UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Learners' conceptions of cross-cultural orientation Liu, Diane M. 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989_A8 L57.pdf [ 3.56MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0078289.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0078289-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0078289-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0078289-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0078289-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0078289-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0078289-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0078289-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0078289.ris

Full Text

LEARNERS' CONCEPTIONS OF CROSS-CULTURAL ORIENTATION  By Diane M. Liu B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1983  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1989 & Diane M.Liu, 1989  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be granted her  for  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Q<li^W^  ii ABSTRACT  With  the increase  different  cultures  importance  orientation  programs have  cross-cultural  orientations  Thus,  cross-cultural study  obtain  a wider  research  t o draw  the purpose of t h i s  study  i s to look  conceptions of the  i s  or program  from the learners'  understanding  in  together  r e s e a r c h however,  of instructors  was  g u i d e d by  technique.  observations,  Analysis perspective, programs were  an  Two  of a cross-cultural  program documents  learners'  Much o f t h i s  trends  and  at  perspective. i n an  attempt  cross-cultural  phenomenon.  learners  classroom  and  Scholars  t o examine  i n an a t t e m p t  orientations  and a q u a l i t a t i v e the  begun  examines t h e l e a r n e r s '  orientation  The  just  understanding  to increase.  from the p e r s p e c t i v e  developers.  to  only  of  for cross-cultural  continues  and p r a c t i c e .  presented  This  the need  among p e o p l e  awareness o f t h e  cross-cultural  skills,  practitioners  theory  and t h e growing  of strong  communication  i n interaction  of the data participation  held varying  series  the data  indicated  with  for this  that  program, and  study.  the.learners' of  t o address.'  conceptions  with  the instructors  i n and c o n t r o l  themes  perspective  of interviews  orientation  interviews  provided  important  interpretive  orientation Moreover, the  o f t h e s e two  themes.  iii  With learners present that as  regards felt  theme o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  that orientation  programs  orientation  programs  should present  provide opportunities for related themselves  emphasized the  Two  learners  as  also  of o r i e n t a t i o n  who  mainly  the  orientation  instructor  and  communication,  While different  of being  the  process  these  also  indicated  were  further  of the  In exploring  nature  the  orientation  be  both  in  the of  the  emphasized.  represented  analysis  practice,  the  dynamics  these and  of cross-cultural  learners' programs,  by  concepts  understanding  phenomenon, t h e  c o m p l i c a t e d by  the  l e a r n e r s understood  that i n actual  should  clearly  controlled  four varying conceptions  orientation  theme  were  programs  Furthermore, and  to the  there  while majority  were a l s o  ways i n w h i c h t h e  complexities  Again,  p r o g r a m s t o be  collaboration  others  active.  programs.  learners.  well  Thus,  while  emerged w i t h regards  instructor,  understood  orientation  experiences.  perceived that orientation  c o n t r o l l e d by  cultural  few  i n f o r m a t i o n as  passive participants,  importance  conceptions  control  cultural  should  a  i n f o r m a t i o n w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y o f them p e r c e i v e d  s o m e saw  of  to the  conceptions this  the  cross-  of the  data  conceptions the orientations.  of cross-  study provided  a  different  perspective  orientation paying and  phenomenon.  closer  t h e need  t o understanding the cross-cultural  attention f o r further  It identified to the adult research  the importance  learner  of  i n orientations  i n the area.  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  As  I r e f l e c t on t h e number o f c o l l e a g u e s ,  graduate students,  friends,  fellow  a n d a c q u a i n t a n c e s who  e n c o u r a g e d me d u r i n g my g r a d u a t e  studies,  have  I r e a l i z e that i t  w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o m e n t i o n them a l l by name. Nevertheless, individuals  I would l i k e  t o acknowledge  who have e s p e c i a l l y  h e l p i n g me c o m p l e t e t h i s  Sincere  appreciation  i s e x t e n d e d t o my  invaluable  support  completion  of this research  study  initial  this  cross-cultural study;  Scott, joys  f o r their thoughtful  o r i e n t a t i o n , program  Dan, J o a n and N o l a  my h e a r t f e l t  special  prayers  gratitude  dad, E r i c , Edmund a n d e s p e c i a l l y and s t e a d f a s t  and t h e s t a f f o f  forparticipating in  caring  friends:  Sue,  f o r s h a r i n g my d i s c o u r a g e m e n t s and  and f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t ,  patience  feedback and  on t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  t o the Chinese trainees  and t o some v e r y  Finally, and  stages t o the  process.  My t h a n k s a l s o the  committee  a n d t o D r . B e r n a r d Mohan  e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o r e f l e c t more d e e p l y orientation  role i n  f o r o f f e r i n g h i s i n s i g h t s and  from t h e v e r y  Dr. Margaret E a r l y  an i m p o r t a n t  thesis.  members: t o D r . Don N o r t h e y  and  played  certain  support  and encouragement.  t o my Betty,  family:  my  for their  d u r i n g my g r a d u a t e  mom love,  studies.  vi TABLE OF CONTENTS  I.  II.  Scope and Focus A.  Background  B.  Rationale  o f t h e Problem  1  f o r the Research Question  3  Review o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e A.  Introduction  B.  Use o f Terms i n t h i s  C.  Definition  D.  T h e o r e t i c a l Models  E.  Stages  F.  Teaching & Learning Strategies  G.  Concepts  H.  III.  o f t h e study  6 study  of Labels,  7  Concepts  & Categories  & Methodologies  9  i n C r o s s - c u l t u r a l Adjustment  o f Independence,  7  12 16  Self-direction  and C o n t r o l <  18  Summary o f L i t e r a t u r e Review  21  Research Design and Process A.  Introduction  23  B.  Setting  24  C.  Access  26  D.  Participants  E.  Data  collection  through Interviews  F.  Data  collection  through P a r t i c i p a n t  G.  Documents  H.  Reliability  I.  Summary  ....28 29 Observation..31 32 & Validity  32 33  vii  IV.  A n a l y s i s o f Data A.  Introduction  B.  Learners'  35  Conceptions of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n O r i e n t a t i o n Programs  i.  Conception  1: O r i e n t a t i o n P r o g r a m s mainly present  ii.  38  Conception  should  information  2: O r i e n t a t i o n P r o g r a m s  39  should  present  information  provide  r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s . . . . 41  C.  Discussion  of Participation  D.  Classroom observations  E.  Learners'  as w e l l as  Theme  42 46  Conceptions of Control  i n Orientation  Programs i.  50  Conception  1: O r i e n t a t i o n P r o g r a m s  should  be  c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r . . . 51 ii.  Conception  2: O r i e n t a t i o n P r o g r a m s  should  be c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r and  V.  F.  Discussion  G.  Summary  of Control  the learner Theme  ....52 53 62  Conclusion A.  O v e r v i e w o f t h e study...  B.  Implications  C.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e study  70  D.  Suggestions  71  of this  study  f o r further research  65 .68  viii  Bibliography  74  A p p e n d i x A:  Consent Form  79  A p p e n d i x B:  Interview Questions  80  A p p e n d i x C:  Observation  81  A p p e n d i x D:  E x a m p l e o f some i n i t i a l  Schedule themes  82  L I S T OP  T a b l e 1:  M o d e l o f C o n t r o l by G a r r i s o n Baynton  T a b l e 2:  TABLES  (1987)  E m e r g i n g themes and c o n c e p t s  and 20  38  1  CHAPTER ONE SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE PROBLEM  A.  BACKGROUND OF THE  Major  PROBLEM  developments i n telecommunications  a d v a n c e s made i n t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in  increasing  "global  i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e p e o p l e  village citizens".  international assistance projects  advisors,  resulted  Global interdependence  f o r example, w o r k i n g  i n various countries  involved  have  of the world -  c o o p e r a t i o n c o n t i n u e t o grow.  government o f f i c i a l s , all  industry  and t h e  and  Technical  on development  are increasing.  Missionaries,  diplomats and m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l a r e  i n cross-cultural  interactions.  Moreover, t o  compete e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t p l a c e , c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and communication Furthermore, here  skills  d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s i n o u r own  i n Canada as a r e s u l t o f t h e g r o w i n g  refugee population,  call  fortrained  a r e a must.  surroundings  immigrant  practitioners  these people w i t h t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n t o t h e Canadian T h u s , t h e n e e d . f o r p e o p l e t o become more l i t e r a t e behaviour cultural  and s k i l l s  and to assist society.  i n the  n e c e s s a r y t o engage i n e f f e c t i v e  interaction i scrucial.  cross-  cross-  2  The young,  field  i s rapidly  designed  and p r a c t i t i o n e r s  race  anthropology, cross-cultural influences  concensus  (Gundykunst  this  field,  attempting  relations,  programs rapid  involved  ethnic  pace.  come  Their varying  from  psychology,  concepts of  I t i s no wonder  o f t h e concept  t r a i n i n g has been d i f f i c u l t  to articulate  researchers  of providing  some  and p r a c t i t i o n e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e  have been t a k i n g  i n what  progress  h a s b e e n made i d e n t i f y i n g a p p r o p r i a t e  models  Dinges, of and  1983),  evaluating  1983) .  (Gundykunst  of cross-cultural  competency examining  cross-cultural  Landis,  (Brislin,  Brandt,  & Hammer,  e t h i c a l concerns  t r a i n i n g programs  cross-cultural  (Paige  training  i s s t i l l  1983).  Much  1983), and  Brandt, and  1983;  implications  & Martin,  (Blake  a  approaches t o  interaction Landis,  been  the  industry"  intercultural  (Brislin,  place  organization  have  "cottage  presenting  of  1983).  the importance  training  vast  communications,  interdisciplinary field.  t o systematize  intercultural  a  i n the eclectic  over t h e meaning and focus  developments that  relatively  are being  studies,  t r a i n i n g have r e s u l t e d  & Hammer,  Realizing  though  as: cross-cultural  and b u s i n e s s .  on t h i s  cross-cultural  to  Training  o f d i s c i p l i n e s such  linguistics,  that  growing.  training,  and implemented a t a f a i r l y  Theoreticians range  of cross-cultural  &  1983),  Heslin,  3  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s t r i d e s made i n t h e f i e l d c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g i ngeneral, focussed  available literature first  a t t e n t i o n i s now b e i n g  on an a r e a o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g :  cultural orientations,  cross-  as e v i d e n c e d by an i n c r e a s e i n i nthat  o f i t s k i n d , was h e l d  Orientations:  of cross-  Theories,  area.  Also,  i n 1984:  a seminar, t h e  "Cross-Cultural  P r a c t i c e s , Problems and S o l u t i o n s " .  D e f i n i t i o n s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n vary (Bennett, Paige  1 9 8 6 ; G u d y k u n s t & Hammer, 1 9 8 3 ; K o h l s ,  (1986:2) d e f i n e s  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n as "those  i n t e r c u l t u r a l programs t h a t  aredesigned t o prepare  groups o f l e a r n e r s t o r e s i d e i n s p e c i f i c t a r g e t s p e c i f i c purposes". other  1984).  specific  cultures f o r  O r i e n t a t i o n programs a r e d i s t i n c t  from  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g i n t h a t t h e y f o c u s on s p e c i f i c  groups o f l e a r n e r s , s p e c i f i c t a r g e t  c u l t u r e s and s p e c i f i c  purposes.  B.  RATIONAL FOR THE RESEARCH  STUDY  W i t h t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g number o f d o m e s t i c f o r e i g n students, preparation  business persons and o f f i c i a l s  f o r t h e i r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l sojourn  o r i e n t a t i o n programs a r e b e i n g  needing  experiences,  designed and implemented by  all  s o r t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and q u a s i - p r o f e s s i o n a l  and  i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e s e p r o g r a m s emerge i n v a r i o u s  however, m a i n l y as i n f o r m a t i o n  students,  giving session,  agencies forms,  and o f t e n  4 with overly thought  simplistic  given  to  unfortunately, b e i n g viewed  the  has  as  goals  learning process  contributed to  an e l e m e n t a r y  training  (Paige,  scholars  and p r a c t i t i o n e r s  in  orientation  research help  1986),  culture  designing  Issues  training  (Paige & M a r t i n ,  Renwick,  1982),  goals of  orientations,  (McCaffery,  implications  on o r i e n t a t i o n  addressed.  some c o n c e p t u a l theory  1986),  Attempts  (Paige,  developments are h e l p i n g professionalize to  ensure  reality  of  that the  the  outcome  of  better  share  findings  need t o  be  s i m i l a r views  orientation  ethics  Frank,  should be,  of  Pusch &  variables  influencing and  their  (Hughes-Weiner,  1984),  arrive  and t o  at  integrate  Although these anchor  and  much more work n e e d s t o are v a l i d a t e d  t r a i n i n g experience  q u e s t i o n s which s t i l l participants  to  field,  research  and t h e  foundations  1986).  direction  orientations.  a r e b e i n g made t o  and t h e o r e t i c a l  and p r a c t i c e  sensitivity  provide  learning styles  training  to  (Grove & T o r b i o r n ,  cross-cultural  1983;. Howards,  orientations  are being  are emerging  and t o  trainers  trends  theory,  intercultural  1983)  t r a i n i n g of  have  examine  together  i n t e r c u l t u r a l adjustment  the  orientation  recently  C o n c e p t u a l models of  This,  cross-cultural  only  pull  and i m p l e m e n t i n g  s u c h as  content.  t o g e t h e r begun t o  (Weaver,  little  cross-cultural  Therefore,  development  shock  with  or the  form o f  t r a i n i n g and t o  understand the  1986), for  1986).  and p r a c t i c e .  (Bennett,  and o b j e c t i v e s ,  and v i c e  asked  are:  on what what  the  in  be the  versa. do  done  Some  the  purpose  and  information should  be  presented,  how  i t s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d ,  t h e t r a i n i n g and what v a r i a b l e s are s i m i l a r i t i e s  who  should  conduct  effect orientations?  How  and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a n t s '  perceptions r e f l e c t e d i n the o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g i n the classroom  a n d what f u r t h e r  t h e d e s i g n and  implications  implementation  does t h i s have  of o r i e n t a t i o n  With t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i n mind t h e n , t h i s is  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' ,  learners',  conceptions  of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  Thus, t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s more c o m p l e t e  programs?  research  orientations.  of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  from t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' / l e a r n e r s '  study  i . e . the  study i s t o g a i n a c l e a r e r  understanding  on  points of  and  orientation  view.  6 CHAPTER  TWO  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  A.  INTRODUCTION  This  c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a r e v i e w o f some o f t h e  literature  related  learning.  First,  categories  used  1986;  to cross-cultural  the d e f i n i t i o n s of labels,  i n the f i e l d  K o h l s , 1984).  methodologies  that  orientations  Next,  are discussed  and a d u l t  c o n c e p t s and  (J.M. B e n n e t t ,  some t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s a n d  have b e e n p r o p o s e d  for cross-cultural  orientation  t r a i n i n g a r e l o o k e d a t (J.M. B e n n e t t , 1986;  Gundykunst,  Hammer a n d Wiseman, 1977; A l b e r t ,  1984; on  Triandis,  1986;).  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f some l i t e r a t u r e  stages i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  (M. B e n n e t t ,  1986; G r o v e  and l e a r n i n g  training  are then discussed  learning  Baynton,  process  follow  1986; J u f f e r ,  1986).  used i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  ( M c C a f f e r y , 1984;  (Knowles,  1983; Chene,  1987; P r a t t ,  Hughes-  F i n a l l y , the concepts of  s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l  a r e examined  Brookfield,  strategies  Sawkins,1987;).  independence,  adjustment  & Torbiorn,  Teaching  W i e n e r , 1986;  1986; B r i s l i n ,  as u s e d  i n adult  1975; Tough, 1977;  1983; B r o o k f i e l d ,  1988; G a r r i s o n ,  1986; G a r r i s o n  1988).  &  7 B.  USE OF TERMS IN THIS RESEARCH STUDY  In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i v e  study,  t h eterm  i s used interchangeably w i t h t h e terms "trainees"  and "students".  individuals  "participants",  "learners",  I t i s t h econceptions  t h a t a r e b e i n g examined i n t h i s  The t e r m s " i n s t r u c t o r " ,  o f these  study.  " t r a i n e r " and "teacher" a r e  used interchangeably i nt h i s study t o r e f e r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who c o n d u c t s  The t e r m description experience  theorientation  "conceptions"  training.  i s u s e d t o mean c a t e g o r i e s o f  w h i c h r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h i c h o r understand  The t e r m  people  a phenomenon.  "themes"- i s u s e d t o mean t h e m a j o r e l e m e n t s o f  t h e phenomenon s t u d i e d .  C.  DEFINITION  OF LABELS,  J.M. B e n n e t t cultural training: as e d u c a t i o n " ,  CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES  (1986) i n h e r p a p e r "Modes o f c r o s s Conceptualizing cross-cultural  attempts  to clarify  and d i s t i n g u i s h t h e three  t e r m s u s e d most f r e q u e n t l y t o d e s c r i b e training:  orientation,  academic content  areas  and  Thus, she s u g g e s t s  She d o e s  and t h e process  O r i e n t a t i o n g e n e r a l l y emphasizes  information, dont's.  cross-cultural  education and t r a i n i n g .  t h i s by comparing t h e g o a l s , t h e content used i n each.  training  survival  a n d some c u l t u r a l d o s  that "orientation  may b e  8 characterized preparation approach."  as  the  who,  p e r i o d , an (p.118).  approach with the  what, when,  essential  but  and not  end  goal  involving  and  does not  demonstrate t h e i r  behavior  (p.118). its  "Education"  focuses  objective i s to help  theoretical should  be  foundation  the  ideal  of the  the  to  an  - the  'why'  'how'. conceptual  t o be  able  learning.  of  perspective  and  the  This, Bennett  looking at  to  program."  learners i n understanding  of  way  on  the  "minimizes  require sojourners  competence o u t s i d e  of  comprehensive  "Training" usually refers  This p e r s p e c t i v e according to Bennett, ground work  where  suggests,  cross-cultural  training.  Kohls  (1984)  a l s o acknowledges the  between  four approaches  of  each  approach  of  another  for  He  in-depth  knowledge,  whereas  competency  i n performing  prepares new  or  one  provides  a broad  examines these concerns achieving features.  and  He  mastery  "training"  different overview  and  g o e s on  to  to  interact  with is  large bodies  of  on  those  suited  developing "Orientation"  function effectively  environment, most  overall  while  way.  of t h e i r  purpose,  in  He  major  v a r i o u s means  requirements  a  "briefing"  efficient  i n terms  delivery  appropriateness  skills.  to  distinguish  "education"  focuses  i n the  applications, purpose,  of  specific  four approaches  their  examine the  states that  to understand  radically  to  i n preparing people  culture.  developing  and  need t o  and  argue t h a t a combination  of  strongest of  the  9 four  different  approaches  keeping  i n mind t h e  and t h e  sponsoring  D.  Bennett  orientation. cognitive  goals,  experiential  uses  (1986)  goals,  goals.  content,  approaches. their  l e a r n i n g group  approaches  specific  specific  the  Model  content  ar.d  The f i f t h  a s s e s s e s t h e s e models  is  affective  specific and  and  Awareness  covering cognitive,  with both culture  Model  processes  Cultural  self.  and l i m i t a t i o n s  stressing  Self-Awareness  experiential  individual  for  and t r a d i t i o n a l  Area Training  culture  and c u l t u r e  intellectual i n terms  of  and t h e n p l a c e s  them  framework.  Hammer and Wiseman  Intellectual,  Area  and C u l t u r e A w a r e n e s s  l o o k at the  approach.  the  Model,  (1977)  review  used i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g .  mention the  awareness  content  The f o u r t h i s  major advantages  Gundykunst,  common m o d e l s  using both e x p e r i e n t i a l  She a l s o  a conceptual  is  content,  the  five  The t h i r d ,  M u l t i - D i m e n s i o n a l Model,  general  they  of the  effective,  Intellectual  specific  processes.  and b e h a v i o r a l g o a l s ,  they  the  The s e c o n d  c u l t u r a l l y general affective  identifies is  culture  Model which emphasizes  into  most  agency.  emphasizing a f f e c t i v e  the  the  characteristics  The f i r s t  learning process.  has  often  THEORETICAL MODELS AND METHODOLOGIES J.M.  the  is  Simulation,  approaches.  B e h a v i o r a l a p p r o a c h and the  The f o r m e r f o c u s e s behaviors that  on t e a c h i n g  are used  Like  i n the  the  host  six Bennett,  Self-  In a d d i t i o n , Interaction learner culture,  and  10 the of  latter their  strives  own c u l t u r a l  workshops. to  The  of using  training  specific  training.  cross-cultural  this  three  stage  Albert Sensitizer"  other  interaction  t o develop  assumptions the with  (1986)  be a c h i e v e d  by  goal using  sensitivity.  about  issues.  This  one c u l t u r e t o see a n d  first  of effective  identifies  factors  orientation  that  programs,  differences i n behavior,  factors  selectivity  Intercultural these  t h a t t h e development  or inferences of behavior,  social  expectations,  and context  f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a member o f t h e  cultural  differences,  stages:  using the "Intercultural  cross-cultural  Albert  interpretations  suggest  t h e l e a r n e r from  situations  example,  training  and can best  suggests  hamper t h e development for  i s presented.  p e r s p e c t i v e s h o u l d be t h e primary  training  (1986)  culture.  approach  approach.  approach teaches interpret  an i n t e g r a t e d approach  consists of three  The a u t h o r s  of t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l  interaction  a r e d i s c u s s e d and a study t o  i n t e g r a t e d approach used training,  among t h e l e a r n e r s  o r i e n t a t i o n s through  the effectiveness of this  perspective  in  value  The a d v a n t a g e s  cross-cultural  support  t o i n c r e a s e awareness  other  and context,  of perception,  cultures.  Sensitizer  role of and  He t h e n ,  approach  value  erroneous  discusses  how  c a n be used t o d e a l  Another Sensitizer his  -  and  which t h i s  provides  for  Triandis cultural  and  provides  first  p r o g r a m s be  designed  the  He  i t will  value  suggests  i s generally  have e x p e r i e n c e d variety  of  outcomes.  conditions  training This  that  of  cultural like:  a bit  how  who  the  is likely  outcomes.  for people  which  are  with perceiving  most m o t i v a t e d t o  are  i n the  culture  that  shock.  host  the  He  that  to  effective  say  a  different  He  on  and  mentions  as  goes  like  learn,  culture  s p e c i f i c concepts  increase  He  t r a i n i n g should  t r a i n i n g content  constructs.  should  c o n f l i c t i n g ways o f  cross-cultural  to  orientation  He  culture  cross-  assimilator  each having  suggests  and  communicate e f f e c t i v e l y and  they of  then,  when  should  s h o u l d be  and  learners after  contexts  among m e t h o d s  more d i f f i c u l t  to  the  culture  t r a i n i n g approaches,  emphasize both universal  role  what  be  in  reviews  "Approaches to  conducted,  systems  c o n d u c t e d when t h e that  choosing  paper  the  and  s o c i a l environment  others.  the  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y , where and  p r o g r a m s be  conflicting  of  helpful.  examines questions  orientation  that  assimilator",  (1984),  sessions.  in his and  Brislin  examples of  for  orientation  (1986)  Intercultural  implementation  guidelines  more e f f e c t i v e  proposes  general  a p p r o a c h w o u l d be  orientation  training",  for the  Assimilator.  culture  also  useful  approaches  be  "A  used  Culture  rationale  assimilator in  often  i s the  article  design,  term  well  should as  learning  cross-cultural  be  interaction  favour  interpersonal  behavior,  focus  cultures,  and e n a b l e  goals  on b e h a v i o r t h a t  c a n o n l y be then  cultural  training:  type  of  culture  focuses  that  the  chances  the  are  host  host  culture.  of  other  occurring.  cross-  The p u r p o s e  this  the  host  lowering  need t o  one  the  Triandis  also  learner to  culture.  The  i n f o r m a t i o n and ' r a i s e  methods  made by  a p p r o a c h namely  the  actual  of  learner  c a n be made and p e r h a p s  s h o u l d a l s o have  the  many  sharpening  culture the  issue',  experiences.  be e m p l o y e d t o  help  In deal,  situations.  STAGES IN CROSS-CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT A n o t h e r way t o  focus occurs  on t h e as  the  view  o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s w o u l d be  conceptualizing  learners  intercultural in  and t h e r e f o r e ,  of  culture.  approach i n t e r p r e t s  h e l p i n g the  oversensitizing  can p r o v i d e  with these a c t u a l  E.  This  another,  culture  stereotypes  addition,  of  assimilator.  their  host  attributions  that  learner  the  the  mistakes  the  of  s i m i l a r to  potential  but  to  some l i m i t a t i o n s of  help  both  that  l e a r n e r make  danger  assimilator  to perceive  the  potential  his/her  culture  of m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  acknowledges  appropriate in  help  f o r members o f  understand the  learners  intergroup  on d e s c r i b i n g one t y p e  training is  attributions members o f  the  is  reached w i t h the  Triandis  this  r a t h e r than  the  learning process  that  acquire a multicultural perspective  effectiveness.  way t h e y  of  create  Cultures differ  to  and  fundamentally  and m a i n t a i n w o r l d v i e w s .  It  is  this  difference  that  successful  a c q u i s i t i o n of  M.  Bennett  how p e o p l e culture moves  the  major f a c t o r  (1986)  This  a n d where  a greater  difference  sensitivity  effectiveness  increase.  denial,  defense,  integration. acquiring  but  learner  at  also  cross-cultural  Grove  training"  three  present  (1986)  stage,  from  c e n t r a l to as  all  threatening,  differences,  are:  a d a p t a t i o n and  in detail  the  process  of  by g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e s e for dealing with development  in their  article  i n t e r c u l t u r a l adjustment psychological  adjustment.  mere a d e q u a c y .  the  a person  identifies  implications  the  of  process  of  and g o a l s  constructs  frame o f  to  reference  By e x p l a i n i n g what h a p p e n s  psychological  "A new of  describe  They a r e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f  c l a r i t y o f the mental  these three  of  stages of h i s / h e r  and T o r b i o r n  intercultural  as  to  sensitivity.  of  describe  The s t a g e s he  discusses  various  describe  and i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n  only explains  conceptualization  of  is  minimization, acceptance,  He n o t  the  that  experienced  a multicultural perspective  stages,  behavior,  is  culture  r e c o g n i t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e  intercultural  helps  an e t h n o r e l a t i v e  world-view of h i s / h e r  person's  and a t t a c h meaning  author p o s i t s to  a  perspective.  a model t h a t  experience  f r o m an e t h n o c e n t r i c  reality  effecting  an i n t e r c u l t u r a l  presents  subjectively  differences.  where t h e  to  is  constructs,  to  G r o v e and  i n t e r c u l t u r a l adjustment  and  level  a person  in  Torbiorn b o t h i n an  14 accustomed  and u n a c c u s t o m e d s e t t i n g  considerations desirable  f o r b r i n g i n g about  changes  i n the  and o f f e r  the  adjustment  some p r a c t i c a l  theoretically  cycle  through  orientation training.  Juffer approaches  (1986) to  particularly these  provides  c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the focusing  an a p p r o a c h t o  Juffer  to  better  suggests that  need t o  being  effective  carefully  design  effective  effective  and s u c c e s s f u l trainers  methods  they  that  experiences  cross-cultural  Juffer's  to  often  t r a i n i n g must  cross-cultural i n order to  desired Trainers  adjustment  design  more It  is  learner's  and  past  orientation  conceptual  and c u l t u r e  of  her  r e l y on t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s  examining t h e i r  definition  the  be  a r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h a n d on t h e i r  adjustment  and  orientation training.  assumptions  of  shock.  cross-cultural three  goals  and h i e r a r c h i c a l i n n a t u r e .  ameliorate  relates  t r a i n i n g methods  o r i e n t a t i o n programs.  a d j u s t m e n t / a d a p t a t i o n proposes interactive  She t h e n  a n d i n t u i t i o n when d e s i g n i n g  programs w i t h o u t  process,  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment.  components  concern that  different  oriented with the  analyze the  phenomenon a n d i t s  adjustment  existing  l e a r n e r - c e n t e r e d and r e s u l t s result  of the  on c u l t u r e s h o c k .  conceptualizations  offers  an o v e r v i e w  culture  that  are  The f i r s t  goal  shock e x p e r i e n c e .  is The  second  is  and the the  to  increase  third  is  to  new c u l t u r e .  first  two g o a l s  Juffer schemas:  the  increase  need t o  have  of  with  environment experience.  a threat  to  techniques  and f i n a l l y  of  goal  shock u s i n g  sojourners  five  negative  approaches  programs w i l l that  will  conceptualization variables  such as:  amount  time  relate  of c u l t u r e the  f o r the  to  is  the  more t h a n  shock.  However, the  the  an o r i e n t a t i o n  of  no  one  framework  but  that of  critical  learner,  location the  program.  i n t e r c u l t u r a l adjustment of  types  one  framework f o r  designing  growth  a variety  appropriate  for the  the  correct  must be c o n s i d e r e d when s e l e c t i n g  rationale  new  adds t h a t  orientation  of  modify  appropriate t r a i n  background of  conceptualization  of  classify  integrate  orientation,  or  these  shock t o  likely  situation,  from the  improving c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g ,  orientation  or  adequately  aspects  applies  shock  the  causal  emotional  reinforcement  discuss  occur,  interpersonal  F u r t h e r m o r e , she  culture  to  in  place.  need t o  of c u l t u r e  f o r each one.  for  of  the  t r a i n i n g and t o  conceptualization use  the  The a u t h o r t h e n  orientation  to  the  adjustment  effectiveness  a new e n v i r o n m e n t  regain positive  conceptualizations  third  i n t e r c u l t u r a l or  intra-psychic well-being, behaviour to  psychological  learner's  taken  culture  confrontation  communication,  the  In o r d e r f o r t h e  categorizes  ineffectiveness  learner's  orientation  the  of  the  most Juffer's  provides  p r o g r a m s and  a for  the  selecting  of the  most  a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g methods  for  orientations.  F.  TEACHING AND LEARNING In a d d i t i o n t o  between t h e in his  focusing  l e a r n e r and t h e  paper e n t i t l e d  reconsideration  of  posits  of the  that  one  in designing learner's  host  of  different  most  concepts,  results  effectiveness:  the  p h a s e s and t y p e s o f  he  says,  o r i e n t a t i o n programs.  unrealistic  expectations  expectations,  that  fact,  Gail the  Hughes-Wiener  learning cycle  theory  learning-how-to-learn methodology  (1986)  also  as t h e  of  as  guides the  learners and i n  using  major  such goals  learner  stereotyping,  be  be  s h o u l d be t h e  A lack  i n u n i n t e n d e d outcomes l i k e  can i n  all  the  framework.  represents  intercultural skills These  consider  training  are used  learning that  manner.  to  experience  which i n t u r n  A  programs i s  learning cycle  concrete  (1984)  and t r a i n i n g " ,  He s u g g e s t s t h a t  The l e a r n i n g c y c l e ,  them i n an i n d e p e n d e n t of  McCaffery  important v a r i a b l e s  learning.  pass through i n developing  goals  differences  cross-cultural orientation  should follow  into  action.  cultural  situation,  "Independent  framework s u g g e s t s t h a t  translated for  on t h e  and i m p l e m e n t i n g o r i e n t a t i o n  style  methodologies This  STRATEGIES  often  dependency,  and n e g a t i v e  counter-productive.  uses  basis  an a d a p t a t i o n  for developing  of  a  c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  for c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n programs.  This  17  researcher presents cultural  for designing  o r i e n t a t i o n programs i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h i s  She d i s c u s s e s curricula learning never  some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  the  and t h e cycle  teach  culture,  setting  of  goals,  organizing of  theory.  learners  is to  to  a  the one  is  can  specific  learn-how-to-learn  information  kind of  of  since  know a b o u t  p r o v i d i n g them w i t h s p e c i f i c best  designing  out t h a t  a d d i t i o n to  the  approach.  instruction using  She p o i n t s  everything there  assisting  the  cross-  in  cultural  orientation  a learner  can  have.  