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Leisure reading habits and preferences of anglophone grade 6 early French immersion students related… Picha, Katharine Agnes 1988

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LEISURE READING HABITS AND PREFERENCES OF ANGLOPHONE GRADE 6 EARLY FRENCH IMMERSION STUDENTS RELATED TO BOOK PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES By KATHARINE AGNES PICHA B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Language E d u c a t i o n , Department of E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 29, 1988 K a t h a r i n e Agnes P l e n a , 1988 In p r e s e n t i n g this thesis in part ia l f u l f i lmen t o f t h e requ i remen ts fo r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e Univers i ty o f Bri t ish C o l u m b i a , I agree that t h e Library shall m a k e it f reely available fo r re ference a n d s t u d y . I fu r ther agree tha t permiss ion fo r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis fo r scho lar ly pu rposes may be g r a n t e d by the head o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r b y his o r her representa t ives . It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t ion o f th is thesis f o r f inancia l ga in shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f The Univers i ty o f Bri t ish C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 DE-6G/81) 11 Abstract This study Investigated the l e i s u r e reading of B r i t i s h Columbia grade 6 anglophone French immersion students, attempting to f i n d out t h e i r genre preferences, t h e i r language preferences, the amounts they read, and whether there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the reading of the boys and the g i r l s . It further sought to determine whether there were any relationships between the children's reading and teacher, t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n and public l i b r a r i a n a c t i v i t i e s , or the French language materials to which the childr e n had access. Data were c o l l e c t e d by means of four q u e s t i o n n a i r e s — t o grade 6 immersion students, to grade 6 language arts teachers (English and French), to teacher-librarians in immersion schools, and to public l i b r a r i a n s i n communities with immersion schools. S t a t i s t i c a l analyses were made of : circumstances reported by the teachers, teacher-l i b r a r i a n s , and public l i b r a r i a n s by i s o l a t i n g the r e p l i e s of the childr e n in the corresponding classes. This researcher found that: childr e n preferred to read in English; genre preferences varied widely from c h i l d I l l to c h i l d , and were d i f f e r e n t between boys and g i r l s ; very few a c t i v i t i e s of teachers, teacher-librarians or pub l i c l i b r a r i a n s could be related to the volume of children's reading; and very few circumstances of the school l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s could be related to the volume of children's reading. I v Table of Contents Abstract 11 Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v i i i Chapter I: Introduction 1 Background of the Study 1 Purpose of the Study 3 Assumptions 4 Rationale for the Study 5 Defini t i o n s of Terms 5 S p e c i f i c Research Problem 8 Research Questions 9 Chapter I I : Review of the Li t e r a t u r e 10 Studies of Leisure Reading Preferences and Attitudes 10 Early Studies 12 More Recent Studies 15 Genre Preferences and Differences between Boys and G i r l s 15 Attitudes to Reading 20 Amounts Read 20 Teachers, Teacher- Librarians and School Library C o l l e c t i o n s 21 Quebec Francophones 22 Libra r y Use of B i l i n g u a l C h i l d r e n — English-Welsh 23 Summary of the Li t e r a t u r e on Reading Preferences 24 Studies on French Immersion 25 Province of Quebec 27 Ontario 30 New Brunswick 33 Manitoba 33 Saskatchewan 34 Alberta 35 B r i t i s h Columbia 35 Summary of the Lit e r a t u r e on Immersion ..... 36 Studies of Bilingualism, B i l i n g u a l Education and Second Language Education 37 V Summary of the Literature on Billnguallsm, B i l i n g u a l Education and Second Language Education 41 Chapter I I I : Methodology 42 Groups Surveyed and Sample Taken 42 Testing of the Questionnaires 44 Timing of the Questionnaires 45 Administration of the Questionnaires 45 The Questionnaires 46 Data Analysis 47 Chapter IV: Findings 49 Free Reading Materials Preferences 49 Genre choices 49 Favorite Grade 6 Book 55 Lifetime Favorite 56 Other Language Favorite 57 Favorite Author 57 Favorite Magazine 59 Preferred Language for Free Reading 60 Children's Amounts of Reading in English and French 61 Amounts of Reading—Boys and G i r l s Together 61 School Library C i r c u l a t i o n Figures 63 Differences between Boys and G i r l s 63 Preferred Genres 64 Amounts of Reading 65 Favorite Authors 66 Language of Favorite Author 66 Favorite Magazine 66 Teacher, Teacher-Librarian and Public L i b r a r i a n A c t i v i t i e s in Relation to Children's Reading . 67 Sustained S i l e n t Reading 67 Novel Study 69 Book Reporting Devices 73 Reading Aloud—Whole Novels or Parts of Novels 75 Booktalks and S p e c i f i c Promotions 76 General Promotions 79 Author V i s i t s 81 A v a i l a b i l i t y of French Language Materials 83 School Book Purchase Clubs 83 Bookstores 85 School Library C o l l e c t i o n s 85 Size of French and English C o l l e c t i o n s 85 v i Perceived Quality of School Library Collections 87 School Library Loans . 89 D i s t r i c t Resource Center Collections 90 Public Library C o l l e c t i o n s 90 Additional Findings 91 Children who Expressed no Preference in Prench . 91 Children who Made the Same Genre Choice i n French as English 92 Children who 8aid They Read a Great Deal in Either Language 93 Children who Read Very L i t t l e In Prench .... 93 Children who Read or Heard t h e i r Favorites in Both English and French 94 Children with Other Backgrounds 95 Children with French Language Background 95 Children with a Language Background Other than French or English 97 Analysis of the School Situation in Relation to Amount of Reading 98 Teacher-librarians' Perceptions of Popular Authors and Genres 99 Chapter V: Conclusions, Implications and Recommendations 100 Conclusions 101 Conclusions about Children's Reading 101 Conclusions about Teachers,' Teacher-l i b r a r i a n s , ' and Public L i b r a r i a n s ' A c t i v i t i e s in Relation to Children's Reading 105 Conclusions about Sources of French Language Materials 109 Implications I l l Inferences Drawn about Immersion Children and the i r Reading Preferences and Attitudes . I l l Inferences Drawn about the French Immersion Program . 112 Inferences Drawn about Teacher-librarians and School Library C o l l e c t i o n s 113 Recommendations . 114 Recommendations for Teachers 114 Recommendations for Teachers and Teacher-librarians 114 v i i Recommendations for the Ministry of Education (Modern Languages and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Programs Branch) 117 Recommendations for Research 119 References 122 Professional References 122 Children's Books and Magazines 129 Appendix A: Letters Asking Permission 132 Letter to Superintendents of Schools 132 Letter to P r i n c i p a l s 133 Letter to Parents 134 Appendix B: 1987 Survey--Sample and Timing 135 Appendix Cs To the Teacher-librarian Administering and Handling the Questionnaires 139 Appendix D: Questionnaires 140 Orade Six E a r l y Immersion Students 140 Grade Six Early Immersion Teachers 143 Teacher-librarian Questionnaire 145 Children's L i b r a r i a n — P u b l i c Library 148 v i i i L i s t of Tables Table 1: E a r l i e r S t u d i e s — S p e c i f i c Genres Mentioned as Favorites by Children Aged 9-13 ...... 14 Table 2: More Recent S t u d i e s — S p e c i f i c Genres Mentioned as Favorites by Children Aged 7-12 19 Table 3: Percentages (Rounded) for F i r s t Twelve Ranked Genres i n English According to Choices Made 50 Table 4: Percentages (Rounded) for F i r s t Twelve Ranked Genres in French According to Choices Made 52 Table 5: Ranks for F i r s t Twelve Overall Genre Choices in Both Languages, with Ranks and Percentages for Boys and G i r l s 54 Table 6: Language of Favorite Book Read or Heard i n Grade 6 .... 55 Table 7: Language of Lifetime Favorite Book 56 Table 8: Number of Favorite Authors Mentioned .... 57 Table 9: Eight Most Popular Authors Mentioned as Favorites in F i r s t or Second Positions .. 58 Table 10: Language i n which Favorite Author Was Heard or Read 59 Table 11: Six Most Popular Magazines or Types of Magazines Mentioned in F i r s t or Second Positions 60 Table 12: Preferred Language for Free Reading 61 Table 13: Frequencies and Percentages of Reported English and French Books Read per Month . 62 Table 14: Number of Novels Studied per Class 69 Table 15: Number of Classes which Studied the Eight Most Frequently Taught French Novels .... 71 ix Table 16: Number of Book Reporting Devices Used by English and French Teachers 73 Table 17: Types of Book Reporting Devices Used by English and French Teachers 74 Table 18: Frequencies of Reported Strengths and Weaknesses of School Li b r a r y Intermediate F i c t i o n C o l l e c t i o n s 88 Table B - l : Population and Sample Information for the 1986-87 Survey 137 1 Chapter I : I n t r o d u c t i o n Background o f t h e Study The e d u c a t i o n a l a i m o f e a r l y F r e n c h immersion i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s f u n c t i o n a l b i l i n g u a l i s m — t h e a b i l i t y t o conduct o n e s e l f w i t h f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h or F r e n c h i n any normal s i t u a t i o n . The B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i c y on immersion s t a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n g r a d u a t i n g from e a r l y F r e n c h immersion " s h o u l d be a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e e a s i l y i n F r e n c h c o n v e r s a t i o n s , t a k e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y c o u r s e s w i t h F r e n c h as t h e language of i n s t r u c t i o n , and a c c e p t employment w i t h F r e n c h as t h e w o r k i n g language" ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1987, p . 2 ) . The Manitoba government d e f i n e s " f u n c t i o n a l b i l i n g u a l i s m " as "mastery of a f i r s t language as w e l l as l i n g u i s t i c c o m petencies i n a second language which w i l l a l l o w t h e speaker t o communicate w i t h ease i n t h e second language on a p e r s o n a l as w e l l as a p r o f e s s i o n a l b a s i s . " ( P o l i c i e s on F r e n c h Immersion. Department of 2 E d u c a t i o n , M a n i t o b a , 1981, p.2 quoted i n L a b e r g e , 1984.) C h i l d r e n c o m p l e t i n g immersion programs s h o u l d be a b l e t o r e a d P rench f l u e n t l y and w e l l , and s h o u l d have some d e s i r e t o r e a d i n F r e n c h . I n B r i t i s h Columbia the F r e n c h and E n g l i s h programs a r e d e a l t w i t h as even-handedly as p o s s i b l e i n the s c h o o l s . The d u t i e s of the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n w o r k i n g i n e i t h e r program i n c l u d e t h e s e l e c t i o n , arrangement and p r omotion of m a t e r i a l s so as t o encourage c h i l d r e n t o r e a d f o r p l e a s u r e i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p f l u e n c y i n r e a d i n g , t o i n c r e a s e v o c a b u l a r y , and t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e l i f e v a l u e s of p l e a s u r e r e a d i n g . P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f d u a l t r a c k and F r e n c h immersion s c h o o l l i b r a r y c i r c u l a t i o n r e c o r d s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t once immersion c h i l d r e n become f l u e n t i n r e a d i n g E n g l i s h (about the grade 4 l e v e l ) , t h e i r v o l u n t a r y s e l e c t i o n o f F r e n c h language m a t e r i a l s i n t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y d e c r e a s e s . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s a p p a r e n t d e c r e a s e i s unknown, but i t may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o g r e a t e r mother tongue language competence, community p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f E n g l i s h language m a t e r i a l s , a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n t e n t , format and language l e v e l between E n g l i s h and F r e n c h c h i l d r e n ' s m a t e r i a l s , 3 d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h e r s t r e s s of l e i s u r e r e a d i n g i n E n g l i s h and F r e n c h c l a s s e s , l a c k o f p o s i t i v e p r o m o t i o n of F r e n c h language m a t e r i a l s , o r t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y g r e a t e r number o f E n g l i s h language m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e i n most B r i t i s h Columbia d u a l t r a c k s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s . P urposes o f t h e Study B e f o r e p e r c e i v e d r e l u c t a n c e t o r e a d i n F r e n c h f o r p l e a s u r e c o u l d be a d d r e s s e d by t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s , i t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e a c t u a l r e a d i n g c h o i c e s and r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s of c h i l d r e n i n e a r l y F r e n c h immersion be I n v e s t i g a t e d . D i d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n of one s c h o o l , and t h e r e s u l t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s , i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t t h e s i t u a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e ? The f i r s t purpose o f t h e s t u d y was t o f i n d out what genre s of l i t e r a t u r e grade 6 F r e n c h immersion s t u d e n t s l i k e d t o r e a d i n E n g l i s h and F r e n c h , what s p e c i f i c books and magazines t h e y c o n s i d e r e d f a v o r i t e s , and how much l e i s u r e r e a d i n g t h e y s a i d t h e y d i d i n E n g l i s h and F r e n c h . B e s i d e s f i n d i n g out about c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g , i t was i m p o r t a n t t o know about b o t h t h e books a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e i r e xposure t o l i t e r a t u r e . The 4 Information received from the adults in the study had two purposes: to f i n d out which book promotional a c t i v i t i e s B r i t i s h Columbia teachers, teacher-l i b r a r i a n s and public l i b r a r i a n s used with grade 6 French immersion students, and to gather information on the sources and quantities of French books available to grade 6 French immersion students. The fourth purpose of the study was to f i n d out whether there appeared to be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between any of the promotional a c t i v i t i e s or si t u a t i o n s reported by the teachers, teacher-librarians and public l i b r a r i a n s and either s p e c i f i c preferences expressed by the children or higher or lower reported volumes of reading. Assumptlons There were two basic assumptions which underlay the desire to undertake t h i s study. The f i r s t was the idea that reading i s a valuable l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y for a l l people, and that i t s development should be c u l t i v a t e d i n children. The other underlying assumption i s that one of the duties of the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n i s to promote and encourage reading so that as many children as possible grow up to see 5 reading as one of t h e i r l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . Rationale for the Study It was hoped that the findings of the study, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to relationships between children's reading and situations and a c t i v i t i e s within the general long-term control of the teacher, t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n or public l i b r a r i a n , would lead to recommendations for future practice i n school classrooms or l i b r a r i e s and to recommendations for the Ministry of Education for more e f f e c t i v e support of the language arts program. Definitions of Terms Anglophone—A person whose f i r s t language ( s t i l l spoken and understood) i s English. A t t i t u d e — A " d i s p o s i t i o n to react i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n with regard to a given object or event." (Getzels, 1966, p.98) Balanced b i l i n g u a l — A person who has equal f a c i l i t y in two languages. Bilingual--A person who has f a c i l i t y in two languages. (The d e f i n i t i o n of bi l i n g u a l i s m w i l l be discussed In the review of the l i t e r a t u r e . ) 6 Book c l u b — A n arrangement under which teachers or teacher-librarians s e l l paperback books to childre n as agents for a publisher. Books are ordered r e g u l a r l y every month or every two months, but children are not obliged to order any, or any fixed number, at a time. Book p r o m o t i o n — A c t i v i t i e s undertaken by the teacher, tea c h e r - l i b r a r i a n , or public l i b r a r i a n to present l i t e r a t u r e to childr e n and to encourage childre n to read. Core French—The course i n which children receive i n s t r u c t i o n in the French language for a fixed short period of time per day or per week. Regular i n s t r u c t i o n in other subjects i s in English. Dual track s c h o o l — A school in which English and French are used as languages of ins t r u c t i o n in two separate programs, usually regular English and French immersion. Barlv French immersion—The educational program, s t a r t i n g i n kindergarten or grade 1, which uses French as the p r i n c i p a l language of i n s t r u c t i o n for non-francophone children. Pupils usually begin the study of English i n Grade 3. English books and English language books—Books from any country which are printed in English. 7 F i c t i o n — S h o r t . s t o r i e s and novels—prose works which are the product of imagination. Francophone—A person whose f i r s t language ( s t i l l spoken and understood) i s French. French books and French language books—Books from any country which are printed i n French. Functional b i l i n g u a l ism—The a b i l i t y to conduct normal d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s in either of two languages, to the point that a person could seek employment or post-secondary education i n the second language. Genre—A type of l i t e r a t u r e i n which examples have si m i l a r format or content elements. Immersion s c h o o l — A school i n which the only program i s French Immersion. Intermediate—Grades 4 to 7. Language c h o i c e — I n t h i s case, eith e r French or English. Leisure reading—Reading done i n a person's free time, either at school ( p r i n c i p a l l y during "Uninterrupted Sustained S i l e n t Reading") or at home. Materials are usually chosen by the c h i l d . Preference—A " d i s p o s i t i o n to receIve one object as against another." (Getzels, 1966, p.97) Programme cadre de f r a n c a i s — T h e B r i t i s h Columbia 8 Prench language educational program for children who have a francophone family background within the Ministry of Education d e f i n i t i o n . Regular program or regular English program—The usual public school education i n B r i t i s h Columbia in English. USSR—Sustained s i l e n t reading or Uninterrupted  sustained s i l e n t reading-—Class time (usually 10-20 minutes a day) set aside for s i l e n t reading. Materials are usually chosen f r e e l y by the pup i l s , but i n Prench immersion classes choices often are limited to the Prench language, at least several days a week. S p e c i f i c Research Problem Prom the points of view of dual track or immersion school l i b r a r y program and c o l l e c t i o n b uilding, and Immersion teaching of reading, i t was attempted to determine what language choices grade 6 anglophone e a r l y Prench Immersion pupils made in the i r l e i s u r e and unstructured s i l e n t reading, what genre choices they made in th e i r l e i s u r e reading, and whether there were any factors i n the program of the classroom, the school l i b r a r y or the public l i b r a r y which could be associated with t h e i r choices. 9 Research Questions The following are the research questions Investigated. 1. What are the free reading materials preferences i n either English or French among grade 6 anglophone e a r l y French immersion children? 2. What differences are there between anglophone grade 6 e a r l y French immersion students' reported volumes of reading i n English and French? 3. What differences are there between anglophone boys and g i r l s i n grade 6 ea r l y French immersion i n t h e i r expressed preferences or i n t h e i r volume of reading i n either English or French? 4. What are the book promotional a c t i v i t i e s of teachers, teacher-librarians and public l i b r a r i a n s and i s there any re l a t i o n s h i p between them and the expressed l i t e r a r y preferences or amounts read of grade 6 anglophone e a r l y French immersion students? 5. ts there a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a v a i l a b i l i t y of French language materials and the volume of French reading of anglophone grade 6 e a r l y French immersion students? 