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Writing-in-role : a handbook for teachers Komar, Elizabeth Sarah 1990

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WRITING-IN-ROLE: A HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS By Elizabeth B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y  S a r a h Komar of British  Columbia,  1975  A MAJOR ESSAY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION in THE DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s m a j o r p a p e r a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH J u n e 1990 ®  COLUMBIA  Elizabeth Sarah Komar  In  presenting  degree at the  this  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  As  Atticus  Finch  in  To K i l l  a  Mockingbird  says  to  his  daughter Scout: " F i r s t of a l l , " he s a i d t o me,  " i f you can l e a r n a  single  along b e t t e r w i t h a l l k i n d s o f  folks.  You never r e a l l y understand a person u n t i l you c o n s i d e r  things  trick,  Scout,  y o u ' l l get  from h i s p o i n t of  view-"  "Sir?" " - u n t i l you c l i m b i n t o h i s s k i n and walk around i n  it."  Harper Lee  ii  Table of Contents  Chapter One  Writing-in-Role: Some Q u e s t i o n s ,  Some Answers  Page  2  Chapter Two  G u i d e l i n e s f o r Implementation  Page  27  Chapter Three  Samples of Student Work  Page  42  Chapter Pour  Why Use W r i t i n g - i n - R o l e ?  Page  47  Chapter Five  Lesson Plans  Page  55  Page  80  Bibliography  iii  ***************************************** CAPTURE THE EXCITEMENT— THE NEXT BEST THING TO BEING THERE.  WRITING-IN-ROLE now p l a y i n g i n classrooms around the world experience for yourself the f r e s h n e s s , the power the a u t h e n t i c i t y of new and improved w r i t i n g CHECK AND COMPARE  WHAT TEACHERS SAY: "The k i d s d o n ' t groan anymore when I have them w r i t e . They r e a l l y sense t h a t t h e r e i s a purpose t o what they w r i t e . " "Before I used t o r e c e i v e more assignments than I c o u l d p r o c e s s . With w r i t i n g i n - r o l e students can w r i t e more and get more feedback."  WHAT STUDENTS SAY: "It's  fun!"  " I t ' s b e t t e r than a l l those b o r i n g assignments t h a t I used t o g e t . "  "We d i d n ' t even hear the b e l l r i n g because we were so i n v o l v e d . "  "Last week I was an e x p l o r e r on the F r a s e r R i v e r . Tomorrow I'm going t o be an a s t r o n a u t on a r o c k e t s h i p . "  YOUR CLASS WILL NEVER BE THE SAME. THE CHOICE IS YOURS. DON'T SETTLE FOR LESS. *****************************************  1  CHAPTER ONE WRITING-IN-ROLE; SOME QUESTIONS,SOME ANSWERS What i s purpose of this handbook?  How can I use i t ?  T h i s guide i s based i n the b e l i e f a  rich  and  dynamic  throughout  the  experiences  educational  curriculum  that w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e  tool  with  that  provides  meaningful  and  and c l a s s r o o m  encourages  work.  It  the work, t h e o r i e s ,  not  definitive  and ideas  time,  the c u r r e n t stage of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . meant  interested  to  in this  definitions,  resource,  serve  as  a  it  explanations,  starting  theories,  from  the  is  a  your  drama  perspective  students  are  of and  Although  point  at  for  T h i s paper as  this  those  presents well  as  f o r the c l a s s r o o m .  of  involved  What i s i t ?  technique another  s t e p p i n g i n t o someone e l s e ' s shoes. and  result  reflect  methodology,  I've never heard of writinq-in-role. Writing-in-role  the  others.  does  p a r t i c u l a r technique.  e a s y - t o - u s e p r a c t i c a l ideas  write  relevant  acknowledges  of  is  is  a  gratefully  this  It  students  t o c r e a t e a u t h e n t i c p i e c e s of w r i t i n g .  W r i t i n g - i n - R o l e : A Handbook f o r Teachers i s study  is  Say, in  a  in  which  person.  It  students is  like  f o r example,  t h a t you  unit  hearing.  about  They've s t u d i e d the terminology and the f u n c t i o n of the anatomy of  the e a r ;  of  models,  f a c t s t h a t the students can master through the diagrams,  films,  memorization,  2  and t e s t i n g .  use But  just  imagine the  q u a l i t y of  learning that  these same students were asked t o  write  member  an  from  the  perspective  e x p e r i e n c i n g a degenerative  of  a letter  elderly  a greater  world. drawn  understanding o f  appreciation  The a u t h e n t i c i t y from  to  a  personal  if  family  person  in a patient  There i s no doubt t h a t many of the  would g a i n a deeper to  place  who  is  h e a r i n g l o s s o r a m e d i c a l r e p o r t as  a d o c t o r documenting h e a r i n g r e s t o r a t i o n undergone s u r g e r y .  c o u l d take  of  the  the  material  many sounds  who has students  in  addition  which  fill  our  i n t h e i r v o i c e s as they w r i t e w i l l  experience  and  knowledge,  research,  be and  t e a c h e r modeling and guidance.  Is there any specialized terminology that I should know? I t would be h e l p f u l t o understand and know the are mentioned more f r e q u e n t l y  in this  guide.  terms  that  The f o l l o w i n g  are  some commonly used terms used i n w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e ; w r i t i n g from another a t t i t u d e Teacher/Student-in-Role: attitude Building  or  teacher/student  takes  on  view  another  point-of-view  Belief:  techniques  commitment to t h e i r Framing:  the  or point of  the  that  help  the  students  build  a  roles  choice  of  activity  and  perspective  that  the  for  the  t e a c h e r s e l e c t s t h a t p r o v i d e s an e n t r y i n t o the work Reflection:  activities  that  provide  opportunities  s t u d e n t s t o become aware of t h e i r own thoughts  3  and f e e l i n g s  Tableaux; short  f r o z e n p i c t u r e s formed and h e l d by the s t u d e n t s f o r a  period  positions  time.  Their  groupings,  expressions,  and  w i t h i n the tableaux c r e a t e and r e p r e s e n t meaning.  Protection: from  of  the  providing distance  student's  nonthreatening Placement:  own  i n terms  personal  life  of  a role  in  order  far to  removed  create  a  environment f o r the drama work.  the p o i n t p r i o r t o ,  during,  or f o l l o w i n g  the  lesson  when the w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e o c c u r s . Format:  the  form the p i e c e  letter,  diary entry, Mode:  writings  can be e x p r e s s i v e  Unit:  the  the  a  language  used  by  (personal),  the  students  poetic  in  their  (artistic),  or  students working on a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e  of  (practical).  number of  writing-in-role. partner,  such as  or newspaper r e p o r t .  Language  transactional  of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e takes  Students  can  work  individually,  with  a  or as a member of a group.  How did writing-in-role originate? A British techniques teaching She ages  educator,  Dorothy Heathcote,  developed  many  t h a t are an i n t e g r a l aspect of d r a m a - i n - e d u c a t i o n , a  method t h a t  initiated  this  and a b i l i t i e s  has  found  learning could  success  process gain  4  a  so  throughout that  greater  the  children  world. of  understanding  all of  themselves be a b l e ,  and the world i n which they l i v e .  as Heathcote  (1984) p o i n t s o u t ,  The c h i l d r e n w i l l  "not o n l y t o  see  the  world from t h e i r own v i e w p o i n t , but through the eyes of others" (p.85).  Drama?  But I can't act!  You d o n ' t need t o . drama-in-education, differently yourself  In f a c t ,  you  don't  acting is need  than you normally would.  in  someone  else's  shoes,  t o be a v o i d e d .  to  walk  or  In  talk  any  You j u s t need t o  imagine  and  or  assume  his  her  attitude.  Do you need to use drama in conjunction with writing-in-role? Drama  is  an e s s e n t i a l  ingredient  in  develop a deeper commitment t o t h e i r r o l e s Drama a c t i v i t i e s  can occur d u r i n g  and  i n order t o g i v e  Booth (1987)  "explore,  experiment,  experience,  helping and t o  students  t h e i r work.  p r e w r i t i n g suggest students  the  and f e e l "  Lashmar  opportunity to  (p.5).  Drama can  a l s o take p l a c e n a t u r a l l y d u r i n g the p o s t - w r i t i n g p e r i o d as means o f  s h a r i n g o r an e x t e n s i o n  By p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n r o l e h e r s e l f , for  from what has  been w r i t t e n .  the t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s a model  the students and can h e l p s e t the tone f o r work t o If,  for  example,  the  students  are  to  reporters,  then the t e a c h e r can assume the  assigning  pieces  completed  to  her  staff;  w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as  or  lawyers  5  a  if who  follow.  write-in-role  r o l e of the have  the  as  editor  students collected  have the  facts  from t h e i r c l i e n t s ,  cases i n a c o u r t of the  the  students can then p r e s e n t  law where the  teacher-in-role  their  presides  as  judge.  But I teach Socials—not Writing. Shouldn't this be something that the English teacher should be using to teach Composition? Not  at  universal  to  flexible  reading,  The  all  tool  curriculum  that  all.  the  for  since  and  subject  is  use  across  instrumental  is  at  the  very  our  language  Writing-in-role the  in  and t h i n k i n g s k i l l s .  writing-in-role  of  areas.  integration  it  writing,  study  grades  developing  and  of  a the  speaking,  T h i s seems t o core  is  is  indicate  our  educational  students  practicing  system. For  example,  earthquake  we  drills.  earthquakes  is  not  regularly  The study, limited  to  see  concern, one  and  interest  about  or  subject  area.  grade  Imagine students being able to r e s e a r c h a n d / o r apply t h e i r own knowledge  i n a meaningful context by w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e .  Physical Red  E d u c a t i o n students c o u l d be  paramedics  Cross c o m p i l i n g a manual of F i r s t - A i d procedures  injured relief  i n an earthquake;  Mathematics  students  by  nutritionists; reporters,  or  students Social  in  Studies  eyewitnesses  Home  Economics  students could  earthquakes throughout h i s t o r y .  6  as  write  for  could  funds as c i t y c o u n c i l members; a f o o d / c a r e  designed  from  the  those  allocate  k i t c o u l d be writing  police,  as  newspaper  accounts  about  Through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e ,  students  meaning f o r themselves i n a l l s u b j e c t  are  actually  making  areas.  Why use w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e i n s t e a d o f r e g u l a r w r i t i n g methods f o r t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g ? What can w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e do t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n can't? One  of  provides  the  strengths  relevant  of  contexts  writing-in-role  and  meaningful  is  that  situations  it for  authentic w r i t i n g . Often t e a c h e r s  engage t h e i r students i n textbook  designed t o teach and develop w r i t i n g s k i l l s . a t the work of T a r l i n g t o n (1985) we see easily  because she w r i t e s ,  exercises  However,  looking  t h a t her s t u d e n t s wrote  "the dramatic c o n t e x t s u p p l i e d them  w i t h something t o say and a purpose f o r s a y i n g i t "  (p.200).  noted  superior  to  motivated  to  that  regular  the  quality  classroom  the  writing  w r i t e c l e a r l y and w i t h In  of  as  writing  the  students  students  can  about the v a r i o u s mechanics and forms of which  would  emotionally s a t i s f y i n g  far were  authenticity.  a dramatic c o n t e x t ,  activities  was  be  far  more  than textbook  learn,  for  example,  letterwriting  soldiers,  knowing t h a t  write the  the  evening  odds are a g a i n s t  before their  an i m p o r t a n t survival?  of  the  this  seriously  battle?  7  wounded  in-role battle  What kinds  l e t t e r s would the government w r i t e and send to the who had been  and  exercises.  of  soldiers  through  intellectually  What k i n d s of l e t t e r s and t o whom would s t u d e n t s , as  She  or  families killed  in  The  students  upon them.  are  What f o r m s role?  and  that  to  of  Daniels  and t o  demands  are  made are  list  encounter to  use/learn the  in  the  i n writing-in-  five  types  of  classroom.  learn writing,  to  Students  communicate,  to  create.  w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e , c h i l d r e n are p r o v i d e d w i t h these types  Arithmetic  experiences. class  grasp  architects, rather  can  of a  than  personally  Students apply  the  in  separate  skills.  A diary entry,  home  for  senior  well  as  reflection. creative  piece  writing  and  context.  clear  as can  exercises,  be  taught,  in  a  citizens,  scientists,  of w r i t i n g ,  elderly  can r e v e a l  students  As g r i e v i n g  as  an  studying  the  process  such as  8  a poem,  to  can help  in  how i n d i v i d u a l s  students  of  communication  people  opportunity  parents,  more  of the w o r l d , a d r a f t  and  an  Medieval  History students  observation  written  in  demonstrate  of a t i m e - t r a v e l i n g experiment,  develop  the  of  Documenting as  as w e l l as the r e s u l t s  and  designing,  i n - r o l e as l e a d e r s  a new arms agreement.  give  by  drills  measurement  knowledge  Mechanics  significant  students  learning  their  concept  castle.  warfare can w r i t e ,  the  students  (1988)  show l e a r n i n g ,  writing  their  will  students  express s e l f , In  real  approaches.  of writing  Zemel  write  when  Options open up w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r e  a v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e  writing  challenged  for can be  a  rest  feel  as  personal compose  engraved  a on  the headstone of t h e i r c h i l d ' s Students  grave.  can e f f e c t i v e l y  develop  their  writing  skills  through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e .  What modes o f in-role?  language w i l l the  Language play  by  is  an instrument  helping  language  them  use.  enlarging  students be u s i n g  to  learn  Our aim  their  that  is  all  to  boundaries.  