Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between parental support for literacy, school attendance and the reading behaviors of.. 1987

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1987_A8 A27.pdf
UBC_1987_A8 A27.pdf [ 4.58MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0078284.json
JSON-LD: 1.0078284+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0078284.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0078284+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0078284+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0078284+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0078284.ris

Full Text

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTAL SUPPORT FOR LITERACY, SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AND THE READING BEHAVIORS OF MUSQUEAM CHILDREN by SHERRY ABRAMSON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1987 © SHERRY ABRAMSON, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Language E d u c a t i o n The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o e x a m i n e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s o f Musqueam I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one t o s e e i f a s i m i l a r p r o f i l e o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s e x i s t e d w i t h i n t h i s u r b a n u n i l i n g u a l N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e s e b e h a v i o r s had w i t h p a r e n t a l p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s and s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e was e x p l o r e d . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s i m i l a r p r o f i l e o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s w i t h i n t h e Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n and t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s , t h e i n d e x o f p a r e n t a l p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s , t o t a l s c h o o l a b s e n c e and r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one. I n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e D i a g n o s t i c S u r v e y ( C l a y ) a t k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one y i e l d e d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s . S u b t e s t s m e a s u r i n g k n o w l e d g e o f l e t t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t , s i g h t w o r d s , and w r i t i n g v o c a b u l a r y were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n b o t h g r a d e s . S u b t e s t s i n c l u d i n g o r a l r e a d i n g o f p a s s a g e s , w r i t i n g l e v e l , and d i c t a t i o n were added i n g r a d e o ne. G r o u p means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and r a n g e o f s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e D i a g n o s t i c S u r v e y s u b t e s t s a t k i n d e r - g a r t e n and g r a d e one and e x a m i n e d f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h an i n d e x f o r p a r e n t a l i i i p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s . T o t a l s c h o o l absence was obtained from school r e c o r d s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s u b t e s t s of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey had with the Index of Parent Suppport f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s and School Absence was explored using Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that no s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of reading and w r i t i n g behaviors e x i s t e d w i t h i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . E x c l u d i n g the s i g h t word subt e s t at K, Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between a l l s u b t e s t s of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey and the Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .05). No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between survey s u b t e s t s and t o t a l s chool absence. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS P a g e ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v L I S T OF TABLES v i i L I S T OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM 2 1.2.1 WEAKNESSES IN MEASUREMENT OF READING I N NATIVE POPULATIONS 3 1.2.2 MEASURING READING A B I L I T Y IN NON-NATIVE POPULATIONS 4 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 5 1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 7 1.5 QUESTIONS 8 1.6 HYPOTHESES 8 1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 9 1.8 LIMITATIONS 11 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.1 INTRODUCTION 14 2.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN EDUCATION 14 2.3 NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AND READING ACHIEVEMENT IN INDIAN POPULATIONS 16 2.3.1 CANADIAN INDIANS 16 2.3.2 AMERICAN INDIANS 17 2.3.3 REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON ASSESSMENT 18 V Page 2.4 SOCIO-CULTURAL VARIABLES LINKED TO READING ABILITY IN INDIAN POPULATIONS 19 2.4.1 HEALTH 19 2.4.2 PARENTING EDUCATION 20 2.4.3 COMMUNICATIVE STYLE 21 2.4.4 ORAL LANGUAGE 22 2.4.5 COGNITION 26 2.5 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH ON READING IN NATIVE POPULATIONS 29 2.6 INFLUENCE OF THE HOME ON LEARNING TO READ IN SCHOOL (NON-NATIVE LITRATURE) 31 2.7 SUMMARY 34 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 OVERVIEW 36 3.2 SUBJECTS 36 3.3 INSTRUMENTATION 37 3.4 DATA COLLECTION 40 3.5 DATA ANALYSIS 42 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 4.1 HYPOTHESIS ONE 46 4.1.1 DIAGNOSTIC SURVEY SUBTEST SCORES 47 4.1.2 RUNNING RECORD OF READING SUBTEST 48 4.1.3 WRITING SAMPLE ANALYSIS 50 4.1.4 SUMMARY 53 4.2 HYPOTHESIS TWO 54 4.2.1 SUMMARY OF SCORES FOR INDEX OF PARENTAL PROVISION FOR LITERACY ACTIVITIES 54 4.2.2 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS - 55 4.3 HYPOTHESIS THREE 56 4.3.1 TOTAL SCHOOL ABSENCE 56 4.3.2 STATISTCAL ANALYSIS 57 4.4 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM PARENT INTERVIEWS 58 4.5 SUMMARY OF RESULTS 60 v i CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 DISCUSSION 62 5.1.1 CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF METHODOLOGY 62 5.1.2 COMPARISONS WITH NON-NATIVE RESEARCH 66 5.1.3 COMPARISONS WITH CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH 69 5.1.4 COMPARISON WITH STUDIES OF OTHER NATIVE POPULATIONS 71 5.2 CONCLUSIONS 74 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 75 BIBLIOGRAPHY 77 APPENDIX A: ADMINISTRATION AND SCORING PROCEDURES FOR SUBTESTS OF THE DIAGNOSTIC SURVEY 82 APPENDIX B: QUESTIONNAIRE USED TO INTERVIEW PRINCIPAL CAREGIVERS 89 APPENDIX C: RAW SCORES FROM SUBTESTS OF THE DIAGNOSTIC SURVEY, INDEX OF PARENTAL PROVISION FOR LITERACY ACTIVITIES AND TOTAL SCHOOL ABSENCE 104 APPENDIX D: VALUE AND FREQUENCY OF SCORES FROM DIAGNOSTIC SURVEY 106 APPENDIX E: SUMMARY OF INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM PARENT INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 108 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE I C o r r e l a t i o n s to be C a l c u l a t e d to Address Hypothesis Two TABLE II C o r r e l a t i o n s to be C a l c u l a t e d to Address Hypothesis Three TABLE III Mean, Standard D e v i a t i o n , Median, Range of D i a g n o s t i c Survey Subtests TABLE IV Scores from Assessment of W r i t i n g Samples TABLE V Mean, Standard D e v i a t i o n , Median and Range of the Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n for L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s During the Preschool Years (IPAR) TABLE VI Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s between IPAR and Subtests of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey: One T a i l e d A n a l y s i s TABLE VII TABLE VIII Mean, Standard D e v i a t i o n , Median and Range of the T o t a l School Absence V a r i a b l e (TSA) Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s between TSA and Subtests of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey: One T a i l e d A n a l y s i s TABLE IX Mean Scores of Musqueam P o p u l a t i o n as they Relate to Stanine Placement on D i a g n o s t i c Survey i n Clay (1968) Study Page 44 45 47 52 54 55 57 57 67 v i i i L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 W r i t i n g Sample from S u b t e s t FIGURE 2 W r i t i n g Sample f o r A n a l y s i s C a t e g o r i e s Page W r i t i n g A n a l y s i s 51 C o n f u s i o n o f 64 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I s i n c e r e l y thank Jon Shapiro who p a t i e n t l y and ca r e - f u l l y guided me through t h i s t h e s i s and my f a m i l y , Matthew, W i l l i a m and Reg, who are g l a d to see me f i n i s h e d i t . I want to a l s o thank C l a i r e Staab, Lee Gunderson, Harold R a t s l a f f and B i l l White who f r e q u e n t l y provided c o n s t r u c t i v e feedback, Margo Hewitt, L i s a Duprey and Mary Anne King who l i s t e n e d f o r long hours, my p a r e n t s , who provided u n c o n d i t i o n a l support and b a b y s i t t i n g throughout, Nancy Palmer who typed my d r a f t s without c r i t i c i s m and the many f r i e n d s who supported me when I needed i t . CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM 1.1 INTRODUCTION More t h a n e v e r t h e r e i s a need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and r e s e a r c h on N a t i v e I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n . T o d a y ' s I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w i l l n e e d , as a d u l t s , t o d e a l w i t h u n i q u e p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s s u c h as N a t i v e r i g h t s t o l a n d c l a i m s and s e l f g o v e r n m e n t as w e l l as t h e r e g u l a r demands o f l i f e . Over t h e p a s t d e c a d e t h e need f o r b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n has been r e c o g n i z e d i n c r e a s i n g l y by p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ( B u r n a b y 1984; More 1984; A n d e r s o n 1 9 8 6 ) . O n l y a s m a l l body o f r e s e a r c h i s a v a i l a b l e t h a t e x a m i n e s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n (More 1 9 8 4 ) . A s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e s e s t u d i e s f o c u s e s on e l e m e n t a r y - a g e d s t u d e n t s . I n e v e r y s t u d y i n v o l v i n g e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s , r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s were u s e d as t h e b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . Though r e a d i n g a t t a i n m e n t has been r e c o g n i z e d as t h e b e s t measure o f how w e l l a c h i l d i s d o i n g i n s c h o o l and t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f l a t e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c h o o l ( H e w i s o n and T i z a r d 1 9 8 0 ) , r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s f r o m g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s o f t e n do n o t p r o v i d e t h e b e s t measure o f r e a d i n g a t t a i n m e n t f o r I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ( H a w t h o r n e 1967; Bank S t r e e t 1976; B u r n a b y 1984; More 1 9 8 4 ) . The e x i s t i n g body o f r e s e a r c h has a l s o n e g l e c t e d t o e x a m i n e b a c k g r o u n d f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l s t u d i e s p r o p o s e d f a c t o r s t h a t m i g h t have i n f l u e n c e d r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , no s t u d i e s c o u l d 2 be f o u n d t h a t examined t h e e f f e c t p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y or s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e have on I n d i a n c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e i n s c h o o l . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was an a t t e m p t t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s i n a two-phase model. F i r s t , u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d m e a s u r e s , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one were a n a l y s e d . S e c o n d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s or s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e had w i t h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a t t a i n m e n t t o g r a d e one was measured. 1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM Though r e s e a r c h on t h e e d u c a t i o n o f N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a has t e n d e d t o f o c u s on r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , o n l y a few s t u d i e s have examined r e a d i n g or w r i t i n g i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l - a g e d I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ( G a l l o w a y M i c k e l s o n and B u r c h f i e l d 1968; Graham 1972; Downing, O l l i l a and O l i v e r 1973; S i m p s o n - T y s o n 1978; D e h y l e 1983; B o l o z and J e n n e s s 1984; Hoffman 1985; A n d e r s o n 1986). The f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s p o i n t t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s , as compared w i t h t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s , l a g p r o g r e s s i v e l y as t h e y p a s s t h r o u g h s c h o o l . W h i l e s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s have been g i v e n t o a c c o u n t f o r t h i s l ower p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e r e a r e b a s i c p r o b l e m s r e g a r d i n g t h e measurement o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . 3 1.2.1 WEAKNESSES IN MEASUREMENT OF READING IN NATIVE POPULATIONS A l l s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d examined r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on gr o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s and h y p o t h e s i z e d v a r i a b l e s t h a t may have a f f e c t e d l e s s e r p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e s e m e a s u r e s . T h e r e a r e f o u r weak a r e a s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , e x t e n s i v e needs a s s e s s m e n t s c o n d u c t e d on ac a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s t a t e t h a t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n p e r f o r m much b e t t e r on i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d measures (Hawthorne 1967; Bank S t r e e t 1976; Burnaby 1984). Many N a t i v e c h i l d r e n a r e not f a m i l i a r w i t h f o r m a l g r o u p s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o d i s p l a y t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r knowledge ( S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n 1981) . Second, I n d i a n c h i l d r e n a r e o f t e n u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e f o r m a l t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n / a n s w e r f o r m a t s used on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s . T h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e , though o f t e n w e l l d e v e l o p e d , i s n ot germane t o t h e s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n c e s t a p p e d i n many r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s . T hese t e s t s may not be m e a s u r i n g an I n d i a n c h i l d ' s a c t u a l r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e or o v e r a l l r e a d i n g a t t a i n m e n t but r a t h e r t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on a s p e c i f i c s k i l l i n an u n f a m i l i a r c o n t e x t . N a t i v e c h i l d r e n may d i s p l a y t h e i r knowledge o f r e a d i n g b e t t e r u s i n g f a m i l i a r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n an o n e - t o - o n e s e t t i n g . T h i r d , many v a r i a b l e s have been h y p o t h e s i z e d t o a c c o u n t f o r lower r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s but few s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d on e x a m i n i n g one v a r i a b l e and a n a l y s i n g 4 i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c h o o l . V a r i a b l e s t h a t have been h y p o t h e s i z e d i n c l u d e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l i n g ( K i r k n e s s 1984), i m p o v e r i s h e d e n v i r o n m e n t b e f o r e s c h o o l i n g ( D o w n i n g , O l l i l a and O l i v e r 1973), p o o r s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e ( H a w t h o r n e 1967), p r e v a l e n c e o f m i d d l e e a r i n f e c t i o n s (McShane 1979), need f o r p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n ( M a y f i e l d 1981), w e a k n e s s i n l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t ( G a l l o w a y 1968; S i m p s o n - T y s o n 1978; N e l s o n 1984) and a m i s - match i n l e a r n i n g s t y l e s b e t w e e n t h e home and s c h o o l ( S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n 1981; More 1984). None o f t h e s e f a c t o r s has been e x p l o r e d e x t e n s i v e l y enough t o a t t r i b u t e a c a u s a l l i n k w i t h r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c h o o l . M o r e o v e r , t h e s e f a c t o r s have n o t been e x p l o r e d e x t e n s i v e l y enough t o g e n e r a l i z e t o a l l N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , no p u b l i s h e d t e s t s o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t a p p e a r t o i n c l u d e norms f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s o r a s u f f i c i e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r n o r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n (More 1987). 1.2.2 MEASURING READING A B I L I T Y IN NON-NATIVE POPULATIONS D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d , e a r l y l i t e r a c y e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e have been e x a m i n e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n n o n - N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . T h i s l i t e r a - t u r e has i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r e - s c h o o l l i t e r a c y e x p e r i e n c e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a t t a i n m e n t i n s c h o o l . P a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e home, e s p e c i a l l y b o o k r e a d i n g , has been i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g 5 one of the s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g p r o g r e s s i n s c h o o l . One of the most thorough s t u d i e s examining p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on l e a r n i n g t o read i n s c h o o l was conducted by Moon and W e l l s (1979). S i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s found t o have i n f l u e n c e d r e a d i n g a t t a i n m e n t i n s c h o o l at age seven were the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d ' s knowledge of books and l i t e r a c y , p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n the home and the q u a l i t y of p a r e n t - c h i l d v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n the home. Hewison and T i z a r d (1980) found t h a t r e a d i n g achievement at age 7 was most s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h whether or not the mother r e g u l a r l y l i s t e n e d t o the c h i l d r e a d . S i m i l a r l y , Walker and K u e r b i t z (1979), i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t of r e a d i n g t o p r e - s c h o o l e r s on r e a d i n g achievement i n s c h o o l , found t h a t c h i l d r e n who had been read t o r e g u l a r l y at home s c o r e d h i g h e r on r e a d i n g achievement t e s t s i n s c h o o l . Many oth e r s t u d i e s have found support f o r the p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e s of boo k r e a d i n g on l i t e r a c y development (Holdaway 1979; B i s s e x 1980; C l a r k 1984; T e a l e 1984 ) . 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Attempts t o examine I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n have focused on examining r e a d i n g achievement s c o r e s from group a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s . C u r r e n t needs assessments have i d e n t i f i e d t h i s p rocedure as an i n e f f e c t i v e way of measuring I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s (Hawthorne 1967; Burnaby 1984; Anderson 1986). I f t h i s method of assessment i s not 6 a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e n i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d a s s e s s m e n t m e a s u r e s b a s e d on m a t e r i a l s t h e c h i l d r e n a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h may r e v e a l a more i n - d e p t h k n o w l e d g e o f what I n d i a n c h i l d r e n know a b o u t r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . R e s e a r c h e r s e x a m i n i n g r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t have h y p o t h e s i z e d v a r i a b l e s t h a t may a f f e c t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e s e t e s t s . H owever, few s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d on e x a m i n i n g b a c k g r o u n d f a c t o r s t h a t may a f f e c t p e r f o r m a n c e on r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g m e a s u r e s i n s c h o o l . A t t h e same t i m e r e s e a r c h on n o n - N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s has i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e home has a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on r e a d i n g a t t a i n m e n t i n s c h o o l (Moon and W e l l s 1 9 8 1 ) . One w o u l d i n t u i t i v e l y e x p e c t t h i s v a r i a b l e t o a l s o i n f l u e n c e l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e i n I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s . Though S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n (1981) n o t e d v a r i a t i o n s i n o r i e n t a t i o n s t o l i t e r a c y when c o m p a r i n g t h e i r own c h i l d w i t h s c h o o l a g e d , r u r a l , b i l i n g u a l I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , t h e i r s t u d y d i d n o t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o r e l a t e t o t h e p r o b l e m s o t h e r I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h v a r y i n g g e o g r a p h i - c a l and l i n g u i s t i c b a c k g r o u n d s have w i t h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n s c h o o l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t d i d n o t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d p r o b l e m s u r b a n , u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n have w i t h l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e i n s c h o o l . P a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n u r b a n I n d i a n homes may a l s o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a t t a i n m e n t i n s c h o o l . 7 1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY F o r twenty y e a r s Musqueam I n d i a n c h i l d r e n have g e n e r a l l y s c o r e d below t h e i r age-mates on v a r i o u s g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s . T h i s p e r f o r m a n c e has not been a c c e p t a b l e t o p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s ( A n d e r s o n 1986). I t was s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h e s e measures d i d not a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t what I n d i a n c h i l d r e n knew about r e a d i n g . More i n f o r m a t i o n was needed t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses Musqueam c h i l d r e n had w i t h l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e i n s c h o o l . The p r o p o s e d s t u d y had t h r e e p u r p o s e s . The f i r s t p u r p o s e was t o examine t h e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s o f Musqueam I n d i a n c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one on a b a t t e r y o f i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d l i t e r a c y measures to see i f s i m i l a r p r o f i l e s o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s e x i s t e d . The s e c o n d p u r p o s e was t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e - s c h o o l l i t e r a c y ( s e e d e f . ) e x p e r i e n c e s i n Musqueam homes and t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s had w i t h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one. F i n a l l y , as s c h o o l a b s e n c e had o f t e n been a p r o b l e m w i t h some Musqueam c h i l d r e n ( A n d e r s o n 1986), t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e had w i t h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a t t a i n m e n t i n t h e s e g r a d e s was be examined. 