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The effect of cloze procedures upon the reading comprehension of grade five students using the direct… Tarasoff, Jack 1986

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THE E F F E C T OF CLOZE PROCEDURES UPON THE READING COMPREHENSION OF GRADE F I V E STUDENTS USING THE DIRECT TEACHING OF CONTEXT CLUES WITH D I F F E R E N T I N T E N S I T I E S AND D E L E T I O N SYSTEMS by JACK TARASOFF A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1986 © Jack T a r a s o f f , 1986 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 D E - 6 (3 /81) ABSTRACT T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i n d e v e l o p i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n w h e r e two t y p e s o f w o r d c l a s s e s , n o u n / v e r b a n d c o n n e c t i v e s , w e r e d e l e t e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c l o z e p a s s a g e s u s e d . T h e n o u n / v e r b a n d c o n n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s r e p r e -s e n t e d two t y p e s o f c o n t e x t c l u e s — p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s a n d i d e a c l u e s . T h e s t u d y a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d how w e l l c h i l d r e m d e v e l o p e d a s p e c i f i c k n o w l e d g e o f c o n n e c t i v e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t s o f i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g a n d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t o n t h r e e c o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l s , H i g h , M i d d l e a n d Low. T w e n t y i n t a c t c l a s s r o o m s , c o n s i s t i n g o f 434 s t u d e n t s , w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s and o n e c o n t r o l g r o u p . T h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l g r o u p s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e d c l o z e e x e r c i s e s t h a t had e i t h e r n o u n / v e r b d e l e t i o n s o r c l o z e e x e r c i s e s t h a t had c o n n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s . T h e f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s r e c e i v e d e i t h e r i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g o r n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g . E a c h o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s c o m p l e t e d 23 c l o z e e x e r c i s e s d u r i n g t h e 8 -week t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r c l a s s e s , r e c e i v e d r e a d i n g i n s t r u c -t i o n f r o m t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e a d i n g p r o g r a m s e x i s t i n g i n t h e s c h o o l s a t t h e t i m e . D a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d o n two o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g t h e r e s e a r c h p e r i o d . P r e - t r e a t m e n t d a t a were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a C l o z e i i Comprehension Teat and a standardized test, the reading achievement sub-test of the Canadian Test of Basic Skills, Level 10, Form 3M. Post-treatment data were collected through the administration of a post-treatment Cloze Comprehension Test, a reading subtest of the Canadian  Test of Basic Skills, Level 11, Form 4M, and Robertson Written Connect- ives Test. The accumulated data were analyzed by means of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The pre-treatment scores obtained on the Cloze  Comprehension Test were used as the covariate in the analysis of the data. Fairwise comparison of means were examined by the application of Scheffe's test at the .05 level of statistical significance. The statistical analysis of the data resulted in the following findings: 1. No statistically significant differences were found between the treatment groups when comprehension scores on the Canadian Test of  Basic Skills or the post-treatment Cloze Comprehension Test were analyzed. 2. While analyzed data showed statistically significant differ-ences between the three ability groups when scores from the Canadian  Test of Basic Skills were analyzed, there was no statistically signifi-cant difference between the Middle and Low ability groups when scores from the Cloze Comprehension Test were analyzed. 3. Statistically significant differences between the five treat-ment groups were observed when scores from the Robertson Written Con- nectives Test were analyzed. 4. A statistically significant difference between the High ability group and the Middle and Low ability groups was observed when scores on the Robertson Written Connectives Test were analyzed. However, a i i i s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was n o t o b s e r v e d b e t w e e n t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t w h i l e t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e was n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n e f f e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l c o m p r e -h e n s i o n s c o r e s , i t seems t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a n d t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s , a s t h e y w e r e p r e p a r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , w e r e e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p -i n g a k n o w l e d g e o f c o n n e c t i v e s . T h e r e s u l t s a l s o g e n e r a t e d some r e c o m -m e n d a t i o n s t h a t m i g h t r e s u l t i n t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e b e i n g m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y u s e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t i e s . i v T A B L E OF CONTENTS P a g e ABSTRACT i i T A B L E OF CONTENTS • . v L I S T OF TABLES v i i i L I S T OF FIGURES x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND DEDICATION . . . x i C h a p t e r I THE PROBLEM . .. 1 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e S t u d y 1 D e s i g n o f t h e S t u d y 8 Q u e s t i o n s t o be A n s w e r e d 9 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s 10 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 11 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 15 Summary 15 I I REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E 16 C l o z e P r o c e d u r e a n d R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n — T h e T h e o r e t i c a l B a s e 16 C l o z e P r o c e d u r e a n d R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n — P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 18 T h e F i r s t Round (1962-1969) 18 T h e S e c o n d Round (1970-1979) 24 G u i d e l i n e s f o r F u t u r e S t u d i e s 32 Summary 33 C o n t e x t u a l C l u e s a n d R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n 33 T h e V a l u e o f C o n t e x t u a l C l u e s i n R e a d i n g 34 T y p e s o f C o n t e x t u a l A i d s 44 Summary 51 I I I DESIGN OF THE STUDY 52 T e a c h i n g M a t e r i a l s 52 C l o z e P r o c e d u r e L e s s o n s 53 T e a c h e r s ' G u i d e 55 C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t 56 T e a c h i n g S u p p o r t M a t e r i a l s 57 T e a c h e r s ' I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r C l o z e P r o c e d u r e L e s s o n s . 57 v P a g e T e s t i n g I n s t r u m e n t s 58 C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s 58 C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t s 58 T h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t • . . 60 P r o c e d u r e s 61 F i e l d T r i a l 61 S e l e c t i o n o f C l a s s r o o m s 62 A s s i g n m e n t o f C l a s s r o o m s t o T r e a t m e n t 62 D u r a t i o n o f S t u d y 63 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C l o z e P r o c e d u r e L e s s o n s 64 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f T e s t s 65 E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n t r o l P r o c e d u r e s . . . . 65 M o n i t o r s ' C h e c k l i s t . 65 T e a c h e r s ' Comments 66 T e a c h e r s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 66 S t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e s a n d A n a l y s i s 67 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n . .. 67 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 69 D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n 73 V e r i f i c a t i o n o f S c o r e s . . . . . 73 P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s 73 F i n a l A n a l y s i s 74 I V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 75 T e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s I 76 S c o r e s O b t a i n e d f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s 76 S c o r e s O b t a i n e d f r o m t h e P o s t - T r e a t m e n t C l o z e T e s t . 78 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s I . 81 T e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s I I 88 T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s a n d A b i l i t y G r o u p s and K n o w l e d g e o f C o n n e c t i v e s a s M e a s u r e d by t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t 88 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s I I 93 I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s O b t a i n e d by C r o s s i n g A b i l i t y (AB) and T r e a t m e n t F a c t o r s (TR) 98 T e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s I I I 98 I n t e r a c t i o n o f A b i l i t y by T r e a t m e n t o n P o s t - T r e a t m e n t C o m p r e h e n s i o n S c o r e s a s M e a s u r e d by t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t 99 I n t e r a c t i o n o f C l a s s w i t h i n T r e a t m e n t o n P o s t -T r e a t m e n t C o m p r e h e n s i o n S c o r e s as M e a s u r e d by t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e C l o z e C o m p r e -h e n s i o n T e s t 99 Summary 100 v i Page V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . -102 Summary of the Study 102 Summary of the Findings 103 Conclusions of the Study 105 Discussion and Recommendations . 107 Design Features 107 Materials I l l Researcher's Conclusions . . 113 BIBLIOGRAPHY 114 APPENDIX A—Pre- and Post-Testing Instruments and Instructions for Administration 121 APPENDIX B—Instructions to Teachers; Cloze Exercise Passages; and Teachers' Keys 147 APPENDIX C—Monitors' Checklist; Teachers' Score Sheets; Teachers' Comments; and Teachers' Questionnaire 163 APPENDIX D—Tables of Means and Standard Deviations for Treatment Groups and A b i l i t y Groups 169 v i i LIST OF TABLES P a g e T a b l e 1 . T h e F i r s t R o u n d — S u c c e s s f u l S t u d i e s C o m p a r i n g C l o z e w i t h A n o t h e r M e t h o d 20 2 . T h e F i r s t R o u n d — U n s u c c e s s f u l S t u d i e s C o m p a r i n g C l o z e w i t h A n o t h e r M e t h o d 21 3. T h e S e c o n d R o u n d — S u c c e s s f u l C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n S t u d i e s 25 4. T h e S e c o n d R o u n d — U n s u c c e s s f u l C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n S t u d i e s . . 27 5 . C o m p a r i s o n o f S u c c e s s f u l a n d U n s u c c e s s f u l S t u d i e s o n S e v e n F a c t o r s 29 6. C o n t e x t C l u e T y p e s : S e v e n S o u r c e s 47 7. P r e s e n t a t i o n C l u e s C l a s s i f i e d by I d e a C l u e C a t e g o r i e s . . 50 8 . I d e a C l u e s a n d C o r r e s p o n d i n g P r e s e n t a t i o n C l u e s 55 9 . T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s , T r e a t m e n t C o n d i t i o n s , a n d C l a s s r o o m s f o r T r e a t m e n t 63 1 0 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C l a s s e s a n d S t u d e n t s i n t h e F i v e T r e a t m e n t C o n d i t i o n s a n d A b i l i t y L e v e l s 68 1 1 . Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s o n P r e - T r e a t m e n t S c o r e s o n V o c a b u l a r y a n d C o m p r e h e n s i o n S c o r e s o n t h e CTBS a n d o n t h e P r e - T r e a t m e n t C l o z e T e s t 70 12 . P r e - T r e a t m e n t M e a n s , U n a d j u s t e d M e a n s , a n d A d j u s t e d Means o n t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d C l o z e C o m p r e - h e n s i o n T e s t f o r t h e F i v e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s 72 1 3 . ANCOVA R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n Mean S c o r e s w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a s t h e C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e a n d t h e P r e - C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t S c o r e s a s t h e C o v a r i a t e . 77 14 . A d j u s t e d Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e T h r e e A b i l i t y G r o u p s a s M e a s u r e d by t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s , R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n S u b t e s t 77 v i i i 1 5 . ANCOVA R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n Mean S c o r e s w i t h t h e P o s t -C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t a s t h e C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e a n d t h e P r e - C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t a s t h e C o v a r i a t e . . . 78 1 6 . A d j u s t e d Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e T h r e e A b i l i t y G r o u p s a s M e a s u r e d by t h e P o s t - T r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e - h e n s i o n T e s t 79 1 7 . A N C O V A — C o n n e c t i v e Mean S c o r e w i t h t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t a s t h e C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e a n d t h e P r e - T r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t a s t h e C o v a r i a t e 89 1 8 . A d j u s t e d Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r T r e a t m e n t a n d t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t . . . 92 1 9 . A d j u s t e d Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r A b i l i t y a n d t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t 93 2 0 . P r e - E x p e r i m e n t a l Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of. t h e F i v e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s a s M e a s u r e d by t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s , L e v e l 10 . . . . 170 2 1 . P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e F i v e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s a s M e a s u r e d by t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s , L e v e l 11 170 22 . Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r C r o s s e d A b i l i t y and T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s f o r P o s t - C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s  Compr e h e n s i o n 171 2 3 . P r e - E x p e r i m e n t a l Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e F i v e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s a s M e a s u r e d by t h e P r e - C l o z e  C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t 172 2 4 . P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e F i v e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s a s M e a s u r e d by t h e P o s t - C l o z e  C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t 172 2 5 . Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r C r o s s e d A b i l i t y and T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s f o r P r e - C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . . 173 26 . Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r C r o s s e d A b i l i t y and T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s f o r P o s t - C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . . 174 2 7 . Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r C r o s s e d A b i l i t y a n d T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s f o r t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t 175 i x L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 . 2. P a g e D i a g r a m I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e A r e a s o f S t a t i s t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e Among t h e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s a n d t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t 91 M a t r i x o f C o n d i t i o n s a n d V a r i a b l e s f o r F i v e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s 94 x ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND DEDICATION The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e many p e o p l e whose p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , whose p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t , and whose i n t e r -e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n h a v e made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e a n d t o s e e i t t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n . To D r . K e n n e t h S l a d e , whose p r o f e s s i o n a l g u i d a n c e and p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t were i n v a l u a b l e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . H i s i n p u t i n a r e a s o f c o n t e n t and o r g a n i z a t i o n were most v a l u a b l e . H i s p a t i e n c e o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d a n d t h r o u g h many m e e t i n g s i s v e r y much a p p r e c i a t e d . To D r . J a n e C a t t e r s o n , who a l s o p r o v i d e d a most s i g n i f i c a n t i n p u t i n t e r m s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c o n t e n t . H e r t i m e and e x p e r t i s e were a l w a y s so u n -s e l f i s h l y p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . To D r . T o r y W e s t e r m a r k , who r e a d many o f t h e r e v i s i o n s and p r o v i d e d many v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e s t u d y . To D r . Todd R o g e r s , who p r o v i d e d knowledge a n d e x p e r t i s e i n s t a t i s t i c s and d e s i g n and a l s o whose p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n t h a t was o f t e n n e e d e d . To D r . C l i f f P e n n o c k , w h i l e u n a b l e t o s t a y on t h e c o m m i t t e e , p r o v i d e d much v a l u a b l e i n p u t d u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i v e s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d y . A l s o t o D r . S h e r r i l and D r . F o s t e r , who became i n v o l v e d as u n i v e r s i t y a p p o i n t e d e x a m i n e r s . They p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t and v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e r e s e a r c h . T h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n g r a d e 5 c l a s s r o o m s i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s y s t e m i n R e g i n a . My s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e R e g i n a B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n f o r a l l o w i n g t h e r e s e a r c h t o be c o n d u c t e d and e s p e c i a l l y to x i t h e t e a c h e r s who u s e d t h e l e s s o n m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s , and t o t h e s t u d e n t s who were s u b j e c t e d t o t h e m a t e r i a l s . F e l l o w u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and o t h e r c o l l e a g u e s a r e a l w a y s a v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t i n any r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k i n g . T h i s s t u d y was n o t a n e x c e p t i o n . My t h a n k s t o D r . J o y c e M a t h e s o n and D r . C a t h y T o l s m a f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n v e r i f y i n g d a t a and c h e c k i n g l e s s o n s a n d o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s . T h i s t y p e o f i n p u t a l s o i n c l u d e s D o r o t h y S h a r r o c k o f t h e R e a d i n g M a t e r i a l s C e n t r e , P r o f e s s o r S a n d r a D a r y c h u k o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f R e g i n a , and Duane C a m p b e l l o f t h e A b b o t s f o r d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . T y p i s t s a r e a most v a l u a b l e g r o u p o f p e o p l e i n a p r o j e c t s u c h as t h i s . Many have worked h a r d d u r i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h . To V a l e r i e P u s e y , N i n a T h u r s t o n , M a r l e n e F r e y l i n g e r , and K a r e n D a n i e l s o n , I e x t e n d a s i n c e r e t h a n k y o u . The w r i t e r i s e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o a l l members o f my f a m i l y — t h e T a r a s o f f s and t h e R o b e r t s . B u t most s p e c i f i c a l l y t o my w i f e , J a n e t , who worked h a r d on t h e s t u d y and e n d u r e d . A n d to my t h r e e s o n s , D a v e , J o h n and M a t t , who I am s u r e o f t e n t i r e d o f t h e p r o j e c t . We l o s t many v a l u a b l e h o u r s o f i n t e r a c t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t c o u l d have t a k e n p l a c e . F o r y o u r t o l e r a n c e I w i l l a l w a y s be g r a t e f u l . F i n a l l y , to a l l my f r i e n d s who c o n t i n u e d to p r o v i d e encouragement o v e r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . x i i DEDICATION I w o u l d l i k e t o d e d i c a t e t h e s t u d y t o my l a t e f a t h e r , P e t e r , who u n f o r t u n a t e l y p a s s e d away b e f o r e i t s c o m p l e t i o n . H i s e m p h a s i s o n e d u c a t i o n a n d s t u d y t h r o u g h o u t my u p b r i n g i n g were c e r t a i n l y m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . A l s o t o M r s . M i l d r e d R o b e r t s , my m o t h e r - i n - l a w , who a l s o p r o v i d e d m o r a l s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . B o t h w o u l d have been happy t o s e e t h i s s t u d y c o m p l e t e d . x i i i CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i n t e a c h i n g t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s f o r t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . T h e s t u d y a d d s t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t h e u s e o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a s a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e b y a t t e m p t i n g t o a t t e n d t o some o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s f o u n d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . L i m i t a t i o n s i n t h o s e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d : a l a c k o f f o c u s o n what was t o b e t a u g h t w i t h a r e s u l t i n g w e a k n e s s i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d e d , w e a k n e s s e s i n r e s e a r c h d e s i g n a n d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , a n d a l a c k o f c o n t r o l o f t e a c h -i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d t h e u s e o f c l o z e p a s s a g e l e s s o n s . R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e S t u d y R e a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s g e n e r a l l y v i e w t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y a s t h e m a j o r a i m o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . W h i l e few w o u l d d i s -a g r e e w i t h t h i s o v e r a l l a i m , t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n a b o u t how b e s t t o d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s may be t h e r e a s o n f o r B o r m u t h ' s (1969) s t a t e m e n t t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n r e m a i n s t h e w e a k e s t a r e a i n t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s . D u r k i n (1979) b r o u g h t t h i s a s s e r t i o n c l o s e r t o t h e p r e s e n t when s h e s t a t e d s h e f o u n d a l m o s t no s a m p l e s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e and u p p e r - g r a d e c l a s s r o o m s s h e i n v e s t i g a t e d . I n s t e a d s h e saw t e a c h e r s a s i n t e r r o g a t o r s a n d a s s i g n m e n t g i v e r s . L i t t l e c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e , s h e s a i d . 1 2 Educators are continually looking for new methods to help improve the reading comprehension a b i l i t i e s of students in the classrooms. One method for the improvement of reading comprehension, f i r s t introduced by Taylor in 1953, was the cloze procedure. Taylor drew from Gestalt psychol-ogy for the theoretical underpinnings of the cloze procedure. He borrowed from the word 'closure', which i s a term Gestalt psychologists use to describe the human tendency to mentally complete a pattern or event by closing the incomplete areas or parts. This human tendency to close i n -complete patterns caused Taylor to theorize that readers would, in a l i k e manner, complete a reading passage which had been mutilated by the system-atic removal of words. Taylor said that the reader must deal with complex sentence patterns and sub-patterns i n order that a correct word can be selected to replace the missing word. The a b i l i t y to establish what these complex sentence patterns are and then ultimately to establish what the missing words are depends on what the Gestalt psychologists c a l l percep-tual organization and perceptual selection. The most meaningful per-ception that readers develop from the stimulus on the printed page i s the one on which a cloze selection i s made and the one on which 'closure' i s exercised. The cloze procedure uses exercises or test materials in which passages of continuous prose are "mutilated" by the systematic removal of words. The reader of the mutilated passage i s required to reconstruct the passage by replacing the deleted words. The reader's score of words re-placed correctly can be used either as an estimate of the reader's com-prehension of the passage or as an estimate of the d i f f i c u l t y of the passage (readability). Most researchers have been content with the theoretical base of 3 the cloze procedure provided by Taylor; and a sizeable body of research has been conducted as well as a large number of position papers written on this topic since i t was introduced. A number of researchers, including Schneyer (1965), Guice (1969), Kingston and Weaver (1970) have examined the use of the cloze procedure as a way to develop and improve reading comprehension in students at educational levels ranging from grade one to college. Their results indicated that using the cloze procedure did not produce comprehension levels or a b i l i t i e s that were significantly greater than or different from those obtained by previously used methodology or techniques. There were, however, some studies reporting results that showed the cloze procedure producing scores superior to traditional methodologies. Bloomer (1962) and Martin (1968) both reported such results when college students made up the sample. This diversity of reader age in the early research in i t s e l f creates problems when close research is analyzed. It may be that populations of a specific age - primary, middle grades, secondary or college age - are most l i k e l y to use close profitably. Jongsma (1971), however, ignored age factors and identified two major limitations in the studies he reviewed on the cloze procedure as a teaching technique. He f e l t that a lack of focus on what was to be taught and a lack of direct teaching were the major limitations that produced results not significantly different from those obtained in traditional methods (basal comprehension exercises along directed reading teaching a c t i v i t i e s ) . He f e l t that better focus and more direct teaching might bring better results and suggested that context clues instruction combined with cloze procedure exercises might be 4 the a reas to w h i c h the d i r e c t t e a c h i n g c o u l d a p p l y . T h i s c a l l by Jongsma f o r a more d i r e c t and focussed t e a c h i n g seems to r e f l e c t the same p o i n t of v i e w as i s p resen ted i n the B u l l o c k Repor t on Reading E d u c a t i o n (1975) w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t the mere f i l l i n g i n o f gaps as a r o u t i n e e x e r c i s e was p robab ly o f d o u b t f u l e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e . The Repor t s t a t e d the reader must know what f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to mean ingfu l gap f i l l i n g , and t ha t these f a c t o r s must be encouraged and managed i n the c l a s s r o o m . The Report conc luded t ha t w i t h o u t these elements the c l o z e procedure would p robab ly be a p o i n t l e s s e x e r c i s e and would make l i t t l e o r no c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development o f r e a d i n g comprehension. Rank in (1959) and Louthan (1965) p r o v i d e d a p o s s i b l e b a s i s f o r v a r i a -t i o n s i n development o f c l o z e passages when they examined the e f f e c t s of u s i n g d i f f e r e n t d e l e t i o n sys tems. Rank in proposed the d e l e t i o n o f e i t h e r l e x i c a l o r s t r u c t u r a l e lements , s u g g e s t i n g tha t passages m u t i l a t e d by l e x i c a l d e l e t i o n s (nouns and ve rbs ) would measure unde r s t and ing o f sub-s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t , w h i l e passages m u t i l a t e d by s t r u c t u r a l d e l e t i o n s ( c o n n e c t i v e s , p r e p o s i t i o n s ) would measure an under s t and ing o f the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i d e a s . Louthan (1965) e x p l o r e s t h i s proposed l e x i c a l / s t r u c t u r a l dichotomy when he t r i e d to determine which types of word c l a s s e s had g r e a t e s t e f f e c t i n g e n e r a t i n g meaning from m a t e r i a l s r ead and s t u d i e d . H i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , u s i n g a sample o f seventh grade p u p i l s , r e v e a l e d t ha t those s tudents r e spond ing to d e l e t e d f u n c t i o n or s t r u c t u r a l words ( c o n n e c t i v e s , p r e p o s i t i o n s ) ach ieved g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e s i n compre-hens ion scores than d i d those s tudents responding to d e l e t e d l e x i c a l words. Louthan conc luded tha t the removal o f l e x i c a l words des t royed too much of the meaning of the passage and r e s u l t e d i n a l o s s of compre-5 h e n s i o n . W h i l e h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was n o t a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a s a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e , h i s f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t d e l e t i o n s o n c o m p r e h e n s i o n d i d p r o v i d e a f o c u s f o r f u r t h e r i n -v e s t i g a t i o n s . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s A r t l e y (1943),. M c C u l l o u g h (1945), a n d Ames (1966) h a v e p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r d i r e c t i o n f o r s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e t o i m p r o v e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e u r g e d t h a t m o r e a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o c o n t e x t c l u e s w i t h i n p r o s e when t e a c h i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . One t y p e o f c o n t e x t c l u e t o w h i c h A r t l e y , M c C u l l o u g h , a n d Ames r e f e r r e d was a n ' i d e a c l u e ' w h i c h u s e d l e x i c a l i t e m s i n c a u s e / e f f e c t , c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t , a n d d e s c r i p t i o n p a t t e r n s . A s e c o n d t y p e o f c o n t e x t c l u e d i s c u s s e d by M c C u l l o u g h was t h e ' p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e ' w h i c h i n c l u d e d s u c h s t r u c t u r e w o r d s a s p r e p o s i t i o n s a n d c o n n e c t i v e s . T h e two t y p e s o f c l u e s , ' i d e a c l u e s ' ( r e p r e s e n t e d by m e a n i n g c a r r i e r s s u c h a s n o u n s a n d v e r b s ) a n d ' p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s ' ( r e p r e s e n t e d by s t r u c t u r e words s u c h a s c o n n e c t i v e s ) seem t o c o r r e s p o n d t o R a n k i n ' s a n d L o u t h a n ' s l e x i c a l / s t r u c t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e d e l e t i o n s i n c l o z e p a s s a g e s . T h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t m i g h t be r e a c h e d f r o m t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t a r e a d e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two t y p e s o f c o n -t e x t u a l c l u e s m i g h t i n c r e a s e t h e power o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n . A r t l e y h i m s e l f (1943) s t a t e d t h a t , " . . . . , t h e m e a n i n g o f a s e n t e n c e i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p m t h e i n t e r p l a y , t h a t e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e w o r d s . . . " ( p . 7 3 ) . S u p p o r t f o r t h e p o s i t i o n s o f A r t l e y , M c C u l l o u g h , and Ames c a n be f o u n d i n t h e r e s e a r c h o f Weaver ( 1 9 6 5 ) , and l a t e r r e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s E a r l y (1968) and D u l i n ( 1 9 7 0 ) . T h e y h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c l o z e p r o -6 c e d u r e s h o u l d h a v e v a l u e i n d e v e l o p i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t i e s a s t h e s t u d e n t i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p o r i n t e r p l a y o f w o r d s . D u l i n (1970) was r a t h e r s p e c i f i c when h e s u g g e s t e d t h a t c e r t a i n t y p e s o f c o n t e x t c l u e s s h o u l d be g i v e n f o c u s when m u t i l a t e d c l o z e p a s s a g e s w e r e b e i n g r e c o n s t r u c t e d . H a r r i s a n d S m i t h (1972) a n d Z i n t z (1980) h a v e a l s o a g r e e d w i t h D u l i n and t h e o t h e r s t h a t t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e m i g h t be e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n t e x t c l u e s . T h e y h a v e s u p p o r t e d D u l i n ' s a r g u m e n t t h a t c o n t e x t c l u e s a r e p r e d i c t a b l e , i d e n t i f i a b l e , a n d t e a c h a b l e a n d t h a t t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e m i g h t b e a n e f f e c t i v e v e h i c l e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e u s e o f t h e s e c l u e s . K n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e v a l i d i t y a n d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o n t e x t c l u e s a t v a r i o u s g r a d e l e v e l s i s b a s i c t o a n y s t u d y t h a t s e e k s t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f p r o p o s e d m e t h o d o l o g y . Ames (1966) a n d R a n k i n a n d O v e r h o l s e r (1969) h a v e s u p p l i e d some o f t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d . Ames (1966) had t w e l v e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d t o m a t e r i a l s i n w h i c h n o n s e n s e w o r d s w e r e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r e v e r y f i f t h l e x i c a l word d e l e t e d . T h e s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d o r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s a b o u t w h i c h c o n t e x t u a l c l u e ( s ) t h e y u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h what t h e y t h o u g h t was t h e d e l e t e d w o r d . From t h e s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s Ames was a b l e t o c l a s s i f y f o u r t e e n d i s t i n c t c o n t e x t u a l c l u e c a t e g o r i e s . I n a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y , R a n k i n a n d O v e r h o l s e r (1969) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o u s e t h e c o n t e x t c l u e c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e d by A m e s . I n t h e i r s a m p l e t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a c c u -r a c y l e v e l s o n n i n e o f t h e c o n t e x t c l u e s r a n g e d f r o m 50% t o a maximum o f 69%. Of t h e r e m a i n i n g c l u e s i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d n o t 7 perform to an accuracy level of 50%. Rankin and Overholser suggested that context clues should be selected on the basis of sensitivity, i.e., those that are most interpretable by intermediate grade children and that new and better techniques should be developed for teaching these context clues. Since the critique of cloze studies by Jongsma in 1970 and his update of the close procedure in 1980 there has been a renewed interest in the procedure as a teaching technique. A number of researchers have formulated research questions designed to answer questions such as what would be the best material for cloze passages, what deletion systems could best achieve stated objectives, what age/grade/IQ of the learner is best served by the cloze and for what duration of time should cloze exercises be presented to the learners. (Sampson, Valmont, and Allen, 1982; Shoop, 1982; Hasson, 1983). In addition to research efforts, many teachers are now using the cloze for improving general comprehension, developing vocabulary, develop-ing divergent thinking, and for developing understanding of content area concepts (Schoenfeld, 1980; Marino, 1981; Rauch, 1982; Sadoski, 1983; Fray and Wozniak, 1983). Valmont, in 1983, stated: Cloze procedures are being used more and more by teachers. School d i s t r i c t s and state school systems are using the cloze or modified cloze procedures for testing reading comprehension growth. Since Jongsma's 1980 endorsement of the use of the cloze procedure, cloze instruction has exploded in popularity, (p. 156) Cecil (1985) reinforced Valmont's statement when she stated, "In the last ten years, the cloze procedure has increased in popularity as a respected and useful teaching t o o l . " (p. 95) The cloze procedure is one of those measures that seems to stimulate 8 research because respected researchers continue to feel that despite "failures" i t has unexplored potential and some teachers have already adopted it as an effective technique to develop comprehension. Drawing together the strands of thinking outlined above i t was con-cluded that the present study should investigate the use of the cloze procedure in an intermediate grade as a technique to improve comprehension, but would: 1. attempt to develop cloze passages that used either lexical deletions (nouns/verbs) or structural deletions (connectives, specifically) as a basis for context clues instruction and would compare the effects of this difference on reading comprehension scores. 2. attempt to take into account some of Jongsma's criticism and suggestions and so improve on existing teaching methodology using the cloze procedure. It is thought that these improvements might make the cloze procedure a stronger technique for developing reading comprehension abilities. -OA Design of the Study Twenty classes were randomly assigned to five treatment groups which included four experimental groups and one control group. The four experi-mental groups were subjected to either one of two deletion systems, noun/ verb or connectives and to one of two intensities of teaching, intensive and non-intensive. The five treatment groups are listed as follows: Group 1—received cloze lessons with noun/verb deletions and intensive teaching of context clues. Group 2—received cloze lessons with connective deletions and intensive teaching of context clues. 9 G r o u p 3 — r e c e i v e d c l o z e l e s s o n s w i t h n o u n / v e r b d e l e t i o n s a n d l i m i t e d i n s t r u c t i o n o f c o n t e x t c l u e s . G r o u p 4 — r e c e i v e d c l o z e l e s s o n s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s a n d l i m i t e d i n s t r u c t i o n o f c o n t e x t c l u e s . G r o u p 5 — d i d n o t r e c e i v e c l o z e l e s s o n s o r a n y i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h c o n t e x t c l u e s a n d c o n t i n u e d t o r e c e i v e r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a s t h e y w o u l d h a v e n o r m a l l y . T h e c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d t h e c l o z e l e s s o n s f o r a p e r i o d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t w e e k s . P r e - t e s t s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y ( C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s [ 1 9 7 5 ] , L e v e l 10 a n d a C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t [1975] ) w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d b e f o r e t r e a t m e n t b e g a n . T h e t r e a t m e n t l e s s o n s w e r e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by p o s t - t e s t s o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n ( C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s [ 1 9 7 5 ] , L e v e l 11 and a p a r a l l e l C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t ) a s w e l l a s a k n o w l e d g e o f c o n n e c t i v e s t e s t ( R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t [ 1 9 6 8 ] ) . T h e d a t a w e r e a n a l y z e d i n a manner d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r s 3 a n d 4 . P r o v i s i o n s f o r m o n i t o r i n g t h e l e s s o n s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d . T e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s w e r e e m p l o y e d t o v i s i t c l a s s r o o m s o n a random b a s i s , a n d o b s e r v e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n s . M o n i t o r ' s c h e c k l i s t s w e r e p r o -v i d e d . Q u e s t i o n s t o be A n s w e r e d I t was p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e and t h e d i s c i p l i n e d a n d s y s t e m a t i c e x p o s u r e t o s e l e c t e d c o n t e x t u a l a i d s w o u l d i n f l u e n c e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s , t h u s t h i s f a c t o r was s t u d i e d . F u r t h e r , t h e e f f e c t s o f d i r e c t o r i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f c l o z e l e s s o n s , a s c o m p a r e d t o i n d i r e c t o r n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g 10 d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c l o z e l e s s o n s w e r e e x a m i n e d . F i n a l l y , s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h r e e g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d a s H i g h , M i d d l e a n d Low R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n d e r s w e r e a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e d i f f e r e n t d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s a n d t h e d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n w o u l d s i g -n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s o f t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n a n d i n v e s t i g a -t i o n w e r e : 1 . How w o u l d t h e c l o z e l e s s o n s , u s i n g t h e two d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s , a f f e c t t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s o f t h e f o u r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s ? 2 . How w o u l d t h e i n t e n s i v e o r n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g a f f e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s o f t h e s a m p l e o f g r a d e f i v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s c o m p l e t i n g t h e c l o z e p a s s a g e l e s s o n s ? 3. How w o u l d c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s o f t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s be a f f e c t e d b y t h e two d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s a n d by t h e i n t e n s i v e and n o n -i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g ? 4 . How w o u l d t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s p e r f o r m i n c o n n e c t i v e u s a g e a s m e a s u r e d by t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t ? S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s To e x a m i n e t h e s t u d y q u e s t i o n s p o s e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s were f o r m u l a t e d a n d t e s t e d . H y p o t h e s i s I . T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m p r e -h e n s i o n s c o r e s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s , L e v e l 1 1 , Form 4M and by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t among: a) t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s , and b) t h e t h r e e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y g r o u p s 11 a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s a c r o s s two d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s a n d two i n t e n s i t y l e v e l s o f t e a c h i n g . H y p o t h e s i s I I . T h e r e w i l l b e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean s c o r e s i n k n o w l e d g e o f c o n n e c t i v e s , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n  C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t , among t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s a n d t h e t h r e e c o m p r e -h e n s i o n a b i l i t y g r o u p s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s w i t h two d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s a n d w i t h two i n t e n s i t y l e v e l s o f t e a c h i n g . H y p o t h e s i s I I I . T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t b e t w e e n t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s a n d b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y g r o u p s when i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , s u c h a s A b i l i t y by T r e a t m e n t (AB x TR) and C l a s s w i t h i n T r e a t m e n t ( C L w T R ) , a r e c o n s i d e r e d . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms T h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s a r e d e f i n e d a s t h e y w e r e u s e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s t u d y . R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . C o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t i e s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s , L e v e l 10, Form 3M a n d L e v e l 11, Form 4 M , a n d by t h e p r e - a n d p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t s . C o n t e x t u a l c l u e s / a i d s . T h o s e w o r d s , p h r a s e s , a n d s e n t e n c e s s u r -r o u n d i n g a c l o z e i t e m a n d w h i c h c o n t a i n s b o t h i d e a t y p e c l u e s a n d p r e -s e n t a t i o n t y p e c l u e s . C l o z e p r o c e d u r e . A p r o c e d u r e w h e r e i n words a r e d e l e t e d f r o m a 12 p a s s a g e o f c o n t i n u o u s p r o s e a n d t h e r e a d e r o f t h e p a s s a g e r e q u i r e d t o p r e d i c t f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g c o n t e x t p r e c i s e l y what w o r d s w e r e d e l e t e d . M o d i f i e d c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . A p a s s a g e o f c o n t i n u o u s p r o s e t h a t h a s b e e n m u t i l a t e d by t h e r e m o v a l o f s e l e c t e d w o r d s . T h i s i s c o n t r a s t e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l c l o z e w h e r e e v e r y n ' n word i s d e l e t e d i n a s y s t e m a t i c m a n n e r , r e s u l t i n g i n a random d e l e t i o n i n t e r m s o f w o r d c l a s s . Random d e l e t i o n s y s t e m . T h e r e m o v a l o f w o r d s f r o m a p a s s a g e o f c o n t i n u o u s p r o s e where e v e r y n t h word i s d e l e t e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r t h e w o r d c l a s s t h a t i s d e l e t e d . T h e word c l a s s e s a r e t h u s d e l e t e d a t r a n d o m . C l o z e i t e m . T h e b l a n k s p a c e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e d e l e t e d word i n a p a s s a g e o f c o n t i n u o u s p r o s e m u t i l a t e d by t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . C l o z e u n i t . T h e word t h a t h a s b e e n d e l e t e d f r o m a p a s s a g e . C l o z e l e s s o n s . C l o z e p a s s a g e s u s e d by s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e t r e a t -ment s e s s i o n s . C l o z e t e s t s . M u t i l a t e d p a s s a g e s w i t h a n e v e r y f i f t h word d e l e t i o n s y s t e m p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y b e f o r e a n d f o l l o w i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n s . C o n t e x t . W o r d s , p h r a s e s , o r s e n t e n c e s t h a t p r e c e d e o r f o l l o w a c l o z e i t e m . T h e c o n t e x t i s u s e d by t h e r e a d e r t o e s t a b l i s h what t h e c l o z e i t e m s m i g h t b e . 