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Computers and content-based language learning Hooper, Hugh R. 1988

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COMPUTERS AND CONTENT-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING by HUGH R. HOOPER B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1988 © Hugh R. Hooper, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Language E d u c a t i o n The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date O c t o b e r 15, 1988  DE-6(3/81) A b s t r a c t Can a computer database be used t o augment a content-based approach t o d e v e l o p i n g academic d i s c o u r s e ? T h i s document r e p o r t s on the i n t e g r a t i o n of these t h r e e areas i n student t a s k s i n a u n i t of work ( b i o l o g y ) taught by a content t e a c h e r and a language s p e c i a l i s t t o a c l a s s of grade 7 students i n a Vancouver elemen-t a r y s c h o o l . The o b j e c t i v e s of the study were 1) t o i n v e s t i g a t e the c o n n e c t i o n s between b i o l o g y c o n t e n t , the academic d i s c o u r s e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and a computer database, and 2) t o i d e n t i f y i f each area was i n f a c t r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . The r e s e a r c h method foc u s s e d on, ethnographic o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s and r e c o r d i n g s of the students and the t e a c h e r s as they worked through the u n i t . A n a l y s i s of the f i n d i n g s seems t o suggest t h a t t h e r e are connec-t i o n s between b i o l o g y content, academic d i s c o u r s e of c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n and a computer database, and t h a t each area i s r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g f u r t h e r suggests t h a t student t a s k s a t the computer have the p o t e n t i a l f o r d e v e l o p i n g academic d i s c o u r s e and the l e a r n i n g of c o n t e n t . T h i s p o t e n t i a l may deserve f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n by both t e a c h e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s . l l Table of Contents I. Computers and Content-Based Language L e a r n i n g 1 A. The Question 1 B. Background t o the Question , 2 C. The Approach ; ; 2 D. The Method . . . i 3 E. The C o n c l u s i o n 3 I I . Review o f the S e l e c t e d L i t e r a t u r e 5 A. SLA and Academic D i s c o u r s e 5 B. I n t e g r a t i o n of Language and Content C l a s s e s 6 C. S t a t u s QUO O f C.A.L.L. . . J 9 D. General E d u c a t i o n a l Computer Use and T h i n k i n g S k i l l s . 10 E. Method T i * 11 1. The Knowledge Framework ; 11 2. Q u a l i t a t i v e Approach 14 I I I . The N a r r a t i v e i . . . . . 17 A. Background t o the U n i t 17 l i Overview o f Lessons One t o Seven 17 2. The Database .... 19 B. The N a r r a t i v e 21 I ; Lesson One . 22 2. Lesson Two 23 3. Lesson Three 26 4. Lesson Four ....; , 30 5. Lesson F i v e • 33 6. Lesson S i x 33 7. Lesson Seven ; •. 34 i i i IV. A r i a l y s i s .. 36 A. U n i t P l a n n i n g i . — 36 B. Connections ..: 40 1. Lesson One 40 2. Lesson Two 41 3. Lesson Three 42 4. Lesson Four 43 a) Language ..... 44 b) Academic d i s c o u r s e i s s u e s 49 5. Lesson F i v e ... 50 6. Lesson S i x 50 7. Lesson Seven 51 8. Summary 51 V. c o n c l u s i o n 53 A. The Question 53 B. Summary of F i n d i n g s 53 1. Chapter Three - N a r r a t i v e ; 53 2. Chapter Four - A n a l y s i s ; 54 C. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research 55 1. Task Design and i t s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o L e a r n i n g about Language 56 2. Teacher P l a n n i n g and O r g a n i z a t i o n o f a U n i t o f Study '..., 58 3. T o o l A p p l i c a t i o n s o f Computer 59 D. Suggestions f o r I n s t r u c t i o n , 60 1. Improvements t o the V e r t e b r a t e database ........... 60 2. How the Database Might be Used D i f f e r e n t l y 61 E. A F i n a l Word 61 i v SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 63 APPENDIX A - Concept Ventures 68 APPENDIX B - Lesson Plans 70 APPENDIX c r 75 V e r t e b r a t e s / 75 v L i s t o f F i g u r e s 2.0 Connections 13 3.0 The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i v i n g t h i n g s 20 3.1 S i n g l e r e c o r d format template 21 3.2 Key v i s u a l f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of l i v i n g t h i n g s 23 3.3 student e x e r c i s e on d e s c r i p t o r s > 25 3.4 M u l t i p l e r e c o r d format ^ v e r t e b r a t e database . 28 3.5 Completed c h a r t — ; 30 4.0 S i n g l e r e c o r d format - example 38 4.1 Content, computers and language r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of q l a s s i f i c a t i p n and d e s c r i p t i o n 52 v i Acknowledgement Few people have had such a g r e a t impact on my t h i n k i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o language t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g as the f o l l o w i n g : Mary Ashworth> Margaret E a r l y , and Bernard Mohan. I have been i n s p i r e d by both t h e i r words and a c t i o n s . To them I express my h e a r t f e l t thanks f o r the ecouragement I have r e c e i v e d from them. I would l i k e t o thank Brenda Webster and P e t e r Warkentin f o r the warm r e c e p t i o n I had i n t h e i r classrooms. They are two v e r y hard working p r o f e s s i o n a l s and I b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y from the time I spent w i t h them. v i i 1 Chapter 1 COMPUTERS AND CONTENT-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING The Vancouver School Board (VSB) having r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r E n g l i s h as a second language (ESL) students t o develop t h e i r language p r o f i c i e n c y and i n c r e a s e t h e i r academic achievement has i n i t i a t e d a l a r g e s c a l e r e s e a r c h and c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t based on Mohan's i n t e g r a t i v e language and content l e a r n i n g a c r o s s the c u r r i c u l u m approach. A major focus o f t h i s p r o j e c t i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the means by which ESL students can i n c r e a s e t h e i r academic achievement and t h e i r language p r o f i c i e n c y . THE QUESTION One h y p o t h e s i z e d means proposed f o r i n c r e a s i n g language p r o f i c i e n c y and academic achievement i n the p r o j e c t i s t o use a computer database as a b r i d g e between language and content and as a means f o r s u p p o r t i n g c o g n i t i v e / a c a d e m i c development. However b e f o r e going t o t h i s p o i n t i t i s necessary t o ask the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n i f co n n e c t i o n s e x i s t between content, computers and language. To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n i t i s necessary t o ask a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n . Are the u n d e r l y i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of content - the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e s , a computer a p p l i c a t i o n - a database program, and language - the academic d i s c o u r s e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n ? I f t h i s q u e s t i o n can be answered yes, then a f o u n d a t i o n has been s e t f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r u s i n g a database as d e s c r i b e d above. 2 BACKGROUND TO THE QUESTION The Vancouver School d i s t r i c t e n r o l l s the largest ESL student group i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The most recent VSB survey shows that 47% of the student population speaks English as a second language. Recent research suggests that i t requires ESL students anywhere from 4 - 8 years to reach grade l e v e l norms i n core academic courses. Many researchers a t t e s t that ESL students do not l i v e up to t h e i r academic p o t e n t i a l . ESL students face many d i f f i c u l t i e s when i t comes to coping with the academic demands of content classes because language i s the major medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and i t i s a resource which i s i n short supply f o r the ESL student. For many students the language they have learned i n an ESL support c l a s s may not prepare them to meet the demands of the content c l a s s . In summary one of the four assumptions of the Vancouver School Board ESL project asserts that: . . . i t i s i n e f f i c i e n t and i l l - a d v i s e d to teach language as a thing i n i t s e l f separate from the school curriculum or conversely to submerge students i n the language demands of school without structured support: ESL students require planned help with t h e i r r e a l needs i n coping with the language demands i n the school context. Some researchers suggest that ESL students need to acquire, i n Cummin's words, cognitive academic language p r o f i c i e n c y (CALP) i n order to cope with the demands of the school context. THE APPROACH How can ESL students cope with the demands of content? A second assumption of the VSB ESL project i s that: 3 . . . i n o r d e r t o h e l p students b r i d g e the gap between b e g i n n i n g s o c i a l a c q u i s i t i o n and f u l l s o c i a l and academic l i n g u i s t i c competency i n the mainstream classroom c a r e f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e d program which i n t e g r a t e s the t e a c h i n g o f language and the t e a c h i n g o f s u b j e c t areas needs t o be developed. Mohan's approach i s a s y s t e m a t i c way o f i n t e g r a t i n g content o b j e c t i v e s and language o b j e c t i v e s . A t h i r d u n d e r l y i n g assump-t i o n h e l d by the VSB p r o j e c t i s t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n can b e n e f i t the studen t s , " i t i s important t o f i n d ways t o c o n t i n u e a l l s t u d e n t s ' academic and c o g n i t i v e development w h i l e they a r e i n the pro c e s s of a c q u i r i n g E n g l i s h as a second language." Mohan's knowledge framework was used t o p l a n a u n i t o f s c i e n c e work which i n t e g r a t e d s u b j e c t matter, a computer database and academic d i s c o u r s e i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e the co n n e c t i o n s between these t h r e e areas. METHOD A q u a l i t a t i v e approach was used t o examine the conne c t i o n s among language, computers and content w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f a s c i e n c e u n i t taught by a content t e a c h e r and a language s p e c i a l -i s t . E t hnographic o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s , and r e c o r d i n g s o f the students and t e a c h e r s as they work through the u n i t a re r e p o r t e d i n the form of a n a r r a t i v e i n Chapter 3 t o ca p t u r e the co n t e x t o f the u n i t which i s e s s e n t i a l t o i l l u m i n a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s . CONCLUSION I f t h e r e are o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s i n the b i o l o g y content, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i s c o u r s e , and the computer database which are the same, then t h i s way of i n t e g r a t i n g these t h r e e areas i n 4 student t a s k s may have the p o t e n t i a l f o r promoting content l e a r n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g academic d i s c o u r s e . Chapter 2 w i l l examine some o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s q u e s t i o n and w i l l p r o v i d e f u r t h e r background on the metho-dology used i n t h i s study. 5 Chapter 2  REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE A s e l e c t e d review o f l i t e r a t u r e b e a r i n g on i n t e g r a t i n g content l e a r n i n g , academic language development and computer use i s p r e s e n t e d here. As a consequence o f the i n t e g r a t i v e nature of t h e study, work has been drawn from a v a r i e t y o f sources. There are f o u r g e n e r a l areas which are c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o the problem: 1) the s t a t u s o f academic d i s c o u r s e i n the f i e l d o f second language a c q u i s i t i o n , 2) the i n t e g r a t i o n o f language and content t e a c h i n g , 3) the s t a t u s of computer a s s i s t e d language l e a r n i n g , and 4) g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l computer use i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . As w e l l as examin-i n g r e l e v a n t s u b s t a n t i v e r e s e a r c h the q u e s t i o n o f an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h methodology w i l l be addressed i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 1. SLA AND ACADEMIC DISCOURSE The f i e l d o f SLA has i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t takes c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r f o r ESL students i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g t o a c q u i r e t h e i r second language than was ever thought necessary b e f o r e . Researchers i n Canada (Cummins) the U.K. ( E l l i s ) and the U.S. (Wong-Fillmore, S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , and C o l l i e r ) are a l l i n agreement t h a t i t can take anywhere from 4-8 y e a r s f o r ESL students t o reach a l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h comparable t o t h e i r n a t i v e speaking peers.' Cummins' (1982) t h e o r e t i c a l model f o r SLA s e r v e s as a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r d e l i n e a t i n g two types of language p r o f i c i e n c y : b a s i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l communicative s k i l l s (BICS) and c o g n i t i v e 6 academic language p r o f i c i e n c y (CALP). While the use o f these acronyms has been questioned by some r e s e a r c h e r s as over s i m p l i -f y i n g v e r y complex concepts (see Cummins & Swain, 1983; E d e l s k y e t a l . , 1983; R i v e r a , 1984) as C o l l i e r p o i n t s out: . . . the terms have become symbolic and meaningful f o r many people . . . as a way of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p r o f i c i e n c y (BICS) and context-reduced, cog-n i t i v e l y demanding as p e c t s o f language p r o f i c i e n c y (CALP). In BICS meaning can be n e g o t i a t e d and enhanced through a v a r i e t y o f p a r a l i n g u i s t i c and s i t u a t i o n a l cues whereas CALP i s p r i m a r i l y r e l i a n t on l i n g u i s t i c cues f o r meaning. A c c o r d i n g t o C o l l i e r : . . . . i t i s e s p e c i a l l y i n s c h o o l t h a t s t u d e n t s need t o develop c o n t e x t reduced and c o g n i t i v e l y demanding as p e c t s of language (CALP) i n order t o f u n c t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the classroom. While i t i s c l e a r t h a t i t takes a v e r y l o n g time f o r ESL students t o a c q u i r e CALP i t i s not so c l e a r how t o h e l p the students develop c o g n i t i v e academic language p r o f i c i e n c y , although t h e r e i s a growing understanding o f the n e c e s s i t y o f coming t o terms w i t h t h i s complex i s s u e . 2. INTEGRATION OF LANGUAGE AND CONTENT CLASSES For the p a s t few y e a r s the language t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n has f o c u s s e d l a r g e l y on the communicative as p e c t s of language t e a c h -i n g and l i t t l e has been done t o i n t e g r a t e the work of language c l a s s e s and content c l a s s e s i n the areas of f i r s t and second language development. In second language development t h e r e have been a t l e a s t two comprehensive approaches developed which attempt t o d e a l w i t h the complex i s s u e of d e v e l o p i n g CALP (Chamot & O'Malley, 1986; Mohan, 1986). Both Chamot's and Mohan's work 7 share s i m i l a r assumptions about the problem but t h e i r s o l u t i o n s v a r y g r e a t l y . Both agree t h a t language l e a r n i n g and content l e a r n i n g ought t o be i n t e g r a t e d . Chamot and O'Malley have developed the C o g n i t i v e Academic Language L e a r n i n g Approach (CALLA) which i n t h e i r words i s a program, a c u r r i c u l u m , and an i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach. Chamot and O'Malley s t a t e t h a t : . . . the CALLA i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach i s a c o g n i t i v e one t h a t develops s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o use e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r both language and c o n t e n t - a r e a t a s k s . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these two approaches i s t h a t Chamot and O'Malley use l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o i n t e g r a t e language and content whereas Mohan uses knowledge s t r u c t u r e s . Both of t h e s e approaches, nonetheless recommend i n t e g r a t i n g language and content t e a c h i n g as a means o f a d d r e s s i n g the complex i s s u e of CALP. There are some s i m i l a r i t i e s between the f i e l d s o f f i r s t and second language development w i t h r e s p e c t t o the i n t e g r a t i o n of language and content. As a means f o r examining t h i s i s s u e I reviewed the B.C. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m guides which o u t l i n e the g o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes t o be aimed f o r i n B.C. s c h o o l s . Two main themes became apparent. F i r s t l y , i n both elementary and secondary content areas such as s c i e n c e , mathema-t i c s , and s o c i a l s t u d i e s the content of these courses i s f i r s t and foremost i n importance i n both the g o a l s and l e a r n i n g out-comes l i s t e d i n the guides. Language, when i t i s mentioned, i s d i s t i l l e d t o l e a r n i n g the t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y o f the content area, no o t h e r a s p e c t s o f language development connected w i t h the content are noted. 8 Although r e a d i n g i n the content areas (RICA) s t r a t e g i e s are w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s f o r h e l p i n g students under-stand content t h e i r a c t u a l use i n the s c h o o l s may not be wide-spread. In a survey conducted by Gunderson, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of B.C. K-12 and a d u l t t e a c h e r s were asked i f they used content area r e a d i n g s k i l l s w i t h t h e i r ESL s t u d e n t s . 55 p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s were not i n v o l v e d i n any form o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c -t i o n . A second q u e s t i o n asked, "How c o u l d ESL s t u d e n t s be b e t t e r prepared t o meet the requirements of your content c l a s s e s ? " 80 p e r c e n t o f the respondents r e p o r t e d t h a t E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y s h o u l d be a requirement o f enrollment i n content c l a s s e s . Gunderson concludes t h a t : . . . as a group ESL students are i n jeopardy. F i r s t , c o n tent t e a c h e r s do not r e s t r u c t u r e i n s t r u c t i o n i n response t o t h e i r needs and second, content area r e a d i n g methods are not i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o secondary classrooms. ESL students are l e f t t o s t r u g g l e w i t h both the r i g o r s o f academic m a t e r i a l and the d i f f i c u l t y o f l e a r n i n g t o comprehend t e x t i n E n g l i s h . I t would seem t h a t i n many cases they f a i l a t both t a s k s . A second theme e v i d e n t i n both elementary and secondary c u r r i c u l u m guides was t h a t language courses themselves appear d i s - i n t e g r a t e d . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so a t the elementary l e v e l where language i n s t r u c t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main areas; language a r t s , r e a d i n g , and s p e l l i n g . The s y l l a b u s f o r these areas bear no resemblance f o r each o t h e r . Each has a separate s e t of g o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes. A d d i t i o n a l l y i n the c u r r i -culum guides the language d e a l t w i t h i n the s p e l l i n g , r e a d i n g and language a r t s c l a s s e s i s not r e l a t e d t o the language demands of the c o n t e n t area courses i n any way. T h i s i s not t o say t h a t 9 some t e a c h e r s are not attempting t o i n t e g r a t e language and content i n s t r u c t i o n a t the l e v e l of classroom work. At the secondary l e v e l , E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s suggest t h a t E n g l i s h i s taught as a separate c o n t e n t area. No c o n n e c t i o n s seem t o be made between E n g l i s h and the o t h e r content areas, nor are s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n the content areas d e a l t w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m guides f o r E n g l i s h c o u r s e s . 3. STATUS QUO OF C.A.L.L. Computer-assisted language l e a r n i n g (CALL) has l a r g e l y r e f l e c t e d the t r e n d s i n communicative language t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . Ahmad and C o r b e t t i n t h e i r book "Computers, Language L e a r n i n g and Language Teaching" l i s t types o f a c t i v i t i e s they c o n s i d e r computers are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n the language classroom. Among thes e are e x e r c i s e s i n i n f l e c t i o n a l morphology, d e r i v a t i o n -a l morphology, c l o z e , grammatical m a n i p u l a t i o n s , and v o c a b u l a r y . Leonard d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l computer a p p l i c a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o the above but a l s o mentions a c t i v i t i e s which promote communicative language development. The same t y p o l o g y o f a c t i v i t i e s a t the computer a l s o o c c u r s i n H a i n l i n e ' s "New Developments i n C.A.L.L." For the most p a r t these authors l o o k a t the major g o a l of computers i n language l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g as f o s t e r i n g communi-c a t i v e language use not as a t o o l f o r d e v e l o p i n g content based language l e a r n i n g or f o r d e v e l o p i n g academic d i s c o u r s e . How g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l computing has d e a l t w i t h language i s s u e s appears t o p a r a l l e l the " i s o l a t e d " treatment t h a t language has r e c e i v e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m guides. 10 4. GENERAL EDUCATIONAL COMPUTER USE AND THINKING SKILLS Educational computer use t a l k s about the use of the compu-ters for "thinking s k i l l s " but there i s l i t t l e work which shows how t h i s might be integrated with the regular curriculum. "Developing Minds," a c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i c l e s on teaching thinking s k i l l s , catalogs computer software designed to teach s p e c i f i c thinking s k i l l s . The content of the software appears to be of secondary importance i n comparison to the thinking s k i l l s them-selves. The software i s c l a s s i f i e d by thinking s k i l l and few connections are made with p a r t i c u l a r content areas. In a more recent p u b l i c a t i o n on thinking s k i l l e n t i t l e d "Tactics f o r Thinking," Marzanzo and Arredondo assert that: . . . the s k i l l s described i n Tactics are meant to be taught and reinforced within the regular content-area classroom as a way of teaching content. A basic assumption of t h i s program i s that you cannot separate the teaching of thinking from the teaching of content. You must p r a c t i c e thinking about something; classroom content i s that "something." S i m i l a r l y , learning content involves the use of complex thinking s k i l l s . Thinking and content are inexorably (sic) linked. As a r e s u l t , the teaching of thinking as described i n T a c t i c s has the e f f e c t of improving a student's knowledge of content. While the understanding of the importance of l i n k i n g thinking and content i s emerging, l i t t l e software e x i s t s which integrates these areas. In summary, the f i e l d of Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n has only recently begun to acknowledge the importance of developing academic discourse. I t has l a r g e l y been concerned with teaching language as a thing i n i t s e l f apart from content. The f i e l d of computer ass i s t e d language learning (C.A.L.L.) has not ventured into the development of academic discourse nor has i t considered 11 the computer as a means f o r i n t e g r a t i n g language and content t e a c h i n g . General e d u c a t i o n a l computing has made some attempts t o generate software t h a t t e a c h students about t h i n k i n g s k i l l s but the t h i n k i n g s k i l l s they l e a r n are i n many cases d i v o r c e d from the content they f a c e i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . T h i s summary o f s e l e c t e d works, t o the b e s t of my knowledge, makes i t c l e a r t h a t no attempts have y e t been made t o r e l a t e the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the t e a c h i n g o f content, the development of academic d i s c o u r s e , and the use of a computer database t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . METHOD I would l i k e t o examine whether conn e c t i o n s e x i s t g e n e r a l l y amongst t h e areas o f c u r r i c u l u m content, computer use and academic d i s c o u r s e through an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c u n i t of i n s t r u c t i o n which was designed t o i n t e g r a t e b i o l o g y m a t e r i a l , the use o f a computer database program and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i s c o u r s e . 1. The Knowledge Framework In o r d e r t o examine these c o n n e c t i o n s I have used as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t Mohan's i d e a s on knowledge s t r u c t u r e s (Mohan, 1986). They p r o v i d e an a r t i c u l a t e d b a s i s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g language and content. I then chose computer software which might be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h i s approach. The e l a b o r a t i o n o f Mohan's approach w i l l i n c l u d e my r a t i o n a l e f o r why I chose a database f o r t h i s study. Mohan argues t h a t : 12 . . . i n o r d e r t o i n t e g r a t e language and content i n the classroom you need ways t o o r g a n i z e m a t e r i a l s t o a i d both the development of language and the a c q u i s i t i o n o f content. You a l s o need ways of c o o r d i n a t i n g language o b j e c t i v e s w i t h content area o b j e c t i v e s . Mohan o u t l i n e s a s y s t e m a t i c approach f o r r e l a t i n g language and content t h a t a p p l i e s a c r o s s the c u r r i c u l u m . The approach a l s o accounts f o r d e v e l o p i n g academic d i s c o u r s e and t h i n k i n g s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o content. He r e f e r s t o t h i s s y s t e m a t i c approach as the knowledge framework. Mohan a s s e r t s t h a t " t o p i c s " o r content can be broken down i n t o the s i x major types o f knowledge which make up the knowledge framework: c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - c o n c e p t s , d e s c r i p t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s , sequence, e v a l u a t i o n and c h o i c e . A c c o r d i n g t o Mohan each of these types o f knowledge have unique o r d i s t i n c t l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s which s t r u c t u r a l l y s e t them a p a r t from each o t h e r . In a d d i t i o n Mohan says t h a t each of these d i s t i n c t knowledge s t r u c t u r e s can be r e p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i -c a l l y by "key v i s u a l s . " These v i s u a l s have no o r lowered l i n g u i s t i c demands and can h e l p the l e a r n e r understand content. T h i s a p p l i e s t o both ESL and n a t i v e - s p e a k i n g l e a r n e r s . Key v i s u a l s have a t l e a s t t h r e e major a p p l i c a t i o n s : 1) g e n e r a t i v e -t o promote language g e n e r a t i o n ( r e l a t e d t o c o n t e n t ) , 2) r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e o r e x p l a n a t o r y - t o i n c r e a s e content understanding, and 3) e v a l u a t i v e - t o e v a l u a t e content and language understanding. In summary, the framework a c t s as an i n t e g r a t o r o f content and language. A f t e r a t o p i c has been broken down i n t o the s i x boxes o f the framework, i t p r o v i d e s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r develop-i n g student t a s k s which i n t e g r a t e the development o f academic d i s c o u r s e and the comprehension of content. Key v i s u a l s can be used i n t a s k s as l i n k s between language and content f o r the l e a r n e r . In t h i s study I have concerned myself w i t h b i o l o g y content and the academic d i s c o u r s e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n as they r e l a t e t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n (see F i g u r e 2 . 0 ) . The v i s u a l s t h a t are t y p i c a l l y used t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s know-ledge s t r u c t u r e a re c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e s and c e r t a i n t y p es of c h a r t s . The m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format o f the Appleworks database program resembles the c h a r t s (key v i s u a l s ) most o f t e n used f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In some ways then a computer database program can be l i k e n e d t o a key v i s u a l . My q u e s t i o n i s , can a computer database be used as both a means f o r p r e s e n t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t o r y knowledge and the means f o r g e n e r a t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t o r y language? F i g u r e 2 .0 - Connections content computer language . . I . — 1 1 . . . ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (database ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v e r t e b r a t e s ) program) d i s c o u r s e ) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s e v a l u a t i o n |********| | | |********| | | d e s c r i p t i o n sequence c h o i c e The Knowledge Framework (Mohan 86) 14 2. Q u a l i t a t i v e Approach A q u a l i t a t i v e approach was adopted t o examine the i n t e g r a -t i o n o f language, content, and computers as they r e l a t e t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . Q u a l i t a -t i v e methods were chosen because they are p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l adapted t o showing c o n t e x t u a l c o n n e c t i o n s . They a l s o a l l o w you t o focus on r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s elements and t o see how the elements form something of an i n t e g r a t e d whole which I t h i n k i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the examining u n i t of work. The f o l l o w i n g types of data were c o l l e c t e d and drawn on t o w r i t e a d e t a i l e d n a r r a t i v e of the u n i t which i s i n Chapter 3. 1. a. documents on t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g 2. r e c o r d i n g s and t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of student i n t e r a c t i o n s a t the computer a. 12 student p a i r s choosing examples from v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s x 7-9 minutes o f t a l k b. 12 p a i r s o f students developed 3-5 d e f i n i t i o n s each p a i r t a k i n g 15-30 minutes c. two groups of students h a l f of c l a s s i n each group - f o l l o w up t o p a i r work above d. 12 student p a i r s c l a s s i f y i n g v e r t e b r a t e s a t the computer -approx. 8 minutes each 3. f i e l d notes on classroom o b s e r v a t i o n 4. r e c o r d e d i n t e r v i e w s of t e a c h e r s and students a. 3 hours of i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e a c h e r s b. 3 hours of i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 6 students 5. o r a l and w r i t t e n t e s t s a. 6 o r a l t e s t s x approx. 