we t e a c h the  We c a n  our s t u d e n t s  tones  increase  in writing-  and  their  do  that  levels  of  choices  by  by  meaningful and r e l e v a n t c o n t e x t s f o r language use. r o l e p r o v i d e s those o p p o r t u n i t i e s real  language,  say-nothing,  not feel  of the schools" Parry model  what  Macrorie  nothing,  (1980)  calls,  word w a s t i n g ,  (1985)  Writing-inactually  use  "Engfish—the  pretentious  language  expand upon B r i t t o n ' s  language  which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  language encountered i n the  between  the  three  language.  modes  of  classroom.  The core or c e n t r a l p o i n t of our language use or e x p r e s s i v e  providing  (p.l).  and Hornsby  (1970)  f o r students to  to  I t tends to be l o o s e l y  is  personal  s t r u c t u r e d and  f r e e - f l o w i n g w i t h the focus on the w r i t e r . In  one  direction  transactional world  or  on  Britton's  practical  language  i n a v e r y p r a c t i c a l manner.  linear  model  which  we  find  the  interacts  with  the  The focus  is  primarily  on  the i n f o r m a t i o n or message to be conveyed. We s h i f t end of  this  i n t o p o e t i c or a r t i s t i c language, line,  which i s  used 9  f o r the  a t the  expression  opposite of  ideas.  Its  focus  i s on language and i t s  Zemelman and D a n i e l s the  classroom  and  structure.  (1988)  encourage  "accepting  support  teachers  and  Britton's to  work  celebrating  their  students  by  language"  and by " p r o v i d i n g occasions  that  with  for  their  expressive  invite  grow toward the t r a n s a c t i o n a l and the p o e t i c "  model  students  to  (p.74).  The o p p o r t u n i t y to extend t h e i r language range i s p r o v i d e d through  writing-in-role.  those household chores  Imagine  students  f o r which they  reflecting  are r e s p o n s i b l e  do not enjoy performing such as t a k i n g out the t h e i r beds,  t a k i n g the  Students  s o l u t i o n by w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as  can  in  describe  their  language  as they  their  Sketching, r e q u i r e the use  to  or and  journals,  invention,  to  imaginative  these  failures  create  in  inventors expressive  an i n v e n t i o n t h a t  and o u t l i n i n g t h e  transactional  language  as  an a d v e r t i s i n g  create  invention will  f o r an o w n e r ' s / u s e r ' s campaign  will  a  sales  magazine a d .  10  slogan,  the  will  writing  manual.  for  s t u d e n t s w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e w i l l r e l y upon p o e t i c the  an  task.  of o p e r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s In d e v e l o p i n g  making  inventors.  successes  planning, of  garbage,  can a r r i v e a t  diaries  each s t r i v e  perform an u n d e s i r a b l e  although  f a m i l y dog out f o r walks on r a i n y days,  o r c l e a n i n g the t o i l e t .  Recording  about  the  invention,  language t o name and  to  design  a  Can w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e  help  Writing-in-role practice  using  commonly  role's  in  language  provides  language  found  effectively  student  for  the  developed  development?  occasions  for  a wider v a r i e t y  classroom.  writing-in-role,  select  the  elevate  role  the  of  tone  an a d u l t  and  search  f o r the  offers  opportunities  students  "voice"  are  to  situation.  f o r students t o  the  Recording flight,  or space,  from the missions, dilemma,  log  entries  a  immediately e l i c i t s  also  imaginative  reflect  more a p p r o p r i a t e to  the  and  deepen t h e i r own b e l i e f Writing-in-role  seems  as  to to  students  v o i c e s t h a t they w i l l setting. whether  naval,  a s p e c i a l i z e d vocabulary  filled  m a t u r i t y of  t h e i r work as  the  Writing-in-role  commander,  s t u d e n t s as they w r i t e - i n - r o l e . while  writer  of the s c h o o l as  be  go beyond themselves and  to p r a c t i c e using t h e i r d i f f e r e n t voices, be c a l l e d upon to use o u t s i d e  can  encouraged  automatically  of  the  than  d i r e c t e d at  generally  which  to  language.  vocabulary fit  purposes  language is  demands r a t h e r than the study of the  In  of  Their  even though the focus  students  well  T h e i r adventures  and  with  and  their as  excitement  post. time  Vocabulary,  period,  helps  i n t h e i r work. should  curriculum—not a specialty  be  central  nor an a c t i v i t y  to to  a  language  be tagged  onto  the l e s s o n as an e x t e n s i o n .  I t i s a more n a t u r a l and c r e a t i v e  teaching  stimulate  technique  to  help  growth.  11  and  increase  language  How does w r i t i n a - i n - r o l e relate to the writing process? Both w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e and the w r i t i n g process l e a r n i n g mediums which are l i n k e d by t h e i r  are  similar  effective  structures.  Used i n harmony, these complementary mediums can draw upon each other's  strengths.  In the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s , as  the  initial  step.  This  through such a c t i v i t i e s and  freewriting.  w i t h the  Parker  (1982)  outlines  the  generating  involves  as d i s c u s s i o n ,  The d r a f t i n g  prewriting of  ideas  brainstorming, reading,  process  provides  the  students  o p p o r t u n i t y t o commit t h e i r ideas t o paper as w e l l  as  t o o r g a n i z e and to shape them through d e c i s i o n making. Once the p i e c e  of w r i t i n g has been  e v a l u a t i o n may then take p l a c e . in small co-operative work.  Benefits  This  is  include  Students  a broader audience  turn,  the  other's  teacher  can r e a l i s t i c a l l y  are g i v e n the  and i n  and  commonly accomplished  relieving  t r y i n g t o process more m a t e r i a l than she  for  editing  groups where peers c r i t i q u e each  from t h i s  adequately h a n d l e .  composed,  opportunity to  take  responsibility  of and  write for  each o t h e r ' s work. The f i n a l  step i n the w r i t i n g process  the f i n a l p r o d u c t . the w r i t t e n p i e c e  However, t h i s to the  teacher  is  the  p u b l i s h i n g of  i s u s u a l l y done by s u b m i t t i n g for evaluation.  The  teacher  grades i t a c c o r d i n g to v a r i o u s pre-determined c r i t e r i a and then returns their  it  to  work  possible,  as  the  students  well  as  the  who may or teacher's  may not  reflect  feedback.  the p u b l i s h i n g may occur as posted c l a s s w o r k ,  12  upon  Whenever stories  t o be read a l o u d , o r books to be shared i n the Writing-in-role process  of  runs  creating  a  parallel  ideas,  library.  course.  precedes  Ideating,  the  writing-in-role  and  i n t r o d u c e s the students to the work which can be framed through s i m i l a r types of a c t i v i t i e s  t h a t the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s  employs.  Teachers can guide the students next i n the d r a f t i n g stage by  first  (1984)  helping  suggests  tableaux,  them b u i l d a variety  belief  of  in  their  roles.  dramatic modes  Neelands  such  as  games,  and i n t e r v i e w s .  The  editing  performed  process  in  co-operatively  writing-in-role  in  small  is  groups;  also  usually  however,  it  is  presented i n a c o n t e x t u a l manner. The c h i l d r e n may be e d i t i n g a brief  as businessmen p r e p a r i n g f o r an important meeting with a  client. Although not it  will  piece  full  be presented  of  message  a l l writing-in-role will  writing, that  a  as  and as  worth and impact i f  What i s reflection? Teachers daily  need  lessons  in  t h e i r own thoughts class.  is  shared,  has been developed such,  student-in-role  the person f o r whom i t  in  it  be  it  is  has  as  a purpose  an  to  much of authentic  fulfill.  may w r i t e  will  only  gain  received  and responded t o  A its by  intended.  How i s i t used in writing-in-role? to  allow  order  for  for the  and f e e l i n g s  A careful  reflection students  to  time  throughout  become  regarding challenges  pacing  of  13  the  lesson  will  aware  of  presented provide  opportunities states  f o r the  student  "in different  forms  to  reflect  ranging  as  T a r l i n g t o n (1985)  from t h e  personal  p r i v a t e t o the more formal and p u b l i c " ( p . 2 0 4 ) . T h i s can  reflection  occur i n d i s c u s s i o n as w e l l as i n w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . Morgan  activities through  and  Saxton  (1984)  which p r o v i d e  writing-in-role:  forms,  newspaper  suggest  occasions "logbook,  i n s e r t f o r a time c a p s u l e , in  and  a  for diary,  list student  treaties  or  possible reflection  casebook,  f i r s t person s t o r y ,  stories,  of  letters,  reports,  formal  filling  statements"  (p.134) . In aspects  a l e s s o n where students are s t u d y i n g the many d i f f e r e n t of  immigration,  through r e f l e c t i o n  i n the  the  students  may a c h i e v e  form of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e .  insights Filling  forms as h o p e f u l or new immigrants or w r i t i n g l e t t e r s t o and  friends  left  new p e r s p e c t i v e many d i f f e r e n t  in  family  behind can g i v e students the chance t o g a i n a which w i l l deepen how they t h i n k and f e e l  about  issues.  How w i l l writing-in-role help students' thinking skills? Writing-in-role  challenges  develop and p r a c t i c e the c r e a t i v e  students  to  actively  and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g  of  p r o d u c i n g and e v a l u a t i n g  in  h e l p i n g students t o adapt to a growing and changing  filled  with  choices  and  ideas.  the  new,  as  ideas.  14  These s k i l l s  well  as  are  perhaps,  skills  essential society  different  It  is  this  search f o r meaning t h a t  is  a t the h e a r t o f w r i t i n g -  in-role. Ruggiero (1988) s t a t e s t h a t l e a r n i n g a c r o s s the achieves  its  vitality  hypothesize,  by  interpret,  encouraging  raise  the  curriculum  students  questions,  evaluate,  to and  discover. Students  discussing  the  pros  and cons  of  keeping  killer  whales i n c a p t i v i t y w i l l be c h a l l e n g e d t o review t h e i r  thoughts  when  who  asked  allowed, letter  to  by  home  write-in-role  their to  a  captors loved  as  on  captured  a  one.  astronauts  distant  Issues  planet,  that  to  might  are  write  have  a  seemed  simple become more complex. The  more students w r i t e ,  Ruggiero  (1988)  stresses  the  how t o t h i n k by suggesting  the b e t t e r  t h i n k e r s they  importance  that teachers  of  teaching  become. students  p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s with  the "knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s and techniques  of c r e a t i v e and  critical  be  thinking"  situations  (p.5).  These  can  then  applied  in  which encourage p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n making.  W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e c r e a t e s those o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  Is writing-in-role compatible with the whole language approach? Froese which  (1989)  demonstrates  teaching centred  approach. literature  provides  a  definition  writing-in-role s 1  He d e f i n e s based  whole  approach t o  of  whole  compatibility language language  as  with a  this  "child-  teaching  immerses students i n r e a l communication s i t u a t i o n s "  15  language  (p.2).  that  Writing-in-role whole-language. the  development  concepts  of  I t p r o v i d e s students w i t h genuine purposes  for  of  supports  the  fundamental  communication s k i l l s  product,  s t u d e n t s are encouraged t o search f o r p e r s o n a l meaning language s i t u a t i o n s ,  Students,  in-role  as  on  process  s t a t e s Froese  1 1  curators,  can d e s i g n  museum f o c u s i n g on B r i t i s h Columbia's p a s t , after  reading  communities drawings  in  and  with  their  history  cities  texts  throughout  explanations,  for  rather  and  contexts.  " real-life  an emphasis  integrated  relevant  in  With  within  the  (p.8).  exhibits  present,  about  the  of  an  growth  old-fashioned  a c u r r e n t c e l l u l a r c a r phone or contemporary  lit  and a f u t u r i s t i c  screen,  design  complete  with a  (1989)  states  that  write  to  vital  aim of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e .  in  whole  language,  l e a r n r a t h e r than l e a r n t o w r i t e "  (p.94).  neon-  television  can be mounted f o r d i s p l a y on classroom/museum  Butler  of  Labeled  telephone, model,  for a  and f u t u r e  province.  example,  than  walls. "children  This  is  a  Would writina-in-role be useful in second language learning? Wessels  (1987)  stresses  that  "language  r e q u i r e s meaningful i n t e r a c t i o n i n the t a r g e t communication—in form  of  their  which  speakers  utterances  conveying and understanding"  but  are with  acquisition... language—natural  concerned the  not  message  with they  the are  (p.12).  W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e p r o v i d e s a wide range of o p p o r t u n i t i e s language growth through c o n t e x t u a l i z e d  16  learning.  Students  for gain  a  sense  of  confidence  and  a  readiness  to  use  the  language  through r e l e v a n t as w e l l as c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e . The  giving  of  directions  can become  more of  a  challenge  when s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e t h i s s k i l l by w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as with  a  clear  treasure  to  directions  bury.  A detailed,  can become given  a useful to  illustrated  exercise,  another  pirates  map with  especially  the  completed map i s  group o f  "pirates"  try  t o f o l l o w the c l u e s and d i s c o v e r the b u r i e d t r e a s u r e .  if who  In writing-in-role, i s emphasis placed on the final product or the process? Heathcote students  and  learning; content,  a  (1984) teachers  road  "True  drama  journeys  for  (p. 98).  travel  places  insights  as w e l l  knowing Let us  educational along  in  importance  t h a t the  path t h a t  both  process-centered not  solely  students w i l l  upon  discover  as about themselves a l o n g the  discovery  and not  Heathcote  can  which  but upon the  about t h e i r t o p i c s  s t r e s s e s the  is  not  how  the  help  the  about  ends;  journeys  it  may  students  to  is  end,"  way. about  writes  discover  new  meanings f o r themselves along t h i s p a t h . T h i s method of t e a c h i n g h e l p s breathe new l i f e methods  where  students  plod  through  texts  into  which  stale  provide  m a t e r i a l f o r the students to l e a r n , seldom l e a v i n g room f o r the students  1  own s e a r c h i n g s and d i s c o v e r i e s .  