10 Chapter I I : Review of the Literature The subject of t h i s investigation, reading preferences and volumes of reading of students in e a r l y Prench immersion ( p a r t i c u l a r l y as related to teacher, te a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n or public l i b r a r i a n a c t i v i t i e s ) , does not appear i n the research l i t e r a t u r e , but aspects of t h i s topic have been studied, some of them extensively. Research done and writing about reading preferences, immersion education, b i l i n g u a l education, and second language education can contribute a body of information with which to look at the expressed preferences and attitudes of anglophone grade 6 e a r l y Prench immersion ch i l d r e n . Studies of Leisure Reading Preferences and Attitudes The area of children's reading preferences and attitudes has been studied both formally and 11 Informally, at a l l school l e v e l s , In d i f f e r e n t countries and for various socioeconomic groups. Informal Interest inventories are often used by teachers, teacher-librarians and public l i b r a r i a n s to provide information on which to base c o l l e c t i o n building and lesson preparation. ( A notable widely-used example occurs In Davles, 1979). With the exception of the e a r l y works included because of t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , the studies reported here w i l l deal mainly with research about intermediate grade children completed In the l a s t two decades. The focus w i l l be narrowed further to include only references to f i c t i o n reading preferences (those of a l l c h i l d r e n and of boys and g i r l s separately), attitudes to reading, amounts read, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of reading comprehension to a t t i t u d e s , preferences and amounts read, the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s of school l i b r a r y materials, and any mention of teacher or t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n a c t i v i t i e s related to reading. Often Included in the studies, but excluded from t h i s survey, w i l l be reference to: reading in r e l a t i o n to other a c t i v i t i e s (e.g., t e l e v i s i o n viewing); changes in a t t i t u d e s , preferences 12 and amounts read as childr e n mature; and any r e l a t i o n s h i p of a t t i t u d e s , preferences and amounts read to i n t e l l i g e n c e , race, s o c i o l o g i c a l background or n a t i o n a l i t y . Of s p e c i a l note are tforvell's 25 year study, one study of Quebecois children's reading preferences, and one discussion off the free reading choices of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n (English-Welsh). E a r l y studies of reading preferences show s i m i l a r i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y in the area of gender differences. In a 1912 work, Olcott pronounced "the natural i n s t i n c t s of a g i r l . . . narrower than a boy's" (Olcott, 1912, p. 24), although at the same time she noted the tremendous v a r i e t y i n children's tastes in reading. In 1926, Jordan documented the difference between boys' and g i r l s ' interests between the ages of 10 1/2 and 13 1/2, saying that g i r l s preferred s t o r i e s of home l i f e , s t o r i e s of school l i f e , f a i r y s t o r i e s and love s t o r i e s , while boys preferred war and scouting, school and sports, and adventure of "a more peaceful s o r t . " (Jordan, 1926, p.20) Terman and Lima (1931), i n an often quoted study, i d e n t i f i e d preferences for each 13 age, saying that 11 year old boys l i k e d s e r i e s adventures and Mystery and that boys* nonfictlon interests moved away from animals and nature towards science and invention. G i r l s of 11 l i k e d s t o r i e s of home and school l i f e , along with f a i r y t a l e s , fantasy and animal s t o r i e s . In Johnson's (1932) survey of 1856 chil d r e n from grades 5 to 11 i n 19 schools, boys in grades 5 and 6 preferred adventure and animal s t o r i e s , while g i r l s in grades 5 and 6 preferred s t o r i e s of home, school and ch i l d r e n . Thorndike (1940) said that c h i l d r e n i n grades 6, 7 and 8 showed cle a r differences between boys and g i r l s i n reading i n t e r e s t s . Notveil (1958) studied 24,000 children from grades 3-6 over a 25 year period, focussing i n large measure on students' preferences i n poetry. For grades 4 to 6 the preferred book categories were animal s t o r i e s , biographies, book length s t o r i e s , boys' books, g i r l s ' books, prose, myths, and f a i r y s t o r i e s . The genres that boys l i k e d more than g i r l s were boys' books, myths, legends and hero t a l e s , and s t o r i e s of animals. The genres g i r l s l i k e d more than boys were book-length s t o r i e s , g i r l s ' books, and f a i r y s t o r i e s . The genres s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n the ear l y studies are summarized i n Table 1. 14 Table 1: E a r l i e r S t u d i e s — S p e c i f i c Genres Mentioned as Favorites by Children Aged 9-13 Genres Researchers (chron. order) J T J N 0 B 0 0 R R H R D M N V A A S B M N 0 L M L B B B adventure (biography) A (boys' books) B fantasy G f o l k / f a i r y t a l e s G O G ( g i r l s ' boots) G nysterles B (myths, legends) B novels of ordinary families G G G r e a l i s t i c a n l a a l s t o r i e s G B B romances G (school s t o r i e s ) A G O (science nonfletion) B (sports s t o r i e s ) B (war s t o r i e s ) B B = boys G «• g i r l s A = both boys and g i r l s Note•Genres not included i n t h i s study's genre l i s t are in parentheses. 15 More Recent Studies Genre preferences and dIf ferences between bovs and q i r ^ t In a four state study of over 6500 grade 4, 5, and 6 c h i l d r e n i n 243 classrooms, Schulte (1969) investigated independent reading interests with teacher and student questionnaires and a student interest inventory. The most popular f i c t i o n categories chosen were r e a l i s t i c f i c t i o n , f a n c i f u l t a l e s , h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n and biography, with nonfiction categories generally being less favored than f i c t i o n . Clear differences were found i n the choices of boys and g i r l s , included in the recommendations was the need for v a r i e t y and range i n materials ava i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n . Nine hundred Canadian ch i l d r e n in grades 4 to 7 were surveyed (Ashley, 1970) to f i n d out t h e i r reading l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . Prom the l i s t of 40 f i c t i o n and non f i c t i o n p r i n t media categories, the three most l i k e d types of recreational reading were mysteries, adventure and ghost s t o r i e s , and the three most d i s l i k e d were love s t o r i e s , Bobbsey Twins and grade readers. There were also cl e a r differences i n some categories between 16 boys and g i r l s and among ch i l d r e n in d i f f e r e n t grades. Chlu (1973), using forced choice paired comparisons, found differences i n the f i c t i o n and nonfletion reading Interests of 99 grade four p u p i l s , with sports the favori t e t o p i c of the boys and the le a s t preferred of the g i r l s . The g i r l s l i k e d mysteries the best. In an informal study. Pi Lambda Theta, Beta tips l i o n Chapter (1974), asked 825 c h i l d volunteers between the ages of 4 and 13 to f i l l out an open-ended reading Interest form. The answers were c l a s s i f i e d by age and sex. A great v a r i e t y of t i t l e s was mentioned, with few t i t l e s repeated. Of p a r t i c u l a r interest i n the study are the reasons about the content that the ch i l d r e n gave for l i k i n g or d i s l i k i n g a p a r t i c u l a r book. Among 11 year olds, mystery was the most popular genre with both boys and g i r l s , but the boys' second and subsequent choices were d i f f e r e n t from the g i r l s ' . Schofer (1981) compared the reading Interests of 504 B r i t i s h and American elementary school childr e n bettreen the ages of 7 and 10, using a rank-order preference l i s t . Unlike most other studies, Schofer's showed boys and g i r l s with s i m i l a r I n t e r e s t s — 3 17 categories (adventure, animals and fantasy) were i n the 5 most popular genres with boys and g i r l s , with a l l age groups, and with both B r i t i s h and American c h i l d r e n . Differences between boys and g i r l s occurred for poetry, which g i r l s ranked higher than boys, and for science and sports, which boys ranked higher. Peeley's (1982) look at viewing and reading Interests of grade 4 and 5 chi l d r e n i n Mew Jersey over the decade of the 1970's (1971—532 ch i l d r e n , and 1979—731 children) showed differences between boys and g i r l s , but they were less pronounced In the l a t e r study. P i c t l o n and nonfiction were grouped together, with generalizations made from actual t i t l e s to subject categories. Both times, sports ranked f i r s t for boys, while media was f i r s t for g i r l s In 1979 and "social-empathy" and "fun and excitement" t i e d as f i r s t with g i r l s i n 1971. Using a reading preference inventory based on forced-choice paired comparisons, Summers and Lukasevlch (1983) surveyed 1,127 grade 5, 6, and 7 students i n three Canadian communities to f i n d out which content themes they preferred i n reading. 18 O v e r a l l , the three most popular themes were mystery, adventure and fantasy, although differences were found between boys and g i r l s , among communities, and among grades. With an inte r e s t inventory containing 130 items i n 13 categories, Wolfson, Manning and Manning (1984) questioned 415 Birmingham, Alabama, grade 4 c h i l d r e n with regard to t h e i r f i c t i o n and nonfiction reading i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i a l l y r e p l i c a t i n g WoIfson's i960 study of c h i l d r e n i n grades 3 to 6. Wide va r i e t y occurred among the responses, but the r e s u l t s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those found e a r l i e r , that i s , that boys preferred adventure, sports and physical science and g i r l s preferred fantasy, personal problem books and s o c i a l studies, although many reading interests d i d overlap between boys and g i r l s . Table 2 summarizes the s p e c i f i c genres named as fa v o r i t e s in the more recent studies where preferences were mentioned. Of note are the incidence of adventure, fantasy, mysteries and s p o r t s — e a c h are c i t e d by four researchers. Adventure, fantasy and mysteries are each c i t e d toy three researchers as being fa v o r i t e s of both boys and g i r l s . 19 Table 2: Mote Recent S t u d i e s — S p e c i f i c Genres Mentioned as Favorites by Children Aged 7-12 Genres Researchers (chronological order) adventure (biography) fantasy (fun-excitement) ghost s t o r i e s h i s t o r i c a l novels (media) myster-ftms novels about ordinary families (problem novels) r e a l i s t i c animal s t o r i e s (science nonfictlon) (sports, f i c t i o n and nonfictlon) 8 A C P 8 P F S W C S H I C B B U 0 H H I H B B M L U L U L 0 L L M F L B A F B B B 8 T Y M. B Y Y R 0 B R 8 H 7 7 1 9 A A A B A A A Q B B B A G B B B = boys G • g i r l s A = both boys and g i r l s Mote. Genres not included i n t h i s study's genre l i s t are l i s t e d i n parentheses. 20 *** ttqflgg to read 1 no,[. In a Canadian 5 point scale comparison of amounts of reading and reading at t i t u d e s between one c l a s s of grade 6 students and one cla s s of grade 9 students, McGregor and Wiedrlcfe (1980) found that g i r l s had a more po s i t i v e attitude to reading than boys, and that attitudes to le i s u r e reading appeared less p o s i t i v e in grade 6 than i n grade 9. When Sauls (1974), considered 868 grade 6 children's volume of reading and attitude using a reading record form and attitude scale, he found a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the children's attitudes and thetr reading comprehension scores. H a l l (1978), studying 350 grade 5 students i n Tennessee with attitude scales, had si m i l a r r e s u l t s , finding an Interdependent r e l a t i o n s h i p between achievement or a b i l i t y to read and att i t u d e to reading—when one improved, so d i d the other. S i m i l a r l y , Chester (1977) reported a re l a t i o n s h i p between reading performance and reading a t t i t u d e . Amounts read. comparing the reading of 790 Canadian ch i l d r e n i n 21 grades 5, 6, and 7 using a reading record c h e c k l i s t method, Snyder (1981) found that g i r l s read s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than boys, and that over a f i v e month period, the children's volume of reading varied widely (from nothing to 60 books), with an average of approximately three books per month. The McGregor (1980) study found s l i g h t l y higher monthly averages for grade s i x — 5 . 0 o v e r a l l , with the boys' average 3.8 and the g i r l s ' 5.5. Teachers T teacher-librarians and school l i b r a r y  c o l l e c t i o n s . Several studies touched on the relationships between teacher or t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n a c t i v i t i e s or actual l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s and children's l e i s u r e reading. In Schulte's (1969) Investigation of independent reading interests i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods seemed to make l i t t l e difference to independent reading, but a central school l i b r a r y was important, along with the opportunity to use i t frequently. Neither classroom l i b r a r i e s nor public l i b r a r i e s produced s i g n i f i c a n t differences to Independent reading. Sauls (1974) found s i g n i f i c a n t r elationships among grade 6 students between the number of books read and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , t h e i r reading comprehension 22 scores, and th e i r teachers' reading promotional practices, including "some that might be considered undesirable" (Sauls, 1974, p. 1011). Moray (1978) synthesized several pieces of research with the conclusion that providing v a r i e t y i n reading materials rather than using a basal reader would probably prove b e n e f i c i a l to the reading progress of most students. H i l l (1981), using a 50 category o r a l l y administered questionnaire in a B r i t i s h study of 258 7-11 year olds, concluded that the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l of school l i b r a r y books was la r g e l y Incompatible with the reading l e v e l s of c h i l d r e n — t h e books generally were more d i f f i c u l t than the ch i l d r e n could handle. Also, the content of the l i b r a r y materials tended to be inversely related to the children's expressed Interests. Disagreeing with H i l l ' s r e s u l t s . Peeley (1982) concluded that a great many materials are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to f u l f i l children's varied Interests. Quebec Francophones In researching the reading preferences of francophone c h i l d r e n , Heon (1980) studied 619 10-12 year olds In Drummondville, r e l a t i n g Interests to 23 socioeconomic factors, personal ownership of books, and school l i b r a r y p r a c tices. He i d e n t i f i e d comics, science f i c t i o n , sport and humor as the four most popular genres with boys and novels (rowans). comics, f o l k t a l e s (contest, and humor as the four most popular with g i r l s . L i b r a r y Use of B i l i n g u a l Children—English-Welsh With regard to the reading preferences of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n . Long (1966), i n a study of children's public l i b r a r y borrowing i n Vales, referred to the s i t u a t i o n of the 17% of the childr e n surveyed who were Welsh speaking and attended Welsh schools. Although cautioning that the data were inconclusive and scanty, Long remarked that Welsh speaking c h i l d r e n before the age of 10 d i d not j o i n public l i b r a r i e s , presumably because they had access to Welsh books through t h e i r school. After 10 or 11, however, they d i d borrow English books ( p a r t i c u l a r l y f i c t i o n ) from the public l i b r a r i e s i n roughly the same proportions as t h e i r anglophone compatriots, but the books they borrowed were generally simpler than those of the English speaking c h i l d r e n . Leng speculated that the paucity of Welsh books and the pervasively English 24 s o c i o l o g i c a l environment, p a r t i c u l a r l y In the c i t i e s , contributed to the Increased reading In English. gummsry of the Literature oft Reading preferences In s p i t e of the many d i f f e r e n t research designs and emphases i n the studies mentioned, there are strands which reappear In the r e s u l t s of these investigations. The most Important, perhaps. Is the reference to a v a r i e t y of reading preferences— children's Interests range widely and so do t h e i r choices In reading material. The second common thread i s that differences between boys and g i r l s were usually f o u n d — e i t h e r i n preferences or i n a t t i t u d e s . The t h i r d important common feature Is the recurrent mention of some genres—notably mystery, humor, and adventure as popular with both boys and g i r l s ; mystery and adventure as p a r t i c u l a r boys' f a v o r i t e s ; and home, school, love and f a i r y s t o r i e s as p a r t i c u l a r g i r l s ' f a vorItes. Of p a r t i c u l a r relevance In the current i n v e s t i g a t i o n are some ind i v i d u a l findings: Shnayer's r e s u l t s showing that generally poorer readers understand t h e i r reading better If It Is Interesting to then; Hall's finding of the Interdependence of 25 comprehension and a t t i t u d e ; H i l l ' s finding that English language B r i t i s h school l i b r a r y materials are often Inappropriate; and the McGregor and Wiedrick, and Schulte reported amounts of reading. Studies on French immersion French immersion programs have been studied extensively since they were i n i t i a t e d i n Canada over 20 years ago. Areas investigated Included cognitive development, attitudes to the program, English language competence, other subject achievement, o r a l French production, aural French comprehension, French writing s k i l l s and French reading comprehension. Children's competence i n English and general subjects was usually compared with that of c h i l d r e n i n regular English programs, and t h e i r competence In French was compared with that of c h i l d r e n i n t r a d i t i o n a l core French programs, childre n i n p a r t i a l or l a t e Immersion, and francophone c h i l d r e n , of necessity, the e a r l i e s t studies In each j u r i s d i c t i o n were small, dealing with a p i l o t or experimental c l a s s . The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s were reported as favorable; i n i t i a l concerns, p a r t i c u l a r l y about possible poor achievement In general curriculum areas or the I n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t off b l l l n g u a l i s m on 26 native language s k i l l s , were reportedly l a i d to r e s t . For the purposes of t h i s study, the most relevant Investigation Is the comparison of the reading comprehension of intermediate anglophone e a r l y immersion students with that of t h e i r francophone counterparts, because reading comprehension would appear to bear d i r e c t l y on choices of reading materials and willingness to read. In assessing the l e i s u r e reading of grade 6 e a r l y immersion children, and looking at t h e i r acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of reading materials produced for francophone chi l d r e n , i t i s Important to know as much as possible about how nearly s i m i l a r t h e i r reading s k i l l s are to those Of francophones. Most of the research reported here w i l l deal with intermediate immersion c h i l d r e n . Lapkin, Ijaz, Kamin and Argue (1984) provide useful descriptions of the various tests used In judging the French language competence of French Immersion students. The f i r s t e a r l y French Immersion program In Canada was I n i t i a t e d i n 1965 i n the C i t y of 8t. Lambert, Quebec (a suburb of Montreal), by the South Shore Protestant Regional School Board. Children in St. Lambert were monitored c l o s e l y over the f i r s t 27 several years o£ the program. Other school boards also Implemented Immersion programs q u i c k l y — n o t a b l y Montreal, Ottawa, Carleton and Toronto, where documenting of r e s u l t s also took place. In Ontario, OISB (Ontario Institute for Studies In Education) set up the B i l i n g u a l Education Project to Investigate the various Immersion programs In the province. Since these beginnings, other provinces have also I n i t i a t e d Immersion programs from which test r e s u l t s are a v a i l a b l e . Results of the t e s t i n g of Immersion children w i l l be discussed by geographical areas. Province of Quebec The St. Lambert Project, an Intensive study of the re s u l t s of the f i r s t e a r l y French Immersion, monitored Immersion childre n at d i f f e r e n t stages through t h e i r school career. Reporting on the t e s t i n g of the P i l o t Experimental c l a s s at the end of grade 6, Lambert (1974) found the Immersion ch i l d r e n "at or above the l e v e l of s i x t y percent of French-speaking peers," (p. 112) on the Test de rendement en francala. although he said they were not balanced b i U n g u a l s . Bruck, Lambert and Tucker (1974) reported on individual comprehension tests taken by St. Lambert 28 grade 7 Immersion ch i l d r e n and a control group of native Prench speakers, and on r e s u l t s of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary t e s t . On both tests the Immersion c h i l d r e n performed more poorly than the control group, and on the Peabody the r e s u l t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower. The Individual t e s t i s Interesting because It made use of a Prench version of Go11iver * s TraveIs adapted for French-speaking ch i l d r e n . In s p i t e of adjustments of the t e s t i n g technique not used with the Prench native speakers, (allowing the answers in English; allowing c h i l d r e n to see the questions when reading the passage) the immersion c h i l d r e n were able to answer only half the questions. In a s i m i l a r kind of te s t (using job and c r e d i t card applications and an a r t i c l e from La  Presse). the Follow-up group of 22 grade 7 St. Lambert students performed as well as an equivalent francophone group on both applica t i o n s , but s i g n i f i c a n t l y less well on the newspaper a r t i c l e questions. (Tucker, 1975) In an e a r l y report prepared for the Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal (1971) to assess the r e s u l t s of immersion programs i n Prench and English school settings the achievement of grade 6 immersion students on the Test de rehdement en francais was 