UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Learners' conceptions of cross-cultural orientation Liu, Diane M. 1989

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LEARNERS' CONCEPTIONS OF CROSS-CULTURAL ORIENTATION By Diane M. Liu B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1989 & Diane M.Liu, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date Q<li^ W^ DE-6 (2/88) ii A B S T R A C T W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r a c t i o n among p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s a n d t h e g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t r o n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s , t h e n e e d f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e . S c h o l a r s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s h a v e o n l y j u s t b e g u n t o e x a m i n e t r e n d s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s i n an a t t e m p t t o d r a w t o g e t h e r t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e . Much o f t h i s r e s e a r c h h o w e v e r , i s p r e s e n t e d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f i n s t r u c t o r s o r p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e r s . T h u s , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o l o o k a t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s f r o m t h e l e a r n e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s i n an a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n a w i d e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n phenomenon. The r e s e a r c h was g u i d e d b y an i n t e r p r e t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e a n d a q u a l i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e . Two s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e l e a r n e r s o f a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m , c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r s a n d p r o g r a m d o c u m e n t s p r o v i d e d t h e d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e . l e a r n e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a n d c o n t r o l o f o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s w e r e i m p o r t a n t t h e m e s t o a d d r e s s . ' M o r e o v e r , t h e l e a r n e r s ' h e l d v a r y i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e two t h e m e s . iii W i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e theme o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a few l e a r n e r s f e l t t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s s h o u l d m a i n l y p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y o f them p e r c e i v e d t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s s h o u l d p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a s w e l l a s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s . T h u s , some saw t h e m s e l v e s a s p a s s i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e o t h e r s e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b e i n g a c t i v e . Two c o n c e p t i o n s a l s o e m e r g e d w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e theme o f c o n t r o l o f o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s . A g a i n , t h e r e w e r e l e a r n e r s who p e r c e i v e d t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r , w h i l e m a j o r i t y c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s t o b e c o n t r o l l e d b y b o t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r a n d t h e l e a r n e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o n c e p t s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s w e r e a l s o e m p h a s i z e d . W h i l e t h e s e f o u r v a r y i n g c o n c e p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r s u n d e r s t o o d t h e c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n phenomenon, t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , t h e s e c o n c e p t i o n s w e r e f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e d y n a m i c s a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e n a t u r e o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . I n e x p l o r i n g t h e l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s , t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e d a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n phenomenon. I t i d e n t i f i e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p a y i n g c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r i n o r i e n t a t i o n s a n d t h e n e e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a . V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS As I r e f l e c t on the number of c o l l e a g u e s , f e l l o w graduate students, f r i e n d s , and acquaintances who have encouraged me d u r i n g my graduate s t u d i e s , I r e a l i z e t h a t i t would be imp o s s i b l e t o mention them a l l by name. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , I would l i k e t o acknowledge c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s who have e s p e c i a l l y p l a y e d an important r o l e i n h e l p i n g me complete t h i s t h e s i s . S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended t o my committee members: t o Dr. Don Northey f o r o f f e r i n g h i s i n s i g h t s and i n v a l u a b l e support from the very i n i t i a l stages t o the completion o f t h i s r e s e a r c h study and t o Dr. Bernard Mohan and Dr. Margaret E a r l y f o r t h e i r t h o u g h t f u l feedback and encouragement t o r e f l e c t more deeply on the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . My thanks a l s o t o the Chinese t r a i n e e s and the s t a f f of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , program f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study; and to some v e r y s p e c i a l c a r i n g f r i e n d s : Sue, Sc o t t , Dan, Joan and Nola f o r s h a r i n g my discouragements and joys and f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t , p r a y e r s and encouragement. F i n a l l y , my h e a r t f e l t g r a t i t u d e t o my f a m i l y : my mom and dad, E r i c , Edmund and e s p e c i a l l y B e t t y , f o r t h e i r love, p a t i e n c e and s t e a d f a s t support d u r i n g my graduate s t u d i e s . vi TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Scope and Focus o f the study A. Background of the Problem 1 B. R a t i o n a l e f o r the Research Question 3 I I . Review o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 6 B. Use of Terms i n t h i s study 7 C. D e f i n i t i o n o f L a b e l s , Concepts & C a t e g o r i e s 7 D. T h e o r e t i c a l Models & Methodologies 9 E. Stages i n C r o s s - c u l t u r a l Adjustment 12 F. Teaching & L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g i e s 16 G. Concepts of Independence, S e l f - d i r e c t i o n and C o n t r o l < 18 H. Summary of L i t e r a t u r e Review 21 I I I . Research Design and Process A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 23 B. S e t t i n g 24 C. Access 26 D. P a r t i c i p a n t s ....28 E. Data c o l l e c t i o n through Interviews 29 F. Data c o l l e c t i o n through P a r t i c i p a n t Observation..31 G. Documents 32 H. R e l i a b i l i t y & V a l i d i t y 32 I. Summary 33 vii IV. A n a l y s i s o f Data A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 35 B. L e a r n e r s ' Conceptions of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n O r i e n t a t i o n Programs 38 i . Conception 1: O r i e n t a t i o n Programs sh o u l d mainly present i n f o r m a t i o n 39 i i . Conception 2: O r i e n t a t i o n Programs should present i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d e r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s . . . . 41 C. D i s c u s s i o n o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n Theme 42 D. Classroom o b s e r v a t i o n s 4 6 E. L e a r n e r s ' Conceptions of C o n t r o l i n O r i e n t a t i o n Programs 50 i . Conception 1: O r i e n t a t i o n Programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by the i n s t r u c t o r . . . 51 i i . C onception 2: O r i e n t a t i o n Programs sh o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by the i n s t r u c t o r and the l e a r n e r ....52 F. D i s c u s s i o n o f C o n t r o l Theme 53 G. Summary 62 V. C o n c l u s i o n A. Overview of the study... 65 B. I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s study .68 C. L i m i t a t i o n s of the study 7 0 D. Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h 71 viii B i b l i o g r a p h y 74 Appendix A: C o n s e n t Form 79 Appendix B: I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s 80 Appendix C: O b s e r v a t i o n S c h e d u l e 81 Appendix D: E x a m p l e o f some i n i t i a l t h e m e s 82 LIST OP TABLES T a b l e 1: Model o f C o n t r o l by G a r r i s o n and Baynton (1987) 20 T a b l e 2: Emerging themes and c o n c e p t s 38 1 CHAPTER ONE SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE PROBLEM A. BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM M a j o r developments i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and t h e advances made i n t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y have r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e p e o p l e o f t h e w o r l d -" g l o b a l v i l l a g e c i t i z e n s " . G l o b a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n c o n t i n u e t o grow. T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a d v i s o r s , f o r example, w o r k i n g on development p r o j e c t s i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g . M i s s i o n a r i e s , government o f f i c i a l s , d i p l o m a t s and m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l a r e a l l i n v o l v e d i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . Moreover, t o compete e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t p l a c e , c r o s s -c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and communication s k i l l s a r e a must. F u r t h e r m o r e , demographic changes i n our own s u r r o u n d i n g s h e r e i n Canada as a r e s u l t o f t h e g r o w i n g immigrant and r e f u g e e p o p u l a t i o n , c a l l f o r t r a i n e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o a s s i s t t h e s e p e o p l e w i t h t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n t o t h e Canadian s o c i e t y . Thus, t h e n e e d . f o r p e o p l e t o become more l i t e r a t e i n t h e b e h a v i o u r and s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o engage i n e f f e c t i v e c r o s s -c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s c r u c i a l . 2 The f i e l d o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , t h o u g h r e l a t i v e l y y o u n g , i s r a p i d l y g r o w i n g . T r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s a r e b e i n g d e s i g n e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d a t a f a i r l y r a p i d p a c e . T h e o r e t i c i a n s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n v o l v e d come f r o m a v a s t r a n g e o f d i s c i p l i n e s s u c h a s : c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y , l i n g u i s t i c s , r a c e r e l a t i o n s , e t h n i c s t u d i e s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a n t h r o p o l o g y , a n d b u s i n e s s . T h e i r v a r y i n g c o n c e p t s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g h a v e r e s u l t e d i n t h e e c l e c t i c i n f l u e n c e s on t h i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y f i e l d . I t i s no wonder t h a t c o n c e n s u s o v e r t h e m e a n i n g a n d f o c u s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g h a s b e e n d i f f i c u l t t o a r t i c u l a t e ( G u n d y k u n s t & Hammer, 1983). R e a l i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o v i d i n g some o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t h i s f i e l d , r e s e a r c h e r s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s h a v e b e e n a t t e m p t i n g t o s y s t e m a t i z e a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t h a v e b e e n t a k i n g p l a c e i n w h a t i s s t i l l a " c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y " ( B r i s l i n , L a n d i s , B r a n d t , 1983). Much p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n made i d e n t i f y i n g a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h e s t o i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g ( G u n d y k u n s t & Hammer, 1983), p r e s e n t i n g m o d e l s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o m p e t e n c y ( B r i s l i n , L a n d i s , B r a n d t , 1983; D i n g e s , 1983), e x a m i n i n g e t h i c a l c o n c e r n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ( P a i g e & M a r t i n , 1983), a n d e v a l u a t i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g ( B l a k e & H e s l i n , 1983) . 3 In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s t r i d e s made i n t h e f i e l d o f c r o s s -c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g i n g e n e r a l , a t t e n t i o n i s now b e i n g f o c u s s e d on an a r e a o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g : c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , as e v i d e n c e d by an i n c r e a s e i n a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h a t a r e a . A l s o , a seminar, t h e f i r s t o f i t s k i n d , was h e l d i n 1984: " C r o s s - C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n s : T h e o r i e s , P r a c t i c e s , Problems and S o l u t i o n s " . D e f i n i t i o n s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n v a r y ( B e n n e t t , 1986; Gudykunst & Hammer, 1983; K o h l s , 1984). P a i g e (1986:2) d e f i n e s c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n as "t h o s e i n t e r c u l t u r a l programs t h a t a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r e p a r e s p e c i f i c groups o f l e a r n e r s t o r e s i d e i n s p e c i f i c t a r g e t c u l t u r e s f o r s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s " . O r i e n t a t i o n programs a r e d i s t i n c t from o t h e r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g i n t h a t t h e y f o c u s on s p e c i f i c groups o f l e a r n e r s , s p e c i f i c t a r g e t c u l t u r e s and s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s . B. RATIONAL FOR THE RESEARCH STUDY W i t h t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g number o f d o m e s t i c s t u d e n t s , f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , b u s i n e s s p e r s o n s and o f f i c i a l s n e e d i n g p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s o j o u r n e x p e r i e n c e s , o r i e n t a t i o n programs a r e b e i n g d e s i g n e d and implemented by a l l s o r t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and q u a s i - p r o f e s s i o n a l a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . These programs emerge i n v a r i o u s forms, however, m a i n l y as i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g s e s s i o n , and o f t e n 4 w i t h o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , w i t h l i t t l e thought g i v e n to the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s or the c o n t e n t . T h i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , has c o n t r i b u t e d t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n b e i n g v iewed as an e l ementary form o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g (Paige , 1986) . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y r e c e n t l y have s c h o l a r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o g e t h e r begun to examine t r e n d s i n o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g and t o p u l l t o g e t h e r t h e o r y , r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e . C o n c e p t u a l models are emerging t o h e l p u n d e r s t a n d the development o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y (Bennett , 1986), i n t e r c u l t u r a l adjustment (Grove & T o r b i o r n , 1986), c u l t u r e shock (Weaver, 1983) and t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r d e s i g n i n g and implement ing c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . I s sues such as the t r a i n i n g o f t r a i n e r s and the e t h i c s o f t r a i n i n g (Paige & M a r t i n , 1983;. Howards, F r a n k , Pusch & Renwick, 1982), g o a l s o f o r i e n t a t i o n s , v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s (McCaffery , 1986) , l e a r n i n g s t y l e s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s on o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g (Hughes-Weiner, 1984), are b e i n g a d d r e s s e d . At t empts are b e i n g made t o a r r i v e at some c o n c e p t u a l and t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s and to i n t e g r a t e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e (Paige , 1986) . A l t h o u g h these developments are h e l p i n g t o b e t t e r anchor and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e the f i e l d , much more work needs t o be done t o ensure t h a t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s are v a l i d a t e d i n the r e a l i t y o f the t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e and v i c e v e r s a . Some q u e s t i o n s which s t i l l need t o be asked a r e : do the p a r t i c i p a n t s share s i m i l a r v iews on what the purpose and outcome o f o r i e n t a t i o n s h o u l d be , what i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d , how i t s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d , who s h o u l d conduct t h e t r a i n i n g and what v a r i a b l e s e f f e c t o r i e n t a t i o n s ? How a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and what f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s does t h i s have on t h e d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs? W i t h t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i n mind t h e n , t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' , i . e . t h e l e a r n e r s ' , c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . Thus, t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o g a i n a c l e a r e r and more complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n from t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' / l e a r n e r s ' p o i n t s o f v i e w . 6 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. INTRODUCTION Th i s chapter p r o v i d e s a review of some o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and a d u l t l e a r n i n g . F i r s t , the d e f i n i t i o n s o f l a b e l s , concepts and c a t e g o r i e s used i n the f i e l d are d i s c u s s e d (J.M. Bennett, 1986; Kohls, 1984). Next, some t h e o r e t i c a l models and methodologies t h a t have been proposed f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g are looked at (J.M. Bennett, 1986; Gundykunst, Hammer and Wiseman, 1977; A l b e r t , 1986; B r i s l i n , 1984; T r i a n d i s , 1986;). An examination of some l i t e r a t u r e on stages i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment p r o c e s s f o l l o w (M. Bennett, 1986; Grove & T o r b i o r n , 1986; J u f f e r , 1986). Teaching and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s used i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g are then d i s c u s s e d (McCaffery, 1984; Hughes-Wiener, 1986; Sawkins,1987;). F i n a l l y , the concepts of independence, s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l as used i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g are examined (Knowles, 1975; Tough, 1977; B r o o k f i e l d , 1983; Chene, 1983; B r o o k f i e l d , 1986; G a r r i s o n & Baynton, 1987; P r a t t , 1988; G a r r i s o n , 1988). 