Sawkins suggests  (1987),  another  advocate  of t h i s  theory,  that:  L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be h e l p e d t o l e a r n how t o l e a r n a n d how t o make t h e most o f the l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s that are a v a i l a b l e t o them i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s i n which they f i n d themselves, so t h a t t h e y c a n c a r r y on l e a r n i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y a f t e r t h e i r course i s f i n i s h e d , (p.60)  She f i r s t teacher  provides  four guiding p r i n c i p l e s  i n implementing l e a r n e r t r a i n i n g :  attitude,  make s t r a t e g i e s  styles  l e a r n i n g and t e a c h  of  identifies  some a r e a s  more i n d e p e n d e n t . activities  that  more i n d e p e n d e n t awareness,  She  that  learners  the  She  suggests  five  strategies  specific  for global practice  a  a  tactical  different also  need h e l p w i t h t o kinds  needed t o  namely t h o s e p r o m o t i n g s e l f  self-management,  opportunities  be aware o f  for transfer.  finally  can f o s t e r -  explicit,  have  for  task  and  learning,  and d e a l i n g  with  become  of become language and  18 communication breakdown.  By w o r k i n g on t h e i r  these  suggests that  five  learners the  areas,  Sawkins  may i n c o r p o r a t e  good l e a r n e r  (p.64). carry  into  "it  some o r a l l t h e  their  Furthermore, the  personal  learners  on l e a r n i n g on t h e i r  own,  strategies  in  possible  that  is  characteristics  learning  styles"  w i l l be w e l l  becoming  of  prepared  independent  to  culture  learners.  G.  CONCEPTS OF INDEPENDENCE, SELF-DIRECTION The  been  concepts  widely  adult  initiative  as  without  degree of  method o f  (1975)  and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n i n the  describes  self-directed  i n which i n d i v i d u a l s take help  of  others  refers  responsibility  Brookfield control  (1983)  learners  learning to  their  human a n d  outcomes" learners  f o r and c o n t r o l over  exert  their  independence  over the  years  however,  scholars  conceptualizations  of  Brookfield  who h a d o n c e c a l l e d  learning"  the  self-directed  describes  of  content  as  and  learning.  recent  learning  field  in diagnosing  identifying  and e v a l u a t i n g also  have  proponents  formulating goals,  t h o s e who t a k e  In  the  Tough (1977)  own l e a r n i n g . the  Knowles  resources,  (p.18).  by v a r i o u s  "a p r o c e s s  l e a r n i n g needs, material  independence  discussed  education.  l e a r n i n g as  of  & CONTROL  (1986),  "the  self-directedness  distinguishing  (p.25),  is  have q u e s t i o n e d and  now s u s p i c i o u s  independence.  self-direction  characteristic of the  these  of  adult  singular  in  importance of t h i s p r e s c r i p t i v e aim Pratt  concept to adult  of encouraging l e a r n e r s '  (1988) q u e s t i o n s  directedness  the  of adult  over i n s t r u c t i o n a l believes that  l e a r n i n g and  independence.  assumption that the  learners necessitates  functions"  (p.160).  "most l e a r n e r s a r e n o t  reaching  t h e i r educational  support"  (p.28).  Chene  goals  "self-  their  Garrison  control (1988)  capable of choosing  w i t h o u t some d i r e c t i o n  (1983) s t a t e s t h a t  independence or s e l f - r e l i a n c e  the  i s an  "the  illusion  value  and  forms o f dependence i f t h e y are not  of the  o f m e d i a t i o n by  in  necessity  learning"  So, and  others  and  i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e  independence alone are  concepts of  b e e n p r o p o s e d by the  educational  Garrison  self-direction  transaction.  & Baynton  c o n c e p t o f c o n t r o l and  complete c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n (See  aware  recognition  inadequate to understand  a m o d e l w h i c h moves b e y o n d s e l f - d i r e c t i o n  f o c u s e s on  are  (p.46).  l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i n an  has  of  and  of  adults  trapped i n other  and  of the  T a b l e 1: M o d e l o f C o n t r o l by  and  educational Garrison  Therefore,  independence  (1987) .  provides  the  This  model  a more transaction  & Bayton  (1987)).  20  TABLE 1:  MODEL OF CONTROL BY GARRISON & BAYNTON  (1987)  Communication  Control,  as  s u g g e s t e d by G a r r i s o n  "concerned w i t h the direct  (p.5).  dimensions support. learning  of  learning  and  to  decisions  control  goals,  related to  -  independence, refers  activities  represents  the  learn  independently.  educational  essential  addresses the  and  choose  procedures. dimension,  the m o t i v a t i o n Support,  is  influence,  freedom t o  psychological  and a b i l i t i e s ,  (1987),  proficiency  and e v a l u a t i o n  skills  s t r u c t u r a l dimension,  to the  to  the  The m o d e l a d d r e s s e s t h r e e  Independence  Proficiency  needed  o p p o r t u n i t y and a b i l i t y  and d e t e r m i n e  process"  & Baynton  the  and  the confidence  sociological  resources  -  both  21 human a n d non-human, These  three  dimensions  educational balance  that  process  help  are  achieved  process.  and c o n t r o l  of  through  student,  teacher  the  a  collaboration and  content.  SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW This  c h a p t e r has  literature adult  related  learning.  concepts  of  ultimate  aim o f  1986;  p r o v i d e d a review  to  cross-cultural  Recent  literature  independence adult  independent of  as  learning  often  has  has  Hughes-Wiener, order to  1986;  questioned  move b e y o n d  and independence, instead,  to  elements  i n the  a model  reflect  the  of  as  being  the  1988;  Garrison,  of  to  the  cross-cultural  developing as  one  of the  (Mestenhauser,  1986,  Sawkins,  some  transaction  Thus,  self-direction  c o n t r o l has been of  main  1983;  1987).  concepts of  interaction  educational  the  Pratt,  programs  just  to  Brookfield,  been a r t i c u l a t e d  McCaffery  and  1983;  importance  these o r i e n t a t i o n  the  (Chene,  1987;  the  learners  some o f  orientations  T h i s has p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e  orientations  goals  of  and s e l f - d i r e c t e d n e s s  G a r r i s o n & Baynton,  1988).  in  learning  by e s t a b l i s h i n g  dimensions,  a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n among t h e  H.  the  interrelated  c a n be  among t h e s e t h r e e  guide  proposed  fundamental  (Garrison & Baynton,  1987).  Little cultural adult  has been d i s c u s s e d  orientations,  learning.  to  i n the  address  literature  these basic  M o r e o v e r , most o f t h e  on  cross-  concepts  research  focuses  in on  22 understanding process 1986),  (M.Bennett,  1986; Grove  t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g  Gundykunst 1986),  the cross-cultural  approaches  Gundykunst,  cross-cultural  further  examine  learners'  investigative learners'  have  study  programs (J.M.  1986; B r i s l i n , 1984;  1977).  r e s e a r c h seems l a r g e l y t o from  perspectives.  cross-cultural  perspective.  models and  orientation  orientations  t h e program developers  1983,  1986, Hughes-Wiener,  1986; T r i a n d i s ,  Hammer & W i s e m a n ,  1986: J u f f e r ,  (Mestenhauser,  to theoretical  However, much o f t h i s  and  strategies  f o rc r o s s - c u l t u r a l  1986; A l b e r t ,  emphasize  & Torbiorn,  & Hammer, 1 9 8 3 ; M c C a f f e r y  and i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  Bennett,  adjustment/adaptation  the instructors There  orientations  Therefore,  t h e focus  h a s been t o e x p l o r e what  of the cross-cultural  i s a need t o  from t h e of this conceptions the  orientation  process.  23 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCESS  A.  INTRODUCTION The  better  purpose  study  orientation.  interviews,  descriptions  is  to  gain  a clearer  was  phenomenon  of  "native's"  the  cultural  1983) .  mind d u r i n g her  process  first  initial  cultural  trainer.  cultural  trainers fields,  point  of view,  that  the  in this  involvement  study,  From d i s c u s s i o n s  through the  i n the  what  process  of  field  f r o m r e a d i n g what  have  about  to  say  gradually  emerged.  orientation,  researchers the  focus  been  is  cross-  as  a  cross-  cross-  business designing  i m p l e m e n t i n g o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s , by i n t e r a c t i n g colleagues,  has  is  researcher's  with other  i n the  It  (Hammersley &  surfaced in this  and r e s e a r c h e r s  case.  b e g i n s w i t h what  problems or q u e s t i o n s '  The q u e s t i o n  orientation,  education  and  understanding a  o r i e n t a t i o n program i n t h i s  'foreshadowed  Atkinson,  r e s e a r c h approach  classroom observations  research involves  continual reflexive  called  of  adopted.  from t h e  participants  and  conceptions  A qualitative  open-ended  Qualitative  a  this  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  cross-cultural using  of  and and with  and p r a c t i t i o n e r s for this  study  24 The  r e s e a r c h e r b e g a n by f i r s t  acquiring  access t o the  o r i e n t a t i o n program and i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s / l e a r n e r s . the  learners  conceptions prior  were i n t e r v i e w e d of orientation.  t o and f o l l o w i n g  approximately  Each  an h o u r i n l e n g t h .  complete p i c t u r e  on  learner  the orientation.  o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m were a l s o  at v a r i o u s  to investigate  with the participants  examined: as  part  situation.  documents g i v e n  by t h e t r a i n e e s  suggested curriculum post  a more  the researcher  took  i n the classroom. a rapport  and a t r u s t  conversations  In a d d i t i o n ,  the following  outside were  i n i t i a l l y t o a l l the participants handouts  i n the course o f the o r i e n t a t i o n ,  materials,  learners'  Finally,  through these various  profiles,  as w e l l  a l l the data  s o u r c e s was a n a l y z e d i n  t e r m s o f t h e c o n c e p t s a n d common themes t h a t  B.  ofthe  informal  program e v a l u a t i o n s .  collected  was  Furthermore,  o f t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n package, p r i n t e d  received  as  through  interviewed  t o gain  of the orientation process.  the role of participant-observer  classroom  was  Each i n t e r v i e w  interviewed  A t t e m p t s were a l s o made t o d e v e l o p  the  their  Instructors  stages o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s ,  Then,  emerged.  S E T T I N G The  setting  regional  orientation  f o r t h i s research  university training programs.  centre that  study  campus a n d i s a p a r t  institute  i s located  on a f a i r l y  o f an E n g l i s h  which o f f e r s year  The o r i e n t a t i o n  s e r v e d as t h e  centre  language  round E n g l i s h  itself  large  provides  language three  25 kinds  of services:  cultural briefings  p l a n n i n g t o work i n C h i n a , the  Chinese  and  orientation  selected this  and s e l e c t e d courses  kind  fortrainees  and p r o v i d e  trainees  s t u d y i n g i n Canada  from  China  research study  courses  Being  participants  a part  and t e c h n i c a l  of the u n i v e r s i t y  of the orientation  t o the l i b r a r i e s ,  language  programs  laboratories,  facilities,  a n d have many c h a n c e s t o i n t e r a c t  individuals  from  other cultures  unplanned e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r Furthermore,  many u n i v e r s i t y  lectures  to the participants.  visit  specialists.in  The  orientation  component,  i n both  their  and seminars a r e  of a  are able t o  classroom  and homestay.  focuses  on t h r e e a r e a s :  Purposes,  Fluency  and L i s t e n i n g  Cultural  with  fields.  component  Orientation.  recreational  events.  The l e a r n e r s  program c o n s i s t s  cultural activities  have  p l a n n e d and  socio-cultural  accessible with  f o c u s e s on  a r e o f two t o s i x weeks i n  who come t o Canada f o r w o r k / s t u d y  community,  and o t h e r  language and c u l t u r a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e  exchange programs.  access  This  system f o r  of service.  These o r i e n t a t i o n length  Canadians  a network and s u p p o r t  Asian trainees  Asian countries.  last  t o those  English  The c l a s s r o o m  f o r Special  Comprehension,  activities  after  class  and C u l t u r a l a n d on  weekends i n t r o d u c e t h e t r a i n e e s , t o t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment  of t h e i r surroundings.  Living with  a Canadian  family real  during  their orientation  understanding  The  s i xinstructors  in  addition  specialized language.  It  Asian  i n their  studies,  Furthermore, and worked  or Education,  they  a  English  The  of five  instructors  a r e a s be i t a l l have  as a  second  h a v e t r a v e l l e d a n d i n many  abroad.  i s i n the context  described was  above t h a t  the  studied.  ACCESS When t h i s  components programs, involved  later,  the focus  the researcher  having  with  and  exploration.  centre. study  o f an o r i e n t a t i o n  into  orientation  field, Thus,  professionals including the  some  had been  requested permission  dialogued with  some i n p u t  on  the  a number o f  training  of this  The c o o r d i n a t o r  had  exploring  o f a study  o f an o r i e n t a t i o n  centre.  study  began  i n the cross-cultural  participants  this  first  she had d i s c u s s i o n s  after  defined,  researcher  and i m p l i c a t i o n s  coordinator  the  specialty  i n teaching  phenomenon o f o r i e n t a t i o n  C.  gain  life.  and c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n t s .  training  lived  the learners  program i s conducted by a team  to training  Linguistics,  cases,  o f Canadian  orientation  to  helps  further t o work  the researcher before  The c o o r d i n a t o r  with  program a d m i n i s t e r e d  granted permission  the i n i t i a l  months  stages  of her  was a l s o  by  f o r the and having  introspection  interviewed  i n  order to  further help  research. caution,  However, access  withholding major is  as  nature  Hammersley and A t k i n s o n  " f a r more t h a n a m a t t e r  of permission  factor  the  is  him u n d e r s t a n d the  for  research  i n determining the  establishing  to  nature  of be  good  the  (1983) granting  or  conducted".  of the  and m a i n t a i n i n g o f  of  data  A  collected  field  relationships.  The e s t a b l i s h i n g the  learners  arrived. but  she  began  was  given  This  officially  researcher orientation  centre  behaviour  it  Many o f  the  (Bond,  instructors  researcher  as  the  to  of  researcher  the  of  learners  study.  fact with  that  governing  or a the  the  establish of  and  "guanxi"  "role"  and  Chinese  1986).  researcher before  and the  the  person.  instructors  orientation  were c o l l e a g u e s  orientation  a resource  the  them,  team  an i d e n t i t y  "relationship"  aspects  greet  research  acknowledgements  established  and t h o s e new t o  the  acknowledged  important  R a p p o r t between t h e i n most c a s e s ,  present  and  learners  working with Chinese  These  are  there part  and t h u s h e l p e d t o  trainees.  researcher  day t h e  researcher  gave the  Chinese,  first  i n t r o d u c e d as  had "guanxi" o r  "relationship" social  the  trainers  contact  To t h e  with the  very  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  initial  role.  r a p p o r t between the  on t h e  Not o n l y was  cross-cultural was  of  centre  of  the  tended  was,  began.  researcher to  Informal chats  view over  the  28 coffee,  l u n c h and d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m b r e a k s h e l p e d m a i n t a i n a  trusting  r a p p o r t w i t h both the  Hammersley a n d A t k i n s o n of  (1983)  " i m p r e s s i o n management".  the  researcher  ensure  that  to  they  her  identify  with the  Finally,  and i s  by t h e  D.  the  learners  about..." Thus,  of  or  appearance  more o p e n  the the  Chinese  a c c e s s was  learners  of  a  the  fact  before,  background.  by to  positive  were b e t t e r  we C h i n e s e  able  that  she  had been  Phrases  to  to  uttered  Chinese  " portrayed  feel this.  gained.  PARTICIPANTS The e l e v e n p a r t i c i p a n t s  r a n g e d i n age from t h e  People's  and t e c h n i c a l  Republic of  development  s e l e c t e d by t h e i r  different  involved in this  between t w e n t y - f o u r  human r e s o u r c e  of  given  a n d demeanor  "you u n d e r s t a n d how t h e  you know,  learners.  importance  was  construction  learners  same e t h n i c  like:  "as  attention  r e s e a r c h e r because of  had worked w i t h o t h e r China  speech,  and the  a l s o mention the  Thus,  facilitated  working i d e n t i t y .  instructors  and f o r t y - t h r e e ,  China.  and were  They were p a r t o f  come t o  exchange programs.  Canada  for  They came  work/study  from a  variety  a n d were i n d i v i d u a l l y s c h e d u l e d  companies,  organizations  institutions  all  Canada f o r a p e r i o d o f  eight  arrival  the  months. took  Prior  to  a language  learners  then  their  proficiency  attended  and  to  with various  across  a  t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m , a n d were  country to  fields  research  educational  i n Canada,  test.  all  Eight of  a six-month course  train  at  this the  to  ten  trainees  group  of  29  C a n a d a / C h i n a Language C e n t r e i n B e i j i n g t o language  E.  The p u r p o s e understanding of orientation. addressed  issues  the  a general  the  that  r e s e a r c h was t o  questions  the  question  interview  spent v i s i t i n g  the  interviews  researcher the  purpose  and the  the  of  the  questions  interviewed  ensured.  