29 compared with that of francophone students In Montreal. Although c l a s s work Is Incorporated Into the francophone scores, making comparisons d i f f i c u l t , the judgment was made that immersion students In grade 6 were about a grade l e v e l behind francophone students. Separate reports of Montreal grades 4, 5 and 6 achievement r e s u l t s (Genesee, Morln « Al l i s t e r , 1974; Genesee a Chaplin, 1975; Genesee c Stefanovic, 1976) judged e a r l y French Immersion students' reading comprehension scores good, but the grade 6 ch i l d r e n were not considered the equal of francophone students In any aspect of French language study. Genesee (1978) reported on the r e s u l t s of a cloze t e s t (Test de lecture sllenctcuse. Hlveaux 6-71 and the Teat de rendement en francaIs where immersion grade 6 students, although not f u l l y comparable with native speakers, were c a l l e d "most comparable" (Genesee, 1978, p. 48) In reading comprehension tests which allowed the use of context clues. Discussing the r e s u l t s of ten years of immersion programs i n The Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal and r e f e r r i n g to longitudinal evaluations Involving immersion c h i l d r e n and English and French con t r o l groups, Genesee (1979) sai d that the immersion 30 childre n "scored at or near the sane l e v e l as francophone students" (Genesee, 1979, p. 23) on the d i f f e r e n t reading t e s t s . Furthermore, when he looked at InnersIon from the point of view of the children's a t t i t u d e to learning French (Genesee, 1977), he concluded that immersion students f e l t happy and comfortable i n t h e i r program, as core French students did not. Ontario Ontario's immersion programs began i n Ottawa i n the e a r l y 1970's under the Ottawa Board of Education, the Carleton Board of Education and the Ottawa Roman Catholic School Board. Ea r l y research ref e r s to the "Ottawa Study." However, Ontario Immersion spread programs quickly, being monitored by OlSB's B i l i n g u a l Education Project. i n Ottawa, Swain (1976), looking at t e s t r e s u l t s from ISO grade 4 Ottawa-Carleton immersion chi l d r e n , found that the children d i d as well on a reading t e s t as 410% of the grade 4 Belgian c h i l d r e n for whom the te s t was prepared. Edwards (1976) judged grade 5 immersion students In the Ottawa Roman Catholic Separate School System to be " f u n c t i o n a l l y b i l i n g u a l " 31 based on observing then in the classroom, rather than on t e s t r e s u l t s (Edwards, 1976, p.141). After grade 5, BarIK and Swain (1978) report that the Ottawa Study c h i l d r e n i n e a r l y immersion performed as well as from 24-40% of the Quebec francophone population on the Test de rendenent en francais. I. Evaluating the Intermediate and junior secondary l e v e l s . Swain, Lapkin and Andrew (1981) summarized r e s u l t s of t e s t i n g of grade 6 and grade 8 e a r l y immersion c h i l d r e n i n both Ottawa and Carleton. The t e s t s , Teat de rendement e n f r a n c a i s . Test de mots a trouvey and Test de comprehension de i ' g c r j t , a l l dea l t . In part, with reading comprehension. In analyzing the t e s t r e s u l t s , the authors referred to the grade 8 performance as " n a t i v e - l i k e " (Swain, 1981, p.18). Elsewhere i n Ontario, but i n an area where very l i t t l e French i s heard In the community, Andrew, Lapkin and Swain (1979) found that Toronto Immersion childre n in grades 4 to 6 produced scores s i m i l a r to those of Ottawa immersion c h i l d r e n on 6 d i f f e r e n t Prench t e s t s . Compared with norms based on Montreal francophone children's r e s u l t s , the Toronto Immersion ch i l d r e n were Judged " s a t i s f a c t o r y " (Andrew, Lapkin a Swain, 32 1979, p. 18). The researchers a l s o noted that the grade 4 and 5 c h i l d r e n tested had better work study s k i l l s than the anglophone comparison group. After ten years' experience i n Ontario with various types of immersion (early, late and p a r t i a l ) OlSE's B i l i n g u a l Education Project published analyses of the performance of the c h i l d r e n . Swain and Lapkln (1981), documenting these r e s u l t s i n Ottawa and Carleton, and cautioning that socioeconomic considerations might have affected the r e s u l t s , indicated that grade 8 e a r l y Immersion students had an average score s l i g h t l y higher than that of the francophone comparison group on the Test de mots a  trouver (a close t e s t ) . This investigation a lso looked a t dual track schools in comparison with all-French schools, f i n d i n g the achievement greater i n all-French schools. Cummins and Swain (1986), commenting on the Ontario e a r l y immersion r e s u l t s reported a f t e r ten years, indicated that they thought middle c l a s s c h i l d r e n In a supportive environment needed several years, u n t i l the 5th or 6th grade, but they would become f u n c t i o n a l l y b i l i n g u a l (Cummins 6 Swain, p.45). (The school graduation r e s u l t s of the Ottawa Study ch i l d r e n show them "quite c r e d i t a b l e , " although not at 33 the l e v e l of Quebec francophones (Pawley, 1985, p. 874).) New Brunswick Gray (1986) summarized a longitudinal study of an e a r l y French lamer3Ion program i n Fredericton, N. B. At the end of grade 6, ch i l d r e n i n e a r l y immersion were approximately one year behind t h e i r Quebec age mates on the Test de rendement en franca1B. doing as well on the grade S version of the t e s t as grade 5 Quebec c h i l d r e n . Gray further concluded that the children's French reading i s held back by t h e i r o v e r a l l weakness i n French, making the point often remarked on i n studies of b i l i n g u a l education of the interdependence of general language competence and reading s k i l l s . --Manitoba--In a report on grade 6 immersion r e s u l t s prepared by Cereco (Centre de recherche et de consultation) (1983) for the Manitoba Department of Education, comparisons of cloze t e s t scores of Manitoba francophones with those of immersion students (early t o t a l immersion students from both s t r a i g h t immersion and dual track schools, intermediate t o t a l immersion 34 students from st r a i g h t immersion and dual track schools, and e a r l y p a r t i a l immersion students from immersion centres) showed the immersion students' scores s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than those of the francophone c h i l d r e n . The e a r l y t o t a l Immersion children from immersion centre schools scored highest among the immersion childre n studied. Laberge (1984) discussed grade s i x r e s u l t s ' a t one of the Manitoba schools, St. Norbert, in d e t a i l . She stated that, although i n 1980 i t was predicted that by grade 6 (three years la t e r ) t o t a l immersion students would " a t t a i n a l e v e l of performance equivalent to that of peers enrolled In Prancals cl a s s e s " (Laberge, 1984, p. 11) on the Test de francaIs du Manitoba, that d i d not prove to be the case. In the 1983 t e s t i n g the t o t a l immersion r e s u l t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than those of the francophone group. Saskatchewan Lundlie's (1979) investigation of one Saskatchewan school's e a r l y Immersion program for the Saskatchewan School Trustees Association showed the childre n approximately one year behind Montreal francophones in t h e i r language s k i l l s , but on a par with childre n i n 35 another Saskatchewan urban Immersion school, and on a par with or ahead of ch i l d r e n i n a r u r a l Saskatchewan francophone community. Alberta In the Alberta French immersion experience, the Carey and Cummins study (1983) indicated that grade 5 Edmonton anglophone immersion students tested l e s s well i n French language comprehension than Edmonton students from b i l i n g u a l homes, Edmonton francophone students, Ontario immersion students (tested e a r l i e r ) , Franco-Ontarian students and Quebec francophone students. The l a t t e r group tested better than the other groups i n French language comprehension. B r l t ^ h Columbia The wolsk (1977) study of Bcole Billngue i n Vancouver up to the end of grade 4 r e f l e c t s what seems to be general i n the studies done at the beginning of immersion programs—an enthusiasm and excitement over the achievement i n French of anglophone c h i l d r e n . Although there were no national norms for the Test de  lecture (OI8B) used, the c h i l d r e n were judged to have done well, and there i s appended a glowing report on 36 theIr o r a l p r o f i c i e n c y . In a more recent look at the B r i t i s h Columbia ea r l y Immersion s e t t i n g , Shapson and Day (1982) reported on Coqultlam's programs at the grade 4 and grade 6 l e v e l s . On the Test de rendement en francala. the Cogultlam children scored between the 24th and the 39th per c e n t i l e , based on francophone norms, showing them ranging In competence In French from the l e v e l of the bottom 25% to the bottom 40% of francophone c h i l d r e n . In a further study of three school d i s t r i c t s In B r i t i s h Columbia, Shapson and Day (1984) found that c h i l d r e n in grade 7 performed less well on reading comprehension and vocabulary sub-tests (among others) than they d i d on sub-tests of more technical aspects of French. On the French Comprehension Test, grade 7 e a r l y immersion students scored lower than grade 6 francophone Mew Brunswick students. flunaarv of the L i t e r a t u r e on Immersion Across the country, in several d i f f e r e n t t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s , e a r l y immersion reading comprehension r e s u l t s i n terms of francophone standards remain mixed. E a r l y immersion was usually Judged the most successful program av a i l a b l e to produce bilingualIsm, 37 but the c h i l d r e n were often behind th e i r francophone counterparts. The Montreal and Ontario intermediate students were sometimes judged "near n a t i v e - l i k e , " but on the t e s t s which most nearly approximated the l e i s u r e reading s i t u a t i o n , the tests based on the French children's adaptation of G u l l i v e r ' s Travels and the La Presse a r t i c l e , the immersion students' r e s u l t s did not approach the francophones'. Studies of Bilingualism. B i l i n g u a l Education and  Second Language Education Bilingualism as a concept has been the subject of much discussion; i t s d e f i n i t i o n i s far from absolute. Mackey (1968) characterized i t as " r e l a t i v e " (Mackey, 1968, p. 555). Grosjean (1982) discussed b i l i n g u a l i s m in terms of each language's use, saying that few blUnguals are balanced. Hamers (1983) Ide n t i f i e d 13 d i f f e r e n t types of b i l i n g u a l i s m within 5 categories ( r e l a t i o n to thought, competence in each language, age of a c q u i s i t i o n , s o c l o - c u l t u r a l status of each language, and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y ) . Fishman, (1971) made the point that b lUnguals often use one of t h e i r languages for s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s , saying that a society producing large numbers of functional biUnguals w i l l stop being 38 b i l i n g u a l because i t has no need for two languages. "English as a second language" Is a Canadian program other than immersion which attempts to make a c h i l d b i l i n g u a l to the point where he/she can function in a normal educational s i t u a t i o n i n English. Research on English as a second language w i l l not be reported here because the children In such programs come from many d i f f e r e n t language backgrounds. Regarding the education of blUnguals outside the Canadian experience, there are many areas where ch i l d r e n are learning t h e i r second language i n the context of a society which operates l a r g e l y i n the second language. The teaching of reading i n the dominant language has frequently been studied and commented upon, as has att i t u d e to reading. In her book on reading and bi l i n g u a l i s m i n ch i l d r e n , Ching (1976) stressed the importance i n reading i n s t r u c t i o n of a po s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward reading, but she d i d not discuss l e i s u r e reading (Ching, 1976, p. 37). Ho systematic study of the l e i s u r e reading of second language ch i l d r e n i n either t h e i r f i r s t or second language has been found. Leng's (1968) work, mentioned e a r l i e r , i s the only study which looked at book choices of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n , and i n that case the numbers 39 were small and Leng's Interest in the topic was peripheral. The s i t u a t i o n of the Spanish speaking childr e n of the southern United States has received much attention. In the 193©'s, Tireman (1930) reported that Spanish-speaking childr e n from grades 3-8 were behind un l l i n g u a l English speaking c h i l d r e n i n reading comprehension and rate, and that as the c h i l d r e n grew older, the d i f f e r e n c e became greater. In the same period, Kelley (1936) reported that of 692 Spanish speaking c h i l d r e n In grades 4 to 8, only 16% reached the median of u n l l i n g u a l English speaking childr e n on the Iowa S i l e n t Reading Test. More recently, Oarganta and Ramirez (1978) documented the d i f f i c u l t i e s Spanish speaking childr e n have with schooling in English, finding that in the Pabens Independent School D i s t r i c t , where over 70% of the c h i l d r e n have limited English speaking a b i l i t y , nearly 73% of the c h i l d r e n read below grade l e v e l , and nearly 60% read one year or more below grade l e v e l . After quoting other researchers who documented the English reading retardation of Spanish speaking and native Indian childr e n at the intermediate and secondary l e v e l s , Morris (1982) noted that there i s a 40 sudden Increase In vocabulary demanded during the Intermediate grades, and that meaning Is emphasized over decoding as a reading s k i l l . She sa i d that teaching thinking In the new language should be emphasized. The Redwood C i t y B i l i n g u a l Education Project attempted to overcome the problems of Spanish speaking ch i l d r e n i n an English education system by teaching the ch i l d r e n b l l i n g u a l l y . In t h e i r report at the end of f i v e years of the program, Cohen, Pathman and Merino (1976) reported that the e a r l y gains in English language s k i l l s seen for the b l l i n g u a l l y educated ch i l d r e n d i d not continue up to the end of the f i f t h year. Although based on very small numbers, the study showed that the children educated only i n English read better i n English than those educated b l l i n g u a l l y . In the area of second language education, E l l e y and Mangubhai (1983) showed that Class 4 and 5 F i j i a n c h i l d r e n exposed to high-interest I l l u s t r a t e d f i c t i o n i n English for eight months gained In reading and l i s t e n i n g comprehension at twice the rate of c h i l d r e n who d i d not have the books In t h e i r classrooms. 41 Summary off the Literature on Bilingoalism. B i l i n g u a l Education arid Second language Education In contrast with the reading comprehension r e s u l t s ffor e a r l y immersion chi l d r e n , which-were mixed; the r e s u l t s f o r other b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n seem to indicate that c h i l d r e n with another language background do not understand written English as well as native speakers, even a f t e r several years of study. The intermediate l e v e l Is p a r t i c u l a r l y demanding due to reading requirements, but intensive exposure to written material can produce gains In comprehension. The study of second language education pointed out the value off well i l l u s t r a t e d material. In a l l , b i l i n g u a l education r e s u l t s seem to point out both the Interdependence off general language f a c i l i t y and reading comprehension, and the requirement ffor good reading comprehension In the intermediate grades. Both these findings have Implications for e a r l y immersion children's choices of l e i s u r e reading materials. 42 Chapter IIIt Methodology groups Surveyed and Sample Tqkap The survey questionnaire method was used to question grade 6 e a r l y French Immersion students, t h e i r English and French teachers, t h e i r teacher-librarians and, where possible, the children's l i b r a r i a n s i n the public l i b r a r i e s which served the school areas. The population to be investigated was B r i t i s h Columbia grade 6 e a r l y French immersion students: t h i s research attempted to question as many of them as could be reached. Permission to conduct the survey was requested of a l l school d i s t r i c t s which had grade 6 e a r l y French immersion classes, and, depending on the school d i s t r i c t r e p l i e s , permission was also sometimes requested of school p r i n c i p a l s or individual parents. (Appendix A) Grade 6 anglophone childre n who began t h e i r 43 in s t r u c t i o n in French immersion i n either kindergarten or grade 1, and for whom parental permission to part i c i p a t e was not required, formed the target group among the ch i l d r e n . This group i s referred to In the study as the "main sample." In order to compare the data, subsamples (groups of children In the main sample to whom a pa r t i c u l a r condition pertained) were created. Excluded from the main sample were ch i l d r e n who entered the program a f t e r grade 1 and those who gave Incomplete Information about entry or home language. Children who sa i d that either t h e i r f i r s t language or the language they usually spoke at home was other than English were excluded because the variations in t h e i r f a c i l i t y i n eithe r English or French, and t h e i r unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n within the classes, might have skewed some r e s u l t s . The ch i l d r e n for whom Individual parental permission had to be sought were also excluded because, since not a l l the parents gave permission, complete classes could not be used for comparison purposes, and the ch i l d r e n who d i d complete the questionnaire might not have been representative of a l l the immersion chi l d r e n i n the school. Two other samples were created from the groups which were excluded from the main sample for language 44 reasons—those whose f i r s t language was French or who usually spoke French at home and those whose f i r s t language was any language other than French or English, or who usually spoke any other language at home. (Appendix B) Testing of the Questionnaires The students' questionnaire, while not formally p i l o t e d , was tested on a l l the grade 5 pupils at the researcher'8 school (those in the regular English program as well as those i n French immersion and programme cadre de francaIs). The tabulated r e s u l t s were given to and discussed with the grade 5 teachers, so that the teachers and the te a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n might have a cl e a r picture of the genre preferences of the grade 5 students, but the questionnaire i t s e l f was not discussed with them. After the Informal t e s t , a French version of the questionnaire (which had been given to half the chi l d r e n in the French programs) was eliminated because i t was f e l t that the use of two forms of the questionnaire would present unnecessary complications i n administration. The c h e c k l i s t of genres was replaced by a b i l i n g u a l l i s t of suggested genres and the provision for wr i t e - i n r e p l i e s because 45 i t was f e l t that the c h i l d r e n would be more a c t i v e l y involved In expressing decisions about t h e i r preferences i f they were asked to write answers. Timing of the Questionnaires The questionnaires were designed to be given i n the schools during the l a t t e r t h i r d of the school year, so that teacher and te a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n practices during the grade 6 year could be related to student r e p l i e s . Public l i b r a r i e s i n the areas with immersion schools were sent t h e i r questionnaires i n the spring of the survey year. A l l were returned by Jul y . Administration of the Questionnaires Following receipt of permission to conduct the survey, questionnaires were sent to the tea c h e r - l i b r a r i a n in each p a r t i c i p a t i n g school, and they were a l s o asked to act as contact people for the returning of responses. The adult questionnaires were self-administered, and the children's questionnaires were s e l f - administered under the guidance of the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n . Teacher-librarians were also asked to c l a r i f y any questions for teachers, i f necessary. <There was some concern that francophone 46 teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y , might not understand the English terminology.) S p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s were sent to the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n regarding the handling of the questionnaires. (Appendix C) The Questionnaires-Questions on the children's questionnaire covered fa v o r i t e genres, f a v o r i t e books, fa v o r i t e authors, fa v o r i t e magazines, book purchases at school, language preferences, and quantity read i n either language. At the same time, classroom teachers, t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s , and public l i b r a r i a n s were asked about school populations, l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s , a c c e s s i b i l i t y of French and English language materials, and book promotion a c t i v i t i e s . (Appendix D) In the questionnaires, the focus was on f i c t i o n , rather than on nonfiction, because i t seemed to the researcher from personal observation that English f i c t i o n was well used at the grade 6 l e v e l , while French f i c t i o n was much les s popular. By contrast with the f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n , i t seemed that the nonfiction c o l l e c t i o n i n French was r e l a t i v e l y well used for research assignments. The only elements on the suggested genre l i s t not shelved i n a school l i b r a r y 47 f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n were nonfictlon i t s e l f , and folk and f a i r y t a l e s , magazines, poetry, r i d d l e s , limericks and jokes, a l l appearing to the c h i l d r e n by t h e i r content to have f i c t i o n a l elements. Data Analysis Information was taken from the questionnaires, coded, and entered i n a computer. Data were then tabulated and analysed using the computer program 8PS8X to produce frequencies, percentages, means, and medians for the main sample and for both the Prench language and other language samples. Subsamples of the main sample were then Isolated according to s p e c i f i c children's responses (e.g., no Prench l e i s u r e reading per month); teachers' responses (e.g., number of book reporting devices used); te a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s ' responses (e.g., perceived q u a l i t y of the intermediate Prench f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n ) ; or school s i t u a t i o n s (e.g., percentage of the c h i l d r e n i n French language programs). Using the Chi-square s t a t i s t i c and operating with the subsample observed frequencies and expected frequencies (based on the main sample d i s t r i b u t i o n ) , the responses from the subsample groups 40 were compared In each case with those of the balance of the main sample to ascertain whether there seemed to be a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two sets of responses. Such a difference would indicate a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Isolating factor (I.e., the reason the subsample was created) and the genre choices or reported amounts of French reading of the childre n in the subsample. Some aspects of the responses from the French language background group and the other language background group were also compared with the responses from the main sample. 