13 I d e a c l u e s . T h o s e w o r d s a p p e a r i n g i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l t h a t p r e s e n t a n i d e a o r a t h o u g h t a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h f u n c t i o n w o r d s ( s e e b e l o w ) . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y n o u n s a n d v e r b s a r e t h e w o r d s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i d e a c l u e s , i n c l u d i n g c a u s e / e f f e c t , c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t , d e s c r i p t i o n , t i m e r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n d p l a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p . L e x i c a l i t e m s . T h o s e w o r d s t h a t a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s n o u n s and v e r b s . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c l o z e p a s s a g e s w i t h l e x i c a l d e l e t i o n a r e p a s s a g e s w i t h n o u n s a n d v e r b s d e l e t e d . C o n n e c t i v e s . R e p r e s e n t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s a n d a r e d e f i n e d a s f u n c t i o n w o r d s o r s t r u c t u r e w o r d s . P r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s . T h o s e w o r d s a p p e a r i n g i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l t h a t may be d e f i n e d a s f u n c t i o n w o r d s o r s t r u c t u r e w o r d s a n d t h a t a r e l i m i t e d t o s p e c i f i c c o n n e c t i v e s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . T h e p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s ( c o n n e c t i v e s ) s e r v e t o s i g n a l o r p r e s e n t f o r t h c o m i n g i d e a s o r i d e a c l u e s . E x a m p l e s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e s u c h c o n n e c -t i v e s a s b u t , a s , b e c a u s e , s o , t h a t , w h e r e , a n d w h e n . F u n c t i o n w o r d s / s t r u c t u r e w o r d s . T h o s e w o r d s i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l t h a t s e r v e t o j o i n o r e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n a n d amongst i d e a s . F o r t h i s s t u d y f u n c t i o n s t r u c t u r e w o r d s h a v e b e e n l i m i t e d t o c o n n e c t i v e s a n d h a v e b e e n d e s i g n a t e d a s p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s . T r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n ( s ) . T h e s c h o o l p e r i o d s t h a t s t u d e n t s s p e n d o n c o m p l e t i o n o f d a i l y c l o z e l e s s o n s o r t h e t i m e s p e n t o n t h e o v e r a l l d u r a -t i o n o f t h e t r e a t m e n t . 14 I n t e n s i v e T e a c h i n g . I n t h e c l a s s r o o m s w h e r e i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g t o o k p l a c e t h e t e a c h e r d i s c u s s e d i n d e p t h a n d i n d e t a i l t h e s t u d e n t s 1 r e s p o n s e s a n d e l a b o r a t e d o n r e a s o n s why a p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e m i g h t be b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r c h o i c e . T h e C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t was a c o n s t a n t f o c u s i n t h e d i s -c u s s i o n a s t h e t e a c h e r c o n t i n u a l l y e x p l a i n e d how t h e c h a r t s h o u l d b e u s e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g what t h e m i s s i n g w o r d m i g h t b e . S t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n . N o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g . I n t h e c l a s s r o o m s w h e r e n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h -i n g o c c u r r e d , t h e l e s s o n s w e r e c o m p l e t e d , a s i n t h e i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g c l a s s r o o m , b u t t h e d i s c u s s i o n was l i m i t e d a n d t h e t e a c h e r , f o r t h e most p a r t , m e r e l y i n d i c a t i n g w h e t h e r a c h o i c e was c o r r e c t o r i n c o r r e c t . T h e s t u d e n t s h a d t o b e s a t i s f i e d w i t h a , " T h a t ' s r i g h t , B i l l " , o r " N o , t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r i s ' j u m p ' a n d n o t ' l e a p ' . " " T r y t o f i g u r e o u t why ' j u m p ' i s t h e b e s t a n s w e r . U s e y o u r C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t a n d r e a d t h e p a s s a g e c a r e f u l l y . " T h e l e v e l o f d i s c u s s i o n w o u l d n o t e x c e e d t h e a b o v e b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n . S u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s . T h o s e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t h a t showed e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s r e c e i v i n g t r e a t m e n t u s i n g t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e t h a t a c h i e v e d s c o r e s t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d a s c o n t r o l g r o u p s a n d who d i d n o t r e c e i v e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e t r a i n i n g . U n s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s . T h o s e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t h a t showed e x p e r i -m e n t a l g r o u p s t h a t r e c e i v e d c l o z e p r o c e d u r e t r a i n i n g a n d d i d n o t a c h i e v e s c o r e s t h a t w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d a s c o n t r o l g r o u p s a n d who d i d n o t r e c e i v e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e t r a i n i n g . 15 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n amongst t e a c h e r s a n d o t h e r e d u c a t o r s b e c a u s e many c h i l d r e n f a i l t o o b t a i n a d e q u a t e m e a n i n g f r o m m a t e r i a l r e a d a n d b e c a u s e many e l e m e n t a r y c h i l d r e n do n o t know t h e m e a n i n g a n d u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y m i g h t h a v e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e f i e l d o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y s : 1 . T e a c h e r s a n d r e s e a r c h e r s m i g h t h a v e a b e t t e r m e t h o d o f t e a c h i n g t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . 2 . T e a c h e r s a n d r e s e a r c h e r s m i g h t h a v e m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g w h i c h d e l e t i o n s y s t e m , l e x i c a l ( n o u n / v e r b ) o r s t r u c t u r a l ( c o n n e c t i v e ) i s most e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l . 3 . New i n s i g h t s m i g h t be f o u n d i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o g r a m s f o r t e a c h i n g u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e l e v e l . Summary C h a p t e r I has p r e s e n t e d t h e r a t i o n a l e a n d p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y a n d d e s c r i b e d t h e t r e a t m e n t s t o be r e c e i v e d by t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t w e r e t o p a r -t i c i p a t e i n t h e r e s e a r c h . Common t e r m s u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y w e r e d e f i n e d . T h e r e s t o f t h i s w o r k i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f o u r c h a p t e r s , a s f o l l o w s : C h a p t e r I I — t h e r e v i e w o f t h e _ l i t e r a t u r e , C h a p t e r I I I — t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y : t h e p r o c e d u r e a n d m e t h o d o l o g y , C h a p t e r I V — t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a , C h a p t e r V — a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s , c o n c l u s i o n s , a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE T h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d u n d e r two g e n e r a l r u b r i c s and u n d e r t h e r e l a t e d s u b - h e a d i n g s . T h e s e i n c l u d e : (1) C l o z e P r o c e d u r e and R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e T h e o r e t i c a l Base and P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and (2) C o n t e x t u a l C l u e s and R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e v a l u e o f C o n t e x t u a l C l u e s i n R e a d i n g and T y p e s o f C o n t e x t u a l A i d s . C l o z e P r o c e d u r e and R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n The T h e o r e t i c a l Base The c l o s e p r o c e d u r e , i n t r o d u c e d b y T a y l o r ( 1 9 5 3 ) , was o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d as a measure o f r e a d a b i l i t y o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l . T a y l o r drew on G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y f o r t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e f o r t h e p r o c e d u r e . He c o i n e d t h e word " c l o z e " f r o m t h e G e s t a l t word " c l o s u r e " w h i c h d e n o t e s t h e human t e n d e n c y to m e n t a l l y c o m p l e t e a p a r t i a l f i g u r e b y s u p p l y i n g t h e m i s s i n g p a r t s . T a y l o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s n e e d t o see t h i n g s i n t h e i r s t a t e o f c o m p l e t e n e s s c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o p r i n t e d l a n g u a g e . He s a i d t h a t i f words were removed f r o m a . p a s s a g e o f c o n t i n u o u s p r o s e t h e r e a d e r w o u l d s u p p l y t h e - m i s s i n g words and w o u l d t h e n e x p e r i e n c e c l o s u r e . The r e a d e r i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f s t i m u l u s f r o m t h e p r i n t e d page and t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f what G e s t a l t i s t s c a l l p e r c e p t u a l s e l e c t i o n , a c h o i c e i s made. P e r c e p t u a l s e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s f r o m p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s . The v a r i e t y o f s t i m u l u s i s o r g a n i z e d on t h e b a s i s o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e n t h r o u g h a p e r c e p t u a l s e l e c t i v e 17 p r o c e s s a c l o z e r e s p o n s e i s m a d e . T a y l o r (1953) s a y s t h a t f o r a s u c c e s s -f u l c l o z e r e s p o n s e t h e r e a d e r must know t h e m e a n i n g s a n d f o r m s o f t h e w o r d s i n v o l v e d a n d a l s o t h e m e a n i n g s o f c o m b i n a t i o n s o f w o r d s i n t h e s e n t e n c e . T h i s k n o w l e d g e o f w o r d s a n d s e n t e n c e s a l l o w s t h e r e a d e r t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e m u t i l a t e d p a s s a g e . I n a d d i t i o n t o G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y , T a y l o r (1953) s a i d t h a t O s g o o d ' s c o n c e p t s o f " d i s p o s i t i o n a l m e c h a n i s m s " a n d " t o t a l l a n g u a g e c o n t e x t " w e r e a l s o a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . T h e c o n c e p t o f " d i s p o s i t i o n a l m e c h a n i s m " a d v a n c e s t h e i d e a t h a t l a n g u a g e c o n -t a i n s r e d u n d a n c i e s a n d t r a n s i t i o n a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s . T h e s e a r e t h o u g h t t o be h a b i t s o f l a n g u a g e and a r e d e v e l o p e d by i n d i v i d u a l s when t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g t o t h i n k i n a l a n g u a g e . T h e s e h a b i t s a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t r a n s -m i t t i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g m e s s a g e s . I n d i v i d u a l s w i l l u s e h a b i t s o f e x p r e s s i o n t o t r a n s l a t e t h e i r m e a n i n g i n t o l a n g u a g e s y m b o l s f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t o o t h e r s . L i k e w i s e t h e s e l a n g u a g e h a b i t s a l l o w t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o i n t e r p r e t an i n -c o m i n g m e s s a g e . When a n i n d i v i d u a l e n c o u n t e r s a s e r i e s o f words t h a t a r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g l a n g u a g e h a b i t s , t h e n t h e o b t a i n i n g o f m e a n i n g w i l l n o t be d i f f i c u l t . When t h e s e q u e n c e o f words i s n o t a s f a m i l i a r t o t h e r e c e i v e r t h e n m e a n i n g w i l l be l e s s c l e a r and more e f f o r t w i l l be r e -q u i r e d t o o b t a i n m e a n i n g a n d i n t h e c a s e o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e , t o s u p p l y t h e unknown w o r d . T a y l o r (1953) s t a t e d t h e " t o t a l l a n g u a g e c o n c e p t has i t s b a s e on t h e i d e a t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y , l e a r n , r e c o g n i z e , remember , o r p r o d u c e any l a n g u a g e ' s y m b o l ' ( e l e m e n t o r p a t t e r n ) d e p e n d s h e a v i l y on t h e v a r i a b l e d e g r e e s t o w h i c h i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e v e r y t h i n g e l s e by l a r g e r and m e a n i n g f u l ( f a m i l i a r ) o v e r a l l c o m b i n a t i o n s " . (p. 419) 18 T a y l o r c o n t i n u e d t o e x p l a i n t h a t t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t i n c l u d e s a n y t h i n g w h i c h m o t i v a t e s , g u i d e s , a s s i s t s , o r h i n d e r s l a n g u a g e b e h a v i o r . He s a i d t h a t v e r b a l f a c t o r s , , s u c h as g r a m m a t i c a l s k i l l s and masses o f s y m b o l s , and n o n - v e r b a l f a c t o r s , , s u c h as p a s t e x p e r i e n c e and ' . i n t e l l i g e n c e , a r e a l s o p a r t o f t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t . T h e s e f a c t o r s , i n c l u d e d i n t o t a l c o n t e x t , a r e t h e n , n e c e s s a r y f o r a d e q u a t e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e r e s p o n s e s . T a y l o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t a n n ' * 1 word d e l e t i o n e n s u r e s t h a t a l l c l a s s e s o f words w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d as t h e y a r e d e l e t e d i n a random m a n n e r . Many r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i n a n e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h i t s u s e f u l n e s s f o r a v a r i e t y o f p u r p o s e s , i n c l u d i n g v o c a b u l a r y d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m p r e h e n s i o n d e v e l o p m e n t , d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g , and s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e . T h i s v i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h was p r o b a b l y s p a r k e d , i n p a r t , by T a y l o r (1953) when he s t a t e d t h a t t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e p r o b a b l y had much p o t e n t i a l i n t h e l a n g u a g e a r e a and i t s u s e s h o u l d n o t be m e r e l y c o n f i n e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s o r t o e s t a b l i s h i n g r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s The r e s e a r c h o n t h e u s e o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i s p r o b a b l y b e s t summarized and a n a l y z e d u n d e r two g e n e r a l h e a d i n g s : The F i r s t Round and The Second R o u n d , h e a d i n g s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e works o f Jongsma (1971 and 1980). The F i r s t Round (1962-1969) The f i r s t g r o u p o f s t u d i e s o n c l o z e p r o c e d u r e as a means o f i m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n was summarized by Jongsma i n a 1971 m o n o g r a p h . I n t h a t monograph he i n c l u d e d a t a b l e s u m m a r i z i n g t h e s t u d i e s t o t h a t d a t e ( p . 19). 19 A l t h o u g h J o n g s m a ' s t a b l e p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l o v e r v i e w o f s t u d i e s t o 1 9 7 1 , d e t a i l i s l a c k i n g ; a n d t h e i n t e r e s t e d r e s e a r c h e r must s e a r c h t h e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s t o f l e s h o u t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n o t p r o v i d e d . S u c h a s e a r c h p r o v i d e s t h e k i n d o f d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 1 and 2 u n d e r e l a b o r a t e d h e a d i n g s a n d i n c l u d e s some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d t o p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r l a t e r s t u d i e s . T h e a d d i t i o n a l h e a d i n g s i n c l u d e : G o a l s (what t h e r e s e a r c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o d o ) , t h e T r e a t m e n t P e r i o d (how l o n g t h e s t u d y l a s t e d ) , M a t e r i a l s / L e s s o n s (what t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e d a n d how t h e m a t e r i a l s w e r e u s e d ) , T e s t s (what m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e u s e d ) , F e a t u r e s ( a n y s p e c i a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r ) a n d D a t a A n a l y s i s (what s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e was u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a ) . T h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d by Jongsma a r e , t h e n , r e - e v a l u a t e d now. T a b l e 1 p r e s e n t s t h o s e s t u d i e s w h e r e t h e u s e o f c l o z e p r o c e d u r e p r o d u c e d a s u c c e s s f u l e f f e c t and T a b l e 2 p r e s e n t s t h o s e s t u d i e s w h e r e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e was u s e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y . Few C o m m o n a l i t i e s . A s e a r c h f o r c o m m o n a l i t i e s i n t h e two s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s ( T a b l e 1) y i e l d s v e r y l i t t l e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B o t h w e r e done a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l a n d b o t h u s e d a s t a n d a r d i z e d g r o u p t e s t o f r e a d i n g a s t h e m e a s u r e o f a c h i e v e m e n t . H o w e v e r , i n a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s t h e y d i f -f e r e d ; i n g o a l s , m a t e r i a l s / l e s s o n s , d e l e t i o n s s y s t e m s , t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d s , m e t h o d s f e a t u r e s a n d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . No c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be d r a w n f r o m t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t what m i g h t make l a t e r s t u d i e s s u c c e s s f u l . T a b l e 2 , f r o m w h i c h t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n o m i t t e d , i s no more h e l p f u l i n p i n p o i n t i n g f a c t o r s t h a t m i g h t be m a n i p u l a t e d t o make o t h e r s t u d i e s s u c c e s s f u l . T h e o n l y p o i n t s o f s i m i l a r i t y w e r e i n t e s t i n g : a l l u s e d a t l e a s t o n e s t a n d a r d i z e d g r o u p t e s t o f r e a d i n g . O t h e r -w i s e t h e s t u d i e s w e r e d i f f e r e n t i n a l m o s t e v e r y d e t a i l . Table I The F i r s t Round—Successful Studies Comparing Cloze with Another Method* Delet ion Treatment Feature Researcher Goals Grade/No. Materials/Lessons System Period Tests Data AnalysTs Bloomer to determine i f com- Col lege cloze lessons from 500 word passages. 10 lessons Diagnostic could use "acceptable" 1962 p l e t i n g c l o z e N - 88 baaals, science, SO d e l e t i o n s 3 weeks Reading Test synonyms. exercises aided'in 2 groups s o c i a l s t u d i e s . (every 10th word). worked i n l e v e l s of remediating and of 44 d i f f i c u l t y : i . e . , i f developing reading each " s u c c e s s f u l " on one comprehension. l e v e l , then moved to more d i f f i c u l t l e v e l . ' t ' t e s t s Hart in to determine e f f e c t s College Experimental Group 1 s e l e c t i v e d e l e - 9 weeks Iowa S i l e n t m u l t i p l e choice given 1968 of completing close N - 142 N - SO'-studied t i o n s l e x i c a l Reading Test for each clo z e blank exercises on read- transformational verbs, nouns, space f o r f i r s t two ing, w r i t i n g , and grammar . e t c . weeks. l i s t e n i n g . Experimental Croup 11 N - 50—18 cloze exe r c i s e s . A n a l y s i s of variance Control Group N - 4 2 — r e g u l a r f r e s h -man E n g l i s h . Cloze passages from a v a r i e t y of content s o u r c e s — s e l e c t ive d e l e t i o n of l e x i c a l elements—nouns, verbs, a d j e c t i v e s , adverbs. M u l t i p l e choice given for each. * A d a p t e d f rom J o n g s m a , The C l o z e P r o c e d u r e as a T e a c h i n g T e c h n i q u e , 1971. o T a b l e 2 The F i r s t R o u n d — U n s u c c e s s f u l S t u d i e s Compar ing C l o z e w i t h A n o t h e r M e t h o d * R e s e a r c h e r G o a l s Grade/No. M a t e r i a l s / L e s s o n s D e l e t i o n System Treatment P e r i o d T e s t s _ _Feature£ _ Data A n a l y s i s Friedman t o t e a c h f o r e i g n C o l l e g e 1964 s t u d e n t s E n g l i s h . f o r e i g n compared c l o z e s t u d e n t s group t o a c o n t r o l group. M c C a l l - C r a b b Stand-a r d T e s t Lessons i n Reading. e v e r y 5 t h word 2 c l o z e M e t r o p o l i t a n l e s s o n s per Achievement week f o r 10 T e s t weeks e x a c t and synonym repl a c e m e n t a c c e p t a b l e ' t ' t e s t s Schneyer t o e x p l o r e the Grade 6 1965 e f f e c t s of c l o z e N = 3 2 — pro c e d u r e upon r e a d i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l comprehension and t o group, compare the e f f e c t s t o N = 3 4 — a c o n t r o l group not c o n t r o l d o i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s , group. b a s a l m a t e r i a l s f o r c l o z e l e s s o n s of 200 words i n l e n g t h . e v e r y 10th word 11 weeks nouns and v e r b s o n l y on an a l t e r n a t e b a s i s . G ates R e a d i n g Survey (Form I and Form I I ) c l o z e passages were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a l t e r -n a t i n g f a s h i o n , e x e r c i s e s c o r r e c t e d by t e a c h e r , then r e t u r n e d and r e v i e w e d t he f o l l o w i n g day. c h i l d r e n a l s o p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n r e g u l a r r e a d i n g programs. A n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e T a b l e 2 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Bloomer, t o measure the Grades 5,7, et a l . e f f e c t s of c l o z e p r o - 9, and 11. 1966 cedure e x e r c i s e s i n a N = 1090. s e r i e s of t r a i n i n g L o n g i t u d i n a l s e s s i o n s on r e a d i n g group = 114. comprehension. C r o s s -t o d etermine i f non- s e c t i o n a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t or group = 976. non-over t r e i n f o r c e -ment i s s u f f i c i e n t t o s u s t a i n m o t i v a t i o n . C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l Group 6 c l o z e l e s -s ons, 2 per week f o r 3 weeks. L o n g i t u d i n a l Group 9t h grade p u p i l s o n l y f o r 12 w e e k s — r e c e i v e d 24 l e s s o n s at a r a t e of 2 per week. f i c t i o n m a t e r i a l s f o r l e s s o n s ( n o v e l s ) . e v e r y 10th word C r o s s -S e c t i o n a l Group f o r 3 weeks. L o n g i t u d -i n a l Group f o r 12 weeks. D i f f e r e n t i a l A p t i t u d e B a t t e r y . C a l i f o r n i a T e s t of M e n t a l M a t u r i t y . C l o z e t e s t s . Iowa T e s t of B a s i c S k i l l s . I n f o r m a t i o n R e t e n t i o n T e s t . L o n g i t u d i n a l groups b l o c k e d i n 4 groups o f 6 s e l e c t i o n s each. These were r o t a t e d t h r o u g h t h e 4 gr o u p s . Thus 4 p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f 3 weeks e a c h . C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u -d e n t s g i v e n a s i n g l e b l o c k o f m a t e r i a l f o r c o m p l e t i o n over 3 weeks. No d i r e c t t e a c h i n g . ' t ' t e s t s A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e B l u m e n f i e l d compared s u p e r i o r and M i l l e r E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s 1966 t o those l e s s s u c c e s s f u l . attempted t o e s t a b -l i s h what s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s knew about sentence s t r u c t u r e t h a t l e s s s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s d i d not know. C o l l e g e 36 passages of 150 E n g l i s h words from M c C a l l -majors Crabb's s e r i e s and from a r e a s such as psychology and l i t e r a r y works. e v e r y 5 t h word on r o t a t i o n , so d e l e t e d words r e p r e s e n t e d a l l words i n the passage. No m e n t i o n . D a v i s R e a d i n g T e s t . s c o r e d on ex a c t r e p l a c e m e n t , synonym, and g r a m m a t i c a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e T a b l e 2 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Heitzman t o measure the e f f e c t s Grade 9 2 l e s s o n s per week every 10th 12 weeks Iowa T e s t of s t u d e n t s d i d c l o z e and of f i v e t y p e s of non- N = 125 w i t h m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i n c l u d i n g B a s i c S k i l l s . e x e r c i s e s w i t h one Bloomer o v e r t l y r e i n f o r c e d Randomly q u e s t i o n s . s e l e c t e d d e l e - d e l e t i o n system. 1967 c l o z e e x e r c i s e s and to compare the e f f e c t s t o a c o n t r o l group. a s s i g n e d t o the t r e a t -ments. t i o n s : random, noun, v e r b , m o d i f i e r , p r e p o -s i t i o n and con -j u n c t i o n , and noun d e t e r m i n -e r s . ' t ' t e s t s c o r r e c t i o n measures Guice t o compare c o l l e g e C o l l e g e used c o n t e n t t h e very n c o n - 8 w e e k s — C o o p e r a t i v e e x a c t and synonym 1969 s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e d N = 76 m a t e r i a l s t h a t c e p t w o r d — 2 c l o z e E n g l i s h T e s t s r e p l a c e m e n t . r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n 38 i n each matched c o n t e n t on nouns, v e r b s , l e s s o n s ( r e a d i n g com-w i t h added c l o z e e x p e r i m e n t a l the C o o p e r a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s , and per week. p r e h e n s i o n ) p r a c t i c e w i t h a group and c o n t r o l E n g l i s h T e s t pas- a d v e r b s . A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e t h a t r e c e i v e d o n l y group. sages . r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n 16 c l o z e passages i n r e a d i n g comprehen- were completed s i o n . d u r i n g the d u r a -t i o n o f the e x p e r i -ment. •Adapted from Jongsma, The C l o z e P r o c e d u r e as a T e a c h i n g T e c h n i q u e , 1971. 22 A consideration of the factors set out in Tables 1 and 2 shows that they gave researchers very l i t t l e guidance in designing, new studies on the value of cloze procedures as a technique for improving reading comprehension. However, the tables do provide some information from which general conclusions could have been drawn by the researcher inter-ested in upper elementary school pupils. These conclusions are: 1. Of the studies done at the f i f t h , sixth, and seventh grade levels, none showed that cloze was more successful than traditional methods. 2. The two studies done with sixth grade pupils have very few subjects (18 and 66). No one to that point had attempted any large scale study. 3. Each study was completely different from the others in type of deletion system; one used a programmed format; the second, every tenth word deletions and noun/verb deletions; the third used 10 percent deletions of (a) random, (b) nouns, (c) verbs, (d) modifiers, (e) function words, (f) noun determiners, and (g) a control passage with non-deletion. None of these was "successful". Overall, results were not encouraging. Jongsma's Advice. Jongsma did consider, however, that studies should continue to be done and his advice to future researchers was quite extensive. He discussed at some length the problems of the studies done to that date and suggested that future directions should provide for (1) improved teaching efforts, (2) more direct focus on the problem, (3)- better experimental designs, (4) improved measurement procedures, and (5) better reporting of the research. 23 U n d e r t h e h e a d i n g i m p r o v e d t e a c h i n g e f f o r t s , Jongsma p o i n t e d o u t t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s s h o u l d s e e k t o i n t e r j e c t more s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s t o make s u r e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t o o d what was r e q u i r e d a n d d e v e l o p a s y s t e m o f t e a c h i n g f o r m e e t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t . I n o t h e r s e c t i o n s he d i s c u s s e d s c o r i n g s y s t e m s a s w e l l a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s m i g h t a c c e p t v a r i e d r e s p o n s e s , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t b o t h s y n t a c t i c a l a n d s e m a n t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n . He a l s o recommended t h a t s t u d i e s o f l o n g e r d u r a t i o n s h o u l d be a t t e m p t e d . I n a d i s c u s s i o n o f more d i r e c t f o c u s , Jongsma s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e s e a r c h -e r s t o t h a t d a t e h a d n o t b e e n c l e a r a b o u t t h e s k i l l s t h e y h a d t o d e v e l o p a n d so had b e e n u s i n g what he t e r m e d a " s h o t g u n " a p p r o a c h . He s t r e s s e d t h e i d e a t h a t t h e d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n w i t h a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e i n m i n d . I n t h i s r e g a r d he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e u s e o f c l o z e t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s t o u s e c o n t e x t c l u e s m i g h t be i n t e r e s t i n g . A n d he a d d e d t h a t w o r k s h o u l d be d o n e i n t h e u s e o f t h e c l o z e t o t e a c h r e a d i n g i n t h e c o n t e n t a r e a s , a s w e l l a s f o r (a) a c q u a i n t i n g s p e a k e r s o f n o n -s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h w i t h t h e more f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s o f w r i t t e n s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h , (b) t e a c h i n g word m e a n i n g , a n d (c ) f o r r e m e d i a l s i t u a t i o n s . Jongsma d i s c u s s e d b e t t e r e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s a t some l e n g t h a n d p o i n t e d o u t a number o f ways i n w h i c h b l o c k i n g , s t r a t i f y i n g , a n d l e v e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d be u s e d t o r e d u c e e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r a n d make a d e s i g n more s e n s i t i v e t o g e n e r a l e f f e c t s . A l s o p o i n t e d o u t i n J o n g s m a ' s d i s c u s s i o n w e r e i d e a s b e a r i n g o n i m p r o v e d measurement p r o c e d u r e s . He was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e t e n d e n c y t o u s e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s a n d t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y m i g h t be s e l e c t e d more c a r e -f u l l y , o r t h a t p r e - and p o s t - c l o z e t e s t s m i g h t be s u b s t i t u t e d . 24 I n a f i n a l s e c t i o n o f a d v i c e t o f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s , Jongsma p r o v i d e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r r e p o r t i n g c l o z e r e s e a r c h a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d r e p o r t (a) t h e t y p e o f c l o z e p r o c e d u r e u s e d , (b) t h e m a t e r i a l u s e d , ( c ) t h e s c o r i n g s y s t e m , (d) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n u s e d , (e) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t e s t s u s e d , a n d ( f ) t h e t y p e o f " o t h e r " p r o c e d u r e s u s e d . I t seems f a i r t o s a y t h a t J o n g s m a * s 1971 m o n o g r a p h was a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o r e s e a r c h b o t h f o r i t s summary o f w o r k d o n e t o t h a t d a t e a n d f o r t h e g u i d e l i n e s o f f e r e d f o r f u t u r e w o r k . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e s e a r c h d o n e t o 1970 was e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d i n c o n t e n t a n d d e s i g n , a n d c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be o n l y t e n t a t i v e . T h e S e c o n d Round (1970-1983) J o n g s m a * s s e c o n d m o n o g r a p h ( 1 9 8 0 ) , a s w e l l a s s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s o n t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e , make i t e v i d e n t t h a t s t u d i e s t h a t u s e d u p p e r e l e m e n -t a r y g r a d e s ( i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l ) had i n c r e a s e d s h a r p l y i n number ( s e v e n t e e n i n a l l ) a n d t h a t J o n g s m a ' s a d v i c e had had c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p a c t o n r e s e a r c h g e n e r a l l y . E i g h t o f t h e s e v e n t e e n u p p e r e l e m e n t a r y s t u d i e s w e r e s u c c e s s -f u l when c l o z e p r o c e d u r e s w e r e compared t o o t h e r t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s ; and J o n g s m a ' s m o n o g r a p h a n d o r i g i n a l r e p o r t s a s w e l l a s s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h i n g e f f o r t s , f o c u s , e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s , a n d m e a s u r e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s w e r e much more c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d a n d p l a n n e d t h a n w e r e t h e p r e v i o u s e f f o r t s . T h e q u a l i t y , v a r i e t y a n d q u a n t i t y o f i n -f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i s e v i d e n t i n T a b l e s 3 a n d 4 . T a b l e 3 p r o v i d e s d e t a i l s o n e i g h t s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s . T a b l e 4 p r o -v i d e s d e t a i l s o n n i n e u n s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s . B o t h t a b l e s a r e o r g a n i z e d u n d e r t h e same h e a d i n g s a s w e r e u s e d i n T a b l e s 1 and 2 . T a b l e 3 The Second R o u n d — S u c c e s s f u l C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n S t u d i e s D e l e t i o n Treatment F e a t u r e s R e s e a r c h e r G o a l s Grade/No. M a t e r i a I s / L e s s o n s System P e r i o d T e s t s Data A n a l y s i s G u s c o t t * t o compare the Grade 6 s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . S e l e c t i v e — 8 weeks, Iowa T e s t o f D i s c u s s i o n o f c o r r e c t e d 1971 e f f e c t s o f two t r e a t - N = 66 2 t r e a t m e n t s : c l o z e — noun 40 l e s s o n s B a s i c S k i l l s . answers. ments (one c l o z e , one noun d e t e r m i n e r s ; d e t e r m i n e r s S o c i a l S t u d i e s t r a d i t i o n a l ) on r e a d - r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n — c l o z e t e s t . i n g comprehension and normal s o c i a l s t u d i e s P o s t T e s t D e s i g n . s o c i a l s t u d i e s l e s s o n s . L e v e l s ( r e a d i n g ) by knowledge. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Faub iorf^ t o compare the Grade 4 s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n - e v e r y 5 t h word 2 weeks S t a n d a r d D i s c u s s i o n 1971 e f f e c t s of thre e N = 101 t e n t (100 word pa s - ( l e x i c a l ) . R e a d i n g t r e a t m e n t s ( c l o z e , s a g e s ) . e v e r y 5 t h word Achievement A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e l e x i c a l c l o z e and 3 t r e a t m e n t s : ( s t r u c t u r a l ) . T e s t — F - W . s t r u c t u r a l , and c l o z e 1 — e v e r y 5 t h C l o z e t e s t s d a i l y s i l e n t r e a d - word ( l e x i c a l ) ; ( l e x i c a l and in g ) on r e a d i n g c l o z e 2 — e v e r y 5 t h s t r u c t u r a l ) . comprehension. word ( s t r u c t u r a l ) ; d a i l y s i l e n t r e a d i n g i n t a c t passages. T a b l e 3 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Culhane to evaluate the eff e c t 1972 of cloze on s o c i a l studies comprehension using an " i t e r a t i v e " research procedure. Grades 6 & N = 184 so c i a l studies materials (250 word passages). Phase 1 — s o c i a l stud-ies given expanded d i r e c t i o n . Phase 2 — s o c i a l stud-ies given exact synonym tr a i n i n g . Phase 3 — r e s u l t s of Phase I and 2 pro-vided information for Phase 3. Experimental and con-t r o l groups used. Experimental group— (2 parts: 1 for exact replacement, 1 for synonym)— received cloze pas-s a g e s — l i m i t e d d i s -cussion. Control g r o u p — i n t a c t passages—discussed ideas. every 10th word 1 week 5 lessons Cloze test teacher led discussion and students led discus-sion. synonym scoring. Levels (IQ) by treat-ment Analysis of Variance T a b l e 3 ( c o n t i n u e d ) G r a n t * compare e f f e c t s o f 2 Grade 6 1976 t r e a t m e n t s (1 c l o z e N = 40 and 1 t r a d i t i o n a l ) on comprehension and s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . S o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l s (150 word p a s s a g e s ) . 2 t r e a t m e n t s . Day 1 — a l l were p r e -pared and read i n t a c t passages. Day 2 — e x p e r i m e n t a l group d i d c l o z e i n groups of 3 — c o n t r o l group answered q u e s t i o n s . Day 3 — a l l c o r r e c t e d r e s p o n s e s . e v e r y 1 0 t h word (noun d e t e r m i n e r s , nouns, s t r u c -t u r a l w o r d s ) . 9 weeks 7 l e s s o n s G a t e s -M c G i n i t i e . S o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . Both groups d i s c u s s e d answers. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e M a r t i n e z * to compare e f f e c t s o f M i d d l e l e v e l 1978 2 t r e a t m e n t s ( c l o z e s c h o o l honor based on c o n t e x t c l a s s c l u e s , and t r a d i - N = 102 t i o n a l ) on s o c i a l s t u d i e s comprehen-s i o n . m a t e r i a l s from s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s (350 word p a s s a g e s ) . 2 t r e a t m e n t s : c l o z e m o d i f i e d t o f o c u s on 7 c o n t e x t c l u e s , one a t a ti m e , w i t h p r a c -t i c e on s i n g l e sen-tences f i r s t , l o n g e r passages l a t e r ; s e l e c t i v e t o match c o n t e x t c l u e s . 6 weeks C l o z e t e s t . 18 l e s s o n s S o c i a l s t u d i e s com-p r e h e n s i o n t e s t . A t t i t u d e measure. c a r e f u l l y sequenced i n s t r u c t i o n on one con-t e x t c l u e a t a t i m e , d i s c u s s i o n of a l l answers. s c o r e d f o r s e m a n t i c , s y n t a c t i c , and e x a c t word re p l a c e m e n t l e v e l s ( r e a d -i n g by A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e *Adapted from Jongsma, The Clo2e P r o c e d u r e as a T e a c h i n g T e c h n i q u e , 1971. ho Cn T a b l e 3 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Researcher Goals Grade/No. Materials/Lessons Deletion Treatment System Period Tests Features "Data"Analysis" Green to determine the Grade 6 3 treatments—two types every 10th 6 weeks Gates Macginitie Post test only control group 1982 e f f i c a c y of the N = 96 of cloze product approach; word design cloze procedure as exact word replacement Divergent Produc- the process group scored an i n s t r u c t i o n a l and process approach tio n Test s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater i n -technique for im- (synonyms acceptable) creases i n reading proving reading Associational comprehension and divergent comprehension and Fluency Test production that did the for enhancing d i - product or the t r a d i t i o n a l vergent production Guildford C r e a t i v i t y group Test f o r the product group did better Children (but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) than the t r a d i t i o n a l group Analysis of variance McGovern to determine the 1982 effect of instruc-tion in mental imagery and a modified cloze procedure on read-ing comprehension Grade 6 N - 94 3 treatments —one group with Imagery Instruction with basal reader —one group with Imagery instruction cloze pro-cedure and basal reader —one group serving as control s e l e c t i v e 2 weeks Gates Macginitie modified Forms 1 and 2 cloze Pre and post test Tested boys ys g i r l s — i n s t r u c t i o n in mental Imagery had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on reading comprehension — i n s t r u c t i o n with modified cloze had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on reading compre-hension of 6th grade boys — g i r l s receiving modified cloze did better than g i r l s receiving i n s t r u c t i o n in mental Imagery Analysis of covariance Carr, to develop Infer-Dewitz, e n t i a l reading Potberg comprehension 1983 using expository text material s o c i a l studies Grade 6 N = 75 3 treatments; 3 groups — c o n t r o l group —experimental group received instruction in only the cloze technique —experimental group re-ceived instruction in cloze technique and a structural overview Cloze passages from text selective 2 weeks pre-test ITBS OIST-test Experimental groups achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater gains i n s o c i a l studies comprehension than the control groups Analysis of covariance ho ON T a b l e 4 The Second R o u n d — U n s u c c e s s f u l C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n S t u d i e s D e l e t i o n Treatment F e a t u r e s R e s e a r c h e r G o a l s Grade/No. M a t e r i a l s / L e s s o n s System P e r i o d T e s t s D ata A n a l y s i s R y n d e r s * t o compare the e f f e c t s Grade 6 n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . e very 5 t h word 6 weeks G a t e s - independent o r group work 1971 of 2 t r e a t m e n t s ( c l o z e N = 189 C l o z e — o n l a s t q u a r t e r d e l e t i o n . 25 l e s s o n s M c G i n i t i e on c l o z e . and t r a d i t i o n a l ) on of c o n t i n u o u s s t o r y Survey D. groups e i t h e r homogeneous r e a d i n g comprehension. passage. o r h e t e r o g e n e o u s . T r a d i t i o n a l — c o n t i n u o u s s t o r y f o l l o w e d by 5 t o 7 q u e s t i o n s . ' t ' t e s t s Rhodes * t o compare the e f f e c t s Grade 6 v a r i e d n a r r a t i v e and eve r y 1 0 th 6 weeks S t a n f o r d t e a c h e r c o r r e c t e d ; 1972 of 3 t r e a t m e n t s (2 N = 153 c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l . word (random) 18 l e s s o n s D i a g n o s t i c s t u d e n t s r e v i e w e d c l o z e d e l e t i o n systems 3 t r e a t m e n t s : C l o z e 1 and e v e r y 1 0 t h Rea d i n g T e s t . answers. No d i s c u s s i o n and r e g u l a r i n s t r u c - — e v e r y 10th word; noun/verb d e l e - C l o z e t e s t took p l a c e . t i o n on r e a d i n g compre- C l o z e 2 — e v e r y 10th t i o n . p r e t e s t . r e a d a b i l i t y o f e x e r c i s e s h e n s i o n ) . noun/verb; C o n t r o l — m o n i t o r e d . n o n - m u t i l a t e d passages w i t h 5 q u e s t i o n s a f t e r each passage. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e T a b l e 4 ( c o n t i n u e d ) P e p i n * t o compare e f f e c t s o f Grades 4,5, h i g h i n t e r e s t / l o w e very 10th word 28 weeks C a l i f o r n i a s u p e r v i s e d f o r c o n s i s -1973 3 t r e a t m e n t s (2 c l o z e and 6. v o c a b u l a r y and a t random 98 l e s s o n s Achievement t e n c y o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . and 1 t r a d i t i o n a l ) on c o r r e c t i v e language e x p e r i e n c e T e s t l e s s o n s p r e s e n t e d t w i c e word knowledge and r e a d i n g . m a t e r i a l s . ( r e a d i n g ) p e r week. comprehension s k i l l s . 30 c l a s s e s 3 t r e a t m e n t s : C l o z e 1 N = 278 — e v e r y word on h i g h i n t e r e s t / l o w vocabu- A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e l a r y ; C l o z e 2 — e v e r y word on language e x p e r i e n c e ; S i l e n t r e a d i n g — o f h i g h i n t e r e s t / l o w vocabu-l a r y m a t e r i a l . Cox* t o compare 3 Grade 4 SRA Lab passages s e l e c t i v e , t o 8 weeks SRA no d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r 1974 t r e a t m e n t s (2 N = 71 (200 word p a s s a g e s ) . match ques- 24 l e s s o n s Achievement C l o z e 1. c l o z e and 1 t r a d i - ( d i s a d v a n - 3 t r e a t m e n t s : C l o z e 1 t i o n s f o r t r a - T e s t d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r C l o z e t i o n a l ) . taged) — 1 0 minute i n s t r u c - d i t i o n a l group. 2, t h e n f o l l o w - u p t i o n ( s e l e c t i v e d e l e - e x e r c i s e . t i o n s ) ; C l o z e 2 — n o d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r i n t a c t i n s t r u c t i o n ( e v e r y p a s s a g e s ; o r a l r e a d i n g . c l o z e w o r d ) ; T r a d i -t i o n a l — i n t a c t p a s -sages and m u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s . Houston* t o compare e f f e c t s o f Grade 6 n a r r a t i v e and c o n t e n t every 10th word 28 weeks C a l i f o r n i a s u p e r v i s e d f o r c o n s i s -1976 3 t r e a t m e n t s (2 c l o z e N = 279 m a t e r i a l . a t random. 98 l e s s o n s Achievement tency of p r e s e n t a t i o n . and 1 t r a d i t i o n a l ) on ( d i s a d - 3 t r e a t m e n t s : C l o z e 1 T e s t l e s s o n s p r e s e n t e d t w i c e v o c a b u l a r y and r e a d - vantaged) — e v e r y 10th whole ( r e a d i n g ) per week. i n g comprehension. word d e l e t e d ; C l o z e 2 — e v e r y 10th word, i n i t i a l l e t t e r r e t a i n e d ; A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e T r a d i t i o n a l — b a s a l p r o -gram, e.g., Ginn 360 T a b l e 4 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Johns * t o compare e f f e c t s o f Grade 4 n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . e v e r y 1 0 th 25 weeks G a t e s - t e a c h e r read a l o u d p a s -1977 4 t r e a t m e n t s on N = 222 4 t r e a t m e n t s : C l o z e 1 m o d i f i e r . 50 l e s s o n s M c G i n i t i e sages b e f o r e e x e r c i s e s v o c a b u l a r y and r e a d - — e v e r y 10th m o d i f i e r ; e v e r y 10th noun Reading T e s t done. i n g comprehension. C l o z e 2 — e v e r y 10th o r v e r b . noun o r v e r b ; C l o z e 3 eve r y 1 0 th — e v e r y 10th word; word. S c h e f f e ' s T e s t T r a d i t i o n a l — i n t a c t passages. S i n a t r a * t o e v a l u a t e e f f e c t s Grade 6 mixed n a r r a t i v e and s e l e c t i v e , 4 weeks S t a n d a r d f o l l o w e d s t a n d a r d s e t of 1977 of c l o z e i n r e a d i n g , ( h i g h r i s k ) d e s c r i p t i v e / e x p e c t a n c y m a i n l y noun/ 16 l e s s o n s D i a g n o s t i c t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s u s i n g v o c a b u l a r y , and com- N = 44 m a t e r i a l s . v e r b . R e a d i n g T e s t . a c t i v i t i y s p e c i a l i s t s i n p r e h e n s i o n . C l o z e t e s t s . drama, s c i e n c e , a r t s and c r a f t s , and rhythms. ' t ' t e s t s f o r comparing means. Y e l l i n * Grade 5 m a t e r i a l s from SRA eve r y 5 t h word 7 weeks C l o z e t e s t s p r o d u c t approach e n c o u r -1978 t o compare e f f e c t s o f N = 104 Labs. one 15- from SRA aged one c o r r e c t answer. 