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Writing-in-role : a handbook for teachers 1990

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WRITING-IN-ROLE: A HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS By E l i z a b e t h Sarah Komar B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A MAJOR ESSAY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION i n THE DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION We accept t h i s major paper as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF June ® Elizabeth BRITISH COLUMBIA 1990 Sarah Komar In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) As A t t i c u s Finch i n To K i l l a Mockingbird says to h i s daughter Scout: " F i r s t of a l l , " he sa id to me, " i f you can l earn a s ing le t r i c k , Scout, y o u ' l l get along bet ter with a l l kinds of f o l k s . You never r e a l l y understand a person u n t i l you consider things from h i s point of view-" "Sir?" " - u n t i l you climb into h i s sk in and walk around i n i t . " Harper Lee i i Table of Contents Chapter One W r i t i n g - i n - R o l e : Some Questions, Some Answers Page 2 Chapter Two Guidel ines for Implementation Page 27 Chapter Three Samples of Student Work Page 42 Chapter Pour Why Use Wri t ing- in -Role? Page 47 Chapter Five Lesson Plans Page 55 Bibliography Page 80 i i i * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * CAPTURE THE EXCITEMENT— THE NEXT BEST THING TO BEING THERE. WRITING-IN-ROLE now play ing i n classrooms around the world experience for yourse l f the freshness, the power the authent i c i ty of new and improved w r i t i n g CHECK AND COMPARE WHAT TEACHERS SAY: "The kids don't groan anymore when I have them wri te . They r e a l l y sense that there i s a purpose to what they wr i t e ." "Before I used to receive more assignments than I could process . With w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e students can write more and get more feedback." "We d i d n ' t even hear the b e l l r i n g because we were so invo lved ." WHAT STUDENTS SAY: "It's fun!" "It's bet ter than a l l those boring assignments that I used to get." "Last week I was an explorer on the Fraser R i v e r . To- morrow I'm going to be an astronaut on a rocketsh ip ." YOUR CLASS WILL NEVER BE THE SAME. THE CHOICE IS YOURS. DON'T SETTLE FOR LESS. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 CHAPTER ONE WRITING-IN-ROLE; SOME QUESTIONS,SOME ANSWERS What is purpose of this handbook? How can I use it? This guide i s based i n the b e l i e f that w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e i s a r i c h and dynamic educational t o o l that provides students throughout the c u r r i c u l u m wi th meaningfu l and r e l e v a n t experiences to create authentic pieces of w r i t i n g . W r i t i n g - i n - R o l e : A Handbook for Teachers i s the r e s u l t of s tudy and c lassroom work. I t g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges and encourages the work, theor ies , and ideas of others . Although t h i s i s not a d e f i n i t i v e resource, i t does r e f l e c t at t h i s time, the current stage of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . I t i s meant to serve as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r those interes ted i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r technique. This paper presents d e f i n i t i o n s , explanations, theor ies , methodology, as wel l as easy-to-use p r a c t i c a l ideas for the classroom. I've never heard of writinq-in-role. What is it? W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e i s a drama technique i n which students w r i t e from the p e r s p e c t i v e of another p e r s o n . I t i s l i k e stepping into someone e l se ' s shoes. Say, for example, that you and your s tudents are i n v o l v e d i n a u n i t about h e a r i n g . They've studied the terminology and the funct ion of the anatomy of the ear; facts that the students can master through the use of models, diagrams, f i lms , memorization, and t e s t i n g . But 2 jus t imagine the q u a l i t y of l earning that could take place i f these same students were asked to write a l e t t e r to a family member from the p e r s p e c t i v e of an e l d e r l y person who i s experiencing a degenerative hearing loss or a medical report as a doctor documenting hearing re s tora t ion i n a pat ient who has undergone surgery. There i s no doubt that many of the students would gain a deeper understanding of the mater ia l i n addi t ion to a greater apprec iat ion of the many sounds which f i l l our world. The authent i c i ty i n t h e i r voices as they wri te w i l l be drawn from personal experience and knowledge, research, and teacher modeling and guidance. Is there any specialized terminology that I should know? I t would be h e l p f u l to understand and know the terms that are mentioned more frequently i n t h i s guide. The fo l lowing are some commonly used terms used i n w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e ; w r i t i n g from another a t t i tude or point of view Teacher/Student- in-Role: the teacher/student takes on another a t t i tude or point-of -v iew B u i l d i n g B e l i e f : techniques that help the students b u i l d a commitment to t h e i r ro les Framing: the c h o i c e of a c t i v i t y and p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t the teacher se lec ts that provides an entry into the work R e f l e c t i o n : a c t i v i t i e s t h a t p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the students to become aware of t h e i r own thoughts and fee l ings 3 Tableaux; frozen p ic tures formed and held by the students for a s h o r t p e r i o d of t ime . T h e i r g r o u p i n g s , e x p r e s s i o n s , and pos i t i ons wi th in the tableaux create and represent meaning. Protec t ion: prov id ing distance i n terms of a r o l e far removed from the student's own personal l i f e i n order to create a nonthreatening environment for the drama work. Placement: the point p r i o r to , dur ing , or fo l lowing the lesson when the w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e occurs. Format: the form the piece of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e takes such as a l e t t e r , d iary entry, or newspaper report . Language Mode: the language used by the students i n t h e i r wr i t ings can be expressive (personal) , poet ic ( a r t i s t i c ) , or t r a n s a c t i o n a l ( p r a c t i c a l ) . U n i t : the number of students working on a p a r t i c u l a r piece of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . Students can work i n d i v i d u a l l y , w i th a partner , or as a member of a group. How did writing-in-role originate? A B r i t i s h e d u c a t o r , Dorothy Heathcote , deve loped many techniques that are an i n t e g r a l aspect of drama-in-education, a teaching method that has found success throughout the world. She i n i t i a t e d t h i s l earning process so that c h i l d r e n of a l l ages and a b i l i t i e s c o u l d g a i n a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of 4 themselves and the world i n which they l i v e . The c h i l d r e n w i l l be able , as Heathcote (1984) points out, "not only to see the world from t h e i r own viewpoint, but through the eyes of others" (p.85). Drama? But I can't act! You don't need to . In fac t , ac t ing i s to be avoided. In d r a m a - i n - e d u c a t i o n , you d o n ' t need to walk or t a l k any d i f f e r e n t l y than you normally would. You jus t need to imagine y o u r s e l f i n someone e l s e ' s shoes, and assume h i s or her a t t i t u d e . Do you need to use drama in conjunction with writing-in-role? Drama i s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n h e l p i n g s tudents develop a deeper commitment to t h e i r ro les and to t h e i r work. Drama a c t i v i t i e s can occur during prewri t ing suggest Lashmar and Booth (1987) i n order to give students the opportunity to "explore, experiment, experience, and fee l" (p .5) . Drama can also take place n a t u r a l l y during the pos t -wr i t ing per iod as a means of sharing or an extension from what has been wr i t t en . By p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n ro l e herse l f , the teacher provides a model for the students and can help set the tone for work to fol low. I f , for example, the students are to w r i t e - i n - r o l e as repor ters , then the teacher can assume the r o l e of the ed i tor a s s i g n i n g p i e c e s to her s t a f f ; or i f the s tudent s have completed w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as lawyers who have c o l l e c t e d the 5 facts from t h e i r c l i e n t s , the students can then present t h e i r cases i n a court of law where the t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e pres ides as the judge. But I teach Socials—not Writing. Shouldn't this be something  that the English teacher should be using to teach Composition? Not at a l l . The study and use of our language i s u n i v e r s a l to a l l the subject areas. W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e i s a f l e x i b l e t o o l f o r i n t e g r a t i o n a c r o s s the grades and the curriculum since i t i s instrumental i n developing speaking, reading, w r i t i n g , and th inking s k i l l s . This seems to ind icate that w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e i s at the very core of our educational system. For example, we r e g u l a r l y see s tudents p r a c t i c i n g earthquake d r i l l s . The study, concern, and i n t e r e s t about earthquakes i s not l i m i t e d to one grade or s u b j e c t a r e a . Imagine students being able to research and/or apply t h e i r own knowledge i n a meaningful context by w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . Phys ica l Education students could be paramedics from the Red Cross compil ing a manual of F i r s t - A i d procedures for those in jured i n an earthquake; Mathematics students could a l l oca te r e l i e f funds as c i t y counc i l members; a food/care k i t could be des igned by s tudents i n Home Economics w r i t i n g as n u t r i t i o n i s t s ; S o c i a l Studies students as p o l i c e , newspaper r e p o r t e r s , or eyewitnesses c o u l d w r i t e accounts about earthquakes throughout h i s t o r y . 6 Through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e , s tudents are a c t u a l l y making meaning for themselves i n a l l subject areas. Why use wr i t i n g - i n - r o l e instead of regular w r i t i n g methods for teaching writing? What can wr i t i n g - i n - r o l e do that conventional i n s t r u c t i o n can't? One o f the s t r e n g t h s of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s r e l e v a n t contex t s and meaningful s i t u a t i o n s f o r authentic w r i t i n g . Often teachers engage t h e i r students i n textbook exercises designed to teach and develop w r i t i n g s k i l l s . However, looking at the work of Tar l ing ton (1985) we see that her students wrote e a s i l y because she wri tes , "the dramatic context suppl ied them with something to say and a purpose for saying i t " (p.200). She noted that the q u a l i t y of the w r i t i n g was far super ior to regular classroom w r i t i n g as the students were motivated to wri te c l e a r l y and with au thent i c i ty . In a dramatic context, students can l e a r n , for example, about the various mechanics and forms of l e t t e r w r i t i n g through a c t i v i t i e s which would be f a r more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and emotionally s a t i s f y i n g than textbook exerc ises . What kinds of l e t t e r s and to whom would students, i n - r o l e as s o l d i e r s , w r i t e the evening be fore an important b a t t l e knowing that the odds are against t h e i r surv iva l? What kinds of l e t t e r s would the government write and send to the fami l i e s of the s o l d i e r s who had been ser ious ly wounded or k i l l e d i n t h i s bat t l e? 7 The students are challenged when r e a l demands are made upon them. Options open up with the r e a l i z a t i o n that there are a v a r i e t y of poss ib le approaches. What forms o f w r i t i n g w i l l s t u d e n t s u s e / l e a r n i n w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e ? Zemel and Daniels (1988) l i s t the f i ve types of w r i t i n g that students encounter i n the classroom. Students write to show learn ing , to l earn w r i t i n g , to communicate, to express s e l f , and to create . In w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e , c h i l d r e n are provided with these types of w r i t i n g experiences. Students l earn ing measurement i n an Ari thmet ic c lass can apply t h e i r knowledge and demonstrate t h e i r grasp of the concept by d e s i g n i n g , as M e d i e v a l a r c h i t e c t s , a c a s t l e . Mechanics of w r i t i n g can be taught, r a t h e r than i n separate d r i l l s and e x e r c i s e s , i n a more p e r s o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t e x t . H i s t o r y s tudents s t u d y i n g warfare can wr i te , i n - r o l e as leaders of the world, a dra f t of a new arms agreement. Documenting as s c i e n t i s t s , the process as wel l as the r e s u l t s of a t ime- t rave l ing experiment, can help the s tudents deve lop c l e a r o b s e r v a t i o n and communication s k i l l s . A d iary entry, wri t ten as e l d e r l y people i n a res t home for senior c i t i z e n s , can reveal how i n d i v i d u a l s f ee l as w e l l as g i v e the s tudents an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n . As g r i e v i n g p a r e n t s , s tudents can compose a crea t ive piece of w r i t i n g , such as a poem, to be engraved on 8 the headstone of t h e i r c h i l d ' s grave. Students can e f f e c t i v e l y deve lop t h e i r w r i t i n g s k i l l s through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . What modes of language w i l l the students be using i n w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e ? Language i s an instrument that we teach our students to play by helping them to l earn a l l the tones and l eve l s of language use . Our aim i s to i n c r e a s e t h e i r c h o i c e s by e n l a r g i n g t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . We can do t h a t by p r o v i d i n g meaningful and relevant contexts for language use. W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e provides those opportunit ies for students to a c t u a l l y use r e a l language, not what Macrorie (1980) c a l l s , "Engfish—the say-nothing, f ee l nothing, word wasting, pretent ious language of the schools" ( p . l ) . Parry and Hornsby (1985) expand upon B r i t t o n ' s language model (1970) which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between the three modes of language encountered i n the classroom. The core or centra l point of our language use i s personal or expressive language. I t tends to be loose ly s tructured and free- f lowing with the focus on the w r i t e r . In one d i r e c t i o n on B r i t t o n ' s l i n e a r model we f i n d the t r a n s a c t i o n a l or p r a c t i c a l language which in terac t s with the world i n a very p r a c t i c a l manner. The focus i s p r i m a r i l y on the information or message to be conveyed. We s h i f t into poet ic or a r t i s t i c language, at the opposite end of t h i s l i n e , which i s used for the expression of ideas. 