30 minutes b. 25 w r i t t e n t e s t s x 3 pages The N a r r a t i v e i n Chapter 3 s e t s the c o n t e x t f o r examining and a n a l y z i n g the connections among content, computers and d i s c o u r s e i n Chapter 4. As an a i d t o i d e n t i f y i n g the types of 15 d i s c o u r s e the students engaged i n as they worked through the u n i t I have drawn on Smith and Meux's l a r g e l y o v e r l o o k e d work i n the area of concept v e n t u r e s . T h e i r scheme f o r a n a l y z i n g d i s c o u r s e has more r e c e n t l y been used i n Maminta's 1985 paper on Forms and F u n c t i o n s i n a "Concept Venture" i n S c i e n c e and Mathematics. Concept v e n t u r e s r e l a t e t o Mohan's knowledge s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( c l a s s e s or c o n c e p t s ) . I w i l l i d e n t i f y and comment on the v a r i o u s types o f concept v e n t u r e s found i n s e l e c t e d p o r t i o n s o f student d i s c o u r s e u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n as a g u i d e l i n e . SMITH AND MEUXS' CONCEPT VENTURES The o v e r a r c h i n g o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s type o f v e n t u r e i s a s e t of c o n d i t i o n s e i t h e r governing, or i m p l i e d by, the use of a term. These c o n d i t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g whether something i s o r i s not a member o f the c l a s s of t h i n g s r e f e r r e d t o by the term. A concept i n v o l v e s a c l a s s o f t h i n g s and the c r i t e r i a by which members o f the c l a s s are i d e n t i f i e d . T y p i -c a l l y , a c o n c e p t u a l v e n t u r e c o n t a i n s a concept's name and o t h e r a s p e c t s such as c r i t e r i a and i n s t a n c e s . The primary c o g n i t i v e import of t h i s type o f v e n t u r e i s t h a t of d i s c l o s i n g the c o n d i t i o n s or c r i t e r i a g overning the use of a term. A term may be a s i n g l e word such as " i m p e r i a l i s m , " or an e x p r e s s i o n o f two or more words such as " c o e f f i c i e n t of expan-s i o n . " A c o n c e p t u a l venture may be i d e n t i f i e d by one o r more of the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. An X i s mentioned and the c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n i s p r i m a r i l y t o such q u e s t i o n s as What i s X? What does X mean? What do we 16 mean by X? How can we t e l l when something i s an X? 2. Something i s named or r e f e r r e d t o , and t h e c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n i s mainly devoted t o d e s c r i b i n g i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f u n c t i o n s , uses, o r p a r t s . 3. Something i s named or r e f e r r e d t o , and the c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n i s p r i m a r i l y devoted t o mentioning or c o n s i d e r i n g examples of i t . Smith and Meux i d e n t i f y 15 types o f concept v e n t u r e s ; each of these are d e f i n e d more f u l l y i n Appendix A. 17 Chapter 3  THE NARRATIVE A. BACKGROUND TO THE UNIT T h i s u n i t was designed i n accordance w i t h the g e n e r a l o b j e c -t i v e s o f the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and the Vancouver School Board f o r grade 7 S c i e n c e . The u n d e r l y i n g g o a l o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m was B i o l o g y c o n t e n t : the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i v i n g t h i n g s . A grade 7 S c i e n c e t e a c h e r and a language s p e c i a l i s t taught the u n i t t o grade 7 st u d e n t s a t B e a c o n s f i e l d Elementary School over the 1987-1988 s c h o o l year. The u n i t has two major p a r t s . P a r t I of the u n i t , f o l l o w s the chapter on "The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f L i v i n g T h i n g s " i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n p r e s c r i b e d t e x t E x p l o r i n g L i v i n g Things. The students spent much of t h e i r time working out d e f i n i t i o n s o f animals, p l a n t s and p r o t i s t s . P a r t I I o f the u n i t r e p r e s e n t s the focus o f t h i s study and was developed a c c o r d i n g t o Mohan's language and content p r i n c i p l e s , as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 2, t o o r c h e s t r a t e the i n t e g r a t i o n o f b i o l o g y content, language development and computer use. Computers were used t o support the g o a l o f the students a c q u i r i n g content i n f o r m a t i o n and t o a c t as an arena o r c a t a l y s t f o r language development. Overview of Lessons 1-7 P a r t I I of the u n i t r e f l e c t s a planned i n t e g r a t i o n o f cont e n t l e a r n i n g - t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e s , academic language development and computer use based on Mohan's knowledge framework. As p a r t o f the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the u n i t , a database on t h e f i v e c l a s s e s o f the v e r t e b r a t e s was developed u s i n g the Appleworks Program (an i n t e g r a t e d word p r o c e s s o r , database and 18 s p r e a d s h e e t ) . A l l of the l e s s o n s are i n some way t i e d t o the use of t h e database. The t a s k s i n P a r t I I o f the u n i t were designed around a computer database on v e r t e b r a t e s t o h e l p the s t u d e n t s develop t h e i r concepts o f what v e r t e b r a t e s (mammals, b i r d s , amphibians, r e p t i l e s and f i s h ) a r e . They used the d e f i n i t i o n s they had developed t o c l a s s i f y o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s i n the database which were not i d e n t i f i e d by name or c l a s s . F o l l o w i n g , t h i s the way i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s was s t o r e d i n the database se r v e d as template f o r r e s e a r c h i n g o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s t o add t o the database. L a s t l y , the students s o r t e d , arranged, and c l a s s i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n about v e r t e b r a t e s i n t h e database. The f i r s t l e s s o n i s a b r i e f review of P a r t I o f the u n i t p l a n . I t s e t s the stage f o r a more in - d e p t h examination of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i v i n g t h i n g s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e s . Lesson 2 asks the student t o suggest c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v e r t e -b r a t e s have i n common, e.g., s k i n c o v e r i n g , locomotion, d i e t , and so on. These same d e s c r i p t o r s were used t o show the d i f f e r e n c e s among v e r t e b r a t e s as w e l l . The students then ordered the d e s c r i p t o r s from most s i g n i f i c a n t t o l e a s t i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o show d i f f e r e n c e s among the v e r t e b r a t e s . For example, body temperature was s i g n i f i c a n t because i t separated the v e r t e b r a t e s i n t o two l a r g e groups: those t h a t are warm blooded and those t h a t are c o l d blooded. I n l e s s o n 3 the students worked i n p a i r s a t t h e database of v e r t e b r a t e s g e t t i n g examples of each of the v e r t e b r a t e s t o f i l l 19 i n t o a c h a r t . The c h a r t was then used i n l e s s o n 4 as the g r a p h i c from which the students (the same p a i r s above) developed d e f i n i t i o n s o f mammals, b i r d s , amphibians, r e p t i l e s and f i s h . A f t e r each of the p a i r s of students had w r i t t e n t h e i r f i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , the c l a s s as a whole was asked t o agree on each o f the d e f i n i t i o n s . Because each p a i r had based t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s on d i f f e r e n t animal examples from the database the d e f i n i t i o n s i n some cases were d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . The s t u d e n t s o f f e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n which l e a d t o the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the group d e f i n i t i o n . The s t u d e n t s examined a m o d i f i e d s e c t i o n o f the database i n l e s s o n 5 which d i d not i d e n t i f y the name or c l a s s o f s e l e c t e d v e r t e b r a t e s . U s i n g t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s , the s t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d t he v e r t e b r a t e s as mammals, b i r d s , amphibians, r e p t i l e s o r f i s h . In l e s s o n 6 the students r e s e a r c h e d o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s u s i n g the d e s c r i p t o r s used i n the database as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Once c o l l e c t e d the students e n t e r e d the i n f o r m a t i o n on the database. In l e s s o n 7 the students l e a r n e d how t o manipulate the database t o do o t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . For example they c o u l d c r o s s - c l a s s i f y the v e r t e b r a t e s i n the database by d i e t and end up w i t h t h r e e groups: c a r n i v o r o u s , h e r b i v o r o u s and omnivorous (see Appendix B f o r the l e s s o n p l a n s ) . THE DATABASE The c e n t r a l focus of the second p a r t of t h i s u n i t i s the 20 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e s . An i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s p l a n n i n g was the development o f a database on v e r t e b r a t e s u s i n g Appleworks (an i n t e g r a t e d word p r o c e s s o r , database and spreadsheet program). The Appleworks database program has two key components: The f i r s t i s the management program which a l l o w s the u s e r t o manipu-l a t e t he second component o f the program which i s the database, which i s i n t h i s case i s i n f o r m a t i o n about v e r t e b r a t e s . The database template was designed t o correspond i n i t s s t r u c t u r e t o an ada p t i o n o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e on page 93 of E x p l o r i n g L i v i n g Things (see F i g u r e 3.0). The database r e f l e c t s the v e r t e b r a t e s e c t i o n o f the v i s u a l . F i g u r e 3.0 - The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i v i n g t h i n g s l i v i n g t h i n g s / I \ I— I 1 animals p l a n t s p r o t i s t s / \ / \ v e r t e b r a t e n o n - v e r t e b r a t e mammals b i r d s r e p t i l e s amphibians f i s h The database i n c l u d e s 15 animals from each o f the f i v e c l a s s e s : mammal, b i r d , amphibian, r e p t i l e and f i s h . A wide v a r i e t y o f animals from each o f the c l a s s e s were re s e a r c h e d and i n c l u d e d i n the database. See Appendix C f o r a l i s t i n g o f the 75 v e r t e b r a t e s . Records i n the database can be d i s p l a y e d i n two formats: the m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format o r the s i n g l e r e c o r d format. The s i n g l e r e c o r d format i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f each v e r t e b r a t e and as designed f o r t h i s study i n c l u d e s the i n f o r m a t i o n shown i n 21 F i g u r e 3.1. F i g u r e 3.1 - S i n g l e r e c o r d format template Name: common name C l a s s : mammal, b i r d , amphibian, r e p t i l e o r f i s h Body temperature: warm blooded o r c o l d blooded R e s p i r a t o r y system: lungs or g i l l s S k i n c o v e r i n g : smooth, h a i r , f u r , o r s c a l y Reproduction: born a l i v e or eggs Appendages: limbs, l e g s , wings, f i n s , none H a b i t a t : l a n d or water H i b e r n a t i o n : yes or no Locomotion: walk, swim, f l y , s l i t h e r M i g r a t i o n : yes, no, p a r t i a l D i e t : c a r n i v o r o u s , h e r b i v o r o u s o r omnivorous B. THE NARRATIVE The g e n e r a l o u t l i n e f o r what f o l l o w s i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the l e s s o n s as they were planned, a summary o f what a c t u a l l y happened i n the classroom (how t a s k s and a c t i v i t i e s b u i l t on one another) and commentary on the i n t e g r a t i o n o f b i o l o g y content, use of a computer database and academic d i s c o u r s e . As o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 2, the n a r r a t i v e i s based on ethnographic o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s and r e c o r d i n g s o f the students and the t e a c h e r s as they worked through the u n i t . The n a r r a t i v e p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t f o r which t o examine the connections among the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s . These c o n n e c t i o n s w i l l be analyzed more f u l l y i n Chapter 4. The major emphasis both i n time spent i n the u n i t and f o r a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study i s i n l e s s o n 4 where the s t u d e n t s wrote d e f i n i t i o n s f o r each of the v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s : mammals, b i r d s , amphibians, r e p t i l e s and f i s h . I t i s i n t h i s l e s s o n t h a t the c o n n e c t i o n s between the s u b j e c t matter, the database and the academic d i s c o u r s e can be seen most v i v i d l y . Lesson 4 i s c e n t r a l i n every way t o t h i s study. Consequently, more a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o d e s c r i b i n g l e s s o n 4 i n the n a r r a t i v e and a n a l y z i n g l e s s o n 4 i n Chapter 4. Lessons 1-3 s e t the context f o r the u n i t . They focus on the how v e r t e b r a t e s are c l a s s i f i e d and p r o v i d e through the computer database and through some g u i d e l i n e s f o r d e f i n i t i o n w r i t i n g the raw m a t e r i a l s from which t o w r i t e d e f i n i t i o n s i n l e s s o n 4. Lessons 5, 6, and 7 p r o v i d e the students w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s t o do o t h e r t a s k s r e l a t e d t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e s . The amount o f time spent on these l e s s o n s i n t o t a l was f a r l e s s than the time spent on l e s s o n 4. LESSON 1 The aim o f l e s s o n 1 i s t o review f o r the s t u d e n t s the groups by which l i v i n g t h i n g s are c l a s s i f i e d and i n p a r t i c u l a r t o i n t r o d u c e t h e students t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e s . Up t o t h i s p o i n t the students had s t u d i e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s o f animals, p l a n t s and p r o t i s t s . The students were exposed t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y d e t a i l e d examination o f l i v i n g t h i n g s . The s t u d e n t s had s t u d i e d p r o t i s t s i n some d e t a i l , i n P a r t I of the u n i t , but they had not, a t t h i s p o i n t , s t u d i e d the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p l a n t s or animals t o any degree. We d e c i d e d t o examine the animal kingdom. As a way o f i n i t i a t i n g the t o p i c the students were pr e s e n t e d w i t h an u n l a b e l l e d key v i s u a l ; a c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n t r e e , showing what groups l i v i n g t h i n g s are d i v i d e d i n t o (as adapted from page 93 of E x p l o r i n g L i v i n g Things, see F i g u r e 3.2). The students f i l l e d out the names of the t h r e e groups of l i v i n g t h i n g s : p l a n t s , animals and p r o t i s t s . 