Permission to  of  participants  participants.  tape  the  individually,  programs.  with  A short  participants  at  set ease.  r e s e a r c h was  and i n t e r v i e w e e the  interviews  cross-  used).  This helped to  the  term  on  a p p r o x i m a t e l y an h o u r .  nature  began  orientation  interviewee/participant  to  the  the  competencies,  The i n t e r v i e w s  and c h a t t i n g w i t h t h e  explained  all  of  f o r m a l l y began.  and the  trainer  meaning o f  expectations  a list  lasting  was  orientation  and ended w i t h a q u e s t i o n  personal  appendix B f o r  of  interviews  orientation,  about t h e  better  orientation  and o u t c o m e s .  E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t was each  i n the  are c e n t r a l to of  gain a  conceptions  t r a i n i n g approaches,  orientation  participants'  INTERVIEWS  participants'  expectations  cultural  (See  this  purpose  content,  personal  of  Thus,  programming:  with  their  skills.  DATA COLLECTION THROUGH  design,  upgrade  once  time before  both  Also, again  anonymity  was  the  was  g r a n t e d by  30 The p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r e d t o understanding the they  were  unsure.  questions  of  answers  to  and t o  saying that  went on t o  rephrase questions  as  needed,  ask  f o r examples exchange.  In the  o f what t o  on t h e  The p a r t i c i p a n t s were  first  series  of  comment on c e r t a i n i n c i d e n c e s incidences  were n o t e d by t h e  interviews, that  series by they  However,  again  similar  were  also  during her  the  after questions asked  occurred in class.  researcher  had  they  r a i s e d by  interviewed  o r i e n t a t i o n program and i n a d d i t i o n t o  asked i n the  first  say because  issues  to  to  answers  with o r i e n t a t i o n before.  if  the  i n order  prefaced t h e i r  share t h e i r thoughts  questions.  for c l a r i f i c a t i o n keep  were u n s u r e  h a d no e x p e r i e n c e  trouble  to  some l e a r n e r s  they  little  attempted  any a m b i g u i t y i n t h e  interviews,  the  and a s k e d  The r e s e a r c h e r  open-ended,  paraphrase clarify  questions  have v e r y  to  These  classroom  observations.  The same the were the  interview  instructors  of the  interviewed to  learners  support to  g a i n a more c o m p l e t e Their  comments  c o n f i r m what was  o r what was o b s e r v e d  The i n t e r v i e w e e s , interviews.  and p r o c e s s  o r i e n t a t i o n program.  orientation process.  further  the  questions  on t h e  In f a c t ,  i n the  whole  were u s e d  with  The i n s t r u c t o r s  understanding of often  provided  a r t i c u l a t e d by classroom  seemed a t  i n many i n s t a n c e s ,  the  observations.  ease the  during  researcher  31 and t h e  interviewee  chatted  was  over.  F.  DATA COLLECTION THROUGH As shown on t h e  researcher the  took  on t h e  orientation  classroom  time  on a f t e r  chart  role  with the  participants  researcher  examine  articulated  reflected  i n the  Since  they  two  towards observed of  first  one the  on i n t h e  often  at  the  The o b s e r v a t i o n s  background for understanding the  the  conceptions were  classroom.  were s p a c e d  instructor's  another  v i e w s on t h e  provided a  so  Furthermore,  the  i n the  and  the  end.  p r o g r a m and t h e n  c l a s s e s were e l i c i t e d  and  vary over time  i n each o f  The p a r t i c i p a n t s '  i n these  i n the  e a r l i e r weeks o f again  the  allowed  interviews  observations  were c o n d u c t e d ,  end.  interviews.  of  while  and o b s e r v i n g  participants'  and a c t i v i t i e s  p r o g r a m and t h e n  early  the  Being in  occurring,  series  contexts,- the  observations  classes,  how v a r i o u s  occurred during the  orientation  was  orientation process  attitudes  with different that  i n the  i n appendix C,  in progress.  interaction that  as  interview  of p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r  r e c o r d i n g the to  formal  PARTICIPANT-OBSERVATION  p r o g r a m was  setting  the  interaction  second  series  further  participants'  conceptions.  32 G.  DOCUMENTS In  addition to  observations, course  the  documents  data c o l l e c t e d  from i n t e r v i e w s  related  program l i k e  Learners' profiles  understanding of evaluations  their  were e x a m i n e d t o  orientation.  H.  RELIABILITY & VALIDITY Qualitative the  research  gain  focuses  phenomenon u n d e r s t u d y .  the  r e s e a r c h need t o  the  extent  totally  be  though  replicable,  interpretation reliability. methodology  ensure  were  a  better  in reality  consistent  external  a  picture  R e l i a b i l i t y refers replicated. all  specifics  enhance  importance of reliability  is  of to  Given  the  are  never  data a n a l y s i s to  of  description  R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y  data c o l l e c t i o n ,  s h o u l d be  & Lecompte  on o b t a i n i n g  c a n be  Furthermore, the to  get  a more c o m p l e t e  considered.  to which s t u d i e s  same c o n d i t i o n s ,  were r e a d t o  the  b a c k g r o u n d and p o s t p r o g r a m  the  Goetz  the  b r o c h u r e and s u g g e s t e d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s  looked at.  of  to  and  and  internal  thorough pointed  (1984:217):  The r e s e a r c h e r must c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y and f u l l y d i s c u s s d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s e s and p r o v i d e r e t r o s p e c t i v e a c c o u n t s o f how d a t a were e x a m i n e d a n d s y n t h e s i z e d . B e c a u s e r e l i a b i l i t y d e p e n d s on t h e p o t e n t i a l for subsequent r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e c o n s t r u c t o r i g i n a l analysis s t r a t e g i e s , only those ethnographic accounts that specify these in s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l are r e p l i c a b l e .  out  by  Although r e l i a b i l i t y assure  the  is  it  does not  in  research deals with being  a pre-requisite  validity  able  draw a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c l u s i o n s validity effects  c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d operating  Multiple procedures  sources  allowed  for  Interviewing  variety  of backgrounds.  of the  addition to d a t a was  s u c h as  the  also  interviews  student  understand the  careful balancing  in this  interviews  research  these various  emerged.  of  In  participants,  observations,  brochure,  student  different  suggested  evaluations. research  Thus,  strategies  i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e s e m u l t i p l e  and v a l i d i t y  in  and from p r o g r a m documents  course  and p o s t  good  were a n a l y z e d  and common themes t h a t  instructors  of  collection  participants provided a  of  and  context.  A l l the  combination of  data  R e l i a b i l i t y and  through the  the  profiles,  comparison o f  reliability  Validity  obtained through classroom  curriculum materials  the  research.  and m u l t i p l e d a t a  interviews  with the  through the  all  concepts  to  validity,  cross-validation  study.  terms  the  from i t .  in a research  data  of  for  this  research  study  and  sources,  was  addressed.  I.  SUMMARY This  cultural  study  of  the  orientation  participants'  utilizes  m u l t i p l e data c o l l e c t i o n . herself  to  the  conceptions  of  m u l t i p l e data sources  First,  the  researcher  crossand  sensitized  r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m by h a v i n g d i s c u s s i o n s  with  other in  professionals  the  area of  research  and a f t e r  observations contact  obtained two.  a n d by r e a d i n g s t u d i e s  setting  Participants'  steps,  With a  was  requested  the  and before  orientations,  c l a s s e s were c o n d u c t e d and i n f o r m a l  p a r t i c i p a n t s were m a i n t a i n e d .  It  done  general  were i n t e r v i e w e d  During the  were a l s o  conducted.  were e x a m i n e d and f i n a l l y  analyzed.  various  the  i n the  instructors  documents  the  orientations.  w i t h the  with the  was  access to  acquired. the  field  cross-cultural training.  focus,  permission  i n the  all  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t researcher  reflected  a n d e v e n t s o b s e r v e d a n d on t h e  the all  Interviews  Relevant data  collected  through  on t h e  the  information  i n f o r m a t i o n between  35 CHAPTER ANALYSIS  A.  OF  THE  research  participants' D a t a was after  the  to  purpose  the  role  of the  o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the  phase  of behavior  orientation  were  collected  of  analysis  began.  indicated a variety  also  training.  s u g g e s t e d v a r i o u s ways o f  cultural  training  Gundykunst what was  et  al,  ( B r i s l i n et 1983).  discussed  content that  and the  of  the  effect  the that  the  Discussions early  conceptual A review  of  with  stages  the  literature  cross-  1983; B e n n e t t , process  questions  of  assumptions  conceptualizing al.  and  skills  however,  i n the  Through the  and r e a d ,  methodology  examined.  d a t a was  orientation  the  the  and s i t u a t i o n s  the  this  and  learners'  Furthermore,  and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s  regarding  probed the  instructor  colleagues study  orientation.  and v a r i a b l e s  an o r i e n t a t i o n .  the  classroom  orientation,  issues  interpretations  Long b e f o r e  of  of  conducted before  for orientation,  orientation,  sensitizing  cross-cultural  p r o g r a m and t h r o u g h  suitable  conduct  learners'  of  through interviews  on t h e  orientation, needed  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  Open-ended q u e s t i o n s  approaches of  is  conceptions  orientation  perspectives  outcome  study  collected  observations.  on  DATA  INTRODUCTION  This  or  FOUR  of  1986; reflecting  surfaced  in  the  36 researcher's orientation  mind. do t h e  perspectives should be, it  What c o n c e p t i o n s participants  on what  on what  the  and on what  orientation  programs? the  the  interviews  familiarity  of  the  to  stand out?  d a t a and t o  While  i n the  Can t h e y  use  to  it  a list  that  and f o r t h e  the  series  end  transcriptions  to  to  for the  themes  reflexivity  analysis  interviews.  of  the  played  interview  any p a t t e r n s  that  What themes  i n any way?  research question. collection  to  Throughout  through the  responses?  gain  think with,  1983).  Are there  of  of  can  seem  The  g r a d u a l l y emerged were c o d e d  the  observations  the  inconsistencies,  be c a t e g o r i z e d  focus  of  sifting  learners'  p r o v i d e d the  series  in  The p u r p o s e was  and a n a l y s i s ,  asked:  themes and c o n c e p t s t h a t  second  consider  once b e f o r e ,  These  (Hammersley & A t k i n s o n ,  relevant  on how  the  generated  The f i r s t  contradictions,  researcher  identified  orientation  again towards  transcribed.  data c o l l e c t i o n  be  categories  and t h e n  r e a d and r e - r e a d .  an i m p o r t a n t r o l e . data,  of  important to  learner,  were c o n d u c t e d .  for patterns,  process  w i t h each  with the  and c o n c e p t s  are  These q u e s t i o n s  were f u l l y  were c a r e f u l l y  look  issues  program began  orientation,  and outcome  their  interviews.  Two i n t e r v i e w s orientation  purpose  What a r e  on who s h o u l d c o n d u c t  orientation  guide  have?  cross-cultural  i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d ,  s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d ,  served to  of  These  into themes  of  data  from  classroom  the  data  from  the  37 Analysis with  the  phrases  of  the  listening or  of  sentences  research  question  given  ensure  to  second series the  audio  that  were  that  the  tapes  related  noted  of  to  down.  context  interview several themes  Careful  of  the  data  began  times.  Words,  relevant  to  attention  words  the  was  was  maintained.  Initially, describe the  what  content  example,  their  themes about  of  (See  to  dominant  were  meaning  was  reflected  researcher,  abstracted  from  into  from  context  (work/study) Canada, what  the in  seemed t o data the  data  a  few  more  the  c o n c e p t i o n s were  the  language  in  the  issues,  and  more but  some  process.  of  although  data  were  themes  appeared  underlying  well  on  times  underlying  groupings  Thus,  and  of  themes  possible groupings.  conceptions.  the  focus  process  orientation  these  For  of  segments  themes  these  with  environment  cross-cultural  which  dealt  cultural  underlying  the  They  the  sources,  of  just  s e e m e d common s e n s e .  various  then, s o r t e d  form  about.  the  not  seemed t o  and  in to  were  through  from  extracted  emerged  However,  These  dimensions  emerged  the  D).  from  Data.segments  and used to  more  sifting  emerge.  fundamental  to  adjustment  appendix  and  text  and t r a i n i n g  comparing data  began  data  referred  on  that  segments  referring  social  that  themes  data  the  living  reflection, on  the  quotes  learners' to  the  data  core  segments  constructed  grounded (See  The  Table  in  and 2).  by  38  Table  2: E m e r g i n g themes a n d INITIAL  THEMES  UNDERLYING THEME CONCEPTION 1  Two data  CONCEPTION 2  CONCEPTION 1  CONCEPTION 2  u n d e r l y i n g themes emerged f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s  programs and c o n t r o l  B.  UNDERLYING THEME  i n t h i s r e s e a r c h study:  within  conceptions  these  of the  participation i n orientation  o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs.  Conceptions  themes w i l l be p r e s e n t e d b e l o w .  LEARNERS' CONCEPTIONS OF PARTICIPATION  IN ORIENTATION  PROGRAMS The theme  o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs  emerged i n t h e d a t a through this  classroom  c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s and  observations.  The l e a r n e r s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t e r m s o f how  facilitated related  i n the orientation process.  to this  Conception  learning  1  referred to  s h o u l d be  Two  conceptions  theme:  Orientation  Programs s h o u l d m a i n l y  present  information Conception  2  Orientation  Programs s h o u l d  information  as w e l l  experiences  present  as p r o v i d e  related  39  i.  Conception  1:  O r i e n t a t i o n Programs s h o u l d present  Some l e a r n e r s participants orientation knowledge  information  saw t h e m s e l v e s  i n the  as  "receivers",  o r i e n t a t i o n program.  p r o g r a m as m a i n l y p r o v i d i n g  necessary  participants  mainly  for their  stay  as  passive  They p e r c e i v e d  the  i n f o r m a t i o n and  i n Canada.  A s some  stated:  J u s t p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t e l l us t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o s o m e t h i n g . ( T l ) * G i v e us as much u s e f u l k n o w l e d g e as p o s s i b l e f o r our stay i n Canada. I j u s t want t o g e t more a n d more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t ' s u s e f u l f o r me, t h a t ' s e n o u g h . ( R 2 ) J u s t t e l l us a g e n e r a l i d e a a b o u t c u l t u r e i n C a n a d a . (C2)  These is  l e a r n e r s p e r c e i v e d the  v e r y knowledgeable  information.  the  i n s t r u c t o r as  and whose r o l e  is  to  someone  who  impart  The i n s t r u c t o r s s h o u l d :  have  a wide  range o f knowledge.  give  students  knowledge.  (Tl)  (Rl)  be a b l e t o c o v e r e v e r y t h i n g , g i v e comprehensive l e c t u r e s . They s h o u l d be a b l e t o answer a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s f r o m t h e t r a i n e e s . (CI)  T h r o u g h o u t t h i s document, * i n d i c a t e s d i r e c t q u o t e s . The l e t t e r r e f e r s t o t h e f i r s t l e t t e r o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s name. A l l names u s e d were p s e u d o n y m s . The number r e f e r s t o t h e s e r i e s of interviews.  40 Furthermore, lectures  the  and t a l k s  a l s o by o t h e r materials.  i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d  given  guest  not  o n l y by t h e  speakers,  instructors,  or i n videos  As some l e a r n e r s  in but  and p r i n t e d  noted:  Ask s p e c i a l i s t s o f e a c h a r e a t o g i v e an o u t l i n e o f h i s t o r y , a r t , l a n g u a g e  us etc.  (CI)  Ask some common p e o p l e t o g i v e us some l e s s o n . A l s o some V I P s t o t e l l how t h e y f e e l a b o u t t h e i r own l i v e s . (Tl)  Also,  the  words  "ask",  "give us"  i m p o r t a n c e was p l a c e d on k n o w l e d g e that  knowledge  was  In o r d e r t o therefore, their  not  be  able  important to  E n g l i s h i n the  gained  to  seem t o  outside  from d i r e c t  access t h i s  these  learners  indicate  themselves  o r i e n t a t i o n program.  and  experience.  information, to  that  it  was  work on i m p r o v i n g As e x p l a i n e d  some p a r t i c i p a n t s : The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s l a n g u a g e , b e c a u s e l a n g u a g e i s t h e t o o l t o communicate with Canadian people. We u s e i t t o l e a r n knowledge. S o , i f we c a n m a s t e r i t , you c a n overcome many d i f f i c u l t i e s . ( T 2 ) I t h i n k another very important purpose of the o r i e n t a t i o n c o u r s e i s t o improve our E n g l i s h . I t ' s k i n d o f an i n t e n s i v e course of E n g l i s h . (CI)  by  41 ii.  