7 B. USE OF TERMS IN THIS RESEARCH STUDY In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i v e s t u d y , t h e te r m " p a r t i c i p a n t s " , i s u s ed i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h t h e terms " l e a r n e r s " , " t r a i n e e s " and " s t u d e n t s " . I t i s t h e c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t a re b e i n g examined i n t h i s s t u d y . The terms " i n s t r u c t o r " , " t r a i n e r " and " t e a c h e r " a r e used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n t h i s s t u d y t o r e f e r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who conducts t h e o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g . The term " c o n c e p t i o n s " i s used t o mean c a t e g o r i e s o f d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h i c h p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e o r u n d e r s t a n d a phenomenon. The t e r m "themes"- i s used t o mean t h e major elements o f t h e phenomenon s t u d i e d . C. DEFINITION OF LABELS, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES J.M. Be n n e t t (1986) i n h e r paper "Modes o f c r o s s -c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g : C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g as e d u c a t i o n " , a t t e m p t s t o c l a r i f y and d i s t i n g u i s h t h e t h r e e terms used most f r e q u e n t l y t o d e s c r i b e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g : o r i e n t a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . She does t h i s by comparing t h e g o a l s , t h e c o n t e n t and t h e p r o c e s s u sed i n each. O r i e n t a t i o n g e n e r a l l y emphasizes s u r v i v a l i n f o r m a t i o n , academic c o n t e n t a r e a s and some c u l t u r a l dos and d o n t ' s . Thus, she sug g e s t s t h a t " o r i e n t a t i o n may be 8 c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s t h e who, what, when, a n d w h e r e o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d , an e s s e n t i a l b u t n o t c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h . " ( p . 1 1 8 ) . " T r a i n i n g " u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o an a p p r o a c h w i t h t h e e n d g o a l i n v o l v i n g b e h a v i o r - t h e 'how'. T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a c c o r d i n g t o B e n n e t t , " m i n i m i z e s c o n c e p t u a l g r o u n d w o r k a n d d o e s n o t r e q u i r e s o j o u r n e r s t o b e a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r c o m p e t e n c e o u t s i d e o f t h e p r o g r a m . " ( p . 1 1 8 ) . " E d u c a t i o n " f o c u s e s on t h e 'why' p e r s p e c t i v e a n d i t s o b j e c t i v e i s t o h e l p l e a r n e r s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g . T h i s , B e n n e t t s u g g e s t s , s h o u l d b e t h e i d e a l way o f l o o k i n g a t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . K o h l s (1984) a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e n e e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n f o u r a p p r o a c h e s a n d t o e x a m i n e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f e a c h a p p r o a c h i n p r e p a r i n g p e o p l e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h o s e o f a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . He s t a t e s t h a t " e d u c a t i o n " i s s u i t e d f o r d e v e l o p i n g i n - d e p t h m a s t e r y o f l a r g e b o d i e s o f k n o w l e d g e , w h e r e a s " t r a i n i n g " f o c u s e s on d e v e l o p i n g c o m p e t e n c y i n p e r f o r m i n g s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . " O r i e n t a t i o n " p r e p a r e s one t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n a new o r r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i l e " b r i e f i n g " p r o v i d e s a b r o a d o v e r v i e w i n t h e most e f f i c i e n t way. He e x a m i n e s t h e s e f o u r a p p r o a c h e s i n t e r m s o f t h e i r m a j o r c o n c e r n s a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s , o v e r a l l p u r p o s e , v a r i o u s means o f a c h i e v i n g t h e i r p u r p o s e , d e l i v e r y r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d s t r o n g e s t f e a t u r e s . He g o e s on t o a r g u e t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e 9 f o u r d i f f e r e n t approaches i s o f t e n the most e f f e c t i v e , k e e p i n g i n mind the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l e a r n i n g group and the s p o n s o r i n g agency. D. THEORETICAL MODELS AND METHODOLOGIES J . M . Bennett (1986) i d e n t i f i e s f i v e common models f o r o r i e n t a t i o n . The f i r s t i s the I n t e l l e c t u a l Mode l , s t r e s s i n g c o g n i t i v e g o a l s , c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c content and t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . The second i s the A r e a T r a i n i n g Model e m p h a s i z i n g a f f e c t i v e g o a l s , c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c content ar.d the e x p e r i e n t i a l p r o c e s s e s . The t h i r d , S e l f - A w a r e n e s s Model uses c u l t u r a l l y g e n e r a l c o n t e n t , e x p e r i e n t i a l p r o c e s s e s and has a f f e c t i v e g o a l s . The f o u r t h i s the C u l t u r a l Awareness Model which emphasizes the i n d i v i d u a l s e l f . The f i f t h i s the M u l t i - D i m e n s i o n a l M o d e l , c o v e r i n g c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l g o a l s , w i t h b o t h c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c and c u l t u r e g e n e r a l c o n t e n t , u s i n g b o t h e x p e r i e n t i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a p p r o a c h e s . She a l s o a s se s se s t h e s e models i n terms o f t h e i r major advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s and then p l a c e s them i n t o a c o n c e p t u a l framework. Gundykunst , Hammer and Wiseman (1977) rev iew s i x approaches used i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . L i k e B e n n e t t , t h e y ment ion the I n t e l l e c t u a l , A r e a S i m u l a t i o n , S e l f -awareness and C u l t u r e Awareness a p p r o a c h e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e y l o o k at the B e h a v i o r a l approach and the I n t e r a c t i o n a p p r o a c h . The former focuses on t e a c h i n g the l e a r n e r s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s t h a t are used i n the hos t c u l t u r e , and 10 t h e l a t t e r s t r i v e s t o i n c r e a s e a w a r e n e s s among t h e l e a r n e r s o f t h e i r own c u l t u r a l v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n w o r k s h o p s . The a d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g an i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d a n d a s t u d y t o s u p p o r t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h i s p r e s e n t e d . The i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h u s e d c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s t a g e s : p e r s p e c t i v e t r a i n i n g , i n t e r a c t i o n t r a i n i n g a n d c o n t e x t s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g . The a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s h o u l d b e t h e p r i m a r y g o a l i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g a n d c a n b e s t be a c h i e v e d b y u s i n g t h i s t h r e e s t a g e a p p r o a c h . A l b e r t (1986) s u g g e s t s u s i n g t h e " I n t e r c u l t u r a l S e n s i t i z e r " t o d e v e l o p c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y . T h i s a p p r o a c h t e a c h e s t h e l e a r n e r f r o m one c u l t u r e t o s e e a n d i n t e r p r e t s i t u a t i o n s f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a member o f t h e o t h e r c u l t u r e . A l b e r t (1986) f i r s t i d e n t i f i e s f a c t o r s t h a t hamper t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s , f o r e x a m p l e , c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e h a v i o r , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o r i n f e r e n c e s o f b e h a v i o r , v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s , s o c i a l f a c t o r s a n d c o n t e x t , r o l e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , s e l e c t i v i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n , a n d e r r o n e o u s a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t o t h e r c u l t u r e s . He t h e n , d i s c u s s e s how t h e I n t e r c u l t u r a l S e n s i t i z e r a p p r o a c h c a n be u s e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e i s s u e s . A n o t h e r t e r m o f t e n u s e d f o r t h e I n t e r c u l t u r a l S e n s i t i z e r i s t h e C u l t u r e A s s i m i l a t o r . B r i s l i n ( 1 9 8 4 ) , i n h i s a r t i c l e - "A c u l t u r e g e n e r a l a s s i m i l a t o r " , r e v i e w s t h e d e s i g n , r a t i o n a l e a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r e a s s i m i l a t o r a n d a l s o p r o v i d e s e x a m p l e s o f t r a i n i n g c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h t h i s a p p r o a c h w o u l d be h e l p f u l . T h i s t h e n , p r o v i d e s u s e f u l g u i d e l i n e s f o r c h o o s i n g among m e t h o d s a n d a p p r o a c h e s f o r o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n s . T r i a n d i s (1986) i n h i s p a p e r " A p p r o a c h e s t o c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n a n d t h e r o l e o f c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t o r t r a i n i n g " , f i r s t e x a m i n e s q u e s t i o n s l i k e : who i s l i k e l y t o be more e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y , w h ere a n d when s h o u l d o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s be c o n d u c t e d , how s h o u l d o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s be d e s i g n e d a n d what s h o u l d be t h e o u t c o m e s . He p r o p o s e s t h a t i t w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t f o r p e o p l e w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s y s t e m s a n d c o n f l i c t i n g ways o f p e r c e i v i n g t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t t o c o m m u n i c a t e e f f e c t i v e l y a n d l i k e o t h e r s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d when t h e l e a r n e r s a r e most m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n , t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y a f t e r t h e y a r e i n t h e h o s t c u l t u r e a n d h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d a b i t o f c u l t u r e s h o c k . He m e n t i o n s a v a r i e t y o f t r a i n i n g a p p r o a c h e s , e a c h h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t o u t c o m e s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g c o n t e n t s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e b o t h c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s a s w e l l a s u n i v e r s a l c o n s t r u c t s . He g o e s on t o s a y t h a t l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h i n c r e a s e e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n f a v o u r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r a t h e r than i n t e r g r o u p b e h a v i o r , focus on b e h a v i o r t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n b o t h c u l t u r e s , and e nab l e the l e a r n e r s to p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r g o a l s can o n l y be r e a c h e d w i t h the h e l p o f the hos t c u l t u r e . T r i a n d i s then focuses on d e s c r i b i n g one type o f c r o s s -c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g : the c u l t u r e a s s i m i l a t o r . The purpose o f t h i s type o f t r a i n i n g i s t o h e l p the l e a r n e r make a t t r i b u t i o n s t h a t are s i m i l a r t o the a t t r i b u t i o n s made by members o f the h o s t c u l t u r e . T h i s approach i n t e r p r e t s one c u l t u r e f o r members o f a n o t h e r , h e l p i n g the l e a r n e r u n d e r s t a n d the h o s t c u l t u r e and t h e r e f o r e , l o w e r i n g the chances o f m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g . T r i a n d i s a l s o acknowledges some l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s approach namely the p o t e n t i a l danger o f o v e r s e n s i t i z i n g the l e a r n e r t o many p o t e n t i a l m i s t a k e s t h a t can be made and perhaps s h a r p e n i n g h i s / h e r s t e r e o t y p e s o f t h e h o s t c u l t u r e . The c u l t u r e a s s i m i l a t o r can p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and ' r a i s e the i s s u e ' , but the l e a r n e r s h o u l d a l s o have a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s . In a d d i t i o n , o t h e r methods need t o be employed t o h e l p d e a l , w i t h these a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s . E. STAGES IN CROSS-CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT Another way to v iew o r i e n t a t i o n programs would be t o focus on the c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g o f the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t o c c u r s as l e a r n e r s a c q u i r e a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e and i n t e r c u l t u r a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . C u l t u r e s d i f f e r f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n the way they c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n w o r l d v i e w s . I t i s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i s the major f a c t o r e f f e c t i n g a p e r s o n ' s s u c c e s s f u l a c q u i s i t i o n o f an i n t e r c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . M. Benne t t (1986) p r e s e n t s a model t h a t h e l p s d e s c r i b e how p e o p l e s u b j e c t i v e l y e x p e r i e n c e and a t t a c h meaning t o c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s author p o s i t s t h a t as a p e r s o n moves from an e t h n o c e n t r i c to an e t h n o r e l a t i v e s tage , from where t h e w o r l d - v i e w of h i s / h e r c u l t u r e i s c e n t r a l t o a l l r e a l i t y and where d i f f e r e n c e i s e x p e r i e n c e d as t h r e a t e n i n g , t o a g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n and acceptance o f d i f f e r e n c e s , i n t e r c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y and i n t e r c u l t u r a l communicat ion e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c r e a s e . The s tages he i d e n t i f i e s a r e : d e n i a l , d e f e n s e , m i n i m i z a t i o n , a c c e p t a n c e , a d a p t a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n . He not o n l y e x p l a i n s i n d e t a i l the p r o c e s s o f a c q u i r i n g a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e by g o i n g t h r o u g h these s t a g e s , but a l s o d i s c u s s e s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the l e a r n e r a t t h e v a r i o u s s tages o f h i s / h e r development o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y . Grove and T o r b i o r n (1986) i n t h e i r a r t i c l e "A new c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l adjustment and g o a l s o f t r a i n i n g " p r e s e n t t h r e e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s t o d e s c r i b e i n t e r c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . They are a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f b e h a v i o r , c l a r i t y o f the mental frame o f r e f e r e n c e and l e v e l o f mere adequacy . By e x p l a i n i n g what happens t o a p e r s o n i n t h e s e t h r e e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s , Grove and T o r b i o r n d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l adjus tment b o t h i n an 14 accustomed and unaccustomed s e t t i n g and o f f e r some p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r b r i n g i n g about the t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e changes i n the adjustment c y c l e t h r o u g h o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g . J u f f e r (1986) p r o v i d e s an overv iew o f the d i f f e r e n t approaches t o c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the adjustment p r o c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o c u s i n g on c u l t u r e shock . She t h e n r e l a t e s these c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g methods and o f f e r s an a p p r o a c h t o b e t t e r d e s i g n o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g . J u f f e r sugges t s t h a t e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g must be l e a r n e r - c e n t e r e d and r e s u l t s o r i e n t e d w i t h t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t b e i n g e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . T r a i n e r s need t o c a r e f u l l y a n a l y z e the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjus tment phenomenon and i t s components i n o r d e r t o d e s i g n more e f f e c t i v e and s u c c e s s f u l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s . I t i s h e r c o n c e r n t h a t t r a i n e r s o f t e n r e l y on t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s and methods t h a t they are c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h and on t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and i n t u i t i o n when d e s i g n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n programs w i t h o u t examining t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l assumpt ions o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment and c u l t u r e shock . J u f f e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t / a d a p t a t i o n proposes t h r e e g o a l s t h a t are i n t e r a c t i v e and h i e r a r c h i c a l i n n a t u r e . The f i r s t g o a l i s t o a m e l i o r a t e the l e a r n e r ' s c u l t u r e shock e x p e r i e n c e . The second i s t o i n c r e a s e the l e a r n e r ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment and the t h i r d i s t o i n c r e a s e the l e a r n e r ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the new c u l t u r e . In o r d e r f o r the t h i r d g o a l t o o c c u r , the f i r s t two g o a l s need to have t a k e n p l a c e . J u f f e r c a t e g o r i z e s c u l t u r e shock u s i n g f i v e c a u s a l schemas: c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h a new environment or s i t u a t i o n , i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l communicat ion , a t h r e a t t o