l of which a r e from the b e g i n n e r group, a r e e l i m i n a t e d from the c o r r e l a t i o n c a l c u l a t i o n s the c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the b e g i n n e r group becomes a s i g n i f i c a n t .73 (p<0.05) which, c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s the same f i g u r e as t h a t o b t a i n e d f o r the advanced group, and the two groups i n t o t a l . H y p o t h e s i s t h r e e , t h e n , i s t e n t a t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d by the d a t a i f the Japanese 85 are c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r c o l l e c t i v e l y or i n the advanced group, but new or a d d i t i o n a l d a t a a r e needed t o g i v e added c o n f i d e n c e t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s h o l d s f o r the b e g i n n e r group. S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t measures a r e a v a i l a b l e t o e x p r e s s changes i n a s s o c i a t i v e r e s p o n d i n g . The most f r e q u e n t l y used measure, a l r e a d y r e p o r t e d on, i s the f r e q u e n c y count of responses by form c l a s s . Another measure i s t h a t of commonality, d e f i n e d here as the t o t a l f r e q u e n c y of the t h r e e most p o p u l a r r e s p o n s e s . Commonality d a t a f a c i l i t a t e c omparison between the p r e s e n t study and those of o t h e r s t u d i e s . Commonality means f o r the two Japanese groups were c a l c u l a t e d by a d d i n g the number of f i r s t t h r e e responses which c o i n c i d e d w i t h the f i r s t t h r e e responses of the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group. The Japanese advanced group, f o r example, had t h i r t y - f o u r of t h e i r f i r s t t h r e e responses c o r r e s p o n d t o those of the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group t o t a l of 72 (3 X 24 s t i m u l i ) which gave a commonality mean of .47. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the p r i m a r y responses of the Japanese advanced s t u d e n t s would more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l the p r i m a r y responses of the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group than t h o s e of the Japanese b e g i n n e r group. To a i d the reader i n making commonality comparisons among v a r i o u s s e t s of d a t a , T a b l e 11 (Appendix A) g i v e s the f r e q u e n c y of the t h r e e most common responses t o s t i m u l i t h a t have a l s o been used as s t i m u l i by o t h e r w o r k e r s . 86 The correspondence between the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h -s p e a k e r ' s d a t a and those of o t h e r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g a d u l t s i s g e n e r a l l y v e r y good ( f o r example, 70% commonality w i t h E n t w i s l e ' s d a t a ) . Comparing the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group w i t h the Japanese advanced group a commonality f a c t o r of 47% i s o b t a i n e d , meaning t h a t the f i r s t t h r e e responses of these two groups c o i n c i d e d almost f i f t y p e r c e n t of the t i m e . Comparing the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group w i t h the Japanese be g i n n e r group r e s u l t e d i n a commonality f a c t o r of 26% between the two groups. T h i s means t h a t the Japanese advanced group i s t w i c e as l i k e l y t o respond w i t h the same word as a r e the Japanese b e g i n n e r s , thus s u p p o r t i n g h y p o t h e s i s f o u r . F i g u r e 2 shows i n c h a r t form the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the correspondence between p r i m a r y responses f o r the t h r e e language groups. As a g e n e r a l note on the n a t u r e of the r e s p o n s e s , i t may be added t h a t most responses would appear t o have been immediate, r a t h e r than mediated. By mediated i s meant t h a t one or more i n t e r m e d i a t e word i s j u x t a p o s e d between the s t i m u l u s word and the r e s p o n s e . For example, dark • c o a l > mine » y o u r s , revenge *• sweet * sugar » w h i t e . The few p o s s i b l e mediated responses u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group. Most responses seemed t o f a l l i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : S u p e r o r d i n a t e eg., t a b l e - f u r n i t u r e 87-C o o r d i n a t e Substance P a r t L o c a t i o n Funct i o n A t t r i b u t e Synonym C o n t r a s t C o m p l e t i o n eg., t a b l e - c h a i r eg., t a b l e - wood eg., t a b l e - l e g s eg., t a b l e - k i t c h e n eg., t a b l e - eat eg., t a b l e - rough eg., b i t t e r - a c r i d eg., b l a c k - w h i t e eg., t a b l e - c l o t h F r e q u e n c i e s f o r these c a t e g o r i e s were not t a b u l a t e d . P r e d i c a t i o n was enc o u n t e r e d among the t h r e e groups f o r some s t i m u l u s words. Examples of p r e d i c a t i o n i n c l u d e : d e f i n i n g eg., music - m e l o d i c , man - s t r o n g , d e s c r i b i n g eg., b u t t e r f l y - p r e t t y , e x p l a i n i n g eg., c h a i r - f o r s i t t i n g , or making a sentence ( e q u a l l y among n a t i v e -E n g l i s h and Japanese advanced) eg., t h i r s t y - I am t h i r s t y . T h i s l a t t e r response type was not common. Proper name responses were not common t o any group, but o c c u r r e d most f r e q u e n t l y t o the s t i m u l u s word 'music', w i t h the response b e i n g an a r t i s t ' s name, and t o 'man', w i t h response b e i n g e i t h e r 'Adam', or a male name. P e r s o n a l pronouns were most f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n by the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group, as were r e p e t i t i o n s of the s t i m u l u s word. F a i l u r e t o respond was most f r e q u e n t i n the Japanese b e g i n n e r group, e s p e c i a l l y t o the s t i m u l u s words ' i n q u i r e ' and ' d e c e i v e ' . Other i n f r e q u e n t r e sponses i n c l u d e d compounding, i n f l e c t i o n , rhyme, and assonance, th e s e coming m a i n l y from the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group, f o r example: c h a i r - man, s i t - s a t , y e l l o w - mellow, and b u t t e r f l y - f l u t t e r b y . That the p r e d i c a t i o n , p r o p e r names 88 and o t h e r i n f r e q u e n t r e s p o n s e s s h o u l d occur m a i n l y i n the responses of the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f a c t t h a t they responded more p r o l i f i c a l l y than the o t h e r two groups, t h e r e f o r e g i v i n g more chances f o r ' e x p e r i m e n t a l ' responses t o appear. A l s o , t h i s group would be more l i k e l y t o i n t e r p r e t the s t i m u l u s word l e s s r i g i d l y t h u s opening up a l a r g e r response v o c a b u l a r y f i e l d . 