9 I ts focus i s on language and i t s s t ruc ture . Zemelman and Daniels (1988) support B r i t t o n ' s model for the c la s sroom and encourage t e a c h e r s to work w i t h t h e i r s tudents by "accept ing and c e l e b r a t i n g t h e i r e x p r e s s i v e language" and by "providing occasions that i n v i t e students to grow toward the t ransac t iona l and the poetic" (p.74). The opportunity to extend t h e i r language range i s provided through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . Imagine students r e f l e c t i n g about those household chores for which they are responsible although do not enjoy performing such as taking out the garbage, making t h e i r beds, taking the family dog out for walks on ra iny days, or c leaning the t o i l e t . Students can a r r i v e at an imaginative s o l u t i o n by w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as inventors . Recording i n t h e i r d i a r i e s or journa l s , these inventors can d e s c r i b e t h e i r successes and f a i l u r e s i n e x p r e s s i v e language as they each s t r i v e to create an invent ion that w i l l perform an undesirable task. S k e t c h i n g , p l a n n i n g , and o u t l i n i n g the i n v e n t i o n w i l l require the use of t ransac t iona l language as w i l l the w r i t i n g of operating ins t ruc t ions for an owner's /user's manual. In developing an adver t i s ing campaign for the invent ion , students w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e w i l l r e l y upon poet ic language to name the invent ion , to create a sales slogan, and to design a magazine ad. 10 Can w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e h e l p student language development? W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e p r o v i d e s o c c a s i o n s f o r s tudents to p r a c t i c e using language for a wider v a r i e t y of purposes than commonly found i n the c l a s s r o o m . T h e i r language can be e f f e c t i v e l y developed even though the focus i s d i r e c t e d at the r o l e ' s demands rather than the study of the language. In w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e , students are genera l ly encouraged to s e l e c t the r o l e of an a d u l t which a u t o m a t i c a l l y seems to elevate the tone and vocabulary of the w r i t e r as students search for the "voice" to f i t the s i t u a t i o n . W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e o f fers opportuni t ies for students to go beyond themselves and to p r a c t i c e using t h e i r d i f f e r e n t vo ices , voices that they w i l l be c a l l e d upon to use outside of the school s e t t i n g . R e c o r d i n g l o g e n t r i e s as a commander, whether n a v a l , f l i g h t , or space, immediately e l i c i t s a s p e c i a l i z e d vocabulary from the students as they w r i t e - i n - r o l e . The ir adventures and missions, while imaginative and f i l l e d with excitement and dilemma, a l so r e f l e c t the maturity of t h e i r post . Vocabulary, more appropriate to t h e i r work as wel l as time per iod , helps deepen t h e i r own b e l i e f i n t h e i r work. W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e should be c e n t r a l to a language curriculum—not a spec ia l ty nor an a c t i v i t y to be tagged onto the lesson as an extension. I t i s a more natura l and creat ive teaching technique to help st imulate and increase language growth. 11 How does writ ina- in-role relate to the writing process? Both w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e and the w r i t i n g process are e f f ec t ive l earn ing mediums which are l inked by t h e i r s i m i l a r s t ruc tures . Used i n harmony, these complementary mediums can draw upon each o ther ' s s trengths. In the w r i t i n g process, Parker (1982) out l ines prewri t ing as the i n i t i a l step. This involves the generating of ideas through such a c t i v i t i e s as d i scuss ion , brainstorming, reading, and f reewr i t ing . The d r a f t i n g process provides the students with the opportunity to commit t h e i r ideas to paper as wel l as to organize and to shape them through dec i s ion making. Once the piece of w r i t i n g has been composed, e d i t i n g and evaluat ion may then take p lace . This i s commonly accomplished i n small co-operat ive groups where peers c r i t i q u e each other's work. Benefits from t h i s include r e l i e v i n g the teacher of t r y i n g to process more mater ia l than she can r e a l i s t i c a l l y and adequately handle. Students are given the opportunity to write for a broader audience and i n turn , take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for each other ' s work. The f i n a l step i n the w r i t i n g process i s the publ i sh ing of the f i n a l product. However, t h i s i s usua l ly done by submitting the wr i t ten piece to the teacher for eva luat ion . The teacher grades i t according to various pre-determined c r i t e r i a and then returns i t to the students who may or may not r e f l e c t upon t h e i r work as w e l l as the t e a c h e r ' s feedback. Whenever poss ib l e , the publ i sh ing may occur as posted classwork, s tor i e s 12 to be read aloud, or books to be shared i n the l i b r a r y . W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e runs a p a r a l l e l course. Ideat ing, the proces s of c r e a t i n g i d e a s , precedes w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e and introduces the students to the work which can be framed through s i m i l a r types of a c t i v i t i e s that the w r i t i n g process employs. Teachers can guide the students next i n the d r a f t i n g stage by f i r s t he lping them b u i l d b e l i e f i n t h e i r r o l e s . Neelands (1984) suggests a v a r i e t y of dramatic modes such as games, tableaux, and interviews. The e d i t i n g process i n w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e i s a lso usual ly performed c o - o p e r a t i v e l y i n s m a l l groups ; however, i t i s presented i n a contextual manner. The c h i l d r e n may be e d i t i n g a b r i e f as businessmen preparing for an important meeting with a c l i e n t . Although not a l l w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e w i l l be shared, much of i t w i l l be presented as i t has been developed as an authentic piece of w r i t i n g , and as such, has a purpose to f u l f i l l . A message that a s tudent - in -ro l e may write w i l l only gain i t s f u l l worth and impact i f i t i s received and responded to by the person for whom i t i s intended. What is reflection? How is i t used in writing-in-role? Teachers need to allow for r e f l e c t i o n time throughout d a i l y lessons i n order for the students to become aware of t h e i r own thoughts and fee l ings regarding challenges presented i n c l a s s . A c a r e f u l p a c i n g of the l e s s o n w i l l p r o v i d e 13 opportuni t ies for the student to r e f l e c t as T a r l i n g t o n (1985) s t a t e s " i n d i f f e r e n t forms r a n g i n g from the p e r s o n a l and p r i v a t e to the more formal and publ ic" (p.204). This r e f l e c t i o n can occur i n d i scuss ion as wel l as i n w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . Morgan and Saxton (1984) suggest a l i s t o f p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s which p r o v i d e o c c a s i o n s f o r s tudent r e f l e c t i o n through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e : "logbook, d i a r y , casebook, l e t t e r s , i n s e r t for a time capsule, f i r s t person s tory , repor t s , f i l l i n g i n forms, newspaper s t o r i e s , t r e a t i e s or formal statements" (p.134) . In a lesson where students are studying the many d i f f e r e n t a spec t s of i m m i g r a t i o n , the s tudents may ach ieve i n s i g h t s through r e f l e c t i o n i n the form of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . F i l l i n g i n forms as hopeful or new immigrants or w r i t i n g l e t t e r s to family and fr iends l e f t behind can give students the chance to gain a new perspect ive which w i l l deepen how they th ink and f ee l about many d i f f e r e n t i ssues . How will writing-in-role help students' thinking skills? W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e c h a l l e n g e s the s tudents t o a c t i v e l y develop and prac t i ce the creat ive and c r i t i c a l th ink ing s k i l l s of producing and evaluat ing ideas. These s k i l l s are e s sent ia l i n he lp ing students to adapt to a growing and changing society f i l l e d with choices and new, as wel l as perhaps, d i f f e r e n t ideas . 14 I t i s t h i s search for meaning that i s at the heart of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . Ruggiero (1988) states that l earn ing across the curriculum ach ieves i t s v i t a l i t y by encouraging the s tudents to h y p o t h e s i z e , i n t e r p r e t , r a i s e q u e s t i o n s , e v a l u a t e , and d i scover . Students d i scuss ing the pros and cons of keeping k i l l e r whales i n c a p t i v i t y w i l l be challenged to review t h e i r thoughts when asked to w r i t e - i n - r o l e as captured astronauts who are allowed, by t h e i r captors on a d i s tant p lanet , to write a l e t t e r home to a loved one. Issues that might have seemed simple become more complex. The more students wr i te , the bet ter th inkers they become. Ruggiero (1988) stresses the importance of teaching students how to th ink by suggesting that teachers provide students with the "knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s and techniques of crea t ive and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " ( p . 5 ) . These can then be a p p l i e d i n s i tua t ions which encourage problem-solving and dec i s ion making. W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e creates those opportuni t i e s . Is writing-in-role compatible with the whole language approach? Froese (1989) provides a d e f i n i t i o n of whole language which demonstrates w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e 1 s c o m p a t i b i l i t y with t h i s teaching approach. He defines whole language as a " c h i l d - centred l i t e r a t u r e based approach to language teaching that immerses students i n r e a l communication s i tuat ions" (p .2) . 