49 Chapter IV: Findings Free Reading Materlals Preferences Several of the findings bore d i r e c t l y on the f i r s t research question, "What are the free reading materials preferences i n either English or French among grade 6 anglophone e a r l y Prench immersion children?" Genre Choices When the responses of boys and g i r l s were taken together, mystery and detective s t o r i e s was the English genre chosen by the most ch i l d r e n , both as a f i r s t choice and as an o v e r a l l mention. Other popular genres were adventure, comics, humor, romances, novels of ordinary f a m i l i e s , magazines and fantasy. Table 3 shows percentages of the choices of a l l the childr e n i n the main sample, of boys, and of g i r l s , for the twelve most popular English genres o v e r a l l . ("Overall" i s used to Indicate that a l l three choices are added.) 50 Table 3: Percentages (Rounded) for F i r s t Twelve Ranked Genres In English According to Choices Made (n=351)* Genres ( i n ov e r a l l order) l 1st 1 IChoice IAll-B/G 1 2nd IChoice 1 All-B/G 1 3rd i Choice 1All-B/G 1Overall IMention 1All-B/G lOver-1 a l l Rank I B/G Mystery 116-20/12 13-13/13 12-16/10 141-49/358 1/2 Adventure 11-17/ 7s 16-20/12 9- 9/ 9 136-46/288 1 2/6 Comics 7- 9/ 6 10-12/ 8 14-13/15 131-34/29 3/5 Humor 115-14/15 10-13/ 8 6- 4/ 8 130-31/30 i 4/3 Romances 13- l/22s 10- 1/17 6- 1/10 128- 2/488 118/1 Ordinary Families 1 9- 3/138 6- 1/10 5- 3/ 7 120- 7/308 12/4 Magazines 3- 5/ 2 7- 3/11 8-11/ 7 119-18/19 6/7 Fantasy 7- 8/ 6 6- 8/ 5 4- 4/ 4 117-20/14 5/8 Science f i c t i o n 4- 5/ 4 3- 5/ 2 5- 6/ 4 112-16/ 9 8/10 Choose own adventure I 2- 5/ 0 4- 5/ 3 4- 6/ 3 110-16/ 6 1 8/11 Ghost s t o r i e s 1- 0/ 3 4- 5/ 3 4- 2/ 6 1 9- 7/11 10/9 Riddles, jokes 1 0- 1/ 0 ! 1- 0/ 2 I 5- 7/ 3 1 6 - 7 / 5 110/12 Other I 6- 7/ 5 7- 7/ 6 10- 9/11 123-24/22 Incorrect 5- 3/ 6 4- 6/ 3 5- 7/ 5 INot applicable No answer 0- 1/ 0 7- 7/ 6 10- 9/11 INot applicable *B > boys Number of boys » 152 G « g i r l s Number of g i r l s - 199 A l l » a l l in main sample Total in main sample = 351 s » s i g n i f i c a n t difference between boys and g i r l s 51 Great v a r i e t y occurred i n the choices of favorite English reading materials. As can be seen from Table 3, even the most popular f i r s t choice genre was picked by only 16% of the c h i l d r e n . A l l the genres l i s t e d were mentioned a t least once. F a i r y t a l e s were the f i r s t choice of one c h i l d and the t h i r d choice of two others. The question did not require choices from the l i s t , and some children d i d write in genres not l i s t e d — n o t a b l y horror s t o r i e s (9 o v e r a l l ) . Sports s t o r i e s , f i g h t i n g fantasy, westerns, mythology, problem novels, Canadian books, c l a s s i c s and Bible s t o r i e s were also written i n at least once. One respondent d i d not mention a f i r s t or second choice i n English, and f i v e declined to l i s t a t h i r d choice* No childre n wrote i n responses in d i c a t i n g they never read i n English for pleasure. Comics, adventure and humor were the most popular genres i n French. Fewer ch i l d r e n made choices i n French than i n English, but a l l the genres were named, and there were also write-in choices (horror s t o r i e s , c l a s s i c s and s t o r i e s about other countries). Table 4 shows ranks and percentages for the 12 most popular genres i n French. 52 Table 4: Percentages (Rounded) Cor F i r s t Twelve Ranked Genres i n French According to Choices Made (n=351)* Genres ( i n o v e r a l l order) 1 1st I Choice 1 All-B/G 1 2nd I Choice 1All-B/G 1 3rd i Choice 1All-B/G 1Overall IMention 1All-B/G (Over-l a l l I Rank 1 B/G Conies 118-12/15 113-15/12 9-11/ 8 140-49/348 1 1/ 1 Adventure 14-14/14 1 9-12/ 8 8- 9/ 8 132-35/29 1 2/ 3 Honor 13-11/15 1 9- 9/10 7-10/ 6 130-30/30 1 3/ 2 Mystery 8-10/ 6 1 9-11/ 7 5- 5/ 5 121-26/18 1 4/ 6 Short s t o r l e s i 7- 6/ 8 1 6- 7/ 5 7- 3/11 120-15/248 1 6/4 Magazines 1 3- 1/ 5 1 5- 7 / 51 7- 3/ 9 115-11/18 1 9/ 6 Fantasy I 3- 5/ 3 1 6- 5/ 81 4- 3/ 5 114-13/15 1 8/ 8 Choose own! adventure 4- 6/ 3 1 3- 6/ 11 5- 6/ 5 112-18/ 8 5/11 Romance 4- 1/ 7 1 4- 0/ 71 3- 1/ 4 111- 2/18 117/ 7 Ordinary i families I 4- 1/ 6 1 3- 1/ 5 3- 3/ 3 1 9- 5/13 114/ 9 Riddles, I jokes 1- 0/ 2 1 3- 3/ 41 5- 5/ 5 I 9- 8/10 112/10 Ghost s t o r i e s l 0- 0/ 1 1 3- 4/ 31 5- 7/ 4 I 8-11/ 8 110/12 Other 1 9- 15/ 5 1 8- 5/ 81 10-11/ 5 127-31/18 Incorrect l 0- 0/ 0 1 2- 3/ 11 2- 3/ 2 (Not applicable No answer 9- 8/10 115-13/161 20-19/20 INot applicable *B » boys G « g i r l s A l l - a l l i n main sample s • s i g n i f i c a n t difference Number of boys « 152 Number of g i r l s = 199 Tot a l i n main sample = 351 between boys and g i r l s 53 As can be seen by adding across the columns In Table 4, the largest o v e r a l l French genre choice was for no response, with 22 c h i l d r e n writing in reasons and comments. Some were: "I don't read i n French"; "I don't l i k e reading French"; "They are a b i t boring"; "I don't understand some hard words"; "Bien": "M.A." Table 4 shows that nearly 1/10 of the childr e n Indicating no f i r s t genre choice i n French, and another nearly 1/5 choosing comics, over 1/4 of the c h i l d r e n d i d not name a f i r s t genre choice i n French i n which reading comprehension was of prime importance, of note a l s o are the rankings of short s t o r i e s and magazines (5th and 6th r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , both less demanding than novels i n terms of retention of information and time involved in reading. Table 5 combines the genre choices i n English and French, showing percentages of boys and g i r l s who mentioned each genre o v e r a l l . As can be seen from Tables 3, 4 and 5, while choices d i f f e r e d between English and French, some genres were popular i n both languages—namely mystery, comics, adventure and humor. Of note i s the difference i n the ranking of short s t o r i e s between English (17th) and French (5th). 54 Table 5: Ranks for F i r s t Twelve Overall Genre Choices i n Both Languages with Ranks and Percentages for Boys and G i r l s (n=351)* Genre English French (alph. order) IBoys IRank(t) IGir l s IRank(%) IRk. I A l l 11 Boys 1|Rank(%). 1 G i r l s |Rank(%) IRk. A l l Adventure 1 2(46)s 1 6(28)8 ! 2 I 2(35) 1 3(29) 1 2 Choose own adventure 1 8(16) 111 6) 10 1 5(18) U K 8) 1 8 Comics 1 3(34) 5(29) 1 3 1 1 1(49)8 1 1(34)8 1 Fantasy I 5(20) 8(14) 1 8 1 1 8(13) 1 8(15) 7 Ghost story I10( 7) 9(11) 1 11 1 110(11) 12( 8) 12 Humor ! 4(31) 3(30) 1 4 ! 1 3(30) 1 2(30) 3 Magazines 1 6(18) 7(19) 1 7 1 1 9(11) ! 6(18) 6 Mystery 1 1(49) 2(35) 1 1 1 1 4(26) 1 6(18) 4 Novels about ordinary families 12( 7)s 4(30)81 6 I14( 5) 1 9(13) 10 Riddles, jokes HOC 7) 13( 5) 12 1 |12( 8) 110(10) 11 Romances |18( 2)8 l(48)s 5 I17( 2) 1 7(18) 1 9 Science f i c t i o n 1 8(16) 10( 9) 9 1 7(13) I17( 3) 1 14 Short story I15( 3) 17( 3) 1 17 1 1 6(15)8 1 4(24)8 5 Other 1 (24) (22) 1 1 (18) 1 (23) *Boys » 152 G i r l s » 199 Main sample = 351 s » s i g n i f i c a n t difference between boys and g i r l s Note. Figures are not given for "incorrect reply" and "no response." 55 Favorite Grade 6 Book Of the 351 c h i l d r e n , 302 chose a book i n English as t h e i r f a v o r i t e book encountered In Grade 6 (either that they had read or that had been read to them). Table 6 shows the language of the grade 6 f a v o r i t e s . Table 6: Language of Favorite Book Grade € (n=351) Read or Heard in Language Number of Children Percent Engl i s h 302 86 French 21 6 Both 13 4 other 4 1 Mo answer 10 3 Incorrect 1 0 Total 351 100 In answering questions about favorit e books, some chil d r e n named not only t i t l e s , as was expected, but a l s o a wide v a r i e t y of genres, authors or s e r i e s , a l l of which were t a l l i e d . The most frequent choice (21 cases) was the Sweet Valley High romance s e r i e s , others 56 often named were: books by Judy Blume (13), The Cay (12), I Want to go Home (10), and Nancy Drew mysteries (7). Twelve childre n d i d not express a preference for any book read or heard i n grade 6. Lifetime Favorite When asked for t h e i r f a v o r i t e novel during t h e i r l i f e t i m e , c h i l d r e n again mentioned a wide va r i e t y , responding not only with t i t l e s , but also with s e r i e s , authors and genres. Thirty-one did not have a favori t e novel, but of those who d i d , 18 chose Judy Blume's books, and 14 chose Sweet Valley High romances. Table 7 shows the language of the l i f e t i m e f a v o r i t e . Table 7: Language of Lifetime Favorite Book (n=351) Language Number of Children Percent English 309 88 French 5 1 Both 9 3 Other 1 0 No answer 26 7 Incorrect 1 0 Total 351 99 57 Other Language Favorite Where t h e i r grade 6 fa v o r i t e and l i f e t i m e f a v o r i t e were in the sane language, 101 chi l d r e n had a favorite i n another language. There was great v a r i e t y , but some t i t l e s d i d occur frequently—notably, 8 c h i l d r e n named Pl-oul (written i n French, translated as PeeWee>; 7, L'^te* est encore l o i n (Mot Yet Summer); and 6, Le r o l des casse-pleds (Superfudge). Favorite Author As shown i n Table 8, although the ch i l d r e n were asked for t h e i r f a v o r i t e author, and a singular verb was used, 28% mentioned more than one. Table 8: Number of Favorite Authors Mentioned (n=351) Authors Mentioned Number Percent 0 31 9 1 219 62 2 68 19 3 21 6 4 5 1 5 or more 7 2 Tota l 351 99 56 Because so many ch i l d r e n mentioned a second author, the f i r s t two authors mentioned were tabulated fo r each c h i l d . There was a great deal of variety, but the f a v o r i t e author was Judy Blume, with 71 of the chi l d r e n mentioning her, either as the s i n g l e f a v o r i t e , or as one of the f i r s t 2. Table 9 shows the numbers of times the f i r s t 0 authors were mentioned i n the f i r s t two posi t i o n s . Table 9: Bight Most Popular Authors Mentioned as Favorites i n F i r s t or Second Positions Author Mumber o f Times Mentioned Judy Blume 71 Gordon Korman 39 Francine Pascal 35 (Sweet Val l e y series) E l l e n Conford 25 Roald Dahi 23 E r i c Wilson 20 Beverly Cleary 19 Carolyn Keene 16 (Nancy Drew series) Note. Series names are given for Keene and Pascal because the names are pseudonyms associated only with these s e r i e s . 59 As shown In Table 10, most childre n read or heard t h e i r f a v o r i t e author i n Bnglish. Table 10: Language i n which the Favorite Heard or Read (n«3Sl) Author Was Language Number of Children Percent Bnglish 227 65 French 2 1 Both 45 13 Incorrect 52 15 Mo answer 25 7 Total 351 101 Favorite Magazine The responses to the question on magazines were highly varied. Forty c h i l d r e n d i d not indicate a fa v o r i t e magazine, while f i f t y l i s t e d more than one. (As with favori t e authors, c h i l d r e n who l i k e d magazines often named more than one.) Because so many chi l d r e n l i s t e d a second magazine, t i t l e s of the f i r s t two l i s t e d were tabulated. Table 11 shows the most popular magazines and types of magazines. 60 Table 11: Six Most Popular Magazines or Types of Magazines Mentioned i n F i r s t or Second Positions T i t l e or type Tines nentloned Teenage l i f e s t y l e 54 (other than t i t l e s below) Mad 50 Teen 26 Conies other than Mad 22 Seventeen 22 Owl 18 Of the 311 ch i l d r e n answering the question, 305 nentloned only English language magazines; 3 nentloned only French language magazines; 1 mentioned magazines in both languages; and 2 answered the question about magazines i n c o r r e c t l y . Preferred Language for Free Reading Table 12, which shows the language preferences for the children's free reading, Indicates that an overwhelming majority of the c h i l d r e n preferred to read In English. 61 Table 12: Preferred Language for Free Reading <n»351) Language Number Percent English 338 96 French 4 1 Both English & French 5 1 Other 2 1 Incorrect 2 1 Total 351 100 Twelve c h i l d r e n wrote i n reasons f o r preferring English books; the two most frequently given were that French books were boring, or that they were d i f f i c u l t to read. Children's Amounts of Reading In English and French Some of the responses on the children's and the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s ' questionnaires r e l a t e to the second research question: "What differences are there between anglophone grade 6 e a r l y French immersion students' reported volumes of reading in English and French?" Amounts^ pf Reading—Boys anfl Olrfrs Together When asked how much they read in a month, most of 62 the c h i l d r e n s a i d they read 4 or more Bnglish books, and 3 or fewer Prench books. Although the question d i d not provide a category for "zero," some chi l d r e n wrote in that they d i d not read for pleasure. Table 13 gives d e t a i l s of the children's reported volumes of reading i n Bnglish and Prench. Table 13: Frequencies and Percentages of Reported Bnglish and French Books Read per Month Main Sample ( A l l ) , Boys (B) and G i r l s (G) (n-351) Number of Books Bnglish A l l B/G •( %) (%)/(%> A l l • ( %) Prench B/G (%)/(%) 0 (write in) K 0) ( 0)/( 1) 28( 8) ( 7)/( 9) < 1 25( 7) ( 8)/( 6) 145(41) (39)/(43) 1-3 112(32) (34)7(31) 147(42) (41)/(42) 4-6 92(26) (22)/(29) 24( 7) ( 8)/( 6) 7-9 46(13) (16)/(11) 4( 1) ( 3)/ > 9 74(21) (19)/(23) 2( 1) ( 1)/ Incorrect K 0) /( 1) K 0) /( 1) Total 351( 99) (99H101) 351(100) (99)/(101) Category of mean 4-6 4-6/4-6 1-3 1-3/1-3 Category of median 4-6 4-6/4-6 1-3 l-3/< 1 63 S t a t i s t i c a l comparison was made for the main sample between the reported number of books read per month i n French and the reported number of books read per month i n English. The reading i n English was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher W - 257.92, p < .001, df » 5). (As with a l l other Chi-square data reported, t h i s r e s u l t i s based on frequencies, not percentages.) School L i b r a r y C i r c u l a t i o n Figures C i r c u l a t i o n figures for English and French, for the whole f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n or for intermediate f i c t i o n , which had been expected to contribute to the information about amounts of reading i n English and French, were incomplete. Only f i v e schools reported t o t a l c i r c u l a t i o n figures; only three schools reported Intermediate f i c t i o n c i r c u l a t i o n figures. Differences Between B O Y S and 0 1 r I S The t h i r d research question—"What differences are there between anglophone boys and g i r l s i n grade 6 e a r l y French immersion i n t h e i r expressed preference or i n t h e i r volume of reading i n either English or F r e n c h ? " — i s addressed by the findings discussed below. 64 Preferred Genres As can be assumed from the percentages for the choices of the twelve most popular genres shown in Table 3, differences occurred between the boys* and g i r l s * Bnglish genre choices f o r adventure s t o r i e s . The boys* responses were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ( f i r s t c h o i c e — < P ^ • 7.71, p < .05, df « 1; o v e r a l l c h o i c e — o t v 8.21, p < .05, df • 1), and both for novels about ordinary families and for romances, where the g i r l s ' responses were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ( f i r s t choice of ordinary families—#f » 10.97, p < .05, df - 1; o v e r a l l choice of ordinary families—^«= 23.33, p < .05, df = 1; f i r s t choice of romances—fY?• 30.94, p < .05, df • 1; o v e r a l l choice of romances—4c? = 65.40, p < .05, df • 1). S i g n i f i c a n t l y more boys mentioned mystery and detective s t o r i e s as one of t h e i r three Bnglish o v e r a l l choices (oc v =» 4.16, p < .05, df * 1), although the difference between boys* and g i r l s ' f i r s t choices of mysteries was not s i g n i f i c a n t ( ^ v • 3.82, p > .05, df - 1). i n French genre choices, 74 boys o v e r a l l mentioned comics, with comics as f i r s t mention for f i r s t and second choices. Other fav o r i t e s with boys were 65 adventure, humor, and mystery and detective s t o r i e s . The strongest category o v e r a l l for g i r l s was "no preference." As a f i r s t choice, however, humor was mentioned most frequently, followed by comics and adventure. Short s t o r i e s and magazines were also popular with g i r l s . Table 4 shows the Prench genre choices of boys and g i r l s for the 12 most popular genres i n Prench. The only s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the boys and g i r l s with regard to Prench genre preferences occurred at the o v e r a l l l e v e l , but not at the f i r s t choice l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t l y more boys chose comics o v e r a l l • 4.49, p < .05, df « 1), and s i g n i f i c a n t l y more g i r l s chose short s t o r i e s o v e r a l l 4.06, p < .05, df « 1). Amounts of Reading Amounts read in English, although not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y °> 6.02, p > .05, df •= 5), d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y between boys and g i r l s , as shown by Table 13. Six students, a l l of them boys, read more than 6 Prench books a month; together they made up 3% of the boys. As Table 13 shows, the boys' reported monthly reading in Prench appeared s l i g h t l y higher than the g i r l s ' , but the difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 66 (of m «.68, p > .05, df • 5). Favorite Authors S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between boys and g i r l s were apparent at the .05 l e v e l in the choices of f a v o r i t e authors, with Blume and Pascal strong female choices (Blume—o^ v * 27.76, p < 0.05, df - 1; P a s c a l — • 25.13, p < .05, df » 1), and Kornan and Wilson strong male choices (Korman—ty(?