Drama's w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e p l a c e s the c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g i n "as if" situations.  Having the c h i l d w r i t e - i n - r o l e as an e x p l o r e r ,  recording i n h i s diary h i s observations 17  and impressions  of  new  t e r r i t o r i e s t r a v e l e d through, g i v e s deeper meaning t o  textbook  facts. Students take an a c t i v e p a r t i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s helps  them achieve  greater  understanding.  which  By p a r t i c i p a t i n g  in  t h e i r own l e a r n i n g , t h e r e w i l l be a more profound impact.  I t r y t o implement c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e f i t i n t o t h i s concept?  i n my c l a s s r o o m . C a n  C o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g i s an i n t e g r a l component o f w r i t i n g in-role. work i s  S i n c e the  activities  are so  interactive,  o r g a n i z e d so t h a t students can share t h e i r  much group ideas,  test  them, modify and b u i l d upon them. Students l o n g rows  can be  all  found w r i t i n g  facing  the  front  i n desks,  where  the  not  teacher  c l u s t e r e d i n ways t h a t promote c o - o p e r a t i v e  arranged stands,  an  exhibit  for  a captured  Sasquatch  need  i n f o r m a t i o n and t o p l a n t o g e t h e r i n c o - o p e r a t i o n results exhibits should  may v a r y to not  ranging  groups be  held  which  .  to  technologically  have  that  captive  but  returned  these  to  while share  The g r o u p ' s  from modern, decided  but  learning.  Students working t o g e t h e r i n - r o l e as animal e x p e r t s designing  in  their  sound  creatures natural  environment. Through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e , students and t e a c h e r s co-operation all.  i n o r d e r to  attain  success and s a t i s f a c t i o n  The wise teacher p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s  s h a r i n g t o take  place.  18  can work i n  for this  for  k i n d of  How can a piece of writing be used? There must be a r e a l purpose i n h a v i n g a student piece  of  writing-in-role.  To merely  collect  and  create grade  a  the  p i e c e would be an i n j u s t i c e t o both the student and the work. Knowing t h a t helps  the  student  authenticity The  the p i e c e  is  develop  a  work does not n e c e s s a r i l y  weary  need t o  the  role  and  an  be  shared aloud  in  I t c o u l d be the important change  of new d i r e c t i o n s hidden beneath a stone t h a t  travelers  can't  find.  It  c o u l d be  w r i t t e n by a p r i s o n e r as he absorbs the his c e l l  to  i n the work  i n the w r i t i n g .  p l a n s o r a set  the  ingredient  commitment  o r d e r f o r i t t o be v a l i d a t e d . of  a vital  i n which he w i l l  the  diary  entry  inhumane c o n d i t i o n s  spend the r e s t of h i s  life.  There are those p i e c e s of w r i t i n g t h a t are brought t o through an audience. long  awaited  respond.  A letter,  proposal  The w i l l ,  to  written in role,  which another  revised  i n the  last  of  life  c o u l d be  student-in-role moments b e f o r e  that could  death,  c o u l d be read aloud to the g r i e v i n g f a m i l y members.  Can writing-in-role be evaluated? E v a l u a t i o n of keeps  in  mind  writing-in-role is  the  possible  purpose  of  the  piece  importantly,  it  can be  of  if  the  writing  teacher and  its  intended audience. But  more  comprehension.  Heathcote  (1984)  c a p a b i l i t i e s t h a t drama p o s s e s s e s .  19  used  to  stresses  assess the  student  diagnostic  "It can be r e a d i l y used  to  test the  what next  i n f o r m a t i o n people stages of  for diagnosis social  already  instruction  possess,  and can be  student  comprehension  current  events.  can of  be  used  facts  Students  to  assess,  from newspaper  can be  asked  to  letter  from  the  from t h i s victim,  for  example,  articles  during as  Students  a  could  p o i n t of view whether  a  policeman's  report  or an eyewitness r e p o r t by an o n l o o k e r .  r o l e p r o v i d e s the student develop  reveal  t h e i r understanding i n a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g manner by  r e l a t i n g the major f a c t s  accident,  as t o  write-in-role  person from w i t h i n or r e l a t e d t o the a r t i c l e s .  a  guide  (p.150).  Writing-in-role  in  assessing  an e x c e l l e n t  of the conceptual m a t u r i t y , as w e l l  sensitivity"  demonstrate  when  personal  with opportunities  interpretations  of  the  to  it  of  be the  Writing-in-  s y n t h e s i z e and  facts  leading  to  g r e a t e r understanding and i n s i g h t .  How do s t u d e n t s r e a c t to w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e ? Students shift of the  respond  i n a very  positive  manner.  There i s  a  i n the classroom from r e g a r d i n g the t e a c h e r as the h o l d e r  a l l the  i n f o r m a t i o n to  contributions  a l e a r n i n g environment which  and resources  r e p o r t s t h a t when the t e a c h e r i n the  classroom then the  own s e l f - m o t i v a t e d The wealth  of  b r i n g w i t h them t o  is  of the  child.  sole  c h i l d r e n become  d e s i r e to l e a r n " experience the  the  source "cut  20  of  off  (1986)  authority from t h e i r  (p.118).  and knowledge  classroom  Byron  values  from t h e i r  that  the  children  interactions  with  the  world i s  should be  seen as  recipients on  an i n t e g r a l  but  aspect  Neelands  as  active  (1984)  a  between what they  c h i l d to  r e l y upon h i s  may l a c k the for  (p.2).  as  "passive  Neelands  goes  "opportunity new  (p.2).  write-in-role  own resources  as  an  architect  and  a l l o w i n g the  and e x p e r i e n c e s .  formal e d u c a t i o n a l  designing t h i s project;  not  Children  a l r e a d y know and the  d e s i g n p l a n s f o r a new school b u i l d i n g i s to  out  t o g i v e students the  l e a r n i n g presented by school" Asking  points  meaning makers"  t o encourage the t e a c h e r s  to b u i l d . . .bridges  in writing-in-role.  student  The  student  background or t e c h n i c a l  however,  the t a s k  is  s t a t u s of the c h i l d by v a l u i n g h i s own p e r s o n a l  to  skill  elevating  the  insights.  How often should I use writing-in-role with my students? Since  writing-in-role  can be  limited  to  a  short  writing  a c t i v i t y o r be extended to span the l e n g t h of numerous l e s s o n s , it  is  will is  necessary  to  serve as w e l l  important t o  develop  skills  assess as the  note t h a t in  writing  r e g u l a r and s u b s t a n t i a l  both  the  purpose  needs of the  that  writing  However,  it  f o r students t o have success and  to  of  any  students.  the  kind,  they  must  be  given  practice.  Is i t d i f f i c u l t to learn how to use writing-in-role? No, in-role you  feel  but l i k e with  any new t e c h n i q u e ,  your students w i l l  completely  comfortable  21  learning to  take  a little  with  it.  use  writing-  practice  However,  until  beginning  gradually  will  confidence  to  find  the  help  you  make i t  positive  and  your  students  a r e g u l a r p a r t of  feedback  develop  classwork.  and the p i e c e s  of  the  You w i l l  w r i t i n g from the  s t u d e n t s encouraging and h e l p f u l i n p l a n n i n g your l e s s o n s . Keep and  in  mind two  Eastman  r e q u i r e s us  (1988) to  important  Be  aware  think,  to  reminders  that  from H o l l i n g s w o r t h  "writing  generate,  to  take  is  hard  risks,  work.  and t o  something of o u r s e l v e s  down on paper f o r o t h e r s t o see"  Be  sensitive  second  point  activity"  to  and  considerate  is  that  "writing  (p.47).  of is  The n o i s e l e v e l  your not  It  students'  put  (p.47). work.  necessarily  a  A  quiet  i n your classroom can be an  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i n k i n g and communicating are t a k i n g p l a c e . To  assist  practical and/or  teachers  suggestions  adaptation  new t o  are  writing-in-role,  presented  throughout  the  in  this  outlines  handbook  curriculum  with  and  for  all  use  grade  levels.  What books can I read to learn more about writing-in-role? There are not many books much depth; however, its  that  many educators  discuss  writing-in-role  clearly praise  it  and  in see  p o t e n t i a l and s t r e n g t h . Since teachers  reading,  the  g e n e r a l l y have l i m i t e d time t o pursue e x t r a  following  six  books  are recommended.  These  will  h e l p p r o v i d e an understanding of the theory behind w r i t i n g - i n role  as  well  as  provide  implementation i n the  practical  classroom.  22  suggestions  for  its  1)  Teaching the U n i v e r s e of Discourse—James  Moffett  Moffett's  for  behind 2)  work p r o v i d e s  a solid  basis  the  theories  the language i n speech and w r i t i n g .  Collected  Writings  on  Education  and  Drama—  Dorothy  Heathcote This  is  an  inspiring  book t h a t  p a s s i o n f o r l e a r n i n g and  is  filled  with  Heathcote *s  teaching.  3) Making Sense of Drama—Jonothan Neelands Neelands p r o v i d e s the 4)  a p r a c t i c a l handbook f i l l e d w i t h i d e a s  classroom.  Drama i n the E n g l i s h Classroom—Ken Byron Although Byron bases h i s work i n the i d e a s are e a s i l y  5)  for  E n g l i s h classroom,  his  adaptable.  Teaching D r a m a . . . A Mind of Many Wonders—Saxton and Morgan Saxton  and  Morgan's  demonstrates  the  easy-to-read excitement  of  and bring  helpful drama  text  into  the  classroom. 6)  Theory i n t o P r a c t i c e — T I P This  collection  of  1985  essays,  written  by  experienced  drama  educators about a v a r i e t y of aspects of drama, can be dipped into for ideas, theories,  and p r a c t i c a l  23  suggestions.  How can I encourage members of my staff to try writina-in-role in their classrooms? Sharing  your  experiences  in  the  s t a f f r o o m o r more f o r m a l l y d u r i n g department meetings w i l l  help  motivate o t h e r s on s t a f f can  arrange  and  ideas  casually  to t r y t h i s technique.  inter-class  observations,  team  p r o f e s s i o n a l development workshops from l o c a l  24  From t h e r e , you teaching,  experts.  and  *****************************************  Alright, you  class,  get  your homework book o u t .  Please  note  that  need t o w r i t e an essay f o r Monday. -  T h e r e ' s no time t o t e l l u s ,  the b e l l ' s going t o r i n g i n a  minute. How many marks i s t h i s worth? When i s t h i s due? Mr.  Woods i s g i v i n g a guidance exam on Monday and I have  t o study a l l weekend f o r t h a t . It's  t o be a minimum o f 500 words l o n g . I c a n ' t even w r i t e a hundred words. How many marks i s t h i s worth? But you h a v e n ' t handed back l a s t week's assignment  -  Can I count the "the's" and the  "and's"?  D i s c u s s the development o f the c h a r a c t e r o f the  novel  the  text.  yet.  and support your o b s e r v a t i o n s  the p r o t a g o n i s t  with  quotations  in  from  What i s a p r o t a g o n i s t ? How many marks i s t h i s worth? I h a v e n ' t f i n i s h e d the book y e t so can I r e n t the and w r i t e about i t My mom r e t u r n e d  instead? my textbook  a c c i d e n t and they won't g i v e my overdue  video  fines.  25  to  the  main  i t back u n t i l  library  I've  paid  by all  Be  sure  to write  w i l l be deducted  i n pen and double  space t h i s  essay.  Marks  for tardiness.  I c a n ' t do t h i s assignment.  I loaned my pen t o N i c k .  How many marks i s t h i s worth? My computer i s broken so I c a n ' t do the assignment  until  the repairman comes. T h a t ' s not f a i r . late.  Sometimes I c a n ' t h e l p i t  Remember when my l o c k e r  I handed i n my major paper l a t e ? of  i f my work i s  was jammed l a s t  term and  You o n l y gave me 4 out  100 marks.  Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e t h e b e l l r i n g s ? Do you enjoy t o r t u r i n g us? How many marks i s t h i s worth? -  Mr. R u p e r t ' s c l a s s got t o c o n s t r u c t scenes from the novel i n empty shoe boxes.  Can we do t h a t  I s n ' t t h a t your c a r i n space #14 lot?  instead?  i n the t e a c h e r ' s  Is i t w e l l insured?  Class dismissed.  *****************************************  26  parking  CHAPTER TWO GUIDELINES FOR IMPLEMENTATION  Imagine the  following lessons taking place  Social Studies, "At  the  and Science  end of  brothers.  Ponyboy,  well  as  a stable  some answers.  workers,  to  These  psychologists,  supply  the  Ponyboy and h i s interests, notice  i s permitted to  environment? are  saw  remain w i t h  his  following  brothers:  there  is  evaluation  At  a large  of the  age,  the  class  we  if  that  you,  as  counsellors,  family  for  of  your  by the  g u a r d i a n s h i p of  looked  about  bottom  space  meeting i n two days to d i s c u s s "Last  see  information  name,  and problems.  that  clearly we  will  your  you  health,  form  you'll  recommendations.  family court  this  be  clients,  history, the  can  social  U s i n g the t e x t as a r e f e r e n c e  These w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s l y final  we  Let's  casesheets  and g u i d a n c e  completing i n s m a l l groups. need  The O u t s i d e r s ,  Can h i s b r o t h e r s p r o v i d e the guidance he so  needs as find  class.  S.E.Hinton's novel,  t h a t the p r o t a g o n i s t ,  i n an E n g l i s h ,  boy.  i n our  We w i l l  be  your f i n d i n g s . "  at  Napoleon's  later  battles.  As  we've seen,  h i s quest f o r power l e a d him through many m i l i t a r y  campaigns.  But here i t  is,  the  the  will  to  prepare  troops  battle.  I  begin  wonder what  b e f o r e the b a t t l e . had  a sleepless  f i n a l moments b e f o r e  Napoleon  for  would  this have  very said  dawn when important  to  L e t ' s imagine t h a t you are Napoleon.  night  since  much has  27  been  his  men  You've  on your mind.  