the s o j o u r n e r s e m o t i o n a l or i n t r a - p s y c h i c w e l l - b e i n g , the need t o a d e q u a t e l y modify b e h a v i o u r t o r e g a i n p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t from the new environment and f i n a l l y the n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f the growth e x p e r i e n c e . The author t h e n a p p l i e s t h e s e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f c u l t u r e shock t o c l a s s i f y types o f o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g and t o d i s c u s s a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n t e c h n i q u e s f o r each one. F u r t h e r m o r e , she adds t h a t no one c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u l t u r e shock i s the c o r r e c t framework t o use f o r i m p r o v i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , but t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n programs w i l l l i k e l y i n t e g r a t e a v a r i e t y o f approaches t h a t w i l l r e l a t e t o more than one c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u l t u r e s h o c k . However, c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s such a s : the b a c k g r o u n d o f the l e a r n e r , the amount o f t ime f o r the o r i e n t a t i o n , the l o c a t i o n o f the o r i e n t a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d when s e l e c t i n g the most a p p r o p r i a t e framework f o r an o r i e n t a t i o n program. J u f f e r ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l adjustment p r o v i d e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r the d e s i g n i n g o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs and f o r the s e l e c t i n g o f the most a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g methods f o r o r i e n t a t i o n s . F. TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES In a d d i t i o n t o f o c u s i n g on the c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the l e a r n e r and the hos t s i t u a t i o n , M c C a f f e r y (1984) i n h i s paper e n t i t l e d "Independent e f f e c t i v e n e s s : A r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t r a i n i n g " , p o s i t s t h a t one o f the most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s to c o n s i d e r i n d e s i g n i n g and implement ing o r i e n t a t i o n programs i s the l e a r n e r ' s s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g . He sugges t s t h a t t r a i n i n g methodo log i e s s h o u l d f o l l o w the l e a r n i n g c y c l e framework. T h i s framework suggests t h a t c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o c o n c e p t s , which i n t u r n are used as gu ides f o r a c t i o n . The l e a r n i n g c y c l e , he s a y s , r e p r e s e n t s the d i f f e r e n t phases and types o f l e a r n i n g t h a t a l l l e a r n e r s pass t h r o u g h i n d e v e l o p i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l s k i l l s and i n u s i n g them i n an independent manner. These s h o u l d be the major g o a l s o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs . A l a c k o f such g o a l s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n u n i n t e n d e d outcomes l i k e l e a r n e r dependency, s t e r e o t y p i n g , u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and n e g a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s , t h a t can i n f a c t , be c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e . G a i l Hughes-Wiener (1986) a l s o uses an a d a p t a t i o n o f the l e a r n i n g c y c l e t h e o r y as the b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a l e a r n i n g - h o w - t o - l e a r n c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s . T h i s 17 r e s e a r c h e r p r e s e n t s some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r d e s i g n i n g c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n programs i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h . She d i s c u s s e s the s e t t i n g o f g o a l s , the d e s i g n i n g o f c u r r i c u l a and the o r g a n i z i n g o f i n s t r u c t i o n u s i n g the l e a r n i n g c y c l e t h e o r y . She p o i n t s out t h a t s i n c e one can never t e a c h e v e r y t h i n g t h e r e i s t o know about a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e , a s s i s t i n g l e a r n e r s t o l e a r n - h o w - t o - l e a r n i n a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g them w i t h s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s the b e s t k i n d o f o r i e n t a t i o n a l e a r n e r can h a v e . Sawkins (1987), ano ther advocate o f t h i s t h e o r y , sugges ts t h a t : L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be h e l p e d t o l e a r n how t o l e a r n and how t o make the most o f the l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e t o them i n the environments i n which they f i n d t h e m s e l v e s , so t h a t they can c a r r y on l e a r n i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y a f t e r t h e i r c o u r s e i s f i n i s h e d , (p.60) She f i r s t p r o v i d e s f o u r g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r a t e a c h e r i n implement ing l e a r n e r t r a i n i n g : have a t a c t i c a l a t t i t u d e , make s t r a t e g i e s e x p l i c i t , be aware o f d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h f o r t r a n s f e r . She a l s o i d e n t i f i e s some a r e a s t h a t l e a r n e r s need h e l p w i t h t o become more independent . She f i n a l l y suggests f i v e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t can f o s t e r the s t r a t e g i e s needed t o become more independent - namely those p r o m o t i n g s e l f and language awareness , se l f -management , s p e c i f i c t a s k l e a r n i n g , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g l o b a l p r a c t i c e and d e a l i n g w i t h 18 communicat ion breakdown. By work ing on t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e s e f i v e a r e a s , Sawkins sugges ts t h a t " i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t l e a r n e r s may i n c o r p o r a t e some or a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the good l e a r n e r i n t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g s t y l e s " ( p . 6 4 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , the l e a r n e r s w i l l be w e l l p r e p a r e d to c a r r y on l e a r n i n g on t h e i r own, becoming independent c u l t u r e l e a r n e r s . G. CONCEPTS OF INDEPENDENCE, SELF-DIRECTION & CONTROL The concept s o f independence and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n have been w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d by v a r i o u s proponents i n the f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Knowles (1975) d e s c r i b e s s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g as "a p r o c e s s i n which i n d i v i d u a l s t a k e the i n i t i a t i v e w i t h o u t the h e l p o f o t h e r s i n d i a g n o s i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs, f o r m u l a t i n g g o a l s , i d e n t i f y i n g human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s , and e v a l u a t i n g l e a r n i n g outcomes" ( p . 1 8 ) . Tough (1977) a l s o r e f e r s to s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n e r s as those who t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and c o n t r o l over t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . B r o o k f i e l d (1983) d e s c r i b e s independence as the degree o f c o n t r o l l e a r n e r s e x e r t over the c o n t e n t and method o f l e a r n i n g . In r e c e n t y e a r s however, s c h o l a r s have q u e s t i o n e d these c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f s e l f - d i r e c t e d n e s s and independence . B r o o k f i e l d (1986), who had once c a l l e d s e l f - d i r e c t i o n i n l e a r n i n g "the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g " ( p . 2 5 ) , i s now s u s p i c i o u s o f the s i n g u l a r i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s concept t o a d u l t l e a r n i n g and t h e p r e s c r i p t i v e aim o f e n c o u r a g i n g l e a r n e r s ' independence. P r a t t (1988) q u e s t i o n s t h e a ssumption t h a t t h e " s e l f -d i r e c t e d n e s s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e i r c o n t r o l o v e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s " (p.160). G a r r i s o n (1988) b e l i e v e s t h a t "most l e a r n e r s are not c a p a b l e o f c h o o s i n g and r e a c h i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s w i t h o u t some d i r e c t i o n and s u p p o r t " (p.28). Chene (1983) s t a t e s t h a t "the v a l u e o f independence o r s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s an i l l u s i o n and a d u l t s a r e t r a p p e d i n o t h e r forms o f dependence i f t h e y a r e not aware o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m e d i a t i o n by o t h e r s and o f r e c o g n i t i o n i n l e a r n i n g " (p.46). So, i t would seem t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s o f s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and independence a l o n e a r e i n a d e q u a t e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a model w h i c h moves beyond s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and independence has been p r o p o s e d by G a r r i s o n & Baynton (1987) . T h i s model f o c u s e s on t h e concept o f c o n t r o l and p r o v i d e s a more complete c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n (See T a b l e 1: Model o f C o n t r o l by G a r r i s o n & B a y t o n (1 9 8 7 ) ) . 20 TABLE 1: MODEL OF CONTROL BY GARRISON & BAYNTON (1987) Communication C o n t r o l , as sugges ted by G a r r i s o n & Baynton (1987), i s "concerned w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e , d i r e c t and d e t e r m i n e d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s " ( p . 5 ) . The model addresses t h r e e e s s e n t i a l d i m e n s i o n s o f c o n t r o l - independence, p r o f i c i e n c y and s u p p o r t . Independence r e f e r s to the freedom t o choose l e a r n i n g g o a l s , a c t i v i t i e s and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . P r o f i c i e n c y r e p r e s e n t s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n , the l e a r n i n g s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s , the m o t i v a t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e needed t o l e a r n i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Support , t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l d i m e n s i o n , addresses the r e s o u r c e s - b o t h 21 human and non-human, t h a t h e l p gu ide the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . These t h r e e d imens ions are i n t e r r e l a t e d and c o n t r o l o f the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s can be a c h i e v e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g a b a l a n c e among these t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s , t h r o u g h c o l l a b o r a t i o n and communicat ion among the s t u d e n t , t e a c h e r and c o n t e n t . H. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW T h i s c h a p t e r has p r o v i d e d a rev iew o f some o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and t o a d u l t l e a r n i n g . Recent l i t e r a t u r e has q u e s t i o n e d the c o n c e p t s o f independence and s e l f - d i r e c t e d n e s s as b e i n g the u l t i m a t e aim o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g (Chene, 1983; B r o o k f i e l d , 1986; G a r r i s o n & Baynton , 1987; P r a t t , 1988; G a r r i s o n , 1988) . T h i s has p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s as o f t e n the importance o f d e v e l o p i n g independent l e a r n e r s has been a r t i c u l a t e d as one o f the main g o a l s o f these o r i e n t a t i o n programs (Mestenhauser, 1983; Hughes -Wiener , 1986; M c C a f f e r y 1986, Sawkins , 1987) . Thus, i n o r d e r t o move beyond j u s t the concept s o f s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and independence , a model o f c o n t r o l has been proposed i n s t e a d , t o r e f l e c t the i n t e r a c t i o n o f some fundamental e lements i n the e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n ( G a r r i s o n & Baynton , 1987) . L i t t l e has been d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e on c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , t o a d d r e s s these b a s i c concepts i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g . Moreover , most o f the r e s e a r c h focuses on 22 u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t / a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s ( M . B e n n e t t , 1986; G r o v e & T o r b i o r n , 1986: J u f f e r , 1 9 8 6 ) , t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s ( M e s t e n h a u s e r , 1983, G u n d y k u n s t & Hammer, 1 9 8 3 ; M c C a f f e r y 1986, H u g h e s - W i e n e r , 1 9 8 6 ) , a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s a n d a p p r o a c h e s f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s ( J.M. B e n n e t t , 1 9 8 6 ; A l b e r t , 1 986; T r i a n d i s , 1 9 8 6 ; B r i s l i n , 1 9 84; G u n d y k u n s t , Hammer & Wiseman, 1 9 7 7 ) . H o w e v e r , much o f t h i s r e s e a r c h seems l a r g e l y t o e m p h a s i z e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r s a n d t h e p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e r s p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h e r e i s a n e e d t o f u r t h e r e x a m i n e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s f r o m t h e l e a r n e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e f o c u s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i v e s t u d y h a s b e e n t o e x p l o r e what c o n c e p t i o n s t h e l e a r n e r s ' h a v e o f t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . 23 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCESS A. INTRODUCTION The purpose o f t h i s s tudy i s t o g a i n a c l e a r e r and b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n . A q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h approach u s i n g i n t e r v i e w s , open-ended c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s was adopted . Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a phenomenon from the " n a t i v e ' s " p o i n t o f v i ew, the p a r t i c i p a n t s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n program i n t h i s c a s e . I t i s a c o n t i n u a l r e f l e x i v e p r o c e s s t h a t b e g i n s w i t h what has been c a l l e d ' foreshadowed problems or q u e s t i o n s ' (Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983) . The q u e s t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y , what i s c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , f i r s t s u r f a c e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s mind d u r i n g h e r i n i t i a l invo lvement i n the f i e l d as a c r o s s -c u l t u r a l t r a i n e r . From d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o t h e r c r o s s -c u l t u r a l t r a i n e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s i n the b u s i n e s s and e d u c a t i o n f i e l d s , t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s o f d e s i g n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g o r i e n t a t i o n programs, by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h c o l l e a g u e s , from r e a d i n g what r e s e a r c h e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s have to say about o r i e n t a t i o n , the focus f o r t h i s s tudy g r a d u a l l y emerged. 24 The r e s e a r c h e r began by f i r s t a c q u i r i n g access t o the o r i e n t a t i o n program and i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s / l e a r n e r s . Then, the l e a r n e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s of o r i e n t a t i o n . Each l e a r n e r was i n t e r v i e w e d p r i o r t o and f o l l o w i n g the o r i e n t a t i o n . Each i n t e r v i e w was approximately an hour i n l e n g t h . I n s t r u c t o r s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n program were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d t o g a i n a more complete p i c t u r e o f the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . Furthermore, at v a r i o u s stages o f the o r i e n t a t i o n s , the r e s e a r c h e r took on the r o l e of p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r i n the classroom. Attempts were a l s o made t o develop a rap p o r t and a t r u s t w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s through i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s o u t s i d e the classroom s i t u a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g were examined: documents g i v e n i n i t i a l l y t o a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s as p a r t o f t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n package, p r i n t e d handouts r e c e i v e d by the t r a i n e e s i n the course o f the o r i e n t a t i o n , suggested c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , l e a r n e r s ' p r o f i l e s , as w e l l as post program e v a l u a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , a l l the data c o l l e c t e d through these v a r i o u s sources was analyzed i n terms of the concepts and common themes t h a t emerged. B . SETTING The r e g i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n c e n t r e t h a t served as the s e t t i n g f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h study i s l o c a t e d on a f a i r l y l a r g e u n i v e r s i t y campus and i s a p a r t o f an E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e which o f f e r s year round E n g l i s h language programs. The o r i e n t a t i o n c e n t r e i t s e l f p r o v i d e s t h r e e 25 k i n d s o f s e r v i c e s : c u l t u r a l b r i e f i n g s t o those Canadians p l a n n i n g t o work i n China, a network and support system f o r the Chinese and s e l e c t e d A s i a n t r a i n e e s s t u d y i n g i n Canada and o r i e n t a t i o n courses f o r t r a i n e e s from China and other s e l e c t e d A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . T h i s r e s e a r c h study focuses on t h i s l a s t k i n d o f s e r v i c e . These o r i e n t a t i o n courses are of two t o s i x weeks i n l e n g t h and p r o v i d e language and c u l t u r a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the t r a i n e e s who come t o Canada f o r work/study and t e c h n i c a l exchange programs. Being a p a r t o f the u n i v e r s i t y community, p a r t i c i p a n t s of the o r i e n t a t i o n programs have access t o the l i b r a r i e s , language l a b o r a t o r i e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , and have many chances t o i n t e r a c t w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s from other c u l t u r e s i n both planned and unplanned e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l e vents. Furthermore, many u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e s and seminars are a