~- 16.62, p < .05, df • 1; W i l s o n — $e-v « 6.36, p < .05, df » 1). Differences between the choices of Dahl and Cleary were not s i g n i f i c a n t (Dahl— r f j <= 0.39, p > .05, df • 1; C l e a r y — • 3.46, p > .05, df • 1). Language of Favorite Author There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the boys and g i r l s with regard to the language i n which they read t h e i r f a v o r i t e author (o^= .85, p > .05, df » 2). The majority had read in English. Favorite Magazine There were s i g n i f i c a n t differences between boys and g i r l s i n the magazine choices. S i g n i f i c a n t l y more boys than g i r l s chose Mad magazine {qC• 14.52, 67 p < .05, df = 1), and s i g n i f i c a n t l y more g i r l s than boys chose Seventeen. Teen, and other teenage l i f e s t y l e and fashion magazines (/%>v - 65.25, p < .05, df « 1). Choices of Owl, while greater for g i r l s , were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (tp* =» .72, p > .05, df - 1). Teacher T Teacher-11brarlan arid Pobl1c L i b r a r i a n A c t i v i t i e s in Relation to Children's Reading The findings related to the fourth research question—"What are the book promotional a c t i v i t i e s of teachers, teacher-librarians and public l i b r a r i a n s , and i s there a r e l a t i o n s h i p between them and the expressed l i t e r a r y preferences or amounts read of grade 6 anglophone e a r l y Prench immersion s t u d e n t s ? " — w i l l be discussed under the categories of sustained s i l e n t reading, novel study, book reporting devices, reading aloud of novels, booktalks and s p e c i f i c promotions, general promotions, and author v i s i t s . Children's responses w i l l be reported i n l i g h t of those of the teachers, teacher-librarians and public l i b r a r i a n s . Sustained S i l e n t Reading Seven schools had a school-wide s i l e n t reading time; 12 d i d not. Where USSR was school-wide, the 68 times varied from SO minutes to 125 minutes weekly. Three schools had language r e s t r i c t i o n s . Based on expected frequencies derived from the main sample figures, the Chi-square c a l c u l a t i o n indicated that the Prench volume of reading of the 146 chi l d r e n who experienced school-wide sustained s i l e n t reading was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of the balance of the main sample (ocX = 8.65, p > .05, df *» 5). In 20 of the classes reported -upon, teachers conducted regular sustained s i l e n t reading periods, either on t h e i r own I n i t i a t i v e , or as part of the school commitment. Ten d i d not indicate any length of time per week for Prench s i l e n t reading, while the others mentioned times varying from 15 minutes to 100 minutes. Only 8 indicated s p e c i f i c amounts of time for English s i l e n t reading, with times from 15 to 75 minutes. Unrestricted s i l e n t reading occurred in 9 classrooms, i n amounts of time weekly from 15 minutes to 100 minutes. The amount of Prench reading of the 271 children who experienced USSR (whether c l a s s based or part of a school program) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of the balance of the main sample (o6^« 13.03, p < .05, df - 5). In the main sample, there were f i v e classes i n 69 which s i l e n t reading times were conducted only for the French language. When the responses of these 63 ch i l d r e n were Isolated, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d ifference i n the volume of French reading between ch i l d r e n whose school s i l e n t reading was In French only and those who were permitted some English s i l e n t reading time Ki%T = .14, p > .05, df » 5). Hovel Study Table 14 shows that the number of novels studied varied greatly. Table 14: number of Novels Studied per Class (n=»23) Number English French of Novels 0 9 3 1 9 3 2 3 8 3 1 6 4 1 5 1 6 1 • 11 1 23 23 70 The two most frequently taught English novels were The-Cay and Mv Side of the Mountain, which were each taught to f i v e classes. The Incredible Journey and Island of the Blue Dolphins were each taught to two c l a s s e s . V i t h the exception of one novel in the Baker Street Irregular s e r i e s < t i t l e not indicated), a l l the English novels studied were Mentioned at least once as a f a v o r i t e by a c h i l d i n the c l a s s which studied then. Responses from c h i l d r e n i n the classes who studied The Cay and Mv Side off the Mountain were analyzed to see whether these books were Mentioned as favorites by uncommonly large numbers of childr e n compared with the balance of the main sample. Three percent of the ch i l d r e n i n the main sample c i t e d The Cay as t h e i r grade 6 novel f a v o r i t e , while 13% of the 88 c h i l d r e n who studied the novel d i d so. This difference i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t irp"<= 31.27, p < .05, df » 1). One c h i l d i n the main sample (and who a l s o studied the novel) c i t e d The Cav as a l i f e t i m e f a v o r i t e book. Of the 56 c h i l d r e n who studied Mv Side of the  Mountain, none c i t e d i t as a grade 6 f a v o r i t e , while four d i d from the main sample; yet the two c h i l d r e n who named i t as t h e i r l i f e t i m e f a v o r i t e were i n the group 71 who studied i t . This figure i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of the balance of the main sample (rp* 1.34, p > .05, df - 1). Table 15 shows the number of classes which studied the most frequently taught French novels. Table 15: Number of Classes which Studied the Bight Most Frequently Taught French Novels Novel Number gpcret fle y a n j l l e 11 VisItcur du s o i r 10 PJbfiuX 7 M1H Flnf o a l n et l a mere Crocha 3 Surreal 3000 2 v p v f l q « m F i i dfr E'arc-en-ciei 2 CbntQP da mon p a y s - 2 Contes c h o l s l s (Guy de Maupassant) 2 Of the 97 ch i l d r e n i n the main sample who studied Secyet de v a n l l l e . 4 (4%) chose i t as t h e i r grade 6 f a v o r i t e , i n comparison with 5 (1%) for the whole group. S i g n i f i c a n t l y more ch i l d r e n who studied i t chose i t as the i r f a v o r i t e than d i d the balance of the 72 main sample (qcT = 4.86, p < .05, df - 1). In the main sample only one person (one who d i d not study the novel in c l a s s ) chose i t as his/her l i f e t i m e f a v o r i t e . Two children i n the whole group (one of whom studied It i n cla s s ) mentioned Secret de van!lie as the fa v o r i t e novel i n the other language. Of the 163 children who studied V i s i t e u r do  s o l r . 3 (2%) picked i t as the grade 6 f a v o r i t e , none picked i t as the l i f e t i m e f a v o r i t e , and 2 mentioned i t as t h e i r f a v o r i t e novel In the other language. These figures are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (r/Jr = 3.27, p > .05, df = 1). None of the 106 chi l d r e n who studied Pl-Qul l i s t e d It as either grade 6 favorite or l i f e t i m e f a v o r i t e , although 3 chi l d r e n i n the main sample d i d mention i t as t h e i r grade 6 f a v o r i t e . Among those who studied i t , i t was the other language fa v o r i t e for 4 chil d r e n (4%), as opposed to 2% of the t o t a l group, a difference not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (/>6V • .20, p > .05, df • 1). Mini Plnfouln et l a mere Crochu was not c i t e d as a grade 6 favorite or l i f e t i m e f a v o r i t e , one of the 3 who named It as an other language f a v o r i t e was among the 43 who studied i t . 73 BooK Reporting pey|ceff Table 16 shows the number of book reporting devices used by English and French teachers. (In French Inversion, there Is more time for French language a r t s than English language arts.) Table 16: Number of Book Reporting Devices Used by English and French Teachers (n»23) Devices English Teachers French Teachers • I % # % 0 7 30 1 4 1 3 13 1 4 2 4 17 1 4 3 3 13 2 9 4 1 4 5 22 5 3 13 5 22 6 2 9 7 4 17 8 1 4 2 9 9 10 11 1 4 Total 23 23 74 Table 17shows in d e t a i l the types of book reporting devices used i n Bnglish and Prench. Table 17: Types of Book Reporting Devices Used by Bnglish and Prench Teachers Device Tines Used Tines Used in Bnglish in Prench conferences 4 10 contests 2 4 dialogues with characters 5 10 dressing as characters 1 3 i n t e r - c l a s s reconnendations 0 7 l e t t e r s to characters 0 6 logs of books read 3 6 nodeIs, dloranas 3 4 o r a l book reports 11 IS s k i t s 2 11 story continuations 6 12 written book reports 12 17 other 6 S none 7 1 75 Responses from c h i l d r e n whose teachers used f i v e or nore book reporting devices i n French were selected and analyzed to see whether the children's voluae of French reading d i f f e r e d f r o a that of the balance of the aaln saaple. The aedian f o r these 100 c h i l d r e n f e l l within a lower category (part of 1 book) than d i d that of the whole group (1-3 books), but the difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ioC r • 0.76, p > .05, df « 5). Children's voluae of reading In English was isolated for the classes where teachers used f i v e or more reporting devices i n English to see whether i t was d i f f e r e n t f r o a that of the balance of the aaln saaple. While the aedian of the reading of the 48 c h i l d r e n i n the group f e l l within the same category as that of the aaln saaple (4-6 books per aonth), t h e i r reading i n the higher categories was higher (4% more chi l d r e n read 10 or more books, and 4% more children read 7-9 books). The d i f f e r e n c e , however, was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t io^" 2.61, p > .05, df - 5). Reading Aloud--Whole Hovels or Parts of Novels Few English teachers read an en t i r e novel to t h e i r 76 c l a s s — o n e read one novel, 4 read 2 novels, and 3 read 3 novels. Five Prench teachers read one en t i r e novel to t h e i r c l a s s , 2 read 2, 3 read 2, and one read 4. Of the novels read, both Bnglish and French, the only t i t l e read to two classes was A n n e — l a •alaon aux nlohohs verts ( i n English. Anne of Green Gables). The greater number of both Prench and Bnglish teachers d i d not read parts of novels to t h e i r classes as inducements to personal reading. Five Bnglish teachers read part of one novel, and one Bnglish teacher read parts of 3 novels. Six Prench teachers read part of one novel, and two French teachers read parts of two novels. There were no duplications of t i t l e s i n the novels read. In the school l i b r a r i e s , one te a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n read four novels to the grade 6 e a r l y immersion ch i l d r e n ; most read none i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y ; and one read one. Booktalks and S p e c i f i c Promotions In three schools there were frequent, regular, l i b r a r y booktalks. In others, the number of booktalks given to the grade 6 Immersion students varied from none to 6, with 2, 3 and 4 booktalks each at two 77 schools. There was great v a r i e t y In the topics discussed—Judy Blume's books were discussed three times, and mysteries were discussed twice. Where s p e c i f i c t i t l e s were topics of booktalks, none of the French t i t l e s was l i s t e d as a f a v o r i t e by the c h i l d r e n i n the schools. Of the 17 Bnglish t i t l e s featured i n booktalks, 9 were mentioned as a f a v o r i t e by at least one c h i l d i n the school where the t i t l e was discussed. Where regular, frequent booktalks were given (3 schools), the 87 childr e n involved apparently read more English books and fewer French books per month than the balance of the main sample. While the median for Bnglish reading f e l l within the same category (4-6) books, there were 5% more chi l d r e n in the category "10 or more"; 4% more i n 7-9; 7% fewer i n 1-3; and 2% fewer In "part of 1." In French reading, the median for childre n who heard frequent booktalks f e l l i n the category "part of 1," (as opposed to 1-3 for the t o t a l group), and there were no children who read more than 6 French books per month. There were 10% fewer childre n who read 1-3 books per month, 5% more who read part of one book, and 6% more who read no French books per month. Based on expected frequencies derived from the 76 the figures for volumes of reading in Bnglish were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y from those of the balance of the main sample (/%^» 5.99, p > .05, df » 5). In French, however, the c h i l d r e n exposed to frequent booktalks read s i g n i f i c a n t l y less than the balance of the main sample iryT"» 11.81, p < .05, df » 5). These figures w i l l not be interpreted in Chapter 5 because neither the language of the booktalk nor the language of the materials discussed was asked. where teacher-librarians reported discussing genres with grade s i x Immersion groups, genre preferences of the c h i l d r e n involved were is o l a t e d in Bnglish and French so that they could be compared with those of the r e s t of the main sample. Where science f i c t i o n was discussed, the 7 c h i l d r e n Involved mentioned science f i c t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more frequently as one of t h e i r f i r s t three English genre choices than d i d the r e s t of the main sample (o^ 1** 11.69, p < .05, df » 1). Where mysteries (38 children) and fantasy (29 children) were discussed, the c h i l d r e n mentioned these genres s i g n i f i c a n t l y more frequently as a French genre f i r s t choice than d i d the r e s t of the main sample (mystery—0C*<* 4.29, p < .05, df • 1; f a n t a s y — 9.97, p < .05, df » 1). 79 General PromptIons In large, general l i t e r a t u r e promotions within the school (Children's Book F e s t i v a l , National Book F e s t i v a l ) € schools l i s t e d no French novels Involved, 5 schools mentioned one, 4 schools mentioned 2, and one school each promoted 4, 7 and "several" novels. There was no d u p l i c a t i o n of the novels mentioned; some included Jacob Daux-Deux et l e vampire masque (In Bnglish, Jacob Two-Two and the Hooded Pang), Fend l e vent ( s e r i e s ) , Jacques C a r t l e r raconte. A l i c e aux pavs das marvellies ( i n English, A l i c e ' s Adventures In Wonderland). NOB amis robots. Moutarde ( i n Bnglish, Hya*ard) and P e t i t dlnosaure d'Alberta. None of the t i t l e s mentioned was l i s t e d as a f a v o r i t e by c h i l d r e n i n the school where i t was promoted. Three schools l i s t e d three Bnglish novels i n general school l i t e r a t u r e promotions; one school l i s t e d 2; one, 5; and one school mentioned "several" novels promoted. Twelve schools d i d not re f e r to s p e c i f i c novels appropriate to grade 6 i n t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e promotions. There was no d u p l i c a t i o n among the 17 novels mentioned. Some of them were: Bridge to Terablthla. The Cav. Mrs. Frlabv and the Rata of 80 Nlmh. and The Incredible Journey. The only one of these t i t l e s Mentioned by the childre n In the school where It was proMoted was The Cav. which was mentioned as grade 6 f a v o r i t e by 24% of the 25 ch i l d r e n (as opposed to 3% of the main sample). Analysis of t h i s information i s d i f f i c u l t because The Cav was also taught to at least one c l a s s i n that school. There were two schools which reported heavy long-term reading promotions (Read for the TOP. Olympiads flc l a ^ c t u r e ) m t h e i r school l i b r a r y programs. The volume of reading of the 43 students in these two schools was somewhat lower than the volume for the main sample in both Prench and Bnglish. In English, although the median f e l l into the same category as that of the larger group, 5% fewer ch i l d r e n read 10 or more books; 10% fewer ch i l d r e n read 7-9 books; and 5% more chi l d r e n read part of one book. These differences i n English, however, were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ioC => 4.65, p > .05, df » 5). In Prench, the median f e l l i n the category "part of 1 book" (as opposed to 1-3 for the t o t a l group). There were 13% more children who said they read no Prench books i n a month, and 12% more who said they read part of one book a month. These children's volume of Prench 81 reading was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than that of the balance of the aaln saaple ( ( ) £ * • 23.82, p < .05, df - 5). With regard to general l i t e r a t u r e promotions In the public l i b r a r i e s , ten l i b r a r i e s had two large promotions, two had three, and four had one. The most common was a summer reading club (13 l i b r a r i e s ) , followed by author v i s i t s (10 l i b r a r i e s ) , and c l a s s v i s i t s and storytime-booktalks (3 l i b r a r i e s each). Three l i b r a r i e s mentioned French storytime, but Indicated that i t was for c h i l d r e n younger than the Intermediate group. Author V i s i t s The number of authors who v i s i t e d the schools or the communities in the previous two years varied widely—from 2 schools who sai d they saw more authors In the community than they could l i s t ( a l l the Children's L i t e r a t u r e Roundtable authors) to 4 schools who saw none. Three schools had one author, and 3 had 2. Two schools had 3 authors; two, 4; one, 6; and one, 7. The authors reported by the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n as v i s i t i n g the schools or communities were: i r i c Wilson, 82 5 schools; Gordon Korean, 3 schools; Maria Plant, 2 schools; Daniel Sernine, 2 schools; Robert Heldbreder, 2 schools; Henrietta Major, 2 schools; and Nadine MacKenzle, 2 schools. Thirty-one other authors each were nentloned as v i s i t i n g one school or community in the previous two years. Over the previous two years, 6 public l i b r a r i e s had no author v i s i t o r s ; one l i b r a r y had one; 5 l i b r a r i e s had 2; and 4 l i b r a r i e s had 3. Gordon Korroan v i s i t e d 6 l i b r a r i e s ; and Marie Louise Gay and K i t Pearson each v i s i t e d 2. Thirteen other authors v i s i t e d one l i b r a r y each. In the schools and cowmanities where the authors v i s i t e d , the only ones who were mentioned as children's f a v o r i t e s were Gordon Korman and E r i c Wilson. In the case of Gordon Korman, 14 c h i l d r e n of the 149 who heard him speak <or had the opportunity i n t h e i r school or community to hear him) chose him as either t h e i r f i r s t or second f a v o r i t e author (9%). In the main sample, 11% of the c h i l d r e n named him as a f a v o r i t e . Seven percent of the 151 c h i l d r e n who heard E r i c Wilson (or had the opportunity to hear him) chose him as either f i r s t or second author, as opposed to 6% of the main sample. The responses of the c h i l d r e n who had the opportunity to 83 see and hear these authors were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those of the re s t of the main sample < K o r m a n — » .69, p > .05, df « 1; W i l s o n - - ^ = 1.18, p > .05, df «= 1). A v a i l a b i l i t y of French Language Materials Findings about school book purchase clubs, bookstores, school l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s , d i s t r i c t resource centre c o l l e c t i o n s , and p u b l i c l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s r e l a t e to the f i f t h research question: "Is there a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a v a i l a b i l i t y of French language materials and the volume of French reading of anglophone grade 6 e a r l y French Immersion students?" School Book Purqhase foubs V i t h regard to book purchases through school based book purchase clubs, 130 c h i l d r e n reported buying Bnglish books and 92 c h i l d r e n reported buying French books. Children who bought books through Bnglish book purchase clubs at school d i d not read s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t volumes of Bnglish books per month than those who d i d not purchase Bnglish books at school (nc^<= 4.36, p > .05, df • 5), but c h i l d r e n who purchased French books through a book club d i d read s i g n i f i c a n t l y 84 French books through a book club read s i g n i f i c a n t l y •ore i n French than the balance of the main sample iffi •• 14.38, p < .05, df - 5). Ten classroom teachers offered t h e i r c h i l d r e n the option of buying French books from Arc-en-ciel, and 3 from Bducare. Only 4 classes had the option of buying Bnglish books through classroom book purchase c l u b s — 3 using Scholastic and one using Bducare. Four teacher-librarians maintained a book purchase club for French materials run from the school l i b r a r y <3 Arc-en-ciel and one Bducare). Analysis of the responses from the 4 classes (84 children) who had the opportunity to buy Bnglish books at school (but d i d not necessarily do so) showed that t h e i r volume of English reading was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of the balance of the main sample (o£v • 13.40, p < .05, df = 5). The 8 classes and the 4 school l i b r a r i e s where French book club purchases were avail a b l e were Isolated to see whether there was any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the volume of French reading and the opportunity to purchase French books through the school. Of the 207 chi l d r e n i n the schools and classes with French book purchase opportunities, 18% fewer childr e n than i n the 85 balance of the main sample f e l l within the category of reading 4-6 Prench books per month, and the median for the group f e l l in the category of part of a book per month, but the difference from the balance of the main sample was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( o 6 v a 5.10, p > .05, df - 5). Bookstores There were 9 schools where the teacher-librarians reported that the c h i l d r e n had access to a bookstore where Prench children's books were stocked. One hundred twenty-nine childre n i n 7 of these schools formed part of the main sample. Their volume of Prench reading was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of the balance of the main sample <o^ B 5.31, p > .05, df = 5). 8chop1 Lib r a r y C o l l e c t i o n s Size of French and E n g l i s h c o l l e c t i o n s . Three teacher-librarians d i d not report the s i z e of t h e i r Intermediate Bnglish f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s , and 2 d i d not report the s i z e of t h e i r intermediate French f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s . The intermediate Bnglish f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s reported ranged from 650 volumes to 8500 volumes, with a mean of 2611 and a median of 2080. The 86 Internedlate Prench f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s ranged from 200 volunes to 3000 volumes, with a mean of 1160 and a aedian of 900 (excluding the schools not reporting). The internedlate Prench f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s , on a books-per-child basis f o r the Intermediate c h i l d r e n , ranged from 3 to 30, with a mean of 10 and a median of 6.5 (excluding the two schools not reporting). The schools with the 7 largest intermediate French f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s (1100 books and larger) were Isolated so that the children's responses could be analyzed. (In f a c t , only 5 schools are Included In t h i s a n a l y s i s , because 2 of the schools were i n the d i s t r i c t which required Individual parental permissions.) The median for the French reading per month of the 96 childr e n in t h i s group f e l l i n the category of 1-3 books, as i t d i d for the main sample, although there were 4% fewer childre n who read no books, 7% fewer who read part of one book per month, and 10% more who read 1-3 books per month. These differences, however, were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (/%< = 9.33, p > .05, df » 5). The children's language choices of t h e i r f a v o r i t e books were almost i d e n t i c a l with those of the balance of the main sample. 87 The responses of the c h i l d r e n in the 5 schools (excluding the d i s t r i c t which required i n d i v i d u a l parental permission) with the greatest number of Prench books per c h i l d were analyzed to see whether a proportionately larger c o l l e c t i o n seemed to be associated with a greater volume of Prench reading. Por these 78 c h i l d r e n , the median again f e l l Into the 1-3 books per month category, but there were variati o n s away from the extremes (4% fewer c h i l d r e n In the "zero" category; and 4% fewer c h i l d r e n In the "4-6" category). The differences from the balance of the main sample were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t KoC~ =» 9.94, p > .05, df « 5). Perceived d u a l i t y of school l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s . Thirteen teacher-librarians l i s t e d at least one strength of t h e i r Bnglish f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n ; one l i s t e d 2; 7 l i s t e d none. Pour teacher-librarians mentioned no strengths i n t h e i r Prench intermediate c o l l e c t i o n s , but 3 found more than one. Two teacher-librarians mentioned no weaknesses i n t h e i r Prench c o l l e c t i o n s , while 5 mentioned 2. Table 18 shows the strengths and weaknesses mentioned by the 18 teacher-1ibrarlans. 