8 1.5 QUESTIONS The s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. I s t h e r e a s i m i l a r p r o f i l e o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s w i t h i n t h e Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . T h a t i s , a r e t h e r e u n i q u e t r e n d s o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e shown by Musqueam I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on a v a r i e t y o f l i t e r a c y m e a s u r e s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one? 2 . To what e x t e n t i s p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o f Musqueam c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one? 3 . What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e and r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a t t a i n m e n t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one w i t h i n t h e Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n ? 1.6 HYPOTHESES The r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s s t a t e d i n t h e i r n u l l f o r m were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . 1. T h e r e w i l l be no s i m i l a r p r o f i l e o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o f Musqueam c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one w i t h i n t h e Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . 2 . T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t ween p a r e n t a l p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e Musqueam homes d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s and r e a d i n g a t t a i n m e n t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e o ne. 9 3. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e and r e a d i n g a t t a i n m e n t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e o n e . 1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s w i l l c l a r i f y t h e t e r m s as t h e y were u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 1. Musqueam I n d i a n : A l l s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n whose e d u c a t i o n i s f i n a n c e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e Musqueam r e s e r v a t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f Musqueam d e s c e n t . 2 . P a r e n t : The p r e s e n t s u p p o r t i n g a d u l t / a d u l t s w i l l be assumed t o be t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c a r e g i v e r i n t h e c h i l d ' s p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . 3. L i t e r a c y : Gee (1986) d e f i n e s l i t e r a c y as b e i n g a s e t o f d i s c o u r s e p r a c t i c e s o r ways o f u s i n g l a n g u a g e and m a k i n g s e n s e i n b o t h s p e e c h and w r i t i n g . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e t e r m l i t e r a c y w i l l be d e f i n e d as ways o f u s i n g l a n g u a g e and m a k i n g s e n s e a r o u n d r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . 4. P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e P r e s c h o o l Y e a r s : T h i s t e r m was meant t o encompass t h e f o l l o w i n g : a. t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m a t e r i a l s f o r r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g were a v a i l a b l e i n t h e home, b. t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e c a r e g i v e r o b s e r v e d t h e c h i l d e i t h e r a t t e m p t i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e , and c. t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e a d u l t e n g a g e d i n a r e a d i n g o r w r i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e i r c h i l d . I n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y : I n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the scores given to determine develop- mental l e v e l s of language, message q u a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i n the w r i t i n g sample a n a l y s i s (see Appendix A). Judgemental o p i n i o n s , d i f f e r e n c e i n grade l e v e l of e x p e r t i s e of the s c o r i n g a d u l t s , and v a r i a t i o n i n the three samples of w r i t i n g c o l l e c t e d from each student are p o s s i b l e confusions that may i n t e r f e r e with the c h o i c e of score given (Huntley 1 9 8 6 ) . Consequently, responses were considered a h i t i f they f e l l i n t o the s a t i s f a c t o r y (score of 5 - 6 ) or n o n - s a t i s f a c t o r y (score of 0 - 4 ) l e v e l . Reading attainment: Reading attainment, f o r the purpose of t h i s study, was considered to be the o v e r a l l l e v e l of accuracy obtained on each of the su b t e s t s of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey (Clay 1 9 8 5 ) . T o p i c - c e n t e r e d S t o r i e s : S t o r i e s are t i g h t l y organized and center on a s i n g l e , c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e t o p i c . Thematic development i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y achieved through a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g a focussed d e s c r i p t i o n of a s i n g l e event or ob j e c t (Michaels 1 9 8 1 , p. 4 2 8 ) . T o p i c - A s s o c i a t e d S t o r i e s : With t h i s s o r t of d i s c o u r s e , the p o i n t of the c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s need to be i n f e r r e d from a s e r i e s of subanecdotes. Topic a s s o c i a t i n g d i s - course c o n t r i b u t i o n s are p e r c e i v e d by teachers to be 11 d i s o r g a n i z e d and u n f o c u s s e d , a l t h o u g h c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s p e r c e i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o h e s i o n and f o c u s ( M i c h a e l s 1981) . 1.8 LIMITATIONS 1. The s t u d y was c o n f i n e d t o s u b j e c t s drawn f r o m one band o f u r b a n N a t i v e c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on one r e s e r v e . T h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e s and t h e i r p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s may n o t be t y p i c a l o f o t h e r u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s . 2. Sample s i z e was s m a l l ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13) b u t i n c l u d e d a l l Musqueam c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t l y i n k i n d e r g a r t e n as i d e n t i f i e d by t h e Musqueam E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r . 3. I n f o r m a t i o n on p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s was o b t a i n e d u s i n g a r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w - q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m a t a d m i n i s t e r e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . T h i s t y p e o f s e l f - r e p o r t i n g had t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f o n l y b e i n g a c c u r a t e t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e f o u r p r e v i o u s y e a r s were a c c u r a t e and t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e p e r s o n was w i l l i n g t o e x p r e s s them h o n e s t l y ( B o r g and G a l l 1979). As p r i v a c y i s h i g h l y v a l u e d i n t h e Musqueam p o p u l a - t i o n , a r e q u e s t t o p u r s u e e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h was n o t p u r s u e d . The r e s e a r c h e r had known s e v e r a l Musqueam f a m i l i e s f o r f o u r y e a r s so f e l t t h a t a d u l t s m i g h t be w i l l i n g t o o f f e r i n f o r m a t i o n as h o n e s t l y as t h e y c o u l d remember i t . 12 4. Some c h i l d r e n had r e p e a t e d e i t h e r k i n d e r g a r t e n o r g r a d e one so t h a t t h e age o f c h i l d r e n i n e a c h g r a d e may have s p a n n e d two y e a r s . 5. Two s u b t e s t s d e p ended on e x a m i n e r j u d g e m e n t t o i n t e r p r e t r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g l e v e l s . I n The R u n n i n g R e c o r d o f R e a d i n g S u b t e s t , t h e e x a m i n e r was r e q u i r e d t o use a c a t e g o r y o f e r r o r t o c o de r e s p o n s e s ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . I n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y w o u l d have h e l p e d i n a s s e s s i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f r e s p o n s e s g i v e n . H owever, t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d n o t f i n d a p e r s o n w i t h s u i t a b l e e x p e r i e n c e u s i n g t h i s i n s t r u m e n t who had t h e t i m e ( o n e - h a l f h o u r p e r s t u d e n t ) t o s c o r e t h e s u b t e s t . An i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e s e c o n d s u b t e s t d e p e n d e n t on r e s e a r c h e r j u d g e m e n t , t h e W r i t i n g Sample a n a l y s i s ( s e e C h a p t e r T h r e e , p. 3 8 ) . T h i s c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s t o be examined. The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t w i l l r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h i s p r o b l e m from an h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . 14 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.1 INTRODUCTION The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r o f f e r s a review of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the framework of t h i s s t u d y . S t u d i e s examining r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g from a c u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l be revi e w e d . That i s , l i t e r a c y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t of a s o c i a l o r d e r passed down from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n through a p r o c e s s of s o c i a l i z a - t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y around l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n the home, as w e l l as at s c h o o l (Olson 1 9 8 4 ) . The re v i e w i s o r g a n i z e d under f o u r major h e a d i n g s , h i s t o r i c a l development of I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n , needs assessment and r e a d i n g achievement i n I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s l i n k e d t o r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i n I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e of the home on l e a r n i n g t o read i n s c h o o l i n non-I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s . 2 . 2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN EDUCATION In the e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i n Canada, Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s f o r I n d i a n s ( K i r k n e s s 1 9 8 5 ) . However u n t i l 1850 most I n d i a n c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d t h e i r N a t i v e language from a d u l t s i n t h e i r community. Knowledge was p r i n c i p a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d through a r i c h t r a d i - t i o n of o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g . C h i l d r e n l i s t e n e d t o s t o r i e s t o l d over s e v e r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s so they were a b l e t o absorb t h e i r t e a c h i n g s . From 1850-1949 r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s and the government j o i n t l y assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e d u c a t i o n of I n d i a n 15 c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n were s e n t t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s away f r o m t h e i r r e s e r v e s . They were f o r b i d d e n t o speak t h e i r N a t i v e l a n g u a g e and were i n s t r u c t e d t o r e a d and w r i t e i n E n g l i s h . T h i s was v e r y d i f f i c u l t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r c u l t u r e was s o l e l y o r a l ( K i r k n e s s 1 9 8 4 ) . A f t e r t e n y e a r s i n s c h o o l most c h i l d r e n r e t u r n e d home h a v i n g r e a c h e d a r e a d i n g a c h i e v e - ment l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t t o g r a d e t h r e e and n o t h a v i n g had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n c u s t o m s c e n t r a l t o t h e i r N a t i v e c o m munity ( W i l l i a m s 1 9 8 6 ) . I n 1 9 4 9 I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were f i r s t a l l o w e d t o a t t e n d p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Some f a m i l i e s c o n t i n u e d t o s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s u n t i l t h e y c l o s e d i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s ( K i r k n e s s 1 9 8 4 ) . T o d a y , i n C a n a d a , I n d i a n c h i l d r e n e i t h e r a t t e n d band o p e r a t e d s c h o o l s o r go t o p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t l y i n s c h o o l have had some o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s ( K i r k n e s s 1 9 8 4 ) . Many p a r e n t s have n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t a s c h o o l s y s t e m t h a t has a v o i d e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r N a t i v e c u l t u r e and a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s i s s u e i n v a r y i n g ways. Some p a r e n t s s u p p o r t band o p e r a t e d s c h o o l s ( K i r k n e s s 1 9 8 5 ) . O t h e r p a r e n t s want t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d p u b l i c s c h o o l s ( A n d e r s o n 1 9 8 6 ) . W h i c h e v e r t y p e o f s c h o o l t h e y s u p p o r t a n o t h e r i s s u e i s p e r t i n e n t . Many p a r e n t s a r e i n a t r a n s i t i o n b e t w e e n t r y i n g t o r e g a i n o r r e t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l c u s t o m s w h i l e w a n t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o r e a d and w r i t e a t an a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y m a i n s t r e a m 16 c u l t u r e . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n has p r e c i p i t a t e d p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r s r a n g i n g f r o m a v o i d i n g c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s c h o o l and a l l o w i n g c h i l d r e n t o s t a y home f r o m s c h o o l ( A n d e r s o n 1986) t o a c t i v e l y r e a d i n g w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n d a i l y and h e l p i n g w i t h homework. I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n a s i m i l a r way, t h e g o v e r n m e n t and r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s have h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d t h e e d u c a - t i o n o f I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . L i k e w i s e most I n d i a n c h i l d r e n have u n d e r a c h i e v e d i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m and p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r e d u c a t i o n has a l s o v a r i e d (Bank S t r e e t 1976; R o s i e r and Holm 1980 ) . More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o e x a m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f t h e d i v e r s i t y t h a t may e x i s t i n p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s and how t h i s a f f e c t s I n d i a n c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e o ne. 2.3 NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AND READING ACHIEVEMENT IN INDIAN POPULATIONS 2.3.1 CANADIAN INDIANS A t p r e s e n t , l e s s t h a n t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s t u d e n t s f i n i s h g r a d e t w e l v e . T h i s h i g h s c h o o l d r o p o u t r a t e has b een p r i m a r i l y a t t r i b u t e d t o l a c k o f m a s t e r y o f l i t e r a c y s k i l l s n e e d e d f o r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ( M a y f i e l d 1985). As e a r l y as 1967 t h e H a w t h o r n e r e p o r t a d d r e s s e d t h e same i s s u e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d n o n - I n d i a n and one h u n d r e d t w e n t y - f i v e I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s f r o m t h r e e n o n - i d e n t i f i e d I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , were i n t e r v i e w e d t o d e t e r m i n e what e f f e c t s p u b l i c s c h o o l had on t h e e d u c a t i o n o f 17 t h e N a t i v e c h i l d . A t t h a t t i m e a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n r e p e a t e d g r a d e one. H a w t h o r n e a t t r i b u t e d t h i s p o o r p e r f o r m a n c e i n s c h o o l t o s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s s u c h as h e a l t h and d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n e x p e c t a t i o n s p l a c e d on t h e c h i l d a t home and a t s c h o o l . He a l s o recommended t h a t g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d p e n c i l and p a p e r t e s t s be e l i m i n a t e d as a means o f a s s e s s i n g r e a d i n g . S i n c e t h e n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d o u t l i n i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s o f I n d i a n s t u d e n t s ( B u r n a b y 1 9 8 0 ; K i r k n e s s 1 9 8 4 ; More 1 9 8 4 ) . A l l have i d e n t i f i e d t h e need t o i m p r o v e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g as a m a j o r g o a l . One l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h a t t h e y a l l f o c u s e d on r e a d i n g as m e a s u r e d by g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d p a p e r and p e n c i l r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s l o n g c r i t i c i z e d as b e i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . More r e s e a r c h was n e e d e d t h a t m e a s u r e d r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s on i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n s t r u m e n t s . 2 . 3 . 2 AMERICAN INDIANS I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a m a j o r needs a s s e s s m e n t e x a m i n i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n o f y o u n g N a t i v e A m e r i c a n s was c o n d u c t e d by t h e Bank S t r e e t C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 7 6 ) . F i v e h u n d r e d and s i x t y - t w o N a t i v e A m e r i c a n a d u l t s f r o m t w e n t y - s i x c o m m u n i t i e s were i n t e r v i e w e d . A main r e c o m m e n d a t i o n was t o i m p r o v e t h e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s o f I n d i a n s t u d e n t s f o c u s i n g on t h e e a r l y s c h o o l y e a r s . S i n c e t h e n s e v e r a l p r o g r a m s have been c r e a t e d t o s u p p o r t l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s ( D a y b r e a k S t a r P r e s c h o o l 1 9 8 3 ; M a y f i e l d 1 9 8 4 ; P u e b l o I n f a n t - P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t 1 9 8 6 ) . However, no p r o g r a m s c o u l d 18 be f o u n d t h a t examined u r b a n u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g I n d i a n s d u r i n g b o t h t h e p r e s c h o o l and e a r l y s c h o o l y e a r s . 2.3.3 REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON ASSESSMENT A l l s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d r e p o r t e d a need t o improve t h e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . On s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s , I n d i a n c h i l d r e n have c o n s i s t e n t l y s c o r e d below t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s i n i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s and below n a t i o n a l norms i n a l l N a t i v e s c h o o l s . T h i s gap has c o n t i n u e d t o widen as t h e y p a s s t h r o u g h t h e g r a d e s (Hawthorne 1967; Bank S t r e e t 1976). A n d e r s o n (1986) examined r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s o f Musqueam c h i l d r e n o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s . In t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s , c h i l d r e n were, on t h e a v e r a g e , s e v e n months below t h e i r g r a d e l e v e l . By g r a d e s e v e n t h i s gap had widened t o one y e a r and f i v e months. Y e t a l l s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d p e r s i s t e d i n u s i n g g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s l o n g c r i t i c i z e d as i n a p p r o p r i a t e measures of r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s i n I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s . The i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y was t o improve on p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s by e x a m i n i n g r e a d i n g s t r e n g t h s as w e l l as weaknesses on i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d measures o f r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s . S u p p o r t f o r t h i s a p p r o a c h was f o u n d i n one s t u d y . B o l o z and J e n n e s s (1984) o b s e r v e d N a v a j o c h i l d r e n i n an i n t e g r a t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n t h a t was ba s e d on an emergent l i t e r a c y model. They d i s c o v e r e d t h a t N a v a j o c h i l d r e n had s t r o n g c o n c e p t s o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e when t h e y e n t e r e d s c h o o l . T h e i r q u a l i t y o f work v a r i e d due t o a b i l i t y t o speak E n g l i s h and m a t u r i t y and 19 knowledge o f l e t t e r s o u n d s , but a l l N a v a j o c h i l d r e n f e l t t h e y were a b l e t o w r i t e and t h e y were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p u r s u i t . C h i l d r e n were a b l e t o use t h e knowledge o f l i t e r a c y t h e y had a c q u i r e d a t home t o b e g i n t o r e a d and w r i t e i n s c h o o l . 2 . 4 SOCIO-CULTURAL VARIABLES LINKED TO READING ABILITY IN INDIAN POPULATIONS In t h e r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , more p r e v a l e n t i n I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s t h a n i n c o n t e m p o r a r y non- I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s , were p r o p o s e d t o have an i n f l u e n c e on l o w e r i n g r e a d i n g s c o r e s i n I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s . L i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be o r g a n i z e d under th e h e a d i n g s o f h e a l t h , p a r e n t i n g e d u c a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i v e s t y l e , o r a l l a n g u a g e and c o g n i t i o n . 2 . 4 . 1 HEALTH M a y f i e l d (1985) a t t r i b u t e d slow d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c a d e m i c s k i l l s t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f h e a l t h , s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and economic f a c t o r s . One o f t h e most p r e v a l e n t h e a l t h p r o b l e m s t h a t has a f f e c t e d I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e has been t h e i r h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f o t i t i s media or m i d d l e e a r d i s e a s e (McShane 1979). McShane r e v i e w e d s t u d i e s on urban and r u r a l A m e r i c a n N a t i v e c h i l d r e n and f o u n d t h a t w h i l e ear i n f e c t i o n s were e s t i m a t e d t o o c c u r a t t h e r a t e o f 50% among c h i l d r e n i n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , t h e y were more p r e v a l e n t i n I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . E s t i m a t e s r a n g e d from 20% t o 70%. 20 A v a r i e t y o f l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s have been r e l a t e d t o m i d d l e e a r i n f e c t i o n s . C o r r e l a t e s i d e n t i f i e d have been d e l a y e d s p e e c h and l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , d e l a y e d a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n , d e l a y e d a u d i t o r y s e q u e n t i a l memory a b i l i t y , r e a d i n g d i s o r d e r , and p o o r s p e l l i n g s k i l l s ( K a t z 1 9 7 8 ; Z i n k u s 1 9 7 8 ; McShane 1 9 7 9 ) . O t h e r h e a l t h f a c t o r s s u g g e s t e d as b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s e r a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e i n I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were f e t a l a l c o h o l syndrome and h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s due t o p o v e r t y ( B u r n a b y 1 9 8 0 ) . 