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The effects of sensitization to text structure and headings as cues to text structure on the quantity… Goble, Jo-Anne Elizabeth 1986

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THE EFFECTS OF SENSITIZATION TO TEXT STRUCTURE AND HEADINGS AS CUES TO TEXT STRUCTURE ON THE QUANTITY AND ORGANIZATION OF FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS' DELAYED WRITTEN RECALL OF EXPOSITORY PROSE by JO-ANNE ELIZABETH GOBLE B.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1986 ® Jo-Anne Elizabeth Goble, 1986  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at The University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of Language Education The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: August, 1986  ii  Abstract  The effects of instruction focusing on sensitizing fifth grade students to expository text structure and headings as cues to structure were investigated.  Measures of quantity and  organization of ideas in delayed written recall were examined prior to and subsequent to treatment.  Experimental instruction focusing on headings and organization of propositions  in text was compared with the more conventional classroom procedure of answering questions after reading expository text  The experimental instruction group had higher  scores for quantity and organization of ideas in delayed written recall.  Further analysis  revealed that subjects in the experimental group used more headings in recall than the conventional group.  Ability level was not a significant factor for either group.  Implications for instruction and further research are discussed.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  ii  Acknowledgements  viii  CHAPTER I: Introduction  1  A.  Statement of the Problem  1  B.  Rationale for the Study  1  Summary  6  C.  Purpose of the Study  7  D.  Significance of the Study  8  E.  Limitations of the Study  9  F.  Definitions  9  G.  Organization of the Thesis  10  CHAPTER II: Review of the Literature  11  A.  Text Structure and Coherence  11  B.  Conceptual Structuring  19  1.  Subsumption Theory and Research  21  2.  Text-Processing Theory  24  3.  Generative-Processing Theory  26  C.  Training  28  D.  Summary  35  CHAPTER IH: Method  37  A.  Subjects  37  B.  School Selection  38  C.  Teachers  38  D.  Materials  38  iv  E.  F.  1.  Manuals of Procedure  39  2.  Instructional Materials  39  a) Materials used with Conventional Group  40  b) Materials used with Experimental Group  40  Instruments  40  1.  Standardized Measure  43  2.  Non-Standardized Measures  44  a) Initial Test  45  b) Final Test  45  Procedures  47  1.  Pilot  47  2.  Main Study  48  a) Teacher Orientation  48  b) Administration of Standardized Measure  49  c) Administration of Initial Test  49  d) Instructional Sessions: Experimental  49  e) Instructional Sessions: Conventional  51  f) Administration of Final Test  51  G.  Scoring  51  H.  Design and Data Analysis  54  CHAPTER IV: Results  58  A.  Gates-MacGinitie  58  B.  Reliability for Scoring  62  C.  Initial Tests  62  D.  Final Tests  65  1.  Quantity  65  V  2. E.  Organization  Post Hoc Examination of Headings  66 66  CHAPTER V: Summary, Conclusions, Limitations, Implications  69  A.  Summary of the Study  69  B.  Conclusions  70  1.  Initial Test: Quantity and Organization  70  2.  Final Test: Quantity and Organization  70  3.  Headings  72  C.  Limitations  72  D.  Implications  73  E.  Future Research  74  References  75  Appendix A: Initial and Final Test Passages—Standardized Instructions for Administration of Tests  79  Appendix B: Instructional Procedures and Materials(Co«ve/zr/o«a/ Group)  84  Appendix C: Instructional Procedures and Materials(£'x/)t?/-/>nt?ma/ Group)  100  Appendix D: Scoring Procedures  143  Scoring Procedures (Organization)  147  Appendix E: Sources Used in Constructing Instructional and Test Passages  158  vi LIST OF FIGURES Table 1: Titles, Number of Headings, Readability Levels and Topics of Instructional Passages Used in Study  41  Table 2: Overview of Materials Introduced in Each of Ten Instructional Sessions for Both Conventional and Experimental Groups  42  Table 3: Original and Revised Headings for Final Test Passage (Parrots)  46  Table 4: Estimated Readability Levels for Non-Standardized Measures (Initial and Final Test Passages) Using Four Readability Formulae  46  Table 5: Unfamiliar Words in Initial and Final Test Passages According to the Dale-Chall List of 3000 Familiar Words  47  Table 6: Summary of Procedures Used for Conventional and Experimental Groups  52  Table 7: Summary of Scoring Procedures Used in Developing Goble/Coulombe (1986) Scoring Procedures for Quantity of Ideas in Written Recall  55  Table 8: Summary of Scoring Procedures Used in Developing Goble/Coulombe (1986) Scoring Procedrues for Organization of Ideas in Written Recall  56  Table 9: Mean Attendance and Mean Percent Attendance for Conventional and Experimental Groups in 10 Instructional Sessions  59  Table 10: Means and Standard Deviations of Conventional, Experimental, West Vancouver (1982) and Stables (1985) Groups for Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Comprehension Subtest (T- scores)  60  Table 11: Summary of Means, Standard Deviations and Range for Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Scores  61  Table 12: Summary of Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of Covariance for Initial Scores With Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Scores  .'  63  vii  Table 13: Summary of Means, Standard Deviations, and Analysis of Covariance for Final Scores by Treatment and Ability with Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension  64  Table 14: Summary of Means and Analysis of Covariance for Headings by Treatment and Ability with Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension  67  viii  Acknowledgements  The encouragement and support of the members of the Language Education Department during the process of conducting and reporting research are much appreciated. Dr. Florence Pieronek's thoughts regarding content area reading provided the initial frame of reference for this study; she provided support throughout the research.  Dr. Jane  H. Catterson's suggestions relating to research and instruction were instrumental in providing focus.  As well, Dr. Claire Staab's patient and insightful comments were most  helpful. Dr. Harold Ratzlaff and Dr. Lee Gunderson must also be acknowledged for their patient guidance in the area of measurement, design and statistical analysis. Many aspects of the study, particularly materials and procedures, were developed with the continuing cooperation of Karen Coulombe.  In addition, thanks must be  extended to those teachers and principals who made the collection of data possible. Finally, the counsel and encouragement of friends and family are thankfully acknowledged.  1  CHAPTER I: Introduction  A.  Statement of the Problem  The study examines the effects of training for sensitization to text structure and headings on the amount and organization of ideas generated in delayed written recall of content material by fifth grade students.  B.  Rationale for the Study  Educators have long recognized that students progressing through the grades need to process increasing amounts of information presented in content materials (Baumann, 1984; Carter & Carrier, 1976; Estes & Vaughan, Jr., 1978; McKee, 1948; Shores, 1943; Smith, 1964).  This need stems largely from the common use of descriptive or  information/classification text in intermediate grade content textbooks.  Although a need  exists it is generally agreed that students at all grade levels experience difficulty reading for comprehension and recall of expository materials.  In fact, it is evident that many  elementary and secondary students are not proficient at comprehending expository materials (Baumann, 1984; Moore, Readence & Rickelman, 1983; Stables, 1985). Results of studies indicate that adults and children are not naturally able to internalize text (Taylor, 1980).  In addition, it has been suggested that elementary students  have no inherent proficiency in comprehending the gist or superordinate ideas of expository selections (Baumann, 1983). Because of this lack of proficiency the question of how good readers organize and recall information has been addressed by a number of investigators.  Results have shown  2  that text structure influences the reader's ability to process material (Carol & Freedle, 1972; Danner, 1976).  It has been noted that different types of text, narrative and  expository, require different reading strategies (Robinson & Hall, 1941).  Results showed  that poor readers read expository and narrative materials without altering speed, while superior readers, as defined by comprehension scores, adjusted reading rates to accommodate differential structure and concept loads. Since the reading of expository text is so important and efficient processing seems to require that the reader is sensitive to the organization and structure of text, a closer examination of the nature of expository text may provide insight  Researchers and  theorists have postulated that the organizational structures of expository text are such that concept loads are higher for expository than for narrative material.  Descriptive text  structure gives information about a topic by presenting attributes, specifics, explanations or settings.  Some propositions are subordinate to others.  Frequently the superordinate  proposition is stated first, followed by the supporting propositions which may add examples or additional qualities.  Typically, the "who, what, when, where and why" of a  topic are included in descriptive passages (Meyer, 1984).  In general, because each  subordinate proposition or detail in content material may be necessary to understand the major or superordinate propositions the concept load is high.  For example, understanding  the superordinate statement "Crustaceans can be recognized by their firm crust-like outerbodies" is likely to depend on internalizing related details such as "crabs are crustaceans" and "lobsters are crustaceans." to be less dependent on related ideas.  Understanding propositions in narrative tends  For example, understanding the main statement  "The car moved quickly down the dirt road" does not depend on accompanying details such as "goldenrod grew at the sides" and "great clouds of dust billowed behind."  3  Another example of the importance of text structure or organization is evident in Danner's work.  Results obtained from his study (1976) revealed that the degree of  comprehension displayed by elementary students varied with manipulation of text structure. Readers best able to comprehend and recall appear to reflect the text structure most closely in their production of oral and written recall (Alverman, 1981; Aulls, 1975; Carter & Carrier, 1976; Holley, 1981; Pichert & Anderson, 1977; Stables, 1985).  For example,  recall of passages in which details are disordered in relation to the main idea is more difficult than recall of passages in which supporting propositions are associated with the appropriate major proposition (Aulls, 1975).  Since text structures do seem to differ  researchers have been interested in the question of whether the reader's recognition and internalization of text structure or organization can be raised.  This has chiefly been  examined through the use of advance sensitization or organizers.  Attempts by educators  to manipulate the reader's conceptual structure are generally consistent with theoretical models proposed to account for the processes of text comprehension.  It is thought to be  necessary for the reader to internalize a representation of the major concepts, variously referred to as subsuming concepts (Ausubel, 1960), main ideas, superordinate concepts, or macropropositions (Kintsch & van Dijk, 1978).  Internalization of macropropositions in turn  is thought to facilitate processing and recall of micropropositions (details). Various organizational aids or "organizers" have been devised in efforts to facilitate the internalization of macrostructure or main ideas.  Organizers may be paragraph  abstracts, sentence outlines, hierarchical outlines, headings or pretests.  Research findings  related to conceptual organizers tend to be supportive of the theories mentioned previously.  Generally speaking, those organizers shown to improve retention and recall  specifically identify the macrostructure of the text (Aulls, 1975; Ausubel, 1960; Ausubel & Fitzgerald, 1961; Brooks, 1983; Glynn & Di Vesta, 1977; Proger, 1970; Slater et al.,  4  1985).  For example, paragraph abstracts which introduce the major points of a text are  more effective than paragraph abstracts which provide historical background (Ausubel, 1960, 1961); sentence outlines which identify the main points of the text are more effective than pretests which do not provide information about the main points (Proger, Taylor, Mann, Coulson & Bayak, 1970); descriptions of passage organization accompanied by an outline of major points are more effective than descriptions alone (Slater, Graves & Piche, 1985); in some studies presence of outlines or headings which identify main points have been shown to facilitate recall (Holley, Dansereau, Evans, Collins, Brooks & Larson, 1981). Another critical factor with respect to the types of organizers found to be effective (those based on macrostructure or main points) seems to be the order of presentation.  While organizers can be presented prior to, concurrent with, or following  the reading of the text, effectiveness has not been demonstrated for the latter.  The  locus of effect for organizers appears to be at encoding (Mayer & Bromage, 1985). Although the consensus based on research is that macrostructure type organizers are effective when used at encoding, there are some studies in which these organizers did not appear to facilitate recall or comprehension.  Studies in which organizers, such as  headings or outlines, which reflected the macrostructure were ineffective can be discussed in terms of two factors: the type of recall measure used; and the presence or absence of training. With regard to the first factor, studies in which no significant effects were associated with these organizers generally measured immediate, rather than delayed recall; recall tended to be cued rather than free; and little or no training was employed.  For  example, there is some indication that cued recall is less difficult than free recall (Baumann, 1981).  Free recall seems to afford a closer picture of the reader's mental  processes and when recall is delayed, the effects of organizers seem to be more apparent.  5  With reference to the second factor, training, it seems that many of the researchers investigating the effects of organizers (Ausubel, 1960; Ausubel & Fitzgerald, 1961; Christensen & Stordahl, 1955; Pichert & Anderson, 1977; Proger et al., 1970; Slater et al., 1985) have overlooked an important point  Most organizational aids such as  headings, outlines and abstracts are not inherently useful.  They can only be used if the  reader is made aware of their intended function. Even though the above mentioned factors have been overlooked in a number of studies, researchers generally agree with the argument for training readers to recognize and use macrostructure organizers as cues to text structure (Alverman, 1982; Baumann, 1983; Brooks et al., 1983).  In spite of this agreement, few studies have examined the  effectiveness of such training; and those which have are either based on older subjects or have produced mixed and inconclusive results (Alverman, 1982; Brooks et al., 1983; Holley et al.. 1983; Taylor, 1980; Taylor & Beach, 1984). Because of the inconclusive results of studies based on young children the question of whether the ability to internalize a conceptual representation of text macrostructure is dependent on developmental readiness or training must be considered.  Many educators,  including Estes and Vaughan, Jr. (1978) do believe that content reading, or reading to learn, is developmental in nature.  Indeed, some findings appear to support this notion.  Most recently, Stables (1985) found that students at the grades five and six levels appeared to be unable to use headings as an aid to recall comprehension on grade three and grade level passages.  In comparing the performance of these students to that of  students in two parallel studies, grades seven through ten, Stables concluded that the ability to use headings as cues to structure was developmental. It is possible that the failure of fifth and sixth grade students to use headings is not entirely developmental.  The failure of early intermediate students to use headings  6  may represent a lack of training and instruction rather than a lack of cognitive maturity or readiness.  This lack of training may be the result of little instruction for content  reading comprehension taking place at the elementary level (Durkin, 1978-79). Baumann (1984) has also supported the idea that the general lack of sensitivity to expository structure shown by elementary students may not stem from a lack of readiness. Instead, Baumann argues that elementary students are not as sensitive to expository structure as they are to narrative, partly because they have had less exposure to expository material.  Like Durkin, he notes that instruction for reading in the content  area is not emphasized to the same degree as instruction for narrative reading.  Summary  In summary, major findings and questions raised by contemporary research should be reviewed.  The body of literature has recognized the problem of increasing quantities  of content materials throughout the grades.  As well, the difficulties in comprehension  and recall experienced by elementary students have been noted.  Recognition of these two  facts has led to investigations of the influence of text organization and organizational aids. Educators have theorized that internalizing the macrostructure of the text is key to comprehension and recall.  The evidence suggests that recognizing the organization inherent  in the text as well as carefully constructed organizational aids can help the reader internalize the text  Although organizers such as headings have been shown in many  instances to be effective, the relative importance of training and developmental factors remains unclear in relation to upper elementary students.  It is not clear whether the  failure of fifth grade students to utilize structure and headings as structural cues can be overcome.  7  C.  Purpose of the Study  It is apparent that elementary students receive little instruction for comprehension in content fields.  This is not because teachers do not want students to understand.  More likely, this is a symptom of not knowing what can be done to improve comprehension or at what level children can be taught to comprehend expository material. Contemporary research suggests that readers who are sensitive to the structure of expository text have better comprehension and recall of the material read than do students who do not demonstrate sensitivity to text structure.  It appears that cues to  macrostructure in the form of concurrent organizers, such as headings, can facilitate recall if readers are sensitized or trained for their use (Brooks et al., 1983; Holley et al., 1981). It was the purpose of this study to determine whether students could be trained to be sensitive to descriptive text structure, and headings as cues to that structure; and whether sensitization would increase the amount and organization of ideas produced by fifth grade students in delayed written recall. Specifically, the questions were: 1.  Would it be possible to sensitize fifth grade students to descriptive text structure and headings as cues to that structure?  2.  Would fifth grade students, trained to be sensitive to descriptive text structure, and headings as cues to that structure, demonstrate superior performance over students receiving conventional instruction on measures of quantity and organization of ideas in delayed written recall?  3.  Would the ability levels of fifth grade students influence performance on measures of quantity and organization of ideas in delayed written recall?  8  4.  Would there be an interaction between treatments  and ability levels as observed  on measures of quantity and organization of ideas in delayed written recall?  To  answer these questions, six null hypotheses were formulated:  Ho,:  There will be no significant difference between the treatment groups in their adjusted mean posttest performance on the quantity of ideas in delayed written recall.  Ho :  There will be no significant difference between the three reading ability groups in their adjusted mean posttest performance on the quantity of ideas in delayed written recall.  Ho :  There will be no significant interaction between student membership in both independent variable populations (treatment and reading ability) and their adjusted mean posttest scores for quantity of ideas in delayed written recall.  Ho :  There will be no significant difference between the treatment groups in their adjusted mean posttest performance on the organization of ideas in delayed written recall.  Ho :  There will be no significant difference between the three reading ability groups in their adjusted mean posttest performance on the organization of ideas in delayed written recall.  Ho :  There will be no significant interaction between student membership in both independent variable populations and their adjusted mean posttest scores for organization of ideas in delayed written recall.  2  3  u  5  6  D.  The publishers.  Significance of the Study  study was seen as having potential importance for students, educators and General levels of comprehension for expository material could be improved if  training for sensitization to headings and text structure were shown to be effective. study would provide insight into the processes behind  The  internalizing what is read and the  degree to which upper elementary students can utilize expository text.  9  E.  Limitations of the Study  Several limitations were anticipated.  The use of non-random intact classes was  compensated for by the use of analysis of covariance to minimize initial differences. Generalizations beyond the sample, experimental conditions and time of year should be made with caution.  F.  Definitions  concept load: the number of key micropropositions in relation to macropropositions; high concept load implies that understanding micropropositions is key to understanding macropropositions; comprehension of macropropositions in text of low concept load is less dependent on micropropositions. delayed recall: written free recall given one or more days after exposure to target material; for the purpose of this study, one day after exposure. heading: a word or phrase set apart above a paragraph, which reflects the explicit or implicit main idea for that paragraph. information/classification text: also referred to as descriptive text; expository text written in a style which classifies and presents details of attributes, specifics, settings or explanations. macropropositions: statement of main idea; statement which encompasses or subsumes details or micropropositions. macrostructure: refers to the explicit or implicit main ideas or gist of a passage; may include title, headings and macropropositions. micropropositions: details related to or supporting an explicit or implicit main idea. organization of recall: weighted score for the arrangement of micropropositions (See  10  Scoring Procedures). quantity of recall: number of ideas or propositions recalled from information/classification (descriptive) passages. sensitization: the process of actively drawing attention to, or developing awareness of stimuli.  For the purpose of this study sensitization refers to the procedures used to  increase the learner's awareness of and responses to text structure and headings.  As  well, it refers to awareness, as opposed to lack of awareness, on the part of the learner. text structure: the organization and content of the text  G.  Organization of the Thesis  The thesis is organized with five chapters. rationale for the study.  Chapter II reviews the related literature.  the methods and procedures of the study. analyses.  Chapter I presents the problem and Chapter III describes  Chapter IV presents the results of data  The final Chapter summarizes the study and presents conclusions, limitations  and implications.  11  CHAPTER D.: Review of the Literature  This review will focus on three main areas of the literature.  The first section  presents studies which have examined the influence of text structure on the reader. The second section presents those studies which have dealt with facilitating comprehension through manipulation of the reader's conceptual structure.  The discussion  will deal primarily with advance organizers. The final section discusses studies which have used, or recommended, training for the use of an organizer to facilitate comprehension and recall.  A.  Text Structure and Coherence  This section will review research dealing with aspects of text structure and coherence as they relate to reading comprehension and recall. The content structure of text typically has three aspects: top-level structure, macropropositions and micropropositions.  