88 Table 18: Frequencies of Reported Strengths and Weaknesses of School Library Intermediate F i c t i o n C o l l e c t i o n s Number of Schools Number of Schools Strength Bnglish French Weakness Bnglish French large 2 2 small 2 6 up to date 1 2 out of date 3 appropriate l e v e l s 2 3 inappropriate 9 lev e l s genre v a r i e t y 3 1 not a l l 1 3 genres good budget 1 poor 2 budget good c l a s s i c s 1 formats 1 poor multiple copies 1 crowded 1 good some genres 1 1 new paperbacks 2 1 varled 1 2 paperbacks There were only 3 schools where the teacher-l i b r a r i a n s ' perceptions of t h e i r French intermediate f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s d i d not cancel "strengths" with corresponding contradictory "weaknesses." The strengths 89 they noted had to do with varied Interest and reading l e v e l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the paperbacks i n the c o l l e c t i o n . None of the 39 childr e n i n t h e i r schools reported reading no books i n French per month, and while the median f e l l i n the same category as that of the main sample (1-3 books per month), there were 4% more children in that category, 1% more children In the group "4-6 books, and 4% more In the category "10 or more books." There were no c h i l d r e n who said they read 7-9 books per month. These responses were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those of the balance of the main sample ifjcT • 20.43, p < .05, df = 5). There were 3 schools where the teacher-l i b r a r i a n s reported inappropriate reading or interest l e v e l s or Incomplete genre coverage in t h e i r French intermediate c o l l e c t i o n s , and did not report the corresponding strength. Responses from t h e i r 53 childre n d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those of the balance of the main sample with regard to volume of French reading per month io^ m 8.96, p > .05, df - 5). School l i b r a r y loans. Ten schools allowed c h i l d r e n to keep l i b r a r y books for one week, 7 for 2, and one for 3. A l l allowed 90 renewals. A l l had sons kind of borrowing U n i t s — 5 schools required that childr e n In the Prench programs have a Prench book; 4 schools r e s t r i c t e d the number of books; and 2 r e s t r i c t e d the loans for reference or nonfiction books. The 73 childr e n In the schools where Prench students were required to have a Prench book read less In French than d i d the balance of the main sample. Thirteen percent more ch i l d r e n claimed to read no French books per month, and 10% fewer said they read 1-3 French books per month. The median of French reading for t h i s group f e l l Into the category "part of one book." These differences were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t < / X / v - 18.84, p < .05, df = 5). D i s t r i c t Resource Center C o l l e c t l o n s In two cases the d i s t r i c t resource center In the school d i s t r i c t provided French language materials In quantity s u i t a b l e for students' reading. Pubilc Library Collections F i f t e e n public l i b r a r i e s claimed a good English c o l l e c t i o n s u i t a b l e for intermediate c h i l d r e n . A l l the branch l i b r a r i e s responding stocked children's French 91 language materials In quantities which varied from 100 volumes to 1000 volumes; the mean was 365 and the median was 300 (excluding one l i b r a r y not answering the question). The percentage of f i c t i o n varied from 10 to 100; in approximate numbers of books, t h i s varied from 70 to 800, with the mean 241 and the median 240 (excluding one non-reporting). The percentage of the children's f i c t i o n s u i t a b l e for intermediate varied from 0% to 75%; in numbers, no books to 200 books, with a mean of 57 and a median of 42 (excluding two l i b r a r i e s which d i d not answer the question.) None of the public l i b r a r i e s treated French books d i f f e r e n t l y from Bnglish books. Additional Findings In addition to those findings which bore d i r e c t l y on the f i v e research questions, there were some other findings a r i s i n g from the data which deserve documentation. Children who Expressed no Preference In French The responses of the 32 ch i l d r e n (12 boys and 20 g i r l s ) who expressed no f i r s t genre preference for reading in French were investigated to see whether 92 there was some common factor among them which seemed to make them d i f f e r e n t from the re s t of the ch i l d r e n , i n English genres t h e i r f i r s t choice in reading material was humor (20%), and t h i s was also t h e i r o v e r a l l choice. Comics, romances, and novels about ordinary families t i e d as the second most frequently mentioned f i r s t choice (12% each). Magazines and adventure ranked next. These childre n mentioned a l l the genres suggested in English except fantasy, folk and f a i r y t a l e s , h i s t o r i c a l novels and poetry. While they read fewer books In both English and Prench than d i d the t o t a l group, t h e i r difference from the balance of the main sample was not s i g n i f i c a n t In English (<y7* • 2.70, p > .05, df • 5). In Prench, t h e i r volume of reading was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than that of the balance of the main sample; i n f a c t , none of these childr e n read more than 1-3 Prench books a month (oc1' = 33.01, p < 0.05, df « 5). Children who Made the Same Genre Choice i n French as English Of the 351 c h i l d r e n i n the main sample, 00 chose the same genre as t h e i r f i r s t choice in both Bnglish and French; 60, as t h e i r second choice; and 56, as 93 t h e i r t h i r d choice. Children who Said Thev Read a Great Deal i n Either Language The responses of the childr e n who said they read 10 or more books a month were isolated to determine whether t h e i r reading was s i m i l a r to that of the other c h i l d r e n . The 2 c h i l d r e n who sai d they read 10 or more books a month i n French both sai d that they also read 10 or more books a month in English. The 74 c h i l d r e n who sai d they read 10 or more books a month i n Bnglish gave responses about t h e i r French reading which varied from zero to 10 or more, but t h e i r o v e r a l l reading i n French was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of the balance of the childr e n (o6*• 39.22, p < .05, df - 5). Children who Read Very L i t t l e i n French The responses of the 28 childr e n who indicated that they read no French books per month were isola t e d to see whether they showed any differences from the other childr e n i n t h e i r reading. Eleven children each chose magazines and humor as a f i r s t genre choice i n Bnglish. In French, 10 made no f i r s t genre choice (the largest category), followed by 7 who chose comics 94 f i r s t . The Bnglish voluae of reading of t h i s group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than that of the balance of the main saaple {ty? * 18.37, p < .05, df =» 5). Children who Bead or Heard t h e i r Favorites i n Both Of the 45 childr e n who read or heard t h e i r f a v o r i t e author i n both English and French, 16 were boys and 29 were g i r l s . These childre n d i f f e r e d from the balance of the main sample i n several p a r t i c u l a r s . Their English book club purchases were consistent with that of the whole group (one percentage point higher); and t h e i r purchases of French books through a school based book purchase plan were 12% higher than those of the t o t a l group, although not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from-those of the balance of the main sample (/y,1*3 2.63, p > .05, df * 1). These ch i l d r e n seemed to read both more and less a month in Bnglish than the t o t a l group, and more i n French; the differences between t h e i r amounts read and those of the balance of the ch i l d r e n were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n Bnglish (/^y = 4.36, p > .05, df =» 5). In French t h e i r reading was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of the balance of the main sample ( ^ " 11.64, p < .05, df • 5). None of 95 these childr e n was among the 6 ch i l d r e n who read 7 or more Prench books per month. This group also had 26% fewer ch i l d r e n who said the language of t h e i r f a v o r i t e grade 6 novel was Bnglish, and 12% more who chose Prench. Both figures are s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y (Bnglish c h o s e n — » 4.07, p < .05, df • 1; Prench c h o s e n — ^ - 12.02, p < .05, df - 1). The r e s u l t s for the language of the f a v o r i t e l i f e t i m e novel are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (Bnglish c h o s e n — z ^ 1 " * .38, p > .05, df - 1). Children with Other Backgrounds Although i t i s not the intention of t h i s researcher to analyse i n d e t a i l the responses given by chi l d r e n whose families are not English-speaking, some of t h e i r r e s u l t s do bear mention. Children wj*h Prench language background. Thirty-two children (12 boys and 20 g i r l s ) indicated either that t h e i r f i r s t language was Prench or that they usually spoke Prench at home. In Bnglish reading, the genres ranking highest o v e r a l l included adventure, mystery and detective s t o r i e s , comics, and romances, i n a pattern roughly s i m i l a r to that of the 96 anglophone group. In Prench reading, however, the largest o v e r a l l choice was adventure (17 c h i l d r e n ) , followed by humor. "Mo preference" t i e d with mystery and detective s t o r i e s for the t h i r d most frequently mentioned category o v e r a l l . The anglophone childre n In the main sample expressing a preference In Prench reading mentioned comics most often, but the c h i l d r e n with some Prench language background ranked Prench comics s i x t h o v e r a l l . These c h i l d r e n with some Prench home background did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the main sample with regard to amounts read In either English or French (English—<)P~ * 7.26, p > .05, df • 5; Prench—rtf?" = 7.42, p > .05, df » 5). The r e s u l t s for the language of the grade 6 novel are s i m i l a r to those for the main sample, but with regard to the l i f e t i m e novel, 4% fewer chose Bnglish, 5% more chose Prench, and 3% more chose both languages. For the language i n which they had read t h e i r f a v o r i t e author, none chose Prench, and although they chose both languages 6% more times, the difference from the main sample was not s i g n i f i c a n t ( . 7 7 , p > .05, df = 1). The overwhelmingly preferred language for reading among these ch i l d r e n was Bnglish, as i t was for the main sample, but a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y 97 higher number of childre n chose "both languages" (06v • 46.31, p < .05, df - 3). Children with a language background other than French or English. Forty-two childre n (21 boys and 21 g i r l s ) who said t h e i r f i r s t language or t h e i r - c u r r e n t homelanguage was other than either French or Bnglish f i l l e d out the questionnaire. Their 3 o v e r a l l f a v o r i t e genres i n Bnglish were humor, mystery and detective s t o r i e s and comics, a l l of which appeared in the f i r s t f i v e choices of the main sample. Their French genre most frequently mentioned was comics, with humor ranking second and "no preference" ranking t h i r d . These childre n d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the anglophone group in th e i r monthly reading i n either Bnglish or French ( B n g l i s h — 3.50, p > .05, df = 5; French—06 1" - 3.67, p > .05, df » 5). Mo childre n chose French as the language of t h e i r favorite author, although 5 mentioned both languages and one mentioned another language. One c h i l d mentioned both Bnglish and French as the preferred language for reading, and 2 childre n mentioned Bnglish and another language. Differences from the choices of the c h i l d r e n i n the main sample were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 98 (rfi - 3.98, p > .05, df = 3). Analysis of the School Situation i n Relation to Amount of Reading Several of the circumstances of the schools themselves were investigated to see whether the children i n those s i t u a t i o n s read more or les s than the t o t a l group, or whether p a r t i c u l a r circumstances in the schools seemed to be associated with p a r t i c u l a r responses of the c h i l d r e n . The responses of the 178 childre n i n schools where greater than half the ch i l d r e n i n the school were in Prench programs were looked at to see whether t h e i r volume of Prench reading d i f f e r e d from that of the balance of the main sample. The median for t h i s group f e l l i n a lower category (part of one book) than that of the main sample (1-3 books), but the difference between t h e i r volume of Prench reading and that of the balance of the main sample was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (o6 v» 4.04, p > .05, df » 5). Volume of French reading was looked at for the 34 chi l d r e n who were i n the two classes which were lead classes i n t h e i r area. These ch i l d r e n seemed to read more than the main sample, with the median for t h e i r 99 reading in the category 1-3 books, and 23% more children i n the 1-3 book category. These differences from the balance of the main sample were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (nC" • 15.22, p < .05, df = 5). Teacher-librarJans' Perceptions of Popular Authors and Genres ; With regard to the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s ' perceptions of popular materials, 13 teacher-librarians l i s t e d popular genres; and 6 teacher-librarians mentioned popular authors. Genres mentioned 5 times each were mysteries and romances. Humor was mentioned 4 times, and adventure, fantasy, problem novels, and science f i c t i o n were each mentioned 3 times. Fantasy, problem novels and science f i c t i o n d i d not appear in the children's f i r s t 5 o v e r a l l choices, but the other 4 mentioned genres d i d . Popular authors, according to the teacher-l l b r a r i a n s , included Judy Blume, Gordon Korman, E r i c Wilson and Roald Dahl, a l l popular authors mentioned by the c h i l d r e n . 100 Chapter V: Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendat ions introduction The conclusions, implications, and recommendations i n t h i s study are based on information given by children i n grade 6 e a r l y Prench immersion who were not completely representative of the B r i t i s h Columbia e a r l y Prench Immersion population. Because returns from one major school d i s t r i c t were Incomplete (owing to the necessity of requesting Individual parental permissions), and, as a r e s u l t , a l l the returns from that d i s t r i c t were excluded, there were proportionally fewer c h i l d r e n from the Greater Vancouver area in the main sample than i n the population. (Appendix B) The r e s u l t s , therefore, should be considered more representative of B r i t i s h Columbia grade 6 e a r l y immersion outside the Greater Vancouver area than of 101 the complete p r o v i n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . This l i m i t a t i o n of the study must be taken into account when reviewing the conclusions, implications, and recommendations. Conclusions Conclusions about Children's Reading The findings related to the f i r s t research question, "what are the free reading materials preferences i n English or French among grade 6 anglophone e a r l y French immersion children?" (pp. 49-61), indicated t h a t , although there was great v a r i e t y In the responses i n regard to f a v o r i t e genres, in both Bnglish and French some genres were strongly favored. Differences occurred between in d i v i d u a l students' preferences in both languages, although many children d i d choose the same genres i n both. Genres mentioned as favorites—adventure, comics, mystery, romances, humor—were si m i l a r to those mentioned by several of the researchers surveyed—Olcott (1912), Jordan (1926), Johnson (1932), Terman and Lima (1931), Ashley (1970), P i Lambda Theta (1974), Summers and Lukasevich (1983), and Wolfson, Manning and Manning (1984) in Bnglish, and Heon (1980) i n French. 102 With regard to the second research question, "What differences are there between anglophone grade 6 e a r l y French immersion students' volumes of reading in Bnglish and French?", i t was found that the difference between the reported monthly volume of reading of these children i n Bnglish was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from th e i r reported volume of reading i n French (pp. 61-63). Lower reading comprehension than that of francophone children of the same age (as reported i n several of the research studies) and slower reading rate i n the second language (as remarked in the Tireman, 1930, study) may p a r t l y explain why reading volumes were lower i n French than in Bnglish. In response to the t h i r d research question, "What differences are there between anglophone grade 6 boys and g i r l s i n e a r l y French immersion i n t h e i r expressed preferences or in t h e i r volume of reading in either Bnglish or French?", i t was found that differences between the boys' and the g i r l s ' reported volumes of reading were not s i g n i f i c a n t . However, with regard to expressed preferences, there were areas where there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the responses of g i r l s and the responses of boys (pp. 63-67). This r e s u l t concurs with those of most of the researchers 103 surveyed who found differences in preferences between boys and g i r l s . I t Is p a r t i c u l a r l y Interesting that these differences are s i m i l a r to those mentioned i n the work done by Olcott (1912), Jordan (1926), Terman and Lima (1931), and Johnson (1932), the e a r l i e s t researchers read. As a r e s u l t of the Investigation of the children's responses, the following are conclusions which can be drawn about the children's reading. 1. The grade 6 anglophone Prench Immersion children surveyed read a great deal more i n Bnglish than they d i d i n Prench (pp. 61-63). 2. The childr e n overwhelmingly chose English books and magazines as favorites over Prench books and magazines (pp. 55-60). 3. The childr e n generally seemed content to read in English when reading for pleasure, as evidenced by the fact that there were no written-ln comments expressing d i s t a s t e for reading in Bnglish. 4. Some children seemed not to expect to read i n Prench, as evidenced by the number who wrote in that they d i d not read i n Prench for pleasure. 5. Some children expressed an aversion to the idea of reading i n Prench, as evidenced by some 104 write-in comments. 6. The childre n who read a great deal i n Bnglish also read s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the other childre n in Prench, as shown i n t h i s study's additional findings (p. 93). 7. Some children knew and were Interested in genres, authors and s e r i e s , and only to a lesser extent, i n t i t l e s (p. 55). 8. The childre n showed a great v a r i e t y of preferences i n genres, books and magazines (pp. 49-57, 59-60). 9. Differences between boys and g i r l s were s i g n i f i c a n t in both languages i n t h e i r choices of some genres (comics and short s t o r i e s i n Prench; adventure, mystery and detective s t o r i e s , romances, and novels about ordinary families i n Bnglish), authors (Blume, Pascal, Korman and Wilson), and magazines (Mad.  Seventeen, and other teenage l i f e s t y l e and fashion magazines (pp. 63-64, 66-67). 10. Anglophone immersion childre n chose d i f f e r e n t genres In Prench than d i d c h i l d r e n with some Prench language background (as shown by t h i s study's ad d i t i o n a l findings, pp. 95-96). In a l l , the anglophone grade 6 French immersion 105 children surveyed seemed well-established In t h e i r l e i s u r e reading of English language materials, showing both knowledge of what i s a v a i l a b l e and d e f i n i t e and c l e a r l y expressed tastes. Compared with t h e i r English reading, the children's willingness to read i n French was much less evident, with wrltten-ln comments and negative responses in d i c a t i n g that many chi l d r e n had not established the reading habit i n French. However, children who were dedicated readers i n Bnglish d i d seem also to be more committed readers in French than the rest of the c h i l d r e n . Conclusions about Teachers'. Teacher-librarians', and Public L i b r a r i a n s ' A c t i v i t i e s i n Relation to Children's Reading In response to the fourth research question, "what are the book promotional a c t i v i t i e s of teachers, teacher-librarians and public l i b r a r i a n s , and i s there a r e l a t i o n s h i p between them and the expressed l i t e r a r y preferences or amounts read of grade € anglophone ea r l y French immersion students?", s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences related to volumes of French reading were found with regard to some a c t i v i t i e s of teachers and tea c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s , but with none of public l i b r a r i a n s . 106 The following are conclusions which can be drawn In regard to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of children's reading and the book- promotion of teachers, teacher-librarians, and public l i b r a r i a n s . 1. Uninterrupted sustained s i l e n t reading was s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to a higher volume of reading in Prench (pp. 67-69). 2. Purchasing French books from a school based book purchase club (run by the teacher or teacher-l i b r a r i a n ) was related to a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher volume of reading In French (pp. 83-85). 