15 W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e supports the fundamental concepts of whole-language. I t provides students with genuine purposes for the development of communication s k i l l s wi th in integrated and re levant contexts. With an emphasis on process rather than product, students are encouraged to search for personal meaning i n " r e a l - l i f e language s i t u a t i o n s , 1 1 s tates Froese (p .8) . Students, i n - r o l e as curators , can design exh ib i t s for a museum focusing on B r i t i s h Columbia's past , present , and future a f t e r r e a d i n g i n t h e i r h i s t o r y t e x t s about the growth of communities and c i t i e s throughout the p r o v i n c e . Labe led drawings with explanations, for example, of an o ld-fashioned telephone, a current c e l l u l a r car phone or contemporary neon- l i t model, and a f u t u r i s t i c design complete with a t e l e v i s i o n screen, can be mounted for d i sp lay on classroom/museum wal l s . But ler (1989) states that i n whole language, "chi ldren write to l earn rather than learn to write" (p.94). This i s a v i t a l aim of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . Would writina-in-role be useful in second language learning? Wessels (1987) s t r e s s e s t h a t "language a c q u i s i t i o n . . . requires meaningful i n t e r a c t i o n i n the target language—natural communication—in which speakers are concerned not with the form o f t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s but w i th the message they are conveying and understanding" (p.12). W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e provides a wide range of opportuni t ies for language growth through contextual ized l e a r n i n g . Students gain 16 a sense of confidence and a readiness to use the language through re levant as wel l as creat ive p r a c t i c e . The g i v i n g of d i r e c t i o n s can become more of a challenge when students p r a c t i c e t h i s s k i l l by w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as p i ra te s with a treasure to bury. A d e t a i l e d , i l l u s t r a t e d map with c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s can become a useful exerc i se , e s p e c i a l l y i f the completed map i s given to another group of "pirates" who t r y to fol low the clues and discover the buried treasure . In writing-in-role, is emphasis placed on the final product or  the process? Heathcote (1984) stresses the educational path that both students and teachers can t r a v e l along i n process-centered l e a r n i n g ; a road which p l a c e s importance not s o l e l y upon content, but upon the ins ights that the students w i l l d iscover about t h e i r top ics as wel l as about themselves along the way. "True drama for discovery i s not about ends; i t i s about journeys and not knowing how the journeys may end," writes Heathcote (p. 98). Let us help the students to d iscover new meanings for themselves along t h i s path. This method of teaching helps breathe new l i f e into s ta le methods where s tudents p l o d through t e x t s which p r o v i d e mater ia l for the students to l e a r n , seldom leav ing room for the students 1 own searchings and d i scover i e s . Drama's w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e places the c h i l d ' s l earn ing i n "as i f " s i t u a t i o n s . Having the c h i l d w r i t e - i n - r o l e as an explorer , recording i n h i s d iary h i s observations and impressions of new 17 t e r r i t o r i e s t rave led through, gives deeper meaning to textbook f a c t s . Students take an act ive part i n the l earn ing process which helps them achieve greater understanding. By p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i r own l earn ing , there w i l l be a more profound impact. I t r y t o implement c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n my c l a s s r o o m . Can w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e f i t i n t o t h i s c o n c e p t ? Co-operative l earning i s an i n t e g r a l component of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . Since the a c t i v i t i e s are so i n t e r a c t i v e , much group work i s organized so that students can share t h e i r ideas, t es t them, modify and b u i l d upon them. Students can be found w r i t i n g i n desks, not arranged i n long rows a l l fac ing the front where the teacher stands, but c lus tered i n ways that promote co-operat ive l e a r n i n g . Students working together i n - r o l e as animal experts while designing an exh ib i t for a captured Sasquatch need to share information and to plan together i n co-operat ion . The group's r e s u l t s may vary ranging from modern, t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y sound exh ib i t s to groups which have decided that these creatures shou ld not be h e l d c a p t i v e but r e t u r n e d to t h e i r n a t u r a l environment. Through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e , students and teachers can work i n co-operat ion i n order to a t t a i n success and s a t i s f a c t i o n for a l l . The wise teacher provides opportunit ies for t h i s kind of sharing to take p lace . 18 How can a piece of writing be used? There must be a r e a l purpose i n having a student create a piece of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . To merely c o l l e c t and grade the piece would be an i n j u s t i c e to both the student and the work. Knowing that the piece i s a v i t a l ingredient i n the work helps the student develop a commitment to the r o l e and an authent i c i ty i n the w r i t i n g . The work does not necessar i ly need to be shared aloud i n order for i t to be v a l i d a t e d . I t could be the important change of plans or a set of new d i r e c t i o n s hidden beneath a stone that the weary t r a v e l e r s can' t f i n d . I t could be the d i a r y entry wr i t ten by a pr isoner as he absorbs the inhumane condit ions of h i s c e l l i n which he w i l l spend the res t of h i s l i f e . There are those pieces of w r i t i n g that are brought to l i f e through an audience. A l e t t e r , wr i t ten i n r o l e , could be that long awaited proposal to which another s t u d e n t - i n - r o l e could respond. The w i l l , revised i n the l a s t moments before death, could be read aloud to the gr i ev ing family members. Can writing-in-role be evaluated? Evaluat ion of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e i s poss ib le i f the teacher keeps i n mind the purpose of the piece of w r i t i n g and i t s intended audience. But more importantly, i t can be used to assess student comprehension. Heathcote (1984) s t r e s s e s the d i a g n o s t i c c a p a b i l i t i e s that drama possesses. "It can be r e a d i l y used to 19 t e s t what information people already possess, when assessing the next stages of i n s t r u c t i o n and can be an exce l l ent guide for diagnosis of the conceptual maturity , as we l l as to reveal s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y " (p.150). W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can be used to a s se s s , f o r example, student comprehension of facts from newspaper a r t i c l e s during current events. Students can be asked to w r i t e - i n - r o l e as a person from with in or re la ted to the a r t i c l e s . Students could demonstrate t h e i r understanding i n a non-threatening manner by r e l a t i n g the major facts from t h i s point of view whether i t be i n a l e t t e r from the v i c t i m , a policeman's report of the acc ident , or an eyewitness report by an onlooker. W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e provides the student with opportunit ies to synthesize and deve lop p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the f a c t s l e a d i n g to greater understanding and i n s i g h t . How do students react to w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e ? Students respond i n a very p o s i t i v e manner. There i s a s h i f t i n the classroom from regarding the teacher as the holder of a l l the information to a l earning environment which values the contr ibut ions and resources of the c h i l d . Byron (1986) reports that when the teacher i s the sole source of author i ty i n the classroom then the c h i l d r e n become "cut o f f from t h e i r own se l f -mot ivated des ire to learn" (p.118). The wealth of experience and knowledge that the c h i l d r e n br ing with them to the classroom from t h e i r in terac t ions with 20 the world i s an i n t e g r a l aspect i n w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . Chi ldren should be seen as Neelands (1984) points out not as "passive r e c i p i e n t s but as ac t ive meaning makers" (p .2) . Neelands goes on to encourage the teachers to give students the "opportunity to b u i l d . . .bridges between what they already know and the new l earn ing presented by school" (p.2) . Asking a c h i l d to w r i t e - i n - r o l e as an a r c h i t e c t and to design plans for a new school b u i l d i n g i s a l lowing the student to r e l y upon h i s own resources and experiences. The student may lack the formal educational background or t e c h n i c a l s k i l l for designing t h i s pro jec t ; however, the task i s e l evat ing the status of the c h i l d by va lu ing h i s own personal i n s i g h t s . How often should I use writing-in-role with my students? Since w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can be l i m i t e d to a short w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y or be extended to span the length of numerous lessons, i t i s necessary to assess both the purpose that the wr i t ing w i l l serve as wel l as the needs of the students. However, i t i s important to note that for students to have success and to develop s k i l l s i n wr i t ing of any k ind , they must be given regular and subs tant ia l p r a c t i c e . Is i t difficult to learn how to use writing-in-role? No, but l i k e any new technique, l earn ing to use w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e with your students w i l l take a l i t t l e p r a c t i c e u n t i l you f ee l completely comfortable with i t . However, beginning 21 g r a d u a l l y w i l l he lp you and your s tudents deve lop the confidence to make i t a regular part of classwork. You w i l l f i n d the p o s i t i v e feedback and the pieces of w r i t i n g from the students encouraging and h e l p f u l i n planning your lessons. Keep i n mind two important reminders from Holl ingsworth and Eastman (1988) Be aware that "writ ing i s hard work. I t requires us to th ink , to generate, to take r i s k s , and to put something of ourselves down on paper for others to see" (p.47). Be s e n s i t i v e to and considerate of your students' work. A second p o i n t i s t h a t " w r i t i n g i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a q u i e t a c t i v i t y " (p.47). The noise l e v e l i n your classroom can be an i n d i c a t i o n that th ink ing and communicating are taking p lace . To a s s i s t teachers new to w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e , out l ines and p r a c t i c a l suggestions are presented i n t h i s handbook for use and/or adaptation throughout the curriculum with a l l grade l e v e l s . What books can I read to learn more about writing-in-role? There are not many books that discuss w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e in much depth; however, many educators c l e a r l y pra i se i t and see i t s p o t e n t i a l and strength. Since teachers general ly have l i m i t e d time to pursue extra reading, the fol lowing s ix books are recommended. These w i l l help provide an understanding of the theory behind w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as w e l l as p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l sugges t ions f o r i t s implementation i n the classroom. 22 1) Teaching the Universe of Discourse—James Moffett M o f f e t t ' s work p r o v i d e s a s o l i d b a s i s f o r the t h e o r i e s behind the language i n speech and w r i t i n g . 2) C o l l e c t e d W r i t i n g s on E d u c a t i o n and Drama— Dorothy Heathcote This i s an i n s p i r i n g book that i s f i l l e d with Heathcote *s passion for l earn ing and teaching. 3) Making Sense of Drama—Jonothan Neelands Neelands provides a p r a c t i c a l handbook f i l l e d with ideas for the classroom. 4) Drama i n the Eng l i sh Classroom—Ken Byron Although Byron bases h i s work i n the Eng l i sh classroom, h i s ideas are e a s i l y adaptable. 5) Teaching Drama. . .A Mind of Many Wonders—Saxton and Morgan Saxton and Morgan's e a s y - t o - r e a d and h e l p f u l t e x t demonstrates the excitement of b r i n g drama into the classroom. 6) Theory into Pract ice—TIP 1985 This c o l l e c t i o n of essays, wri t ten by experienced drama educators about a v a r i e t y of aspects of drama, can be dipped into for ideas, theor ies , and p r a c t i c a l suggestions. 23 How can I encourage members of my staff to try writina-in-role  in their classrooms? S h a r i n g your exper iences and ideas c a s u a l l y i n the staffroom or more formally during department meetings w i l l help motivate others on s t a f f to t r y t h i s technique. From there , you can arrange i n t e r - c l a s s o b s e r v a t i o n s , team t e a c h i n g , and pro fe s s iona l development workshops from l o c a l experts . 24 ***************************************** A l r i g h t , c l a s s , get your homework book out . Please note that you need to write an essay for Monday. - There's no time to t e l l us, the b e l l ' s going to r i n g i n a minute. How many marks i s t h i s worth? When i s t h i s due? Mr. Woods i s g iv ing a guidance exam on Monday and I have to study a l l weekend for that . I t ' s to be a minimum of 500 words long. I can ' t even write a hundred words. How many marks i s t h i s worth? But you haven't handed back l a s t week's assignment yet . - Can I count the "the's" and the "and's"? Discuss the development of the character of the protagonist i n the novel and support your observations with quotations from the t ex t . What i s a protagonist? How many marks i s t h i s worth? I haven't f in i shed the book yet so can I rent the video and write about i t instead? My mom returned my textbook to the main l i b r a r y by accident and they won't give i t back u n t i l I 've paid a l l my overdue f ines . 