2 c l o z e t r e a t m e n t s 2 t r e a t m e n t s : C l o z e 1 minute m a t e r i a l . No d i s c u s s i o n . ("product" or " p r o - — ( p r o d u c t ) indepen- l e s s o n G a t e s - p r o c e s s approach e n c o u r -c e s s " approach) on dent c o m p l e t i o n / p e r day M c G i n i t i e aged v a r i e d answers. r e a d i n g comprehen- c o r r e c t i o n ; C l o z e 2 — Rea d i n g T e s t . D i s c u s s i o n . s i o n . ( p r o c e s s ) group comple-t i o n a s s i s t e d by t e a c h e r . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e *Adapted from Jongsma, The C l o z e P r o c e d u r e as a Teaching T e c h n i q u e , 1971. NJ T a b l e 4 ( c o n t i n u e d ) D e l e t i o n Treatment T e s t s F e a t u r e s Researcher Goals Grade/No. M a t e r i a l s / L e s s o n s System P e r i o d ~ 7 7 7 Data A n a l y s i s M a r l e y to de t e r m i n e t o 1982 what e x t e n t t he use o f the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e c o u l d I n c r e a s e r e a d i n g comprehension i n r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g s t u d e n t s Grades 2, 3, 30 l e s s o n s 4, 5, 6, 7, , _ ' 2 tr e a t m e n t s every 1 0 t h word 15 weeks P r e and pos t SRA r e a d i n g compre-h e n s i o n s u b t e s t c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups used s t u d e n t s were 6 o r more months b e h i n d i n r e a d i n g comprehension no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were e s t a b l i s h e d between c l o z e i n s t r u c t i o n and r e g u l a r r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n t e s t s Co 29 Comparison of successful and unsuccessful studies. A comparison of the successful and unsuccessful studies category by category i s made easier i f a tabular.format i s provided (Table 5 ) . This reassembling of the con-tent of Tables 3 and 4 into a single table (Table 5 ), makes i t possible to draw conclusions about the research on cloze procedures i n the upper elementary school grades using the headings as in Tables 1 and 2. The conclusions as drawn from an examination of Table 5 are presented below: 1. Goals: The use of only two treatments (cloze versus traditional) produced generally better results than more than two treatments. 2. Grade/Number: Grade 6 was the most commonly used grade for samples and just as many studies at that grade le v e l were unsuccessful as were successful. Small scale studies (average 93 students) were, on the whole, more successful than studies with a larger number of students (average approximately 167 students). 3. Materials/Lessons:.Six of the successful studies used social studies materials, while two used narrative materials; the unsuccessful studies used narrative, combined narrative and content, or specialized material. Treatments were too varied to permit much generalization about what might be successful In the future. Although i t may be unfair to suggest that the choices of procedures were idiosyncratic, i t seems true that few researchers try to build on the successes of others. 4. Deletion Systems: These were extremely varied, with random selection (either every f i f t h or every tenth word) occurring most f r e -quently In the unsuccessful studies. Specific deletions of a variety of types were t y p i c a l of successful studies. One study (Martinez) used T a b l e 5 C o m p a r i s o n o f S u c c e s s f u l a n d U n s u c c e s s f u l S t u d i e s on S e v e n F a c t o r s S u c c e s s f u l U n s u c c e s s f u l F a c t o r s S t u d i e s S t u d i e s G o a l s — T r e a t m e n t s i n S t u d y 1 t r e a t m e n t 1 0 2 t r e a t m e n t s 3 3 3 t r e a t m e n t s 4 4 4 t r e a t m e n t s 0 1 G r a d e / N o . ( A v e r a g e N) 4 1 1 5 0 1 6 5 4 Honor s t u d e n t s 1 0 Combined g r a d e s 1 (6 /7 ) 3 (2 /8 ) (N=93) *(N=167) M a t e r i a l s / L e s s o n s S o c i a l S t u d i e s 6 0 N a r r a t i v e 2 2 Combined N a r r a t i v e / C o n t e n t 0 4 S p e c i a l 0 2 D e l e t i o n Sys tems  Random e v e r y 5+ 0 2 e v e r y 10+ 2 3 S e l e c t i v e e v e r y 5 ( l e x i c a l ) 1 0 e v e r y 5 ( s t r u c t u r a l ) 1 0 n o u n d e t e r m i n e r s 1 0 noun d e t e r m i n e r s , n o u n s , s t r u c t u r e words 1 0 n o u n / v e r b s 0 3 m o d i f i e r s 0 1 n o u n d e t e r m i n e r s 0 1 t o m a t c h c o n t e x t c l u e s 1 0 to m a t c h q u e s t i o n s 0 1 m o d i f i e d c l o z e (not d e f i n e d ) 2 0 S p e c i a l T r e a t m e n t e v e r y 10 , w i t h i n i t i a l l e t t e r r e t a i n e d 0 1 ^numbers f r o m 1982 s t u d y n o t a v a i l a b l e T a b l e 5 ( c o n t i n u e d ! „ _ S u c c e s s f u l U n s u c c e s s f u l F a c t o r s , . P j . . . . S t u d i e s S t u d i e s T r e a t m e n t P e r i o d s 1 week 1 0 2 weeks 3 0 3 weeks 1 1 4 weeks 0 1 5 weeks 0 0 6 weeks 2 2 7 weeks 0 1 8 weeks 1 2 9 weeks 2 1 10 weeks 0 1 11 weeks 0 1 12 weeks 0 2 15 weeks 0 1 25 weeks 0 1 28 weeks 0 1 T e s t s  C l o z e r e g u l a r 3 2 l e x i c a l 1 0 s t r u c t u r a l **1 0 s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t 1 0 S o c i a l S t u d i e s C o n t e n t 1 0 S t a n d a r d i z e d Group Iowa 2 0 G a t e s M c G i n i t i e 2 4 SRA 0 2 S t a n f o r d D i a g n o s t i c 0 2 C a l i f o r n i a 0 2 D i v e r g e n t P r o d u c t i o n T e s t 0 1 D a t a A n a l y s i s D i s c u s s i o n w i t h l e s s o n s 8 4 P o s t T e s t D e s i g n 4 2 L e v e l s ( ) x T r e a t m e n t R e a d i n g - 2 * * IQ - 1 2 * * n o t s i g n i f i c a n t 31 s e l e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s t o t e a c h t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s , c l e a r l y a n a t t e m p t t o r e s p o n d t o J o n g s m a ' s s u g g e s t i o n s (1980 , p . 2 3 ) . 5 . T r e a t m e n t P e r i o d ; T r e a t m e n t p e r i o d s w e r e a s s h o r t a s o n e week a n d a s l o n g a s s e v e n months ( a b o u t 30 w e e k s ) . T h e s u c c e s s f u l a n d u n -s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s w e r e a b o u t e q u a l i n number when s t u d i e s w e r e e x a m i n e d up t o a t r e a t m e n t l e n g t h o f e i g h t w e e k s . 6. T e s t s : A s Jongsma had s u g g e s t e d , c l o z e t e s t s seem t o h a v e b e e n more s e n s i t i v e t o g r o w t h t h a n s t a n d a r d i z e d g r o u p t e s t s . F o u r s t u d i e s u s e d a s t a n d a r d i z e d g r o u p t e s t (Iowa T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ) a n d showed s i g n i f i c a n t g r o w t h o n t h e m . 7. L e s s o n F e a t u r e s / D a t a A n a l y s i s : A l t h o u g h , a s n o t e d a b o v e , l e s s o n s a n d m a t e r i a l s w e r e e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d , b o t h s u c c e s s f u l a n d u n s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s u s e d d i s c u s s i o n . 8 . S u c c e s s f u l S t u d i e s : T h e s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e u n s u c c e s s -f u l s t u d i e s d i d a s w e l l . L e v e l s ( r e a d i n g ) by t r e a t m e n t d e s i g n s w e r e u s e d i n two s u c c e s s f u l a n d two u n s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s . None showed l e v e l s a n d t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . H o w e v e r , i n o n e s t u d y ( C u l h a n e 1972) w h e r e IQ l e v e l s w e r e u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s , i t was shown t h a t h i g h e r IQ l e v e l s p r e d i c t a b l y p r o d u c e d b e t t e r l e a r n i n g . T h i s s u m m a r i z i n g o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e c o n d r o u n d o f c l o z e s t u d i e s i s h e l p f u l i n d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t a p p r o p r i a t e g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . 32 G u i d e l i n e s f o r F u t u r e S t u d i e s A number o f s u g g e s t i o n s c a n b e made f o r p o s s i b l e s t u d i e s : 1 . S t u d i e s s h o u l d p o s s i b l y be r e s t r i c t e d t o two t r e a t m e n t s u n t i l t h e s p e c i f i c i n f l u e n c e o f e a c h i s u n d e r s t o o d . 2 . A g r a d e o t h e r t h a n G r a d e 6 s h o u l d b e u s e d . 3 . M a t e r i a l s and d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t a l l p e r t i n e n t f a c t o r s . O n l y o n e s t u d y ( M a r t i n e z ) u s e d a s e l e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s y s t e m b a s e d o n c o n t e x t c l u e s i n s t r u c t i o n a n d h e r m a t e r i a l u s e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . E i t h e r f a c t o r c o u l d h a v e p r o d u c e d t h e s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s m i g h t a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p c o n t e x t c l u e s i n s t r u c t i o n u s i n g e i t h e r n a r r a t i v e o r c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s . 4 . T h e s t u d y s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l y l e n g t h y , s i n c e l e n g t h y s t u d i e s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n l e s s s u c c e s s f u l t h a n s h o r t e r s t u d i e s . 5 . I f a s t a n d a r d i z e d g r o u p t e s t i s t o be u s e d t o m e a s u r e p o s s i b l e g a i n s a c l o z e t e s t s h o u l d a l s o b e e m p l o y e d . 6. D i s c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be u s e d a n d t h e l a r g e r t h e g r o u p s u s e d , t h e more s p e c i f i c t h e d i s c u s s i o n p r o c e d u r e " s y s t e m " s h o u l d b e . 7. I f c o n t e x t c l u e i n s t r u c t i o n i s u s e d , a l e v e l s ( r e a d i n g ) b y t r e a t m e n t a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d , s i n c e M a r t i n e z u s e d " h o n o r s t u d e n t s " a n d i t may be t h a t t h i s t y p e o f t r e a t m e n t i s m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i g h a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s . 3 3 Summary o f C l o z e P r o c e d u r e and R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n B o t h a f i r s t r o u n d a n d s e c o n d r o u n d o f c l o z e s t u d i e s h a v e p r o d u c e d more n e g a t i v e t h a n p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s ( r a t i o o f 1 5 : 1 0 ) . O v e r a l l , t h e r e s e a r c h o n c l o z e p r o c e d u r e s t o d a t e , a l t h o u g h b e t t e r f o c u s s e d a n d b e t t e r r e p o r t e d , a p p e a r s t o n e e d a n i t e r a t i v e a p p r o a c h t h a t f o c u s s e s a s m u c h on what has n o t b e e n s u c c e s s f u l as what has b e e n s u c c e s s f u l . [ I t m i g h t be a p p r o p r i a t e t o a d d t h a t r e s e a r c h was n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e l e v e l , h o w e v e r . T h e l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h p r o d u c e d f o u r s t u d i e s f r o m t h e 1980s a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e l e v e l w h e r e c l o z e p r o -c e d u r e had b e e n u s e d a s a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e . R e s e a r c h d i d , h o w e v e r , i n v e s t i g a t e t h e u s e o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a s a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e a t o t h e r g r a d e l e v e l s . F o r e x a m p l e , o f s t u d i e s t h a t w e r e s u c c e s s f u l , two were a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l ( A c k l y , 1981 a n d B e i l , 1 9 8 1 ) ; one o f e a c h a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n and p r i m a r y l e v e l s ( H a s s o n , 1982 a n d S a m p s o n , V a l m o n t and A l l e n , 1 9 8 2 ) ; a n d o n e was a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l ( R o g e r s , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h o s e s t u d i e s t h a t w e r e u n s u c c e s s f u l were c o n d u c t e d by W i n t e r s (1982) u s i n g a g r a d e t h r e e s a m p l e , Shoop (1982) u s i n g a g r a d e e i g h t s a m p l e , and H o u c h e n (1983) u s i n g a u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s a m p l e . ] C o n t e x t u a l C l u e s and R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n T h e l i t e r a t u r e o n c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e u n d e r t h e two h e a d i n g s c o n s i d e r e d t o be m o s t p e r t i n e n t t o t h e f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y : (1) t h e v a l u e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s i n r e a d i n g , a n d (2) t y p e s o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s . 34 T h e V a l u e o f C o n t e x t u a l C l u e s i n R e a d i n g T h e v a l u e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s i n r e a d i n g i s s u p p o r t e d b o t h i n s t a t e -m e n t s o f e x p e r t o p i n i o n and a l s o i n r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e . T h e v a l u e o f t e a c h i n g c l u e s i n r e a d i n g : e x p e r t o p i n i o n . R e a d e r s s h o u l d b e aware o f c o n t e x t c l u e s ( o r c o n t e x t u a l a i d s , a s t h e y a r e o f t e n c a l l e d ) and u s e them i n c o m p r e h e n d i n g p r o s e . T h a t o p i n i o n h a s b e e n e x p r e s s e d by r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s , l i n g u i s t s , a n d p s y c h o l o g i s t s q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y ; a n d c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e a b s t r a c t , t h e s t a t e m e n t has l o g i c a l a p p e a l . A c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a r g u m e n t s u s e d t o s u p p o r t t h e o p i n i o n s h o w s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h o s e who h o l d t h e o p i n i o n do n o t a l l mean t h e same t h i n g by i t . T h e r e a r e , i n f a c t , two c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e l i n e s o f t h i n k i n g e v i d e n t i n t h e r a t i o n a l e s p u t f o r w a r d t o s u p p o r t t h e p o i n t o f v i e w . One l i n e o f t h i n k i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t r e a d e r s s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o u s e c o n t e x t c l u e s a s a n a i d t o : (a) r e c o g n i z i n g a w o r d , o r (b) t o d e d u c i n g i t s m e a n i n g f r o m t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o n t e x t . T h e a s s u m p t i o n h e r e i s t h a t r e a d e r s r e c o g n i z e a l l b u t o n e word i n a s e n t e n c e o r g r o u p o f s e n t e n c e s a n d c o m p r e h e n d t h e s e n t e n c e o r g r o u p o f s e n t e n c e s so w e l l t h a t t h e y c a n u s e t h a t c o m p r e h e n s i o n t o b e t t e r d e c i d e what t h e " n a m e " o f a n u n -r e c o g n i z e d word i s o r what i t s m e a n i n g m i g h t b e . T h e f o c u s i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , t h e n , i s o n a s i n g l e word a n d t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s t o i d e n t i f y i t . C o m p r e h e n s i o n , e x c e p t f o r o n e w o r d , t h e n , i s n o t a p r o b l e m . 35 A s e c o n d l i n e o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t c o n t e x t c l u e s s u g g e s t s t h a t r e a d e r s may be d e f i c i e n t i n t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g r a m m a t i c a n d s y n t a c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d how t h e y f u n c t i o n i n c o n n e c t e d p r o s e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n h e r e i s t h a t r e a d e r s r e c o g n i z e e a c h w o r d i n a s e n t e n c e o r g r o u p o f s e n t e n c e s b u t do n o t c o m p r e h e n d t h e s e n t e n c e o r g r o u p o f s e n t e n c e s b e -c a u s e o f l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n a l w o r d s f u n c t i o n i n c o n t e x t . T h e f o c u s h e r e i s o n r e l a t i o n a l w o r d s a s c o n t e x t c l u e s . G e n e r a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e n , j i s a p r o b l e m . O b v i o u s l y , t h e two l i n e s o f t h i n k i n g , b o t h s u p p o r t i n g t h e i d e a t h a t u s e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s s h o u l d be t a u g h t , s t a r t f r o m o p p o s i t e a s s u m p t i o n s . I n t h e r e v i e w f o l l o w i n g , t h i s d i c h o t o m y i s r e c o g n i z e d by d i v i d i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t o two p a r t s : (1) i d e n t i f y i n g a word o r d e d u c i n g i t s m e a n i n g , a n d (2) c o m p r e h e n d i n g c o n n e c t e d p r o s e . 1 . Word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n / m e a n i n g . S t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e v a l u e o f u s i n g c o n t e x t c l u e s t o d e d u c e word m e a n i n g h a v e b e e n f o u n d i n t h e r e a d i n g l i t e r a t u r e f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e . I n 1943 , A r t l e y u r g e d t h a t t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s be t a u g h t , a n d s t a t e d t h a t o n e o f t h e m o s t p r a c t i c a l u s e s o f c o n t e x t c l u e s was t o b u i l d and e x t e n d v o c a b u l a r y i n word m e a n i n g . He c o n c l u d e d h i s r e m a r k s by s a y i n g : 36 . . . i t i s n o t o n l y i m p e r a t i v e t h a t c h i l d r e n know t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s , b u t t h a t t h e y u t i l i z e them a u t o -m a t i c a l l y i n t h e i r e v e r y d a y r e a d i n g . O n l y by so d o i n g w i l l t h e y be a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d o r d i n a r y s e n s e m e a n i n g a n d come t o a c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d f u l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f what i s b e i n g r e a d . ( p . 74) H a f n e r (1967) s a i d t h a t t e a c h e r s a t a l l l e v e l s s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o u s e c o n t e x t t o h e l p them e s t a b l i s h m e a n i n g s o f w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e s u c c e s s f u l a t t h i s t o v a r y -i n g d e g r e e s a n d t h a t a n y l a c k o f s u c c e s s may be a r e s u l t o f a number o f f a c t o r s , some o f w h i c h a r e : (1) a t e a c h e r ' s i n a b i l i t y t o t e a c h c o n -t e x t u a l a i d s a d e q u a t e l y , (2) c o n t e x t n o t b e i n g p r e s e n t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t c l u e s t o m e a n i n g , and (3) t h e r e a d e r n o t h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l i n word r e c o g n i t i o n o r n o t b e i n g a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d t o h a n d l e m a t e r i a l i n t h i s s p e c i a l w a y , i . e . a s t u d e n t may n o t n o t i c e a s h i f t i n c o n t e x t b e c a u s e o f t h e u s e o f a p a r t i c u l a r c o n n e c t i v e . S m i t h a n d J o h n s o n (1980) i n a s e c t i o n o n word r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e i r t e x t , s u g g e s t t h a t u s i n g s u r r o u n d i n g c o n t e x t t o i d e n t i f y an u n -f a m i l i a r word c a n be d e f i n e d a s " m a k i n g a n e d u c a t e d g u e s s " . T h e y s u g g e s t f u r t h e r t h a t c o n t e x t c l u e s h e l p d e f i n e a n u n f a m i l i a r word by p r o v i d i n g s y n t a c t i c , s e m a n t i c , t y p o g r a p h i c , a n d s t y l i s t i c c l u e s . A l l o f t h e s e r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s seem t o b e l o n g t o t h e g r o u p o f w r i t e r s who b e l i e v e t h a t c o n t e x t c l u e s a r e a n a i d t o word m e a n i n g o r word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 2 . C o m p r e h e n s i o n : c o n n e c t e d p r o s e . A s e a r l y as 1908 , Huey made t h e p o i n t t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n n e c t i v e s was i m p o r t a n t a t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g . o f a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e ; b u t he a l s o n o t e d t h a t t e a c h i n g 37 them p r e s e n t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s . E e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l u s e o f " w h e r e " a n d " w h a t " was most i m p o r t a n t b u t t h a t t e a c h -i n g t h e s e w o r d s w o u l d p o s e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y b e c a u s e t h e r e was no " i m a g e r y " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m . T h e d i f f i c u l t y l a y , h e t h o u g h t , i n g e t t i n g t h e c h i l d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e s e w o r d s a s s i g n a l s t o f o r t h c o m i n g s t a t e m e n t s — c l u e s t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n o r i d e a s . A f e w y e a r s l a t e r , T h o r n d i k e (1917) s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e l a t i o n a l w o r d s — p r o n o u n s , c o n j u n c t i o n s , a n d p r e p o s i t i o n s — h a v e v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n a n d v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f m e a n i n g . T h e s e v a r i a t i o n s , he t h o u g h t , w o u l d h a v e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who e n c o u n t e r t h e s e w o r d s . A s a n e x a m p l e , h e s a i d t h a t t h e w o r d " t h o u g h " may be i n t e r -p r e t e d as " a n d " o r " i f " , a f a c t t h a t m i g h t p u t d i f f e r e n t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o n a s e n t e n c e . T h o r n d i k e was t r y i n g t o c o n v e y t h e i d e a t h a t r e l a t i o n a l words a r e d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d a r e n o t l i k e l y to be r e a d w i t h t h e p r e c i s i o n a n d a t t e n t i o n t h e y r e q u i r e . A r t l e y (1943) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o n c o n n e c t i v e s , s t a t e d f u r t h e r t h a t " S t r u c t u r a l o r g r a m m a t i c a l e l e m e n t s f u r n i s h u s e f u l c l u e s o f m e a n i n g " , ( p . 6 9 ) . S i m i l a r l y , f o r many y e a r s , M c C u l l o u g h ( 1 9 4 3 , 1945 , 1958) a r g u e d t h a t a k n o w l e d g e o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s i s e s s e n t i a l t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n d e v e l o p -m e n t . She s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e o f t e a c h i n g c o n t e x t u a l a i d s s h o u l d b e g i n a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l a n d p r o c e e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s u b s e q u e n t g r a d e s . I n 1958 s h e s t a t e d : U n t i l we b e g i n t o d e f i n e t h i s a r e a o f l e a r n i n g a n d t o make i t a p a r t o f a c o n t i n u o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r a m , u n t i l we b e g i n t o t e a c h t h e t e c h n i q u e s a s w e l l a s r e q u i r e t h e i r u s e , t h e w h o l e m a t t e r o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n must f l o u n d e r , ( p . 229) 38 A statement by Flesch (.1946) reflected Huey's remarks made much ear l i e r . He said that conjunctions were in fact words that did not produce an image, as perhaps a noun or verb might, and as a result, were d i f f i c u l t for children to learn and understand. Flesch provided an example when he compared the words "horse" and "unless". While the word "horse" would probably produce an image of a certain animal with partic-ular features and characteristics, the word "unless" does not provide such an image, but rather functions as a signal to the reader that there is something important in the following clause, i.e. perhaps that there is a conditional relationship established. It seems reasonable to accept the idea that such words would pose d i f f i c u l t y to the immature reader and that much meaning would be missed i f conjunctions (context clues) are not taught and learned well. Support for teaching relational words as context clues deliber-ately and systematically was also supplied by Gates (1947) when he stated that these words are hard to learn and that teachers should teach them precisely whenever the opportunity presented i t s e l f . Another researcher who was quite emphatic in her opinion about the value of connectives as context clues was Robertson (1968) who d i s -cussed connectives and word relationships and stated: Children should be given systematic training through the reading program so they develop more f a c i l i t y at an earlier age in understanding increasingly complex communications from the printed page. (p. 146) Dulin (1970) also stressed the importance of contextual clues . meaning and suggested they should be taught consistently and system-a t i c a l l y i f students were to become s k i l l f u l and proficient in obtaining 39 meaning from their reading material. Dulin suggests s p e c i f i c a l l y that cloze exercises be used to develop the necessary s k i l l s . A discussion of the importance of the class of context clues called connectives i s not limited to students of reading behavior. Grammarians such as Beal (1934) and Roberts (1954) have stressed the importance of connectives to the acquisition of meaning. They, l i k e reading specialists, have emphasized the fact that connectives are very important words in written discourse and thus warrant as much attention as other words i n the sentence. Grammarians discuss prepositions as particular types of connectives that appear in front of nouns, or adjectives, or verbs that appear in the sentence. Gleason (1965), also a grammarian, agreed with his colleagues and with reading experts that the English language has a large variety of clause connectives with widely varying patterns of use. This wide variation of use led Gleason to conclude that these words demand a great deal of attention and study. In summary, there i s a considerable body of opinion that suggests that teaching readers to use context clues should have a favourable impact on their a b i l i t y to identify or define unfamiliar words and to obtain meaning from connected prose. The value of context clues in reading tasks: experimental  evidence. A number of researchers have gone beyond generalized state-ments about the value of s k i l l in using context clues. They have studied the a b i l i t y of elementary, high school, and college students to use con-text clues in normal reading tasks. It should be noted that most studies, other than those studies using the cloze procedure, have focused on t e a c h i n g c o n t e x t c l u e s , a s a means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g word m e a n i n g r a t h e r t h a n d e v e l o p i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t i e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n - ' e l u d e s b o t h w o r d - c e n t e r e d s t u d i e s a n d t h o s e s t u d i e s t h a t a t t e m p t e d t o i n c r e a s e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t i e s t h r o u g h d e v e l o p i n g t h e k n o w l -edge a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n t e x t c l u e s . T h e d i s c u s s i o n b e g i n s w i t h (1) w o r d - c e n t e r e d s t u d i e s , a n d (2) t h e n p r e s e n t s t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n -c e n t e r e d s t u d i e s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y t h e r e a p p e a r t o be o n l y two s t u d i e s t h a t f o c u s o n t h e v a l u e o f t e a c h i n g t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s a s a way t o e n h a n c e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . 1 . W o r d - c e n t e r e d s t u d i e s . One e a r l y s t u d y was d o n e by E l i v i a n i n 1938 . She i n s e r t e d u n f a m i l i a r w o r d s i n t o p a r a g r a p h s i n w h i c h t h e c o n -t e x t u a l c l u e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be d e f i n i t i o n , s y n o n y m , r e p e a t e d u s a g e , a n d i n f e r e n c e . T h e s e p a s s a g e s w e r e t h e n g i v e n t o s t u d e n t s r a n g i n g f r o m g r a d e f o u r t o g r a d e e i g h t . T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t 22% o f t h e m e a n i n g s o f t h e unknown w o r d s w e r e d i s c o v e r e d by u s e o f c o n -t e x t a n d t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e unknown w o r d s i n c r e a s e d w i t h g r a d e l e v e l o r s y n o n y m o u s l y w i t h r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . W h i l e a " s u c c e s s " r a t e o f 22% i s n o t h i g h , i t d o e s p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t h a t c o n t e x t c l u e s m i g h t be u s e f u l . H a f n e r (1965) h a s r e p o r t e d a s t u d y by P e t e r s o n (1942) who u s e d a s a m p l e o f j u n i o r h i g h s t u d e n t s i n a n e x p e r i m e n t on t e a c h i n g t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s . H a f n e r s a i d t h a t P e t e r s o n f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n a b i l i t y t o u n l o c k m e a n i n g s i n c o n t e x t . A f t e r t h e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n u s i n g t h e s e c o n t e x t c l u e c a t e g o r i e s a n d m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r g a i n s when compared t o c o n t r o l g r o u p s n o t r e c e i v i n g t h e t r a i n i n g . 41 M c K e e ' s w o r k i n 1948 m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d a s a v a l i d a t i o n o f P e t e r s o n ' s f i n d i n g i n 1942 . M c K e e ' s s a m p l e o f a v e r a g e f o u r t h g r a d e r e a d e r s was a b l e , w o r k i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y , t o d e r i v e t h e m e a n i n g o f u n f a m i l i a r w o r d s by t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s a l o n e a b o u t 30% o f t h e t i m e . T h i s e v i d e n c e w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d l e s s o n s w i t h s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s m i g h t r a i s e t h e s u c c e s s r a t e t o a s i g -n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f i g u r e . U s i n g a s a m p l e o f g r a d e t e n s t u d e n t s , G u a r i o n (1960) p r o v i d e d i n -s t r u c t i o n i n f i v e t y p e s o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s : d e f i n i t i o n , s y n o n y m , c o m p a r i s o n o r c o n t r a s t , summary, a n d p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . T h e i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n t e x t c l u e s was d i r e c t e d a t t e a c h i n g t h e 153 s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l g r o u p t o u s e t h e c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s t o d e r i v e word m e a n i n g . A c o n t r o l g r o u p o f 148 s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d no i n s t r u c t i o n i n u s e o f c o n -t e x t u a l a i d s . A f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f e l e v e n l e s s o n s , t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s w e r e a n a l y z e d . T h e f i n d i n g s l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s r e s u l t e d i n s i g -n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o i n f e r t h e m e a n i n g s o f u n f a m i l i a r w o r d s e n c o u n t e r e d i n r e a d i n g p a s s a g e s a n d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e c o n t e x t c l u e s t o i n f e r word m e a n i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . R o b i n s o n (1963) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y i n w h i c h h e a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s u s i n g c o n t e x t u a l a i d s a l o n e c o u l d i d e n t i f y unknown w o r d s o r w h e t h e r t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o r e l y o n a d d i t i o n a l c l u e s t o make c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . He f o u n d t h a t o n l y a b o u t o n e - s e v e n t h o f o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e t e s t w o r d s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d , a n d t h a t o n l y a b o u t 14% o f t h e r e s p o n s e s w e r e m e a n i n g f u l s y n o n y m s . He d i d n o t s t a t e w h i c h 42 c o n t e x t u a l a i d s w e r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . H o w e v e r , R o b i n s o n ' s r e s u l t s do s u g g e s t a l o w e r v a l u e f o r c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f w o r d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a n o t h e r a u t h o r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d , a t l e a s t a t t h e g r a d e f o u r l e v e l . Emans a n d F i s h e r (1967) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f R o b i n s o n ' s . T h e i r s a m p l e r a n g e d f r o m g r a d e t h r e e t o g r a d e t e n , w i t h f r o m 50 t o 150 p u p i l s i n e a c h g r a d e . T h e y c o n c l u d e d , l i k e R o b i n s o n , t h a t c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s a l o n e w e r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h word m e a n i n g a n d t h a t t h e t a s k became somewhat e a s i e r a s t h e number o f o t h e r c l u e s i n c r e a s e d . O t h e r c l u e s p r o v i d e d w e r e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , b e g i n n i n g l e t t e r s , a n d e n d i n g l e t t e r s . A f i n d i n g by S p a c h e a n d B e r g (1966) i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e R o b i n s o n a n d Emans a n d F i s h e r s t u d i e s . T h e y f o u n d t h a t h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w e r e a b l e t o d e r i v e w o r d m e a n i n g a b o u t 50% t o 60% o f t h e t i m e . A f u r t h e r f i n d i n g r e p o r t e d by S p a c h e a n d B e r g was t h a t h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o d e v e l o p m a s t e r y o f u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s b e y o n d t h e 50% t o 60% l e v e l t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l y e a r s . T h i s r a t e o f s u c c e s s a p p e a r s t o be h i g h e r t h a n a n y o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . H o w e v e r , t h i s r e s u l t may be r e l a t e d e i t h e r t o t h e g r a d e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , o r t o t h e t a s k s s e t . I t may be t h a t many y o u n g e r e l e -m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n h a v e n o t y e t r e a c h e d a s t a g e o f c o n c e p t u a l d e v e l -opment t h a t w i l l p e r m i t them t o e l i c i t m e a n i n g s o f s p e c i f i c w o r d s f r o m c o n t e x t . C e r t a i n l y t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e t h a t h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o u s e c o n t e x t c l u e s t o d e d u c e word m e a n i n g t h a n a r e e l e m e n t a r y p u p i l s , a l t h o u g h no s i n g l e s t u d y c o n t r a s t e d h i g h s c h o o l a n d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s . 43 2 . C o m p r e h e n s i o n - c e n t e r e d s t u d i e s . I n a s e n s e , e v e r y s t u d y t h a t has u s e d t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e , a n d t h e n p r o v i d e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e a n s w e r s , h a s - b e e n a n i n f o r m a l t e s t o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i d e a t h a t t r a i n i n g i n t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t c l u e s i m p r o v e s r e a d i n g c o m p r e -h e n s i o n . T h e w o r d " i n f o r m a l " i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e c r i t i c a l word h e r e . I n t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , o n l y t h o s e s t u d i e s a r e i n c l u d e d w h e r e i n s t r u c t i o n was s t r u c t u r e d a r o u n d s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t c l u e s t y p e s . O n l y two s u c h s t u d i e s w e r e f o u n d . U s i n g 48 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , S e i b e r t (1945) p r o v i d e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t a n d t h e n r e q u i r e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o p r e d i c t a p p r o -p r i a t e w o r d s d e l e t e d f r o m p a s s a g e s c o n t a i n i n g s e l e c t e d c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s . T h e c l u e c a t e g o r i e s w e r e w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n , s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e , a s s o c i a t i o n o f c l u e s , u s e o f d e f i n i t i o n , a n d g e n e r a l p a r a g r a p h m e a n i n g . He f o u n d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e o n two c o n t e x t u a l t e s t s , w i t h 57 a n d 46 b l a n k s , was 60 p e r c e n t a n d 61 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . S e i b e r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s w e r e s u c h t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d p r o v i d e d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s . H a f n e r ( 1 9 6 0 ) , w o r k i n g w i t h a s a m p l e o f f i f t h g r a d e p u p i l s , e v a l u a t e d t h e r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t o f a n e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n h a d r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e u s e o f t h r e e r a t h e r s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t u a l a i d s ( c o n t r a s t , e x p l a n a t o r y w o r d s , a n d p h r a s e s ) a s w e l l a s two i n f e r e n t i a l a i d s . I n s t r u c t i o n was g i v e n f o r t h r e e 3 5 - m i n u t e p e r i o d s p e r week f o r a t o t a l o f f o u r w e e k s . Two g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s f r o m d i f f e r -e n t s c h o o l s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g s a c t e d a s c o n t r o l g r o u p s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s showed t h a t no g r o u p s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r o n m e a s u r e s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n o r 44 v o c a b u l a r y . T h e a u t h o r d i d p o i n t o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p o b t a i n e d s c o r e s s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s o n t h e v o c a b u l a r y - i n -c o n t e x t s u b t e s t . I n summary, i t seems a p p a r e n t f r o m t h e a b o v e t h a t a l t h o u g h a d v i c e a b o u t c o n t e x t c l u e s t e a c h i n g i s f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e , r e s e a r c h o n i t s e f f i -c a c y i s s p a r s e a n d c l e a r l y more r e s e a r c h u s i n g d i f f e r e n t modes o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s w o u l d b e w o r t h w h i l e . T y p e s o f C o n t e x t u a l A i d s When some w r i t e r s r e f e r t o t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f c o n t e x t c l u e s o r a i d s , t h e y a r e r e f e r r i n g t o w o r d s t h a t g r a m m a r i a n s c a l l f u n c t i o n w o r d s , s t r u c t u r a l w o r d s , o r r e l a t i o n a l w o r d s . O t h e r w r i t e r s t a k e a d i f f e r e n t t a c k a n d r e f e r t o c o n t e x t c l u e s t h a t h a v e a " c o n t e n t " component a n d w o u l d b e c l a s s i f i e d by g r a m m a r i a n s a s n o u n s , v e r b s , o r n o u n p h r a s e s a n d v e r b p h r a s e s . R e a d i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e c a u s e s some c o n f u s i o n t h e r e f o r e , i f t h e p h r a s e " c o n t e x t c l u e s " a l o n e i s u s e d . Some l a b e l s , t h e n , seem t o be n e e d e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t y p e s o f c o n t e x t c l u e s . M c C u l l o u g h (1958) h a s s u p p l i e d t h o s e l a b e l s . She r e f e r s t o i d e a  c l u e s a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s and d e f i n e s i d e a c l u e s a s t h o s e i t e m s o r d e v i c e s t h a t h e l p p r o v i d e t h e t h o u g h t o r i d e a o f a s e n t e n c e . She g o e s o n t o d e f i n e p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s a s e l e m e n t s i n w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l . T h i s i n c l u d e s word p o s i t i o n and word f u n c t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s to t h e m e a n i n g . M c C u l l o u g h s a y s a r e f e r e n t word s u c h a s " w h o " f u n c t i o n s t o c o n v e y a c e r t a i n m e s s a g e . T h i s c o n c e p t , r e f l e c t i n g a s i t d o e s t h e l e x i c a l / s t r u c t u r a l d e l e -t i o n c o n c e p t u s e d i n c l o z e p r o c e d u r e s , c a n be v e r y u s e f u l i n a n a l y z i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n c o n t e x t c l u e t y p e s . 45 T y p e s o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s : i d e a c a t e g o r y . A l m o s t a l l a u t h o r s o f r e a d i n g t e x t b o o k s d i s c u s s a v a r i e t y o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s a n d t h e i r p o s s i b l e u s e s f o r a s s i s t i n g t h e r e a d e r i n w o r d r e c o g n i t i o n a n d m e a n i n g . T h e y do n o t , o f c o u r s e , e m p l o y t h e t e r m s " i d e a - t y p e " a n d " p r e s e n t a t i o n t y p e " s i n c e t h e s e a r e o r i g i n a l t o M c C u l l o u g h . T h e y a r e , h o w e v e r , v e r y c o n -v e n i e n t t e r m s . A r t l e y (1943) d i s c u s s e d c o n t e n t - c e n t e r e d c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s a n d l i s t e d among t h e m , s t r u c t u r a l a i d s , s u b s t i t u t e w o r d s , word e l e m e n t s , p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n f e r e n c e s , d i r e c t e x p l a n a t i o n , a n d t o n e . A s t a t e m e n t by McKee (1948) a b o u t t y p e s o f c o n t e x t c l u e s , s p o k e o f c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t a n d c a u s e / e f f e c t , a n d i n c l u d e d p a s t e x p e r i e n c e a s a n i m p o r t a n t a n d n e c e s s a r y c o n t e x t c l u e . S i m i l a r l y , D e i g h t o n (1959) a n d H a r r i s (1962) p r o d u c e d e x a m p l e s o f c o n t e x t c l u e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e i t e m s s u g g e s t e d by A r t l e y and o t h e r s , b u t a d d e d s u c h e l e m e n t s a s m o d i f i e r s , e x a m p l e s , r e s t a t e m e n t s , e q u i v a l e n t p h r a s e s , and s e n t e n c e d e s i g n . A c t u a l l y , some o f t h e s e l a b e l s , w h i l e d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r l i s t s , a r e p r o b a b l y n o t a c t u a l l y new b u t s i m p l y a r e l a b e l l i n g o f p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d i t e m s . I n a n i m p o r t a n t s t u d y o n t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s , d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , Ames (1966) p r o d u c e d a l i s t o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s / t y p e s t h a t w e r e a r r i v e d a t by s t u d y o f s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s . U s i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , he had them d e s c r i b e t h e c o n t e x t u a l a i d s t h e y u s e d t o i d e n t i f y d e l e t e d w o r d s i n a m o d i f i e d c l o z e p a s s a g e . T h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e c l o z e p a s s a g e s a n d t o s t a t e what i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y h a d u s e d and how t h e y had u s e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i n c h o o s i n g a word f o r t h e d e l e t i o n . A f t e r a n a l y z i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s , Ames c o m -p i l e d t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f i d e a - t y p e c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s : 46 - c l u e s f r o m l a n g u a g e e x p e r i e n c e o f f a m i l i a r e x p r e s s i o n - c l u e s u t i l i z i n g m o d i f y i n g p h r a s e s o r c l a u s e s - c l u e s u t i l i z i n g d e f i n i t i o n o r d e s c r i p t i o n - c l u e s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h w o r d s c o n n e c t e d o r i n s e r i e s - c l u e s o f c o m p a r i s o n o r c o n t r a s t - c l u e s u t i l i z i n g synonyms - c l u e s p r o v i d i n g t o n e s e t t i n g o r mood - c l u e s o f r e f e r r a l - c l u e s u t i l i z i n g a s s o c i a t i o n - c l u e s d e r i v e d f r o m m a i n i d e a a n d s u p p o r t i n g d e t a i l - c l u e s p r o v i d e d by q u e s t i o n a n d a n s w e r p a t t e r n o f p a r a g r a p h p h r a s e s - c l u e s d e r i v e d f r o m c a u s e a n d e f f e c t p a t t e r n o f p a r a g r a p h a n d s e n t e n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n K a r l i n (1975) d e v o t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s p a c e i n h i s t e x t t o t h e d i s -c u s s i o n o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s a n d i d e n t i f i e d s u c h c l u e s a s c a u s e / e f f e c t , d e s c r i p t i o n , morphemes , f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e , t y p o g r a p h i c a l c l u e s , m a p s , and g r a p h s . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a b o v e a b o u t u s e f u l c o n t e x t u a l a i d s i s p r o b a b l y more e a s i l y g r a s p e d i n t a b u l a r f o r m ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) . T h i s s u m m a r i z i n g c h a r t makes i t e v i d e n t t h a t c e r t a i n c o n t e x t c l u e t y p e s a p p e a r more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n o t h e r s and t h a t some a r e c i t e d i n f r e q u e n t l y . A n a n a l y s i s o f some a p p a r e n t l y u n i q u e i t e m s m i g h t show t h a t t h e y a r e n o t i n f a c t u n i q u e , b u t a r e s i m p l y t e r m s f o r i t e m s a l r e a d y l i s t e d . R a n k i n and O v e r h o l s e r (1969) d i d , i n f a c t , r e v i e w t h e w o r k s o f e i g h t a u t h o r s who h a d c o m p i l e d l i s t s o f i d e a c l u e s a n d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e v i e w , p r o d u c e d a l i s t o f t h i r t y - s i x i d e a - t y p e c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s . T h e y s t a t e d t h a t "many o f t h e c l u e s a r e synonymous and a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e " , ( p . 