3. Large, long-term, test-based reading promotion a c t i v i t i e s were associated with a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower volume of French reading (pp. 80-81). A possible explanation for t h i s finding could be to the daunting nature of these programs for r e l a t i v e l y weak readers. Both promotions s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned by the respondents require the reading of several books, and one, Olvmpiade de l a lecture, i s continued throughout the school year. 4. The teacher-librarian's requirement that ch i l d r e n borrow a French l i b r a r y book was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to a lower volume of reading i n French (p. 90). This finding may be related to the response of c h i l d r e n 107 to coercion. 5. Assigned book reporting procedures bore no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to amounts read, although the reading of ch i l d r e n i n classes where 5 or more book reporting devices were used was somewhat lower than that of the res t of the sample (p. 75). 6. The teaching of a novel in class or the reading of a novel to a c l a s s d i d not necessarily recommend the novel to a c h i l d as a favorite (pp. 70-72). Apparently, the novels chosen as fa v o r i t e s had inherent q u a l i t i e s which recommended them; novel study or reading seemed simply to be the vehicle for drawing a novel to the children's attention. 7. Teacher-librarians' promotions of some, but not a l l , genres seemed to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to greater children's i n t e r e s t . This was apparent i n Bnglish with science f i c t i o n and i n Prench with mystery and fantasy (p. 78). Perhaps the teacher or teacher-librarian's int e r e s t served the function of making the c h i l d aware of the genres. 8. Teacher-librarians appeared generally to know what children l i k e d , as evidenced by the genres, authors and t i t l e s which the teacher-librarians thought popular (p. 99). 108 9. Teacher-librarians' perception of strength i n the Prench Intermediate f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n was apparently related to a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater volume of Prench reading, but t h e i r perception of weakness was not related to a corresponding lowering of the volume of French reading (pp. 88-89). 10. Author v i s i t s of themselves were not related to an author's popularity. It was p a r t i c u l a r l y Interesting to see that two popular Canadian authors, Gordon Korman and E r i e Wilson, were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y more popular with childr e n who had an opportunity to see them, than with those who d i d not (p. 83). In summary, i t appears that book promotion a c t i v i t i e s which tended to demand that c h i l d r e n read (book reports, test-based promotions, the requirement to borrow a Prench book) were not associated with greater reading. Teacher and tea c h e r - l i b r a r i a n book promotional a c t i v i t i e s which were not coercive, but simply presented materials to the chi l d r e n , o f f e r i n g choice, or allowed time for l e i s u r e reading, were more related to greater reading (USSR, book purchase clubs, promotion of genres). 109 Conclusions about Sources of French Language Materials The work done i n t h i s study would lead us to conclude ( i n r e l a t i o n to the f i f t h research question, "Is there a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a v a i l a b i l i t y of French language materials and the volume of French reading of anglophone grade 6 e a r l y French immersion students?") that there Is some re l a t i o n s h i p between quantities of children's reading i n French and some factors r e l a t e d to school sources of materials and school l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s . The following are conclusions which can be drawn about the sources of French language materials. 1. The school-based book purchase club was an e f f e c t i v e means of providing some children with French language reading material (because childr e n who d i d purchase French books read s i g n i f i c a n t l y more books than c h i l d r e n who did not), although the opportunity to buy books through a club was not associated with greater reading in French (pp. 83-85). 2. The school l i b r a r y was the main source of French language reading materials for most of the French immersion childr e n responding to the 110 questionnaire, even when there was a public l i b r a r y which stocked Prench language Materials. In f a c t , few "immersion children could r e l y on public l i b r a r i e s i n t h e i r area for a wide choice of Prench language le i s u r e reading materials. (The largest public l i b r a r y intermediate Prench f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n was approximately 200 books.) 3. School l i b r a r y Prench intermediate c o l l e c t i o n s were generally of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e (mean—10 intermediate f i c t i o n books per c h i l d ; median—6.5 intermediate f i c t i o n books per c h i l d ) to serve school populations, although r e l a t i v e l y few teacher-l i b r a r i a n s were completely s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r Prench language intermediate f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s (pp. 87-89). 4. A large school l i b r a r y Intermediate f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n d i d not indicate that childr e n In that school would read more than c h i l d r e n In other schools (p. 86), nor d i d a large school l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n In terms of books-per-puplis (p. 86), although a teacher-l i b r a r i a n ' s perception of a strong intermediate f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e l y related to greater reading i n Prench (p. 89). In summary, i t appears that Immersion students procured Prench language materials mostly at school, I l l through book purchase clubs and school l i b r a r i e s . The si z e of Internedlate f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s was not generally a problem, but the q u a l i t y of the c o l l e c t i o n s was of concern to many tea c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s . Implications Inferences Drawn about Immersion Children and th e i r Reading Preferences and Attitudes The following are inferences drawn from the findings of the study and the review of the l i t e r a t u r e . 1. The fac t that 88 c h i l d r e n chose the same genre In Bnglish and Prench as t h e i r f a v o r i t e implies a consistency of taste which would seem to be e n t i r e l y normal, but also i n v i t e s the speculation that the chil d r e n d i d not know any genres i n Prench, and were writing again what they had written as Bnglish f a v o r i t e s . 2. The fac t that many chi l d r e n c l e a r l y had favorite authors and se r i e s Implies some s o p h i s t i c a t i o n with regard to genre preferences. 3. The difference i n ranking of the genre "short s t o r i e s " i n Prench <5th) and Bnglish <17th), coupled with the greater popularity of comics in Prench than Bnglish suggests that c h i l d r e n preferred less demanding 112 materials in Prench than i n Bnglish. 4. The fact that c h i l d r e n read r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e in Prench perhaps implies that they have chosen the s i t u a t i o n of l e i s u r e reading as an Bnglish language aspect of t h e i r bilingualIsm, as Plshman (1971) indicated about the behavior of b i U n g u a l s . inferences Drawn about the Prench Immersion Program 1. The disturbing number of chil d r e n who wrote in that they d i d not read i n Prench for pleasure at a l l (28) and the high Incidence of c h i l d r e n who had no f i r s t genre choice of l e i s u r e reading i n French (32) suggest that there may be a problem with the immersion program, at least i n regard to these c h i l d r e n . Although l e i s u r e reading in French i s not a stated objective of French immersion, i t seems u n l i k e l y that these c h i l d r e n w i l l become as f u l l y b i l i n g u a l as those who experience the language growth associated with reading in French. 2. The fact that volumes of reading i n Bnglish were as high as those reported by McGregor and Wiedrick (1980) implies that the study of French does not Inhibit reading for pleasure i n Bnglish. This seems to be consonant with the conclusions of the 113 researchers i n Prench immersion with regard to the Bnglish language competence of Immersion ch i l d r e n . Inferences prawn about Teacher-11 bj^rlans and School Library C o l l e c t i o n s 1. The fact that 9 teacher-librarians reported inadequate interest and reading l e v e l coverage in th e i r Prench intermediate c o l l e c t i o n s points up some problems i n the s e l e c t i o n of materials for Prench f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s . Children expect, by grade 6, to be reading un11lustrated novels of 100 to 200 or more pages i n Bnglish; i f they have d i f f i c u l t y doing so i n Prench they may be unwilling to attempt f i c t i o n a l material. The actual c o l l e c t i o n s may be based more upon the teac h e r - l i b r a r i a n s ' and students' expectations of what they should be able to read, rather than on what they can a c t u a l l y read. 2. The apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p between some teac h e r - l i b r a r i a n s ' perception of strengths i n the intermediate f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n and the children's greater volume of Prench reading perhaps implies that when the te a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n i s thoroughly f a m i l i a r with the c o l l e c t i o n and the children's interests i n i t , he/she i s able to impart knowledge of the c o l l e c t i o n to 114 the c h i l d r e n . Recommendat1ons Assuming that It Is desirable to encourage students to Increase t h e i r l e i s u r e reading i n Prench, both to increase t h e i r competence in the Prench language and to help them experience the pleasure of reading, there may be some a c t i v i t i e s that teachers and teacher-librarians can undertake, and support which the Ministry of Education can o f f e r , which w i l l help them do so. Recommendations ffor Teachers 1. In regard to novel studies, i t i s recommended that in Prench Secret de van1lie be considered the novel off choice ffor grade 6 because i t was mentioned as a f a v o r i t e by a s i g n i f i c a n t number off children who studied i t . 2. I t i s recommended that l e i s u r e reading (USSR) be stressed In the immersion classroom so that childr e n have greater opportunity to read i n Prench. Recommendations ffor Teachers and Teacher-librarians 1. Since the requirement to have a Prench book was 115 s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with a lower volume of French reading, i t i s recommended that the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n not i n s i s t that children in French immersion classes borrow a French l i b r a r y book. 2. Since r e l a t i v e l y few teachers and teacher-l i b r a r i a n s read novels to classes on a regular basis, i t i s recommended that reading aloud to students be Increased to provide greater exposure to l i t e r a t u r e and to the French language. In t h i s connection, taped books of good q u a l i t y and l i t e r a t u r e i n f i l m or video format should become important components of the French language intermediate c o l l e c t i o n s . 3. The fact that the 45 childr e n who indicated that they had read t h e i r f a v o r i t e author i n both English and French had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher volume of reading i n French (as shown i n t h i s study's add i t i o n a l f i n d i n g s ) , and that 88 childr e n preferred the same genre i n English and French (or at least said they d i d ) , seem to indicate that both teachers and teacher-librarians would do well to make use of translations of popular English materials in presenting possible l e i s u r e reading materials to French immersion students. When teacher-librarians know what children l i k e i t should be offered to them i n both languages 116 wherever possible, e s p e c i a l l y since the appeal was apparently inherent i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Also, a p r i o r enjoyment oC an Bnglish version of a work may encourage a c h i l d to read i t i n Prench. 4. Teachers and teacher-librarians should e x p l o i t children's knowledge of and interest i n authors and serie s by creating promotions about Prench language authors and s e r i e s . 5. In view of the r e l a t i v e l y low volume of reading i n French compared with Bnglish, i t i s recommended that teachers and teacher-librarians increase t h e i r e f f o r t s t o encourage children to read in Prench, at the same time avoiding long-term test-based promotion a c t i v i t i e s . 6. 81nee Prench language genre preferences were strongly expressed in t h i s survey, i t would be useful for teacher-librarians to assess t h e i r own c o l l e c t i o n s for f a v o r i t e genres and seek out, for purchase or for promotion to the ch i l d r e n , materials In the genres most 1iked. 7. 81nee v a r i e t y i s apparent i n the genre choices, teacher-librarians should s t r i v e to include In the c o l l e c t i o n of Prench language materials a good representation of a l l l i t e r a r y genres so that there are 117 materials i n the c o l l e c t i o n for most tastes. 6. Since "short s t o r i e s " ranked 5th i n the French genres, although It ranked 17th in the Bnglish genres, teacher-librarians should attempt to purchase appropriate short story c o l l e c t i o n s in French. 9. Since reading comprehension of French Immersion students i s generally assessed as lower than that of francophone students (as shown i n the l i t e r a t u r e review), t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s , i n reading book reviewing journals prepared with francophone students in mind, should make adjustments i n accepting the reading l e v e l s indicated. 10. Since the B l l e y and Mangubhai (1983) study showed the value of high-interest i l l u s t r a t e d materials, i l l u s t r a t i o n s should be considered an important element i n f i c t i o n materials chosen for Immersion school l i b r a r i e s . Recommendations for the Ministry of Education (Modern Languages and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Programs Branch) 1. The choice of The Cay and Secret de  van!lie as f a v o r i t e s by s i g n i f i c a n t l y more children who studied them than the balance of the main sample suggests that curriculum committees should take care i n 118 choosing novels for study to f i n d those which w i l l appeal to nost of the c h i l d r e n . 2. In view of the wrltten-ln comments about d i f f i c u l t y and Interest l e v e l of materials and the tea c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s ' perceptions of weaknesses In the Prench f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s , i t i s recommended that work be done to investigate the reading lev e l s of Prench materials now recommended. H i l l ' s (1981) research findings on the d i f f i c u l t y of English language materials i n school l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s may be duplicated in Prench language school l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s . 3. Test r e s u l t s reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e review should be presented to and discussed with teachers and teacher-librarians so that they are made aware that they are s e l e c t i n g materials for a group of children whose reading l e v e l may be lower than that of francophones of t h e i r age. Ages and grade leve l s l i s t e d i n Prench language reviewing Journals should be adjusted in keeping with expected immersion students' reading a b i l i t y and so reported i n Selections. 4. i n l i g h t of the ambiguous views i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the reading comprehension of immersion students, the H i l l (1981) finding that l i b r a r y 119 c o l l e c t i o n s are often of too high a r e a d a b i l i t y , and both the h o s t i l e attitudes and the low volume of Prench reading reported, i t would be worthwhile to search for and c i r c u l a t e information about Prench books with high appeal but r e l a t i v e l y low reading l e v e l s . 5. I t would be useful to e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a of s e l e c t i o n for Intermediate immersion f i c t i o n to include such s p e c i f i c recommendations about format as short length and a t t r a c t i v e I l l u s t r a t i o n . 6. 81nee r e a d a b i l i t y scales can give a quick, rough in d i c a t i o n of the l e v e l of reading material (even i f the person applying the scale i s not completely competent i n the language of the material) i t would be useful either to adapt or derive a Prench language r e a d a b i l i t y formula for the Immersion s i t u a t i o n . (An int e r e s t i n g Spanish language adaptation of the Pry Readability Graph occurs i n G i l l i a m , 1980.) Recommendations for Research 1. In view of the apparent negative value ( i n terms of amounts of reading) of large test-based reading promotions (Read for the TOP. Olvmpiade de  l a l e c t u r e ) , a r e s u l t which was unexpected, i t would be worthwhile to investigate further the use and Impact 1 2 0 of large scale test-based methods of reading promotion. 2 . In view of the fac t that comics apparently were more popular in the Prench than in the English genre choices of the main sample, and were more popular among anglophone B r i t i s h Columbia Immersion ch i l d r e n than with those with some French background, i t i s recommended that Investigation be done of the place of comics In reading development and In French language l i t e r a t u r e . 3. It would be useful i f research to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s between Bnglish language and French language children's l i t e r a t u r e were done and made av a i l a b l e to tea c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s . 4. From personal observation and experience, t h i s researcher notes that there are many factors not investigated i n t h i s study which could be assumed to be related to the reading choices and quantity of reading of grade 6 anglophone e a r l y immersion ch i l d r e n . It would be useful i f investigation were undertaken to determine whether there i s any r e l a t i o n s h i p between children's reading and the socio-economic background of the c h i l d r e n ; the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the child r e n ; the academic achievement of the chi l d r e n ; each French teacher's command of French; each teacher-librarian's 121 command of Prench; the percentage of the school day devoted to Prench i n s t r u c t i o n ; the exact nature and depth of any school l i b r a r y promotion a c t i v i t y ; the emphasis on the study of l i t e r a t u r e i n the classroom; the formats of materials in the school l i b r a r y intermediate f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n ; the content of each school l i b r a r y ' s intermediate f i c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n ; and the Prench environment within the school. 5. I t would be useful i f t h i s study were rep l i c a t e d under circumstances which would allow a more representative sample of the p r o v i n c i a l e a r l y Prench immersion s i t u a t i o n . 6. I f t h i s study i s r e p l i c a t e d , the children's questionnaire should be s i m p l i f i e d to attempt to reduce the incidence of incorrect responses, and the scale for reading volume should be extended downward to Include a category for zero and upward to provide categories for figures above 10 books per month. 122 References Prq less |onq 1 References Andrew, C. M., Lapkin, S. * Swain, M. (1979). Report on the 1978 evaluation of the Prench immersion program at Allenbv Public School in Toronto. grades 4-6. Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education. Ashley, L. P. (1970). Children's reading int e r e s t s and ind i v i d u a l i z e d reading. Elementary English.  47. 1088-1096. Barik, H. C. e Swain, M. (1978). Evaluation of a Prench in t e r s i o n program: The Ottawa Study through grade f i v e . Canadian J^urnaft of Behavioural Science. 10. 192-201. B r i t i s h Columbia. (1986). Prench language education i n B r i t i s h Columbiat 1986-87 enrolment report. (October 1986 ed.). V i c t o r i a : Ministry of Education, Modern Languages Branch. B r i t i s h Columbia. (1987). Prench immersion programs. (Ministry P o l i c y C i r c u l a r 38:87.08.07). (Available from B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education) Bruck, M., Lambert, V. B., & Tucker, O. R. (1974). B i l i n g u a l schooling through the elementary grades: The St. Lambert Project at grade seven. Language Learning, 2 ± * 183-204. Carey, S. T., & Cummins, J . , (1983). Achievement, behavioral correlates and teachers' perceptions of francophone and anglophone immersion students. Ajberta Journal of Educational Research, 29., 159-167. Centre de recherche et de consultation (Cereco). (1983). The Prench Immer^on research project, Manitoba. 1983. Winnipeg: Ministere de 1'Education, Bureau de 1'Education franchise. 123 Chester, R., Dank, M., HcBachern, V. a Hoath, D. (1977). Attitudes and Interests of 5th and 7th grade poolIs towards t o p i c s , materials and procedures associated with reading i n both leisure-time and school oriented a c t i v i t i e s . (Report No. 77:6). Vancouver: Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ching, D. C. (1976). Reading and the b|||ftqufft c h i l d * Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Chiu, H. L. (1973). Reading preferences of fourth grade c h i l d r e n related to sex and reading a b i l i t y . J o u f P * Educational Research, 6_6, 369-373. Cohen A. D., Fathman, A. K, a Merino, B. (1976). The Redwood C i t y b i l i n g u a l education project 1971-74: Spanish and Bnglish proficiency, mathematics and language use over time. Working'Papers on Bl Ungual laff, &, 1-29. Cummins, J . , e Swain, M. (1966). BfUnquaUsm, in education. London: Longmans. Davies, R. A. (1979). The school l i b r a r y media Program: I n s t r u c t i o n a l force for excellence. (3rd. ed.) New York: Bowker. Edwards, H.P. (1976). Evaluation of French immersion program offered by the Ottawa Roman Catholic School Board. Canadian HJoderyj Language Rev jew, 33. 