Conception  2:  O r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d  present  i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d e  related  experiences Data learners  from t h e  interviews  indicated that  v i e w e d o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s as  information  as w e l l  as p r o v i d i n g  participate  in activities.  of  the  presenting  opportunities  A s s t a t e d by  Combine what we l e a r n p r a c t i s e . (S2)  most  to  some:  in class  with  C o n n e c t t h e c l a s s r o o m , g i v e us a r o u g h i d e a and t h e n some s p e c i a l e x p e r i e n c e t o h e l p u s . c o n n e c t p r a c t i c a l a n d t h e o r y . (Rl) These presented  learners clearly felt i n the  instructor  form o f  and guest  lectures  speakers,  p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s was n e c e s s a r y noted:  learners  and t a l k s  as w e l l  g i v e n by  the  as t h r o u g h v i d e o s  because,  as  a d d i t i o n to to  this,  take part  providing  in activities,  They know  opportunities for to  obtain  was s t r o n g l y e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e  data.  As some  I t h i n k t h e most u s e f u l way t o remember i s t o do, p r a c t i s e . (II) I want t o e x p e r i e n c e . To me, t o e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s s o c i e t y i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . (Yl) d e m o n s t r a t e and l e t o u r s e l v e s . (E2)  us  the  practical  explained:  L e t us do i t , experience i t  and  one p a r t i c i p a n t  (Kl)  experience learners  some b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n  "Many p e o p l e have n e v e r b e e n a b r o a d .  nothing."  In  that  42 A l r e a d y our t e a c h e r s ( i n China) have t a u g h t us many t h i n g s a b o u t C a n a d a , b u t we h a v e never seen i t or e x p e r i e n c e d i t . I think i t i s d i f f e r e n t t o h e a r from somebody and see by o u r own e y e s and do by o u r s e l v e s . So I t h i n k i t ' s b e t t e r f o r us t o have some chance t o e x p e r i e n c e i t . (LI)  Phrases  like  o u r own e y e s " , d i d not be  just  actively  "let  experience  "do by o u r s e l v e s " ,  want t o  be p r e s e n t e d  i n v o l v e d i n the  importance of b e i n g program c l e a r l y  C.  us  it  ourselves",  indicate  that  experiences,  "see  the  an a c t i v e  learners  but wanted  learning experiences. p a r t i c i p a n t i n the  by  to  The orientation  emerged.  DISCUSSION OF PARTICIPATION THEME  The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n participation  has  d e s c r i b e d two c o n c e p t i o n s  i n o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s h e l d by t h e  It  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  of  u n d e r s t a n d i n g a phenomenon,  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  and do n o t  discussion  will  b e g i n by m a k i n g some g e n e r a l  approaches  used  i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g and t h e n  to  the  conceptions  The l i t e r a t u r e classify variety 1977;  labels  following comments  (Brislin  on  attempt  individually.  on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g  t r a i n i n g techniques of  The  ways  represent  of  two  individuals.  learners.  characteristics  address  the  conceptions  of  approaches  i n v a r i o u s ways a n d u n d e r a  & Pedersen,  1976;  G u n d y k u n s t , Hammer & Wiseman, 1977;  Warren & A d l e r ,  Landis  & Brislin,  43 1983;  G u n d y k u n s t & Hammer,  approaches:  the  of  experience,  to  the  the  provision  identified  intellectual  experiential  1983). of  information  i n these  understanding  focuses  on t h e  culture  in a lecture  in  approach p l a y s  this  interaction cultural  with  the  from t h e  c a n be  another of  culture  information  is  about  approach.  The  culture  active participation  indicated  to  be  h e l d by l e a r n e r s  that  is  The p u r p o s e s  learners  were t o  listening of  and g o a l s  improve t h e i r  and r e a d i n g ,  Canadian  who e x p e c t e d  society.  and t o  of  the  English,  cross-  the  a few  approach to  a l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r and an  source.  that  enhances e f f e c t i v e  O r i e n t a t i o n Programs s h o u l d m a i n l y  instructor  learner  individual's  Conception  was  and  role.  a cognitive-didactic  information,  a  another  conceptualized 1:  The  important  own l e a r n i n g and assumes  interviews  to  literature.  approach emphasizes the  Here;  linked  a p p r o a c h assumes t h a t  a passive  host  provision  a p p r o a c h and  i n the  or reading type  for his/her  training.  Data  of  presentation  The e x p e r i e n t i a l responsibility  interviews,  approach mentioned  common  and t h e  or c o g n i t i v e - d i d a c t i c  intellectual/cognitive-didactic cognitive  The two most  focus.  learners  orientation. provide  the  information  orientation mainly  develop a general  for  these  through impression  44 While t h i s McCaffery  (1986)  orientation, educational dispense  it  posits is  towards  (p.166).  that  for  Thus a v a r i e t y  both the  contribute  to  responsible  the  of  the  from the  learners  methodology  to  the  accommodate instructor  should a c t i v e l y  s h o u l d be skills  to He  "to  The  s h o u l d be  learning  f o r the be  various and t h e  learning process,  be  methodology  actively  process. the  goals  participants.-  incorporated  learning learner  but  training  aim needs t o  skills.  to  sojourners."  an e x p e r i e n t i a l  need t o  move  t h e y need  be most e f f e c t i v e ,  are  into  styles.  not also  only jointly  program outcomes.  interviews  also  support McCaffery's for  an  a chance  with t h i s  and m e a n i n g  approaches  f o r the  as  cross-cultural  a l l participants  learning to  curriculum to  Data  congruent  relevance  as  the  suggests that  i n and c o n t r i b u t e  s h o u l d have  Finally,  orientation  on b u i l d i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  Furthermore,  the  of  cross-cultural  approach i t merely  learners,  a particular culture.  effective  which i s  should ensure involved  improve  developing/enhancing  He f u r t h e r  methodology  h e l d by a few  to  and n o t  goal  become i n d e p e n d e n t l y  focussed  that  i n f o r m a t i o n about the  was  necessary to  discipline  suggests that people  conception  orientations. contribute  learners  conceptualized  cultural  orientation,  to  indicated that  proposed  They t o o the  most  aim and  felt  that  learning process.  an i n t e g r a t e d  approach to  i n c o r p o r a t i n g the  of  learners The cross-  cognitive-didactic  45 and e x p e r i e n t i a l Programs related  approaches.  should present experiences,  conceptions  understanding that active of  i n f o r m a t i o n as  was t h e  h e l d by t h e the  well  as  more p o p u l a r o f  learners.  T h e r e was  orientation process  p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the  i n f o r m a t i o n and the  C o n c e p t i o n 2: O r i e n t a t i o n  learners.  provide  the a  clear  should  f o r the  require  Both the  participation in related  were c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y  two  orientation  receiving activities  process.  We g e t some i d e a s from t h e t e a c h e r s and from the e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e f i e l d t r i p s . . . t h r o u g h d o i n g and t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n by t h e t e a c h e r s , two k i n d s o f ways. ( L 2 ) F i r s t t h i n g , . . . g i v e us some i n f o r m a t i o n . N e x t go o u t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y t o do. some p r a c t i c a l work, t o e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g . Thus, as  the  a guide,  than  become study  helper  instructs.  orientation  instructor  as  in this  and f r i e n d -  conception  Furthermore, the p e r c e i v e d by t h e s e  here.  As one  s e e n more  someone who a s s i s t s purpose learners  f a m i l i a r w i t h Canadian l i f e , and l i v e  was  (Yl)  learner  to  or goal was  enable  to  rather  of help  them t o  summarized:  E x p e r i e n c e Canada from t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n , the a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e program, from v i s i t s t o p l a c e s and from o u r h o m e s t a y . . . b u t t h e b e s t way t o l e a r n s o m e t h i n g i s t o put i t to p r a c t i s e . (F2)  them work,  46 D.  CLASSROOM Data  OBSERVATIONS  from t h e c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s showed  attempts  w e r e made t o i n c o r p o r a t e  didactic  approach  orientation an  orientation  homework t h a t and  thus  the  F o r example,  to thelibrary required  a p p l y what  behavior  t h e assignments  Why  was t h i s  providing  them t o p r a c t i s e  integrated  so?  a chance  that  Another  participated Again,  this  for orientation  t o integrate  activity  i nthis raised  theory  questions regarding  assignment  about  and practice"  many  programs?  Canadian  used  brands o f  Although the  t o thelearners,  unenthusiastically.  questions regarding  have been more t o t h i s  as  - t h e approach  shopping.  rather  approach  well.  t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e was  was e x p l a i n e d  activity  cognitive/experiential t h e r e must  the library  The l e a r n e r s '  thelibrary  t o do?  t o London Drugs t o l e a r n  of this  using  were done, were n o t c o m p l e t e d  to practice,  attempt  given  approach.  g o o d s a n d t o d o some c o m p a r i s o n purpose  were  D i dt h e y n o t see t h e assignment  conceptualized  trip  thelearners  and responses however, r a i s e d  and  i n the  a n d w e r e t h e n a s s i g n e d some  Many o f t h e m d i d n o t c o m p l e t e  the  approach  t h e y h a d b e e n shown.  success o f t h i s  o f them  both t h e cognitive-  and t h ee x p e r i e n t i a l  process.  that  the integrated  and indicated  concept  that  o f "combining  as p e r c e i v e d by t h e l e a r n e r s .  What  they  47 then  were some o f t h e o t h e r  influenced  the success  of this  Further examination o b s e r v a t i o n s and from suggested these  factors  i n t e g r a t e d approach?  o f the data  from  classroom  interviews with the instructors  some p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s  activities  t h a t c o u l d have  why l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  may h a v e b e e n m i n i m a l .  As one  instructor  reported: The t r a i n e e s f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d n ' t been i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s a t a l l i n t e r m s o f what was g o i n g t o go i n t o t h e p r o g r a m , e v e n t h o u g h we s a i d t h a t we w a n t e d t h e i r feedback. (W2)  Comments made b y t h e l e a r n e r s d u r i n g a observation be  also  reflected  this  perception.  classroom They w a n t e d t o  c o n s u l t e d a n d t o be g i v e n a s a y i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d  choosing  of their  learning  activities:  I t w o u l d be a g o o d i d e a t o g e t feedback from s t u d e n t s . The c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d f i t the i n t e r e s t o f t h e group. Should d i s c u s s t h i n g s with students, how t h e y f e e l a b o u t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . Get o p i n i o n f r o m s t u d e n t s a h e a d o f t i m e .  Furthermore, definite necessary  the data  showed t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s h a d  i d e a s a b o u t what a c t i v i t i e s  they  considered  and u s e f u l : The London D r u g s t r i p was n o t u s e f u l b e c a u s e we h a d a l r e a d y b e e n t h e r e . We w i l l n o t buy t h i n g s .  48 P e o p l e have d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s . We a r e a d u l t s . . . i f t h e y t h i n k i t ' s no u s e f o r t h e i r f u t u r e work, t h e y won't do i t . F o r me, i t was i m p o r t a n t so I d i d i t . Some p e o p l e w i l l go t o a p r a c t i c a l p l a c e m e n t , so t h e l i b r a r y a s s i g n m e n t i s n o t so i m p o r t a n t t o them....We have a t at l e a s t f i v e years o f working experience, so we know what i s i m p o r t a n t a n d u s e f u l f o r u s . (K2) But best learn  was t h i s  judges  necessarily  true?  Were t h e s e  o f what was n e c e s s a r y a n d u s e f u l  i n o r d e r t o a d j u s t more e a s i l y  life?  Having  were t h e y future? accurate? shopping  learners the  f o r them t o  and q u i c k l y  t o Canadian  o n l y b e e n i n Canada f o r a few s h o r t weeks,  fully  aware o f what t h e i r  n e e d s w o u l d be i n t h e  Were t h e i r p e r c e i v e d n e e d s a p p r o p r i a t e a n d The l i b r a r y trip  i n fact,  assignment showed t h a t  of t h e u s e f u l n e s s of a c t i v i t i e s instructors'.  and t h e L o n d o n  A s one i n s t r u c t o r  Drugs  the learners' perception  differed  from t h a t  of the  noted:  They l i k e d t h e f i e l d t r i p s e x c e p t t h e o n e s t h a t t h e y t h o u g h t were r e d u n d a n t or unnecessary. L i k e t h e London D r u g s trip. They h a d n ' t r e a l l y s e e n L o n d o n D r u g s ; t h e y h a d j u s t gone t o t h e c a m e r a d e p a r t m e n t a n d t h a t ' s a l l . t h e y saw. They s t i l l d i d n ' t know - I s a i d t o them t h a t the reason they a r e going i s t o f i n d out about Canadian brands, b u t they f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d b r o u g h t t h e i r own s t u f f f r o m home so t h e y d i d n ' t n e e d t o know a b o u t C a n a d i a n brands. So, t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d a l l t h a t they needed. (J2)  But  how d o e s one b a l a n c e t h e l e a r n e r s '  p e r c e i v e d needs w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s view l e a r n e r s need?  The two e x a m p l e s  learner participation  d e s i r e s and o f what t h e  indicated that  active  d e p e n d e d on w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e  49 learners as  the  considered  learners  consulted  they  dependent  activity  suggested,  it  w i t h them i n t h e  However, fact,  the  cost  of  to  acknowledged  have  this  learner p a r t i c i p a t i o n to  the  So,  process.  instructors  further perceived  and n e c e s s a r y .  w o u l d have been b e s t  planning  although the  on t h e  useful  activities.  As t h e i r  be  comments  revealed: B a s i c a l l y , we r a n i n t o p r o b l e m s t h a t a n y t h i n g t h a t c o s t something f o r them, t h e y d i d n ' t want t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n . So what I t h i n k m i g h t h a v e been u s e f u l s o m e t i m e s w a s n ' t u s e f u l , and t h e y d i d n ' t p a r t i c i p a t e , not because they weren't i n t e r e s t e d , but mainly because of the monetary o u t l a y . (Z2) One o f them s a i d t h a t he wanted t o f i n d o u t more a b o u t C a n a d i a n e v e r y d a y l i f e s u c h as m o v i e s . We h a d a movie f i e l d t r i p and no one went b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n ' t want t o s p e n d t h e money. I t ' s not t h a t they d i d n ' t r e a l i z e the purpose, but it's a b i g money p r o b l e m . They t h o u g h t t h a t $ 3 . 5 0 was t o o much t o p a y f o r a m o v i e . (J2)  Thus,  t h e s e examples  perceptions  between t h e  Furthermore,  they  participation need to  instructors  reflected  the  some  conflicting  and t h e  complexity  learners. of  in cross-cultural orientations  pay more a t t e n t i o n  cross-cultural  illustrated  to  orientations.  the  the  theme  and s u g g e s t  transactional  process  of the in  50 E.  LEARNERS'  CONCEPTIONS  OF CONTROL IN ORIENTATION  PROGRAMS  Closer the A  examination  of the data  o b s e r v a t i o n s , e x p a n d e d on t h i s  further  theme, t h a t o f c o n t r o l  emerged. homework  As n o t e d  from t h e i n t e r v i e w s and theme o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  in orientation  programs  by a l e a r n e r i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f  assignments: I f t h e t e a c h e r i s a good t e a c h e r and the students respect t h i s teacher, then t h e y w i l l do t h e i r homework. T h i s may be a way o f s h o w i n g t h e t e a c h e r t h a t he/she s h o u l d r e s p e c t t h e s t u d e n t s ' w i s h e s . (R2)  In t h e i r this  control  decisions  o r make  a b o u t what was t o be l e a r n e d a n d how t h a t  conceptions  i n the orientation process. related  1:  2:  to this  Two  learning  different  theme were e v i d e n t :  O r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by the  Conception  the learners referred to  i n t e r m s o f who was t o c o n t r o l  was t o o c c u r  Conception  i n t e r v i e w responses,  instructor  O r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by both  the instructor  and t h e l e a r n e r s  51 i.  C o n c e p t i o n 1:  Orientation by  From t h e learners being the  i n the  the instructor  interview  perceived hands  i n s t r u c t o r was  responses,  control of  programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d  the  that  of  of  it  the  was  clear  orientation  instructor.  