5 2 ) . T h e r e i s p r o b a b l y no p u r p o s e t o be s e r v e d by p u r s u i n g a n y f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e i t e m s p e r s e . S i x i t e m s a r e l i s t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y by a t l e a s t f i v e o f s e v e n a u t h o r s . T h e l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n w o u l d be t h a t t h e s e i t e m s , a t l e a s t , s h o u l d be u s e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r any p r o p o s e d t e a c h i n g 47 J T a b l e 6 C o n t e x t C l u e T y p e s : S e v e n S o u r c e s 00 3 O C -H fl) *r) i—t 0) tH 3 CO O CB O B a m a < C a u s e / E f f e c t * * * * C o m p a r i s o n / C o n t r a s t * * * * D e s c r i p t i o n / D e f i n i t i o n / E x p l a n a t i o n * * * T i m e R e l a t i o n s h i p * P a s t E x p e r i e n c e ( D i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e ) * * * * Synonym ( S u b s t i t u t e w o r d s ) * * C o n d i t i o n * M o o d / T o n e ( F i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e ) * * * P i c t u r e s * M a p s / G r a p h s * I n f e r e n c e * Morphemes (Word e l e m e n t ) * * S t r u c t u r a l A i d s ( T y p o g r a p h i c a l ) * * Words i n S e r i e s * R e f e r r a l * A s s o c i a t i o n * M a i n I d e a and S u p p o r t i n g D e t a i l s * Q u e s t i o n a n d A n s w e r P a t t e r n * c •o >> 4J co a) J= •H iH 60 U 4J •H u U CD cd < Q s * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * E x a m p l e * * R e s t a t e m e n t * * E q u i v a l e n t P h r a s e * S e n t e n c e D e s i g n * * * M o d i f i e r s * * * 48 o f c o n t e x t c l u e s k i l l s . T y p e s o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s ; p r e s e n t a t i o n c a t e g o r y . A common m e t h o d o f d i v i d i n g o r c l a s s i f y i n g c o n n e c t i v e s , i s i n t o two m a i n c a t e g o r i e s — • c o o r d i n a t e a n d s u b o r d i n a t e c o n n e c t i v e s . C o o r d i n a t e c o n n e c t i v e s j o i n two w o r d s , two p h r a s e s , o r two c l a u s e s t h a t a r e o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e . T h e s e two c o n n e c t i v e u n i t s f o r m a c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e . A c o o r d i n a t e c o n n e c t i v e s u c h a s " a n d " m i g h t be u s e d a s f o l l o w s : R a i n a n d h a i l f e l l . A s u b o r d i n a t e c o n n e c t i v e c o n n e c t s p h r a s e s o r c l a u s e s o f u n e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e . A n e x a m p l e m i g h t b e : We d i d n o t want t o b r e a k t h e c o n t a i n e r b e c a u s e t h e c o n t e n t s w o u l d be l o s t . C o n n e c t i v e s c a n a l s o b e c l a s s i f i e d o r d e s c r i b e d by t h e i r p a r t i -c u l a r f u n c t i o n . E x a m p l e s o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e p r o v i d e d by B e a l (1934) and R o b e r t s (1954). T h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a n d c o n n e c t i v e s a r e : (1) a n a d d i t i o n a l t h o u g h t , s u c h a s a n d , f u r t h e r m o r e , m o r e o v e r , t o o ; (2) a p r e v i o u s t h o u g h t s u c h a s : ^ o , h e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g l y , c o n s e q u e n t l y ; (3) a c o m p l e t e c h a n g e o f t h o u g h t , s u c h a s : b u t , h o w e v e r , s t i l l , n e v e r t h e l e s s , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g ; (4) a f r e s h e m p h a s i s o r a new e x p l a n a t i o n o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t h o u g h t s u c h a s : i n d e e d , n a m e l y , a n y h o w , a n y w a y . A d i f f e r e n t s e t o f l a b e l s was u s e d b y Shaw (1958). S h a w ' s l i s t -i n g i s a s f o l l o w s : (1) s u b o r d i n a t i n g c o n n e c t i v e s s u c h a s b e c a u s e , s i n c e , s i g n a l c a u s e / e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s i p s ; _ i f , u n l e s s , a l t h o u g h , s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; a s , b e f o r e , w h e n , a f t e r , s i g n a l c o n t r a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; (2) a d v e r b i a l c o n n e c t i v e s a d d e m p h a s i s o r i m p a c t t o p r e v i o u s l y p r e s e n t e d i d e a s a n d i n c l u d e c o n n e c t i v e s s u c h as s i m i l a r l y , h e n c e , c o n v e r s e l y , n e v e r t h e l e s s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e f o r e ; (3) d e s c r i p t i v e c o n n e c t i v e s i n c l u d i n g a l s o , f u r t h e r m o r e , m o r e o v e r ; (4) t o n e o r mood c o n n e c t i v e s s u c h as n a m e l y and i n d e e d . 49 R o b e r t s o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) , i n h e r s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n n e c t i v e s , p r e s e n t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n : (1) s u b o r d i n a t e s i m p l e i n c l u d e d c l a u s e c o n n e c t i v e s s u c h a s : a l t h o u g h , b e c a u s e , i f , s o , t h a t , w h e n , w h e r e ; (2) s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e c o n n e c t i v e s o r r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n s s u c h a s : t h a t , w h i c h , w h o ; (3) c o o r d i n a t e c l a u s e c o n n e c t i v e s s u c h a s : a n d , b u t , y e t ; (4) s e n t e n c e l i n k e r s s u c h a s : however a n d t h u s . O b v i o u s l y R o b e r t s o n ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e m o r e l i k e B e a l ' s a n d R o b e r t s ' a n d l e s s l i k e S h a w ' s . T h e y f o c u s m o r e o n f u n c t i o n and l e s s o n t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i g n a l l e d . I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s ways t o c l a s s i f y c o n n e c t i v e s a n d a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u g g e s t e d c a t e -g o r i e s shows t h a t i t i s S h a w ' s c a t e g o r i e s t h a t r e f l e c t , a t l e a s t t o some e x t e n t , t h o s e s u g g e s t e d b y i d e a c l u e c a t e g o r i e s ( s e e a b o v e , T a b l e 6 ) . T h i s o v e r l a p i s c l a r i f i e d i n T a b l e 7. T h e B e a l / R o b e r t s c a t e g o r i e s a p p l y i n o n l y one c a s e a n d n o n e o f t h e R o b e r t s o n c a t e g o r i e s a r e a p p l i c a b l e . A n y m a t e r i a l p l a n n e d t o t e a c h b o t h p r e s e n t a t i o n - t y p e c l u e s a n d i d e a - t y p e c l u e s s h o u l d p r o b a b l y a c c e p t t h e Shaw c a t e g o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e t a r g e t w o r d s . 50 Table 7 Presentation Clues Classified by Idea Clue Categories Most Common Idea Presentation Clue Categories Clue Categories (from Table 6) Beal/Roberts Shaw Robertson Cause/Effect * Comparison Contrast * Description/Definition Explanation * Time Past Experience/Direct Experience Synonym (substitute) Condition * Mood/Tone/Figurative Language * 51 Summary T h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w h a s f o c u s s e d o n t h r e e m a i n a r e a s : (1) t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a n d r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e , (2) t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a n d r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a n d (3) c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s a n d r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . T h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e c o n d o f t h e t h r e e m a i n a r e a s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s f o l l o w i n g J o n g s m a ' s d i s c u s s i o n a n d a d v i c e i n h i s f i r s t m o n o g r a p h i n 1971 . H i s s e c o n d m o n o g r a p h i n 1980 c i t e d s t u d i e s i n w h i c h s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s seemed t o f o l l o w h i s a d v i c e w i t h t h e o u t c o m e b e i n g r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s w i t h i m p r o v e d m e t h o d o l o g i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s . T a b l e 3 p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s , w h e r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y m o r e r e s e a r c h e r s a c h i e v e d " s u c c e s s " t h a n w e r e e v i d e n t i n J o n g s m a ' s 1971 r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A g a i n , t h i s s u c c e s s i s p r o b a b l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f b e t t e r s t u d i e s , w h e r e more d i r e c t e d a n d f o c u s s e d t e a c h i n g o c c u r r e d a n d w h e r e d e s i g n a n d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s w e r e m o r e c a r e f u l l y d e v e l o p e d a n d a p p l i e d . CHAPTER I I I DESIGN OF THE STUDY T h e s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s t h r e e a r e a s o f c o n c e r n : (1) t h e u s e o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a s a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n ; (2) t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i r e c t f o c u s o n s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t c l u e s — i d e a c l u e s ( n o u n / v e r b d e l e t i o n s ) and p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s ( c o n n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s ) ; a n d (3) t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c l o z e l e s s o n s p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h i n t e n s i v e o r n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g . T h e t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d t h e t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n s e c u r i n g t h e d a t a . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e f i e l d t r i a l , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m s a n d t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t t o t r e a t m e n t , t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c l o z e l e s s o n s , a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s . T h i s i n t u r n i s f o l l o w e d by c e r t a i n e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l p r o c e d u r e s . F i n a l l y , t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s a n d a n a l y s e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e d e s c r i b e d . T e a c h i n g M a t e r i a l s T h e f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s w e r e d e v e l o p e d f o r u s e by t e a c h e r s a n d / o r s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e s t u d y : t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s , t e a c h e r s ' g u i d e s , a n d t h e s t u d e n t s ' c o n t e x t u a l a i d c h a r t s . 52 53 C l o z e P r o c e d u r e L e s s o n s T w e n t y - t h r e e c l o z e p a s s a g e s , o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 t o 250 w o r d s i n l e n g t h , w e r e d e v e l o p e d f o r u s e i n t h e s t u d y . P a s s a g e s u s e d f o r t h e c o n -s t r u c t i o n o f c l o z e e x e r c i s e s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e b a s a l s e r i e s , U n d e r  C a n a d i a n S k i e s , B o o k 5 o f t h e C a n a d i a n H e r i t a g e R e a d e r s , p u b l i s h e d by J . M . D e n t a n d S o n s ( C a n a d a ) L t d . , T o r o n t o , 1962 . T h i s r e a d e r was s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e d s t o r i e s o f w i d e v a r i e t y a n d b e c a u s e i t was n o t f a m i l i a r t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s a m p l e . T h e s t o r i e s u s e d f o r t h e c l o z e p a s s a g e l e s s o n s w e r e c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y met c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a . I d e a a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s w e r e p r e s e n t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t e a c h o n e had t e n d e l e t i o n s . T h e p a s s a g e s a p p e a r e d i n t e r e s t i n g . T h e c l a s s e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f s t u d e n t s o f v a r y i n g b a c k -g r o u n d s a n d a s a r e s u l t a n a t t e m p t was made t o a d j u s t t o a v a r i e t y o f r e a d e r s ' i n t e r e s t s c o n s i d e r i n g v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s s e x a n d t h e m a t u r i t y l e v e l s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . A s a m p l e o f t h e p a s s a g e s u s e d c a n b e f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x B . The r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f e a c h o f t h e p a s s a g e s was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e D a l e -C h a l l R e a d a b i l i t y F o r m u l a ( D a l e a n d C h a l l , 1 9 4 8 ) . T h e r a n g e o f r e a d -a b i l i t y l e v e l s was f r o m 4 . 1 t o 5 . 8 , w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e p u b l i s h e r s o f t h e C a n a d i a n H e r i t a g e R e a d e r s t o be a n o r m a l f i f t h g r a d e r a n g e . T h e d e l e t i o n s y s t e m u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y was r e f e r r e d t o a s a " m o d i f i e d " c l o z e d e l e t i o n s y s t e m . T h i s s y s t e m i s c o n s i d e r e d m o d i f i e d i n t h t h a t t h e r e g u l a r o r t r a d i t i o n a l n word d e l e t i o n s y s t e m was n o t f o l l o w e d . S i n c e t h e l e s s o n s f o c u s s e d o n two t y p e s o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s — i d e a c l u e s and p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s — i t meant t h a t t h e i t e m s d e l e t e d , c o n n e c t i v e s o r n o u n / v e r b s , h a d t o r e f l e c t o r r e p r e s e n t t h e c o n t e x t u a l 54 clues being taught. As these did not appear in any systematic fashion, an every n t n word deletion system could not be adopted. An i l l u s t r a t i o n df the deletion procedure used is as follows: ten connectives were located in a selected passage. For each of these connectives, i t was determined which particular idea clue (comparison/contrast, cause/effect, etc.) was being presented or signalled. Then i t was determined which noun or verb represented the idea clue that was present. It was these connectives and corresponding nouns/verbs that were then deleted for the cloze procedure lesson. The lessons were constructed so that in one case the passage had ten connectives deleted while in the second case the same passage had the ten corresponding nouns and/or verbs deleted. The contextual clues were selected on the strength of the evidence obtained in the l i t e r a t u r e and also on the number of types of contextual clues and the frequency of their occurrence in the reader from which the passages were drawn. The li t e r a t u r e spoke of d i f f e r i n g contextual clues that were more common than others (Shaw, 1958; Robertson, 1968; Dulin, 1970). These contextual clues were used in the construction of cloze lessons. The idea type contextual clues and the presentation type con-textual clues on which lessons focused are presented in Table 8. The number of deletions per passage was set then for a number of reasons. F i r s t , i t avoided the need for having passages which were too long and which, i f used, could have required more than one class period to complete. Second, i t also prevented a possible overload of con-textual clues during any one particular lesson. Theory on effective teaching suggests that too many stimuli during any one lesson could produce a cognitive overload and result in confusion (Kasdon, 1971). Table 8 55 Idea Clues and Corresponding Presentation Clues Idea Clues Presentation Clues (Noun/Verb Deletions) (Connective Deletions) Cause/Effect as, but, for, since, so Comparison/Contrast as, but, then, or, so, which, however, besides Description for, then, that, which, who Time Relationship as, after, before, since, u n t i l , when, while, once, now, from Place Relationship where, there, here, near, from, under, far, above, beneath, below Past Experience/ Ideas and expressions that children have Familiar Expression previously heard Teachers' Guides Teachers who participated in Treatment Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were provided with a guide for each cloze procedure lesson. The guides con-tained the deleted words, the contextual clues involved, and an explana-tion or discussion of the contextual relationships that might help students develop an understanding of how to establish the deleted word or a suitable alternative. The following i s an example of the content of a teacher's guide along with the passage to which the guide is provided in Appendix B. Deleted Contextual Word* Clue Explanation Alternatives from place The author stated Fru Nilsson was to relationship hurrying and the kitchen is men- into tioned. The reader would establish in *(Lesson T i t l e : that she i s hurrying from, to, The Midnight Maypole) into, or jLn someplace. As every-body is ready to leave, and the fact the kitchen was mentioned, i t could be concluded she was proba-bly hurrying from the kitchen. 56 Contextual Aid Charts Research on teaching and learning (Mouly, 1968) suggested that a combined oral and visual format i n the presentation of the context clues be provided. Since two modalities, visio n and hearing, could increase learning efficiency over a single modality (Smith, 1971) a vehicle for the.presentation context clues was sought. Catterson (1959) provided the possible vehicle. She suggested that a visual aid along with teacher oral presentation could be provided. A printed Contextual Aid Chart (Appendix B) was, then, provided for each student. Besides the oral discussion that would occur, the Contextual Aid Chart would be available to the students during and after the completion of cloze passage exercises, The Contextual Aid Chart contained a description of both types of contextual clues (idea and presentation clues), an explanation of the relationship between the two contextual clues, and an example of the particular clues i n context. The use of the Contextual Aid Chart meant the students had a l l six of the context clues before them at a l l times. An example of the content of the Contextual Aid Chart is provided below. Idea Clue Presentation Clue Explanation Example Cause/ as, because, for, Cause/effect means some- They did Effect since, so, but thing has happened because not go of something else. The outside presentation clues signal because the cause/effect relation- i t was ship. too cold. 57 T e a c h i n g S u p p o r t M a t e r i a l s B e s i d e s m a t e r i a l s t h a t w e r e i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o r d e l i v e r y o f l e s s o n s , t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e p r o v i d e d w i t h w r i t t e n i n s t r u c -t i o n s t o e n a b l e a more e f f i c i e n t , s y s t e m a t i c , a n d c o n t r o l l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l e s s o n s . T e a c h e r s ' I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r C l o z e P r o c e d u r e L e s s o n s A l l t e a c h e r s w e r e p r o v i d e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n i n a c o n s i s t e n t a n d s y s t e m a t i c m a n n e r . To l i m i t t h e p o s s i b l e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l e s s o n s , t h e f o l l o w i n g p r a c t i c e s w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d : 1. A l l t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d o r a l a n d w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p u r p o s e a n d u s e o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . N o t e A p p e n d i x B . 2. A l l t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d o r a l a n d w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e l e s s o n s t h a t w e r e p e r t i n e n t t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n to w h i c h t h e i r c l a s s h a d b e e n a s s i g n e d . N o t e A p p e n d i x B . 3. A l l t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d a s t a n d a r d s t a t e m e n t f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t s . E a c h o f t h e t e a c h e r s was i n s t r u c t e d t o r e a d t o t h e c l a s s what was t o be d o n e a n d how t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e t o go a b o u t a c c o m -p l i s h i n g t h e t a s k . T h e s t a t e m e n t s i s s u e d t o t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d t o t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e i n . N o t e A p p e n d i x B . 4 . T e a c h e r s w e r e s u p p l i e d w i t h s t a n d a r d f o r m s t o r e c o r d s c o r e s and t o make t h e t r a n s f e r o f d a t a e a s i e r f o r a n a l y s i s . N o t e A p p e n d i x C . 58 T e s t i n g I n s t r u m e n t s T h e t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y i n c l u d e d a p r e - a n d p o s t -t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s , a p r e - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e - h e n s i o n T e s t , a p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t , a n d a p o s t -t r e a t m e n t R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t . F o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a c h o f t h e s e t e s t s . T h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s — L e v e l s 10 a n d 1 1 , Forms 3M a n d 4M T h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s u s e d t o o b t a i n p r e - a n d p o s t - c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s , was b a s e d u p o n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1 . N o r m a t i v e d a t a e x i s t e d f o r C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s ; 2 . B i r c h , r e p o r t i n g i n t h e N i n t h M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t Y e a r b o o k ( 1 9 B 5 ) , r a t e d t h e t e s t a s a r e l i a b l e a n d v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t f o r m e a s u r i n g l i t e r a l , i n f e r e n t i a l a n d e v a l u a t i v e c o m p r e h e n s i o n ; 3 . S e c t i o n s o f t h e R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n S u b t e s t a p p e a r e d t o m e a s u r e s k i l l s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e t h a t m i g h t be d e v e l o p e d by c o m p l e t i o n o f c l o z e p a s s a g e e x e r c i s e s ; a n d , 4 . T h e t e s t was u s e d r e g u l a r l y by t h e R e g i n a B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n a n d a s t h e t e a c h e r s h a d a n a v e r a g e o f 12 y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ( r a n g i n g f r o m t h r e e y e a r s t o t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s ) , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g o f t h e t e s t was f e l t t o b e w e l l w i t h i n t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e s t u d y . C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t s P r e - a n d p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t s w e r e u s e d a s f u r t h e r m e a s u r e s o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . S i n c e t h e t r e a t m e n t p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y r e q u i r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e c l o z e p a s s a g e s , i t was f e l t t h a t c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m p r e - a n d p o s t - c l o z e t e s t s w o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l d a t a d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r e a t -ment c o n d i t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d . C l o z e t e s t s , o n t h e w h o l e , h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d a s r e l i a b l e a n d v a l i d t e s t s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n ( B o r m u t h , 1 9 6 9 ) . B o t h t h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t and t h e p o s t -t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t u s e d a n e v e r y f i f t h w o r d . d e l e t i o n s y s t e m . Much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e u s e o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a s a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e recommends a f i f t h w o r d d e l e t i o n s y s t e m . A l s o , a n e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s c o r i n g s y s t e m was u s e d o n b o t h t h e p r e - and p o s t -c l o z e t e s t s . W h i l e Jongsma (1980) s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c c e p t i n g synonyms was p r o b a b l y u s e f u l when u s i n g c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , he d i d s t a t e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e s i n s c o r e s b e t w e e n e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t a n d synonym s c o r i n g . T h e e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e was s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s s c o r e d t h e t e s t s I n d e p e n d e n t l y a n d a n e x a c t word r e p l a c e m e n t w o u l d a v o i d d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g what m i g h t h a v e b e e n a n a c c e p t a b l e s y n o n y m . K e y s w i t h t h e e x a c t d e l e t e d w o r d s w e r e p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h o f t h e t e a c h e r s . T h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d by D r . C . P e n n o c k , L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e - h e n s i o n T e s t was d e v e l o p e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e  C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t was 224 w o r d s i n l e n g t h a n d c o n t a i n e d 41 c l o z e i t e m s ; t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t , 271 w o r d s i n l e n g t h , c o n -t a i n e d 50 c l o z e i t e m s . B o t h t h e p r e - and p o s t - c l o z e t e s t s d e a l t w i t h s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h a t was w i t h i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n e i t h e r t h r o u g h e v e r y d a y e v e n t s o r t h r o u g h s c h o o l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . T h e p r e -60 t e s t d i s c u s s e d d i a m o n d s — h o w t h e y a r e c u t , t h e i r c o l o r , t h e i r u s e . T h e p o s t - t e s t was o n n i c k e l — w h e r e i t i s f o u n d , how i t i s o b t a i n e d a n d r e f i n e d , a n d i t s u s e s . T h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t was f i e l d - t e s t e d by D r . P e n n o c k a n d a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t u s i n g a s a m p l e o f g r a d e f i v e s t u d e n t s . T h e y r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l was a t g r a d e f i v e l e v e l a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e D a l e - C h a l l R e a d a b i l i t y F o r m u l a . D a t a d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y o f t h e t e s t w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . T h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d t o be c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t i n t e r m s o f r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y . S i x r a t e r s , w o r k i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y and u s i n g t h e D a l e - C h a l l R e a d a b i l i t y F o r m u l a , r a t e d t h e r e a d a b i l i t y f r o m 4 . 9 t o 7 . 0 , w i t h f o u r o f t h e r a t e r s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e t e s t t o be b e t w e e n t h e f i f t h a n d s i x t h g r a d e r e a d i n g l e v e l . T h e mean r a t i n g e q u a l l e d 5 . 8 . A p o s t - h o c e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t some o f t h e w o r d s w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e t e s t , s u c h a s c h u n k s , a p p e a r i n g t h r e e t i m e s , a n d n a t u r e , w e r e n o t o n t h e D a l e - C h a l l l i s t . T h e s e w o r d s w e r e j u d g e d t o be f a m i l i a r t o most o f t h e g r a d e f i v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s a m p l e , a n d t h u s , w i t h i n t h e i r r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y . Had t h e s e w o r d s b e e n c o u n t e d , t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e b e e n somewhat c l o s e r t o t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l o f t h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . C o p i e s o f t h e p r e -a n d p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x A . T h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t (1968) T h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t was u s e d a s a p o s t -t r e a t m e n t m e a s u r e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o u s e c o n n e c t i v e s i n s e n -t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n e x e r c i s e s . T h e t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f 20 u n r e l a t e d s e n t e n c e s 61 in which 14 sentences had one connective removed, five sentences had two connectives removed, and one sentence had three connectives removed. The total number of responses students would make was 27; thus the scores could range from zero to 27. The internal consistency of the test was determined by the Kuder-Richardson formula for a sample of 199 test items which were administered to 112 children i n grades four, f i v e , and six. It was revealed that the items did have high intercorrelations with each other and that they were measures of the attribute being tested, the pupils' understanding of connectives in reading. The test items constructed were taken from basal readers that were used in the school d i s t r i c t s in which Robertson con-ducted her study. A copy of the Robertson Written Connectives Test is provided i n Appendix A. Procedures The discussion w i l l include the f i e l d t r i a l , the selection of classrooms, assignment of classrooms to treatment, duration of the study, administration of cloze procedure lessons, administration of tests, and the experimental control procedures. Field T r i a l A f u l l - s c a l e formal p i l o t study was not carried out. However, a sample of three lessons was given to each of two grade f i v e teachers in Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia school system. The two teachers administered the lessons to approximately f i f t y children and noted the students' responses. These teachers provided useful and supportive information on the method of presenting and teaching contextual aids when teaching cloze l e s s o n s . T h e t e a c h e r s ' comments w e r e u s e f u l i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f , a n d r e f i n e m e n t s t o t h e l e s s o n s a n d t h e t e a c h e r s ' g u i d e s f o r t h e a c t u a l s t u d y . S e l e c t i o n o f C l a s s r o o m s T e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y was o n a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . A l i s t o f s c h o o l s c o n t a i n i n g g r a d e f i v e c l a s s r o o m s was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s . From a n o r i g i n a l l i s t o f 3 0 , s c h o o l s w e r e c o n t a c t e d a n d i f t h e p r i n c i p a l e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y , a v i s i t t o t h e s c h o o l was m a d e . A d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d g r a d e f i v e t e a c h e r s f o l l o w e d a n d t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e was l e f t t o t h e t e a c h e r s . T w e n t y - s i x t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y a n d o f t h e s e , t w e n t y - f o u r a g r e e d t o t h e i r s c h o o l ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S i n c e t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n was l e f t t o t h e t e a c h e r s , t h e p r i n c i p a l s a r r a n g e d f o r m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e g r a d e f i v e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . D u r i n g t h e s e m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d t e a c h e r s , t h e p u r p o s e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e s t u d y w e r e c a r e f u l l y e x p l a i n e d a n d t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e made aware t h a t , i f t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d , t h e y w o u l d be r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o a n y o n e o f t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . T w e n t y - t w o t e a c h e r s , f r o m n i n e t e e n s c h o o l s , a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . A s s i g n m e n t o f C l a s s r o o m s t o T r e a t m e n t W h i l e s t u d e n t s w e r e n o t i n d i v i d u a l l y a s s i g n e d t o t r e a t m e n t s , c l a s s -rooms s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s , u s i n g a t a b l e o f random numbers ( G l a s s a n d S t a n l e y , 1 9 7 0 ) . T h e number o f c l a s s e s a s s i g n e d t o e a c h t r e a t m e n t l e v e l i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9 . 6 3 T a b l e 9 T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s , T r e a t m e n t C o n d i t i o n s , a n d C l a s s r o o m s f o r T r e a t m e n t T r e a t m e n t N u m b e r o f _ T r e a t m e n t C o n d i t i o n s A s s i g n e d G r o u p ° C l a s s r o o m s 1 S t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e d c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s 5 w i t h N o u n / V e r b d e l e t i o n s a n d r e c e i v e d i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g r e g a r d i n g u s e o f c o n t e x -t u a l a i d s . 2 S t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s 5 w i t h c o n n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s a n d r e c e i v e d i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g r e g a r d i n g u s e o f c o n t e x -t u a l a i d s . 3 S t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s 4 w i t h N o u n / V e r b d e l e t i o n s and d i d n o t r e c e i v e i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g r e g a r d i n g u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s . 4 S t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s 4 w i t h c o n n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s a n d d i d n o t r e c e i v e i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g r e g a r d i n g u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s . 5 S t u d e n t s d i d n o t r e c e i v e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e 4 l e s s o n s a n d c o n t i n u e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a s t h e y w o u l d h a v e n o r m a l l y ( t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ) . D u r a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y T h e s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d f o r a p e r i o d o f e i g h t weeks d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - t h r e e c l o z e p a s s a g e s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d . T h e p o s t -t e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g t h e week f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n s . 64 Administration of Cloze Procedure Lessons Each teacher was provided with the twenty-three cloze procedure lessons along with a standard set of written instructions (Appendix B), and the teachers' guides which were part of each lesson. Teachers were provided with instructions for the administration of the cloze procedure lessons. Teachers in Treatment Groups 3 and 4 (noun/verb and connective deletions with non-intensive teaching) were instructed to keep discussion to a minimum. A l l teachers in treatment conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4 were asked to encourage the students to try to respond to a l l the cloze blanks in the passage and to use the contextual aid chart as often as they f e l t necessary. For Treatment Groups 3 and 4, the objective was to determine i f students could learn to use contextual clues with limited input from the teacher. Teachers were also provided with instructions regarding the length of time intended for each lesson. Teachers agreed that each lesson would take up one class period, i.e. the length of the regular reading class. Students would be given approximately 25 minutes for the completion of the passage with the rest of the time devoted to either discussion and explanation or for merely marking the lessons. A total of approximately 40 to 50 minutes was spent on each lesson. The cloze lessons were administered three times a week through-out the experimental period. Research design would have made i t desir-able to have a l l classes having these three sessions at a uniform time each week. Field conditions, however, made this impossible to observe as platooning of students put many classes in time conflict with one another and curriculum schedules could not be altered. 65 W h i l e n o t r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s o n t e a c h i n g c l o z e l e s s o n s , t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o c o n t i n u e t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g l e s s o n s a s t h e y w o u l d n o r m a l l y h a v e d o n e . T h e y w e r e n o t p r o v i d e d w i t h a n y m a t e r i a l s o r l e s s o n s d u r i n g t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f T e s t s A s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s i s a d m i n i s t e r e d r e g u l a r l y t o a l l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e R e g i n a S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i n M a y / J u n e o f e a c h s c h o o l t e r m . S c o r e s f r o m L e v e l 10 , F o r m 3M o f t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( a d m i n i s t e r e d i n J u n e ) s e r v e d a s t h e p r e - t e s t c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s . T h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n e a r l y O c t o b e r i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e c l o z e l e s s o n s . L e v e l 1 1 , Form 4M o f t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s was t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e c l a s s -room t e a c h e r s i n J a n u a r y a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d . T h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t a n d t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n  C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t w e r e a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d i n J a n u a r y . E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n t r o l P r o c e d u r e s M o n i t o r s ' C h e c k l i s t F o u r (4) m o n i t o r s v i s i t e d a l l c l a s s r o o m s i n t h e t r e a t m e n t c l a s s e s t o o b s e r v e t e a c h e r s w h i l e t h e y t a u g h t t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s . E a c h o f t h e m o n i t o r s was p r o v i d e d w i t h a M o n i t o r s ' C h e c k l i s t ( A p p e n d i x C) o n w h i c h t h e y r e c o r d e d t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i l e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h e M o n i t o r s ' C h e c k l i s t s w e r e d e s i g n e d so t h a t t h e y w e r e a p p l i c a b l e t o e a c h o f t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . V i s i t s w e r e made t o a l l c l a s s r o o m s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . 66 T h e f o u r m o n i t o r s w e r e e a c h p r o v i d e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s t u d y a n d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s a b o u t c o l l e c t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d . Two o f t h e m o n i t o r s w e r e f o r m e r t e a c h e r s , w h i l e two w e r e s t u d e n t s c o m -p l e t i n g t h e i r B . E d , p r o g r a m s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f R e g i n a . T h e m o n i t o r s v i s i t e d t h e c l a s s r o o m s t h r e e t i m e s , w i t h v i s i t s s c h e d u l e d r a n d o m l y . F o l l o w i n g e a c h v i s i t , t h e y t u r n e d i n t h e M o n i t o r s ' C h e c k l i s t t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r a t w h i c h t i m e a c o n f e r e n c e was h e l d w i t h t h e m o n i t o r . I f t h e m o n i t o r r e p o r t e d c o n c e r n s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h a d had o r p r o b l e m s t h a t had b e e n o b s e r v e d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r v i s i t e d t h e s c h o o l and d e a l t w i t h t h e c o n c e r n o r p r o b l e m . O v e r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y t h e r e s e a r c h e r made f i v e v i s i t s t o t h e s c h o o l s t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o t e a c h e r s who e x p e r i e n c e d some d i f f i c u l t y , a s f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f some e x p l a n a t i o n o n t h e t e a c h e r s ' k e y s . T e a c h e r s ' Comments T h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e s t u d y o t h e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p t e a c h e r s , w e r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a T e a c h e r s ' Comment s h e e t ( A p p e n d i x C ) . T h i s was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t e a c h e r s t o make comments f o l l o w -i n g t h e t e a c h i n g o f e a c h l e s s o n . T h e t e a c h e r s c o u l d , o n a l e s s o n by l e s s o n b a s i s , r e c o r d d a t a t h a t m i g h t b e u s e f u l t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T e a c h e r s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e T e a c h e r s w e r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o p r o v i d e a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t e a c h e r s t o r e c o r d what t h e y deemed p e r t i n e n t a n d e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e s t u d y . T e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s c o u l d a l s o be u s e f u l f o r p l a n n i n g f u t u r e s t u d i e s . A c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x C . 67 S t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e s a n d A n a l y s e s E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n T h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y was a p a r t i a l h i e r a r c h i c a l d e s i g n , w i t h c l a s s e s n e s t e d w i t h i n t r e a t m e n t a n d b o t h f a c t o r s , t r e a t m e n t a n d a b i l i t y , f u l l y c r o s s e d w i t h a b i l i t y . T h i s d e s i g n i s d i s c u s s e d i n K i r k (1968) a n d W i n e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) . A l s o , C a m p b e l l a n d S t a n l e y (1963) d e s c r i b e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d e s i g n a s q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l . B o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s w e r e ' n a t u r a l l y a s s e m b l e d ' c o l l e c t i v e s ( c l a s s r o o m s ) w h i c h i n t u r n w e r e r a n -d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t r e a t m e n t . To a c c o u n t f o r p r i o r d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e c l a s s e s due t o t h e l a c k o f random a s s i g n m e n t o f s t u d e n t s t o c l a s s , p r e -t e s t s c o r e s , w h i c h w e r e c o l l e c t e d b e f o r e t r e a t m e n t commenced, w e r e u s e d a s a c o - v a r i a t e i n s u b s e q u e n t d a t a a n a l y s i s . H i g h , M i d d l e , a n d Low r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n g r o u p s w e r e f o r m e d o n t h e b a s i s o f s c o r e s a c h i e v e d o n t h e R e a d i n g s u b t e s t o f t h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( L e v e l 1 0 , Form 3 M ) . T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s w e r e d e f i n e d o n t h e b a s i s o f p e r c e n t i l e l e v e l s , w i t h t h e 3 3 r d a n d 6 7 t h p e r -c e n t i l e s s e l e c t e d a s d i v i s i o n p o i n t s . T h i s meant t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s o f 4 . 4 a n d l o w e r w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s Low C o m p r e -h e n d e r s , s t u d e n t s w i t h g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s b e t w e e n 4 . 5 a n d 5 .4 w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s M i d d l e C o m p r e h e n d e r s , a n d s t u d e n t s w i t h g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s o f 5 . 5 a n d h i g h e r w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s H i g h C o m p r e h e n d e r s . T a b l e 10 shows a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e a c c o r d i n g t o a b i l i t y l e v e l s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s a n d a s s i g n e d t o t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t c o n -d i t i o n s . A s s h o w n , d a t a f r o m 20 c l a s s r o o m s i n v o l v i n g 434 s t u d e n t s w e r e r e t u r n e d . 68 Table 10 Distribution of Classes and Students in the Five Treatment Conditions and A b i l i t y Levels Treatment „, A b i l i t y Levels Class No. of Group H M L Totals Classrooms Total 5 6 8 19 * c 2 6 7 5 18 1 C3 5 14 3 22 5 C 4 13 8 4 25 C5 15 8 3 26 Total 44 43 23 110 110 Cl 9 9 1 19 C2 10 6 6 22 2 C3 7 9 2 18 5 C 4 15 13 4 32 C5 15 7 2 24 Total 56 44 15 115 115 Cl 7 13 0 20 3 C 2 14 7 1 22 3 C3 11 8 6 25 Total 32 28 7 67 67 Cl 7 11 3 21 4 C 2 8 7 2 17 3 C 3 8 13 8 29 Total 23 31 13 67 67 C l 1 8 6 15 ~5 c 2 5 6 7 18 4 c3 6 11 6 23 C4 7 7 5 19 Total 19 32 24 75 75 Grand Total 174 178 82 434 20 434 69 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s T h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d t r e a t m e n t p r o c e d u r e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s w h e r e i n t a c t c l a s s r o o m s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d t h e c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s . I n t a c t c l a s s e s w e r e u s e d b e c a u s e t e a c h e r a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n c e r n s made i t i m p r a c t i c a l t o r e -a r r a n g e c l a s s e s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l o r t o ' r e a r r a n g e s u b j e c t s w i t h i n c l a s s -r o o m s . S i n c e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n r e q u i r e s t h a t g r o u p s s h o u l d b e c o m p a r a b l e o r m a t c h e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o a n y r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s w h i c h m i g h t c o n f o u n d t h e v a r i a b l e s u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o m a t c h o r e q u a t e g r o u p s by a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e . T h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e c h o s e n f o r t h e s t u d y was t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e ( A N C O V A ) . T h e u s e o f t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e (ANCOVA) a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o t e s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s b e t w e e n two o r more g r o u p s a f t e r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e - t r e a t m e n t s c o r e s h a v e b e e n s t a t i s t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e d ( C o c h r a n e , 1957 ; E l a s h o f f , 1 9 6 9 ; W i n e r , 1 9 7 1 ; C a m p b e l l a n d S t a n l e y , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h i s r e m o v a l o f i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s a l l o w s t h e u s e o f i n t a c t c l a s s r o o m s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h i n c l a s s r o o m s t h a t a r e n o t c h a n g e d i n a n y w a y . T h e a s s u m p t i o n c o u l d b e made t h a t t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s m i g h t d i f f e r i n s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o n t h e i r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s on t h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t c l o z e t e s t ( C l o z e 1) a n d o n t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e -h e n s i o n a n d v o c a b u l a r y s u b - t e s t o f t h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t s c o r e s o n t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( C T B S ) . On t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i t was d e c i d e d t o a n a l y z e s t a t i s t i c a l l y t h e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s o b t a i n e d b y t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was u s e d w i t h t h e a l p h a l e v e l s e t a t . 