137-142. B l l e y , ff. B. a Mangubhai, F. (1983) The impact of reading on second language learning. Reading Research Quarterly, i i , 53-67. Feeley, J. T. (1982). Content Interests and media preferences of middle-graders: Differences in a decade. Reading World. 21, 11-16. Fishman, J.A. (1971). BlllnguaUara III the ba r r i o . Bloomlngton, IN: Indiana University Press. 124 Garganta, s. & Ramirez, I. (1978, October). B i l i n g u a l  reading. Paper presented at the Southern Conference on Language Teaching, Texas Foreign Language Association, Texas Teachers of Bnglish to Speakers of Other Languages, San Antonio, TX. (1RIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 169 751) Genesee, P. (1977). Second language learning and language a t t i t u d e s . Montreal: Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal, Instructional Services Department. Genesee, P. (1978). A longitudinal evaluation of an e a r l y immersion school program. Canadian Journal of Education, 3(4) 31-50. Genesee, P. (1979). Scholastic e f f e c t s of French Immersion: An overview a f t e r ten years. Interchange. 9(4) 20-29. Genesee, F. a Chaplin, 8. (1975). Evaluation of the 1974-75 grade 5 Prench immersion c l a s s . Montreal: Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal, Curriculum Department. Genesee, P., Morin, S., a A l l i s t o r , T. (1974). Evaluation of the 1973-1974 grade IV Pranch-mmerslon c l a s s . Montreal: Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal, Curriculum Department. Genesee, P. c Stefanovic, B. (1976). Evaluation of the 1975-1976 grade 6 Prench Immersion c l a s s . Montreal: Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal, Instructional Services Department. Getzels, J . V., (1966). The problem of Interests: A reconsideration. In H. A. Robinson (Ed.), Reading; 75 years of progress. Proceedings of the annual conference on reading held at the Unive r s i t y Pi C^cago, 2*, (pp. 97-106). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. G i l l i a m , B., Pena, S. C , a Mountain, L. the Fry graph applied to Spanish r e a d a b i l i t y . The Reading Teacher. 33. 426-430. 125 Gray, V. A. (1986). A summary of the elementary school evaluation of the e a r l y French inversion program i n Frederlcton, N.B. Canadian Modern Language Review.. 12, 940-951. OrooJean, F. (1982). L i f e with two languages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. H a l l , D. 8. (1978, May). The r e l a t i o n s h i p of reading attitudes to achievement, sex and s o c i a l c l a s s among f i f t h grade p u p i l s . 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A Canadian experiment In the development of b i l i n g u a l competence. Canadian Hodom luggage Revjew, H , 108-116. Lapkin, 8., IJaz, H., Kamin J . , a Argue, V. (1984). Annotated l i s t of French t e s t s . Canadian Modern  Language Review. 4,1, 93-109. 126 Lena, I. J . (1968). Children In the l i b r a r y ; A study Of Children's leisure-reading tastes and habits. C a r d i f f : u n i v e r s i t y of Vales. Lundlie, M. (1979). An evaluation of the f i r s t eight years off b i l i n g u a l education at 8t. Plus X School. Reaina. Saskatchewan. (3.S.T.A. Research Centre Report Mo. 63). Reglna: Saskatchewan School Trustees Association Research Centre. Mackey, V. f . (1968). The des c r i p t i o n of bilingualism. In J . A. Pishman (Ed.). Readings i n the sociology of language (pp. 554-584). The Hague: Mouton. McGregor, J . H. * Viedrick, L. G. (1980). A comparison of the l e i s u r e reading of grade 6 and grade 9 students. School L i b r a r i e s i n Canada. £, 20-23. Moray, O. (1978). What does research say about the reading in t e r e s t s of ch i l d r e n i n the Intermediate grades? Reading Te^chey, 3, 763-768. Morris, J . (1962). Barriers in successful reading for second-language students at the secondary l e v e l . In B. Spolsky (Bd.), Language education of minority c h i l d r e n (pp. 156-163). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Morvell, G. V. (1958). What bovs and g i r l s l i k e to read. Morristown, NJ: S i l v e r Burdett. Olcott, P. J . (1912). The children's reading. Boston: Houghton. Pawley, C. (1985). How b i l i n g u a l are Prench students? Cffinndll". tfoqefn Language Review, JJL, 865-876. Pi Lambda Theta, Beta Upsilon chapter. (1974). Children's reading int e r e s t s c l a s s i f i e d by age l e v e l . The Reading Teacher. 27. 694-700. P o l l , D. (1985.) Olvmolade de l a lecture. V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Modern Languages Services. 127 Protestant school Board of Greater Montreal. (1971). Grade seven, J970-71 Prynch Ipfpftrslon evaluation project. Montreal: Author, 8tudent Personnel Services and Curriculum Departments. Read for the top. I n. d.). IVancouver I: Br i11sh Columbia Teachers* Federation, P r o v i n c i a l Intermediate Teachers* Association. Sauls, C. (1974). The r e l a t i o n s h i p of selected factors to r e c r e a t i o n a l reading of 6th graders. Ijemantary gftgllah, SJL, 1009-1011. Schofer, G. (1981). Reading preferences of B r i t i s h and American elementary c h i l d r e n . Reading Improvement. 18, 127-131. Schulte, B. 8. (1969). Independent reading interests of c h i l d r e n i n grades four, f i v e and s i x . In J . A. P l g u r e l , (Bd.), Reading 4M«* 'fbJfllTfM It Proceedings of the 13t> Annual Convention of, the International Reading Association, (pp. 728-732). Newark, DB: International Reading Association. Selections. V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Modern Languages and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Programs Branch. Irregular. 1984— Shapson, 8. M. & Day, B. M. (1982). A longitudinal evaluation of an e a r l y Immersion program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Journal off M u l t i l i n g u a l and Mu l t i c u l t u r a l Development. 3 (1), 1-16. Shapson, 8.M. a Day, B. M. (1984). Evaluation study off the grade 3 e a r l v and grade 7 e a r l v and late Prepch Immersionprograms In Brttjgp Columbia. Burnaby, B. C.: Simon Praser University, conducted under contract to the B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education. Shnayer, 8. V. (1969). Some rel a t i o n s h i p s between reading interest and reading comprehension. In J . A. Plgurel (Ed.) Reading and Realism,: Part I. proceedings off the 13tfr Annual Convention p t t h g International Reading Association, (pp. 698-702). Newark, DB: International Reading Association. 128 Snyder, 0. (1981). Some patterns In reading habits of interned late grade c h i l d r e n . Read|ng-Ca,nada-Lccture. 1, 65-72. Summers, I. G., a Lukasevlch, A. (1983). Reading preferences of Internedlate grade c h i l d r e n In r e l a t i o n to sex, coanunity, and maturation (grade l e v e l ) : A Canadian perspective. Reading Research Quarterly. JJL, 347-360. Swain, H. (1976). English-speaking c h i l d • Prench immersion » b i l i n g u a l c h i l d . Canadian Modern Language Review. 3_3_, 180-187. Swain, M., 4 Lapkin, 8. (1981). B i l i n g u a l education in Ontario; A, decade of research. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education. Swain, M., Lapkin, S. c Andrew, C. M. (1981). E a r l y Prench immersion l a t e r on. Journal of M u l t i l i n g u a l and Multicultural. Development, 1(1), 1-23. Ternan, L.M. * Lima, M. (1931). Children's reading. (2nd. ed.). New York: Appleton. Thorndlke, R. L. « Henry, P. (1940). Differences i n reading Interests related to differences i n sex and Intelligence l e v e l . Elementary School Journal. 40. 751-763. Tirenan, L. 8. (1930). Reading i n the elementary schools of New Mexico. Elementary gffhopl Journal. 30. 621-626. Tucker, O. R. (1975). The development of reading s k i l l s within a b i l i n g u a l education program. In 8. Smiley « J . C. Towner (Eds.), 6th Western gynposjuw on learning? Language anH Learning (pp. 49-60). BellIngham, WA. UBC SPS8X ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the 8 o c i a l Sciences Extended Version Release 2.0 Under MTS). (1986). (Computer program). Vancouver: Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 129 wolfson, B. J . (1960). what do childre n say t h e i r reading Interests are? The Heading Teacher, l±, 81-82. Wolfson, B.J., Manning, G. « Manning, M. (1984). R e v i s i t i n g what ch i l d r e n say t h e i r reading interests are. Beading 1forM> 21(2), 4-10. wolsk, D. (1977). Program evaluation—L'ecole p\ 11ngue (A French jamarsion school) . (Research report 77-05). Vancouver: Vancouver School Board, Evaluation and Research Education Services Group. Children'sBoofcp and Magazines Blume* J . (1984). Le r o l des casse-pleds. ( I . Relnharez, Trans.) P a r i s : Bcole des l o i s i r s . ( O r i g i n a l work published 1980). Brown, 8. (1983). L'ete est encore l o i n . (R. Morrissette a T. Hautea-Horrissette, Transl.) Montreal: Heritage, 1983. ( O r i g i n a l work published 1900). Burnford, 8. (1961). The Incredible journev. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown. C a r r i e r , R. (1980). Voyaaeqrs dp j'arc-en-cjel* Montreal: Stanke. C a r r o l l , L. (1972). A ^ c e aux pay? de merve/Wes. P a r i s : Delagrave. (Ori g i n a l work published 1865). Corriveau, M. (1981). Secret de v a n i l i e . Montreal: Fides. Bhm, T. (1904). Jacques C a r t i e r raconte. Montreal: Heritage. George, J . C. (1959). My side off the mountain. Mew York, Button. Koraan, G. (1901). I want t o oo hoae. Richmond H i l l , Ont.: Scholastic. 130 Leaieux, O. (Comp. * Ed.). (1976). Contes de aon  pays. Montreal: Heritage. Mackenzie, N. (1980). Le p e t i t dinosaurs d'Alberta. Saint-Boniface: BditIons des Plaines. Mad. New York: B.C. Publications. 8 issues a year. 1952— Martel, 8. (1979). P l - o u l . Montreal: Heritage. Martel, 8. (1980). Surreal 3000. Montreal: Heritage. Martel, S. (1981). MOB a i l s robots. Montreal: Heritage. Maupassant, G. de. (1905). Contes c h o l s i a . P a r i s : 01lenderf. Montgomery, L. M. (1986). A n n e — l a salson aux plonona  ver t s. (H-D. Paratte, T r a n s l . ) . Charlottetown: Ragweed Press. (Ori g i n a l work published 1908) O'Brien, R. C. (1971). Mrs. Prisbv and the rata of  Miah-Y New York: Atheneua. O'Dell, 8. (1960). Island of the blue dolphins. Boston: Houghton. Owl. Toronto: Young Na t u r a l i s t Foundation. 10 issues a year. 1976— Paterson, K. (1977). Bridge to Tera b i t h l a . New York: Crowell. R i c h l e r , M. (1977). Jacob deux-deux et l e vaaolre aasaue. (K* J . Siaard, Transl.) Montreal: Tisseyre. (Or i g i n a l work published 1975) Seventeen. New York: Triangle Publications. Monthly. 1944— Soulieres, R. (1980). V l s i t e u r du s o l r . Montreal: Pierre Tisseyre. Taylor, T. (1969). The Cay. Garden C i t y , NY: Ooubleday. 131 Teem. Los Angeles: Peterson Publishing. Monthly. 1957— Waterton, B. (1983). Moutarde. (P. Marois, T r a n s l . ) . Rlchmond-Hlll, Ont.: Scholastic. (O r i g i n a l work published 1983) Wilson, S. (1982). H*«i Fjjiffouln et U mere Croct^. Montrea1: Her1tage. 135 Appendix B: 1987 Survey—Sample and Timing As of October, 1986, there %rere 1005 grade 6 e a r l y immersion students enrolled i n the public schools of B r i t i s h Columbia ( B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, 1986). From a possible t o t a l of 37 schools i n 20 d i s t r i c t s , 19 schools i n 15 d i s t r i c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d . (In one school only the students' questionnaires were returned, not the teachers' or teacher-librarians'.) Geographically, the schools were situated on Vancouver Island and i n Greater Vancouver, the Fraser Valley, and i n the I n t e r i o r . Sixty-three percent of the population was from Greater Vancouver, but only 38% of the main sample was from that area. Population and main sample representations for the other geographical areas were: Vancouver I s l a n d — 2 0 % of the population and 38% of the main sample; the Fraser V a l l e y — 1 0 % of the population and 14% of the main sample; and the I n t e r i o r — 7 % of the population and 10% of the main sample. The main sample was therefore not completely representative of the B r i t i s h Columbia immersion s i t u a t i o n . B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education (1986) and the responses of the teacher-librarians provided 136 information about the schools and th e i r Prench programs. The schools varied i n s i z e from 162 to 705 enrolled students; the mean s i z e was 449 and the median was 480. The number of childr e n i n Prench programs In the schools ranged from 72 to 480 enrolled students, with a mean of 271 and a median of 253. Numbers of Intermediate students In Prench ranged from 57 to 267, with a mean of 120 and a median of 105. Most schools were dual track, but 4 schools had Prench programs only. Two of the schools were Intermediate only (middle schools!, while the majority were elementary schools, K-6 or K-7. In two cases, the group answering the questionnaire was the lead c l a s s (that i s , the f i r s t group to enter Immersion at the I n i t i a t i o n of the program i n the area) for e a r l y Immersion i n the school and/or d i s t r i c t . The smallest p a r t i c i p a t i n g group of children i n any school was 7 (two schools), and the largest group was 38. In a l l , 491 answered the children's questionnaire; 23, the teachers'; 18, the teacher-librarians'; and 16, the public l i b r a r i a n s ' . Of the 491 c h i l d r e n who answered the questionnaire, 351 formed the main sample. In t h i s group, 152 (43%) were boys and 199 (57%) were g i r l s . 137 Because one major school d i s t r i c t required individual parental permission (which some parents withheld), the children's responses from that d i s t r i c t were excluded from the main sample (as r e f l e c t e d In the percentages for geographical areas Indicated above). Results from the adults i n that d i s t r i c t were included in the t o t a l s t o t a l s . Some data are reported for the groups which were excluded from the main sample for language r e a s o n s — those with French language background (32) and those with another language background (42). Table B-l shows the information on the population and sample. Table B - l : Population and Sample Information for the 1986-87 Survey D i s t r i c t s with grade 6 e a r l y immersion 20 D i s t r i c t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g 15 Schools with grade 6 e a r l y immersion 37 Schools p a r t i c i p a t i n g (18 teacher-librarians) 19 Classes p a r t i c i p a t i n g (23 pairs of teachers) 24 Population (Grade 6 e a r l y immersion enrolment) ... 1005 Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g 491 Main sample (152 boys; 199 g i r l s ) 351 Children with French language background 32 Children with another language background 42 Children excluded (late entry, incomplete information, parental permission) 66 Public l i b r a r i a n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g 16 138 The questionnaires were designed to be given in the schools during the l a t t e r t h i r d of the school year, so that teacher and t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n practices during the grade 6 year could be related to student r e p l i e s . P a r t l y because 1986-87 was a disruptive year i n the public school system, some questionnaires were administered late in the school year. One school d i s t r i c t photocopied and used the sample questionnaires sent with the l e t t e r s requesting permission, giving the questionnaires very e a r l y . In f a c t the dates varied from March 26, 1987 to June 15, 1987, with a l l but four schools administering the questionnaires between A p r i l 13, 1987 and May 26, 1987. Public l i b r a r i e s i n the areas with immersion schools were sent t h e i r questionnaires i n the spring of 1987. A l l were returned by July, 1987. 141 5. When you read for pleasure in French (either at home or at school), which types of material do you prefer to read? Please make f i r s t , second and t h i r d choices. There i s a l i s t of kinds of reading material r i g h t a f t e r t h i s question. You may answer in Bnglish or French. F i r s t choice Second choice Third choice Kinds of Reading Materials adventure s t o r i e s (romans d'aventure) animal fantasy ( h l s t o l r e s fantastiques des anlmaux) choose your own adventures (c h o i s i s ta propre aventure) comics (bandes dessinees) fantasy ( h l s t o l r e s fantastiques) / folk and f a i r y t a l e s ( f o l k l o r e et contes de fees) funny s t o r i e s (romans droles) A ghost s t o r i e s ( h l s t o l r e s des fantomes) h i s t o r i c a l novels (romans historiques) magazines (revues) mystery and detective s t o r i e s (romans p o l i c l e r s ) nonfictlon (ouvrages documentalres) novels about ordinary families (romans des families ordinalres) poetry (poesie) r i d d l e s , limericks, jokes (devinettes et blagues) romances (romans d'amour) science f i c t i o n ( s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n ) short s t o r i e s (nouvelles) 6. Do you buy books at school from a book club ( l i k e Arc-en-ciel or Scholastic)? In Bnglish? In French? 7. Approximately how many Bnglish books do you read a month? part of 1 1-3 4-6 7-9 10 or more 8. Approximately how many French books do you read a month? part of 1 1-3 4-6 7-9 10 or more 9. Of a l l the books that you have read or had read to you i n either language i n grade 6, which Is your favourite? 10. Which language i s i t in? 142 11. Of a l l the books you have ever read in your l i f e (or had read to you) i n either language, which i s your favourite? 12. Which language i s i t in? 13. If you answered the sane language for number 10 and number 12, do you have a favourite book in any other language? If so, what i s the t i t l e ? , 14. Of a l l the authors i n Bnglish or Prench whose books you have read or had read to you, who i s your favourite? 15. Did you read or hear his/her books i n Bnglish or Prench or both languages? 16. What i s your favourite magazine? 17. Which language do you prefer to read? 144 other (please mention) 4. Has any of these devices been used in the students' English class? If so, please l i s t . 5. Please l i s t the novels i n both Bnglish and Prench studied i n c l a s s . 6. Please l i s t any novels read In t h e i r e n t i r e t y to the clas s i n Bnglish or Prench. 7. Please l i s t t i t l e s of novels i n Bnglish or Prench of which chapters or sections were read to the c l a s s . Cut here If either teacher wishes a copy of the summary r e s u l t s of t h i s research, please put names and addresses here. No teachers' names w i l l be used in any way i n reporting the r e s u l t s . 146 French d a i l y c i r c u l a t i o n : OR French f i c t i o n d a i l y c i r c u l a t i o n : OR French intermediate f i c t i o n d a i l y c i r c u l a t i o n : . 6. Is there a school d i s t r i c t source (e.g. d i s t r i c t resource centre) from which teachers can borrow suitable French reading materials i n quantity for students? 7. Is there a public l i b r a r y i n the community which stocks French language l e i s u r e reading books suitable for immersion children? 8. Are there any bookstores In the community which carry French language l e i s u r e reading books suitable for intermediate immersion children? 9. Is there a book purchase club for French language students operated through the school l i b r a r y ? If so, which one? 10. What i s the loan period in the school l i b r a r y ? Are renewals permitted? 11. For the grade 6 e a r l y French immersion students in the school, are there any s p e c i a l borrowing l i m i t s or requirements? If so, what are they? 12. Is there a regular school wide sustained s i l e n t reading programme? If so, what i s the duration? Frequency? Language r e s t r i c t i o n ? 13. If you have given booktalks about, read parts of, or promoted s p e c i f i c books (i n either language) i n t h i s school year to grade s i x e a r l y immersion classes, please l i s t any t i t l e s along with the d i v i s i o n numbers of the classes. D i v i s i o n : T i t l e : D i v i s i o n : T i t l e : 14. If you have read any en t i r e novels ( i n either language) to the grade s i x e a r l y immersion groups, please l i s t them with the d i v i s i o n numbers of the classes. D i v i s i o n : T i t l e : D i v i s i o n : T i t l e : 147 15. Have any general promotions In your school (e.g. Children's Book F e s t i v a l , National Book F e s t i v a l ) Included reference to French language novels or other l e i s u r e reading materials? If any books have been s p e c i f i c a l l y involved, please l i s t t i t l e s . 16. Please l i s t a l s o any English language novels or materials normally thought to be for le i s u r e reading which have been involved i n promotions. 17. Have any authors v i s i t e d your school or your community in the past two years? Please l i s t . 18. Does i t seem to you that any genre, author, or pa r t i c u l a r novel in either language i s popular with the grade s i x e a r l y immersion students? If so, please l i s t . Cut here If you wish to receive a copy of the summary res u l t s of t h i s research, please write your name and home address here. This i s the only instance i n which your name w i l l be used. 149 (e) What proportion of the French language f i c t i o n would you characterize as appropriate for children of 10, 11, and 12? (f) Are there any loan r e s t r i c t i o n s for either English or French materials? (g) During the past year, has your l i b r a r y sponsored any reading promotion a c t i v i t y appropriate to intermediate students? If so, please describe i t b r i e f l y , e s p e c i a l l y with respect to emphasis (e.g. n a t i o n a l i t y , genre, volume of reading). (h) During the past two years, has your l i b r a r y sponsored any author v i s i t s appropriate for intermediate children? If so, please name the authors. Cut here If you would l i k e a copy of the summary res u l t s of the research, please put your name and address here. Your name w i l l not be used in any other way. Thank you. 

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