c c e s s i b l e t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The l e a r n e r s are able t o v i s i t w i t h s p e c i a l i s t s . i n t h e i r f i e l d s . The o r i e n t a t i o n program c o n s i s t s o f a classroom component, c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and homestay. The classroom component focuses on three a r e a s : E n g l i s h f o r S p e c i a l Purposes, Fluency and L i s t e n i n g Comprehension, and C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n . C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r c l a s s and on weekends i n t r o d u c e the trainees, t o the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment of t h e i r surroundings. L i v i n g w i t h a Canadian f a m i l y d u r i n g t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n h e l p s t h e l e a r n e r s g a i n a r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C a n a d i a n l i f e . The o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m i s c o n d u c t e d b y a t e a m o f f i v e t o s i x i n s t r u c t o r s a n d c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n t s . The i n s t r u c t o r s i n a d d i t i o n t o t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r s p e c i a l t y a r e a s be i t L i n g u i s t i c s , A s i a n s t u d i e s , o r E d u c a t i o n , a l l h a v e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y h a v e t r a v e l l e d a n d i n many c a s e s , l i v e d a n d w o r k e d a b r o a d . I t i s i n t h e c o n t e x t d e s c r i b e d a b o v e t h a t t h e phenomenon o f o r i e n t a t i o n was s t u d i e d . C. ACCESS When t h i s r e s e a r c h e r f i r s t b e g a n e x p l o r i n g t h e c o m p o n e n t s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a s t u d y on o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s , s h e h a d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h a number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g f i e l d , i n c l u d i n g t h e c o o r d i n a t o r o f a n o r i e n t a t i o n c e n t r e . Thus, some months l a t e r , a f t e r t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y h a d b e e n f u r t h e r d e f i n e d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e q u e s t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o w o r k w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f an o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h i s c e n t r e . The c o o r d i n a t o r g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e s t u d y h a v i n g d i a l o g u e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r b e f o r e a n d h a v i n g h a d some i n p u t i n t o t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f h e r i n t r o s p e c t i o n a n d e x p l o r a t i o n . The c o o r d i n a t o r was a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d i n o r d e r to f u r t h e r h e l p him u n d e r s t a n d the n a t u r e o f the r e s e a r c h . However, as Hammersley and A t k i n s o n (1983) c a u t i o n , access i s " f a r more t h a n a mat ter o f g r a n t i n g or w i t h h o l d i n g o f p e r m i s s i o n f o r r e s e a r c h to be conduc ted" . A major f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the n a t u r e o f the d a t a c o l l e c t e d i s the e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g o f good f i e l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The e s t a b l i s h i n g o f r a p p o r t between the r e s e a r c h e r and the l e a r n e r s began on the v e r y f i r s t day the l e a r n e r s a r r i v e d . Not o n l y was the r e s e a r c h e r t h e r e t o g r e e t them, but she was o f f i c i a l l y i n t r o d u c e d as p a r t o f the team o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n e r s w o r k i n g w i t h C h i n e s e l e a r n e r s and was g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t the r e s e a r c h s t u d y . T h i s i n i t i a l c o n t a c t gave the r e s e a r c h e r an i d e n t i t y or a r o l e . To the C h i n e s e , i t acknowledged the f a c t t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r had "guanxi" o r " r e l a t i o n s h i p " w i t h the o r i e n t a t i o n c e n t r e and t h u s h e l p e d t o e s t a b l i s h "guanxi" w i t h the t r a i n e e s . These acknowledgements o f " r o l e " and " r e l a t i o n s h i p " are i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s g o v e r n i n g Chinese s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r (Bond, 1986) . Rapport between the r e s e a r c h e r and the i n s t r u c t o r s was, i n most c a s e s , e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e the o r i e n t a t i o n began. Many o f the i n s t r u c t o r s were c o l l e a g u e s o f the r e s e a r c h e r and those new to the o r i e n t a t i o n c e n t r e t ended t o view the r e s e a r c h e r as a r e s o u r c e p e r s o n . I n f o r m a l c h a t s over 28 c o f f e e , l u n c h and d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m b r e a k s h e l p e d m a i n t a i n a t r u s t i n g r a p p o r t w i t h b o t h the i n s t r u c t o r s and the l e a r n e r s . Hammersley and A t k i n s o n (1983) a l s o ment ion the importance o f " i m p r e s s i o n management". Thus, a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n by the r e s e a r c h e r t o her speech, appearance and demeanor t o ensure t h a t t h e y f a c i l i t a t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p o s i t i v e work ing i d e n t i t y . F i n a l l y , the l e a r n e r s were b e t t e r a b l e to i d e n t i f y w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r because o f the f a c t t h a t she had worked w i t h o t h e r Chinese l e a r n e r s b e f o r e , had been to C h i n a and i s o f the same e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d . P h r a s e s u t t e r e d by the l e a r n e r s l i k e : "you u n d e r s t a n d how the C h i n e s e f e e l a b o u t . . . " or "as you know, we Chinese " p o r t r a y e d t h i s . Thus , more open acces s was g a i n e d . D. PARTICIPANTS The e l e v e n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h ranged i n age between t w e n t y - f o u r and f o r t y - t h r e e , and were from the P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . They were p a r t o f a human r e s o u r c e development t r a i n i n g program, and were s e l e c t e d by t h e i r c o u n t r y t o come to Canada f o r w o r k / s t u d y and t e c h n i c a l exchange programs . They came from a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s and were i n d i v i d u a l l y s c h e d u l e d t o t r a i n w i t h v a r i o u s companies , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a l l a c r o s s Canada f o r a p e r i o d o f e i g h t t o t en months. P r i o r t o t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Canada, a l l the t r a i n e e s took a language p r o f i c i e n c y t e s t . E i g h t o f t h i s group o f l e a r n e r s t h e n a t t e n d e d a s i x -month course at the 29 C a n a d a / C h i n a Language C e n t r e i n B e i j i n g t o upgrade t h e i r language s k i l l s . E. DATA COLLECTION THROUGH INTERVIEWS The purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f o r i e n t a t i o n . Thus , the q u e s t i o n s i n the i n t e r v i e w s a d d r e s s e d i s s u e s t h a t are c e n t r a l t o o r i e n t a t i o n programming: purpose o f the o r i e n t a t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n d e s i g n , c o n t e n t , t r a i n i n g approaches , t r a i n e r competenc ie s , p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and outcomes. The i n t e r v i e w s began w i t h a g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n about the meaning o f the t erm c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and ended w i t h a q u e s t i o n on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs . (See appendix B f o r a l i s t o f the q u e s t i o n s u s e d ) . Each p a r t i c i p a n t was i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , w i t h each i n t e r v i e w l a s t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y an h o u r . A s h o r t t ime was spent v i s i t i n g and c h a t t i n g w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s b e f o r e the i n t e r v i e w s f o r m a l l y began. T h i s h e l p e d t o se t b o t h the r e s e a r c h e r and the i n t e r v i e w e e / p a r t i c i p a n t a t e a s e . A l s o , the purpose and the n a t u r e o f the r e s e a r c h was once a g a i n e x p l a i n e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n t e r v i e w e e anonymity was e n s u r e d . P e r m i s s i o n t o tape the i n t e r v i e w s was g r a n t e d by a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s . 30 The p a r t i c i p a n t s appeared t o have v e r y l i t t l e t r o u b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g the q u e s t i o n s and asked f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n i f they were u n s u r e . The r e s e a r c h e r a t tempted to keep the q u e s t i o n s open-ended, t o r e p h r a s e q u e s t i o n s as needed, t o p a r a p h r a s e answers and t o ask f o r examples i n o r d e r to c l a r i f y any ambigu i ty i n the exchange . In the f i r s t s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s , some l e a r n e r s p r e f a c e d t h e i r answers by s a y i n g t h a t they were unsure o f what t o say because they had had no e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o r i e n t a t i o n b e f o r e . However, they went on t o share t h e i r t h o u g h t s on the i s s u e s r a i s e d by the q u e s t i o n s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d a g a i n a f t e r the o r i e n t a t i o n program and i n a d d i t i o n t o s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s asked i n the f i r s t s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s , were a l s o asked t o comment on c e r t a i n i n c i d e n c e s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n c l a s s . These i n c i d e n c e s were noted by the r e s e a r c h e r d u r i n g her c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s . The same i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s and p r o c e s s were used w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n program. The i n s t r u c t o r s were i n t e r v i e w e d t o g a i n a more complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h e i r comments o f t e n p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r suppor t to c o n f i r m what was a r t i c u l a t e d by the l e a r n e r s or what was o b s e r v e d i n the c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s . The i n t e r v i e w e e s , on the whole seemed at ease d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . In f a c t , i n many i n s t a n c e s , the r e s e a r c h e r 31 and the i n t e r v i e w e e c h a t t e d on a f t e r the f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w was o v e r . F. DATA COLLECTION THROUGH PARTICIPANT-OBSERVATION As shown on the t ime c h a r t i n appendix C, the r e s e a r c h e r took on the r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r w h i l e the o r i e n t a t i o n program was i n p r o g r e s s . B e i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s and o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t was o c c u r r i n g , a l l o w e d the r e s e a r c h e r t o examine how v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c o n c e p t i o n s as a r t i c u l a t e d i n the f i r s t s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s were r e f l e c t e d i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s i n the c l a s s r o o m . S i n c e a t t i t u d e s and a c t i v i t i e s o f t e n v a r y over t ime and w i t h d i f f e r e n t contex t s , - the o b s e r v a t i o n s were spaced so t h a t t h e y o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the e a r l i e r weeks o f the o r i e n t a t i o n program and then a g a i n at the end . F u r t h e r m o r e , two o b s e r v a t i o n s were c o n d u c t e d , i n each o f the i n s t r u c t o r ' s c l a s s e s , one e a r l y on i n the program and then another towards the end . The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v iews on the i n t e r a c t i o n o b s e r v e d i n these c l a s s e s were e l i c i t e d i n the second s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s . The o b s e r v a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a f u r t h e r b a c k g r o u n d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c o n c e p t i o n s . 32 G. DOCUMENTS In a d d i t i o n t o the d a t a c o l l e c t e d from i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n s , documents r e l a t e d t o the program l i k e the c o u r s e b r o c h u r e and sugges ted c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s were l o o k e d a t . L e a r n e r s ' p r o f i l e s were read to get a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r background and post program e v a l u a t i o n s were examined t o g a i n a more complete p i c t u r e o f the o r i e n t a t i o n . H. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h f o c u s e s on o b t a i n i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the phenomenon under s t u d y . R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f the r e s e a r c h need t o be c o n s i d e r e d . R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o the ex t en t to which s t u d i e s can be r e p l i c a t e d . G i v e n the same c o n d i t i o n s , though i n r e a l i t y a l l s p e c i f i c s are never t o t a l l y r e p l i c a b l e , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , da ta a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t to enhance i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , the importance o f thorough methodology t o ensure e x t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y i s p o i n t e d out by Goetz & Lecompte (1984:217): The r e s e a r c h e r must c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y and f u l l y d i s c u s s d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s e s and p r o v i d e r e t r o s p e c t i v e accounts o f how d a t a were examined and s y n t h e s i z e d . Because r e l i a b i l i t y depends on the p o t e n t i a l f o r subsequent r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e c o n s t r u c t o r i g i n a l a n a l y s i s s t r a t e g i e s , o n l y t h o s e e t h n o g r a p h i c account s t h a t s p e c i f y these i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l a r e r e p l i c a b l e . A l t h o u g h r e l i a b i l i t y i s a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r v a l i d i t y , i t does not a s s u r e the v a l i d i t y o f the r e s e a r c h . V a l i d i t y i n r e s e a r c h d e a l s w i t h b e i n g a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d the d a t a and draw a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c l u s i o n s from i t . R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y can be e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h the c a r e f u l b a l a n c i n g o f e f f e c t s o p e r a t i n g i n a r e s e a r c h c o n t e x t . M u l t i p l e d a t a s o u r c e s and m u l t i p l e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a l l o w e d f o r c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y . I n t e r v i e w i n g a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e d a good v a r i e t y o f b a c k g r o u n d s . A l l the i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d i n terms o f the concept s and common themes t h a t emerged. In a d d i t i o n t o the i n t e r v i e w s o f these v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s , d a t a was a l s o o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r s and from program documents such as s tudent p r o f i l e s , c o u r s e b r o c h u r e , sugges ted c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and p o s t s tudent e v a l u a t i o n s . Thus , t h r o u g h the c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s and the comparison o f i n f o r m a t i o n from these m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s , r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s tudy was a d d r e s s e d . I. SUMMARY T h i s s tudy o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n u t i l i z e s m u l t i p l e d a t a sources and m u l t i p l e data c o l l e c t i o n . F i r s t , the r e s e a r c h e r s e n s i t i z e d h e r s e l f t o the r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m by h a v i n g d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d and by r e a d i n g s t u d i e s done i n the a r e a o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . W i t h a g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h f o c u s , acces s t o the s e t t i n g was r e q u e s t e d and p e r m i s s i o n a c q u i r e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s ' were i n t e r v i e w e d b e f o r e and a f t e r the o r i e n t a t i o n s . D u r i n g the o r i e n t a t i o n s , o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the c l a s s e s were conduc ted and i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s were m a i n t a i n e d . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r s were a l s o c o n d u c t e d . R e l e v a n t documents were examined and f i n a l l y a l l the d a t a c o l l e c t e d was a n a l y z e d . I t s h o u l d be no ted t h a t a l l t h r o u g h the v a r i o u s s t e p s , the r e s e a r c h e r r e f l e c t e d on the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d and events observed and on the i n f o r m a t i o n between the two. 35 CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF THE DATA A. INTRODUCTION T h i s r e s e a r c h s tudy i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Data was c o l l e c t e d thr ough i n t e r v i e w s conduc ted b e f o r e and a f t e r the o r i e n t a t i o n program and t h r o u g h c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s . Open-ended q u e s t i o n s p r o b e d the l e a r n e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on the purpose o f o r i e n t a t i o n , the methodology o r approaches s u i t a b l e f o r o r i e n t a t i o n , the content and the outcome o f o r i e n t a t i o n , i s s u e s and v a r i a b l e s t h a t e f f e c t o r i e n t a t i o n , the r o l e o f the i n s t r u c t o r and the s k i l l s needed t o conduct an o r i e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the l e a r n e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r and s i t u a t i o n s t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the o r i e n t a t i o n were examined. Long b e f o r e the da ta was c o l l e c t e d however, the s e n s i t i z i n g phase o f a n a l y s i s began . D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h c o l l e a g u e s and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the e a r l y s tages o f t h i s s tudy i n d i c a t e d a v a r i e t y o f c o n c e p t u a l assumptions r e g a r d i n g o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g . A r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e a l s o sugges ted v a r i o u s ways o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g c r o s s -c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g ( B r i s l i n e t a l . 