that  some  process  as  Their perception  a "teacher"  and an  of  "advisor":  t e l l us we s h o u l d do t h i s way o r t h a t way, w h i c h t h i n g i s v e r y important for us. (LI) g i v e some a d v i c e on how t o s t u d y , or how t o l i v e o r how. t o s u r v i v e i n Canada. (Al) Others described the  instructor  for  the  l e a d y o u t o know s o m e t h i n g n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h . (C2)  you  are  i n s t r u c t o r was v i e w e d  and  controller a source  more  of  the  as  would:  the  possessor  of  methods o f  learning,  that  through which the  learners  could  the  useful."  (Rl) .  In a d d i t i o n ,  learners  saw t h e m s e l v e s  learner the  i n the  noted, class  orientation  should  process.  "willingly  and i n t h e  c o m m u n i c a t i o n was orientation  these  one-way i n t h i s  process.  mainly  more  as  (Al)  the  teacher  Thus,  conception  of  the  and  passive  The l e a r n e r ,  do what  activities."  content  is,  "get  information t h a t ' s  recipients  in  someone who  have s t r o n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y students. (Rl)  The  as  as  as  one  says,  52  ii.  Conception 2: Orientation programs should be controlled by both the instructor and the learner Learners  the  opinion that  learning and  who h e l d  the  the  activities student.  emphasized.  this  view  parameters s h o u l d be  of of  orientation their  defined  expressed  learning  by b o t h  the  Communication and c o l l a b o r a t i o n  A s some l e a r n e r s  Cooperation and s t u d e n t  and  the  instructor were  stated:  on b o t h s i d e s , is important.  teacher (R2)  A s k t h e s t u d e n t s t o t e l l y o u what t h e y n e e d t o know a n d p l a n a c c o r d i n g l y . Ask t h e s t u d e n t s what t h e y t h i n k is important t o l e a r n , d i s c u s s and share their opinions. (Y2)  These  learners  helper,  a  sharing  a n d a more  making  in  reinforced  friend,  the  clearly  a  saw t h e  colleague equal  -  sharing  instructor/learner  by t h e  comments  of  an  instructor  words of  as  indicating  power  a  guide,  mutual  and d e c i s i o n  relationship.  This  was  instructor:  This group r e a l l y wanted a l o t of consultation. They wanted a say i n w h a t was b e i n g t a u g h t , w h e n t h e y w e r e b e i n g t a u g h t a n d what k i n d s o f field t r i p s t h e y were g o i n g o n , e t c . (J2)  Moreover,  the  what  should do,  they  learners  felt  the  that  rather  instructor  than  should:  accompany t h e s t u d e n t s out o f the c l a s s r o o m t o p r a c t i s e how t o live i n Canada. (FI)  telling  them  a  53 Furthermore,  these  learners  stressed that  professional adults experience i n l i f e .  with (R2)  lots  t h e y know what t h e y s h o u l d t h e i r own i d e a s . (K2)  T h e r e was t h u s , to  a sense of  make d e c i s i o n s  confidence  r e l a t e d to  their  do...have  in their  learning  f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by a l e a r n e r ' s  response  to  library  homework  were:  of  T h i s was  the  they  own  abilities  transactions.  explanation  of  the  assignment:  Students d i d n ' t take i t seriously, b e c a u s e t h e y t h o u g h t i t was o f no u s e . . . a d u l t s are not l i k e c h i l d r e n , they know what t h e y s h o u l d d o . . . i f t h e y want to l e a r n i t , they w i l l v o l u n t e e r to l e a r n i t e v e n i f you d o n ' t p u s h t h e m . . . we know what i s i m p o r t a n t a n d u s e f u l for us. I f we t h i n k i t i s no u s e , we won't l e a r n i t . (K2)  F.  DISCUSSION OF CONTROL THEME The p r e c e d i n g  that The  learners following  comments of  has  control  discussion  and then  d e s c r i b e d two i n the  conceptions  o r i e n t a t i o n program.  w i l l b e g i n by m a k i n g some  in adult examine  learning r e l a t e d to the  two  conceptions  general this  theme  in light  of  discussion.  Scholars the  held of  on c o n c e p t s  control,  that  section  learner  culture,  have  suggested that  everything there  cross-cultural  h e l p i n g the  learner  is  to  since  one  know a b o u t  cannot the  teach  target  o r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d focus  " l e a r n how t o  learn"  (McCaffery,  1986;  on  54 Hughes-Weiner,  1984;  Thus,  a r e b e i n g made t o  attempts  process  that  ultimate who a r e  occurs  goal  independent  been w i d e l y  being the Tough,  aim i n a d u l t  conceptualizations been  1986;  Garrison,  questioned  themselves to educational  of  1988;  Garrison as  "an a t t e m p t  to  Let  us e x a m i n e  the  two  h e l d by t h e  learners  1988)  i n the  the  of  concepts  as  1975;  1983;  have  Brookfield,  and f o u n d i n a d e q u a t e in  an  has b e e n p r o p o s e d by  fundamental  is  presented  elements  transaction"  model can h e l p  and  their  (p.58).  conceptualize  in cross-cultural orientations i n the  in  a m o d e l w h i c h moves  c o n t r o l model  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  control  field  (Knowles,  learning process  This  have  and i n d e p e n d e n c e  and i n d e p e n d e n c e  of  The  earlier  (Chene,  Therefore,  reflect  conceptions  First,  Pratt,  how t h i s  learning process  These  by o t h e r s  (1987).  interrelationships  develop  t h e s e two  learning.  self-direction  transaction.  & Baynton  learning  and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n  1983).  understand the  beyond s e l f - d i r e c t i o n  to  by v a r i o u s p r o p o n e n t s  Brookfield,  since  is  Some c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  ultimate  on t h e  1983).  self-directing.  independence  discussed  1977;  focus  perspective  and  of  education.  Mestenhauser,  in cross-cultural orientations.  from t h i s  The c o n c e p t s  adult  C h r i s t o p h e r , 1984,  and  the address  o r i e n t a t i o n program  learners.  the  independence,  balance  among t h e  proficiency  dimensions  of  and support w h i c h ,  as  the  Garrison  55 and B a y n t o n model s u g g e s t s , two  conceptions.  s h o u l d be to  If  I n C o n c e p t i o n 1:  c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  indicate  their  a strong  learning goals  being  make up c o n t r o l ,  responsible  means  own n e e d s and a b i l i t i e s appropriate (Garrison,  being  "aware n o t  then  their  own l e a r n i n g and were w i l l i n g t o  learners  since  they  choose t o  do  (1989)  alternatives  as w e l l  to  intended  reach the  aware o f  choices. have  Also,  words,  addition, program to  if  be t o  as  goal  of  one's  goals,  that  perhaps  be t o l d what  do.  for  g i v e up some was  B u t why w o u l d  these  the  abilities (p.27).  may h a v e as  level  perceived "get  "any e d u c a t i o n a l  made w i t h a w a r e n e s s o f  goal"  to  Perhaps the  capable  the  faster.  to  required  learners  h e l p them make i n f o r m e d  lacked confidence  of  decision  the  and r e s o u r c e s  of  and may n o t  effecting  " p r o f i c i e n c y " was goal  of  an  g i v e up t h e i r Moreover, the  change. low.  In  orientation  more a n d more i n f o r m a t i o n " ,  may have b e e n more a p t reach that  to  suggests that  their  they  only  so?  perceived themselves  In o t h e r  to  alternatives  they  establish  assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  expected  an i n f o r m e d c h o i c e  were n o t  to  f o r them and what  Garrison must be  want  seemed  viewpoints"  can surmise  learners  important  d i d not  one  the  activities.  are worthwhile  and a l t e r n a t i v e  p.55),  learners  learning  these  independence  - the  i n s t r u c t o r to  their  b u t what  standards, 1989,  on t h e  and d e s i g n  in  O r i e n t a t i o n programs  instructor  reliance  differ  then  independence learners  came  they  to from a  56 highly  interdependent  defined  society,  and m a i n t a i n e d .  Thus,  instruct  and a l e a r n e r ' s  directs.  Furthermore,  determined,  then  choose t h e i r  not  the  if  is  their  own e d u c a t i o n a l  the  learners  role  may have  to  do as  role  in  their  the  seemed t o  shift  little  emphasis  otherto  motivation  to  low.  background of of  the  instructor.  control  towards  to  instructor  conception  c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  relationship  is  have been a b l e  and s o c i o l o g i c a l  reasons nevertheless,  with  the  clearly  role  a l s o been v e r y  Whatever the  "support",  but  c o n t r i b u t e d to  learning process being  a r e more  s o c i e t y was  they not  goals,  may have  educational  roles  an i n s t r u c t o r ' s  o n l y might  assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Therefore,  where  the  in this  triadic  dimension  on l e a r n e r  of  "proficiency"  and  "independence".  I n C o n c e p t i o n 2:  O r i e n t a t i o n programs  c o n t r o l l e d by b o t h t h e learners to  perceived  determine  their  own l e a r n i n g g o a l s  themselves  confidence  in their  further  as  abilities  acknowledged information,  suggestions.  Thus,  relationship  among t h e  three  independence.  the  the  adults"  instructor  assistance,  seemed t o  of  -  the and  as  They  learning.  someone who  control  and in  a better  proficiency,  able  and p o r t r a y e d  own  advice  indicate  s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e  be  and a c t i v i t i e s .  plan t h e i r  perception  dimensions: It  to  learner  independent  "professional  would p r o v i d e  triadic  and t h e  t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g  identified  They  instructor  should  support  however,  this balance and that  these  57 learners  came  from t h e  learners  who h e l d t h e  same s o c i o l o g i c a l conception  that  s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by i n s t r u c t o r s . that  variables  influenced  other  than s o c i e t a l  orientation  process?  suggested that of  learning, learners  orientation This then  the  programs indicates  b a c k g r o u n d may have  conceptions.  B u t how were t h e s e  capable  b a c k g r o u n d as  there  the  learners  that  in  of the  the data  further  perceived themselves to  some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  were f a c t o r s  achieving  reflected  Closer examination  while  assuming  conceptions  for t h e i r  may have  appropriate control  own  influenced  i n the  be  the  orientation  process.  According to control,  three  and s u p p o r t , develop their  the  basic  need t o  is  D i d the  lowered.  the  three  If  one  needed  of  control  learners to  model  enable  of  independence  the  learners  control  to  over  t h e s e components  is  exercised  learner  by the  in this  study  develop  and m a i n t a i n  Were t h e y  have  the control  l a c k i n g i n any o f  the  mentioned?  The p r o f i c i e n c y the  to  a p p r o p r i a t e degree o f  orientation process? components  (1987)  proficiency,  in balance  degree o f  appropriate balance  as  be  learning process. the  & Baynton  components:  and m a i n t a i n t h e  l a c k i n g then  in  Garrison  psychological  component, dimension  o r what of  c o u l d be  control,  perceived  includes  the  58 learner's attitude  cognitive and  motivational  study perceived abilities data  from i n t e r v i e w s  fact,  was  s e l f concept, level.  a confidence  t o d e t e r m i n e and  perception  not  to  and  create  emotional  While the  achieve t h e i r  with the  staff  personal  to carry  the  the  this  goals, this  staff.  t o be  In  lacking  learning  meaning f r o m t h e s e  in  their  suggested that  learners out  in  learning  n e c e s s a r i l y s h a r e d by  ability  maturity,  learners  i n t h e m s e l v e s and  some o f them r e g a r d e d t h e  incentive and  style,  activities  learning  experiences: The t r a i n e e s d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d what t h e p r o g r a m was a b o u t . They d i d n ' t r e a l i z e the importance o f the program; t h e y d i d n ' t r e a l i z e how i t was helping them. (Z2) The s t u d e n t s have t o be interested. (J2)  motivated  and  I t was r e a l l y e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s g r o u p was v e r y a p a t h e t i c . They w e r e n ' t r e a l l y t h a t i n t e r e s t e d i n western whatever. (02)  T h e s e comments s u g g e s t e d t h a t lacking this  i n the  learners  p r o f i c i e n c y component  and  may  thus,  have b e e n control  l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by  attitudes  and  motivational  Moreover, perhaps the and  the  data  educational  from t h i s  context  formulate t h e i r  own  The  their  levels.  learners perceived  independence.  in  study  seemed t o  a need  amount o f  suggest  that  for greater  freedom  freedom l e a r n e r s  have i n  to decide t h e i r learning goals  own  l e a r n i n g needs  i s a d d r e s s e d by  the  and  an  59 independence  component  assumes  the  that  alternatives. as  of  learners  adults,  and u s e f u l  for  emphasize  this  by  times,  by  point  they  deemed  by  bicycles  and they  The  an  learners,  to  what  They  given  felt  attempted  the  them n o t  to  in  useful by  that  was  participate  "We a s k e d  them."  of  also  of  clearly  and not  instructions  rode turn  study  learn.  resisting  instructor:  in  to  component  aware  aware  unnecessary  disregarding  reported  this  were  them  This  and are  in  they  important  model.  have  The l e a r n e r s  professional  activities  the  and,  at  staff.  to  ride  As their  (Q2)  explained:  We a r e a d u l t s a n d h a v e o u r own i d e a s . . . i f we t h i n k i t i s n o u s e , we w o n ' t learn i t . (K2) T h i s may b e a w a y o f s h o w i n g t h e teacher that he/she should respect the students' wishes. (R2)  These  comments  choose  to  react  perception  of  While both  in  some  this  way?  independence  support  in  questions:  an  was  However, whether  form the  in  question  support  support  necessary  the  not  was  them  arose  available  available  for  orientation  to  was  what  maintain  to  feel  that  s u p p o r t e d by  educational  that  Why d i d t h e  Did they  human a n d n o n human r e s o u r c e s ,  important  the  raised  context perhaps  context in  this  the  the some  is  learners  their the  may the  staff?  refer  to  most  the  instructor.  study  was  not  learners,  but  whether  learners control  perceived of  their  60 learning process. the  learners  that  this their  clearly  of a helper,  would,  Data from t h e i n t e r v i e w s  guide,  (Y2)  resource  described,  "help  a mediator,  guide,  of the kind  orientation  should  of support  receive,  some d i f f i c u l t i e s  program and p o i n t e d  As t h e s t a f f  survive i n described  information  Although  who  source,  i t seemed  that  and t h e i n s t r u c t o r s s h a r e d s i m i l a r  perceptions  orientation  students  Someone  the instructors  p e r s o n and f a c i l i t a t o r .  both the learners  at  f r i e n d and an a d v i s o r .  Furthermore,  r o l e as b e i n g  that  u n d e r s t o o d t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s r o l e t o be  as one l e a r n e r  society."  indicated  that  what  could  learners  i n fact  i n the  took place  hinted  a r i s e i n an o r i e n t a t i o n  to the complexity  of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  process. explained:  T h e r e were a l o t o f power s t r u g g l e s . . . . a l o t o f p r o b l e m s came b e c a u s e t h e s t a f f w e r e n ' t aware o f t h e way t h e y were c o m i n g across t o the students. A l o t o f the time t h e y came a c r o s s a s r e a l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n , e v e n t h o u g h t h a t wasn't n e c e s s a r i l y what t h e y were i n t e n d i n g . (J2) I t was a l a c k o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o how C h i n e s e p e r c e i v e d someone who i s y o u n g e r .  (W2)  Some o f t h e s t u d e n t s e x p r e s s e d t h a t we were a l l t o o young t o be t e l l i n g them what t o do. I think a u t h o r i t y i s a very important t h i n g i n the Chinese c u l t u r e especially. And I t h i n k t h e s t u d e n t s f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e we were y o u n g e r t h a n most o f them w e r e . (Z2)  These e x p l a n a t i o n s  showed t h a t  there  was more t o t h i s  theme o f c o n t r o l i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s t h a n maintaining  just  a b a l a n c e among t h e components o f s u p p o r t ,  61 proficiency  and i n d e p e n d e n c e .  suggests that  balance  "communication student" closer  (p.30).  instructors cultural  as  Was t h i s of  and the  communication  control  c a n be  Garrison  the  evident  data  instructors  also  i n the  teacher  both  orientations.  important As t h e  and n e c e s s a r y t o learners  and  the  understanding,  and c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n l e a r n e r s being  through  orientation?  