25 Be sure to write i n pen and double space t h i s essay. Marks w i l l be deducted for tardiness. I can ' t do t h i s assignment. I loaned my pen to Nick. How many marks i s t h i s worth? My computer i s broken so I can ' t do the assignment u n t i l the repairman comes. That ' s not f a i r . Sometimes I can ' t help i t i f my work i s l a t e . Remember when my locker was jammed l a s t term and I handed i n my major paper late? You only gave me 4 out of 100 marks. Are there any questions before the b e l l rings? Do you enjoy t o r t u r i n g us? How many marks i s t h i s worth? - Mr. Rupert's c lass got to construct scenes from the novel i n empty shoe boxes. Can we do that instead? I s n ' t that your car i n space #14 i n the teacher's parking l o t ? Is i t wel l insured? Class dismissed. ***************************************** 26 CHAPTER TWO GUIDELINES FOR IMPLEMENTATION Imagine the fol lowing lessons taking place i n an E n g l i s h , S o c i a l Studies , and Science c l a s s . "At the end of S .E .Hinton ' s novel , The Outs iders , we saw that the protagonis t , Ponyboy, i s permitted to remain with h i s brothers . Can h i s brothers provide the guidance he so c l e a r l y needs as wel l as a s table environment? L e t ' s see i f we can f i n d some answers. These are casesheets that you, as s o c i a l workers , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and guidance c o u n s e l l o r s , w i l l be completing i n small groups. Using the text as a reference you need to supply the fo l lowing information about your c l i e n t s , Ponyboy and h i s brothers: name, age, family h i s t o r y , hea l th , i n t e r e s t s , and problems. At the bottom of the form y o u ' l l not ice that there i s a large space for your recommendations. These w i l l be considered ser ious ly by the family court i n our f i n a l evaluat ion of the guardianship of t h i s boy. We w i l l be meeting i n two days to discuss your f ind ings ." "Last c lass we looked at Napoleon's l a t e r b a t t l e s . As we've seen, h i s quest for power lead him through many m i l i t a r y campaigns. But here i t i s , the f i n a l moments before dawn when the t r o o p s w i l l beg in to prepare f o r t h i s v e r y important b a t t l e . I wonder what Napoleon would have sa id to h i s men before the b a t t l e . L e t ' s imagine that you are Napoleon. You've had a s leepless night s ince much has been on your mind. You 27 know that the troop's morale i s low. You've l o s t many men s ince the beginning of t h i s campaign and y o u ' l l lose many more i n t h i s b a t t l e but i t ' s important that you speak to your s o l d i e r s before the b a t t l e . Write down the short speech that you w i l l d e l i v e r to your men that w i l l g ive them the strength that they w i l l need." "This i s a recent a r t i c l e from an i n t e r n a t i o n a l magazine about the des truct ion of the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t . Sometimes i t i s d i f f i c u l t to get a c l e a r p i c t u r e of a l l that i s happening there . This reporter was able to t r a v e l through many parts of the region and speak with many people. The Vancouver Sun wants to do i t s own coverage and that i s why i t i s sending you, as repor ters , for two weeks, on an assignment to the Amazon to document a l l that you see, hear, and experience i n the Amazon. Keep a d e t a i l e d journal as i t w i l l be publ ished i n d a i l y insta l lments i n the newspaper. L e t ' s s t a r t with a pre l iminary l i s t on the blackboard of what suppl ies you th ink y o u ' l l need as wel l as your i t i n e r a r y . " In each of these three lessons, w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n which students are challenged to delve more deeply into t h e i r s u b j e c t a r e a s , have been c r e a t e d . C a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n beforehand by the teacher as wel l as cons iderat ion of the fo l lowing seven guidel ines open up opportunit ies for the use of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . 28 (1) What are the lesson's object ives? (2) At what point i n the lesson w i l l the w r i t i n g take place? (3) In what ro le (s ) w i l l the teacher and/or students be working? (4) What form w i l l the piece of w r i t i n g take? (5) In which language mode w i l l the students be working? (6) In what unit (s ) w i l l the students be working? (7) Who w i l l be the audience? (1) What are the lesson's object ives? Once the teacher has out l ined the object ives of the lesson during the planning stage, she w i l l need to assess whether and how the use of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can help students achieve the lesson's goals . In the lesson concluding the study of the novel , The Outs iders , a teacher might suggest that students should be able to (1) i d e n t i f y and record important facts from the text i n o r d e r to support views and form the b a s i s f o r the recommendations, (2) w r i t e a r e p o r t u s i n g t r a n s a c t i o n a l language, and (3) work cooperat ive ly i n small groups. While studying Napoleon and h i s l a t e r ba t t l e s the teacher might expect her s tudents to (1) i d e n t i f y q u a l i t i e s which contr ibute to e f f ec t ive leadership , and (2) wri te a speech using poet ic language. The teacher may e s t a b l i s h , i n the study of the des truct ion of the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t , that the students should be able to 29 (1) l i s t c e r t a i n facts about the geography, animal and plant l i f e of the region as wel l as i t s people, (2) i d e n t i f y issues involved i n the des truct ion of the r a i n f o r e s t , and (3) express i n w r i t i n g , personal responses to the event. W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e has the f l e x i b i l i t y and the strength to be used e f f e c t i v e l y i n helping students and teachers a t t a i n a wide v a r i e t y of goals across the curr iculum. (2) At what po int i n the l e s s o n w i l l the w r i t i n g take p l a c e ? I t i s important to c o n s i d e r the placement w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l lesson or the extended un i t when the w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e w i l l occur. The w r i t i n g can be framed as an in troduct ion to the work to promote student readiness and focus. To deepen understanding and commitment, students can wri te during the middle of the lesson. At the end of the lesson, the w r i t i n g can p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e f l e c t i o n or serve as a springboard for other re la ted a c t i v i t i e s . As a prelude to the lesson, students can be drawn into the reading of the a r t i c l e and the study of the des truct ion of the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t by f i r s t approaching the work as j o u r n a l i s t s themse lves . By v a l u i n g the s tudents p r i o r knowledge and working from what they already know, the teacher w i l l d iscover that w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can serve as an e f f ec t i ve in troduct ion to the t o p i c . A l t e r i n g the pace during a lesson on Napoleon's ba t t l e s to w r i t e - i n - r o l e as the m i l i t a r y leader himself can allow students 30 r e f l e c t i o n time to th ink about the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of being a commander and to consider the condit ions of warfare at that t ime. By taking t h i s opportunity to pause, the student can achieve and reveal a greater understanding i n subsequent study. To s y n t h e s i z e and apply what they have observed and learned about the characters i n the novel , The Outs iders , the students can follow up t h e i r reading by f i l l i n g i n casesheets i n - r o l e about t h e i r c l i e n t s which w i l l be used i n a hearing i n a family court . Wri t ing extensions fo l lowing a lesson provide opportuni t ies for student growth. (3) In what role(s) w i l l the teacher and/or students be  working? Working i n - r o l e can be, for both the teacher and the student, a unique as wel l as as enjoyable experience. The teacher, i n taking on a r o l e shares the power and dynamics of the classroom experience with the students while s t i l l being able to maintain classroom management. Through a r o l e such as the judge who presides over the courthearing concerning the characters i n the novel , The Outs iders , the teacher can model language and behaviour. The teacher, i n - r o l e as an ed i tor who assigns coverage of the des truct ion of the r a i n f o r e s t to her r e p o r t e r s , can h e l p d i r e c t the s tudents through a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . Taking on a he lp ing r o l e , such as a subordinate to Napoleon who suggests, "S ire , the troops are assembled now to hear you speak," the teacher i s 31 s t i l l able to provide guidance while s e t t ing the tone. The student, i n taking on a r o l e , gains ins ights into himself and into the subject matter that he i s s tudying. His status i s elevated from that of a student to that of someone wi th a v i t a l p a r t to p l a y . Working as a s o c i a l worker, psycholog i s t , or guidance counsel lor allows the c h i l d to gain f r e s h p e r s p e c t i v e s by be ing the g i v e r , r a t h e r than the r e c e i v e r , of care . Wri t ing a speech as Napoleon provides the students with the opportunity to s t r i p away the layers and r e f l e c t about the man, not jus t the emperor. Reporting as a j o u r n a l i s t opens the student's eyes to important information and events while also creat ing s i tua t ions for the student to convey that importance. There i s a great amount of f l e x i b i l i t y i n working i n - r o l e as one's r o l e may change even with in the c lass t ime. Extensions of a c t i v i t i e s might f ind the student w r i t i n g a d iary entry as Ponyboy, the main character , a f t er he learns about h i s home placement; penning a note to a loved one as a s o l d i e r on the evening be fore an important b a t t l e ; or d e s i g n i n g f o r the repor ters , as a guide, a map showing routes through barely access ib le regions of the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t . (4) What form will the piece of writing take? In o r d e r to he lp the s tudents b e l i e v e i n and commit themselves to authentic w r i t i n g , the teacher needs to provide v a r i e d , imaginative, and relevant w r i t i n g opportuni t ies whether 32 i t be from charcoaled p r e h i s t o r i c pictographs etched on cave wal ls to f u t u r i s t i c i n t e r s t e l l a r communications engraved on l a s e r d i s c s to be sent out to d i s tant ga lax ies . The fo l lowing l i s t may be h e l p f u l to teachers i n seeing the broad spectrum of w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s from a core idea or kernel that can be expanded into a v a r i e t y of extensions. KERNEL WRITTEN EXTENSION Form Diagram Documents Communications -job a p p l i c a t i o n -accident report -app l i ca t ion for immigration -dating agency -membership (club, c r e d i t card) -insurance ( l i f e , home) -d irec t ions on map -house plan -bui ld ing design -explorat ion route -poster -advertisement - ins truct ions -as photograph -as artwork - c e r t i f i c a t e ( b i r t h , marriage) - d r i v e r ' s l i cense - w i l l -awards -ownership deeds -court summons - l e t t ers -postcards -notes -cards - inv i ta t i ons -speeches -autographs 33 KERNEL WRITTEN EXTENSION Publications Captain's Log Personal writing (past, present, future) Memorial Naming Proposal Report -headlines -photograph captions -pamphlets -newspapers -autographs -space t r a v e l e r -ship captain - t r a i n engineer - p i l o t - m i l i t a r y / n a v a l commander -wagon t r a i n leader -explorer -calendar -daybook -datebook -memoirs -diary -scrapbook -tombstone -commemorative plaque -eulogy -mountains and r i v e r s by explorers -roads and s treets by urban designers - inventions by inventors -fashions by garment designers -baby or pet by family members -of marriage -of agreement - idea/plan -teacher, counse l lor , p r i n c i p a l -po l i ce , de tec t ive , eyewitness, v i c t i m -newspaper reporter -reviewer (movie, res taurant , ga l l ery) -physician (doctor, d e n t i s t , p s y c h i a t r i s t ) - h i s t o r i a n / s c i e n t i s t 34 W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e without the proper too l s would be l i k e p lay ing a sport without the necessary equipment. Xeroxed, typewritten casesheets for s tudent s - in -ro l e as s o c i a l workers, scraps of white parchment paper on which to h a s t i l y compose a speech as Napoleon, d e t a i l e d c o l o u r e d maps of the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t and bound notebooks for j o u r n a l i s t s to record t h e i r notes are e s sent ia l ingredients necessary to help make the experience and the w r i t i n g authentic for the students. (5) In which language mode w i l l the student be working? Teachers need to give students meaningful and relevant opportuni t ies to help them develop and extend t h e i r languaging s k i l l s . Students can gain confidence through the protec t ion that w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e o f f e r s . Most often students are c a l l e d upon to use t ransac t iona l or p r a c t i c a l language such as that which a student, w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as a s o c i a l worker, would use i n p r e p a r i n g a recommendation as to the guardianship of the protagonist of the novel . By va lu ing t h e i r personal or expressive vo ice we encourage the students to r e f l e c t more upon t h e i r thoughts and fee l ings as they write i n journals as reporters who witness and respond to the des truct ion of the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t . Wri t ing of a more poet ic or a r t i s t i c nature can occur as s t u d e n t s - i n - r o l e as Napoleon w r i t e speeches des igned to motivate and reassure t h e i r troops, l earning as they do so, to 35 give shape to t h e i r thoughts, ideas, and f ee l ings , through the beauty and the rhythms of language. (6) In what uni t ( s ) w i l l the student be working? Teachers need to c o n s i d e r the nature of the w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y before determining what un i t i s best for the students i n which to work—on an i n d i v i d u a l bas i s , with a partner , as a member of a small group, or as a part of the e n t i r e c l a s s . Ind iv idua l or independent w r i t i n g ensures p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l . I t i s an opportunity for the student to r e f l e c t and record thoughts and fee l ings . Students w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as Napoleon w i l l a r r i v e at var i ed and personal in t erpre ta t ions of h i s speech. I t i s simple to f a c i l i t a t e work where students wri te with a