You  know t h a t since in  the  troop's  morale  the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s  this  battle  soldiers  before  but  it's  is  low.  You've  lost  many men  campaign and y o u ' l l l o s e many more important  the b a t t l e .  that  you  Write down the  speak  short  to  speech  you w i l l d e l i v e r t o your men t h a t w i l l g i v e them the t h a t they w i l l "This about the is  is  there.  a recent  to  get  article of  the  Amazon r a i n f o r e s t .  a c l e a r p i c t u r e of  own coverage  reporters,  for  two  and t h a t  weeks,  Sometimes  that  is  a  detailed  installments  journal  is  hear, as  will  i n the newspaper.  on the  why i t  is  happening  be  the  of  you,  as  Amazon t o  i n the  published  Let's start  b l a c k b o a r d of what s u p p l i e s  sending  to  and experience  it  it  The Vancouver Sun wants  on an assignment  document a l l t h a t you see,  list  all  magazine  T h i s r e p o r t e r was a b l e t o t r a v e l through many p a r t s  do i t s  Keep  strength  from an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  the r e g i o n and speak with many p e o p l e . to  that  need."  destruction  difficult  your  Amazon.  in  daily  with a p r e l i m i n a r y  you t h i n k y o u ' l l  need  as w e l l as your i t i n e r a r y . " In  each  of  these  three  lessons,  which s t u d e n t s are c h a l l e n g e d subject  areas,  beforehand  by  have the  been  teacher  f o l l o w i n g seven g u i d e l i n e s  to  delve  created. as  well  writing  more deeply Careful  as  28  into  in  their  preparation  consideration  open up o p p o r t u n i t i e s  writing-in-role.  activities  of  the  f o r the use of  (1) What are the l e s s o n ' s  objectives?  (2) A t what p o i n t i n the l e s s o n w i l l the w r i t i n g take p l a c e ? (3)  In  what  role(s)  will  the  teacher  and/or  students  be  working? (4)  What form w i l l the p i e c e of w r i t i n g take?  (5)  In which language mode w i l l the students be working?  (6)  In what u n i t ( s )  w i l l the students be working?  (7) Who w i l l be the audience?  (1)  What are the l e s s o n ' s  objectives?  Once the t e a c h e r has o u t l i n e d the o b j e c t i v e s d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g stage, how the  use  lesson's In  (1)  order  the  lesson  students  achieve  the  concluding  the  identify to  and r e c o r d  of  support  important f a c t s  views (2)  and  write  form  a  the  expect  her  to  using poetic  from  the  report  novel,  The  the  basis  using  text for  in the  transactional  work c o o p e r a t i v e l y i n s m a l l groups.  While s t u d y i n g Napoleon and h i s  contribute  study  a t e a c h e r might suggest t h a t students s h o u l d be a b l e  language, and (3)  students  effective  to  (1)  leadership,  later battles identify and  the  qualities  (2)  write  a  teacher which speech  language.  The t e a c h e r may e s t a b l i s h , of  need t o a s s e s s whether and  w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can h e l p  recommendations,  might  lesson  goals.  Outsiders, to  of  she w i l l  of the  the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t ,  i n the study of the d e s t r u c t i o n  t h a t the students  29  should be a b l e  to  (1)  list  life  certain  o f the  facts  about  r e g i o n as w e l l  the  as  geography,  its  people,  animal and  plant  identify  issues  (2)  i n v o l v e d i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the r a i n f o r e s t , in  w r i t i n g , p e r s o n a l responses t o the  and (3)  express  event.  W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e has the f l e x i b i l i t y and the s t r e n g t h t o be used  effectively  in  helping  students  wide v a r i e t y of g o a l s a c r o s s the  (2)  is  important to  attain  a  curriculum.  A t what p o i n t i n t h e l e s s o n w i l l  It  and t e a c h e r s  consider  the writing take  the  placement  place?  within  the  i n d i v i d u a l l e s s o n or the extended u n i t when the w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e will  occur.  the  work t o  The w r i t i n g can be promote  understanding  and  middle o f  lesson.  can  the  provide  an  student  end of for  an i n t r o d u c t i o n  and f o c u s .  students  A t the  s p r i n g b o a r d f o r other r e l a t e d As  readiness  commitment,  opportunity  framed as  can  the  write  lesson,  reflection  To  deepen  during the  or  to  the  writing  serve  as  a  activities.  a p r e l u d e t o the l e s s o n ,  students can be drawn i n t o  the  r e a d i n g of the a r t i c l e and the study of the d e s t r u c t i o n of  the  Amazon r a i n f o r e s t by f i r s t  approaching the work as  themselves.  the  By v a l u i n g  students  working from what they a l r e a d y know, the  prior  the  knowledge  teacher  t h a t w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can serve as an e f f e c t i v e  journalists  will  and  discover  introduction  to  A l t e r i n g the pace d u r i n g a l e s s o n on Napoleon's b a t t l e s  to  topic.  w r i t e - i n - r o l e as the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r h i m s e l f can a l l o w students  30  reflection  time t o t h i n k about the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  commander and t o  consider  time.  this  By t a k i n g  the  conditions  opportunity  to  of  of being a  warfare  pause,  the  at  student  a c h i e v e and r e v e a l a g r e a t e r understanding i n subsequent To  synthesize  l e a r n e d about the  and  apply  characters  a family court. opportunities  novel,  in-role  can  dynamics  teacher, of  the  in  still  being able to  role  such  concerning  as  the  the  an e d i t o r  characters  rainforest through such  as  troops  to  who her  a variety a are  in  assigns  be,  for  on  both  a  the  casesheets  a lesson provide  teacher  who  shares  with  presides  in  the  the  the  over  novel,  coverage  to  now to  the  hear  31  who  you  power  and  the  courthearing  Outsiders,  direct  the  speak,"  of  the  the  students  a helping  suggests,  the  in-role  destruction  on  while  Through a  The t e a c h e r ,  Taking  Napoleon  the  students  The  can h e l p  activities.  subordinate assembled  of  and  experience.  role  experience  reporters, of  the  the teacher and/or students be  t e a c h e r can model language and b e h a v i o u r . as  The O u t s i d e r s ,  m a i n t a i n classroom management. judge  and  growth.  taking  classroom  study.  be used i n a h e a r i n g i n  a unique as w e l l as as enjoyable  The  can  observed  r e a d i n g by f i l l i n g  which w i l l  (3) In what role(s) w i l l working?  student,  have  Writing extensions following  f o r student  Working  they  i n the  s t u d e n t s can f o l l o w up t h e i r i n - r o l e about t h e i r c l i e n t s  what  that  role,  "Sire, teacher  the is  still  a b l e t o p r o v i d e guidance w h i l e s e t t i n g The  himself  is a  elevated  vital  psychologist, fresh  taking  from t h a t  part  to  reflect  with  role,  of  opens  play.  by  Working  being  the  opportunity man, not the  events w h i l e  gains  a student  to  just  student's  also  as  as  into  studying.  His  of  someone  social  the  worker,  child  rather  to  gain  than  the  Napoleon p r o v i d e s  strip  the  insights  that  a  giver,  away  the  emperor.  eyes  creating  to  allows  W r i t i n g a speech  the  about the  journalist  a  o r guidance c o u n s e l l o r  of c a r e .  students  on  tone.  s u b j e c t matter t h a t he i s  perspectives  receiver,  and  in  and i n t o the  status with  student,  the  to  layers  and  R e p o r t i n g as  important  situations  the  for  the  a  information student  to  convey t h a t importance. There i s  a g r e a t amount of  flexibility  i n working i n - r o l e  as o n e ' s r o l e may change even w i t h i n the c l a s s t i m e . of  activities  Ponyboy,  the  placement; evening  might f i n d the  student  main c h a r a c t e r ,  after  penning a note t o  before  reporters, accessible  as  an a  guide,  a  writing a diary he  learns  a loved one  important  Extensions  battle;  map showing  as  or  about  entry his  a soldier  designing  routes  on for  as  home the the  through  barely  in  commit  r e g i o n s of the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t .  (4) What form w i l l the piece of writing take? In  order to  help  themselves t o a u t h e n t i c varied,  imaginative,  the  students  believe  w r i t i n g , the t e a c h e r  and  needs t o p r o v i d e  and r e l e v a n t w r i t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s whether  32  it  be  walls  from c h a r c o a l e d p r e h i s t o r i c  pictographs  to  communications  futuristic  interstellar  l a s e r d i s c s t o be sent out to d i s t a n t The the  following  list  broad spectrum of  on  cave  engraved  may be h e l p f u l  writing activities  to  teachers  in  from a core  seeing idea  extensions.  WRITTEN EXTENSION  Form  -job a p p l i c a t i o n -accident report - a p p l i c a t i o n f o r immigration - d a t i n g agency -membership ( c l u b , c r e d i t card) -insurance ( l i f e , home)  Diagram  - d i r e c t i o n s on map -house p l a n -building design -exploration route -poster -advertisement -instructions -as photograph -as artwork  Documents  - c e r t i f i c a t e ( b i r t h , marriage) -driver's license -will -awards -ownership deeds -court summons  Communications  -letters -postcards -notes -cards -invitations -speeches -autographs  33  on  galaxies.  k e r n e l t h a t can be expanded i n t o a v a r i e t y o f  KERNEL  etched  or  KERNEL  WRITTEN EXTENSION  Publications  -headlines -photograph c a p t i o n s -pamphlets -newspapers -autographs  Captain's Log  -space t r a v e l e r -ship captain - t r a i n engineer -pilot - m i l i t a r y / n a v a l commander -wagon t r a i n l e a d e r -explorer  Personal writing (past, p r e s e n t ,  future)  -calendar -daybook -datebook -memoirs -diary -scrapbook  Memorial  -tombstone -commemorative plaque -eulogy  Naming  -mountains and r i v e r s by e x p l o r e r s -roads and s t r e e t s by urban designers - i n v e n t i o n s by i n v e n t o r s -fashions by garment d e s i g n e r s -baby o r pet by f a m i l y members  Proposal  -of marriage -of agreement -idea/plan  Report  -teacher, c o u n s e l l o r , p r i n c i p a l - p o l i c e , d e t e c t i v e , eyewitness, victim -newspaper r e p o r t e r -reviewer (movie, restaurant, gallery) -physician (doctor, d e n t i s t , psychiatrist) -historian/scientist  34  Writing-in-role playing  a  sport  typewritten scraps  without  without  the  the  proper  tools  necessary  as  casesheets f o r s t u d e n t s - i n - r o l e  Napoleon,  detailed  as  coloured  and bound notebooks f o r j o u r n a l i s t s  notes  essential  experience  (5)  Teachers opportunities  l a n g u a g e mode w i l l  need  to  Students  Most o f t e n  can g a i n  a  students  social  to  compose a  the  Amazon  record  help  their  make  the  students.  meaningful  and extend  confidence  and  their  through  relevant  languaging  the  protection  offers.  students are  or p r a c t i c a l language as  give  of  to  f o r the  workers,  t h e s t u d e n t be working?  t o h e l p them develop  that w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e  role  necessary  and the w r i t i n g a u t h e n t i c  I n which  skills.  ingredients  social  maps  like  Xeroxed,  hastily  rainforest are  be  equipment.  o f white parchment paper on which t o  speech  would  called  upon t o  use  transactional  such as t h a t which a s t u d e n t , worker,  would  use  in  writing-in-  preparing  recommendation as t o the g u a r d i a n s h i p of the p r o t a g o n i s t  of  a the  novel. By v a l u i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l or e x p r e s s i v e v o i c e we the  students to  as they w r i t e  reflect  more upon t h e i r  thoughts and  encourage feelings  i n j o u r n a l s as r e p o r t e r s who w i t n e s s and respond  t o the d e s t r u c t i o n of the Amazon r a i n f o r e s t . W r i t i n g of students-in-role motivate  a more p o e t i c as  and reassure  or a r t i s t i c  Napoleon  write  t h e i r troops,  35  nature  speeches  can occur  as  designed  to  l e a r n i n g as they do so,  to  g i v e shape t o t h e i r thoughts, beauty and the rhythms of  (6)  ideas,  and f e e l i n g s ,  through  the  language.  In what u n i t ( s ) w i l l the student be working? Teachers  need  a c t i v i t y before  to  consider  the  nature  determining what u n i t i s  of  best  i n which t o work—on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s ,  the  writing  f o r the  students  w i t h a p a r t n e r , as a  member of a s m a l l group, or as a p a r t of the e n t i r e  class.  I n d i v i d u a l or independent w r i t i n g ensures p a r t i c i p a t i o n by all.  It  record  is  an  thoughts  opportunity and  for  feelings.  the  student  Students  and as  interpretations  of  speech. It  is  simple t o  a p a r t n e r as t h e r e  facilitate is  not  an  exchange  of  students  to  work  small  teamwork.  in  Students  work where s t u d e n t s w r i t e  a major s h i f t  promotes  ideas  and  serves  groups.  working  in  i n desks. as  Group  groups  of  a  l e a r n the  co-operation  as  write-in-role  as  psychologists,  and guidance  on t h e i r  counsellors  for  encourages and  four,  language  of  social  workers,  completing  casesheets  clients.  Students participate of  they  prelude  three  or s e l f - c h o s e n ,  with  Such work  work  o r g a n i z e d by the t e a c h e r  list  reflect  writing-in-role  Napoleon w i l l a r r i v e at v a r i e d and p e r s o n a l his  to  as  experience a part  supplies  journalists  the  of  and  may need the  dynamics  the  an  entire  of  class.  itinerary  a s s i s t a n c e of  36  the  on the  group  as  they  Brainstorming a  the  blackboard  as  teacher-in-role  as  the  editor  to  member o f the  monitor  suggestions  for  writing  done  in-role  a p a r t n e r , a s m a l l group, the  the t e a c h e r  from  every  range  from  audience?  audience  oneself,  encourage  class.  (7)Who w i l l be the An  and  but i s  an e s s e n t i a l  can  class,  ingredient  an o u t s i d e r ,  i n the  to  creation  of  a u t h e n t i c and meaningful w r i t i n g . Writing that greater  freedom  Students  i s purely expressive i n the  can e s t a b l i s h  writing that is  non-threatening  a partner i s  agents.  