showed t h a t  perceived  (1989)  established  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g between the  analysis  learners  of  In f a c t ,  and cross-  suggested:  The t e a c h e r must n o t t a l k , t a l k , t a l k . They s h o u l d c o n s i d e r more what t h e t r a i n e e s are t h i n k i n g a b o u t . . . P e o p l e s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r . . . a two-way u n d e r s t a n d i n g . (K2) A s k t h e s t u d e n t s what t h e y t h i n k i s i m p o r t a n t t o l e a r n , d i s c u s s and share t h e i r o p i n i o n s . (Y2) Give students a choice. C o o p e r a t i o n onb o t h s i d e s , t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t , is i m p o r t a n t . (R2) Similar  t h o u g h t s were r e f l e c t e d  by t h e  instructors:  I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y important that there be some s o r t o f b o n d / c o n f i d e n c e b e t w e e n s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r . ( J 2 ) The t e a c h e r has t o be w i l l i n g t o c o m p r o m i s e a n d n e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s on c e r t a i n t h i n g s , and t o r e a l l y l i s t e n t o t h e s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e t h a t way you have a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what t h e i r n e e d s a r e . (Q2) Communication i s the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r . . . b y t h e s t a f f as a t e a m . . . c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s , what we a r e d o i n g a n d w h y . . . s o l i c i t i n g d i r e c t i o n from the s t u d e n t s , feedback about t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , their n e e d s . (X2)  A  62 Moreover,  an a d d e d d i m e n s i o n ,  knowing the  learners'  an i n s t r u c t o r  that  c u l t u r e was  of  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  a l s o m e n t i o n e d by a l l .  As  noted:  The s t a f f has t o h a v e with Chinese students sensitivity. (W2) The l e a r n e r s  experience dealing and have c u l t u r a l  agreed:  They s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e C h i n e s e , this is very important. They s h o u l d have some b a s i c k n o w l e d g e o f t h e C h i n e s e culture. (F2) It i s very important that the teacher knows t h e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e Chinese students. The t e a c h e r and students should mutually understand each other. It i s very important e s p e c i a l l y for o r i e n t a t i o n teachers. (Y2)  In s h o r t , control  conceptions  in orientation  and c o m p l e x , orientation  G.  the  given  that  the  learners  programs p r o v e d t o  the  nature  of  the  held  be more  of  involved  cross-cultural  process.  SUMMARY The c h a p t e r h a s  collected  f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i v e  conceptions  of  t h r o u g h two  rounds o f  and t h e  presented  orientation  learners  Analysis dominated the  of  an a n a l y s i s study  of  programs.  interviews  the  data  learners'  collected  instructors  observations.  indicated that of  data  learners'  with both the  conceptions  the  The d a t a was  and t h r o u g h c l a s s r o o m  the  of  two m a j o r themes  the  orientation  63 program.  They were p a r t i c i p a t i o n  different  conceptions  The of  two  emerged  conceptions  that  p a r t i c i p a t i o n were:  i.  and c o n t r o l .  f o r each  theme.  emerged,  relating  information  should provide  i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l  learners'  passive  perceived of  their  instructors  the  to  active  be  wanted  learners  to  instructor  as  emphasized  the  control  and t h e  a n d " L e t us  conceptions  of  instructor orientation  of  conception  to  be t o l d how t o themselves.  do  learner.  perceived  learning goals  the  process.  and  They  and  collaboration  by t h e s e  to  to  the  "Combine t h e o r y  the  and  learners.  theme  of  O r i e n t a t i o n Programs  instructor  and  i i .  L e a r n e r s who h e l d t h e  and a c t i v i t i e s ,  things,  learning process  related  instructor  givers  expected  P r o g r a m s s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by b o t h and t h e  a  Contrary  They saw  communication  i .  was  be  conception  orientation  for t h e i r  programs:  should  experiences.  speakers  and d o e r s .  a l s o emerged  theme  i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e y  instructor.  c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  Orientation  first  do" were e m p h a s i z e d  in orientation  s h o u l d be  their  receivers  importance  related  second  i n the  a facilitator  between l e a r n e r s  Two  as  activity  who h e l d t h e  participants  be b o t h  practise"  the  the  O r i e n t a t i o n programs  and g u e s t  They e x p e c t e d t o  than experience  this,  i i .  They were r e c e i v e r s  information.  rather  and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  one.  to  O r i e n t a t i o n programs  mainly provide  The  Two  as  being  as  the  the first  i n charge  possessor  of  of the  64 content  and method o f  what  do and f e l t  to  In c o n t r a s t conception the  actively  of  perceived  to  view  cultural  on t h e  the  was  learners  told.  second  but  only  also  to  to  responsible  assuming  with  with  some c o n t r o l  process.  four conceptions  reflected  the  learners  themes o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t r o l  interactions  told  relationship  them n o t  jointly  thus  be  " w i l l i n g l y " do as  activities,  outcome,  to  who h e l d t h e  important to  i n the  for the  these  cross-cultural  should  a more c o l l a b o r a t i v e  orientations,  in practise,  they  They e x p e c t e d  p l a n n i n g and be  learning  While the of  It  the  instructor their  the  participate  contribute the  that  however,  instructor.  learning.  the  analysis  conceptions  orientation.  further suggested  were l a r g e l y  and dynamics t h a t  in  point crossthat  influenced  occur i n the  process  by of  65 CHAPTER F I V E CONCLUSION  A.  OVERVIEW OF  THE  Most o f t h e orientation (Albert, 1984;  and  l i t e r a t u r e i n the  refers  1986;  to  and  adjustment  training 1984;  and of  and  cultural  1986;  (Hughes-Wiener,  than the  of  cross-cultural methodologies  Triandis, 1977),  implications  Juffer,  strategies 1986;  1983).  orientations  perspective  their  learning  Mestenhauser,  of  1986,  This  body o f  seems l a r g e l y t o  p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e r s and  cross-  design  (Bennett,  Weaver, in  MaCaffery,  in  f o r the  1986; used  Brislin,  stages  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l programs  Grove & T o r b i o r n , teaching  1986;  Hammer & Wiseman,  implementation  1986;  field  t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s and  J.M.Bennett,  Gundykunst,  cultural  STUDY  1983),  cross-cultural  1984;  Christopher,  r e s e a r c h on  emphasize  cross-  the  instructors  rather  learners.  This  s t u d y however, e x p l o r e d t h e  of  orientation  to  look at  programs.  issues  The  focus  in orientation  learners'  i n t h i s s t u d y has  programming  approaches,  content,  expectations,  instructor,  from the  perspective  conceptions  skills  of the  like  and  goals,  role  of  some r e s e a r c h  on  learning:  independence,  self-direction, participation  were a l s o  Brookfield,  1983;  reviewed Chene,  c o n c e p t s common i n  (Knowles,  1983,  the  learners.  Therefore,  control,  been  1975;  Brookfield,  adult  Tough, 1986;  and  1977;  Garrison  &  66 Baynton, not  1987;  Pratt,  1988;  only helped provide  adult  learners,  but  some i n s i g h t  also  themes and c o n c e p t i o n s  Garrison,  served  that  as  1988). into  These  characteristics  a reference  emerged  studies  in this  for  of  the  investigative  study. Two s e r i e s  of  interviews  were c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e  learners  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an o r i e n t a t i o n  from t h e  same e t h n i c  as^a  background -  g r o u p from C h i n a  for t h e i r  professional  adults  in  institutions  different  program.  Chinese,  A l l were  and h a d a r r i v e d  orientation.  who were i n C a n a d a t o  eleven  They were  work a n d / o r  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s  for eight  all study to  ten  months.  The r e s e a r c h was and a q u a l i t a t i v e the  learners,  instructors  g u i d e d by an i n t e r p r e t i v e  technique.  Two s e r i e s  classroom observations,  and p r o g r a m documents  p r o v i d e d the  Synthesizing  sources  also provided cross-validation  perspective, to  address  of  the  data  interviews  interviews  study.  Analysis  the  of  perspective  i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e s e f o r the  indicated that  with  data  for  concepts apply to  general,  they  cultural  orientation process  are p a r t i c u l a r l y important  misinterpretations differences.  educational  learners'  Thus,  resulting there  is  and a r e  themes  programs.  transactions i n the  this  findings.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t r o l were i m p o r t a n t  While these  the  various  from t h e  regarding c r o s s - c u l t u r a l orientation  with  in  cross-  f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by  from language a need t o  and c u l t u r a l  further  consider  67 adult  learning principles  examine  how t h e y  in cross-cultural orientations  may a p p l y t o  the  cross-cultural  and  orientation  process.  Two v a r y i n g c o n c e p t i o n s regards  to  wanted t o  the  provide A  opportunities  Majority  recipients  control,  of the  learners,  learners  that  i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l in related  orientation  few  of  as  activities.  programs m a i n l y  instructor conceptions  learners  indicated  however,  and the  learners.  represent  and t h e  orientation and  the  analysis  in actual practice, dynamics  cross-cultural  of  the  four v a r y i n g learners  cross-cultural  of the  these  the  importance  ways i n w h i c h t h e  program understood the  c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e  nature of  instructor.  instructor  While these  different  phenomenon,  indicated that  necessity  to  that  perceived that  c o n t r o l l e d by b o t h t h e  be  With regards  c o l l a b o r a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g between  an o r i e n t a t i o n  orientation  information.  learners  and e m p h a s i z e d t h e  communication,  the  the  p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be  further  of  and p e r c e i v e d  participate  understood that  as  theme o f  orientation  of  to  most  With  i n f o r m a t i o n and i n d i c a t e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o  more p a s s i v e , the  participants  programs s h o u l d p r e s e n t  few h o w e v e r ,  present  e a c h theme e m e r g e d .  theme o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  be a c t i v e  orientation  of  data  also  conceptions  and t h e  orientations.  were  complexities  of  68 B.  IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY Given the  limitations  of  the  findings,  implications  of  caution.  Nonetheless,  attempts w i l l  findings  to  orientation  Firstly, interaction programs. clear  the  existing  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  learners  and a d d r e s s  They n e e d t o  and t o  them t o  decision  expand-on t h e i r  have  a  elements adult  between  orientation is  the  orientations.  relationship  o f what  to  need t o  involving  making i n the  knowledge  the  orientation  fundamental  cross-cultural the  with  address  draw a t t e n t i o n  transaction  further explore  and a d u l t  be made t o  and program d e v e l o p e r s the  the  c a n o n l y be made  can occur i n  some o f  of  general.  seemed t o  and d y n a m i c s t h a t Instructors  study  programs i n  findings  understanding of  control  this  transferability  an  process  adult  learner.  Secondly,  instructors  need t o  orientation  p r o g r a m s and t o  conceptions  of  role  orientation  of  i n the  process.  relinquishing exclusive  situation accept  and e n c o u r a g e  adult  orientation  learners process  opportunities instructors establish  for  more as  t h a n as  and t h e  a more e q u a l  over the  relationship  explore  their ways  They n e e d in  recipients.  and d i a l o g u e  on  learning  involved partners  need t o  own  reflect  in learners.  passive  learners  their  They n e e d t o  control  autonomy  feedback  examine  between  .Thus, the  be a v a i l a b l e between t h e  the  to  two.  to  69  Thirdly, orientation most  activities  outside then  be g i v e n  adult  of  the  the  to  with a c t i v i t i e s  h e l d by l e a r n e r s .  c a n more  of the be w e l l  background of  personality to  other traits,  name a few,  varying  conceptions  Finally, orientation their  factors  like  the  showed,  might  to  contribute  the  orientation  aware  of  conceptions,  the  learners' should  to  proficiency,  learners'  process.  learners'  but to  and e x p e r i e n c e  be  process  learners  they  language  of  need t o  to  learning styles,  by b e i n g  explore  process.  educational background,  p r o g r a m s c a n be d e s i g n e d  existing  actively  that  meaningfully  their  this  study  with  the  conceptions. explore  Attention  i n f o r m e d about  could influence  also  these  orientation  h e l p them u n d e r s t a n d what as  and  and p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e r s  They n e e d t o  However,  of  instructor?  orientation  conceptions  and c u l t u r a l  A r e most  Do  learning  o r i e n t a t i o n programs  that  i n the  in  examined.  experiential  classroom?  instructors  varying  professional  learners  structures  learning  be more c l o s e l y  designing  learners  Fourthly, aware  experiential  s t r u c t u r e d by t h e  negotiable  involve  of  programs i n t e r p r e t  p r o v i d i n g the  experiences  needs t o  concept  programs needs t o  orientation  m a i n l y as  clear  the  conceptions,  not  encourage  new l e a r n i n g  only the  acknowledge learners  situations.  to  70 C.  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY To b e g i n ,  the  nature  program l i m i t e d the time the it  ended.  further  the  this  cannot  professional conceptions  of  informants were h e r e  not  possible  to  to  and  the  only  for  soon  after  return to  have them v e r i f i e d  these  or  necessary.  learners  were a l l  from t h e  to  learners  same  So,  perhaps  from  another  c u l t u r a l background.  learners  in this  and t h i s  s t u d y were  may h a v e  all  i m p a c t e d on  an o r g a n i z e d l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .  may be  orientation  p r o g r a m and l e f t  be g e n e r a l i z e d  adults  the  same c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d .  o r from a n o t h e r  the  was  findings  group of  and from t h e  Moreover,  findings  it  the  learners  orientation  with the  findings  country  A l l the  e x p a n d e d upon i f  Also, country  the  Therefore,  participants  frame o f  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  spent w i t h them. duration of  and time  l i m i t e d to  adults  of  similar  their  Thus,  the  social  backgrounds.  Finally, patterns  the  personal  between t h e  s t u d y were u n i q u e . conceptions.  d y n a m i c s and  instructors This  c o u l d have  So c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  must be a p p l i e d w i t h c a u t i o n t o e n v i r o n m e n t where instructors  the  and t h e  and t h e  personal  the  interactional learners  influence findings  another  the  of  different.  this  learners'  this  orientation  dynamics between  s t u d e n t s may be  in  the  study  71  The l i m i t a t i o n s expanding the  study  discussed to  include  programs w i t h d i f f e r e n t same i n s t r u c t o r s  D.  c o u l d have been other  instructors  and d i f f e r e n t  by  orientation  and l e a r n e r s  or with  the  learners.  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH This  questions terms  of  investigative for the  programs,  study has  further research. participants  the  instructors  of  themselves.  First,  i n terms  of the  that  need t o  Do l e a r n e r s  similar  of  who a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l orientation  process  does a l e a r n e r ' s language  study  country,  impact  learners'  conceptions  support?  some  cultural  of  research  backgrounds  who a r e p e r h a p s  conceptions  some f a c t o r s  language  or l e a r n e r s ,  through further  briefings  Do  that  orientation  proficiency,  share  learners of  students?  i n terms  in his/her of  in  the  hold s i m i l a r conceptions  adults  on t h e i r  addressed  p r o g r a m s and  o r i e n t a t i o n programs?  and c u l t u r a l  What a r e  be  and  orientation  p r e p a r a t i o n or l a c k of,  programs?  personality,  be a d d r e s s e d  adults as  in  participants  from d i f f e r e n t  conceptions  These w i l l  orientation  programs  questions  r a i s e d some i s s u e s  or l e a r n e r s  orientation  are:  similar  overcome  the How  of own  orientation  may  influence  programs,  for  learning styles,  example, and  72 Next,  i n terms  of  the  programs,  further research  questions  like:  orientation influence  instructors will  cross-cultural  as  into  programs  is  Does  length  learners' the  academic  f a r as t h e  needed.  on l e a r n e r s '  of  the  kinds  be  aware  compared t o  the  size  in learners'  principles  impact  programs?  What a r e  orientation  to  themselves, orientation are:  conceptions  change  content  over  impact  programs w i t h  an  one w i t h a w o r k p l a c e orientation  conceptions?  issues  programs?  p r o g r a m make a  How do a d u l t  cross-cultural  some o t h e r  What  influence  orientation  of the  on v a r i o u s  that  programs?  be e x a m i n e d  How d o e s t h e  i.e.,  of  process?  programs  program  thus  issues  t h e m s e l v e s need  need t o  Do l e a r n e r s '  the  some  cross-cultural  that  orientation?  difference  cross-cultural  of  of  p r o g r a m s and  orientation  orientation  conceptions,  Does  explore  What a r e  orientation  Questions the  component  component?  to  cross-cultural orientation  different  of  orientation  i n the  orientation  conceptions  conceptions?  