partner as there i s not a major s h i f t i n desks. Such work promotes an exchange of ideas and serves as a prelude for s tudents to work i n smal l groups . Group work encourages teamwork. Students working i n groups of t h r e e and f o u r , organized by the teacher or se l f -chosen, l earn the language of c o - o p e r a t i o n as they w r i t e - i n - r o l e as s o c i a l workers , psycholog i s t s , and guidance counsel lors completing casesheets on t h e i r c l i e n t s . Students experience the dynamics of the group as they p a r t i c i p a t e as a part of the ent i re c l a s s . Brainstorming a l i s t o f s u p p l i e s and an i t i n e r a r y on the b l a c k b o a r d as j o u r n a l i s t s may need the ass istance of the t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as 36 the e d i t o r to monitor and encourage suggestions from every member of the c l a s s . (7)Who w i l l be the audience? An audience f o r w r i t i n g done i n - r o l e can range from oneself , a partner , a small group, the c l a s s , an outs ider , to the teacher but i s an e s sent ia l ingredient i n the crea t ion of authentic and meaningful w r i t i n g . Wri t ing that i s purely expressive and r e f l e c t i v e may f ind greater freedom i n the non-threatening audience of the s e l f . Students can e s t a b l i s h and commit themselves to ro l e s through w r i t i n g that i s for t h e i r eyes only . Presenting work to a partner i s a low r i s k a c t i v i t y for those who are shy or re luctant to share i n a large group. I t i s a natura l progression to present, a f t er that , work i n small groups which serve w e l l , i n the w r i t i n g process, as e d i t i n g agents. Students w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as care -g iver s , would work co-operat ive ly i n formulating recommendations and t e s t i n g ideas out on each other. Work presented to the ent i re c las s becomes more t h e a t r i c a l i n that i t i s performed for an audience and as a r e s u l t c a r r i e s much power. A simple speech, read by Napoleon to h i s troops, can carry great impact. As there i s no known or shared h i s t o r y working with an outs ider , p a r t i c u l a r l y an adul t , students are l e ss d i s t r a c t e d from t h e i r r o l e s . V i s i t o r s to the classroom can be used as 37 scr ibes to whom the c h i l d r e n can d i c t a t e t h e i r work. The presence of t h i s outside agent w i l l help the c h i l d r e n search for j u s t the r i g h t words and creates w r i t i n g opportuni t ies for students who are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s . Sharing w r i t i n g with the teacher ensures the students' p r i v a c y . The teacher i s able to assess the p a r t i c i p a t i o n and understanding presented by each student. To avoid t r y i n g to process f a r too many papers or grading work, the teacher can return a l e t t e r from a captured s o l d i e r , censored rather than marked or examine the i t i n e r a r y of a j o u r n a l i s t going to the Amazon stamping "Approved" on i t . 38 The fo l lowing chart based on the three sample lessons might be useful i n i d e n t i f y i n g c l e a r l y the var ious aspects that are a part of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . In planning e f f e c t i v e lessons, c a r e f u l cons iderat ion of the seven questions could serve as gu ide l ine s . Lesson: Novel study—The Outsiders Object ives: To i d e n t i f y and record important facts from the s tory to support views To write a report using t r a n s - ac t iona l language To work co-operat ive ly i n small groups Placement: Post- lesson Teacher- in-Role: Representative of the courts/Judge Students- in-Role: S o c i a l workers, psycholog is t s , counsel lors Format: Casesheet Language Mode: Transact ional Un i t : Small group Audience: Small group/Class 39 Lesson: Napoleon's ba t t l e s and leadership q u a l i t i e s Object ives: To i d e n t i f y q u a l i t i e s that lead to e f f ec t ive leadership To write a speech using poet ic language Placement: During the lesson Teacher- in-Role: Subordinate to Napoleon Students- in-Role: Napoleon/Napoleon's troops Format: Speech Language Mode: Poetic U n i t : Ind iv idua l Audience: Class Lesson: Study of the des truct ion of the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t Object ives: To l i s t c e r t a i n facts about the geography, animal, and plant l i f e of the region as wel l as i t s people To ident i fy issues involved i n the des truct ion of the r a i n f o r e s t To express i n personal wr i t ings responses to t h i s event Placement: Pre- lesson Teacher- in-Role : Newspaper ed i tor Students- in-Role: Reporters Format: L i s t / J o u r n a l Language Mode: Transact ional /Express ive U n i t : C l a s s / I n d i v i d u a l Audience: Class /Teacher 40 ***************************************** I ' d l i k e to discuss t h i s "D" with you, Miss Matthews. I don't understand why I got such a low grade on t h i s paper. What do you mean? Of course I l i s t e n e d to your i n s t r u c t i o n s , Miss Matthews, but whatever happened to a r t i s t i c freedom? You're s t i f l i n g my c r e a t i v i t y . Here, l e t me read t h i s sentence to you that you underl ined i n red pen. I th ink you are missing the point here. "He lurched toward the VCR and spewed up chunks of bologna." No, you don't understand. This i s n ' t tas te l e s s v u l g a r i t y , Miss Matthews. H i s a c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t h i s t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of mater ia l possessions i n h i s l i f e . Too short? Yes, I know that the composition i s three pages long but I f e l t that t h i s was jus t the r i g h t spot to end the s tory . That way I could leave the reader wondering what would happen next. Yes, you f e l t confused? Great, that was my i n t e n t i o n . What about my language? Miss Matthews, a l l the great wr i ters use these words. I t ' s hardly f a i r that they can use these words and make m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s and I can ' t use them i n a s tory . Sounds l i k e double standards to me. Look, I 've got to run r i g h t now. My s o c i a l s teacher doesn't l i k e me and gave me a " C - " on my essay on "Anarchy Today." He sa id that I could come and t a l k with him af ter school . So, could you look at i t again, Miss Matthews? ***************************************** 41 CHAPTER THREE SAMPLES OF STUDENT WORK For one hour the Grade 11 and 12 s tudents i n my Composition 11 c lasses d irec ted t h e i r at tent ions towards a somewhat mundane but nonethe less u n i v e r s a l c o n c e r n — t h e i r tee th . They examined c e r t a i n issues , emotions, and problems involved i n t h i s t op ic by w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e from a v a r i e t y of po ints -o f -v iew. Fol lowing an introductory d iscuss ion on teeth the students posed as inexperienced parents w r i t i n g a l e t t e r to a family member. In these p i e c e s they shared t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , concerns, and fee l ings . One student wrote, "Dear Mom, i t ' s 1:30 i n the morning and I'm up because Mol ly jus t got her f i r s t tooth coming i n . She's been b i t i n g at things for a while and jus t a few minutes ago I heard a loud scream. I went into her room and she wou ldn ' t s top c r y i n g . (Thank God f o r O r - G e l ! ) I can appreciate how you must have f e l t with me, and t h i s l e t t e r must br ing back some fond memories." Students then exchanged l e t t e r s with a partner and a f ter reading the l e t t e r s , responded as i f they were those family members. The maternal reply was, "Dear P h y l l i s , you my dear were most l i k e l y jus t as noisy as d a r l i n g M o l l y . You screamed and threw things and at that time there were no s p e c i a l i z e d "Or- 42 gel" soothers. So I l o s t quite a b i t of sleep on you too. I know i t ' s a t i r i n g experience but wait u n t i l you become a grandmother. Then you w i l l know that those h o r r i b l e hours you spent with her were appreciated and that you were a good mother. With a l l my love—give a k i s s to Mol ly for me. Your Mom. " L a t e r , a t a meeting f o r p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s - i n - r o l e continued t h e i r sharing o r a l l y . Stepping back from the drama, students revealed that they l i k e d "getting more r e a l i s t i c answers and comments" as wel l as that " i t was good to share your work with others and l e t the others rep ly to you." Memories of l o s ing t h e i r teeth was the subject of another d i s cus s ion . I n - r o l e as t h i s same c h i l d four years l a t e r , students s c r i b b l e d notes to the t o o t h f a i r y with whimsical ly misspel led suggestions and c h i l d l i k e s c r i p t . "Dear t o o f a i r y , do you l i k e my tooth? I l i k e choka l i t (for my tooth) ," scrawled one. Another favoured the d i r e c t approach. "My tooth i s gong. Put the money under my p i l l o w . " What s p e c i a l i z e d language do d e n t i s t s u t i l i z e ? We brainstormed a l i s t of t echn ica l terms overheard as pat ients and attempted to define them. As dent i s t s , students recorded information for t h e i r f i l e s a f t er a checkup of t h i s c h i l d ' s teeth a few years l a t e r . 43 One student enigmat ica l ly noted, "Observed 3 f i l l i n g s on upper B7—D 10 molars. Come i n for a l ternate check up i n two weeks on crack on inceser D 12 and f i l l c a v i t i e s the fol lowing week." The agony of adolescence, when many c h i l d r e n are subjected to the tor tures of braces, head gear, and r e t a i n e r s , emerged. Many of the students had had f i r s t hand experience with these horrors so t h e i r journal entr ie s as t h i s same c h i l d as a teenager, resounded with b i t t e r experience. Those that had escaped demonstrated empathy. "Dear D i a r y , " wrote t h i s same c h i l d , now into the teenaged years , "two weeks ago I found out I needed braces—well today they came. No, s er ious ly , I got them on today. I HATE THEMl!! I look so ugly , when I go to school , i f I go to school I won't smile , I promise. I ' l l never l e t anyone see them. Besides the appearance, the discomfort i s awful. I never knew they'd hurt so much. My mouth fee ls sore and i t fee l s as i f t h i s metal i s moving a l l my teeth! Only 2 y r s , 27 days to go!" The ir f i n a l wri t ten pieces took a quantum leap i n years to the a c q u i s i t i o n of dentures i n t h e i r o ld age. This c h i l d had come f u l l c i r c l e ; the f i n a l set of teeth had been l o s t . The ir s en s i t i ve l e t t e r s to fr iends re f l ec t ed a wisdom r e s u l t i n g from the maturity of t h e i r advanced years . One wrote, "I thought we had changed so l i t t l e over the years , however now my l a s t teeth are gone and I f ee l nothing 44 but remorse. I t ' s strange how a l l the small things matter so much as we grow o lder ." Another was able to see the more p o s i t i v e aspect and r e f l e c t e d that , "while I don't l i k e being faced with my own morta l i t y I do enjoy the improved looks my dentures b r i n g . They are usefu l but annoying when remembering my youth." Looking back on t h e i r w r i t i n g for that c l a s s , many of the students found i t to be a p o s i t i v e experience, a welcome r e l i e f from the assignments i n t h e i r textbook, and a way of br ing ing t r u t h to t h e i r w r i t i n g . One s tudent observed , "It made f o r more spontaneous w r i t i n g . I t allowed you to write from d i f f e r e n t people's po int -of -v iew and i n d i f f e r e n t w r i t i n g s t y l e s . " Another added, "The f i n a l output was genuine." 