1983; B e n n e t t , 1986; Gundykunst e t a l , 1983) . Through the p r o c e s s o f r e f l e c t i n g on what was d i s c u s s e d and r e a d , q u e s t i o n s s u r f a c e d i n the 36 r e s e a r c h e r ' s m i n d . What c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n do the p a r t i c i p a n t s have? What are t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s on what the purpose and outcome o f o r i e n t a t i o n s h o u l d be , on what i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d , on how i t s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d , on who s h o u l d conduct the o r i e n t a t i o n and on what i s s u e s are i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs? These q u e s t i o n s g e n e r a t e d a l i s t t h a t s e r v e d to g u i d e the i n t e r v i e w s . Two i n t e r v i e w s w i t h each l e a r n e r , once be fore , the o r i e n t a t i o n program began and then a g a i n towards the end o f the o r i e n t a t i o n , were c o n d u c t e d . The f i r s t s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s were f u l l y t r a n s c r i b e d . These t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were c a r e f u l l y r e a d and r e - r e a d . The purpose was to g a i n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the d a t a and t o use i t t o t h i n k w i t h , t o l o o k f o r p a t t e r n s , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , themes and concepts (Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983) . Throughout the p r o c e s s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s , r e f l e x i v i t y p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e . W h i l e s i f t i n g t h r o u g h the i n t e r v i e w d a t a , the r e s e a r c h e r a s k e d : A r e t h e r e any p a t t e r n s t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d i n the l e a r n e r s ' re sponses? What themes seem t o s t a n d out? Can they be c a t e g o r i z e d i n any way? The themes and concept s t h a t g r a d u a l l y emerged were coded i n t o c a t e g o r i e s r e l e v a n t t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . These themes p r o v i d e d the focus f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a from c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s and f o r the a n a l y s i s o f the da ta from the second s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s . 37 A n a l y s i s o f t h e s e c o n d s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w d a t a b e g a n w i t h t h e l i s t e n i n g o f t h e a u d i o t a p e s s e v e r a l t i m e s . W o r d s , p h r a s e s o r s e n t e n c e s t h a t r e l a t e d t o t h e m e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n w e r e n o t e d d o w n . C a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e w o r d s was m a i n t a i n e d . I n i t i a l l y , t h e t h e m e s t h a t e m e r g e d s e e m e d t o j u s t d e s c r i b e what t h e d a t a s e g m e n t s w e r e a b o u t . T h e y d e a l t w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e d a t a t e x t a n d s e e m e d common s e n s e . F o r e x a m p l e , q u o t e s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t o f t h e l e a r n e r s ' l i v i n g a n d t r a i n i n g ( w o r k / s t u d y ) e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t o t h e i r s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t i n C a n a d a , seemed t o f o c u s on t h e m e s t h a t r e f e r r e d more t o what t h e d a t a s e g m e n t s w e r e a b o u t (See a p p e n d i x D ) . H o w e v e r , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f r e f l e c t i o n , on s i f t i n g t h r o u g h t h e d a t a a few more t i m e s a n d on c o m p a r i n g d a t a f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s , u n d e r l y i n g t h e m e s b e g a n t o e m e r g e . T h e s e u n d e r l y i n g t h e m e s a p p e a r e d more d o m i n a n t a n d r e f l e c t e d n o t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s , b u t some f u n d a m e n t a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . D a t a . s e g m e n t s f r o m w h i c h t h e s e u n d e r l y i n g t h e m e s e m e r g e d were t h e n , s o r t e d i n t o p o s s i b l e g r o u p i n g s . T h e c o r e m e a n i n g was e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e s e g r o u p i n g s o f d a t a s e g m e n t s a n d u s e d t o f o r m c o n c e p t i o n s . T h u s , a l t h o u g h c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r , t h e c o n c e p t i o n s w e r e w e l l g r o u n d e d i n a n d a b s t r a c t e d f r o m t h e l a n g u a g e i n t h e d a t a (See T a b l e 2 ) . 38 T a b l e 2: Emerging themes and c o n c e p t i o n s INITIAL THEMES UNDERLYING THEME UNDERLYING THEME CONCEPTION 1 CONCEPTION 2 CONCEPTION 1 CONCEPTION 2 Two u n d e r l y i n g themes emerged from the a n a l y s i s o f the data i n t h i s r e s e a r c h study: p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs and c o n t r o l o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs. Conceptions w i t h i n t h e s e themes w i l l be p r e s e n t e d below. B. LEARNERS' CONCEPTIONS OF PARTICIPATION IN ORIENTATION PROGRAMS The theme of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs emerged i n the data c o l l e c t e d from the i n t e r v i e w s and through classroom o b s e r v a t i o n s . The l e a r n e r s r e f e r r e d t o t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n terms of how l e a r n i n g s h o u l d be f a c i l i t a t e d i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . Two conceptions r e l a t e d t o t h i s theme: Conception 1 Conception 2 O r i e n t a t i o n Programs sh o u l d mainly present i n f o r m a t i o n O r i e n t a t i o n Programs sh o u l d p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d e r e l a t e d e xperiences 39 i . C o nception 1: O r i e n t a t i o n Programs s h o u l d m a i n l y p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n Some l e a r n e r s saw themselves as " r e c e i v e r s " , as p a s s i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n program. They p e r c e i v e d the o r i e n t a t i o n program as m a i n l y p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r s t a y i n Canada . As some p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d : J u s t p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and t e l l us t o pay a t t e n t i o n to someth ing . ( T l ) * G i v e us as much u s e f u l knowledge as p o s s i b l e f o r our s tay i n Canada . I j u s t want t o get more and more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t ' s u s e f u l f o r me, t h a t ' s e n o u g h .(R2) J u s t t e l l us a g e n e r a l i d e a about t h e c u l t u r e i n Canada. (C2) These l e a r n e r s p e r c e i v e d the i n s t r u c t o r as someone who i s v e r y knowledgeable and whose r o l e i s t o i m p a r t i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n s t r u c t o r s s h o u l d : have a wide range o f knowledge. (Tl ) g i v e s t u d e n t s knowledge. (Rl) be a b l e to cover e v e r y t h i n g , g i v e comprehens ive l e c t u r e s . They s h o u l d be a b l e to answer a l l the q u e s t i o n s from the t r a i n e e s . (CI) Throughout t h i s document, * i n d i c a t e s d i r e c t q u o t e s . The l e t t e r r e f e r s t o the f i r s t l e t t e r o f the s p e a k e r ' s name. A l l names used were pseudonyms. The number r e f e r s t o the s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s . 40 F u r t h e r m o r e , the i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n l e c t u r e s and t a l k s g i v e n not o n l y by the i n s t r u c t o r s , but a l s o by o t h e r guest s p e a k e r s , or i n v i d e o s and p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s . As some l e a r n e r s n o t e d : Ask s p e c i a l i s t s o f each a r e a to g i v e us an o u t l i n e o f h i s t o r y , a r t , language e t c . (CI) Ask some common p e o p l e t o g i v e us some l e s s o n . A l s o some VIPs t o t e l l how they f e e l about t h e i r own l i v e s . (Tl) A l s o , the words "ask", "give us" seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t importance was p l a c e d on knowledge o u t s i d e themse lves and t h a t knowledge was not g a i n e d from d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e . In o r d e r to be a b l e t o acces s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i t was t h e r e f o r e , impor tant t o these l e a r n e r s to work on i m p r o v i n g t h e i r E n g l i s h i n the o r i e n t a t i o n program. As e x p l a i n e d by some p a r t i c i p a n t s : The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s language , because language i s the t o o l t o communicate w i t h C a n a d i a n p e o p l e . We use i t t o l e a r n knowledge. So, i f we can master i t , you can overcome many d i f f i c u l t i e s . (T2) I t h i n k a n o t h e r v e r y i m p o r t a n t purpose o f the o r i e n t a t i o n c o u r s e i s t o improve our E n g l i s h . I t ' s k i n d o f an i n t e n s i v e course o f E n g l i s h . (CI) 41 i i . C o nception 2: O r i e n t a t i o n programs should p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d e r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s Data from the i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h a t most o f the l e a r n e r s v iewed o r i e n t a t i o n programs as p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s . As s t a t e d by some: Combine what we l e a r n i n c l a s s w i t h p r a c t i s e . (S2) Connect the c l a s s r o o m , g i v e us a rough i d e a and then some s p e c i a l e x p e r i e n c e to h e l p u s . c o n n e c t p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r y . (Rl) These l e a r n e r s c l e a r l y f e l t t h a t some b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n the form o f l e c t u r e s and t a l k s g i v e n by the i n s t r u c t o r and guest s p e a k e r s , as w e l l as t h r o u g h v i d e o s and p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s was n e c e s s a r y because , as one p a r t i c i p a n t n o t e d : "Many people have never been a b r o a d . They know n o t h i n g . " (Kl) In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the l e a r n e r s t o take p a r t i n a c t i v i t i e s , t o o b t a i n p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e was s t r o n g l y emphas ized i n the d a t a . As some l e a r n e r s e x p l a i n e d : I t h i n k the most u s e f u l way t o remember i s t o do, p r a c t i s e . (II) I want t o e x p e r i e n c e . To me, t o e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s s o c i e t y i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . (Yl) L e t us do i t , demonstrate and l e t us e x p e r i e n c e i t o u r s e l v e s . (E2) 42 A l r e a d y our t e a c h e r s ( i n China) have t a u g h t us many t h i n g s about Canada, but we have never seen i t or e x p e r i e n c e d i t . I t h i n k i t i s d i f f e r e n t t o hear from somebody and see by our own eyes and do by o u r s e l v e s . So I t h i n k i t ' s b e t t e r f o r us t o have some chance t o e x p e r i e n c e i t . (LI) Phrases l i k e " l e t us e x p e r i e n c e i t o u r s e l v e s " , "see by our own eyes", "do by o u r s e l v e s " , i n d i c a t e t h a t the l e a r n e r s d i d not j u s t want t o be p r e s e n t e d e x p e r i e n c e s , but wanted to be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The importance o f b e i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the o r i e n t a t i o n program c l e a r l y emerged. C. DISCUSSION OF PARTICIPATION THEME The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n has d e s c r i b e d two c o n c e p t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs h e l d by the l e a r n e r s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t c o n c e p t i o n s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ways o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a phenomenon, and do not r e p r e s e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the i n d i v i d u a l s . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l b e g i n by making some g e n e r a l comments on approaches used i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g and t h e n attempt t o address the two c o n c e p t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y . The l i t e r a t u r e on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g approaches c l a s s i f y t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n v a r i o u s ways and under a v a r i e t y o f l a b e l s ( B r i s l i n & Pedersen , 1976; Warren & A d l e r , 1977; Gundykunst , Hammer & Wiseman, 1977; L a n d i s & B r i s l i n , 43 1983; Gundykunst & Hammer, 1983). The two most common approaches : the p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and the p r o v i s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e , i d e n t i f i e d i n these i n t e r v i e w s , can be l i n k e d t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l o r c o g n i t i v e - d i d a c t i c approach and to the e x p e r i e n t i a l a p p r o a c h ment ioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The i n t e l l e c t u a l / c o g n i t i v e - d i d a c t i c approach assumes t h a t a c o g n i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f another c u l t u r e i s i m p o r t a n t and focuses on the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n about a n o t h e r c u l t u r e i n a l e c t u r e o r r e a d i n g type a p p r o a c h . The l e a r n e r i n t h i s approach p l a y s a p a s s i v e r o l e . The e x p e r i e n t i a l approach emphasizes the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s / h e r own l e a r n i n g and assumes t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the hos t c u l t u r e enhances e f f e c t i v e c r o s s -c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . Here; a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the f o c u s . Data from the i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a few l e a r n e r s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a c o g n i t i v e - d i d a c t i c approach t o o r i e n t a t i o n . C o n c e p t i o n 1: O r i e n t a t i o n Programs s h o u l d m a i n l y p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n , was h e l d by l e a r n e r s who expec ted t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o be a language t e a c h e r and an i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e . The p u r p o s e s and g o a l s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n f o r t h e s e l e a r n e r s were t o improve t h e i r E n g l i s h , m a i n l y t h r o u g h l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g , and t o deve lop a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f Canadian s o c i e t y . 44 W h i l e t h i s c o n c e p t i o n was h e l d by a few l e a r n e r s , M c C a f f e r y (1986) p o s i t s t h a t t o improve c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o approach i t as an e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e and not mere ly as a chance t o d i s p e n s e i n f o r m a t i o n about a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e . He sugges t s t h a t the g o a l o f o r i e n t a t i o n s h o u l d be "to move p e o p l e towards d e v e l o p i n g / e n h a n c i n g the s k i l l s they need to become i n d e p e n d e n t l y e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s o j o u r n e r s . " ( p . 1 6 6 ) . He f u r t h e r suggests t h a t an e x p e r i e n t i a l t r a i n i n g methodology which i s congruent w i t h t h i s aim needs t o be f o c u s s e d on b u i l d i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s k i l l s . The methodology s h o u l d ensure t h a t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n and c o n t r i b u t e to the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , f o r l e a r n i n g t o be most e f f e c t i v e , the g o a l s s h o u l d have r e l e v a n c e and meaning f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s . -Thus a v a r i e t y o f approaches need t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m t o accommodate v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . F i n a l l y , b o t h the i n s t r u c t o r and the l e a r n e r not o n l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , but are a l s o j o i n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the program outcomes. Data from the i n t e r v i e w s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t most o f the l e a r n e r s suppor t M c C a f f e r y ' s p r o p o s e d aim and methodology f o r o r i e n t a t i o n s . They too f e l t t h a t l e a r n e r s s h o u l d a c t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . The l e a r n e r s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d an i n t e g r a t e d approach t o c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the c o g n i t i v e - d i d a c t i c 45 and e x p e r i e n t i a l approaches . C o n c e p t i o n 2: O r i e n t a t i o n Programs s h o u l d p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d e r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s , was the more p o p u l a r o f the two c o n c e p t i o n s h e l d by the l e a r n e r s . There was a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s s h o u l d r e q u i r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the l e a r n e r s . B o t h the r e c e i v i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . We get some ideas from the t e a c h e r s and from the e x p e r i e n c e o f the f i e l d t r i p s . . . t h r o u g h d o i n g and t h r o u g h the i n t r o d u c t i o n by the t e a c h e r s , two k i n d s o f ways. (L2) F i r s t t h i n g , . . . g i v e us some i n f o r m a t i o n . Next go out o f the u n i v e r s i t y t o do. some p r a c t i c a l work, to e x p e r i e n c e someth ing . (Yl) Thus , the i n s t r u c t o r i n t h i s c o n c e p t i o n was seen more as a g u i d e , h e l p e r and f r i e n d - someone who a s s i s t s r a t h e r t h a n i n s t r u c t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the purpose or g o a l o f o r i e n t a t i o n as p e r c e i v e d by these l e a r n e r s was t o h e l p them become f a m i l i a r w i t h Canadian l i f e , t o e n a b l e them t o work, s t u d y and l i v e h e r e . As one l e a r n e r summarized: E x p e r i e n c e Canada from the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n , the a c t i v i t i e s i n the program, from v i s i t s t o p l a c e s and from our h o m e s t a y . . . but the b e s t way to l e a r n something i s t o put i t t o p r a c t i s e . (F2) 46 D. CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS D a t a f r o m t h e c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s showed t h a t a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o i n c o r p o r a t e b o t h t h e c o g n i t i v e -d i d a c t i c a p p r o a c h a n d t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l a p p r o a c h i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l e a r n e r s w e r e g i v e n an o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e