23 The t e a c h e r s then had the students b r a i n s t o r m names of animals. As names were c a l l e d out the t e a c h e r s put the animals i n t o one o f two groups, the t i t l e s o f which were c o n c e a l e d from the s t u d e n t s . When a s u i t a b l e number of animals were l i s t e d , the stu d e n t s were asked how t h e two groups were d i f f e r e n t . E v e n t u a l l y , w i t h the t e a c h e r ' s guidance, the st u d e n t s were a b l e t o conclude t h a t one group had backbones but the o t h e r one d i d not. The t e a c h e r s s u p p l i e d the students w i t h the c o r r e c t b i o l o g i c a l terms: v e r t e b r a t e s and i n v e r t e b r a t e s and p l a c e d them above the a p p r o p r i a t e group. F o l l o w i n g t h i s the st u d e n t s added more animals t o each group. Of the two groups the v e r t e b r a t e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n more d e t a i l . The students generated the names o f t h e c l a s s e s of t h e v e r t e b r a t e s they knew and t h e t e a c h e r s f i l l e d i n the r e s t . They then added a few examples of each c l a s s . F i g u r e 3.2 - Key v i s u a l f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i v i n g t h i n g s l i v i n g t h i n g s / /— animals \ 1 / / v e r t e b r a t e \ \ i n v e r t e b r a t e mammals b i r d s r e p t i l e s amphibians f i s h dog human r o b i n snake l i z a r d f r o g salamander salmon LESSON 2 The aim i n l e s s o n 2 was f o r the students t o examine f e a t u r e s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t each of the c l a s s e s have i n common and t o determine which of these f e a t u r e s a re most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o show the d i f f e r e n c e s among the c l a s s e s and f o r students t o f a m i l i a r i z e themselves w i t h the format o f how d e s c r i p t i o n s o f v e r t e b r a t e s are o r g a n i z e d i n a database. The f i r s t s t e p i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , asks the student t o suggest c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v e r t e b r a t e s have i n common, e.g., s k i n c o v e r i n g , locomotion, d i e t and so on. These same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had been used i n c r e a t i n g a database on the v e r t e b r a t e s , however the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are r e f e r r e d t o here as d e s c r i p t o r s . T h i s was the f i r s t o f two l e s s o n s which foc u s s e d on the makeup of a d e f i n i t i o n . Because the database had t o be prepared i n advance the t e a c h e r s c o u l d not c r e a t e i t based on the d e s c r i p t o r s the stud e n t s had generated. As i t tu r n e d out the stu d e n t s d i d come up w i t h many o f the d e s c r i p t o r s i n the e x e r c i s e below. The students were g i v e n a p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d i n c h a r t (see F i g u r e 3.3) w i t h the d e s c r i p t o r s on the l e f t and examples o f how thes e d e s c r i p t o r s would be manifested amongst the v e r t e b r a t e s on the r i g h t . In some cases the examples were l i m i t e d d e f i n i t i o n s o f the d e s c r i p t o r s , e.g., d e s c r i p t o r : h a b i t a t , example: l a n d o r water. In o t h e r s the examples d e s c r i b e d the occurrence o f some phenomena, e.g., d e s c r i p t o r : m i g r a t i o n , example: yes, no, or p a r t i a l . While the d e s c r i p t o r s served t o show the s i m i l a r i t i e s amongst v e r t e b r a t e s , the examples of the same d e s c r i p t o r s were b e i n g used t o show the d i f f e r e n c e s amongst them. 25 The s t u d e n t s then ordered the d e s c r i p t o r s from most s i g n i -f i c a n t t o l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o show d i f f e r e n c e s amongst t h e v e r t e b r a t e s . For example body temperature was c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t because i t sepa r a t e d t h e v e r t e b r a t e s i n t o two l a r g e groups: those t h a t are warm blooded and those t h a t are c o l d blooded. Again t h i s component of a d e f i n i t i o n was focu s s e d on i n o r d e r t o g i v e the students i n p u t when i t came time f o r them t o w r i t e d e f i n i t i o n s o f the v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s i n subsequent l e s s o n s . The model f o r the d e f i n i t i o n was not made e x p l i c i t t o the s t u d e n t s a t t h i s time, had i t been i t would have resembled t h i s : A i s a v e r t e b r a t e which ( c l a s s ) (unique f e a t u r e s ) F i g u r e 3.3 - Student e x e r c i s e s on d e s c r i p t o r s A. I n s t r u c t i o n s - Read t h i s e x e r c i s e c a r e f u l l y and w i t h your p a r t n e r and supply the m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . You may have t o use a d i c t i o n a r y . DESCRIPTORS EXAMPLES 1. cold/warm blooded 2. r e s p i r a t o r y system 3. s k i n c o v e r i n g » » 4. born a l i v e , eggs 5. appendages l e g s . 6. h a b i t a t 7. h i b e r n a t i o n » » 8. locomotion » » 9. m i g r a t i o n » » 10. d i e t » » 26 B. Order the d e s c r i p t o r s from the most s i g n i f i c a n t t o the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n showing the d i f f e r e n c e s among the f i v e c l a s s e s o f v e r t e b r a t e s . P a r t A above took the students l o n g e r t o do than expected. The v o c a b u l a r y f o r many of the students was new and i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r some t o do the t a s k . In P a r t B h a l f of the students had a d i f f i c u l t time under-s t a n d i n g t h e assignment, e s p e c i a l l y the ESL s t u d e n t s . More time was g i v e n t o the students t o do the t a s k . The s t u d e n t s seemed t o have a d i f f i c u l t time because they were s t i l l g r a p p l i n g w i t h the meaning of the d e s c r i p t o r s . T h i s would o b v i o u s l y have some b e a r i n g on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o o r d e r the words. The aim f o r l e s s o n 3 was t o i n t r o d u c e the s t u d e n t s t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a database. In t h i s case how the s i n g l e r e c o r d and m u l t i p l e r e c o r d formats d i s p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r f o r them t o s e l e c t examples of each c l a s s of the v e r t e b r a t e s t o be used t o generate a d e f i n i t i o n i n l e s s o n 4. Although the students had not worked w i t h the v e r t e b r a t e database p r i o r t o t h i s l e s s o n , they were prepared i n two ways t o d e a l w i t h i t . F i r s t l y , they had used the Appleworks Database Management program w i t h a d i f f e r e n t database and were thus f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of database o p e r a t i o n . Secondly, the s t u d e n t s were f a m i l i a r w i t h the s i n g l e r e c o r d format of the 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. LESSON 3 27 r e c o r d s i n the v e r t e b r a t e database having worked through the e x e r c i s e on d e s c r i p t o r s i n l e s s o n 2 which d u p l i c a t e s the s i n g l e r e c o r d format. A l l o f the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t f o l l o w were done i n p a i r s and i n some cases s m a l l groups t o maximize o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n o f b i o l o g y content. The f i r s t a c t i v i t y the students d i d w i t h the database was t o s e l e c t an animal from each c l a s s ; mammal, b i r d , amphibian, r e p t i l e and f i s h and f i l l i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t o r s i n a c h a r t . T h i s e n t a i l e d s c r o l l i n g through each of the 15 animals i n each c l a s s , w h i l e i n the m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format ( i n which t h e animal names are l i s t e d on the v e r t i c a l a x i s and the d e s c r i p t o r s a re l i s t e d on the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s a t the top of the scree n , see F i g u r e 3.4), choosing an animal and then s w i t c h i n g t o the s i n g l e r e c o r d format ( F i g u r e 3.1) t o read the i n f o r m a t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r animal and then f i l l i n the c h a r t . The c h a r t was designed t o resemble the m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format of the database which was based on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i v i n g t h i n g s key v i s u a l ( F i g u r e 3.2). The f o l l o w i n g i s a sample o f what the students were s a y i n g and d o ing a t the computer w h i l e they were s e l e c t i n g examples of each o f the v e r t e b r a t e s t o f i l l i n t h e i r c h a r t s . 12 p a i r s o f students each s e l e c t e d one v e r t e b r a t e from each c l a s s . Example 1 Kathy (ESL) and Kevin (NS) s e l e c t e d an amphibian from the d a t a -base f o r t h e i r c h a r t : K e vin: now we have t o choose an amphibian ... which one do you want? 28 F i g u r e 3.4 - M u l t i p l e r e c o r d format v e r t e b r a t e database NAME CLASS BODY RESP COVER APPEN HABI HIB MIG DIET TEMP SYST ING REPRO DAGES TAT ERN LOCO cheetah mammal warm lungs f u r born limbs land no walk no earn blood a l i v e i v o r duck- mammal warm lungs f u r eggs legs water no swim no earn b i l l e d blood i v o r | platypus | horse- mammal warm lungs f u r born wings land yes f l y no earn shoe bat blood a l i v e i v o r 1 f l a - b i r d warm lungs feath eggs wings land no walk yes omni mingo blood ers vor king b i r d warm lungs smooth eggs wings water no swim no earn penguin blood ivor | swan b i r d warm lungs feath eggs wings land no f l y yes omni blood ers water vor | adder r e p t i l c o l d lungs scales eggs none land yes s l i no earn I blood ther i v o r J a l i i - r e p t i l c o l d lungs s c a l e s eggs legs water no swim no earn i gator blood i v o r I boa r e p t i l c o l d lungs scales born none land yes s l i no earn c o n s t r i c t o r blood a l i v e ther ivor brown amphib c o l d lungs smooth born legs land yes walk no earn spelerpes blood a l i v e i v o r , c a e c i - amphib c o l d lungs smooth eggs none land yes s l i no earn l i a n blood .. ther i v o r f i r e - amphib c o l d lungs scales eggs legs land yes swim no earn b e l l y blood water i v o r a t l a n - f i s h c o l d g i l l s s c a l e s eggs none water no swim yes earn t i c salmon blood i v o r b l u e f i n f i s h c o l d g i l l s smooth eggs none water no swim no earn tuna blood ivor sea- f i s h c o l d g i l l s s c a les born none water no swim no cam perch blood a l i v e i v o r j Kathy scans through the database w h i l e i t i s i n the m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format - moves the c u r s o r t o F i r e b e l l y - p r e s s e s keys (open apple - Z) t o zoom i n on the F i r e b e l l y r e c o r d ( s i n g l e r e c o r d f o r m a t ) . Kathy reads w h i l e R i c a r d o j o t s down the i n f o r m a t i o n on the c h a r t . Kathy: F i r e b e l l y K e v in: OK Kathy: c o l d blooded Kevin: OK Kathy: lungs Kevin: OK and so on Example 2 R i c a r d o and C h r i s (both ESL) chose t o r e t r i e v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the K i n g f i s h e r from the r e c o r d s on b i r d s . R: K i n g f i s h e r ? OK C: body temperature? OK body temperature R: i t ' s warm blooded C: OK R: OK r e s p i r a t o r y system C: lungs R: and the c o v e r i n g i s f e a t h e r s C: t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n i s eggs R: appendages i s a wings r i g h t ? C: yup R: i t s wings, t h a t ' s i t ? OK C: h a b i t a t i s l a n d R: uu huh (yes) C: h i b e r n a t i o n .. no .. j u s t put no R: locomotion .. i t f l i e s C: f l y R: h i b e r / m i g r a t i o n .. no C: c a r n i v o r o u s F i g u r e 3.5 i s an example of a completed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c h a r t . Figure 3.5 - Completed Chart 30 NAME CLASS BODY RESP COVER APPEN HABI HIB MIG DIET TEMP SYST ING REPRO DAGES TAT ERN LOCO wallaby mammal warm lungs f u r born limbs land no walk no herb blood a l i v e Ivor kiwi b i r d warm lungs feath eggs wings land no walk no omnl blood ers vor olm amphib c o l d g i l l s smooth born none water yes swim no herb blood a l i v e Ivor komodo r e p t i l c o l d lungs scales eggs legs land no walk no earn dragon blood Ivor dragon f i s h c o l d g i l l s s c a l e s eggs f i n s water no swim no cam f i s h blood i v o r L E S S O N 4 Aim: For the students to generalize from t h e i r s p e c i f i c examples of each class and write d e f i n i t i o n s of each c l a s s . Before the students began writing t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s they worked through a series of short tasks on what made a good d e f i n i t i o n . I n i t i a l l y the students were presented with a d e f i n i -t i o n of a d e f i n i t i o n . They were then shown d e f i n i t i o n s which were very vague. For example: a mammal i s a vertebrate which has appendages. The students were asked what was wrong with the d e f i n i t i o n s . The underlying aim was to show the students how important i t was to include features that were unique to a p a r t i c u l a r class i n a d e f i n i t i o n . The students were asked to make t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s precise and and capable of sorting animals into the appropriate verte-brate classes. This meant se l e c t i n g the examples of the des-c r i p t o r s which were unique to a class and using t h i s informa-t i o n to write d e f i n i t i o n s for each of the f i v e classes, e.g., "A mammal i s a warm blooded v e r t e b r a t e which bears i t s young a l i v e and . . . " T h i s i n v o l v e d the students i n comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each c l a s s from t h e i r c h a r t s , then l i s t i n g t he d e s c r i p t o r s t h a t were unique t o each c l a s s and f i n a l l y u s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o w r i t e t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n . Once the d e f i n i t i o n s were completed the p l a n was t o have the students b e g i n c l a s s i f y i n g animals i n the database u s i n g t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s t o h e l p them, however the two p e r i o d s t h a t had been planned f o r the students t o w r i t e the d e f i n i t i o n s i n proved t o be too l i t t l e time. I t was e v i d e n t t o both t e a c h e r s from a qu i c k review o f the st u d e n t s ' f i r s t d r a f t s t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n s needed more development. T h i s was not seen as be i n g a n e g a t i v e e x p e r i -ence but one t h a t would p r o v i d e p o s i t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r language development. The language t e a c h e r suggested t h a t the p a i r s o f students be combined t o form two groups. Each group was then r e s p o n s i b l e t o w r i t e a "group" d e f i n i t i o n f o r each o f the v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s . The p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d i n the t a s k was i d e n t i c a l t o how the students had done t h e i r f i r s t d r a f t s o f the d e f i n i t i o n s . The st u d e n t s ' g o a l was t o i n c l u d e f e a t u r e s i n the d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t demonstrated the uniqueness o f each c l a s s . Each t e a c h e r a c t e d as f a c i l i t a t o r t o h e l p the groups al o n g . Students took t u r n s o f f e r i n g f e a t u r e s they thought should be i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f the mammal. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e d a venue f o r stu d e n t s t o share the background knowledge they had on v e r t e b r a t e s on t h e i r c h a r t s . The s h a r i n g of t h i s knowledge n e c e s s i t a t e d making changes i n d e f i n i t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e o c c u r r e d i n one group: 32 Tara: I t h i n k i t should be mammals are born a l i v e Jenny: But t h e r e ' s t h i s animal the d u c k - b i l l e d p l a t y p u s i t s a mammal and i t has eggs (one of the animals i n the database). The t e a c h e r asked how Tara's phrase might be changed t o account f o r t h i s f a c t . Students suggested u s i n g words l i k e "almost a l l " o r "most." The t e a c h e r p o i n t e d out t h a t adding words l i k e t h e s e ( q u a l i f i e r s ) made the d e f i n i t i o n more a c c u r a t e . Ten days l a t e r the students were s t i l l working on t h e i r d e f i n i -t i o n s not o n l y i n s c i e n c e but i n any spare time t h a t c o u l d be found. The language s p e c i a l i s t f e l t t h a t the u n i t had r e a l l y taken f l i g h t a t t h i s time. The content t e a c h e r was amazed a t the s t u d e n t s ' s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t i n d i s c u s s i n g and w r i t i n g a c c u r a t e d e f i n i t i o n s . Even when the students had t o go on t o the next l e s s o n i n the u n i t , t h a t o f c l a s s i f y i n g animals on the database, t h e c o n t e n t t e a c h e r , now two weeks l a t e r , was s t i l l working on the language and content accuracy of the s t u d e n t s ' d e f i n i t i o n s . Other language development i s s u e s arose and w h i l e not a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s were addressed by the t e a c h e r s , the d i f f i c u l t i e s the m a j o r i t y o f the students had were. For example the language s p e c i a l i s t i d e n t i f i e d c e r t a i n m o r p h o l o g i c a l e r r o r s i n s e v e r a l o f the d e f i n i t i o n s , e.g., many students used the d e s c r i p t o r locomotion i n t h i s way " i t s locomotion i s w a l k i n g " i n s t e a d o f " i t s form o f locomotion i s walking." While the students were f a m i l i a r w i t h the words i t appeared as though they were unsure as t o how t o f i t them i n the d e f i n i t i o n s . (The students had done some work w i t h the words p r i o r t o w r i t i n g the d e f i n i t i o n s but 33 t h i s was done i n a d i f f e r e n t context.) Lessons 5, 6, and 7 gave the students an o p p o r t u n i t y t o use t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s t o c l a s s i f y o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s , t o r e s e a r c h v e r t e b r a t e s from each c l a s s and l a s t l y t o e x p l o r e other ways t o c l a s s i f y v e r t e b r a t e s u s i n g the database. LESSON 5 The aim i n l e s s o n 5 was f o r the students t o use t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s of the v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s t o c l a s s i f y o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s . The students now had working d e f i n i t i o n s of each of the f i v e c l a s s e s . T h e i r next t a s k was t o examine a m o d i f i e d s e c t i o n of the database (which i n c l u d e d o n l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the v e r t e b r a t e s but d i d not i n c l u d e the name or c l a s s of the v e r t e -b r a t e s , a format very s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n F i g u r e 3.4) and c l a s s i f y the v e r t e b r a t e s i n t o the f i v e c l a s s e s . They used t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s t o a s s i s t them i n t h i s t a s k . The students d i d t h i s work i n p a i r s and had t o agree on what c l a s s the animal belonged t o and why they thought so. The l e s s o n took one p e r i o d t o complete. LESSON 6 The aim i n l e s s o n 6 was f o r the students t o use t h e i r knowledge of v e r t e b r a t e s t o r e s e a r c h o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s and t o add those r e c o r d s t o the database. The students researched o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s u s i n g the database s i n g l e r e c o r d format as a g u i d e l i n e f o r r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s (see s i n g l e r e c o r d format i n F i g . 3.1). Each p a i r o f students was g i v e n a form w i t h the d e s c r i p t o r s l a i d out as they occur on the database, e.g., Name:, C l a s s : , Body Temp.:, e t c . As an example o f the students drawing on t h e i r background knowledge o f v e r t e b r a t e s t o do t h i s t a s k one o f the stu d e n t s commented, "Some o f the d e s c r i p t o r s c o u l d be f i l l e d out automa-t i c a l l y because you knew t h a t c l a s s had c e r t a i n t h i n g s t r u e a l l the time, l i k e mammals are always warm blooded." T h i s l e s s o n was accomplished i n one p e r i o d . LESSON 7 The aim i n l e s s o n 7 was f o r the students t o c l a s s i f y i n f o r -mation i n the database and t e s t t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . The students l e a r n e d t o use l o g i c a l o p e r a t o r s t o make statements t o f u r t h e r c l a s s i f y i n f o r m a t i o n i n the database, f o r example c l a s s = mammal would s e l e c t a l l the r e c o r d s on mammals, d i e t = c a r n i v o r o u s would s e l e c t a l l the v e r t e b r a t e s from the database t h a t were c a r n i v o r -ous . In t h i s l e s s o n the students were shown t h a t they c o u l d c l a s s i f y a l l o f the v e r t e b r a t e s i n the database by t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r u l e s f o r r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from the database were demonstrated. For example, i n o r d e r t o determine which v e r t e b r a t e s are c a r n i v o r o u s one would i n p u t the s e l e c t i o n r u l e , " d i e t = c a r n i v o r o u s . " The data management program would s e a r c h each o f the v e r t e b r a t e f i l e s and d i s p l a y those which had a c a r n i v o r o u s d i e t . F u r t h e r t o t h i s c l a s s e s can be c l a s s i f i e d by t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r d e s c r i p t o r s as w e l l . For example t h e 35 s e l e c t i o n r u l e " c l a s s = mammal and migrate = yes , " would answer the q u e s t i o n , "Which mammals migrate." The students were pre s e n t e d w i t h q u e s t i o n s and were asked t o w r i t e the s e l e c t i o n r u l e s which would r e t r i e v e the i n f o r m a t i o n from the database t o answer the q u e s t i o n s . F i n a l l y , i n groups the students composed f i v e q u e s t i o n s t o ask o f t h e database. These q u e s t i o n s were g i v e n t o d i f f e r e n t groups who i n t u r n composed s e l e c t i o n r u l e s t o answer the q u e s t i o n s . Once the r u l e s were w r i t t e n the stu d e n t s used the database t o check i f t h e i r r u l e s answered the q u e s t i o n s . By the time l e s s o n 7 was completed the students had spent t h r e e months on t h i s u n i t . The t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t the students had b e n e f i t e d from t h i s content-based language l e a r n i n g u n i t . The s c i e n c e t e a c h e r f e l t t h a t having the computer database c e n t r a l t o t h i s u n i t h e l p e d t o s u s t a i n the stu d e n t s i n t e r e s t throughout a v e r y extended time. Chapter 4  ANALYSIS Mohan's knowledge framework has p r o v i d e d a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r p l a n n i n g t h i s u n i t and a l s o a frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r a n a l y z i n g i t . While the p r e c e d i n g chapter f o c u s s e d On g i v i n g a c o n t e x t f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine the c o n n e c t i o n s between b i o l o g y s u b j e c t matter, a computer database, c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e and the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h i n the u n i t . F i g u r e 2.0 g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the l i n k s between these t h r e e a r e a s : F i g u r e 2.0 - connections content computer language ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (database ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v e r t e b r a t e s ) program) d i s c o u r s e ) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s e v a l u a t i o n j * * * * * * * * j j { d e s c r i p t i o n sequence c h o i c e The Knowledge Framework (Mohan 86) UNIT PLANNING Before c o n s i d e r i n g a l e s s o n by l e s s o n a n a l y s i s of the c o n n e c t i o n s mentioned above, the background and p l a n n i n g behind t h i s u n i t w i l l be r e p o r t e d . The major o b j e c t i v e behind t h i s work was f o r the students t o understand how v e r t e b r a t e s are grouped i n t o f i v e c l a s s e s ; mammals, b i r d s , amphibians, r e p t i l e s arid f i s h . To understand 37 t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, i t was necessary f o r the students t o b u i l d t h e i r concepts of each c l a s s . Lessons 1-4 were planned t o meet t h i s o b j e c t i v e where the students wrote t h e i r own d e f i n i t i o n s o f each c l a s s . In l e s s o n s 5-7 the students used the d e f i n i t i o n s they had developed t o perform o t h e r t a s k s r e l a t e d t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e s . To make the l i n k between b i o l o g y and d e f i n i t i o n s , a database of the v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s was designed and assembled b e f o r e the u n i t was executed. The database was designed i n or d e r t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about v e r t e b r a t e s and t o p r o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e which might be used t o w r i t e a d e f i n i t i o n of each v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s . The database's o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e f l e c t i v e o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e o f l i v i n g t h i n g s as shown on page 93 i n the grade 7 s c i e n c e t e x t , however the database i n c l u d e s examples of v e r t e b r a t e s whereas the t r e e does not. In o t h e r words, the database r e f l e c t s the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c h a r t but a l s o extends the po o l o f i n f o r m a t i o n on v e r t e b r a t e s (see F i g u r e 3,2). F i g u r e 3.2 - Key v i s u a l f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i v i n g t h i n g s l i v i n g t h i n g s / / animals / / v e r t e b r a t e \ \ i n v e r t e b r a t e mammals b i r d s r e p t i l e s amphibians f i s h dog human r o b i n snake l i z a r d f r o g salamander salmon 38 The second r o l e o f the database was t o p r o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e f o r w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s o f the v e r t e b r a t e s . The database was designed t o r e f l e c t What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v e r t e b r a t e s had i n common. The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t o r s were used: name, c l a s s , body temperature, r e s p i r a t o r y system, s k i n c o v e r i n g , r e p r o d u c t i o n , appendages, h a b i t a t , h i b e r n a t i o n , locomotion and m i g r a t i o n . These d e s c r i p t o r s were then used as the b u i l d i n g b l o c k s f o r d e s i g n i n g the s i n g l e r e c o r d format f O r the computer database on v e r t e b r a t e s . When r e s e a r c h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on v e r t e b r a t e s the f o l l o w i n g template i n F i g u r e 3.1 was used: F i g u r e 3.1 - S i n g l e r e c o r d format template Name: C l a s s : Body temperature: R e s p i r a t o r y system: S k i n c o v e r i n g : Reproduction: Appendages: H a b i t a t : H i b e r n a t i o n : Locomotion: M i g r a t i o n : D i e t : common name mammal, b i r d , amphibian, r e p t i l e o r f i s h warm blooded or c o l d blooded lungs o r g i l l s smooth, h a i r , f u r , o r s c a l y born a l i v e o r eggs limbs, l e g s , wings, f i n s , none l a n d o r water-yes o r ho walk, swim, f l y , s l i t h e r yes, no, p a r t i a l c a r n i v o r o u s , h e r b i v o r o u s o r omnivorous These d e s c r i p t o r s are arranged i n a s i n g l e r e c o r d format. The d e s c r i p t o r s a re arranged on the l e f t s i d e o f the page and how the d e s c r i p t o r s a re manifested a re on the r i g h t o p p o s i t e as seen i n t h i s example of the Beluga Whale i n F i g u r e 4.0. F i g u r e 4.0 - S i n g l e r e c o r d format - example Name: Beluga Whale C l a s s : mammal Body temperature: warm blooded R e s p i r a t o r y system: lungs S k i n c o v e r i n g : smooth Reproduction: born a l i v e Appendages: f i n s H a b i t a t : water H i b e r n a t i o n : no Locomotion: swim M i g r a t i o n : yes D i e t : c a r n i v o r o u s There are 75 r e c o r d s of v e r t e b r a t e s (15 from each c l a s s -mammals, b i r d s , amphibians, r e p t i l e s and f i s h ) i n the database. Each r e c o r d i s l i k e an a b b r e v i a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r v e r t e b r a t e . The management component of the Appleworks database program a l l o w s the user t o d i s p l a y r e c o r d s on the computer, i n a s i n g l e r e c o r d format as above or i n a m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format. The m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format d i s p l a y s s e v e r a l r e c o r d s a t one time. The same d e s c r i p t o r s are used but are p o s i t i o n e d on the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s r a t h e r than on the v e r t i c a l a x i s as is the case w i t h the s i n g l e r e c o r d format (see F i g u r e 3.4). The o r g a n i z a t i o n of each of these formats i s r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n arid d e s c r i p t i o n . Each s i n g l e r e c o r d format i s s i m i l a r t o a d e s c r i p t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r v e r t e b r a t e . Records d i s p l a y e d i n a m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format r e f l e c t a rudimentary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o r t s . The d e s c r i p t o r s , the s i n g l e r e c o r d format, and the m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format p r o v i d e the s t r u c t u r e s f o r how the b i o l o g y i n f o r -mation is o r g a n i z e d and d i s p l a y e d and p r o v i d e a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r the major g o a l s of the u n i t . I t h i n k i t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n of i n f o r m a t i o n on v e r t e b r a t e s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n of the database are connected. The database p r o v i d e s an empathetic s t r u c t u r e f o r o r g a n i z i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n on v e r t e b r a t e s . 40 T h i s next s e c t i o n w i l l examine how b i o l b g y content, computer database and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e are r e l a t e d t o the know-ledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d i s c o u r s e . Mohan has d e s c r i b e d s i x knowledge s t r u c t u r e s which r e p r e s e n t the major ways t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t r u c t u r e d . The knowledge s t r u c t u r e s c o n s i d -ered here are those of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . How, then are the major components of t h i s u n i t : content, computers and language, r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n ? CONNECTIONS For each of the l e s s o n s the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d : an overview of the t a s k and i t s purpose and the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between the content, computer database, language and the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . Smith and Meuxs' concept ventures are used t o analyze the examples of student d i s c o u r s e i n t h i s chapter (see Chapter 2 and Appendix A f o r more background on concept v e n t u r e s ) . Lessons 1-4 as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y were designed t o h e l p the students develop d e f i n i t i o n s of the v e r t e b r a t e s . Each l e s s o n p r o v i d e d a b u i l d i n g b l o c k f o r t h i s purpose. LESSON 1 Purpose of the Task Lesson 1 p r o v i d e s the c o n t e x t f o r the r e s t of the u n i t . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of l i v i n g t h i n g s c h a r t on page 93 of the s c i e n c e t e x t was d i s c u s s e d (see above). P r i o r t o t h i s l e s s o n the students had not s t u d i e d v e r t e b r a t e s i n the c l a s s . 41 Content The major focus f o r the content r e v e a l e d how l i v i n g t h i n g s can be f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d i n t o v e r t e b r a t e s and i n v e r t e b r a t e s and i' t h a t v e r t e b r a t e s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f i v e c l a s s e s ; mammals, b i r d s , amphibians, r e p t i l e s and f i s h . The content i s q u i t e c l e a r l y t i e d i n t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Language To sum up the l e s s o n , the students r e c e i v e d an o r a l d e s c r i p -t i o n o f F i g u r e 3.2. There are t h r e e major groups of l i v i n g t h i n g s ; animals, p l a n t s and p r o t i s t s . The animal kingdom can be d i v i d e d i n t o two l a r g e groups, the v e r t e b r a t e s and the i n v e r t e -b r a t e s . The v e r t e b r a t e s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f i v e c l a s s e s : mammals, b i r d s , amphibians, r e p t i l e s and f i s h . The d i s c o u r s e i n t h i s l e s s o n i s l a r g e l y c l a s s i f i c a t o r y and, as such, i s connected t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h i s l e s s o n s e t s the co n t e x t f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the d e s c r i p t o r s i n l e s s o n 2 which i n t u r n s e t s up a co n t e x t f o r i n t r o d u c i n g the use of the computer database i n l e s s o n 3. LESSON 2 Purpose of the Task The purpose of l e s s o n 2 was f o r the students t o see what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v e r t e b r a t e s have i n common. T h i s t a s k a l s o s e t the s t u d e n t s up f o r w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s i n l a t e r l e s s o n s . They a l s o had t o make judgements about which d e s c r i p t o r s might be more powerful i n s e p a r a t i n g the v e r t e b r a t e s i n t o groups. 