89 CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION The c e n t r a l t h e s i s of t h i s s t u d y r e v o l v e s about the n o t i o n of the s y n t a g m a t i c - p a r a d i g m a t i c s h i f t i n n a t i v e -E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s , and the f i n d i n g s t h a t J a p a n e s e - n a t i v e a d u l t s respond i n Japanese i n a q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t form from N o r t h Americans a d u l t s t o s t i m u l u s words on a w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h eg., Rosenzweig (1964), and Lambert and Moore (1966), would suggest t h a t i f the Japanese a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n was not i n i t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n i t s response p a t t e r n s from those of N o r t h Americans then those response p a t t e r n s would be e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r t o each o t h e r f o r an E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t . The f a c t t h a t the response p a t t e r n s a r e d i s s i m i l a r between n a t i v e - E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s and Japanese ESL b e g i n n e r s (but not between n a t i v e -E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s and advanced Japanese s t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h ) c o u l d , t h e n , be a t t r i b u t e d t o the Japanese ESL b e g i n n e r s b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by the response mode of t h e i r mother tongue, as r e p o r t e d by Moran and Murakawa (1968), and Moran (1973). Because the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group responded m a i n l y s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y t o a d j e c t i v e and v e r b s t i m u l i the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Japanese ESL b e g i n n e r group d a t a i s somewhat c o m p l i c a t e d . The f a c t t h a t the Japanese b e g i n n e r group responded o v e r w h e l m i n g l y s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y t o a d j e c t i v e and verb s t i m u l i c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the 90 i n f l u e n c e of t h e i r mother tongue on t h e i r response p a t t e r n s , or e l s e i t c o u l d be t h a t they a r e p a r a l l e l i n g n a t i v e - E n g l i s h development, i n which case the da t a i n d i c a t e t h a t s y n t a g m a t i c responses t o v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s are t o be e x p e c t e d . From the Japanese ESL advanced group d a t a i t i s apparent t h a t t h e s e more advanced s t u d e n t s respond t o word s t i m u l i i n a f a s h i o n s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h a t of n a t i v e - E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s , and so t h e r e i s c l e a r l y a development toward p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g by Japanese ESL s t u d e n t s . The problem remains, however, of how t o i n t e r p r e t the s y n t a g m a t i c response d a t a t o v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s by the Japanese b e g i n n e r group. The noun r e l a t e d f i n d i n g s suggest a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem. The Japanese b e g i n n e r group responded p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y (.64 mean p a r a d i g m a t i c response) t o nouns, compared t o .62 and .66 mean p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s by the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group and Japanese advanced group r e s p e c t i v e l y , and i n t h i s r e g a r d the b e g i n n e r s a r e c l e a r l y r e s p o n d i n g i n a manner d i f f e r e n t from t h a t r e p o r t e d f o r a s s o c i a t i v e r esponses i n Japanese by Moran (1973). I f the Japanese b e g i n n e r s a r e , i n f a c t , b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r n a t i v e tongue then one would expect t h a t nouns, as w e l l as v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s , would e l i c i t s y n t a g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s . That t h i s was not the case s u g g e s t s t h a t the s y n t a g m a t i c responses of Japanese b e g i n n e r s t o v e r b and a d j e c t i v e s t i m u l i were a l s o not i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r n a t i v e language 91 and were, i n f a c t , f o l l o w i n g the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n , as i t seems un r e a s o n a b l e t h a t the s u b j e c t s would respond t o d i f f e r e n t f o r m - c l a s s s t i m u l i u s i n g d i f f e r e n t response p a t t e r n p a r a m e t e r s . Assuming t h i s t o be so, two c o n c l u s i o n s may be s t a t e d based on the d i s c u s s i o n so f a r . F i r s t , t h a t Japanese ESL s t u d e n t s , a t l e a s t f o r v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s , undergo a s h i f t toward p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g on a w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t t h a t p a r a l l e l s E n g l i s h n a t i v e - s p e a k e r development, and second, i t would appear t h a