serve  Students  co-operatively  well,  in  the  a low  share  a n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n to p r e s e n t , which  of  may  find  the  roles  self.  through  f o r t h e i r eyes o n l y .  those who are shy or r e l u c t a n t t o  groups  audience  and commit themselves t o  P r e s e n t i n g work t o  is  and r e f l e c t i v e  activity  for  i n a l a r g e group.  It  after that,  writing  writing-in-role  risk  as  work i n small  process,  care-givers,  as  editing  would work  i n f o r m u l a t i n g recommendations and t e s t i n g  ideas  out on each o t h e r . Work presented to the e n t i r e c l a s s becomes more t h e a t r i c a l in that i t  i s performed f o r an audience and as a r e s u l t  much power.  A simple speech,  can c a r r y g r e a t As t h e r e outsider, from t h e i r  read by Napoleon t o  his  carries troops,  impact. is  no known or  shared h i s t o r y  p a r t i c u l a r l y an a d u l t , roles.  V i s i t o r s to  37  students the  are  classroom  working w i t h less  an  distracted  can be  used  as  scribes  to  whom the this  children  outside  can  agent w i l l  dictate help  their the  work.  children  The  presence  of  search  for just  the r i g h t words and c r e a t e s w r i t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s  for  s t u d e n t s who are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s . Sharing privacy.  writing  The t e a c h e r  with  the  is  able t o  u n d e r s t a n d i n g presented process  f a r too  return a l e t t e r  teacher  by each  many papers  assess the student.  the  i t i n e r a r y of  Amazon stamping "Approved" on i t .  38  the  students'  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  To a v o i d t r y i n g  or g r a d i n g work,  from a captured s o l d i e r ,  marked o r examine  ensures  the  censored  a journalist  teacher  to can  r a t h e r than going  to  the  The  following  might be u s e f u l  chart  based  the  three  sample  lessons  i n i d e n t i f y i n g c l e a r l y the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s t h a t  are a p a r t of w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . careful  on  consideration  of  the  In p l a n n i n g e f f e c t i v e seven  questions  could  lessons, serve  guidelines.  Lesson:  Novel study—The O u t s i d e r s  Objectives:  To i d e n t i f y and r e c o r d important f a c t s from the s t o r y t o support views To w r i t e a r e p o r t u s i n g t r a n s a c t i o n a l language To work c o - o p e r a t i v e l y i n s m a l l groups  Placement:  Post-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  Representative  Students-in-Role:  S o c i a l workers, counsellors  Format:  Casesheet  Language Mode:  Transactional  Unit:  Small group  Audience:  Small g r o u p / C l a s s  39  of the  courts/Judge  psychologists,  as  Lesson:  Napoleon's b a t t l e s and l e a d e r s h i p qualities  Objectives:  To i d e n t i f y q u a l i t i e s t h a t l e a d effective leadership To w r i t e a speech u s i n g p o e t i c language  Placement:  During the  Teacher-in-Role:  Subordinate t o Napoleon  Students-in-Role:  Napoleon/Napoleon's  Format:  Speech  Language Mode:  Poetic  Unit:  Individual  Audience:  Class  Lesson:  Study of the d e s t r u c t i o n of Amazon r a i n f o r e s t  Objectives:  To l i s t c e r t a i n f a c t s about the geography, a n i m a l , and p l a n t l i f e of the r e g i o n as w e l l as i t s people To i d e n t i f y i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the r a i n f o r e s t To express i n p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g s responses to t h i s event  Placement:  Pre-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  Newspaper e d i t o r  Students-in-Role:  Reporters  Format:  List/Journal  Language Mode:  Transactional/Expressive  Unit:  Class/Individual  Audience:  Class/Teacher  40  to  lesson  troops  the  ***************************************** I'd  l i k e to discuss  this  "D" w i t h you, Miss Matthews.  I  d o n ' t understand why I got such a low grade on t h i s paper. What  do  instructions, freedom?  mean?  Of  Miss Matthews,  course  I  listened  to  but whatever happened t o  your  artistic  Y o u ' r e s t i f l i n g my c r e a t i v i t y .  Here, in  you  l e t me read t h i s  r e d pen.  I  think  sentence t o you t h a t you u n d e r l i n e d  you  are  missing  the  point  here.  "He  l u r c h e d toward the VCR and spewed up chunks of b o l o g n a . " you  don't  understand.  Matthews.  His  This  actions  short?  Yes,  pages l o n g but I f e l t the  story.  I  tasteless  represent  material possessions i n his Too  isn't  his  vulgarity,  total  Miss  rejection  of  life.  know t h a t  that t h i s  the  was j u s t  That way I c o u l d leave the  would happen n e x t .  No,  composition  is  three  the r i g h t spot to reader wondering  Yes, you f e l t confused?  Great,  end what  t h a t was my  intention. What writers  about  use  my language?  these words.  Miss  It's  Matthews,  all  hardly f a i r that  the  they  these words and make m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s and I c a n ' t in a story. Look, doesn't Today." school.  great  can use  use them  Sounds l i k e double standards t o me. I've  like  got  to  run  right  me and gave me a  He s a i d  that  I  could  now.  My s o c i a l s  " C - " on my essay come  and t a l k  on  with  "Anarchy him  So, c o u l d you look at i t a g a i n , Miss Matthews? *****************************************  41  teacher  after  CHAPTER THREE SAMPLES OF STUDENT WORK  For  one  Composition somewhat  hour  11  the  classes  mundane b u t  teeth.  Grade directed  in  this  and  their  nonetheless  They examined c e r t a i n  involved  11  topic  12  students  attentions  universal  issues,  in  my  towards  a  concern—their  emotions,  by w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e from  and problems a variety  of  points-of-view. F o l l o w i n g an i n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n on t e e t h the posed  as  inexperienced parents  member.  In  concerns, One and  these  pieces  writing a  they  shared  letter their  to  students a  family  experiences,  and f e e l i n g s . student  wrote,  I'm up because  "Dear Mom, i t ' s  Molly just  got  1:30  her f i r s t  i n the  tooth  morning  coming i n .  She's been b i t i n g a t t h i n g s f o r a w h i l e and j u s t a few minutes ago  I  heard  wouldn't  a  stop  loud  scream.  crying.  I  went  (Thank  into  God  for  her  room  Or-Gel!)  and I  she can  a p p r e c i a t e how you must have f e l t with me, and t h i s l e t t e r must b r i n g back some fond memories." Students reading  the  then exchanged l e t t e r s letters,  responded as  if  w i t h a p a r t n e r and a f t e r they  were  those  family  members. The  maternal r e p l y was,  most l i k e l y j u s t threw t h i n g s  "Dear P h y l l i s ,  you my dear were  as n o i s y as d a r l i n g M o l l y .  You screamed and  and at  that  time  t h e r e were  42  no s p e c i a l i z e d " O r -  gel" soothers. know  it's  So I l o s t q u i t e  a  tiring  grandmother. spent  with  mother.  a bit  experience  but  of  s l e e p on you t o o .  wait  until  you  I  become  a  Then you w i l l know t h a t those h o r r i b l e hours you her  were  appreciated  With a l l my l o v e — g i v e  and  that  a kiss  you  were  to Molly  a  good  f o r me.  Your  Mom. " Later,  at  a  meeting  for  parents,  students-in-role  continued t h e i r sharing o r a l l y . S t e p p i n g back from the drama, l i k e d "getting that  "it  more r e a l i s t i c  was good t o  share  students r e v e a l e d t h a t  answers  they  and comments" as w e l l  your work w i t h o t h e r s  and l e t  as the  others reply to you." Memories of discussion. students  l o s i n g t h e i r t e e t h was the  In-role  as  s c r i b b l e d notes  misspelled  my t o o t h ) , "  approach. What  the  do you  scrawled  child  four  toothfairy  specialized a list  and attempted  of  to d e f i n e  for  t e e t h a few years  their  like  one.  "My t o o t h i s gong.  brainstormed  information  to  same  of  another  years  with  later,  whimsically  suggestions and c h i l d l i k e s c r i p t .  "Dear t o o f a i r y , (for  this  subject  my tooth? Another  do  technical  terms  files  like  favoured  chokalit  the  direct  Put the money under my p i l l o w . "  language  them.  I  dentists  overheard  As d e n t i s t s , after  later.  43  a  utilize?  checkup  We  as  patients  students  recorded  of  this  child's  One  student  e n i g m a t i c a l l y noted,  upper B7—D 10 m o l a r s .  "Observed 3 f i l l i n g s  Come i n f o r a l t e r n a t e  weeks on c r a c k on i n c e s e r D 12 and f i l l  on  check up i n two  cavities  the  following  when many c h i l d r e n are  subjected  week." The t o the  agony of adolescence,  tortures  of b r a c e s ,  head gear,  and r e t a i n e r s ,  Many o f the  students had had f i r s t  hand e x p e r i e n c e  horrors  their  as  so  teenager,  journal  resounded  with  entries bitter  this  same  experience.  emerged.  with  these  child  Those  as  that  a  had  escaped demonstrated empathy. "Dear D i a r y , " wrote t h i s same c h i l d , years,  "two weeks ago I found out  they came.  No, s e r i o u s l y ,  I l o o k so u g l y , smile,  I got them on today.  I ' l l never l e t  appearance, the d i s c o m f o r t i s so much.  Their to had  the  final  come  awful.  full  circle;  I go t o  dentures the  school  set  won't  Besides  f e e l s as i f t h i s metal  the  a quantum leap  of  is  go!" in  years  This  child  had been  lost.  i n t h e i r o l d age.  final  I  I never knew t h e y ' d h u r t  Only 2 y r s , 27 days t o  w r i t t e n p i e c e s took  a c q u i s i t i o n of  if  today  I HATE THEMl!!  anyone see them.  My mouth f e e l s sore and i t  moving a l l my t e e t h !  teenaged  I needed b r a c e s — w e l l  when I go t o s c h o o l ,  I promise.  now i n t o the  teeth  T h e i r s e n s i t i v e l e t t e r s t o f r i e n d s r e f l e c t e d a wisdom r e s u l t i n g from the m a t u r i t y of t h e i r advanced y e a r s . One years,  wrote,  however  "I thought now my l a s t  we had changed  so  little  t e e t h are gone and I  44  feel  over  the  nothing  but remorse.  It's  strange  how a l l the  small things  matter  so  much as we grow o l d e r . " Another  was  able  reflected  that,  "while  mortality  I  enjoy  do  to  see  I  don't  the  the  more  like  positive  being  improved looks  faced  aspect  and  with  my own  my dentures  bring.  They are u s e f u l but annoying when remembering my y o u t h . " Looking back on t h e i r w r i t i n g f o r t h a t c l a s s , s t u d e n t s found i t to be a p o s i t i v e from the  assignments  experience,  i n t h e i r textbook,  many of  a welcome  the  relief  and a way o f b r i n g i n g  truth to t h e i r w r i t i n g . One writing.  student It  point-of-view  observed,  allowed  you  "It to  made  write  for  from  more  different  and i n d i f f e r e n t w r i t i n g s t y l e s . "  Another added, "The f i n a l  output was  45  spontaneous  genuine."  people's  *****************************************  Oh no, got  the  film  I ordered s t i l l  a s p l i t t i n g headache  p e r i o d now. write will  from the  give  me the  the  chance to  I  in  and  need a  c l a s s an i n - c l a s s  review  until  next  L e t me see,  ozone  quiet  tests  off  and  the  layer—that  to  That  pollution is  They can w r i t e about t h a t o i l s p i l l  or maybe about the d e s t r u c t i o n of the  I've  essay  period.  f i n i s h marking those  w r i t e a few more i n t e r i m r e p o r t s . good t o p i c .  come  Grade 8 ' s .  I think I ' l l give t h i s  today and postpone  hasn't  to a  coast should  keep them w r i t i n g f o r the whole hour.  Oh no, have t o  not  another  surprise  be punished every time  the  time?  And not  finish,  a good paper i n an hour.  get  my thoughts  for  help.  for  the term.  pollution  together.  He's too  busy.  in-class  again!  can't  write,  him.  This  going t o  I can't  My parents are going to k i l l  let  even  alone to  ask him  lower my average  me.  There go my TV  privileges.  *****************************************  46  him a hard  takes me an hour j u s t  Look a t is  Why do we  Grade 8 • s g i v e I  It  essay!  CHAPTER FOUR WHY USE WRITING-IN-ROLE?  Why use w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e ? I  have  become  technique  aware  i n my c l a s s r o o m .  truthfulness placing  increasingly  Because i t works.  learning  language  experiences  c o n t e x t s and by p r o v i d i n g a sense of It  is  through the  important to  the  The s t u d e n t s  and d e m o n s t r a t e d  their  of  in  of  using  work has  1  teacher  gained  development fresh  this a  through  and  relevant  many o b j e c t i v e s  achieved  audience.  c o n s i d e r the  implementation of  value  As a  such a method i n the  classroom.  W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can: (a)  b r i n g a freshness  to r o u t i n e e x e r c i s e s  (b)  reflect  (c)  demonstrate student a b i l i t y to w r i t e i n v a r i o u s s t y l e s  (d)  elevate  student comprehension and r e t e n t i o n of  language  while  developing  facts  v o c a b u l a r y and sentence  structure (e)  supplement the c u r r i c u l u m through r e l e v a n t  contexts  (f)  p r o v i d e a sense of  (g)  slow the pace of the drama down f o r  reflection  (h)  commit students to  their  audience  role  and b u i l d  belief  r o l e s and s i t u a t i o n (i)  r e l i e v e the p r e s s u r e s of o r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  (j)  develop s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t i e s t o  (k) p r o v i d e an o u t l e t (1)  concentrate  f o r concerns and emotions  a s s i s t students i n d e v e l o p i n g more confidence  47  in  their  These  objectives  classwork.  In  were  journal  students  an o p p o r t u n i t y  journal  writing,  demonstrated  writing,  for  which  more  is  repeatedly  writing-in-role  challenging  meant  writing.  s t i m u l a t i n g c r e a t i v i t y as w e l l as an o u t l e t f o r r e f l e c t i o n  upon  initiate  the  becomes a t e d i o u s c h o r e .  writing-in-role,  brainstormed on the b l a c k b o a r d a l i s t keep r e c o r d s  or make  regular  included  such  soldiers,  and t r a v e l e r s .  