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The effects of visual format and mode of presentation on nonnative speaker comprehension of verbal information Fitzpatrick, Dale Mary 1989

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THE EFFECTS OF VISUAL FORMAT AND MODE OF PRESENTATION ON NONNATIVE SPEAKER COMPREHENSION OF VERBAL INFORMATION By DALE MARY FITZPATRICK B.J., Carleton University, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language Education) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1989 (c)Dale Mary F i t z p a t r i c k , 1989 MASTER OF ARTS in In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of LA-NbV/r(?F EDVCPcT/ofJ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to gather data on nonnative speakers' comprehension of spoken language presented v i a the audio mode (sound only) or the video mode (sound + p i c t u r e ) . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the research examined the e f f e c t s of three v i s u a l formats (or picture content)--contained in the video channel—on comprehension of verbal information c a r r i e d in the audio channel of broadcast news s t o r i e s . The three v i s u a l formats under in v e s t i g a t i o n were: (1) high redundancy (HR): voice-over-film with s i m i l a r verbal and v i s u a l content; (2) low redundancy (LR): voice-over-film with d i s s i m i l a r verbal and v i s u a l content, and (3) t a l k i n g head: newscaster only presentation, without f i l m . A smaller follow-up study examined the e f f e c t of vi s u a l s with a group of subjects of higher second-language p r o f i c i e n c y . The procedure u t i l i z e d a between-and-within-subjects design and nine news s t o r i e s videotaped from CBC t e l e v i s i o n , categorized according to v i s u a l format. Stimulus news s t o r i e s were presented to subjects v i a either the video or audio mode. After each story, actual comprehension o£ verbal information was measured using a test of cued-recall and perceived H i language comprehension was measured u s i n g a s e l f -r e p o r t i n g q u e s t i o n . In the v i d e o mode, s u b j e c t s were a l s o asked to r a t e the d i f f i c u l t y of each s t o r y . The r e s u l t s o£ an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t , under the c o n d i t i o n s of the presen t study, s u b j e c t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on a t e s t o£ cued r e c a l l when news s t o r i e s were presented v i a the vid e o mode. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o found between language comprehension s c o r e s f o r each of the v i s u a l formats. Highest s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d f o r the HR s t o r i e s , and lowest s c o r e s f o r the TH s t o r i e s . From the r e s u l t s of the f o l l o w - u p study, i t appears the c o m p r e h e n s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of v i s u a l s i s not as s t r o n g f o r s u b j e c t s of higher p r o f i c i e n c y . R e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d i n l i g h t of l i t e r a t u r e on media and l e a r n i n g , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a u r a l and v i s u a l c h annels, v i s u a l format e f f e c t s and t e l e v i s i o n news, l i s t e n i n g comprehension, and v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . I m p l i c a t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y are pre s e n t e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT * i i LIST OF TABLES VI11 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix 1. INTRODUCTION AND DELINEATION OF THE PROBLEM 1 1.1 Introduct ion to the Problem 1 1.2 Background of the Problem 6 1.2.1 Video and comprehens ib i l i ty 6 1.2.3 E f f e c t s of v i s u a l s on native 8 speaker comprehension 1.2.4 Audio-video redundancy and 10 t e l e v i s i o n news research 1.3 Research Problem 11 1.4 Research Questions 12 1.5 Chapter Summary 13 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 14 2.1 L i s t e n i n g 15 2.1.1 The v i s u a l element of communication 15 2.1.2 L i s t e n i n g and the comprehension 18 approach to language a c q u i s i t i o n 2.1.3 L i s t e n i n g comprehension: Processes 21 2.1.4 Teaching l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s 24 2.2 Ef f ec t s of Di f ferent Media on 28 Comprehension and R e c a l l 2.2.1 Mode of presentat ion and learning 28 from media 2.2.2 Re la t ionsh ip between the aura l and 30 v i s u a l channels 2.3 Ef f ec t s o£ V i sua l s on Comprehension 32 and R e c a l l 2.3.1 Research on v i s u a l formats and 32 t e l e v i s i o n news r e c a l l 2.3.2 A u d i o - v i s u a l redundancy and 36 comprehension of news 2.4 Video and Language Learning 39 2.4.1 Other factors involved in 39 l earn ing from media 2.4.2 Background knowledge 40 2.4.3 Leve l of language p r o f i c i e n c y 41 2.4.4 Modal i ty preference 42 2.4.5 T e l e v i s i o n as a source of 42 video mater ia l s 2.5 V i s u a l Information Process ing 46 2.6 Hypotheses 48 2.6.1 Background and r a t i o n a l e for 48 for hypotheses 2.6.2 Operat ional statement of hypotheses 49 2.7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 52 2.8 Chapter Summary 53 METHODOLOGY 54 3.1 Subjects 54 3.2 Dependent var iab le s 55 3.3 Independent v a r i a b l e s 56 3.4 Design of experimental mater ia ls 56 3.4.1 Apparatus 60 3.5 Procedure 60 3.5.1 Research design 60 v i 3.5.2 Experimental task 61 3.5.3 Testing apparatus 63 3.5.4 Scoring 63 3.6 Follow-up Study 65 3.6.1 Subjects 65 3.6.2 Test material 65 3.7 Data Analysis Procedures 66 3.7.1 Analysis of data on mode and 66 format e f f e c t s on r e c a l l comprehension 3.7.2 E f f e c t s of mode and format on 68 perceived comprehension and d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g 3.7.3 Data a n a l y s i s : follow-up study 69 3.8 Chapter Summary 70 4. RESULTS 71 4.1 E f f e c t s of Mode and Format on 73 Recall Comprehension 4.1.2 Visual format e f f e c t s within the 81 video mode 4.2 Testing Hypotheses 1,2,3,4 82 4.3 E f f e c t s of Mode and Format on Perceived 84 Comprehension and D i f f i c u l t y Rating 4.3.1 E f f e c t s of mode on perceived 85 comprehension 4.3.2 E f f e c t s of v i s u a l format on 86 ratings of d i f f i c u l t y 4.4 Results of Follow-Up Study 89 4.4.1 E f f e c t s of mode and format on 90 r e c a l l comprehension 4.4.2 Testing hypotheses 7 and 8 93 v i i 4.5 Chapter Summary 9 4 5. DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS 95 5.1 Between-Mode Comparisons 95 5.1.1 Mode and perceived comprehension 97 5.1.2 Comprehension and dual-coding theory 98 5.1.3 Mode/block i n t e r a c t i o n 99 5.2 Visual Format E f f e c t s 101 5.2.1 Visual format e f f e c t s in the 102 video mode 5.2.2 E f f e c t s in the audio mode 105 5.2.3 Visual format and r a t i n g of 107 d i f f i c u l t y 5.3 Visual Format and Language P r o f i c i e n c y 110 5.4 Implications 112 5.5 Limitations of the present study 117 5.6 Suggestions for Further Study 118 5.7 Summary 120 REFERENCES 123 APPENDIX A 131 APPENDIX B 140 APPENDIX C 141 LIST OF TABLES v i 11 Page Table I P r o p o r t i o n of C o r r e c t Responses f o r Each Format and News Block Table II Summary of Mean R e c a l l Scores and Standard D e v i a t i o n s Table I I I A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Table f o r Mode/Block Repeated Measures ANOVA Table IV A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Table f o r Amount of Comprehension by V i s u a l Format Tab l e V C e l l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r HR C o n d i t i o n Table VI C e l l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r LR C o n d i t i o n Table VII C e l l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r TH C o n d i t i o n Table VIII ANOVA Table f o r Format by Comprehension: Video Mode Table IX Comparison Among Format Means: Video Mode Table X Means f o r Audio and Video Groups' P e r c e i v e d Comprehension Scores Table XI Mean Scores f o r Ra t i n g s of D i f f i c u l t y Table XII Rank Scores f o r Ra t i n g s of D i f f i c u l t y Table XIII Mean R e c a l l Scores and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Follow-up Study Table XIV Follow-up Study: ANOVA Table f o r Mode/Block Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s Table XV Follow-up Study: ANOVA Table f o r by Comprehension (Video Mode) Table XVI Follow-up Study: ANOVA Table f o r Format by Comprehension (Audio Mode) 73 74 77 78 79 80 80 81 82 86 87 88 90 91 92 93 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . M a r g a r e t E a r l y f o r h e r s u p p o r t , e n c o u r a g e m e n t and i d e a s . Thank y o u a l s o t o D r . B e r n a r d Mohan f o r b e i n g an a p p r e c i a t e d s o u r c e o f i d e a s . My s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o J o h n W r i g h t o f t h e F i l m / T e l e v i s i o n D e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e t i m e he made a v a i l a b l e t o h e l p me w i t h s e l e c t i n g t h e v i d e o s e q u e n c e s . L a s t l y , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s a t V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND DELINEATION OF THE PROBLEM 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n to the problem Of r e c e n t i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d of second language l e a r n i n g i s the use of v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s as a way of g i v i n g l e a r n e r s a c c e s s to the v i s u a l element i n communicative d i s c o u r s e . Being a b l e to see the s e t t i n g and the speaker h e l p s nonnative speakers (NNSs) " i n t e r p r e t c l u e s e f f e c t i v e l y , " which i n t u r n " h e l p s comprehension and r e t e n t i o n and enhances i n t e r a c t i o n , which le a d s t o b e t t e r communication" ( W i l l i s , 1983, p.30). Numerous a r t i c l e s have been p u b l i s h e d on the use of v i d e o i n the second-language (SL) classroom; many of them r e f e r t o the use of c o m m e r c i a l l y produced t e l e v i s i o n programs f o r showing language i n c o n t e x t . MacKnight (1983), i n a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , found t h a t t e a c h e r s l i k e d t e l e v i s i o n programs because they b r i n g r e a l l i f e i n t o the classroom, c o n t e x t u a l i z e language, and l e t s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e a u t h e n t i c language. Although t h e r e i s no shortage of l i t e r a t u r e on p o s s i b l e ways to use v i d e o i n t e a c h i n g language,most of the s t u d i e s take the form of t e s t i m o n i a l s or g e n e r a l i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n s . There has been p r a c t i c a l l y no recorded 2 r e s e a r c h i n t o the s u i t a b i l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v i d e o f o r language l e a r n i n g . D e s p i t e the p a u c i t y of e m p i r i c a l d a t a , some r e s e a r c h e r s c l a i m t h a t v i d e o i s "widely r e c o g n i z e d as a v i a b l e and e f f e c t i v e medium f o r SL i n s t r u c t i o n " ( S i l v a , 1983, p.132). Others r e c o g n i z e the d e a r t h of r e s e a r c h , but s t i l l promote the use of v i d e o . G i l l e s p i e (1985), i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to a book of a r t i c l e s on v i d e o and language t e a c h i n g , t e l l s r e a d e r s : "What i s l a c k i n g i n t h i s i s s u e are any r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s " , and adds, " t h a t v i d e o 'works' i n language l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g seems t r u e by a c c l a m a t i o n of those who have used i t i n t h o u g h t f u l ways" (p. 2 ) . Yet o t h e r s , such as MacWilliam (1986) q u e s t i o n c l a i m s about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v i d e o as a source of language i n p u t . MacWilliam r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n : does the v i s u a l element of v i d e o i n t r o d u c e any a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s , a p a r t from l i n g u i s t i c , which may i n h i b i t i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a t e a c h i n g a i d ? S t i l l o t h e r s q u e s t i o n s the use of v i d e o t a p e i n s t e a d of a u d i o t a p e . In a d i s c u s s i o n of whether t e a c h e r s s h o u l d use v i d e o t a p e or audiotape i n t e a c h i n g l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , W i l l i s (1983) warns t h a t "the v i s u a l element may d i s t r a c t s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n from the o b s e r v a t i o n of language" (p. 19). 3 These statements serve to p o i n t out t h a t the c r i t i c a l i s s u e of how the v i s u a l c o n t e n t of a v i d e o r e c o r d i n g a f f e c t s comprehension of i t s l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e n t has s t i l l t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The q u e s t i o n of whether v i s u a l format (or p i c t u r e c o n t e n t ) enhances or i n h i b i t s comprehension and r e t e n t i o n of language has y e t to be r e s o l v e d on the b a s i s of any e m p i r i c a l d a t a . The purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v i d e o as a language t e a c h i n g a i d by o b t a i n i n g e m p i r i c a l data on MNS speaker comprehension and r e t e n t i o n of v e r b a l I n f o r m a t i o n presented v i a audiotape or v i d e o t a p e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the study examined the e f f e c t of t h r e e types of v i s u a l formats--c o n t a i n e d i n the v i d e o c h a n n e l — o n comprehension of i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r i e d i n the a u d i o v e r b a l channel of t e l e v i s i o n news s t o r i e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was the degree of correspondence between i n f o r m a t i o n presented s i m u l t a n e o u s l y through the a u r a l and v i s u a l channels and the r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t s on comprehension. A s m a l l e r , f o l l o w - u p study examined the e f f e c t of v i s u a l s with a group of s u b j e c t s of higher SL p r o f i c i e n c y . The t h r e e v i s u a l formats under i n v e s t i g a t i o n were: (1) h i g h redundancy (HR): v o i c e - o v e r - f i l m with h i g h correspondence between v e r b a l and v i s u a l c o n t e n t , (2) low redundancy (LR): v o i c e - o v e r - f i l m with low correspondence between v e r b a l and v i s u a l c ontent and (3) 4 t a l k i n g head: newscaster-only p r e s e n t a t i o n , without f i l m . The r e s e a r c h problem i s one of d e t e r m i n i n g the e f f e c t s of mode of p r e s e n t a t i o n , v i s u a l format and language p r o f i c i e n c y on comprehension of v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r i e d i n the audio channel of a sequence of t e l e v i s i o n news s t o r i e s , with a view t o d i s c o v e r i n g which mode and format best f a c i l i t a t e language comprehension. A s t u d y of the e f f e c t s of v i d e o on language l e a r n i n g b r i n g s together r e s e a r c h from s e v e r a l a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g a u d i o v i s u a l communication, e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g and communication s t u d i e s , e d u c a t i o n a l and c o g n i t i v e psychology, and l i s t e n i n g comprehension. The main concern i n t h i s s t u d y i s the e f f e c t of v i s u a l format on language comprehension, under two p r e s e n t a t i o n m o des—audio and v i d e o . T h e r e f o r e , r e s e a r c h on a u d i o v i s u a l communication of i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d enhance understanding of the prese n t study. As has a l r e a d y been noted, numerous a r t i c l e s have been w r i t t e n on ways to use video i n the classroom; many of these r e f e r t o the use of commercially produced t e l e v i s i o n programs f o r showing language i n c o n t e x t . But few second-language r e s e a r c h e r s have s t u d i e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the medium f o r language l e a r n i n g . F o r t u n a t e l y , the use of v i d e o and t e l e v i s i o n f o r 5 e d u c a t i o n a l purposes has not been r e s t r i c t e d to the language classroom. Relevant r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s from e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g and communication s t u d i e s shed some l i g h t on the e f f e c t s of media on l e a r n i n g and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l format on language comprehension. That most of these s t u d i e s d e r i v e from f i r s t -language c o n t e x t s s h o u l d not l e s s e n t h e i r importance to second-language l e a r n i n g , f o r t h i s p r e s e n t study i s mainly concerned with the use of a u t h e n t i c v i d e o m a t e r i a l , f o r the most p a r t , r e c o r d e d t e l e v i s i o n , r a t h e r than with v i d e o m a t e r i a l s e s p e c i a l l y made f o r language-t e a c h i n g purposes. A study of how v i s u a l s a f f e c t language comprehension a l s o touches on the a r e a of v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , drawing on r e s e a r c h from the f i e l d s of e d u c a t i o n a l and c o g n i t i v e psychology. The language s k i l l most o f t e n used by t e l e v i s i o n viewers i s l i s t e n i n g . T h e r e f o r e , a s t u d y of v i d e o use by second language l e a r n e r s i s a l s o concerned with t h e o r i e s of l i s t e n i n g comprehension and language a c q u i s i t i o n . 6 1.2 Background of the problem T h i s s e c t i o n looks more c l o s e l y a t some of the areas of r e s e a r c h which p r o v i d e background i n f o r m a t i o n and enhance understanding of the pres e n t study. 1.2.1 Video and c o m p r e h e n s i b l l i t y : second language  s t u d i e s Among the broad c l a i m s made on b e h a l f of v i d e o i s i t s a b i l i t y to i n c r e a s e r e t e n t i o n of m a t e r i a l and, by g i v i n g v i s u a l support, a i d comprehension of spoken d i s c o u r s e ( W i l l i s , 1983), making the medium a v a l u a b l e source of language i n p u t . C e n t r a l t o any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of language i n p u t i s the n o t i o n of c o m p r e h e n s i b l l i t y . As Krashen and other r e s e a r c h e r s have used the term, c o m p r e h e n s i b l l i t y of input depends on v a r i o u s language-based c r i t e r i a . Krashen emphasizes t h a t f o r language a c q u i s i t i o n to occur, l e a r n e r s must be exposed to comprehensible input a t the i+1 l e v e l , where i i s the c u r r e n t l e v e l of the l e a r n e r ' s comprehension of the language and 1 i s one s t e p h i g h e r . He recommends the use of v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y a t the i n t e r m e d i a t e and advanced l e v e l s , as good sources f o r a c q u i s i t i o n a l i n p u t . : "The advantage of vi d e o t a p e d m a t e r i a l s i s t h a t v i s u a l and c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s are present t o support comprehension" (Krashen e t . a l . , 1984, p.268). Other r e s e a r c h e r s p o i n t out, however, t h a t 7 the v i s u a l and contextual c lues don't n e c e s s a r i l y support comprehension. In the sense that MacWilliam (1986) has used the term, comprehens ib i l i ty i s a l so seen to depend on non-l i n g u i s t i c , i . e . , e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c informat ion . MacWill iam, a f t er reviewing f i r s t - language l i t e r a t u r e on the use of video for educat ional purposes, suggested language teachers re-examine the use of c e r t a i n types of video mater ia l s , e s p e c i a l l y those d e r i v i n g from o f f - a i r sources . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the audio and video channels,between the aura l and v i s u a l elements ( R i l e y , 1981; W i l l i s , 1983; F i s h e r , 1984) may create a s i t u a t i o n where information i n the v i s u a l c o n f l i c t s with the verbal message, r e s u l t i n g in "a l o t of viewing and a l i t t l e comprehension at a l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l " (MacWilliam, 1986, p. 133). F i sher (1984), l i k e MacWill iam, argues that cons iderat ion be given to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the video medium which may m i l i t a t e against e f f e c t i v e language l e a r n i n g . She emphasizes that further research is needed to determine whether language development i s promoted by t e l e v i s i on . 8 1.2.3 E f f e c t s of v i s u a l s on n a t i v e speaker language  comprehension The a c t u a l focus of t h i s study, the e f f e c t of v i s u a l s on NNS' language comprehension, has r e c e i v e d almost no mention i n the second-language l i t e r a t u r e but has been s t u d i e d i n a f i r s t - l a n g u a g e c o n t e x t . R e l e v a n t evidence from communication s t u d i e s and t e l e v i s i o n news r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t v i d e o does indeed i n t r o d u c e f a c t o r s which may l i m i t i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n the second language c l a s s r o o m . The l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t comprehension and r e c a l l of v e r b a l I n f o r m a t i o n may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by s e v e r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g the mode of p r e s e n t a t i o n (audio or v i d e o ) , v i s u a l format, and degree of correspondence between i n f o r m a t i o n presented s i m u l t a n e o u s l y through the a u r a l and v i s u a l c h a n n e l s . Experiments on comprehension a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t media have been p r i m a r i l y concerned with one q u e s t i o n : Does comprehension and r e c a l l of v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the mode of p r e s e n t a t i o n ? (Barrow, 1959; Hartman, 1961; Nasser & McEwan, 1976; Hayes e t . a l . 1986). R e s u l t s have v a r i e d , with the m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s f i n d i n g g r e a t e r r e c a l l i n the a u d i o v i s u a l mode. These r e s e a r c h e r s used v a r i o u s combinations of communication modes i n a v a r i e t y of r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s and s u b j e c t s of 9 various ages to compare the e f fect iveness of media for present ing verbal informat ion . Studies of news r e c a l l by c h i l d r e n , adolescents and adul ts revealed greater r e c a l l when mater ia l i s presented in a t e l e v i s i o n format than in radio (Greenf ie ld & Beagle-Roos, 1988). These f indings a l so appear to support Salomon's (1979) t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions that t e l e v i s i o n can be eas ier to understand than non-v i sual media. Chu and Schramm (1967), in a review of educat ional media research , concluded that use of v i s u a l s w i l l improve l earn ing from aud iov i sua l messages where i t contr ibutes to the information contained in the audio-t r a c k ; otherwise, v i s u a l images may cause d i s t r a c t i o n and i n t e r f e r e with l e a r n i n g . More r e c e n t l y , F i sher (1984) has found that younger c h i l d r e n ( less competent language users) sometimes f ind c o n f l i c t between information presented in the audio and video channels of t e l e v i s i o n : "Where a choice must be made, c h i l d r e n choose to ignore the l i n g u i s t i c mode and concentrate on the v i s u a l " (p. 88). 10 1.2.4 Audio-video redundancy and t e l e v i s i o n news  r e s e a r c h The impact of v i s u a l s has long been of i n t e r e s t t o t e l e v i s i o n news r e s e a r c h e r s , who r e l y on p i c t u r e s to p r o v i d e c o n t e x t f o r s t o r i e s . S t u d i e s of the e f f e c t of v i s u a l s on l e a r n i n g from t e l e v i s i o n news have produced mixed r e s u l t s , prompting some r e s e a r c h e r s t o conclude t h a t i t i s not o n l y the presence of p i c t o r i a l c o n t e n t which i s important t o r e c a l l of news, but the nature of t h a t c o n t e n t (Gunter, 1979). Gunter found t h a t f r e e r e c a l l of b r i e f new items was i n f l u e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by a v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n format. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he found t h a t news items accompanied by f i l m c l i p s were r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than s t i l l - p i c t u r e items or t a l k i n g head items. The r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the presence of a v i s u a l c o n t e x t per se i s not always a s u f f i c i e n t p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r g r e a t e r l e a r n i n g prompted news r e s e a r c h e r s t o c o n s i d e r s t r a t e g i e s f o r making news more comprehensible. T h i s l e d t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o how the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v i s u a l and v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n a f f e c t s comprehension and r e c a l l . A number of s t u d i e s (Reese, 1984; Drew & Grimes, 1987; Son e t a l . , 1987) have found t h a t l e a r n i n g was g r e a t e r w i t h redundant v i s u a l s and s c r i p t s . These f i n d i n g s are s u p p o r t i v e of S e v e r i n ' s (1967) cue-summation t h e o r y ( d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Two), 11 which p r e d i c t s t h a t f i l m not conveying i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s t o r y would be d i s t r a c t i n g . The r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s from the f i e l d s of communication, news r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g make one approach with c a u t i o n some of the c l a i m s made on b e h a l f of v i d e o . The f i n d i n g s a l s o i n d i c a t e the need to o b t a i n e m p i r i c a l evidence to guide use of v i d e o i n the language classroom. O'Brien (1986), f o r example, drawing a t t e n t i o n t o the d e a r t h of i n f o r m a t i o n t o guide the s e l e c t i o n of v i d e o m a t e r i a l s proposes: "We have to develop c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s , and f o r when and how t o use v i d e o with p a r t i c u l a r groups of l e a r n e r s " (p. 169). I t was with t h i s background and w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t the prese n t r e s e a r c h problem was developed. 1.3 Research problem The purpose of t h i s study was t o determine the e f f e c t of v i s u a l s c o n t a i n e d i n a vi d e o r e c o r d i n g on NNS comprehension of spoken d i s c o u r s e , under two p r e s e n t a t i o n modes: audio (sound only) and vi d e o (sound + p i c t u r e ) . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the stud y looked a t the e f f e c t of three v i s u a l formats on comprehension of v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n the audio channel of a s e r i e s of t e l e v i s i o n news s t o r i e s , with p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the degree of correspondence between i n f o r m a t i o n presented 12 simultaneously through the aura l and v i s u a l channels and the r e s u l t i n g e f fec t s on language comprehension. A fol low-up study examined the e f fec t of v i s u a l s with a group of subjects of higher SL p r o f i c i e n c y . 1.4 Research questions The research addressed the fo l lowing quest ions: 1. Is there a d i f f erence in the amount of verba l information comprehended (as measured by scores on a cued r e c a l l task) when information i s presented v i a each of two modes: (a) audio mode (sound only , no v i s u a l s ) (b video (sound + v i s u a l s ) 2. In the video mode, i s there a d i f f erence in the amount of verbal information comprehended and r e c a l l e d v i a each of three v i s u a l formats: (a) t a l k i n g head (newsreader only , without f i lm) (b) high redundancy (HR): high degree of correspondence i . e . redundancy between the audio and video channels , between l i n g u i s t i c and v i s u a l informat ion . (c) low redundancy (LR): low degree of correspondence between audio and video channels , between l i n g u i s t i c and v i s u a l informat ion . Moving from measures of cued r e c a l l , to reports of perceived comprehension and d i f f i c u l t y : 3 (a) . Is there a d i f f erence in subjec t s ' perceived comprehension of news s t o r i e s when information i s presented v i a e i ther the video mode or audio mode? 3 (b) . Is there a d i f f erence in subjec t s ' perceived d i f f i c u l t y of news s t o r i e s when information is presented v i a e i ther the video mode or audio mode? A smal ler , fol low-up study examined the e f f ec t of v i s u a l formats with a group of subjects of higher p r o f i c i e n c y . That study addressed the fo l lowing quest ions: 4 (a ) . Does the l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y a f f e c t the amount of verbal information comprehended and r e c a l l e d under the two presentat ion modes? 4 (b) . Does the l e v e l o£ language p r o f i c i e n c y a f f ec t the amount of verbal information comprehended and r e c a l l e d v i a each of the three v i s u a l formats? 1.5 Chapter Summary In t h i s chapter , an attempt has been made to provide a b r i e f in troduct ion and background information to the present study. The chapter contains a statement of the purpose and the questions addressed by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Terminology and d e t a i l e d background are included in chapter two, along with the hypotheses and a r a t i o n a l e for those hypotheses. 14 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A study of the e f f e c t of v i d e o on nonnative speaker (NNS) comprehension of spoken language n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s a study of s e v e r a l areas of r e s e a r c h . These i n c l u d e r e s e a r c h on l i s t e n i n g comprehension, s t u d i e s on comprehension a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t media , s t u d i e s of the e f f e c t of v i s u a l s on n a t i v e - s p e a k e r comprehension, a l o n g with r e s e a r c h on v i d e o and language l e a r n i n g . T h e o r i e s of v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g are a l s o reviewed. While numerous a r t i c l e s have been w r i t t e n on ways to use v i d e o i n the second language classroom, the main focus of t h i s study, the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l s i n a v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n on NNS comprehension of spoken d i s c o u r s e , has r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e mention i n second langauge l i t e r a t u r e . However, r e l e v a n t f i n d i n g s from the f i e l d s of e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g , communications s t u d i e s and e d u c a t i o n a l psychology g i v e some i n s i g h t i n t o how v i s u a l s a f f e c t the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . As background i n f o r m a t i o n and to enhance understanding of the p r e s e n t study, t h i s chapter c o n t a i n s a review of p e r t i n e n t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , an e x p l a n a t i o n of t e r m i n o l o g y , and the hypotheses. 15 2.1 L i s t e n i n g 2.1.1 The v i s u a l element of communication. In face- to- face i n t e r a c t i o n , there i s a large number of non-verbal , e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c sources of information and meaning. Researchers, in attempting to determine how much of a communicative event i s conveyed by various senses, have reached various conclusions about the proport ion for the nonverbal element (Knapp, 1978). B i r d w h i s t e l l (1970), for example, estimates that only about 30 percent of an i n t e r a c t i o n between two speakers of the same cu l ture i s v e r b a l . A theme common to a l l of the a r t i c l e s on video and langauge l earn ing i s v ideo's a b i l i t y to give learners access to the v i s u a l (non-verbal) element in communicative d i scourse . W i l l i s (1983), A l l a n (1984) and R i l e y (1985) are among the few researchers who have examined the ro le of the v i s u a l channel of communication in i n t e r a c t i o n , as a necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e to d iscuss ions of the e f fec t of video on language comprehension. W i l l i s (1983) makes the point that nonnative speakers of any language are l i k e l y to r e l y more heav i l y on v i s u a l c lues to support t h e i r comprehension than are 16 n a t i v e speakers and t h a t "video Is an obvious medium f o r h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s to i n t e r p r e t v i s u a l c l u e s e f f e c t i v e l y " (p.29). A c c o r d i n g to W i l l i s , t e a c h e r s should know which v i s u a l f e a t u r e s of a v i d e o can be e x p l o i t e d : E f f e c t i v e and s y s t e m a t i c e x p l o i t a t i o n of w e l l -s u i t e d v i d e o sequences c o u l d h e l p to s e n s i t i z e s t u d e n t s t o v i t a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n non-vocal communication, as w e l l as serve as a s t i m u l u s f o r f r e e d i s c u s s i o n , (p.36) A l l a n (1984), head of the B r i t i s h C o u n c i l V i s u a l U n i t and a d e s i g n e r of v i d e o m a t e r i a l s , notes t h a t making st u d e n t s aware of the v i s u a l , as w e l l as a u d i t o r y s i g n a l s used i n communication, can h e l p them "overcome t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n with understanding every word and make them more c o n f i d e n t of t h e i r a b i l i t y to f o l l o w the g i s t of face to face communication" (p.25). R i l e y (1984) d i s c u s s e s v i e w i n g comprehension, h i s term f o r how the v i s u a l element of a communicative event h e l p s l i s t e n e r s p r e d i c t and comprehend the v e r b a l message. R i l e y , as w e l l as other second-language r e s e a r c h e r s (Brown 1977, Geddes 1982, W i l l i s 1983, A l l a n 1984, G i l l e s p i e 1985), b e l i e v e t h a t l e a r n e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d t o look f o r v i s u a l c l u e s i n any communicative s i t u a t i o n where comprehension might be d i f f i c u l t . He c l a s s i f i e s the v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c a r r i e s meaning i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s : 17 1. the d e i c t i c f u n c t i o n : t h i s f u n c t i o n i n c l u d e s the v i s u a l , or nonverbal t o o l s used t o r e f e r to what i s being d i s c u s s e d . In f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n , t h i s i s u s u a l l y done v i s u a l l y through body and eye movements t h a t i n d i c a t e r e f e r e n t s . i i . the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f u n c t i o n : T h i s r e f e r s t o how p a r t i c i p a n t s i n f a c e - t o - f a c e d i s c o u r s e handle ' a d d r e s s 1 , the q u e s t i o n of who speaks when and t o whom. In E n g l i s h , t h i s i s r e g u l a t e d mostly through gaze, and a l s o by p o s t u r e , o r i e n t a t i o n and g e s t u r e s . i i i . the modal f u n c t i o n : T h i s i s the nonverbal behaviour through which the speaker shows h i s a t t i t u d e toward what he i s a c t u a l l y s a y i n g : i s he being s e r i o u s , i r o n i c or s a r c a s t i c . i v . the i n d e x i c a l f u n c t i o n : T h i s r e f e r s t o the many v i s u a l s i g n a l s , such as d r e s s , grooming, s k i n , f a c i a l v. the l i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n : T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s four types of g e s t u r e s , which h e l p t o c l a r i f y or s u b s t i t u t e f o r the v e r b a l message. These g e s t u r e s i n c l u d e emblems, which s u b s t i t u t e f o r the v e r b a l message, i l l u s t r a t o r s which i l l u s t r a t e the p r o p o s i t i o n a l content of the v e r b a l message, e n a c t i o n s which are r e v e a l i t s i l l o c u t i o n a r y c o n t e n t , and batons such as rhythm and tempo. 18 v i . the s i t u a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n : T h i s r e f e r s to the s p a t i o -temporal s e t t i n g which accompanies any communicative a c t , such as how the i n t e r a c t a n t s p e r c e i v e time. R i l e y notes t h a t v i d e o has much t o c o n t r i b u t e to the t e a c h i n g of comprehension, as i t g i v e s i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s a c c e s s t o these c a t e g o r i e s of v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . For example, i n s t r u c t o r s can t r a i n s t u d e n t s t o look f o r meaning c a r r i e d by the v i s u a l component by a s k i n g "What are the speaker's a t t i t u d e s t o each other? Do they l i k e each other? How do you Know? A l l a n (1984), i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the unique p r o p e r t i e s of v i d e o , s t a t e s t h a t v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s of i n t e r a c t i o n s "opens up p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the development of comprehension s k i l l s which we are o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o e x p l o r e " (p.24). 2.1.2. L i s t e n i n g and the comprehension approach t o  language a c q u i s i t i o n In r e c e n t y e a r s , l i s t e n i n g comprehension has come to be seen as "a h i g h l y complex p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t y (Wipf 1984, p.345).As such, the l i s t e n e r must always be prepared to hear and decode u n f a m i l i a r messages, such as those c a r r i e d i n the v i s u a l c h a n n e l . The e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g I n t e r e s t i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s i s e v i d e n t i n the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n on the v i s u a l component of communIcation. Much of t h i s i n t e r e s t i s based on t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which s t r e s s the primary r o l e of a u r a l comprehension i n f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n . L i s t e n i n g comprehension p l a y s a c e n t r a l r o l e i n the "comprehension approach" to language l e a r n i n g methodology: the approach emphasizes the development of l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g as c r u c i a l to the achievement of language p r o f i c i e n c y (Parks 1986). Probably the most w i d e l y known model of second language a c q u i s i t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s approach i s Krashen's Monitor Model. Krashen (1981) makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between language l e a r n i n g , the formal l e a r n i n g of the s y n t a c t i c r u l e s o£ a language which u s u a l l y o ccurs i n a formal l e a r n i n g environment, such as a classroom, and language a c q u i s i t i o n , which i s the unconscious l e a r n i n g of the language so t h a t i t can be used without drawing on a s e t of c o n s c i o u s r u l e s . Krashen's t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s t h a t comprehension may be "at the heart of the language a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s : perhaps we a c q u i r e by understanding language t h a t i s a • l i t t l e beyond' our c u r r e n t l e v e l of competence (Krashen, 1981, p.102). T h e r e f o r e , an important g o a l of i n s t r u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y a t the b e g i n n i n g stages must be to " p r o v i d e the c o r r e c t k i n d and amount of i n p u t " (Krashen, 1984, p.264). In order f o r the language environment to p r o v i d e t h i s i n p u t , and t h e r e b y f o r 20 environment to p r o v i d e t h i s i n p u t , and t h e r e b y f o r langauge a c q u i s i t i o n t o occur, the language must: 1. r e f e r t o the immediate environment or be p r o v i d e d w i t h e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c support i n the immediate environment (the 'here and now' p r i n c i p l e ) . 2. be j u s t s l i g h t l y above the l e a r n e r ' s l e v e l of competence. 3. be focused on communication, r a t h e r than form. A c c o r d i n g to Krashen, i n t a k e - r i c h langauge environments can be found i n classrooms as w e l l as i n f o r m a l environments. He recommends the use of v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y a t the i n t e r m e d i a t e and advanced l e v e l s , as good sources f o r a c q u i s i t i o n a l i n p u t . He w r i t e s : "Video r e c o r d i n g s of TV b r o a d c a s t s are e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l i n broadening the s t u d e n t s ' r e c e p t i v e s k i l l s t o areas not n o r m a l l y encountered i n the c l a s s r o o m , " and adds, "The advantage of videotaped m a t e r i a l s i s t h a t v i s u a l and c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s are pres e n t t o support comprehension" (Krashen e t . a l . , 1984, p.268). Byrnes (1984) a l s o a f f o r d s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n t o the r o l e of l i s t e n i n g i n language a c q u i s i t i o n : "Comprehension i s important not o n l y because i t precedes p r o d u c t i o n l o g i c a l l y and c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , but p r i m a r i l y because i t appears to be the b a s i c mechanism through which the r u l e s of language are i n t e r n a l i z e d (Byrnes, p. 319). The g o a l of t h i s s e c t i o n i s not t o argue t h a t a comprehension approach i s a p r e f e r r e d model of second language a c q u i s i t i o n . I n s t e a d , the aim i s t o emphasize p e d a g o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the comprehension approach. I f comprehension precedes a c q u i s i t i o n , i t can be assumed t h a t l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s s hould be i n c o r p o r a t e d a t a l l l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n . 2.1.3 L i s t e n i n g comprehension: Processes The l i t e r a t u r e on l i s t e n i n g shows a d i v e r g e n c e i n views about how i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d , a d i v e r g e n c e stemming from d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions about how l i s t e n e r s d e r i v e meaning from a s t r i n g of language s i g n s . "Bottom-up" i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i n v o l v e s decoding incoming u t t e r a n c e s or messages; a l i s t e n e r d e c i d e s what a sentence means on the b a s i s of l i n g u i s t i c evidence o n l y , by b r e a k i n g the s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e of an u t t e r a n c e i n t o u n d e r l y i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s . ( R i c h a r d s , 1986). In c o n t r a s t , top-down p r o c e s s i n g doesn't s i m p l y r e l y on l i n g u i s t i c evidence t o decode u t t e r a n c e s . In a d d i t i o n , the l i s t e n e r has to use p r e v i o u s knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n ( a l s o known as " s c r i p t s " ) , which i s not t r a n s m i t t e d i n the 22 message, and use t h i s information to help in terpre t the message. According to Weissenrieder (1987), The a b i l i t y to br ing prev ious ly acquired knowledge to l i s t e n i n g tasks equips natives with a n t i c i p a t o r i a l and recons truct ive s k i l l s . More than a mere passive receptor of langauge s i g n a l s , the l i s t e n e r prepares the way for and in terac t s with what he/she hears and thus g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e s the decoding process , (p.23) According to Richards , second language learners not only lack s c r i p t s for what they are hearing; they a l so have to cope with 'medium f a c t o r s . ' These factors include the form in which utterances are expressed, such as s tress patterns and in tonat ion , and a l so include the hes i ta t ions and sentence fragments of a l l conversat ion , and the verbal devices which the native speaker recognizes as cohesive devices of spoken d i scourse . Brown and Yule ' s (1983) d e f i n i t i o n of l i s t e n i n g exemplif ies a top-down approach. They define the process of understanding what i s heard as a process of a r r i v i n g at a "reasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " of what the speaker intended to say. Brown (1977) defines understanding as a process of p r e d i c t i n g and sampling, rather than a "desperate attempt to keep up with the words f l a sh ing by" (p.271). Like Brown, Rivers (1978) points out that a large part of understanding is due to the l i s t e n e r s ' a b i l i t y to p r e d i c t : l i s t e n e r s construct a message from what they hear according to c e r t a i n expectat ions , based on what they know of the langauge, t h e i r r e a d i n g of p a r a l i n g u i s t i c cues, knowledge of c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , e t c . Byrnes' (1984) model of l i s t e n i n g comprehension i n v o l v e s a top-down approach. Her model i s comprised of t h r e e I n t e r a c t i n g v a r i a b l e s : raw d a t a , c o n t e x t u a l understanding and schema-based un d e r s t a n d i n g . In her model, schema (or s c r i p t ) - b a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g draws on i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n longterm memory frames or s c r i p t s which d i r e c t the comprehension p r o c e s s . C o n t e x t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i . e . v i s u a l s , by p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r i n p u t , h e l p s the l i s t e n e r to r e s o l v e a m b i g u i t i e s and t o form hypotheses and draw i n f e r e n c e s . For input to become comprehended i n t a k e , the meanings conveyed must be embedded i n a comprehensible c o n t e x t , "Such meaningfulness can o n l y come about and be upheld i n l a r g e r u n i t s of d i s c o u r s e versus i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e n c e s " (Byrnes, p.324). Many r e s e a r c h e r s who have s t u d i e d the process i n v o l v e d i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension emphasize the c o n t r i b u t i o n of background knowledge t o understanding d i s c o u r s e (Brown 1977, Ur 1983, Nagle & Sanders 1986). I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t i o n and task d e s i g n q u i c k l y become apparent. The more background knowledge which i s assumed i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i s c o u r s e , the more d i f f i c u l t t h a t d i s c o u r s e w i l l be f o r s t u d e n t s to comprehend i f they don't share t h a t knowledge. 24 2.1.4 Teaching l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s A n a l y s i s of how and why n a t i v e speakers l i s t e n has prompted both i n s t r u c t o r s and r e s e a r c h e r s t o take a c l o s e r look a t c l a s s r o o m t e c h n i q u e s , t a s k s and m a t e r i a l s f o r l i s t e n i n g . Recent l i t e r a t u r e on l i s t e n i n g has focused on: 1. u s i n g c l a s s r o o m t e c h n i q u e s which de v e l o p n a t i v e l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s i n language l e a r n e r s . 2. u s i n g a u t h e n t i c m a t e r i a l s f o r t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension. N a t i v e language l i s t e n i n g comprehension seems to r e s u l t from a complex i n t e r p l a y of l i n g u i s t i c and e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c , c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n cues ( M u e l l e r , 1980). I f non-native l i s t e n e r s are to l e a r n to l i s t e n l i k e n a t i v e l i s t e n e r s , as Brown (1977) s u g g e s t s , they w i l l have to l e a r n to r e c o g n i z e and use these cues. Brown and Yule (1983) p o i n t out t h a t n a t i v e speakers expect and a c h i e v e o n l y a p a r t i a l u n d erstanding of what they hear, "nonetheless we c l e a r l y operate w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n of a t o l e r a b l e degree of mutual comprehension" (p.59). They go on to argue t h a t t e a c h e r s should not expect 100 percent comprehension from s t u d e n t s ; i n s t e a d , the n a t i v e h a b i t of t o l e r a b l e mutual comprehension should be developed. 