t Japanese ESL s t u d e n t s do not r e v e r t t o t h e i r n a t i v e - t o n g u e v o c a b u l a r y s t o r a g e system f o r v o c a b u l a r y items they need i n E n g l i s h , a p o s i t i o n which has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r b i l i n g u a l i s m and which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . I f , as would seem the c a s e , the Japanese ESL s t u d e n t p a r a l l e l s n a t i v e - E n g l i s h development, the degree of p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g t o noun s t i m u l i by a l l t h r e e groups was not unexpected, as n a t i v e - E n g l i s h d a t a such as p r o v i d e d by E n t w i s l e (1966) l e a d t o the consensus t h a t the e a r l i e s t and most p r i m i t i v e k i n d of a s s o c i a t i o n i s a noun, no m a t t e r what the s t i m u l u s word. In f a c t some of the noun re s p o n s e s of the Japanese b e g i n n e r group t o nouns, a d j e c t i v e s or v e r b s bore no semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s t i m u l u s word, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the s u b j e c t , i f s t u c k f o r a response word, would g i v e a noun. A c r o s s form c l a s s e s , the Japanese b e g i n n e r s responded t o noun s t i m u l i w i t h 64% 92 noun r e s p o n s e s , t o a d j e c t i v e s t i m u l i w i t h 70% noun r e s p o n s e s , and t o v e r b s w i t h 40% noun r e s p o n s e s . Why responses t o v a r i o u s f o r m - c l a s s s t i m u l i a re o f t e n nouns i s a matter of c o n j e c t u r e , but t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n language may p r o v i d e c l u e s . Nouns u s u a l l y p r o v i d e the s o u r c e from which l a r g e r segments of u t t e r a n c e s a r e g e n e r a t e d , o r , as P a i v i o (1965) s a y s , "nouns f u n c t i o n as c o n c e p t u a l pegs" ( p . 3 2 ) . The p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g the a s s o c i a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of nouns, as summarized i n Deese's (1965) second law of a s s o c i a t i o n , i s t h a t nouns a r e o r g a n i z e d i n terms of common f e a t u r e s , t h a t i s , they are grouped t o g e t h e r c o n c e p t u a l l y r a t h e r than i n terms of t h e i r common l i n g u i s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s . The f a c t t h a t the Japanese b e g i n n e r group responded t o noun s t i m u l i t o an almost i d e n t i c a l degree w i t h those of n a t i v e - E n g l i s h s p eakers i s of i n t e r e s t f o r another r e a s o n . I f we can assume t h a t the members of the Japanese b e g i n n e r group were n o t , i n f a c t , much more advanced i n t h e i r E n g l i s h language p r o f i c i e n c y than was m a n i f e s t e d i n the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by the measures made of t h e i r E n g l i s h language a b i l i t y , then i n t e r e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r i s e c o n c e r n i n g language l e a r n i n g and b i l i n g u a l i s m . A p a r t from the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t second-language l e a r n e r s do pass through the d e v e l o p m e n t a l s y n t a g m a t i c - p a r a d i g m a t i c s h i f t thus r e c a p i t u l a t i n g n a t i v e - s p e a k e r development, the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , does the f i n d i n g of p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g t o noun s t i m u l i by Japanese b e g i n n e r s shed 93 l i g h t on the problem of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n of languages by a b i l i n g u a l ? K o l e r s (1963) proposed two hypotheses t o account f o r the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g the s e p a r a t i o n of the b i l i n g u a l ' s two languages. The 'shared' h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s a r e coded once, i n common, and each of a b i l i n g u a l ' s languages t a p s t h i s common s t o r e . The ' s e p a r a t e ' h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t e v e n t s a r e coded s p e c i f i c a l l y and s e p a r a t e l y i n t h e language i n which t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c e d . T h i s l a t t e r h y p o t h e s i s would seem t o account f o r the noun d a t a of the Japanese b e g i n n e r group i n s o f a r as members of t h i s group would have a d i f f e r e n t s t o r e of e x p e r i e n c e s t o r e f e r t o f o r each of t h e i r two lang u a g e s . I t would be i m p o s s i b l e t o r e f e r d i r e c t l y t o , or t o r e t r i e v e i n one language, an event tagged i n the o t h e r language; such e x p e r i e n c e s would r e q u i r e an a d d i t i o n a l s t e p of t r a n s l a t i o n . I f v e r b a l l y d e f i n e d e x p e r i e n c e s were tagged and s t o r e d i n some s u p r a l i n g u i s t i c form, one might expect t h a t they would be g i v e n s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n i n each of a b i l i n g u a l ' s l a n guages. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y , c o u p l e d w i t h knowledge of Moran's (1973) f i n d i n g s , would suggest t h a t t h i s i s not the c a s e . In f a c t K o l e r s (1963), i n a study on i n t e r l i n g u a l word a s s o c i a t i o n s s t a t e s as h i s major f i n d i n g t h a t , "the s u b j e c t tends t o g i v e d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s t o a word i n h i s n a t i v e language from t h o s e he g i v e s i n E n g l i s h t o i t s t r a n s l a t i o n " (p.293). K o l e r s s t a t e s t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , an 94 image can o n l y be a c o n c o m i t a n t but cannot be an e s s e n t i a l p r o p e r t y of the c o g n i t i v e r e f e r e n t of a noun. However, word a s s o c i a t i o n s cannot be taken as a p e r f e c t t e s t of how e x p e r i e n c e s a r e tagged and s t o r e d s i n c e i t i s not r e a l l y c e r t a i n what, i n f a