0 5 . R e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed t h a t t h e r e 70 w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s among t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s o n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c  S k i l l s ( C T B S ) . T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s among t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s o n t h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t c l o z e c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t ( s e e T a b l e 1 1 ) . T a b l e 11 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s o n P r e - T r e a t m e n t S c o r e s o n V o c a b u l a r y a n d C o m p r e h e n s i o n S c o r e s o n t h e CTBS a n d o n t h e P r e - T r e a t m e n t C l o z e T e s t M e a s u r e d f ms F S i g n i f i c a n c e o f F V o c a b u l a r y 4 3 9 0 . 98 4. .102 0 . 003* C o m p r e h e n s i o n 4 4 2 2 . 55 4, .72 0 . 001* C o m p r e h e n s i o n 4 1 2 . 72 0. .45 0 . 769 * p .05 T h e s c o r e s o n p r e - t r e a t m e n t c l o z e t e s t showed t h a t t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s w e r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t . T h i s was p r o b a b l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e f a c t t h a t n o n e o f t h e s t u d e n t s h a d h a d p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . T h e f a c t t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean s c o r e s w e r e p r e s e n t on t h e v o c a b u l a r y a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s was s u f f i c i e n t t o show t h a t t h e r e was j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e u s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . To meet t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e u s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e a t l e a s t two c o n d i t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d ( S a x , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e f i r s t 71 i s t h a t s u b j e c t s be r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y met t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t . W h i l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l members o f e a c h c l a s s r o o m w e r e n o t r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e a c h o f t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n -d i t i o n s , t h e c l a s s r o o m s a s a w h o l e w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e t r e a t -ment c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s random a s s i g n m e n t o f c l a s s r o o m s t o t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s f u l f i l l s t h e r a n d o m i z a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t o f ANCOVA. A s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h e u s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was t h a t t e s t m e a s u r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d u n d e r l i k e o r u n i f o r m c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h a t t h e s e m e a s u r e s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( t h e e f f e c t o n c o m p r e h e n s i o n a s a r e s u l t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t ) . T h i s s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n was met i n t h a t t h e t e s t m e a s u r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e o b t a i n e d i n t h e n o r m a l , f a m i l i a r c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g w i t h t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e t e s t s . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e u n i f o r m a n d c o n -s i s t e n t d u r i n g b o t h t h e p r e - a n d t h e p o s t - t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . A l s o , t h e p r e - a n d p o s t - m e a s u r e s d i d c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . T h e p r e - a n d p o s t - t e s t s a r e i n d i c a t o r s o f s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s i n c o m p r e -h e n s i o n . T h e s e t e s t s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n a r e m e a s u r e s o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( c o m p r e h e n s i o n ) w h i c h was t h e s k i l l b e i n g d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d . F u r t h e r , i f ANCOVA i s t o be u s e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n m u s t be made t h a t t h e c o v a r i a t e s c o r e s i n t h i s c a s e p r e - t e s t c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s w e r e i n d i c e s o f p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s . T a b l e 12 shows t h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t m e a n s , a n d t h e u n a d j u s t e d and t h e a d j u s t e d means o b t a i n e d o n t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s and o n t h e C l o z e  C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t f o r t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . T h e s e f i g u r e s show 72 that the covariate scores are indices of the pre-experimental d i f f e r -ences between the groups. The figures on this table provide the reader with information that assists in the interpretation of the analyzed data. Table 12 Pre-Treatment Means, Unadjusted Means, and Adjusted Means on the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s and Cloze Comprehension Test for the Five Treatment Groups Criterion Measure Treatment Group Control Variable Pre-Test Achievement Means Criterion Variable Post-Test Achievement Means Unadjusted Adjusted Canadian Test of  Basic S k i l l s Treatment Group: 1 2 3 4 (Control) 5 52.35 53.66 53.40 51.18 48.03 57.95 58.87 58.93 59.02 55.08 57.86 59.69 60.40 58.78 52.85 Cloze Comprehension  Test Treatment Group: 1 2 3 4 (Control) 5 20.59 20.23 20.87 20.51 19.79 19.62 19.87 18.48 19.95 18.88 19.67 20.04 19.00 19.87 18.15 73 D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n T e a c h e r s r e c o r d e d s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o n t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( p r e - a n d p o s t - ) a n d o n t h e p r e - a n d p o s t -c l o z e t e s t s . T h e r a w s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o n t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c  S k i l l s t e s t s w e r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e t a b l e s p r o v i d e d by t h e t e s t p u b l i s h e r s . T h e s e w e r e s u b m i t t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r by e a c h o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s . V e r i f i c a t i o n o f S c o r e s S c o r e s w e r e v e r i f i e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h s c o r e s w e r e e n t e r e d . T h e v e r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , c o n d u c t e d b e f o r e t h e s c o r e s w e r e s u b m i t t e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , was c a r r i e d o u t by a n i n d e -p e n d e n t e x a m i n e r , a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n t h e L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t -ment o f t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n a t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e e r r o r r a t e was l e s s t h a n o n e p e r c e n t . T h e c o d e d d a t a w e r e t h e n k e y p u n c h e d w i t h 100% v e r i -f i c a t i o n b y p e r s o n n e l a t t h e D a t a P r o c e s s i n g C e n t r e a t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s e s P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d t o e x p l o r e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f p o o l i n g c l a s s r o o m s . R e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a T y p e I e r r o r was g r e a t e r t h a n .05 f o r c l a s s w i t h i n t r e a t m e n t ( C L x T R ) , i t was l e s s t h a n . 2 0 , t h e minimum recommended l e v e l t o be e x c e e d e d f o r p o o l i n g ( W i n e r , 1 9 7 1 ) . A s a r e s u l t , s u b s e -q u e n t a n a l y s e s w e r e c o m p l e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r t i a l l y n e s t e d a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e m o d e l ( K i r k , 1968 ; W i n e r , 1 9 7 1 ) . 74 Final Analyses Each of the dependent variables—comprehension as measured by the post-treatment Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s and by the post-treatment Cloze Comprehension Test, and knowledge of use of connectives as measured by the Robertson Written Connectives Test—was analyzed separately with the pre-treatment Cloze Comprehension Test used as the covariate measure. Classes were treated as a random factor; thus the main analysis was a p a r t i a l l y nested, mixed analysis of covariance. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The present chapter describes the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the data collected to test the n u l l hypothesis orig i n a l l y presented i n Chapter I. Hypothesis I focussed on the reading comprehension achievement of three a b i l i t y groups (AB), fiv e treatment groups (TR), and an inter-action of a b i l i t y and treatment (AB x TR) as measured by the post-treatment Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s and the post-treatment Cloze  Comprehension Test following an experimental treatment program that used cloze exercises presented in different forms of deletion systems and different degrees of teaching intensity. Hypothesis II focussed on a competency in the use of connectives by the groups under the same treat-ment conditions. The knowledge of connectives was measured by the Robertson Written Connectives Test. In both Hypothesis I and II, the a b i l i t y groups were categorized as High, Middle, and Low achievers in reading comprehension. Hypothesis III investigated interaction effects of the treatments and the a b i l i t y groups and also the classrooms. The study involved 434 students located in 20 intact classrooms. The classrooms were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions or a control group. The experimental groups were required to complete regularly, over a period of eight weeks, cloze passages where either noun/verb deletions ("idea clues") or connective deletions ("presentation 75 c l u e s " ) w e r e d e l e t e d . T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s w e r e a l s o s u b j e c t e d t o d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t i e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . D a t a w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h p r e -t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t p r o c e d u r e s u s i n g a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . T e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s I H y p o t h e s i s I s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean l e v e l s o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n o b t a i n e d by t h e s t u d e n t s o n t h e (1) C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s , a n d (2) p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e  C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t a m o n g : a) t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s ; b) t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s ; a n d c ) t h e g r o u p s f o r m e d by t h e c r o s s i n g o f t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s , (AB x T R ) , and t h e c r o s s i n g o f c l a s s w i t h i n t r e a t m e n t s (CL w T R ) . S c o r e s O b t a i n e d o n t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s (CTBS) T a b l e 13 shows t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s w e r e o b t a i n e d f o r t r e a t m e n t ( T R ) . T h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s d i d o b t a i n s c o r e s t h a t w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e . 0 1 l e v e l . F u r t h e r a n a l -y s i s , u s i n g S c h e f f e ' s m u l t i p l e means t e s t a p p l i e d a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e means, o f t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r w i t h l o w a b i l i t y g r o u p s s c o r i n g l o w e s t a n d h i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p s s c o r i n g h i g h e s t . T a b l e 13 showed t h a t t h e g r o u p s f o r m e d by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e a b i l i t y l e v e l s a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s (AB x TR) d i d n o t o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s u l t s . T a b l e 14 shows t h e a d j u s t e d means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o b t a i n e d by e a c h o f t h e a b i l i t y g r o u p s . T a b l e s o f means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s a n d i n t e r a c t i o n o f a b i l i t y by t r e a t m e n t (AB x TR) 77 can be found in Appendix D. Table 13 ANCOVA Reading Comprehension Mean Scores with the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s as the Criterion Variable and the Pre-Cloze Comprehension Test Scores as the Covariate Source df MS F P TR—Treatment 4 203.15 2.62 0.07678 CLwTR—Class within Treatment 15 77.53 1.37 0.16051 A B — A b i l i t y 2 2496.2 31.66 0.00000** AB x TR 8 101.43 1.29 0.28879 CLwTR x AB 29 78.84 1.39 0.09068 Residual 319 56.63 Total 433 **p<0.01 Table 14 Adjusted Means and Standard Deviations of the Three A b i l i t y Groups as Measured by the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s , Reading Comprehension Subtest A b i l i t y Levels High Medium Low n=173 n=178 n=83 Means " 64.97 56.45 46.87 Standard Deviations 8.53 7.61 10.12 78 S c o r e s O b t a i n e d o n t h e P o s t - T r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t (CCT) T a b l e 15 shows t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e n o t o b t a i n e d f o r t r e a t m e n t (TR) n o r f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f a b i l i t y by t r e a t m e n t (AB x T R ) . T h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s , h o w e v e r , d i d o b t a i n s c o r e s t h a t w e r e s i g n i f -i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . T a b l e 15 ANCOVA R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n Mean S c o r e s w i t h t h e P o s t - C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t a s t h e C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e a n d t h e P r e - C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t a s t h e C o v a r i a t e S o u r c e d f MS F P T R — T r e a t m e n t 4 3 1 . 7 6 2 . 1 8 0 . 1 2 1 1 0 C L w T R — C l a s s w i t h i n T r e a t m e n t 15 1 4 . 5 8 0 . 8 1 0 . 6 7 0 1 0 A B — A b i l i t y 2 2 7 0 . 7 1 16 .12 0 . 0 0 0 0 2 * * AB x TR 8 1 4 . 7 6 0 . 8 8 0 .54558 CLwTR x AB 29 16 .79 0 . 9 3 0 .57507 R e s i d u a l 319 1 8 . 0 8 T o t a l 433 **p<0 .01 S c h e f f e ' s m u l t i p l e means t e s t a p p l i e d a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f -i c a n c e showed t h a t , a s was t h e c a s e i n t h e CTBS s c o r e s , t h e H i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s . T h e d i f f e r e n t i a l i n s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e M i d d l e and Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s , h o w e v e r , was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . T h e a d j u s t e d means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o b t a i n e d b y e a c h o f t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s o n t h e 79 post-treatment Cloze Comprehension Test are shown in Table 16. Tables of adjusted means and standard deviations for the five treatment groups and the interaction of A b i l i t y by Treatment (AB x TR) can be found in Appendix D. Table 16 Adjusted Means and Standard Deviations of the Three A b i l i t y Groups as Measured by the Post-Treatment Cloze Comprehension Test A b i l i t y Levels High Medium Low n«173 n=178 n=83 Means 22.44 18.44 15.29 Standard Deviations 5.15 4.42 4.44 In summary, then, the analyses of the data provided information that led to the following conclusions regarding Hypothesis I. 1. The f i r s t part of Hypothesis I which stated that there would be no significant differences in the mean level of reading comprehension among the fi v e treatment groups as measured by the post-treatment Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s and the post-treatment Cloze Comprehension  Test could not be rejected*. The analyzed data indicated that neither the types of deletions systems nor the level of intensity of teaching produced d i f f e r e n t i a l effects on the scores obtained by the five treatment groups. 80 2. T h e s e c o n d p a r t o f H y p o t h e s i s I s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean l e v e l o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a s m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s and t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t among t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s . T h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s d i d o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s ; t h u s , p a r t two o f H y p o t h e s i s I was r e j e c t e d . E a c h o f t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s o b t a i n e d mean s c o r e s o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t  o f B a s i c S k i l l s t h a t w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r . How-e v e r , s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t showed t h a t w h i l e t h e H i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p o b t a i n e d s c o r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s , t h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f -i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e M i d d l e and Low c o m p r e h e n s i o n g r o u p s . T h e s c o r e s o n t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e H i g h , M i d d l e , a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s r e m a i n e d a s t h e y w e r e b e f o r e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m . T h e y d i d n o t s h i f t i n a n y d i r e c t i o n t h a t w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t had a m a j o r e f f e c t o n a n y o f t h e g r o u p s . H o w e v e r , t h e s t u d e n t s ' s c o r e s o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n  T e s t d i d i n d i c a t e a s h i f t i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y . T h i s was d e m o n -s t r a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t e s t s c o r e s d i d n o t show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n M i d d l e and Low a b i l i t y c o m p r e h e n s i o n . I t m i g h t be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e Low a b i l i t y c o m p r e h e n s i o n c o u l d h a v e a c h i e v e d a s u f f i c i e n t i n c r e a s e i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y w h i c h b r o u g h t them c l o s e r t o t h e M i d d l e a b i l i t y g r o u p . 3. T h e t h i r d p a r t o f H y p o t h e s i s I s t a t e d t h e r e w o u l d b e no s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean l e v e l s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s and t h e p o s t -81 t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t , among t h e g r o u p s f o r m e d by t h e c r o s s i n g o f a b i l i t y by t r e a t m e n t (AB x T R ) . T h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d n o t be r e j e c t e d . A s shown i n T a b l e s 13 a n d 1 5 , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean s c o r e s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f a b i l i t y by t r e a t m e n t (AB x TR) w e r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e t y p e s o f d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s a n d t h e l e v e l s o f i n t e n s i t y o f t e a c h i n g d i d n o t h a v e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o n t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d when a b i l i t y g r o u p s w i t h i n t r e a t m e n t s w e r e e x a m i n e d . D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s I E v i d e n t l y t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , i . e . r e c e i v i n g d i f f e r e n t d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s a n d d i f f e r i n g i n t e n s i t i e s o f t e a c h i n g was n o t a n y m o r e e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s and t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t , t h a n t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v i n g t h e r e g u l a r d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e a d i n g p r o g r a m . T h e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t d i s c u s s i o n a r o u n d i s s u e s s u c h a s t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , t h e r a t e a n d d e n s i t y o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c l o z e l e s s o n s and o f t h e c o n t e x t c l u e s , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s , a n d p e r h a p s e v e n e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s i n t h e f o r m o f d e s i g n f a c t o r s a n d s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t . A summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f H y p o t h e s i s I f o l l o w s t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . D u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . F i e l d c o n s t r a i n t s l i m i t e d t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y t o e i g h t w e e k s . Jongsma (1971) a n d o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s R h o d e s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , h a d s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d i e s o f s i x weeks o r e i g h t weeks w e r e p r o b a b l y t o o s h o r t i n d u r a t i o n t o b r i n g a b o u t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f -i c a n t c h a n g e s o r g r o w t h o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h 82 c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . W h i l e t h i s s u g g e s t i o n h a s a n o b v i o u s a p p e a l a s f a r a s d e s i g n i s c o n c e r n e d , o t h e r s t u d i e s ( G u s c o t t , 1 9 7 1 ; M a r t i n e z , 1978) d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s w i t h much s h o r t e r e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d s . T h e c u r r e n t s t u d y d i d , o v e r i t s e i g h t week d u r a t i o n , v a r y t h e i n t e n s i t i e s w i t h w h i c h t e a c h i n g was i n v o l v e d . L e n g t h e n i n g a p r o g r a m m i g h t w e l l b e d e s i r a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , b u t i t m i g h t a l s o p r o d u c e n e g a t i v e c o m p o u n d i n g e f f e c t s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s t u d e n t s m i g h t n o t p r o v i d e t h e r e a d i n g i n -t e n s i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . T h i s w o u l d be e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i f t h e l e s s o n s w e r e p r o v i d e d t o o f r e q u e n t l y . G a i n i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s a g a i n s t t h a t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s c o u l d a l s o be a n a r t i f a c t o f n o v e l t y i n t a k i n g c l o z e t e s t s , i n t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s m i g h t h a v e v i e w e d t h e c l o z e t e s t s a s " j u s t a n o t h e r l e s s o n " w h i l e t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p m i g h t h a v e r e s p o n d e d t o t h e t e s t w i t h a more s e r i o u s a p p r o a c h . R a t e a n d d e n s i t y o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c l o z e l e s s o n s and c o n t e x t  c l u e s . T h e s t u d y a i m e d a t a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . T h i s means t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d t h r e e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s p e r w e e k . T e a c h e r s r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e T e a c h e r s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p o r t e d t h a t some s t u d e n t s became somewhat t i r e d o f f r e -q u e n t c l o z e l e s s o n s a n d t h a t t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e t a s k seemed t o d i m i n i s h o v e r t i m e . I t was a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t t h e c o n t e x t u a l a i d s i n a c o n c e n t r a t e d m a n n e r . C h a r t s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d t h e " i d e a " c l u e s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g " p r e s e n t a t i o n " c l u e s a n d t h e i r u s e s w e r e t h e n p r e -s e n t e d i n t o t o a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t r a t h e r t h a n i n a s p a c e d s e q u e n t i a l m a n n e r . T h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p m e n t i o n e d t h a t c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s m i g h t w e l l h a v e b e e n p l a c e d more g r a d u a l l y 83 o r i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s . C o u l d i t be t h a t e f f i c i e n t u s e o f c l o z e p r o c e d u r e m i g h t p a r a l l e l t h a t o f t h e p r e c i s w r i t i n g o f y e s t e r y e a r ? T h e t h o u g h t o f t h r e e s e s s i o n s o f p r e c i s w r i t i n g p e r week w o u l d seem l e s s t h a n a t t r a c t i v e , y e t o n e c a n f i n d many who w o u l d a r g u e t h a t r e g u l a r w e e k l y e x p o s u r e s o f p r e c i s w r i t i n g i s n o t o n l y e d u c a t i o n a l l y d e f e n s i b l e , b u t e v e n l a u d a t o r y . I n t h i s c a s e o c c a s i o n a l e x p o s u r e o v e r a n e x t e n d e d t i m e a p p e a r s , h i s t o r i -c a l l y , t o be s e e n a s m o r e b e n e f i c i a l t h a n m u l t i p l e e x p o s u r e s o v e r a c o n c e n t r a t e d t i m e . T h i s s u b j e c t w i l l be r e t u r n e d t o i n C h a p t e r V ( R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h ) . T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n a t u r e o f c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . When one l o o k s a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n a t u r e o f c l o z e e x e r c i s e s a s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , i t i s n o t h a r d t o a p p r e c i a t e f u r t h e r comments o n t h e T e a c h e r s ' Q u e s t i o n -n a i r e w h i c h s a i d t h a t t h e u s e o f t r u n c a t e d s t o r i e s c a u s e d t h e s t u d e n t s c o n c e r n . T h e c l o z e p a s s a g e s w e r e t y p i c a l l y a b o u t 250 words i n l e n g t h . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n was t h a t s t u d e n t s d i d n o t h a v e t h e o p p o r -t u n i t y to- r e a d a n y s t o r i e s t o a n y f o r m o f c o m p l e t i o n . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f n o t k n o w i n g " w h a t h a p p e n e d " may w e l l h a v e c a u s e d some s t u d e n t s t o be n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d i n t h e i r d e s i r e t o r e a d t h e p a s s a g e s a s c a r e f u l l y a s was n e c e s s a r y t o e f f e c t i v e l y c o m p l e t e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . T h i s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n o f d o i n g t h r e e s e s s i o n s a week, p o s s i b l y a d d e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' c o n c e r n . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s had b u t two e x p o s u r e s t o c l o z e p a s s a g e s , so i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t a n o v e l t y e f f e c t h e i g h t e n e d t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e t o t h e same d e g r e e t h a t t h e s a t u r a t i o n e f f e c t d i m i n i s h e d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l g r o u p s . T h i s may e x p l a i n why t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s d i d n o t 84 a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r s c o r e s o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e - h e n s i o n T e s t t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s . I t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be a r g u e d t h a t r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a s m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d a s w e l l by t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s a s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . T h e e q u a l f a c i l i t y o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , who p r a c t i c e d t h e v e r y b e h a v i o r m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t , i s , h o w e v e r , a most d i f f i c u l t o u t c o m e t o e x p l a i n . I t w o u l d a l m o s t seem t h a t t h e 8 weeks o f c l o z e l e s s o n s had v i r t u a l l y no e f f e c t o n t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r -f o r m a n c e . T h i s i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y . A g a i n i t c a n , p e r h a p s , be e x p l a i n e d f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f a n e v e n t o c c u r r i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e v a r i a b l e o f n o v e l t y . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s may h a v e r e s p o n d e d i n a manner t h a t was more e n t h u s i a s t i c t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s a n d t h u s a c h i e v e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y e q u a l r e s u l t s . E x p e r i m e n t a l l y i t was n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e a common p o s t - t r e a t m e n t m e a s u r e , i n t h i s c a s e , t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . T h i s t e s t h a d e v e r y f i f t h w o r d d e l e t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e two g r o u p s had d i f f e r e n t d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t s t o m a t c h t h e c l o s e s t n o u n / v e r b o r c o n n e c t i v e i n t h e p a s s a g e . Now, i n t h e p o s t -8 5 treatment Cloze Comprehension Test, they had to accommodate a consis-tent deletion regardless of whether i t was a noun-verb or a connective. This may well have washed out differences in treatment effects. The problems of word class deletions in cloze exercises have been examined over time. Jongsma in his f i r s t review (1971) suggested the noun/verb-connective dichotomy be examined further. Clearly he had picked up on Rankin's suggestion (1959) that cloze passages might be constructed using either l e x i c a l or structural items for deletions, and also on Louthan's suggestion (1965) that deletions of structure words (connectives) might be more beneficial for improved reading compre-hension. In 1972 Culhane followed that l i n e of reasoning and suggested that noun/verb deletions should be more useful than structure words in developing reading comprehension a b i l i t i e s because he f e l t that i f students were able to replace the "meaning" carrier words i t would have indicated a complete understanding of the passage. His research, how-ever, did not bear this out. This present study found similar results and students' gains in reading comprehension scores did not d i f f e r from one deletion system to the other. These two systems from the present data were equally effective. A disturbing, even vexing, problem to a discussion of the study is the question of teacher input. It might have been expected that students who had intensive teaching and extensive discussion of context clues surrounding the deleted words would have gained over other students who did not have these experiences. This was not the case. Neither word class deletions nor the intensity of teaching was a d i f f e r e n t i a l factor when measured against controls. One could conjecture that 86 s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t t h e e f f i -c a c y o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s a n d how t o u s e t h e c o n t e x t f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a d e l e t e d word w o u l d be a m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e s t u d e n t s ' s c o r e s d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h i s i d e a . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t m i g h t h a v e s e r v e d a s a n e q u a l i z i n g e f f e c t f o r t h e n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g g r o u p s , a n d p r o d u c e d c o n d i t i o n s t h a t washed o u t a n y d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t m i g h t h a v e a c c r u e d f r o m i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g . T h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s ' a c h i e v e m e n t w e r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s b u t n o t o n t h e p o s t - , t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . H e r e M i d d l e a n d Low g r o u p s w e r e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . I t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s h a d t h e C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t v i s i b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d b u t n o t d u r i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . I t may h a v e b e e n t h a t t h e C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t h a d t h e e f f e c t o f e n c o u r a g i n g a d e p e n d e n c y i n t h e M i d d l e a n d Lower g r o u p s a n d o n l y t h e H i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s had t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y when i t was t i m e t o p e r f o r m o n t h e p o s t -e x p e r i m e n t a l m e a s u r e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d i t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t e a c h -i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d s d i d h a v e a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t u p o n i n c r e a s i n g t h e Low a b i l i t y g r o u p t o a p o i n t w h e r e t h e y a c h i e v e d t o a l e v e l c o m -p a r a b l e t o t h e M i d d l e g r o u p . B y d e f i n i t i o n t h e g r o u p s w e r e d i f f e r e n t o n t h e p r e - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e r e i s a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p e r f o r m a n c e o n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s a n d p e r f o r m a n c e . o n . c l o z e c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t s ( B o r m u t h , 1 9 6 7 ) . I n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was n o t 8 7 now a p p a r e n t . A g a i n , t h e v a r i a b l e t h a t m i g h t h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s i s t h e C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t . I t m i g h t h a v e b e e n o f p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e t o t h e Low g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c e l l s b u t s t i l l n o t p r o d u c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s b e t w e e n e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s f o r r e a s o n s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . E x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s — d e s i g n f a c t o r s a n d s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t . A s w i t h any s t u d y t h a t t h r o u g h f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s i s f o r c e d t o a q u a s i -e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n ( l a c k i n g f u l l r a n d o m i z a t i o n ) t h e q u e s t i o n o f a l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l power m i g h t be o n e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i n n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e F - r a t i o . I t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a t t r a c t i v e t o h a v e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s t o t r e a t m e n t a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s a n d e n j o y e d t h e i n c r e a s e d d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e s t r i c t e d d e g r e e s o f f r e e -dom f r o m u s i n g t h e i n t a c t g r o u p s . T h i s was n o t p o s s i b l e i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . What w a s , w a s . Summary o f t h e R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s I . As f a r a s H y p o t h e s i s I was c o n c e r n e d , t h e n , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t h a t : 1. t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s , c o u l d n o t b e r e j e c t e d . T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean l e v e l s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n among t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s e i t h e r o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s o r t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e  C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . 2. t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean l e v e l s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n 88 among t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s C H i g h , M i d d l e , a n d Low) c o u l d be r e j e c t e d . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s w e r e o b t a i n e d . 3 . t h e t h i r d p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e g r o u p s f o r m e d b y t h e c r o s s i n g o f t h e a b i l i t y g r o u p s CAB) a n d o f t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s ( T R ) , c o u l d n o t be r e j e c t e d . T h e s e g r o u p s d i d n o t a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e s i n mean l e v e l s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n . T e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s I I H y p o t h e s i s I I s t a t e d t h e r e w o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean s c o r e s i n s t u d e n t s ' c o m p e t e n c i e s i n t h e u s e o f c o n n e c t i v e s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t a m o n g : a) t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s ; b) t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s ; a n d c) t h e g r o u p s f o r m e d b y t h e c r o s s i n g o f t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s (AB x T R ) . T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s a n d A b i l i t y G r o u p s a n d K n o w l e d g e o f C o n n e c t i v e s a s  M e a s u r e d by t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t T a b l e 17 r e v e a l s t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t (TR) , a b i l i t y ( A B ) , w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t c l a s s w i t h i n t r e a t m e n t (CL w TR) e f f e c t . 89 Table 17 ANCOVA—Connectives Mean Scores with the Robertson Written Connectives Test as the Criterion Variable and the pre-treatment Cloze Comprehension Test as the Covariate Source DF MS F P TR—Treatment 4 342.38 12.11 0.00014** CLwTR—Class within Treatment 15 28.28 3.39 0.00002** A B — A b i l i t y 2 84.14 11.10 0.00026** AB x TR 8 8.92 1.18 0.34601 CL x TR x AB 29 7.58 0.91 0.60758 Residual 319 8.35 Total 433 **P <. • 01 The results of Scheffe's test for multiple comparisons at the .05 level of significance revealed that the means of the various treatment groups were significantly different in the following ways; 1. Mean scores on the Robertson Written Connectives Test ob-tained by Treatment Group 1 (Noun/Verb deletions with Intensive Teaching) were significantly greater than those scores obtained by Treatment Group 5 (Control). 2. Treatment Group 2 (Connective Deletions with Intensive Teaching) were significantly greater than those of Treatment Group 3 (Noun/Verb Deletions with Non-Intensive Teaching) and Treatment Group 5 (Control). 90 3 . Mean S c o r e s o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t o b -t a i n e d by T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 4 ( C o n n e c t i v e s D e l e t i o n s w i t h N o n - I n t e n s i v e T e a c h i n g ) w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e o f T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 5 ( C o n t r o l ) . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e g r a p h i c a l l y d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 1 ( p . 9 1 ) . To a n a l y z e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s ( H i g h , M i d d l e , L o w ) , S c h e f f e ' s t e s t o f m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n s was a g a i n u s e d . T h e t e s t showed t h a t t h e H i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s (p . 0 5 ) . T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , h o w e v e r , i n mean s c o r e s by t h e M i d d l e and Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s . 91 Treatment Group Number Treatment Group Number Statement Group No Noun/Verb Dele-tions with Intensive Teaching Group No. 5 Control-Instruction using existing basal developmental read-g program Students in Treat-ment Group 1 achieved si g n i f i c a n t l y super-ior scores than those students i n Treatment Group 5 Group No. 2 Connective Dele-5 tions with Intensive Teaching compared to ,Group No. 3 Noun/Verb Deletions with non-intensive teaching Students in Treat-ment Group 2 achieved significantly super-ior scores than those students in Treatment Group 3 Group No. 2 Connective Dele-tions with Intensive Teaching •Group No. 5 Control-Instruction Jzompared using existing basal to \ developmental read-ing program Students i n Treat-ment Group 2 achieved si g n i f i c a n t l y super-ior scores than those students in Treatment Group 5 Group No. 4 • Connectives Dele-5 tions with Non- compared Intensive ^ — t o Teachings Group No. 5 Control-Instruction using existing basal developmental read-ing program Students in Treat-ment Group 4 achieved significantly super-ior scores than those students in Treatment Group 5 Figure 1. Diagram Il l u s t r a t i n g the Areas of Significance Among the Treatment Groups and the Robertson Written Connectives Test 92 Tables 18 and 19 show the numbers of students, the mean scores and the standard deviations for the main effects of treatment (TR) and a b i l i t y (AB). The scores obtained by the interaction of a b i l i t y by treatment (AB x TR) were not significant. The table of means and stan-dard deviations for AB x TR can be found in Appendix D. Class within treatment (CL x TR) was considered a "nuisance" factor and was not anal-yzed further. Table 18 Adjusted Means and Standard Deviations for Treatment (TR) and the Robertson Written Connectives Test Treatment Groups 1 2 3 4 5 Noun/Verb Connectives Noun/Verb Connectives Control Int. Tchng. Int. Tchng. Non-Int. Non-Int. Tchng. Tchng. n=100 n-115 n=67 n=67 n=75 Mean 14.90 16.85 13.36 16.69 11.39 Standard Deviation 3.55 3.66 4.00 3.48 3.89 93 Table 19 Adjusted Means and Standard Deviations for A b i l i t y (AB) and the Robertson Written Connectives Test A b i l i t y Groups High Middle Low n=173 n=178 n=83 Mean 16.77 14.21 11.81 Standard Deviation 3.35 3.92 4.09 Discussion of the Results Relating to Hypothesis II The hypothesis stated that there would be no significant d i f f e r -ences on students' performances on the Robertson Written Connectives Test among the treatment groups and the a b i l i t y groups. The following discussion w i l l focus on the treatment groups f i r s t and then the a b i l i t y groups. For the reader's ease in following the discussion, a matrix of conditions and variables has been included (Figure 2). Treatment Groups. Figure 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the treatment groups that obtained mean scores on the Robertson Written Connectives Test that were signi f i c a n t l y different from other groups. Students who completed cloze exercises with connectives deleted and who were exposed to either one of two intensities of teaching (Treatment Groups 2 and 4) did acquire a knowledge of connectives that was superior to those students in the control groups who did not experience the cloze passages nor to the spe-94 T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 1 T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 3 - n o u n / v e r b d e l e t i o n s i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g n o u n / v e r b d e l e t i o n s n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 2 T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 4 c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t i o n s i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t i o n s n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 5 c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v i n g e x i s t i n g b a s a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e a d i n g p r o g r a m F i g u r e 2 . M a t r i x o f C o n d i t i o n s and V a r i a b l e s f o r F i v e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s 95 c i f i c instruction that centered around use of context clues for the com-pletion of cloze passages. For purposes of discussion of the findings the substantive information shown in Figure 1 is presented using the treatment conditions as topic headings. Connective Deletions With Intensive Teaching. Students complet-ing cloze passages with connectives deleted without intensive teaching obtained scores that were significantly different from the scores ob-tained by the control group which received the existing developmental reading program. The superiority of scores on the Robertson Written Connectives  Test obtained by students responding to cloze passages with connectives deleted and receiving intensive teaching (Treatment Group 2) over students in the control group (Treatment Group 5) indicates that the treatment was effective in developing an understanding of use of connectives. This group, however, did not achieve statistically superior scores on the Robertson Written Connectives Test from the other treatment group that also responded to cloze passages with connectives deleted but who did not receive intensive instruction. The question of instruction during the treatment sessions deserves focus. Was i t that the instruction received by the classes in Treatment Group 2 (Connectives Deletions with Intensive Teaching) was not sufficient to raise students' understanding of connec-tives to a point where they could obtain scores significantly different than the classes without instruction? Could i t be that the nature of the task, i.e., using the content of the passage and the assistance of the Contextual Aid Chart, was sufficient to raise knowledge of connectives levels to equal that of the students receiving intensive instruction? 96 T h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t m a t e r i a l s w e r e e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u s e o f c o n n e c t i v e s . S t u d e n t s i n T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 1 ( r e s p o n d i n g t o l e s s o n s w i t h n o u n s a n d v e r b s d e l e t e d ) had t o r e l y o n r e m a i n i n g c o n t e n t w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g o r r e l a t e d c o n n e c t i v e s . T h e i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g and t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d h a v e g i v e n them a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n how t o u s e c o n n e c t i v e s a n d o t h e r c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o s u p p l y t h e m i s s i n g n o u n s a n d v e r b s . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s c o u l d l e a r n c o n n e c t i v e s a s w e l l a s t h e s t u d e n t s i n T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 2 ( c o m p l e t i n g c l o z e l e s s o n s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d ) i s v e r y r e a l . I t m i g h t e v e n be a r g u e d t h a t s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g p a s s a g e s w i t h n o u n s and v e r b s d e l e t e d a n d c o n n e c t i v e s i n p l a c e m i g h t l e a r n t h e u s e o f c o n n e c t i v e s b e t t e r t h a n i f t h e c o n n e c t i v e s w e r e d e l e t e d . T h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d h a v e t o e s t a b l i s h what i d e a t h e c o n n e c t i v e s i g n a l s . E s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p r e q u i r e s a v e r y c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e n t e n c e s . ( I f t h e l e s s o n s were p r o v i d e d f o r a n e x t r a l e n g t h o f t i m e o r p r e s e n t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t way t h e r e s u l t s m i g h t h a v e b e e n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . T h i s i s what r e s e a r c h a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h . T h e s e a r e t h e d i r e c t i o n s r e s e a r c h t a k e s o n e . ) T h e r e s u l t s o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t showed t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s u s i n g t h e c l o z e l e s s o n s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d ( T r e a t -ment G r o u p 2) d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 3 ( n o u n a n d v e r b s d e l e t e d w i t h l i m i t e d t e a c h i n g ) a n d T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 5 ( c o n t r o l g r o u p ) . A l s o t h a t s t u d e n t s i n T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 4 ( c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d w i t h n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g ) a c h i e v e d s c o r e s b e t t e r t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s i n 97 T r e a t m e n t G r o u p 5 ( c o n t r o l g r o u p ) . T h e s e r e s u l t s seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t s t u d e n t s c a n l e a r n t h e u s e o f c o n n e c t i v e s e i t h e r w i t h i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g o r w i t h l i m i t e d t e a c h i n g . T h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t showed t h i s . Good t e a c h i n g a n d g o o d m a t e r i a l s c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y i n p u t f o r b e t t e r l e a r n i n g a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n n e c t i v e s . K n o w l e d g e o f c o n n e c t i v e s i s a n i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . A b i l i t y G r o u p s . A s was t h e c a s e o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e - h e n s i o n T e s t r e s u l t s , t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s ( H i g h , M i d d l e , Low) o b -t a i n e d s c o r e s o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t t h a t w e r e s o m e -what d i f f e r e n t f r o m what m i g h t h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d . W h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e H i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p a c h i e v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r s c o r e s t o b o t h t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s , t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s d i d n o t o b t a i n s c o r e s t h a t w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r . A t h e o r e t i c a l s c e n a r i o c a n be d r a w n t o e x p l a i n t h i s p h e n o m e n o n — t h e same c o n d i t i o n t h a t was f o u n d i n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e - h e n s i o n T e s t . T h e M i d d l e a n d Low g r o u p s w e r e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Was i t a q u e s t i o n o f t h e Low g r o u p d o i n g b e t t e r t h a n w o u l d be e x p e c t e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e M i d d l e g r o u p ? Gomberg (1976) f o u n d t h a t e v e n h e r Low g r o u p w a s , b e c a u s e o f t h e n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g r i s k - t a k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c l o z e e x e r c i s e s , a b l e t o p e r f o r m t o t a s k o n c l o z e c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r g r o u p s . O r , was i t a q u e s t i o n o f t h e t e d i u m , m e n t i o n e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a f f e c t i n g t h e b r i g h t e r o f t h e two g r o u p s ? T h e r e seems t o be some s u p p o r t f o r t h e i d e a t h a t l o w e r a b i l i t y c h i l d r e n a r e m o r e r e a d i l y a b l e t o accommodate r e p e t i t i o u s 98 b e h a v i o r t h a n b r i g h t e r c h i l d r e n . I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s O b t a i n e d by C r o s s i n g A b i l i t y (AB) and  T r e a t m e n t F a c t o r s (TR) N e i t h e r o f t h e two d e l e t i o n s s y s t e m s n o r t h e two i n t e n s i t i e s o f t e a c h i n g h a d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o n t h e AB x TR f a c t o r . A p p e n d i x D shows t h e f i f t e e n means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e Ab x TR i n t e r a c t i o n . Summary o f t h e R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s I I . T h e a n a l y z e d d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f c l o z e p a s s a g e s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d d i d h a v e a n e f f e c t o n c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n a n d t o u s e c o n n e c t i v e s . T h i s was d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t . T h e a n a l y z e d d a t a r e q u i r e d t h a t p a r t s o n e a n d two o f H y p o t h e s i s I I be r e j e c t e d . T h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e f i v e t r e a t -ment g r o u p s a n d among t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s (p < . . 0 5 ) . P a r t t h r e e o f H y p o t h e s i s I I c o u l d n o t be r e j e c t e d a s s i g n i f i c a n c e was n o t o b t a i n e d f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f a b i l i t y a n d t r e a t m e n t (AB x T R ) . T e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s I I I H y p o t h e s i s I I I s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e s i n t h e mean c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s among t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s a n d among t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s when i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , a b i l i t y by t r e a t m e n t (AB x TR) a n d c l a s s w i t h i n t r e a t m e n t ( C L w TR) w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . 99 I n t e r a c t i o n o f A b i l i t y b y T r e a t m e n t o n P o s t - T r e a t m e n t C o m p r e h e n s i o n  S c o r e s a s M e a s u r e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e C l o z e C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t T a b l e s 13 a n d 15 show t h a t t h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean s c o r e s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean s c o r e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d due t o t h e t r e a t -ment f a c t o r s i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e c a u s e n o n e o f t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s o b t a i n e d s c o r e s t h a t w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t . T h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s a c h i e v e d s c o r e s t h a t w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t when c o m p r e h e n s i o n was m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n  T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s b u t t h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e M i d d l e a n d t h e Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s when c o m p r e h e n s i o n m e a s u r e s w e r e t a k e n o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . T h e s i g n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o o b t a i n e d by t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s was t h e r e s u l t o f s t u d e n t s b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o t h e t h r e e r e a d i n g l e v e l s a c c o r d -i n g t o s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c  S k i l l s g i v e n p r i o r t o t h e s t u d y b e g i n n i n g . T h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t and a b i l i t y l e v e l s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , h o w e v e r . T h i s was a l s o t h e c a s e w i t h t h e o t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . T h e s e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f AB x TR meant t h a t t h i s a s p e c t o f H y p o t h e s i s I I I c o u l d n o t be r e j e c t e d . I n t e r a c t i o n o f C l a s s w i t h i n T r e a t m e n t o n - P o s t - T r e a t m e n t C o m p r e h e n s i o n  S c o r e s a s M e a s u r e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e  C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d when s c o r e s f r o m t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t w e r e a n a l y z e d . I n e i t h e r c a s e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f 100 c l a s s e s p e r se and t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s d i d n o t p r o d u c e s c o r e s t h a t w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . T h u s t h e p a r t o f H y p o t h e s i s I I I t h a t a d d r e s s e d t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s c o u l d n o t be r e j e c t e d . Summary C h a p t e r I V h a s p r o v i d e d t h e r e s u l t s a n d a d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t i n g t o e a c h o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s p o s t u l a t e d . T e s t r e s u l t s f o c u s s i n g o n H y p o t h e s i s I r e v e a l e d t h a t t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g d i f f e r i n g d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s a n d i n t e n s i t i e s o f t e a c h i n g , d i d n o t p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f -f e r e n t c o m p r e h e n s i o n mean s c o r e s o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f  B a s i c S k i l l s and t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . H y p o t h e s i s I was a l s o f o r m u l a t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s o n s t u d e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y . I t was f o u n d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s o b t a i n e d by t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s o n t h e p o s t -t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s , w h i l e s i g n i f i c a n t , c o u l d n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t r e a t m e n t . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t , w e r e d i f f e r -e n t f r o m t h o s e o b t a i n e d o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c  S k i l l s i n t h a t w h i l e t h e H i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e b e t w e e n t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s . H y p o t h e s i s I I was f o r m u l a t e d so t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h c o u l d i n v e s t i -g a t e how w e l l s t u d e n t s m i g h t l e a r n t h e u s e o f c o n n e c t i v e s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t . T h e a n a l y z e d d a t a showed t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d c l o z e p a s s a g e s e x e r c i s e s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d a c h i e v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t - i v e s T e s t t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . H o w e v e r , t h o s e who r e c e i v e d c l o z e 101 e x e r c i s e s w i t h n o u n / v e r b d e l e t i o n s a n d i n t e n s i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s o a c h i e v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . F u r t h e r , o n e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p t h a t c o m p l e t e d c l o z e p a s s a g e s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d a c h i e v e d b e t t e r t h a n a t r e a t m e n t g r o u p t h a t h a d n o u n / v e r b d e l e t i o n s w i t h n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g . T h e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o l e a r n t h e u s e a n d f u n c t i o n o f c o n n e c t i v e s when c o n n e c t i v e s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s t h e y w e r e i n t h i s s t u d y . H y p o t h e s i s I I I c o v e r e d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f a b i l i t y by t r e a t -ment a n d c l a s s w i t h i n t r e a t m e n t u p o n c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e p o s t -t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s a n d a b i l i t y a n d c l a s s . T h e r e s e a r c h , w h i l e n o t p r o d u c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n m e a s u r e d c o m p r e h e n s i o n g a i n s , d i d p r o v i d e f i n d i n g s t h a t w i l l be u s e f u l t o c l a s s -room p r a c t i c e . T h e r e s u l t s showed t h a t s t u d e n t s d i d g a i n a k n o w l e d g e o f c o n n e c t i v e s f r o m t h e c l o z e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e a n d c o u l d a l s o t r a n s f e r t h i s k n o w l e d g e t o a t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . P e r h a p s w i t h m o d i f i c a -t i o n s t o m a t e r i a l s and m e t h o d o l o g y e v e n b e t t e r r e s u l t s w o u l d e n s u e . C h a p t e r V w i l l a d d r e s s t h e s e c o n c e r n s . CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary o f t h e S t u d y T h e m a j o r p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e -n e s s o f u s i n g t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e f o r d e v e l o p i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n w h e r e two t y p e s o f c o n t e x t c l u e s : i d e a c l u e s , i n v o l v i n g n o u n a n d v e r b d e l e t i o n s , a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s , i n v o l v i n g c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t i o n s , w e r e u s e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c l o z e p a s s a g e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t s o f i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g a s o p p o s e d t o n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g i n d e v e l o p i n g a b i l i t y i n l e a r n i n g t o u s e c o n t e x t c l u e s . S t u -d e n t s o f t h r e e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l s , H i g h , M i d d l e , a n d L o w , w e r e c o m p a r e d i n a n a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t a p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g l e v e l w o u l d d e r i v e more b e n e f i t f r o m c l o z e i n s t r u c t i o n t h a n a n o t h e r r e a d i n g l e v e l . F i n a l l y , t h e s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d how t h e t r e a t m e n t a f f e c t e d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e c h i l d r e n o n a s p e c i f i c t e s t o f c o n n e c t -i v e s . T h e s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 434 f i f t h g r a d e c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n 20 c l a s s r o o m s i n t h e R e g i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . C l a s s e s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s a n d o n e c o n t r o l g r o u p . T h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l g r o u p s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o c l o z e e x e r c i s e s t h a t had e i t h e r n o u n / v e r b s d e l e t e d o r e x e r c i s e s t h a t had c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , e x p e r i -m e n t a l g r o u p s r e c e i v e d i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g o r n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g . E a c h o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s c o m p l e t e d t w e n t y - t h r e e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s o v e r a n e i g h t - w e e k p e r i o d . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r c l a s s e s , 102 103 r e c e i v e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e a d i n g p r o g r a m s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s a t t h e t i m e . T h e s a m p l e was r a n k e d i n t o g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t i n g H i g h , M i d d l e , a n d Low r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e t r e a t -ment most e f f e c t i v e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y g r o u p . E a c h o f t h e t e a c h e r s was p r o v i d e d w i t h i n - s e r v i c e i n s t r u c t i o n i n how t o c o n d u c t t h e c l o z e l e s s o n s . T h e i n - s e r v i c e i n s t r u c t i o n was a c c o m -p a n i e d by s p e c i f i c w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r e a c h c l o z e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m was o b s e r v e d by m o n i t o r s who made random v i s i t s t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s r o o m s . E a c h m o n i t o r was p r o v i d e d w i t h a M o n i t o r s ' C h e c k l i s t f o r r e c o r d i n g d a t a r e l a t e d t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o -c e d u r e . T h e s e d a t a w e r e u s e d t o m a i n t a i n some c o n t r o l o n t h e p r o c e d u r e s d u r i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e t r e a t m e n t had e f f e c t s u p o n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d u s i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( L e v e l 10 , F o r m 3M, a n d L e v e l 11 , Form 4M) a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t e s t s , t h e C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t s ( p r e - a n d p o s t - t r e a t m e n t ) . T h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a l s o g i v e n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t t o d e t e r -m i n e i f t h e t r e a t m e n t had a n e f f e c t u p o n t h e i r command o f c o n n e c t i v e s . The d a t a o b t a i n e d w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e and l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t e d a t t h e . 0 5 d e g r e e o f c o n f i d e n c e . Summary o f t h e F i n d i n g s T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a and a l s o a d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t i n g t o e a c h o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s p o s t u l a t e d w e r e g i v e n i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r I V . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o H y p o t h e s i s I r e v e a l e d t h a t t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s , c o n s i s t i n g o f d i f f e r e n t d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s and v a r y i n g i n t e n s i t i e s o f t e a c h i n g w h i l e w o r k i n g w i t h c l o z e p a s s a g e s , d i d n o t p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t mean c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t m e a s u r e s , t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e C l o z e  C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . T h e f i r s t p a r t o f H y p o t h e s i s I , w h i c h h a d f o c u s e d u p o n t h e t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s o f t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s , c o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , be r e j e c t e d . T h e h y p o t h e s i s h a d a l s o b e e n f o r m u l a t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s o n s t u d e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g a b i l i t y l e v e l s . I t was f o u n d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s o b t a i n e d b y t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s o n p o s t -t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t b u t c o u l d n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t r e a t m e n t a s t h e g r o u p s o b t a i n e d s c o r e s t h a t w e r e w i t h i n e x p e c t a t i o n s , i . e . , t h e H i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p o b t a i n e d s c o r e s s i g -n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s , a n d t h e M i d d l e a b i l i t y g r o u p o b t a i n e d s c o r e s t h a t w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e Low a b i l i t y g r o u p . H o w e v e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s among t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e -h e n s i o n T e s t , r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e H i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e M i d d l e a n d Low a b i l i t y g r o u p s . T h e s e c o n d p a r t o f H y p o t h e s i s I w a s , t h e n , r e j e c t e d . H y p o t h e s i s I I t e s t e d t h e same t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s a n d t e a c h i n g i n t e n s i t i e s u p o n t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n  C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t , g i v e n as a p o s t - t r e a t m e n t m e a s u r e . T h e d a t a showed t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d c l o z e p a s s a g e s w h e r e c o n n e c t i v e s had b e e n d e l e t e d a n d w h e r e b o t h i n t e n s i v e and n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g o c -c u r r e d , a c h i e v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r s c o r e s o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n 105 C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . A l s o t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p w i t h c l o z e p a s s a g e s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d w h i c h had r e c e i v e d i n t e n s -i v e t e a c h i n g a c h i e v e d g r e a t e r s c o r e s o n t h e same m e a s u r e t h a n d i d t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p w i t h n o u n / v e r b d e l e t i o n s w i t h n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g . T h e two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s t h a t h a d h a d i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g , o n e g r o u p w i t h c l o z e p a s s a g e s w i t h n o u n / v e r b d e l e t i o n s a n d t h e o t h e r g r o u p w i t h c l o z e p a s s a g e s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s , d i d n o t o b t a i n s c o r e s t h a t w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t o o n e a n o t h e r . D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n a b i l i t y g r o u p s w e r e o b s e r v e d b u t w e r e n o t i n t h e same p a t t e r n a s was f o u n d w i t h t h e t e s t i n g o f H y p o t h e s i s I u s i n g a s a c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e , t h e p o s t -t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s . W i t h t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n  C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t t h e H i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e M i d d l e a n d Low g r o u p s . T h e M i d d l e a n d Low g r o u p s , h o w e v e r , w e r e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h e i r s c o r e s . H y p o t h e s i s I I w a s , t h e n , r e j e c t e d . A t h i r d a r e a u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f s t u d e n t a b i l i t y g r o u p s by t h e v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s (AB x TR) a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s c l a s s e s w i t h i n t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s ( C L w T R ) . T h e a n a l y s e s showed t h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l mean s c o r e s when t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d f o r s c o r e s o n t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s  T e s t . H y p o t h e s i s I I I c o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , be r e j e c t e d . C o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e S t u d y T h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a l e d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g e s s e n t i a l c o n c l u s i o n s . 106 1 . T h e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s a s d e v e l o p e d a n d a s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y — t w e n t y - t h r e e c l o z e l e s s o n s o v e r a p e r i o d o f e i g h t w e e k s — w e r e n o t a n y more e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t t h a n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e a d i n g p r o g r a m u s e d b y t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s o v e r t h e same p e r i o d o f t i m e . 2 . T h e i n t e n s i t y o f t e a c h i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s was n o t a f a c t o r i n d e v e l o p i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l s a s i t was m e a s u r e d by t h e p o s t -t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e  C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . T h u s w h e t h e r t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s ( n o u n - v e r b a n d c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d ) w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g i n s t r u c t i o n o r i n a n o n - i n t e n s i v e f a s h i o n , t h e r e s u l t s w e r e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t i n t e n s i t y o f t e a c h i n g i s n o t a s c r u c i a l a s c r i t i c s h a v e h i t h e r t o s u p p o s e d . Or i t m i g h t be t h a t t h e l e v e l s o f i n t e n s i t y o f t e a c h i n g w e r e n o t , i n p r a c t i c e , a s d i s t i n c t a s was t h o u g h t . 3 . T h e i n t e n s i t y o f t e a c h i n g was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e r e s u l t s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t . H e r e t h o s e g r o u p s h a v i n g i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g a n d n o u n - v e r b s a n d c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d a c h i e v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r e s u l t s t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . 4 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n c l o z e p a s s a g e s w i t h c o n n e c t i v e s d e l e t e d , w h e t h e r i n t e n s i v e o r n o n - i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g was a p p l i e d , p r o d u c e d s u p e r i -o r r e s u l t s t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p o n t h e R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s  T e s t . I t c a n t h e n p r o b a b l y be c o n c l u d e d t h a t c l o z e l e s s o n s w i t h c o n -n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s a r e w o r t h w h i l e d e v i c e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n n e c t i v e s . 5 . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e word c l a s s e s d e l e t e d ( r e p r e s e n t i n g i d e a c o n t e x t c l u e s - n o u n / v e r b ; p r e s e n t a t i o n 107 c o n t e x t c l u e s - c o n n e c t i v e s ) w e r e more e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t  o f B a s i c S k i l l s a n d by t h e p o s t - t r e a t m e n t C l o z e C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . D i s c u s s i o n a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a n d t h e c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e r e s u l t s g e n e r a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h e d i s c u s s i o n a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d u n d e r g r o u p i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y a n d t h e m a t e r i a l s u s e d . D e s i g n F e a t u r e s 1 . E x t e n d i n g t h e d u r a t i o n o f c l o z e s t u d i e s a s Jongsma s u g g e s t e d i n 1971 may n o t be a s n e c e s s a r y a s was o n c e f e l t . T h e f a c t t h a t some r e s e a r c h e r s ( F a u b i e n , 1971 ; M a r t i n e z , 1978) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d -i n g s when s t u d i e s w e r e i n f a c t s h o r t e r t h a n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s t e a c h i n g s t y l e , m a t e r i a l s , a n d t e s t i n s t r u m e n t s may be f a c t o r s more c r i t i c a l t h a n t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e s t u d i e s w e r e c o n t i n u e d o r t h e number o f l e s s o n s u s e d i n t h e s t u d i e s . I t i s r e c o m -mended t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s m i g h t i n v e s t i g a t e some o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , p o s s i b l y i n s h o r t i t e r a t i v e s t u d i e s , when e x p l o r i n g t h e v a l u e o f c l o z e l e s s o n s f o r t e a c h i n g c o n t e x t c l u e s i n o r d e r t o r a i s e c o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l s . 2 . T h e l e s s o n s may h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o o f r e q u e n t l y . F o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s ( s c h o o l c o n s t r a i n t s ) t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s t u d y was n o t a b l e t o be e x t e n d e d b e y o n d e i g h t w e e k s , b u t i t was t h o u g h t t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e s p o n d t o as many l e s s o n s as p o s s i b l e . F u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t o r s 108 might have the teachers present the lessons less frequently than the three lessons per week as was done in the present study. Some teachers reported that the exposure of three lessons per week was too frequent and that the students did not have sufficient time to process and a s s i -milate the ideas and concepts. Some students, especially those in the non-intensive teaching groups which lacked direct teacher input found this degree of saturation tedious. The cloze lessons might be provided once per week and might be used as supplemental material to an existing program. 3. Schneyer (1965) stated that cloze procedure in and of i t s e l f would not foster greater growth in reading comprehension s k i l l s than other methodologies unless group discussion were to be made an integral part of the cloze lessons. However, discussion of the cloze responses in heterogeneous groups, as used in this study, might have presented problems. Further research could take a closer look at the question of group heterogeneity and homogeneity. Random assignment of homogeneously grouped children would address this issue and is a recommendation for further studies. 4. Scores on the post-treatment Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s •indicated that the students designated as having High, Middle, and Low reading comprehension a b i l i t i e s did not perform in a manner that i n d i -cated the cloze exercises were more suitable for any one of these reading a b i l i t y levels. The results on the post-treatment Canadian  Test of Basic S k i l l s showed significant differences between the three a b i l i t y groups. These results were predictable in that the three read-ing a b i l i t y groups did not make any significant sh i f t s . The results on 109 the post-treatment Cloze Comprehension Test were somewhat different. While the High a b i l i t y group scored significantly different from the Middle and Low groups, there was no significant difference between the Middle and Low a b i l i t y groups. Researchers have stated (Dulin, 1970; Smith and Johnson, 1980) that a most important factor in producing successful responses to cloze items i s the understanding of why a certain word i s better than another, i.e. having a knowledge of semantic and syntactic features within the sentence. It i s recommended that future research use a better match between students' reading a b i l i t i e s and the reading level of the cloze passages-. In other words, a child with competencies at a middle Grade 5 level should have cloze passages at that l e v e l and a child competent at a Grade 3 l e v e l having materials at that particular l e v e l . Teachers then would be geared to the instructional levels of the particular groups. As well, passages could be selected or written so that the semantic and syntactic features are clearly apparent. Also, the passages could be of lengths that are suitable in terms of attention span, vocabulary and concept load, and in terms of print size. 5. The attitude of students towards cloze exercises might be another factor to investigate in any further study involving the cloze procedure and contextual aids. Teachers reported that some students always looked forward to completing cloze lessons while others were less enthusiastic. Gomberg (1976) working with students in Grades 3 to 5 stated that the cloze technique when used as a teaching device, freed children to take a chance, to be wrong, to try something different. She reported that even the poorer, less successful readers began to 110 p a r t i c i p a t e , l o o k f o r some l o g i c i n t h e r e s p o n s e , a n d t h e n f i n a l l y t o p r o v i d e some o r a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r c h o i c e . W h i l e t h i s s t u d y d i d m o n i t o r d a i l y p r o c e d u r e s , a n d r e c o r d e d e v e n t s a n e c d o t a l l y , f u t u r e s t u d i e s m i g h t m o n i t o r c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e i n a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d m a n n e r . T h i s may p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r o a c h e s t o c l o z e e x e r c i s e s a n d t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g c h a n g e s i n r e s p o n s e s , b o t h w r i t -t e n a n d o r a l . 6. R e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e ( C u l h a n e , 1972) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n s t u d e n t s ' o v e r a l l a c h i e v e m e n t when b o t h e x a c t c l o z e i t e m r e p l a c e m e n t s and synonym r e p l a c e m e n t s a r e c o m p a r e d . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , o n t h e b a s i s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e a n d a l s o b e c a u s e o f p r a c -t i c a l a n d l o g i s t i c a l r e a s o n s , u s e d a n e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s y s t e m . Jongsma (1980) s a y s , h o w e v e r , i t i s more e f f i c a c i o u s t o u s e synonyms a s c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s when c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i s u s e d a s an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l . C u l h a n e (1972) d i d f i n d t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f l o w e r a b i l i t y c h i l d r e n a r e b e t t e r when synonym r e p l a c e m e n t s a r e a c c e p t e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e r e c o m -mended t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s s c o r e c o m p l e t e d e x e r c i s e s and t e s t s , f i r s t a c c e p t i n g e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t o n l y a n d t h e n l o o k i n g a t c o m p a r i s o n s i n g r o u p means when synonyms a r e a c c e p t e d . 7 . C l a s s r o o m v a r i a b l e s m i g h t w e l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g c l o z e p a s s a g e s a n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s . T h e c l a s s r o o m s t h a t a c h i e v e d more s u c c e s s i n c o m p l e t i n g c l o z e p a s s a g e s t h a n o t h e r s , m i g h t , i n f a c t , h a v e had some t e a c h i n g / t e a c h e r f a c t o r t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r s u p e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c l o z e , c l a s s r o o m c l i m a t e ( a u t o c r a t i c - d e m o c r a t i c ) a n d s u c h i s s u e s a s t h e I l l degrees of student participation and the response to cloze instruction. Materials 1. Future researchers might consider changes to the actual passages used in cloze studies. In the present study stories used for cloze passages were selected from a basal reader and word deletions were made on the basis of idea and presentation clues that were present in the passages. The passage length was determined by the frequency or density of contextual aids available in the passage. The identification of ten contextual aids and a suitable cut-off point marked the end of the passage. It was suggested by the teachers and students that the next passage (lessons) might continue from where the previous passage left off. The students, rather frequently, displayed anxiety or frus-tration or annoyance at not knowing what the outcome or conclusion of a particular story was. The teachers stated that this produced some loss of interest which may have had a depressing effect on performance. Future studies might provide passages from continuous text to alleviate this possible problem. 2. The present study suggests that cloze procedure with connec-tives deleted was effective in developing an understanding of connec-tives in that the experimental groups replacing missing connectives achieved significantly better on the Robertson Written Connectives Test than did the control group. As a practical classroom recommendation, then, cloze passages with these connectives deleted can effectively be used. 3. It is possible that significant differences in scores might have occurred among the treatment groups or between the treatment groups 112 and the control group had content material been used. The researcher selected essentially narrative material from a basal reader for the reasons stated i n Chapter III. However, the results were not as encouraging as those obtained by those researchers using content mate-r i a l (Guscott, 1971; Martinez, 1978). Researchers should consider using other materials than those used in this study; from social studies, for example. Successful studies reported in Chapter II (Table 3) did draw on social studies materials for the cloze lessons. Students read-ing narrative material are, perhaps, not as intense or as deliberate in their reading behavior. On the other hand, when content materials are used the reading behavior is more intense and the search for fact and d e t a i l i s more purposeful. This being the case, i t is reasonable to conclude that students would then focus on such features as context clues. This could, then, be the determining factor in the success of these studies with content area materials. 4. The presentation of six contextual aids at the same time might have been too much for some students. Some students had d i f f i -culty accommodating the substantive content of the model chart even though the p i l o t classes reported no great d i f f i c u l t y in working with i t . Teachers in the study and this particular researcher recommended that contextual aids be presented in a spaced, rather than a massed fashion. This would mean that a particular contextual aid would be introduced and practised before another is introduced. After the students had an opportunity to practise each of the contextual aids separately, they could receive lessons which would contain a number of contextual aids at the same time. 113 R e s e a r c h e r ' s C o n c l u s i o n s W h i l e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s a c h i e v e d by s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m c o n t r o l g r o u p s a f t e r a p e r i o d o f c o m p l e t i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t d e l e t i o n s y s t e m s a n d t e a c h i n g i n t e n s i t i e s , some e f f e c t i v e c h a n g e s w e r e f o u n d . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e s e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e s d i d t e a c h t h e u s e o f c o n n e c t i v e s e f f e c t i v e l y . T h a t t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e u s e o f c o n n e c t i v e s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s c l e a r l y s u p p o r t e d by H . A l a n R o b i n s o n when h e s t a t e d : C o n n e c t i v e s , o r s i g n a l w o r d s , a r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f v o c a b u l a r y d e v e l o p m e n t , f o r t h e y a r e k e y s t o i m p r o v i n g t h e p r e c i s i o n o f a s t u d e n t ' s c o m p r e h e n s i o n . ( 1 9 7 5 , p . 69) A s w e l l , i t c a n be a r g u e d , t h a t w h i l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s u s i n g c l o z e p r o c e d u r e d i d n o t make s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s o v e r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , t h e y d i d a c h i e v e e q u a l l y w e l l . W h e t h e r i t i s r e a l i s t i c t o e x p e c t c l o z e p r o c e d u r e t o f i t i n t o e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s w i t h o u t p r o d u c i n g n e g a t i v e f e a t u r e s i n s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h t e d i u m and boredom i s a moot p o i n t a t t h i s t i m e . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s t o be e n c o u r a g e d . I t may b e , h o w e v e r , t h a t c l o z e w i l l u l t i m a t e l y be u s e d a s a c l a s s r o o m t e c h n i q u e s p a c e d o v e r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h d a i l y s a t u r a t i o n . T h e r a t i o n -a l e f o r t h i s may w e l l h a v e t o be l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n e m p i r i c a l . BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackley, P. The Effects of Three Deletion Systems and Three Methods of Presentation on the Instructional Use of the Cloze Procedure in Junior High School Science (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Temple University, 1981, Abstract). 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R a n k i n , E . " T h e C l o z e P r o c e d u r e — I t s V a l i d i t y a n d U t i l i t y . " E i g h t h Y e a r - b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . M i l w a u k e e , W i s c o n s i n : N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1959 , 1 3 1 - 1 4 4 . R a n k i n , E a r l , a n d B . M . O v e r h o l s e r . " R e a c t i o n s o f I n t e r m e d i a t e G r a d e C h i l d -r e n t t o C o n t e x t u a l C l u e s . " J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g B e h a v i o r , 1 , Summer, 1969 , 5 0 - 7 3 . R a u c h , S . " T h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r a n d t h e R e a d i n g P r o g r a m I n v o l v i n g C o n t e n t A r e a T e a c h e r s . " R e a d i n g W o r l d , V o l . 22 , N o . 1 , 1982 , 6 4 - 6 7 . R h o d e s , J . T h e E f f e c t o f a C l o z e P r o c e d u r e M e t h o d o l o g y o n R e a d i n g C o m p r e -h e n s i o n o f S i x t h - G r a d e S t u d e n t s o f V a r y i n g R e a d i n g A b i l i t y ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a i n e , 1 9 7 2 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 1973 , 3 3 , 6598A. R o b e r t s , P . U n d e r s t a n d i n g Grammar. New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1954 . R o b e r t s o n , J . E . " P u p i l U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C o n n e c t i v e s i n R e a d i n g . " R e a d i n g  R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . I l l , 3 , S p r i n g , 1968 , 3 8 7 - 4 1 7 . R o b i n s o n , H . A l a n . " A S t u d y o f t h e T e c h n i q u e s o f Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . " R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 16 , J a n u a r y , 1963 , 2 3 8 - 2 4 2 . R o b i n s o n , H . A l a n . T e a c h i n g R e a d i n g a n d S t u d y S t r a t e g i e s — T h e C o n t e n t  A r e a s . B o s t o n : A l l y n a n d B a c o n , 1 9 7 5 . R o g e r s , E . I n c r e a s i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n t h r o u g h S p e c i f i c S k i l l I n s t r u c t i o n , C l o z e P r o c e d u r e , a n d D i s c u s s i o n ( U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1982 , A b s t r a c t ) . R y e , J a m e s . C l o z e P r o c e d u r e a n d T h e T e a c h i n g o f R e a d i n g . L o n d o n : H e i n e -mann E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s , 1982 . R y n d e r s , P . U s e o f t h e C l o z e P r o c e d u r e t o D e v e l o p C o m p r e h e n s i o n S k i l l i n t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e G r a d e s ( U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 1 ) . S a d o s k i , M . " A n E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d y o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n R e p o r t e d I m a g e r y a n d t h e C o m p r e h e n s i o n and R e c a l l o f a S t o r y . " R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h  Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1 9 , N o . 1 , 1 1 0 - 1 2 3 , F a l l , 1983 . Sampson, M . R . , W. J . V a l m o n t , a n d R. V . A l l e n . " T h e E f f e c t s o f I n s t r u c -t i o n a l C l o z e o n t h e C o m p r e h e n s i o n , V o c a b u l a r y , and D i v e r g e n t P r o d u c -t i o n o f T h i r d - G r a d e S t u d e n t s . " R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1 7 , 1982 , 3 8 9 - 3 9 9 . S a x , G . E m p i r i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1968 . 120 S c h n e y e r , J . W. " U s e o f C l o z e P r o c e d u r e f o r I m p r o v i n g R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n -s i o n . " T h e R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 1 9 , 2 , 1 9 6 5 , 1 7 4 - 1 7 9 . S c h o e n f e l d , F . G . " I n s t r u c t i o n a l U s e s o f t h e C l o z e P r o c e d u r e . " R e a d i n g  T e a c h e r , 3 4 , 2 , 1980 , 1 4 7 - 1 5 1 . S c h e f f e r , H. T h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 5 9 . S e i b e r t , L . C . " A S t u d y o n t h e P r a c t i c e o f G u e s s i n g Word M e a n i n g s f r o m a C o n t e x t . " M o d e r n L a n g u a g e J o u r n a l , 2 9 , A p r i l , 1945 , 2 9 6 - 3 2 2 . Shaw, P h i l l i p . " R h e t o r i c a l G u i d e s t o R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n . " T h e R e a d i n g  T e a c h e r , 1 1 , 4 , A p r i l , 1958 , 2 3 9 - 2 4 3 . S h o o p , M . " I m p r o v i n g I n f e r e n t i a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n o f C o n t e n t by C o m b i n i n g I n -s t r u c t i o n a l T e c h n i q u e s . " R e a d i n g I m p r o v e m e n t , 1 9 , W i n t e r , 1982 , 2 6 8 - 2 7 3 . S i n a t r a , R . C . " T h e C l o z e T e c h n i q u e f o r R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d V o c a b u l a r y D e v e l o p m e n t . " R e a d i n g I m p r o v e m e n t , 14 , 1977 , 8 6 - 9 2 . S m i t h , E . L . " U s e o f t h e C l o z e P r o c e d u r e i n I m p r o v i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n o f J u n i o r C o l l e g e R e a d e r s . R e a d i n g : P r o c e s s a n d P e d a g o g y . " 1 9 t h Y e a r - b o o k , N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , V o l . 