25 One way to encourage a l e a r n e r to "make a rea s o n a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n even though he has not c l e a r l y heard a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n " (Brown,1977,p.168) i s t o t e a c h him to r e c o g n i z e a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l s i g n a l s used by n a t i v e speakers. N a t i v e speakers use a u d i t o r y c l u e s , such as s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s and vowel l e n g t h , as w e l l as a knowledge of the language to h e l p them i n t e r p r e t a s t r i n g of c l u e s . They a l s o use v i s u a l c l u e s , r a n g i n g from those p r o v i d e d by the s e t t i n g , the d r e s s and the posture of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s and t h e i r eye movements, to muscular movements of jaw, l i p s and head which mark p r o d u c t i o n of s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s (Ur, 1984). Video can be a powerful t o o l i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s to r e c o g n i z e these s i g n a l s . Lems (1983) produced a s e r i e s of v i d e o t a p e s t o t e a c h l i s t e n i n g comprehension s k i l l s , d e signed to show the d i f f e r e n c e between spoken E n g l i s h (with redundancy i n v e r b a l d i s c o u r s e , emphasis on words, and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s ) and formal d i s c o u r s e . Classroom t a s k s must not o n l y be based on r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ; they a l s o have to take i n t o account s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by NNSs i n l e a r n i n g to cope wi t h E n g l i s h (Ur, 1984). Some of the main d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c l u d e : c o p i n g with redundancy and n o i s e ; u n d e r s t a n d i n g unusual a c c e n t s ; p r e d i c t i n g , and u s i n g v i s u a l and a u r a l environmental cues. R i v e r s (1978) e s t i m a t e s t h a t E n g l i s h i s about 50 pe r c e n t redundant; however, a r t i f i c i a l or n o n a u t h e n t i c language found i n many l i s t e n i n g m a t e r i a l s , o f t e n s t r i p s language of i t s redundancy and makes the s t u d e n t s ' task even more d i f f i c u l t . Danahy (1985) notes t h a t taped t e l e v i s i o n i . e . a u t h e n t i c m a t e r i a l s , can be used here: "from the c o l o u r s , shapes, movements, camera a n g l e s , v o i c e and music, L2 l e a r n e r s r e c e i v e redundant messages and c l u e s t o decode the SL" (p. 56). P o r t e r and Roberts (1981) a t t r i b u t e comprehension problems among ESL s t u d e n t s when they encounter r e a l l i f e communicative s i t u a t i o n s p a r t l y t o t h e i r exposure o n l y to nonauthentic m a t e r i a l s . They l i s t many d i f f e r e n c e s between the langauge of l i s t e n i n g m a t e r i a l s c r e a t e d f o r language l e a r n e r s and the langauge heard o u t s i d e the classroom. The language on made-for-classroom tapes i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: i ) exaggerated i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s i i ) more v e r b a l l y e x p l i c i t than o r d i n a r y language i i i ) o v e r l y c l e a r e n u n c i a t i o n i v ) use of s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h o n l y v) slow pace v i ) lack of sentence fragments v i i ) l a c k of v o c a l i z a t i o n s t o show l i s t e n e r a t t e n t i v e n e s s v i i i ) l a c k of r e f e r e n c e s to s p e c i f i c people , p l a c e s and i n c i d e n t s . i x ) l a c k of extraneous background n o i s e . Teachers who have used a u t h e n t i c v i d e o i . e . r e c o r d e d t e l e v i s i o n , t o enhance language comprehension, admit t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l support f o r i t s use, y e t a s u r v e y of the l i t e r a t u r e shows they a l l agree t h a t i t 'works': "Although we cannot e m p i r i c a l l y document the s p e c i f i c g a i n s i n student l e a r n i n g and m o t i v a t i o n , we both acknowledge a s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n t h a t l i v e b r o a d c a s t s made a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o our c l a s s to s t u d e n t s ' progress i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h " ( B r i n t o n & G a s k i l l , 1 9 7 8 , p. 410). J u s t how e f f e c t i v e i s v i d e o as a t o o l to enhance comprehension of spoken E n g l i s h . S t u d i e s c a r r i e d out with n a t i v e speakers on the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t media on comprehension and r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n have some r e l e v a n c e f o r second language t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . The s t u d i e s are summarized i n the next s e c t i o n . 28 2.2 Ef f ec t s of d i f f e r e n t media on comprehension and  r e c a l l 2.2.1 Mode of presentat ion and l earn ing from media The ba t t l e for supremacy between seeing and hearing has been waged presumably ever s ince man was endowed with eyes and ears . (Hs ia , 1968, p.248) The human sensory m o d a l i t i e s , of which v i s i o n and hearing are the most important, correspond to the two media channels—audio and v i s u a l . A r a t i o n a l e frequent ly c i t e d for the use of audio-v i s u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s that greater l earn ing occurs when mater ia l is presented v i a mul t ip le channels of communication. Many of the s tudies on a u d i o - v i s u a l l earn ing compare the e f fect iveness of l earn ing from the audio-v i s u a l mode (e .g . t e l e v i s i o n and video) with l earn ing from the audio mode (e .g . r a d i o , audiotapes) . Researchers have attempted to answer the quest ion: Does comprehension and r e c a l l of information vary according to the mode of presentation? Results have v a r i e d , with the majori ty of s tudies f ind ing greater r e c a l l in the audiov i sua l mode. Barrow (1959) found t e l e v i s i o n superior to radio for tests of immediate r e c a l l of fac tua l i n f o r m a t i o n . Gradeschool c h i l d r e n l i s t e n e d to or watched and l i s t e n e d t o a s e r i e s of news backgrounder programs, and were g i v e n a m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t of i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n each of four news programs. In a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on media channels and l e a r n i n g Hartman (1961) found t h a t comparisons between p i c t o r i a l - v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n d i c a t e the advantage of m u l t i - c h a n n e l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . However, he warned t h a t r e s u l t s s h o u l d be viewed with c a u t i o n because of v a r i e d e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s and b i a s e s a g a i n s t the v e r b a l c h a n n e l . Nasser and McEwan (1976) compared r e c a l l s c o r e s e l i c i t e d by v i d e o t a p e , a u d i o t a p e , p r i n t a l o n e , and audio p l u s p r i n t . The f i n d i n g s confirmed t h e i r h y p o t h e s i s t h a t v i d e o t a p e would r e s u l t i n higher r e c a l l s c o r e s , but the d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Hayes e t . a l . (1986) examined the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o f o r conveying s t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n . Young c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s were presented the same s t o r y v i a e i t h e r t e l e v i s i o n or r a d i o ; s u b j e c t s then r e t o l d the s t o r y to an a d u l t . Media d i f f e r e n c e s were found, w i t h c h i l d r e n i n the r a d i o treatment showing s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e r r o r s i n comprehension and memory than c h i l d r e n i n the t e l e v i s i o n treatment. S u b j e c t s i n the r a d i o c o n d i t i o n showed g r e a t e r r e c a l l than s u b j e c t s who watched t e l e v i s i o n , but the events r e c a l l e d were not v e r y Important to the o v e r a l l theme. These f i n d i n g s support Salomon's (1979) t h e o r e t i c a l assumption t h a t t e l e v i s i o n can be e a s i e r t o understand than n o n v i s u a l media. Some s t u d i e s have found t h a t g r e a t e r l e a r n i n g o ccurs when i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented o n l y through the audio c h a n n e l , without v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Ortmeyer & G o l d s t e i n (1980) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of a u d i o v i s u a l media used to i n c r e a s e l i s t e n i n g comprehension s k i l l s of language l e a r n e r s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the audio mode would be more e f f e c t i v e than v i d e o f o r l e a r n i n g t o l i s t e n t o and understand E n g l i s h . T h e i r h y p o t h e s i s was confirmed, but the authors suggest the r e s u l t s be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n because r e c a l l was t e s t e d v i a p r i n t . 2.2.2 R e l a t i o n s h i p between the a u r a l and v i s u a l channels Some communication r e s e a r c h e r s have gone beyond s i m p l y comparing l e a r n i n g from d u a l channels with l e a r n i n g from one c h a n n e l , and looked more c l o s e l y a t the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a u r a l and v i s u a l c h a n n e l s . Chu and Schramm (1967), i n t h e i r review of e d u c a t i o n a l media r e s e a r c h , concluded t h a t v i s u a l s w i l l improve l e a r n i n g from a u d i o v i s u a l messages o n l y when the v i s u a l c o n t r i b u t e s to the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n 31 the a u d i o t r a c k ; o t h e r w i s e , v i s u a l images may a c t u a l l y cause d i s t r a c t i o n and i n t e r f e r e w i t h l e a r n i n g . H s i a (1968) proposed the a u d i o v i s u a l channel has advantages over the audio or v i s u a l a lone o n l y i f the s t i m u l i presented are almost i d e n t i c a l , i . e . redundant. "Because of between-channel i n t e r f e r e n c e , i t i s not by any means a r u l e t h a t the a u d i o v i s u a l i s always b e t t e r than audio or v i s u a l o n l y (p. 250)." More r e c e n t l y , F i s h e r (1984) has found t h a t younger c h i l d r e n ( l e s s competent language l e a r n e r s ) " f i n d c o n f l i c t between i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n the l i n g u i s t i c and v i s u a l modes (p. 88)." Where a c h o i c e must be made, c h i l d r e n choose to ignore the l i n g u i s t i c mode and c o n c e n t r a t e on the v i s u a l . The f i n d i n g s of these r e s e a r c h e r s appear t o be i n accordance with S e v e r i n ' s (1967) cue-summation t h e o r y . The t h e o r y h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n of i r r e l e v a n t cues i n e i t h e r the v i s u a l or audio channels w i l l cause a l o s s of l e a r n i n g from the other c h a n n e l , but when a d d i t i o n a l cues are presented i n e i t h e r c h a n n e l , g r e a t e r l e a r n i n g w i l l take p l a c e . A p p l i e d t o v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s or t e l e v i s i o n news, t h i s t h e o r y p r e d i c t s t h a t f i l m not conveying i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s t o r y would be d i s t r a c t i n g . 3 2 2.3 E f f e c t of v i s u a l s on comprehension and r e c a l l 2.3.1 Research on v i s u a l format and t e l e v i s i o n news r e c a l l That the presence of a v i s u a l c o n t e x t per se i s not always a s u f f i c i e n t p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r improved l e a r n i n g has a l r e a d y been noted. Many of the f i n d i n g s on how the co n t e n t s of the v i s u a l channel a f f e c t s comprehension of the audio channel have come from experiments c a r r i e d out by t e l e v i s i o n news r e s e a r c h e r s , who have been s t u d y i n g ways to i n c r e a s e l e a r n i n g from news f o r many y e a r s . Research l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t s w i d e l y v a r y i n g e s t i m a t i o n s of the va l u e of v i s u a l m a t e r i a l i n news r e p o r t s . E a r l y s t u d i e s seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h : (1) q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g v i s u a l format (e.g. newscaster o n l y or newscaster t a l k i n g over f i l m ) and r e c a l l of news, and (2) the e f f e c t of p r e s e n t a t i o n mode ( a u d i o v i s u a l v ersus audio mode) on r e c a l l . They d i d n ' t attempt t o examine the degree of correspondence between the audio and v i s u a l c h a n n e l s . Gunter, B e r r y & C l i f f o r d (1982) surveyed the l i t e r a t u r e on v i s u a l format c o n d i t i o n s and news r e c a l l . They concluded: "There i s no u n e q u i v o c a l answer t o the q u e s t i o n of whether i t i s always best to use f i l m or s t i l l s or no v i s u a l s a t a l l i n t e l e v i s i o n news p r o d u c t i o n s " (p. 17). 33 S t u d i e s of news r e c a l l by c h i l d r e n , a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s r e v e a l g r e a t e r r e c a l l when m a t e r i a l i s pre s e n t e d i n a t e l e v i s i o n format than i n r a d i o ( G r e e n f i e l d & Beagles-Roos, 1988). Although d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l a re not always found, any d i f f e r e n c e s c o n s i s t e n t l y favour t e l e v i s i o n over r a d i o . Jorgenson (1955, c i t e d i n Gunter, 1980) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n between news prese n t e d by a newscaster alone ( t a l k i n g head) and the newscaster speaking over f i l m . K a tz, Adoni & Parness (1977), s t u d i e d the e x t e n t t o which p i c t u r e s enhanced r e c a l l among I s r a e l i respondents and found i n one stud y t h a t r a d i o l i s t e n e r s f o r g o t more b u l l e t i n items than t e l e v i s i o n v i ewers. However, i n a second study they found t h a t s u b j e c t s who saw a t e l e v i s i o n newscast performed no b e t t e r on t e s t s of news r e t e n t i o n than o t h e r s who had o n l y l i s t e n e d t o the same program. I t should be noted t h a t these f i e l d s t u d i e s d i d not a d e q u a t e l y c o n t r o l f o r a number of confounding v a r i a b l e s , such as l e n g t h and number of items c o n t a i n e d i n news b r o a d c a s t s and the amount of a t t e n t i o n s u b j e c t s p a i d to the b r o a d c a s t s . Gunter (1979, 1980a) s e t out to answer the q u e s t i o n : Do v i s u a l s such as f i l m or s t i l l p i c t u r e s enhance l e a r n i n g from news or do the p i c t u r e s r e s u l t i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of i r r e l e v a n t and d i s t r a c t i n g v i s u a l output which i n h i b i t s i n f o r m a t i o n gain? He found t h a t f r e e r e c a l l of t e l e v i s i o n news items was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the type of p i c t u r e s c a r r i e d i n the v i d e o c h a n n e l . In the 1979 study, immediate f r e e r e c a l l was t e s t e d of the v e r b a l content of f i f t e e n b r i e f (4 -6 seconds long) news items r e c o r d e d from t e l e v i s i o n . S u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d the news items e i t h e r v i a the v i d e o mode (audio + video) or v i a the audio (soundtrack o n l y ) mode; immediately a f t e r they wrote down as many items as they c o u l d r e c a l l . W i t h i n the v i d e o mode, f i v e items c o n t a i n e d f i l m footage, f i v e items c o n t a i n e d s t i l l p i c t u r e s , and f i v e showed the newscaster o n l y , without any p i c t u r e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t due t o mode was found. R e c a l l of news items was higher f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the v i d e o mode than i n a u d i o . A w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s a n a l y s i s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due to p i c t u r e c o n t e n t . A s e r i e s of p a i r w i s e comparisons found t h a t items accompanied by f i l m were b e t t e r r e c a l l e d than those accompanied by s t i l l p i c t u r e s , and s t i l l p i c t u r e items b e t t e r r e c a l l e d than t a l k i n g head items. Gunter concluded: " . . . i t i s not o n l y the mere presence of p i c t o r i a l c o ntent w i t h i n the v i d e o mode which i s important t o me m o r a b i l i t y of news items, but 35 a l s o the nature of t h a t c o n t e n t , with moving p i c t u r e s enhancing r e c a l l more e f f e c t i v e l y than s t i l l s " (p. 60). Gunter (1980a) l a t e r r e p l i c a t e d these f i n d i n g s i n a s i m i l a r experiment. However, the r e s u l t s of another study i n the same s e r i e s (Gunter, 1980b) c o n f l i c t e d w i t h the r e s u l t s of the f i r s t two experiments. In t h i s l a s t study, s t u d e n t s v i e w i n g a t e l e v i s e d news s t o r y accompanied by f i l m footage or by a s t i l l p i c t u r e gave fewer c o r r e c t answers to q u e s t i o n s about s t o r y content than when they viewed the same items presented by a t a l k i n g head. Gunter a t t r i b u t e s the d i s c r e p a n c y between t h i s s tudy and the e a r l i e r ones to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e n g t h of news s t o r i e s and type of r e c a l l measures. In the two e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , s u b j e c t s viewed v e r y b r i e f ( s i x second) news c l i p s , f o l l o w e d by an immediate t e s t of f r e e r e c a l l . In the t h i r d experiment, s u b j e c t s were exposed to one-minute news c l i p s , and r e c a l l was t e s t e d v i a a s e r i e s of m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s . Gunter (1980b) suggested t h a t because the news items were l o n g e r , and because the m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d p r o c e s s i n g a t a deeper l e v e l , " the meaningful r e l e v a n c e of any accompanying p i c t u r e m a t e r i a l to c o n c u r r e n t l y running v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n becomes an important f a c t o r " (p. 11). T h e r e f o r e , he added, f i l m t h a t was not e n t i r e l y 36 relevant to verbal content o£ the news Items in t e r f e r e d with learning. Findhal (1981) found pictures and graphics helped subjects r e c a l l information from t e l e v i s i o n news s t o r i e s . Drew and Reese (1984) reported that c h i l d r e n who watched a newscast with f i l m performed much better on r e c a l l and understanding tests than those who viewed a newscast with only a news anchor reading. L i t e r a t u r e indicates that viewers a b i l i t y to divide t h e i r attention between the dual audio and v i s u a l channels of t e l e v i s i o n depends on a number of var i a b l e s , including, as Gunter (1980b) suggested, the nature of the stimulus presented. This probably explains why studies of the contribution of v i s u a l information to learning from t e l e v i s i o n news have produced mixed r e s u l t s . 2.3.2 Audio-visual redundancy and comprehension of news The c o n f l i c t i n g findings on v i s u a l format and news r e c a l l prompted some researchers, such as Gunter, to take a closer look at the r e l a t i o n s h i p between picture content and audioverbal content of news items. As noted elsewhere, Chu and Schramm (1967) found that the use of vi s u a l s w i l l improve learning from audiovisual messages where the v i s u a l contributes to information c a r r i e d in the audio track; otherwise v i s u a l images may impair comprehension and learning. In t h e i r review of r e s e a r c h on v i s u a l format and news r e c a l l , Gunter, B e r r y & C l i f f o r d (1982) con c l u d e d : "An important f a c t o r when v i s u a l accompaniment i s p r e s e n t e d i s the degree of correspondence between p i c t u r e m a t e r i a l and v e r b a l m a t e r i a l " (p.17). P i n d a h l and H o i j e r (1981), by v a r y i n g the p i c t o r i a l accompaniment to news items i n a news program, showed t h a t r e c a l l was b e s t where items were i l l u s t r a t e d by p i c t u r e s which correspond to the v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p o o r e s t w i t h no i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Edwardson, Grooms & Proudlove (1981) compared i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n from news s t o r i e s shown with I n t e r e s t i n g v i d e o with news s t o r i e s accompanied by a t a l k i n g head. R e s u l t s showed people remember more f a c t s d e l i v e r e d i n TV news audio when those f a c t s are accompanied by i n t e r e s t i n g v i d e o r a t h e r than by a shot of a t a l k i n g head, even when the i n t e r e s t i n g v ideo does not convey those f a c t s . They had p r e d i c t e d t h a t the i n t e r e s t i n g v i d e o would prove d i s t r a c t i n g , and so r e s u l t i n l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n from the audio c h a n n e l . The authors suggest the i n c r e a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n may have o c c u r r e d because the p i c t u r e s aroused the s u b j e c t s ' c u r i o s i t y and i n t e r e s t . Son, Reese & Davie (1987) examined the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l - v e r b a l redundancy on l e a r n i n g from t e l e v i s i o n news. F i v e s t o r i e s showing redundancy between audio and 38 v i s u a l c h a n n e l s w e r e s e l e c t e d ; t o c r e a t e n o n r e d u n d a n c y , e a c h s t o r y ' s c a m e r a s h o t s w e r e r e - e d i t e d . A f t e r w a t c h i n g t h e i t e m s , s u b j e c t s w e r e a s k e d t o s t a t e t h e c e n t r a l p o i n t o f t h e s t o r y a n d g i v e n a m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t . R e s u l t s s h o w e d t h e h i g h v i s u a l - v e r b a l r e d u n d a n c y p r o d u c e d g r e a t e r r e c a l l t h a n t h e l o w r e d u n d a n c y . D r e w a n d G r i m e s (1987) e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t s o f a u d i o a n d v i s u a l r e d u n d a n c y o n r e c a l l a n d s t o r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t e l e v i s i o n n e w s . F i v e s h o r t n e w s c a s t s w e r e p r o d u c e d , e a c h c o n t a i n i n g f o u r t e e n s t o r i e s p l a c e d i n r a n d o m o r d e r . S u b j e c t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o o n e o f t h r e e r e d u n d a n c y c o n d i t i o n s : h i g h r e d u n d a n c y , m e d i u m r e d u n d a n c y o r l o w r e d u n d a n c y . C o m p r e h e n s i o n w a s m e a s u r e d b y a s k i n g m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t c e n t r a l p o i n t s o f t h e s t o r i e s . R e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t g r e a t e r r e d u n d a n c y i n t h e n e w s c a s t w o u l d p r o d u c e h i g h e r a u d i t o r y r e c a l l . S c h e f f e ' s p o s t - h o c t e s t s h o w e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m e a n s c o r e s f o r h i g h - r e d u n d a n c y c o n d i t i o n s a n d m e d i u m - r e d u n d a n c y c o n d i t i o n s . D r e w a n d G r i m e s c o n c l u d e d : " W h e n w a t c h i n g r e d u n d a n t t e l e v i s i o n n e w s , v i e w e r s f o c u s e d m o s t a t t e n t i o n o n t h e a u d i o w h i l e s t i l l a t t e n d i n g t o t h e v i d e o . W h e n t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e a u d i o a n d v i d e o , h o w e v e r , v i e w e r s a t t e n d t o t h e v i d e o a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e a u d i o . " ( p . 459) The r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s on a u d i o - v i d e o redundancy g e n e r a l l y seem to support S e v e r i n ' s cue-summation t h e o r y . A p p l i e d to v i d e o and second language l e a r n i n g , the r e s u l t s go some way toward answering a q u e s t i o n posed by MacWilliam (1986): Does v i d e o , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s a u t h e n t i c form, i n t r o d u c e any a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s which may i n some way i n h i b i t i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a language-teaching a i d ? The r e s u l t s a l s o seem to support W i l l i s 1 (1983) b e l i e f t h a t , "depending on the nature and aims of the t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l , the v i s u a l element may d i s t r a c t s t u d e n t s * a t t e n t i o n from the o b s e r v a t i o n of language" (p. 19). 2.4 Video and language l e a r n i n g 2 .4.1. Other f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g from media Relevant evidence from s t u d i e s on t e l e v i s i o n news comprehension I n d i c a t e s t h a t v i d e o does indeed i n t r o d u c e f a c t o r s which l i m i t i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n the second-language c l a s s r o o m . I t has been shown t h a t news r e c a l l may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by s e v e r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g the mode of p r e s e n t a t i o n , type of v i s u a l , and the degree of correspondence between the p i c t u r e s and the v e r b a l c o n t e n t . Other r e s e a r c h e r s have i d e n t i f i e d a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s which can have s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on l e a r n i n g . These i n c l u d e f a c t o r s such as background knowledge r e l a t i n g t o the content and format of a 40 program , l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y and m o d a l i t y p r e f e r e n c e . 2.4.2 Background Knowledge As noted e a r l i e r , the top-down approach t o l i s t e n i n g p l a c e s g r e a t importance on the r o l e of background knowledge. The l i s t e n e r doesn't r e l y o n l y on l i n g u i s t i c evidence t o decode u t t e r a n c e s ; he a l s o has to use p r e v i o u s knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n ( a l s o known as s c r i p t s or schemas) t o h e l p i n t e r p r e t the message. Rouner (1987) p o i n t s out t h a t "There may be s e v e r a l s c r i p t s f o r the same i n d i v i d u a l f o r an a c t i v i t y as mundane as watching news" (p. 71). Recent f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t p r i o r knowledge c o n t r i b u t e s both t o developmental d i f f e r e n c e s i n comprehension of programs and to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n age groups ( C o l l i n s & Wiens, 1983). C o l l i n s and Wiens (1983) l i s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of knowledge t h a t may a f f e c t comprehension of and response to t e l e v i s i o n programs: 1. knowledge about p r e s e n t a t i o n formats. 