2 . 4 . 2 PARENTING EDUCATION S e v e r a l I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t l o w e r p e r f o r m a n c e on a c a d e m i c s k i l l s have made an a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p p a r e n t i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . A l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f a N a t i v e i n f a n t p r o g r a m t h a t o p e r a t e d on f i v e r e s e r v e s i n t h e C o w i c h a n V a l l e y on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was c o n d u c t e d by M a y f i e l d ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A p p r o x i - m a t e l y one h u n d r e d n i n e t y c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g f r o m b i r t h t o age f o u r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a home b a s e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r a m . M a t e r i a l s on f a m i l y t e a c h i n g s and p r a c t i s e s s a n c t i o n e d by band e l d e r s were u s e d . I n f o r m a t i o n d e v e l o p e d by t h e e l d e r s was p r e s e n t e d i n s u c h f o r m a t as " T a l k t o y o u r baby f r o m t h e v e r y s t a r t . T h i s way y o u w i l l n o t be a s t r a n g e r t o y o u r c h i l d . " ( p . 3 0 2 ) . R e s u l t s f r o m p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w s , a n e c d o t a l r e p o r t s , c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f l o g b o o k s and f o l l o w - u p r e f e r r a l s showed 21 t h a t c h i l d r e n who were i n t h e p r o g r a m more t h a n e i g h t e e n months had t h e f e w e s t q u e s t i o n a b l e and b e l o w a c c e p t a b l e norm r a t i n g s on t h e Denver D e v e l o p m e n t a l S c r e e n i n g T e s t . P a r e n t s were s u r p r i s e d a t how much t h e i r c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o l e a r n . T h e r e was an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e c h i l d shown by t h e f a t h e r , book r e a d i n g was more common and p a r e n t s had begun t o t e a c h t h e i r c h i l d r a t h e r t h a n w a i t i n g f o r t h e s c h o o l t o do i t . P a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s a r e b e i n g f o u n d i n s e v e r a l A m e r i c a n p r o g r a m s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e C o w i c h a n p r o g r a m was d i s c o n t i n u e d so no f o l l o w - u p e x a m i n a t i o n t o o k p l a c e t o a s s e s s p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s as t h e y a f f e c t e d l a t e r s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t . 2 . 4 . 3 COMMUNICATIVE STYLE Some s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d on c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m m u n i c a t i v e s t y l e and how t h i s h a s a f f e c t e d a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e o f N a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l . S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n (1981) o b s e r v e d N a t i v e c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e i n F o r t C h i p e w a y , A l b e r t a and A l a s k a . From t h e i r e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h t h e y d e v e l o p e d t h e n o t i o n o f b u s h c o n s c i o u s n e s s and modern c o n s c i o u s n e s s . N o r t h e r n N a t i v e c h i l d r e n were s a i d t o have d e v e l o p e d a b u s h c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t depended on i n d i v i d u a l r e s p e c t and n o n - v e r b a l r e g u l a - t i o n . C h i l d r e n were e n c o u r a g e d t o s e e k o u t k n o w l e d g e o f human e x p e r i e n c e and s k i l l s and o n c e a c q u i r e d n o t t o d i s p l a y 22 t h e i r k n o w l e d g e p u b l i c l y u n l e s s t h e y were i n a p o s i t i o n o f d o m i n a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r a u d i e n c e . V e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n was n o t a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n a d u l t and c h i l d . F o r e x a m p l e , d i s p l a y "show me t h a t y o u know what I know" q u e s t i o n s were s e l d o m u s e d as a means o f v e r i f y i n g k n o w l e d g e . T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i v e s t y l e i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h v e r b a l l y r e g u l a t e d t e a c h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n p r e v a l e n t i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c h o o l . F o r e x a m p l e , d i s p l a y q u e s t i o n s l i k e , "What i s t h e b e g i n n i n g s o u n d o f 'dog'"? a r e f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n g r a d e one c l a s s r o o m s . More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o e x a m i n e t r a d i t i o n a l b u s h c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r i e n t a t i o n s t o l e a r n i n g i n u r b a n N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . R e s u l t s f r o m e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ( A n d e r s o n 1 9 8 6 ) r e v e a l e d t h a t u r b a n Musqueam c h i l d r e n r e a d i l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n o r a l e x c h a n g e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m d u r i n g t h e p r i m a r y y e a r s . H owever, t h e s e c h i l d r e n became r e t i c e n t t o v e r b a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n c l a s s i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s . 2.4.4 ORAL LANGUAGE D u r i n g t h e p a s t two d e c a d e s t h e r e have been s e v e r a l s t u d i e s t h a t have f o c u s e d on o r a l l a n g u a g e d e f i c i t s i n N a t i v e c h i l d r e n and t h e e f f e c t t h e s e d e f i c i t s have had on r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . The same h y p o t h e s i s was p o p u l a r i n s t u d y i n g b l a c k A m e r i c a n c h i l d r e n i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s . I t s main p r o p o n e n t s , B e r e i t e r and Englemann ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p o s t u l a t e d t h a t b l a c k c h i l d r e n 23 had an i n a d e q u a t e a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e and comprehend s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h . T h e r e were two g l a r i n g w e a k n e s s e s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , s t u d i e s on s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s o f b l a c k c h i l d r e n t e n d e d t o be o v e r g e n e r a l i z e d t o a l l b l a c k A m e r i c a n c h i l d r e n . S e c o n d l y , l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s were c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n s . L a b o v (1972) r e p u d i a t e d t h i s i n t e r v i e w f o r m a t . I n h i s s t u d y e x a m i n i n g o r a l l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y i n b l a c k A m e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n s he f o u n d t h a t t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e i n t e r v i e w t o o k p l a c e was t h e most p o w e r f u l d e t e r m i n a n t o f v e r b a l b e h a v i o r . The t e n d e n c y t o g e n e r a l i z e t o a l l N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s and t o t e s t o r a l l a n g u a g e i n f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n s i s a l s o p r e v a l e n t i n e x a m i n i n g o r a l l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y and r e a d i n g a t t a i n m e n t i n N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . P h i l l i o n and G a l l o w a y (1968) a t t e m p t e d t o i s o l a t e w e a k n e s s e s i n l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t i n s c h o o l - a g e d u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g , I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . T h e i r s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f a l l s i x t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e s f o u r and s e v e n i n one e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n a s m a l l community on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . T w e n t y - e i g h t o u t o f s i x t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n were N a t i v e . T e a c h e r s o b s e r v e d o r a l l a n g u a g e o n l y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e G a t e s R e a d i n g T e s t t o a l l c h i l d r e n i n a g r o u p s e t t i n g . An i t e m a n a l y s i s o f r e a d i n g t e s t e r r o r s was c o n d u c t e d on l o w e r s c o r e r s i n v o c a b u l a r y and c o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b t e s t s . 24 G a l l o w a y i n f e r r e d t h a t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n had i n a d e q u a t e l a n g u a g e c o n c e p t d e v e l o p m e n t due t o t h e i r l i m i t e d e n v i r o n - m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s l o w e r p e r f o r m a n c e as due t o a l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f o r m a l t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s ( A n d e r s o n 1 9 8 6 ) , a l a c k o f p r i o r k n o w l e d g e n e c e s s a r y t o comprehend t e x t o r l e s s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s o f p r i n t ( W e l l s 1 9 8 6 ) . D a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s o f o r a l l a n g u a g e l e d t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n were weak i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o make e f f e c t i v e use o f c o n n e c t i n g words s u c h as p r e p o s i t i o n s and c o n j u n c t i o n s . N o t i n g t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n o f t e n s p o k e i n " h u r r i e d " p h r a s e s , P h i l l i o n and G a l l o w a y c o n c l u d e d t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n were u n a b l e t o c o m b i n e and r e c o m b i n e w o r d s and t o t r a n s f o r m s t a t e m e n t s i n t o q u e s t i o n s . T e a c h e r s commented t h a t v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e home was m i n i m a l ( P h i l l i o n and G a l l o w a y 1 9 6 8 ) . They b a s e d t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n on o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t a l k o b s e r v e d when t h e y v i s i t e d s t u d e n t s ' homes as t e a c h e r / r e s e a r c h e r s . T h i s w o u l d seem t o be a h i g h l y i n v a l i d way o f a s s e s s i n g t a l k i n t h e home as N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e a r e o f t e n r e t i c e n t t o t a l k t o t e a c h e r s a b o u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s . As w e l l , t h e r e was no m e n t i o n o f any s y s t e m t o c a t e g o r i z e o r a l l a n g u a g e o b s e r v a t i o n s . I n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was n o t m e n t i o n e d . I f t h e i r mandate was t o i s o l a t e w e a k n e s s e s i n l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p - ment i n s c h o o l , d a t a g a t h e r i n g s h o u l d have i n v o l v e d more o r g a n i z e d p r o c e d u r e s . 25 S i m p s o n - T y s o n ( 1 9 7 8 ) e x a m i n e d t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f o r a l E n g l i s h u s e d by Crow and N o r t h e r n Cheyenne c h i l d r e n . She f o u n d t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n were n o t v e r b a l i n a c o n t r o l l e d i n t e r v i e w s e t t i n g . They s p o k e w i t h a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f one and two word r e s p o n s e s and were l e s s a f f e c t e d by p i c t u r e c o n t e n t t h a n was e x p e c t e d . C h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y had o m i s s i o n s i n s y n t a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e and d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e word " t o be" ( p . 7 9 8 ) . S i m p s o n - T y s o n recommended t h a t r e a d i n g o f b o o k s be w i t h h e l d u n t i l o r a l l a n g u a g e i m p r o v e d . P r e s e n t l y s e v e r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e i n s t i t u t i n g e a r l y l a n g u a g e i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s f o r N a t i v e c h i l d r e n ( N e l s o n 1 9 8 4 ; H o f f m a n 1 9 8 5 ; More 1 9 8 6 ) . P r o g r a m s i n c l u d e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n " a t r i s k " i n t h e i r k i n d e r g a r t e n y e a r . T h o s e so i d e n t i f i e d r e c e i v e d a c o n c e n t r a t e d s k i l l - o r i e n t e d p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o e n h a n c e t h e i r r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s s k i l l s . D o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s has shown t h a t c h i l d e n a r e a c h i e v i n g h i g h e r s c o r e s on r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s i n g r a d e one. More l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h n eeds t o be c o n d u c t e d t o see i f t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t c o n t i n u e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t most o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s a r e e i t h e r c o n d u c t e d i n t h e p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s o r i n t h e e a r l y g r a d e s b u t n o t b o t h . M o r e o v e r , none o f t h e s e s t u d i e s e x a m i n e d u r b a n u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s . 26 2 . 4.5 COGNITION A n o t h e r v a r i a b l e f o u n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e was c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . I t was somewhat d i f f i c u l t t o compare s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a as each s t u d y d i f f e r e d i n i t s f o c u s and, i n each c a s e , a d i f f e r e n t N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n was examined. Downing, O l l i l a and O l i v e r (1973) used f i f t y - n i n e u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g I n d i a n c h i l d r e n matched w i t h f i f t y - s e v e n n o n - I n d i a n c h i l d r e n t o t e s t t h e i r h y p o t h e s i s a bout r e a d i n g b a s e d on t h e t h e o r y o f c o g n i t i v e c l a r i t y . A l l s u b j e c t s were from k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s i n two s c h o o l d i s - t r i c t s i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . They h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c h i l d r e n e n t e r e d t h e f i r s t phase of l e a r n i n g t h e s k i l l o f r e a d i n g i n a s t a t e of c o g n i t i v e c o n f u s i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y c h i l d r e n do not u n d e r s t a n d t h e f u n c t i o n s o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , do n o t know what a c t i o n s t h e y a r e s u p p o s e d t o p e r f o r m and l a c k t h e c o n c e p t s o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f spoken l a n g u a g e which a r e coded by t h e w r i t i n g s y s t e m . N a t i v e c h i l d r e n were assumed t o be i n t h i s c o g n i t i v e s t a t e when t h e y e n t e r e d k i n d e r g a r t e n . A s s u m p t i o n s were b a s e d on t h e f a c t t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n come from a c u l t u r e w i t h no w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n so t h e y would have l e s s c h a n c e t o o b s e r v e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n t h e i r p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . F i v e s u b t e s t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n R e a d i n g R e a d i n e s s T e s t were a d m i n i s t e r e d . S u b t e s t s were t i t l e d O r i e n t a t i o n t o L i t e r a c y , U n d e r s t a n d i n g L i t e r a c y B e h a v i o r , T e c h n i c a l Language 27 o f L i t e r a c y , V i s u a l L e t t e r R e c o g n i t i o n , L e t t e r - n a m e Knowledge, and I n i t i a l Phonemes. In a l l , k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d t o r e s p o n d t o s i x t y - f o u r i t e m s i n a g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d p a p e r and p e n c i l t e s t . Downing, O l l i l a and O l i v e r f o u n d t h a t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t h a n n o n - I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on e v e r y measure. They summarized t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n were c o g n i - t i v e l y c o n f u s e d i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s l i t e r a c y when compared w i t h n o n - N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . Downing, O l l i l a and O l i v e r (1975) r e p e a t e d t h e same a s s e s s m e n t measure w i t h s i x t y - t w o N a t i v e c h i l d r e n matched w i t h t h e same n o n - N a t i v e k i n d e r g a r t e n p o p u l a t i o n f r o m two d i f f e r e n t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d . They a g a i n c o n c l u d e d t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n show more c o g n i t i v e c o n f u s i o n about r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g t h a n c o m p a r a t i v e m a i n s t r e a m p o p u l a t i o n s . In b o t h s t u d i e s t h e r e was no m e n t i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f t r y i n g t o a s s e s s i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s on g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s . Though i t i s an e x p e d i e n t method o f a s s e s s m e n t , f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e such as f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e t a s k and f o r m a l i t y o f c o n t e x t i n w hich t h e t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d c o u l d have gone u n o b s e r v e d . A n o t h e r c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e i d e n t i f i e d by r e s e a r c h e r s t o a c c o u n t f o r poor r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s has been l e a r n i n g s t y l e . In s e v e r a l s t u d i e s , t h e mismatch between i n s t r u c - t i o n a l methods used by r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s and l e a r n i n g s t y l e s of I n d i a n c h i l d r e n has been i n v e s t i g a t e d . 28 More (1986) r e p o r t e d on a s t u d y i n p r o g r e s s e x a m i n i n g l e a r n i n g s t y l e s o f N a t i v e and n o n - N a t i v e s e v e n and t e n y e a r o l d s i n s o u t h c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r e s e n t f i n d i n g s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n show a r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h i n s i m u l t a n e o u s o r h o l i s t i c p r o c e s s i n g . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h e need f o r more emphasis on s i g h t word a p p r o a c h e s i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . McShane (1979) r e v i e w e d s t u d i e s t h a t had used t h e W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n (WISC) t o measure c o g n i t i o n . He f o u n d a c o n s i s t e n t v e r b a l - p e r f o r m a n c e d i s c r e p - ancy i n e v e r y N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n e xamined. The a v e r a g e v e r b a l s c o r e was e i g h t e e n p o i n t s below the p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e (McShane, p. 9 ) . The s i m u l t a n e o u s / s u c c e s s i v e c o n t i n u u m and d i s c r e p a n c i e s between v e r b a l and p e r f o r m a n c e s c a l e s on IQ t e s t s have been r e l a t e d t o o t h e r c o g n i t i v e s t y l e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s s u c h as f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n c e / f i e l d d e p e n d e n c e . F i e l d i n d e p e n d e n c e has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n c u l t u r e s and h o l i s t i c l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . In i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e tremendous range o f t a s k s used t o a s s e s s c o g n i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between N a t i v e and n o n - N a t i v e c h i l d r e n , t h e q u e s t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y needs t o be a d d r e s s e d ( K a r l b a c h 1 9 86). Do t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e h i s t o r i c a l l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e as compared w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t day e n v i r o n m e n t ? For i n s t a n c e , many I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s a r e i n a t r a n s i t i o n 29 f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l t o m a i n s t r e a m c u l t u r e and may have n o t r e t a i n e d a l e a r n i n g s t y l e b a s e d on t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f i n t e r a c t i n g . More (1984) and K a r l b a c h (1984) e x a m i n e d c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g s t y l e s among C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s . The e v i d e n c e was i n c o n c l u s i v e r e g a r d i n g t h e f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n c e o f I n d i a n g r o u p s as a w h o l e . However, s u b s a m p l e s a p p e a r e d t o be more f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n t t h a n f i e l d d e p e n d e n t . T h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s may l i e i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n a p p r o a c h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h N a t i v e I n d i a n s u b s a m p l e . 2.5 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH ON READING I N NATIVE POPULATIONS T h i s r e v i e w on r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h i n N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a - t i o n s has i n d i c a t e d t h a t many v a r i a b l e s have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s e r p e r f o r m a n c e on r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s . T h e s e have i n c l u d e d n e g a t i v e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l , i m p o v e r i s h e d e n v i r o n m e n t b e f o r e s c h o o l , p r e v a l e n c e o f m i d d l e e a r i n f e c t i o n s , need f o r p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , w e a k n e s s i n l a n g u - age d e v e l o p m e n t , m i s m a t c h i n c o m m u n i c a t i v e s t y l e and m i s m a t c h b e t w e e n l e a r n i n g s t y l e and r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n m e t h o d s . The r e v i e w has a l s o r a i s e d s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t methodo- l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . F i r s t , most r e s e a r c h was b a s e d on a d e f i c i t m o d e l . I f t h e f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h was s h i f t e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e s t r e n g t h s N a t i v e c h i l d r e n b r i n g t o l i t e r a c y t a s k s i n s c h o o l , t e a c h e r s m i g h t have u s e f u l k n o w l e d g e t o a l t e r t h e i r t e a c h i n g methods t o s u p p o r t t h e s e s t r e n g t h s . S e c o n d , a l l s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d 30 used the mean as the measure of c e n t r a l tendency. As po p u l a t i o n s examined were o f t e n small and d i s t r i b u t i o n s markedly skewed, the median should have a l s o been c a l c u l a t e d . T h i r d , i n d i v i d u a l l y administered measures of assessment should have been i n c l u d e d to compare reading performance on group and i n d i v i d u a l l y administered measures. A l l s t u d i e s reviewed concentrated on a d i f f e r e n t Native Indian p o p u l a t i o n . In some in s t a n c e s Indian p o p u l a t i o n s were not s u f f i c i e n t l y d e s c r i b e d to a s c e r t a i n whether they were urban or r u r a l , u n i l i n g u a l or b i l i n g u a l , or reserve or non- reserve c h i l d r e n . T h i s a l s o made i t d i f f i c u l t to compare po p u l a t i o n s or to r e l a t e f i n d i n g s to the Musqueam urban u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h c h i l d r e n i n the present study. In c o n c l u s i o n , many s t u d i e s have assessed the poorer performance of Indian students on reading achievement t e s t s and have hypothesized s o c i o - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s to account f o r t h i s perforamance. However no s t u d i e s could be found that a c t u a l l y sampled one Native parent p o p u l a t i o n to determine what e f f e c t they might have on t h e i r c h i l d ' s reading and w r i t i n g performance i n s c h o o l . The f o l l o w i n g review of research examining f a c t o r s during the pre s c h o o l years that have i n f l u e n c e d l a t e r school achievement i n non-Native p o p u l a t i o n s has f a c i l i t a t e d the choosing of v a r i a b l e s to be i s o l a t e d i n the present study. 