l i b r a r y a n d were t h e n a s s i g n e d some homework t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e m t o p r a c t i s e u s i n g t h e l i b r a r y a n d t h u s a p p l y what t h e y h a d b e e n shown. The l e a r n e r s ' b e h a v i o r a n d r e s p o n s e s h o w e v e r , r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s u c c e s s o f t h i s i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h . Many o f t h e m d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e l i b r a r y a s s i g n m e n t a n d t h e a s s i g n m e n t s t h a t w e r e done, w e r e n o t c o m p l e t e d w e l l . Why was t h i s s o ? D i d t h e y n o t s e e t h e a s s i g n m e n t a s p r o v i d i n g a c h a n c e t o p r a c t i c e , t o do? - t h e a p p r o a c h many o f t h e m c o n c e p t u a l i z e d f o r o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s ? A n o t h e r a t t e m p t t o i n t e g r a t e t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e was t h e t r i p t o L o n d o n D r u g s t o l e a r n a b o u t C a n a d i a n b r a n d s o f g o o d s a n d t o do some c o m p a r i s o n s h o p p i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s a c t i v i t y was e x p l a i n e d t o t h e l e a r n e r s , t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s a c t i v i t y r a t h e r u n e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . A g a i n , t h i s r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n t e g r a t e d c o g n i t i v e / e x p e r i e n t i a l a p p r o a c h u s e d a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e must h a v e b e e n more t o t h i s c o n c e p t o f " c o m b i n i n g t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e " a s p e r c e i v e d b y t h e l e a r n e r s . What 47 then were some of the other f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d the success o f t h i s i n t e g r a t e d approach? F u r t h e r examination o f the data from classroom o b s e r v a t i o n s and from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r s suggested some p o s s i b l e reasons why l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these a c t i v i t i e s may have been minimal. As one i n s t r u c t o r r e p o r t e d : The t r a i n e e s f e l t t h a t they hadn't been i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n making process at a l l i n terms of what was going t o go i n t o the program, even though we s a i d t h a t we wanted t h e i r feedback. (W2) Comments made by the l e a r n e r s d u r i n g a classroom o b s e r v a t i o n a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h i s p e r c e p t i o n . They wanted t o be c o n s u l t e d and t o be g i v e n a say i n the p l a n n i n g and choo s i n g of t h e i r l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s : I t would be a good i d e a t o get feedback from s t u d e n t s . The c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s s hould f i t the i n t e r e s t o f the group. Should d i s c u s s t h i n g s w i t h students, how they f e e l about these a c t i v i t i e s . Get o p i n i o n from students ahead of time. Furthermore, the data showed t h a t the l e a r n e r s had d e f i n i t e ideas about what a c t i v i t i e s they c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y and u s e f u l : The London Drugs t r i p was not u s e f u l because we had a l r e a d y been t h e r e . We w i l l not buy t h i n g s . 48 People have d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s . We are a d u l t s . . . i f they t h i n k i t ' s no use f o r t h e i r f u t u r e work, they won't do i t . For me, i t was important so I d i d i t . Some people w i l l go t o a p r a c t i c a l placement, so the l i b r a r y assignment i s not so important t o them....We have at at l e a s t f i v e years o f working experience, so we know what i s important and u s e f u l f o r us. (K2) But was t h i s n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e ? Were these l e a r n e r s the best judges o f what was necessary and u s e f u l f o r them t o l e a r n i n order t o a d j u s t more e a s i l y and q u i c k l y t o Canadian l i f e ? Having o n l y been i n Canada f o r a few s h o r t weeks, were they f u l l y aware of what t h e i r needs would be i n the f u t u r e ? Were t h e i r p e r c e i v e d needs a p p r o p r i a t e and accurate? The l i b r a r y assignment and the London Drugs shopping t r i p i n f a c t , showed t h a t the l e a r n e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of the u s e f u l n e s s of a c t i v i t i e s d i f f e r e d from t h a t of the i n s t r u c t o r s ' . As one i n s t r u c t o r noted: They l i k e d the f i e l d t r i p s except the ones t h a t they thought were redundant or unnecessary. L i k e the London Drugs t r i p . They hadn't r e a l l y seen London Drugs; they had j u s t gone t o the camera department and t h a t ' s a l l . t h e y saw. They s t i l l d i d n ' t know - I s a i d t o them t h a t the reason they are going i s t o f i n d out about Canadian brands, but they f e l t t h a t they had brought t h e i r own s t u f f from home so they d i d n ' t need t o know about Canadian brands. So, they f e l t t h a t they had a l l t h a t they needed. (J2) But how does one balance the l e a r n e r s ' d e s i r e s and p e r c e i v e d needs w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r ' s view o f what the l e a r n e r s need? The two examples i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c t i v e l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n depended on whether or not the 49 l e a r n e r s c o n s i d e r e d the a c t i v i t y u s e f u l and n e c e s s a r y . So, as the l e a r n e r s s u g g e s t e d , i t would have been b e s t t o have c o n s u l t e d w i t h them i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . However, a l t h o u g h the i n s t r u c t o r s acknowledged t h i s f a c t , they f u r t h e r p e r c e i v e d l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o be dependent on the c o s t o f the a c t i v i t i e s . As t h e i r comments r e v e a l e d : B a s i c a l l y , we r a n i n t o problems t h a t a n y t h i n g t h a t c o s t something f o r them, they d i d n ' t want t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n . So what I t h i n k might have been u s e f u l sometimes wasn ' t u s e f u l , and they d i d n ' t p a r t i c i p a t e , not because they weren ' t i n t e r e s t e d , but m a i n l y because o f the monetary o u t l a y . (Z2) One o f them s a i d t h a t he wanted t o f i n d out more about Canad ian everyday l i f e such as m o v i e s . We had a movie f i e l d t r i p and no one went because they d i d n ' t want t o spend the money. I t ' s not t h a t they d i d n ' t r e a l i z e the purpose , but i t ' s a b i g money p r o b l e m . They thought t h a t $3.50 was too much t o pay f o r a mov ie . (J2) Thus, these examples i l l u s t r a t e d some c o n f l i c t i n g p e r c e p t i o n s between t h e i n s t r u c t o r s and the l e a r n e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , they r e f l e c t e d the c o m p l e x i t y o f the theme o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and suggest the need to pay more a t t e n t i o n t o the t r a n s a c t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . 50 E. LEARNERS' CONCEPTIONS OF CONTROL IN ORIENTATION PROGRAMS C l o s e r examination of the data from the i n t e r v i e w s and the o b s e r v a t i o n s , expanded on t h i s theme o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A f u r t h e r theme, t h a t of c o n t r o l i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs emerged. As noted by a l e a r n e r i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of homework assignments: I f the t e a c h e r i s a good t e a c h e r and the students r e s p e c t t h i s t e a c h e r , then they w i l l do t h e i r homework. T h i s may be a way of showing the t e a c h e r t h a t he/she should r e s p e c t the st u d e n t s ' wishes. (R2) In t h e i r i n t e r v i e w responses, the l e a r n e r s r e f e r r e d t o t h i s c o n t r o l i n terms of who was t o c o n t r o l or make d e c i s i o n s about what was to be l e a r n e d and how t h a t l e a r n i n g was t o occur i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . Two d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h i s theme were e v i d e n t : Conception 1: O r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by the i n s t r u c t o r C onception 2: O r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by both the i n s t r u c t o r and the l e a r n e r s 51 i . C onception 1: O r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e i n s t r u c t o r From the i n t e r v i e w r e s p o n s e s , i t was c l e a r t h a t some l e a r n e r s p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l o f the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s as b e i n g i n the hands o f the i n s t r u c t o r . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the i n s t r u c t o r was t h a t o f a "teacher" and an " a d v i s o r " : t e l l us we s h o u l d do t h i s way or t h a t way, which t h i n g i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r u s . (LI) g i v e some a d v i c e on how t o s tudy , or how t o l i v e or how. t o s u r v i v e i n Canada . (Al) O t h e r s d e s c r i b e d the i n s t r u c t o r as someone who wou ld : have s t r o n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s t u d e n t s . (Rl) l e a d you t o know something you are not f a m i l i a r w i t h . (C2) The i n s t r u c t o r was v iewed as the p o s s e s s o r o f t h e c o n t e n t and c o n t r o l l e r o f the methods o f l e a r n i n g , t h a t i s , m a i n l y as a source t h r o u g h which the l e a r n e r s c o u l d "get more and more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t ' s u s e f u l . " (Rl) . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s e l e a r n e r s saw themse lves as p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . The l e a r n e r , as one l e a r n e r n o t e d , s h o u l d " w i l l i n g l y do what the t e a c h e r says , i n the c l a s s and i n the a c t i v i t i e s . " (Al) Thus , communicat ion was one-way i n t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . 52 i i . Conception 2: Orientation programs should be controlled by both the instructor and the learner L e a r n e r s who h e l d t h i s v i e w o f o r i e n t a t i o n e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g a n d t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d b e d e f i n e d b y b o t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r a n d t h e s t u d e n t . C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n w e r e e m p h a s i z e d . A s some l e a r n e r s s t a t e d : C o o p e r a t i o n o n b o t h s i d e s , t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t i s i m p o r t a n t . (R2) A s k t h e s t u d e n t s t o t e l l y o u what t h e y n e e d t o know a n d p l a n a c c o r d i n g l y . A s k t h e s t u d e n t s what t h e y t h i n k i s i m p o r t a n t t o l e a r n , d i s c u s s a n d s h a r e t h e i r o p i n i o n s . (Y2) T h e s e l e a r n e r s c l e a r l y saw t h e i n s t r u c t o r a s a g u i d e , a h e l p e r , a f r i e n d , a c o l l e a g u e - w o r d s i n d i c a t i n g m u t u a l s h a r i n g a n d a more e q u a l s h a r i n g o f p o w e r a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i n t h e i n s t r u c t o r / l e a r n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e comments o f an i n s t r u c t o r : T h i s g r o u p r e a l l y w a n t e d a l o t o f c o n s u l t a t i o n . T h e y w a n t e d a s a y i n what was b e i n g t a u g h t , when t h e y were b e i n g t a u g h t a n d what k i n d s o f f i e l d t r i p s t h e y w e r e g o i n g o n , e t c . (J2) M o r e o v e r , t h e l e a r n e r s f e l t t h a t r a t h e r t h a n t e l l i n g t h e m what t h e y s h o u l d d o , t h e i n s t r u c t o r s h o u l d : a c c o m p a n y t h e s t u d e n t s o u t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t o p r a c t i s e how t o l i v e i n C a n a d a . (F I ) 5 3 F u r t h e r m o r e , these l e a r n e r s s t r e s s e d t h a t they were: p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t s w i t h l o t s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n l i f e . (R2) they know what they s h o u l d d o . . . h a v e t h e i r own i d e a s . (K2) There was t h u s , a sense o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s t o make d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r l e a r n i n g t r a n s a c t i o n s . T h i s was f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by a l e a r n e r ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f the re sponse t o the l i b r a r y homework ass ignment : S tudents d i d n ' t take i t s e r i o u s l y , because they thought i t was o f no u s e . . . a d u l t s are not l i k e c h i l d r e n , they know what they s h o u l d d o . . . i f they want t o l e a r n i t , they w i l l v o l u n t e e r t o l e a r n i t even i f you d o n ' t push t h e m . . . we know what i s impor tant and u s e f u l f o r u s . I f we t h i n k i t i s no use , we won't l e a r n i t . (K2) F. DISCUSSION OF CONTROL THEME The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n has d e s c r i b e d two c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t l e a r n e r s h e l d o f c o n t r o l i n the o r i e n t a t i o n program. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l b e g i n by making some g e n e r a l comments on concept s i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g r e l a t e d t o t h i s theme o f c o n t r o l , and then examine the two c o n c e p t i o n s i n l i g h t o f t h a t d i s c u s s i o n . S c h o l a r s have sugges ted t h a t s i n c e one cannot t e a c h t h e l e a r n e r e v e r y t h i n g t h e r e i s t o know about the t a r g e t c u l t u r e , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d focus on h e l p i n g the l e a r n e r " l e a r n how to l e a r n " ( M c C a f f e r y , 1986; 54 Hughes-Weiner , 1984; C h r i s t o p h e r , 1984, Mes tenhauser , 1983) . Thus , a t tempts a r e b e i n g made to focus on the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t o c c u r s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . The u l t i m a t e g o a l from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s t o d e v e l o p l e a r n e r s who are independent and s e l f - d i r e c t i n g . The c o n c e p t s o f independence and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n have been w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d by v a r i o u s proponents i n the f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Some c o n c e p t u a l i z e d these two concept s as b e i n g the u l t i m a t e aim i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g . (Knowles, 1975; Tough, 1977; B r o o k f i e l d , 1983) . These e a r l i e r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and independence have s i n c e been q u e s t i o n e d by o t h e r s (Chene, 1983; B r o o k f i e l d , 1986; G a r r i s o n , 1988; P r a t t , 1988) and found i n a d e q u a t e i n themse lves t o u n d e r s t a n d the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a model which moves beyond s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and independence has been p r o p o s e d by G a r r i s o n & Baynton (1987). T h i s c o n t r o l model i s p r e s e n t e d as "an attempt t o r e f l e c t the fundamental e lements and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n " ( p . 5 8 ) . L e t us examine how t h i s model can h e l p c o n c e p t u a l i z e the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and addres s the two c o n c e p t i o n s o f c o n t r o l i n the o r i e n t a t i o n program h e l d by the l e a r n e r s . F i r s t , the b a l a n c e among the d imens ions o f independence , p r o f i c i e n c y and support which , as the G a r r i s o n 55 and Baynton model s u g g e s t s , make up c o n t r o l , d i f f e r i n the two c o n c e p t i o n s . In C o n c e p t i o n 1: O r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e i n s t r u c t o r - the l e a r n e r s seemed to i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g r e l i a n c e on the i n s t r u c t o r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r l e a r n i n g g o a l s and d e s i g n t h e i r l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I f b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e means b e i n g "aware not o n l y o f one ' s own needs and a b i l i t i e s but what are wor thwhi l e g o a l s , a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d s , and a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w p o i n t s " ( G a r r i s o n , 1989, p . 5 5 ) , t h e n one can surmise t h a t perhaps these l e a r n e r s d i d not want t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g and were w i l l i n g t o g i v e up some independence s i n c e they e x p e c t e d t o be t o l d what was i m p o r t a n t f o r them and what t o d o . But why would t h e s e l e a r n e r s choose t o do so? G a r r i s o n (1989) sugges t s t h a t "any e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n must be an in formed c h o i c e made w i t h awareness o f the a l t e r n a t i v e s as w e l l as the a b i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h the i n t e n d e d g o a l " ( p . 