one o f the role  in  people  identity  as  then  this  every  and that  supplied asked  One v o l a t i l e recovered  students  to  s i x t e e n year  selected  Topics  I t h i n k about  mothers,  the  for  into  know h e ' s  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the g i r l  48  here. as  their to  a  new  journal  typical  day  in  recently  a mother of  a traffic  Tony J r .  Writing-in-role  of  writing  who had o n l y  and having  I  role  lives.  had s e i z y e r s  care but I wish I c o u l d g i v e him t h a t away."  a  i n - r o l e as  retarted,  list  c h a r a c t e r by w r i t i n g - i n -  old g i r l  from a m i s c a r r i a g e wrote  The  prisoners,  on changes i n the  and he was  protected  journal.  recount  "Before he was born I got  him  a  much background i n f o r m a t i o n  the  first  i n d i v i d u a l s who might  day.  children.  sent  at  from an i n t r o d u c t o r y e n t r y which d e t a i l e d  t h e i r l i v e s or to r e f l e c t  time.  students  in  commanders, Students  entries  of  entries  and developed  journal  progressed  entries  people  an  Often for  To  be  offered  activity  t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s and f e e l i n g s ,  to  in  accident  attecks getting It  two  all  the  the  best  hurts to  have  mother  provided  to work through and  a  examine  her  feelings  about  a  traumatic  experience  in  a  analogous  situation. Another student,  a seventeen year o l d boy whose r e p u t a t i o n  as a comedian made i t d i f f i c u l t i n i t i a l l y f o r him t o b e l i e v e  in  h i s r o l e as a s o l d i e r wrote,  of  my g i r l work  "I miss the sweet k i s s i n g l i p s  Thelma Lew and my ma's  on  the  farm.  Oh ya  I  cooking but allso  miss  he wrote,  are  fighting  we  "The t h i n g t h a t and what  c r a z y before  I get  wait  if  to  see  shot  we can  u s e l e s s out h e r e . " was r e l i e v e d to h i s  are  bothers  we  here  like  we do  anything  miss  for is  or d i g  was  without  most  I  the  students  for this  who  probably  move  20  feet  foxhole  it's  go and so  boy as he began t o become more committed  that  usual as  the  students  interruptions  well  researched  as  for  on  their  In S o c i a l S t u d i e s of the c l a s s w o r k .  worked  that  longer  background i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e i r  own  independently  reflect  periods  a  of  in class.  initiative  footrace  entries.  photographs,  between men and loosened  arena was  not  Some  w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e became an i n t e g r a l  a i d of  without  students bulls  some r i s k .  49  of  historical  While s t u d y i n g Spanish f e s t i v a l s ,  With the  lack  time.  part  the annual  t r a d i t i o n of the running of the b u l l s i n Pamplona was  the  is  The p r e s s u r e t o perform f o r h i s peer group  noted  concentration  to  Loco."  role.  It  this  the  about b e i n g a  me the  fighting  cause a l l  don't  my p i t b u l l  However, when contemplating what he d i d n ' t soldier  I  discussed  learned  on t h e i r  that  journey  W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e was  used  to  probe  more  deeply  into  the  issues  s t u d e n t s c o n c e r n i n g the p e r p e t u a t i o n of t h i s Students support t h i s  at  first  identified  groups  t r a d i t i o n such as c a t t l e  hospitality  They a l s o  of  people  owners  i n upholding t r a d i t i o n s that generations.  Another l i s t  listed  well  who would in  the  a result  of  the  citizens  who  believed  down through  the  was brainstormed which r e f l e c t e d  the  as  friends  These people i n c l u d e d  who had l o s t  a  loved  p a r t i c i p a n t s who had been i n j u r e d themselves d u r i n g the and  animal  the  and those  had been passed  concerns of those opposed t o t h i s event. members as  by  event.  f i e l d whose b u s i n e s s e s t h r i v e d as  running o f the b u l l s .  family  raised  conservationists  who  considered  this  a  one,  event,  cruel  and  inhumane s p o r t . After letters  to  selecting  an i d e n t i t y ,  the Mayor of  business-minded  fifteen  students-in-role  Pamplona v o i c i n g t h e i r year o l d boy wrote  One  i n support of  this  "My name i s Mr. Martinez and I'm a c a t t l e  fighting  is  f o r years t o come. arena. it  A t the  arena I see  ten b i g - b e e f y  the t h i n g my a n c e s t o r s  should be on f o r e v e r from g e n e r a t i o n to the Another  student,  a  sixteen  year  e x p e r i e n c i n g f a m i l y problems a t home, o n l y one of the  families  that  owner.  I hope b u l l - f i g h t w i l l  Annually I s e l l  live  old  50  b u l l s to  the  s t a r t e d and  next." girl  who  i n Pamplona, but  outrage has broken up my f a m i l y n o t h i n g w i l l  Bull  be kept  a n a l o g o u s l y wrote,  here  wrote  concerns.  custom.  r e a l l y good to me.  then  ever be the  was "I am this same  and  that's  why  I  think  this  should  be  stopped  before  other  f a m i l i e s become l i k e mine." Writing-in-role evaluating  student  provided a less  comprehension.  threatening  In p r e s e n t i n g  method  major  r e f l e c t i n g what they had l e a r n e d from the f i l m Gandhi,  of  facts  students  were p r o v i d e d w i t h a context t h a t would o f f e r a more p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t meaning f o r the s t u d e n t s . person  account  from  the  Each was t o w r i t e a  perspective  Gandhi o r had been a f f e c t e d by h i s One v e r y q u i e t f i f t e e n  of  someone  had  met  achievements.  year o l d g i r l  when he was walking down t o the  who  first-  wrote,  "I met Gandhi  ocean t o make s a l t .  I walked  behind him most of the way and he t a l k e d t o me a w h i l e .  When I  heard about h i s  It  death I  felt  like  we had no l e a d e r .  l i k e he had put us on the r i g h t p a t h . by p r o t e s t i n g without v i o l e n c e felt  he d i d out  I  was  so  He accomplished so much  and t a k i n g i n so much p a i n .  country good by making the  h a v i n g our own r i g h t s and b e i n g thankful  for  was  British  independent.  bringing  was  the  leave,  I us  A b i g thing that  Muslems  and  Hindus  t o g e t h e r once a g a i n . " These samples of role  can  be  student work demonstrate how w r i t i n g - i n -  effectively  used  in  a  variety  of  teaching  situations. For  the  encourage with  oral  student, confidence  it  can  promote  building,  participation,  greater  relieve  develop  language usage, and s t i m u l a t e the  51  understanding,  pressures  concentration,  associated elevate  e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s .  For  the t e a c h e r ,  a method of  student  assessment, r e j u v e n a t e classwork, t e a c h w r i t i n g s t y l e s ,  add new  dimensions  lesson,  to  w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e can serve  the  curriculum,  as  p r o v i d e purpose  to  the  and encourage student r e f l e c t i o n and r o l e development.  52  ***************************************** Department Meeting ***************************************** Characters Mr. Jack Tupper: E n g l i s h department head Miss R e i d : due t o r e t i r e a t the end of the y e a r Dave McKay: f i r s t y e a r t e a c h e r K e v i n Sands: teaches 6 b l o c k s of P E , 1 b l o c k of E n g l i s h Mrs. B l a n c a : v e t e r a n t e a c h e r w i t h twenty y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e Tupper:  As you know, you w i l l o n l y have t o mark the essay at the end of the examination as the computer c a r d s from the o b j e c t i v e s e c t i o n s w i l l be fed through r i g h t a f t e r the examination. I ' v e asked you t o take a l o o k at these 5 sample compositions and g i v e them a mark out of 20. What w e ' r e t r y i n g to do i s get some c o n s i s t e n c y a c r o s s the grade i n our marking.  Sands:  S o r r y I'm l a t e . I had gym s u p e r v i s i o n and Sam Blackman s p r a i n e d a couple of f i n g e r s w h i l e p l a y i n g basketball.  Blanca:  That d o e s n ' t s u r p r i s e me. He always f i n d s ways t o a v o i d s u b m i t t i n g h i s work on t i m e . Now h e ' l l have an excuse t o hand i n y e t another essay l a t e .  Tupper:  No problem, K e v i n . But l e t ' s get t h i s meeting g o i n g . We've got 5 p i e c e s t o get t h r o u g h .  Reid:  And i t ' s  Tupper:  L e t ' s take a look at Sample you g i v e t h i s p i e c e .  Reid:  W e l l , J a c k , the student d i d make a number o f s p e l l i n g errors. He spelled "curious, magnetic, and conscientious" incorrectly. He a l s o forgot to c a p i t a l i z e words a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f some o f h i s sentences. He a l s o f o r g o t t o use a semicolon i n the l a s t sentence of h i s f i r s t paragraph. But he had a good opening l i n e and h i s c l o s i n g remarks seemed t o have punch. He d i d , however, seem t o get a l i t t l e l o s t i n the m i d d l e . I gave t h i s p i e c e 13 out of 20.  Blanca:  I wasn't as generous as you, Miss R e i d . The boy's sentence s t r u c t u r e i s simply a p p a l l i n g . I f you n o t i c e there is also a weakness in his paragraph t h a t E n g l i s h i s construction. It's clear not t h i s s t u d e n t ' s f i r s t language, The most I c o u l d g i v e him would be a 9.  3:30 a l r e a d y .  53  #1.  Miss R e i d ,  what d i d  Tupper:  Thank you, J u l i e . t h i s piece?  Well,  Dave, how do you f e e l  McKay:  W e l l , Mr. Tupper, I can c e r t a i n l y see t h a t both Miss R e i d and Mrs. Blanca have v a l i d concerns about the b o y ' s weaknesses i n h i s b a s i c s k i l l s . But a p a r t from these e r r o r s , the boy r e a l l y showed i n s i g h t i n t o h i s topic. I gave him 17 out of 20.  Blanca:  Seventeen! Stop b e i n g so s o f t h e a r t e d . I f the boy i s not i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r newcomers t o the country then he must be e v a l u a t e d i n the same way as the others. The boy can b a r e l y w r i t e E n g l i s h !  McKay:  But h i s ideas are sound.  Sands:  Look, I ' d l i k e t o s t a y but I ' v e got t o go back t o gym and check on the s e n i o r g i r l s v o l l e y b a l l game.  Tupper:  I understand, K e v i n . Our next meeting w i l l be a t the usual time. See you t h e n . Well, i t l o o k s as i f we have q u i t e a d i s c r e p a n c y i n the marks h e r e : 13, 9, and 17.  Reid:  How about i f we compromise and g i v e him a 10?  Tupper:  Maybe we should leave t h i s p i e c e and t r y Sample Miss R e i d , What d i d you g i v e t h i s p i e c e ? *****************************************  54  about  the  #2.  CHAPTER FIVE LESSON PLANS  In  order  to  demonstrate  various  how  levels  writing-in-role  and s u b j e c t  areas  can  integrated  into  across  curriculum,  the f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n p l a n s have been developed.  These l e s s o n s are intended as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r interested  i n l e a r n i n g how to  development needs  and  curriculum, Each activities  are  for  activities  certainly  interests  of  and  flexible the  the  teachers  i n c o r p o r a t e w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e as a  t e a c h i n g technique and l e a r n i n g agent i n t h e i r Suggestions  be  classrooms.  extensions  and adaptable  students,  the  for to  future  suit  the  of  the  demands  and the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and space. lesson or  can  stand  materials  in  alone  or  order  extended u n i t spanning a number of  55  to  be  linked  become  lessons.  a  with part  other of  an  STOLEN JEWELS E n g l i s h as an A d d i t i o n a l Language Can  we p l a c e  Additional creates  learning  for  students  Language i n c h a l l e n g i n g  opportunities  for  of  E n g l i s h as  contexts?  students  to  an  Writing-in-role  learn  and  to  practice  and  following  get  from  direction giving. LEVEL: i n t e r m e d i a t e language  skills  INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES -  Students  need  directions  (right,  Students,  learn vocabulary left,  working  school to t h e i r In  to  pairs,  for  giving  forward, s t r a i g h t ,  in  pairs,  explain  etc.).  how  to  the  homes. students p l a y  "Blind Tag."  and must r e l y on "B's" d i r e c t i o n s couple t h a t i s  "A" i s  blindfolded  to a v o i d b e i n g caught by  the  "It."  FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE Teacher-in-role our  heist  of  leader i t ' s the  loot  school. You'll  the  as  jewels  leader last  of  thieves  n i g h t was  says,  a success  up t o me to decide what t o do now.  e q u a l l y and h i d e each p i e c e No  one  will  ever  think  "OK you and as  looking  each make up a map w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s  your  W e ' l l d i v i d e up  of j e w e l r y somewhere of  guys,  there  and i n  for  five  in a it. years  those of us who haven't been caught w i l l come back and f i n d a l l the j e w e l s . After  Where s h a l l we keep a l l the maps?" determining  students-in-role  the  hiding  place  for  the  maps,  the  c r e a t e a map and i n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h a p a r t n e r .  56  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES -  In-role,  students working i n p a i r s ,  teams and attempt t o f i n d a jewel  exchange maps w i t h  other  from the r o b b e r y .  Lesson:  E n g l i s h as an A d d i t i o n a l Language  Objectives:  To use and understand d i r e c t i o n s  Placement:  Post-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  Leader of the  Students-in-Role:  Thieves  Format:  Map w i t h  Language Mode:  Transactional  Unit:  Partners  Audience:  Partners  thieves  instructions  EXTENSIONS Students  can a s s i s t a t p a r e n t / t e a c h e r  interviews  by h e l p i n g  t o g i v e parents d i r e c t i o n s to the rooms. - Students can design a handbook f o r new students or teachers  so  that  newcomers  can  school.  57  find  their  way  substitute around  the  WINNERS AND LOSERS P h y s i c a l Education  play  It's  not whether you win o r l o s e  it.  Or i s  it?  