1 1 , 1 9 7 1 . S m i t h , R . H . , a n d D . D . J o h n s o n . T e a c h i n g C h i l d r e n t t o R e a d , 2nd e d . R e a d i n g , M a s s . : A d d i s o n W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1980 . S p a c h e , G . , a n d P . B e r g . T h e A r t o f E f f i c i e n t R e a d i n g . New Y o r k : M a c -m i l l a n , 1966 . T a y l o r , W. L . " C l o z e P r o c e d u r e : A New T o o l f o r M e a s u r i n g R e a d a b i l i t y . " J o u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y , 3 0 , F a l l , 1953 , 5 1 5 - 5 3 3 . T h o r n d i k e , E . L . " R e a d i n g a s R e a s o n i n g : A S t u d y o f M i s t a k e s i n P a r a g r a p h R e a d i n g . " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 8 8 , 1917 , 3 2 3 - 3 3 2 . V a l m o n t , W. J . " I n s t r u c t i o n a l C l o z e P r o c e d u r e : R a t i o n a l e , F r a m e w o r k , a n d E x a m p l e s . " R e a d i n g H o r i z o n s , V o l . 23 , N o . 3 , 1983 , 1 5 6 - 1 6 2 . W e a v e r , W. " T h e o r e t i c a l A s p e c t s o f t h e C l o z e P r o c e d u r e . " I n S . T h u r s t o n a n d L a w r e n c e E . H a f n e r ( e d s . ) , T h e P h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d S o c i o l o g i c a l  B a s i s o f R e a d i n g . F o u r t e e n t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , M i l w a u k e e : N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 6 5 . W i n e r , B . J . S t a t i s t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s i n E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1971 . W i n t e r s , J . M . T h e E f f e c t s o f a C l o z e T r a i n i n g P r o c e d u r e Upon T h i r d G r a d e S t u d e n t s ' R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n ( . U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d , 1982 , A b s t r a c t ) . Y e l l i n , D . Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t r a t e g i e s f o r R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n E m p l o y -i n g t h e C l o z e P r o c e d u r e ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , A r i z o n a S t a t e U n i v e r -s i t y , 1 9 7 8 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 1978 , 3 9 , 2056A. A p p e n d i x A P r e - a n d P o s t - T e s t i n g I n s t r u m e n t s a n d I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 122 P o s t - T r e a t m e n t C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s  R e a d i n g S u b t e s t I n s t r u c t i o n s t o T e a c h e r s P l e a s e a d m i n i s t e r L e v e l 1 1 , F o r m 4 o f t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s . T h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t e s t i s t o s e e how w e l l s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n q u e s t i o n s a f t e r h a v i n g h a d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o n t e x t u a l a i d s . T h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s t e s t w i l l h e l p u s d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t t o w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e b e e n e x p o s e d o v e r t h e p a s t s e v e r a l w e e k s . I n s t r u c t i o n s t o S t u d e n t s I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o do t h e R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t t h a t y o u h a v e i n f r o n t o f y o u . Y o u h a v e a l l h a d t h i s t e s t b e f o r e . I w i l l g i v e y o u t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a g a i n a n d t e l l y o u when t o s t a r t a n d s t o p . P l e a s e w o r k c a r e f u l l y a n d t r y t o s e l e c t t h e c h o i c e s y o u t h i n k a r e b e s t . 123 Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s Level 11>—Form 4M 124 Sometimes an intelligent hunting dog is gun-shy at ; first. This means that he shows fright when he hears j the sound of a gun. Before he can be a useful hunting i ; dog, he must be broken of this habit. Some trainers • I use the method described here to help dogs overcome j gun-shyness. , I The dog is chained to his kennel and given nothing to eat for several hours. When food is finally given , ; to him, the dog is so hungry he can hardly wait to eat ; it. While the dog is eating, the trainer fires a gun. i If the dog pays no attention to the noise, the trainer ; keeps on firing all the time the dog is eating. If the i dog becomes frightened and runs into his kennel, the food is taken away. When the dog comes out of his kennel again, he finds that his food has disappeared. In a few hours another dish of food is placed before the dog, and again the trainer fires the gun while the dog is eating. If the dog runs into his kennel, the j food is again removed. After this process has been ' ; repeated a few times, the dog learns that if he runs ! : away from the noise, he will lose his meal. He also learns that the sound of a gun does not hurt him. 25. What is meant by "gun-shyness" in a dog? 1 ) Fear o f objects that make loud noises 2 ) Suspicion at the sight o f a gun 3 ) Fright at the sound o f a gun 4 ) Dis l ike for a master who fires guns 26. What is the trainer trying to teach the dog? 1 ) That he should look for food whenever he hears a gun 2 ) That the sound o f a gun wil l not hurt him 3 ) That he can expect to be punished whenever he does not obey 4 ) That he should stay in his kennel when he is frightened 27. When is the gun fired during the train-ing ? 1 ) When the dog comes out o f his kennel 2 ) Before the dog's food is served to him ' j 3 ) Just after the dog finishes his meal , 4 ) Whi le the dog is eating I 28. If the dog runs into his kennel when the gun is f i red, what happens ? 1 ) The trainer takes his food away. 2 ) The trainer gives him a good scolding. 3 ) The trainer chains him. 4) The trainer keeps firing until he comes out again. 29. Why does the trainer continue to fire the gun if the dog does not appear to be frightened ? 1 ) T o check the dog's hearing 2 ) So that the dog wil l get used to the sound o f the gun 3 ) T o teach the dog to know the sound of a gun when he hears one 4) T o scare the dog into obeying com-mands 30. W i t h w h i c h of these statements would the writer most surely agree ? 1 ) A good hunting dog jumps when he hears a gun. 2 ) Smart hunting dogs are seldom gun-shy. 3 ) A good hunting dog is not gun-shy. 4 ) Hungry dogs make the best hunters. 31. What is the main purpose of the writer ? 1 ) T o describe one method of teaching a dog to remain calm when a gun goes off 2 ) T o explain why some dogs are gun-shy while others are not 3 ) T o describe the qualities of a good hunting dog 4 ) T o show that you can't teach an old dog new tricks A candy most of us like is made from the seed of the cacao. The cacao is a large yellow fruit. It may be as big as 25 cm long. It grows on a tree in warm, wet coun-tries. Inside the ripe cacao are many seeds. Each is ' about the size of a large bean. The seeds are taken out. cleaned, and roasted. Then they are mashed into a : paste. Sugar and vanilla may be added. Sometimes milk 1 is stirred in. This paste is spread out in thin cakes. { When these harden, they are sweet brown chocolate bars! 32. Which of these is always used in making a chocolate bar ? 1 ) M i l k 3 ) Vani l la 2 ) Sugar 4 ) Cacao paste Go on to next pagt t 125 33. W h i c h of these comes first in making a chocolate bar ? 1 ) Mashing the cacao seeds 2) Adding sugar and vanilla 3) Roasting the cacao seeds 4 ) Spreading the paste* out Make no marks \ in this booklet. \ 34. The cacao is about the size of 1 ) a pinhead. 3 ) a baseball. 2) a bean. 4) a football. 35. What is this story about ? 1 ) How to grow a cacao tree 2) How a chocolate bar is made 3 ) Plants that grow in warm countries 4) Many kinds of candy made of chocolate Bill showed Leo how to make himself taller. , Bill's mother gave them four large empty juice ' cans. The tops had been cut off. Bill drove a nail through each side of one can near the bottom to 1 , make two holes. He then put strong suing through ! the can from one hole to the other. Then he turned the can over, so that the bottom end was up. He: ' and Leo made three more like if. Then Leo stood on the bottom of two of the cans. Bill tied the strings around his shoes. Bi l l ! stood on the other two cans, and Leo tied them on. j • The cans added IS cm to their height. Leo was' ! now 152 cm tali, and Bill was 135 cm tall. When | j they first tried to walk, they had to hold each oth- j I er's hands so they would not fall. After they prac-! ' used a little, they could walk alone. Now they' could see over the fence in Bill's yard. They' walked all around the yard. Then they walked' ! over to Leo's yard to show his mother. ""My, how you've grown!" she said. i 36. For what were the strings used ? 1) To tie the cans to the boys' feet 2) To tie the cans together 3) To keep the boys from falling 4 ) To keep the cans from turning over 37. A b o u t - h o w tal l were the juice cans? 1) 152 cm 2) 155 cm 3) 15 cm 4) There is no way of telling from the story. 38. Which drawing best shows what one of the finished cans looked l ike? 39. What did Leo's mother mean by saying he had grown ? 1 ) She had not seen him for a long time. 2 ) She thought he had really grown. 3 ) She meant that he was taller than Bi l l . 4 ) She was pretending she did not know about the juice cans. 40. Which of these tells best what this story is about ? 1 ) Ways to use old tin cans 2) How to learn to walk 3 ) How to walk without shoes 4) A way to be taller 41. About how high was the fence in Bi l l ' s yard ? I ) I22cm 2) 145 cm 3) 155 cm 4) Almost 180 cm Go on to next page • 126 T o m ' s j o b at h o m e w a s t o t a k e ou t the ga r bage . O n e d a y i n J u l y , t he m e n w h o p i c k e d u p the g a r b a g e w e n t o n s t r i k e . T h e y w a n t e d m o r e m o n e y f o r t he i r w o r k . S o o n t h e g a r b a g e b e g a n t o p i l e u p . C a n s a n d b a r r e l s we r e o v e r f l o w i n g . S t ree t s a n d a l l e y s w e r e l i t t e r ed . T o m c o u l d f i n d n o p l a c e t o p u t h i s 1 f a m i l y ' s g a r b a g e . H e w a s a l s o k ep t bu s y c l e a n i n g u p p ape r , bo t t l e s , a n d o t h e r t r a s h a l o n g h i s street. D o w n t o w n t h e s to res w e r e i n t r o u b l e , t o o . H e a p s o f boxe s a n d c a r t o n s b l o c k e d d o o r s . T r u c k s c o u l d not get t h r o u g h t o d e l i v e r n e w g o o d s . P e o p l e d i d not c o m e i n t o b u y . P i l e s o f g a r b a g e b e h i n d res-: t a u r a n t s drew' ra t s a n d flies. T h e w h o l e t o w n ; s m e l l e d ! F i n a l l y , the m a y o r c a l l e d a m e e t i n g . H e a s k e d : the p eop l e t o v o t e t o p a y h i g h e r taxes . T h e g a r b a g e ! m e n c o u l d t hen be g i v e n be t te r pay . T h e p e o p l e d i d d e c i d e t o ra i se the taxes . T h e mess wa s s l o w l y c l e a ned up . T o m ' s t o w n w a s t u r n e d f r o m a g i an t d u m p b a c k i n t o a b e a u t i f u l p l a c e t o l i ve . 42. Why did the garbage men strike ? 1 ) They didn't l ike their jobs. 2 ) They didn't l ike the mayor. 3 ) They were tired of work ing . 4 ) They wanted higher pay. 45. What were the streets like behind the restaurants during the strike ? 1 ) Busy 2 ) Blocked 3 ) Unhealthy 4) N a r r o w 46. H o w did the strike affect Tom ? 1 ) He didn't have to do so much work. , 2 ) It made more work for h im. 3 ) It made h im sick. 4 ) His father was out of a job. 47. What did the trash pile-up do to the d o w n t o w n area ? 1 ) It held up traffic. 2 ) It drew crowds. 3 ) It gave more people jobs. 4 ) It raised the price of parking. 48. Why were the stores d o w n t o w n in trouble ? 1 ) The rats ate their goods. 2 ) The i r goods cost more. 3 ) Thei r trucks were out of order. 4 ) They lost business. 43. What did the men who went on strike d o ? 1 ) They left town. 2 ) They quit working. 3 ) They changed their jobs. 4 ) They picked up trash downtown. Make no marks in this booklet. 49. Why was there trash in yards and streets ? I ) People were careless about w h e r e t h e y threw trash. 2 ) Strong winds blew the trash down o n the ground. 3 ) There was no more room in the t r a s h containers. 4 ) The garbage men put it there while o n strike. 44. When did the strike happen ? 1 ) In the summer 2 ) In the winter 3 ) In the spring 4 ) In the fall 50. What was the first thing the people did in solving their problem ? 1 ) They met with city leaders. 2 ) They voted for a new mayor. 3 ) They asked for help from a nearby city. 4 ) They decided to pay better wages. Go on to next page • 51. 52. 53. Where did the extra money come from to pay the garbage men's wages ? 1 ) F rom gifts of money 2 ) F r o m the downtown stores 3 ) F r o m the mayor 4 ) F r o m tax money What did the people have to do before the taxes could be raised ? 1 ) Ta lk with the mayor 2 ) Clean up their town 3 ) Cast their votes 4 ) Meet with the garbage men Which did the garbage men not do for their t o w n after they went back to w o r k ? 1 ) M a k e it look better 2 ) M a k e it into a giant dump 3 ) M a k e it more healthful 4 ) M a k e it easier to get around in 55. 56. 57. What are the trees wait ing for ? 1 ) The sun 2) Snow 3) W i n d 4) Ra in What part of the trees is meant by " b o u g h s " ? 1 ) The roots 2) The leaves 3) The trunks 4 ) The branches H o w many other words does the w o r d " t a l l " in line 4 rhyme w i t h ? Make no marks in this booklet. 58. In the c h i l l N o v e m b e r a i r T h e leaf less trees S t a n d s t r a i gh t a n d t a l l . T w i g g e d b o u g h s , l i k e h a n d s . U p l i f t e d — w a i t i n g T o c a t c h the first F l a k e s as they f a l l . 54. What do the trees in the poem look l ike? 1) They are covered with snow. 2) They are covered with leaves. 3 ) They are bare. 4 ) Leaves are fal l ing from them. 59. 60. 2) 3) 4) One T w o Three Four What kind of a tree might the one in the poem be ? 1 ) Pine 2 ) Spruce 3) F i r 4 ) Maple H o w w o u l d you best show how the trees look ? 1 ) By standing still and holding your arms up high By jumping and running fast By shivering as though you were cold By standing very still with your arms down 2) 3) 4) What are the last four words in the poem supposed to show ? 1 ) H o w trees' hands look 2 ) H o w snow falls 3) H o w leaves fall 4 ) H o w the trees are standing Level Here 128 A fisherman was fishing in the Atlantic Ocean, near : the coast. He pulled in his trawl, a kind of net he j was dragging behind his boat. In the net were several ! fish. There was also something that looked like a . large tooth. When he got it to shore, other fishermen ; said it was a tooth, an elephant's tooth. They had ! heard of elephant's teeth and bones taken from the sea bed off that shore, many metres down. | The fisherman could scarcely believe this. He did i not think there had ever been elephants in North America. He wrote the museum in the city and told about the tooth. A man came from the museum. He was much excited by the fisherman's find. He said it . was the best elephant's tooth he had seen brought up from the sea bed and that it was probably 11 000 to IS 000 years old. That long ago. he explained. ] the land now under that part of the sea was a grassy plain. Elephants and other big animals lived on it. Then big ice sheets moved down from the north and covered it. The remains of animals were buried under these glaciers. When the ice melted, the ocean became deeper, and water cov-ered the bones. There they had lain until the fish-ermen's nets brought up teeth or some other part of the skeleton. The fisherman gave the tooth to the museum. Now man\ people can see it and learn that these huge animals once lived on this land. 61. What is to ld in the first paragraph ? 1 ) How an elephant's tooth was found 2) How elephants first came to North America 3 ) Why the fisherman wrote to the museum 4 ) What happened when the glaciers came 62. H o w did the fisherman know he had an elephant's tooth in his net ? 1 ) He had often found such teeth in his net. 2) He knew that elephant bones were under the water. 3 ) Other fishermen told him what it was. 4 ) It was too large to be any other kind of tooth. 63. Why did the fisherman find it hard to believe it was an elephant's tooth ? 1 ) Fishermen often lie about their catch. 2 ) He thought it strange to find such a thing in the ocean. 3 ) He knew that there had never been elephants in Nor th Amer ica . 4) The man from the museum thought it was something else. 64. Where had the tooth come from ? I ) The tide had washed it there. 2 ) A fisherman's net had dragged it there. 3 ) Ice sheets from the north had brought it. 4) A n elephant had once lived there. 65. Why was the man from the museum much excited about the f ind ? 1 ) N o other elephant's tooth had ever been found in an ocean. 2 ) He was with the fisherman when the tooth was found. 3 ) The tooth that was found was in such good condit ion. 4) It was the oldest tooth ever found. 66. What does the article tell about the area 15 000 years earlier ? I ) Many Indians fished there. 2 ) There were fields in which pioneers raised barley. 3 ) It was a sheet of ice thai had mo \ed down from the north. 4 ) It was grassland where animals l i \ ed . 67. What happened as the glaciers melted ? 1 ) They flooded the plains. 2 ) They washed the bones up on the land. 3 ) The water drowned all the animals. 4 ) The animals came back to the plain. 68. Why was the tooth put in the museum ? 1 ) N o others had e \er been found. 2 ) Few people had e \er seen an elephant. 3 ) It was the oldest tooth ever found. 4 ) It told something important of the past. 69. The article shows which of these ? I ) Glaciers drove elephants from North America. 2 ) Elephants once lived in Nor th Amer ica . 3 ) The coast was once under deep water. 4) Ice once covered all of Nor th America. Co on to next page r» 70. W h i c h tells best what the " sea bed " is ? 1 ) The ocean shore where water is shallow 2) The land and rocks under the ocean 3 ) A place in the ocean where the fish sleep 4 ) A deep hole made in the sea by melting glaciers Nancy Moran has a pen pal. Her name is Kimi : Nojima. She lives in Tokyo. Last year Nancy's . teacher in grade four asked if anyone wanted to write to a little Japanese girl who could write English. Nancy said she did. so she took Kimi's name and , address and wrote her a letter. Kimi wrote back i soon. She wrote very good English. Nancy and Kimi write to each other every month. Each month Nancy buys an aerogramme at the post office. It is thin blue paper with a Canadian ! postage stamp printed on it. She writes her letter very carefully. She folds the paper and seals it like an envelope and addresses it to Kimi. She writes her own address at the top. Then she puts it in a mailbox. : It will go by air in about three days. Kimi always 1 answers at once. She writes on aerogrammes, too. : : They have Japanese stamps. At Christmas Nancy and Kim exchanged pictures : of themselves. Nancy has invited Kimi to visit her ; in Vancouver, and Kimi has asked Nancy to come ' to Tokyo. Perhaps someday these pen pals will meet. 71. H o w did Nancy f ind out where Kimi l ives? 1 ) A man at the post office told her. 2 ) Her teacher gave her Kimi's address. 3 ) She went to visit Kimi. 4 ) The story does not say. 72. Why is a stamp printed on an aero-gramme ? I ) To show that the sender has paid for mailing the letter 2) To show which city the letter comes from 3 ) To tell the post office where to send the letter 4) To show the writer which side of the paper to write on 129 73. Why does Nancy wr i te so carefully? 1 ) She does not want to spoil the aero-gramme and waste the stamp. 2) A letter with mistakes in it cannot go by air mail. 3 ) She cannot write very well. 4 ) Her teacher will see her letter. 74. Where does Nancy wr i te Kimi ' s name and address on the aerogramme ? 1 ) At the top of her letter 2 ) On the outside of the folded letter 3 ) On the envelope she puts the letter in 4 ) Just above her own name and address 75. What is the most likely reason that Nancy uses air mail ? 1 ) It is easier to write letters on aero-grammes. 2 ) Air mail costs less than ship mail. 3 ) There is no other way to send letters to Japan. 4 ) Air mail travels faster than ship mail. 76. H o w does the story show that Japan has air mai l , too ? 1 ) Kimi writes to Nancy every month. 2) Kimi lives in the big city of Tokyo. 3) Kimi's aerogrammes have Japanese stamps. 4 ) Kimi sent Nancy a picture of the post office. 77. What is the second paragraph about ? 1 ) How Nancy learned Kimi's name 2 ) Where Kimi lives in Japan 3) What the pen pals gave each other for Christmas 4 ) How the pen pals' letters are sent 78. W h i c h is the best t i t le for this story ? . 1 ) "Two Little Girls" 2 ) " A l l About Air M a i l " 3 ) "Pen Pals Far Apart" 4) "Letters from a Girl in Tokyo" 79. Every paragraph is about 1 ) what pen pals do. 2 ) how to choose a pen pal. 3 ) sending aerogrammes to a pen pal. 4 ) gifts and invitations for a pen pal. Level 1 0 130 O l d R a m o n a n d the boy sat by the fire ea t ing in the | s i lence o f g o o d appet i tes. O l d R a m o n c leaned oft* h is , ' p la te a n d set i t d o w n beside h i m and d r a i ned h i s t h i r d : c up o f b l a c k coffee a n d set the c up d o w n on the p late. { T h e boy finished too a n d set his p late d o w n beside h i m 1 and h is c up on it. O l d R a m o n reached to his o w n c up i a n d ra t t led it a l i t t le on the p late and l ooked at the boy. : i ' T h e boy l o o ked stra ight back at h i m i n the firelight. , " I prepared the f o o d . " O l d R a m o n t humped a hand on the g r ound . " A n d I j t o o k care o f the t i c k s . " H e pushed up to his feet. ! " The r e is one way to dec ide such a th ing . W e w i l l toss the c o i n . " H e searched in a pocket o f his shapeless o l d ' t rousers that had been, patched unt i l there was l i t t le o r i the o r ig ina l c l o th left a n d had patches o n the patches, i H e pu l led out a sma l l r o u n d piece o f meta l that shone | i n the firelight f r om the cons tant r u b b i n g against the c l o th o f the pocket . " I w i l l take the heads . " sa id O l d R a m o n . H e flipped the c o i n sp i nn i ng in the a i r and caught it in his r ight hand and s lapped it d o w n on his left wr ist . H e peered at it. " A h . it is the heads. D o y o u s ee? " H e held the wr ist t owa rd the boy . a n d the boy t oo peered at the c o i n . S l ow l y the boy rose and began to gather the dishes. H e was t u rn i ng t owa rd the poo l that had settled now c lear and c lean i n the d i m darkness when O l d R a m o n spoke , sof t ly , w i t h a sma l l chuck l e in his vo ice. " M o t h e r o f O o d . I cannot d o it. T o one who th i nk s h imse l f so c lever l i ke my cous i n Pab l o , yes. T o (he son o f my pa t ron , no . L o o k y ou now at this and see." He held out the c o i n and tu rned it over s lowly between his fingers. Bo t h o f the sides were the same. 80. W h y w a r * O l d R a m o n a n d t h e b o y »o q u i e t d u r i n g m e a l t i m e 7 1 ) They were shy. 2 ) T h e y were hungry . 3 ) T h e y feared one another . 4 ) T h e y were angry . 81. W h a t a lse d i d t h e b o y m e a n w h e n he l o o k e d at O l d R a m o n a n d s a i d . " I p r e p a r e d t h e f o o d " 7 1 ) He had done his share o f the wo r k . 2 ) H e had c o o k e d the mea l . 3 ) H e d i d not know how to do any th i ng else. 4 ) H e was p r oud o f his wo r k . 82. W h y d i d O l d R a m o n ' s c o i n s h i n e 7 1 ) It was new. 2) It had been washed . 3 ) H e had po l i shed it w i t h a c l o th . 4 ) It had been buffed by be ing ca r r i ed . 83. W h y d i d O l d R a m o n w a n t t o t o s s t h e c o i n 7 1 ) T o settle s ome th i ng fa i r l y 2 ) T o p lay a t r i ck on the boy 3 ) T o show his s k i l l in ca t ch ing the co in 4 ) T o see i f heads o r ta i ls w o u l d c ome up 84. W h y d i d O l d R a m o n d e c i d e t o s h o w t h e b o y h i s c o i n 7 1) H e wan ted to teach h i m a lesson. 2 ) H e wan ted to g ive it to h i m as a gift. 3 ) H e d i d not want t o dece ive h i m . 4 ) H e wanted to show how sh iny it was. 85. W h y w o u l d O l d R a m o n n o t m i n d t o s s i n g h i s c o i n f o r h i s c o u s i n P a b l o 7 1 ) P a b l o was a re lat ive. 2 ) P ab l o thought he was too smart to be foo led . 3 ) P a b l o was o lde r than the b o \ . 4 ) P a b l o was easy to f oo l . 86. W h o i s t h e b o y 7 1 ) R a m o n ' s son 2 ) R a m o n ' s cous i n 3 ) T h e boy R a m o n h i red to be his helper 4 ) T h e son o f someone impor tan t to R a m o n 87. W h e r e a r e t h e b o y a n d O l d R a m o n e a t i n g ? 1 ) O u t d o o r s by a campf i re 2 ) A t a table in a cottage 3 ) In a cafe o r restaurant 4 ) A t a p i cn i c table in a park 88. W h a t d o e s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f R a m o n ' s t r o u s e r s s h o w a b o u t h i m 7 1 ) H e was l azy and good - fo r -no th ing . 2 ) He never mended his c lothe*. 3 ) H e was poo r . 4 ) He had been away f r om home for a long t ime. 89. W h a t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e O l d R a m o n ' s t r i c k w o r k 7 1 ) Tha t he toss the co i n and " c a l l i t " h imse l f 2 ) Tha t the boy not be a l l owed to see the head that came up 3 ) Tha t the c o i n be caught in the right hand and turned over on the left 4 ) Tha t the c o i n be f l ipped so that the same side a lways came up Co on to next page. * 131 90. W h a t is t h * m a i n idea o f t h e l a s t p a r a g r a p h ? I ) T h e boy knew a l l o f the t ime that R a m o n was f oo l i ng h i m . 2 ) T n e o l d m a n never in tended to f oo l the boy . 3 ) T h e o l d man c ou l d not go th rough w i t h his p l an . f o r f o o l i n g the boy . 4 ) O l d R a m o n w o u l d never let h is patron's, son wash his d ishes. 91. W h a t i m p r e s s i o n d o e s t h e a u t h o r g i v e o f O l d R a m o n ? 1 ) T h a t he is bo th c lever a n d d ishonest 2 ) T h a t he rea l l y cares no t h i ng about the boy 3 ) Tha t he w o u l d d o any t h i ng to get out o f w o r k 4 ) Tha t he is a good m a n at heart 92. Which ? Whenever I 'm wa l k i n g i n the w o o d I 'm never cer ta in whether I shou ld Shuff le a l ong where the dead leaves fa l l O r wa l k as if I 'm no t there at a l l . It's n ice to rust le as ha rd as you c an . But 1 can ' t dec i de i f i t ' s n icer than C r eep i ng a l ong , wh i l e the woodb i r d s ca l l . P re tend ing y ou are not there at a l l ! Make no marks in this booklet. W h a t is p r o b a b l y t h e r e a s o n t h e p o e t c h o s e " W h i c h 7" f o r t h e t i t l e o f h is p o e m ? 1 ) H e cou l d not t h i n k o f a t i t le that wou l d tel l what the poem was about . 2 ) H e was not sure whether he had wr i t ten a poem or a story. 3 ) H e thought that such a short poem shou ld have a short name. 4 ) H e wanted to show that his poem had someth ing to d o w i t h m a k i n g a cho i ce . 93. W h a t is t h e d e c i s i o n t h a t t h e p o e t has t r o u b l e m a k i n g ? 1 ) Whe the r to take one path o r another th rough the w o o d 2 ) Whe the r to wa l k th rough the w o o d o r stay at home 3 ) Whe the r to scuff no i s i l y th rough the leaves o r move s lowly and s i lent ly 4 ) Whethe r t o rake up the dead leaves o r leave them l y i ng o n the g round 94. 95. W h y is t h e p o e t ' s d e c i s i o n d i f f i c u l t t o m a k e ? 1 ) H e en joys d o i n g bo th th ings equa l l y wel l . 2 ) H e does not en joy d o i n g e i ther th ing . 3 ) H e has no one to he lp h i m make his dec i s ion . 4 ) H e has never done ei ther th ing before. n o t H o w d o e s t h e p o e t w a l k as if he w e r e t h e r e at a l l " 7 1 ) H e pretends. 3 ) H e shuffles. 2) H e rust les. 4 ) H e creeps. 96. W h y d o e s t h e p o e t l ike t o " s h u f f l e " t h r o u g h t h e w o o d 7 1 ) H e l ikes to hear the b i rds wa rn each other o f his app roa ch . 2 ) H e l ikes to scare the b i rds out o f their h i d i ng places. 3 ) H e l ikes to hear the c rack le o f the dry leaves under foot . 4 ) H e l ikes to make believe he is somewhere else. 97. W h i c h o f t h e s e t h i n g s d o e s t h e p o e t espec ia l l y en joy d o i n g w h e n he w e l k s t h r o u g h t h e w o o d q u i e t l y 7 I ) Hea r i n g the b i rds ca l l the way they do when • there are no people in the wood P re tend ing he is someone else L o o k i n g at the beaut i fu l wood l and scenery L i s t en i ng to the sound the dead leaves make as they fa l l f r om the trees 2 ) 3 ) 4 ) 98. W h e t is t h e p o e t m o s t l ikely t o d o t h e next t i m e he is w a l k i n g in t h e w o o d 7 I ) T o shuffle, because he ment ions that poss ib i l i ty first i n his poem 2 ) T o have d i f f icu l ty m a k i n g up his m ind what to d o 3 ) T o take a f r iend a l ong w i th h im so he won ' t have to make any dec is ions 4 ) T o creep, because he ment ions that poss ib i l i ty last i n his poem Level 11 Here C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s L e v e l 1 0 — F o r m 3M 133 Young Paul Wittgenstein loved to play the piano. He played so well everyone thought he would go far. But in an accident, Paul lost his right arm. Some thought he would never play again. Paul surprised them! He made one hand do the work of two. Every day he practised for hours. He worked so hard that sometimes his fingers ached. Soon his music sounded as though it were being played by two hands. Many people came to listen to him. Special piano pieces were written for him. Playing the piano became Paul's life work after all. 12. 13. 14. IS. 16. 17. In what way was Paul's piano playing unusual ? 1) He played music. 2) It was hard work. 3) He played only with his left hand. 4) It was what he liked best to do. Why did Paul make one hand do the work of two ? 1) He wanted to be different. 2) His right hand was hurt. 3 ) His fingers ached from overwork. 4) He had only one hand. What does, "he would go far" mean ? 1 ) He would travel. 2) He would become famous. 3) He would lose his right arm. 4 ) He would be in an accident. How did Paul learn to play the piano after the accident ? 1) He took lessons. 2) His mother helped him. 3) He worked it out for himself. 4) He knew how before the accident. When would the word "doubtful fit some of the people who were in-terested in Paul's piano playing ? 1) Just after the accident 2) When he was young 3) When they heard him play 4) It would never fit. How was Paul's life surprising ? 1) He recovered from the accident. 2) He did what no one thought he could do. 3) He worked very hard. 4) He loved to play the piano. Mr. Kozek works for the city of Kingston. He j is busy the year around. In the early spring, he trims trees along the streets, which helps drivers to see better. He also cleans out drains so that rain water can run off. In late spring, summer, and fall | he drives a street sweeper. The sweeper's brushes ! clean dirt off streets fast. Winter brings much snow. : After a big storm, Mr. Kozek works day and night clearing streets. He sprinkles sand or salt on icy j spots. His favourite job comes around Christmas time. Then he decorates the city's big Christmas tree. : Mr. Kozek's work is never done. ! 18. Why does Mr . Kozek sprinkle salt or sand? I ) To keep streets from getting slippery 2) To decorate the streets 3 ) To help clean the streets 4) To help drivers see better 19. How does Mr. Kozek clean the streets ? I ) He sprinkles sand and salt on them. 2) He brushes them with a big broom. 3 ) He washes them down with rain water. 4) He sweeps them with a big machine. 20. What does Mr. Kozek do when he "tr ims" trees ? 1 ) Decorates trees 2) Waters trees 3 ) Cuts off tree branches 4) Cuts down trees 21. What ought to happen to the rain water ? 1) It should go down the drains. 2) It should stay to help wash the streets. 3) It should water the trees. 4) It should run off onto lawns. 22. Most of Mr. Kozek's work for the city is done on the I ) trees. 3 ) drains. 2) streets. 4) sweepers. 23. How many months of the year is Mr. Kozek busy ? 1) One 3) Six 2) Three 4) Twelve-24. What is a good name for this story ? 1 ) "The Street Sweeper" 2) " A Dull Job" 3) " A Busy City Worker" 4) "Decorating a Christmas Tree" Go on to next page • Level \ \ Begin Here Long ago there were three brothers who lived on a farm. An old man who knew many magic secrets ] lived in a cave on a neatby mountain. One day j Peter, the youngest brother, said to the others, "I am going up on the mountain. I want to ask the old man to teach me his magic secrets." The older brothers did not want the youngest to outdo them. So they went along too. The old man did not like visitors to come to his cave. He roared and screamed! But the boys did j not go. Finally he said, "I will teach you my magic secrets. But you must stay with me a whole year to ! learn them well. And the last one to leave my cave must be my servant." The boys learned much magic. They could fly through the air and talk to animals. At the end of the | year they were eager to go home. But the night before they were to leave, Peter overheard his brothers talking. They were planning to leave the cave first. That meant Peter would be the old man's servant. Peter thought about what to do. He hoped the sun would shine the next day. j Luckily, the morning was bright and sunny. The three brothers started for the door of the cave. Peter was the last one there. "Stop!" called the old man. ! "You are the last one out of my cave. You are my servant." "Oh, no," cried Peter. "There is one ! behind me." He pointed to his black shadow on the wall of the cave. As the old man tried to catch the j shadow, Peter ran out. And Peter was without a shadow ever after. 25. Why did Peter's brothers want to go along ? 1 ) They wanted to take care o f Peter. 2) They did not want Peter to get ahead of them. 3 ) They wanted to prove they could walk as far as Peter. 4 ) They wanted to hear the old man roar and scream. i 26. Which word would best describe the i boys when they met the old man ? 1) Brave 3 ) Si l ly 2 ) Timid 4) Surprised 134 27. Which would be an example of the magic secrets the brothers learned ? 1 ) Runn ing out o f the cave 2 ) G o i n g up the mountain 3 ) M a k i n g the sun shine 4) Speaking with a fox 28. What were Peter's brothers planning to do the last day ? 1) T r y a magic trick on the old man 2 ) Stay and be the o ld man's servants 3 ) Leave Peter behind for the old man 4 ) Leave their shadows behind for the old man 29. Why did the old man make the brothers stay so long ? 1 ) So they would be his servants 2 ) So they would be company for him 3 ) So they would learn his secrets well 4 ) So they would teach him some magic 30. What were Peter's brothers going to do to him ? 1 ) He lp h im 3 ) Tease him 2 ) Betray h i m 4 ) Sell h im 31. Why did Peter hope the sun would shine ? 1) So he would have a shadow 2 ) So he would wake up early 3 ) So he could find his way down the mountain 4 ) So he could see the old man 32. Why was it lucky the morning was sunny ? 1 ) Peter could see his brothers. 2 ) Peter's escape plan would work. 3 ) Peter could see the door o f the cave. 4 ) Peter's shadow would not be seen. 33. What helped Peter the most from be-coming the old man's servant ? 1 ) M a g i c secrets he had learned 2 ) H i s brothers 'p lanning 3 ) H is abil ity to run fast 4) H i s own clever th inking Go on to next page • 135 34. What did the old man get in return for j teaching his magic secrets 7 1) Money 3) Sunshine j 2) A servant 4) A shadow i I 35. What was unusual about Peter after his i visit to the old man ? 1) He never had a shadow. 2) He forgot all of the magic secrets he had learned. 3) He refused to go near the mountain again. 4) He was never without his shadow. 36. Why was Peter able to get away ? 1) He could run fast. 2) His brothers helped him. 3) His shadow drew the man's attention away. 4) His shadow blocked the old man's path. Years ago there were very few laws about selling food. One example of how times have changed is the case of nutmeg. Nutmeg is a spice. It is made from the large brown seed of the red nutmeg fruit. Cooks use nutmeg to flavour pies, cakes, and other foods. Today, finely ground nutmeg can be bought in the stores. But not long ago, only the whole nutmeg was for sale. The cook had to grind or grate the nutmeg. Some dishonest men made and sold wooden nut-megs. They looked so real many women bought them. Just think of the poor people who ate cake made with wood! Now there is a law called the Food and Drugs Act. People who make or sell food that might be harmful can be fined or jailed. Inspectors test products often to see if they are clean. 37. What would ground nutmeg look like ? 1) A large red seed 2) Sand 3) Sugar 4) A brown powder 38. How is nutmeg-used ? 1) It is planted for decoration. 2) It is put into foods to make them taste good. 3) It is made into pies and cakes. 4) It is ground into a fine flour. 39. Why did women buy wooden nutmegs ? 1 ) They were cheap. 2) They gave baked goods a good flavour. 3) The women didn't know they were fakes. 4) The women liked them for decorations. 40. What must be done to the nutmeg before it can be used ? 1) It must be ground. 2) It must be cooked. 3) It must be soaked in water. 4) It must be flavoured. Make no marks in this booklet. 41. How do we know if people are obeying the Food and Drugs law ? 1 ) Special men or women check products for sale. 2 ) The police test everything that is sold. 3 ) Food and drug producers say they obey the law. 4) Only persons who sell food and drugs can tell. 42. Which would be the best name for this story? 1) "Wooden Food" 2) "How Spices Are Made" 3) "A New Food" 4) "How a Law Protects Us" Co on to next page t» 136 „ A garden in a bowl is Tun to make and Tun to watch. Make one in the fall. You will have green growing things, and maybe flowers, to watch when snow is on the ground. A fish bowl or tank at least 25 cm across is the best thing* to use for your garden in a bowl. It can be round or square. Be sure the open-ing is large enough so that you can put your fist in. It should have a glass cover. You can buy your bowl at a pet shop, a variety store, or a florist shop. ^ ^ In the bottom of the bowl put 2 to 4 cm of clean sand with some gravel in it, so that it will drain well. Then add a layer of charcoal pieces or bits of burned wood from the fireplace to keep the soil sweet. If you don't want these layers to show, leave a space at the sides for soil or moss. Next add 5 cm of soil. The best soil to use is the kind your plants are growing in when you find them. Heap the soil up at the back or leave it uneven so that it will look more natural. You may get your plants in the woods or from your own home garden. Wherever you get them, take some extra soil in which they are growing. Dig tiny plants up carefully, keeping some soil around the roots. You can break off small branches of some of the larger plants and keep them in water until they have roots. All of your plants should be kept moist until you are ready to set them in your bowl. ^ ^ Put each one in carefully, keeping its own soil around its roots. Press it into the soil but not into the sand. When all the plants are in, you may want to a d d moss from the woods. You can also make paths and put in twigs and little rocks to make it a woods garden. Then water it with a fine spray. For this you can use a small watering can, a syringe, or your mother's clothes sprinkler. Now cover your garden and set it in the light but not in the sun. A north window is best for a woodland garden. Water your garden once or twice a week. Always water lightly. If water collects on the sides or glass cover of the bowl, lift the cover oft" for a while. Aside from this, all you have to do is watch your garden grow. 43. What is the purpose of paragraph 1 ? 1 ) T o tell how to plant a garden in a bowl 2) T o make you want to grow a garden in a bowl 3) T o tell what plants to put in a garden 4) T o show how to grow a garden in the winter 44. Which is not told in paragraph 2? 1 ) The size o f bowl to use 2) Where to buy a bowl 3 ) Where to get soil 4) The kind o f cover to use 45. In making the bed for your garden in a b o w l , w h i c h of these steps might you leave out ? 1 ) Put sand in the bottom. 2 ) Add a layer of charcoal. 3 ) Add 5 cm o f soil. 4 ) Leave a space at the sides. 46. Which paragraph tells the best kind of soil to use for your garden ? 1 ) Paragraph 1 3 ) Paragraph 4 2 ) Paragraph 3 4) Paragraph 5 47. W h i c h of these gives the reason for putting sand in the bottom of the bowl ? 1 ) Water runs quickly through sand. 2 ) Sand is always wet. 3 ) Sand is cleaner than soil . 4) Plants grow well in sand. 48. Why are a watering can. a syringe, or a clothes sprinkler good for watering a bowl garden ? 1 ) They are in every home. 2 ) They hold the right amount of water. 3 ) They give a fine spray. 4 ) They are small enough to go in the bowl. 49. In what way is a north w i n d o w best for plants f rom the woods ? 1 ) No r th windows are warmer than others. 2 ) Woodland plants face north. 3 ) Most woods are in the north. 4) It has light but little sun. 50. Which of these tells best the kind of conditions under which woodland plants g r o w ? 1 ) C o o l and dry 3 ) Hot and wet 2 ) C o o l and moist 4 ) Hot and dry Make no marks in this booklet. Go on to next page • 137 Last summer our family visited the well-known site of Man and His World in Montreal. If the explorer Champiain were to sail his ship up the St- Lawrence River today, he would be surprised to find an island that was not there in 1611. Work began in 1964 to build the island of Notre Dame, which covers 400 hec-tares. It was created out of 23 million tonnes of rock and soil dredged from the bottom of the river and carted from the shore by trucks. The new island and nearby land were beautifully landscaped in time for the opening of the World Exposition in Montreal in 1967. Since then millions of people have visited the natural and man-made islands in the St. Lawrence River. 51. H o w long did it take to build the new island in the St. Lawrence River ? 1 ) 3 years 3 ) 67 years 2 ) 25 years 4 ) over 300 years 52. What makes the island so attractive ? 1) Rocks and soil 2 ) M i l l i ons of people 3 ) Being in Montreal 4 ) Beautiful trees and shrubs 53. Why woul d Champlain be surprised to f ind He Notre-Dame 7 1 ) It was not yet built. 2 ) He did not visit a l l the islands. 3 ) It was used for a world exposition. 4) He did not know an island could be built. 54. H o w big is the man-made island ? 1) The largest island in the St. Lawrence River 2 ) 23 mi l l ion hectares 3 ) 400 hectares 4 ) The information is not given. 55. What woul d be a good name for this s tory? 1 ) " O u r Summer Travels" 2 ) " A Vis i t T o Expo 67" 3 ) " A Tr ip to a Famous Spot" 4 ) " H o w Times Have Changed" Fall Music Pitter on the housetop. Patter on the pane. Patter, tap, and whisper O n the gravel in the lane. N o t the swish o f snowflakes. Not the splash o f rain. But the pl ip, p lop, whisper O f the autumn leaves again. 56. What is making the " p i t t e r " and "pat ter " in the poem ? 1 ) Ra in on the roof 2 ) Snowflakes coming down 3 ) Leaves fal l ing 4 ) Smal l animals running 57. When does the reader f ind out what is making the noise ? 1 ) In the first line 2 ) In the first stanza 3 ) In the fifth line 4) In the last line 58. Where do the noises that "patter on the pane" happen ? 1 ) O n the roof 2 ) A t the window 3 ) O n a path 4 ) A t the door 59. What does the w o r d " w h i s p e r " mean in the poem ? 1 ) Someone is telling a secret. 2 ) Someone is walking in the lane. 3 ) Leaves are sliding along the lane. 4 ) Gravel stones are being spread. 60. H o w often does the poet hear the "patter, tap. and w h i s p e r " ? 1 ) He listens to them during a certain season. 2 ) He hears them every time it rains or snows. 3 ) They are new to him. 4 ) He hears them all the time. Level 9 Pvffi Here 138 Level *|2 Begin Here 61. Why is the river in the article called the Amazon ? 1) It lies along the equator. 2) It is very big and powerful . 3 ) Its source is the A m a z o n Mountains. 4 ) The article does not say. 62. The banks of the Amazon are mostly covered w i t h 1 ) salt. 2) plants. 3) sand. 4 ) huts. 63. In the article it is stated that the Amazor River system ranks f irst in 1) length. 2) number o f tributaries. 3) amount o f water moved. 4 ) speed o f water flow. 64. Which fact in the article indicates that the Amazon is in a hot cl imate? 1 ) It starts near the Pacif ic Ocean. 2) It is in South America. 3) It is 6300 km long. j 4 ) It runs close to the equator. j 65. What is the purpose of the first j paragraph ? 1 ) T o describe the A m a z o n River 2) T o explain what a pororoca is 3 ) T o tell why the article was written 4 ) T o give the history of the Amazon River 66. A " t r ibutary" is which of these ? j 1 ) A river that runs into the ocean 2) A stream that runs into another stream 3 ) A river that runs a great distance 4 ) A n ocean that is fed by a river 67. What is to ld f irst about the pororoca ? 1 ) H o w the river meets the tide 2 ) H o w far it may travel 3 ) The sound it makes • 4 ) H o w high it may be '• 68. The cause of a bore is most like which of ! the fo l lowing ? 1 ) L ightn ing str iking a tall building 2 ) A tree crashing down in a windstorm 3) A semi-trailer truck travelling on a flatcar o f a train 4 ) A head-on crash of two cars 69. What happens to the pororoca ? I ) It travels up the river, breaks down, and i is carried back down the river to the sea. ! 2) It travels up the river and floods the I land. | 3 ) h travels out 160 km or so into the , ocean and mixes with the ocean water. 4 ) It goes up into the air, evaporates, and falls again as rain. 70. Which is given as a cause of the pororoca ? 1 ) The time of the ocean tide i 2 ) The depth o f the river water 3 ) The way the tide comes in 4 ) Hurricanes along the coast Go on to next page • Do you know about a river that fights the ocean? One that does is the Amazon, one of the great riven of the world. You may know that this river is in South America. It runs west to east, roughly along the equa-tor, almost from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic mostly through dense jungle. It is 6300 km long and is fed by 1100 other rivers and streams, its tributaries. At its mouth it is more than 65 km wide, and so powerful that its yellow water pushes more than 160 km into the Atlantic before mixing with the ocean water. In fact, it carries the most water of any river system in the world. This is how it fights with the ocean: when the ocean tide is rising, salt water runs into the river. At very high tide, salt waters often move as far as 800 km inland. Sometimes the tide comes in waves that break near the mouth of the river, and then the Amazon fights back. Its own waters are so strong mat they push against the ocean waves. But the waves are strong, too, and they push back. The result is a great rising wave of the two fighting waters, which may be 6 m high. This wave may travel 160 km or more up the river before it comes crashing down. It makes such a roar that people on the river or the shores can hear it coming and get out of the way. The people in South America call this battle wave the pororoca. The Amazon is not the only river that fights the ocean. In other parts of the world, the wave of river and ocean meeting is known as bore, from an Old Norse term meaning wave. The pororoca of the Ama-zon is one of the most famous. "Save your Christmas trees," read the poster. "Members of the Junior Nature Club will pick them up January 2." "What do you do with old dry trees?" Mrs. Hawkins asked Bill Tompkins, when he came to get her tree. "They're surely not good for anything but a bonfire." "Oh, no," answered Bill. "They're important con-servation tools. We plan to take the trees we collect to the country. There we'll stack them up like teepees in gullies or windblows. The trees make fine homes for birds and small animals during the winter. Rabbits especially like them. By March, the trees will have settled down. Then they will keep the soil from washing or blowing away. We can do two things at once: help wildlife and prevent erosion." "There's one more thing your club does," added Mrs. Hawkins. "What's that?" asked Bill. "You help clean up our town," she replied. "Thank you." 72. Why did Mrs. Hawkins thank Bill for getting her tree ? 