role  conceptions?  course  needed  t r a i n i n g do i n s t r u c t o r s  research  the  their  conduct  Finally,  i n the  o r i e n t a t i o n programs need t o  facilitate  effectively  also  influence  learners'  of  is  How do i n s t r u c t o r s '  process  the  instructors  that  learning  orientation could  emerge  73 Cross-cultural this is  study  orientation  revealed,  the  d y n a m i c and c o m p l e x .  continue  to  examine  practitioners'  this  is  conceptual  validated  i n the  a static  As t h o s e process  i n v o l v e d i n the from t h e  of the  cultural  orientation  will  models  result.  the  process  field  and  work  that  phenomenon  at  are  orientation process,  and more t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  As  researchers',  perspectives,  and t h e o r e t i c a l  reality  phenomenon.  cross-cultural orientation  and l e a r n e r s '  providing  not  of  a wider cross-  74 BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l b e r t , R . D . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The I n t e r c u l t u r a l S e n s i t i z e r o r C u l t u r e A s s i m i l a t o r : A cognitive approach. In D . L a n d i s and R . W . B r i s l i n ( e d s . ) Handbook o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g V o l . 1 1 : A r e a s t u d i e s i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , 186215, New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s . A l b e r t , R . D . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . C o n c e p t u a l framework f o r t h e development and e v a l u a t i o n o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n programs. International Journal of I n t e r c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s . 10 ( 2 ) , 1 9 7 - 2 1 3 . B e n n e t t , J . M . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Modes o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g : C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g as e d u c a t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f I n t e r c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s , 10 (2), 117-134. Bennett, M. (1986). A developmental approach t o t r a i n i n g f o r intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of I n t e r c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s , 10 ( 2 ) , 1 7 9 - 1 9 6 . B l a k e , B . F . & H e s l i n , R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E v a l u a t i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l training. I n D . L a n d i s and R . W . B r i s l i n ( e d s . ) Handbook o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , V o l . 1 : I s s u e s i n t h e o r y and d e s i g n , 203-223, New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s . Bogdan, R. and T a y l o r , S . J . (1975). I n t r o d u c t i o n t o q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s . New Y o r k : W i l e y . Bond,  M . H . e d . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e C h i n e s e HongKong: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s I n c .  people.  B r i s l i n , R.W. and Pedersen, P . (1976). C r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s . New Y o r k : G a r d e n P r e s s . B r i s l i n , R.W. e d . (1977). C u l t u r e l e a r n i n g : C o n c e p t s , a p p l i c a t i o n s and r e s e a r c h . H a w a i i : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B r i s l i n , R.W. (1981). C r o s s - c u l t u r a l e n c o u n t e r s : Face face i n t e r a c t i o n . New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s .  to  B r i s l i n , R . W . , L a n d i s , D,. and B r a n d t , M . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l b e h a v i o r and training. I n D . L a n d i s & R . W . B r i s l i n ( e d s . ) Handbook o f I n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , V o l . 1 : I s s u e s i n t h e o r y and d e s i g n , 1-35, New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s .  75 B r i s l i n , R.W. (1984). A c u l t u r e g e n e r a l a s s i m i l a t o r : Preparation for varoius types of sojourns. International Journal of I n t e r c u l t u r a l Relations, (2) ,. 2 1 5 - 2 3 4 .  10  B r o o k f i e l d , S . D . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . U n d e r s t a n d i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g adult learning. San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s . B u r g e s s , R . G . (1985). I n t r o d u c t i o n . In R . G . Burgess Strategies of educational research: Q u a l i t a t i v e m e t h o d s , 1-22. L o n d o n : The F a l m e r P r e s s .  (ed.)  C a s s e , P . (1981). T r a i n i n g f o r the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l mind: A handbook f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n e r s and c o n s u l t a n t s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : The S o c i e t y f o r I n t e r c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n , T r a i n i n g and R e s e a r c h . C h e n e , A . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The c o n c e p t o f autonomy: A p h i l o s o p h i c a l discussion. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n O u a t e r l y . 34, 3 8 - 4 7 . C h r i s t o p h e r , E . (1987). Academia: A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m . International Journal of I n t e r c u l t u r a l Relations. 11, 191-206. C o n d o n , J . C . and Y o u s e f , F . S . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication. New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co. Denzin,  N.K.  (1970).  The r e s e a r c h  act.  Chicago:  Aldine.  D i n g e s , N . (1983). I n t e r c u l t u r a l competence. In D . L a n d i s & R . W . B r i s l i n ( e d s . ) , Handbook o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , V o l . 1 : I s s u e s i n t h e o r y and d e s i g n , 7 6 - 2 0 2 , New Y o r k : Pergamon. G a r r i s o n , D . R . , & Baynton, M. (1987). Beyond independence i n d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n : The c o n c e p t o f c o n t r o l . The A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of. D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n . 3 ( 1 ) , 3-15. G a r r i s o n , D . R . (1988). framework f o r t h e  Understanding distance education: future. London: Routledge.  A  Garrison, D.R..(1989). F a c i l i t a t i n g self-directed learning: Not a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t e r m s . In H . B . L o n g ( e d . ) , Selfd i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g : E m e r g i n g T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e . 5 3 - 6 2 , O k l a h o m a : Oklahoma R e s e a r c h C e n t e r f o r C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l & Higher E d u c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma. G r o v e , C . L . and T o r b i o r n , I . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . A new c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l adjustment and the g o a l s of l e a r n i n g . I n R . M . P a i g e ( e d . ) , C r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n : New c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s & a p p l i c a t i o n s , 71-110, Lanham: U n i v e r s i t y Press of America.  76  G u n d y k u n s t , W . B . , Hammer, M . R . a n d Wiseman, R . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . An a n a l y s i s o f an i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l training. International Journal of Intercultural R e l a t i o n s . 1 (2), 99-111. G u n d y k u n s t , W . B . & Hammer, M . R . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . B a s i c t r a i n i n g d e s i g n : Approaches t o i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . In D . L a n d i s & R . W . B r i s l i n ( e d s . ) Handbook o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , V o l . 1 : Issues i n t h e o r y and d e s i g n , 118-154, New Y o r k : P e r g a m o n . Hammer, M . e t a l . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . D i m e n s i o n s o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural R e l a t i o n s , 2, 9 9 - 1 1 0 . H a m m e r s l e y , M . and A t k i n s o n , Principles in practice. Howards, S . , ethical Journal  P . (1983). Ethnography: London: M a c M i l l a n .  F r a n k , T . , P u s c h , P . & R e n w i c k , G . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The i m p e r a t i v e (Guest E d i t o r i a l ) , I n t e r n a t i o n a l o f I n t e r c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s , 6, 2 2 5 - 2 2 7 .  H u g h e s - W e i n e r , G . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The " L e a r n i n g how t o l e a r n " approach to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n . International J o u r n a l f o r I n t e r c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s . 10 ( 4 ) , 4 8 5 - 5 0 5 . J u f f e r , K . R . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The f i r s t s t e p i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n : Defining the problem. In R . M . P a i g e , C r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n : New c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s , 175-192. Lanham: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f America. J u n k e r , B . H . ( 1 9 6 0 ) . F i e l d w o r k : An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e social sciences. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s . K o h l s , L . R . (1987). Four t r a d i t i o n a l approaches to developing c r o s s - c u l t u r a l preparedness i n adults. International Journal of I n t e r c u l t u r a l Relations, (1), 89-106. K n o w l e s , M . S . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The modern p r a c t i c e o f education: From p e d a g o g y t o a n d r a g o g y . Y o r k : Cambridge Books.  adult (2nd e d . )  11  New  L a n d i s , D . a n d B r i s l i n , R. e d s . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Handbook o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . V o l I : I s s u e s i n t h e o r y and design. New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s . L a n d i s , D . a n d B r i s l i n , R . e d s . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Handbook o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , V o l . 1 1 : Area studies i n intercultural training. New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s .  77 Luce,  L . and S m i t h , E . e d s . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Towards internationalism. M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Newbury Publications.  House  M c C a f f e r y , J . A . (1986). Independent e f f e c t i v e n e s s : A r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and training. International Journal for I n t e r c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s . 10 ( 2 ) , 159-178. M a r t i n , J . N . (1986). T r a i n i n g Issues i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l orientations. International Journal for Intercultural R e l a t i o n s . 10 ( 2 ) , 103-115. M a r t o n , F . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Phenomenography: D e s c r i b i n g c o n c e p t i o n s of the w o r l d around us. Instructional Science. 10, 177-210. M e s t e n h a u s e r , J . A . (1983). L e a r n i n g from s o j o u r n e r s . In D. L a n d i s & R.W. B r i s l i n ( e d s . ) , Handbook o f I n t e r c u l t u r a l T r a i n i n g , V o l 2: A r e a s t u d i e s i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . 153-185, New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s . P a i g e , R . M . a n d M a r t i n , J . N . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E t h i c a l i s s u e s and ethics in cross-cultural training. I n D . L a n d i s and R.W. B r i s l i n ( e d s . ) , Handbook o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . V o l I : I s s u e s i n t h e o r y and d e s i g n , 36-60, New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s . P a i g e , R . M . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . T r a i n e r c o m p e t e n c i e s : The m i s s i n g conceptual l i n k . International Journal for I n t e r c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s . 10 ( 2 ) , 135-158. P a i g e , R . M . e d . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o new d i m e n s i o n s i n the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I n R . M . P a i g e ( e d . ) , C r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n : New c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n s . 1-26, Lanham: U n i v e r s i t y Press of America. P r a t t , D . D . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . A n d r a g o g y as a r e l a t i o n a l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y . 38, 1 6 0 - 1 7 2 .  construct.  S a w k i n s , M . (1987) . T r a i n i n g f o r TESL C a n a d a J o u r n a l . 5 ( 1 ) ,  in  independence 59-72.  S c h w a r t z , H . and J a c o b s , J . (1979). New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s .  Qualitative  learning. sociology.  Seelye, H . N . (1985). Teaching c u l t u r e : S t r a t e g i e s f o r i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication. I l l i n o i s : National Textbook C o . Sikkema, M. and Niyekawa, A . (1987). D e s i g n f o r c r o s s cultural learning. Maine: I n t e r c u l t u r a l P r e s s .  78 S p r a d l e y , J . P . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The e t h n o g r a p h i c Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . S p r a d l e y , J . P . (1980). P a r t i c i p a n t H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n .  interview.  observation.  New  New  York:  T e s c h , R . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . E m e r g i n g t h e m e s : The r e s e a r c h e r ' s experience. Phenomenology + P e d a g o g y , 5 ( 3 ) , 230-241. T o u g h , A . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The a d u l t ' s l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . Toronto Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. T r i a n d i s , H . C . (1986). Approaches to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t h e r o l e o f c u l t u r e assimilator training. In R . M . P a i g e (ed.) Cross-cultural o r i e n t a t i o n : New c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n s , 193-222, Lanham: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f A m e r i c a . W a r r e n , D . & A d l e r , P . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . An e x p e r i e n t i a l a p p r o a c h i n s t r u c t i o n i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication. C o m m u n i c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n , 26, 1 2 8 - 1 3 4 .  to  Weaver, G . R . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . U n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o p i n g w i t h c r o s s c u l t u r a l adjustment s t r e s s . In R . M . P a i g e (ed.) Crossc u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n : New c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s a n d applications, 71-110, Lanham: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f America. Woods, P . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . I n s i d e s c h o o l s : research. London: Routledge  Ethnography i n & Kegan P a u l .  educational  80 APPENDIX B CONCEPTIONS OF CROSS-CULTURAL ORIENTATION INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  1.  What d o e s t h e t e r m  "cultural  2.  What d o y o u t h i n k s h o u l d b e t h e p u r p o s e / g o a l cultural orientation?  3.  What s h o u l d  4.  What m e t h o d ( s ) / a p p r o a c h ( e s ) s u i t a b l e f o r an o r i e n t a t i o n  5.  How s h o u l d t h e c o n t e n t / a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n program be sequenced?  6.  What o u t c o m e s program?  7.  What d o y o u t h i n k i s c r i t i c a l an o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m ?  8.  What c a n h a m p e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o r i e n t a t i o n program?  9.  What k i n d s o f s k i l l s s h o u l d t h e i n s t r u c t o r s conduct an o r i e n t a t i o n program?  10.  What s h o u l d b e t h e r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n program?  11.  What a r e some i s s u e s t h a t o n e s h o u l d b e a w a r e o f regarding o r i e n t a t i o n programs?  12.  What a r e y o u r p e r s o n a l program?  13.  Do y o u h a v e  t h e content  orientation"  o f an o r i e n t a t i o n  program be?  i n an o r i e n t a t i o n  to theeffectiveness  of  o f an e f f e c t i v e  of theinstructor  expectations  else  o f cross-  o f i n s t r u c t i o n would be program?  should be presented  anything  mean t o y o u ?  have t o  i n an  of the orientation  t o add t o t h i s  interview?  The a b o v e q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d a f r a m e w o r k . f o r b o t h t h e f i r s t and second s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s . In addition t o these q u e s t i o n , t h e i n t e r v i e w e e was a s k e d t o g i v e e x a m p l e s , t o e l a b o r a t e o n a comment a n d t o c l a r i f y when n e e d e d .  81 APPENDIX C CONCEPTIONS OF CROSS-CULTURAL ORIENTATION OBSERVATION SCHEDULE  WEEK 1  TIME 8:30 am  CLASS COMPONENT English for special purposes  1  11:30 am  Listening & Speaking  1  1:30 pm  Cultural Orientation  4  8:30 am  English for special purposes  4  11:30 am  Listening & Speaking  4  1:30 pm  Cultural Orientation  APPENDIX D EXAMPLE OF SOME INITIAL THEMES  CONTENT  Educational System  BEHAVIOURAL  Culture Shock  Independent Learners  Interpersonal Communication  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0078289/manifest

Comment

Related Items