2. knowledge of media c o n v e n t i o n s . 3. g e n e r a l s o c i a l or world knowledge. Second language st u d e n t s not f a m i l i a r with the p r e s e n t a t i o n format, or s t r u c t u r e , of t e l e v i s i o n newscasts c o u l d p r o b a b l y improve t h e i r use of 41 t e l e v i s i o n f o r l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h i f they were made aware t h a t a d e f i n i t e s t r u c t u r e e x i s t s . Media's way of s t r u c t u r i n g and p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e i r symbol systems (Salomon, 1979), are media's most important a t t r i b u t e s : The b e t t e r a symbol system conveys the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s of an idea or event, the more a p p r o p r i a t e i t i s f o r an a c t of i n s t r u c t i o n , (p. 25) Knowledge of media con v e n t i o n s and symbol systems, e.g., c u t s , zooms, c l o s e u p s , wipes, e t c . , c o u l d a l s o be taught through i n s t r u c t i o n . Salomon's (1979) model of l e a r n i n g from media draws h e a v i l y on schema t h e o r y and on u n derstanding the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t e x t of e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . I t focuses on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s : the p e r c e i v e d demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t u a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e i v e d s e l f - e f f i c a c y f o r u s i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r medium, and the amount of mental e f f o r t an i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t s i n p r o c e s s i n g the message. These t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s e x p l a i n the amount of l e a r n i n g which w i l l r e s u l t from media exposure. 2.4.3 L e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y M u e l l e r (1980), i n a s t u d y designed to determine the e f f e c t of v i s u a l s on l i s t e n i n g comprehension, found t h a t c o n t e x t u a l v i s u a l s enhanced r e c a l l f o r b e g i n n i n g German s t u d e n t s . But i n t e r e s t i n g l y , he found t h a t the e f f e c t s of the v i s u a l s seemed I n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the l i s t e n e r s ' l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y : "The v i s u a l s do not seem t o enhance comprehension, however, i f because of more e x t e n s i v e s k i l l s the student i s a b l e to d e r i v e a c o n t e x t from the l i n g u i s t i c cues p r o v i d e d " (p.340). 2.4.4. M o d a l i t y p r e f e r e n c e Sabine (1984) notes t h a t people have d i f f e r e n t "mental s e t - u p s " , or a p r e f e r e n c e f o r one media over another. Some people are more audio-minded, and o t h e r s p i c t u r e - m i n d e d . K r e n d l (1986), i n a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on media p r e f e r e n c e and l e a r n i n g , found t h a t s t u d e n t s t y p i c a l l y tend to l i k e the media a c t i v i t y l e a s t from which they l e a r n the most. Salomon and L e i g h (1984), however, r e p o r t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d the medium they found e a s i e s t t o use, and the e a s i e r i t was to use, the more they f e l t they l e a r n e d from i t . 2.4.5 T e l e v i s i o n as a source of v i d e o m a t e r i a l s Numerous a r t i c l e s have been p u b l i s h e d on the use of vide o i n the second-language classroom; many of them r e f e r t o the use of commercially produced t e l e v i s i o n programs f o r showing language i n c o n t e x t . MacKnight, i n a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , (1983) found t h a t t e a c h e r s l i k e o f f - a i r programs because they b r i n g r e a l l i f e i n t o the classroom, c o n t e x t u a l i z e language n a t u r a l l y and l e t stud e n t s e x p e r i e n c e a u t h e n t i c language i n a c o n t r o l l e d environment. However, as s e v e r a l w r i t e r s have noted (MacWilliam 1986; S e l i n k e r 1986; O'Brien, 1986), t h e r e has been p r a c t i c a l l y no recorded r e s e a r c h i n t o the s u i t a b i l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v i d e o f o r language l e a r n i n g . R i l e y (1981) and W i l l i s (1981) have c l a s s i f i e d how nonverbal and v e r b a l communication systems r e l a t e , and how t e l e v i s i o n can be used to emphasize the r e l a t i o n s h i p . O'Brien's response t o MacKnight's recommendation of t e l e v i s i o n : " I t i s not enough to use t e l e v i s i o n m a t e r i a l s on v i d e o i n classrooms j u s t because they are good t e l e v i s i o n m a t e r i a l s : the q u e s t i o n we have to answer i s whether they make good v i d e o m a t e r i a l s " (p. 169). MacWilliam (1986) c o n s i d e r e d some of the r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s from the f i e l d s of e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g and communication s t u d i e s which have a b e a r i n g on the c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y of vi d e o when i t i s used f o r language i n p u t . A f t e r r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e , he concludes t h a t t e a c h e r s should "re-examine" t h e i r use of c e r t a i n types of v i d e o , e s p e c i a l l y those r e c o r d e d from t e l e v i s i o n , such as documentary-style programs i n which v o i c e o v e r commentary i s o f t e n the major a u d i t o r y i n p u t . "On the other hand, the more convergent audio and v i s u a l s t r a n d s of something l i k e C o r o n a t i o n Street...may prove more s u p p o r t i v e to the E n g l i s h language l e a r n e r " (p.134). 44 S e l i n k e r (1986), l i k e MacWilliam, argues t h a t soap operas are an e x c e l l e n t source of language i n p u t , and as such should become an important E n g l i s h language t e a c h i n g "video genre". He emphasizes the redundancy of i n f o r m a t i o n found i n soap operas, and the correspondence between the audio and v i d e o c h a n n e l s . S e l i n k e r r e p o r t s on a course which had a s e c t i o n b u i l t around i n - c l a s s use of a t e l e v i s i o n soap opera i n " r e a l time." He concludes t h a t soaps i n language t e a c h i n g : (a) h e l p l e a r n e r s cope w i t h TL ( t a r g e t language) m a t e r i a l not o n l y i n r e a l time, but i n a new s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t ; (b) p r o v i d e l e a r n e r s with a r i c h and r e p e t i t i v e model of r h e t o r i c a l and grammatical c o l l o q u i a l E n g l i s h ; (c) p r o v i d e a reasonable r o l e f o r e x p l i c i t grammar t e a c h i n g i n terms of p r e c i s i o n of meaning and comprehensible output; (d) h e l p t e a c h e r s "teach around f o s s i l i z a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t s , thus p o s s i b l y d e l a y i n g i t s onset; (e) p r o v i d e a t l e a s t some " i n t e r n a l - I L ( i n t e r l a n g u a g e ) t r a n s f e r f o r l e a r n e r s a c r o s s a c t i v i t y types w i t h i n domains and genres; ( f ) h e l p l e a r n e r s move from a student IL way of d e s c r i b i n g events to a more p r e c i s e T L - l i k e way; (g) a i d r e t e n t i o n of TL items i n memory; and (h) use p r o d u c t i v e l y a r i c h and a v a i l a b l e media source t h a t many stu d e n t s watch anyway, but have t r o u b l e viewing on t h e i r own. (p.30) Although t h e r e have been numerous r e f e r e n c e s to the use of v i d e o i n the classroom, there has been l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on immigrant use and comprehension of b r o a d c a s t t e l e v i s i o n o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m environment. Kozakiewicz (1987) conducted an e x p l o r a t o r y s u r v e y of the t e l e v i s i o n - v i e w i n g h a b i t s of a d u l t s t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h as a second language. R e s u l t s showed t h a t a l a r g e number of s t u d e n t s watch E n g l i s h language t e l e v i s i o n , with amounts of viewing seeming to depend on employment s t a t u s , a c c e s s to n a t i v e language t e l e v i s i o n , n a t i v e language background and p r i o r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of respondents. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t some programs are more comprehensible than o t h e r s f o r second language l e a r n e r s was not supported. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , few d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n the types of programs watched by s t u d e n t s a t d i f f e r e n t language l e v e l s . News br o a d c a s t s , movies and "Three's Company" had the h i g h e s t number of v i e w e r s . Two main f a c t o r s which appeared to i n f l u e n c e respondents c h o i c e of programs were access and c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y . Commenting on the p o p u l a r i t y of news b r o a d c a s t s among respondents, Kozakiewicz notes: "Of the E n g l i s h sources of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o immigrants, the v i s u a l element of t e l e v i s i o n news p r o b a b l y renders i t more comprehensible than e i t h e r newspapers and r a d i o " (p. 153). S i n c l a i r (1985) found t h a t ESL s t u d e n t s a t a l l language l e v e l s watched "Three's Company." She q u e s t i o n e d s t u d e n t s about t h e i r c h o i c e of program, and a t t r i b u t e d i t s p o p u l a r i t y to the context-dependent, e x p l i c i t language used by the program's c h a r a c t e r s . Much of the language was a l s o accompanied by i l l u s t r a t i v e 46 a c t i o n s , and covergence between the audio and v i d e o c h a n n e l s . 2.5 V i s u a l I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g In g e n e r a l , most broadcast and communication r e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t p i c t u r e s i n newscasts do enhance r e c a l l , a t l e a s t when they are a p p r o p r i a t e to the spoken t e x t . What accounts f o r the s u p e r i o r i t y of p i c t u r e items over those without p i c t u r e s ? P a i v i o (1971) has developed a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r und e r s t a n d i n g p i c t u r e e f f e c t s . P a i v i o * s d u a l - c o d i n g t h e o r y , f i r s t developed t o account f o r p i c t u r e e f f e c t s i n v e r b a l l e a r n i n g s t u d i e s , i s based on the assumption t h a t memory and c o g n i t i o n are served by two sep a r a t e symbolic systems, one s p e c i a l i z e d f o r d e a l i n g with v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n and the other f o r nonverbal i n f o r m a t i o n . The v e r b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l system corresponds t o l i n g u i s t i c e vents; the non-verbal code corresponds to the v i s u a l - s p a t i a l images, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c o n c r e t e events and o b j e c t s , and capable of being aroused by v e r b a l s t i m u l i . The two systems are presumed to be i n t e r c o n n e c t e d but can f u n c t i o n s e p a r a t e l y . "Independence i m p l i e s , among other t h i n g s , t h a t nonverbal and v e r b a l memory codes, aroused d i r e c t l y by p i c t u r e s and words or i n d i r e c t l y by imagery 47 and v e r b a l encoding t a s k s , s h o u l d have a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s on r e c a l l " ( P a i v i o & Lambert, 1981, p.533.). A c c o r d i n g to the d u a l - c o d i n g t h e o r y , p i c t u r e items can be s t o r e d i n terms of two se p a r a t e c o d e s — a v e r b a l code and a p i c t u r e c o d e — w h i l e items unaccompanied by p i c t u r e m a t e r i a l would n o r m a l l y have o n l y a v e r b a l code. Thus, s i n c e a u d i o v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s a re encoded i n terms of both t h e i r p i c t u r e c o n t e n t and t h e i r v e r b a l c o n t e n t , such p r e s e n t a t i o n s can be more r e a d i l y r e t r i e v e d from memory than p u r e l y v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s (Graber 1987) . "The presence of an a d d i t i o n a l memory code f o r p i c t u r e items would enhance t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t y of being r e c a l l e d because i f one code was f o r g o t t e n or s i m p l y not a v a i l a b l e f o r r e t r i e v a l , the other c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n s t e a d " ( P a i v i o , 1979, p. 387). P a i v i o ' s t h e o r y a l s o p o s t u l a t e s t h a t much more i n f o r m a t i o n a l content can be absorbed r a p i d l y from p i c t u r e s than i s p o s s i b l e from words, s i n c e people can process s e v e r a l v i s u a l s t i m u l i s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . 48 P a i v i o (1986), i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the d u a l - c o d i n g t h e o r y f o r second language l e a r n i n g , notes: The t h e o r y l e a d s t o a s t r o n g emphasis on the r o l e of s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s and images i n second language l e a r n i n g . In p a r t i c u l a r , the th e o r y suggests t h a t language l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s based on the s y s t e m a t i c use of r e f e r e n t o b j e c t s , p i c t u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and mental imagery would be e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n promoting l e a r n i n g , (p.257) 2.6 Hypotheses 2.6.1. Background and r a t i o n a l e f o r hypotheses The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s chapter has shown some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s ESL s t u d e n t s may encounter when exposed t o a u t h e n t i c v i d e o m a t e r i a l . I t appears t h a t v i d e o does indeed i n t r o d u c e f a c t o r s which may l i m i t i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a source of language i n p u t . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s are u s i n g v i d e o i n the second-language c l a s s r o o m t o a i d l i s t e n i n g comprehension, with l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n to guide i n the s e l e c t i o n of v i d e o m a t e r i a l s . As was noted, t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y of e m p i r i c a l evidence to back up c l a i m s made on b e h a l f of the vid e o medium, and the i s s u e of how the v i s u a l element of a vi d e o r e c o r d i n g a f f e c t s comprehension has s t i l l to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t comprehension and r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g the mode of p r e s e n t a t i o n (audio or 49 v i d e o ) , v i s u a l format, and the degree of correspondence between i n f o r m a t i o n presented s i m u l t a n e o u s l y through the a u r a l and v i s u a l c h a n n e l s . I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t some s u b j e c t v a r i a b l e s may a f f e c t comprehension. For these reasons, the p r e s e n t s t u d y compared NNS comprehension of i n f o r m a t i o n from t h r e e v i s u a l format treatment c o n d i t i o n s , presented v i a e i t h e r audio (sound o n l y ) or v i d e o (sound + p i c t u r e ) . Salomon's (1979) f i n d i n g t h a t viewers p e r c e i v e t e l e v i s i o n as being e a s i e r t o understand was a l s o t e s t e d i n t h i s p r e s e n t study; s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e i v e d comprehension was checked, u s i n g a s e l f - r e p o r t measure. In t h i s study, t r a n s c r i p t s of post-treatment d i s c u s s i o n s were an a l y z e d q u a l i t a t i v e l y t o determine the e f f e c t of s u b j e c t v a r i a b l e s on comprehension. 2.6.2 O p e r a t i o n a l statement of hypotheses Based on the l i t e r a t u r e , and with the r a t i o n a l e o u t l i n e d above, the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s s t a t e d i n chapter one were o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d and the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were developed. 50 1. H 0: There are no d i f f e r e n c e s between the two p r e s e n t a t i o n modes i n terms of i n f o r m a t i o n comprehended and r e c a l l e d , as measured by s c o r e s on a cued r e c a l l t a s k . (Where H, i s the mean sc o r e f o r mode one and u i s mode two) H : There are d i f f e r e n c e s between the two p r e s e n t a t i o n modes i n terms of the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n comprehended and r e c a l l e d , as measured by s c o r e s on a cued r e c a l l t a s k . 2. HQ : There are no d i f f e r e n c e s among the th r e e v i s u a l format treatment c o n d i t i o n s i n terms of the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n comprehended and r e c a l l e d . J ' J 1 (Where f*j i s the mean sc o r e f o r format j and j ' i s an a l t e r n a t e mode) Hj : There are d i f f e r e n c e s among the th r e e v i s u a l format treatment c o n d i t i o n s i n terms of the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n comprehended and r e c a l l e d . In the i n t e r e s t of c l a r i t y , the remaining hypotheses are s t a t e d v e r b a l l y r a t h e r than i n mathematical t e r m i n o l o g y : 3. Hft: Wi t h i n the vid e o mode, comprehension w i l l not be h i g h e s t among st u d e n t s i n the HR treatment c o n d i t i o n . H, : W i t h i n the v i d e o mode, comprehension w i l l be h i g h e s t among stu d e n t s i n the HR treatment c o n d i t i o n . 51 4. H 0: Within the video mode, comprehension w i l l not be lowest among subjects i n the TH treatment condition. H{ : Within the video mode, comprehension w i l l be lowest among subjects in the TH treatment condition. 5 . H 0 : Perceived comprehension of news s t o r i e s w i l l be higher among subjects in the audio mode, as expressed by a s e l f - r e p o r t measure. H, : Perceived comprehension of news s t o r i e s w i l l be higher among subjects in the video mode, as expressed by a s e l f - r e p o r t measure. 6 . H 0: There are no differences among the three v i s u a l formats in terms of d i f f i c u l t y ratings assigned by subjects. H, : There are differences among the three v i s u a l formats in terms of d i f f i c u l t y ratings assigned by subjects. The research questions for the smaller, follow-up study were operationalized and the following hypotheses developed for that study. 7.. H 0: There are s i g n i f i c a n t differences betwen the presentation modes in terms of the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d . Hj : There are no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the presentation modes in terms of the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d . 8. H 0: There are s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the three v i s u a l format treatment conditions in terms of the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d . H,: there are no s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the three v i s u a l format treatment conditions. 52 2.7 D e f i n i t i o n of terms The f o l l o w i n g terms are f r e q u e n t l y used i n the study and are d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : A u t h e n t i c v i d e o . A u t h e n t i c v i d e o m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e any type of t e l e v i s i o n programs produced f o r n a t i v e speakers, and used f o r t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a second language. E n g l i s h as a second language s t u d e n t s (ESL s t u d e n t s ) . These are s t u d e n t s f o r whom E n g l i s h i s not a n a t i v e language and who are e n r o l l e d i n c l a s s e s to l e a r n E n g l i s h . ESL s t u d e n t s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from E n g l i s h as a f o r e i g n language s t u d e n t s (EFL) as they are l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h i n an environment i n which E n g l i s h i s the main language of the community. O f f - a i r r e c o r d i n g s . These are programs t h a t are taped from t e l e v i s i o n f o r use i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . Terms a s s o c i a t e d with t e l e v i s i o n news. A number of terms a s s o c i a t e d with t e l e v i s i o n news are used i n t h i s study: i . v i s u a l format: r e f e r s to the p i c t u r e c ontent of a news s t o r y . i i . t a l k i n g head: r e f e r s t o a v i s u a l format i n which o n l y the newsreader i s shown r e a d i n g a s c r i p t , unaccompanied by p i c t u r e m a t e r i a l s . i i i . v o i c e - o v e r - f i l m : the announcer's v o i c e - i s heard over i n - t h e - f i e l d news s h o t s . i v . v i s u a l / v e r b a l redundancy: r e f e r s t o the degree of correspondence between i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r i e d i n the audio and v i d e o c h a n n e l s . A s t o r y i n which the audio and v i d e o t r a c k s c a r r y the same, or s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n , i s r e f e r r e d to as h i g h l y redundant; s t o r i e s with d i s s i m i l a r a udio and v i d e o channels have low redundancy. 2 . 8 Chapter summary T h i s chapter c o n t a i n s a review of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t study, d e f i n i t i o n s of r e l e v a n t t e r m i n o l o g y , and statements of the hypotheses which were developed as a r e s u l t of the l i t e r a t u r e review. Chapter t h r e e c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t s and the methodology used i n t e s t i n g the hypotheses. CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY The f i r s t part of t h i s chapter contains a desc r i p t i o n of the subjects and the independent and dependent variables of intere s t in t h i s study. The section on development of experimental materials focuses on the steps involved in preparing stimulus materials for the experimental task. Major topics taken up in the section on procedures include a discussion of the research design, the experimental task, and coding of data for both the main study and a smaller, follow-up study. F i n a l l y , procedures used in the data analysis for both the main and follow-up study are outlined. 3.1 Subjects The subjects involved in the study constituted a random sample drawn from the population of students enrolled in advanced ESL classes at a secondary school. A random sample of the school's entire ESL population was not selected, as the review of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of using video presentations with lower-level English learners. Second-language learners at the school are placed in beginner, intermediate, advanced, or t r a n s i t i o n a l ESL classes afte r being tested on a l l language s k i l l s . The 27 subjects (16 female and 11 male) In the study were a l l enrolled in Advanced Science and Advanced Drama classes for ESL learners. The students came from a v a r i e t y of first-language backgrounds, including Cantonese, Spanish, P o l i s h , Vietnamese, Tagalog and Punjabi, and ranged in age from 15 to 19. 3.2 Dependent variables Three dependent variables were used in t h i s study. The dependent variable of most in t e r e s t was the amount of verbal information comprehended under three v i s u a l format treatment conditions: high redundancy (HR), low redundancy (LR) and t a l k i n g head (TH). The dependent variable was measured as the score on a test of cued r e c a l l of auditory content, administered immediately following presentation of the stimulus material. The stimulus material was a series of t e l e v i s i o n news st o r i e s presented v i a videotape or audiotape. More d e t a i l i s given in the d e s c r i p t i o n of the experimental task . The second dependent va r i a b l e , perceived comprehension, was measured using a s e l f - r e p o r t measure administered following presentation of each news item. The t h i r d dependent variable, perceived d i f f i c u l t y , was measured using a self-ranking measure administered at the end of the t e s t i n g period. 56 3.3 Independent variables The two independent variables of int e r e s t were v i s u a l format and mode. Mode involved the auditory only (audio mode) or visual-plus-auditory (video mode) presentation of a sequence of recorded t e l e v i s i o n news s t o r i e s . Within the video mode, items were categorized into three v i s u a l formats, according to the picture content. 