31 2.6 INFLUENCE OF THE HOME ON LEARNING TO READ IN SCHOOL (NON-NATIVE LITERATURE) One of the most thorough small s c a l e s t u d i e s examining p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on l e a r n i n g to read i n school was conducted by Moon and Wells (1979). Within the context of the B r i s t o l L o n g i t u d i n a l Language Development Program, they examined a sample p o p u l a t i o n of twenty out of one hundred and twenty-eight c h i l d r e n from eighteen d i f f e r e n t school c l a s s e s . S e v e r a l methods of data c o l l e c t i o n were used. At age f i v e , tape r e c o r d i n g s and t r a n s c r i p t s were examined from the previous two years ' language samples ( c o l l e c t e d as part of the B r i s t o l p r o j e c t ) to determine the q u a l i t y of mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n i n the home. Parents were interv i e w e d concerning t h e i r c h i l d ' s and t h e i r own i n t e r e s t i n l i t e r a c y . A pre- school knowledge of l i t e r a c y index was der i v e d from Clay's (1977) Concepts of P r i n t and L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e s t s administered when the c h i l d entered s c h o o l . At age seven I n d i c e s of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n of Resources f o r l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g , p a r e n t a l teaching and p a r e n t a l a t t i - tude towards l i t e r a c y were d e r i v e d from a parent i n t e r v i e w . Teacher assessments of reading a b i l i t y , a t t i t u d e to reading and home a t t i t u d e were obtained from c h e c k l i s t s . C h i l d r e n were administered the Neale Accuracy and Comprehension Test as w e l l as the Carver Test of Word R e c o g n i t i o n . Pearson Product c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d between the scores on a l l i n d i c e s . Though sample s i z e was sm a l l , r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that c h i l d r e n ' s reading t e s t scores at age seven 32 c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t i n , a t t i t u d e s t o , and p r o v i s i o n o f r e s o u r c e s f o r l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g . The c h i l d ' s p r e s c h o o l knowledge o f books and l i t e r a c y was f o u n d t o be i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p a r e n t a l f a c t o r s and a l s o c o r - r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h a s s e s s m e n t s o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y t o age s e v e n . The q u a l i t y o f v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the p a r e n t and c h i l d was a l s o r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d ' s r e a d i n g a b i l i t y (P < . 0 1 ) . A s i m i l a r s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d by Hewison and T i z a r d ( 1 9 8 0 ) . They f o u n d t h a t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t a t age s e v e n t o e i g h t was most s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h whether or not t h e mother r e g u l a r l y h e a r d t h e c h i l d r e a d . Walker and K u e r b i t z (1979) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t o f r e a d i n g t o p r e - s c h o o l e r s on b e g i n i n g r e a d i n g s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l . The sample p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f t h i r t y - s i x m i d d l e c l a s s g r a d e one c h i l d r e n from M i d l a n d , M i c h i g a n . Q u e s t i o n - n a i r e s were s e n t t o p a r e n t s t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s t o r y - t i m e e x p e r i e n c e s p r i o r t o k i n d e r g a r t e n . C h i l d r e n who had been r e a d t o d a i l y s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s (p < . 0 1 ) . Many o t h e r s t u d i e s f o u n d s u p p o r t f o r t h e p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e s book r e a d i n g has had on l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t (Chomsky 1979; Holdaway 1979; B i s s e x 1980; O t t o and S u l z b y 1982; Mccormick 1983; C l a r k 1984; T e a l e 1984 ) . H e a t h ' s (1980) e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y o f t h r e e c o m m u n i t i e s p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e t h a t as l e a r n i n g t o r e a d b e g i n s i n t h e home i t may a l s o b e g i n w i t h v a r y i n g c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . 33 Heath examined l i t e r a c y events i n Trackton, a black working c l a s s community, R o a d v i l l e , a white working c l a s s community, and i n homes of middle c l a s s teachers who l i v e d c l o s e to these communities. She found s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amount and use of p r i n t i n the homes. She a l s o found v a r y i n g degrees to which the content and h a b i t s of book reading were extended beyond the event i t s e l f . Further she found v a r y i n g degrees to which c h i l d r e n were asked f o r "why" e x p l a n a t i o n s . From these experiences c h i l d r e n learned a set of p a t t e r n s of language use which served as the b a s i s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n reading i n s t r u c t i o n d i a l o g u e i n s c h o o l . Teale (1986), used ethnographic techniques to study p r e s c h o o l l i t e r a c y experiences i n the homes of twenty-four low-income f a m i l i e s of Anglo, Black and Mexican American c h i l d r e n . He found a wide range i n both q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of l i t e r a c y events i n the home but d i d not r e p o r t on l a t e r success i n s c h o o l . S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n (1981) found v a r i t i o n s i n o r i e n t a - t i o n to l i t e r a c y when i n f o r m a l l y comparing t r a d i t i o n a l Native Indian p o p u l a t i o n s (see s e c t i o n 2.4.3, p. 21) with the a c q u i s i t i o n of l i t e r a c y i n t h e i r own white middle c l a s s c h i l d . These s t u d i e s provided support f o r the examination of p a r e n t a l support f o r l i t e r a c y i n the home and i t s a f f e c t on reading achievement i n s c h o o l . As w e l l , Heath's study provided support f o r a more in-depth examination of the reading and w r i t i n g behaviors of Indian c h i l d r e n . 34 2.7 SUMMARY The research probing reading i n elementary-age Indian p o p u l a t i o n s was d i v i d e d i n t o two main s e c t i o n s — research that focused on needs assessments and reading achievement and research that i s o l a t e d v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d with l e s s e r per- formance on reading achievement t e s t s i n Indian p o p u l a t i o n s . A l l needs assessments po i n t e d to the need to improve l i t e r a c y s k i l l s i n Indian p o p u l a t i o n s . Research i s o l a t i n g v a r i a b l e s that a f f e c t Indian c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g to read and w r i t e g e n e r a l l y focused on c r e a t i n g hypotheses to account f o r underachievement i n s c h o o l . Within the context of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review reading was viewed as t e s t scores from group administered reading achievement t e s t s . Slowly research i n reading has begun to branch out from documenting reading t e s t scores to the examination of reading i n a wider context. Perhaps a s h i f t to examining what Indian c h i l d r e n know about reading and w r i t i n g on i n d i v i d u a l l y administered measures during k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one might provide use- f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r improving reading and w r i t i n g behaviors throughout the school y e a r s . In the s e c t i o n on research i n reading i n non-Native p o p u l a t i o n s , p a r e n t a l support f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n the home was found to p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n a f f e c t i n g reading and w r i t i n g attainment i n s c h o o l . No research could be found that examined t h i s i s s u e - i n an urban Indian 3 5 p o p u l a t i o n . The present study examined p a r e n t a l support f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n Musqueam homes and explored how t h i s v a r i a b l e a f f e c t e d l e a r n i n g to read and w r i t e i n s c h o o l . 36 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 OVERVIEW The purpose of t h i s study was to examine three problems. F i r s t , reading and w r i t i n g behaviors of Musqueam c h i l d r e n were to be examined through k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one to see i f s i m i l a r i t i e s between i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s e x i s t e d . Second, i n f o r m a t i o n was to be obtained on p a r e n t a l support f o r pre- school l i t e r a c y experiences i n Musqueam homes. T h i r d , attendance at school from the beginning of k i n d e r g a r t e n to mid-grade was to be c a l c u l a t e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p these v a r i a b l e s have with reading and w r i t i n g attainment i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one was to be e x p l o r e d . 3.2 SUBJECTS The s u b j e c t s were a l l the Musqueam Indian c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n as i d e n t i f i e d by the Musqueam Educa- t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r . Subjects attended e i t h e r a p u b l i c school or a p r i v a t e C a t h o l i c school i n Vancouver. T h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n , s i x males and seven females, were i d e n t i f i e d . On September 1, 1985 they ranged i n age from four years nine months to s i x years s i x months with a mean age of f i v e years seven months. Six c h i l d r e n were r e p e a t i n g a year during k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. A p r i n c i p a l parent or c a r e g i v e r of each c h i l d was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . A l l s u b j e c t s l i v e d on the Musqueam Indian Reserve i n Vancouver, B.C. and spoke only E n g l i s h . The socio-economic 37 s t a t u s of t h e i r f a m i l i e s v a r i e d from lower to upper middle c l a s s s t a t u s with c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n e i t h e r s i n g l e parent, two parent or extended f a m i l y homes (Point 1 9 8 7 ) . 3 . 3 INSTRUMENTATION The D i a g n o s t i c Survey (Clay 1 9 8 5 ) which was chosen to examine c h i l d r e n ' s reading and w r i t i n g attainment i n kind e r g a r t e n and grade one i s a c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d assess- ment designed to measure reading and w r i t i n g behaviors of c h i l d r e n . I t was i n i t i a l l y designed to measure c h i l d r e n at r i s k i n these areas a f t e r one year of s c h o o l i n g . The instrument i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g s i x s u b t e s t s . The Running Record of Reading subtest r e q u i r e s a c h i l d to read s e v e r a l f a m i l i a r t e x t s chosen from classroom m a t e r i a l s . A set of standard o b s e r v a t i o n a l procedures are used to rec o r d reading behaviors on each sample (see Appendix A). E r r o r s and s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s are analysed so that the c h i l d has read a text at an easy ( 9 6 - 1 0 0 % a c c u r a c y ) , i n s t r u c - t i o n a l ( 9 0 - 9 5 % accuracy) and d i f f i c u l t ( 8 0 - 8 9 % accuracy) l e v e l . Reading behaviors or cues that the c h i l d u t i l i z e s at each l e v e l of t e x t are analysed by c a l c u l a t i n g an e r r o r r a t e , accuracy rate and s e i f - c o r r e c t i o n r a t e . The f o l l o w i n g formulae were used for c a l c u l a t i o n . 38 E r r o r Rate E r r o r s X 100 T o t a l Words Read 1 Accuracy = 100 E r r o r s X 100 T o t a l Words Read 1 S e l f - c o r r e c t i o n Rate E r r o r s + S e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s The L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n subtest r e q u i r e s the c h i l d to give the name of a l e t t e r , a sound that i s acceptable f o r that l e t t e r , and a word beginning with that sound. A t o t a l score from one of these c a t e g o r i e s i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r assessment. Concepts About P r i n t measures such concepts as awareness of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of p r i n t , d i f f e r e n c e s between l e t t e r s and words, use of p u n c t u a t i o n , book o r i e n t a t i o n , e t c . A t o t a l score i s c a l c u l a t e d from the l i s t of concepts appear- ing i n Appendix A. Ready to Read Sight Words r e q u i r e s a c h i l d to read a high frequency s i g h t word l i s t of f i f t e e n words. Each c o r r e c t word scores one p o i n t . The W r i t i n g Sample analyses three samples of w r i t i n g c o l l e c t e d from three d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s . Using a c h e c k l i s t of t r a i t s , a language l e v e l , message q u a l i t y l e v e l and understanding of d i r e c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s l e v e l i s c a l c u l a t e d . A score of 1 to 6 i s given i n each of these c a t e g o r i e s based on the l e v e l of development of w r i t i n g . A score of 5-6 i s considered s a t i s - f a c t o r y . The Test of W r i t i n g Vocabulary r e q u i r e s a c h i l d to w r i t e a l l the words he/she can i n ten minutes. A l l c o r r e c t words score one p o i n t . In the D i c t a t i o n t e s t the c h i l d i s 39 r e q u i r e d to w r i t e e i t h e r one or two simple d i c t a t e d sentences. Each c o r r e c t phoneme d i s p l a y e d r e c e i v e s one p o i n t . Each subtest has a t o t a l raw score except f o r the Running Record of Reading subtest and the W r i t i n g Sample. See Appendix A f o r a f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n of subtests and s c o r i n g procedures. T h i s instrument was chosen for e v a l u a t i o n because i t covers a wide range of reading and w r i t i n g behaviors and allows f o r f a m i l i a r reading m a t e r i a l s to be chosen for assessment. High r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s v a r y i n g from . 7 6 to . 9 5 , have been reported f o r s e v e r a l of the s u b t e s t s (Day and Day 1 9 7 9 ; Day and P e r k i n s 1 9 7 9 ; Johns 1 9 8 0 ) . C o n s i d e r i n g the strong d i s r e g a r d f o r using group administered reading t e s t s on Native p o p u l a t i o n s (see Chapter Two) t h i s i n d i v i d - u a l l y administered measure was deemed to be the most appro- p r i a t e instrument to measure reading and w r i t i n g attainment. Information on p a r e n t a l p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v - i t i e s d u r i n g the p r e s c h o o l years was obtained through a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed by the r e s e a r c h e r . Questions were d e r i v e d from three instruments. These were the Home-Literacy Environment Index (HLEI) (Shapiro 1 9 8 5 ) , the Home Observation of the Environment (Caldwell and Bradley 1 9 7 9 ) , and the B r i s t o l Parent I n t e r - view Schedule from the B r i s t o l L o n g i t u d i n a l Language Develop- ment Research Program (Moon and Wells 1 9 7 9 ) . Questions that might provide c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n were added. 40 For example, parents were asked the extent to which they used o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e contained one hundred and twelve q u e s t i o n s . Seventy-eight of these q u e s t i o n s tapped i n f o r m a t i o n concerning p a r e n t a l p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s during the pr e s c h o o l years and were embedded amongst the remaining q u e s t i o n s to d i s g u i s e the purpose of the i n t e r v i e w . Twelve que s t i o n s were open ended probing questions to o b t a i n more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on l i t e r a c y p r a c t i c e s . Respondents were given a standard format to deal with questions i n v o l v i n g frequency of a c t i v i t i e s . For example, a card c o n t a i n i n g the format, n e a r l y every day, about once a week, about once a month, l e s s than once a month and never, as f a r as I can remember, was presented to the respondent f o r s e v e r a l questions so that the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained could be s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r s c o r i n g . A copy of the Parent Interview Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B. Responses were coded on a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e ranging from 1 t o 5. An Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v - i t i e s d u r i n g the p r e s c h o o l years was obtained by c a l c u l a t i n g a t o t a l score from l i t e r a c y q uestions i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The t o t a l score f o r the index was 100. 3.4 DATA COLLECTION The researcher became f a m i l i a r with a l l s u b j e c t s by v i s i t i n g the Language Summer School at the Musqueam Indian Reserve during the summer preceeding k i n d e r g a r t e n and v i s i t e d 41 t h e i r s chool c l a s s e s s e v e r a l times during September through November. The sequence of data c o l l e c t i o n was as f o l l o w s : K i n d e r g a r t e n : A l l Musqueam c h i l d r e n who attended kinder- garten and t h e i r p r i n c i p a l c a r e g i v e r were i d e n t i f i e d . In October the researcher p r a c t i s e d the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e with the Musqueam Education Co-ordinator and the Musqueam Home-school Worker to r e c e i v e c o r r e c t i v e feedback and have performance c l a r i f i e d . In December each c a r e g i v e r was i n t e r - viewed i n t h e i r home or at school using a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w format. From t h i s data, an index of p a r e n t a l support f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s during the p r e s c h o o l years was c a l c u l a t e d . Next, the s u b t e s t s , L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Concepts About P r i n t , Ready to Read Sight Words and W r i t i n g Vocabul- ary, of C l a y ' s D i a g n o s t i c Survey (1985) were i n d i v i d u a l l y administered to each c h i l d . The D i c t a t i o n , Running Record of Reading and W r i t i n g Sample s u b t e s t s were not given i n k i n d e r g a r t e n as c h i l d r e n were not reading beyond a few s i g h t words and not i n a w r i t i n g program i n s c h o o l . Raw scores were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each subtest f o r comparison purposes. Grade one: Approximately eleven months a f t e r the pre- vious assessment the complete b a t t e r y of Clay's D i a g n o s t i c Survey was i n d i v i d u a l l y administered to the same s u b j e c t s i n grade one. In a d d i t i o n to the s u b t e s t s used during k i n d e r g a r t e n the f o l l o w i n g s u b t e s t s were used: D i c t a t i o n , 4 2 R u n n i n g R e c o r d o f R e a d i n g and W r i t i n g S a m p l e . Raw s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d on t h e same s u b t e s t s u s e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n as w e l l as D i c t a t i o n . A p r o f i l e o f r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s was r e c o r d e d f r o m t h e R u n n i n g R e c o r d o f R e a d i n g . The W r i t i n g Sample s u b - t e s t was a n a l y s e d f o r l a n g u a g e l e v e l , message q u a l i t y and a w a r e n e s s o f d i r e c t i o n a l i t y b a s e d on a l i s t o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r a i t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y . I n t e r r a t e r r e l i - a b i l i t y was r = 0.80 ( s e e C h a p t e r One, d e f i n i t i o n s , p. 10) F i n a l l y , u s i n g s c h o o l r e c o r d s , a t o t a l number o f s c h o o l d a y s a b s e n t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f k i n d e r g a r t e n t o M a r c h o f g r a d e one was c a l c u l a t e d . O n l y a b s e n c e s d u r i n g t h e two y e a r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y were r e c o r d e d so t h a t t h e t i m e f r a m e o f a b s e n c e s o f s u b j e c t s r e p e a t i n g a y e a r w o u l d be commensur- a t e w i t h t h e n o n - r e p e a t i n g s u b j e c t s . 3.5 DATA ANALYSIS D a t a was o r g a n i z e d t o a d d r e s s t h e t h r e e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s p o s e d i n C h a p t e r One. The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s i m i l a r p r o f i l e o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g p e r f o r m - a n c e w i t h i n t h e Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one. To a d d r e s s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , where a p p r o p r i a t e , raw s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h s t u d e n t on s u b t e s t s o f t h e D i a g n o s t i c S u r v e y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one. A mean, m e d i a n , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and r a n g e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h s u b t e s t , as w e l l as f o r t h e t o t a l s u r v e y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n g r a d e one. The r a n g e o f s c o r e s were e x a m i n e d w i t h i n t h e Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . 4 3 P a r t i c u l a r performance t r a i t s noted during a d m i n i s t r a - t i o n of t e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Running Record of Reading and W r i t i n g Sample, were l i s t e d and examined f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s i n reading and w r i t i n g behaviors w i t h i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . The second hypothesis was that there would be no s i g n i f - i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between p a r e n t a l p r o v i s i o n f o r pre- s c h o o l l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n the home and reading attainment i n kin d e r g a r t e n and grade one. Data were analysed as f o l l o w s : 1. A t o t a l score i n d i c a t i n g an index of p a r e n t a l support f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s was c a l c u l a t e d from the a p p r o p r i a t e responses to l i t e r a c y q uestions on the parent i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 2. T o t a l raw scores were obtained f o r each subtest of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey administered i n kinde r g a r t e n and grade one, excl u d i n g the Running Record of Reading and W r i t i n g Sample s u b t e s t s . As w e l l , a t o t a l score was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the survey administered i n grade one. 3. Using raw scores from each subtest and the score f o r the index of p a r e n t a l p r o v i s i o n for l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s during the p r e s c h o o l years, Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d between each v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d i n Table I. In other words, each subtest of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey as we l l as the t o t a l survey score i n grade one were c o r r e l a t e d with the index of parent p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s . A one t a i l e d a n a l y s i s was used with a l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e of p < .05 . TABLE I : C o r r e l a t i o n s to be C a l c u l a t e d to Address Hypothesis Two P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n for L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s During D i a g n o s t i c Survey Subtests P r e s c h o o l Years K i n d e r g a r t e n : L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n X Concepts About P r i n t X Ready to Read Sight Words X W r i t i n g Vocabulary X Grade One: L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n X Concepts About P r i n t X Ready to Read Sig h t Words X W r i t i n g Vocabulary X D i c t a t i o n X T o t a l Score of Survey X The t h i r d hypothesis was that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t o t a l school absence and reading attainment i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. In order to address t h i s hypothesis the f o l l o w i n g data were analysed. 1. Raw scores were obtained from each subtest of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey administered i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one e x c l u d i n g the Running Record of Reading and W r i t i n g Sample s u b t e s t s . As w e l l , a t o t a l score was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the survey administered i n grade one. 2 . A score r e p r e s e n t i n g the t o t a l number of school days absent from the beginning of k i n d e r g a r t e n to March of grade one was c a l c u l a t e d . 4 5 3. Using raw scores from each s u b t e s t , the t o t a l survey score i n grade one and the score f o r school absence, Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d between each v a r i a b l e l i s t e d i n Table I I . In other words, each subtest of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey as w e l l as the t o t a l survey score f o r grade one were c o r r e l a t e d with the school absence s c o r e . TABLE II C o r r e l a t i o n s to be C a l c u l a t e d to Address Hypothesis Three D i a g n o s t i c Survey Subtests School Absence K i n d e r g a r t e n : L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n X Concepts About P r i n t X Ready to Read Sight Words X W r i t i n g Vocabulary X Grade One: L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n X Concepts About P r i n t X Ready to Read Sight Words X W r i t i n g Vocabulary X D i c t a t i o n X T o t a l Score of Survey X 46 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS The a n a l y s i s of data i n t h i s study was organized to address the n u l l hypotheses presented i n Chapter One and to present a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from parent i n t e r - views. Raw scores f o r each of the t h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s from each data source, D i a g n o s t i c Survey, Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n f o r Pres c h o o l L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s and T o t a l School Absence are contained i n Appendix C. 4.1 HYPOTHESIS ONE There w i l l be no s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of reading and w r i t i n g performance of Musqueam c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. To address t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , data from each subtest of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey were r e p o r t e d . F i r s t , a summary of scores from r e l e v a n t s u b t e s t s were reported which i n c l u d e d the mean, median, standard d e v i a t i o n and range of the scores on each s u b t e s t . Second, reading behaviors recorded from e r r o r a n a l y s i s on the Running Record of Reading subtest were examined. T h i r d , w r i t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s found i n samples of the c h i l d r e n ' s d a i l y s t o r i e s were analysed. Fourth, a summary of a n a l y s i s of reading and w r i t i n g behaviors from the D i a g n o s t i c Survey was presented. F i n a l l y , the relevance of the hypothesis was addressed. 47 4.1.1 DIAGNOSTIC SURVEY SUBTEST SCORES A summary of scores from a l l Diagnostic Survey subtests administered in kindergarten and grade one excluding the Running Record of Reading and Writ ing Sample are displayed in Table I I I . TABLE III Mean, Standard Deviat ion , Median, Range of Diagnostic Survey subtests (N=13) T o t a l P o s s i b l e Standard Score Mean D e v i a t i o n Median Range L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n (K) 54 33 . 00 19 .43 39 .00 1- 53 L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n (1) 54 43 . 92 16 .79 52 .00 2- 54 Concepts About P r i n t (K) 24 9 . 85 4 .79 9 .00 3- 19 Concepts About P r i n t (1) 24 15 . 77 5 .15 17 .00 8- 24 Sight Words (K) 15 1 . 92 3 .57 1 .00 0- 13 S i g h t Words (1) 15 7 . 69 5 .74 10 .00 0- 15 W r i t i n g Vocabulary (K) 6 . 00 7 .97 4 .00 0- 29 W r i t i n g Vocabulary (1) 24 . 46 12 .94 24 .00 1- 56 D i c t a t i o n (1) 37 29 . 92 14 .21 27 .00 0- 37 Data from Table I I I i n d i c a t e d a wide range of scores on each subtest n e c e s s i t a t i n g a f u r t h e r examination of d i s t r i b u - t i o n of scores (frequency of scores on each subtest d i s p l a y e d i n Appendix D). I f a s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of reading and w r i t i n g performance was i n t e r p r e t e d by noting a c l u s t e r of scores w i t h i n a l i m i t e d range then the n u l l hypothesis that there i s not a s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of reading and w r i t i n g behaviors i n the sample p o p u l a t i o n would have to be accepted. 48 4.1.2 RUNNING RECORD OF READING SUBTEST Each c h i l d was given three passages ( v a r y i n g from 100-200 words i n length) to read o r a l l y . The a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of m a t e r i a l was chosen from classroom m a t e r i a l s . R e s u l t s are summarized as f o l l o w s : Three out of t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n were considered as non-readers i n t h i s c ontext. Each c h i l d c ould read h i s name. One c h i l d recognized the names of f i v e c o l o r s and knew that p r i n t below a p i c t u r e had a meaning r e l a t i n g to the p i c t u r e but could not i d e n t i f y the word a f t e r having been given s e v e r a l cues that might be u t i l i z e d i n t r y i n g to determine what the word might be. Each of these c h i l d r e n has s i n c e been p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s . Three more out of t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n could read pre- primer m a t e r i a l s at a 90% accuracy r a t e (see Chapter Three, p. 38). Two c h i l d r e n had a r e s t r i c t e d bank of s i g h t words and were j u s t beginning to be aware that other s t r a t e g i e s such as decoding or r e r e a d i n g a phrase to p r e d i c t meaning might be u t i l i z e d to read a passage. The t h i r d c h i l d at t h i s l e v e l tended to concentrate on "sounding out" e v e r y t h i n g and had great d i f f i c u l t y blending the sounds i n t o an a p p r o p r i a t e word even though she p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a reading program f o c u s i n g on s i g h t words. Four c h i l d r e n were reading mid-grade one passages at an i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . A l l were able to s e l f c o r r e c t t h e i r e r r o r s at a r a t e of 1:4 or b e t t e r . A l l four c h i l d r e n tended to look at the f i r s t l e t t e r of a word, to determine i t s sound 49 and to then t r y to p r e d i c t the word from i t s context i n the passage. S e v e r a l times c h i l d r e n d i d not have the c o r r e c t word i n t h e i r l e x i c o n to r e c a l l and got f r u s t r a t e d t r y i n g to i d e n t i f y the word. For i n s t a n c e , i n The El v e s and the Shoemaker ( L a d y b i r d ) , a c h i l d was not f a m i l i a r with the word " l e a t h e r " . He knew the / l / sound but could not read the word. C h i l d r e n at t h i s stage a l s o tended to t r y and u t i l i z e the s i g h t words they knew i n a new context. For example, a c h i l d had learned the s i g h t word "something" so when reading " s u r p r i s e , " she l a t e r e x p l a i n e d that she knew i t was a long "s" word so she guessed i t was "something". She di d n ' t choose to reread the text to check i t s c o r r e c t meaning i n the new context. Three c h i l d r e n could read m a t e r i a l s above a grade two l e v e l at an i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . Two of these c h i l d r e n were comfortable employing s e v e r a l cues to read t h e i r passages. They tended to focus on p r e d i c t i n g meaning when t r y i n g to i d e n t i f y unknown words. They a l s o t r i e d decoding words and had a strong bank of s i g h t words (each knew 92-95 of the 100 words on the Fry Grade One Sigh t Word L i s t ) . Two of the three c h i l d r e n had a s e l f c o r r e c t i o n r a t e of 1:4 or b e t t e r . The t h i r d c h i l d tended to c o n s t a n t l y look f o r ad u l t r e c o g n i - t i o n and was unsure of her a b i l i t y to s e l f c o r r e c t e r r o r s . Her s e l f c o r r e c t i o n r a t e was 1:13. In summary, no s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of reading behaviors of Musqueam c h i l d r e n was found on the Running Record of Reading s u b t e s t . 50 4.1.3 WRITING SAMPLE ANALYSIS Three samples of c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s w r i t t e n i n the classroom over three c o n s e c u t i v e weeks i n grade one were obtained. These samples were rated for language l e v e l , message q u a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s . A l i s t of the items used to determine developmental l e v e l s of language, message q u a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i s l i s t e d i n Appendix A. A score of 5-6 i s considered s a t i s f a c t o r y i n each category. An example of a n a l y s i s of a w r i t i n g sample appears i n Fi g u r e 1. The tex t should read "I went to my nanny's. She gave me candy." I t was given a 5 f o r language l e v e l because i t c o n s i s t e d of two sentences, a 6 f o r message q u a l i t y because i t was a s u c c e s s f u l composition using t h i s c r i t e r i a and a 5 f o r d i r e c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s because i t had the c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n and spaces between words.  52 R e s u l t s from the w r i t i n g a n a l y s i s subtest are d i s p l a y e d i n Table IV. TABLE IV Scores from Assessment of W r i t i n g Samples D i r e c t i o n a l Subject Language L e v e l Message Q u a l i t y P r i n c i p l e s 0 1 4 , 5 , 4 5 , 4 , 5 5 , 5 , 5 0 2 5 , 4 , 4 4 , 5 , 5 5 , 5 , 5 0 3 5 , 4 , 5 4 , 5 , 4 5 , 5 , 5 04 2 , 4 , 2 5 , 3 , 5 4 , 4 , 4 0 5 5 , 5 , 5 6 , 6 , 5 5 , 5 , 5 06 2 , 4 , 1 3 , 4 , 1 2 , 4 , 2 0 7 4 , 4 , 3 6 , 6 , 3 5 , 5 , 4 08 4 , 3 , 5 5 , 6 , 5 5 , 5 , 6 09 1 , 1 , 1 1 , 1 , 1 1 , 1 , 1 10 5 , 5 , 5 5 , 5 , 5 5 , 5 , 5 1 1 4 , 4 , 4 5 , 5 , 5 5 , 4 , 5 12 4 , 4 , 5 5 , 6 , 6 5 , 5 , 6 13 1 , 1 , 1 3 , 3 , 3 4 , 4 , 4 53 Seven out of t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n scored at a l e v e l 5 or higher i n the language l e v e l category of t h e i r w r i t i n g . That i s , they punctuated a s t o r y of two or more sentences. Nine out of t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n scored at a l e v e l of 5 or higher i n the message q u a l i t y category. That i s , they recorded t h e i r own id e a s . Nine out of t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n ' s c o r e d at a l e v e l of 5 or higher on the d i r e c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e category. They used c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s i n t h e i r w r i t i n g and in c l u d e d spaces between t h e i r words. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a l l c h i l d r e n f e l t t h e i r w r i t t e n message conveyed meaning as they read t h e i r s t o r i e s to the r e s e a r c h e r . C o n s i s t e n t with the reading r e s u l t s the wide range of w r i t i n g scores supported the n u l l hypothesis that there was no s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of w r i t i n g behavior i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . 4 . 1 . 4 SUMMARY An examination of raw scores on the D i a g n o s t i c Survey s u b t e s t s showed that there was a wide range of performance w i t h i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n on each s u b t e s t . An a n a l y s i s of reading e r r o r s on passages read at a 90% accuracy r a t e i n d i c a t e d that Musqueam c h i l d r e n d i d not have a s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of reading behaviors i n o r a l reading. An a n a l y s i s of w r i t i n g samples i n d i c a t e d a wide range of scores on the language l e v e l , message q u a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t i n g that not a l l Musqueam c h i l d r e n had a s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of w r i t i n g behaviors. 54 Each category of a n a l y s i s supports the acceptance of the n u l l hypothesis that there i s no s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of reading and w r i t i n g behavior w i t h i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . 4 . 2 HYPOTHESIS TWO There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between p a r e n t a l support f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the preschool years and reading attainment i n ki n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. To address t h i s hypothesis a t o t a l score was c a l c u l a t e d to e s t a b l i s h an Index of P a r e n t a l Support f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s . Next, Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n coef- f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d between the p a r e n t a l index score and scores from each subtest on the D i a g n o s t i c Survey d i s p l a y e d i n Appendix C. F i n a l l y , r e s u l t s were summarized to address the n u l l hypothesis that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between these v a r i a b l e s . 4 . 2 . 1 SUMMARY OF SCORES FOR INDEX OF PARENTAL PROVISION FOR Scores t a b u l a t e d f o r the Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s are seen i n Table V. Mean, Standard D e v i a t i o n , Median and Range of the Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n for L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s During the Preschool Years (IPAR) LITERACY ACTIVITIES TABLE V V a r i a b l e T o t a l Score Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n Median Range IPAR 1 0 0 62 . 8 0 17 . 8 4 6 9 . 0 0 3 4 - 8 5 55 C o n s i s t e n t with performance on the D i a g n o s t i c Survey s u b t e s t s , there i s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n scores on the Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s i n the Preschool Years v a r i a b l e . 4.2.2 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table VI d i s p l a y s the r e s u l t s of Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s c a l c u l a t e d between IPAR and survey s u b t e s t s . Table VI Pearson Product - Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s between IPAR and Subtests of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey: One T a i l e d A n a l y s i s SUBTEST Index of Parent P r o v i s i o n fo r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n (K) .77** L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n (1) .58* Concepts About P r i n t (K) .63* Concepts About P r i n t (1) .76** Sight Words (K) .42 S i g h t Words (1) .55* W r i t i n g Vocabulary (K) .57* W r i t i n g Vocabulary (1) .53* D i c t a t i o n (1) .65* * p < .05 ** p < .001 With one e x c e p t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s and each subtest of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey administered were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The one exception was s i g h t words at kinder- garten. These r e s u l t s need to be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n as the p o p u l a t i o n was s m a l l , n=13, and most c o r r e l a t i o n s were 56 below . 6 5 . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of . 7 5 or higher (p < . 0 0 1 ) were found between IPAR and L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and IPAR and Concepts About P r i n t i n grade one. T h i s f i n d i n g i s s i m i l a r to f i n d i n g s i n non-Native p o p u l a t i o n s (Moon and Wells 1 9 7 9 ; Teale 1 9 8 4 ) . These f i n d i n g s support a r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypothe- s i s that there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between p a r e n t a l support f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s during the p r e s c h o o l years and reading attainment i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. 4 . 3 HYPOTHESIS THREE There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t o t a l school absence and reading attainment i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. To address t h i s hypothesis a t o t a l score r e p r e s e n t i n g school days absent was c a l c u l a t e d . Next, Pearson product- moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d between the t o t a l s c h o o l absence score and scores from each subtest on the D i a g n o s t i c Survey d i s p l a y e d i n Appendix C. F i n a l l y , r e s u l t s were summarized to address the n u l l hypothesis that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between these v a r i a b l e s . 4 . 3 . 1 TOTAL SCHOOL ABSENCE T o t a l school absence (TSA) was c a l c u l a t e d by t o t a l l i n g s chool days absent from September, 1 9 8 5 to March 1 , 1 9 8 7 during k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. A summary of school attendance scores i s d i s p l a y e d i n Table V I I . 57 TABLE VII Mean, Standard D e v i a t i o n , Median and Range of the T o t a l School Absence V a r i a b l e (TSA) Standard Var i a b l e Mean D e v i a t i o n Median Range TSA 27.85 17.29 22.00 34-85.5 C o n s i s t e n t with performance on previous v a r i a b l e s , there were wide v a r i a t i o n s i n scores w i t h i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . 4.3.2 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS To address hypothesis three, Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d between each of the v a r i a b l e s . R e s u l t s are shown i n Table V I I I . TABLE VIII Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s between TSA and Subtests of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey: One T a i l e d A n a l y s i s Subtest TSA L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n (K) - .22 L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n (1) -.02 Concepts About P r i n t (K) -.19 Concepts About P r i n t (1) - .00 Sight Words (K) -.11 Sight Words (1) - . 20 W r i t i n g Vocabulary (K) - .06 W r i t i n g Vocabulary (1) -.36 D i c t a t i o n (1) -.34 * p ^ .05 l e v e l ** p C .001 l e v e l 58 No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between sc h o o l absence and aspects of reading attainment but r e s u l t s were i n the expected negative d i r e c t i o n . These f i n d i n g s support an acceptance of hypothesis three t h a t there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between school absence and reading attainment i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. 4.4 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM PARENT INTERVIEWS Information obtained from probing q u e s t i o n s i n the parent i n t e r v i e w were not re p o r t e d i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of the Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s . However, these f i n d i n g s may pr o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Responses were grouped under the c a t e g o r i e s : l i t e r a c y m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d i n the home, reading and w r i t i n g p r a c t i s e s of the c h i l d observed by the p r i n c i p a l c a r e g i v e r , reading and w r i t i n g events i n which the c h i l d and c a r e g i v e r p a r t i c i p a t e d . A l i s t of these a c t i v i t i e s under each heading i s found i n Appendix E. L i t e r a c y M a t e r i a l s Provided i n the Home A l l t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n had books and drawing m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e to them i n t h e i r homes. Three c h i l d r e n s u b s c r i b e d to c h i l d r e n ' s maga- z i n e s and four c h i l d r e n had used computers i n t h e i r home. Reading and W r i t i n g P r a c t i s e s Observed by the P r i n c i p a l C a r e g i v e r Twelve c h i l d r e n read some l e t t e r s of the alphabet before k i n d e r g a r t e n and eleven looked at books on t h e i r own. 59 Twelve parents responded that t h e i r c h i l d r e n recognized t h e i r name but only s i x c h i l d r e n could w r i t e t h e i r name before they went to s c h o o l . T h i s event may help e x p l a i n Musqueam c h i l d r e n ' s low performance on the W r i t i n g Vocabulary subtest i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . E i g h t c h i l d r e n had been attempting to read and eleven c h i l d r e n had been w r i t i n g some form of messages of t h e i r own. E i g h t c h i l d r e n had repeated nursery rhymes. L i t e r a c y Events i n Which the C h i l d and Caregiver P a r t i c i p a t e d Eleven c h i l d r e n had been read to before they went to s c h o o l . With nine of the eleven c h i l d r e n , bookreading was an a c t i v i t y that s e v e r a l a d u l t s and s i b l i n g s shared with the c h i l d . Four c h i l d r e n read mainly with t h e i r mothers and f a t h e r s but i n two cases t h i s was not a re g u l a r a c t i v i t y . E i g h t of the t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n were t o l d o r a l customs and t r a d i t i o n s by an a d u l t . With f i v e of the e i g h t c h i l d r e n an a d u l t other than t h e i r mother or f a t h e r t o l d them the s t o r i e s . ' Story r o l e s v a r i e d from teaching a l e s s o n to the c h i l d , to re c o u n t i n g an o r a l h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y , to sh a r i n g t r a d i t i o n s of Musqueam people. For example, two ch i d r e n were t o l d the s t o r y of K u l k u l i t h , the o l d woman of the woods who would s t e a l you and put you i n a basket i f you ventured away from home when you weren't suppose t o . One c h i l d was t o l d a s t o r y of why the salmon spawned at the head of the Fraser r i v e r . Another c h i l d was t o l d s t o r i e s about her own f a m i l y h i s t o r y . These p r a c t i s e s may suggest a d i f f e r e n t approach to s h a r i n g Native customs and t r a d i t i o n s 60 i n s c h o o l . U s u a l l y c h i l d r e n are read p u b l i s h e d w r i t t e n n a r r a t i v e s from other Indian bands which o f t e n do not c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n germane to t h e i r own experience. Ten c h i l d r e n had been to a l i b r a r y b e f o r e . In most cases they had taken books from the p r e s c h o o l l i b r a r y on the r e s e r v e . C a r e g i v e r s could remember reading l a b e l s on t h i n g s with nine c h i l d r e n and eleven c a r e g i v e r s remembered h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n w r i t e a message though t h i s was not a frequent a c t i v i t y . Two other f i n d i n g s from the i n t e r v i e w that are p e r t i n e n t are that a l l c h i l d r e n attended e i t h e r p r e s c h o o l or daycare before they went to s c h o o l . Eleven c h i l d r e n attended the p r e s c h o o l on the r e s e r v e . Eleven out of t h i r t e e n parents wished t h e i r c h i l d would complete some form of post secondary edu c a t i o n . 