45 ***************************************** Oh no, the f i l m I ordered s t i l l hasn't come i n and I've got a s p l i t t i n g headache from the Grade 8 ' s . I need a quiet per iod now. I th ink I ' l l give t h i s c lass an i n - c l a s s essay to write today and postpone the review u n t i l next p e r i o d . That w i l l g ive me the chance to f i n i s h marking those tes t s and to write a few more inter im reports . Let me see, p o l l u t i o n i s a good t o p i c . They can write about that o i l s p i l l o f f the coast or maybe about the des truct ion of the ozone layer—that should keep them w r i t i n g for the whole hour. Oh no, not another surpr i se i n - c l a s s essay! Why do we have to be punished every time the Grade 8 • s give him a hard time? And not p o l l u t i o n again! I can ' t wr i t e , l e t alone f i n i s h , a good paper i n an hour. I t takes me an hour jus t to get my thoughts together. Look at him. I can ' t even ask him for he lp . He's too busy. This i s going to lower my average for the term. My parents are going to k i l l me. There go my TV p r i v i l e g e s . ***************************************** 46 CHAPTER FOUR WHY USE WRITING-IN-ROLE? Why use w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e ? Because i t works. As a teacher I have become increas ing ly aware of the value of using t h i s technique i n my classroom. The students 1 work has gained a t r u t h f u l n e s s and demonstrated language development through p l a c i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g exper iences i n f r e s h and r e l e v a n t contexts and by provid ing a sense of audience. I t i s important to consider the many object ives achieved through the implementation of such a method i n the classroom. W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can: (a) b r i n g a freshness to routine exercises (b) r e f l e c t student comprehension and re tent ion of facts (c) demonstrate student a b i l i t y to write i n various s ty l e s (d) e levate language while developing vocabulary and sentence s tructure (e) supplement the curriculum through re levant contexts (f) provide a sense of audience (g) slow the pace of the drama down for r e f l e c t i o n (h) commit students to ro l e and b u i l d t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e i r ro l e s and s i t u a t i o n (i) r e l i e v e the pressures of o r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (j) develop student's a b i l i t i e s to concentrate (k) provide an out le t for concerns and emotions (1) a s s i s t students i n developing more confidence 47 These o b j e c t i v e s were demonstrated r e p e a t e d l y i n c l a s s w o r k . In j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e o f f e r e d students an opportunity for more chal lenging w r i t i n g . Often j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , which i s meant to be an a c t i v i t y f o r s t imulat ing c r e a t i v i t y as wel l as an out l e t for r e f l e c t i o n upon t h e i r own experiences and fee l ings , becomes a tedious chore. To i n i t i a t e the w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e , s tudents at f i r s t brainstormed on the blackboard a l i s t of i n d i v i d u a l s who might keep records or make regular entr ie s i n a j o u r n a l . The l i s t i n c l u d e d such people as commanders, p r i s o n e r s , mothers , s o l d i e r s , and t r a v e l e r s . Students then se lected the r o l e of one of the people and developed t h i s character by w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e i n j o u r n a l e n t r i e s every day. T o p i c s f o r w r i t i n g progressed from an introductory entry which d e t a i l e d t h e i r new i d e n t i t y and supplied much background information to journa l en tr i e s that asked the students to recount a t y p i c a l day i n t h e i r l i v e s or to r e f l e c t on changes i n the l i v e s . One v o l a t i l e s ixteen year o ld g i r l who had only recent ly recovered from a miscarriage wrote i n - r o l e as a mother of two c h i l d r e n . "Before he was born I got into a t r a f f i c accident and he was re tar ted , had se izyers and having attecks a l l the time. I th ink about Tony J r . I know he's ge t t ing the best care but I wish I could give him that here. I t hurts to have sent him away." W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as a mother p r o v i d e d a protected opportunity for the g i r l to work through and examine 48 her f e e l i n g s about a t r a u m a t i c exper ience i n a analogous s i t u a t i o n . Another student, a seventeen year o ld boy whose reputat ion as a comedian made i t d i f f i c u l t i n i t i a l l y for him to be l ieve i n h i s r o l e as a s o l d i e r wrote, "I miss the sweet k i s s i n g l i p s of my g i r l Thelma Lew and my ma's cooking but I don't miss the work on the farm. Oh ya I a l l s o miss my p i t b u l l Loco." However, when contemplating what he d i d n ' t l i k e about being a s o l d i e r he wrote, "The th ing that bothers me the most i s who are we f i g h t i n g and what are we f i g h t i n g for I probably go crazy before I get shot cause a l l we do i s move 20 feet and wait to see i f we can here anything or d ig foxhole i t ' s so useless out here." The pressure to perform for h i s peer group was r e l i e v e d for t h i s boy as he began to become more committed to h i s r o l e . I t was noted t h a t the s tudents worked independent ly wi thout the u s u a l i n t e r r u p t i o n s t h a t r e f l e c t a l a c k of concentrat ion as wel l as for longer periods of t ime. Some s tudents re searched on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e h i s t o r i c a l background information for t h e i r e n t r i e s . In S o c i a l Studies w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e became an i n t e g r a l part of the classwork. While studying Spanish f e s t i v a l s , the annual t r a d i t i o n of the running of the b u l l s i n Pamplona was discussed i n c l a s s . With the a id of photographs, students learned that t h i s footrace between men and loosened b u l l s on t h e i r journey to the arena was not without some r i s k . W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e was 49 used to probe more deeply i n t o the i s s u e s r a i s e d by the students concerning the perpetuation of t h i s event. Students at f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d groups of people who would support t h i s t r a d i t i o n such as c a t t l e owners and those i n the h o s p i t a l i t y f i e l d whose businesses t h r i v e d as a r e s u l t of the running of the b u l l s . They a lso l i s t e d c i t i z e n s who bel ieved i n upholding t r a d i t i o n s that had been passed down through the generations. Another l i s t was brainstormed which r e f l e c t e d the concerns of those opposed to t h i s event. These people included family members as wel l as fr iends who had l o s t a loved one, p a r t i c i p a n t s who had been injured themselves during the event, and animal conservat ionis ts who considered t h i s a c r u e l and inhumane sport . A f t e r s e l ec t ing an i d e n t i t y , s t u d e n t s - i n - r o l e then wrote l e t t e r s to the Mayor of Pamplona v o i c i n g t h e i r concerns. One business-minded f i f t een year o ld boy wrote i n support of t h i s custom. "My name i s Mr. Martinez and I'm a c a t t l e owner. B u l l f i g h t i n g i s r e a l l y good to me. I hope b u l l - f i g h t w i l l be kept for years to come. Annually I s e l l ten big-beefy b u l l s to the arena. At the arena I see the th ing my ancestors s tar ted and i t should be on forever from generation to the next." Another s tu d en t , a s i x t e e n year o l d g i r l who was experiencing family problems at home, analogously wrote, "I am only one of the fami l ies that l i v e here i n Pamplona, but t h i s outrage has broken up my family nothing w i l l ever be the same 50 and t h a t ' s why I th ink t h i s should be stopped before other fami l i e s become l i k e mine." W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e p r o v i d e d a l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g method of evaluat ing student comprehension. In presenting major facts r e f l e c t i n g what they had learned from the f i l m Gandhi, students were provided with a context that would o f f er a more personal ly re levant meaning for the students. Each was to wri te a f i r s t - person account from the perspect ive of someone who had met Gandhi or had been affected by h i s achievements. One very quiet f i f t een year o ld g i r l wrote, "I met Gandhi when he was walking down to the ocean to make s a l t . I walked behind him most of the way and he ta lked to me awhile. When I heard about h i s death I f e l t l i k e we had no leader . I t was l i k e he had put us on the r i g h t path. He accomplished so much by protes t ing without v io lence and taking i n so much p a i n . I f e l t he d i d out country good by making the B r i t i s h leave, us having our own r ight s and being independent. A b i g th ing that I was so thankful for was br ing ing the Muslems and Hindus together once again." These samples of student work demonstrate how w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can be e f f e c t i v e l y used i n a v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . For the s t u d e n t , i t can promote g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , encourage confidence b u i l d i n g , r e l i e v e pressures associated w i th o r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , develop c o n c e n t r a t i o n , e l e v a t e language usage, and st imulate the expression of f e e l ings . For 51 the teacher, w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can serve as a method of student assessment, rejuvenate classwork, teach w r i t i n g s t y l e s , add new dimensions to the curr iculum, provide purpose to the lesson, and encourage student r e f l e c t i o n and r o l e development. 5 2 ***************************************** Department Meeting * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Characters Mr. Jack Tupper: Eng l i sh department head Miss Reid: due to r e t i r e at the end of the year Dave McKay: f i r s t year teacher Kevin Sands: teaches 6 blocks of PE, 1 block of Eng l i sh Mrs. Blanca: veteran teacher with twenty years of experience Tupper: As you know, you w i l l only have to mark the essay at the end of the examination as the computer cards from the object ive sect ions w i l l be fed through r i g h t a f t er the examination. I've asked you to take a look at these 5 sample compositions and give them a mark out of 20. What we're t r y i n g to do i s get some consistency across the grade i n our marking. Sands: S o r r y I'm l a t e . I had gym s u p e r v i s i o n and Sam Blackman sprained a couple of f ingers while p lay ing b a s k e t b a l l . Blanca: Tupper: Reid: Tupper: Reid: That doesn't surpr i se me. He always f inds ways to avoid submitting h i s work on time. Now h e ' l l have an excuse to hand i n yet another essay l a t e . No problem, Kevin. But l e t ' s get t h i s meeting going. We've got 5 pieces to get through. And i t ' s 3:30 already. L e t ' s take a look at Sample #1. you give t h i s p iece . Miss Reid , what d id Wel l , Jack, the student d i d make a number of s p e l l i n g e r r o r s . He s p e l l e d " c u r i o u s , magnet ic , and c o n s c i e n t i o u s " i n c o r r e c t l y . He a l s o f o r g o t to c a p i t a l i z e words at the b e g i n n i n g of some of h i s sentences. He also forgot to use a semicolon i n the l a s t sentence of h i s f i r s t paragraph. But he had a good opening l i n e and h i s c l o s i n g remarks seemed to have punch. He d i d , however, seem to get a l i t t l e l o s t i n the middle. I gave t h i s piece 13 out of 20. Blanca: I wasn't as generous as you, Miss Re id . The boy's sentence s tructure i s simply a p p a l l i n g . I f you not ice t h e r e i s a l s o a weakness i n h i s paragraph cons truct ion . I t ' s c l ear student's f i r s t language, would be a 9. that Eng l i sh i s The most I could not t h i s give him 53 Tupper: Thank you, J u l i e . Wel l , Dave, how do you f ee l about t h i s piece? McKay: W e l l , Mr. Tupper, I can c e r t a i n l y see that both Miss Reid and Mrs. Blanca have v a l i d concerns about the boy's weaknesses i n h i s bas ic s k i l l s . But apart from these e r r o r s , the boy r e a l l y showed ins igh t into h i s t o p i c . I gave him 17 out of 20. Blanca: Seventeen! Stop being so softhearted. I f the boy i s not i n a spec ia l c lass for newcomers to the country then he must be evaluated i n the same way as the others . The boy can bare ly wri te E n g l i s h ! McKay: But h i s ideas are sound. Sands: Look, I ' d l i k e to stay but I 've got to go back to the gym and check on the senior g i r l s v o l l e y b a l l game. Tupper: I understand, Kevin. Our next meeting w i l l be at the usual time. See you then. W e l l , i t looks as i f we have quite a discrepancy i n the marks here: 13, 9, and 17. Reid: How about i f we compromise and give him a 10? Tupper: Maybe we should leave t h i s piece and t r y Sample #2. Miss Reid , What d id you give t h i s piece? ***************************************** 54 CHAPTER FIVE LESSON PLANS In o r d e r to demonstrate how w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can be integrated into various l eve l s and subject areas across the curr icu lum, the fol lowing lesson plans have been developed. These lessons are intended as s t a r t i n g points for teachers in teres ted i n l earning how to incorporate w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as a teaching technique and learning agent i n t h e i r classrooms. Sugges t ions f o r a c t i v i t i e s and e x t e n s i o n s f o r f u t u r e development are c e r t a i n l y f l e x i b l e and adaptable to s u i t the needs and i n t e r e s t s of the s t u d e n t s , the demands of the curr icu lum, and the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and space. Each l e s s o n can s tand alone or be l i n k e d wi th o ther a c t i v i t i e s or m a t e r i a l s i n o r d e r to become a p a r t of an extended un i t spanning a number of lessons. 55 STOLEN JEWELS Eng l i sh as an A d d i t i o n a l Language Can we p l a c e l e a r n i n g f o r s tudents of E n g l i s h as an A d d i t i o n a l Language i n chal lenging contexts? W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e creates opportunit ies for students to l earn and to prac t i ce d i r e c t i o n g i v i n g . LEVEL: intermediate language s k i l l s INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES - Students need to learn vocabulary for g i v i n g and fol lowing d i r e c t i o n s ( r ight , l e f t , forward, s t r a i g h t , e t c . ) . Students, working i n p a i r s , expla in how to get from the school to t h e i r homes. In p a i r s , students play "Bl ind Tag ." "A" i s b l indfo lded and must r e l y on "B's" d i r e c t i o n s to avoid being caught by the couple that i s "It." FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as leader of thieves says, "OK you guys, our h e i s t of the jewels l a s t night was a success and as your leader i t ' s up to me to decide what to do now. W e ' l l d iv ide up the loot equal ly and hide each piece of jewelry somewhere i n a school . No one w i l l ever think of looking there for i t . Y o u ' l l each make up a map with in s t ruc t ions and i n f i ve years those of us who haven't been caught w i l l come back and f i n d a l l the jewels. Where s h a l l we keep a l l the maps?" A f t e r d e t e r m i n i n g the h i d i n g p l a c e f o r the maps, the s t u d e n t s - i n - r o l e create a map and ins t ruc t ions with a partner . 