Top-level structures are ways of organizing  topics, but they are separate from the topics themselves. take such forms as comparison, antecedent/consequence,  That is, top-level structures can  commonality or description.  Macropropositions correspond to the main ideas or gist of the text while micropropositions correspond to the details.  Micropropositions are referentially connected to a  macroproposition or main idea.  Together, macropropositions can form the macrostructure  of the text (Meyer, 1984). If macropropositions are not logically placed in reference to their micropropositions, the structure can become indistinguishable and comprehension will become difficult, if not impossible.  It can be inferred from research that similar comprehension difficulties occur  12  when the structural relationship between macro- and micro- propositions is intact, but not perceived by the reader. A number of educators and researchers have emphasized the important influence of text structure and coherence on the ability of readers to derive and recall meaning from text As previously cited, Robinson and Hall (1941) observed that differing text structure resulted in the adjustment of reading rates for good college-level readers.  Two hundred  and five students were given five reading rate and comprehension accuracy tests, consisting of single art, geology and fiction selections and two history selections. in terms of word counts at the end of three, six and nine minutes.  Rate scores were Comprehension  questions were based on main ideas and scored as the percent correct of those questions relating to the amount of text read by the end of nine minutes. It was observed that average rate scores tended to be more comparable among subjects for the first three minutes of reading than the last six. reading was highest for the fiction selection.  The average rate of  As well, better readers, as measured by  comprehension accuracy, reduced their reading rates after the first three minutes of reading information text  Poor readers failed to adjust their reading rates.  The authors  speculated that good readers recognized the organization and increasing number of ideas and slowed reading to facilitate assimilation. Intercorrelations among individual comprehension scores on the four subject areas (art, geology, fiction and history) were below .50.  The correlation between the scores on  the two history measures (Canadian history and Russian history) was .98.  Robinson and  Hall (1941) interpreted these findings as indicative of variations in text structure between subject areas.  Thus, different text structures required differential reading rates in order to  facilitate comprehension.  Or, viewed another way, those readers who did not respond to  13  differences in text structure by adjusting their reading rate demonstrated low comprehension. Although the Robinson and Hall study (1941) provides insight into the requirements of effective expository reading, it is not clear that the measure of comprehension accuracy used to identify good and poor readers was valid.  As the  subjects did not all read equal amounts or answer an equal number of questions it may not be appropriate to compare their percentage scores. Nila Banton Smith (1964) also noted that different subject areas have different patterns of writing.  As well, Smith advised that prose structure be considered in  comprehension instruction. Speculations by Carol and Freedle (1972) that the inherent organization or structure of the text may act as a form of plan, influencing the reader's internalization and/or recall of information, led to a study by Aulls (1975).  Aulls investigated the  structural properties which influence literal recall of expository text by manipulating the subtopic structure.  Paragraphs in which the details occurred consecutively in reference to  the appropriate main idea were considered "compact."  Paragraphs in which details were  disordered in relation to the main idea were termed "discontinuous."  It was hypothesized  that compact subtopic structure would facilitate recall more than discontinuous subtopic structure.  Secondly, since the author wanted to establish the importance of a main idea  statement in expository text, he predicted recall scores would be significantly higher when main ideas were present than when they were absent. A total of 128 sixth-grade students reading at or above grade level on the Gates-MacGinitie reading test were randomly selected from two upper middle class schools.  They were then assigned randomly to eight groups of sixteen and presented  with one of several expository paragraphs to be read, followed by a free recall task.  14  Paragraphs were written at the grade five level and varied in structure and meaningfulness. A 2 x 4 x 2 factorial design was used in the experiment internal structure were used (compact and discontinuous).  Two levels of  Four levels of external structure  were examined (title, macroproposition, title and macroproposition, no title or macroproposition).  As well, two levels of meaningfulness were used (content expected to  and content not expected to elicit prior knowledge). The mean number of idea units recalled by each treatment group was calculated and the variable effects were analyzed using a mixed ANOVA.  Internal paragraph  structure was shown to influence recall significantly, with compact internal structure (details) yielding significantly higher recall than discontinuous structure.  The effect of  external structure (titles and main idea) alone was not significant and there were no significant interactions between internal and external structure. was noted between external structure and meaningfulness. external structure produced higher recall scores.  A significant interaction  Passages of high meaning with  The meaningfulness of content was  observed to have a highly significant effect on the recall of idea units.  Aulls reported  that the more meaningful paragraph content used in his study resulted in an average of one third more idea units recalled than the paragraphs where the content was not expected to be meaningful. The fact that the influence of external structure (titles and main ideas) was independent of internal structure led Aulls to suggest that little evidence supports the notion that recall depends upon the referential connections between macropropositions and micropropositions. However, several aspects of Aulls' study should be considered before conclusions are drawn.  The subjects are representative only of competent sixth-grade readers and  15  differential effects might be observed with different ability levels.  As well, sample sizes  for each variable were relatively small. As the results are based on an initial reading of the paragraph, subjects may have lacked the time (or ability) to seek out structural cues and failed as a group to recognize referential connections.  Alternately, being good readers, they may have been  able to infer macropropositions when they were not present  If the first were true, it  would be wise not to equate recall with understanding in this case.  It is reasonable to  question what degree of understanding existed if subjects were truly unaffected by the presence or absence of main idea statements, or macropropositions. Although external structure (headings, macropropositions) did not appear to facilitate recall this should not suggest that it does not or can not facilitate recall. immediate recall may have masked the effects of external structure.  The use of  (Evidence to this  effect will be presented in the following section.) Aulls' study does lend support to the idea that internal structure may function as a kind of retrieval plan for the reader. Bower, Clark, Lesgold and Winzens (1969) suggested that the reader's construction of a retrieval plan and subsequent recall of information is dependent on the degree to which the inherent organizational structure of the passage is apparent to the reader. Using Bower et al.'s suggestion as a starting point, Carter and Carrier (1976) also studied the effects of prose organization on recall.  In two experiments with university students  they found that repeated exposures to materials with complex substructure improved recall, and materials in which the organizational structure of the text was made more salient produced better recall than materials in which organization was scrambled. A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2  factorial design was used in the first experiment (Carter &  Carrier, 1976) with one hundred and forty-four first and second .university students who  16  were paid volunteers.  The passage used in this research was described as having an  elaborate conceptual structure in which micropropositions were definable in terms of class inclusion.  By manipulating the order in which sentences were presented, two versions of  the passage were created for the first variable, one with high structural salience, the other with low.  The second variable resulted from manipulating the placement of  superordinate sentences (macropropositions) in the passage.  The third variable in the  study was repeated reading of the passage: massed in one session, versus repeated reading, distributed over time.  The final variable was ability level.  It was predicted that high organizational salience would lead to superior recall, as would distributed repetition.  As well, it was expected that low ability subjects would  benefit more from the high organizational salience and advance placement of macropropositions conditions than would the high ability subjects. Contrary to expectations, both organizational salience and placement of superordinate sentences failed to influence recall as main effects.  The data did support the prediction  that distributed repetition of reading would facilitate greater recall than massed repetition. The authors suggested that the implications of their findings were such that even if there is an inherent structure in text, much time spent worrying about sequences, hierarchies and superordinate sentences may be unwarranted. might have been somewhat hasty.  However, this conclusion  There was some evidence that the readers of passages  with low organizational salience inferred or reconstructed structure.  Clustering of ideas in  their recall protocols was beyond the chance level which suggests that lack of organization induced the reader to impose structure. subjects may have been exaggerated.  As well, the relative ability levels of the The ability groups were established by dividing the  sample at the median of distribution on the Wide Range Vocabulary Test  As neither  the range nor group means were reported, the degree to which the groups differed is  17  unclear. In a second similar experiment using eighty-four subjects, Carter and Carrier (1976) observed that logically sequenced materials produced reliably greater recall than randomly sequenced materials.  However, it was noted that this effect was only for  several exposures to a passage, rather than one. Viewed collectively, the two studies provide somewhat conflicting evidence of the influence of text structure on recall.  It is possible that the relative sophistication of  some subjects enabled them to organize scrambled materials. Another example of the influence of text structure is seen in one aspect of Glynn and Di Vesta's (1977) examination of outline and hierarchical organization as aids for study and retrieval of information.  Undergraduate subjects forming a sample of one  hundred and twenty showed no significant differences in amount of ideas when recalling hierarchically organized or scrambled information.  However, they were better able to  generate new thematically correct combinations when recalling organized text  The authors  suggest that this particular effect is important because true comprehension involves not only retrieval of isolated facts, but also involves legitimate combination of newly acquired and established information. Danner's (1976) investigation of children's understanding of intersentence organization adds to our understanding of the effects of text structure.  A total of 72  middle-class students from grades two, four and six were studied on a series of oral recall, sorting and selection of review notes tasks.  Subjects were given a twelve sentence  expository passage either topically ordered or disordered.  In all three grades, both  clustering and recall of ideas was better for topically organized passages.  It was observed  that the number of students who noticed that passages were structurally different, who sorted ideas by topics and who chose review notes on the basis of passage structure  18  increased with age. Danner's (1976) findings support the notion of a developing awareness of the utility of organization for aiding recall.  It should be noted, however, that sample sizes  for each grade were relatively small (24) and examination of the ranges and means of grade equivalent reading scores suggests that few students were reading at the second grade level and a number were reading above the sixth grade level.  As well, both  twelve sentence passages presented to subjects were markedly simplistic and had readability levels at low grade two. significance.  The differences observed between grades may not have practical  It is possible that older readers might experience difficulty in utilizing  structure, equal to that of younger students, were they to read material closer to their own instructional levels.  As well, it should be noted that only two subjects spontaneously  attributed their greater difficulty with the disorganized passage to the disruption of its structure.  This suggests that readers may be influenced by, yet not consciously recognize,  text structure. Taylor (1980) provided further evidence of differential effects of text structure with increasing age and reading ability.  She constructed two passages, identical except that  some words in the first version were substituted by more difficult synonyms to create a more difficult version.  The less difficult fourth-grade passage was read by seventeen  fourth-grade good readers.  The more difficult sixth-grade version was read by seventeen  sixth-grade good readers, seventeen sixth-grade poor readers and seventeen adults. Higher performance on immediate and delayed recall of expository text for good readers was observed, increasing with age.  In general, the oral recall protocols of adults  and sixth-grade good readers more closely paralleled the text structure than did the recall of the other two groups.  For sixth grade, no differences were found between good and  poor readers on immediate recall.  However, on delayed recall, good and poor readers  19  whose recall reflected text structure performed significantly higher than those who did not follow the structure.  Taylor concluded that better and more mature readers attend more  closely to the features of the text structure. Although Taylor's study (1980) was also characterized by relatively small samples, it is important because it examined both immediate and delayed recall.  The results  indicate that differences are more likely to be found at delayed recall. The use of varied criterion measures in examining the influence of text structure has made it difficult to compare studies.  Robinson and Hall (1941) and Carter and  Carrier (1976) used cued recall and examined different aspects of text structure. Immediate written recall measures were used by Aulls (1975), Carter and Carrier (1976) and Glynn and Di Vesta (1976).  Danner used immediate oral recall.  Only Taylor  (1980) examined both immediate and delayed written recall. There has been a general failure to examine the ability level of the reader relative to the criterion measure.  Some studies have used materials of low readability  with both competent and less than competent readers, or mature and younger readers. The body of literature concerning the influence of text structure has not been able to isolate the effect of structure from the reader's ability to impose structure.  This  is primarily because most research has been conducted with relatively sophisticated readers.  B.  Conceptual Structuring  Because internalization of the text structure apparently influences comprehension and recall, conceptual structuring became a focus for theorists and investigators. One of the earliest studies to examine the effects of organizational aids on comprehension and retention was that conducted by Christensen and Stordahl (1955).  The  20  study was concerned with different methods of indicating the structure of expository material with reference to their differential effects on immediate and delayed recall. Using nine flights of Air Force trainees the authors examined the effects of thirty-six experimental combinations of: a)  outlines at beginning  b)  summary at beginning  c)  summary at end  d)  underlining of main points  e)  headings in statement form  f)  headings in question form  g)  no organizational aids.  The criterion measures were two equivalent multiple choice tests. variance and covariance for all cells proved insignificant  Analysis of  A factorial analysis revealed no  differences between any of the organizing aids alone, in combination, or when totally absent  The authors concluded that the aids used in the experiment did not affect  comprehension as measured by the multiple choice tests.  The use of cued recognition,  however, may not be an accurate measure of what the reader remembers or understands. The Christensen/Stordahl study (1955) typifies many studies of organizational aids and cues to structure.  Many are based on pedagogical intuition.  It seems reasonable  that cues to structure would facilitate recall and comprehension, yet findings have been mixed.  As a group the studies are characterized by widely varied criterion measures and  lack of training for, or sensitization to, conceptual organizers. Studies subsequent to Christensen and Stordahl's (1955) can be related to three theoretical views: subsumption theory, a text-processing model and a generative processing model.  As the theoretical models are not entirely discrete, studies which most closely,  21  but not exclusively, reflect each view will be cited as examples.  1.  Subsumption Theory and Research  A number of studies in the area of conceptual structuring have arisen from schemata theory and Ausubel's similar theory of subsumption.  The subsumption theory  suggests that cognitive structure is hierarchically organized in terms of broad inclusive concepts which subsume less inclusive concepts and information (Ausubel, 1960).  (That is,  the concept of dogs subsumes terriers, poodles and spaniels.) From this organizational principle came the hypothesis that the learning and retention of unfamiliar expository material could be facilitated by advance introduction of appropriate subsuming concepts in the form of "organizers." Ausubel (1960) presented 120 senior undergraduate students with an expository passage on steel.  The passage for the treatment group was prefaced by an organizer  designed to present generalized inclusive background information.  The control group  received the passage prefaced by an historical introduction containing no material which could serve as an ideational framework.  The criterion measure was a multiple choice test  given immediately after reading. Although the mean experimental group score was higher than the mean for the control, the results were not statistically significant.  These results appeared to be  confounded by the fact that some subjects in both groups had prior knowledge of the subject tested.  Nonetheless, Ausubel concluded that the subsumers which were introduced  provided anchorage for the new concepts presented in the passage. In another study Ausubel and Fitzgerald (1961) suggested two functions for advance organizers.  First, that organizers could act as "ideational scaffolding" with an  22  optimal level of inclusiveness for subordinate concepts.  Second, that they could increase  the reader's ability to discriminate bteween a new passage and what is known and similar. One hundred and Fifty-five subjects were used.  Senior undergraduates in the  experimental group read a paragraph on Buddhism with advance presentation of a comparative organizer designed to provide "scaffolding" for the main concepts and a generalized overview of the similarities and differences between Buddhism and Christianity. The second treatment provided an expository organizer embodying directly relevant key concepts.  The third treatment provided an historical organizer.  A control group was  presented the comparative organizer only, to determine to what extent the organizer alone could increase comprehension scores beyond the chance level. The criterion measures were two delayed multiple choice tests.  On a three-day  basis only the comparative organizer was effective in facilitating retention of the unfamiliar material.  The same organizer seemed to work most effectively for those whose initial  conceptual background of Christianity was weak.  On a ten-day basis the comparative  and expository organizer groups scores were significantly higher than the others. Three important points can be inferred from this study. organizers without passages do not facilitate comprehension. material is particularly difficult to retain.  First, it appears that  Second, totally unfamiliar  Finally, the effects of organizers seem most  apparent at delayed testing. However, the exclusive use of cued tests allows only partial understanding of the effects of organizers on comprehension and recall.  The degree to which the text has  been internalized by the reader and the degree to which the questions have influenced recall can not be known.  23  The findings of Proger, Taylor, Mann, Coulson and Bayuk (1970) also suggest that certain types of organizers are more effective than others.  Analysis of variance was used  for a treatment by sex by ability level design with 124 twelfth-grade students.  Students  were randomly assigned to one of four advance organizer groups: a) paragraph abstract; b) enumerated sentence outline; c) a true-false pre-test; and d) a completion pre-test. Each of these pre-passage structuring methods employed the same set of ten subsuming points, key to the reading task.  After subjects studied the advance organizer and read a  detailed passage on Amish customs, they were asked to complete a criterion test of 20 multiple choice items. No differences were found between organizers on recall of the ten key points. Specific details were facilitated by both the paragraph abstract and the sentence outline (p.<.01).  Ability levels also resulted in significant differences (p.<.01).  Subjects of low  and average ability performed significantly better than subjects of above average ability, again with the paragraph abstract and sentence oudine organizers (p.<.05). The authors felt that the two organizers which did facilitate comprehension may have worked because they produced awareness of the passage structure, or "the giving of answers" may have resulted in superior performance.  The latter seems unlikely as it  must be remembered that the effect was for details, not the ten key points in the organizer.  Also, the use of an immediate, cued criterion measure may have partially  obscured effects.  As well, because five classes, said to be of different ability levels, were  used intact, the apparent effect of ability levels should be interpreted with caution. Pichert and Anderson's (1977) experiment with college undergraduates was based on schema theory and did not specifically investigate organizers.  It did, however,  illustrate that an idea's significance in terms of a structure provided before reading determined whether the idea would be learned and subsequently recalled.  24  Subjects asked to read stories from one of two directed perspectives or no directed perspective were more likely to recall details if they could relate them to a given perspective or structure. The criterion measures were immediate and delayed written recall.  A large  number of subjects were lost for delayed recall and significance was noted only for the immediate recall measure. Although the study was based on narrative material, the findings can be interpreted to mean that alternate conceptual structures used by the reader can provide different frameworks for the internalization and recall of text, possibly by providing categories for information.  The structure which the reader imposes on the text may be  equally or more important than the structure inherent in the text.  The more closely the  imposed structure matches the text structure, the more likely the reader's internal representation matches the intent of the text.  2.  Text-Processing Theory  Miller (1976) proposed research related to an incomplete text-processing model which was intended to account for the processes involved in comprehending what is read. The model was composed of the following stages: identification of important text elements, construction of internal representations of those elements, and selection and mapping of the appropriate representation. Similarly, Kintsch and van Dijk's (1978) model of text comprehension and production has as a major component the process of macrostructure formation.  