3.4 Design of experimental materials The main purpose of t h i s study was to compare the ef f e c t s of three v i s u a l format treatment conditions on NNS comprehension of information c a r r i e d in the audio-verbal channel of a sequence of t e l e v i s i o n news s t o r i e s . The v i s u a l formats were: (1) newscaster only presentation, without accompanying f i l m ; (2) low redundancy (LR), where there i s l i t t l e correspondence between l i n g u i s t i c and v i s u a l information, and (3) high redundancy (HR) presentations, where there i s high correspondence between l i n g u i s t i c and v i s u a l information. The experimental task involved presenting news items, containing one of the v i s u a l formats, to subjects v i a either videotape or audiotape and having them complete a cued r e c a l l test of comprehension. The design required two p a r a l l e l sets of stimulus material, one for the video presentation mode and one for the 57 audio presentation mode. The actual procedure used is described in greater d e t a i l l a t e r in t h i s chapter. As was reported in chapter two, most of the research on the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l format on comprehension has been c a r r i e d out by t e l e v i s i o n news researchers, interested in finding out which production practices f a c i l i t a t e a c q u i s i t i o n and retention of te l e v i s e d information programs. Berry, Gunter & C l i f f o r d (1981) report that t e l e v i s i o n news of f e r s a suitable te s t bed for answering such questions, since i t has a standardized and homogeneous form and so "seems l i k e l y to y i e l d information on the e f f e c t s of manipulation of form and content" (p. 172). Therefore, the stimulus s t o r i e s for t h i s experiment were selected from t e l e v i s i o n news . The construction of the experimental materials involved a number of steps. F i r s t , f i f t e e n hours of newsreader-only s t o r i e s and voice-over s t o r i e s were recorded on videotape from t e l e v i s i o n news programs over a two-month period, about three months pr i o r to the experiment. Written permission was obtained from the CBC to use the tapes in t h i s experiment. Next, nine d i f f e r e n t news s t o r i e s were chosen by the experimenter, and categorized as either high-redundancy (HR), low-redundancy (LR), or t a l k i n g head (TH), according to the i r picture content, and ranging in 58 length from 20 seconds to 35 seconds. An independent observer, a s p e c i a l i s t in educational films and t e l e v i s i o n , viewed the selected s t o r i e s without knowledge of which category they had been assigned to; his c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was in agreement with the experimenters. In one condition (high redundancy) a l l s t o r i e s had redundant audio and video. The s t o r i e s contained voice-over f i l m , with the newsreader out of shot except for a short studio introduction at the beginning of the item. In the second condition (low redundancy), the video and the audio did not match; the f i l m did not convey the same facts as the audio channel. Again, the s t o r i e s contained voice-over f i l m , with the newsreader shown only at the beginning of the item. Voice-over f i l m was included in both the HR and LR conditions because i t represents the s i t u a t i o n sometimes found in o f f - a i r programs used in teaching ESL. The t h i r d condition (ta l k i n g head) consisted of the newsreader seen in moderate close-up reading the news story. No other v i s u a l s were seen in t h i s condition. Summaries of the news items in the three categories are as follows: 1. High redundancy, (a) Vancouver and V i c t o r i a w i l l get new buses. (b) Vancouver Island experiences unusually cold weather, (c) The pope's weekly audience at the 5 9 V a t i c a n i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a man c l a i m i n g to be the messiah. 2. Low redundancy, (a) A man i s stabbed i n a downtown Vancouver r e s t a u r a n t . (b) F i r e f i g h t e r s respond to a c h e m i c a l s p i l l on Cambie S t r e e t . (c) N e g o t i a t i o n s resume between CBC and i t s t e c h n i c i a n s . 3. T a l k i n g head. (a) The l e a d e r of a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y r e s i g n s . (2) V o l u n t e e r s c l e a n up an o i l s p i l l on Long Beach. (3) Three l o s t h i k e r s are found. Complete t r a n s c r i p t s of the audio content of the s t i m u l u s news s t o r i e s are i n Appendix A. L a s t , the items were e d i t e d i n t o t h r e e b l o c k s of t h r e e items, with a block c o n t a i n i n g one item from each of the three v i s u a l format c o n d i t i o n s . In block one, s t o r i e s were randomly arranged as f o l l o w s : HR, LR, TH; block two was arranged with LR, TH,HR. Block three c o n t a i n e d a TH, HR, and LR arrangement. S t o r i e s were randomly arranged i n b l o c k s of three so t h a t s u b j e c t s would not be a b l e to r e c o g n i z e a p a t t e r n and a n t i c i p a t e placement of the s t o r i e s , which may have become confounded with v i s u a l format e f f e c t s d u r i n g r e c a l l . T h i s arrangement a l s o allowed f o r s h o r t r e s t p e r i o d s d u r i n g the experimental t a s k . The e f f e c t of order of p r e s e n t a t i o n of items was not under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s study. 60 3.4.1 Apparatus Video e d i t i n g was done using the f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f of the Media Services d i v i s i o n of the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The selected news items were edited in the pre-arranged order, with f i v e seconds of black inserted between each news story and ten seconds of black between each block. Within the HR and LR items, sections were re-edited to emphasize high l e v e l s of redundancy. The news blocks were edited onto a 1/2 inch VHS master tape. The e d i t i n g apparatus consisted of a JVC playback unit (BR 64003), a JVC recorder (BR 8600U) and a JVC editor (BR 86U). A sound-only recording was required for the audio presentation mode, so the soundtrack was recorded from the videotape, using a Sony broadcast q u a l i t y (TC 180) tape recorder. 3.5 Procedure 3.5.1 Research design The design for t h i s study i s one in which three kinds of v i s u a l formats are presented to subjects v i a the video mode or audio mode. The study was operationalized in a between-and-within subjects design, with repeated measures. Mode, the between-subjects factor, has two l e v e l s : video and audio. Visual format is the within-subjects factor and repeated measure. Subjects in each l e v e l watched/listened to or lis t e n e d to news s t o r i e s containing v i s u a l formats at one s i t t i n g , hence the repeated measures. Howell (1987) described the repeated measures design as one having an advantage over other experimental designs in that i t allows the experimenter to reduce o v e r a l l v a r i a b i l i t y by using a common subject pool for a l l treatments. 3.5.2 Experimental task The students used in the study were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental conditions (audio or video). This was done because there was no reason to suspect any systematic differences among the subjects. Each group was run separately. The experimenter t o l d subjects she was working on a study involving l i s t e n i n g to news. Subjects were further t o l d that a news item would be played to them, and that afterwards they would be asked to answer questions about the story. Questions were answered and subjects were assured that s u f f i c i e n t time would be given for them to write t h e i r answers. Appendix B contains an example of the comprehension questions. In the video mode, each news item was presented and then the t e l e v i s i o n screen faded to black. Following t h i s , an immediate test of comprehension was given. This took the form of a cued-recall task during which the subjects were required to write down answers to questions about the auditory content of the story on the response sheet provided. A l l subjects were s e l f -paced during the r e c a l l task and continued u n t i l such time as t h e i r memory of comprehended items was exhausted. This usually happened af t e r about seven to eight minutes. Questions were designed to cue r e c a l l of the information most commonly c a r r i e d in news reports. These include questions about the f i v e W's: who, what, where, when and why (Mencher, 1981). At the bottom of each response sheet, subjects were asked to indicate, by placing an X on a scale, the percentage of the story they f e l t they had understood. Response sheets were c o l l e c t e d before the next item was shown. This process was repeated for a l l nine s t o r i e s . Subjects were given a f i v e minute rest period between each block of s t o r i e s . At the end of the t e s t i n g period, subjects were given a l i s t of a l l the s t o r i e s , and asked to rank them according to how easy or how d i f f i c u l t they were to understand. Stories were ranked from 1 (very d i f f i c u l t ) to 10 (very easy). An example of the ranking sheet i s included in Appendix C. 63 Students were then grouped, and asked to use th e i r ranking sheet to discuss: ( i ) which s t o r i e s they found easy or d i f f i c u l t to understand, and ( i i ) why c e r t a i n s t o r i e s were easy or d i f f i c u l t to understand. One member of each group had to report back to the whole class on the r e s u l t s of the discussion. The discussions were recorded on audiotape, and the t r a n s c r i p t s were l a t e r studied as a way of providing a p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d a t a / The same procedures employed in the video mode were used in the audio presentation. 3.5.3 Testing apparatus The t e s t i n g apparatus consisted of a 21 inch Sony colour t e l e v i s i o n monitor coupled with a VHS cassette recorder. A Scotch T30 professional videocassette was used. Contrast, brightness, and audio volume were held constant across a l l t r i a l s . In the audio condition the stimulus materials were played over a broadcast q u a l i t y audiotape player. The audiotape used was a BASF LH-MI 90. 3.5.4. Scorinq Subjects were required to answer four general questions on the main points of each story. Three of these questions were based on the information covered in most news broadcasts; for example, what is t h i s story about? where did t h i s story happen? when did t h i s story happen? The f o u r t h q u e s t i o n asked s u b j e c t s to w r i t e any other i n f o r m a t i o n they had understood. T h i s q u e s t i o n was i n c l u d e d to cue r e c a l l of comprehended background or a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , which d i d n ' t f i t under any of the other t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s of the r e c a l l response sheets i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t range i n the q u a l i t y and depth of responses to q u e s t i o n s . Students had been i n s t r u c t e d to w r i t e down as much as they c o u l d remember. C o r r e c t answers ranged from a s i n g l e word to a d e t a i l e d paragraph. As a r e s u l t , a c o d i n g system was developed to r e f l e c t the v a r i a t i o n i n q u a l i t y of the answers. Each c o r r e c t l y answered q u e s t i o n was sc o r e d from one to t h r e e p o i n t s , depending on the q u a l i t y of the response. A p a r t i a l answer s c o r e d one p o i n t , a complete answer s c o r e d two p o i n t s and a complete answer with a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s s c o r e d t h r e e . Thus the t o t a l p o s s i b l e f o r each news item was 12 p o i n t s . To check the a c c u r a c y of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o d i n g , a random sample of 20 response sheets were s e l e c t e d and g i v e n to an independent s c o r e r to code. There was 93.7 c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e s e a r c h e r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t h a t of the other c l a s s i f i e r . A consensus was a r r i v e d a t i n the few cases where th e r e was a d i s c r e p a n c y . 65 3.6 Follow-up study The review of the l i t e r a t u r e indicated that comprehension of information from audiovisual presentations may be affected by the learner's l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y . Mueller (1980) concluded that the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l s seem inversely related to the l i s t e n e r s ' language l e v e l ; the higher the l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y , the less the student r e l i e s on v i s u a l s to enhance comprehension. Instead, the student derives a context from the l i n g u i s t i c cues provided. To further investigate Mueller's conclusions, a smaller, follow-up study was c a r r i e d out to examine the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l format on a group of subjects with a higher l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y . 3.6.1 Subjects The 14 subjects (13 male, 1 female) involved in the smaller study were a l l enrolled in a c o l l e g e - l e v e l reading, writing and study s k i l l s course, as a pre-r e q u i s i t e to entering business and technical programs. Subjects had various first-language backgrounds, including Cantonese, P o l i s h , Japanese, Turkish and Arabic. 3.6.2 Test material The development and content of the stimulus s t o r i e s was described in the section on development of 66 experimental materials. These same materials were used in t h i s smaller study. 3.6.3 Procedure The subjects were randomly assigned to either the audio or video condition. The same procedures employed in the main study were used with subjects in t h i s smaller study. Subjects received the stimulus materials v i a the audio or video mode, and were then administered r e c a l l tests of comprehension. Response sheets were scored according to the c r i t e r i a described in the section on scoring. 3.7 Data analysis procedures Results of the analyses are given in chapter four. However, the analyses used are presented here as part of the o v e r a l l d e s c r i p t i o n of procedures used in the study. A l l analyses of variance were c a r r i e d out on the University of B r i t i s h Columbia mainframe computer, using the s t a t i s t i c a l package BMDP. Other c a l c u l a t i o n s were ca r r i e d out by hand. 3.7.1 Analysis of data on mode and format e f f e c t s on  r e c a l l comprehension For each v i s u a l format under each presentation mode, subjects' scores on the cued test of r e c a l l were t o t a l l e d , and then converted into (1) proportions of correct responses and (2) mean correct responses for each story and standard deviations. 67 Next, s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s f o r each news item were u t i l i z e d as dependent v a r i a b l e s i n an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) u s i n g the program BMDP:2V - A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and Covariance with Repeated Measures. In t h i s a n a l y s i s , news block was t r e a t e d as the repeated measure or t r i a l f a c t o r , and mode was the grouping, or between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r . The e f f e c t of the order of s t o r i e s i n a news block was not under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s study; a l l s t o r i e s were randomly ordered i n b l o c k s of t h r e e a l l o w The v a r i a b l e news block was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s f i r s t a n a l y s i s to tease out other p o s s i b l e sources of v a r i a n c e . That i s , f o r example, d i d a HR s t o r y i n block one have a higher mean score than a HR s t o r y i n block two, and so on. To determine the e f f e c t of v i s u a l format without regard to the mode the e f f e c t was o p e r a t i n g i n , an ANOVA was c a r r i e d out to determine i f v i s u a l format a f f e c t e d comprehension, u s i n g the program BMDP:1V, one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . The independent v a r i a b l e was v i s u a l format and s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s served as the dependent v a r i a b l e . P a i r w i s e comparisons were next c a r r i e d out to show i n more d e t a i l the p r e c i s e nature of the v i s u a l format e f f e c t s , u s i n g Dunn's t e s t . 68 T o f u r t h e r e x p l o r e t h e e f f e c t o f v i s u a l f o r m a t w i t h i n t h e v i d e o m o d e o n l y , t h e d a t a w a s a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m B M D P : I V . S u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s f r o m t h e v i d e o c o n d i t i o n w e r e u s e d a s t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . S c h e f f e s ' p o s t - h o c p r o c e d u r e w a s u s e d t o l o c a t e s o u r c e s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . 3 . 7 . 2 E f f e c t s o f m o d e a n d f o r m a t o n p e r c e i v e d c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t h r e e l o o k e d a t t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n m o d e o n s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f v i s u a l f o r m a t o n s u b j e c t s ' d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g o f n e w s s t o r i e s , a s m e a s u r e d b y s e l f -r e p o r t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . D a t a o n p e r c e i v e d c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d d i f f i c u l t y w a s n o t s u b j e c t e d t o s u c h e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s e s , s i n c e i t w a s n o t t h e m a i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . R a t h e r , i t w a s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a o n r e c a l l c o m p r e h e n s i o n . F o r b o t h p r e s e n t a t i o n m o d e s , t h e t o t a l p e r c e n t a g e o f r e p o r t e d c o m p r e h e n s i o n w a s c o n v e r t e d i n t o m e a n s f o r e a c h n e w s i t e m . S u b j e c t s i n t h e v i d e o c o n d i t i o n g a v e R a t i n g s o f D i f f i c u l t y t o e a c h n e w s s t o r y t h e y w a t c h e d . A m e a n r a t i n g w a s c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l t h e r a t i n g s g i v e n t o e a c h 69 news s t o r y . The r e s u l t s were ranked from lowest ( v e r y d i f f i c u l t ) to h i g h e s t (very e a s y ) . The t r a n s c r i p t s of post-treatment d i s c u s s i o n s were an a l y z e d q u a l i t a t i v e l y , as a way of p r o v i d i n g another p o s s i b l e window onto how v i s u a l s a f f e c t comprehension. 3 . 7 . 3 Data a n a l y s i s : f o l l o w - u p study For each p r e s e n t a t i o n mode, t o t a l r e c a l l s c o r e s w i t h i n the three v i s u a l format c a t e g o r i e s were co n v e r t e d i n t o mean c o r r e c t responses and standard d e v i a t i o n s . To determine i f the d i f f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s f o r each mode was s i g n i f i c a n t , s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s f o r each news s t o r y were used as the dependent v a r i a b l e i n an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e u s i n g BMDP:2V. Mode was the grouping f a c t o r and news block was t r e a t e d as the repeated measure. To determine i f the r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n the amount of language comprehended v i a each of the v i s u a l formats, two one-way a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e were c a r r i e d out, u s i n g BMDP:1V. The f i r s t a n a l y s i s was conducted on data from the v i d e o mode onl y , u s i n g format as the independent v a r i a b l e . The second a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out on data from the audio mode. In both a n a l y s e s , s u b j e c t s ' r e c a l l s c o r e s served as the dependent v a r i a b l e . 70 3.8 C h a p t e r s u m m a r y T h i s c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t a n d d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s t u d y . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s i s d e s c r i b e d , a s a r e t h e p r o c e d u r e s a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n u s e d I n t h e m a i n s t u d y , a n d a s m a l l e r f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . L a s t l y , t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s f o r t h e m a i n s t u d y a n d f o l l o w - u p s t u d y a r e o u t l i n e d . R e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r . C h a p t e r f i v e c o n t a i n s p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s u l t s . CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS The r e s u l t s presented in t h i s chapter are for the sample of subjects who p a r t i c i p a t e d in the main study, as well as for subjects who took part in the smaller, follow-up study. Results of the data analysis are organized and discussed under the following headings: 1. E f f e c t s of mode and format on r e c a l l comprehension (research questions 1 and 2 ) . 2(a) E f f e c t s of mode on perceived comprehension (research question 3a ). 2(b) E f f e c t s of format on d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g (research question 3b). 3. Follow-up study (research questions 4a and 4b) . The f i r s t section presents r e s u l t s of analysis on research question one: Is there a difference in the amount of information comprehended (as measured by scores on a cued r e c a l l task) when material is presented v i a each of two modes: audio (sound only) and video (sound + p i c t u r e ) . This section also presents r e s u l t s of the data analysis on research question two: In the video mode, i s there a difference in the amount of language comprehended and r e c a l l e d v i a each of the three v i s u a l formats? Hypotheses developed from t h i s f i r s t set 72 of research questions w i l l be presented at the end of t h i s section and, based upon the r e s u l t s of the data an a l y s i s , w i l l be either supported or rejected. The second section presents r e s u l t s of analysis on research question 3 (a): Is there a difference in the subjects 1 perceived comprehension of news s t o r i e s when information i s presented v i a either the video mode or audio mode?, and 3 (b): Is there a difference in subjects' d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g of news s t o r i e s across each of the three formats. The f i n a l section presents r e s u l t s of the analysis of data c o l l e c t e d as part of the follow-up study. The study examined the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l format with a group of subjects at a higher l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y . The following questions were addressed: 4 (a) Does the l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y a f f e c t the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d under the two presentation modes?, and 4 (b) Does the l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y a f f e c t the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d via each of the three v i s u a l formats? Data c o l l e c t e d during subjects' post-treatment discussion of the news s t o r i e s w i l l be considered in chapter f i v e , as a way of providing possible insights into the data on r e c a l l comprehension. 73 4.1 E f f e c t s of mode and format on r e c a l l comprehension I n i t i a l l y , in order to get a general idea of the number of correct responses for each v i s u a l format under each presentation mode, subjects' scores on the cued t e s t of r e c a l l were t o t a l l e d , and then converted into (1) proportions of correct responses, and (2) mean correct responses and standard deviations. The proportion of correct responses for each format and news block are presented in Table I. The mean r e c a l l scores and standard deviations for each v i s u a l format within the three news blocks are presented in Table I I . Table I Proportion of Correct Responses for Each Format and Mews Block Visual format HR LR TH BLOCK MEAN Video mode (N=13) Block 1 .62 Block 2 .51 Block 3 .58 FORMAT MEAN .57 Audio mode (N=14) Block 1 .60 Block 2 .16 Block 3 .46 FORMAT MEAN .41 .48 .44 .45 .46 .'45 .24 .28 .32 .26 .37 .28 . 30 .11 .17 .15 .14 .45 .44 .44 .38 . 