2 7 ) . Perhaps the l e a r n e r s were not aware o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t o h e l p them make i n f o r m e d c h o i c e s . A l s o , they may have l a c k e d c o n f i d e n c e and may not have p e r c e i v e d themse lves as c a p a b l e o f e f f e c t i n g change . In o t h e r words, t h e i r l e v e l o f " p r o f i c i e n c y " was low. In a d d i t i o n , i f they p e r c e i v e d the g o a l o f an o r i e n t a t i o n program t o be to "get more and more i n f o r m a t i o n " , then they may have been more apt t o g i v e up t h e i r independence t o r e a c h t h a t g o a l f a s t e r . M o r e o v e r , the l e a r n e r s came from a 56 h i g h l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t s o c i e t y , where r o l e s are more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and m a i n t a i n e d . Thus, an i n s t r u c t o r ' s r o l e i s t o i n s t r u c t and a l e a r n e r ' s r o l e i s t o do as the i n s t r u c t o r d i r e c t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y was o t h e r -d e t e r m i n e d , t h e n not o n l y might they not have been a b l e t o choose t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , but t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y may have a l s o been v e r y low. T h e r e f o r e , the e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l background o f the l e a r n e r s may have c o n t r i b u t e d to the c o n c e p t i o n o f the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by the i n s t r u c t o r . Whatever the reasons n e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n t r o l i n t h i s t r i a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p seemed t o s h i f t towards the d imens ion o f " s u p p o r t " , w i t h l i t t l e emphasis on l e a r n e r " p r o f i c i e n c y " and " independence" . In C o n c e p t i o n 2: O r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by b o t h the i n s t r u c t o r and the l e a r n e r - the l e a r n e r s p e r c e i v e d themse lves as b e i n g independent and a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own l e a r n i n g g o a l s and a c t i v i t i e s . They i d e n t i f i e d themse lves as " p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t s " and p o r t r a y e d c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o p l a n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . They f u r t h e r acknowledged the i n s t r u c t o r as someone who would p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n , a s s i s t a n c e , a d v i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s . Thus , the p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t r o l i n t h i s t r i a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p seemed to i n d i c a t e a b e t t e r b a l a n c e among t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s : p r o f i c i e n c y , s u p p o r t and i n d e p e n d e n c e . I t s h o u l d be noted here however, t h a t these 57 l e a r n e r s came from the same s o c i o l o g i c a l background as the l e a r n e r s who h e l d the c o n c e p t i o n t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by i n s t r u c t o r s . T h i s t h e n i n d i c a t e s t h a t v a r i a b l e s o t h e r t h a n s o c i e t a l background may have i n f l u e n c e d c o n c e p t i o n s . But how were these c o n c e p t i o n s r e f l e c t e d i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s ? C l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d a t a f u r t h e r sugges ted t h a t w h i l e the l e a r n e r s p e r c e i v e d themse lves t o be c a p a b l e o f assuming some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g , t h e r e were f a c t o r s t h a t may have i n f l u e n c e d the l e a r n e r s a c h i e v i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g to the G a r r i s o n & Baynton (1987) model o f c o n t r o l , t h r e e b a s i c components: p r o f i c i e n c y , independence and s u p p o r t , need to be i n b a l a n c e t o enab le t h e l e a r n e r s to d e v e l o p and m a i n t a i n the a p p r o p r i a t e degree o f c o n t r o l over t h e i r l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . I f one o f these components i s l a c k i n g then the degree o f c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by the l e a r n e r i s l o w e r e d . D i d the l e a r n e r s i n t h i s s tudy have the a p p r o p r i a t e b a l a n c e needed t o d e v e l o p and m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s ? Were they l a c k i n g i n any o f the t h r e e components mentioned? The p r o f i c i e n c y component, o r what c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d as the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n o f c o n t r o l , i n c l u d e s the 58 l e a r n e r ' s c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , s e l f concept, emotional maturity, a t t i t u d e and m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e l . While the l e a r n e r s i n t h i s study p e r c e i v e d a confidence i n themselves and i n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o determine and a c h ieve t h e i r l e a r n i n g g o a l s , data from i n t e r v i e w s with the s t a f f suggested t h a t t h i s p e r c e p t i o n was not n e c e s s a r i l y shared by the s t a f f . In f a c t , some of them regarded the l e a r n e r s t o be l a c k i n g i n c e n t i v e and a b i l i t y t o c a r r y out the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and t o c r e a t e p e r s o n a l meaning from these l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s : The t r a i n e e s d i d n ' t understand what the program was about. They d i d n ' t r e a l i z e the importance of the program; they d i d n ' t r e a l i z e how i t was h e l p i n g them. (Z2) The students have t o be m o t i v a t e d and i n t e r e s t e d . (J2) I t was r e a l l y e v ident t h a t t h i s group was very a p a t h e t i c . They weren't r e a l l y t h a t i n t e r e s t e d i n western whatever. (02) These comments suggested t h a t the l e a r n e r s may have been l a c k i n g i n the p r o f i c i e n c y component and thus, c o n t r o l i n t h i s l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n would have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e l s . Moreover, data from t h i s study seemed t o suggest t h a t perhaps the l e a r n e r s p e r c e i v e d a need f o r g r e a t e r freedom and independence. The amount o f freedom l e a r n e r s have i n an e d u c a t i o n a l context t o decide t h e i r own l e a r n i n g needs and f ormulate t h e i r own l e a r n i n g g o a l s i s addressed by the 59 i n d e p e n d e n c e c o m p o n e n t o f t h e m o d e l . T h i s c o m p o n e n t a l s o a s s u m e s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s h a v e a n d a r e aware o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h e l e a r n e r s i n t h i s s t u d y c l e a r l y f e l t t h a t a s p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t s , t h e y w e r e a w a r e o f w h a t was i m p o r t a n t a n d u s e f u l f o r t h e m t o l e a r n . T h e y a t t e m p t e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h i s p o i n t b y r e s i s t i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s t h e y deemed u n n e c e s s a r y a n d n o t u s e f u l a n d , a t t i m e s , b y d i s r e g a r d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n b y t h e s t a f f . A s r e p o r t e d b y a n i n s t r u c t o r : "We a s k e d t h e m n o t t o r i d e t h e i r b i c y c l e s a n d t h e y r o d e t h e m . " (Q2) T h e l e a r n e r s , i n t u r n e x p l a i n e d : We a r e a d u l t s a n d h a v e o u r own i d e a s . . . i f we t h i n k i t i s no u s e , we w o n ' t l e a r n i t . (K2) T h i s may b e a way o f s h o w i n g t h e t e a c h e r t h a t h e / s h e s h o u l d r e s p e c t t h e s t u d e n t s ' w i s h e s . (R2) T h e s e comments r a i s e d some q u e s t i o n s : Why d i d t h e l e a r n e r s c h o o s e t o r e a c t i n t h i s way? D i d t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e was n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e s t a f f ? W h i l e s u p p o r t i n a n e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t may r e f e r t o b o t h human a n d n o n human r e s o u r c e s , p e r h a p s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f o r m i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n c o n t e x t i s t h e i n s t r u c t o r . H o w e v e r , t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t a r o s e i n t h i s s t u d y was n o t w h e t h e r s u p p o r t was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e l e a r n e r s , b u t w h e t h e r t h e s u p p o r t a v a i l a b l e was what t h e l e a r n e r s p e r c e i v e d n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e m t o m a i n t a i n some c o n t r o l o f t h e i r 60 l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Data from the i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the l e a r n e r s c l e a r l y understood the i n s t r u c t o r ' s r o l e t o be t h a t of a h e l p e r , guide, f r i e n d and an a d v i s o r . Someone who would, as one l e a r n e r d e s c r i b e d , "help students s u r v i v e i n t h i s s o c i e t y . " (Y2) Furthermore, the i n s t r u c t o r s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r r o l e as b e i n g a mediator, guide, i n f o r m a t i o n source, r e s o u r c e person and f a c i l i t a t o r . A lthough i t seemed t h a t both the l e a r n e r s and the i n s t r u c t o r s shared s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the k i n d of support l e a r n e r s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n should r e c e i v e , what i n f a c t took p l a c e h i n t e d at some d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t c o u l d a r i s e i n an o r i e n t a t i o n program and p o i n t e d t o the complexity o f the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . As the s t a f f e x p l a i n e d : There were a l o t of power s t r u g g l e s . . . . a l o t o f problems came because the s t a f f weren't aware of the way they were coming a c r o s s t o the s t u d e n t s . A l o t of the time they came across as r e a l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n , even though t h a t wasn't n e c e s s a r i l y what they were i n t e n d i n g . (J2) I t was a l a c k of s e n s i t i v i t y t o how Chinese p e r c e i v e d someone who i s younger. (W2) Some of the students expressed t h a t we were a l l too young t o be t e l l i n g them what t o do. I t h i n k a u t h o r i t y i s a very important t h i n g i n the Chinese c u l t u r e e s p e c i a l l y . And I t h i n k the students found i t d i f f i c u l t because we were younger than most of them were. (Z2) These e x p l a n a t i o n s showed t h a t t h e r e was more t o t h i s theme of c o n t r o l i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s than j u s t m a i n t a i n i n g a balance among the components of support, 61 p r o f i c i e n c y and independence . In f a c t , G a r r i s o n (1989) sugges t s t h a t b a l a n c e o f c o n t r o l can be e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h "communicat ion and u n d e r s t a n d i n g between the t e a c h e r and s tudent" ( p . 3 0 ) . Was t h i s e v i d e n t i n the o r i e n t a t i o n ? A c l o s e r a n a l y s i s o f the da ta a l s o showed t h a t b o t h the l e a r n e r s and the i n s t r u c t o r s p e r c e i v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g , communicat ion and c o l l a b o r a t i o n between l e a r n e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s as b e i n g important and n e c e s s a r y t o c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . As the l e a r n e r s s u g g e s t e d : The t e a c h e r must not t a l k , t a l k , t a l k . They s h o u l d c o n s i d e r more what the t r a i n e e s are t h i n k i n g a b o u t . . . P e o p l e s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d each o t h e r . . . a two-way u n d e r s t a n d i n g . (K2) Ask the s tudent s what they t h i n k i s i m p o r t a n t t o l e a r n , d i s c u s s and share t h e i r o p i n i o n s . (Y2) G i v e s t u d e n t s a c h o i c e . C o o p e r a t i o n on-b o t h s i d e s , t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t , i s i m p o r t a n t . (R2) S i m i l a r t h o u g h t s were r e f l e c t e d by the i n s t r u c t o r s : I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e r e be some s o r t o f b o n d / c o n f i d e n c e between s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r . (J2) The t e a c h e r has t o be w i l l i n g t o compromise and n e g o t i a t e w i t h the s t u d e n t s on c e r t a i n t h i n g s , and t o r e a l l y l i s t e n t o the s t u d e n t s because t h a t way you have a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what t h e i r needs a r e . (Q2) Communicat ion i s the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r . . . b y the s t a f f as a t e a m . . . c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h the s t u d e n t s , what we are d o i n g and w h y . . . s o l i c i t i n g d i r e c t i o n from the s t u d e n t s , feedback about t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , t h e i r needs . (X2) 62 Moreover , an added d i m e n s i o n , t h a t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and knowing the l e a r n e r s ' c u l t u r e was a l s o ment ioned by a l l . As an i n s t r u c t o r n o t e d : The s t a f f has t o have e x p e r i e n c e d e a l i n g w i t h C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s and have c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y . (W2) The l e a r n e r s a g r e e d : They s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d the C h i n e s e , t h i s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . They s h o u l d have some b a s i c knowledge o f the C h i n e s e c u l t u r e . (F2) I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t the t e a c h e r knows the c u l t u r a l background o f the C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s s h o u l d m u t u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d each o t h e r . I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t e s p e c i a l l y f o r o r i e n t a t i o n t e a c h e r s . (Y2) In s h o r t , t h e c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t the l e a r n e r s h e l d o f c o n t r o l i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs p r o v e d t o be more i n v o l v e d and complex, g i v e n the n a t u r e o f the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . G. SUMMARY The c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d an a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i v e s tudy o f the l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs . The d a t a was c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h two rounds o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h b o t h the i n s t r u c t o r s and the l e a r n e r s and t h r o u g h c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s . A n a l y s i s o f the d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t two major themes dominated the l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n 63 program. They were p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t r o l . Two d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s emerged f o r each theme. The two c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t emerged, r e l a t i n g to the theme o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n were: i . O r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d m a i n l y p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and i i . O r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s . The l e a r n e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f i r s t c o n c e p t i o n was a p a s s i v e one . They were r e c e i v e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s and guest s p e a k e r s t o be g i v e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . They expected t o be t o l d how t o do t h i n g s , r a t h e r t h a n e x p e r i e n c e the a c t i v i t y t h e m s e l v e s . C o n t r a r y to t h i s , t h e l e a r n e r s who h e l d the second c o n c e p t i o n e x p e c t e d t o be a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . They wanted t o be b o t h r e c e i v e r s and d o e r s . They saw the i n s t r u c t o r as a f a c i l i t a t o r f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s and emphas ized t h e importance o f communicat ion and c o l l a b o r a t i o n between l e a r n e r s and the i n s t r u c t o r . "Combine t h e o r y and p r a c t i s e " and "Let us do" were emphasized by t h e s e l e a r n e r s . Two c o n c e p t i o n s a l s o emerged r e l a t e d t o t h e theme o f c o n t r o l i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs: i . O r i e n t a t i o n Programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by the i n s t r u c t o r and i i . O r i e n t a t i o n Programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by b o t h the i n s t r u c t o r and the l e a r n e r . L e a r n e r s who h e l d the f i r s t o r i e n t a t i o n p e r c e i v e d the i n s t r u c t o r as b e i n g i n charge o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g g o a l s and a c t i v i t i e s , as the p o s s e s s o r o f the 64 c o n t e n t and method o f l e a r n i n g . They expec ted t o be t o l d what to do and f e l t t h a t they s h o u l d " w i l l i n g l y " do as t o l d . In c o n t r a s t however, the l e a r n e r s who h e l d the second c o n c e p t i o n p e r c e i v e d a more c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r . I t was i m p o r t a n t t o them not o n l y t o a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s , but a l s o t o c o n t r i b u t e to the p l a n n i n g and be j o i n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r f o r the outcome, thus assuming some c o n t r o l o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . W h i l e the f o u r c o n c e p t i o n s r e f l e c t e d the l e a r n e r s p o i n t o f v iew on the themes o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t r o l i n c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , the a n a l y s i s f u r t h e r sugges ted t h a t i n p r a c t i s e , the se c o n c e p t i o n s were l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n s and dynamics t h a t occur i n the p r o c e s s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n . 