The  reader, using a general text-schema, is thought to apply rules of deletion, generalization and construction to the text's structure in order to form a mental gist of the main ideas  25  or macrostructure.  Taking the model a step further, the reader, asked to recall the text,  applies rules of addition, particularization and specification to the mental gist, transforming the macrostructure back into a detailed representation of the text Holley, Dansereau, Evans, Collins, Brooks and Larson (1981) advanced an argument consistent with the concept of processing the macrostructure and microstructure of text. was suggested that headings potentially provide useful cues for the input and output of text processing. They investigated 90 college students' utilization of intact (topic outline) and embedded headings (appropriately positioned in the text) as processing aids with non-narrative text  The results showed both intact or embedded headings to facilitate  performance on immediate and delayed free recall measures. delayed recall.  The major effect was at  Groups whose passages had headings recalled approximately 11% more  details at immediate and 44% at delayed recall than groups which read text without headings. Slater, Graves and Piche (1985) examined the effects of providing subjects with information about the structure of text prior to reading expository passages.  A total of  two hundred and twenty-four high, middle and low ability ninth-grade students were identified on the basis of the reading comprehension subtest of the California Achievement Test  Subjects were then assigned to one of four pre-reading treatments:  a)  description of structure with an outline grid  b)  description of structure  c)  control condition with note taking  d)  control condition without note taking.  It  26  Two criterion measures were used—a multiple choice post test and immediate written recall.  No differences were found between ability' groups.  It was found that  structural organizers with outline grids reliably facilitated comprehension and recall (p.<.01), whereas organizers without outline grids did not These findings can be interpreted as evidence supporting Kintsch and van Dijk's text-processing model (1978), since the outline grids were in effect representative of the macrostructure.  It appears that for the ninth-grade subjects in the study, advance  sensitization to the macrostructure facilitated the transformation back to microstructure at recall. Although ability levels showed no effect, it should be noted that cell sizes were relatively small (7 subjects).  The use of both cued comprehension and immediate recall  give a broader picture of the effect of organizers on readers.  It is not clear whether  the prior administration of the multiple choice test influenced the subsequent recall scores. Mayer and Bromage (1980) have reported another investigation of the way in which readers internalize text for recall.  One hundred and eight university students in  two experiments were given organizers either prior or subsequent to reading technical texts.  Subjects in the prior-organizer groups outperformed those in the post-organizer  group on immediate recall of encompassing concepts (p.<.01).  Thus, it was argued that  the locus of effect for conceptual structuring through presentation of an organizer is at encoding.  3.  Generative-Processing Theory  Another view of conceptual structuring can be derived from the generative model of learning.  Wittrock (1974) suggests that reading comprehension is facilitated when  27  learners actively construct meaning for text during encoding.  When semantic retrieval cues  such as paragraph headings are also provided, it is expected that comprehension and recall will be facilitated. Doctorow, Wittrock and Marks (1978) conducted two experiments with a total of 488 sixth-grade students.  Subjects in three treatment groups were instructed to a) read a  passage with inserted paragraph headings and to generate a sentence about each paragraph; b) read a passage without headings and generate a sentence about each paragraph; or c) read a passage without inserted headings. After reading the narrative passage, subjects were tested on two criterion measures: multiple choice and close recall.  The combination of generative processing and headings  had the greatest significant effect on comprehension (p.<.01).  This was followed by  instructions to generate sentences, and then insertion of headings (p.<.01). Another study consistent with the generative-processing model is Alverman's (1982) investigation of the facilitation of written recall.  Tenth-grade students, using a generative  restructuring organizer wrote the main concepts of the text as they read.  Those using  the generative organizer showed higher delayed recall than students who did not.  The  training aspect of Alverman's study is described in the following section. Generative-processing seems to ensure that the reader interacts with the text as he or she reads. The studies concerned with manipulating the reader's conceptual structure have focused on the use of organizers with older subjects.  There have been no studies  related to subsumption, text-processing or generative-processing which have examined lower intermediate students. Studies of conceptual structuring are characterized by varied criterion measures. The use of cued recall in the form of multiple choice has been common.  The extent  28  to which multiple choice tests can uncover the reader's internal representation is unclear. It is likely that written recall more closely illustrates the "shape" of what the reader internalizes.  The effect of one criterion measure on a subsequent measure has not been  considered by those researchers who used two consecutive measures. Those organizers which were shown to facilitate recall and comprehension specifically identified the macrostructure or subsuming concepts of a passage. of some organizers to facilitate recall likely arises from lack of training.  The failure  It does not  seem reasonable to conclude that organizers are not effective if subjects have not been trained in their use.  C.  Training  A number of educators have recommended training or instruction for skills related to comprehension of expository materials (Estes, 1972; Estes & Vaughan, Jr., 1978; Herber, 1970; Smith, 1964).  Although there is no substantial body of research on the  effectiveness of reading comprehension instruction, the results of the studies in which training was used are encouraging (Pearson, 1984).  The studies reviewed here are those  in which training for the use of text structure or conceptual organizers was either used or recommended. Alverman (1982) investigated the effects of training tenth-grade students to use a graphic representation of text structure including the key points (macropropositions) and some details (micropropositions).  A total of thirty average and above average students  were divided randomly between the treatment and control conditions. The graphic organizer group produced greater delayed recall by approximately 10% on details and 25% on main ideas than the control group.  Most significant was the  29  interaction between higher level ideas and the treatment (p<.01). Although Alverman's (1982) sample was extremely small, the study produced some support for training students to recognize structure.  It can not be determined whether  the effect resulted from training or whether simple presentation of the organizer would effect the same change. Baumann's (1984) study of the effectiveness of direct instruction for main idea comprehension also supports the case for training students to recognize and use expository text structure.  He divided 66 sixth-grade students, blocked by achievement level, between  three experimental groups: a)  a Strategy direct instruction group;  b)  a Basal lesson main idea group and  c)  a Control group.  After eight sequential lessons in finding main ideas and constructing main idea outlines for social studies texts, the Strategy group outperformed the Basal and Control groups on a measure of ability to recognize implicit and explicit main ideas (macrostructure) (p<.001).  No differences were observed in free recall.  No interactions  between treatment and achievement levels were detected. Baumann's results indicate that training can improve the reader's awareness of main ideas or macropropositions.  The failure to find significant differences on delayed  recall may be an effect of when the test was administered.  Although an intervening  word search or maze was completed to control for short term memory, the recall measure was administered in close temporal proximity to the passage.  It may be that a  more delayed recall test would identify long-term differences between groups. Taylor and Beach (1982) also examined the effect of instruction focusing on text structure.  Two experiments with fifth-grade students were conducted.  In both  30  experiments the use of an hierarchical summarization strategy based on Kintsch and van Dijk's theory of macrostructure was compared to a more conventional classroom procedure of answering questions after reading.  Students in the strategy group were taught to  recognize text structure and construct a summary identifying macropropositions and micropropositions as they read. In the initial experiment 48 subjects were classified as competent (above grade level) or less competent (at or below grade level) on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test Subjects were then blocked by ability level and randomly assigned to either the experimental or conventional groups.  Students received either experimental or conventional  training once a week for a period of seven weeks. A short-answer test and recall and organization scores were used as dependent measures.  No differences were found between groups on the short answer test (p<.001).  Delayed recall and organization scores for the group -which received text-structure instruction were significantiy higher than those for the conventional instruction group (p<.001). A second experiment with different subjects, teachers and test passages was conducted to replicate the first. The same instructional materials were used.  In this  study the conventional group performed significantly better on short answers than the experimental group (p<.001).  No differences were observed between treatments on recall  scores or organization scores.  There was a significant main effect for reading ability  (p.<.10). The authors performed supplemental analyses in an effort to account for the discrepant results between the two experiments.  The discrepancies did not appear to be  due to differences in reading ability or test passages.  An examination of the training  protocols revealed that students in the second experimental group had not mastered the  31  hierarchical summarization strategy as well as those in the first experiment  Thus, it  appeared that differences in instructional effectiveness resulted in equivocal findings.  It  should be noted that some attrition of subjects in the first study may have influenced results. Taylor and Beach (1984) conducted another similar experiment with 114 seventh-grade students.  Students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions:  a)  hierarchical summarization for social studies material,  b)  conventional instruction (questions following reading of social studies material), and  c)  no special instruction.  The groups were reported to be similar in reading ability.  Results indicated that  the seven weeks of experimental instruction focusing on text structure effectively enhanced performance on measures of written recall and quality of expository writing.  Possibly the  use of more mature readers accounts for these findings differing from those in the 1982 study. In a pair of studies directed by Dansereau, the effects of instruction appear to be confounded by other factors.  The initial study, cited earlier (Holley, 1981), advanced the  hypothesis that both intact and embedded headings provide useful cues for conceptual structuring and recall.  It was shown in the one aspect of the 1981 study that headings  did significantly facilitate recall for college students.  The effect of training for the use  of headings was examined in relation to presentation of headings without training.  In  comparing the training group to the control, both reading text with headings, no differences were found on a dependent free recall measure (p. < 1.00). exclusive use of immediate recall tests obscured effects.  It is possible that  Holley suggested that the length  of the training period may have been insufficient to overcome interference from the  32  subjects' previous strategies. The second investigation presented two experiments (Brooks, Dansereau, Spurlin & Holley, 1983).  Both were concerned with the effects of intact and embedded headings  on written recall of college students.  As in the first experiment, three dependent  measures were used to assess immediate recall of one passage (essay, outline and multiple choice).  The same types of measures were used to assess delayed recall of a second  passage.  It was reported that the presence of headings reliably facilitated delayed test  performance (p<.05).  This apparently confirms the notion that use of immediate recall  does not allow the effects of conceptual structuring to be observed. The second experiment in the study focused on the effect of instructions with headings.  The combination of headings and instructions reliably facilitated performance on  all the dependent measures.  However, the headings without instruction group failed to  outperform the no-headings control group.  Failure to sensitize readers to the headings  was given as an explanation for the contradictory findings. Most recently, Stables (1985) conducted a study of the effectiveness of headings without training subjects.  Fifty subjects from each of grades five and six were used.  Each subject read two passages: one at grade level and one with a grade three readability level (Fry, grade 3.0).  Performance on immediate written recall from passages  with and without headings was examined.  The author examined protocols for the number  of superordinate and subordinate ideas recalled, the degree to which the recall matched the author's sequence and the format No differences were found between the total number of ideas recalled on passages with or without headings.  Headings appeared to have a positive effect on the number  of subordinate ideas recalled by poor readers on the passage of low readability (p<.05). Headings had no significant effect on the degree to which students' protocols matched  33  the author's organizational sequence.  There was significantly higher use of section  headings in written recalls for both grades when headings were present in passages (p<.05). Parallel studies of students in grades seven through ten indicated that older students made use of headings on material of low readability.  Stables concluded that  students in his study did not have the higher level skills to make use of headings in writing protocols.  He recommended that training be included in further studies.  Aside from training, Stables (1985) seems to have overlooked several points.  First,  the research literature indicates that delayed written recall is a more accurate representation of what the reader has internalized than immediate written recall.  The use  of immediate testing may have hidden possible effects. Second, using the correspondence between order of ideas in the test passage and ideas in subjects' protocols may not be a valid test of organization.  Measuring  organization in this way assumes that the sequence of paragraphs and sequence of ideas within the paragraphs are the most important aspects of text structure. true of descriptive text structure.  This may not be  It seems more important that details or  micropropositions are associated with appropriate main ideas or macropropositions. For example, the details of one paragraph dealing with a Venus Flytrap were sequenced in the following way: Macroproposition: The Venus Flytrap was an endangered species a few years ago 1.  because they were so popular large numbers were dug up became scarce and nearly died out  3.  thousands now raised in greenhouses  4.  sold around the world as houseplants  34  5.  a very popular plant for young people.  Yet this order could easily be changed without losing meaning: Macroproposition: The Venus Flytrap was an endangered species a few years ago 3.  thousands now raised in greenhouses  1.  because they were so popular large numbers were dug up  2.  became scarce and nearly died out  5.  a very popular plant for young people  4.  sold around the world as houseplants  Third, since subjects who read passages with headings used headings in their recalls, it does not seem that students were totally unaffected by their presence.  Fourth,  the passages designated as "grade level" which were used had actual readability levels above grade level.  For example, the fifth-grade passage had a Fry readability of 6.0;  the sixth-grade passage had a Fry readability of 7.0. Finally, the use of unnatural headings, which paraphrased the main idea statement, may have affected results; e.g.— "Beautiful and Interesting Birds" (heading) with "Few birds are as interesting and beautiful as parrots" (main idea statement); "Parrots Like Cages More than Other Birds" (heading) with "Of all the birds kept as pets, parrots seem to like cages the most" (main idea statement). Relatively few studies have been concerned with training elementary students to recognize or use text structure or cues.  Although the effects of organizers seem to be  most noticeable at delayed recall, many researchers have used immediate recall as the criterion measure.  The ability levels of subjects have either not been considered or were  determined differently between studies.  35  D.  Summary  Three lines of research have been discussed: the influence of text structure on the reader; efforts to facilitate internalization of text through organizational aids; and training for comprehension of expository text structure suggests several points.  The research related to the influence of text  First, good expository readers are sensitive to and use  text structure as an aid to comprehension and recall (Aulls, 1975; Danner, 1976; Robinson & Hall, 1941).  Second, not all readers are aware of expository text structure; and it  appears that more mature readers have a greater awareness than do younger readers (Carter & Carrier, 1976; Danner, 1976).  Third, organized material enables some readers  to generate ideas related to the text (Glynn & Di Vesta, 1977).  Some readers seem to  be able to impose structure on disorganized material (Carter & Carrier, 1976).  Finally,  the extent to which the text's organization is apparent to the reader determines how much of the content he or she will internalize. These studies have mainly been conducted with college and university students, using a variety of criterion measures.  The readability of materials used has tended to be  well below the reading abilities of subjects.  Few studies examined differences between  subjects of differing abilities. The research related to facilitating the reader's internalization of text has been characterized by a lack of training.  Researchers have apparently expected organizers to  influence the reader's conceptual structure, without perceiving a need to instruct subjects in the use of these aids. organizers.  However, there have been several important findings related to  First, it appears that organizers which do aid the reader specifically identify  the main ideas or macrostructure of the text (Ausubel, 1960; Ausubel & Fitzgerald, 1961; Doctorow et al, 1978; Holley et al., 1981; Mayer & Bromage, 1980; Proger et al., 1970).  36  Second, organizers do not appear to be effective when presented after reading (Mayer & Bromage, 1980).  Third, actively generating written statements about what is read also  facilitates internalization of text (Alverman, 1980; Doctorow et al., 1978).  Only one study  has combined the use of generative processing and organizers (Doctorow et al, 1978). There have been relatively few studies on the effectiveness of instruction for expository comprehension.  Some of these have used high school and college students as  subjects (Alverman, 1982; Brooks et al, 1983; Holley et al., 1981).  There is some  evidence that training is effective (Alverman, 1982; Baumann, 1984; Brooks et al., 1983; Taylor & Beach, 1984).  Studies with fifth grade students indicate that they are not  naturally aware of text structure (Stables, 1985; Taylor & Beach, 1982).  Efforts to  sensitize fifth grade students to text structure have had mixed results (Taylor & Beach, 1982).  None of these studies investigated training for the use of headings.  Possibly the  use of training for sensitization to headings and text structure is needed to produce different results with younger readers.  37  CHAPTER HI: Method  The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training fifth grade students to be sensitive to descriptive text structure and headings as cues to that structure.  The content of the expository materials used in the study are representative of  the types of topics students are expected to read in content-area textbooks.  Data were  examined to determine whether there were significant differences in performance between the experimental group and conventional group on either the initial or final test forms.  A.  Subjects  Initially 168 fifth grade students from six geographically dispersed parochial schools in the lower mainland of British Columbia (Vancouver, Coquitlam and Burnaby) were involved in the study.  Based on information received from principals the schools can be  considered representative of low, middle and middle-upper socioeconomic levels.  Fifth  grade level was selected because: 1) a limited number of studies focusing on advance organizers and text structure have been conducted at the fifth grade level; 2) a limited number of studies utilizing training have been conducted at the fifth grade level and; 3) there seemed to be a need to test assertions by Stables (1985), King (1985) and Gibbs (1985) who concluded that fifth grade students were unable to use headings as aids to recall or organization.  38  B.  School Selection  Schools at each level were roughly paired on the basis of students' ability level and socioeconomic status as estimated by the principals, then randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups, conventional or experimental.  There were two schools of low  socioeconomic level; two of mid socioeconomic level; and two of mid-upper socioeconomic level.  Each of the six schools had only one non-streamed grade five class.  C.  Teachers  The mean number of years of teaching experience for the total of six teachers whose students were involved in the study was 6.6, ranging from 1 to 10 years.  The  mean number of years of experience for the conventional group teachers was 6.3 with 4, 6 and 9 years of experience respectively.  The mean number of years of experience for  the teachers of the experimental group was 7.0, with 1, 10 and 10 years of experience respectively.  The investigator, responsible for the experimental instruction, had 3 years of  previous experience.  D.  Materials  The materials used in the study included manuals of procedure, instructional packages and testing instruments.  39  1.  Manuals of Piocedure  All teachers of the conventional group were provided with a manual of procedures for the study.  The manual contained: 1) a calendar; 2) contact numbers; 3)  administration procedures for the Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Subtest; 4) standardized test procedures for initial and Final testing; 5) the initial test (Termites) with questions; 6) standardized instructional procedures for daily lessons; 7) seven instructional passages with questions; 8) the final test passage (Parrots); and 9) a section for comments. Standardized test and instructional procedures are included in Appendix A; instructional materials are in Appendix B. The  teachers of the experimental group were also provided with a manual of  procedures for the study.  The manual contained: 1) a calendar; 2) contact numbers; 3)  administration procedures for the Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Subtest; 4) standardized test procedures for initial and final testing (Appendix  2.  A); and 5) a section for comments.  Instructional Materials  The  instructional selections were specifically designed for the study.  These  selections, used by both treatments in the study, were constructed using relatively unfamiliar content with topics of the type commonly  found in elementary  content  textbooks. The 3.4.  seven passages which were constructed had a mean Fry readability level of  The title of each passage, Fry readability estimate, number of headings and topics  are found in Table 1.  Sources used in constructing passages are listed in Appendix E.  40  The  seven instructional passages were written in descriptive  (information-classification) style.  