19 .30 74 Table II Summary of Mean Recall Scores and Standard Deviations BLOCK FORMAT VIDEO AUDIO Mean 1 HR 7.71 7.46 S.D. 1.19 1.85 Mean 1 LR 5.84 2.21 S.D. 3.53 1.52 Mean 1 TH 3.16 1.36 S.D. 2.19 1.78 Mean 2 HR 6.16 1.93 S.D. 3.33 1.49 Mean 2 LR 5.31 2.93 S.D 2.62 2.30 Mean 2 TH 5.08 2.00 S.D. 3.49 2.14 Mean 3 HR 7.00 5.35 S.D. 2.64 3.02 Mean 3 LR 5.39 3.35 S.D. 2.98 1.59 Mean 3 TH 3.46 1.71 S.D. 1.89 1.58 Table 1 shows that, In the video mode, the highest mean proportion of correct responses occurred in the high redundancy (HR) v i s u a l format (Mean=.57), and the lowest (mean=.30) In the t a l k i n g head (TH) format, as had been predicted. The mean proportion of correct scores was lower in the audio mode, but the p a t t e r n -highest r e c a l l in the HR format (mean=.41) and lowest in the TH (.14)—was the same as for the video mode. It was expected that subject scores in the audio mode would not vary g r e a t l y from one format to another. The same pattern i s evident in Table I I . Mean r e c a l l scores are higher in the video mode. Within each block of three new items, subjects' obtained the highest scores for r e c a l l of HR news items. Also of int e r e s t was the finding that, in the audio mode, the mean proportion of correct responses varied from one block to another (see Table I ) . For example, in Block 1, the mean proportion of correct scores was .38, while in block two the mean was .19, and .30 in block three. No such v a r i a t i o n was evident in the video condition. The variable news block was not under inv e s t i g a t i o n in t h i s study but was included as a way of explaining some of the variance. To determine i f there was a s i g n i f i c a n t block e f f e c t operating in the audio mode, subjects' scores for each news item were used as the dependent variable in an analysis of variance using the program BMDP:2V, two-way analysis of variance and covariance, with repeated measures. News block was treated as the repeated measure, and mode was the grouping factor. 76 A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t due to mode was found (F=11.48,df l,25:p<.01). T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t comprehension of i n f o r m a t i o n was high e r f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the v i d e o mode than i n the audio mode, as had been h y p o t h e s i z e d . A s l i g h t l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due to block was a l s o found (F=3.98,df 2,25:p<0.05). As w e l l , a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found f o r block and mode. T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n the audio mode, t o t a l r e c a l l v a r i e d a c r o s s b l o c k s . For example, i n block one the mean r e c a l l s c o r e f o r the HR format was 7.46, while i n block two the mean score f o r the HR format was 1.93. P o s s i b l e causes of t h i s e f f e c t are d i s c u s s e d i n chapter f i v e . The f a c t t h a t no such e f f e c t o c c u r r e d i n the v i d e o mode suggests t h a t the e f f e c t was not due to the sequence of s t o r i e s w i t h i n a b l o c k . A l l s t o r i e s were randomly ordered i n b l o c k s of th r e e so t h a t s u b j e c t s would not be a b l e to r e c o g n i z e a p a t t e r n and a n t i c i p a t e placement of s t o r i e s . The complete t a b l e f o r t h i s ANOVA i s presented i n Table I I I . 77 Table III Analysis of Variance Table for Mode/Block Repeated Measures Analysis SOURCE SUM OF D.F. MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARE PROB. Mode 307.87546 1 307.87546 11.48 0.000 Error 670.34676 25 26.81387 Block 22.01565 2 11.00782 3.98 0.0249 BM 28.86338 2 14.43169 5.21 0.0088 Error 138.37118 50 2.76742 Results of data analysis so far indicate that presentation mode, one of the two main independent variables in t h i s study, did s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t comprehension, as measured by scores on a test of cued r e c a l l . Another independent variable under i n v e s t i g a t i o n in th i s study was v i s u a l format. Therefore, an analysis of variance was c a r r i e d out to determine i f v i s u a l format affected comprehension, using the program BMDP:1V, one-way analysis of variance. The independent variable was v i s u a l format and subjects' scores on the r e c a l l test served as the dependent v a r i a b l e . A highly s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due to v i s u a l format was found (F=64.51, df 2,233:p>.001). The complete table 78 for t h i s ANOVA i s presented in Table IV. It should be noted here that t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t F indicated that v i s u a l format influenced scores;however, i t makes no d i s t i n c t i o n as to which mode the e f f e c t i s operating i n . F was calculated on the basis of difference between mean scores for each of the nine s t o r i e s , rather than mean scores for each format. The e f f e c t of v i s u a l format within the video mode i s considered l a t e r in t h i s section. Table IV Analysis of Variance Table for Amount of Comprehension by Vi s u a l Format SOURCE SUM OF D.F. MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARE PROB. Format 401 .24411 2 200 .62205 6 4 . 5 1 * 0 .000 Error 155 .48840 233 3 .10977 *p>.001 Pairwise comparisons were then c a r r i e d out to show in more d e t a i l the precise nature of the v i s u a l format e f f e c t s , using Dunn's test of pairwise comparisons. The test yielded the highest s i g n i f i c a n t difference between r e c a l l scores for HR and TH items (t=10.76,p<.01). S i g n i f i c a n t differences were also found between HR and LR items (t=3.70,p<.05), and between LR and TH items (t=4.68,p<.05). 79 Further proof of the e f f e c t of format on comprehension i s evident when the scores are grouped according to v i s u a l format, and c e l l means are compared. In both modes, subjects scored highest in the HR format. In the video mode,the mean score for HR items was 6.88, for LR items 5.52 and 3.9 for TH items. Tables V, VI and VII give means and standard deviations for each news items within each format. Table V C e l l Means and Standard Deviations for HR Condition Video Audio Mean 7.46 7.71 S.D. 1.19 1.85 Mean 6.16 1.93 S.D. 3.33 1.49 Mean 7.00 5.35 S.D. 2.64 3.02 X=6.88 X=4.96 80 Table VI C e l l Means and S.D. for LR Condition Video Audio Mean 5.84 2.21 S.D. 3.53 1. 52 Mean 5.31 2.93 S.D. 2.62 2.30 Mean 5.39 3.35 S.D. 2.98 1.59 X=5.52 X=2.83 Table VII C e l l Means and S.D. for TH Condition Video Audio Mean 3.16 1.36 S.D. 2.19 1.78 Mean 5.08 2.00 S.D. 3.49 2.14 Mean 3.46 1.71 1.89 1.58 X*=3.90 X=1.69 81 4.1.2 V i s u a l format e f f e c t s w i t h i n the v i d e o mode To f u r t h e r e x p l o r e the e f f e c t of v i s u a l format w i t h i n the vid e o mode, the data was ana l y z e d u s i n g the program BMDP:1V. One-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e over the th r e e v i s u a l format c a t e g o r i e s produced a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t v i s u a l format e f f e c t w i t h i n the vid e o mode (F 2,115=13.8, p<.01). The complete t a b l e f o r t h i s ANOVA i s presented i n Table V I I I . Table VIII ANOVA Table f o r Format by Comprehension (Video mode only) SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES D.F. MEAN SQUARE F F PROB. Format E r r o r 194.4094 2 810.0288 115 97.2047 13.80 0.000 S c h e f f e s * post-hoc sources of s i g n i f i c a n c e v i s u a l format means are procedure was used to l o c a t e the . R e s u l t s of the comparison among summarized i n Table IX. 82 Table IX Comparison Among Format Means: Video Mode XI X2 X3 XI (High redundancy) X2 (Low redundancy) X3 (Talking head) = 6.88 = 5.43 = 3.72 5.90* 19.61** 8.19* ** p < .01 (Scheffe F) * p < .05 (Scheffe F) The comparisons summarized in Table IX revealed that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between HR and TH formats. Mean scores for HR items are s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < .01) greater than scores for either LR or TH news items. Mean scores for LR items are s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < .05) greater than scores for TH items. These r e s u l t s were as expected, and followed a pattern hypothesized by the researcher. The implications of these r e s u l t s w i l l be discussed in chapter f i v e . 4.2 Testing hypotheses 1, 2 ,3 ,4 In summary, i t appears there i s a difference in the amount of information comprehended when stimulus material i s presented v i a each of two modes. Based on a s i g n i f i c a n t F for mode e f f e c t s , the f i r s t n u l l -hypothesis: There are no differences between the two presentation modes in terms of the amount of information 83 comprehended and r e c a l l e d , can thus be rejected in favour of the research hypotheses: There are differences between the two presentation modes in terms of the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d . Results of data analysis c l e a r l y indicated s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater r e c a l l when material was presented v i a the video mode . The second n u l l hypotheses can also be rejected on the basis of a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due to format and s i g n i f i c a n t differences between r e c a l l scores across the three v i s u a l format categories. Null hypothesis 2 was stated in chapter one: There are no differences among the three v i s u a l format treatment conditions in terms of amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d . Null hypotheses 3 can also be rejected in favour of the research hypotheses. The t h i r d n u l l hypothesis stated: Within the video mode, comprehension w i l l not be highest among students in the HR treatment condition. Based on a comparison of mean scores across the v i s u a l format categories and r e s u l t s of Scheffe's post-hoc procedure, i t can be rejected in favour of the research hypotheses: Within the video mode, comprehension w i l l be highest among students in the HR treatment condition. The f i n a l n u l l hypotheses to be developed from the f i r s t set of research questions stated: Within the video mode, comprehension w i l l not be lowest among subjects in 84 the TH treatment condition. Based on a comparison of mean scores across the v i s u a l formats and r e s u l t s of Scheffe's post-hoc procedure,it can also be rejected in favour of the research hypotheses: Within the video mode, comprehension w i l l be lowest among subjects in the TH treatment condition. 4.3 E f f e c t s of mode and format on perceived  comprehension and d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g Research question three looked at the e f f e c t s of presentation mode on subjects perceived comprehension and the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l format on subjects' d i f f i c u l t y ranking of news items. Hypotheses 5 and 6 were developed from research question three. Hypothesis 5 stated: There are differences between the two presentation modes in terms of subjects* perceived comprehension of stimulus material. Hypotheses 6 stated: In the video mode, there are differences among the three v i s u a l formats in terms of d i f f i c u l t y ratings assigned by subjects. Data on perceived comprehension and d i f f i c u l t y was not subjected to such extensive analyses, since these were not the main dependent variable under i n v e s t i g a t i o n in t h i s study. Instead, i t was intended to provide a p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data on r e c a l l comprehension. 85 4.3.1 E f f e c t s of mode on perceived comprehension Subjects' perceived comprehension was measured with a s e l f - r e p o r t . Following questions on content of each news item, subjects were asked: What percentage of t h i s news story do you think you understood? Show the amount by putting a cross: "X" on the scale below: Nothing 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Everything Data from t h i s item were used to tes t the study's f i f t h hypothesis. For both presentation modes, the t o t a l percentage of reported comprehension was converted into means for each news item. Table X c l e a r l y shows that there i s a difference between the two groups in terms of th e i r s e l f - r e p o r t e d perceived comprehension of news s t o r i e s . For a l l news s t o r i e s , subjects in the video mode reported greater perceived comprehension than subjects in the audio mode. The mean for the video population sample was 50.09, while the mean for the audio sample was 32.54. The complete set of means is l i s t e d in Table x. 86 Table X Means f o r Audio and Video Groups' P e r c e i v e d Comprehension Scores STORY ft VISUAL FORMAT VIDEO AUDIO One HR 64.62 44.29 Two LR 39.24 23.57 Three TH 38.46 23.57 Four LR 47 .70 32.85 F i v e TH 50.77 29.29 S i x HR 53.08 30.00 Seven TH 40.00 29.29 E i g h t HR 59.24 40.00 Nine LR 57.50 40.00 X=50.09 X=32.54 4.3.2 E f f e c t s of v i s u a l format on r a t i n g s of d i f f i c u l t y At the end of the t e s t p e r i o d , s u b j e c t s i n the vid e o c o n d i t i o n gave Ratings of D i f f i c u l t y to each news s t o r y they had watched. They r a t e d each s t o r y on a t e n -p o i n t s c a l e , r a n g i n g from l=Very D i f f i c u l t to 10=Very Easy. A copy of the r a t i n g s c a l e i s i n Appendix C. Data from t h i s item were used to t e s t the study's s i x t h h y p o t h e s i s . A mean r a t i n g was c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l the r a t i n g s g i v e n to each news s t o r y by s u b j e c t s i n the video 87 c o n d i t i o n . The r e s u l t s are presented i n Table XI . Table XII p r e s e n t s the same r e s u l t s , but here they are ranked from lowest ( v e r y d i f f i c u l t ) to h i g h e s t ( v e r y easy) means. Table XI : Mean Scores f o r Rati n g s of D i f f i c u l t y STORY FORMAT MEAN RATING 1 HR 6.31 2 LR 4.47 3 TH 4.85 4 LR 3.38 5 TH 5.15 6 HR 5.54 7 TH 4.61 8 HR 7.23 9 LR 7.00 88 Table XII Rank Scores for Ratings of D i f f i c u l t y STORY FORMAT MEAN RATING RANK SCORE 4 LR 3.38 1 2 LR 4 . 47 2 7 TH 4.61 3 3 TH 4.85 4 5 TH 5.15 5 6 HR 5.54 6 1 HR 6.31 7 9 LR 7.00 8 8 HR 7.23 9 Cl e a r l y , there i s a progression of d i f f i c u l t y of which students seem to be aware, and which generally follows a pattern hypothesized by the researcher. The hypothesis of difference between formats was supported. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the high d i f f i c u l t y ranking given to two of the s t o r i e s with an LR v i s u a l format.It had been expected that s t o r i e s containing TH vi s u a l formats would be perceived as most d i f f i c u l t , since they had obtained the lowest scores. Possible explanations for these rankings are discussed in chapter 89 f i v e . The s t o r i e s containing HR v i s u a l formats were ranked among the easiest, as had been expected. 4 . 4 Results of follow-up study The smaller, follow-up study examined the e f f e c t of v i s u a l format with a group of subjects at a higher l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y . Among the 14 subjects, comprehension was measured with a cued-recall task, as in the main study. The study addressed the following questions: 4 (a). Does the l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y a f f e c t the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d under the two presentation modes? (b). Does the l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y a f f e c t the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d v i a each of the three v i s u a l formats? These research questions were operationalized and the following research hypotheses developed: H: There are no differences between the presentation modes in terms of the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d . H: In the video mode, there are no differences among the three v i s u a l format treatment conditions in terms of the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d . For purposes of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , these research hypotheses are restated as n u l l hypotheses near the end of t h i s section. 90 4.4.1 Ef f ec t s of mode and format on r e c a l l comprehension To get a general idea of the number of correc t responses for each v i s u a l format under each presentat ion mode, subjec t s ' scores on the cued tes t of r e c a l l were t o t a l l e d , and then converted into mean correc t responses and standard d e v i a t i o n s . Mean r e c a l l scores were only s l i g h t l y higher in the video mode. As w e l l , there was l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n in scores across the three v i s u a l formats. The mean r e c a l l scores and standard dev iat ions for each v i s u a l format wi th in the three news blocks are presented in Table X I I I . Table XIII Mean R e c a l l Scores and Standard Deviations for Follow-Up Study V i s u a l format HR LR TH BLOCK MEAN Video mode (N=7) Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 FORMAT MEAN Audio mode (N=7) Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 FORMAT MEAN 9.29 6.72 8.58 8.20 7.15 7.15 8.72 7.68 7.58 6.86 8.00 7.48 7.29 7.00 8.15 7.48 7.29 7 . 43 6.29 7.03 7.15 5.86 6.29 6.44 8.05 7.03 7.62 7.19 6.67 7.72 91 To determine i f the difference between mean scores for each mode was s i g n i f i c a n t , subjects' scores for each news story were used as the dependent variable in an analysis of variance using the program BMDP:2v. Mode was the grouping factor, and news block was treated as the repeated measure. News block was included to determine i f scores varied s i g n i f i c a n t l y across blocks. The ANOVA showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two presentation modes. This f i n d i n g indicated that r e c a l l of information was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher in either of the two modes, as had been hypothesized. A non-significant e f f e c t due to block indicated that t o t a l r e c a l l did not vary across news block. The complete table for t h i s ANOVA i s presented in Table XIV. Table XIV Follow-up Study: ANOVA Table for Mode/Block Repeated Measures Analysis SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES D.F. MEAN SQUARE F F PROB. Mode Error 4.19841 1 271.49206 12 4.19841 22.62434 0.19 .6743 Block 18.39683 2 9.19841 2.40 0.1120 BM 4.7778 2 2.38889 0.62 0.5445 Error 391.93651 24 3.83069 92 To determine i f the differences between the mean r e c a l l scores for each v i s u a l format were s i g n i f i c a n t , the data was analyzed using the program BMDP:1V. One-way analysis of variance over the three v i s u a l format e f f e c t within the video mode (P 2,60=1.7368,n.s.). A second ANOVA also yielded a non-significant v i s u a l format e f f e c t (F 2,60=1.5684,n.s) within the audio mode. The complete r e s u l t s of these ANOVA's are presented in Table XV and Table XVI. categories yielded a non-significant v i s u a l format Table XV Follow-up Study: ANOVA Table for Format by Comprehension (VIDEO MODE) SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES D.F. MEAN SQUARE F F PROB. Format 15.0794 2 7.5397 1.7368 .1848 Error 260.4756 60 4.3413 93 Table XVI Follow-up Study: ANOVA Table for Format by Comprehension (AUDIO MODE) SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES D . F . MEAN SQUARE F F PROB. Format E r r o r 18.6667 2 357.0471 60 9.3333 5.9508 1.5684 .2168 These f indings indicated that , among these more p r o f i c i e n t language l earners , the type of v i s u a l format had l i t t l e e f fec t on how much mater ia l was comprehendedand r e c a l l e d , as had been hypothesized. 4.4.2 Test ing hypotheses 7 and 8 The f i r s t nul l -hypotheses developed from the research questions for th i s fol low-up study s ta ted: There are d i f ferences between the presentat ion modes in terms of the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d . Based on the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t F obtained in the two-way ANOVA, that nu l l -hypothes i s was rejected in favour of the research hypothesis: There are no d i f ferences between the two presentat ion modes. The second nul l -hypotheses s ta ted: In the video mode, there are d i f ferences among the three v i s u a l formats in terms of the amount of information comprehended and r e c a l l e d . Based on the finding of non-significance in the one-way ANOVA, i t was rejected and the research hypothesis was accepted. 4 . 5 Chapter summary The r e s u l t s of the procedures used in analysis of the data were summarized in chapter four. The r e s u l t s indicated that comprehension was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher when stimulus materials were presented in the video mode. Also, the difference between r e c a l l scores across the three v i s u a l formats was s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s also indicated that perceived comprehension was higher among subjects in the video mode. In the video mode, subjects rated t a l k i n g head s t o r i e s as the most d i f f i c u l t to understand, and high redundancy s t o r i e s as the eas i e s t . Results of the follow-up study indicated that, among subjects at a higher l e v e l of language pr o f i c i e n c y , comprehension did not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the two presentation modes. As well, the difference between the r e c a l l scores across the v i s u a l formats was not s i g n i f i c a n t . These r e s u l t s and possible implications are discussed in chapter f i v e . 95 Chapter F i v e D i s c u s s i o n , I m p l i c a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s The r e s u l t s of the main study showed t h a t NNS comprehension df language was indeed g r e a t e r when s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s were presented v i a the v i d e o mode. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o found between language comprehension s c o r e s f o r each of the t h r e e v i s u a l formats under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Highest s c o r e s were ob t a i n e d f o r the HR format, and lowest f o r the TH format. R e s u l t s a l s o seem to suggest t h a t s u b j e c t s i n the v i d e o c o n d i t i o n p e r c e i v e d t e l e v i s i o n as being e a s i e r to understand. S u b j e c t s i n the v i d e o c o n d i t i o n a l s o r a t e d HR s t o r i e s as the e a s i e s t to understand. From the r e s u l t s of the f o l l o w - u p study, i t appears the c o m p r e h e n s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of v i s u a l s i s not as s t r o n g f o r s u b j e c t s of h i g h e r p r o f i c i e n c y . 5.1 Between-mode comparison The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s of the main study concerned d i f f e r e n c e s i n comprehension (measured as s c o r e on t e s t of cued r e c a l l ) of v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n presented v i a two modes: audio (sound only) and v i d e o (sound + p i c t u r e ) . Examination of the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a between-mode d i f ference in comprehension scores and the n u l l hypothesis of no d i f f erence was r e j e c t e d . The analyses next focused on the d i f ferences between modes. The r e s u l t s indicated that the lowest mean score (X=3.17) was obtained when the st imulus news s t o r i e s were presented through the audio mode. In l i g h t of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed in chapter two regarding the ro l e of the v i s u a l element i n communication, the r e s u l t s were not unexpected. R i l e y ' s (1984) d i s cus s ion of viewing comprehension, for example, emphasized the r o l e of the v i s u a l (non-verbal) element of a communicative event in he lp ing l i s t e n e r s pred ic t and comprehend the verba l message. W i l l i s (1983) made the point that NNSs are l i k e l y to r e l y more heav i ly on v i s u a l c lues to support t h e i r comprehension than are NSs and that "video i s an obvious medium for helping students to i n t e r p r e t v i s u a l c lues e f f e c t i v e l y " (p.29) . Subjects assigned to the audio c o n d i t i o n , without access to the video channel , could thus be expected to understand less than subjects in the video c o n d i t i o n . The f indings are a lso in keeping with r e s u l t s of f i r s t - language s tudies on mode of presentat ion and learning from media. For example, Greenf ie ld & Beagle-Roos (1988), in a review of s tudies of news r e c a l l by c h i l d r e n , adolescents and a d u l t s , found that greater r e c a l l occurred when mater ia l was presented in a t e l e v i s i o n format than in r a d i o . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between mode and score i s explored further in the d i scuss ion of v i s u a l format e f f e c t s . 5.1.1 Mode and perceived comprehension Further proof of the value of aud iov i sua l presentat ions i s evident in the data c o l l e c t e d on subjec t s ' perceived comprehension. Examination of the r e s u l t s indicated that there was a between-mode d i f f erence in perceived comprehension, as hypothesis f ive s ta ted , and the n u l l hypothesis of no d i f f erence was r e j e c t e d . For a l l news s t o r i e s , subjects in the video cond i t ion reported greater perceived comprehension. The r e s u l t s are in agreement with s tudies on modality preference, discussed in chapter two. Salomon (1979) theorized that t e l e v i s i o n can be eas ier to understand than non-v i sual media. L a t e r , Salomon and Leigh (1984), tested the theory and found that students preferred the medium they found eas ies t to use; the eas ier i t was to use, the more they f e l t they learned from i t . The r e s u l t s suggest that video can be a useful teaching a i d , s ince students f ind i t eas ier to understand. 