Do students  people go i n order t o win?  the  believe  game—it's this?  how you  How f a r  will  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n students can use  w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e t o analyze the p r e s s u r e s of winning and l o s i n g . LEVEL; Grade  7-10  INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES P l a y a game where t h e r e i s a winning team and a l o s i n g team. -  Play  a  co-operative  game where the p l a y e r s must a l l work  together. -  Discuss  differences  f e l t t o win and t o -  Students  pose  between  the  games as  well  as  how  it  lose.  in  tableaux  moments of v i c t o r y or defeat  (frozen  pictures)  in particular  which  depict  sports.  FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE -  T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e says,  "As  a  member  of  the  Athletic  D i s c i p l i n a r y Board of Canada I am here t o prepare you f o r your appearance before the  rules.  the  committee c o n c e r n i n g your  Your h e a r i n g w i l l  be t o  d i s c i p l i n a r y measures are t o be t a k e n .  infraction  determine what, You w i l l  if  need t o  of  any, write  a l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g your a c t i o n s which you w i l l need t o p r e s e n t t o the b o a r d . -  Students w r i t e - i n - r o l e  type  of  infraction  assaulting a referee,  (e.g.  as  a t h l e t e s who have committed some swearing  on  the  tennis  court,  u s i n g performance enhancing d r u g s ) .  58  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES -  In o r d e r t h a t a l l students are p r o v i d e d w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y  t o work i n - r o l e as a t h l e t e s and as members o f the d i s c i p l i n a r y board,  s m a l l groups should r o t a t e  t o experience  both  to  give  everyone  the  chance  perspectives.  Lesson:  Physical Education  Objectives:  To s t r e s s c o - o p e r a t i o n To understand consequences of actions  Placement:  Pre-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  Member of D i s c i p l i n a r y Board  Students-in-Role:  Athletes/Menmbers of Board  Format:  Letter  Language Mode:  Transactional  Unit:  Individual  Audience:  Small groups  EXTENSIONS Students  could a s s i s t  with  d i s c i p l i n a r y actions  in  their  own s c h o o l . Students  could  organize  and  young c h i l d r e n .  59  lead  co-operative  games  for  THE MENU,PLEASE Food and N u t r i t i o n How do menus a s s i s t and i n f l u e n c e of  meals?  diners  From  are  fast  presented  food with  chains menus  diners to  to  in their  gourmet inform,  choices  restaurants, persuade,  or  e n t e r t a i n them. LEVEL:  Grade  8-12  INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Menus from sample r e s t a u r a n t s c o u l d be analyzed a c c o r d i n g t o accurate and  and e n t i c i n g  language  (focus  on a d j e c t i v e s ,  adverbs,  verbs). Students p l a n  presented at  and prepare f o r a guest a luncheon meal t o be  school.  FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e says, I have been d e l i g h t e d eaten i n each of by  you,  the  the  finest  menus c o u l d use  "As one of the co-owners  and impressed w i t h the five  f i n e meals  d i n i n g spots i n t h i s  chefs  i n the  city.  of t h i s  hotel  However,  hotel I  prepared  I think  some updating and who would know b e t t e r  to  see  descriptions dish  of  design  each meal  a  new  menu  cover  show how unique  and  in  and d e l i c i o u s  I'd your each  is."  Students, to  you  the than  you how to make these wonderful meals a p p e a l i n g on a menu. like  have  in-role  as  chefs,  work  c r e a t e a s p e c i a l menu f o r t h e i r  60  i n t h e i r cooking  luncheons.  groups  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES Students  present  t h e i r guest w i t h a luncheon menu p r i o r  to  the meal.  Lesson:  Food and N u t r i t i o n  Objectives:  To p r a c t i c e u s i n g d e s c r i p t i v e language To d e s c r i b e food e f f e c t i v e l y  Placement:  During the  Teacher-in-Role:  Co-owner of  Students-in-Role:  Chefs  Format:  Menu  Language Mode:  Poetic  Unit:  Small groups  Audience:  Guest  lesson hotel  EXTENSIONS -  Students  school -  could  write  for  food  being  served  in  the  cafeteria.  Students  c o u l d work on a f u n d - r a i s i n g p r o j e c t  the s t a f f ' s and s t u d e n t s ' school  menus  by w r i t i n g up  f a v o u r i t e r e c i p e s t o be i n c l u d e d i n a  cookbook.  61  THE WALL Social  Studies  Do  walls  significance  keep  people  in  or  of the B e r l i n Wall?  dismantling affected  people?  out?  What  How has i t s  An event,  has  been  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  whose e f f e c t s  will  not  be known f o r some time t o come, p r e s e n t s c h a l l e n g i n g i s s u e s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n through w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e . LEVEL: Grade  10-12  INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Study of the B e r l i n Wall can occur through t e x t and f i l m . With the h e l p of the t e a c h e r , on the  blackboard  of  those  students  affected  by  can b r a i n s t o r m a the  list  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  d i s m a n t l i n g of the B e r l i n W a l l . FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE -  T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as  Jamison.  Thank  representative  you from  producing a s p e c i a l  a  media  for Life  representative  coming  to  this  says,  "I'm Kim  meeting.  Magazine which has  been  I'm  p l a n n i n g on  i s s u e f e a t u r i n g the B e r l i n W a l l .  i n c l u d e photographs, p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s , w e l l as a r t i c l e s about t h i s  infamous w a l l .  a  It  is  to  and r e c o l l e c t i o n s  as  You have been asked  and chosen t o p a r t i c i p a t e due t o your own p e r s o n a l  experiences.  Could you w r i t e f o r us a s h o r t account t h a t we c o u l d i n c l u d e i n our  publication?  feelings, -  and experiences  Students  themselves  It  should  be  based  on  your  thoughts,  as a r e s u l t of the W a l l . "  write-in-role  from  any  perspective  and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Wall  62  (e.g.  about someone  who has l o s t a f a m i l y member who was shot t r y i n g t o escape over it  from E a s t Germany, a businessman i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s who  selling  chunks of the Wall as a money-making  is  venture).  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES The w r i t i n g c o u l d be shared with -  Pieces  can  be  read  aloud  others.  while  students  p i c t u r e as a photograph t o be i n c l u d e d with the Students can submit student comprehension  form  a  writing.  work t o the t e a c h e r i n o r d e r t o of the  frozen  assess  material.  Lesson:  Social  Studies  Objectives:  To know the f a c t s and understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Wall  Placement:  Post-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e from L i f e Magazine  Students-in-Role:  People a f f e c t e d by the  Format:  Personal  Language Mode:  Expressive  Unit:  Individual  Audience:  Small groups,  class,  Wall  or t e a c h e r  EXTENSIONS The c l a s s c o u l d study other the  Walls  of  Jericho,  famous w a l l s  The Great Wall  memorial t o those k i l l e d i n Vietnam).  63  of  (The W a i l i n g W a l l ,  China,  The W a l l :  a  ON THE AIR English How can one b e s t persuade the consumer through r a d i o ads? What  type  of  producing  a  language  is  most  radio commercial,  effective? students  By can  studying  gain  a  and  deeper  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s powerful medium. LEVEL: Grade  6-10  INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES -  Students  study  alliteration,  poetic  devices  onomatopoeia,  (e.g.  similes,  personification)  metaphors,  through e x e r c i s e s  and a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a t u r e . -  Students  listen  to  taped  i d e a s and i d e n t i f y p o e t i c  r a d i o ads  to  determine  effective  devices.  FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE -  Teacher-in-role  Station,  I've  says,  chosen  "As the  this  advertising  accounts.  We need some e x c i t i n g ,  radio  not  ads  only  for  our  producer of agency  to  S.U.N.  Radio  handle  our  i n n o v a t i v e approaches i n our  station  but  for  our  sponsors  as  well." Students working i n - r o l e as members of an a d v e r t i s i n g agency w r i t e one minute commercials i n s m a l l groups.  64  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES -  Commercials  can  either  be  presented  live  or  taped  for  playback.  Lesson:  English  Objectives:  To i d e n t i f y and use p o e t i c d e v i c e s To w r i t e and tape a r a d i o commercial  Placement:  Post-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  Radio s t a t i o n producer  Students-in-Role:  Members of A d v e r t i s i n g Agency/ A c t o r s i n commercial  Format:  Radio commercial  Language Mode:  Poetic  Unit:  Small  Audience:  Class  groups  EXTENSIONS -  Students  can  produce  radio  ads  to  s c h o o l ' s PA system t o a d v e r t i s e school  be  broadcasted  on  the  events.  Students can d e s i g n and draw ads f o r magazines. V i d e o - t a p e d commercials  can be s c r i p t e d ,  taped.  65  performed,  and then  THE TELEPHONE Theatre What  language  conversations writing  on the  skills  dialogues  cues  do  we  receive  telephone?  through the  and  Students  construction  send  through  can develop  of  missing  our  script  pieces  of  as c r i m i n o l o g i s t s .  LEVEL: Grade 9-12 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Students p l a y " Telephone Game." Students must t r y t o keep a one-sided  c o n v e r s a t i o n going as  the  students pass a  telephone  around the c i r c l e , each adding a sentence a t a t i m e . Students lines: call  improvise  (1) " I t ' s  situations  him/her a g a i n . "  anymore." (3) "Aunt B e r t h a ,  voice."  (4) "Who i s  from the  following  (2) "I've what a  opening  t o l d you  not  to  s u r p r i s e t o hear your  this?"  FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as d e t e c t i v e Thursday V.P.D.  with  the  says,  "Good day, I'm L i e u t e n a n t  Communications A n a l y s i s  Department  for  your a s s i s t a n c e .  conversation  to  carefully  the  speech  the  We need h e l p i n c r a c k i n g open a murder c a s e — t h a t ' s why  we've come t o the Criminology Department of t h i s ask  of  to  patterns,  go  on  in  content  dialogues  carefully  now."  this of  have  case.  one  conversation,  length  of  pauses  between  the  66  two  side  We need  the  and  potential  We o n l y  in  university  you t o tone  order  speakers.  of  of  to Let's  a  to  taped listen voice,  recreate listen  Students working i n p a i r s w r i t e - i n - r o l e a p o t e n t i a l  script.  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES A reading  or taped r e a d i n g of the c o n v e r s a t i o n can then be  presented. Students-in-role  as c r i m i n o l o g i s t s can a s s e s s the  different  conversations.  Lesson:  Theatre  Objectives:  To l e a r n s c r i p t w r i t i n g To analyze c o n v e r s a t i o n s f o r speaking cues and speech p a t t e r n s  Placement:  During l e s s o n  Teacher-in-Role:  L i e u t e n a n t from P o l i c e Department  Students-in-Role:  Criminologists  Format:  Script  Language Mode:  Expressive,  Unit:  Partners  Audience:  Class  transactional,  poetic  EXTENSIONS Students  can  answering machines  write (e.g.  creative  messages  for  telephone  f o r Queen E l i z a b e t h , f o r Batman).  67  EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT DATING* *But were a f r a i d to What  do  ask.  teenagers  need  and want  to  know  about  dating?  W r i t i n g - i n - r o l e p r o v i d e s them w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i s c u s s i o n and r e s e a r c h about one of t h e i r f a v o u r i t e LEVEL; Grade  topics.  8-12  INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Students  could f i l l  concerns about d a t i n g .  a box  with  anonymous  questions  and  These c o u l d become a s t a r t i n g p o i n t  for  a d i s c u s s i o n about d a t i n g . -  With  the  teacher's  categories of  on the  help,  students  brainstorm a  b l a c k b o a r d c o n c e r n i n g the  list  different  of  aspects  dating.  FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e says, I'm  very excited  for  teenagers.  For t h i s  counsellors,  together  in  working  writing the  in  information accessible  a book about d a t i n g  p r o j e c t we have gathered psychologists,  this  sections  small  book. of  groups.  and suggestions to  the e d i t o r of Westcoast Books  about our newest v e n t u r e ,  guidance  determined  "As  The  the  book  and d o c t o r s — t o publisher on  We would in  a  teenagers."  68  you—parents,  format  which  like that  has you  you will  work  already will  to  be  provide be  easily  Students-in-role information could  and  later  work  suggestions  be  compared  in  small  for  each  with  of  groups the  other  to  provide  topics.  group's  These  work  and  synthesized. FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES Students  c o u l d p r i n t up a handbook on  d a t i n g t h a t c o u l d be  a v a i l a b l e t o students through the guidance c o u n s e l l o r ' s  Lesson:  Guidance  Objectives:  To d i s c u s s t e e n a g e r ' s concerns about d a t i n g To engage i n problem s o l v i n g  Placement:  Post-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  E d i t o r of Westcoast  Students-in-Role:  Parents, counsellors, g i s t s , doctors  Format:  Handbook  Language Mode:  Transactional  Unit:  Small groups  Audience:  Class  office.  Books psycholo-  EXTENSIONS This where  format  students  handbook ( e . g .  is  suitable  for  can work t o g e t h e r Study T i p s ,  many d i f f e r e n t co-operatively  subject to  areas  produce  a  How to S u r v i v e Your Teenage Y e a r s ) .  69  THE OLYMPICS Arithmetic How  do  Olympics  we  occur  see once  decimals every  used  four  i n everyday  years,  the  life?  method  While  of  scoring  p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t a c t i v i t y f o r students t o l e a r n how  t o add  and average decimals. LEVEL: Grade 4-6 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES -  Students  review  the  through boardwork and  addition  and  averaging  of  decimals  exercises.  FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE The Olympic  teacher-in-role committee,  b e s t wishes commencing  teacher  a  "As  I would l i k e  a  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  t o extend  shortly  after  raising  of  The events w i l l  the  nations*  of  on the  a l l those  blackboard with help involved  i n the  A mock Olympics some manner.  write  their  keeping and are  fun  and  be  flags.  from  Olympics  a t h l e t e s , judges, coaches, timekeepers, s c o r e r s ,  in  and  all."  brainstorm list  the  the  a warm welcome  f o r the h i g h e s t of achievements.  Good l u c k t o you - Students  says,  the  (e.g.  etc.).  i s h e l d w i t h a l l the students p a r t i c i p a t i n g Cards  scores; a  are  provided  large  chart  f o r judges i s provided  s c o r e averaging.  Be  sure t h a t  nonthreatening  (e.g.  eating  w h i s t l i n g immediately a f t e r w a r d s ) .  70  on  which  for record  the Olympic a  to  c r a c k e r and  events then  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES Have the students  switch t h e i r r o l e s  f r e q u e n t l y so t h a t  can have the o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i c e u s i n g  all  decimals.  Look a t some a c t u a l s c o r e s of r e a l Olympic e v e n t s .  Lesson:  Arithmetic  Objectives:  To add decimals To compute averages  Placement:  Post-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  Olympic  Students-in-Role:  Athletes,  Format:  Cards,  Language Mode:  Numbers  Unit:  Individual  Audience:  Class  official judges,  charts,  coaches  scoreboards  EXTENSIONS This  format  mathematical weight  is  skills  useful such as  (weightlifting),  in  teaching  measurement  and time  71  and  practicing  (long  and h i g h  (running e v e n t s ) .  other jump),  IN MEMORY Visual  Arts  How can special?  we  create  an  appropriate  A r t students become a r t i s t s  memorial  for  someone  as they d e s i g n ,  in-role,  and h i s t o r i c a l  memorials  a new memorial i n honour of T e r r y Fox. LEVEL: Grade  6-12  INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES -  Students  study  local,  well-known,  as w e l l as r e s e a r c h the person or event t o be commemorated. FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE -  Teacher-in-role  as  council  coming t o  this  renown t o  participate  the  city  has  meeting.  received  member  You are being i n an e x c i t i n g  complaints  says,  "Thank  invited  concerning the  design,  will  of  For years  design We,  of  the  the city  have organized t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n i n the hope t h a t a new t h a t w i l l meet w i t h p u b l i c a p p r o v a l , w i l l be  You may use but  for  artists  competition.  T e r r y Fox Arch l o c a t e d near B . C . P l a c e Stadium. council,  as  you  any medium you wish  i n your p l a n s  in constructing  you must name the  be c o n s t r u c t e d ,  commemorative plaque i n work  this  m a t e r i a l out  of  memorial which  the spot where i t w i l l be l o c a t e d ,  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r your c h o i c e of d e s i g n .  Students  presented.  it  and an  You must a l s o i n c l u d e a  h i s honour w i t h an i n s c r i p t i o n .  in-role  on an  t h e i r d e s i g n s and p l a q u e s .  72  individual basis  to  develop  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES Students-in-role plaques  to  the  as  city  artists council  present  their  representative  designs in  and  an  oral  i n the  study  presentation.  Lesson:  Visual  Arts  Objectives:  To d e s i g n a memorial To w r i t e an i n s c r i p t i o n i n a plaque  Placement:  Post-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  C i t y c o u n c i l member  Students-in-Role:  Artists  Format:  D e s i g n / i n s c r i p t i o n on plaque  Language Mode:  Poetic  Unit:  Individual  Audience:  Class  EXTENSION This a c t i v i t y of  historical  is  suitable  figures  and  a l s o as an e x t e n s i o n events  literature.  73  as  well  a  characters  from  NEWS HOUR C u r r e n t Events What writing  is  involved  their  in  own r e p o r t s  writing  a  students  can  news  also  report?  learn  By  about  the  engage i n a d i s c u s s i o n of  the  what,  and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the power of the LEVEL: Grade  good  press.  6-10  INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES The t e a c h e r and the c l a s s can elements  of  a news r e p o r t  (who,  why) based upon a r t i c l e s s e l e c t e d -  Working  in partners,  experiences  when,  where,  how,  from newspapers.  students  relate  and a n a l y z e p e r s o n a l  a c c o r d i n g t o the elements of a news r e p o r t .  Students,  i n s m a l l groups, rehearse events from a newspaper  article. FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE -  T e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as  the  director  of  News  everyone here f o r the r e p o r t e r ' s meeting? show has  set  a 4 O'clock  deadline  for  need t o get going on your assignments spot camera coverage. you -  are a t Out  groups.  of  Hour  says,  "Is  The producer of  today's  reports.  and be ready f o r  the You  on-the-  See i f you can get  any i n t e r v i e w s  while  teacher  students  small  it." role, Groups  the  alternate  organizes  reenactments  of  the  into  events  of  the  news a r t i c l e s w i t h groups who are working as r e p o r t e r s who are c o v e r i n g the  events.  Students  can  the events f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n .  74  i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s of  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES -  Students-in-role  reading t h e i r p a r t s of live  as  reporters  news r e p o r t s  t h e i r reenactments  interviews  are  then  f o r News Hour. as  film  footage  "filmed"  Groups can  while replay  or p a r t i c i p a t e  in  on a i r .  Lesson:  Current Events  Objectives:  To i d e n t i f y elements of a news article To w r i t e an a r t i c l e based on o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w  Placement:  As a l t e r n a t e method of c u r r e n t events p r e s e n t a t i o n s  Teacher-in-Role:  D i r e c t o r of News Hour  Students-in-Role:  R e p o r t e r s / P a r t i c i p a n t s i n news events  Format:  Report  Language Mode:  Transactional  Unit:  Small group  Audience:  Class  EXTENSIONS -  T h i s format can  report  can be based  a l s o be used i n other s u b j e c t on an event  school.  75  from h i s t o r y ,  areas as  literature,  the or  MESSAGE FROM SPACE Science Can display  we of  continue animal  to  m a i n t a i n zoos  and sea  life?  and aquariums  Students  analogous s i t u a t i o n t o d e l v e i n t o t h i s  are  for  placed  the  in  an  issue.  LEVEL: Grade 4-7 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Students can d i s c u s s v i s i t s -  Students  of  animal  can d i s c u s s and  sea  the  life  t o zoos and aquariums.  issue  in  concerning  captivity  for  the  maintenance  study  and  public  enj oyment. FRAMEWORK FOR WRITING-IN-ROLE -  Teacher-in-role  be a f r a i d . on. to  commander of P l a n e t X-24 s a y s ,  S i n c e your spaceship was d e s t r o y e d you w i l l return  studied.  perfect  "Do not  I am the l e a d e r of t h i s p l a n e t t h a t you have crashed  comfortably and  as  home.  However  in this  d i s p l a y u n i t where you w i l l  In  alignment  ten  you  years,  you w i l l  will  when  be  able  the to  be  kept  planets send  never be  able  safely  and  be  cared  will  be  for in  messages home  a to  your p l a n e t i n a s p e c i a l p o d . " P r i o r to w r i t i n g a l e t t e r ,  students can d i s c u s s  q u a l i t y of e x i s t e n c e f o r each of them.  76  in-role,  the  FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES -  Teacher-in-role  as  official  from NASA s a y s ,  "I'm sure  are wondering why you have been c a l l e d by NASA t o come t o special  meeting.  disappearance crew,  of  you w i l l  Ten y e a r s  6 6 and,  Spacecraft  be  shocked  have  and then  have  recently  received  news of  that  we  received  which  have  the  we  passed as  since  f a m i l y members  t h r i l l e d to crew.  will  the  now  hear  These share  are with  you this  tragic of  the  that  we  letters you  by  r e a d i n g them aloud w i t h your p e r m i s s i o n . " -  Students  class,  previously  written  letters  are  presented  to  the  now i n - r o l e as f a m i l i e s of the crew members.  Lesson:  Science  Objectives:  To experience c a p t i v i t y To study analogously the of animals i n zoos  Placement:  Pre-lesson  Teacher-in-Role:  Commander of P l a n e t / N a s a  Students-in-Role:  A s t r o n a u t s / F a m i l i e s of  Format:  Letter  Language Mode:  Expressive  Unit:  Individual  Audience:  Class  situation  official  astronauts  EXTENSION Students, aquarium,  in-role  as animal  or game r e s e r v e  animal a n d / o r sea  that  specialists, is  life. 77  suitable  can d e s i g n a zoo, f o r the  display  of  *****************************************  The Professional Day Workshop; Writinq-in-Role. "Writing-in-role i s a teaching technique..." What do they expect from us? a l r e a d y swamped w i t h work.  How much more can I do?  I j u s t d o n ' t have time t o  new i d e a s and methods i n t o my classroom.  I'm  introduce  I'm a l r e a d y two  units  behind. I  love  professional  students—and  it's  days.  great  to  They're better look  forward  to  than a  f a c i n g my  shorter  work  I had no  idea  week. It's that  Gerry  never make  good t o  see  a l l the  from woodworking  seem t o a point  cross of  except  joining  staff was  together.  so  interesting.  f o r days  him f o r  like  coffee  these. in  Our  paths  Maybe I  the  can  s t a f f room  on  occasion. What a g r e a t  lunch.  That Mexican r e s t a u r a n t  b u r r i t o s — n o t t o mention, t e q u i l a , It's for  relaxed—but  afternoon nobody  right after  well.  feels  like  lunch.  I  Sure the  listening—or  Maybe a joke w i l l c a t c h t h e i r  What theory.  great  so hard t o g i v e a workshop when t h e y ' v e scheduled  a Friday  matter.  as  serves  practical  suggestions.  just  some ideas  that  classroom and use  immediately.  78  working f o r  is that  attention.  terrific, want  staff  one  I  I'm  can take  tired  back t o  of the  It's  good t o  tense because all  the  the  staff  laughing.  report card  deadline  Everyone was  being  changed.  so We  seem so r e l a x e d now. How  I'm is  of  see  can I reach the man d o o d l i n g on h i s  sorry i f  this  isn't  what you wanted t o  what I was asked t o  gotten  speak  about.  notes.  listen  Maybe  i n v o l v e d i n your p r o f e s s i o n a l  Listen,  t o but  this  you should have  development  committee and  helped p l a n a day t h a t you would have found more u s e f u l . I  just  don't  see  how t h i s  What a waste of my time. its  If  topic  will  be  of  What an i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c .  I  knew  handouts. teachers  shouldn't  T h e r e goes  I think I ' l l  t r y t o p i c k up a  have  put  another  elastic  one  bands  right  now.  are worse than t h e i r students when i t  attention.  Good shot—at  me.  this.  s u b j e c t and f i n d out a l i t t l e more about I  to  the E n g l i s h department was doing  j o b , then I wouldn't have t o be l i s t e n i n g t o  book on t h i s  help  least  he  caught  it.  around  the  Honestly,  comes t o p a y i n g  the  fellow  who was  snoring. I c a n ' t see myself u s i n g these ideas they  would make g r e a t  p a r t y games.  i n the  My Aunt  classroom but  Bessy  would  love  them.  "Thank you for letting me a part of your professional day."  *****************************************  79  BIBLIOGRAPHY B e r t h o f f , A . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The Making of Meaning—Metaphors, and Maxims f o r W r i t i n g Teachers. Boynton/Cook.  Models,  Lashmar/Cameron/Lashmar,(1987).The W r i t i n g Programme. T e a c h e r ' s Guide (8).Globe/Modern C u r r i c u l u m P r e s s . B r i t t o n , J.(1970).Language Penguin P r e s s . Byron, K.(1986).Drama Company.  in  the  and  Learning.  English  Allen  Classroom.  Lane.  The  Methuen  and  E r i c k s o n , K . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . B u i l d i n g C a s t l e s i n the Classroom. a L e a r n i n g Medium. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers of 65(1),19.  Drama as English.  Heathcote, D.(1984). C o l l e c t e d W r i t i n g s on E d u c a t i o n and Drama. E d i t e d by Johnson and O ' N e i l . Hutchinson and Co. H o l l i n g s w o r t h , H./Eastman, S . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . Teaching W r i t i n g i n Every C l a s s ; A Guide f o r Grades 6-12. A l l y n and Bacon. Macrorie,  K . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T e l l i n g W r i t i n g . Hayden Book Company.  McCaslin, Longman.  N.(1987).  Creative  Drama i n the  Intermediate Grades.  M o f f e t t , J . ( 1 9 6 8 ) . Teaching the Universe of D i s c o u r s e . A Theory of D i s c o u r s e , A R a t i o n a l f o r E n g l i s h T e a c h i n g Used i n a S t u d e n t - C e n t r e d Language A r t s C u r r i c u l u m . Houghton M i f f l i n . Morgan,N./Saxton, J.(1984). Wonders. Hutchinson.  Teaching  D r a m a . . . A Mind  Neelands, J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Making Sense of Drama—A Guide t o P r a c t i c e . Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books. Parker, J . (1982) . Publishers.  The  Writer's  Workshop.  of  Many  Classroom  Addison-Wesley  P a r r y , J . / H o r n s y , D.(1985). Write On - A Conference Approach to W r i t i n g . Heinemann. Ruggiero, V . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . Harper and Row.  Teaching  T h i n k i n g Across  80  the  Curriculum.  T a r l i n g t o n , C . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . "Dear M r . P i p e r . . . " , U s i n g Create Context f o r C h i l d r e n ' s W r i t i n g . Theory i n t o x x i v , 3, 200-204. Wessels, C . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . University Press.  Drama.  Drama t o Practice,  (Resource Book f o r T e a c h e r s ) ,  Zemelman, S . / D a n i e l s , H . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . A Community Teaching; W r i t i n g i n t h e J u n i o r and S e n i o r Heinemann.  81  Oxford  of W r i t e r s — High School.  

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