c t , w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s r e a l l y a r e . (Deese 1962; M a c N e i l l , 1963). I t i s a l s o known t h a t s y n t a g m a t i c and g r a m m a t i c a l a s p e c t s of language convey i n f o r m a t i o n ( M i l l e r and I s a r d , 1963) and thus e x p r e s s e x p e r i e n c e i n a way not r e a d i l y tapped by word-a s s o c i a t i o n . The ' s e p a r a t e ' h y p o t h e s i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , would seem a c o n v e n i e n t one t o account f o r the Japanese b e g i n n e r noun d a t a . A n e c d o t a l e v i d e n c e t h a t l e n d s support t o the s e p a r a t e h y p o t h e s i s i s the o f t e n o b s e r v e d phenomenon t h a t c e r t a i n f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s seem t o be t i e d i n t i m a t e l y t o the language i n which they were l e a r n e d . For example, b a l a n c e d b i l i n g u a l s r e p o r t t h a t w h i l e f l u e n t i n e i t h e r language, m a t h e m a t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s a r e performed i n the language i n which they had been l e a r n e d . A b i l i n g u a l c o l l e a g u e has remarked t h a t w h i l e he does a r i t h m e t i c i n F r e n c h h a v i n g l e a r n e d i t i n Quebec, he does c a l c u l u s i n E n g l i s h , h a v i n g l e a r n e d i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t might be apropos a t t h i s p o i n t t o add a c a v e a t c o n c e r n i n g the noun r e s p o n s e s . The preponderance of noun responses r e g a r d l e s s of s t i m u l u s f o r m - c l a s s may i n d i c a t e t h a t the s y n t a g m a t i c - p a r a d i g m a t i c dichotomy i s more complex than h e r e t o f o r e supposed. I t may be t h a t the 95 a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k i n d i c a t e s a broader l e x i c a l a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s . That the a b s o l u t e number of responses t o s t i m u l i g i v e n by the Japanese o v e r a l l c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s c o r e s on a language t e s t was not unexpected i n t h a t i n t u i t i v e l y one would expect a s u b j e c t w i t h a l a r g e r v o c a b u l a r y t o p e r f o r m b e t t e r on a language t e s t than a s u b j e c t w i t h a poor v o c a b u l a r y , e s p e c i a l l y as a knowledge of v o c a b u l a r y i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the language t e s t . The n o n - c o r r e l a t i o n between the t e s t s c o r e s of the Japanese b e g i n n e r s and t h e i r t o t a l number of responses most p r o b a b l y was due t o the i n c l u s i o n of s u b j e c t s w i t h anomalous t e s t s c o r e s , t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s who performed p o o r l y on the language t e s t produced a h i g h number of responses t o the a s s o c i a t i o n s t i m u l i , or v i c e v e r s a . A g l a n c e a t F i g u r e 1 w i l l c o n f i r m t h a t anomalous s c o r e s were not c o n f i n e d t o the b e g i n n e r group, a f a c t which s u g g e s t s once a g a i n t h a t language placement t e s t s a r e not p e r f e c t i n d i c a t o r s of language a b i l i t y . A g l a n c e a t T a b l e 7 w i l l show t h a t w h i l e the mean t o t a l response of the Japanese advanced group, by form-c l a s s , was c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r than the mean t o t a l of the Japanese b e g i n n e r group, the Japanese advanced group t o t a l s were c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group, (compare Japanese advanced means w i t h n a t i v e -E n g l i s h means f o r nouns, 4.8 t o 7.5, a d j e c t i v e s 4.7 t o 96 7.1, and v e r b s 3.8 t o 6.4). T h i s may s i m p l y r e f l e c t upon the advanced group not b e i n g t h a t c l o s e t o n a t i v e - E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y , and, of c o u r s e , the mean t o t a l s cannot be taken as a r a t i o s c a l e . I t c o u l d a l s o be t h a t the Japanese s u b j e c t s , whose knowledge of E n g l i s h has been c o n f i n e d t o what they l e a r n e d i n s c h o o l s , may have f a i l e d t o l e a r n many words which n a t i v e speakers of E n g l i s h p i c k up as c h i l d r e n at home, and i n p l a y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n . An e x a m i n a t i o n of the raw d a t a showed t h a t t h e r e was l e s s v a r i e t y of responses t o each s t i m u l u s word g i v e n by Japanese b e g i n n e r s than was e x h i b i t e d by both the Japanese advanced group and the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group, which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the view t h a t b e g i n n i n g second language l e a r n e r s s i m p l y have fewer v o c a b u l a r y items from which t o draw. A l s o , l o n g e r d e c o d i n g t i m e s i n the weaker language imply g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h a t t a s k and a l s o an added burden on a s h o r t - t e r m memory which i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d b o t h i n the q u a n t i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n i t can s t o r e and i n the l e n g t h of time f o r which i t can s t o r e i t (Macnamara, 1967a). The normal manner i n which people cope w i t h the l i m i t a t i o n s of s h o r t - t e r m memory i s t o reduce the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n and chunk i t i n such a way t h a t a s i n g l e s t o r e d item stands f o r s e v e r a l o r i g i n a l items ( M i l l e r , 1956). For t h a t p urpose, t h e n , the e a s i e s t way of ch u n k i n g language i s t o decode i t and s t o r e the meaning, or such p a r t s of the meaning as a r e r e l e v a n t . Macnamara (1967a) found t h a t the b i l i n g u a l has g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n 97 making out the meaning of items i n h i s weaker language and c o n s e q u e n t l y has g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n