42 Content The c o n t e n t i n t h i s u n i t has t o do w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n of a v e r t e b r a t e . The d e s c r i p t o r s were foc u s s e d on t o s e t the stage f o r i n t r o d u c i n g v e r t e b r a t e examples i n l e s s o n 3 which would be the b a s i s f o r w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n i n l e s s o n 4. A c c o r d i n g t o Mohan d e f i n i t i o n s are r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n . Computer The st u d e n t s were i n t r o d u c e d t o the d e s c r i p t o r s on paper f i r s t . They o c c u r r e d i n the same order t h a t the d e s c r i p t o r s are arranged i n , i n the s i n g l e r e c o r d format of the computer d a t a -base. Again as abOve t h i s i s r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Language Each d e s c r i p t o r was c o n s i d e r e d a v o c a b u l a r y item. The students had t o know the words i n o r d e r t o l a t e r , i n l e s s o n 4, w r i t e d e f i n i t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t i n g them. P a r t of l e a r n i n g the meanings of the words a l s o e n t a i l e d making judgements about which of them would be more u s e f u l i n s e p a r a t i n g the v e r t e b r a t e s i n t o c l a s s e s . These a c t i v i t i e s were done t o g i v e the students some i n p u t as t o how d e f i n i t i o n s are s t r u c t u r e d i n o r d e r t o prepare them f o r l e s s o n 4. D e f i n i t i o n s are r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . LESSON 3 Purpose of the Task The s t u d e n t s used the computer database t o r e t r i e v e examples of v e r t e b r a t e s t o use t o w r i t e d e f i n i t i o n s i n l e s s o n 4. Content The students assembled a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c h a r t o f v e r t e x b r a t e s which r e f l e c t s the L i v i n g Things c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e . The c h a r t shows t h a t the v e r t e b r a t e s are grouped i n t o f i v e groups and p r o v i d e s the v e r t e b r a t e examples f o r the students t o be g i n t h i n k -i n g about i n o r d e r t o w r i t e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r each c l a s s . Computer In t h i s a c t i v i t y the students used the database management program t o manipulate r e c o r d s o f the v e r t e b r a t e s i n order t o f i l l i n a c h a r t . Both the s i n g l e r e c o r d and m u l t i p l e r e c o r d formats were used throughout t h i s t a s k . The s i n g l e r e c d r d format was used t o r e t r i e v e i n f o r m a t i o n . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r the s i n g l e r e c o r d format i s r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e o f d e s c r i p t i o n and the m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format i s r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Language The students read d e s c r i p t i o n s ( r e c o r d s ) o f s e v e r a l animals and d i s c u s s e d which ones t o i n c l u d e i n t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c h a r t . LESSON 4 Lesson 4 i s the c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h i s u n i t and a g r e a t d e a l of a t t e n t i o n has been devoted t o examining the academic d i s c o u r s e i s s u e s t h a t arose d u r i n g the l e s s o n . 44 Purpose o f the t a s k The main purpose o f t h i s l e s s o n was f o r the students t o t h i n k about, t a l k about and then w r i t e t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the f i v e v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s . T h i s i s the c u l m i n a t i o n o f the l a s t t h r e e l e s s o n s . Content Using the v e r t e b r a t e examples, the students composed d e f i n i t i o n s f o r each c l a s s . The d e f i n i t i o n s a re r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Computer The students used a form generated from the r e c o r d s i n the database. The form resembled the m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format which i s r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . Language In t h i s t a s k the students wrote d e f i n i t i o n s o f the v e r t e -b r a t e s . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c o u r s e i s the s t u d e n t s ' d i s c u s s i o n of what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( d e s c r i p t o r s ) should be i n c l u d e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d Smith and Meux's examples of concept ventu r e s are used here t o c a t e g o r i z e the nature of the d i s c o u r s e . Some Examples: T h a i - ESL Student Dawn - N a t i v e Indian c l a s s i f i c a t o r y T: A mammal i s .. l e t ' s see .. umm a mammal i s d e s c r i p t i o n , an animal t h a t i s got r e p r o d u c t i o n and .. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c D: has .. a mammal has r e p r o d u c t i o n .. th e y ' r e 45 s u f f i c i e n t born a l i v e c o n d i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c D: locomotion T: yeah c h a r a c t e r i s t i c D: walk c l a s s i f i c a t o r y T: a mammal i s uh .. i s a animal t h a t i s born d e s c r i p t i o n , a l i v e s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c D: and i s warm blooded T: mmm yes " D: has f u r 11 T: yeah, has f u r s u f f i c i e n t D: .. animal t h a t i s born a l i v e i s .. born .. c o n d i t i o n a l i v e .. e r born a l i v e .. sh o u l d we use born a l i v e Or r e p r o d u c t i o n , w e l l i t ' s the same t h i n g but .. yes, born a l i v e .. a l i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .. i s warm blooded .. or The f o l l o w i n g i s a f i r s t d r a f t of T h a i and Dawns' d e f i n i -t i o n of a mammal: A mammal i s an animal t h a t i s born a l i v e and breathes w i t h lungs and l i v e s on l a n d . T h a i and Dawn are w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s which are c o n s i d e r e d t o be a component of the knowledge s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . They are d i s c u s s i n g the important f e a t u r e s o f the d e f i n i t i o n i n ord e r t o w r i t e i t . The d i s c o u r s e appears t o r e f l e c t T h a i and Dawns' thoughts about mammals. T h a i has i d e n t i f i e d b e i n g born a l i v e as an important f e a t u r e t o have i n the d e f i n i t i o n about mammals. A c c o r d i n g t o Smith and Meiix t h i s q u a l i f i e s as a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n because t h i s One f e a t u r e s e t s mammals a p a r t from a l l of the oth e r c l a s s e s . T h i s f e a t u r e and the o t h e r s i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n are r e l e v a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f mammals which are i n t u r n r e l e v a n t t o a d e f i n i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Smith and Meux's concept ventures T h a i and Dawn appear t o be i n v o l v e d i n c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e . They have d e s c r i b e d a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n . 46 Examples: S c o t t and Jenny The d i a l o g c o n c e r n i n g a d e f i n i t i o n o f a b i r d below i s based on the c h a r t Jenny and S c o t t f i l l e d out above: re q u e s t f o r s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n , s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as above S: Kay, b i r d s .. um, l a y eggs .. urn, what's the most important t h i n g here? J : I would say f e a t h e r s S: cause t h e y ' r e the o n l y group t h a t has f e a t h e r s ? c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c J : yeah, t h a t ' s r i g h t S: so i t ' l l say .. a b i r d i s an animal t h a t i s covered w i t h f e a t h e r s and i s warm blooded wi t h lungs J : yeah, a l s o l a y i n g eggs i s r e a l l y important S: yeah J : w e l l , what we c o u l d , what we c o u l d do .. a b i r d i s a e g g - l a y i n g animal w i t h f e a t h e r s and i s warm blooded S: yeah J : cause l i k e , a l o t o f them have lungs S: yeah, but t h a t ' s not t h a t important J : OK, so we s a i d a b i r d i s an e g g - l a y i n g animal w i t h f e a t h e r s and i s warm blooded. OK ( w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n ) a b i r d i s an S: e g g - l a y i n g .. animal S&J: w i t h f e a t h e r s and i s warm blooded The f o l l o w i n g i s a f i r s t d r a f t of S c o t t and Jennys' d e f i n i t i o n of a b i r d : A b i r d i s an egg l a y i n g animal w i t h f e a t h e r s and i s warm blooded. The students were w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s which are c o n s i d e r e d t o be a component of the knowledge s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . They were d i s c u s s i n g the important f e a t u r e s o f the d e f i n i t i o n i n ord e r t o w r i t e i t . The d i s c o u r s e appears t o r e f l e c t ScOtt and Jennys" t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . Having scanned the c h a r t Jenny has i d e n t i f i e d f e a t h e r s as being an important f e a t u r e t o have i n the d e f i n i t i o n about b i r d s . There were no o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s which has f e a t h e r s f o r a body c o v e r i n g oh the c h a r t . T h i s q u a l i f i e s as a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n because t h i s one f e a t u r e s e t s b i r d s a p a r t from a l l of the o t h e r c l a s s e s . T h i s f e a t u r e and the o t h e r s i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n are r e l e v a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b i r d s which are i n t u r n r e l e v a n t t o a d e f i n i t i o n as Smith and Meux's c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t e . A l l o f the o t h e r p a i r s o f students who d i d t h i s t a s k were i n v o l v e d i n the same type of d i s c u s s i o n u s i n g c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e as they c r e a t e d t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g are the s t u d e n t s ' f i r s t attempts a t w r i t i n g t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s o f mammals: David (NSV and Pat (ESL' A mammal i s a warm blooded animal i t has lungs and f u r and i t a l s o born a l i v e arid t h e i r d e i t i s omnivorous. S t u a r t (US) and Lucy (ESL) A mammal i s an animal t h a t i s warm blooded. Most breathe through lungs. Tony (ESL) and Tara (NS) A mammal i s a warm blooded v e r t e b r a t e wich mostly l i v e s on l a n d The mamals r e s p i r a t o r y system i s lungs and i t s babies are born a l i v e and a l s o (most) mamals walk. Wei P i n g (ESL) and Gerard (ESL) A mammal i s a warm blooded animal w i t h f u r , h a i r , o r smooth s k i n , i t i s c a r n i v o r o u s and i t s locomotion i s f l y o r walk. Karen (ESL1 and R i c h a r d (ESL) A mammal i s a v e r t e b r a t e t h a t i s born a l i v e , warm blooded and i t i s h e r d i v o r o u s . 48 Winnie (ESL) and Sonia (ESL) A mammal i s a f u r r y o r h a i r y warm blooded v e r t e b r a t e s which l i v e s On l a n d . They are born a l i v e and they breathe w i t h lungs. Tarn (ESL) and Sean (NS) A mammal i s warm blooded has lungs and locomotion and c a r n i v o r o u s T h a i (ESL) and Dawn (NS) A mammal i s an animal t h a t i s born a l i v e and breathes w i t h lungs and l i v e s on l a n d . K e vin (NS) and Kathy (ESL) A mammal i s a warm blooded v e r t e b r a t e t h a t i s born a l i v e and l i v e s on l a n d . R i c a r d o (ESL) and C h r i s (ESL) A mammal i s a warm blooded s p i e c i e s whitch has lungs f o r i t s r e s p i t o r y system. I t a l s o has f u r or smooth s k i n , The H a b i t a t i s f e a t h e r l a n d o r sea. Most of the r e p r o d u c t i o n systems are born a l i v e . P e a r l i n e (ESL1 and Rudy (ESL) A mammal i s warm blooded, i t i s a l i v e b e a r e r and i t breathes through lungs. Jenny (NS) and S c o t t (NS) A mammal i s an animal t h a t g i v e s l i v e b i r t h and i s warm blooded w i t h l u n g s . Dana (NS) and R i c k (ESL) A mammal i s a warm blooded animal which has lungs and i s born a l i v e and i s c a r n i v o r o u s . I t dose not h i b e r n a t e o r migrate. A f t e r examining the rOugh d r a f t s of the d e f i n i t i o n s the te a c h e r s d e c i d e d t o spend more time h e l p i n g the students develop t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . Groups of students brought t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e background knowledge on v e r t e b r a t e s t o bear on the t h i s t a s k , as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3 , Jenny added new background knowledge 49 which meant changing the language i n the d e f i n i t i o n t o r e f l e c t t h i s change. Both the s c i e n c e and language t e a c h e r s expressed t h a t t h i s s e r i e s o f a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f u r t h e r development of the s t u d e n t s ' academic d i s c o u r s e ( w r i t i n g and t a l k i n g about v e r t e b r a t e d e f i n i t i o n s ) which i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . F u r t h e r academic d i s c o u r s e i s s u e s are d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . Academic d i s c o u r s e i s s u e s Having examined the rough d r a f t s o f the d e f i n i t i o n s i t i s c l e a r why so much time was spent d e v e l o p i n g them f u r t h e r . To develop language and content accuracy t h e r e seem t o be a t l e a s t f i v e major areas t h a t r e q u i r e d a t t e n t i o n . They i n c l u d e d morpho-l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l e r r o r s , r u l e s f o r w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s , changing language t o r e f l e c t c ontent r e a l i t y and s t y l i s t i c c o n v e ntions. Some common mor p h o l o g i c a l e r r o r s were t a k i n g words l i k e locomotion and u s i n g them t h i s way; " . . . i t s locomotion i s f l y o r walk." S y n t a c t i c a l e r r o r s were made wit h sentence word or d e r and o r d e r i n g a d j e c t i v e s t o name a few examples. The next area had t o do w i t h how d e f i n i t i o n s are s t r u c t u r e d , t h a t t h e r e i s a p a t t e r n f o r how i n f o r m a t i o n i s ordered i n a d e f i n i t i o n and a l s o t h a t d e f i n i t i o n s have a purpose. F u r t h e r then, the content of the d e f i n i t i o n must be acc u r a t e and i f i t i s not, changes must be made i n the language o f the d e f i n i t i o n t o make i t so. T h i s was i l l u s t r a t e d above w i t h the d u c k - b i l l e d p l a t y p u s example. F i n a l l y , t h a t t h e r e are s t y l i s t i c conventions which are brought 50 t o bear on w r i t i n g a d e f i n i t i o n . These f i v e areas were q u i t e e v i d e n t i n the s t u d e n t s ' d r a f t v e r s i o n s o f t h e i r mammal d e f i n i -t i o n s . Although a much more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of these i s s u e s c o u l d be undertaken however I t h i n k what i s primary here i s t h a t the f i v e areas mentioned above a i l f e e d i n t o the language and content accuracy o f w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s which i s connected w i t h the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . LESSONS 5 . 