The  series of passages was  in length, number of headings and concept load.  designed to increase gradually  Each passage was  written below grade  level to reduce the possibility of students being unable to read the connected prose.  a) Materials used with Conventional Group. The  instructional materials used with the conventional group included a set of  questions that focused on the macrostructure of each passage. was  based on the initial test passage.  found in Appendix B.  An  overview  The  The first set of questions  questions used by the conventional group are  of materials introduced in instructional sessions and  the focus of instruction for both conventional and  experimental groups is found in Table  2. b) Materials used with Experimental Group. The  instructional materials used with the experimental group included two  outlines; one ideas sorting worksheet and  cut-up  eight idea sorting envelopes; two instructional  passages with matching cut-up outlines; one instructional passage with scrambled worksheet; three instructional passages with blank side-bars.  (See Table 2 and  outline Appendix  C)  E.  Instruments  Three instruments were used in the study: one Comprehension Subtest, Level D, Form 2) and two designed to measure Quantity and  standardized (Gates-MacGinitie,  non-standardized tests; the latter  two  Organization of Written Recall (initial test, Termites;  41  Table 1: Titles, Number of Headings. Readability Levels and Topics of Instructional Passages Used in Study Title  Headings  Fry Readability Estimate  General Topic  Grasshoppers  3.8  Behaviour and physical features of the grasshopper.  Riches of the Sea  3.9  Predicts scientific developments in underwater farming and mining.  Fire Walkers  3.7  Describes what is known about the practice of walking through fire, including how and why it is done.  The Vikings of Denmark  3.9  Explains why the Vikings left Denmark; describes sailing vessels; raids; and conversion to Christianity.  Animal Protection  3.5  Describes five ways in which animals protect themselves: using speed, teeth, claws, colour or poison.  Horses  2.2  Briefly describes prehistoric horses and traces development to modern appearance and uses.  Animals^ Eyes  3.0  Explains that different visual information is required by different animals. Describes the ways in which rabbits, lizards, owls and toads use their unique eyes.  42  Table 2: Overview of Materials Introduced in Each of Ten Instructional Sessions for Both Conventional and Experimental Groups Session  Conventional  Experimental  One  Termites passage (from initial testing) and questions  Cut up outlines of Goldilocks and Grasshoppers.  Two  Grasshoppers passage and questions idea sorting worksheet; cut-up idea sorting packages.  Three  Riches of the Sea passage with questions  Riches of the Sea passage with matching cut-up outline.  Four  Vikings of Denmark passage with questions  Vikings of Denmark passage with matching cut-up outline.  Five  Fire Walkers passage with questions  Fire Walkers passage with scrambled outline (worksheet).  Six  Animal Protection passage; worksheetAnimal Protection passage with with questions side-bar for headings and details.  Seven  Horses passage with questions  Horses passage with side-bar for headings and details.  Eight  Animals' Eyes passage with questions  Animals Eyes passage with side-bar for headings.  Nine  Protocol booklets for practice session Protocol booklets for practice session.  Ten  Animals Eyes questions for marking Sample protocols.  final test, Parrots.)  1  1  43  1.  Standardized Measure  The Comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test Level D Form 2 (Canadian Edition, 1979-80) was administered so that it could be used as a covariable with the non-standardized measures.  As well it was to be used to classify students  according to low, average and high reading ability in order to test the hypotheses dealing with ability level.  Students with grade equivalent scores of 3.0 to 4.9 were to be  classified as low; 5.0-5.9 were to be classified as average; and 6.0 or higher were to be classified as high in ability.  The test was chosen for the following reasons.  a) Content: Test items were developed to have an "international character." Consultants from minority groups eliminated items with apparent bias. written by a number of international authors including Canadians.  Passages are  Content of items was  chosen to be within the experience of most students from diverse backgrounds.  Sixty  percent of the comprehension subject matter is comprised of content material (social sciences 27.5%; natural sciences 27.5%; the arts 5%).  Narrative material comprises the  remaining forty percent.  Fifty-five percent of the test questions are literal; forty-five  percent are inferential.  The relatively high number of content area items was deemed  appropriate for the purposes of the study.  b) Standardization: Canadian norms were based on a total sample of 46,000 students.  The sample was drawn so that each province, urban and non-urban settings,  private and public schools, were proportionally represented. students of each grade level were tested.  Between 3,000 and 4,500  The norming group was chosen to be  representative, at each grade level, of English-speaking students in Canada.  It was  44  reasoned that the inclusion of separate schools in the norming sample made the test appropriate for the sample used in the present study.  c) Validity: The test was constructed to assure validity for most school reading programs.  All items were examined by a panel of Canadian educators.  discarded or modified on the basis of their recommendations.  Items were  Content of the passages  was chosen according to a plan specifying the proportion of natural science, social science, arts and narrative materials.  After a tryout, items of appropriate difficulty and content  were selected from a larger pool of items. The standard time allotment for this subtest allows all but the slowest students to attempt each item.  (In the present sample, all students to whom the test was administered were  able to finish within the time allotment.)  d) Reliability: Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 reliability coefficients for comprehension on the Canadian Edition, Level D, range from .87 to .89.  These were  considered to be acceptable levels of reliability.  e) Use in similar studies: The test was used similarly in related studies (Taylor, 1984; Stables, 1985).  2.  Non-Standardized Measures  The initial and final measures of Quantity and Organization of ideas in written recall were based on a passage used by Stables (1985).  The passage, Parrots, reported  by Stables to have a Fry readability estimate of 3.0, seemed a logical instrument with  45  which to examine the questions of the study.  Because Stables found that fifth grade  students were apparently unable to use headings it was reasoned that the question of whether these findings resulted from lack of developmental readiness or lack of training and sensitization would best be tested on the same basic material.  a) Initial Test. The initial test, Termites, was written to parallel the construction of the Parrots passage on the bases of format; number of headings; number of paragraphs; number of macro and micro propositions; similarity of topics and concept load; and readability. Each passage is written in information/classification style; is one page in length; consists of five paragraphs with headings; has five macropropositions and 26 micropropositions. There are an equal number of cases within each passage where the content of propositions can be segmented for partial marks.  (These are more fully outlined in  Scoring Procedures, Appendix D) b) Final Test. The final test, Parrots, based on the passage written by Crowhurst (1984) was reported by Stables (1985) to have a Fry readability estimate of 3.0.  The text of the  passage was not modified, but the headings used by Stables were revised to resemble those found in natural expository text.  Original and revised headings are listed in Table  3. Four common readability formulae were applied to both passages. formulae provided estimates of the readability level.  Each of the  These are found in Table 4.  According to the Dale-Chall formula, the two passages, Termites and Parrots have an equal number of difficult words, that is, words not appearing on the DALE LIST OF  46  Table 3: Original and Revised Headings for Final Test Passage (Parrots) Headings used by Stables (1985)  Headings revised by Goble/Coulombe (1986)  Beautiful and Interesting Birds  The Parrot Family  How Parrots are Different  Different Features  Parrots Live Where it is Warm  Natural Environment  Parrots Like Cages More Than Other Birds  A Parrot's Cage  Parrots Eat Nearly Anything  Feeding A Parrot  Table 4: Estimated Readability Levels for Non-Standardized Measures (Initial and Final Test Passages) Using Four Readability Formulae Test  Readability Formula FRY  SMOG  Initial (Termites)  3.0  6.0  2.3  5.5  Final (Parrots)  3.3  6.0  2.3  5.4  SPACHE DALE-CH ALL  47  3000 FAMILIAR WORDS.  Words not found on the DALE LIST are shown in Table 5.  Table 5: Unfamiliar Words in Initial and Final Test Passages According to the Dale-Chall List of 3000 Familiar Words Termites  Parrots  appearance damage environment extremely insects similar soldiers termites tropics underground  admired beak beautiful easily greatest interesting liquid parrots vitamins warmer  F.  Procedures  The actual study was conducted in five brief stages.  Following the pilot study,  procedures were established for teacher orientation and student familiarization, testing, initial testing, instructional sessions and final testing.  1.  Pilot  A two-part pilot study was conducted for the purpose of determining whether students reading below grade level would be able to complete the initial and final tests of organization and quantity (Termites and Parrots). The wording of the passage was to be checked; testing instructions and scoring procedures were to be tested and refined. In the first part of the pilot one intact, non-streamed fifth grade class in a lower socioeconomic parochial school was used.  Over a four-day period the Termites  48  and Parrots tests were administered as tests of delayed recall.  The original time  allotment for studying was adjusted from 20 to 15 minutes and scoring procedures were refined.  As well readability estimates were re-checked when it appeared that the  Termites passage was not as difficult as Parrots. As a result, Termites was modified slightly to give a higher readability estimate. In the second part of the pilot six fourth grade students from a public school in a similar socioeconomic area were administered the test passages as an oral reading test and asked to answer literal comprehension questions.  Of the six students two were  identified as reading below grade level; two as reading at grade level; and two as reading above grade level.  Reading levels were estimated by the teacher based on  testing and classroom performance.  Because of difficulties experienced by these children  the words existed and unusual were taken out of the Termites passage.  2.  Main Study  a) Teacher Orientation. The investigator held two teacher orientation sessions with each of the teachers. In the first session each teacher was presented with a general overview of the study.  In  the second session the teacher was provided with a manual describing the testing and instruction procedures.  For the conventional teachers emphasis was placed on how to use  the testing and instructional materials and the calendar was carefully reviewed.  For the  experimental teachers emphasis was placed on how to use the testing materials; following the calendar of testing; and the importance of not discussing the experimental lessons. During this stage the investigator spent one half-day in each of the experimental classrooms to establish a rapport with students prior to the actual treatment.  49  b) Administration of Standardized Measure. The second stage involved administration of the Comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test to all subjects in the study.  The tests were administered  by the classroom teachers and scored by the investigator. c) Administration of Initial Test The third stage involved administration of the initial test for quantity and organization of ideas in delayed written recall (Termites). This was accomplished over two days, with the classroom teachers using standardized instructions (Appendix A). On the first day students were directed to study the one page passage for 15 minutes, using whatever would help them to remember it for the following day.  On the second day  teachers directed students to write down everything they recalled in a protocol booklet, allowing 25 minutes. templates.  Protocols were collected by the investigator and scored on separate  No scores were reported to students or teachers.  d) Instructional Sessions: Experimental. The fourth stage consisted of 10 instructional sessions.  Subjects in the  experimental group were instructed by the investigator for all but the ninth session which was a practice test session supervised by the classroom teacher. Experimental instruction was conducted by the investigator for several reasons. The range of teaching experience (1-10 years) within the experimental group was considerable and it was hoped that the teacher variable could be minimized across this treatment.  The investigator spent one half day with each of the experimental classes  prior to the study to develop rapport with the students.  Having classroom teachers in  this group conduct the experimental instruction would have presented several problems: 1) a lengthy period of inservice would have been necessary; 2) given the time of year teachers may have been reluctant to commit sufficient time or energy to mastering the  50  procedures; 3) the time required to familiarize teachers with procedures would have been considerably greater for the experimental than the conventional group; 4) there was no way of ensuring that teachers would not give more emphasis to text structure and headings in their own lessons once they were sensitized to the focus of instruction.  The  investigator, familiar with the experimental procedures, was able to provide the strongest, most consistent form of the treatment.  The first seven sessions were each one hour  long; the final three were each approximately one half hour in length. Experimental instruction in the first two sessions involved identifying the differences between narrative and information material and developed the concept of classification using cut-up outlines of the word and phrase level.  Headings were chosen to be used as cues to text  structure because they occur naturally in text and have proven effective as organizers with sensitized readers (Dansereau et al., 1983; Holley et al., 1981) In the third session students were introduced to a content passage with three headings and sorted a corresponding cut-up outline.  The same basic procedure was used in session four with a  content passage containing four headings. without a cut-up outline.  A similar passage was used in session five, but  Instead, students were instructed to sort a scrambled outline  with alternate headings on an accompanying sheet. During session six, students were instructed to read a passage with five headings and construct an outline in the side-bar, identifying main idea.  Session seven involved  the same basic procedure although students were now encouraged to generate alternate headings and construct an outline without reference to the passage if they were able. Session eight involved a discussion of study strategies and a timed study practice for a passage with five headings.  Session nine, in which students practised writing delayed  recall was supervised by the teacher using the standard instructions.  Instruction in the  tenth session was focused on review of study strategies and example protocols were  51  examined.  Throughout the experimental sessions the content of material from the  previous lesson was recalled by students prior to new instruction.  In addition, the  structure of the content material and the relation between propositions and headings were emphasized in all but the practice writing session.  Instruction throughout the experimental  lessons was based on techniques described by Catterson (1983) and Pieronek (1984). e) Instructional Sessions: Conventional. In contrast, the conventional instruction involved no emphasis on structure. 10 conventional sessions generally followed a basic pattern.  The  Students read the content  passages independently and wrote answers to related questions which were based on the macrostructure.  Throughout the conventional sessions content of passages from the  previous session was reviewed by having students share answers orally, mark and correct Materials were collected by the investigator on four occasions and examined to ensure that exercises were completed thoroughly. f) Administration of Final Test Administration of the final test (Parrots) comprised the final stage of data collection.  As with the initial test, administration was accomplished by the classroom  teachers over two days. second.  The passage was studied on the first day; recalled on the  Protocols were then collected by the investigator for scoring and analysis. Table 6 provides a summary of the entire procedure.  G.  Scoring  Recall templates were developed based on the template used by Stables (1985) with the addition of heading bars.  Scoring procedures for Quantity and Organization  were developed by Goble and Coulombe (1986) adapting procedures used by Taylor (1982), Clark (1982) and Stables (1985).  Table 7 shows a summary of procedures used  52  Table 6: Summary of Procedures Used for Conventional and Experimental Groups Session  Group Conventional  Teacher Orientation/Student Familiarization  Gates-MacGinitie Testing  Initial testing Sessions  (Termites)  Instructional Sessions: Lesson One  Experimental  Met individually with each teacher to provide overview; describe role. Provided calendar of procedures and manual of procedures. Teachers told how to Teachers told not to monitor instruction probe or discuss instruction. Half-day spent by investigator with each experimental class to establish rapport Each teacher administered Comprehension Subtest of Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Form D, Level 2, Canadian Edition. 1. Each teacher administered standardized study portion of initial test (Termites). Fifteen minutes. 2. Each teacher administered delayed written recall of initial test using standardized instructions. Teachers directed students Investigator instructed to give written answers to students on differences questions based on between narrative and Termites. descriptive structures; classification of Grasshoppers.  Lesson Two  Teachers led oral sharing, marking and correcting of Termites questions; directed students to read Grasshoppers and give written answers to questions.  Investigator elicited recall of Grasshoppers; instructed students on idea-sorting at word and phrase level.  Teachers led oral sharing, marking and correcting of Grasshoppers questions; directed students to read Riches of the Sea and  give written answers to questions. Lesson Four  Investigator elicited recall of content from final idea-sorting task; instructed students on organization of Riches of the Sea using cut up outlines, underlining, side-bar.  Teacher led oral sharing, marking and correcting of Riches of the Sea questions; directed students  Investigator elicited recall of Riches of the Sea; instructed students on organization of passage  to read The Vikings of  The Vikings of Denmark  Teacher led oral sharing, marking and correcting of  of The Vikings of  Denmark and give written using headings, cut-up answers to questions. outline, underlining, side-bar. Lesson Five  Investigator elicited recall  The Vikings of Denmark Denmark; instructed questions; directed students students on organization to read Fire Walkers and of Fire Walkers using  give written answers to questions.  alternate headings, identification of main ideas and related details.  Teacher led oral sharing, marking and correcting of  Investigator elicited recall of Fire Walkers;  instructed students on organization of Animal Animals' Protection and Protection having them give written answers to complete written outline. questions. Fire Walkers questions;  directed students to read  Lesson Seven  Teacher led oral sharing, Investigator elicited recall marking and correcting of of Animal Protection,  Animal Protection instructed students on questions; directed students organizational structure of to read Horses and give Horses using side-bar. written answers to questions. Lesson Eight  Teacher led oral sharing, marking and correcting of Horses questions; directed students to study and answer questions on Animals' Eyes.  Investigator elicited recall of Horses; elicited recall of study procedures to date; directed students to study Animals Eyes. 1  54  Practice Session  Lesson  Nine  Teachers supervised as students practised writing a delayed recall protocol to' gain experience prior to actual testing. (Animals' Eyes using standard instructions). Teacher led oral sharing, Investigator directed marking and correcting of examination of two Animals' Eyes questions. practice protocols; led discussion regarding organization.  Final Testing Sessions (Parrots)  1. Each teacher administered standardized study portion of final test (Parrots). Fifteen minutes.  2. Each teacher administered delayed written recall of final test, using standardized instructions. Experimental lessons and materials are contained in Appendix C. Conventional questions are contained in Appendix B. Initial and Final test passages and directions are contained in Appendix A.  in developing scoring procedures for Quantity.  Table 8 shows a summary of procedures  used in developing scoring procedures for Organization. templates and  Scoring procedures, tests,  examples from the study are included in Appendix D.  Written recall scores for quantity and organization were recorded on the templates rather than student protocols.  Scores were later transferred to master data sheets on  which identity number, school, ability level and standard test scores had  been recorded.  Data were then entered on computer and analyzed.  H.  Two  Design and Data Analysis  measures were taken to reduce the threat to internal validity which would  have been posed by a strict posttest-only non-equivalent control group design.  Because  the threat to internal validity in such a design is the possibility of preexisting group  55  Table 7: Summary of Scoring Procedures Used in Developing Goble/Coulombe (1986) Scoring Procedures for Quantity of Ideas in Written Recall Taylor (1982)  Clark (1982)  Stables (1985  Goble/Coulombe (1986)  used with expository  used with narrative  used with expository  used with expository  scored against template of propositions  scored against template of pausal units  scored against template of pausal units representing macropropositions (superordinate) and micropropositions (subordinate)  pausal units representing macropropositions and micropropositions  one score per proposition  partial or single score per pausal unit  separate scores for macro- and micropropositions  partial or single score per pausal unit  expressed as total  expressed as percent  expressed as subtotals  expressed as total  differences (Borg & Gall, 1983).  The Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Test was used as  a covariate and analysis of covariance was employed to determine whether the groups differed significantly on the two initial dependent measures (quantity or organization of ideas in delayed written recall).  Thus, the design of the study was a pretest-posttest  non-equivalent control group design. The following considerations should be noted with respect to satisfying the assumptions underlying analysis of covariance (homogeneity of variance, representativeness of the sample, and normality of measures within the population).  Homogeneity of variance  was found for each measure using the test statistic F (Hopkins & Glass, 1984, p. 262). Although the sample was not randomly selected it can be considered reasonably  56  Table 8: Summary of Scoring Procedures Used in Developing Goble/Coulombe (1986) Scoring Procedures for Organization of Ideas in Written Recall Taylor (1982)  Clark (1982)  Stables (1985)  Goble/Coulombe (1986)  used with expository  used with narrative  used with expository  used with expository  organization assessed on basis of number of subsections with information recalled in order  sequence evaluation  organization  organization  subjectively estimated on basis of observed match between author and student  assessed on basis of agreement between author's and student's sequence  or  computed as correlation  assessed on combined aspects of sequence evaluation by subsection  (clusters), format features (headings), and weighted scores  for importance level  expressed as rating (1-5)  expressed as rating (excellent, good, fair, poor)  expressed as total out of 5  or  Kendall's tau importance level  format identified using six features: title headings grouping point form numbering paragraphs  expressed as mean  expressed as total number of students using each feature.  