p i c k i n g out items t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o h i s purpose w h i l e d i s c a r d i n g the r e s t . T h i s may be a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why the b e g i n n i n g Japanese group g e n e r a l l y gave fewer, and l e s s v a r i e d , r e sponses than t h e i r advanced c o u n t e r p a r t s . The h i g h e r commonality c o r r e l a t i o n between the Japanese advanced and n a t i v e - E n g l i s h groups i s i n t e r e s t i n g as i t would appear t h a t t h e r e i s a tendency ( l o o k i n g a l s o a t the Japanese b e g i n n e r data) f o r the p r i m a r y responses t o become c l u s t e r e d as the E n g l i s h language p r o f i c i e n c y i n c r e a s e s . I t i s , of c o u r s e , i m p o s s i b l e t o judge whether or not the Japanese b e g i n n e r responses are s i m i l a r or d i s s i m i l a r t o Japanese-language responses as t h e r e a r e no Japanese d a t a w i t h which t o make a comparison. What i s i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h a t , w h i l e o v e r a l l the commonality c o r r e l a t i o n between Japanese advanced and n a t i v e - E n g l i s h groups i s .47, w h i l e Japanese b e g i n n e r and n a t i v e - E n g l i s h i s .26 and Japanese advanced t o Japanese b e g i n n e r i s .36, i f one examines o n l y the f i r s t t h r e e responses t o nouns ( b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t responses t o noun s t i m u l i grouped by f o r m - c l a s s a r e E n g l i s h - l i k e ) then the commonality c o r r e l a t i o n s become r e s p e c t i v e l y .38, .38, and .54. So the commonality c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the f i r s t t h r e e r esponses t o noun s t i m u l i i s i d e n t i c a l f o r the two Japanese groups. U s i n g the same r e a s o n i n g as was a p p l i e d t o d e t e r m i n i n g i f 98 the f o r m - c l a s s of responses f o r v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s was more l i k e Japanese or E n g l i s h , one c o u l d argue t h a t i f the Japanese be g i n n e r group responds w i t h the same number of p r i m a r y responses as the Japanese advanced group t o nouns, then i t seems l o g i c a l t o argue t h a t responses t o v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s a r e not g o i n g t o be tho s e t h a t would be made i n Japanese t o Japanese s t i m u l i . And i n f a c t , some of the Japanese be g i n n e r p r i m a r y responses which a r e not r e c o r d e d as p r i m a r y responses i n o t h e r a d u l t n o r m a t i v e d a t a match p r i m a r y response d a t a r e c o r d e d by E n t w i s l e (1966) f o r c h i l d r e n . T h i s would support the view, d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2, t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t i d i o d y n a m i c a s s o c i a t i v e h i e r a r c h i e s w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a c q u i r i n g the common a s s o c i a t i o n h i e r a r c h y d e s c r i b e d by Rosen and R u s s e l l (1957), and J e n k i n s ( i 9 6 0 ) . There were undoubtedly many i n f l u e n c e s on the s u b j e c t s as they responded t o the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s t i m u l i . The p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t i m u l u s word, the s e t or expectancy g o v e r n i n g t h i s p e r c e p t i o n and the response t o i t , and the l e v e l of a t t e n t i o n a r e a l l v a r i a b l e i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . A l s o , some of the s t i m u l u s words may have appeared t o be ambiguous t o some s u b j e c t s , and undoubtedly some of the words were unknown t o a few of the Japanese b e g i n n e r group. E m o t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s may a l s o determine i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s . The responses themselves may have o c c u r r e d 99 e i t h e r a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i t h o u t m e d i a t i n g p r o c e s s e s , or o n l y a f t e r a blank p e r i o d or an a c t i v e s e a r c h f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s ponse. M e d i a t i o n p r o c e s s e s may have i n c l u d e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n s and s e a r c h i n accordance w i t h s e l f - i m p o s e d t a s k s , such as when a s u b j e c t a s ks h i m s e l f 'what i s an example o f . . . ? ' Recent e v e n t s , p r e c e d i n g s t i m u l u s words or responses may a l l have i n f l u e n c e d the responses w r i t t e n by the s u b j e c t . A l l these f a c t o r s then may i n f l u e n c e the v a l i d i t y of w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s . In the l a r g e r f i e l d of language l e a r n i n g r e s e a r c h , a t t e n t i o n seems t o be i n c r e a s i n g l y f o c u s i n g on a c t u a l language p r o d u c t i o n , on c o n n e c t e d d i s c o u r s e . How, t h e n , does w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n f i t i n w i t h t h i s t r e n d ? As F i l l e n b a u m and Jones (1965) have p o i n t e d o u t , a s s o c i a t i o n d a t a have y i e l d e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e of r e l e v a n c e toward an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c o n n e c t e d d i s c o u r s e . I t may be t h a t by the v e r y n a t u r e of the a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k i t cannot y i e l d such i n f o r m a t i o n . Whatever the g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s df a s t i m u l u s word the a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k i s one i n v o l v i n g a m i n i m a l c o n t e x t of one a n t e c e d e n t item and r e q u i r i n g a s i n g l e - i t e m r e s p o n s e , w h i l e f r e e speech u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r p r e c e d i n g c o n t e x t and g e n e r a l l y e n t a i l s a c o n t i n u a t i o n l o n g e r than one i t e m . Both common-sense l