56 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES - I n - r o l e , students working i n p a i r s , exchange maps with other teams and attempt to f ind a jewel from the robbery. Lesson: Eng l i sh as an A d d i t i o n a l Language Object ives: To use and understand d i r e c t i o n s Placement: Post- lesson Teacher- in-Role: Leader of the thieves Students- in-Role: Thieves Format: Map with in s t ruc t ions Language Mode: Transact ional Un i t : Partners Audience: Partners EXTENSIONS Students can a s s i s t at parent/teacher interviews by helping to give parents d i rec t i ons to the rooms. - Students can design a handbook for new students or subst i tute teachers so that newcomers can f ind t h e i r way around the school . 57 WINNERS AND LOSERS Phys ica l Education I t ' s not whether you win or lose the game—it's how you play i t . Or i s i t ? Do students be l ieve t h i s ? How far w i l l people go i n order to win? Phys ica l Education students can use w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e to analyze the pressures of winning and l o s i n g . LEVEL; Grade 7-10 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Play a game where there i s a winning team and a l o s i n g team. - Play a co-operat ive game where the players must a l l work together. - Discuss d i f ferences between the games as wel l as how i t f e l t to win and to lose . - Students pose i n tableaux (frozen pictures) which depict moments of v i c t o r y or defeat i n p a r t i c u l a r sports . FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE - T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e says , "As a member of the A t h l e t i c D i s c i p l i n a r y Board of Canada I am here to prepare you for your appearance before the committee concerning your i n f r a c t i o n of the r u l e s . Your hearing w i l l be to determine what, i f any, d i s c i p l i n a r y measures are to be taken. You w i l l need to write a l e t t e r expla in ing your act ions which you w i l l need to present to the board. - Students w r i t e - i n - r o l e as athletes who have committed some type o f i n f r a c t i o n ( e . g . swearing on the t e n n i s c o u r t , a s sau l t ing a referee , using performance enhancing drugs) . 58 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES - In order that a l l students are provided with the opportunity to work i n - r o l e as athletes and as members of the d i s c i p l i n a r y board, small groups should rotate to give everyone the chance to experience both perspect ives . Lesson: Phys ica l Education Object ives: To s tress co-operat ion To understand consequences of act ions Placement: Pre- lesson Teacher- in-Role : Member of D i s c i p l i n a r y Board Students- in-Role: Athletes/Menmbers of Board Format: Let ter Language Mode: Transact ional U n i t : Ind iv idua l Audience: Small groups EXTENSIONS Students could a s s i s t with d i s c i p l i n a r y act ions i n t h e i r own school . Students could organize and lead co-operat ive games for young c h i l d r e n . 59 THE MENU,PLEASE Food and N u t r i t i o n How do menus a s s i s t and inf luence diners i n t h e i r choices of meals? From fast food chains to gourmet restaurants , d i n e r s are presented wi th menus to i n f o r m , persuade , or en ter ta in them. LEVEL: Grade 8-12 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Menus from sample restaurants could be analyzed according to accurate and en t i c ing language (focus on adjec t ives , adverbs, and verbs ) . Students plan and prepare for a guest a luncheon meal to be presented at school . FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e says, "As one of the co-owners of t h i s hote l I have been del ighted and impressed with the f ine meals I have eaten i n each of the f ive d in ing spots i n t h i s hote l prepared by you, the f ines t chefs i n the c i t y . However, I th ink the menus could use some updating and who would know bet ter than you how to make these wonderful meals appealing on a menu. I ' d l i k e to see you des ign a new menu cover and i n your descr ip t ions of each meal show how unique and d e l i c i o u s each d ish i s . " Students, i n - r o l e as chefs, work i n t h e i r cooking groups to create a spec ia l menu for t h e i r luncheons. 60 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES Students present t h e i r guest with a luncheon menu p r i o r to the meal. Lesson: Food and N u t r i t i o n Object ives: To p r a c t i c e using d e s c r i p t i v e language To describe food e f f e c t i v e l y Placement: During the lesson Teacher- in-Role: Co-owner of hote l Students- in-Role: Chefs Format: Menu Language Mode: Poetic Un i t : Small groups Audience: Guest EXTENSIONS - Students could write menus for food being served i n the school c a f e t e r i a . - Students could work on a fund-ra i s ing projec t by w r i t i n g up the s t a f f ' s and students' favouri te rec ipes to be included i n a school cookbook. 61 THE WALL S o c i a l Studies Do wal ls keep people i n or out? What has been the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the B e r l i n Wall? How has i t s construct ion and dismantl ing affected people? An event, whose e f fec t s w i l l not be known for some time to come, presents chal lenging issues for explorat ion through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . LEVEL: Grade 10-12 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Study of the B e r l i n Wall can occur through text and f i l m . With the help of the teacher, students can brainstorm a l i s t on the blackboard of those affected by the construct ion and dismantl ing of the B e r l i n Wal l . FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE - T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as a media representat ive says, "I'm Kim Jamison . Thank you f o r coming to t h i s meet ing . I'm a representat ive from L i f e Magazine which has been planning on producing a spec ia l issue featuring the B e r l i n W a l l . I t i s to include photographs, personal r e f l e c t i o n s , and r e c o l l e c t i o n s as wel l as a r t i c l e s about t h i s infamous w a l l . You have been asked and chosen to p a r t i c i p a t e due to your own personal experiences. Could you write for us a short account that we could include i n our p u b l i c a t i o n ? I t shou ld be based on your thoughts , f e e l ings , and experiences as a r e s u l t of the W a l l . " - Students w r i t e - i n - r o l e from any p e r s p e c t i v e about themselves and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Wall (e .g . someone 62 who has l o s t a family member who was shot t r y i n g to escape over i t from East Germany, a businessman i n the United States who i s s e l l i n g chunks of the Wall as a money-making venture) . FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES The w r i t i n g could be shared with others . - Pieces can be read aloud while students form a frozen p i c t u r e as a photograph to be included with the w r i t i n g . Students can submit work to the teacher i n order to assess student comprehension of the m a t e r i a l . Lesson: S o c i a l Studies Object ives: To know the facts and understand the s ign i f i cance of the Wall Placement: Post- lesson Teacher- in-Role: Representative from L i f e Magazine Students- in-Role: People affected by the Wall Format: Personal Language Mode: Expressive U n i t : Ind iv idua l Audience: Small groups, c l a s s , or teacher EXTENSIONS The c las s could study other famous walls (The Wai l ing Wal l , the Walls of J e r i c h o , The Great Wall of China, The Wal l : a memorial to those k i l l e d i n Vietnam). 63 ON THE AIR E n g l i s h How can one best persuade the consumer through radio ads? What type of language i s most e f fec t ive? By studying and p r o d u c i n g a r a d i o commerc ia l , s tudents can g a i n a deeper understanding of t h i s powerful medium. LEVEL: Grade 6-10 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES - Students study poet ic devices (e .g . s i m i l e s , metaphors, a l l i t e r a t i o n , onomatopoeia, personi f i ca t ion) through exercises and ana lys i s of l i t e r a t u r e . - Students l i s t e n to taped radio ads to determine e f f ec t i ve ideas and i d e n t i f y poet ic devices . FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE - T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e says, "As the producer of S .U .N . Radio S t a t i o n , I 've chosen t h i s adver t i s ing agency to handle our accounts. We need some e x c i t i n g , innovative approaches i n our radio ads not only for our s ta t ion but for our sponsors as w e l l . " Students working i n - r o l e as members of an a d v e r t i s i n g agency wri te one minute commercials i n small groups. 64 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES - Commercials can e i ther playback. be presented l i v e or taped for Lesson: Eng l i sh Object ives: To i d e n t i f y and use poet ic devices To write and tape a radio com- mercial Placement: Post- lesson Teacher- in-Role : Radio s ta t ion producer Students- in-Role: Members of Adver t i s ing Agency/ Actors i n commercial Format: Radio commercial Language Mode: Poet ic U n i t : Small groups Audience: Class EXTENSIONS - Students can produce radio ads to be broadcasted on the school ' s PA system to advert ise school events. Students can design and draw ads for magazines. Video-taped commercials can be s c r i p t e d , performed, and then taped. 65 THE TELEPHONE Theatre What language cues do we receive and send through our conversations on the telephone? Students can develop s c r i p t w r i t i n g s k i l l s through the construct ion of missing pieces of dialogues as c r i m i n o l o g i s t s . LEVEL: Grade 9-12 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Students play " Telephone Game." Students must t r y to keep a one-sided conversation going as the students pass a telephone around the c i r c l e , each adding a sentence at a t ime. Students improvise s i tua t ions from the fo l lowing opening l i n e s : (1) "It's him/her again." (2) "I've t o l d you not to c a l l anymore." (3) "Aunt Bertha, what a surpr i se to hear your vo i ce ." (4) "Who i s th i s?" FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as detect ive says, "Good day, I'm Lieutenant Thursday with the Communications Analys i s Department of the V . P . D . We need help i n cracking open a murder case—that's why we've come to the Criminology Department of t h i s u n i v e r s i t y to ask for your ass is tance . We only have one s ide of a taped conversation to go on i n t h i s case. We need you to l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to the content of the conversat ion, tone of vo ice , speech patterns , and length of pauses i n order to recreate p o t e n t i a l dialogues between the two speakers. L e t ' s l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y now." 66 Students working i n pa i r s w r i t e - i n - r o l e a p o t e n t i a l s c r i p t . FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES A reading or taped reading of the conversation can then be presented. S tudents - in -ro l e as cr imino log i s t s can assess the d i f f e r e n t conversat ions . Lesson: Theatre Object ives: To l earn s c r i p t w r i t i n g To analyze conversations for speaking cues and speech patterns Placement: During lesson Teacher- in-Role : Lieutenant from P o l i c e Department Students- in-Role: Cr iminolog i s t s Format: S c r i p t Language Mode: Expressive, t r a n s a c t i o n a l , poe t i c U n i t : Partners Audience: Class EXTENSIONS Students can w r i t e c r e a t i v e messages f o r te lephone answering machines (e.g. for Queen E l i z a b e t h , for Batman). 6 7 EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT DATING* *But were a f r a i d to ask. What do teenagers need and want to know about dating? W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e provides them with opportuni t ies for d i scuss ion and research about one of t h e i r favouri te t o p i c s . LEVEL; Grade 8-12 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Students could f i l l a box with anonymous questions and concerns about dat ing . These could become a s t a r t i n g point for a d i scuss ion about dat ing . - With the teacher's help, students brainstorm a l i s t of categories on the blackboard concerning the d i f f e r e n t aspects of da t ing . FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e says, "As the ed i tor of Westcoast Books I'm very exci ted about our newest venture, a book about dating for teenagers. For t h i s project we have gathered you—parents, guidance c o u n s e l l o r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and d o c t o r s — t o work together i n w r i t i n g t h i s book. The publ i sher has already determined the sect ions of the book on which you w i l l be working i n smal l groups . We would l i k e you to p r o v i d e information and suggestions i n a format that w i l l be e a s i l y access ib le to teenagers." 68 S t u d e n t s - i n - r o l e work i n s m a l l groups to p r o v i d e information and suggestions for each of the t o p i c s . These c o u l d l a t e r be compared wi th o ther g r o u p ' s work and synthesized. FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES Students could p r i n t up a handbook on dat ing that could be a v a i l a b l e to students through the guidance c o u n s e l l o r ' s o f f i c e . Lesson: Guidance Object ives: To discuss teenager's concerns about dating To engage i n problem so lv ing Placement: Post- lesson Teacher- in-Role: E d i t o r of Westcoast Books Students- in-Role: Parents, counse l lors , psycholo- g i s t s , doctors Format: Handbook Language Mode: Transact ional Un i t : Small groups Audience: Class EXTENSIONS This format i s su i tab le for many d i f f e r e n t subject areas where students can work together co-operat ive ly to produce a handbook (e .g. Study T i p s , How to Survive Your Teenage Years) . 