4 . 5 SUMMARY OF RESULTS Each n u l l hypothesis was addressed and a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from parent i n t e r v i e w s was noted. A summary of the f i n d i n g s i s as f o l l o w s . Hypothesis One: On r e l e v a n t s u b t e s t s of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey there was a wide range of scores with the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . On c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d s u b t e s t s of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey, s u b j e c t s a l s o d i s p l a y e d a wide v a r i a t i o n i n reading and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s . These f i n d i n g s support an acceptance of the n u l l hypothesis that there w i l l be no s i m i l a r p r o f i l e of reading and w r i t i n g behaviors w i t h i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n at the k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one l e v e l . 61 Hypothesis Two: An examination of scores from the Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n for L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e d a wide range of responses w i t h i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . However, Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s r e l a t i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e to D i a g n o s t i c Survey subtest scores i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s i n a l l but one s u b t e s t , S i g h t Words i n k i n d e r g a r t e n p < .05. These f i n d i n g s support the r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypothesis that there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n beween p a r e n t a l p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n the p r e s c h o o l years and reading attainment i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. Hypothesis Three: . An examination of T o t a l School Absence scores again i n d i c a t e d a wide v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s between t h i s v a r i a b l e and s u b t e s t s of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s p < .05. These r e s u l t s support the acceptance that there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between school absence and reading attainment at k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n from parent i n t e r v i e w s was noted. A l l t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n had books and drawing m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r homes. Only s i x c h i l d r e n could w r i t e t h e i r name before they went to s c h o o l . Eleven c h i l d r e n had been read to before they went to s c h o o l . E i g h t c h i l d r e n had been t o l d o r a l customs and t r a d i t i o n s by an a d u l t . Ten c h i l d r e n had been to the l i b r a r y b e f o r e . These f i n d i n g s generate areas f o r f u r t h e r research which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter F i v e . 62 CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 DISCUSSION The i n t e n t of the present research was to l e a r n more about Musqueam Indian c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g to read and w r i t e through to grade one. The only knowledge a v a i l a b l e before t h i s study was that Musqueam c h i l d r e n were an average of four months delayed i n t h e i r reading achievement when compared with normative p o p u l a t i o n s on the S t a n f o r d D i a g n o s t i c Reading t e s t at the end of grade one. T h i s gap widened to one year four months delay by grade seven (Anderson 1986). Consider- ing these r e s u l t s i t seemed important to l e a r n more about Musqueam c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y a b i l i t i e s before they entered school and i n the e a r l y grades so that teaching methods could be adapted to f o s t e r t h e i r development. The f i n d i n g s of the present study need to be examined i n s e v e r a l c o n t e x t s . F i r s t , the methodology used i n t h i s study needs to be c r i t i c a l l y examined. Second, the f i n d i n g s need to be r e l a t e d to reading and w r i t i n g s t u d i e s i n non- Native p o p u l a t i o n s . T h i r d , r e s u l t s need to be compared with s t u d i e s from c r o s s - c u l t u r a l research on young c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g to read. F i n a l l y , r e s u l t s need to be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n the context of what i s known about Native c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g to read and w r i t e . 5.1.1 CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF METHODOLOGY The most s a l i e n t f e a t u r e of the present study was that there was a wide v a r i a t i o n of performance on a l l v a r i a b l e s 63 measured. R e s u l t s need to be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n because the experimental p o p u l a t i o n was small (n=13). On the other hand, t h i s number represented the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of Musqueam c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n at the beginning of the study. High standard d e v i a t i o n s were reported on a l l v a r i a b l e s measured. These high d e v i a t i o n s are a f f e c t e d by having a small sample (Kirk 1978). They a l s o are i n f l u e n c e d by the wide range i n scores on each v a r i a b l e measured w i t h i n the sample p o p u l a t i o n and may confuse i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . On the other hand they may support the tenet that reading and w r i t i n g attainment of Musqueam c h i l d r e n may not be merely the product of t h e i r being I n d i a n . In other words, a l l Indian c h i l d r e n do not tend to have the same reading and w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s . Weaknesses i n the use of Clay's D i a g n o s t i c Survey were as f o l l o w s . 1. The c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d to code developmental l e v e l s of w r i t i n g samples were not always c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d . The f o l l o w i n g f o r example, i n the sample of w r i t i n g d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 2, the t e x t should read, " E l i z a b e t h found a ladybug and she gave me a ladybug". When a s s e s s i n g the score f o r language l e v e l t h i s sample was not a simple sentence (4), and i t was not two or more sentences ( 5 ) . There was no p r o v i s i o n i n the l i s t of c a t e g o r i e s f o r coding compound or complex sentences. I t was assigned a 5. 64 FIGURE 2 W r i t i n g Sample f o r Confusion of A n a l y s i s C a t e g o r i e s 65 2. The W r i t i n g Sample A n a l y s i s subtest d i d not i n c l u d e c a t e g o r i e s f o r examining sense of s t o r y or l e v e l s of emergent w r i t i n g . 3. The survey was not normed on a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n so comparisons of r e s u l t s need to be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n . 4. Reading comprehension was not measured. On the other hand, i t was the best measure a v a i l a b l e to assess reading and w r i t i n g l e v e l s i n one-to-one s e t t i n g using f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l s . There were s e v e r a l weaknesses i n using a r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w format to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n to c a l c u l a t e an index of p a r e n t a l p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s during the pres c h o o l y e a r s . As reported i n Chapter One (p. 11) the use of s e l f r e p o r t s e s p e c i a l l y i n a r e t r o s p e c t i v e context do not always produce accurate i n f o r m a t i o n . In t h i s context, the frequency reported f o r l i t e r a c y p r a c t i s e s i n the home during the pre s c h o o l years may not be a v a l i d measure. Moreover, Anderson and Stokes (1984), using ethnographic techniques, r e p o r t e d that frequency of l i t e r a c y events i n the home of t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n was spread over a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and p a r t i c i p a n t s and was o f t e n con- nected to s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s that s e r v i c e d the home. T h i s type of i n f o r m a t i o n i s very d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n through a r e t r o s p e c t i n t e r v i e w format. On the other hand, i n f o r m a t i o n obtained using t h i s format generated important areas to examine more e x t e n s i v e l y . For example, a l l c h i l d r e n had books i n the home. Eleven out 6 6 of t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n shared bookreading before they went to s c h o o l . More than h a l f of the c h i l d r e n had had an a d u l t o r a l l y share some Native customs and t r a d i t i o n s . Ten c h i l d r e n had been to a l i b r a r y b e f o r e . A l l c h i l d r e n had attended some form of p r e s c h o o l . Each of these areas needs to be examined using more n a t u r a l i s t i c methodol- ogy to get a more accurate assessment of the frequency with which these events took p l a c e . F i n a l l y , the weakness i n a s s e s s i n g school absence was that r e p e a t e r s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n only had t h e i r second year of absence counted with t h e i r next year i n grade one. Because the p o u l a t i o n was s m a l l , a n a l y s i s was not done to assess the e f f e c t r e p e a t i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n had on reading and w r i t i n g attainment i n grade one. From an i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n of D i a g n o s t i c Survey r e s u l t s , three of the c h i l d r e n who repeated k i n d e r g a r t e n scored the lowest on survey s u b t e s t s measured i n grade one and none of the remaining three repeaters scored i n the highest t h i r d of the p o p u l a t i o n i n grade one. In c o n c l u s i o n , though each measure contained weak- nesses, i n f o r m a t i o n obtained was u s e f u l i n determining aspects of l i t e r a c y development that need to be examined more e x t e n s i v e l y i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . 5.1.2 COMPARISONS WITH NON-NATIVE RESEARCH Though i t was not the i n t e n t of t h i s study to compare Musqueam c h i l d r e n ' s reading attainment with the performance of a non-Native p o p u l a t i o n i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note some comparisons. 67 If the mean scores from D i a g n o s t i c Survey sub t e s t s are compared with s t a n i n e l e v e l s c a l c u l a t e d from Clay's (1968) study of 320 urban Maori and European New Zealand c h i l d r e n ranging i n age from 5.0 to 7.0 yea r s , Musqueam c h i l d r e n tend to score w i t h i n an average range on a l l measures except the W r i t i n g Vocabulary s u b t e s t s i n ki n d e r g a r t e n and grade one and the S i g h t Word subtest given i n ki n d e r g a r t e n (a range of st a n i n e 4 to 6 was considered average). The mean scores on each subtest and comparative s t a n i n e l e v e l s are l i s t e d below. TABLE IX Mean Scores of Musqueam P o p u l a t i o n as They Relate to Stanine Placement on D i a g n o s t i c Survey i n Clay (1968) Study Mean Stanine D i a g n o s t i c Survey Subtest (n=13) (Clay) L e t t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (K) 33 .00 5 L e t t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (1) 43 .92 5 Concepts about p r i n t (K) 9 .85 4 Concepts about p r i n t (1) 15 .77 6 Sight Words (K) 1 .92 3 Sight Words (1) 7 .69 5 W r i t i n g Vocabulary (K) 6 .00 1 W r i t i n g Vocabulary (1) 24 .46 3 D i c t a t i o n (1) 26 .70 4 68 Low performance on the W r i t i n g Vocabulary subtest i n k i n d e r g a r t e n may be r e l a t e d to the f i n d i n g that only s i x c h i l d r e n could w r i t e t h e i r name before they went to s c h o o l . The frequency with which w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s took plac e during the p r e s c h o o l years needs to be explored i n more depth to a s c e r t a i n how to best e n r i c h w r i t i n g performance i n s c h o o l . Three c h i l d r e n i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the r e s t of the s u b j e c t s (see Appendix C ) . They have s i n c e been placed i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s . Since s p e c i a l c l a s s c h i l d r e n are o f t e n not i n c l u d e d i n norm- ing l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , the mean score on each subtest e x c l u d i n g them (n=10) was compared with C l a y ' s s t a n i n e l e v e l s . T h i s r a i s e d the s t a n i n e l e v e l of S i g h t Words i n K and W r i t i n g Vocabulary i n grade one to a l e v e l four w i t h i n an average range. The only other l e v e l a l t e r e d was L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n grade one which was assigned a s i x i n s t e a d of a f i v e . The a s s e s s i n g of normality w i t h i n s t a n i n e l e v e l s of C l a y ' s study a l s o compares f a v o r a b l y with Toohey's (1987) study. She found that the q u a l i t y of Musqueam c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l language during share time i n grade one c l a s s e s of the present study experimental schools d i d not d e v i a t e from the o v e r a l l performance of the c l a s s ( c l a s s e s c o n s i s t e d of approximately o n e - t h i r d Musqueam students and two-thirds non-Native c h i l d r e n ) . A l l of the Musqueam c h i l d r e n except one e f f e c t i v e l y reported s e q u e n t i a l l y o r i e n t e d t o p i c centered 69 or l i t e r a t e s t o r i e s d u r i n g s h a r i n g t i m e i n c o n s t r a s t t o n o n - s e q u e n t i a l l y o r i e n t e d t o p i c a s s o c i a t e d s t o r i e s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s c o u r s e s t y l e s i n b l a c k p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g s h a r e t i m e ( s e e C h a p t e r One, p. 1 0 ) . I n summary, Musqueam c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e on s u b t e s t s o f t h e D i a g n o s t i c S u r v e y t e n d s t o v a r y more w i t h i n p o p u l a t i o n t h a n between p o p u l a t i o n s when compared on t h i s measure. 5.1.3 COMPARISONS WITH CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o compare t h e p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s w i t h two p r o m i n e n t s t u d i e s e x a m i n i n g l i t e r a c y e v e n t s i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . H e a th (1980) f o u n d l i t e r a c y p r a c t i s e s . i n t h e home v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y beween t h e t h r e e c o m m u n i t i e s she ex- amined. T h e s e were a b l a c k w o r k i n g c l a s s community, a w h i t e w o r k i n g c l a s s community and homes o f m i d d l e c l a s s t e a c h e r s who l i v e d c l o s e t o t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand she f o u n d t h a t l i t e r a c y p r a c t i s e s were r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l i a r w i t h i n e ach community. She a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s were s m a l l i n s i z e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 t o 30 members), were p a r t o f a l a r g e r community o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40,000, and had a l o n g t r a d i t i o n w h i c h h e l d them t o g e t h e r ( H e a t h , 1982). As Musqueam i s a s m a l l community but p a r t o f a l a r g e community and has a l o n g e x i s t e n c e , one would e x p e c t t o f i n d g e n e r a l i z a b l e t r e n d s i n l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n i t s p o p u l a t i o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s do not s u p p o r t t h i s 70 t e n e t . T h i s may be due t o t h e t y p e s o f measures u s e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n c o n t r a s t t o H e a t h ' s c o m m u n i t i e s , Musqueam has been s u b j e c t e d t o an enormous amount o f change i n t h e l a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s w i t h l i t t l e s u p p o r t on how t o cope w i t h t h e s e c h a n g e s . Some p a r e n t s o f p r e s e n t g r a d e one c h i l d r e n had p a r t o f t h e i r s c h o o l i n g i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s which a l t e r e d t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l ways ( s e e C h a p t e r Two, p. 1 4 ) . A l s o , s i n c e 1967, t h e government has u p g r a d e d t h e r e s e r v e ' s h o u s i n g s t a n d a r d s b u t i n so d o i n g has a l t e r e d t r a d i t i o n a l Musqueam ways o f l i v i n g . T h e s e and o t h e r c h a n g es t o t h e Musqueam community have a f f e c t e d many Musqueam p e o p l e ' s o r i e n t a t i o n s t o p a r e n t i n g and l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t so t h a t t h e r e now e x i s t s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s e s k i l l s w i t h i n t h e i r community. T h i s i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n s c h o o l ( R o b e r t s 1 9 8 7 ) . F i n d i n g s f r o m t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e more s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o u n d by T e a l e ( 1 9 8 6 ) . He examined l i t e r a c y p r a c t i s e s o f A n g l o , B l a c k and M e x i c a n p r e s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n i n San D i e g o . He f o u n d wide v a r i a t i o n s i n l i t e r a c y p r a c t i s e s i n t h e home w i t h i n each e t h n i c g r o u p and c o n c l u d e d t h a t c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s i n t h e home i n f l u e n c e d l i t e r a c y p r a c t i s e s more t h a n e t h n i c i t y . T h e r e was a wide v a r i a t i o n i n s c o r e s on t h e i n d e x o f p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e home d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s i n t h e Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . I t may be t h a t v a r y i n g c u l t u r a l p r a c t i s e s and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n Musqueam homes r a t h e r 71 than being Indian, a f f e c t e d t h e i r choice of l i t e r a c y p r a c t i s e s . T h i s area needs to be more e x t e n s i v e l y examined through ethnographic research techniques. 5 . 1 . 4 COMPARISON WITH STUDIES OF OTHER NATIVE POPULATIONS A. PRESCHOOL RESEARCH F i n a l l y r e s u l t s need to be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n the con- t e x t of r e s e a r c h i n Indian p o p u l a t i o n s . As with M a y f i e l d ' s ( 1 9 8 1 ) study of Cowichan Indians, support f o r l i t e r a c y during the p r e s c h o o l years v a r i e d widely w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n study. U n f o r t u n a t e l y her research was not continued to examine the e f f e c t of p a r e n t a l support f o r l i t e r a c y on l a t e r reading and w r i t i n g attainment. The present study found s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s and the Index of Parent P r o v i s i o n f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s during the p r e s c h o o l years except f o r Sight Words at K. These f i n d i n g s need to be c a u t i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d due to c o r r e l a t i o n s of . 6 5 or lower obtained on seven of nine a n a l y s e s . However, c o r r e l a t i o n s between IPAR and L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n at K and IPAR and Concepts About P r i n t i n Grade One were s i g n i f i c a n t at . 7 7 and . 7 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y , p < . 0 0 1 . B. EARLY GRADE STUDIES Se v e r a l s t u d i e s examining Indian c h i l d r e n ' s reading a b i l i t i e s have noted that Indian c h i l d r e n come from deprived l i t e r a c y backgrounds (Downing, O l l i l a and O l i v e r 1 9 7 5 ; Simpson-Tyson 1 9 7 8 ) . Yet the f i n d i n g s i n the present study 72 note that a l l Musqueam s u b j e c t s had books and w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l s i n the home and that eleven c h i l d r e n had been read to before they went to s c h o o l . These f i n d i n g s suggest that i t may not be d e p r i v a t i o n , but rather a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n to book-reading that may be experienced i n Musqueam Indian homes. For example, s e v e r a l a d u l t s and s i b l i n g s shared book- reading experiences with the c h i l d . These p r a c t i s e s may be i n c o n t r a s t to a r e g u l a r p a r e n t - c h i l d bookreading format o f t e n experienced i n middle c l a s s non-Native p o p u l a t i o n s (Bruner 1983; Teale 1984; Snow and N i n i o 1986). F i n a l l y , the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e of the f i n d i n g s i n the present study was that there was a wide range i n performance l e v e l s on a l l measures w i t h i n the Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to compare these f i n d i n g s with other s t u d i e s of Native c h i l d r e n . Downing, O l l i l a and O l i v e r (1975) and Simpson-Tyson (1978) d i d not i n c l u d e standard d e v i a t i o n s and ranges i n r e p o r t i n g t h e i r r e s e a r c h . P h i l l i o n and Galloway (1968) d i d and reported high standard d e v i a t i o n s i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s of scores from group administered Gates Reading Survey but t h i s study examined c h i l d r e n i n grades four and seven. No s t u d i e s examined w r i t i n g behaviors on any w r i t i n g measure. C. NATIVE LITERACY ORIENTATION STUDIES Two other areas of Native research need to be r e l a t e d to the f i n d i n g s of the present study. S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n 73 (1981) i n d i c a t e d t h a t c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s t o home ba c k - g r o u n d s p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n d e v e l o p i n g l i t e r a c y b e h a v i o r s . T h e i r r e s e a r c h l e d them t o c o n c l u d e t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n may have a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n t o l i t e r a c y b a s e d on t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n o f n o n - v e r b a l ways o f i n t e r a c t i n g , s o c i a l r u l e s f o r i n t e r a c t i n g i n g r o u p s , and h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h e s t o t a s k s w h i c h a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h p r e s e n t day c l a s s r o o m l i t e r a c y e v e n t s . The wide v a r i a t i o n i n p e r f o r m a n c e on r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g measures i n t h i s s t u d y c h a l l e n g e t h e s e r e s u l t s . The e x t e n t t o which th e Musqueam p o p u l a t i o n r e t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l ways o f i n t e r a c t i n g needs and t h e e f f e c t t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r a c t i o n has on r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s i n s c h o o l needs t o be e x p l o r e d more e x t e n s i v e l y . F i n a l l y , More's (1984, 1986) s t u d i e s o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n s o u t h c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e p o r t e d t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n show r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s i n h o l i s t i c p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n may p r o f i t by a r e a d i n g program t h a t e m p h a s i z e s a s i g h t word a p p r o a c h . On t h e S i g h t Word s u r v e y s u b t e s t Musqueam c h i l d r e n s c o r e d below a v e r a g e on t h e s u b t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n ( s t a n i n e 3) but i n c r e a s e d t o t h e f i f t h s t a n i n e l e v e l when t e s t e d i n g r a d e one. More r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be done c o m p a r i n g the e f f e c t s o f h a v i n g a s i g h t word v e r s u s p h o n i c s a p p r o a c h t o r e a d i n g a t t h e s e g r a d e l e v e l s . 