1) He was helping wild animals. 2) He was helping to stop soil from blow-ing or washing away. 3) He was helping her clean her house. 4) He was helping to make the city neat. When would the trees be most useful in helping to stop erosion ? 1) In summer 2) In winter 3) In spring 4) In fall Make no marks in this booklet. 73. How long would it take the stacked trees to settle down ? 1) A few days 2) A couple of weeks 3) Several months 4) An entire year 74. What was the club's main goal in collecting the trees? 1) To clean up the town 2) To help preserve nature 3 ) To build a big bonfire 4-) To beautify the countryside 1 ;• 75. What would be the main purpose of placing trees in gullies? 1 ) To keep the dirt from washing away 2) To keep the dirt from blowing away 3 ) To provide homes for rabbits 4) To decorate bare spots in the country 76. How would the trees help prevent erosion ? 1 ) They would enrich the soil. 2 ) They would hold the soil in place. 3 ) They would provide places for animals to live. 4) They would keep the country looking neat. 77. How would the stacks of trees look ? 4m &&&& 2 ) 3 ) 4) 78. Where was the club going to put the trees? 1 ) Near farmhouses in the country 2) Near rabbit holes 3 ) In unprotected areas 4 ) Back in the forest 79. When did the club collect the trees ? 1 ) The day after Christmas 2 ) About a week after Christmas 3 ) Several weeks after Christmas 4) The story gives no hint. Level 1 0 Here P r e - T r e a t m e n t C l o z e T e s t  D i a m o n d s I n s t r u c t i o n s t o T e a c h e r s P l e a s e a d m i n i s t e r t h i s t e s t b e f o r e y o u b e g i n a n y i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e l e s s o n s . T h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o s e e how w e l l t h e s t u -d e n t s a r e a b l e t o c o m p l e t e c l o z e p a s s a g e s b e f o r e t h e y r e c e i v e s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . We w i l l a d m i n i s t e r a s i m i l a r t e s t when t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d i s c o m p l e t e d . T h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e t e s t s w i l l h e l p u s d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t t o w h i c h s t u d e n t s w i l l be e x p o s e d o v e r t h e n e x t s e v e r a l w e e k s . P l e a s e do n o t g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s any i n s t r u c t i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e i n r e g a r d s t o how t h e y m i g h t e s t a b l i s h what t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s a r e . T i m e : 25 m i n u t e s I n s t r u c t i o n s t o S t u d e n t s I h a v e a s h o r t s t o r y a b o u t d i a m o n d s . Some o f t h e w o r d s h a v e b e e n r e m o v e d . P l e a s e s e e how many o f t h e w o r d s y o u c a n r e p l a c e . I f y o u a r e f i n i s h e d b e f o r e t i m e i s u p , p l e a s e r e a d s o m e t h i n g u n t i l o t h e r s a r e f i n i s h e d o r u n t i l I s a y s t o p . Do a s w e l l a s y o u c a n . 141 C l o z e T e s t T r e a t m e n t G r o u p : Name: T e a c h e r : - S c h o o l : • D i a m o n d s S t o n e s a n d r o c k s t h a t we f i n d on t h e b e a c h may l o o k p r e t t y , b u t t h e y a r e n o t v a l u a b l e . We t a k e them t o a a n d s e l l them f o r . D i a m o n d s l o o k l i k e s m a l l a n d r o c k s u n t i l t h e y c u t a n d p o l i s h e d ; t h e n s p a r k l e a n d s h i n e . D i a m o n d s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ b e a u t i f u l , b u t t h e y a r e t o f i n d . T h a t i s t h e y a r e w o r t h s o m o n e y . C u t t i n g a n d p o l i s h i n g r o u g h d i a m o n d s makes t h e gems a n d g l i n t l i k e f i r e , c u t t i n g a d i a m o n d i s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ d i f f i c u l t j o b . A d i a m o n d s o h a r d t h a t t h e t h i n g t h a t w i l l c u t i s a n o t h e r d i a m o n d . T h e c u t t i n g m a c h i n e s h a v e t o d i a m o n d c u t t i n g b l a d e s . A l s o , t h e d i a m o n d i s c u t w r o n g w a y , i t i s a n d t h e n i t i s n o t h i n g . One d i a m o n d c u t t e r was o n c e a s k e d t o a v e r y v a l u a b l e d i a m o n d so s c a r e d he m i g h t i t t h e w r o n g way he f a i n t e d o n t o t h e . T h e p u r e s t d i a m o n d s h a v e c o l o u r a t a l l . I f d r o p p e d one i n t o a o f w a t e r , i t w o u l d t o d i s a p p e a r . T h i s s o r t • d i a m o n d i s t h e most . O t h e r d i a m o n d s n o t q u i t e v a l u a b l e h a v e s h a d e s o f p i n k , b r o w n , a n d b l a c k t h e m . T h e b e s t d i a m o n d s u s e d i n j e w e l l e r y . T h e y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ made i n t o r i n g s a n d , and o f c o u r s e — c r o w n s . 142 Post-Treatment Cloze Test  Nickel Instructions to Teachers Please administer this cloze test immediately after completion of the cloze lesson passages. The objective of this test i s to see how well the students can complete the cloze passage after they have had experience with contextual aids. The students' responses to this test w i l l help us determine the effectiveness of the treatment to which students have been exposed over the past several weeks. Please do not give the students any instruction or assistance. Time: 25 minutes Instructions to Students I have a short story about n i c k e l . Some of the words have been removed. Please see how many of the words you can replace. If you are finished before time is up, please read something u n t i l the others have finished or u n t i l I say stop. Do as well as you can. C l o z e T e s t 143 T r e a t m e n t G r o u p : Name: T e a c h e r : S c h o o l : N i c k e l N i c k e l i s a m e t a l o b t a i n e d f r o m r o c k known as o r e . A l o n g t h e n i c k e l i n t h e " a r e t h i r t e e n o t h e r e l e m e n t s u s e s w h i c h r a n g e f r o m e y e s t o v a l u a b l e j e w e l l e r y . h a v e d i s c o v e r e d ways t o t h e n i c k e l a s w e l l t h e o t h e r t h i r t e e n e l e m e n t s t h e o r e . T h e d i s c o v e r y more a n d more u s e s t h e e l e m e n t s f o u n d i n o r e h a s made i t more T h e n i c k e l o r e l o c k e d up by N a t u r e u n d e r t h e s u r f a c e o f e a r t h . L i k e a n y t h i n g e l s e i s l o c k e d u p — s u c h money i n a s a f e — o r e i s d i f f i c u l t t o a t . T h e n when t h e h a s b e e n r e m o v e d f r o m , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r j o b o f r e m o v i n g t h e f r o m i t . When t h e i s b r o u g h t up t o s u r f a c e i t l o o k s l i k e c h u n k s o f r o c k . H i d d e n t h e s e c h u n k s i s t h e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a n d o t h e r v a l u a b l e m e t a l s b e g i n t h e i r j o u r n e y t h r o u g h l o n g p r o c e s s w h i c h f i n a l l y t h e s h i n y w h i t e m e t a l p l a y s s u c h a n i m p o r t a n t i n o u r d a i l y l i v e s . c h u n k s o f r o c k a r e i n t o a c r u s h e r t h a t r e d u c e s i n t o s m a l l p i e c e s a o f an i n c h o r . T h e o r e t h e n g o e s t h e g r i n d i n g m i l l s i n t h e p i e c e s a r e g r o u n d a f i n e s a n d . The i s now i n a t h a t v a l u a b l e e l e m e n t s c a n s e p a r a t e d . T h e f i n e s a n d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ p u t i n t o l a r g e t a n k s w h i c h w a t e r a n d v a r i o u s • a r e a d d e d . T h e m i x t u r e w a t e r a n d c h e m i c a l s c a u s e s v a r i o u s m e t a l s t o f l o a t t h e t o p w h e r e t h e y c a n be skimmed o f f . T h i s i s c a l l e d " f l o t a t i o n . " 144 P o s t - T r e a t m e n t R o b e r t s o n W r i t t e n C o n n e c t i v e s T e s t  I n s t r u c t i o n s t o T e a c h e r s P l e a s e a d m i n i s t e r t h i s c o n n e c t i v e s t e s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e c o m -p l e t i o n o f t h e c l o z e p a s s a g e l e s s o n s . T h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t e s t i s t o s e e how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t s c a n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s , w i t h c o n n e c t i v e s r e m o v e d , a f t e r t h e y h a v e h a d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h u s e o f c o n n e c t i v e s . T h e r e a r e a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - o n e s e n t e n c e s w i t h o n e , t w o , o r t h r e e c o n n e c t i v e s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e s e n t e n c e s . T h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s ' t o t h i s t e s t w i l l h e l p u s e s t a b l i s h t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t t o w h i c h t h e s t u -d e n t s h a v e b e e n e x p o s e d o v e r t h e p a s t f e w w e e k s . P l e a s e do n o t g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s any i n s t r u c t i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e . T i m e : 30 m i n u t e s I n s t r u c t i o n s t o S t u d e n t s I h a v e a number o f s e n t e n c e s w h i c h h a v e some w o r d s r e m o v e d . P l e a s e r e a d e a c h s e n t e n c e c a r e f u l l y a n d s e e i f y o u c a n d e t e r m i n e w h i c h w o r d b e s t c o m p l e t e s t h e s e n t e n c e . T h e w o r d s t h a t h a v e b e e n r e m o v e d a r e t h e same t y p e s o f w o r d s t h a t y o u h a v e b e e n u s i n g o v e r t h e l a s t s e v e r a l weeks when y o u c o m p l e t e d t h e s h o r t s t o r i e s . Work a s c a r e f u l l y as y o u c a n . I f y o u a r e f i n i s h e d b e f o r e t i m e i s up p l e a s e r e a d s o m e t h i n g u n t i l o t h e r s h a v e f i n i s h e d o r u n t i l I s a y s t o p . Do as w e l l as y o u c a n . 145 Written Connectives Test Dr. J. Robertson Part four University of Alberta, Edmonton Page one JR 1. "She can't hear the organ s h e P u t s n e r f i n 8 e r s in her ears," said B i l l . 2. They must reali z e there is a lot of gold here w i l l be a great fortune for me. 3. The world did not know a ship could make a long haul, they did not believe i t the steamers devoured such mountains of coal. 4. Never once did he complain about the pain, , at times i t was so intense, he had to be helped to dress in the mornings. 5. The house was covered with water when the river flooded. the furniture was flooded. 6. ' the soldiers saw the king's grief, they knew his daughter must be found. 7. the school at ' they learned to play football defeated them many times. 8. Carl paddled straight against the current and hoped he could crawl up to the place Jim and the lamb were awaiting rescue. 9. Sam laughed Jane tumbled into a mound of wet snow. 10. Anyway we need not carry her at a l l , ____________ they are taking her by car. 11. They hurried back to the farm Tom was learning to rope horses. 12. The deer was friendly, he took the bread out of our hands. 13. indignation flooded his heart for a minute, Arthur showed no anger. 14. "Will you catch the rabbit?" called the old man to the boys were watching i t in the garden. 15. "I've eaten my breakfast," Alice replied in an offended tone, " I'm not very hungry." Part four 146 Page two JR 16. "You need not run so fast Bob," she advised. _____________ Joe and Howard added, "Run faster." 17. The two children were both ashamed. e a c n c h i l d s t i l l wanted to have his own way. 18. This time B i l l concentrated his attention on the honey, the bees became angry. 19. One cannot always be a hero, one can always be a . man. 20. The streams are dry there has been l i t t l e r a i n. Appendix B I n s t r u c t i o n s t o T e a c h e r s ; C l o z e E x e r c i s e P a s s a g e s a n d T e a c h e r s ' K e y s 148 S t a t e m e n t o f I n s t r u c t i o n s G e n e r a l S t a t e m e n t t o T e a c h e r s i n T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s 1 , 2 , 3 , a n d 4 ,  R e g a r d i n g C l o z e P r o c e d u r e a n d I t s U s e i n t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y T h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i s a t e c h n i q u e w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e r e m o v a l o f w o r d s f r o m a p a s s a g e o f c o n t i n u o u s p r o s e . T h e w o r d s r e m o v e d a r e u s u a l l y o n a n e v e r y n*"*1 w o r d b a s i s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e t i m e s when i t m i g h t b e d e s i r a b l e t o rJemove p a r t i c u l a r w o r d s o r s p e c i a l w o r d c l a s s e s . I f t h i s n o n - r a n d o m p r o c e d u r e i s u s e d , t h e n t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i s r e f e r r e d t o a s a m o d i f i e d c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . T h i s s t u d y i n w h i c h y o u a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e m o d i f i e d c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . T h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e was d e v e l o p e d by T a y l o r (1953) f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f m e a s u r i n g s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s o r r e a d i n g l e v e l s . S i n c e t h a t t i m e a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e u s e o f t h e c l o z e . One o f t h e s e was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . T h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e s o n c o m p r e h e n s i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e , a s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , w i l l a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a k n o w l e d g e o f c o n t e x t u a l a i d s . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l s w i l l i m p r o v e i f c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s . 149 Statement of Instructions  Teaching Instructions to Teachers in Treatment Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 Under your supervision and direction children in your class w i l l be completing cloze exercises over the next several weeks. The purpose of the cloze exercises is to give your students an opportunity to use new materials that are designed to provide practice i n learning and using selected contextual clues which are called Idea Clues and Presentation Clues. In turn, i t i s hypothesized that a better understanding of the function and meaning of connectives w i l l enhance the growth and develop-ment of comprehension s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s . Your duties as a teacher participating in this study are to: 1. read any instructions as necessary before the students begin work, 2. answer any general questions the students might have that relate to the lessons, 3. distribute and c o l l e c t the cloze exercises, 4. engage students in an indepth discussion, i f in Treatments Groups 1 and 2, regarding reasons why a particular word was or was not a suitable replacement, 5. correct, with the students, their response to cloze exercises without indepth discussion of responses i f i n Treatment Groups 3 and 4, 6. record students' scores on the specially designed score sheets, 7. coll e c t and retain a l l the lessons completed by the students. Thank you for your participation and cooperation. 150 S t a t e m e n t o f I n s t r u c t i o n s  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r T e a c h e r s P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s 1 a n d 2 F o r t h e n e x t s e v e r a l weeks y o u w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r i n g - h e c o m p l e t i o n o f c l o z e p a s s a g e l e s s o n s w i t h n o u n / v e r b o r c o n n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s . B e s i d e s t h e a s s i s t a n c e t h e s t u d e n t s o b t a i n f r o m t h e C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t , t h e y w i l l r e c e i v e i n t e n s i v e i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m y o u . T h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f r a n d o m i z a t i o n y o u h a v e b e e n a s s i g n e d t o a t r e a t -ment g r o u p t h a t r e q u i r e s i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g . When t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e c o m p l e t e d a c l o z e p a s s a g e l e s s o n y o u w i l l t h e n i n v o l v e t h e s t u d e n t s i n a n i n d e p t h d i s c u s s i o n o f how t h e y u s e d o r m i g h t h a v e u s e d c o n t e x t u a l a i d s t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h n o u n / v e r b o r c o n n e c t i v e h a d b e e n d e l e t e d f r o m t h e c l o z e p a s s a g e . 151 S t a t e m e n t o f I n s t r u c t i o n s  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r T e a c h e r s P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s 3 a n d 4 F o r t h e n e x t s e v e r a l weeks y o u w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f c l o z e l e s s o n s w i t h n o u n / v e r b o r c o n n e c t i v e d e l e t i o n s . The s t u d e n t s w i l l e a c h h a v e a C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t them i n s e l e c t i n g t h e w o r d t h a t h a s b e e n r e m o v e d f r o m t h e p a s s a g e . T h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f r a n d o m i z a t i o n y o u n a v e b e e n a s s i g n e d t o a t r e a t -ment g r o u p t h a t w i l l n o t i n v o l v e i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g . When t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e c o m p l e t e d a c l o z e p a s s a g e l e s s o n y o u w i l l c o r r e c t t h e l e s s o n s w i t h t h e m , b u t y o u w i l l n o t b e r e q u i r e d t o e n g a g e t h e s t u d e n t s i n an i n d e p t h d i s c u s s i o n o f how c o n t e x t u a l a i d s m i g h t b e u s e d t o a s s i s t i n s e l e c t i n g t h e c o r r e c t n o u n / v e r b o r c o n n e c t i v e t h a t h a s b e e n d e l e t e d f r o m t h e p a s s a g e . 152 S t a t e m e n t o f I n s t r u c t i o n s I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r S t u d e n t s C o m p l e t i n g C l o z e P a s s a g e s i n T r e a t m e n t  G r o u p s 1 a n d 2 F o r t h e n e x t f e w weeks y o u w i l l b e r e a d i n g s h o r t s t o r i e s t h a t h a v e some w o r d s r e m o v e d . When y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d r e p l a c i n g t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s we w i l l d i s c u s s t h e w o r d s y o u h a v e w r i t t e n i n t o t h e b l a n k s . We w i l l a l s o d i s c u s s how y o u d e c i d e d o n t h e p a r t i c u l a r w o r d s t h a t y o u c h o s e . We w i l l a l s o d i s c u s s how y o u m i g h t i m p r o v e i n y o u r u s e o f t h e C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t t h a t e a c h o f y o u h a v e . I t h i n k y o u w i l l e n j o y t h e s h o r t s t o r i e s t h a t w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e e x e r c i s e s . T h e r e i s no p a s s o r f a i l on t h e s e l e s s o n s . Do n o t b e a f r a i d t o t a k e a c h a n c e on t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a w o r d . T h e i d e a i s t o s e e how w e l l y o u c a n u s e t h e w o r d s a n d s e n t e n c e s a r o u n d t h e b l a n k t o h e l p y o u s e l e c t a w o r d t h a t y o u t h i n k i s a p p r o p r i a t e . P l e a s e u s e t h e C o n t e x -t u a l A i d C h a r t as much a s y o u c a n . 153 S t a t e m e n t o f I n s t r u c t i o n s I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r S t u d e n t s C o m p l e t i n g C l o z e P a s s a g e s i n T r e a t m e n t  G r o u p s 3 a n d 4 F o r t h e n e x t f e w weeks y o u w i l l b e r e a d i n g s h o r t s t o r i e s t h a t h a v e some w o r d s r e m o v e d . I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o r e a d t h e s t o r i e s a n d p u t i n a w o r d w h e r e y o u s e e t h e b l a n k s . When y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d r e p l a c i n g t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s we w i l l d i s c u s s some o f y o u r c h o i c e s . U s e y o u r C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t t o h e l p y o u make y o u r s e l e c t i o n . I t h i n k y o u w i l l e n j o y t h e s h o r t s t o r i e s t h a t w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e l e s s o n s . T h e r e i s no p a s s o r f a i l o n t h e s e l e s s o n s . I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o r e p l a c e w o r d s i n e a c h o f t h e b l a n k s . Do n o t b e a f r a i d t o t a k e a c h a n c e o n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a w o r d . T h e i d e a i s t o s e e how w e l l y o u c a n u s e t h e w o r d s a n d s e n t e n c e s a r o u n d t h e b l a n k t o h e l p y o u s e l e c t a w o r d t h a t y o u t h i n k i s a p p r o p r i a t e . P l e a s e u s e y o u r C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t a s much a s y o u c a n . 154 The Dog of Pompeii  Idea Clue Deletions Tito and his dog Bimbo lived ( i f you could c a l l i t living) under the c i t y wall where i t joined the inner gate. They really did not l i v e there; they just slept there. They lived anywhere. Pompeii was-one of the gayest of the old Roman towns, but although (1) was never an unhappy boy, he was not a merry one. The streets were always l i v e l y with shining chariots and bright red trappings; the open-air thea-tres rocked with laughing crowds; sham battles and athletic sports were free for the asking in the great stadium. Once a (2) the emperor v i s i t e d the c i t y , and the fireworks and other forms of enter-tainment lasted for (3) . But Tito (4) none of these things, for he was blind—had been since (5) He was known to everyone in the poorer parts of the town. No one could say how old he was; no one remembered his parents; no one could t e l l where he (6) from. Bimbo was another mystery. As (7) _____________ as people could remember seeing T i t o — s e v e r a l years at l e a s t — t h e y had seen Bimbo. The dog never l e f t his side. He was not only a watchdog but (8) and father to Tito. Did I say Bimbo never l e f t his master? (Perhaps I had better say "comrade," for i f anyone was the master, i t was Bimbo.) I was wrong. Bimbo did leave his master three times a day. It was a custom understood between boy and dog since the beginning of their (9) and the way i t worked out was th i s : Early in the morning, shortly after (10) , Bimbo would disappear. When Tito awoke, Bimbo would be s i t t i n g quietly at his side, his ears cocked, his stump of a t a i l tapping the ground, and a fresh baked loaf of bread—more like a large round r o l l — a t his feet. Tito would stretch himself, Bimbo would yawn, and they would breakfast. T e a c h e r ' s Key  C o n t e x t u a l A i d s f o r t h e P a s s a g e — T h e Dog o f P o m p e i i I d e a C l u e D e l e t i o n s D e l e t e d Word C o n t e x t u a l C l u e E x p l a n a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e s 1 . T i t o C o i n p a r i s o n / C o n t r a s t P a s t E x p e r i e n c e 2. y e a r T i m e 3. d a y s D e s c r i p t i o n / T i m e P a s t E x p e r i e n c e 4 . saw C o m p a r i s o n / C o n t r a s t W h i l e t h e town o f P o m p e i i was g a y , n o t e v e r y b o d y was t o t a l l y h a p p y . T h e w o r d b u t s i g n a l s a c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t r e l a t i o n -s h i p . T h e r e a d e r i s t o l d t h a t t h e r e i s a b o y , n o t u n h a p p y , b u t a l s o n o t e x a c t l y m e r r y . T h e r e a d e r w o u l d e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e u n h a p p y b o y was T i t o . T h e r e a d e r h a s p r e v i o u s l y r e a d t h e name o f t h e b o y i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y s e n t e n c e . T h e w o r d o n c e s i g n a l s a t i m e r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e r e a d e r i s t o l d t h e e m p e r o r v i s i t e d t h e c i t y d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e many f e s t i v i t e s w e r e h e l d . T h e w o r d s " o n c e a " s i g n a l t h e i d e a t h a t t h e v i s i t was o n e i n a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d o f t i m e — t h u s o n c e a y e a r . T h e f e s t i v i t i e s l a s t e d f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h e w o r d f o r s u g g e s t s t o t h e r e a d e r t h e r e i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f how l o n g t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t l a s t e d . T h e r e a d e r w o u l d know t h a t most f e s t i v i t i e s l a s t f o r a number o f d a y s . W h i l e t h e town was m e r r y a n d many e v e n t s were t a k i n g p l a c e , T i t o was n o t a b l e t o s e e t h e t h i n g s h a p p e n i n g . T h e w o r d b u t s i g n a l s t h e r e a d e r t o l o o k f o r a c o n t r a s t i n g s i t u a t i o n — t h e f a c t t h a t T i t o c o u l d n o t s e e t h e e v e n t s . T h e w o r d b l i n d a l s o p r o v i d e s a c l u e t h a t t h e n e c e s -s a y w o r d i s saw. day week m o n t h weeks m o n t h s y e a r s D e l e t e d Word C o n t e x t u a l C l u e E x p l a n a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e 5. b i r t h T i m e R e l a t i o n s h i p The s e n t e n c e s t a t e s t h a t P a s t E x p e r i e n c e T i t o was b l i n d . T h e w o r d s i n c e p r o v i d e s - a s i g n a l t h a t T i t o was b l i n d f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r d a t e o r t i m e i n h i s l i f e . T h e b l i n d -n e s s b e g a n a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . U s i n g t h i s t i m e c l u e , a n d r e l y i n g on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e a d e r e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t many c h i l d r e n a r e b o r n b l i n d a n d t h u s a r e b l i n d s i n c e b i r t h . came P l a c e R e l a t i o n -s h i p T h e w o r d w h e r e s i g n a l s a p l a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e w o r d " f r o m " i s a l s o a s i g -n a l , t h a t p l a c e i s i n v o l v e d . W i t h t h e s e c l u e s t h e r e a d e r w o u l d e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e p e o p l e d i d n o t know t h e p l a c e w h e r e T i t o o r i g i n a t e d o r t h e p l a c e f r o m w h e r e T i t o c a m e . a r r i v e d T i m e R e l a t i o n s h i p F a m i l i a r E x p r e s -s i o n T h e w o r d a _ s u g g e s t s a p a s s a g e o f t i m e . T h e s e n -t e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t p e o p l e s e i n g T i t o o v e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l y e a r s a l s o remember s e e i n g B i m b o . T h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h a t t h e y c o u l d remember s e e i n g T i t o t h e y a l s o saw t h e d o g . T h e r e a d e r u s e s t h e c l u e as t o e s t a b l i s h a t i m e r e l a t i o n -s h i p a n d a l s o t h r o u g h f a m i l -i a r e x p r e s s i o n e s t a b l i s h e s t h e w o r d l o n g i s t h e c o r r e c t c h o i c e . 8 . m o t h e r C o m p a r i s o n / C o n -t r a s t P a s t E x p e r i e n c e T h e w o r d b u t e s t a b l i s h e s a c o m p a r i s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e r e a d e r i s t o l d t h a t Bimbo was a c o n s t a n t c o m -p a n i o n a n d was T i t o ' s w a t c h -d o g . B u t he was more t h a n a w a t c h d o g — h e was a l s o T i t o ' s p a r e n t s , a f a t h e r a n d more D e l e t e d Word C o n t e x t u a l C l u e E x p l a n a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e 9 . f r i e n d - T i m e R e l a t i o n s h i p ______ 1 0 . dawn T i m e R e l a t i o n s h i p P a s t E x p e r i e n c e b e s i d e s . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e a n d f a m i l i a r e x p r e s s i o n w i l l a l s o h e l p e s t a b l i s h t h a t m o t h e r i s t h e c o r -r e c t r e s p o n s e . T h e b o y a n d t h e d o g h a d a c u s t o m t h a t h a d b e e n p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h e w o r d s i n c e s i g n a l s a t i m e r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e w o r d b e g i n n i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s c u s t o m o r i g i n -a t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s o m e t h i n g : — s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p . T h e r e a d e r i s i n f o r m e d t h a t e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g , Bimbo d i s a p p e a r s . T h e w o r d a f t e r s i g n a l s t h a t h e d i s a p p e a r s a t a p a r t i c -u l a r t i m e — a f t e r s o m e t h i n g o c c u r s . T h e r e a d e r w o u l d e s t a b l i s h , f r o m t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p a r a g r a p h t h a t B i m b o l e a v e s t o g e t f o o d f o r b r e a k f a s t . F r o m p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i t c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t he w o u l d n e e d some l i g h t a n d t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d h a v e t o b e o n t h e j o b b a k i n g b r e a d . T h u s , i t c a n b e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t B i m b o w o u l d d i s a p p e a r s h o r t l y a f t e r d a w n . a s s o c i -a t i o n 158 T h e Dog o f P o m p e i i P r e s e n t a t i o n C l u e D e l e t i o n s T i t o a n d h i s d o g Bimbo l i v e d ( i f y o u c o u l d c a l l i t l i v i n g ) u n d e r t h e c i t y w a l l w h e r e i t j o i n e d t h e i n n e r g a t e . T h e y r e a l l y d i d n o t l i v e t h e r e ; t h e y j u s t s l e p t t h e r e . T h e y l i v e d a n y w h e r e . P o m p e i i was o n e o f t h e g a y e s t o f t h e o l d Roman t o w n s , (1) a l t h o u g h T i t o was n e v e r a n u n h a p p y b o y , h e was n o t e x a c t l y a m e r r y o n e . T h e s t r e e t s w e r e a l w a y s l i v e l y w i t h s h i n i n g c h a r i o t s a n d b r i g h t r e d t r a p p i n g s ; t h e o p e n - a i r t h e a t r e s r o c k e d w i t h l a u g h i n g c r o w d s ; sham b a t t l e s a n d a t h l e t i c s p o r t s were f r e e f o r t h e a s k i n g i n t h e g r e a t s t a d i u m . (2) a y e a r t h e e m p e r o r v i s i t e d t h e c i t y , a n d t h e f i r e w o r k s a n d o t h e r f o r m s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t l a s t e d (3) d a y s . (4 ) T i t o saw n o n e o f t h e s e t h i n g s , f o r h e was b l i n d — h a d b e e n (5) b i r t h . He was known t o e v e r y o n e i n t h e p o o r e r p a r t s o f t h e t o w n . No one c o u l d s a y how o l d he w a s ; no one remembered h i s p a r e n t s ; . no one c o u l d t e l l (6) • he came f r o m . Bimbo was a n o t h e r m y s t e r y . (7) l o n g a s p e o p l e c o u l d remember s e e i n g T i t o — s e v e r a l y e a r s a t l e a s t — t h e y h a d s e e n B i m b o . T h e d o g n e v e r l e f t h i s s i d e . He was n o t o n l y a w a t c h d o g , (8) m o t h e r a n d f a t h e r t o T i t o . D i d I say B i m b o n e v e r l e f t h i s m a s t e r ? ( P e r h a p s I h a d b e t t e r s a y " c o m r a d e " f o r i f a n y o n e was t h e m a s t e r , i t was B i m b o . ) I was w r o n g . B i m b o d i d l e a v e h i s m a s t e r t h r e e t i m e s a d a y . I t was a c u s t o m u n d e r -s t o o d b e t w e e n b o y a n d d o g (9) t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p , a n d t h e way i t w o r k e d o u t was t h i s : E a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g , s h o r t l y (10) dawn, Bimbo w o u l d d i s a p p e a r . When T i t o a w o k e , Bimbo w o u l d b e s i t t i n g q u i e t l y a t h i s s i d e , h i s e a r s c o c k e d , h i s s tump o f a t a i l t a p p i n g t h e g r o u n d , a n d a f r e s h -b a k e d l o a f o f b r e a d — m o r e l i k e a l a r g e r o u n d r o l l — a t t h i s f e e t . T i t o w o u l d s t r e t c h h i m s e l f , B imbo w o u l d y a w n , a n d t h e y w o u l d b r e a k f a s t . Teacher's Key  Contextual Aids for the Passage—The Dog of Pompeii  Presentation Clue Deletions Deleted Word Contextual Clue Explanation Alternative 1. but Comparison/Contrast 2. once Time Relationship Past Experience 3 . for Description/Time 4. but Comparison/Contrast The sentence states that Pompeii was a very gay town. In contrast, while Tito was not totally unhappy he was not exactly a merry boy. The reader would grasp the idea that a contrast-ing situation exists between the gaiety of the town and the "not exactly" merry state of the boy. The word year suggests a twice time relationship—a time when the emperor visited the city. From past experience the reader would probably establish the idea that the emperor would probably vi s i t the city once a year. The visi t of the emperor several prompted festivities and entertainment. The word days signals the reader to supply a word that describes the condition of the entertainment lasting a number of days. The word that conveys the idea is for. While the city engages in many activities of sports and entertainment, the boy, Tito, contrastingly is not able to see any of these things, he was blind. The word blind signals the idea that many people see and enjoy what is going on, Tito, in contrast, is not able to see the different activities. The D e l e t e d Word C o n t e x t u a l C l u e E x p l a n a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e w o r d b u t c o m p l e t e s t h e i d e a o f a c o n t r a s t . 5. s i n c e T i m e T h e r e a d e r i s p r o v i d e d f r o m w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t T i t o i s b l i n d . T h e w o r d b i r t h s i g n a l s t h e i d e a t h a t t h i s i s t h e t i m e t h a t b l i n d n e s s b e g a n . T h e c h o i c e o f w o r d s t o i n d i c a t e t i m e o r l e n g t h o f b l i n d n e s s i s s i n c e . 6. w h e r e P l a c e P e o p l e knew v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t T i t o — a g e , p a r e n t s , e t c . A l s o , t h e y c o u l d n o t e s t a b l i s h h i s o r i g i n — w h e r e he came f r o m . T h e w o r d s "came f r o m " s i g -n a l t h e r e a d e r t o s e l e c t t h e a p p l i c a b l e w o r d t o c o n v e y t h i s i d e a — w h e r e c o m p l e t e s t h e i d e a . T i m e / F a m i l i a r W h i l e T i t o was one m y s t e r y , E x p r e s s i o n t h e a u t h o r s t a t e s t h a t Bimbo was a n o t h e r m y s t e r y . P e o p l e a l w a y s remember s e e -i n g t h e b o y a n d t h e d o g t o g e t h e r . T h e w o r d l o n g i n d i c a t e s a p a s s a g e o f t i m e . T o c o m p l e t e t h e i d e a t h e r e a d e r w o u l d h a v e t o u s e t h e w o r d a s . " A s l o n g a s " i s a commonly u s e d e x p r e s -s i o n . C o m p a r i s o n / C o n t r a s t T h e r e a d e r i s p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t T i t o d i d n o t h a v e p a r e n t s t h a t w e r e p r e s e n t . The s e n t e n c e s t a t e s t h a t n o t o n l y was Bimbo a w a t c h d o g , b u t m o r e — he was T i t o ' s m o t h e r a n d f a t h e r a s w e l l . T o e s t a b -l i s h t h e c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t s i t u a t i o n , t h e w o r d b u t i s n e c e s s a r y . 7. a s 8. b u t D e l e t e d Word C o n t e x t u a l C l u e E x p l a n a t i o n 161 A l t e r n a t i v e 9. s i n c e T i m e T h e b o y a n d t h e d o g h a d a c u s t o m t h a t h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e y f i r s t became f r i e n d s . T h e w o r d s " t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p " s i g -n a l s t o t h e r e a d e r t h a t t h e c u s t o m b e t w e e n t h e b o y a n d d o g h a d s t a r t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p — s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g . 10. a f t e r T i m e T h e s e n t e n c e s t a t e s t h a t b e f o r e i t i s e a r l y i n t h e m o r n -i n g t h a t Bimbo d i s a p p e a r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y how e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g i s e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e w o r d s " s h o r t l y " a n d " d a w n . " The w o r d s h o r t l y i n d i c a t e s t o t h e r e a d e r t h a t i t i s a t i m e o f m o r n -i n g t h a t i s v e r y c l o s e t o d a w n . T h e r e a d e r w o u l d e s t a b l i s h t h a t i t was s h o r t l y b e f o r e o r s h o r t l y a f t e r d a w n . T h e f a c t t h a t Bimbo h a d a f r e s h l y b a k e d l o a f i n h i s mouth m i g h t i n d i c a t e i t w o u l d be a f t e r d a w n . I d e a C l u e C o n t e x t u a l A i d C h a r t P r e s e n t a t i o n C l u e E x p l a n a t i o n E x a m p l e 162 C a u s e s / E f f e c t a s , b e c a u s e , f o r , s i n c e , s o , b u t C a u s e / e f f e c t means s o m e -t h i n g h a p p e n s b e c a u s e / s o m e t h i n g . T h e p r e s e n -t a t i o n c l u e s a r e t h e w o r d s t h a t s i g n a l t h e c a u s e / e f f e c t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . T h e y d i d n o t go o u t s i d e b e c a u s e i t was t o o c o l d . C o m p a r i s o n / C o n t r a s t a s , t h e n , o r , b u t , T o make t h i n g c l e a r e r o r T h e y l o s t t h e w h i l e , h o w e v e r , b e s i d e s , s o , ( a l ) t h o u g h more i n t e r e s t i n g we o f t e n c o m p a r e o r c o n -t r a s t e v e n t s o r o b j e c t s . T h e p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s a r e t h e w o r d s t h a t s i g -n a l t h e c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p . game a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e a b i g g e r a n d b e t t e r t e a m . D e s c r i p t i o n f o r , t h e n , t h a t , w h i c h , w h o , how, so Words a n d s t a t e m e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n a n o t h e r way t o h e l p c l a r i f y what t h e a u t h o r i s a t t e m p t i n g t o t e l l u s . Many c a r s h a v e a d e s i g n t h a t makes t h e m p l e a s i n g t o l o o k a t . T i m e R e l a t i o n s h i p a s , a f t e r , b e f o r e , s i n c e , u n t i l , w h e n , w h i l e , o n c e , now, f r o m I n many c a s e s t h e a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s s o m e t h i n g i n a way t h a t i n v o l v e s a t i m e r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e p r e s e n t a t i o n c l u e s a r e t h e w o r d s t h a t s i g n a l t i m e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t w a s n ' t u n t i l t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e w i l l t h a t H e n r y d i s c o v e r e d how r i c h he w a s . P l a c e w h e r e , t h e r e , R e l a t i o n s h i p h e r e , n e a r , f a r , f r o m , u n d e r , a b o v e , b e n e a t h T h e a u t h o r w i l l u s e p a r t i c u l a r w o r d s t h a t e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p e o p l e o r e v e n t s t o a s p e c i f i c p l a c e . P r e s e n -t a t i o n c l u e s a r e t h e w o r d s t h a t s i g n a l p l a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e y f i n a l l y r e a c h e d t h e e x a c t s p o t w h e r e t h e b a t t l e t o o k p l a c e . P a s t E x p e r i -e n c e / F a m i l i a r E x p r e s s i o n I n some c a s e s t h e s e a r e p a r t i c u l a r w o r d s o r e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t y o u know f r o m y o u r e a r l i e r e x p e r i e n c e s s u c h as r e a d i n g , T V , t a l k i n g , m o v i e s . The men s a t a r o u n d c h e w i n g t h e f a t . Appendix C Monitors' Checklist; Teachers' Score Sheets; Teachers' Comments and Teachers' Questionnaire M o n i t o r C h e c k l i s t S c h o o l : T e a c h e r : D a t e : T i m e o f C l a s s : T r e a t m e n t G r o u p : C h e c k L i s t I t e m s Comments How d o e s t e a c h e r i n t r o d u c e l e s s o n ? D i s c u s s e s p a s s a g e Does n o t d i s c u s s p a s s a g e ' Amount o f t i m e f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n • m i n u t e s 2 . How much t i m e i s a l l o w e d f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f a c l o z e p a s s a g e ? T i m e a l l o w e d m i n u t e s 3 . C o n t e x t u a l A i d s ( f o r T r e a t m e n t s 1 a n d 2) a . D o e s t e a c h e r e x p l a i n what c o n t e x t u a l a i d s a r e p r e s e n t a n d how t h e y s h o u l d be u s e d t o i d e n t i f y m i s s i n g w o r d ? Y e s No b . Does t e a c h e r a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o v o c a l i z e r e s p o n s e s ? Y e s No C o n t e x t u a l A i d s ( f o r T r e a t m e n t s 3 a n d 4) a . Does t e a c h e r d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t u a l a i d s ? Y e s No Does t e a c h e r a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o v e r b a l i z e r e s p o n s e s ? Y e s No D i d t e a c h e r c o m p l e t e t h e e n t i r e p a s s a g e d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d ? Y e s No How much o f t h e p a s s a g e was c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d ? C o n t r o l G r o u p I s t e a c h e r t e a c h i n g c o n t e x t u a l a i d s s i m i l a r t o e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s ? Y e s No What r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e b e i n g d o n e b y t h e g r o u p ? Teacher's Score Sheets No. of Students: Teacher's Name: School: [ Lesson Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Student's Name 166 Lesson Number 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Student's Name 167 Teacher's Comments T i t l e of Selection: Data of Presentation: Name of Teacher: Name of School: Number of Students: To the Teacher: Please make any comments you feel would be pertinent and beneficial to the study. The comments may centre on the Teacher's Keys, students' comments and reactions, your personal feelings, etc. Any comments you make w i l l be welcome and w i l l add immensely to the study. 168 Teacher's Questionnaire Treatment Group: School: Name: ' I. Teacher's Key 1. Were the explanations clear? Please indicate which explanations were unclear or confusing 2. Could the explanations have been longer? shorter? 3. Were the alternative choices sufficient in number? 4. Was the format of the Teacher's Key such that i t was clear and easy to follow? How would you recommend the Teacher's Key might be revised? II. Student's Contextual Aid Chart 1. Was the chart clear and easy for the students to follow? 2 . Were the explanations understood by the students? 3. How might the format and explanations been developed so that the Contextual Aid Chart might have been more effective? III. The Lessons Please make any comments regarding the lessons—effectiveness, length of passages, numbers of Idea Clues and Presentation Clues, etc. Please include a statement regarding your feelings about the study in which you participated. Make reference to frequency of presentation of lessons, duration of study, reaction of students to lessons, and other comments that you feel would contribute to further development and presentation of such lessons. 169 A p p e n d i x D T a b l e s o f Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s a n d A b i l i t y G r o u p s 170 Table 20 Pre-Experimental Means and Standard Deviations of the Five Treatment Groups as Measured by the Canadian Test of Basic Skills Level 10  Treatment Groups  1 2 3 4 5 Noun/Verb Connectives Noun/Verb Connectives Non-Int. Non-Int. Int. Tchng. Int. Tchng. Tchng. Tchng. Control n-110 n-115 n-67 n=67 n=75 Mean 52.4 53.7 53.4 51.2 48.0 Standard Deviation 10.8 8.9 9.1 8.1 9.4" Table 21 Post-Experimental Means and Standard Deviations of the Five Treatment Groups as Measured by the Canadian Test of Basic Skills Level 11  Treatment Groups  1 2 3 4 5 Noun/Verb Connectives Noun/Verb Connectives Non-Int. Non-Int. Int. Tchng. Int. Tchng. Tchng. Tchng. Control n=110 n-115 n=67 n=67 n=75 Mean 57.8 59.7 60.4 58.8 52.9 Standard Deviation 10-8 ' 11.2 10.2 7.4 11.7 171 Table 22 Means and Standard Deviations for Crossed A b i l i t y and Treatment Groups (AB * TR) for Post-Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s Comprehension • Treatment Groups  1 2 3 4 5 Noun/Verb Connectives Noun/Verb Connectives Non-Int. Non-Int. Int. Tchng. Int. Tchng. Tchng. Tchng. Control High A b i l i t y n-43 n-56 n»32 n-23 n-19 Mean 65.2 65.9 66.8 64.0 . 59.6 Standard Deviation 9.0 7.4 7.4 6.4 1.2 Medium A b i l i t y n-43 n-44 n-28 n-31 n=32 Mean 57.3 54.7 56.7 58.3 55.7 Standard Deviation 4.6 11.0 7.5 4.8 7.4 Low A b i l i t y n=24 n-15 n-7 n-13 n=24 Mean 45.6 51.0 45.9 50.8 43.7 Standard Deviation 10.2 10.9 9.5 6.4 10.5 Table 23 172 Pre-Experimental Means and Standard Deviations of the Five Treatment Groups as Measured by the Pre-Cloze Comprehension Test Treatment Groups 1 2 3 4 5 Noun/Verb Connectives Noun/Verb Connectives Non-Int. Non-Int. Int. Tchng. Int. Tchng. Tchng. Tchng. Control n-110 n-115 n=67 n=67 n=75 Mean 20.59 20.23 20.87 20.51 19.79 Standard Deviation 5.26 5.11 5.60 4.35 6.05 Table 24 Post-Experimental Means and Standard Deviations of the Five Treatment Groups as Measured by the Post-Cloze Comprehension Test Treatment Group  1 2 3 4 5 Noun/Verb Connectives Noun/Verb Connectives Non-Int. Non-Int. Int. Tchng. Int. Tchng. Tchng. Tchng. Control n-110 n-115 n=67 n=67 n=75 Mean 19.67 20.43 19.00 19.87 18.15 Standard Deviation 5.68 5.67 5.07 4.80 5.48 Table 25 173 Means and Standard Deviations for Crossed A b i l i t y and Treatment Groups (AB * TR) for Pre-Cloze Comprehension Test (CCTI) Treatment Groups 3 4 5 Noun/Verb Connectives Connectives Non-Int. Non-Int. Int. Tchng. Tchng. Tchng. Control Noun/Verb Int. Tchng. !_ High A b i l i t y n»43 Mean 23.58 Standard Deviation 4.15 Medium A b i l i t y n=43 Mean 20.39 Standard Deviation 4.52 Low A b i l i t y n=24 Mean 15.58 Standard Deviation 4.39 n-56 22.38 4.36 n=»44 19.11 4.75 n-15 15.47 4.73 n=32 23.69 5.64 n-28 18.61 4.42 n=7 17.00 2.94 n=23 23.39 2.87 n-31 20.26 3.83 n-13 16.00 3.79 n-19 24.74 3.78 n-32 20.81 4.29 n=24 14.59 5.56 174 Table 26 Means and Standard Deviations for Crossed A b i l i t y and Treatment Groups (AB * TR) for Post-Cloze Comprehension Test (CCT2) Treatment Groups 1 2 3 4 5 Noun/Verb Connectives Noun/Verb Connectives Non-Int. Non-Int. Int. Tchng. Int. Tchng. Tchng. Tchng. Contro! High A b i l i t y n-43 n-56 n=32 n=23 n=19 Mean 23.05 22.48 21.47 22.83 22.16 Standard Deviation 5.63 5.37 4.69 4.53 5.09 Medium A b i l i t y n-43 n»44 n=28 n-31 n=32 Mean 19.07 17.84 17.29 19.52 18.36 Standard Deviation 3.51 5.51 4.39 3.48 4.54 Low Ab i l i t y n-24 n-15 n=7 n=13 n=24 Mean 14.71 17.40 14.57 15.46 14.67 Standard Deviation 4.98 2.87 3.60 4.54 4.73 175 Table 27 Means and Standard Deviations for Crossed A b i l i t y and Treatment Groups (AB * TR) for the Robertson Written Connectives Test Treatment Groups 1 2 3 4 5 Noun/Verb Connectives Noun/Verb Connectives Non-Int. Non-Int. Int. Tchng. Int.: Tchng. Tchng. Tchng. Control High A b i l i t y n»43 Mean 16.35 Standard Deviation 2.91 Medium A b i l i t y n»43 Mean 14.63 Standard Deviation 3.56 Low A b i l i t y n=»24 Mean 12.79 Standard Deviation 3.53 h-56 18.64 2.84 n=44 15.36 3.56 n-lS 14.53 3.58 n=32 15.44 3.24 n-28 11.79 3.85 n=7 10.14 2.91 n=23 17.35 2.72 n-31 16.13 3.79 n=13 14.31 3.25 n»19 13.79 3.38 n=32 12.31 3.39 n=24 8.25 2.85 

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