i n g u i s t i c i n t u i t i o n and s t u d i e s u s i n g c l o z e t e c h n i q u e s i n d i c a t e t h a t g r a m m a t i c a l and l e x i c a l c h o i c e of a word may v a r y w i t h p r e c e d i n g c o n t e x t s of d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n of a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s may 100 a p p r e c i a b l y d e t r a c t from the a p p l i c a b i l i t y and p e r t i n e n c e of i n f e r e n c e s from w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s t u d i e s t o the realm of connected d i s c o u r s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s p r e s e n t study has a c h i e v e d some modest success i n an area of p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s which had p r e v i o u s l y not been r e s e a r c h e d . A l t h o u g h i t i s not a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study w i l l have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon language pedagogy, i n d i r e c t l y , t h r ough i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r language l e a r n i n g , the f i n d i n g s may assume some s i g n i f i c a n c e . For example, a r i s i n g from the d i s c u s s i o n of the ' s e p a r a t e ' and 'shared' s t o r a g e hypotheses a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r language l e a r n i n g and b i l i n g u a l i s m , and i n the d i s c u s s i o n on the two main hypotheses i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s and the L1=L2 h y p o t h e s i s have an o b v i o u s b e a r i n g on language l e a r n i n g / E S L . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h may e x t e n d the f i n d i n g s of t h i s paper. Such r e s e a r c h may i n c l u d e : 1. U s i n g a l a r g e r sample of s u b j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y Japanese ESL s t u d e n t s , 2. U s i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d b a t t e r y of t e s t s of language p r o f i c i e n c y , such as the w i d e l y used TOEFL or M i c h i g a n T e s t s , f o r an i n c r e a s e d a c c u r a c y of language a b i l i t y of the s u b j e c t s , 3. R e p e a t i n g the word-a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s , u s i n g the same s u b j e c t s , t o see i f t h e r e i s a c o n s i s t e n c y of r e s p o n d i n g , 4. U s i n g a l a r g e r and more v a r i e d s e t of s t i m u l u s words, 5. Having an e q u a l number of male and female s u b j e c t s t o check i f , i n f a c t , t h e r e may be sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e s , 6. P e r f o r m i n g the w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n experiment o r a l l y - o r a l s t i m u l i , 101 o r a l r e s ponse, 7. R e p l i c a t i n g the experiment i n Japanese w i t h Japanese s u b j e c t s , and i n Japanese w i t h E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s of Japanese. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Three groups of s u b j e c t s , one group c o m p r i s i n g f o r t y n a t i v e - E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s , and the o t h e r two c o m p r i s i n g f i f t e e n Japanese ESL s t u d e n t s were g i v e n a word-a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t c o n s i s t i n g of twenty f o u r s t i m u l u s words; e i g h t nouns, e i g h t a d j e c t i v e s , and e i g h t v e r b s . The s u b j e c t s were g i v e n t h i r t y seconds t o respond as o f t e n as p o s s i b l e t o each s t i m u l u s word. The Japanese s u b j e c t s were a l s o g i v e n a Language Placement T e s t , and d i v i d e d i n t o e i t h e r advanced or beg i n n e r groups on the b a s i s of t h e i r s c o r e on t h i s t e s t . 1. I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t the Japanese b e g i n n e r group would g i v e l a r g e l y s y n t a g m a t i c responses t o a l l t h r e e word f o r m - c l a s s e s on the b a s i s of r e s e a r c h showing t h a t Japanese a d u l t s respond s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y i n Japanese t o w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n s t i m u l i . The b e g i n n e r group d i d g i v e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s y n t a g m a t i c responses t o v e r b and a d j e c t i v e s t i m u l i and i n t h i s r e s p e c t d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h group, but on the b a s i s of t h e i r p a r a d i g m a t i c responses t o nouns the assumption i s t h a t the Japanese b e g i n n e r s s y n t a g m a t i c r e s p o n d i n g t o v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s i s not a r e s u l t of t h e i r n a t i v e - l a n g u a g e 102 response p a t t e r n s , but i s r a t h e r a d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t they are p a r a l l e l i n g n a t i v e - E n g l i s h speaker development. 2. I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t the responses of the Japanese advanced s t u d e n t s would c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l the n a t i v e -E n g l i s h group's responses w i t h r e g a r d s t o p a r a d i g m a t i c s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was, i n f a c t , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two groups. T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t of C r a b l e (1975) who suggested t h a t the more f l u e n t a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t becomes i n E n g l i s h , the more p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s p o n s e s w i l l be g i v e n i n a w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t . 