6 AND 7 Lessons 5, 6 and 7 were designed t o a l l o w the students t o use t h e i r newly c r e a t e d d e f i n i t i o n s . In l e s s o n 5 the students were presented w i t h a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f the m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format i n which the names and c l a s s e s of the animals had been omitted. The s t u d e n t s ' t a s k was t o c l a s s i f y each v e r t e b r a t e as a mammal, b i r d , amphibian o r f i s h . The students had t o use t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s t o j u s t i f y t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , e.g., " I t must be a ( c e r t a i n c l a s s ) because ip has (these f e a t u r e s ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Smith and Meuxs" concept ventures t h i s type o f d i s c o u r s e i s a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n which q u a l i f i e s i t as c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e . The content i s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v e r t e b r a t e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n i s s u p p l i e d on the computer. A l l t h r e e o f these areas a re r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In l e s s o n 6 the students used the s i n g l e r e c o r d format t o r e t r i e v e more i n f o r m a t i o n on o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s i n or d e r t o add t o the database t o add t o the database. The content here i s the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f v a r i o u s v e r t e b r a t e s . The s i n g l e r e c o r d format 51 from the database i s used t o gather the i n f o r m a t i o n . These areas are r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In l e s s o n 7 the students grouped the v e r t e b r a t e s i n the database i n many ways. They were a b l e t o make c r o s s -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the v e r t e b r a t e database through forming q u e s t i o n s l i k e which o f the animals are c a r n i v o r o u s and then determine the statement t o f e e d the computer t o get t h i s i n f o r -mation. The students manipulated the database t o group the i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t ways r e f e r r i n g t o both the s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e r e c o r d formats. Each of the areas are r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d i s c o u r s e . SUMMARY I t i s e v i d e n t from the a n a l y s i s t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s e x i s t among these t h r e e a r e a s . Each has the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n knowledge s t r u c t u r e s i n common. The computer database has been used t o o r g a n i z e o r s t r u c t u r e the b i o l o g y content which has i n t u r n been used t o d i s p l a y c l a s s i -f i c a t o r y knowledge and t o promote the academic d i s c o u r s e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F i g u r e 4.1 summarizes the major connections among b i o l o g y s u b j e c t matter, a computer database and academic d i s c o u r s e as they r e l a t e t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the u n i t of study on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v e r t e b r a t e s F i g u r e 4.1 - Content, computers and language r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n j content d e f i n i t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i o f v e r t e b r a t e s j computers j m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format language [ c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s j | content names and d e s c r i p t i o n of I v e r t e b r a t e s | computers j s i n g l e r e c o r d j format j language j d e s c r i p t i o n d i s c o u r s e D e s c r i p t i o n Chapter 5  CONCLUSION A. THE QUESTION Can a computer database be used t o augment a c o n t e n t based approach t o d e v e l o p i n g academic d i s c o u r s e ? T h i s document has r e p o r t e d on the i n t e g r a t i o n of these t h r e e areas i n student t a s k s i n a u n i t of work ( b i o l o g y ) . The o b j e c t i v e s of the study were: 1) t o i n v e s t i g a t e the connections between b i o l o g y content, a computer database and the academic d i s c o u r s e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and 2) t o i d e n t i f y i f each of these areas were i n f a c t r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . B. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 1. Chapter 3 - N a r r a t i v e Chapter 3 p r o v i d e d the c o n t e x t f o r examining o b j e c t i v e 1 above, the c o n n e c t i o n s between b i o l o g y content, a computer d a t a -base and the academic d i s c o u r s e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Three areas were foc u s s e d on: how a database and b i o l o g y m a t e r i a l s are r e l a -t e d , how student t a s k s can be r e l a t e d t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and how the r e s u l t i n g d i s c o u r s e i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i s c o u r s e . I t appears q u i t e c l e a r from the n a r r a t i v e of the u n i t t h a t a database can be used t o o r g a n i z e b i o l o g y m a t e r i a l oh the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v e r t e -b r a t e s . The students used the v e r t e b r a t e database t o do a number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n type t a s k s . Two of s p e c i a l note were w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of the v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s and then c l a s s i f y i n g o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s u s i n g those d e f i n i t i o n s . The w r i t t e n and spoken d i s c o u r s e t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g these t a s k s was c l a s s i f i c a t o r y i n nature a c c o r d i n g t o Smith and Meux's c a t e g o r i e s of d i s c o u r s e . 54 2. Chapter 4 - A n a l y s i s The purpose of Chapter 4 was t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between b i o l o g y content, a computer database and the academic d i s c o u r s e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s a n a l y s i s accounts f o r the second major o b j e c t i v e o f the study. From the a n a l y s i s i t i s apparent t h a t t h e r e a re connections among these t h r e e areas. Each of the areas has the o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n i n common. As mentioned a t the end of Chapter 4 the v e r t e b r a t e database has been used t o o r g a n i z e o r s t r u c t u r e the b i o l o g y content which has i n t u r n been used t o d i s p l a y c l a s s i f i - ? c a t o r y knowledge and promote the academic d i s c o u r s e o f c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study are summarized i n F i g u r e 4.1. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s among b i o l o g y s u b j e c t matter, a computer database an<* academic d i s c o u r s e as they r e l a t e t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n e x i s t w i t h i n the co n t e x t o f t h i s u n i t o f study on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v e r t e b r a t e s . 55 F i g u r e 4 . 1 - Content, computers and language r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n j content d e f i n i t i o n of v e r t e b r a t e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n j of v e r t e b r a t e s computers m u l t i p l e r e c o r d format language c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e d e f i n i t i o n o f j c l a s s e s J j content computers | language j names and s i n g l e d e s c r i p t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e c o r d d i s c o u r s e , v e r t e b r a t e s format 1 1 i i D e s c r i p t i o n C. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH The data seems t o suggest t h a t b i o l o g y s u b j e c t matter, a computer database and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e have p a t t e r n s of i n f o r m a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n which are s i m i l a r t o the p a t t e r n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e o n l y f o r t h i s study and i s not n e c e s s a r i l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o o t h e r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s , however the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these t h r e e areas appears t o be s t r o n g enough t o a c t as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r a number of r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h i s s u e s . I t h i n k a reasonable and p i v o t a l d i r e c t i o n t o move i n i s t o examine q u a n t i t a t i v e l y the e f f e c t s of i n t e g r a t e d b i o l o g y content, computer database and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e u n i t o f study on c o g n i t i v e academic language development and academic achievement. A l l o f the o t h e r r e s e a r c h i m p l i c a t i o n s and sugg e s t i o n s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l use the f i n d i n g s as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r en q u i r y . They are a l l i n some ways examining means by which CALP and academic achievement 56 can be f o s t e r e d . While these i s s u e s o v e r l a p each o t h e r exten-s i v e l y , i n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s them more e a s i l y I have grouped them i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l areas: 1. Task d e s i g n and it's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l e a r n i n g content and language. 2 . Teacher p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n of a u n i t of study. 3. T o o l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the computer: the database, spreadsheet, and d e c i s i o n making software For each of the t h r e e areas above I w i l l d e s c r i b e a few p e r t i n e n t i s s u e s which arose from the d a t a . 1. Task d e s i g n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l e a r n i n g c o n t e n t and  language There were two i s s u e s which have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s t o p i c : a) The v a l u e of i n t e g r a t i n g c o n t e n t , computers and language. Does i t make l e a r n i n g f o r the student more meaningful and e f f i c i e n t f o r the l e a r n e r ? In l e s s o n 4 the students were composing d e f i n i t i o n s of v e r t e b r a t e s . I f one student suggested some i n f o r m a t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r v e r t e b r a t e which d i d not agree w i t h i t s r e s p e c t i v e d e f i n i t i o n , the students then looked f o r ways t o i n c l u d e the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . T h i s o f t e n meant r e s t r u c t u r i n g the d e f i n i t i o n . The students were eager t o make t h e i r d e f i n i -t i o n s p r e c i s e . The t e a c h e r s were a b l e t o i n t r o d u c e the students t o language s t r u c t u r e s which made t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s more a c c u r -a t e . Fqir example i n s t e a d of i n t r o d u c i n g the students t o r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s i n a language a r t s c l a s s u n r e l a t e d t o a content area, the b i o l o g y content p r o v i d e d a c o n t e x t i n which the students wanted t o know what language i n p u t they needed i n o r d e r t o improve t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . At t h i s p o i n t I t h i n k l e a r n i n g about r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s became r e l e v a n t the st u d e n t s . While these a re o n l y o b s e r v a t i o n s on my p a r t , they do support examining the d i f f e r e n -ces i n how meaningful a s i t u a t i o n l i k e the one above i s t o students compared t o one where these t h r e e v a r i a b l e s are taught as separate e n t i t i e s . F u r t h e r t o t h i s i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o note how each o f these methodologies d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o how e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y the students l e a r n . b) Do d e s c r i p t o r s as they have been used here i n a database make a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n how students l e a r n content and language? For example do the d e s c r i p t o r s p r o v i d e a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g throughout the u n i t ? The d e s c r i p t o r s were used i n l e s s o n s 2-7 f o r s e v e r a l d i f f e r -ent t a s k s . By the time the students reached l e s s o n 6 where they res e a r c h e d o t h e r v e r t e b r a t e s u s i n g the d e s c r i p t o r s as a r e t r i e v a l sheet they were ve r y f a m i l i a r w i t h the d e s c r i p t o r s . The s c i e n c e t e a c h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t the students were a b l e t o c o l l e c t informar t i o n on v e r t e b r a t e s a c c u r a t e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y and had improved i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o do t h i s k i n d o f t a s k . When comparing P a r t s I and I I of the u n i t the language s p e c i a l i s t s a i d t h a t i n her experience the u n i t r e a l l y took o f f when the d e s c r i p t o r s were focu s s e d on i n l e s s o n 2. I observed students u s i n g the d e s c r i p t o r s i n the r e t r i e v a l sheet not as a simple f i l l i n the blank e x e r c i s e but one t h a t appeared c o g n i t i v e l y demanding. For example t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l d i d not always mention i f c e r t a i n mammals were warm blooded o r c o l d blooded, however the students knew t h a t mammals were warm blooded 58 so they were a b l e t o f i l l t h i s i n based on t h e i r background knowledge. 2. Teacher p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a u n i t o f study For t h i s area two i s s u e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t : a) Teacher f r o n t e d l e s s o n s versus t e a c h e r guided l e s s o n s . What P=are the d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t e a c h e r s and students who have r e s p e c -t i v e l y taught and l e a r n e d i n a t e a c h e r f r o n t e d c l a s s as compared t o a c l a s s which i s hot t e a c h e r f r o n t e d as i s the case here. In t h i s u n i t , out of 20 l e s s o n s , approximately two were te a c h e r f r o n t e d and the r e s t were o r c h e s t r a t e d i n such a way t h a t the students worked i n p a i r s o r i n s m a l l groups u s i n g the d a t a -base as a source o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o do a v a r i e t y o f t a s k s . The t e a c h e r s a c t e d as guides and f a c i l i t a t o r s . The students were a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g . I t h i n k i t would be worthwhile t o examine the r o l e s o f both the t e a c h e r s and students i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n and determine i f t h i s type o f arrangement has a p o s i t i v e a f f e c t oh l e a r n i n g . b) The s c i e n c e and language s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s were p a r t n e r s i n p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g t h i s u n i t . Was t h i s p a r t n e r s h i p b e n e f i c i a l t o the t e a c h e r s and the students? T r a d i t i o n a l l y E n g l i s h Language Centre (ELC) t e a c h e r s w i t h -draw ESL students from t h e i r c ontent c l a s s e s i n o r d e r t o te a c h them language. Even when ELC t e a c h e r s are t e a c h i n g content i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the same content the student i s m i s s i n g i n h i s absence. In t h i s u n i t of work the ELC t e a c h e r j o i n e d the content t e a c h e r i n t e a c h i n g the s c i e n c e u n i t . Rather than spending time w i t h a few students who were drawn out of c l a s s the ELC tea c h e r 59 worked w i t h the e n t i r e c l a s s on language i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o s c i e n c e c o n t e n t . The t e a c h e r s were a b l e t o work c o o p e r a t i v e l y , each b r i n g i n g t h e i r own s t r e n g t h s t o bear on the p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g of the u n i t . How might t h i s type of p a r t n e r s h i p b e n e f i t the t e a c h e r s and the students? 