74 5.2 CONCLUSIONS Though there were s e v e r a l weaknesses i n the i n s t r u - ments, the present study r e v e a l e d some i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s . For example, i n the past Indian c h i l d r e n had been known to score below t h e i r classmates on group administered reading achievement t e s t s . Using a d i f f e r e n t type of measure administered i n d i v i d u a l l y , r e s u l t s of the present study i n d i c a t e d that Musqueam Indian c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d a wide v a r i a t i o n i n reading and w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s to grade one yet scored w i t h i n an a c c e p t a b l e normative range i n these s k i l l s when t e s t e d on f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l s except i n t h e i r knowledge of w r i t i n g vocabulary i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one. These r e s u l t s p rovide support f o r teaching methodology that takes i n d i v i d u a l needs i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n versus programs that teach a l l c h i l d r e n together because they are Native I n d i a n . They a l s o p r o v i d e support f o r the use of i n d i v i d u a l l y administered reading assessment t o o l s that provide more in-depth i n f o r m a t i o n about Indian c h i l d r e n ' s reading and w r i t i n g performances. F i n a l l y , reading and w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by a p a r e n t a l support f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . T h i s support may have a unique c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n around bookreading events and s h a r i n g Native customs and t r a d i t i o n s . Teaching methodology may have to be adjusted to accommodate unique Musqueam Indian o r i e n t a t i o n s to these a c t i v i t i e s during the e a r l y school years. 7 5 5 . 3 RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the f i n d i n g s of the study, the f o l l o w i n g research recommendations can be made. 1. As t h i s i s the f i r s t study i n Canada examining reading and w r i t i n g behaviors ( i n ki n d e r g a r t e n and grade one) as they r e l a t e to e a r l i e r experiences i n an u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h urban Native p o p u l a t i o n , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to r e p l i c a t e the study on an other u n i l i n g u a l urban Indian p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as an urban Indian p o p u l a t i o n f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a second language. 2 . F u r t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s may wish to compare r e s u l t s on the St a n f o r d D i a g n o s t i c Reading t e s t at the end of grade one or other a p p r o p r i a t e group measure with r e s u l t s from the D i a g n o s t i c Survey to compare group versus i n d i v i d u a l a s sess- ment r e s u l t s of reading performance w i t h i n one p o p u l a t i o n . 3 . I f the D i a g n o s t i c Survey i s used on another Indian p o p u l a t i o n i t would be u s e f u l to add a measure of reading comprehension and a measure of emergent w r i t i n g l e v e l s . I t al s o would be h e l p f u l to add c a t e g o r i e s to c l a r i f y C l a y ' s l e v e l s for measuring w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s on the W r i t i n g Sample Subtest. 4. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the frequency with which l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s took p l a c e could not be v a l i d l y measured i n a r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w format. Researchers might wish to t r y and gain access to Musqueam homes to do an ethnographic study on s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n ' s p r e s c h o o l l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s 76 espec ia l ly bookreading and sharing of o r a l customs and t r a d i t i o n s to c l a r i f y th i s issue of frequency of l i t e r a c y events. 5 . Further research needs to be conducted at the Musqueam preschool to determine the extent to which ch i ldren p a r t i c i p a t e in l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s that promote development of reading and wri t ing a b i l i t i e s . For example, ten parents reported that the ir ch i ldren took out books from the preschool l i b r a r y . Again, the frequency with which th is event took place needs to be explored more extens ive ly . BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, A. and S t o k e s , S. (1984). S o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s on the development and p r a c t i c e of l i t e r a c y . In H. Goelman, A. Oberg and F. Smith. ( E d s . ) , Awakening To L i t e r a c y . London: Heinemann. Anderson, S. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Musqueam Band ( P r e - S c h o o l / E l e m e n t a r y ) E n g l i s h Language Enrichment P r o j e c t . Vancouver, B.C. D i s c u s s i o n paper s u b m i t t e d t o Vancouver S c h o o l Board. Bank S t r e e t C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n , ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Young N a t i v e Americans and T h e i r F a m i l i e s : E d u c a t i o n a l Needs Assessment and Recommendations. New York: Bank S t r e e t C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n . B e r e i t e r , C. and Engelmann, S. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . T e a c h i n g D i s - advantaged C h i l d r e n i n the P r e s c h o o l . New York: P r e n t i c e H a l l . B i s s e x , G. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . GNYS AT WRK. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B o l o z , S. and J e n n e s s , D. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The sun i s s h i n i n g i n my eyes: the Navajo c h i l d e n t e r s k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e c t i n g t o w r i t e and he can. J o u r n a l of American I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n , ( M a y ) : 2 5 - 3 0 . Borg, W. and G a l l , M. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . New York: Longman. Bru n e r , J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C h i l d ' s T a l k . New York: Norton. Burnaby, B. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Languages and T h e i r R o l e s i n E d u c a t i n g N a t i v e C h i l d r e n . T o r o n t o : OISE P r e s s . C a l d w e l l , B. and B r a d l e y , R.H. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Home O b s e r v a t i o n f o r Measurement of the Environment, (HOME). Conway: U n i v e r s i t y of A r k a n s a s . C l a r k , M.M. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . L i t e r a c y at home and at s c h o o l : i n s i g h t s from a st u d y of young f l u e n t r e a d e r s . In H. Goelman, A Oberg and F. Smith ( E d s . ) , Awakening to L i t e r a c y . London: Heinemann. C l a y , M. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The E a r l y D e t e c t i o n of Reading D i f f i c u l t i e s . Hong Kong: Heinemann. Cook, F. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Summary of Research on N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n . V i c t o r i a : Workshop p r e s e n t e d at F a l l P r i m a r y Teachers' C o n f e r e n c e . 78 Day, H.D. and Day, K.C. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Item and Factor A n a l y s i s of the Concepts About P r i n t T e s t : P a t t e r n s i n the Sand. Unpublished paper. Denton: Texas Woman's U n i v e r s i t y . Daybreak Star Preschool ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Organizing and Operating an Indian P r e s c h o o l . S e a t t l e : Daybreak Star Press, ( E r i c Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 232 8 3 9 ) . . Dehyle, D. (1983) Measuring success and f a i l u r e i n the c l a s s - room: teacher communication about t e s t s and the under- standing of young Navajo students. Peabody J o u r n a l of Education 61:67-85. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Indian Education Paper: Phase I. Ottawa. Downing, J . , O l l i l a , L. and O l i v e r , P. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s concepts of reading and w r i t i n g . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology 45:312-316. Galloway, C , Mickelson, N. and B u r c h f i e l d , D. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . O r i e n t a t i o n P re-school and Pr e - k i n d e r g a r t e n Summer Programme f o r Indian C h i l d r e n . V i c t o r i a : U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a . Gee, J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . O r a l i t y and L i t e r a c y : from The Savage Mind to Ways With Words. T e s o l Q u a r t e r l y . (Dec.):719-745. Graham, D.M. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . A comparison between the Indian and non- Indian c h i l d r e n i n southern Saskatchewan based on l i s t e n i n g comprehension, reading comprehension, a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and I.Q. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 72-23804, 894-A. Hawthorne, H.B. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . A Survey of Contemporary Indians of Canada. Indian A f f a i r s Branch II : 105-156 . Heath, S.B. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The f u n c t i o n s and uses of l i t e r a c y . J o u r n a l of Communication 30:123-133. Heath, S.B. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Questioning at home and at s c h o o l . In G. Sp i n d l e r (Ed.), Doing the Ethnography of S c h o o l i n g . New York: H o l t , Rinehardt and Winston. Hewison, J . and T i z a r d , J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . P a r e n t a l involvement and reading attainment. B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology 50:209-215. 79 Hoffman, R. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . . School E n g l i s h : A Development Program f o r C a r r i e r C h i l d r e n i n Burns Lake. Burns Lake: Report pre- sented to B.C. School D i s t r i c t # 5 5 . Holdaway, D. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The Foundations of L i t e r a c y . Sydney: Ashton S c h o l a s t i c . Huntley, J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The judgment and p u b l i c measure of value i n academic con t e x t s , J o u r n a l of General Education 3 7 : 2 8 0 - 3 1 2 . Johns, J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . F i r s t graders' concepts about p r i n t . Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y 1 5 : 5 2 9 - 5 5 0 . K i r k , R. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . I n t r o d u c t o r y S t a t i s t i c s . Moneterey: Brooks/ C o l e . K i r k n e s s , V . J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Indian education: the s t a t e of the a r t . Paper presented to M e r r i t t School D i s t r i c t , M e r r i t t , B.C. K i r k n e s s , V . J . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Indian Education: Past, Present and Future. Paper presented at the Indian H e r i t a g e Conference, Walpole I s l a n d Reserve, O n t a r i o . Labov, W. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The l o g i c of nonstandard E n g l i s h . In Language and Learning Course Team. Language i n Education. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l . McShane, D. and M i t c h e l l , J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Middle ear d i s e a s e , hearing l o s s and e d u c a t i o n a l problems of American Indian c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l of American Indian Education. 7 - 1 1 . M a y f i e l d , M. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Parents, c h i l d r e n and reading: h e l p i n g Canadian n a t i v e i n d i a n parents of p r e s c h o o l e r s . The Reading Teacher. 3 0 1 - 3 0 5 . Michaels, S. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . "Sharing time": C h i l d r e n ' s n a r r a t i v e s t y l e s and d i f f e r e n t i a l access to l i t e r a c y . Language i n S o c i e t y . 4 2 3 - 4 4 2 . Mickelson, N. and Galloway, C. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . cumulative language d e f i c i t among Indian c h i l d r e n . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 3 6 : 1 8 7 - 9 0 . Moon, C. and Wells, G. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The i n f l u e n c e of the home on l e a r n i n g to read. J o u r n a l of Research i n Reading, 2 : 5 3 - 6 2 . More, A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Okanagan-Nicola Indian Q u a l i t y of Education Study. P e n t i c t o n , B.C.: Okanagan Indian Learning I n s t i t u t e . 80 More, A. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Indian Students and T h e i r Learning S t y l e s : Research R e s u l t s and Classroom A p p l i c a t i o n s . Unpublished manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. More, A. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Q u a l i t y of Education of Native Indian Students i n Canada. In H. McCue (Ed.), S e l e c t e d Papers from F i r s t Mokakit Conference. Indian Education Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. More, A. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Personal communication. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Indian C o n t r o l of Indian E ducation. Paper presented to Assembly of F i r s t Nations, Ottawa. Nelson, C. and Meyerhoff, R. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Queen C h a r l o t t e , Skidegate s c r e e n i n g : an i n t e r v e n t i o n to help prepare a l l c h i l d r e n f o r success i n s c h o o l . In Successes i n Indian Education, V i c t o r i a : B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education. Olson, D. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . "Seel Jumping!". Some o r a l language antecedents of l i t e r a c y , i n H. Goelman, A. Oberg and F. Smith (Eds.), Awakening to L i t e r a c y . London: Heinemann. P h i l l i o n , W. and Galloway, C. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . Indian c h i l d r e n and the reading program.. J o u r n a l of Reading 12:553-602. P o i n t , R. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Personal communication. Former s o c i a l worker, Musqueam Indian Band. Pueblo Infant-Parent Education P r o j e c t . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . D i s c u s s i o n paper a v a i l a b l e from Pueblo Infant-Parent Education P r o j e c t , B e r n a l i l l o , New Mexico. Roberts, M. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Personal communication. Home-school Musqueam worker, Musqueam Indian Band. Ro s i e r , P. and Holm, W. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The Rock Point Experience. A L o n g i t u d i n a l Study of a Navajo School Program. Washington, D.C: Center f o r Appl i e d L i n g u i s t i c s . S c o l l o n , R. and S c o l l o n , S.B.K. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . N a r r a t i v e L i t e r a c y and Face i n I n t e r e t h n i c Communication. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex P u b l i s h i n g Company. Shapiro, J . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The Home-Literacy Environment Index. Unpublished paper. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Simpson-Tyson, A. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Are Native American F i r s t Graders Ready to Read? The Reading Teacher. 798-801. 81 Snow, C. and N i n i o , A. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The c o n t r a c t s of l i t e r a c y : what c h i l d r e n l e a r n from l e a r n i n g to read books. In W. Teale and E. Sulzby (Eds.), Emergent L i t e r a c y . Norwood: Ablex P u b l i s h i n g Company. Tea l e , W. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Reading to young c h i l d r e n i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r l i t e r a c y development. In H. Goelman, A. Oberg and F. Smith (Eds.), Awakening to L i t e r a c y . London: Heinemann. Te a l e , W. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Home background and young c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y development. In W. Teale and E. Sulzby (Eds.), Emergent L i t e r a c y . Norwood, N.J.: Ablex P u b l i s h i n g Company. Toohey, K. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Urban Native C h i l d r e n and Sharing Time. Paper presented to T e a l Canada Conference, Vancouver, B.C. Walker, G. and K u e r b i t z , I. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Reading to p r e s c h o o l e r s as an a i d to s u c c e s s f u l beginning r e a d i n g . Reading Improvement 16:149-154. Walpole I s l a n d Band O f f i c e . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Parent C h i l d Support Program, Wallaceburg, O n t a r i o . Wells, G. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The Meaning Makers. Toronto: OISE P r e s s . W i l l i a m s , L. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . H i s t o r y of n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n . Paper presented to Workshop on Native Education, Vancouver School Board Vancouver, B.C. 82 APPENDIX A: A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Score Procedures f o r Subtests of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey (Clay 1986) 1.1 RUNNING RECORD OF READING: Each c h i l d i s given 3 passages ( v a r y i n g from 100-200 words i n length) to read o r a l l y . E v e r y t h i n g the c h i l d says and does as he t r i e s to read the passage i s recorded. Conventions f o r r e c o r d i n g are as f o l l o w s : 1 Every word read c o r r e c t l y i s marked with a t i c k (or check). e.g. BUI ii a U e e p . 2 A wrong response i s recorded with the te x t under i t . ChUd-. Text: hoime house I f a c h i l d t r i e s to read a word, a l l h i s t r i a l s are recorded. ChUd. Text: house home. I f a c h i l d succeeds i n c o r r e c t i n g a previous e r r o r i t i s recorded as a s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n . ChUd: Text: were we whzn SC I f no response i s given to a word, a dash i s recorded. I n s e r t i o n of a word i s recorded over a dash. I f the c h i l d baulks, unable to proceed because he i s aware he had made an e r r o r and cannot c o r r e c t i t , or because he cannot attempt the next word, he i s t o l d the word, ( w r i t t e n T) ChUd: Text kome_ house An appeal f o r help (A) from the c h i l d i s turned back to the c h i l d f o r f u r t h e r e f f o r t before using T as above. ChUd: -- A hete Text: house — T I f a c h i l d gets i n t o a s t a t e of c o n f u s i o n and i t i s necessary to e x t r i c a t e him he i s t o l d to "Try that again" and TTA i s recorded. 83 9 R e p e t i t i o n i s not counted as e r r o r behavior and i s recorded as R. Ch^ld: Heie_£i_the_homc. "R SC_ Text: Here i s the house 10 D i r e c t i o n a l attack on the p r i n t e d text i s recorded with arrows. L e f t to r i g h t L R Responses are scored as f o l l o w s : 1 C r e d i t the c h i l d with any c o r r e c t or c o r r e c t e d words. Text: f o r the bread E r r o r s : 2 Score: X X 2 There i s no penalty f o r t r i a l s which are e v e n t u a l l y c o r r e c t . Cki_l^d: UJke-t e we whzn we^ e_ Text: were (SC) E r r o r s : 0 S e l f - c o r r e c t i o n : 1 Score: 3 I n s e r t i o n s add e r r o r s so that a c h i l d can have more e r r o r s than there are words i n a l i n e . Chl^^d: T_kz_t_went_too t,__too t t oo t Text: The l i t t l e engine sighed E r r o r s : 5 Score: X X X X X X 4 The c h i l d cannot r e c e i v e a minus score f o r a page. The lowest page score i s 0 . 5 Omissions. I f a l i n e or sentence i s omitted each word i s counted as an e r r o r . I f a page i s omitted (perhaps because two pages were turned together) they are not counted as e r r o r s . Note t h a t , i n t h i s case, the number of words on that page must be deducted from the Running Words t o t a l before c a l c u l a t i o n . 6 Repeated e r r o r s . I f the c h i l d makes an e r r o r (e.g. 'run' f o r 'ran') and then s u b s t i t u t e s t h i s word r e p e a t e d l y , i t counts as an e r r o r every time; but s u b s t i t u t i o n of a proper name (e.g. 'Mary' for 'Molly') i s counted only the f i r s t time. 84 7 M u l t i p l e e r r o r s and s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s . I f a c h i l d makes two or more e r r o r s (e.g. reads a phrase wrongly) each word i s an e r r o r . I f he then c o r r e c t s a l l these e r r o r s each c o r r e c t e d word i s a s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n . 8 Broken words. Where a word i s pronounced as two words (e.g. a/way) even when t h i s i s backed up by p o i n t i n g as i f i t were two words, t h i s i s regarded as an e r r o r of pro- n u n c i a t i o n not as a reading e r r o r unless what i s s a i d i s matched to a d i f f e r e n t word. Such things as ' p i t c h e r ' f o r ' p i c t u r e ' and 'gonna' f o r 'going t o ' are counted as c o r r e c t . 9 Inventions defeat the system. When the young c h i l d i s c r e a t i v e l y producing h i s own v e r s i o n of the s t o r y the s c o r i n g system f i n a l l y breaks down and the judgement ' i n v e n t i n g ' i s recorded f o r that page, s t o r y or book. 10 'Try that again'. When the c h i l d i s i n a tangle t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n , which does not i n v o l v e t e a c h i n g , can be given. I t counts as one e r r o r and only the second attempt i s scored. 11 Fewest e r r o r s . I f there are a l t e r n a t e ways of s c o r i n g responses a general p r i n c i p l e i s to choose the method that g i v e s the fewest p o s s i b l e e r r o r s as i n B below. A Chi^td: W e _ w e n £ _ j £ o ; t _ £ e_b Text: You went to the shop f o r the bread Score: X X X X E r r o r s : 6 Ch^f^d: 0 J e _ w e n ^ l £ I _ * k e _ b * e a d You went to the shop f o r the bread X X X X Text: Score: E r r o r s : 4 2.1 LETTER IDENTIFICATION 85 A K P W B H O J U C Y L Q M D N X 1 E G R V T a f P w o j u a y 1 q m n x i v g (Clay 1985) 86 2 . 2 ADMINISTRATION FOR LETTER IDENTIFICATION The c h i l d ' i s asked to r e c a l l the name of the l e t t e r , the sound the l e t t e r makes, and a word that s t a r t s l i k e that sound from the c h a r t i n s e c t i o n 2.1. Each attempt i s recorded. Any one of the three c r i t e r i a can be used to mark a response c o r r e c t . S u b - t o t a l s f o r each kind of response, a l p h a b e t i c , sound, or word beginning s i m i l a r l y are noted to t r y and determine the c h i l d ' s p r e f e r r e d mode of i d e n t i f y i n g l e t t e r s , the l e t t e r s a c h i l d confuses and unknown l e t t e r s . 3.1 CONCEPTS ABOUT PRINT TEST (SAND) C h i l d r e n are asked q u s t i o n s about a book (SAND or STONES) and are r e q u i r e d to respond v e r b a l l y or by a c t i o n . A l i s t of the concepts examined are as f o l l o w s . 1 Front of book. 2 P r i n t (not p i c t u r e ) . 3 P o i n t s top l e f t at 'I took . . .' (Sand); 'I walked . . .' (Stones). 4 Moves f i n g e r l e f t to r i g h t on any l i n e . 5 Moves f i n g e r from the right-hand end of a higher l i n e to the l e f t - h a n d end of the next lower l i n e , or moves down the page. 6 Word by word matching. 7 Both concepts must be c o r r e c t , but may be demonstrated on the whole tex t or on a l i n e , word or l e t t e r . 8 V e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n , or p o i n t i n g to top of page, or t u r n i n g the book around and p o i n t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l y . 9 Score f o r beginning with 'The' and moving r i g h t to l e f t a cross the lower l i n e and then the upper l i n e , OR, t u r n i n g the book around and moving l e f t to r i g h t i n the conven- t i o n a l movement p a t t e r n . 10 Any e x p l a n a t i o n which i m p l i e s that l i n e order i s a l t e r e d . 11 Says or shows that a l e f t page precedes a r i g h t page. 12 N o t i c e s at l e a s t one change of word order. 13 N o t i c e s at l e a s t one change i n l e t t e r order. 14 N o t i c e s at l e a s t one change i n l e t t e r o rder. 15 Says 'Question mark', or 1A q u e s t i o n ' , or 'Asks something'. 