3. I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t the a b s o l u t e count of responses t o word s t i m u l i would c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the s c o r e o b t a i n e d on the language placement t e s t . For the Japanese group as a whole t h i s p r e d i c t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y v a l i d a t e d . However, f o r the Japanese b e g i n n e r group a l o n e , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the two measures, s u g g e s t i n g e i t h e r t h a t the language t e s t was not c o n s i s t e n t i n gauging language p r o f i c i e n c y , or e l s e t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s c o r e on a language placement t e s t and the a b s o l u t e count of responses t o word s t i m u l i f o r Japanese b e g i n n e r ESL s t u d e n t s . 4. I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t the p r i m a r y r e s p o n s e s of the Japanese advanced group would more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l the res p o n s e s of the n a t i v e - E n g l i s h speakers than would those of the b e g i n n e r group. 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P- 8" s Q ro 112 Appendix A cr P-ET to to o to PJ Hi hh 3 8 5-rt uq vJ I N ) U f » Ull O IJl O 5" fe* *» ui O U) oi cr 3* P-to to O -0 H 3 O O Ul to to vr> at H H O H CO CT1 (Tl CO 01 H at o o m CO Ul ~J Et § Q Et O O Ul iC» ~J ~J •O O Hi to to CO O O CO Hi PJ hh 8 §.5" 00 CO ~J Hi PJ hh B"g 8 uq r t o o to PJ hh hh g S ' 8 uq rt ro hi 01 o o to -J CO o PJ Hi hh I5"8 u-l r t ro H 01 H to to OJ cn Hi PJ hh 5-| 8 uq r t H H tO to Ul CO H- ro ro H tO Ul •J Ul Ul I co * * * O ft H 3" H H-IS" I—1 co co SI SI 01 01 ro H-PJ rt rt ro to co ui O Ul to ro to 4^ Ul o - J co 01 th rt p- ro PJ, rt 01 & rV H a ro to to *»• o -J -J 01 01 8 &• ft ro P to to co co 01 01 rt ft IB I " 6 ? H CO <£> 01 P rt Id o to Ul o o 01 H-rt ro o to co ui to co w r I Hi Hi £ "8 h-1 to to • J O to P- Hi 3 H . 8 ft-rt HI to to to -J -J H-1 ro . >< H c H rt Q H to to to O - J ~ J B § 8 O H . , O O Ulj HI cr t H H- 3 H 01 o o to £»> (Ti (Ti| K g uq g hr| rt H H H o to w ro 3-8 ro o rt o H , -j o to 8 P - S -r t ro H W n1 ro to to Ul o o w 8 * 8 $ uq rt p-I? to to to CTl (Tl cn II 3 p uq . 3* rV rt rt 0) o o ui ui - j co m ro H H CO co—I ^ 8 8 * S -ro o o -J co ui ui II 3 p uq . V rV rt rt ro o o Ul ui vo co tr p-rt I 3 rt to -j o 8 1 M l S to to O CTi O 01 H * 3 P-PJ rt ro H to co o ro rt 0 p (JI co to ui ST 8 § 01 £ ro ff * ft 0 to co CM tO O EtS 01 £ ft O H CTi it^  M Ul 01 c ro rt o H cn ui *» sr uq B" to Ul O O O g.rt to <T. -J -O K Hi W H tO tO CO O O oi ro oi H tO CO o o CO tO (Ti O O Ul to to CO o o co 01 ro co co co •8 o co co (Tl tO Ul g S h i h3 H 13 e l D M Z II to Ul o to 5 1' 3 II to e-i o Z o cn o 113 Appendix A (con 11.) sell salt run rough needle music man loud inquire buy house store pepper shaker sea fast walk jog smooth tough ready thread sew pin note piano song woman boy Adam soft noise noisy ask question information. l—' M l.n to u-i M i_n -J to tO CO CO M M NJ fO Ul to to o to co cn cn to i—* i—• i—• o O -J M to CO o to o to CO J ^ . Ul Ul o I-J co co vl to Ul buy car money . sugar . pepper . sweet . jogging. fast walk smooth . surface, tough . thread . sew machine. jazz singer . record . woman . strong * noise . noisy . music * * cn ** • W U Ul Ul u u fO *» Ul O O OJ O O -J H H W co co o to to to O O to to to o o o —J CO to to co O ~ - J CO to o s s a* 5 ct<< sugar white pepper . away jogging. running. * * * clothes, pants . sewing . jazz record . classic. woman . boy strong . noise . sound . voice . * * * h-1 1—1 N> CO CO ~J M CO u w o H to ^ LO -J -J 1—1 r-1 M CO CO CO to to to O ~~J -J t-> t-> *«• CO CO o i—11—11—* co co co car vend sold pepper water sugar walk fast skip smooth . tough soft thread . pin haystack. song sound piano HI*< g n> g soft noise noisy ask about question. O O Ul Ul Cn OJ O M CO cn cn to i—1 i—* (—1 co o O H M cn co o to co v l H H o o o cn -J -J o O CO to to to co cn cn o o cn cn cn S § pepper, sugar , taste , smooth. hard uneven. thread, sharp . pin piano . sound . song woman . male boy noise . soft . noisy . O O H VD VD O O CO un i—• i—*)—• ^ ui cn i—1 i—11—1 to —1 CO O M CO * O « h-1 h-1 to M cn o g g pepper sugar water smooth hard road thread pin eye song note sound soft noise quiet g g • • • o o co co to o o >u lb vj ^  - j *» cn O H H - J O CO O O -J co cn -J O to cn • J H *> pepper taste sugar > o smooth hard sandpape thread sharp sew song sound note woman boy women soft noise quiet g g • • • O O CO ui cn M • O CO O -J o o M •£» co to cn O h-1 M vo cn cn o o cn Ul co to O (O ^ •ta. co to TABLE XI STIMULUS ENGLISH JAPANESE JAPANESE ENTWISLE KENT - . RUSSELL & PALERMO & WORD NATIVE SP. ADVANCED BEGINNERS ROSANOFF JENKINS JENKINS N = 40 N = 15 N = 15 N = 250 N = 1000 N = 1000 N = 1000 s i t down .55 chair .53 down .67 down .36 stand .42 down .47 chair .53 stand .21 NO NO NO chair .40 stand .40 on .13 chair .17 DATA DATA DATA sour sweet .60 sweet .40 lemon .27 sweet .40 sweet .35 sweet .57 sweet .49 lemon .42 lemon .33 orange .27 . b i t t e r .11 vinegar .09 grapes .09 lemon .10 grapes .25 b i t t e r .27 * cream .10 lemon .08 lemon .06 cream .08 table chair .70 cha i r .73 c l o t h .47 cha i r .65 c h a i r .27 cha i r .84 c h a i r .70 top .22 c l o t h .40 cha i r .27 top .07 wood .08 food .04 food .06 eat .17 desk .40 cover .20 c l o t h .05 furnitune07 desk .02 desk .03 t e l l story .30 speak .47 me .33 r e l a t e .14 ta les .30 telephone.27 c a l l .27 story .14 NO NO NO me .22 t a l k .20 speak .20 say .12 DATA DATA DATA t h i r s t y water .67 water .66 water .34 water .34 water .34 water .35 water .43 drink .55 drink .33 * dr ink .18 dry .22 dr ink .30 dr ink .25 dry .32 desert .26 * hungry .16 dr ink .20 dry .12 dry .10 yellow sun .42 orange .20 colour .13 b i r d .14 colour .30 blue .16 colour .14 b i r d .15 red .20 flower .13 green .10 water .07 red .11 blue .10 green .15 s ignal .20 lemon .13 blue .07 orange .05 colour .10 red .07 * = NO DATA = Fewer than two i d e n t i c a l responses i n f i r s t three. Verbs not .included i n these authors' l i s t of stimulus words. 115 Appendix B TABLE XII PROPORTION OF PARADIGMATIC RESPONSES BY  FORM CLASS AND SUBJECT, NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKERS. VERBS NOUNS ADJECTIVES s P T M P T M P T M 40 22 50 .4 .29 57 .51 13 59 .22 39 27 46 .59 . 