given using weighted score for importance of each pausal unit  expressed as total out of 61  57  representative of the academic abilities of fifth grade students in Canada when compared to local and national norms.  As well, research has suggested that the dependent recall  variables, quantity and organization, are normally distributed (Danner, 1976; Meyer, 1984; Meyer, Brandt & Bluth, 1980; Taylor, 1982). Since the study was concerned with differences which might exist subsequent to treatment the hypotheses were stated in reference to the final testing. were stated with each dependent variable.  Three hypotheses  Analysis of covariance, using comprehension  scores on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, was employed to test each set of hypotheses.  The level of statistical significance for testing differences was set at a<.05.  The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), University of British Columbia.  58  CHAPTER rV: Results  This chapter will present results in five categories.  First, results of the  standardized comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie reading test will be described. Second, reliability measures for scoring will be presented.  Next, comparison between  groups on the initial measures of Quantity and Organization of ideas in delayed written recall will be reported.  Fourth, the six research hypotheses  presentation of the relevant results.  will be restated followed by  Finally, a post hoc examination  of the use of  headings by treatment groups on initial and final testing will be presented.  A.  Scores from  Gates-MacGinitie  the Gates-MacGinitie comprehension subtest were used in two ways.  First, the scores were used as a covariate because it was treatment groups were comparable in ability.  Second, the scores were used to classify  students according to low, average or high reading ability. determining ability levels (grade equivalents from average and  not initially known whether the  The  3.0 to 4.9 for low, from  6.0 and above for high) proved to be unrealistic.  Comprehension subtest ranged  original basis for 5.0 to 5.9 for  Actual scores on the  from a grade equivalent of 2.0 to 11.6 with the  preponderance of scores in the 5.2 to 8.2 range.  It was  decided to classify students  scoring below minus one standard deviation as low; between plus and minus one standard deviation as average; and above plus one standard deviation as high.  These classifications  compared favourably with teachers' estimates of ability based on previous testing and classroom performance. deviations and  Table 11 provides a summary of range, means, standard  comprehension scores for all subjects used in the analyses.  Due  to  59  absenteeism and lack of previously collected standardized scores for some subjects data were collected from 153 of the 168 possible subjects.  Of the fifteen students for which  data were not obtained nine were from the experimental group; six were from the conventional group.  Of the nine students eliminated from the experimental group six  were absent for one of the testing sessions, one scored below the norms on the Gates-MacGinitie comprehension subtest; and two were absent for the duration of the study.  The six students excluded from the conventional group were absent for one of  the testing sessions. had 78 students.  The experimental group had 75 students and the conventional group  The mean number of instructional sessions attended by the total sample  of 163 was high, as were the means for attendance within the treatment groups.  Actual  means are listed in Table 9. Table 9: Mean Attendance and Mean Percent Attendance for Conventional and Experimental Groups in 10 Instructional Sessions Group  n  Mean attendance  Mean attendance (percent)  Conventional  78  9.76  97.6%  Experimental  75  9.72  97.2%  Total sample  153  9.74  97.4%  On the basis of scores obtained from the Gates MacGinitie Comprehension Subtest, Canadian Edition, Form D (1979-80) administered by teachers just prior to the study, the conventional and experimental groups were seen to be similar in ability. T-values for scores on the Gates-MacGinitie are listed in Table 10.  The  60  Table 10: Means and Standard Deviations of Conventional. Experimental. West Vancouver (1982) and Stables (1985) Groups for Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test. Comprehension Subtest (T-scores) Group  X  S.D.  n  Conventional  52.57  8.76  78  Experimental  52.12  9.23  75  Combined Conventional/ Experimental  52.35  9.23  153  West Vancouver (1982)  53.38  7.90  313  Stables (1985)  53.22  9.83  50  The means and standard deviations for the conventional and experimental groups are comparable: X = 52.57, s.d. = 8.76 and X = 52.12, s.d. = 9.23 respectively.  The  mean Comprehension score for fifth grade students in the Stables (1985) study are also included in Table 10.  The subjects in the Stables sample were randomly selected from a  total of three intact, regular, non-streamed fifth grade classes in Maple Ridge, Richmond and Surrey, British Columbia.  It can be seen from Table 10 that the mean and  variance in academic ability for subjects in the present study were comparable to those of: 1) subjects randomly selected from lower mainland public schools in the Stables study; and 2) the 1982 West Vancouver fifth grade population.  Table 11: Summary of Means. Standard Deviations and Range for Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Scores T-Scores X  s.d.  n  Conventional  52.57  8.76  78  Low Average High  40.85 52.67 62.61  4.42 3.08 2.99  20 37 21  Experimental  52.12  9.75  75  Low Average High  40.70 53.09 64.26  5.37 3.46 3.26  23 33 19  Group  Grade Equivalents  Group  X  Range  Conventional  6.7  2.4 - 11.6  Low Average High  3.9 6.8 10.1  2.4 - 5.0 5.2 - 8.2 8.8 - 11.6  Experimental  6.6  2.4 - 11.6  Low Average High  3.9 6.8 10.3  2.4 - 5.0 5.2 - 8.2 8.8 - 11.6  62  B.  Reliability for Scoring  All scoring was done by the investigator. were scored for the initial test final test  One hundred and forty-seven protocols  One hundred and fifty-three protocols were scored for  Twenty-five percent of the final protocols were than randomly selected.  To  determine reliability these were re-marked by an investigator from a parallel study using a blind scoring procedure.  Interrater reliability was .99 for the Quantity measure and .99  for the Organization measure.  An additional twenty-five percent of the protocols were  randomly selected and rescored blindly by the investigator to establish intrarater reliability. Intrarater reliability was .99 for Quantity and .99 for Organization.  Both reliability  measures were computed using a covariance matrix on the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) at the University of British Columbia. The high level of interrater reliability may have stemmed from the fact that the raters (Goble/Coulombe) had developed the scoring procedures so it was decided to test interrater reliability using a rater who was unfamiliar with the study.  An additional 10%  of the protocols were rescored blindly and interrater reliability was computed at .99 for both measures.  C.  Initial Tests  The initial test scores for Quantity and Organization were examined using analysis of covariance with the Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension subtest to determine whether significant differences existed between groups prior to treatment.  The means, standard  deviations and analysis of covariance for both initial measures are summarized in Table 12.  No significant differences existed between groups on initial measures of Quantity or  63  Organization.  Table 12: Summary of Means. Standard Deviations and Analysis of Covariance for Initial Scores With Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Scores Quantity*  Source Group (Conv) (Exp)  X = 16.96 sd = 5.93 n = 75 X = 15.87 sd = 6.89 n = 72  Residual  SS  df  MS  F  28.41  1  28.41  1.04  3819.08  140  27.28  SS  df  MS  F  5.64  1  5.64  0.05  15031.19  140  107.36  Organization**  Source Group (Conv) (Exp)  X = 22.66 sd = 11.36 n = 75 X = 22.73 sd = 12.94 n = 72  Residual * Possible score of 31 points  **Possible score of 61 points  Table 13: Summary of Means, Standard Deviations, and Analysis of Covariance for Final Scores by Treatment and Ability with Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Quantity  SS  df  MS  F  485.97  1  485.97  14.729*  Ability  46.67  2  23.34  0.71  Treatment x Ability  32.86  2  16.43  0.50  4817.07  146  32.99  SS  df  MS  F  6757.65  1  6757.65  58.82*  118/09  2  59.05  0.51  34.59  2  17.29  0.51  16774.51  146  114.89  Source Treatment (Conv) (Exp)  X = 13.63 sd = 6.31 n = 78 X = 17.09 sd = 7.34 n = 75  Residual  Organization  Source Treatment (Conv) (Exp.)  Ability Treatment x Ability Residual  X = 21.65 sd = 10.86 n = 78 X = 34.76 sd = 14.00 n = 75  65  D.  Final Tests  Three null hypotheses were formulated in relation to each of the final measures, Quantity and Organization.  This section will present the hypotheses and results pertaining  to the measure of Quantity followed by those pertaining to Organization.  The means,  standard deviations, and analysis of covariance for both measures are summarized in Table 13. 1.  Quantity  Ho,:  There will be no significant difference between the treatment groups in their adjusted mean posttest performance on the quantity of ideas in delayed written recall. A significant difference, in favour of the experimental group was found between  treatments on the measure of Quantity (F = 14.729, p<.001). rejected. Ho : 2  The null hypothesis was  The effect size for this difference was .54.  There will be no significant difference between the three reading ability groups in their adjusted mean posttest performance on the quantity of ideas in delayed written recall. No significant effect was found for ability group (F = 0.71).  The null  hypothesis was accepted. Ho : 3  There will be no significant interaction between student membership in both independent variable populations (treatment, ability) and their adjusted mean posttest scores for quantity of ideas in delayed written recall. No significant interaction was found between treatment and ability group (F =  0.50).  The null hypothesis was accepted.  66  2.  Organization  Ho*,:  There will be no significant difference between the treatment groups in their adjusted mean posttest performance on the organization of ideas in delayed written recall. A significant difference, in favour of the experimental group, was found between  treatments on the measure of Organization (F = 58.82, p<.001). was rejected. Ho : 5  The null hypothesis  The effect size for this difference was .94.  There will be no significant difference between the three reading ability groups in their adjusted mean posttest performance on the organization of ideas in delayed written recall. No significant effect was found for ability group (F = 0.51).  The null  hypothesis was accepted. Ho : 6  There will be no significant interaction between student membership in both independent variable populations (treatment, ability) and their adjusted mean posttest scores for quantity of ideas in delayed written recall. No significant interaction was found between treatment and ability group (F =  0.51).  The null hypothesis was accepted.  E.  Post Hoc Examination of Headings  Subsequent to examining the measures of Quantity and Organization it was decided to determine whether the treatment groups differed significantly on the use of headings for initial or final testing.  Table 14 provides a summary of means, standard deviations  and analysis of covariance for Headings.  Table 14: Summary of Means and Analysis of Covariance for Headings by Treatment and Ability with Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Initial Test Headings (possible score of 5) SS  df  MS  F  2.32  1  2.32  0.72  Ability  1.38  2  0.69  0.38  Treatment x Ability  3.98  2  1.99  1.10  252.57  140  1.80  Source Treatment (Conv) (Exp)  X sd n X sd n  = = = = = =  0.39 1.15 75 0.64 1.21 72  Residual  Final Test Headings (possible score of 5) SS  df  MS  F  538.27  1  538.27  368.78*  Ability  2.86  2  1.43  0.98  Treatment x Ability  2.64  2  1.32  0.90  204.34  140  1.46  Source Treatment (Conv) (Exp)  Residual *p<.001  X sd n X sd n  = = = = = =  0.37 1.15 75 4.19 1.35 72  68  Analysis of covariance revealed no significant effects or interactions for the initial measure of Headings.  A significant effect for treatment, in favour of the experimental  group was found on the final measure of Headings (F = 368.78, p<.001). size for this difference was 2.83.  The effect  69  CHAPTER V: Summary, Conclusions, Limitations, Implications  In this chapter a summary of the study, conclusions based on results, limitations and implications will be presented. materials and data analyses used.  The summary will review the purpose, design, Conclusions will be drawn in relation to: 1) results  from the initial test; 2) the six hypotheses generated for the final test; and 3) results of the post hoc analyses of headings. can be generalized.  Limitations will address the extent to which results  Implications will deal with practical application of these findings and  suggest areas for future research.  A.  Summary of the Study  The purpose of this study was to determine whether fifth grade students could be sensitized to text structure and headings; and to examine the effects of training for sensitization on measures of quantity or organization of ideas in delayed written recall. Subjects were fifth grade students from 6 parochial school classes.  A pretest-posttest  non-equivalent group design was used to test six null hypotheses.  Conventional group  subjects received instruction involving reading and answering questions based on information-classification text.  Experimental group subjects received instruction focusing on  headings and text structure in the same information-classification selections.  Data on  Quantity and Organization were analyzed using analysis of covariance with Gates-MacGinitie comprehension scores acting as the covariate.  A post hoc examination  of headings in initial and final protocols was also conducted using analysis of covariance.  70  B.  1.  Conclusions  Initial Test: Quantity and Organization  No significant differences were found between groups prior to treatment on the measures of Quantity and Organization of ideas in delayed written recall.  This suggests  that the treatment groups were equal in overall ability to perform these tasks at the outset of the study.  2.  Final Test: Quantity and Organization  The first of the six hypotheses stated dealt with the quantity of ideas in delayed written recall.  The experimental treatment group showed a significantly greater number of  ideas recalled than the conventional group (p<.001).  One possible explanation for this  effect is that sensitization to headings as aids to recall enabled students to internalize and reconstruct more of the text.  It should be noted that both treatments involved review of  passages from memory, but only the experimental treatment drew specific attention to headings and structure.  Taylor (1982) has suggested that focusing on the structure of  text can lead to higher recall scores.  The results of the present study appear to support  this. The effect size of .54 for the first hypothesis indicates the degree of practical significance.  The average student in the experimental group scored slightly higher than  the 68th percentile of the control group. The second hypothesis predicted no significant effect for ability group on quantity of ideas in delayed recall.  This was shown to be the case.  Apparently, when ability  71  was partialed out, each of the ability groups were equally affected by treatmenL  This  suggests that students at each level of reading competency were developmentally ready for instruction on text structure and headings as aids to recall.  Even though less competent  readers were functioning at a lower level it appears they performed in a manner similar to more competent readers. The third hypothesis correctly anticipated that no significant interaction between treatment and reading ability level would be found for the measure of Quantity.  Since  the three ability levels, low, average and high, were equally affected by the treatments the lack of interaction is not surprising. The fourth hypothesis, dealing with the effect of treatment on organization of ideas in delayed written recall showed significant results in favour of the experimental treatment (p<.001).  It seemed that students who had been sensitized to the relationship  between text and headings were better able to use organizational features such as headings, macropropositions and clustering of related ideas in reconstructing the test passage. The effect size of .94 for the fourth hypothesis suggests that as well as being statistically significant this result was practically significant  The average student in the  experimental group scored at the 82nd percentile of the control group. Results relating to the fifth and sixth hypotheses, dealing with the possibility of an effect for ability level or interaction between ability level and treatment did not prove to be significant  These combined results suggest that the instruction for headings and  text structure was as effective, relative to the conventional instruction, for each of the levels of reading competency.  72  3.  Headings  It is interesting to note that instruction for headings and text structure significantly affects both quantity and organization of ideas in delayed written recall (p<.001).  It  seems that students at this level can be sensitized to descriptive text structure and headings as cues to that structure.  As well, students trained to recognize and use both,  demonstrated superior recall in terms of quantity and organization to students who were not trained.  This superior performance was consistent across levels of reading competency.  Examining the number of headings used in initial and final protocols also proved interesting.  Clearly, there was no significant difference between groups on the number of  headings used in the initial protocols. headings on the initial protocol.  In fact, very few students from either group used  The significant difference (p<.001) in the number of  headings used on the final protocol suggests that students in the experimental group definitely were sensitized to headings. The effect size of 2.83 for headings after treatment indicates the level of practical significance.  The average student in the experimental group scored above the 99th  percentile of the conventional group.  Perhaps findings in earlier studies, showing students  at this level to be unable to use headings, resulted from a lack of training.  C.  Limitations  Certain aspects of the study should be considered before results are generalized. 1.  Although the sample seems to be representative of fifth grade students in Canada, in terms of academic ability, it is possible that factors such as attitude or amount of effort differ between this sample and the population.  73  2.  The  question can be raised of a possible Hawthorne effect, due  teaching the experimental lessons.  It is possible that the nature of the  experimental lessons, involving some manipulative materials, was than the routine conventional lessons and 3.  The  to the investigator  this may  have caused the results.  time of year at which the study took place may  possible that results would have differed had  more interesting  have been a factor.  It is  the instruction taken place earlier in  the school year. 4.  It should be noted that the materials used for teaching and testing were written for the independent  reading level and  to grade level material.  it is not known whether the skills transfer  However, subsequent to the study, two  teachers reported  that students were spontaneously using headings and clustering in writing research reports. 5.  The  period over which instruction took place was  relatively brief.  It is possible  that effects of experimental instruction would be more marked if instruction continued over a longer span of time.  It is not known whether particular aspects  of the lessons, or the lessons as a whole, were responsible for the observed effects.  No  argument is being made for the lessons being the best techniques for  sensitizing students to headings and text structure.  D.  The  Implications  results of this investigation suggest that instruction focusing on headings  text structure can aid students in internalizing and reconstructing text. headings and  and  Sensitivity to  structure apparently enhances students' memory for what is read and  enables them to recall with greater organization.  These results are potentially important  74  to the teaching of both content area reading and writing.  In addition to potential  positive effects on recall, use of headings and text structure could be taught as an independent study and research strategy. If students were trained to make use of headings and text structure, comprehension and written organization would likely benefit across the content subjects.  E.  Future Research  Additional research should be conducted in this area including investigation of: 1) the effects of a longer period of instruction with progression toward grade level materials; 2) the long term effects of instruction, using more delayed recall measures; 3) the possibility of sensitizing students to expository text structures other than informationclassification.  75  References  Alverman, D. E. (1975). Restructuring text facilitates written recall of main idea. Journal of Reading, 25(8), 754-758. Alverman, D. E. (1981). The compensatory effect of graphic organizers of descriptive text. Journal of Educational Research, 75(1), 44-48. Aulls, M . W.  (1975).  Expository paragraph properties that influence literal recall.  Journal of Reading Behavior, 7(4), 391-400.  Ausubel, D. P. (1960). The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 57(5), 267-272. Ausubel, D. P., & Fitzgerald, D. (1961). The role of discriminability in meaningful verbal learning and retention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 52(5), 266-274. Baumann, J. F. (1983). studies textbooks.  Children's ability to comprehend main idea after reading social (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 209 647)  Baumann, J. F. (1984). The effectiveness of a direct instruction paradigm for teaching main idea comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 20(1), 93-108. Borg, W. R., & Gall, M . D. New York: Longman.  (1983).  Educational research: An introduction. Fourth ed.  Bower, G., Clark, M., Winzenz, D., & Lesgold, A. (1966). Hierarchical retrieval schemes in recall of categorized word lists. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 323-343. Brooks, L. W., Dansereau, D. F., Spurlin, J. E., & Holley, C. D. (1983). Effects of headings on text processing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(2), 292-302. Carroll, J. F., & Freedle, R. O. (1972). Language comprehension and the acquisition of knowledge. Washington: Winston & Son. Carter, J. F., & Carrier, C.  (1976).  Prose organization and recall. Contemporary  Educational Psychology, 1, 329-345.  Caterson, J. H. (1966). Idea sorting. Unpublished instructional materials. Quebec: Quebec Public School System. Catterson, J. H. (1983). Catterson instructional sequence. Unpublished handbook. Vancouver, B.C.: University of British Columbia. Catterson, J. H.  (1965).  Successful study skills programs: Developing study skills in  76  secondary schools. Delaware: IRA.  Christensen, C. M., & Stordahl., K. E. (1955). comprehension and retention.  The effect of organizational aids on  Journal of Educational Psychology, 46(2), 65-74.  Christie, D. J., & Schumacher, G. M . (1975). Development trends in the abstraction and recall of relevant versus irrelevant thematic information from connected verbal materials. Child Development, 46, 589-602. Clark, C. H. (1982).  Assessing free recall.  The Reading Teacher, 35(A).  Crowhurst, M . (1984). Seven unpublished expository passages. British Columbia. Dale, E., & Chall, J.  (1948).  Vancouver: University of  A formula for predicting readability. Educational  Research Bulletin, 28, 11-20.  Danner, F. W. (1976). Children's understanding of intersentence organization in the recall of short descriptive passages. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68(2), 174-183. Doctorow, M., Wittrock, M . C , & Marks, C. (1978). Generative processes in reading comprehension instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 109-118. Durkin, D. (1978-79). instruction.  What classroom observations reveal about reading comprehension  Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 515-544.  Elashoff, J. D. (1969).  Analysis of covariance: A delicate instrument. AMerican  Educational Research Journal, 6(3), 383-401.  Estes, T. H. (1972). Reading in the social studies: A review of the research since 1950, in J. Laffey (Ed.), Reading in the content areas. Delaware: IRA. Estes, T. H., & Vaughan, Jr., J. L. (1978). classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Fry, E.  (1972).  Reading and learning in the content  Reading instruction for classroom and clinic. New York: McGraw-Hill.  Garrett, H . E., & Woodworth, R. S. (1966). Statistics in psychology and education. New York: David McKay Company, Inc. Gibbs, R. S. (1985). The use of headings and text organization as aids to recall of expository prose by students in grades 5 through 10 with emphasis on grades 7  and 8. Unpublished master's thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Glass, G. V., & Hopkins, K. D. (1984). Statistical methods in education and psychology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Glynn, S. M., & Di Vesta, F. J.  (1977).  Outline and hierarchical organization as aids  77  for study and retrieval.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 89-95.  Hansell, T. S.  (1978).  Stepping up to outlining.  Journal of Reading, 22, 248-252.  Herber, H. L.  (1970).  Teaching reading in content areas. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.  Herber, H. L. (1972). Reading in the social studies: Implications for teaching and research. In J. Laffey (Ed.), Reading in the content areas. Delaware: IRA. Holley, C. D., Dansereau, D. F., Evans, S. H., Collins, K. W., Brooks, L., & Larson, D. (1981). Utilizing intact and embedded headings as processing aids with nonnarrative text Contemporary Educational Psychology, 6, 227-236. King, C. M . (1985). Effects of headings on the written recall and organization of expository text in grades 5 through 10 with emphasis on grades 7 and 8.  Unpublished master's thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  Kintsch, W., & van Dijk, T. A. production.  McKee, P.  (1948).  (1978).  Toward a model of text comprehension and  Psychological Review, 85(5), 363-394.  The teaching of reading. New York: Houghton Mifflin.  McLaughlin, G. H . (1969). SMOG grading—a new readability formula. Reading, 12, 639-646. Mayer, R. E., & Bromage, B. K. due to advance organizers.  (1980).  Journal of  Different recall protocols for technical texts  Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(2), 209-225.  Meyer, B. J. F. (1984). Organizational aspects of text: Effects on reading comprehension and applications for the classroom, in J. Flood (Ed.), Promoting reading comprehension (pp. 113-138). Newark, NJ: IRA. Meyer, B. J., Brandt, D. M., & Bluth, G. J. (1980). Use of top-level structure in text: Key for reading comprehension of ninth-grade students. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 72-103. Miller, G. A. (1976). Text comprehension skills and process models of text comprehension. In H. Singer & R. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading. Delaware: IRA.  Moore, D. W., Readence, J. E., & Rickelman, R. J. (1983). An historical exploration of content area reading instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 18(4), 419-438. Otto, W., Barrett, T. C , & Koenke, K. the main idea in reading.  (1969).  Assessment of children's statements of  Proceedings of the International Reading Association,  13, 692-697. Pearson, P. D.  (1984).  Handbook of reading research. New York: Longman.  Pichert, J. W., & Anderson, R. C.  (1976).  Taking different perspectives on a story.  78  Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(4), 308-315. Pieronek, F. T.  (1984).  Techniques of teaching reading in the content area.  Unpublished handbook.  Vancouver, B.C.: University of British Columbia.  Proger, B. B., Taylor, Jr., R. G., Mann, L., Coulson, J. M., & Bayuk, Jr., R. J. (1970). Conceptual pre-structuring for detailed verbal passages. The Journal of Educational Research, 64(1), 28-34.  Robinson, F. P., & Hall, P.  (1941).  Studies of higher-level reading abilities. The  Journal of Educational Psychology, 32(4), 241-252.  Shores, J. H . (1943). Skills related to the ability to read history and science. Journal of Educational Research, 56(8), 585-594. Slater, W. H., Graves, M . F., & Piche, G. L. (1985). Effects of structural organizers on ninth-grade students' comprehension and recall of four patterns of expository text  Reading Research Quarterly, 22(2), 189-201.  Smith, N . B. (1964). 7(2), 97-102. Spache, G.  (1969).  Patterns of writing in different subject areas.  Journal of Reading,  The Spache readability formula: Good reading for poor readers.  Illinois: Garra 1 Publishing.  Spache, G. D., & Spache, E. B. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  (1977).  Reading in the elementary school.  Stables, R. G. (1985). The effects of text organization and headings on grades 5 through 10 students' written recall of expository prose with emphasis on grades 5 and 6. Unpublished master's thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Taylor, B. M . (1980).  Children's memory for expository text after reading. Reading  Research Quarterly, 15, 399-411.  Taylor, B. M., & Beach, R. W. (1984). The effects of text structure instruction on middle grade students' comprehension and production of expository text Reading Research Quarterly, 19(2), 134-145.  Wittrock, M . C. 87-95.  (1974).  Learning as a generative process.  Educational Psychologist, 11,  79  Appendix A: Initial and Final Test Passages—Standardized Instructions for Administration of Tests  80  Standardized Instructions for Administration of Tests  Directions for Written Recall:  (name of passage)  Ensure that each child has a book to read prior to testing. Hand out the lined paper. Have students label the paper with name, grade and school. Each different written protocol should be labelled with the date. Use the following directions:  spelling.  You will have up to 25 minutes to write.  Please don't talk."  Have individual students paraphrase the directions. You may repeat the standardized directions until you feel certain each child understands. Direct students: "You may begin. When you have written everything you remember, turn your paper over and read your library book. Do your very best"  PLEASE REMEMBER TO COLLECT ALL the written protocols. Protocols and study sheets will be collected by the investigators for analysis.  81  Standardized Instructions for Administration of Tests  PRIOR TO BEGINNING ensure that each child has a book to read. studying they should turn their papers over and read quietly.  Directions for Studying Passage:  When they finish  (name of passage)  1.  Hand out the test passage face down.  2.  EMPHASIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE TESTS. Use the following directions: "When you turn the paper over you will have 15 minutes to read and study this passage. Use whatever will help you to remember it You may write on the paper if you need to. Tomorrow you are going to be asked to write down everything you remember, exactly as you remember it" Have individual students paraphrase the directions. You may repeat the standardized instructions until you feel certain each child understands. Direct students to: "Turn the passage over. Put your name, date and grade on the sheet PAUSE. You may begin to study. If you need help reading a word put up your hand and I will help you."  PLEASE REMEMBER to collect all the study sheets and return them to their original envelope.  PARROTS  82  The. Parrot Family Few birds are as interesting and beautiful as parrots. There are more than 700 kinds of birds i n the parrot family. People l i k e parrots because they can teach them how to t a l k . They are also admired for t h e i r bright colours. Different Features Parrots are very different from other b i r d s . The'parrot always has a large beak l i k e a hook. This beak i s very.strong. .The b i r d uses i t to help him climb about. Parrots also use t h e i r feet to hold food and to.help them climb. Natural Environment  •  •  Parrots can be found i n a l l the warmer parts of the world. South America and A u s t r a l i a have the greatest number of different kinds. Many of them nest i n trees. Some nest i n c l i f f s . Still others nest on the ground.A Parrot's Cage  .  -  Of a l l the birds kept as pets, parrots seem to like'cages the most.- The parrot's cage should •be large enough for him to move e a s i l y about without breaking his. feathers . Now-a-days most cages are made of stainless s t e e l . This metal i s very strong and i s easy to clean. Sand or gravel •should cover the bottom of the cage. The cage should be cleaned once a week. Feeding a Parrot Parrots w i l l eat nearly anything that i s given to them. Many things are not good for them,"' though. They may eat some f r u i t , but not a l o t . The best" food for the parrot i s a mix of seeds and nuts. Liquid vitamins should be. added to the parrot's food. Following these simple rules w i l l keep your parrot healthy and happy for many years. Name: Date: Grade:  •  TERMITES  Ancient Insects Few i n s e c t s have been on the e a r t h as long as t e r m i t e s . They have been around f o r m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . These i n s e c t s have h a r d l y changed i n that t i m e . They have always been about as s m a l l as ants. N a t u r a l Environment Termites can be found i n the -warmer parts of the -world. They l i v e i n A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and many parts of the t r o p i c s . Some termites l i v e l i v e underground. Some kinds l i v e i n -wood. Others i n great p i l e s of e a r t h Termites i n " C i t i e s " Termites l i v e i n nests t h a t are l i k e c i t i e s . D i f f e r e n t termites have d i f f e r e n t j o b s . Each nest has a k i n g and queen. They are the parents of a l l the other t e r m i t e s . Some termites are s o l d i e r s . Other termites are -workers. Changes i n Appearance Termites change i n appearance as they grow. A t e r m i t e sheds i t s s k i n s e v e r a l t i m e s . Each time i t grows b i g g e r . Young kings and queens have •wings f o r a short time. They use them only once. They f l y to a new home, then they lose t h e i r v i n g s . .Harmful Habits No matter where they -make t h i r homes, termites always do much harm. They eat paper and wood. They can eat through a book from cover to cover. Termites can eat tables and c h a i r s . They can chew through• the w a l l s of a house. They can eat r i g h t through a t r e e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to get r i d of t e r m i t e s .  Name: Date: Grade:  84  Appendix B: Instructional Procedures and Matehals(Conventional Group)  85  Instructional Procedures and Materials(Co«vewt/o/za/ Group Each lesson involves basically the same procedures. Students are to read a content passage and independently answer questions related to that passage. Please do not develop background or extension activities and do not call attention in any way to the paragraph headings. Most lessons will follow the same sequence: 1.  Distribute the completed question sheets from the previous day. Have students share their answers orally, marking and correcting their own written answers. (Accept any and all answers which are correct It is not necessary for students to include all the points related to a question unless they do this naturally.) Students may not refer to original passage—this is to serve as a recall/review exercise.  2.  Collect corrected question sheets before distributing next passage and questions.  3.  Direct students to read the new passage and write answers to the questions.  4.  Collect the passages and completed question sheets at the end of each lesson. Lessons which do not exactly follow this sequence are as follows:  LESSON ONE: May 6  1. 2. 3.  Students write delayed recall of "Termites." AFTER recall is complete and collected, students independently answer questions on termites. Collect completed question sheets to be marked orally on following day.  LESSON EIGHT: May 15  This is a special study day. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS!  LESSON NINE: May 20  1. 2.  PLEASE USE  Redistribute questions completed) on ANIMALS' EYES. Share answers orally and have students mark.  PLEASE REFER TO THIS SHEET AND YOUR INDIVIDUAL CALENDAR TO ENSURE THAT PROCEDURES ARE CORRECT.  86  TE?,MITES QUESTIONS 1.  Why are t e m i t e s c a l l e d ancier.t insects?  2.  In which parts of the world do termites live?  3.  How do termites l i v e ?  4.  During i t s l i f e , how does a termite's appearance change ?  5.  Why are termites harmful?  Name: Date: Grades  87  GRAS S HO ? ?E RS  Appearar.ee Grasshoppers are green i n colour. They have three pairs of long, strong legs. A grasshopper has two pairs of vines and one p a i r of antenna. MovementGrasshoppers can move i n different vays. The grasshopper uses i t s long -legs to jump'hich i n the a i r . A grasshopper can also f l y with i t s two pairs of wings. When i t wants.to get away fast, i t hops. Sounds A grasshopper has.no voice, but i t can make sounds. A grasshopper can make sounds by rubbing i t s top wings together. I t can also maki a sound by rubbing a wing and a leg together.  QUESTIONS 1. • What'are some of the physical features o f . a grasshopper?  2.  What are some ways that a grasshopper can  3.  How does a grasshopper make sounds?  Name: Date: Grade:  move'  RICHES OF THE SEA Farming the Sea  _  Farming for food under the ccsar. may scon he p o s s i b l e . There i s already much feed craving under the v a t e r . S c i e n t i s t s hope to make r.ev f i s h i n e crcunds vhere the vater i s not too deep. This kind cf "farming" v i i i help feed many pecpis. • Important Riches  ._  Seme of the most important riches found under the sea are o i l and gas. Lots of rocks under the vater have minerals i n them. ' Hecks v i t h "copper • and n i c k e l are v a i t i n g for someone to scoop them .up. • • " . Sea Water .Sea vater contains c o l d . In fact the sea holds about 7 t r i l l i o n c e l l a r s vorth cf cold alone I A l l the minerals found on land are found i n the sea.' No one kr.cvs hov to remove them q u i c k l y and cheaply.  Name: Date: Grade:  89  RICHES  OF  THE SEA  QUESTIONS  1.  What new way of getting food may soon be possible?  2.  What are some of the riches found i n the sea?  3.  What i s important about the gold contained i n sea water?  Name: Date: •Grade:  9,0  J  THE VIKINGS  OF  DENMARK  Leaving The Homeland Many problems caused the Vikings of Denmark to leave home. The farmland was so poor that hardly any food could be grown. The people fought among themselves to get more land or a place to f i s h . Many people turned to the sea t o - f i n d land and riches. Dragon-"Ships Viking war ships were often c a l l e d "dragon ships". They had t e r r i f y i n g carved dragon heads •on the front of them. Many ships were only as long as a large bus. They usually had one mast and one s a i l . These wooden ships were moved by oars. Raiding The Vikings planned t h e i r raids c a r e f u l l y . F i r s t they hid t h e i r boats. . They attacked suddenly and l e f t s w i f t l y . The Vikings k i l l e d men, women and c h i l d r e n . Some people were taken to be sold as slaves. Everything of value was carried off. Changed by C h r i s t i a n i t y The Vikings changed t h e i r ways when they learned about C h r i s t i a n i t y . Brave missionaries taught the Vikings about r e l i g i o n . Before long the Vikings gave up attacking other people. Many Vikings became good-Christians.  Name: Date: Grade:  THE VIKINGS O F DENMARK QUESTIONS 1.  Why d i d the Vikir.gs leave t h e i r homeland?  2.  What vers the Viking var shies l i k e ?  3.  Kow d i d the Vikir.gs carry out a raid?  4.  What happened to chance the Vikings?  Name:_ Date: Grade:  FIRE WALKERS  A Strange Practice In some lands people have a strange practice of walkina through f i r e . This p r a c t i c e ' i s many c e n t u r i e s ' o l d . I t i s s t i l l done today. Forms of F i r e Walking There are many yays to walk over f i r e . A barefoot person may walk quickly over c o a l s . Sometimes a person must walk through a log f i r e or through hot ashes. Other times, the f i r e walker may cross over red hot stones. Or, ashes may be poured over his head i n a f i r e bath. Reasons For F i r e Walking There.are. many reasons why people f i r e walk. I f a chief walks through f i r e and i s not hurt i t means that his.people w i l l have enough to eat. Other people walk through f i r e to show t h e i r strength. Sometimes a person must walk through f i r e to show that he. did not commit a crime. I f the person does not get burned'he i s set free. A MysteryI t i s a mystery that few f i r e -walkers get burned. Maybe the f i r e walker strongly believes he w i l l not get hurt. Or the f i r e walker mav breathe i n such a way that he'does not f e e l p a i n . People have checked to see i f f i r e walkers put something on t h e i r feet before walkina through f i r e . None ever do.  N ame: Date: Grade:  z l ? S  WALKS=3  What stra-ge o l d custom i s s t i l l practiced?  Eov i s f i r e walking  Why do people  practiced?  walk through f i r e ?  What i s s t i l l unexplained aiout people who walk through f i r e ? :  ANIMAL  PROTECTION  Speed Many animals can get away from enemies i n a hurry. Some, l i k e the deer can run very f a s t . Birds can f l y away very q u i c k l y . Others, l i k e s q u i r r e l s and chipmunks are quick at climbing trees. Teeth Some animals use t h e i r teeth for protection. Dogs and wolves have long sharp teeth. Some small animals l i k e rats and mink also have sharp teeth. • The teeth of some animals such as elephants have become tusks. A l l these animals use t h e i r teeth against t h e i r enemies. C laws •Claws protect some animals. Sometimes they use t h e i r claws i n f i g h t i n g other animals. Large birds such as eagles have strong claws. Wild cats l i k e the t i g e r also use t h e i r claws. Colour Many animals use t h e i r colour for protection. Some birds are hard to see 'because. they are the same colour as the trees. Toads are the colour of • d i r t . Some animals change colour. The rabbit i s white i n the winter. Some lizards- turn the same colour as the ground or leaves they stand on. 4  Poison Some animals use a poison to protect themselves The s t i n g of a bee or wasp has poison i n i t . Some spiders can poison larger animals so that they can not move. The sting ray i s a f i s h that uses poison. A s t i n g ray makes a very painful sore. Some snakes also use poison. Name: Date: Grade  1.  What helps some animals escape from t h e i r enemies?  2.  Eov can teeth be useful to animals?  3.  Eov do some animals use t h e i r clavs?  4.  Why i s colour sometimes a form of protection?  5.  What use do animals make of poison?  Name: Date: Grade:  HORSES  Horses of Long Ago The f i r s t horses lived on the earth i n the time of the dinosaurs. Then the horses were about the size of a fox. The meat-eating dinosaurs hunted them for food. When they were eating the horses had to watch out for danger. Horses Changed Over millions of years the horses changed. At f i r s t they had four toes on each front foot. They had three toes on each back foot. Now they have only one hoof on each l e g . Their legs became longer. This helped them run away from danger. Plant Eaters Horses have always eaten plants. The f i r s t horses ate more leaves and f r u i t . Now a horse eats grass, hay and grain. Sometimes they have a carrot for a special t r e a t . A horse has teeth made for grinding grasses. When a horse eats i n a f i e l d i t covers a l o t of ground. I t eats almost a l l day long. The Way Horses Live Some horses l i v e i n the wild.and some horses are tame. Zebras and mustangs are wild horses. Wild horses stay together i n b i g herds. Each herd has a leader. Tame horses have owners to feed and take care of them. Many owners have only one horse. Useful Horses Man has found many-uses for horses. -Cave men k i l l e d horses for meat. Horse skins have been used for clothes and tents. Later, men used horses for carrying heavy loads. Before there were cars, horses pulled wagons. Now they are used mostly for r i d i n g and racing.  Name:_ Date: Grade:  HORSES QUESTIONS 1.  What vers the f i r s t horses like?  2.  Eov have horses changed?  3.  What do horses eat?  4.  What are some types of horses?  5.  Eov have.horses been useful to man?  Name: Date: Grade:  ANIMALS' EYES  Amazing Sight Each animal's eyes are s p e c i a l . The eyes help the animal get information. Animal's eyes are different because they need different information to l i v e . The Rabbit The rabbit has eyes that see i n a complete c i r c l e . A rabbit can look a l l around i t s e l f without moving i t s head. This helps the rabbit when i t i s being chased. The rabbit can watch where he i s going and see his enemy behind him at the same time. The Lizard Some l i z a r d s have eyes that s t i c k out. One eye can look back while the other looks ahead. The l i z a r d ' s eyes help protect i t from enemies. I t can look for food with one eye and watch for trouble with the other. The Owl The owl's eyes can see at night. This helps i t hunt for animals. From the branch of a tree the owl can see anything moving on the ground. Even small rats and mice can be seen i n the dark by an owl. The Toad A toad's eyes help i n eating. F i r s t the toad's eyes help i t find i t s favourite food worms. Then the eyes help the toad move food through i t s mouth. When the toad closes i t s eyes i t can lower them through a door i n the roof of i t s mouth. The eyes hold the slipperyfood s t i l l u n t i l the toad can swallow i t . Name: Date: Grade:  ANIMALS EYES 1  QUESTIONS 1.  Why 'do d i f f e r e n t animals have d i f f e r e n t eyes?  2.  What i s special about the rabbit's eyes?  3.  What i s special about some l i z a r d ' s eyes?  4.  Hov are the owl's eyes useful?  5.  What can a toad use his eyes for?  Name: Date: Grade:  Appendix C: Instructional Procedures and MaterialsfExperimental Group)  101  Instructional Procedures and Materials (Experimental Group)  LESSON ONE (60 min.):  THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INFORMATION MATERIAL AND NARRATIVE MATERIAL  I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The students will be able to: sort narrative sequence strips sort information strips describe the difference between narrative and information material use headings to study for recall of details identify heading from a group of ideas II MATERIALS: Class set of sequence strips for Goldilocks and the Three Bears Display sequence strips for Goldilocks and the Three Bears Class set of content strips for Grasshoppers Display strips for Grasshoppers 2 pocket charts masking tape Chart: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STORY AND INFORMATION MATERIAL (see example) felt pens  III PROCEDURES: A. 1.  NARRATIVE MATERIAL Place Goldilocks story strips in disordered arrangement in the pocket chart.  102  2.  Discuss: a.  "What are these strips all about?" Three  "Which strip would be the title?"  c.  "Does this make sense? sensible?"  the  {Goldilocks  and  the Three  Bears).  What would you have to do to make it  (Put them in order).  Distribute Goldilocks the  and  Bears)  b.  d.  (The story of Goldilocks  sequence  strip envelopes and direct students to arrange  ideas so they make sense.  e.  Circulate and observe sorting.  f.  When students have finished sorting, call on individual students to tell strips are sequenced.  Students may  work in pairs. how  Display the strips sequentially in the pocket chart-  Ask individual students to justify the placement of each idea.  After all  sequencing has been completed, ask: "Did anyone have to change the arrangement  B.  INFORMATION  of their strips?  What did you have to change?  Why?"  MATERIAL  1.  Place disordered Grasshoppers  2.  Discuss:  strips in the second- pocket chart.  (Grasshoppers).  a.  "What is this all about?  b.  "Is. there one strip that could be a  title?"  c.  "Does this make sense?  What needs to be done?"  d.  "Can  Why  not?  (Grasshoppers).  you see any ideas that are more important than others?"  grasshopper moves, how physical features).  (how  a grasshopper makes sounds, a grasshopper's  a  103  3.  Give the directions: "Open your envelope.  Take the strips out and see if you  can find all the ideas that go with these main ideas." 4.  Circulate and observe sorting.  5.  Call on individual students to tell how ideas are organized. organization in the pocket chart main ideas?"  6.  Students may work in pairs. Display the  Ask: "What details did you put with these  Require that students justify their placement of ideas.  Ask: a.  "What do we call these main ideas?"  b.  "How did you arrange these ideas on your desk?"  c.  "How could the strips be arranged so that the headings are easier to find?"  d.  (headings).  (set heading to the left of the details).  "If I set these off to the side it is easier to see how the ideas fit together." e.g. Heading idea idea idea  Heading idea idea idea  104  C.  DISCUSS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NARRATIVE AND INFORMATION  MATERIAL  1.  Ask: a.  "Which set of cards is a story?  How do you know it is a story?"  b.  "Which one is giving us information.  How do you know this is not a  story?" c. 2.  "What makes it different from story material?"  Display chart for recording differences between narrative and information material. a.  Say: "Let's look at the differences between story and information material.  b.  Teacher writes on board or on chart paper as students give answers to the following questions:  105  DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STORY AND INFORMATION MATERIAL QUESTIONS  GOLDILOCKS  GRASSHOPPERS  a) Why was the  (enjoyment)  (information)  b) Describe how the  (chronological, time  (title, headings, main ideas,  material is written.  sequence, sequence of  details)  How is the material  events, etc.)  material written?  organized? c) How do you read  (from beginning to  (only need to read the part  it?  end)  that gives you the information  d) In the information  (headings)  material what helps you find the details?  D. 1.  THE USEFULNESS OF HEADINGS Say: "Paying attention to the headings can also help you to remember information better.  If I turn these details over and you turn yours over, could you  remember the details that go with this heading?" 2.  "Now study the headings silently. them over. each."  (Do this for each section).  When you think you can remember them turn  See if you can remember each heading and the details that go with  Have students orally recall the details that go with each heading.  106  3.  Direct students to study the headings. students do the same.  Turn the display headings over and have  Have students orally recall the headings and details  associated with each heading. 4.  Say: "Tomorrow you will be asked to tell me the headings and details for Grasshoppers. You'll use the headings to remember the details for each section."  %4  hops een in colour by rubbing  its wings together  *%dt. three pairs cf long strong legs fer j u m p s one pair or -  aniennae  how grasshoppers fnake  sounds  grasshoppers ways "'a .grasshopper  moves  two .pairs of wings by rubbing awincj *y^-..a  and  Itcj  together  grasshoppers physical -features  %dr  has  no voice  108  5f She eats baby bear's porridge.. % She goes  to sleep.  Molher bear makes some  porridge.  ^ The bears decide to cjo -for a walk. 5 They find  Goldilocks.  The p o r r i d g e is too hot. The bears coKnebome. She breaks baby bear's  chair.  5 She goes t o the bears' h o u s e . Along,  comes  Goldilocks.  She runs  away.  Goldilocks  and the Three  Bears  109  LESSON TWO (60 mins.): IDEA SORTING I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The students will be able to: recall headings and details from Grasshoppers information strips studied previous day select a single heading from a group of related ideas sort up to eight 2 level cut-up outlines according rto headings and details use headings to study for recall II MATERIALS: pocket chart class set of eight cut-up outlines, each outline in an envelope, all eight bundled together (Catterson, 1966) Grasshopper display strips used last day Display strips used last day Display strips for eight cut-up outlines Class set of SORTING IDEAS worksheets  III PROCEDURES: A.  RECALL OF GRASSHOPPER  INFORMATION  1.  Direct students to think about what they studied on previous day.  2.  Direct students to recall headings from the Grasshoppers selection.  3.  Direct students to recall associated details for each heading of the selection. (Teacher displays heading strips and details strips in pocket chart as ideas are recalled).  110  4.  Turn detail strips over again and  remind students of how  to use headings to  recall details.  5.  Have students retell the difference between narrative and  information material  (e.g. "What kind of material did we  is it different from story  say this is?  How  material?").  B.  FINDING T H E  MAIN  IDEA  1.  Distribute worksheet SORTING IDEAS.  2.  Direct students to read silently the first row  3.  Have one  4.  Direct student to underline the main idea.  of ideas to find the main idea.  student read the ideas.  Continue in the same fashion for the remainder of the worksheet. C. 1.  IDEA  SORTING  Direct students to open envelope #1  and  to find the title for the ideas.  direct students to sort the details under the appropriate  2.  Share and  discuss arrangement of ideas.  Emphasize the way  3.  headings.  Visually display in pocket chart  that ideas are related.  Turn details over and for  Then  have students orally recall content using headings as cues  recall.  Follow steps 2 to 4 for as many of the 8 cut-up outiines as time permits. (Standardize the number of outlines per class).  Before the sorting of subsequent  outlines, have students tell which steps they will use for organizing strips.  Ill  4.  For final cut-up outline, follow the same procedures used for previous outlines. Then direct students to study the outline to be recalled the next day.  Say:  "Tomorrow you will be asked to use the headings to remember the ideas about (title of final cut-up outline)."  112 tJame  SORTING IDEAS ============ @  CHOOSE maple  e l m  2.  shoes  socks  3.  horses  animals  a.  football  5.  farmers  (c.  beef  7  rose  \)Q\t  THE: MAIN  /.  IDEA  trees  WRITE /.  boxes  2.'  sailboat  v5.  milk  4.  collie  5.  apple  lamb  o i l  t e r r i e r  vinegar poodle  7.  pansy  slippers  ferret-me.-not  Socks tulip  b a s e b a l l t e a c h e r s  m e a t -flowers  daffodil  FOR E A C H  GROUP:  j a r s  bottles liner  Coke  _ — ; —  w a t e r  — .  s h e e p d o g  mango  blousi  dogs  milkmen  rowboat  g r a p e f r u i t  overshoes  IDEA  d r a w e r s  canoe  stockirtJS  l e n n i s  i r i s  IDEAS-.  b e e c h  deer  "mutton  violet  trunks  (o.  c o w s  workers  T H E MAIN  cjas  birch  Cjamas  iirtmtn  "THESE  sweater  sheep  hockey  tulip  PRQKI  o a k  d o f h e s  pork  .  5f raw b e r r y  sandals peony  boohs daisy  /. SWfi&f  Things  !.  dessert  I.  cakt  !  pudding  i.  Coca  113  flrafns  £. 6orn  1. 'fee. cream I.  roods  Cola  I j  £. wheat  |  ^ rye, r\.  f r a f f 5  -  I. drmk5  peaches  I .chocolate,  pearls  1.  Seven- U p  I. .. i. lolii'pops i- Qpple p i e 2. oafs  apples ^. oranges %. vegetables £. carrots peas  3. Clothes  4. living things  3. for the fed"  A  3. shoes 3. p.ubber boors 3. sfippars 3.  for the head  3. hots  £  lying creatures  4. bird s I  4. insecis 4. bats A  . plants  >r. flowers i  3. caps  4., Trees  3 for the hands  4. b u s h e s  3. gloves  4. f / sh  3.  114  miffens 4. ee s  5-  S/f  5.  to lay on  5.  chairs benches  to  c  i  on  5-  5.  i  "urhilure.  w e a r  clothing  C.  shoes 1 fe.  5toc  Kings  I i  i  !  .0.-  i  blouses  t  5.  Stools  5.  beds  £:  couches  555V 5. 5-  i  lolo-  watches  (d.  bracelets •  mats rugs .carpets tile,"  jewellery rings  (d.  floor coverings  sKiYfs .  L>'  Id.  beads earring 5  1 Workers  8 . living t h i n g s  1. indoors  8.  f nt h e  n. grocer  8.  s h a r K s  butchers  s e a  8 . shales  i,  t a i l o r s  8 . seaweed  n.  outdoors  8 . halibut  v  m i l k m a n  8. o \  i.  p o s t m a n  B.'lobsters 8.  o n ' J a n o  7. clerffs  8 . trees  t . typists  8.  I-, f a r m e r s  6 - tigers 8.  ions  flowers  116  117  LESSON THREE (60 mins.): RICHES OF THE SEA I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The students will be able to: recall headings and details from the cut-up outline studied previous day read Riches of the Sea passage match cut-up outline to the text identify headings underline details in each paragraph of the passage record headings and details in side bar outline II MATERIALS: Living Things display strips or final cut-up outline used on previous day pocket chart class set of Riches of the Sea passage Display cut-up outline for Riches of the Sea class set of cut-up outline for Riches of the Sea chart: STUDY PROCEDURES FOR INFORMATION MATERIAL  III PROCEDURES: A.  RECALL OF 'LIVING THINGS'  INFORMATION  1.  Direct students to think about what they studied on previous day.  2.  Direct students to recall headings from the Living Things outline.  3.  Direct students to recall associated details for each heading. heading strips and detail strips in pocket chart)  (Teacher displays  118  4.  Turn detail strips over and remind students of how to use headings to recall details.  B.  RICHES OF THE SEA  1.  Distribute Riches of the Sea cut-up outline packets.  2.  Distribute Riches of the Sea passage (face down).  3.  Say: "Today you are going to learn how to read information material so that you can remember it"  4.  Go over Study Procedures for Information Material chart  HOW TO STUDY INFORMATION MATERIAL Survey: Read the title and headings. Read: the section that goes with each heading. Write the heading.  Do this for each section.  Go back and find the details for each section. Study. 5.  (Practise remembering what goes with each heading.)  Have students turn passage over.  Draw attention to the chart, guiding students  through each study procedure step: a.  Direct students to survey the title and heading of the passage.  Ask:  "What three things will you find out about Riches of the Seal" b.  Direct students to read each heading and section silently to find the cup-up outline heading for each section.  c.  Direct students to go back to the beginning of the passage.  Have  119  students silently read each section and find cut-up details for each section, d.  Circulate, discuss organization of ideas, and use pocket chart to display organization of cut-up outline.  6.  Direct students to put cut-up outlines away.  7.  Direct students to read the passage, section by section, and to write the headings in the blank outline.  8.  Guide students to underline details for each section of the passage.  9.  Guide students in outlining the details associated with each heading, following the text section by section.  If necessary, use the chalkboard to display how this is  to be done. 10.  Direct students to study the outline, section by section, for the next day's recall task.  Have the students practise remembering the details associated with each  heading.  110  EICHZS CF Famine the Sea Id.zz-.i~z for feed under the ccsar. rnay seers pcssihieT There i s already jr.uch feed crcvir.g under the v a t e r . S c i e n t i s t s heps to make r.sv f i s h i n o crcunds vhere the vater i s net tec dee-. This kind cf "far-ine" v i i i h e i r feed mar" pecele. I-pertant Eich.es  .  Sc-e of the most important ricr.es found under the sea are c i l and cas. Lets cf recks under the vater have minerals In the.-. Seeks v i t h copper • and n i c k e l are v a i t i n c f c r someone to scoop" then  Sea water .Sea vater contains c o l d . In fact the sea holds aiout 7 t r i l l i o n c o l l a r s v o r t h ' o f cold alone.' A l l the minerals found cn land are found i n the sea. No ens knovs hcv to remove then quickly and cheaply. -  Name: Date: G rade:  121  Richer  of  lhe Sea  copper  and  'nickd  scien/Hsfs hope +o make shallow -fishing oil and  gas  Farming  grounds  are the most important  the Sea  this 'farming* will -Peed .-many people Important  7  Richer  trill/on doll are worth of qold  rocJcs with minerals  much all  -food un^er  minerals  wafer  -Pounds &n \ar\d are Pound in ike sea  Sea  Water  has  ocean larmmg  qolc!  mcj  122  scon  bet. possible  Sea Water c a n ' f get minerals fYom s e a u/ater cjuicKly and c h e a p l y  123  LESSON FOUR (60 min.): THE VIKINGS OF DENMARK I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: Students will be able to: recall headings and details from the cut-up outline studied previous day (Riches of the Sea)  read Vikings passage match cup-up outline to Vikings passage identify headings underline details in each paragraph of the passage record headings and details in a side bar outline II MATERIALS: Riches of the Sea display strips used last day 2 pocket charts class set of The Vikings of Denmark passage Display cut-up outline for Vikings. . . class set of cut-up outline for Vikings. . . chart: STUDY PROCEDURES FOR INFORMATION MATERIAL  III PROCEDURES: A.  RECALL TASK  1.  Direct students to recall headings from Riches of the Sea.  2.  Direct students to recall details.  3.  Emphasize the relationship between headings and details and how headings can aid in the recall of details.  124  B.  VIKINGS O F D E N M A R K  1.  Distribute Vikings of Denmark cut-up outline packets.  2.  Distribute Vikings of Denmark passage.  3.  Use chart to review study procedures for information material.  4.  Guide students through each study procedure step: a.  Direct students to survey title and headings.  Then ask: "What 4 things  will you find out about the Vikings of Denmark?" b.  Direct students to read each heading and section silently to find the cut-up outline heading for each section of the text.  c.  Direct students to go back to the beginning of the passage. Have students silently read each section to find cut-up outline details for each section. Circulate, discuss organization of ideas and the relationship of the headings to the details.  Use pocket chart to display organization of cut-up outline.  5.  Direct students to put cut-up outlines away.  6.  Guide students in underlining details in the first paragraph of the passage.  After  students underline the details say: "Now that we've looked at the details what is another way that the heading can be stated?"  Continue this process for the  remainder of the paragraphs.  7.  Direct students to write the headings in the blank outline.  8.  Direct students to write the details associated with each heading in the outline. If necessary, use the chalkboard to display how this is done.  Say: "Try to think  of each detail without looking at the passage.  Check before you write them  down." Direct students to study the completed outline section by section for the next day's recall task. with each heading.  Have the students practise remembering the details associated  THE VIKINGS  0? DENMARK  Leaving The Kernel and Many problems caused the Vikings of Denmark to leave home. The farmland vas so poor that hardl any feed could be grovn. The people fought among themselves to get mere land or a place to f i s h . Many people turned to the sea t o - f i n d land and riches. Dragon Ships Viking var ships vare often c a l l e d "dragon s h i p s " . They had t e r r i f y i n g carved dragon heads cn the front of them. Many ships vere only as long as a large bus. They u s u a l l y had cne mast and one s a i l . These vcoden ships vere moved by oars. Raiding The Vikings planned t h e i r raids c a r e f u l l y . F i r s t they h i d ' t h e i r boats. . They attacked suddenly and l e f t s v i f t l y . The Vikings k i l l e d men, vomen and children. Seme people vers taken to be sold as slaves. Everything of value vas c a r r i e d off.Changed by C h r i s t i a n i t y The Vikings changed t h e i r vays vhen-'they learned about C h r i s t i a n i t y . Brave missionaries, taught the Vikings about r e l i g i o n . Eefore long the Vikings gave'u? attacking'other people. Many Vikings became good C h r i s t i a n s .  Name: Date: Grade:  Changed by Christianity  -for land  tirjhtj^  about  6owe  hid their one  m  •Piihuig places  end  lonj as a bus boats  mast and one soil  chan^&d Dragon  when  they learned  Ships  many  became good Christians  killed  men, women and  iurned to the left moved rviade  about Christianiij  sea -fo-find new land  -swiftly by  cars  0? wood  children crnd-'riches  no 4ood  l a n d ,j  poor ,  vlar ships  often  128  called  "dragon  ship:  planned care-fully Vikfmas attacked  gave all  sudden]  up attacking  people  Valuable "things e a r n e d o-P-P  Leaving  4he Homeland  terrifying many  carved  dragon heads cn *fhe -^ron:  problems  Raid;  missionaries took some  taught slaves  them  religion  129  LESSON FIVE (60 mins.): FIRE WALKERS I INTENDED LEARNING  OUTCOMES:  The students will be able to: recall headings, main ideas and details from previous passage survey title, headings read passage Fire Walkers recognize alternate headings identify main ideas and describe relation to headings study headings and associated ideas for recall in next session II MATERIALS: Display strips: Vikings of Denmark Pocket chart Class set: Fire Walkers passage; Fire Walkers outline  III 1.  PROCEDURES: Direct students to recall headings from Vikings of Denmark; then recall details for each section.  Emphasize the main idea or topic sentence in each and denote  with an asterisk.  (Have students state details in sentences.)  2.  Distribute Fire Walkers passage and outline.  3.  Review study procedures.  4.  Direct students to survey title and headings.  5.  Draw attention to details and alternate headings at bottom of outline.  Discuss. (These are  130  to be crossed off as they are used.) 6.  Guide students through silent reading of each section and location of alternate heading to be recorded in outline.  7.  When all alternate headings are recorded have students turn papers over.  8.  Review remaining study procedures adding identification of main ideas with an asterisk (*).  9.  Return to first section and guide students through locating main idea (to be starred in the outline) and associated details.  10.  Continue guidance for each section until it is apparent that students can complete the task independently.  11.  Circulate and mark.  Direct students to study the passage and outline for recall in next session.  FIRE rtALKZ?.S T  A Strar.gs Practice I i seme lands people have a strange practice cf valkinc throueh f i r s . This p r a c t i c e ' i s mar.y c e n - u r i e s ' o l c . I t i s s t i l l done today. Forms cf F i r e Walking There are many vays to valk over f i r e . A barefoot -person may valk quickly ever c o a l s . Sometimes a person must valk through a log f i r e cr through hot ashes. Other times, the f i r e valker r.ay cross over red hot stones. Or, ashes may be poured ever his head i n a f i r e bath. P.eascns For r i r e walking There are many reasons vhy people f i r e v a l k . I f a chief valks through f i r e and i s net hurt i t means that his people v i i i have enough to eat. Other people valk through f i r e to shev t h e i r strength. Sometimes a person must valk thrcuch f i r e to shev that he did not commit a crime . " i f the person does not get burned he i s sat f r e e . A Mystery I t i s a mystery that fev f i r e -valkers cat burned. Maybe .the f i r e valker stronclv be^evss he v i i i not get hurt.. Or the f i r e valker mav breathe in. such a vay.that he'does not f e e l •' pain; People.have checked to see i f f i r s valke-s put something on t h e i r feet before valkinc •through f i r e . None ever do. ?  Name : Date: Grade:  131  132  Unusual Practice - many reasons -firs fcatn -feet have been checked -oareroot over coals -to prove innocence •ever red hot stones •they walk through f i r e •to shov-strength centuries old s t i l l done  Name: Date: Grade:  -many types of f i r e v a l k i n g -mystery that people don't get burned ^ -people don't put anything on feet Types of F i r e Walkinc -chief finds out i f people v i l l have food -person set -free i f not burned -through a log f i r e or hot ashes -maybe special breathing stops pain A Question With No Ansver - some peoples have a strange practice Why "People Walk Through-Fire • -mav be stronc b e l i e f s  133  LESSON SIX (60 mins.): ANIMAL PROTECTION I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The student will be able to: recall headings, main ideas and details from Fire Walkers review study procedures read Animal Protection passage complete a written outline to match text study for recall II MATERIALS: Chalkboard Class set: Animal Protection passage  III PROCEDURES: 1.  Direct students to recall title and headings for Fire Walkers. Record on board, leaving space for associated details.  2.  Direct and record starred main idea and related details for each heading, one at a time. Review relation between headings and ideas.  3.  Review study steps to date: a.  Survey title, headings  b.  Read each section and record its heading (or similar headings) in outline  c.  When all headings are recorded return to first section and note main idea (*) and details for one section at a time  d.  When outline is complete, study for recall  134  4.  Distribute Animal Protection passage.  5.  Guide students through each step using the passage.  Allow individual students to  decide whether underlining and recording in oufline are required.  Permit students  to complete final sections independently if they feel able. 6.  Direct students to study passage and/or outline for recall on following day.  ANIMAL rP.CTICTION  135  Many animals car. get avay from enemies i n a hurry.' Seme, l i k e the deer can run very f a s t . Birds can f l y avay very q u i c k l y . Others, l i k e s q u i r r e l s and chipmunks are quick at climbing trees. TeethSeme animals use t h e i r teeth f c r p r o t e c t i o n . Docs and volves have long sharp teeth. Some small animals l i k e rats and mink also have sharp t e e t h . • The teeth cf seme animals such as elephants.have become tusks. A l l these animals use" t h e i r teeth against t h e i r enemies. Clavs Clavs protect seme animals . Sometimes thev use t h e i r clavs i n f i g h t i n g other animals. Large "birds such as eagles have strong c l a v s . Wild cats l i k e the t i g e r also use t h e i r c l a v s . Coiour Hany animals use t h e i r colour f o r p r o t e c t i o n . Seme birds are hard to see "because, they* are the sam.e colour as the trees. Tcads are the colour of d i r t . Some animals change c o l o u r . The rabbit i s .-white i n the v i n t a r . 'Seme l i z a r d s turn the same 'colour as the ground or leaves they stand c n . Foiso~ Seme animals use a poiscr. to protect themselves The s t i n g cf a bee or vasp has poison i n i t . Seme spiders can pciscn larger animals so that 'thev can r-ot move. The s t i n g ray i s a f i s h that uses poison. s t i n g ray makes a very painful sere. Some snakes also use poison." Name: Date: Grade:  136  LESSON SEVEN (60 mins.): HORSES I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The student will be able to: Recall headings, main ideas (*) and details from Animal Protection (oral) review study procedures identify main idea (*) read Horses passage record original or alternate headings in outline practise completing outline from recall study for recall II MATERIALS: Chalkboard Class set: Horses passage, with outline folded under III PROCEDURES: 1.  Guide recall of Animal Protection recording on board (as in previous sessions).  2.  Review study procedures.  (Note that underlining is optional; each individual must  decide what he can do in time allotted.) 3.  Distribute Horses passage.  4.  Direct students to survey and turn papers over.  5.  Guide through first three (or more) sections writing original or appropriate alternate headings in outline.  Recall.  137  6.  Turn paper over.  Fifteen minutes will be allotted to study passage.  Discuss best  study techniques (survey, record headings, return and underline details, practise remembering). 7.  At end of fifteen minutes direct students to turn papers over to outline and begin completing each section from recall.  8.  When students can recall no more details they may complete outline by referring to passage.  9.  Study to recall for next session.  Horses of Long Ago The f i r s t horses l i v e d on the earth i n the time cf the dinosaurs. The- the horses vers about the size of a fox. The meat-eating dinosaurs hunted them for food. When they vers eating the horses had to vatch out for danger. Horses Changed Over millions cf years the horses changed. At f i r s t they had four toes on each front f o o t . They had three toes cn each back foot. Ncv they have only one hoof, cn each l e g . Their legs became longer. This helped them run avay from- danger'/'-' Plant Eaters Horses have alvays eaten plants. The f i r s t horses ate more leaves and f r u i t . Nov a horse eats grass, hay and grain. Sometimes they have a carrot for a special treat.- A horse has teeth made for grinding grasses. When-a horse eats i n a f i e l d i t covers s- l o t cf ground. I t eats almos a l l cay long. The' Way Horses Live Some horses l i v e i n t h e ; v i l e and some horses s-2 tame. Zebras and mustangs are v i l e hordes. Wild-horses stay t o g e t h e r ' i n ' b i g herds. Each herd has a.leader. Tame horses" have ovners to feed and 'take care of them.. 'Many ovners have only one horse. Useful Horses Man has found many uses for horses. Cave men k i l l e d horses'for meat. Horse skins have been used for clothes and tents.' Later, men used horses for carrying heavy loads. Before there vere cars horses pulled vagons. Nov they are used mostly for r i d i n g and'racing. Name:_ Date: Grace:  139  LESSON EIGHT (2 sessions: 60 mins; 30 mins.): ANIMALS' EYES I INTENDED LEARNING  OUTCOMES:  The student will be able to: recall headings, main ideas (*) and details from Horses review study procedures read and study Animals' Eyes in timed session (15 minutes) II MATERIALS: Chalkboard Class set: Animals' Eyes passage  III PROCEDURES: PART ONE 1.  Guide and record oral recall of Horses on chalkboard.  2.  Emphasize the relationship between details and headings.  3.  Review study procedures and discuss most efficient use of limited time. (Most likely: Survey, record headings, return and underline, practise remembering.  