69 THE OLYMPICS Ar i thmet ic How do we see decimals used i n everyday l i f e ? While Olympics occur once every four years, the method of scoring provides an excellent a c t i v i t y for students to learn how to add and average decimals. LEVEL: Grade 4-6 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES - Students review the addition and averaging of decimals through boardwork and exercises. FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE The teacher-in-role says, "As a representative of the Olympic committee, I would l i k e to extend a warm welcome and best wishes for the highest of achievements. The events w i l l be commencing shortly a f t e r the r a i s i n g of the nations* f l a g s . Good luck to you a l l . " - Students brainstorm on the blackboard with help from the teacher a l i s t of a l l those involved i n the Olympics (e.g. athletes, judges, coaches, timekeepers, scorers, e t c . ) . A mock Olympics i s held with a l l the students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some manner. Cards are provided for judges on which to w r i t e t h e i r s c ores; a l a r g e c h a r t i s provided f o r r e c o r d keeping and score averaging. Be sure that the Olympic events are fun and nonthreatening (e.g. eating a cracker and then whistling immediately afterwards). 70 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES Have the students switch t h e i r ro les frequently so that a l l can have the opportunity to p r a c t i c e using decimals. Look at some actual scores of r e a l Olympic events. Lesson: Ari thmet ic Object ives: To add decimals To compute averages Placement: Post- lesson Teacher- in-Role: Olympic o f f i c i a l Students- in-Role: Ath le tes , judges, coaches Format: Cards, charts , scoreboards Language Mode: Numbers U n i t : Ind iv idua l Audience: Class EXTENSIONS This format i s useful i n teaching and p r a c t i c i n g other mathematical s k i l l s such as measurement (long and high jump), weight (we ight l i f t ing ) , and time (running events) . 7 1 IN MEMORY V i s u a l Ar t s How can we create an appropriate memorial for someone spec ia l? A r t students become a r t i s t s as they design, i n - r o l e , a new memorial i n honour of Terry Fox. LEVEL: Grade 6-12 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES - Students study l o c a l , well-known, and h i s t o r i c a l memorials as wel l as research the person or event to be commemorated. FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE - T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as counc i l member says, "Thank you for coming to t h i s meeting. You are being i n v i t e d as a r t i s t s of renown to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an e x c i t i n g competit ion. For years the c i t y has received complaints concerning the design of the Terry Fox Arch located near B . C . Place Stadium. We, the c i t y c o u n c i l , have organized t h i s competition i n the hope that a new design, that w i l l meet with pub l i c approval , w i l l be presented. You may use any medium you wish i n construct ing t h i s memorial but i n your plans you must name the mater ia l out of which i t w i l l be constructed, the spot where i t w i l l be located , and an explanation for your choice of design. You must a l so include a commemorative plaque i n h i s honour with an i n s c r i p t i o n . Students work i n - r o l e on an i n d i v i d u a l bas is to develop t h e i r designs and plaques. 72 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES S tudents - in -ro l e as a r t i s t s present t h e i r designs and p laques to the c i t y c o u n c i l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n an o r a l presentat ion . Lesson: V i s u a l Arts Object ives: To design a memorial To write an i n s c r i p t i o n i n a plaque Placement: Post- lesson Teacher- in-Role: C i t y counc i l member Students- in-Role: A r t i s t s Format: D e s i g n / i n s c r i p t i o n on plaque Language Mode: Poetic Un i t : Ind iv idua l Audience: Class EXTENSION This a c t i v i t y i s su i tab le a lso as an extension i n the study of h i s t o r i c a l f igures and events as wel l a characters from l i t e r a t u r e . 73 NEWS HOUR Current Events What i s involved i n w r i t i n g a good news report? By w r i t i n g t h e i r own reports students can a lso l earn about the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the power of the press . LEVEL: Grade 6-10 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES The teacher and the c lass can engage i n a d i scuss ion of the elements of a news report (who, what, when, where, how, and why) based upon a r t i c l e s se lected from newspapers. - Working i n partners , students r e l a t e and analyze personal experiences according to the elements of a news repor t . Students, i n small groups, rehearse events from a newspaper a r t i c l e . FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE - T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as the d i r e c t o r of News Hour says, "Is everyone here for the repor ter ' s meeting? The producer of the show has set a 4 O'clock deadline for today's repor t s . You need to get going on your assignments and be ready for on-the- spot camera coverage. See i f you can get any interviews while you are at i t . " - Out of r o l e , the teacher organizes students into small groups. Groups a l ternate reenactments of the events of the news a r t i c l e s with groups who are working as reporters who are covering the events. Students can interview p a r t i c i p a n t s of the events for more information. 74 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES - S t u d e n t s - i n - r o l e as r e p o r t e r s are then " f i lmed" whi l e reading t h e i r news reports for News Hour. Groups can replay parts of t h e i r reenactments as f i l m footage or p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i v e interviews on a i r . Lesson: Current Events Object ives: To ident i fy elements of a news a r t i c l e To write an a r t i c l e based on observation and interview Placement: As a l ternate method of current events presentations Teacher- in-Role: Direc tor of News Hour Students- in-Role: Reporters /Par t i c ipants i n news events Format: Report Language Mode: Transact ional Un i t : Small group Audience: Class EXTENSIONS - This format can also be used i n other subject areas as the report can be based on an event from h i s t o r y , l i t e r a t u r e , or school . 75 MESSAGE FROM SPACE Science Can we continue to maintain zoos and aquariums for the d i s p l a y of animal and sea l i f e ? Students are placed i n an analogous s i t u a t i o n to delve into t h i s i ssue . LEVEL: Grade 4-7 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Students can discuss v i s i t s to zoos and aquariums. - Students can discuss the issue concerning the maintenance of animal and sea l i f e i n c a p t i v i t y for study and pub l i c enj oyment. FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE - T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as commander of Planet X-24 says, "Do not be a f r a i d . I am the leader of t h i s planet that you have crashed on. Since your spaceship was destroyed you w i l l never be able to r e t u r n home. However you w i l l be kept s a f e l y and comfortably i n t h i s d i sp lay un i t where you w i l l be cared for and s tudied . In ten years, when the planets w i l l be i n a perfect alignment you w i l l be able to send messages home to your planet i n a spec ia l pod." P r i o r to w r i t i n g a l e t t e r , students can discuss i n - r o l e , the q u a l i t y of existence for each of them. 76 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES - T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as o f f i c i a l from NASA says, "I'm sure you are wondering why you have been c a l l e d by NASA to come to t h i s s p e c i a l meet ing . Ten years have passed s i n c e the t r a g i c disappearance of Spacecraft 66 and, as family members of the crew, you w i l l be shocked and then t h r i l l e d to hear that we have recent ly received news of the crew. These are l e t t e r s that we have received which we w i l l now share with you by reading them aloud with your permiss ion." - Students prev ious ly wri t ten l e t t e r s are presented to the c l a s s , now i n - r o l e as fami l ies of the crew members. Lesson: Science Object ives: To experience c a p t i v i t y To study analogously the s i t u a t i o n of animals i n zoos Placement: Pre- lesson Teacher- in-Role: Commander of Planet/Nasa o f f i c i a l Students- in-Role: Astronauts /Famil ies of astronauts Format: Let ter Language Mode: Expressive U n i t : Ind iv idua l Audience: Class EXTENSION Students, i n - r o l e as animal s p e c i a l i s t s , can design a zoo, aquarium, or game reserve that i s su i tab le for the d i sp lay of animal and/or sea l i f e . 77 ***************************************** The Professional Day Workshop; Writinq-in-Role. "Writing-in-role is a teaching technique..." What do they expect from us? How much more can I do? I'm already swamped with work. I ju s t don't have time to introduce new ideas and methods into my classroom. I'm already two uni t s behind. I love profess ional days. They're bet ter than fac ing my students—and i t ' s great to look forward to a shorter work week. I t ' s good to see a l l the s t a f f together. I had no idea that Gerry from woodworking was so i n t e r e s t i n g . Our paths never seem to cross except for days l i k e these. Maybe I can make a point of j o i n i n g him for coffee i n the s t a f f room on occasion. What a great lunch. That Mexican restaurant serves great burr i tos—not to mention, t e q u i l a , as w e l l . I t ' s so hard to give a workshop when they've scheduled one for a Fr iday afternoon r i g h t a f ter lunch. Sure the s t a f f i s relaxed—but nobody fee ls l i k e l i s t e n i n g — o r working for that matter. Maybe a joke w i l l catch t h e i r a t t en t ion . What t e r r i f i c , p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s . I'm t i r e d of theory. I ju s t want some ideas that I can take back to the classroom and use immediately. 78 I t ' s good to see the s t a f f laughing. Everyone was so tense because of the report card deadline being changed. We a l l seem so relaxed now. How can I reach the man doodling on h i s notes. L i s t e n , I'm sorry i f t h i s i s n ' t what you wanted to l i s t e n to but t h i s i s what I was asked to speak about. Maybe you should have gotten involved i n your profess ional development committee and helped plan a day that you would have found more u s e f u l . I ju s t don't see how t h i s top ic w i l l be of help to me. What a waste of my time. I f the Engl i sh department was doing i t s job , then I wouldn't have to be l i s t e n i n g to t h i s . What an i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c . I th ink I ' l l t r y to p i ck up a book on t h i s subject and f ind out a l i t t l e more about i t . I knew I shouldn't have put e l a s t i c bands around the handouts . There goes another one r i g h t now. H o n e s t l y , teachers are worse than t h e i r students when i t comes to paying a t t en t ion . Good shot—at l eas t he caught the fel low who was snor ing . I can ' t see myself using these ideas i n the classroom but they would make great party games. My Aunt Bessy would love them. "Thank you for letting me a part of your professional day." ***************************************** 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY Berthoff , A.(1981). The Making of Meaning—Metaphors, Models, and Maxims for Wri t ing Teachers. Boynton/Cook. Lashmar/Cameron/Lashmar,(1987).The Wri t ing Programme. Teacher's Guide (8).Globe/Modern Curriculum Press . B r i t t o n , J . (1970 ) . Language and L e a r n i n g . A l l e n Lane. The Penguin Press . Byron, K.(1986).Drama i n the Eng l i sh Classroom. Methuen and Company. Er i ckson , K.(1988). Bu i ld ing Cast les i n the Classroom. Drama as a Learning Medium. National Counci l of Teachers of E n g l i s h . 65(1),19. Heathcote, D.(1984). Col l ec ted Writ ings on Education and Drama. Edi ted by Johnson and O ' N e i l . Hutchinson and Co. Hol l ingsworth, H./Eastman, S.(1988). Teaching Wri t ing i n Every C l a s s ; A Guide for Grades 6-12. A l l y n and Bacon. Macror ie , K.(1980). T e l l i n g W r i t i n g . Hayden Book Company. McCas l in , N.(1987). Creat ive Drama i n the Intermediate Grades. Longman. Moffet t , J . (1968) . Teaching the Universe of Discourse. A Theory of D i s c o u r s e , A R a t i o n a l f o r E n g l i s h Teach ing Used i n a Student-Centred Language Arts Curriculum. Houghton M i f f l i n . Morgan,N./Saxton, J . (1984) . Teaching Drama. . .A Mind of Many Wonders. Hutchinson. Neelands, J . (1984) . Making Sense of Drama—A Guide to Classroom P r a c t i c e . Heinemann Educational Books. P a r k e r , J . (1982) . The W r i t e r ' s Workshop. Addison-Wes ley Publ i shers . Parry , J . / H o r n s y , D.(1985). Write On - A Conference Approach to W r i t i n g . Heinemann. Ruggiero, V.(1988). Teaching Thinking Across the Curriculum. Harper and Row. 80 T a r l i n g t o n , C . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . "Dear Mr. P i p e r . . . " , U s i n g Drama to Create Context for C h i l d r e n ' s W r i t i n g . Theory into P r a c t i c e , xx iv , 3, 200-204. Wessels, C.(1987). Drama. (Resource Book for Teachers) , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press . Zemelman, S . / D a n i e l s , H . (1988) . A Community of W r i t e r s — Teaching; W r i t i n g i n the J u n i o r and S e n i o r High S c h o o l . Heinemann. 81

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