47 55 .85 17 53 .32 38 24 29 .83 26 30 .87, t 20 32 .63 37 22 63 .35 43 65 .66 11 55 .20 36 9 57 .16 24 50 .48 7 49 .14 35 12 33 .36 28 41 .68 15 46 .33 34 21 36 .58 31 52 .60 20 51 .39 33 25 48 .52 47 58 .81 25 62 .40 32 26 54 .48 42 75 .56 15 63 .24 31 23 68 .34 40 66 .61 20 63 .32 30 18 38 .47 37 59 .63 11 47 .23 29 15 24 .28 41 65 .63 13 69 .19 28 27 54 .50 33 50 .66 7 52 .13 27 4 29 .14 27 52 .52 16 51 .31 26 23 31 .74 21 47 .45 20 40 .50 25 10 44 .23 29 59 .49 13 58 .22 24 24 66 .36 50 87 .57 13 66 .20 23 22 52 .42 26 61 .43 20 57 .35 22 21 39 .59 37 63 .59 16 56 .29 21 31 50 .62 53 70 .76 26 57 .46 20 36 54 .67 56 67 .84 30 62 .48 19 19 53 .36 34 62 .55 2 65 .03 18 22 70 .31 47 84 .56 35 81 .43 17 22 63 .35 41 81 .51 19 64 .30 16 14 69 .20 46 70 .66 9 71 .13 15 19 65 .29 51 79 .65 25 70 .36 14 13 42 .31 25 51 .49 13 42 .31 13 31 72 .43 51 79 .65 27 77 .35 12 14 40 .35 28 43 .65 11 41 .27 11 30 56 .54 52 74 .70 20 63 .32 10 22 54 .41 41 59 .69 14 52 .27 9 26 46 .57 43 64 .67 26 61 .43 8 21 55 .38 38 62 .61 11 62 .18 7 25 42 .60 35 54 .65 10 50 .20 6 10 50 .20 23 46 .50 11 56 .20 5 24 64 .38 34 62 .55 13 57 .23 4 9 39 .23 31 4.6 .67 6 49 , .12 3 9 41 .22 36 52 .69 14 51 .27 2 21 69 .30 45 68 .66 23 67 .34 1 7 46 .15 40 52 .77 5 42 .12 S = Subject number T = Total number of responses P = Number of paradigmatic M = Mean proportion of paradigmat responses responses to total number of responses. 1 1 6 Appendix C TABLE XIII PROPORTION OF PARADIGMATIC RESPONSES BY  FORM CLASS AND SUBJECT, JAPANESE SUBJECTS. (LANGUAGE TEST SCORE INCLUDED) JAPANESE ADVANCED VERBS NOUNS ADJECTIVES < s LS P T M P T M P T M 3 0 1 0 0 7 6 3 . 1 1 2 2 5 6 . 3 9 9 5 1 . 1 8 2 9 9 0 7 4 3 . 1 6 3 0 4 8 . 6 3 9 4 7 . 1 9 2 8 9 0 1 4 _ 3 9 . 3 6 4 1 4 6 . 8 9 1 9 5 3 . 3 6 2 7 9 0 11.. . 2 3 . 4 8 1 3 3 4 . 3 8 8 3 4 . 2 4 2 6 9 0 6 2 0 . 3 0 1 2 2 3 . 5 2 1 3 2 5 . 5 2 2 5 9 0 1 5 3 0 . 5 0 3 7 4 4 . 8 4 9 4 5 . 2 0 2 4 9 0 7 3 4 . 2 1 3 4 4 7 . 7 2 1 5 5 2 . 2 9 2 3 8 5 1 4 4 2 . 3 3 3 6 5 3 . 6 8 9 4 3 . 2 1 2 2 8 5 1 9 3 5 . 5 4 2 3 3 3 . 7 0 9 4 0 . 2 3 2 1 8 5 7 4 1 . 1 7 3 4 4 7 . 7 2 1 2 4 8 . 2 5 2 0 8 0 4 2 0 . 2 0 2 3 3 1 . 7 4 1 0 2 8 . 3 6 1 9 8 0 1 1 2 1 . 5 2 1 4 2 3 . 6 1 4 3 0 . 1 3 1 8 7 0 2 2 1 . 1 0 2 5 3 6 . 6 9 1 2 2 . 0 5 1 7 7 0 1 3 1 4 . 9 3 2 5 2 7 . 9 3 9 1 6 . 5 6 1 6 7 0 5 2 0 . 2 5 1 4 3 0 . 4 7 3 2 5 . 1 2 JAPANESE BEGINNER 1 5 5 0 7 1 9 • 3 7 7 1 7 . 4 1 1 1 7 . 0 6 1 4 5 0 1 9 . 1 1 6 1 2 . 5 0 0 1 5 . 0 0 1 3 4 5 6 1 8 . 3 3 1 2 2 0 . 6 0 1 1 9 . 0 5 1 2 5 0 3 1 7 . 1 8 2 0 3 0 . 6 6 5 2 2 . 2 3 1 1 4 5 1 3 4 5 . 2 9 2 9 3 7 . 7 8 8 4 2 . 1 9 1 0 4 5 1 3 0 . 0 3 2 3 3 4 . 6 8 4 2 5 . 1 6 9 4 5 1 8 1 9 . 9 5 1 5 2 0 . 7 5 4 2 9 . 1 4 8 4 0 1 0 2 5 . 4 0 1 8 3 0 . 6 0 8 2 1 . 3 8 7 3 5 4 1 0 . 4 0 1 0 1 3 . 7 7 0 2 1 . 0 0 6 3 5 0 1 7 . 0 0 1 0 2 5 . 4 0 5 2 3 . 2 2 5 3 5 3 2 2 . 1 4 1 5 1 8 . 8 3 1 2 0 . 0 5 4 3 0 1 8 . 1 3 1 4 1 7 . 8 2 3 8 . 3 8 3 2 5 3 2 9 . 1 0 2 3 3 7 . 6 2 5 2 6 . 1 9 2 2 5 1 7 . 1 4 1 1 1 2 . 9 2 1 5 . 2 0 1 2 0 1 8 . 1 3 1 1 4 . 0 7 0 1 1 . 0 0 S = Subject number LS = Score on Language Placement Test (%) P = Number of paradigmatic responses T = Total number of responses M = Mean proportion of paradigmatic responses to total number of responses. 117 Appendix D Word A s s o c i a t i o n s YOU ARE FREE TO WITHDRAW AT ANY TIME, OR TO REFUSE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS, WITHOUT PREJUDICE. Some words evoke a g r e a t many a s s o c i a t i o n s , o t h e r s r e l a t i v e l y few. The purpose of t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i s t o d i s c o v e r how r e a d i l y c e r t a i n words evoke r e s p o n s e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s a word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t , i t s h o u l d not be c o n f u s e d w i t h the word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s sometimes used by p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h i a t r i s t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . The prime c o n c e r n i s w i t h the p r o p e r t i e s of the  words, not w i t h you as an i n d i v i d u a l or w i t h your i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s . In t h i s t a s k the o b j e c t i v e i s t o o b t a i n a l i s t of p r i m a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s t o each s t i m u l u s word, not c o n t i n u o u s or c h a i n e d a s s o c i a t i o n s . In o t h e r words, you a r e t o a s s o c i a t e t o the same s t i m u l u s word each t i m e . For t h i s r e a s o n , the r e p o r t form i s s t r u c t u r e d such t h a t each s t i m u l u s word appears t o the l e f t of a page 15 t i m e s . You a r e t o r e a d the s t i m u l u s word, w r i t e your r e s p o n s e , r e a d the s t i m u l u s word a g a i n , w r i t e your r e s p o n s e , e t c . As an example, f o r the s t i m u l u s word "green," you would w r i t e your f i r s t r esponse f o l l o w i n g the word "green" on l i n e l ; you would then read the word "green" on l i n e 2, w r i t e your second response a d j a c e n t t o i t and c o n t i n u e t o l i n e 3, e t c . A s s o c i a t i o n Example: 1 . green o^.o^JC 2. green QTCLA^ Do not censor your r e s p o n s e s ; f e e l f r e e t o w r i t e whatever word comes i m m e d i a t e l y t o mind. You w i l l have 30 seconds i n which t o make as many a s s o c i a t i o n s as you can t o each word. When time i s c a l l e d , s t o p w r i t i n g a f t e r the word you a r e on. At the s i g n a l , t u r n the page and b e g i n t o w r i t e you a s s o c i a t i o n s t o the next s t i m u l u s word., P l e a s e work as q u i c k l y and as c a r e f u l l y as you can. The d a t a you a r e p r o v i d i n g w i l l become an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of a study of l e a r n i n g and c o g n i t i o n . Thank you f o r your c o - o p e r a t i o n ; i t i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . IF THE QUESTIONNAIRE IS COMPLETE, IT IS ASSUMED THAT CONSENT HAS BEEN GIVEN. TOTAL TIME TO COMPLETE THIS QUESTIONNAIRE: 12 MINUTES. 118 Appendix D ( c o n ' t . ) T a b l e (Noun) T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e T a b l e Table 

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