9 8 5.1.2 Comprehension and dual coding theory What could account for the s u p e r i o r i t y of r e c a l l in the video mode? That NNSs r e l y on v i s u a l , contextual c lues to understand verbal content has a l ready been noted. But the r e s u l t s may a lso be interpreted with in the framework of P a i v i o ' s (1986) dual-coding theory, d iscussed in chapter two. According to the dual-coding theory, p i c ture items can be stored in the memory, and made a v a i l a b l e for r e t r i e v a l , in terms of two separate codes—a verba l code and a p ic ture code—while items unaccompanied by p i c ture mater ia l would normally have only a verbal code. Thus, s ince the video presentat ion was encoded in terms of both p i c ture and verbal content, i t could be more r e a d i l y re t r i eved from memory than pure ly verbal presentat ions; i f one code was forgot ten , then the other could be used instead . P a i v i o ' s theory a l so proposes that much more informat ional content can be absorbed r a p i d l y from p ic tures than i s poss ib le from words, s ince people can process severa l v i s u a l s t i m u l i s imultaneously . Pa iv io (1986), in a d i scuss ion of the impl i ca t ions of the dual-coding theory for second language l e a r n i n g , notes: "The theory leads to a strong emphasis on the ro le of s i t u a t i o n a l contexts and images in second language learn ing" (p.257). This theory seems to of fer a poss ib le explanat ion for the r e s u l t s of the f i r s t hypothesis , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to of fer an adequate explanat ion for these f i n d i n g s , as so l i t t l e research has been conducted in t h i s a r e a . 5.1.3 Mode/block Interact ion A l l of the nine news s t o r i e s se lected for t h i s study were randomly ordered in blocks of three , so that subjects would not be able to recognize a pattern and a n t i c i p a t e the placement of s t o r i e s , which may have become confounded with v i s u a l format e f fec t s during r e c a l l . Analyses of between-mode d i f ferences revealed that in the audio mode, the mean proport ion of correc t responses var i ed from one news block to another. For example, in block one, the mean proport ion of correc t scores was .38, while in block two the mean was .19, and .30 in block three . No such v a r i a t i o n was evident in the video mode. To tease out some of the sources of var iance , an ana lys i s of variance was c a r r i e d out, and a s i g n i f i c a n t mode/block i n t e r a c t i o n was found. In block one, for example, the mean score for the HR format was 7.71, while in block two the mean score for the HR format was 1.93, and 5.35 in block three . However, in the video mode, scores d id not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y wi th in a format. 100 That no such e f f ec t occurred in the video mode suggests that the e f fec t was not due to the sequence of s t o r i e s in a b lock , but rather to some other v a r i a b l e s which d i d not appear to be operat ing in the video mode. The mode/block i n t e r a c t i o n is d i f f i c u l t to account for but may p o s s i b l y be explained by s y n t a c t i c d i f f e r e n c e s , d i f f erences in complexity of vocabulary, and speed of d e l i v e r y , as a study of t r a n s c r i p t s of subjects* post-treatment d i s cuss ion i n d i c a t e d . At the end of the t e s t i n g p e r i o d , subjects were grouped and asked to discuss which s t o r i e s they had d i f f i c u l t y understanding, which s t o r i e s were easy, and why. T r a n s c r i p t s from the audio groups' d i s cuss ion c a r r i e d repeated references to the fast rate of d e l i v e r y , d i f f i c u l t vocabulary and sentence s t r u c t u r e . The fo l lowing quotes from the t r a n s c r i p t s give some i n d i c a t i o n of the types of comments from the students: The person who was speak was fast and t h a t ' s why we don't understand, and some words we don't know the meaning of the word, we can' t understand. I d i d n ' t get the main idea because you know you can understand words but not a l l the sentences what's the meaning. We f ind some s t o r i e s i s easy because the language i s easy. We understand what they 're saying and some s t o r i e s d i f f i c u l t because the language i s d i f f i c u l t . We f ind some s t o r i e s d i f f i c u l t because speaker speak too q u i c k l y . 101 I f i n d some s t o r i e s d i f f i c u l t because some v o c a b u l a r y I don't understand, and many sentences i n s t o r y I don't understand so i s d i f f i c u l t . That the block/mode e f f e c t d i d not occur i n the vi d e o mode seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s used the v i s u a l s t o h e l p decode the v e r b a l message. They weren't s o l e l y dependent on the l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e n t , as were those s u b j e c t s who heard o n l y the soundtrack from the s t o r i e s . 5.2 V i s u a l format e f f e c t s While i t appears t h a t the presence of v i s u a l images a i d s NNS comprehension of spoken language, the d i s c u s s i o n i n chapter two r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a u r a l and v i s u a l channels of a vi d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the presence of a v i s u a l c o n t e x t per se i s not always a s u f f i c i e n t p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r improved l e a r n i n g . That i s to say, some types of v i s u a l formats f a c i l i t a t e comprehension, while other formats may a c t u a l l y cause d i s t r a c t i o n and i n t e r f e r e with l e a r n i n g . Chu and Schramm (1967), f o r example, i n t h e i r review of e d u c a t i o n a l media r e s e a r c h , concluded t h a t v i s u a l s w i l l improve l e a r n i n g from a u d i o v i s u a l messages o n l y when the v i s u a l c o n t r i b u t e s t o the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the a u d i o t r a c k . H s i a (1968) concluded t h a t the a u d i o v i s u a l channel has advantages 102 over the audio or v i s u a l alone o n l y i f the s t i m u l i p r e s e n t e d are almost i d e n t i c a l , i . e . redundant. 5.2.1 V i s u a l format e f f e c t s i n the v i d e o mode Based on the l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t types of v i s u a l formats on comprehension, hypotheses two, three and four were developed. The second h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s study concerned d i f f e r e n c e s i n language comprehension a c r o s s the v i s u a l format c a t e g o r i e s , under the v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n mode. To t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s , a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d out over the t h r e e v i s u a l formats w i t h i n the v i d e o mode. Examination of the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between language comprehension s c o r e s f o r each of the t hree v i s u a l formats, and the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . The f i n d i n g s d i d not c o n t r a d i c t the r e s u l t s of f i r s t - l a n g u a g e s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out on v i s u a l format and r e c a l l . Gunter (1979,1980a), f o r example, i n a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s s e t out to answer the q u e s t i o n : Do v i s u a l s such as f i l m or t a l k i n g head enhance l e a r n i n g from news or do the p i c t u r e s r e s u l t i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of i r r e l e v a n t and d i s t r a c t i n g v i s u a l output which i n h i b i t s i n f o r m a t i o n gain? He found t h a t f r e e r e c a l l of t e l e v i s i o n news s t o r i e s was i n f l u e n c e d by the type of p i c t u r e s c a r r i e d i n the v i d e o c h a n n e l . More r e c e n t l y , Drew and Reese (1984) r e p o r t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who watched a newscast 1 0 3 with f i l m performed much b e t t e r on r e c a l l and understanding t e s t s than those who viewed a newscast with o n l y a news anchor ( t a l k i n g head) r e a d i n g . The a n a l y s e s next focused on the d i f f e r e n c e s between v i s u a l formats. The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s concerned language comprehension s c o r e s i n the HR treatment c o n d i t i o n . Comparisons of c e l l means f o r the v i s u a l formats r e v e a l e d t h a t mean s c o r e s f o r HR items were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than s c o r e s f o r e i t h e r LR or TH news items, and the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . Comparisons of v i s u a l format means a l s o showed t h a t s c o r e s f o r the LR news items were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than s c o r e s f o r the TH s t o r i e s . Thus, the f o u r t h n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , which s t a t e d t h a t language comprehension would not be lowest f o r the TH format, was r e j e c t e d . In l i g h t of the l i t e r a t u r e on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a u r a l and v i s u a l c h a n n e l s , and l i t e r a t u r e on v i s u a l format e f f e c t s and t e l e v i s i o n news r e c a l l , the r e s u l t s were not unexpected. The r e s u l t s were s u r p r i s i n g , however, i n l i g h t of some of the broad c l a i m s which second-language t e a c h e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s have made on b e h a l f of the vi d e o medium. The r e s u l t s under the high redundancy format are s i m i l a r to those of the experiment c a r r i e d out by Son, Reese & Davie (1987) on the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l - v e r b a l 104 redundancy on l e a r n i n g from t e l e v i s i o n news. R e s u l t s showed hi g h redundancy produced g r e a t e r r e c a l l than d i d low redundancy. The same r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d i n a s t u d y by Drew & Grimes (1987) on r e c a l l and s t o r y u n d erstanding i n t e l e v i s i o n news. Drew & Grimes con c l u d e d : When watching redundant t e l e v i s i o n news, viewers focused most a t t e n t i o n on the audio while s t i l l a t t e n d i n g to the v i d e o . When t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t between the audio and v i d e o , however, viewers a t t e n d to the v i d e o a t the expense of the audio, (p.459) F i s h e r (1984) has found t h a t when younger c h i l d r e n ( l e s s competent language l e a r n e r s ) f i n d c o n f l i c t between i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n the l i n g u i s t i c and v i s u a l modes, they "choose to ignore the l i n g u i s t i c mode and c o n c e n t r a t e on the v i s u a l " (p.88). The r e s u l t s under the low redundancy format are i n agreement wi t h f i n d i n g s of a study c a r r i e d out by Edwardson, Grooms & Proudlove (1981). They found g r e a t e r r e c a l l of f a c t s d e l i v e r e d i n t e l e v i s i o n news audio when the f a c t s were accompanied by f i l m r a t h e r than by a t a l k i n g head, even when the f i l m d i d not convey those f a c t s . In the p r e s e n t study, the presence of a v i s u a l a i d e d language comprehension, even when the p i c t u r e s d i d not correspond to the v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Lowest s c o r e s were ob t a i n e d f o r the t a l k i n g head format, where the s u b j e c t s saw o n l y the news anchor r e a d i n g a s c r i p t . 105 S t o r i e s i n the hig h redundancy c a t e g o r y b e s t f a c i l i t a t e d language comprehension. I t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o determine, however, how viewers d i v i d e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n between the audio and v i d e o c h a n n e l s , as t h i s study d i d not measure v i s u a l r e c a l l . The r e s u l t s can be examined w i t h i n the framework of P a i v i o ' s d u a l c o d i n g t h e o r y , as were the r e s u l t s of the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s . But the f i n d i n g s of t h i s p r e s e n t study a l s o lend credence to S e v e r i n ' s (1967) cue-summation t h e o r y , d i s c u s s e d i n chapter two. A p p l i e d t o v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s or t e l e v i s i o n news, t h i s t h e o r y p r e d i c t s t h a t f i l m not conveying i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s t o r y would be d i s t r a c t i n g . 5.2.2 E f f e c t s i n the audio mode I n t e r e s t i n g l y , s c o r e s i n the audio mode f o l l o w e d the same p a t t e r n as s c o r e s i n the v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n . H i g h e s t s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d f o r " t h e HR format, and lowest s c o r e s were ob t a i n e d f o r s t o r i e s with a TH format. I t should be r e s t a t e d here, however, t h a t t o t a l s c o r e s were higher i n the v i d e o mode, and s c o r e s f o r each v i s u a l format were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n the vide o mode, p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r evidence of the e f f e c t of v i s u a l s on language comprehension. The format e f f e c t s i n the audio mode c o n t r a d i c t s r e s u l t s of a study by Gunter (1979), where no s i g n i f i c a n t format e f f e c t s o c c u r r e d i n the audio mode. 106 The f a c t t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n t h i s s t u d y may p o s s i b l y be e x p l a i n e d i n two ways: 1. D i f f e r e n c e s i n s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s and r e c a l l t a s k s . Gunter*s s t u d y exposed s t u d e n t s to v e r y s h o r t (4-6 seconds) news h e a d l i n e s . Each news sequences was f o l l o w e d immediately by a t e s t of f r e e r e c a l l . S u b j e c t s were thus r e q u i r e d to r e t a i n o n l y simple v e r b a l l a b e l s r e p r e s e n t i n g each item. 2. D i f f e r e n c e s i n language background. Gunter*s study used n a t i v e speakers, whose comprehension, u n l i k e the second language l e a r n e r s ' i n the p r e s e n t study, i s l e s s l i k e l y to be a f f e c t e d by s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y , r a t e of d e l i v e r y , e t c . T h i s assumption i s supported by the r e s u l t s of the f o l l o w - u p study. That study used s u b j e c t s w i t h g r e a t e r language p r o f i c i e n c y , and found no format e f f e c t s i n the audio mode. The assumption i s f u r t h e r supported by the i n t e r a c t i o n between the audio mode and s t o r y b l o c k . That no such e f f e c t o c c u r r e d i n the v i d e o mode suggests t h a t the e f f e c t was due to v a r i a b l e s which d i d not appear to be o p e r a t i n g i n the v i d e o mode. I t seems s u b j e c t s i n the v i d e o c o n d i t i o n , upon h e a r i n g d i f f i c u l t v o c a b u l a r y or sentences, used the v i s u a l s t o h e l p decode the v e r b a l message. 107 These same v a r i a b l e s , inc lud ing s y n t a c t i c complexity and vocabulary, may a l so account for the v a r i a t i o n between scores in the audio mode. 5.2.3 V i s u a l format and r a t i n g of d i f f i c u l t y Further evidence of the comprehension-f a c i l i t a t i n g e f fec t of high audio /v ideo redundancy comes from rat ings of d i f f i c u l t y subjects assigned to each of the nine news s t o r i e s . Subjects in the video cond i t i on rated each s tory on a ten-point s c a l e , with l=Very D i f f i c u l t and 10=Very Easy. Examination of the data showed there were d i f ferences among the three v i s u a l formats in terms of assigned d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g s , and the n u l l hypothesis of no d i f ference was r e j e c t e d . When rat ings were ranked from lowest (very d i f f i c u l t ) to highest (very easy) , the HR s t o r i e s were ranked 6, 7 and 9, showing that subjects had indeed found s t o r i e s with high audio/v ideo correspondence eas ier to comprehend. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was the high d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g assigned to LR s t o r i e s ; two LR s t o r i e s were ranked 1 and 2. I t had been expected that s t o r i e s conta ining TH formats would be rated the most d i f f i c u l t , s ince the lowest scores occurred in that format. But the high d i f f i c u l t y rat ings do, however, give more credence to the comprehens ion- fac i l i t a t ing e f fec t s of v i s u a l s , even when the v i s u a l s do not 108 correspond to the v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Although s u b j e c t s found the s t o r y d i f f i c u l t , they n e v e r t h e l e s s were a b l e to understand more of the LR s t o r y c ontent than the TH s t o r y . Examination of s u b j e c t s ' post-treatment d i s c u s s i o n g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n of why s u b j e c t s r a t e d s t o r i e s as they d i d . The t r a n s c r i p t s c o n t a i n e d f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s to s t o r y number 1, a HR s t o r y about winter weather i n Vancouver, and number 8, a HR s t o r y about new c i t y buses f o r Vancouver. F o l l o w i n g are q u o t a t i o n s taken from the t r a n s c r i p t s : I t h i n k the f i r s t one i s easy to understand because we got the p i c t u r e s to h e l p us and the second one i s d i f f i c u l t . I t h i n k t h a t some s t o r i e s was d i f f i c u l t because r e p o r t e r t a l k s f a s t , and I t h i n k some were v e r y easy l i k e the bus. Okay, I t h i n k the s t o r y of the bus was v e r y easy because i t show the p i c t u r e . I f e e l the f i r s t one i s easy to understand because I see the p i c t u r e and d i f f i c u l t i s the seventh (TH s t o r y about n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s ) , we have o n l y one p i c t u r e to show us what i s going on so I don't understand. Examination of the t r a n s c r i p t s a l s o suggested t h a t s u b j e c t s ' p r i o r knowledge of a s u b j e c t may have i n f l u e n c e d comprehension. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n , f o r 109 example, suggests the presence of background knowledge and i n t e r e s t : Number 8. I t i s r e a l l y easy t o me because I always have to go by bus and the bus always f u l l and not enough buses so I t h i n k B.C. T r a n s i t w i l l get some new buses f o r Vancouver. I t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e , however, how much of a r o l e background knowledge and i n t e r e s t p l a y e d on the b a s i s of s i m p l y s t u d y i n g t r a n s c r i p t s . S t o r i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study on the b a s i s of v i s u a l format, r a t h e r than c o n t e n t . A l l items had been f e a t u r e d i n newscasts about three months bef o r e the study so t h a t t h e r e were no re c e n c y b i a s e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r news s t o r i e s . That p r i o r knowledge may have a f f e c t e d comprehension i s not s u r p r i s i n g , i n l i g h t of the l i t e r a t u r e on the r o l e of background knowledge i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension. The top-down approach to l i s t e n i n g , f o r example, p l a c e s g r e a t importance on the r o l e of such knowledge. The l i s t e n e r doesn't r e l y o n l y on l i n g u i s t i c evidence t o decode u t t e r a n c e s ; he a l s o uses p r e v i o u s knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n ( a l s o known as s c r i p t s or schemas) t o he l p i n t e r p r e t the message. Rouner (1987) p o i n t s out t h a t , "There may be s e v e r a l s c r i p t s f o r the same i n d i v i d u a l f o r an a c t i v i t y as mundane as watching news" (p.71). To understand a t e l e v i s i o n program, l e a r n e r s not o n l y r e q u i r e background knowledge of the s u b j e c t , but 110 a l s o knowledge r e l a t i n g t o the program's format and media c o n v e n t i o n s . Second language s t u d e n t s not f a m i l i a r with the p r e s e n t a t i o n format, or s t r u c t u r e , of t e l e v i s i o n newscasts c o u l d p r o b a b l y improve t h e i r use of t e l e v i s i o n i f they were made aware t h a t a d e f i n i t e s t r u c t u r e e x i s t s . The l i t e r a t u r e on development of l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s s t r e s s e s the importance of p r e -l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h schemas or s c r i p t s t h a t w i l l h e l p them p r e d i c t and i n f e r i n f o r m a t i o n from what they are h e a r i n g . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s e l e c t i o n of v i d e o m a t e r i a l s and task d e s i g n q u i c k l y become apparent. The more background knowledge which i s assumed i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i s c o u r s e , the more d i f f i c u l t t h a t d i s c o u r s e w i l l be f o r s t u d e n t s to comprehend i f they don't share t h a t knowledge. 5 . 3 V i s u a l format and language p r o f i c i e n c y A study of the l i t e r a t u r e on media and language l e a r n i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c o m p r e h e n s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of v i s u a l s i s r e l a t e d t o l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y . T h e r e f o r e , a s m a l l e r s t u d y was c a r r i e d out t o examine the e f f e c t s of v i s u a l formats w i t h a group of s u b j e c t a t a higher p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l . Based on the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n the second c h a p t e r , two hypotheses were developed. 111 The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s f o l l o w - u p s t u d y concerned d i f f e r e n c e s i n comprehension of v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n p resented v i a the two modes. Examination of the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n language comprehension s c o r e s between the two modes, and the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s of between-raode d i f f e r e n c e was r e j e c t e d . The second n u l l h y p o t h e s i s of d i f f e r e n c e between the v i s u a l format s c o r e s was a l s o r e j e c t e d . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , among these more p r o f i c i e n t l e a r n e r s , the mode of p r e s e n t a t i o n and type of v i s u a l format had l i t t l e e f f e c t on how much v e r b a l m a t e r i a l was comprehended and r e c a l l e d . In l i g h t of the l i t e r a t u r e on v i s u a l s and language p r o f i c i e n c y , the r e s u l t s were not unexpected. M u e l l e r (1980) found t h a t the e f f e c t of v i s u a l s seemed i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the l i s t e n e r s ' l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y : "The v i s u a l s do not seem to enhance comprehension, however, i f because of more e x t e n s i v e s k i l l s the s tudent i s a b l e to d e r i v e a c o n t e x t from the l i n g u i s t i c cues p r o v i d e d " (p.340). P o s s i b l y the same e f f e c t was o p e r a t i n g i n t h i s p resent f o l l o w - u p study. The s t u d e n t s , because of t h e i r g r e a t e r knowledge of the language, were l e s s dependent on the v i s u a l to p r o v i d e c l u e s to decoding the v e r b a l message. 112 R e s u l t s of the f o l l o w - u p study s h o u l d not be seen s i m p l y i n terms of language p r o f i c i e n c y . R e s u l t s s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e to the l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c d i f f i c u l t y of the v e r b a l channel and the l e v e l of c o m p r e h e n s i b l l i t y of the v i s u a l c h a n n e l . With a more d i f f i c u l t v e r b a l message or a more u n f a m i l i a r v i s u a l message, the r e s u l t s may have been d i f f e r e n t . 5.4 I m p l i c a t i o n s A review of the l i t e r a t u r e on v i d e o and second language l e a r n i n g uncovered a p a u c i t y of e m p i r i c a l data on the s u i t a b i l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v i d e o f o r language l e a r n i n g . D e s p i t e the lack of e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , r e s e a r c h e r s made broad c l a i m s about the v a l u e of the medium. "Video i s w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as a v i a b l e and e f f e c t i v e medium f o r SL i n s t r u c t i o n , " wrote S i l v a (1983). Among other c l a i m s made on b e h a l f of v i d e o i s i t s a b i l i t y t o i n c r e a s e r e t e n t i o n of m a t e r i a l and, by g i v i n g v i s u a l s upport, a i d comprehension of spoken d i s c o u r s e , making the medium a v a l u a b l e source of language input and a i d i n g language a c q u i s i t i o n ( W i l l i s , 1983). The p r e s e n t study s e t out to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v i d e o as a language t e a c h i n g a i d by c o l l e c t i n g e m p i r i c a l data on the e f f e c t s of mode, v i s u a l format and language p r o f i c i e n c y on language comprehension. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d some of the l a r g e r 113 c l a i m s made on b e h a l f of the v i d e o medium should be approached wi t h c a u t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , the r e s u l t s prompt a re-examination of the use of c e r t a i n types of v i d e o m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y those w i t h c o n t r a s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n the audio and v i d e o c h a n n e l s . The r e s u l t s a l s o r e i n f o r c e the need t o develop c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of v i d e o m a t e r i a l s , and f o r when and how to use v i d e o w i t h p a r t i c u l a r groups of l e a r n e r s . Claims t h a t v i d e o enhances r e c a l l were s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the f i n d i n g of g r e a t e r r e c a l l under the vi d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n mode. However, the study a l s o showed t h a t some types of v i s u a l s b e t t e r f a c i l i t a t e language comprehension than o t h e r s . I t appears v i d e o sequences i n which the audio and v i d e o channels c o n t a i n s i m i l a r or redundant i n f o r m a t i o n best f a c i l i t a t e language comprehension. But even when the audio and v i d e o channels c o n t a i n d i s s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n , comprehension s c o r e s were g r e a t e r than when the o n l y v i s u a l shown was a newsreader ( t a l k i n g head). The r e s u l t s of the main study go some way toward answering a q u e s t i o n posed by MacWilliam (1986): Does the v i s u a l element of v i d e o i n t r o d u c e any a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s , a p a r t from l i n g u i s t i c , which may i n h i b i t i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a source of language i n p u t ? The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the audio and vid e o channels may c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n where i n f o r m a t i o n i n the v i s u a l 114 c o n f l i c t s with the v e r b a l message, r e s u l t i n g i n "a l o t of v i e w i n g and a l i t t l e comprehension a t a l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l " (MacWilliam, p.133). The r e s u l t s a l s o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v i d e o as a source of comprehensible i n p u t . As Krashen and other second language a c q u i s i t i o n (SLA) r e s e a r c h e r s have used the term, c o m p r e h e n s i b i 1 i t y of i n p u t i s u s u a l l y seen as language comprehension, but MacWilliam (1986) used the term to r e f e r to comprehension of n o n v e r b a l , e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . As the r e s u l t s of the s t u d y show, v i s u a l comprehension i s j u s t as complex as language comprehension, and thus s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n any t h e o r y of SLA. Krashen c l a i m s t h a t l e a r n e r s understand language t h a t i s not comprehensible by u s i n g c o n t e x t and other e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and recommends the use of v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s as good sources f o r a c q u i s i t i o n a l i n p u t : "The advantage of v i d e o t a p e d m a t e r i a l s i s t h a t the v i s u a l and c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s are p r e s e n t to support comprehension" (Krashen e t . a l . , 1984, p.268). I m p l i c i t i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n i s Krashen's assumption t h a t SL l e a r n e r s understand c o n t e x t u a l , v i s u a l c l u e s ; c o n t e x t u a l understanding i s taken as a g i v e n i n Krashen's t h e o r y of SLA. But, as t h i s study seems to i n d i c a t e , v i s u a l and c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s don't n e c e s s a r i l y support 115 comprehension, and l e a r n e r s don't n e c e s s a r i l y comprehend v i s u a l c l u e s . I f v i s u a l s are to a i d language comprehension, l e a r n e r s have to understand the c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , such as background knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n from p r i o r d i s c o u r s e . The f i n d i n g t h a t c o n t e x t u a l or v i s u a l c l u e s don't always f a c i l i t a t e language comprehension has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e o r i e s of the r o l e of c o n t e x t i n language development. Among SLA r e s e a r c h e r s , t h e r e i s widespread agreement t h a t c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p l a y s an important r o l e i n SL development by a i d i n g language un d e r s t a n d i n g . However, some r e s e a r c h e r s have p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h to s u b s t a n t i a t e the assumption t h a t SL l e a r n e r s understand c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n (Mohan & Helmer, 1988). Mohan and Helmer (1988) c o n t r a s t the ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' view of the r o l e of c o n t e x t i n language l e a r n i n g , i n which c o n t e x t u a l understanding i s presupposed, with the ' s o c i a l s e m i o t i c ' view, which doesn't assume t h a t language l e a r n e r s understand c o n t e x t : 116 A d i f f e r e n t view of the r e l a t i o n of c o n t e x t and language l e a r n i n g emerges i n H a l l i d a y ' s concept of language as s o c i a l s e m i o t i c ( H a l l i d a y 1978). Context i s not seen as a g i v e n , nor as an obvious p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , but as a s o c i o c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y which i s l e a r n e d through communicative i n t e r a c t i o n . 'A c h i l d l e a r n i n g language i s a t the same time l e a r n i n g other t h i n g s through l a n g u a g e — b u i l d i n g up a p i c t u r e of the r e a l i t y which i s around him and i n s i d e him....A s o c i a l r e a l i t y (or a ' c u l t u r e ' ) i s i t s e l f an e d i f i c e of m e a n i n g s — a s e m i o t i c c o n s t r u c t ' ( H a l l i d a y 1978, pg.1-2). Thus the c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g language and c u l t u r e a t the same time and there i s t h e r e f o r e a complex and dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the development of language and the development of c o n t e x t u a l , s o c i o c u l t u r a l u nderstanding, (p. 278). R e s u l t s of t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n t r a d i c t the t r a d i t i o n a l view of the r e l a t i o n of c o n t e x t and language l e a r n i n g and are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s u l t s of a stud y by Mohan and Helmer (1988). That study found u n d e r s t a n d i n g of E n g l i s h speakers' g e s t u r e s by p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to age and c u l t u r a l background. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n g e s t u r e comprehension were found i n favour of n a t i v e speakers over ESL l e a r n e r s . F i n d i n g s i n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y emphasize the need to pay c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n not o n l y to the v e r b a l c o n t e n t of a v i d e o s e l e c t i o n , but a l s o t o the v i s u a l message. The l e v e l of c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y of the v i s u a l channel has to be c o n s i d e r e d . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d t o the degree of correspondence between i n f o r m a t i o n presented s i m u l t a n e o u s l y through the a u r a l and v i s u a l c h a n n e l s . MacWilliam (1986) and S e l i n k e r (1986), f o r 117 example, recommend the use of soap operas, with t h e i r convergent audio and v i d e o c h a n n e l s , as e x c e l l e n t sources of i n p u t . R e s u l t s of the f o l l o w - u p s t u d y suggest t h a t even i f v i d e o sequences are chosen c a r e f u l l y , the c o m p r e h e n s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of v i s u a l s may not be as s t r o n g f o r s t u d e n t s of h i g h p r o f i c i e n c y . As mentioned i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , r e s u l t s of the f o l l o w - u p study s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e to the l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c d i f f i c u l t y of the v e r b a l channel and the l e v e l of c o m p r e h e n s i b l l i t y of the v i s u a l c h a n n e l . With a more d i f f i c u l t v e r b a l message or a more u n f a m i l i a r v i s u a l message, the r e s u l t s may w e l l have been d i f f e r e n t . 5.5 L i m i t a t i o n s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y One of the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study concerned d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with t r y i n g to a s s e s s the v a l u e of a medium as complex as t e l e v i s i o n by s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t s of s i n g l e , i s o l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . As r e s e a r c h e r s such as C l a r k & Salomon (1986) have p o i n t e d out, the complex nature of the medium sometimes makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s . As much as p o s s i b l e i n t h i s p r e s e n t study, e f f o r t s were made to c o n t r o l f o r e f f e c t s of p o s s i b l e confounding v a r i a b l e s . Since n a t u r a l i s t i c data was used i n the treatment, u n c o n t r o l l e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n content may have become 118 confounded with format d i f f e r e n c e s , but t h i s i s by no means c l e a r from the d a t a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s i n c e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study l o o k s a t an under-researched a r e a , i t s r e s u l t s are p r o b a b l y v a l u a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h e r s who i n v e s t i g a t e i t i n the f u t u r e . Another l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study concerns the manner i n which comprehension was measured. I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t r e q u i r i n g a w r i t t e n response may have i n v o l v e d v a r i a b l e s other than comprehension. However, any confounding e f f e c t t h i s may have caused would be c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s modes and v i s u a l formats which were measured. T h i s response method does occur i n classrooms, and i t was c o n s i d e r e d more amenable to o b j e c t i v e s c o r i n g than having s u b j e c t s v e r b a l l y r e c a l l the answers. R e s u l t s of the s m a l l e r , f o l l o w - u p study may w e l l have been d i f f e r e n t i f the s t i m u l u s v i d e o m a t e r i a l s had c o n t a i n e d a more d i f f i c u l t v e r b a l message or a more u n f a m i l i a r v i s u a l message. F u r t h e r s t u d i e s should be c a r r i e d out to determine the e f f e c t of v i s u a l s with more p r o f i c i e n t l e a r n e r s . 5.6 Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h T h i s study was intended to a c t as a b a s i s from which f u r t h e r s t u d i e s on the e f f e c t s of v i d e o on language l e a r n i n g may be developed. The c a t e g o r i e s of v i s u a l format types under i n v e s t i g a t i o n here were 119 somewhat crude, Intended to i d e n t i f y broad e x p e r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h might t h e r e f o r e concern i t s e l f with r e p l i c a t i n g the p r e s e n t study, u s i n g s i m i l a r s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s to determine the e f f e c t s of a u d i o / v i d e o redundancy on u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Research evidence has suggested t h a t p i c t u r e c o n t e n t / v e r b a l -c o n t e n t r e l e v a n c e can be v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y so as to enhance or i n t e r f e r e with comprehension from a v i d e o sequence. Other r e s e a r c h might be concerned w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g the e f f e c t s of other s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l , such as soap operas or s i t u a t i o n comedies, on comprehension. One important focus might be c o n t e n t a n a l y s e s of d i f f e r e n t program types t o a s s e s s the redundancy of i n f o r m a t i o n presented through the audio and v i d e o c h a n n e l s . I t might be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o c a r r y out content a n a l y s e s of v i d e o m a t e r i a l s e s p e c i a l l y made f o r use i n second language t e a c h i n g . Another a r e a which warrants f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n i s l e a r n e r s ' u n derstanding of c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , the e f f e c t of l e a r n e r s ' background knowledge on comprehension of s t i m u l u s v i d e o m a t e r i a l s deserves f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n from t h i s study t h a t language comprehension v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the l e v e l of c o m p r e h e n s i b l l i t y of the v i s u a l c h a n n e l . 120 The l e v e l of comprehens ib l l i ty of the v i s u a l channel i s i n turn inf luenced by the subjec t s ' background knowledge of the form and content of the video channel . Further s tudies could a l so be c a r r i e d out to determine the e f f ec t of v i s u a l s with more p r o f i c i e n t SL l e a r n e r s . 5.7 Summary The purpose of t h i s research was to determine the e f fect iveness of video as a language teaching a i d by obta in ing empir i ca l data on NNS comprehension and re tent ion of verbal information presented v i a audiotape or videotape. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the study examined the e f f ec t of three types of v i s u a l formats (p ic ture content) —contained i n the video channel—on comprehension of information c a r r i e d in the audio-verba l channel of t e l e v i s i o n news s t o r i e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r in teres t was the degree of correspondence between information presented s imultaneously through the a u r a l and v i s u a l channels and the r e s u l t i n g e f fec t s on comprehension. A smal ler , fol low-up study examined the e f fec t of v i s u a l s with a group of subjects of higher second-language p r o f i c i e n c y . Nine b r i e f news s t o r i e s were categorized according to t h e i r p i c ture content, i d e n t i f i e d throughout t h i s study as v i s u a l format. The three v i s u a l formats under 121 invest i g a t i o n were: (1) high redundancy (HR): Voice-over-film with high correspondence between verbal and v i s u a l content, (2) low redundancy (LR): voice-over-film with low correspondence between verbal and v i s u a l content, and (3) t a l k i n g head: newscaster-only presentation, without f i l m . The task, developed s p e c i f i c a l l y for the present study, involved audio (sound only) or video (sound + picture) presentation of broadcast news s t o r i e s containing the v i s u a l formats described above. Subjects were randomly assigned to the video or audio presentation. Subjects responded by answering questions on the audio-verbal content of each news story. The amount of information comprehended, measured as the score on the test of cued r e c a l l , was obtained for each subject under each presentation mode. Perceived comprehension was also examined, using a s e l f - r e p o r t measure. The amount of perceived comprehension was obtained for each subject under each presentation mode. Subjects i n the video mode were also asked to rank the news s t o r i e s in terms of d i f f i c u l t y . Previous chapters provide background to the problem, a review of pertinent l i t e r a t u r e and explanation of terminology and de s c r i p t i o n of the research design and procedures involved in the present study. 122 The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t , under the c o n d i t i o n s of the p r e s e n t study, s u b j e c t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r when news s t o r i e s were presented v i a the v i d e o mode. A l s o , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between language comprehension s c o r e s f o r each of the th r e e v i s u a l formats. As p r e d i c t e d , the h i g h e s t s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d f o r the HR format and lowest f o r the TH format. R e s u l t s a l s o suggested t h a t s u b j e c t s i n the v i d e o c o n d i t i o n p e r c e i v e d t e l e v i s i o n as b e i n g e a s i e r t o understand. S u b j e c t s i n the v i d e o c o n d i t i o n r a t e d HR s t o r i e s as the e a s i e s t t o understand. Prom the r e s u l t s of the f o l l o w - u p study, i t appears t h a t the c o m p r e h e n s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of v i s u a l s i s not as s t r o n g f o r s u b j e c t s of high e r p r o f i c i e n c y . In l i g h t of the r e s u l t s of the main stud y and f o l l o w - u p study, some of the l a r g e r c l a i m s made on b e h a l f of the v i d e o medium sh o u l d be approached with c a u t i o n . The r e s u l t s b r i e f l y summarized above were d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n chapter f i v e . 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Imagery, memory and c o g n i t i o n : Essays i n honour of A l l a n P a i v i o . New J e r s e y : Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. 131 Appendix A STORY ONE: WEATHER: HR INTRO: AND EVEN VANCOUVER ISLAND, CANADA'S REFUGE FROM THE COLD, IS SHIVERING IN THE DEEPFREEZE. VOICEOVER: IT WAS SO COLD IN VICTORIA THE LEGISLATURE'S FOUNTAIN STOPPED GURGLING FOR THE FIRST TIME IN A LONG TIME. IT WAS SO COLD THEY WERE COVERING THE PALM TREES. THE NORMAL LOW HERE IS ZERO. LAST NIGHT IT WAS MINUS ELEVEN. SCARVES GLOVES AND COATS NOT USED IN YEARS WERE PUT TO THE TEST TODAY. THEY EVEN HAD THE SHOVELS OUT IN NANAIMO, WHERE OVER THIRTY CENTIMETRES OF SNOW HAD FALLEN. MOTORISTS WERE ADVISED TO STAY OFF THE ROADS. THE AIRPORT AT NANAIMO WAS CLOSED FROM NINE LAST NIGHT UNTIL TEN THIS MORNING AND JUST BEFORE AIRTIME THEY WERE TALKING ABOUT CLOSING IT DOWN AGAIN. 1 3 2 STORY TWO: CHEMICAL SPILL: LR INTRO: RESIDENTS OF CAMBIE STREET NEAR TWENTY-SEVENTH CAN BE FORGIVEN IF THEY THOUGHT THEIR STREET WAS BEING USED TO SHOOT A REMAKE OF THE WAR OF THE WORLDS THIS MORNING. VOICEOVER: FIREFIGHTERS DONNED PROTECTIVE GEAR USED FOR CHEMICAL SPILLS AFTER RESPONDING TO A CALL THAT TOXIC FUMES WERE LEAKING FROM A TRUCK. POLICE CLOSED OFF AN EIGHT BLOCK AREA BUT QUICKLY DISCOVERED THE SITUATION WASN'T SERIOUS. JUST LOOSE LIDS ON FIVE CONTAINERS OF CHEMICALS USED IN PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING. THE DRIVER OF THE COURIER VAN CARRYING THE CHEMICALS MANAGED TO STOP BEFORE BEING OVERCOME BY THE FUMES. HE WAS CHECKED AT VANCOUVER GENERAL HOSPITAL AND IS OKAY. FIRE OFFICIALS SAY THEY'RE BEING CALLED MORE OFTEN TO INCIDENTS INVOLVING CHEMICALS AS PEOPLE BECOME MORE AWARE OF THEIR POTENTIAL DANGER. 133 STORY THREE: HIKERS FOUND: TH FOUR HIKERS WERE FOUND EARLY THIS MORNING IN A PROVINCIAL PARK NEAR MAPLE RIDGE. COLD BUT IN GOOD CONDITION AFTER A NIGHT OUTDOORS. THE FOUR MEN WERE REPORTED MISSING YESTERDAY WHEN THEY FAILED TO SHOW UP AFTER A HIKE IN GOLDEN EARS PARK. RCMP AND VOLUNTEER SEARCHERS LOCATED THE MEN SHORTLY AFTER A SEARCH BEGAN AT DAYBREAK. 134 STORY FOUR: NABET NEGOTIATIONS: (LR) INTRO: NEGOTIATIONS WILL RESUME TOMORROW BETWEEN CBC AND ITS 2200 NABET TECHNICIANS. THE UNION IS IN A POSITION TO STRIKE TOMORROW AND THE SINGLE OUTSTANDING ISSUE IS MONEY. VOICEOVER: THE DECISION TO GO BACK TO THE TABLE CAME AFTER A SIX HOUR MEETING . BETWEEN UNION NEGOTIATORS AND CBC MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING PRESIDENT PIERRE JUNEAU. NO ONE WOULD SAY IF THERE HAD BEEN A NEW OFFER. THE CBC HAD BEEN OFFERING 13.29 PERCENT OVER 34 MONTHS. THE TECHNICIANS HAD ASKED FOR ABOUT FIVE AND A HALF PERCENT MORE THAN THAT. PREPARATIONS ARE UNDERWAY AT UNION OFFICES IN CASE OF A STRIKE. THE LAST NABET STRIKE WAS IN 1981 AND LASTED ALMOST FOUR MONTHS. STORY FIVE: OIL SPILL CLEANUP (TH) THE VOLUNTEERS CLEANING UP THE MASSIVE OIL SPILL AT LONG BEACH ARE TRYING TO COLLECT ABOUT FIVE HUNDRED DEAD SEA BIRDS. THE VOLUNTEERS WILL BE JOINED BY A PRIVATE CONTRACTOR TOMORROW. ONCE THE DEAD BIRDS HAVE BEEN PICKED UP THE NEXT STEP WILL BE CLEANING UP THE OIL ITSELF. AND THAT COULD TAKE UP TO TWO WEEKS. 136 STORY SIX: POPE IMPERSONATOR (HR) INTRO: THE POPE'S WEEKLY AUDIENCE AT THE VATICAN WAS INTERRUPTED TODAY BY A MAN FROM LONDON, ENGLAND CLAIMING TO BE THE MESSIAH. VOICEOVER: POPE JOHN PAUL WAS MAKING A SPEECH TO PILGRIMS WHEN TWENTY THREE YEAR OLD JOSEPH MCGOVERN STOOD UP IN THE AUDIENCE AND STARTED SHOUTING. HE SCREAMED : I AM THE SON OF GOD. I AM CHRIST. AND HE SHOUTED AT THE POPE: I WILL TAKE YOUR PLACE. SECURITY OFFICIALS AND PAPAL SWISS GUARDS GRABBED MCGOVERN AND HUSTLED HIM OUT. THE VATICAN SAID THE MAN SEEMED DERANGED AND SAID NO CHARGES WOULD BE LAID. STORY SEVEN: NDP LEADER RESIGNS (TH) NEWFOUNDLAND IS LOSING ITS SECOND POLITICAL LEADER IN FIVE DAYS. NDP LEADER PETER FENWICK SAYS HE'S JUST SEEN TOO MANY MARRIAGES RUINED BY POLITICS. AND HE DOESN'T WANT IT TO HAPPEN TO HIM. FENWICK, FROM LABRADOR, IS ONE OF TWO NDP MEMBERS IN NEWFOUNDLAND'S LEGISLATURE. HE BECAME PARTY LEADER IN 1981. HE'LL STAY ON UNTIL A CONVENTION PICKS A SUCCESSOR. LAST SATURDAY, PREMIER BRIAN PECKFORD ANNOUNCED HE'LL BE STEPPING DOWN AS CONSERVATIVE CANDIDATE. AN ELECTION IS EXPECTED IN NEWFOUNDLAND THIS YEAR. 138 STORY EIGHT: NEW BUSES (HR) INTRO: IF YOU HAVE EVER WAITED FOR A TRANSIT BUS ON A COLD STREET CORNER, HERE'S SOME NEWS THAT MIGHT WARM YOU A BIT. THE BC TRANSIT BUS FLEET IS EXPANDING THIS YEAR. TERRY DOLMAN REPORTS: VOICEOVER: PRESSURE ON THE TRANSIT SYSTEM HAS BEEN RAPIDLY RISING, CAUSING MOUNTING COMPLAINTS FROM THE BUS RIDING PUBLIC. TRANSIT OFFICIALS SAY THAT THE PRESSURE IS THE RESULT OF POPULATION GROWTH AND INCREASED TRAFFIC FLOWS. BUT THEY SAY THAT HELP IS ON THE WAY. THE GREATER VANCOUVER SYSTEM WILL GET 8 5 NEW BUSES THIS YEAR . THIRTY FIVE WILL BE DELIVERED THIS SPRING AND FIFTY MORE BY YEAR'S END. GREATER VICTORIA WILL GET TWELVE OF THE NEW BUSES. AND THERE'S GOOD NEWS TOO FOR THE DISABLED. THIRTY ONE NEW HANDYDART VANS ARE BEING PURCHASED FOR SERVICE IN THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGION. THEY'LL ALSO BE USED BY SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS. 139 STORY NINE: CRIME IN VANCOUVER (LR) INTRO: AND THERE WAS A VICIOUS STABBING INCIDENT EARLIER TODAY. VOICEOVER: IT HAPPENED INSIDE THIS DOWNTOWN RESTAURANT ABOUT SEVEN THIRTY THIS MORNING. A FORTY YEAR OLD VANCOUVER MAN IS STILL CLINGING TO LIFE IN HOSPITAL. POLICE SAY EUGENE CULLINARE WAS STABBED IN THE STOMACH DURING AN ARGUMENT OVER A SEVENTEEN DOLLAR DEBT. TWO MEN APPROACHED CULLINARE WHILE HE WAS HAVING BREAKFAST. ONE MAN STABBED HIM, THEN RAN AWAY. APPARENTLY MOST OF THE DINERS WERE UNCONCERNED ABOUT ALL OF THIS. THEY SIPPED COFFEE, IGNORING THE COMMOTION AS AMBULANCE ATTENDANTS WORKED ON THE INJURED MAN. POLICE ARE STILL LOOKING FOR A SUSPECT. 140 Appendix B CUED TEST OF RECALL COMPREHENSION TREATMENT CONDITION: AUDIO VIDEO STORY # After you've watched or li s t e n e d to the news story,write down as many details from the story as you can remember. Use the following questions to help you remember. WHO IS THIS STORY ABOUT? WHAT IS THIS STORY ABOUT? WHERE DID THIS STORY HAPPEN? OTHER INFORMATION YOU HEARD IN THIS STORY? What percentage of t h i s news story do you think you understood? Indicate the amount by putting a cross: "X" on the scale below: NOTHING 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 EVERYTHING 141 Appendix c Here i s a l i s t of a l l the s t o r i e s that you just heard. Show how easy or how d i f f i c u l t you found the s t o r i e s by putting a cross: 'X' on the scale be low. 1=VERY DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND 10= VERY EASY TO UNDERSTAND 1 1 .WEATHER IN 2 3 VICTORIA 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 1 .CHEMICAL SPILL: CAMBIE STREET 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 1 .LOST HIKERS FOUND 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 1 .NABET NEGOTIATIONS 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 1 .OIL SPILL 2 3 CLEAN-UP 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6 X .POPE 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7 1 .LEADER OF POLITICAL 2 3 NEWFOUNDLAND PARTY QUITS 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 8 1 .NEW BUSES 2 3 FOR VANCOUVER 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9 X .CRIME IN VANCOUVER 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 

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