16 Says ' F u l l stop', 'Period', or ' I t t e l l s you when you've s a i d enough' or ' I t ' s the end'. 17 Says 'A l i t t l e stop', or 'A r e s t ' , or 'A comma'. 18 Says 'That's someone t a l k i n g ' , ' T a l k i n g ' , 'Speech marks', ' P r i n t ' (from computers). 19 Locates two c a p i t a l and lower case p a i r s . 20 P o i n t s c o r r e c t l y to both was and no. 21 Locates one l e t t e r and two l e t t e r s on request. 22 Locates one word and two words on request. 23 Locates both a f i r s t and a l a s t l e t t e r . 24 Locates one c a p i t a l l e t t e r . 8 7 4.1 READY TO READ SIGHT WORDS C h i l d r e n are r e q u i r e d to read the words below. I Mother are here me shouted am with car c h i l d r e n help not too meet away I f necessary, c h i l d r e n are allowed to p r a c t i s e one word before beginning to read the l i s t . That word i s not counted i n s c o r i n g . 5.1 WRITING SAMPLE Three samples of c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s are c o l l e c t e d over three c o n s e c u t i v e weeks and are rated using the f o l l o w i n g s c o r i n g conventions. LANGUAGE LEVEL: The number of the highest l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n used by the c h i l d i s recorded: 1 A l p h a b e t i c ( l e t t e r s only) 2 Word (any r e c o g n i z a b l e word) 3 Word group (any two-word phrase) 4 Sentence (any simple sentence) 5 Punctuated s t o r y (of two or more sentences) 6 Paragraphed s t o r y (two themes) MESSAGE QUALITY: The number below best r e p r e s e n t i n g the c h i l d ' s sample i s recorded. 1 He has a concept of signs (uses l e t t e r s , invents l e t t e r s , uses p u n c t u a t i o n ) . 2 He has a concept that a message i s conveyed. 3 A message i s copie d . 4 R e p e t i t i v e use of sentence p a t t e r n s l i k e "Here i s a..." 5 Attempts to record own ideas. 6 S u c c e s s f u l composition. 88 DIRECTIONAL PRINCIPLES: The number of the highest r a t i n g f o r which there i s no e r r o r i n the sample of the c h i l d ' s w r i t i n g i s recorded. 1 No evidence of d i r e c t i o n a l knowledge. 2 Part of the d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n i s known: E i t h e r s t a r t top l e f t or move l e f t to r i g h t or r e t u r n down l e f t . 3 R e v e r s a l of the d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n ( r i g h t to l e f t and r e t u r n down r i g h t ) . 4 C o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n . 5 C o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n and spaces between words. 6 Extensive t e x t without any d i f f i c u l t i e s of arrangement and spacing of t e x t . 6.1 WRITING VOCABULARY C h i l d r e n are r e q u i r e d to w r i t e a l l the words they can f o r ten minutes. S e v e r a l prompting behaviors can be used such as, "Do you know how to w r i t e i s ? to? or I ? " ; "Do you know how to w r i t e any c h i l d r e n ' s names?" Each word completed a c c u r a t e l y i s marked c o r r e c t . Words w r i t t e n i n mirror image are recorded as c o r r e c t i f they are i n c o r r e c t sequence. 7.1 DICTATION C h i l d r e n are read a s t o r y . The s t o r y i s then repeated slowly while the c h i l d w r i t e s i t . The s t o r y used was, I HAVE A BIG DOG AT HOME SCHOOL. TODAY I'M GOING TO TAKE HIM TO Examiners are r e q u i r e d to record the text below the c h i l d ' s v e r s i o n . Each sound (phoneme) i s recorded as one p o i n t . The s t o r y used i s scored as f o l l o w s . I 1 h a v e 2 3 4 a 5 b i g 6 7 8 d o g 9 10 11 a t 12 13 h o m e , 14 15 16 T o d a y 17 18 19 20 a m g o i n g 21 22 23 24 25 25 26 t o t a k e 28 29 30 h i m t o 31 23 33 s c h o o l . 34 35 36 37 89 APPENDIX B Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Used t o I n t e r v i e w P r i n c i p a l C a r e g i v e r s S e c t i o n A S . C . Abramson U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r PARENTAL INTERVIEW Name o f c h i l d : A d d r e s s : S c h o o l : B . D . Da te o f I n t e r v i e w : A g e : y e a r s months T o t a l P o s s i b l e S c o r e : S e c t i o n A - 77 S e c t i o n B - 23 Mos t o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w i l l be a b o u t t h i n g s t h a t d i d i n t h e two y e a r s o r so b e f o r e h e / s h e went t o s c h o o l . I t wou ld h e l p me a l o t i f y o u c o u l d answer as a c c u r a t e l y as y o u can and i f you a r e no t s u r e o r c a n ' t remember s o m e t h i n g , p l e a s e t e l l me. A l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y o u g i v e me w i l l be t r e a t e d v e r y c o n f i d e n t i a l l y . Q . l Does l i v e w i t h any b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s o r r e l a t i v e s i n y o u r house? No Yes I f y e s : C a l l you t e l l me t h e i r sex o r name and a g e s : NAME AGE IN YEARS Q.2 ( i ) D i d e v e r a t t e n d a D a y c a r e o r P r e - s c h o o l b e f o r e h e / s h e s t a r t e d s c h o o l ? CODE No, n e i t h e r Y e s , P r e s c h o o l 1 , 0 * Y e s , D a y c a r e 1 , 0 * 91 10 Q . l ( i i ) F o r how many y e a r s d i d a t t e n d a P r e - s c h o o l a n d / o r D a y c a r e s c h o o l ? CODE P r e s c h o o l D a y c a r e L e s s t h a n 1 y e a r a a One y e a r b b Two y e a r s c c More t han two y e a r s d d I f y e s : ( i i i ) Can y o u t e l l me how many days a week h e / s h e a t t e n d e d ? IF i t was d i f f e r e n t when h e / s h e was d i f f e r e n t a g e s , t e l l me a b o u t t h i s . CODE T o t a l number o f days ( o r t o t a l 1/2 d a y s ) pe r week P r e s c h o o l D a y c a r e When h e / s h e was 1 When h e / s h e was 2 When h e / s h e was 3 1 - 5 * When h e / s h e was 4 1 - 5 * When h e / s h e was 5 Q.3 Young c h i l d r e n p l a y w i t h a l l s o r t s o f t o y s and games. I ' d l i k e y o u t o t h i n k a b o u t t h e t h i n g s t h a t used t o p l a y w i t h , a t home (o r p o s s i b l y a t P r e s c h o o l o r D a y c a r e ) d u r i n g t h e two y e a r s o r so b e f o r e h e / s h e s t a r t e d s c h o o l . On t he c a r d y o u can see d i f f e r e n t answers t o my q u e s t i o n a b o u t how much c e r t a i n t o y s and games were p l a y e d w i t h . As I r e a d o u t my l i s t p l e a s e t e l l me t h e answer y o u t h i n k i s t h e r i g h t o n e . On c a r d t o be handed t o m o t h e r : N e a r l y e v e r y day Abou t once a week Abou t once a month L e s s t han once a month N e v e r , as f a r as I can remember 92 Read l i s t and c i r c l e r e s p o n s e s : How much d i d h e / s h e : - M e a r l y e v . d a y Once week Once m t h . L e s s once m th . Never i ) P l a y w i t h b u i l d i n g t o y s l i k e Lego? 4 3 2 1 0 i i ) P l a y w i t h s o f t t o y s l i k e t e d d y ? 4 3 2 ] 0 i i i ) Draw w i t h p e n c i l s , c h a l k s , c r a y o n s o r f e l t pens? 4 3 2 1 0 1 - 4 * i v ) P l a y w i t h a b i k e o r t r i c y c l e ? 4 3 2 ] 0 v ) Make t h i n g s f rom s c r a p m a t e r i a l s , w o o d , c a r d , e t c . 4 3 2 1 0 v i ) Look a t c o m i c s ? 4 3 2 ! 0 1 - 4 * v i i ) P l a y w i t h t o y s t h a t make a n o i s e l i k e humming t o p s , drums? 4 3 2 0 v i i i ) W r i t e o r p r e t e n d t o w r i t e w i t h p e n c i l s , c r a y o n s , f e l t pens o r c h a l k ? 4 3 2 0 1 - 4 * i x ) P l a y w i t h t o y c a r s o r t r a i n s ? 4 3 2 1 0 x) Look a t b o o k s ? 4 3 2 ! 0 1 - 4 * x i ) Do j i g - s a w s o r o t h e r k i n d s o f p u z z l e s ? 4 3 2 1 0 x i i ) P l a y on s w i n g s o r a s l i d e ? 4 3 2 ! 0 x i i i ) P l a y games l i k e ' s n a k e s and l a d d e r s ' o r o t h e r s l i k e t h i s ? 4 3 2 0 x i v ) L i s t e n t o s t o r i e s b e i n g r e a d ? 4 3 2 1 0 1 - 4 * XV) P l a y w i t h t o y s o l d i e r s o r t o y a n i m a l s ? 4 3 2 1 0 x v i ) T e l l s t o r i e s ? 4 3 2 1 0 1 - 4 * x v i i ) P l a y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e w i t h no a d u l t o r g a n i z i n g p l a y ? 4 3 2 1 0 PROBE 1 ( i i i ) D r a w i n g Can y o u t e l l me a n y t h i n g h e / s h e used t o draw a l o t ? 94 PROBE 2 L i s t e n t o s t o r i e s (a ) Can y o u t e l l me who used t o r e a d t o h i m / h e r ? CODE ( e v e r y t h i n g a p p l i c a b l e ) (Prompt i f n e c e s s a r y ) Anyone e l s e ) (b) D i d h e / s h e l i k e b e i n g r e a d t o ? ( c ) When i ) d i d he l i s t e n q u i e t l y ? d i d he p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y ? i i ) d i d t h e a d u l t r e a d i n g ask q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e s t o r y w h i l e h e / s h e was r e a d i n g t o ? PROBE 3 S t o r y t e l l i n g 1 - 0 * (a ) Can you t e l l me who u s e d t o t e l l h i m / h e r s t o r i e s ? CODE ( e v e r y t h i n g a p p l i c a b l e ) mother f a t h e r b r o t h e r / s i s t e r (Prompt i f n e c e s s a r y ) o t h e r ( s ) Anyone e l s e ) s p e c i f y mother f a t h e r b r o t h e r / s i s t e r o t h e r ( s ) s p e c i f y Yes No was b e i n g r e a d a f a v o r i t e b o o k , (b) Were t h e r e any s t o r i e s t h a t were t o l d r e g u l a r l y ? 95 Q.4 Can y o u t e l l me w h i c h o f t h e s e t h i n g s had b e f o r e h e / s h e went t o s c h o o l ? Check T r i c y c l e o r b i c y c l e Teddy b e a r B l a c k b o a r d 1 , 0 * B u c k e t and s h o v e l Books 1 , 0 * C r a y o n s , p e n c i l s o r f e l t pens 1 , 0 * I f books c h e c k e d , a s k : Abou t how many books d i d have as h i s / h e r own? More than 20 5 -20 L e s s t han 5 Q.5 Young c h i l d r e n ask t h e i r p a r e n t s many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . Somet imes t h e y ask q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h i n g s . Somet imes t h e y ask f o r h e l p w i t h t h i n g s t h e y a r e d o i n g . I am g o i n g t o m e n t i o n a few o f t h e s e t h i n g s and I want y o u t o t e l l me, f rom t h e c a r d we used b e f o r e , a b o u t how o f t e n a s k e d t h e s e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s . I f y o u c a n ' t remember , p l e a s e t e l l me. On c a r d t o be handed t o m o t h e r : N e a r l y e v e r y day Abou t once a week Abou t once a month L e s s t h a n once a month N e v e r , as f a r as I can remember 96 Read l i s t and c i r c l e r e s p o n s e s : L e s s How much d i d h e / s h e : - N e a r l y e v . d a y Once week Once m t h . once m th . Never ( i ) How t h i n g s 1 i k e T . V . , c a r , worked? 4 3 2 ] 0 ( i i ) What words on boxes o r i n books we re? 4 3 2 ] 0 1 ( i i i ) F o r h e l p w i t h games o r p u z z l e s ? 4 3 2 0 ( i v ) F o r s t o r i e s t o be r e a d t o h i m / h e r ? 4 3 2 1 0 1 ( v ) You t o f i x b r o k e n t o y s ? 4 3 2 ! 0 ( v i ) What words meant? 4 3 2 ! 0 1 ( v i i ) You t o draw t h i n g s o r messages f o r h i m / h e r ? 4 • 3 2 ] 0 1 ( v i i i ) How t o w r i t e w o r d s ? 4 3 2 0 1 Q 5 P r o b e as f o l l o w s f o r r e s p o n s e s i n t he 3 / 4 c e l l s t o any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : P r o b e 1 ( i i ) Words on b o x / i n books Can you t e l l me a b o u t any o c c a s i o n s when h e / s h e a s k e d a b o u t words on b o x e s o r i n books? P r o b e 2 ( v i i i ) W r i t e words Can you t e l l me a b o u t any o c c a s i o n s when h e / s h e a s k e d how t o w r i t e wo rds? 97 Q.6 Can y o u t e l l me i f had been t o any o f t h e s e p l a c e s b e f o r e h e / s h e s t a r t e d s c h o o l ? A swimming poo l Yes No The m o v i e s Yes No A l i b r a r y a t t h e p r e s c h o o l o r a p u b l i c l i b r a r y ? Yes 1 - 0 * No A zoo Yes No I f y e s t o l i b r a r y , a s k : ( i i ) When h e / s h e went t o a l i b r a r y who were books f o r ? CODE F o r c h i l d h i m / h e r s e l f ? O t h e r c h i l d ( r e n ) F a t h e r ( P r o m p t , i f n e c e s s a r y Mo the r Anyone e l s e ? ) O t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) ( i i i ) I f (a ) - books bo r rowed f o r c h i l d a s k : How o f t e n was t a k e n t o a l i b r a r y ? CODE More than once a week 4 * Abou t once a week 3 * E v e r y 2 - 3 weeks 2 * L e s s t han e v e y r 2 - 3 weeks 1* Canno t remember 0 * 98 Q.7 I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o t e l l me w h i c h o f t h e s e t h i n g s c o u l d do b e f o r e h e / s h e s t a r t e d s c h o o l : C o u l d h e / s h e : CHECK YES ( i ) Z i p p e r h i s / h e r own j a c k e t ? . ( i i ) R e c o g n i z e h i s / h e r own name i f i t was p r i n t e d ? 1 , 0 * ( i i i ) R i d e a b i k e ? ( i v ) W r i t e h i s / h e r own name? 1 , 0 * ( v ) Read any words ( e x c e p t own name)? 1 , 0 * ( v i ) T e l l y o u t h e names o f any l e t t e r s l i k e a , b , c ? 1 , 0 * ( v i i ) Coun t up t o t e n ? ( v i i i ) W r i t e any words a p a r t f rom own name? 1 , 0 * ( i x ) Sw ing by h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f ? (x ) T e l l a s t o r y o r r e c i t e 5 n u r s e r y rhymes? 1 , 0 * ( x i ) W r i t e a message t o someone? 1 , 0 * I f y e s t o ( i i ) , ( i v ) , ( v ) , ( v i ) , ( v i i i ) , o r ( x ) , ask t he a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w : How do y o u t h i n k l e a r n e d Taugh t b y : s e l f p a r e n t s i b l i n g o t h e r s p e c i f y To r e c o g n i z e h i s / h e r own name? 1 3 3 3 To w r i t e h i s / h e r own name? 1 3 3 3 Read some w o r d s ? 1 3 3 3 W r i t e some wo rds? 1 3 3 3 Some l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t ? 1 3 3 3 T e l l s t o r i e s o r r e c i t e 5 n u r s e r y rhymes 1 3 3 3 To w r i t e a message t o someone? 1 3 3 3 99 Q.8 Is t h e r e a n y t h i n g e l s e used t o do b e f o r e h e / s h e s t a r t e d s c h o o l t h a t y o u t h i n k I w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n ? Q.9 What do you c o n s i d e r as a s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n l e v e l f o r y o u r c h i l d ? c o m p l e t i o n o f g rade 7 a c o m p l e t i o n o f g r a d e 12 b c o m p l e t i o n o f f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g f o l l o w i n g h i g h s c h o o l ? c O t h e r Thank you f o r y o u r h e l p . 100 SECTION B T o t a l P o s s i b l e S c o r e 23 C h i l d ' s Name: B i r t h d a t e : C h i l d ' s S e x : M L a n g u a g e ( s ) o f t he Home: (1) ( i n o r d e r o f f r e q u e n c y o f use ) (2) O l d e r c h i l d r e n (age and s e x ) : DIRECTIONS: PLEASE RESPOND TO EACH ITEM BY PLACING A CHECK ( ) MARK ON APPROPRIATE L INE OR L I N E S . 1 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many books do you have i n y o u r home? A d u l t Books 0 - 2 3 - 1 0 1 1 - 2 5 26 - 50 o v e r 50 C h i l d r e n ' s Books 0 - 2 3 - 10 11 - 25 26 - 50 o v e r 50 2 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many m a g a z i n e s a r e p u r c h a s e d o r s u b s c r i b e d t o on a m o n t h l y b a s i s i n y o u r home? A d u l t m a g a z i n e s 0 1 2 3 o v e r 3 C h i l d r e n ' s m a g a z i n e s 0 0 * 1 1 * 2 2 * 3 3 * o v e r 3 4 * 101 Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n c e - t y p e books a r e i n y o u r home? D i c t i o n a r y A t l a s E n c y c l o p e d i a "How T o " Books (cook b o o k s , home r e p a i r , e t c . ) Which b e s t d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n y o u r c h i l d m i g h t see r e f e r e n c e - t y p e books ( s e e p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n ) b e i n g used i n y o u r home? Never R a r e l y Somet imes O f t e n D a i l y P l e a s e i n d i c a t e how o f t e n y o u r c h i l d o b s e r v e h i s / h e r p a r e n t s r e d i n g on a w e e k l y b a s i s . Neve r 1 - 2 t i m e s 3 - 4 t i m e s 5 - 6 t i m e s D a i l y P l e a s e i n d i c a t e how o f t e n y o u r c h i l d i s r e a d t o , a t home, on a w e e k l y b a s i s . Neve r 0 * 1 - 2 t i m e s 1 * 3 - 4 t i m e s 2 * 5 - 6 t i m e s 3 * D a i l y 4 * A t what age d i d you b e g i n r e a d i n g t o y o u r c h i l d ? 4+ y e a r s 0 * 3 - 4 y e a r s 1* 2 - 3 y e a r s 2 * 1 - 2 y e a r s 3 * 0 -1 y e a r 4 * 102 9 . Does y o u r c h i l d t r y t o r e a d ? YES NO I f y o u c h e c k e d y e s , p l e a s e r e s p o n d t o t h e n e x t s t a t e m e n t . Check t h e s t a t e m e n t o r s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h d e s c r i b e y o u r c h i l d ' s a t t e m p t s t o r e a d . P r e t e n d s t o r e a d s t o r y b o o k s R e c o g n i z e s a few words i n books Reads s i g n s , l a b e l s , e t c . ( c e r e a l box l a b e l s , s u p e r m a r k e t names e t c . ) Reads h i s / h e r own s t o r y b o o k s 1 , 0 * 1 0 . Does y o u r c h i l d r e c e i v e books as g i f t s f o r h o l i d a y s o r b i r t h d a y s ? Neve r R a r e l y Somet imes O f t e n A l w a y s 1 1 . Which o f t he f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s a r e i n y o u r home and used by y o u r c h i l d ? T y p e w r i t e r o r compu te r ( p l a y o r r e a l ) 1 , 0 * P a p e r o r p e n c i l s ( s o m e t h i n g t o w r i t e w i t h ) B l a c k b o a r d and c h a l k ( f e l t b o a r d ) C o l o u r i n g book and c r a y o n s o r s o m e t h i n g t o c o l o u r w i t h 1 2 . How o f t e n does y o u r c h i l d o b s e r v e h i s / h e r p a r e n t s w r i t i n g on a w e e k l y b a s i s ? Never 1 - 2 t i m e s 5 - 6 t i m e s D a i l y 1 3 . Does y o u r c h i l d t r y t o p r i n t , w r i t e a n d / o r draw? YES NO I f y o u c h e c k e d y e s p l e a s e r e s p o n d t o t he n e x t s t a t e m e n t . Check t he i t e m w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e d what y o u r c h i l d d o e s . T e l l s a s t o r y a b o u t a p i c t u r e h e / s h e d r e w , p a i n t e d o r c o l o u r e d 1* S c r i b b l e s i n t r y i n g t o w r i t e a message 1 * W r i t e s l e t t e r s t h a t mean s o m e t h i n g t o h i m / h e r _ 1 * P u t s l e t t e r s t o g e t h e r t o make words a n d / o r t r i e s t o w r i t e messages 1* 103 1 4 . Which o f t he f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f p r i n t i n y o u r home a r e a b l e t o be seen by y o u r c h i l d ? L e t t e r s o f t he a l p h a b e t ( w a l l p a p e r o r c h a r t s ) M a n i p u l a t i v e l e t t e r s ( m a g n e t i c l e t t e r s o r b l o c k s ) Sys tem o f mesages ( b u l l e t i n b o a r d , r e f r i g e r a t o r d o o r ) L i s t s ( s h o p p i n g , w o r d s , e t c . ) 1 5 . What t y p e s o f w r i t i n g do you do t h a t y o u c h i l d i s a b l e t o ^ e e you do? P a y i n g b i l l s , r e c o r d k e e p i n g , e t c . M a k i n g l i s t s , w r i t i n g r e c i p e s , e t c . K e e p i n g a d i a r y , w r i t i n g s t o r i e s , poems, e t c . W r i t i n g l e t t e r s , m e s s a g e s , e t c . 1 6 . How f r e q u e n t l y do you o r a n o t h e r member o f y o u r f a m i l y w r i t e / p r i n t w i t h y o u r c h i l d on a w e e k l y b a s i s ? Never 0 * 1 - 2 t i m e s 1 * 3 - 4 t i m e s 2 * 5 - 6 t i m e s 3 * D a i l y 4 * 1 7 . On a v e r a g e , how many h o u r s a day does y o u r c h i l d l o o k a t books o r i s r e a d t o , o r w r i t e s / d r a w s , c o l o u r s ? 1 8 . On a v e r a g e , how many h o u r s a day does y o u r c h i l d p l a y q u i e t games? 1 9 . On a v e r a g e , how many h o u r s a day does y o u r c h i l d wa t ch t e l e v i s i o n and p l a y v i d e o / c o m p u t e r games? T . V . V i d e o / C o m p u t e r Games 2 0 . On a v e r a g e , how many h o u r s a day does y o u r c h i l d p l a y a c t i v e l y ( t h i n g s o t h e r t h a n q u i e t o r v i d e o games l i k e s p o r t s , t a g , j u m p i n g r o p e , e t c . ) ? THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTIC IPATION. 104 APPENDIX C Raw Scores from Subtests of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey, Index of P a r e n t a l P r o v i s i o n f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s and T o t a l School Absence Codes f o r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Scores Raw Scores f o r each Subject on s u b t e s t s of the D i a g n o s t i c Survey at k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one, as w e l l as the t o t a l school absence and index of p a r e n t a l support f o r preschool l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s are d i s p l a y e d i n Table I. Each category w i l l have an ab b r e v i a t e d code as f o l l o w s : SUB: Subject number and age at beginning of study. TPOS: T o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e . LIDK: L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , k i n d e r g a r t e n . LID1: L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , grade one. CAPK: Concepts about P r i n t , k i n d e r g a r t e n . CAP1 : Concepts about P r i n t , grade one. SWK : Ready to Read Sight Words, kindergarten • SW1: Ready to Read S i g h t Words, grade one. WVK: W r i t i n g Vocabulary, k i n d e r g a r t e n . WV1: W r i t i n g Vocabulary, grade one. DIC1: D i c t a t i o n , grade one. TSA: T o t a l School Absence Sept. (K) to Mar. 1 (grade 1) IPAR: Index of P a r e n t a l Support f o r L i t e r a c y A c t i v i t i e s . TSSI : T o t a l score on D i a g n o s t i c Survey, grade 1. 105 3.1 Raw S c o r e s TPOS 54 54 24 24 15 15 37 100 SUB. LIDK LIDI CAPK CAPI SWK SWI WVK WVI DICI TSA IPAR TSSI 01 46 52 8 17 1 4 1 10 11 52.5 83 94 02 35 52 9 17 1 6 4 24 27 18 75 126 03 23 48 9 13 0 10 5 37 15 30.5 47 123 04 1 34 3 14 0 2 0 5 5 59 .5 34 60 05 45 53 15 19 2 12 12 18 27 55.5 72 129 06 21 49 4 9 0 1 0 2 12 14 47 73 07 50 53 13 16 4 12 3 37 33 14 49 151 08 53 54 13 24 0 13 6 54 35 8 78 180 09 7 15 4 9 0 0 1 1 0 22 56 25 10 53 54 19 24 13 15 29 56 37 24 85 186 11 52 53 14 18 3 15 11 29 37 12.5 69 152 12 39 52 10 17 1 10 6 ;31 33 30 81 143 13 5 2 7 8 0 0 0 1 0 21 .5 40 11 106 APPENDIX D: V a l u e and F r e q u e n c y o f S c o r e s f r o m D i a g n o s t i c S u r v e y SUBTEST VALUE FREQUENCY SUBTEST VALUE FREQUENCY LIDK 1 1 5 1 7 1 21 1 23 1 35 1 39 1 45 1 46 1 50 1 52 1 53 2 CAPK 3 1 4 2 7 1 8 1 9 2 10 1 13 2 14 1 15 1 19 1 SWK 0 6 1 3 2 1 3 1 4 1 13 1 LID1 2 1 15 1 34 1 48 1 49 1 52 3 53 3 54 2 C A P l 8 1 9 2 13 1 14 1 16 1 17 3 18 1 19 1 24 2 SW1 0 2 1 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 10 2 12 2 13 1 15 2 107 SUBTEST VALUE FREQUENCY SUBTEST VALUE FREQUENCY WVK 0 3 WV1 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 1 5 1 4 1 10 1 5 1 18 1 6 2 24 1 11 1 29 1 12 1 31 1 29 1 37 2 54 1 56 1 DIC1 0 2 5 1 11 1 12 1 15 1 27 2 33 2 35 1 37 2 108 APPENDIX F Summary of Information Obtained from Parent Interview Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Mater I a Is Sub. Provided A c t i v i t i e s Observed A c t i v i t i e s P a r t i c i p a t e d Extra M B DM TC L LB N WN R NR WM B S NS VL RL WMP P E 01 X X X 02 - X X 03 - X X - X X X - 04 - X X - X X X X 05 X X X X X X X - 06 - X X - X - X - 07 - X X - X X X X 08 - X X X X X X X 09 - X X X X X X X X X X + X X + X X X X - - X X X + X X + X X - X - X - X X - X - - - X X X X+ X - X - - X X+ X X+ X - - X X+ X X+ X X - X X+ X X+ X X X X X+ X - X X X X 10 X X X X X X X X X X X + X X + X II X X X X X X X X X+ X X+ X 12 X X X X X X X X X X X + X X + 13 - X X X+ X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 12 X 12+ X 12+ X 12+ X 12+ X NR X 12+ X 12+ X 12+ X 12+ X 12+ X 12+ X 12+ X+ = more than one ad u l t p a r t i c i p a t i n g In a c t i v i t y . M a t e r i a l s Provided In the Home Chi l d r e n ' s magazine s u b s c r i p t i o n s - M Books - B Drawing M a t e r i a l s , crayons, chalk, blackboard - DM Typewriter, Computer - TC A c t i v i t i e s Observed by P r i n c i p a l Caregiver Look at Books - LB Recognizing L e t t e r s o f alphabet - L Recognizing name In p r i n t - N Wr i t i n g name - WN Reading on own - R R e c i t i n g nursery rhymes - NR Wri t i n g messages t o someone - WM A c t i v i t i e s In which C h i l d & Caregiver P a r t i c i p a t e d BookreadIng - B S t o r y t e l I I n g - S Native S t o r y t e l I I n g - NS V i s i t s t o L i b r a r y - VL Reading l a b e l s on boxes, e t c . - RL Wri t i n g messages - WMP Extra Preschool (daycare) attendance - P Educational a s p i r a t i o n s - E

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Canada 2 0
United States 2 0
France 1 0
China 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 1 9
Beijing 1 0
Surrey 1 0
Vancouver 1 0
Sunnyvale 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items