3. T o o l a p p l i b a t i o n s of the computer; the database,  spreadsheet, and d e c i s i o n making software At l e a s t two areas of i n t e r e s t arose from the d a t a : a) S i n c e c o n n e c t i o n s appear t o e x i s t between b i o l o g y s u b j e c t matter, a computer database and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e i t may p o s s i b l e t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s e x i s t between o t h e r content areas such as s o c i a l s t u d i e s o r mathematics and a computer database and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e . U n i t s c o u l d be planned, as the One i n t h i s study was, t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t t o examine the c o n n e c t i o n s between these content areas and a computer database and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e . b) F i n a l l y , are t h e r e o t h e r t o o l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the computer which can be r e l a t e d t o the o t h e r knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of p r i n c i p l e s , sequence, e v a l u a t i o n and c h o i c e i n Mohan's knowledge framework? A spreadsheet program can be used t o t e s t i f - t h e n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These are r e l a t e d t o c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s which are connected t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of p r i n c i p l e s . D e c i s i o n making programs e x i s t which appear t o be r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of e v a l u a t i o n and c h o i c e . Can these a p p l i c a t i o n be used as key v i s u a l s t o b r i d g e between content and language and a c t s as a support f o r c o g n i t i v e / academic development? 60 The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s a b r i e f overview o f some of the p o s s i b l e areas t h a t might be rese a r c h e d r e l a t e d t o the connec t i o n s between b i o l o g y s u b j e c t matter, a computer database and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c o u r s e . D, SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION T h i s u n i t both i n p r e p a r a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n p u l l e d t o g e t h e r a wide a r r a y o f v a r i a b l e s and p r o v i d e d a r i c h source of data from which many i s s u e s arose. Out of the data I have chosen t o d i s c u s s two i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n . 1. Improvements t o the v e r t e b r a t e database While the database served w e l l as source of i n f o r m a t i o n on v e r t e b r a t e s and was used as encourage c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s c b u r s e i t was not without i t s f a u l t s . For example as the database e x i s t s t h e r e are ve r y few p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t o r s , which would make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r anyone t o assemble a mental image of the animal. T h i s might be r e c t i f i e d by adding d e s c r i p t o r s l i k e s i z e , weight and c o l o r . A second improvement would be t o add a v i s u a l of the v e r t e b r a t e i n the database so t h a t i t might be c a l l e d up w i t h the v e r t e b r a t e ' s r e c o r d . I t h i n k t h i s would make the d e s c r i p t o r s more meaningful t o the student when they can see an example of what they are r e a d i n g about. T h i r d l y , by adding d e s c r i p t o r s which d i v i d e the v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s by genus and s p e c i e s the number of d i f f e r e n t t a s k d e s i g n p o s s i b i l i t i e s i s i n c r e a s e d . 61 2. How the database might be used d i f f e r e n t l y While I t h i n k the d e s c r i p t o r s p l a y e d a p i v o t a l r o l e i n the u n i t , i t d i d take some time f o r the students t o r e a l l y understand them, which meant t h a t the u n i t d i d not proceed as w e l l f o r some students* In o r d e r t o improve t h i s s i t u a t i o n the s c i e n c e teaOher has suggested some p r e p a r a t o r y work which would i n v o l v e the students o b s e r v i n g shore c r e a t u r e s , d e s c r i b i n g them, d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own d e s c r i p t o r s , d e s i g n i n g a database, e n t e r i n g t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n i n the database and f i n a l l y p erforming c l a s s i f i c a t o r y t a s k s u s i n g the database. The students would then be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o understand the f u n c t i o n of the d e s c r i p t o r s i n the v e r t e b r a t e database. I f the computer database was improved and i n c l u d e d p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t o r s , genus and s p e c i e s d e s c r i p t o r s , and v i s u a l s of the animals then a v a r i e t y of hew t a s k s c o u l d be designed t o take advantage of these changes. The aD O V e suggestions f o r improving the database are a l s o prime areas t o i n v e s t i g a t e i n a r e s e a r c h c o n t e x t . E. A FINAL WORD The major focus of t h i s u n i t has been t o examine i f b i o l o g y co n t e n t , a computer database and the academic d i s c o u r s e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are r e l a t e d t o the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t these t h r e e v a r i a b l e s are connected. I have d i s c u s s e d p o s s i b l e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u g g e s t i o n s which have a r i s e n from the d a t a . 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Walla, K., "Toward a Computer L i t e r a t e S o c i e t y - An Elementary School R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " Computing Teacher 10 (4, December 1982):57-59. Wong-Fillmore, L. "The Language Learner as an I n d i v i d u a l . " In M. C l a r k and J . Handscombe, eds., On TESOL '82. Washington, D.C: TESOL, 1983. Wong-Fillmore, L. w i t h Valadez, C., "Teaching B i l i n g u a l L e a r n e r s . " In M.C. W i t t r o c k , ed., Handbook of Research on Teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan, 1986, pp.648-685. 68 APPENDIX - A Concept Ventures I D e s c r i p t i v e Moves 1. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c . A s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a r e f e r e n t i s e x p l i c i t l y noted o r d i s c u s s e d . 2. S u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n ; A statement of p r o p e r t i e s o r s e t of c o n d i t i o n s i s g i v e n as b e i n g s u f f i c i e n t t o i d e n t i f y something as an i n s t a n c e of the r e f e r e n t . 3. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A group of which the r e f e r e n t i s a sub-group i s noted o r d i s c u s s e d . 4. C l a s s i f i c a t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n . The r e f e r e n t i s mentioned and d e s c r i b e d as a p a r t i c u l a r s u b - c l a s s of a g i v e n c l a s s . 5. R e l a t i o n s among c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Two or more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d so t h a t when one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s v a r i e d ( u s u a l l y c a l l e d an independent v a r i a b l e ) the e f f e c t o f the change upon o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( u s u a l l y c a l l e d the dependent v a r i a b l e ) can be noted and d i s c u s s e d . 6: A n a l y s i s , a s e t of p a r t s which t o g e t h e r make up a r e f e r e n t i s noted o r d i s c u s s e d . I I Comparative Moves 7. Analogy. The r e f e r e n t i s s a i d t o be l i k e something e l s e . How the r e f e r e n t i s l i k e something e l s e may be noted or d i s c u s s e d , o r the r e f e r e n t may be s a i d t o be l i k e some-t h i n g e l s e , but t h e r e i s no d i s c u s s i o n o f how the r e f e r e n t i s l i k e i t . 8. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . 8.1 The d i f f e r e n t between the r e f e r e n t and something e l s e i s noted o r d i s c u s s e d , o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the r e f e r e n t s of two primary concepts are noted o r d i s c u s s e d . 8.2 What t h e r e f e r e n t i s not, or t h a t i t i s not the same as something e l s e , i s noted but t h e r e i s no d i s -c u s s i o n o f how the r e f e r e n t i s note the same as the ot h e r t h i n g . 8.3 The o p p o s i t e o f the r e f e r e n t i s mentioned 6 r d i s c u s s e d . 9. Instance comparison. The s i m i l a r i t i e s o r d i f f e r e n c e s between two o r more i n s t a n c e s o r s u b - c l a s s e s o f the r e f e r e n t c l a s s are noted 6r d i s c u s s e d . 69 I I I I n s t a n t i a l Moves 10. P o s i t i v e i n s t a n c e . An i n s t a n c e o r sufr-class o f the r e f e r e n t i s noted o r d i s c u s s e d . 11. Instance enumeration. A l l i n s t a n c e s o r s u b - c l a s s e s o f the r e f e r e n t are noted o r d i s c u s s e d . 12. Negative i n s t a n c e . Something t h a t i s not an i n s t a n c e o r s u b - c l a s s o f the r e f e r e n t but i s s i m i l a r enough t o be mis-taken f o r one, i s noted o r d i s c u s s e d . 13. i n s t a n c e p r o d u c t i o n . How an i n s t a n c e o r s u b - c l a s s of the r e f e r e n t i s produced, o r how i t develops, i s noted o r d i s c u s s e d . 14. Instance s u b s t a n t i a t i o n . The reason o r evidence f o r c o n c l u d i n g t h a t a de s i g n a t e d i n s t a n c e i s an i n s t a n c e of the r e f e r e n t c l a s s i s g i v e n o r d i s c u s s e d . IV Usage Moves 15. Meta d i s t i n c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n t uses o f a term, the d i f f e r e n t meanings Of a term, or the d i f f e r e n t con-d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a term. 70 APPENDIX B - Lesson Plans SCIENCE 7 - CLASSIFICATION OF VERTEBRATES Suggested sequence and content of a c t i v i t i e s LESSON 1 - aim: review - groups l i v i n g t h i n g s are c l a s s i f i e d by 1. Key V i s u a l - L i v i n g Things a) get students t o l i v i n g t h i n g s generate each l e v e l / ! \ i— L x animals _ / \ / \ v e r t e b r a t e non-vertebrate b) b r a i n s t o r m - names of animals - i n s e c t s -> put i n t o two groups - get students t o show d i f f e r e n c e c) what ot h e r animals have v e r t e b r a - backbones - add t o l i s t d) ask students t o generate the major c l a s s e s o f the v e r t e b r a t e s - f i l l i n i f they l e a v e some out - f i l l i n l o r 2 examples v e r t e b r a t e mammals b i r d s r e p t i l e s amphibians f i s h dog r o b i n snake f r o g salmon human l i z a r d salamander LESSON 2 - aim: f o r students t o develop g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the 5 types o f v e r t e b r a t e s t o a i d them i n c l a s s i f y i n g v e r t e b r a t e s 2. mammals b i r d s r e p t i l e s amphibians f i s h a) ask students t o suggest what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v e r t e b r a t e s have i n common, e.g., s k i n c o v e r i n g - have student work i n groups t o do t h i s b) have one student r e p o r t t h e i r s e t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (from each group) - te a c h e r j o t s down -r puts s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t o r s t o g e t h e r - h e l p focus c) Student e x e r c i s e . I n s t r u c t i o n s - Read t h i s e x e r c i s e c a r e -f u l l y and supply the m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . You may have t o c o n s u l t a d i c t i o n a r y . DESCRIPTORS EXAMPLES 1. 4. I 5. 6. 7. 2. r e s p i r a t o r y system 3. s k i n c o v e r i n g appendages h a b i t a t h i b e r n a t i o n cold/warm blooded born a l i v e , eggs l e g s , 8. locomotion 9. m i g r a t i o n 72 d) In pairs students order the descriptors from the most sig n i : f i c a n t to the lea s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n showing the differences among the f i v e classes of vertebrates. 1. ^ 6. 2. 7. 3. ; 8. 4. , ; 9. 5. 10; LESSON 3 - Students working i n pairs e.g., (NS NS) (NNS NNS) (NS NNS) r Students f i l l i n a chart using a data base on vertebrates. (Select two animals from each class.) Name class body temp. resp. skin reprod. etc. mammal mammal bi r d b i r d Have students get t h e i r grids checked. 73 LESSON 4 -1. Students then compare and c o n t r a s t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the v e r t e b r a t e s . L i s t the examples of the d e s c r i p t o r s which are unique t o each c l a s s . U sing these examples w r i t e a d e f i n i t i o n f o r each of the v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s , e.g., "A Mammal has " 2. How are the c l a s s e s s i m i l a r t o each other? L i s t s i m i l a r i t i e s , e.g., Mammals and b i r d s are warm blooded. LESSON 5 - Data Base C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A c t i v i t y - V e r t e b r a t e s T h i s data base i n c l u d e s o n l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the animals. The c l a s s has been l e f t out. Read over the c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s of the animal and then r e f e r t o your d e f i n i t i o n s . F i l l out the c h a r t below i n d i c a t i n g name, c l a s s (mammal, b i r d , amphibian, r e p t i l e , f i s h ) and why you t h i n k i t belongs t o t h i s c l a s s . Why you t h i n k i t Name of Animal C l a s s belongs t o t h i s c l a s s 1. c a t mammal warm blooded, has f u r 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 . 9. 10. 74 LESSON 6 - L i b r a r y Research 1. Prepare 5 index cards as f o l l o w s : Name: C l a s s : Body Temp.: Covering: , Resp.System: e t c . 2. S e l e c t 5 animals, one from each c l a s s . Do not use the animals on the c h a r t . Show your l i s t t o the t e a c h e r . At the l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h each animal and f i l l out an index c a r d . a) l o a d the data base " V e r t e b r a t e s " b) go t o the end of the r e c o r d s c) type i n the i n f o r m a t i o n LESSON 7 - V e r t e b r a t e data base a c t i v i t i e s : 1. a) Give examples t o students of what you can p u l l out Of a data base, e.g., a l i s t of a l l the mammals; ah a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t o f each c l a s s - each of these are c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s b) Demonstrate how i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e t r i e v e d - r u l e s f o r r e t r i e v a l (and/or e t c . ) c) Supply the students w i t h q u e s t i o n s , e.g., "Which animals are c a r n i v o r o u s ? " and the s e l e c t i o n r u l e s -c l a s s - c a r n i v o r o u s - t o get the i n f o r m a t i o n . d) In groups have students develop f i v e q u e s t i o n s t o ask of the data base and the accompanying r u l e s f o r g e t t i n g the q u e s t i o n s . e) Students r e p o r t t o r e s t Of c l a s s u s i n g a c h a r t o r b u l l e t i n board t o show t h e i r r e s u l t s . 2. a) A l t e r n a t e a c t i v i t y - have students b u i l d a t r i v i a l p u r s u i t game which i n v o l v e s u s i n g the data base. APPENDIX - C 75 V e r t e b r a t e s 75 MAMMALS d u c k - b i l l e d p l a t y p u s wallaby shrew horseshoe bat orangutan p a n g o l i n p r a i r i e dog musk-rat dingo cheetah w o l v e r i n e g r i z z l y bear beluga whale a f r i c a n elephant t h r e e - t o e d s l o t h BIRDS o s t r i c h k i n g penguin flamingo m a l l a r d swan cuckoo owl k i n g f i s h e r woodpecker cockatoo v u l t u r e eagle k i w i s t o r k s e c r e t a r y b i r d AMPHIBIANS toad arrow-poison f r o g f i r e b e l l y mud puppy newt a x o l o t l brown s p e l e r p e s a l p i n e newt g r e a t e r s i r e n olm amphiuma b u l l f r o g marsh f r o g t i g e r salamander c a e c i l i a n REPTILES a l l i g a t o r t u a t a r a box t u r t l e t e r r a p i n c r o c o d i l e adder koraodo dragon iguana i n d i a n cobra chameleon anaconda boa c o n s t r i c t o r -gecko moluccan s k i n k v i v i p a r o u s l i z a r d FISH b l u e f i n tuna l u n g f i s h g r e a t white shark sea lamprey s w o r d f i s h s a r d i n e g o l d f i s h p i r a n h a f l y i n g f i s h d r a g o n f i s h goby e l e c t r i c e e l a t l a n t i c salmon seahorse sea-perch 

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