65 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION A. OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY Most of the l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e o r e t i c a l models and methodologies ( A l b e r t , 1986; J.M.Bennett, 1986; T r i a n d i s , 1986, B r i s l i n , 1984; Gundykunst, Hammer & Wiseman, 1977), stages i n c r o s s -c u l t u r a l adjustment and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the d e s i g n and implementation of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l programs (Bennett, 1986; Grove & T o r b i o r n , 1986; J u f f e r , 1986; Weaver, 1983), and t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s used i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g (Hughes-Wiener, 1986; MaCaffery, 1984; C h r i s t o p h e r , 1984; Mestenhauser, 1983). T h i s body of r e s e a r c h on c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s seems l a r g e l y to emphasize the p e r s p e c t i v e o f program developers and i n s t r u c t o r s r a t h e r than the l e a r n e r s . T h i s study however, e x p l o r e d the l e a r n e r s ' c o nceptions of o r i e n t a t i o n programs. The focus i n t h i s study has been t o look at i s s u e s i n o r i e n t a t i o n programming l i k e g o a l s , approaches, content, e x p e c t a t i o n s , s k i l l s and r o l e of the i n s t r u c t o r , from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the l e a r n e r s . T h erefore, some r e s e a r c h on concepts common i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g : independence, s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t r o l , were a l s o reviewed (Knowles, 1975; Tough, 1977; B r o o k f i e l d , 1983; Chene, 1983, B r o o k f i e l d , 1986; G a r r i s o n & 66 Baynton , 1987; P r a t t , 1988; G a r r i s o n , 1988) . These s t u d i e s not o n l y h e l p e d p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s , but a l s o s e r v e d as a r e f e r e n c e f o r the themes and c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t emerged i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i v e s t u d y . Two s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h t h e e l e v e n l e a r n e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an o r i e n t a t i o n program. A l l were from the same e t h n i c background - C h i n e s e , and had a r r i v e d as^a group from C h i n a f o r t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n . They were a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t s who were i n Canada t o work a n d / o r s tudy i n d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r e i g h t t o t e n months. The r e s e a r c h was g u i d e d by an i n t e r p r e t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e and a q u a l i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e . Two s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the l e a r n e r s , c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r s and program documents p r o v i d e d the d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y . S y n t h e s i z i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n from these v a r i o u s s o u r c e s a l s o p r o v i d e d c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n f o r the f i n d i n g s . A n a l y s i s o f the d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t from the l e a r n e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t r o l were i m p o r t a n t themes t o addres s r e g a r d i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n programs . W h i l e these concepts a p p l y t o e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n s i n g e n e r a l , they are p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n the c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s and are f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from language and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Thus, t h e r e i s a need t o f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r 67 a d u l t l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and examine how they may a p p l y t o the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . Two v a r y i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f each theme emerged. W i t h r e g a r d s t o the theme o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , most o f the l e a r n e r s wanted to be a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s and p e r c e i v e d t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . A few however, u n d e r s t o o d t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n programs m a i n l y p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and i n d i c a t e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o be more p a s s i v e , as r e c i p i e n t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . W i t h r e g a r d s t o the theme o f c o n t r o l , few l e a r n e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by the i n s t r u c t o r . M a j o r i t y o f the l e a r n e r s however, p e r c e i v e d t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n programs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by b o t h the i n s t r u c t o r and the l e a r n e r s , and emphas ized the n e c e s s i t y and the importance o f communicat ion , c o l l a b o r a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g between the i n s t r u c t o r and the l e a r n e r s . W h i l e these f o u r v a r y i n g c o n c e p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t ways i n which the l e a r n e r s o f an o r i e n t a t i o n program u n d e r s t o o d the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n phenomenon, the a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , these c o n c e p t i o n s were f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the dynamics and the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f the n a t u r e o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . 68 B. IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY Given the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f the f i n d i n g s , i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s tudy can o n l y be made w i t h c a u t i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , a t tempts w i l l be made t o address the f i n d i n g s to o r i e n t a t i o n programs i n g e n e r a l . F i r s t l y , the f i n d i n g s seemed to draw a t t e n t i o n t o the i n t e r a c t i o n and dynamics t h a t can o c c u r i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs . I n s t r u c t o r s and program d e v e l o p e r s need t o have a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f some o f the fundamental e lements e x i s t i n g i n an e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g a d u l t l e a r n e r s and address them t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . They need t o f u r t h e r e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n t r o l and a d u l t d e c i s i o n making i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s and t o expand-on t h e i r knowledge o f what i s an a d u l t l e a r n e r . Secondly , i n s t r u c t o r s need t o examine t h e i r own c o n c e p t i o n s o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs and to r e f l e c t on t h e i r r o l e i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . They need to e x p l o r e ways o f r e l i n q u i s h i n g e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l over the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and encourage autonomy i n l e a r n e r s . They need t o a c c e p t a d u l t l e a r n e r s more as i n v o l v e d p a r t n e r s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a n as p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t s . .Thus, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r feedback and d i a l o g u e between the i n s t r u c t o r s and the l e a r n e r s need t o be a v a i l a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a more e q u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. 69 T h i r d l y , the concept o f e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs needs to be more c l o s e l y examined. Do most o r i e n t a t i o n programs i n t e r p r e t e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g m a i n l y as p r o v i d i n g the l e a r n e r s w i t h a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s o u t s i d e the c lassroom? A r e most o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t h e n s t r u c t u r e d by the i n s t r u c t o r ? A t t e n t i o n needs to be g i v e n t o d e s i g n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n programs w i t h c l e a r n e g o t i a b l e s t r u c t u r e s t h a t can more m e a n i n g f u l l y i n v o l v e a d u l t l e a r n e r s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . F o u r t h l y , i n s t r u c t o r s and program d e v e l o p e r s need t o be aware o f the v a r y i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s h e l d by l e a r n e r s . They need to be w e l l i n f o r m e d about the p r o f e s s i o n a l and c u l t u r a l background o f t h e i r l e a r n e r s t o h e l p them u n d e r s t a n d what c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s . However, as t h i s s tudy showed, they s h o u l d a l s o e x p l o r e o t h e r f a c t o r s l i k e e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , l e a r n i n g s t y l e s , language p r o f i c i e n c y , t o name a few, t h a t might c o n t r i b u t e to the l e a r n e r s ' v a r y i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , by b e i n g aware o f l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s , o r i e n t a t i o n programs can be d e s i g n e d to not o n l y acknowledge t h e i r e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t i o n s , but t o encourage the l e a r n e r s to a c t i v e l y e x p l o r e and e x p e r i e n c e new l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . 70 C. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY To b e g i n , the n a t u r e and t ime frame o f the o r i e n t a t i o n program l i m i t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the i n f o r m a n t s and the t ime spent w i t h them. A l l the l e a r n e r s were here o n l y f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the o r i e n t a t i o n program and l e f t soon a f t e r i t ended. T h e r e f o r e , i t was not p o s s i b l e t o r e t u r n t o these p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h the f i n d i n g s t o have them v e r i f i e d o r f u r t h e r expanded upon i f n e c e s s a r y . A l s o , t h i s group o f l e a r n e r s were a l l from the same c o u n t r y and from the same c u l t u r a l background . So, perhaps the f i n d i n g s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d to l e a r n e r s from a n o t h e r c o u n t r y or from another c u l t u r a l background . Moreover , the l e a r n e r s i n t h i s s tudy were a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t s and t h i s may have impacted on t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s o f an o r g a n i z e d l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Thus , the f i n d i n g s may be l i m i t e d t o a d u l t s o f s i m i l a r s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s . F i n a l l y , the p e r s o n a l dynamics and i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s between the i n s t r u c t o r s and the l e a r n e r s i n t h i s s tudy were u n i q u e . T h i s c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e the l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s . So c o n s e q u e n t l y , the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s tudy must be a p p l i e d w i t h c a u t i o n t o another o r i e n t a t i o n environment where the p e r s o n a l dynamics between the i n s t r u c t o r s and the s t u d e n t s may be d i f f e r e n t . 71 The l i m i t a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d c o u l d have been overcome by expand ing the s tudy to i n c l u d e o t h e r s i m i l a r o r i e n t a t i o n programs w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t o r s and l e a r n e r s or w i t h the same i n s t r u c t o r s and d i f f e r e n t l e a r n e r s . D. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i v e s tudy has r a i s e d some i s s u e s and q u e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . These w i l l be a d d r e s s e d i n terms o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s or l e a r n e r s i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs , the i n s t r u c t o r s o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs and the o r i e n t a t i o n programs themse lves . F i r s t , i n terms o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s o r l e a r n e r s , some q u e s t i o n s t h a t need t o be a d d r e s s e d t h r o u g h f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e : Do l e a r n e r s from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds share s i m i l a r c o n c e p t i o n s o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs? Do l e a r n e r s who are p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t s h o l d s i m i l a r c o n c e p t i o n s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s as a d u l t s who are perhaps s t u d e n t s ? How does a l e a r n e r ' s p r e p a r a t i o n or l a c k o f , i n terms o f language s tudy and c u l t u r a l b r i e f i n g s i n h i s / h e r own c o u n t r y , impact on t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs? What are some f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs, f o r example, p e r s o n a l i t y , language p r o f i c i e n c y , l e a r n i n g s t y l e s , and s u p p o r t ? 72 Next , i n terms o f the i n s t r u c t o r s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n programs , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s a l s o needed t o e x p l o r e q u e s t i o n s l i k e : How do i n s t r u c t o r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s i n f l u e n c e o r i e n t a t i o n programs and thus i n f l u e n c e the l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s ? What are some i s s u e s i n s t r u c t o r s o f o r i e n t a t i o n programs need t o be aware o f t h a t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r r o l e i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s ? What c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g do i n s t r u c t o r s themse lves need t o e f f e c t i v e l y conduct c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n programs? F i n a l l y , as f a r as the o r i e n t a t i o n programs themse lves , r e s e a r c h i n t o d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n programs i s needed. Ques t ions t h a t need t o be examined a r e : Does the l e n g t h o f the o r i e n t a t i o n program i n f l u e n c e l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s ? Do l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s change over the c o u r s e o f the o r i e n t a t i o n ? How does the c o n t e n t impact on l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s , i . e . , o r i e n t a t i o n programs w i t h an academic component compared t o one w i t h a workp lace component? Does the s i z e o f the o r i e n t a t i o n program make a d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s ? How do a d u l t l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s impact on v a r i o u s c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n programs? What are some o t h e r i s s u e s t h a t c o u l d emerge c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n programs? 73 C r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s not a s t a t i c phenomenon. As t h i s s tudy r e v e a l e d , the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s i s dynamic and complex. As those i n v o l v e d i n the f i e l d c o n t i n u e t o examine t h i s p r o c e s s from the r e s e a r c h e r s ' , p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' and l e a r n e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s , and work at p r o v i d i n g c o n c e p t u a l and t h e o r e t i c a l models t h a t are v a l i d a t e d i n the r e a l i t y o f the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s , a w ider and more thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the phenomenon o f c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t . 74 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l b e r t , R . D . (1983). The I n t e r c u l t u r a l S e n s i t i z e r or C u l t u r e A s s i m i l a t o r : A c o g n i t i v e a p p r o a c h . In D . L a n d i s and R.W. B r i s l i n (eds.) Handbook o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g  V o l . 1 1 : A r e a s t u d i e s i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , 186-215, New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s . A l b e r t , R . D . (1986). 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Independent e f f e c t i v e n e s s : A r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l f o r I n t e r c u l t u r a l  R e l a t i o n s . 10 (2), 159-178. M a r t i n , J . N . (1986). T r a i n i n g Issues i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l f o r I n t e r c u l t u r a l  R e l a t i o n s . 10 (2) , 103-115. M a r t o n , F . (1981). Phenomenography: D e s c r i b i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f the w o r l d around u s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l S c i e n c e . 10, 177-210. Mes tenhauser , J . A . (1983). L e a r n i n g from s o j o u r n e r s . In D. L a n d i s & R.W. B r i s l i n ( e d s . ) , Handbook o f I n t e r c u l t u r a l  T r a i n i n g , V o l 2: A r e a s t u d i e s i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l  t r a i n i n g . 153-185, New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s . P a i g e , R . 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Emerg ing themes: The r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e . Phenomenology + Pedagogy, 5 (3) , 230-241. Tough, A . (1979). The a d u l t ' s l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . T o r o n t o O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n . T r i a n d i s , H . C . (1986). Approaches to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and the r o l e o f c u l t u r e a s s i m i l a t o r t r a i n i n g . In R . M . P a i g e (ed.) C r o s s - c u l t u r a l  o r i e n t a t i o n : New c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n s , 193-222, Lanham: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f A m e r i c a . Warren , D . & A d l e r , P . (1977). An e x p e r i e n t i a l approach t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l communicat ion . Communication E d u c a t i o n , 26, 128-134. Weaver, G . R . (1986). U n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o p i n g w i t h c r o s s -c u l t u r a l adjustment s t r e s s . In R . M . P a i g e (ed.) C r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n : New c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and  a p p l i c a t i o n s , 71-110, Lanham: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f A m e r i c a . Woods, P . (1986). I n s i d e s c h o o l s : Ethnography i n e d u c a t i o n a l  r e s e a r c h . London: Rout l edge & Kegan P a u l . 80 APPENDIX B CONCEPTIONS OF CROSS-CULTURAL ORIENTATION INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What d o e s t h e t e r m " c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n " mean t o y o u ? 2. What do y o u t h i n k s h o u l d be t h e p u r p o s e / g o a l o f c r o s s -c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n ? 3. What s h o u l d t h e c o n t e n t o f an o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m b e ? 4. What m e t h o d ( s ) / a p p r o a c h ( e s ) o f i n s t r u c t i o n w o u l d be s u i t a b l e f o r an o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m ? 5. How s h o u l d t h e c o n t e n t / a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m b e s e q u e n c e d ? 6. What o u t c o m e s s h o u l d b e p r e s e n t e d i n an o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m ? 7. What do y o u t h i n k i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m ? 8. What c a n hamper t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an e f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m ? 9. What k i n d s o f s k i l l s s h o u l d t h e i n s t r u c t o r s h a v e t o c o n d u c t an o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m ? 10 . What s h o u l d be t h e r o l e o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r i n an o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m ? 1 1 . What a r e some i s s u e s t h a t one s h o u l d b e aw a r e o f r e g a r d i n g o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s ? 12. What a r e y o u r p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m ? 13 . Do y o u h a v e a n y t h i n g e l s e t o a d d t o t h i s i n t e r v i e w ? The a b o v e q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d a f r a m e w o r k . f o r b o t h t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n , t h e i n t e r v i e w e e was a s k e d t o g i v e e x a m p l e s , t o e l a b o r a t e on a comment a n d t o c l a r i f y when n e e d e d . 81 APPENDIX C CONCEPTIONS OF CROSS-CULTURAL ORIENTATION OBSERVATION SCHEDULE WEEK TIME CLASS COMPONENT 1 8:30 am English for special purposes 1 11:30 am Listening & Speaking 1 1:30 pm Cultural Orientation 4 8:30 am English for special purposes 4 11:30 am Listening & Speaking 4 1:30 pm Cultural Orientation APPENDIX D EXAMPLE OF SOME INITIAL THEMES CONTENT E d u c a t i o n a l System BEHAVIOURAL C u l t u r e Independent I n t e r p e r s o n a l Shock L e a r n e r s Communicat ion 

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