Some  students will find underlining too slow in this timed session—they may be permitted to read without underlining.) 4.  When each student has decided on the most efficient strategy distribute Animals' Eyes passage and allow fifteen minutes study time.  (Use Standardized  Instructions.) PART TWO 1.  On subsequent day allot twenty-five minutes for written recall of passage.  (This  session to be directed by all classroom teachers using Standardized Instructions.)  ANIMALS'  Amazing Sight  EiIS  141  .  Each animal's eves are s p e c i a l . The eyes help the animal get<information. Animal's eyes are"different because they need different infcrma t i c n to l i v e . The Rabbit  •  The rabbit has eyes that see i n a complete c i r c l e . A rabbit can'look a l l around i t s e l f v i t h c u t moving i t s head. This helps the rabbit v h e n ' i t i s being chased. The rabbit can vatch vhere he i s going and see his enemy behind him at the same time. The Lizard  /  Some l i z a r d s have eyes that s t i c k cut. One eye can leek back v h i l e the ether looks ahead. The l i z a r d ' s eyes help protect i t from enemies. I t can look f c r feed v i t h ens eye and vatch for trouble v i t h the other. The C v l The o v l ' s eyes can see at night. This helps i t hunt for animals. From the branch of a tree the o v l can see anything moving on the ground'. • Even small rats and mice can be seen in"the dark •by an o v l . — The Toad A toad's eyes help i n eating. F i r s t the toad's eyes help i t find i t s favourite food vorms. Then the eyes help the toad move food through i t s mouth." When the toad closes i t s eyes i t can lover them through a door i n the roof cf i t s mouth. The eyes held the s l i p p e r y food s t i l l u n t i l the toad"can s v a l l o v i t . " " Name: Date: Grade:  142  LESSON NINE (30 min.): REVIEW I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The students will be able to: describe study procedures for information material discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate study procedures II MATERIALS: chalkboard Example: protocol of Animals Eyes (one organized passage and one disorganized passage) 1  III PROCEDURES: 1.  Direct students to read the two protocols to determine which is better organized and easier to understand.  2.  Discuss.  Guide students through reorganization of disorganized passage.  Teacher writes  reorganized information on chalkboard. 3.  Review study procedures.  Emphasize:  a.  Use of headings  b.  Spending equal time on the study of each paragraph  c.  Practising to remember what is associated with each heading.  Appendix D: Scoring Procedures  144  Scoring Procedures (Quantity)  Each passage had 31 ideas including (5) macropropositions and (26) micropropositions.  Scoring for quantity of ideas was unweighted; thus, macro and  micropropositions were of equal value.  The following procedures were used to assign full  or part value to each idea recalled:  A.  MACROPROPOSITIONS Regardless of its position  1.  Each complete macroproposition (original or paraphrased) was assigned a score of (1). No matter where termites make their nests (1/2) termites always do much damage (1/2) = (1) (original, complete) termites do much damage wherever they make their nests = (1)  (complete, paraphrased)  Termites always do much damage = (1/2) (partial) Termites are very bad to have = (1/4) (distortion) No matter where termites make their nests they are very bad to  have = (3/4) (partial/distortion) 2.  Distorted or partially reproduced macropropositions received appropriate partial scores (1/4, 1/2, 3/4).  B.  INFERRED MACROPROPOSITIONS The original Parrots passage as used by Stables contained one macroproposition,  the gist of which could be inferred from related micropropositions.  Since it was  necessary that both tests be similar in structure, the Termites passage also contained one  145  macroproposition which could be inferred from related micropropositions. For example, if a student wrote: Parrots like cages. The cages need to be cleaned once a week. They are made of stainless steel.  it could be inferred that the student recalled that pet parrots are kept in cages. Likewise, if a student wrote: Termite nests are like cities. Each nest has a king and queen . . .  it could be inferred that the student recalled that termites live in nests. When inferred, each of these two macropropositions received a score of (1/2).  C. 1.  MICROPROPOSITIONS Each complete microproposition was assigned a score of (1).  For example:  Young kings (1/4) and queens (1/4) have wings for a short time  (1/2) = (1) (original, complete)  For a short time young kings and queens have wings = (1)  (complete, paraphrased). 2.  Distorted or partially reproduced macropropositions received appropriate partial scores.  (1/4, 1/2, 3/4) They have young queens = (1/4) (partial) Termites have wings for a short time = (1/2) (partial) Young queens (1/4) have wings for a short time (1/2) = (3/4)  (partial)  Young kings (1/4) and queens (1/4) fly for a short time (1/4) =  (3/4) (partial/distortion).  D.  HEADINGS  146  Headings were not scored as ideas unless they paraphrased a complete or partial macroproposition or microproposition.  For example, because the heading  Harmful Habits partially paraphrases the macroproposition No matter where termites make their nests (1/2) they always do much damage (1/2) it was  assigned (1/2). Because the heading Wood Eating Insects partially paraphrases the microproposition They eat paper (1/2) and wood (1/2) it was assigned  (1/2). Note:  Each macro or microproposition could receive a total score no greater than (1). Thus, any full or partial proposition which was repeated was to be scored only once. Example: Young kings (1/4) have wings for a short time (1/2) Young queens (1/4) also have wings for a short time (1/2) = (1)  (complete)  147  Scoring Procedures (Organization)  Each passage had a potential score of (61) for organization.  Scores for  organization were calculated using the following weightings and procedures:  A. MACROPROPOSITIONS 1.  Regardless of its position each complete (original or paraphrased) macroproposition received a score of (5).  2.  Distorted or partially reproduced macropropositions received appropriate partial • scores (1 1/4, 2 1/2, 3 3/4). (This was parallel to the procedures for scoring quantity.)  For example:  No matter where termites make their nest (2 1/2) they always do much damage (2 1/2) = (5) (complete). Termites always do much damage = (2 1/2) (partial)  B.  INFERRED MACROPROPOSITIONS The original Parrots passage as used by Stables contained one macroproposition,  the gist of which could be inferred from related micropropositions.  Since it was  necessary that both tests be similar in structure, the Termites passage also contained one macroproposition which could be inferred from related micropropositions. For example, if a student wrote: Parrots like cages. The cages need to be cleaned once a week. They are made of stainless steel.  it could be inferred that the student recalled that pet parrots are kept in cages. Likewise, if a student wrote:  148  Termite nests are like cities. Each nest has a king and queen . . .  it could be inferred that the student recalled that termites live in nests. When inferred, each of these two macropropositions received a score of (2 1/2).  C. MICROPROPOSITIONS  1.  Values assigned to complete, partial and distorted micropropositions followed the same procedures as used for determining quantity (1/4, or 1/2, or 3/4, or 1).  2.  Micropropositions must have occurred in related clusters of at least two in order to be included in the organization score.  That is, any two or more ideas from  the same paragraph which were written consecutively were treated as a cluster. Microproposition clusters could consist of one macroproposition and one or more microproposition; or two or more micropropositions). For example, the following protocol contains one cluster: Termites are found in warmer places like Africa and Australia. They are about as little as ants. They have been around for millions of years. They like to live in wood.  This would be indicated on the protocol as the following:  ( )  ( ) ( ) 1.  _ Few insects have been on earth as long (') (-tj a) have existed for millions of years ( ) ( ) b) have hardly changed in that time (y) (f) c) about as small as ants  { ( )  )(g) (•+•) 2.  Termites are found in warmer parts of the world (/) (-f) a) Africa (') (-/") b) Australia ( ) ( ) c) many parts of the tropics ( ) ( ) d) some live underground j ^ J (/) e) some live in wood ( ) ( ) 0 others live in great piles of earth  149  3.  Only one cluster per section is scored.  That is, if clusters of ideas from one  section occur in two parts of the protocol, only the clusters of greatest value are scored.  For example: Termites are found in warm parts of the world such as the tropics. They are about as small as ants. Some live underground. Some live in wood.  4.  ( )  ( ) ( )  1-  ( )  y£) (-/•) 2.  Few insects ( ) ( ) a) ( ) ( ) b) {^f (•+-) c)  have have have about  been on earth as long existed for millions of years hardly changed in that time as small as ants  Termites are found in warmer parts of the world ( ) ( ) a) Africa ( ) ( ) b) , Australia ( ) ( ) c) many parts of the tropics (-/-) d) some live underground « J (+) e) some live in wood ( ) ( ) f) others live in great piles of earth  Single micropropositions were not interpreted as reflecting any degree of organization and were scored (0).  C.  1.  HEADINGS  Each complete original or paraphrased heading was scored (2)  Damaging Insects = (2) (complete paraphrased) Harmful Habits = (2) (complete)  2.  Partial or distorted headings may be scored (1)  150  Harmful = (1) (partial) Headings which paraphrase a rnacroproposition when no macroproposition is stated receive a score of up to (5). Partial marks may be assigned if the full idea is not present (1 1/4, 2 1/2, 3 3/4).  Warming Living Places = (5) (complete) Harmful Habits = (2 1/2) (partial)  Headings which have no macro or micropropositions beneath them are scored (0). Headings which are accompanied only by inappropriate micro or macropropositions are scored (0). Headings which are accompanied by inappropriate and appropriate propositions are scored according to the above procedures, but only the appropriate propositions are scored.  For example: Termites Live in Nests = (5) (complete) Termites have lived for millions of years = (0)  They are as small as ants = (0) Their nests are like cities = (1) (complete) Each nest has a king and queen = (1) (complete) = 7 (cluster)  Termites live in nests (I) (+•) a) nests are like cities ( ) ( ) b) different termites have different jobs 0) M c) each nest has a king and a queen ( ) ( ) d) they are the parents of all the others ( ) ( ) e) some termites are soldiers ( ) ( ) f) others are workers  151  !ITZS  ( ) ( ) ! •  ( ) ( ) 2.  'Fev. ( ) ( ( ) ( ( ) (  TEMPLATE  i n s e c t s have b e e n on e a r t h as l o n g ) a) have e x i s t e d f o r m i l l i o n ^ o f y e a r s ) b) have h a r d l y chanced in that time ) c) about as small as ants  Termites are found in warmer parts of the world ( ) ( ) a) A f r i c a ( ) ( ) b) A u s t r a l i a ( ) ( ) c) many parts of the t r o p i c s . ( ) f ) d) seme l i v e underground (• ) ( ) e) some l i v e i n wood ( ) ( ) f) others l i v e fn g r e a t ' p i l e s of e a r t h  ( ) ( ) 3.  Termites l i v e in nests ( ) ( ) a) nests are l i k e c i t i e s ( ) ( ) b) d i f f e r e n t t e r m i t e s have d i f f e r e n t jobs ( ) ( ) c) each nest has a king and a queen ( ) ( ) d) they are the p a r e n t s ' of a l l the others ( ) ( ) e) some t e r m i t e s are s o l d i e r s ( ) ( ) f ) others are workers  ( ) ( ) 4.  Change ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  in appearance as they grow . a) sheds i t s s k i n several times b) each time i t grows bigger c) young kings and queens have wings f o r a short time ' \ ( ) C ) d) " u s e them o n l y once ( ) ( ) e) f l y to a new home and l o s e t h e i r wings  ( ) ( J 5.  No matter where they make t h e i r n e s t s , termites always do much daiuace ) a) they eat .paper and wood ( ) ) b) can eat through a book from cover to cover ( ) ( ) '). c) .can eat t a b l e s and c h a i r s ) d) can chew through the w a l l s of a house ( ) ) e) they can eat r i g h t through a tree ( ) ) f ) d i f f i c u l t to get r i d of termites ( ) :  TERMITES  A n c i e n t Insects Few insects have been on the e a r t h as long as t e r m i t e s . They have been around f o r m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . These insects have h a r d l y changed i n that t i m e . They have always been about as s m a l l as ants. N a t u r a l Environment Termites can be found i n the warmer parts of the w o r l d . They l i v e i n A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and many parts of the t r o p i c s . Some termites l i v e underground. Some kinds l i v e i n wood. Others l i v e i n great p i l e s of e a r t h . Termites i n " C i t i e s " Termites l i v e i n nests t h a t are l i k e c i t i e s . D i f f e r e n t termites have d i f f e r e n t j o b s . Each nest has a 'king and queen. They are the parents•of a l l the other t e r m i t e s . Some termites are s o l d i e r s . . Other termites are workers. Changes i n Appearance Termites change i n appearance as they grow. A termite sheds i t s s k i n s e v e r a l t i m e s . Each time i t grows bigger. Young k i n g s and queens have wings f o r a short time. They use them only once. They f l y to a new home, then they lose t h e i r wings. -Harmful Habits No matter where they -make t h i r homes, termites always do much harm. They eat paper and wood. They can eat through a book from cover to cover. Termites can eat' tables and c h a i r s . They can chew through the w a l l s of a house. They can eat r i g h t through a t r e e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to get r i d of t e r m i t e s .  Name: Date:. Grade:  152  - .  153 PARROTS TEMPLAT; ( ) ( } 1. Few b i r d s are as b e a u t i f u l and i n t e r e s t i n o as p a r r o t * ( ) ( ) a] More than 700 d i f f e r e n t kinds " • ., ( ) ( } b) People l i k e then became they c-n t=-ch to t a l k ( ) ( ) c) They a r e a l s o admired f o r t h e i r b r i g h t color  ( ) ( ) 2.  Farrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ..()() ( ) ( }  are d i f f e r e n t from other birds a) A l a r c e beak l i k e a heck b) Yery s t r o n g beak c) Uses h i s beak to help him climb abcui d) Use f e e t to hold food e) Use f e e t to help climb  ( ) ( ) 3. Parrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( .) ( ) ( •)  l i v e where it is warm a) South America b) A u s t r a l i a c) South America and . A u s t r a l i a have the g r e a t e s t number c f d i f f e r e n t kinds ( ) ( ) a) Many nest i n t r e e s ( ) (• ) e) Some nest i n c l i f f s . ( ) ( • . ) f j S t i l l o t h e r s nest on the ground  ( ) ( ) 4. P e t . p a r r o t s 'are kept i n cages • ( ) ( ) a) p a r r o t s l i k e cages more than other p e t bird's ( ) ( ) b) cage should be l a r g e enough t q move e a s i l y w i t h o u t breaking feathers ( ) ( ) c) Cages a r e made o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l now-a-days ( ) ( ) d) This metal i s strong and easy,to clear. ( ) ( ) e) Sand o r gravel should cover the bottom o f the cage • (.) ( ) f ) Cage should be cleaned once a week  ( ) ( ) 5.  Parrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  e a t n e a r l y anything given to them a) Many t h i n g s are not good f o r them b) May e a t some f r u i t , but not a l e t c) Mix o f seeds and nuts are best food f o r ' t h e n d j ' L i q u i d v i t a m i n s should be added to the food e] F o l l o w i n g simple r u l e s keep parrots h e a l t h y f ) Keep happy f o r many years  154  PARROTS  The. Parrot Family Fev birds are as interesting and beautiful as parrots. There are more than 700 kinds of birds i n the parrot family. People l i k e parrots because they can teach them hov to t a l k . They are also admired for t h e i r bright colours. Different Features Parrots are very different from other b i r d s . The parrot alvays has a large beak l i k e a hook. This beak i s very.strong. .The b i r d uses i t to help him climb about. Parrots also use t h e i r feet to hold food and to.help them climb. Natural Environment  •  Parrots can be found i n a l l the varmer parts of the v o r l d . South America and A u s t r a l i a have the greatest number of different kinds. Many of them nest i n trees. Some nest i n c l i f f s . Still others nest on the ground.A Parrot's Cage  -  Of a l l the birds kept as pets, parrots seem to like'cages the most.- -The parrot's cage should •be large enough for him to move' e a s i l y about v i t h out breaking his feathers. Nov-a-days most cages are made of stainless s t e e l . This metal i s very strong and i s easy to clean. Sand or gravel •should cover the bottom of the cage. The cage should be cleaned once a veek. Feeding a Parrot Parrots v i l l eat nearly anything that i s given to them. Many things are not good for them,"' though. They may eat some f r u i t , but not a l o t . The best" food for the parrot i s a mix of seeds and nuts. Liquid vitamins should be. added to the parrot's food. Following these simple rules v i l l keep your parrot healthy and happy for many years. Name: Date: Grade:  •  155  SAMPLE STUDENT PROTOCOL  Parrots Parrots Family There are many kinds of p a r r o t s . There are more than 700 d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of p a r r o t s . Parrots have very hard c l a v s -which they use f o r c l i m b i n g and holding food. S p e c i a l Features Parrots nest i n high a l t i t u d e s such as i n t r o p i c a l t r e e s and on the ground.  cliffs,  Feeding Parrots Parrots can eat F r u i t s , but not to much. They l i k e nuts, g r a i n s . Vitamins should be added. This v i l l keep your b i r d h e a l t h y , happy f o r a long t i m e . Parrots Cace Pet parrots are kept i n cages. P a r r o t s cages should be v i d e enough so when i t f l i e s around no feathers f a l l o f f . I t should be r e a l l y really big.  ** ( S p e l l i n g a-nd punctuation are the s t u d e n t ' s . )  PARROTS TEMPLATE  (23 Parroh f-z* ml lu  ( ) ( )  ( ) (  Few b i r d s are as b e a u t i f u l and i n t e r e s t i n o as p a r r o t * ! (I ) (~H a] Mors than 7 0 0 - d i f f e r e n t kinds ' •'. ( ) ( ) b) People l i k e them because they can t e a c h the-to t a l k '"l ( ) ( ) c) They are a l s o admired f o r t h e i r b r i c h t c o l o r '  1.  } 2.  Parrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { ) i/] ft) ^ ft)  Parrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  •  (I) (I) (I)  (5)  ft)  J  4.  tppt\\r\k. Pnf/oY'h* •J  (+) (+) ft)  are d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r b i r d s a) A l a r g e beak l i k e a hook b) Very s t r o n g beak c) Uses h i s beak to help him c l i m b d) Use f e e t to hold f o o d e) Use f e e t to help c l i m b  ( ) ( ) 5.  l i v e where i f i s warm a) South America b) A u s t r a l i a c) South America and . A u s t r a l i a have the number c f d i f f e r e n t kinds d) Many n e s t i n t r e s s e) Seme n e s t i n c l i f f s f ) S t i l l o t h e r s n e s t on the ground  j '''  :  bl  .  greatest  A  Parrots ( ) ( ) a) ( / ) ( + ) b) Gf) ( £ ) c) (/) ft) d) (-t) e) (/) ft) f)  •  about  Pet p a r r o t s 'are kept i n cages' ( ) ( ) a) p a r r o t s l i k e cages more than o t h e r p e t b i r d ' s (2) (3-1 b) cage s h o u l d be larg.e enough to move e a s i l y " • .• without breaking feathers ( ) ( ) c) Cages are made o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l n o w - a - d a y s ( ) ( ) d) T h i s metal i s s t r o n g and easy to c l e a n ( ) ( ) e) Sand o r g r a v e l s h o u l d cover the bottom o f the cage . (.) ( Cage s h o u l d be c l e a n e d once a week 4  (2-)  156  e a t n e a r l y a n y t h i n g g i v e n to them Many t h i n g s are not good f o r them May, eat some f r u i t , but not a l e t Mix o f seeds and nuts are b e s t food f o r them L i q u i d v i t a m i n s s h o u l d be added to the f o o d F o l l o w i n g simple r u l e s keep p a r r o t s h e a l t h y Keep happy f o r many y e a r s  31  157  Partial TERMITES  Marks PARROTS TEMPLATE  TEMPLATE ( } ( ) * ! .  ( ) ( ) 1.  ^  ^  Fev/ b i r d s are as fceilitjful and I n t e r e s t i n g as p a r r o t s ( } ( ) a) More than 700 different kir,d/;)jn parrot fami] ( i ( ) b$)'eople l i k e them/becausa thev can'"teach them  "to U\\(V)  F e v Insects have (been dn earth V s long | ( J a)' haveG^sfgaTfor million?; of years fD ) I ) b) have hardly Changed in that time '' ! ) ( ) c) about asjfo.-jiall as^nts  (?)  ( ) ( ) ) They are also admired f o r their b r j j l K ^ o l o r s c  © ( ) ( ] 2. Termites are found In viarmer p a r t s of the w o r l d M M Afrki m ' J ( ) b) A u s t r a l ia fly • ( J c ) many p a r t s o f the t r o p i c s (t) j ) d) some l i v e u j ^ r o r o t i n d 0 ' ( j e) some l i v e In waad fx) ) ( ) f ) o t h e r s l i v e In grea 5 ' n l l e y o f e a r t h (?) •  M M  -  M ( } (' ) 3. Termites l i v e In n e s t s B * - " ' ' * ^ *j J I) a) nests are l i k e c l t . l e s f l ) I | j b| d i f f e r e n t termites liave d ^ l f j e r e n t j o b s ^ ) ( ) { c ) each nest has a kin<(pand a q u e s n ^ ) d they are the parents' o f a l l the o t h e r s (P) ( W e ) some t e r m i t e s are sol"dTers(Pj) ( } ( } f) others are w q r k e r s Q 0 w i b  f  f e r  a  a) Ad ilarge(J)giK> U k e o t hae rhookfTJ 2. P a r r o t s are f f e r e n t from birds V e r y f o t r o n n (beak) (?) ( .!>) c j Uses T i f s b e a k to help him c l Imb acout d Use [Yeat\to h o l d j o o d p e) Use yf^e t / t o . hejp c l i m b py)  C)  M (T) wa rm 3. P a r r o t s 1 ive where I t Is via a South America (0 ( b Australia fD (1 c 5QUt!l_Aj!!e@ca and . A.u s t i i ' l l a have the g r e i t e s j ; number o f d i f f e r e n t kinds d j iiany(nes l\ i n t r e e s 0 e) Some toes t i l n c l i f f s C O f ) S t i l l o t h e r s (nest) on the ground fi)  0  WW  t>v»A<*  ( ) CM.  eEl. " i n appearance as t i l e / g r o w (*£) Change; airsheds i t s sk"Tn. severaT times ' e-ch time grows b' i'g~g e r ^ ie Iitt grows rf\ i n g f f i n d queens Rave w l n g y f o r a young icinai shcrtnrime use them o n l y o n c e ^ ' (j?) f l y . t o a new home and 1ose t h e i r wTngs v  ( ) ( J 5.  .. . . . • . . HO>« 1>C i n t e r v a l fi>.' { ) ( • ) 4. fit p a r r o t ? are k e p t i n cagesll ( T O a l p a r r o t s 1 lite caces/Dnore .than o t h e r pet b i r d s • ( ) ( ) b) cage should ba T a r g ^ n o u c h to move e a s i l y , w{c]igut_brgljtjna f e i t h g r s f g ) vr,«.d0J l ) c) Cages are made o f s t a i n l e s s stee N4iow-j^days ( ) d j This metal i s stronr_fi)end e;sy to clean® ( ) e) Sand/dr'*gra'/e]<3ishould cover the b o t t o n Q f the cage ' — * f j ) , (V) (. \ ( ) f ) Cage should be cleaned/oncg^a week  i  7  Ng_Miigr_fchsrs_the^jnajcet a b c d e f  ji.u_iiejaage t£) ~. they e i t .Eaa^tyand lajgd'... can eat through a boot(yfrom coyer over can e i u ^ a b l e s and cjiTTrsfy can chew through the wiVlsflof a house they can eat r i g h t . U l J ^ l ! S l L L i C f i 5 / 5 d i f f i c u l t to get r i d orTTteraltes  ( ) ( ) 5. P a r r o t s e s ^ n e s j r l X J i Q ^ M M g i v e n to them ( ( } a] Many t h i n g s are not goodDfor them ( ( b ) May eat s ^ r . e ^ f j ^ U ^ b i i t ~ n o ^ a _ J ^ t f A ) A ' ( j ( ) c) Mix o f s e e d ^ a n d n u t ( ^ a r e best_fi)a3lfaclhe3il d) L i q u i d vXtanin^Dshoulc) be added to the f o ^ ^ e) F o l l o w i n g simple xule;(v^eep p a r r o t s J i g i i L h y i h : f) Keep happy f o r many ye^rs_ 1  158  Appendix E: Sources Used in Constructing Instructional and Test Passages  159  Sources Used in Constructing Instructional and Test Passages  Passage  Source  Animal Protection  Smith, N . B. (1977). Prentice-Hall, p. 32.  Be a better reader.  Animals' Eyes  Dawkins, J. P. (1979). ReadAbilitv. Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott.  Grasshoppers  Grover, C , & Anderson, G. (1960). New practice readers. Book A. Toronto: MacGraw-Hill Book Company.  Fire Walkers  Knight, D. C. (1976). Bees can't fly: Things that are still a mystery to science. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc., pp. 14-19.  Horses  Pluckrose, H. (Ed.). (1979). York: Gloucester Press.  Parrots  Crowhurst, M . (1984). Seven unpublished expository passages. Vancouver, B.C.: University of British Columbia.  Riches of the Sea  Dawkins, J. P. (1979). ReadAbilitv. Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott  Termites  Children's Britannica. (1981). London: Encyclopedia Britannica International, p. 173.  Horses.  New  Grover, C , & Anderson, G. . (1960). New practice readers. Book A. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, p. 4.  160  The Vikings of Denmark  Proctor, G. L. (1960). The Vikings: Then and there series. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. Van Roekel, B. H., & Kluwe, M . J. (1966). From bicycles to boomerangs: The Harper and Row basic reading program. How to read in the subject-matter areas. New York: Harper & Row, pp. 128-129.  

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