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Academic tasks and international students : a case study Marshall Smith, Sondra Marguerite 1989

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A C A D E M I C T A S K S AND  INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS:  A CASE  By  SONDRA M A R G U E R I T E M A R S H A L L B.A. T h e U n i v e r s i t y  of British  SMITH  Columbia,  1974  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S  FOR THE DEGREE  MASTERS  OF  OF A R T S  in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S (Language  We  accept  this  Education)  thesis  to the required  as  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H October  conforming  COLUMBIA  1989  Sondra Marguerite M a r s h a l l  Smith,  198 9  OF  STUDY  In  presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  publication of  partial  fulfilment  British Columbia, and study.  by  his  or  her  Of  DE-6 (2/88)  requirements that the  I further agree  representatives.  may be It  T.  a n  o„ , a  0  F.HnraMnn  O c t o b e r 1 2 t h , 1989.  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  is  this thesis for financial gain shall not be  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  the  I agree  thesis for scholarly purposes  permission.  Department  of  by the  understood  that  allowed without  head  of my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  The majority o f second language research pays scant a t t e n t i o n t o t h e importance o f c o n t e x t and s o c i a l s e t t i n g i n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . However, a s m a l l g r o u p o f r e s e a r c h e r s recognizes that context i s very i n f l u e n t i a l , context i n the sense o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f u n i t s o f s o c i a l interaction beyond t h e sentence and even beyond t h e d i s c o u r s e . U s i n g t h e l a t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e , t h i s c a s e s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s how a g r o u p of e i g h t C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o s u c c e e d i n a g r a d u a t e l e v e l course even though t h e i r s k i l l s i n E n g l i s h language w e r e v e r y l i m i t e d a n d t h e s t u d e n t s h a d no b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e field. While t r a d i t i o n a l second language r e s e a r c h focuses a t t e n t i o n at t h e sentence l e v e l , t h i s study d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e l a r g e r u n i t o f t h e whole course and t h e r e q u i r e d assignments had c e n t r a l importance t o t h e students' success. Theories of language and c o n t e x t , and language socialization were h e l p f u l i n examining s y s t e m a t i c a l l y some o f t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . The s t u d y n o t o n l y i n c l u d e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s p e r i o d and l e s s o n , b u t a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the whole course, the organization of t h e homework assignments, and the way class work supported the assignments. The s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e was p a r t i c u l a r l y c o h e s i v e a n d was c l e a r l y c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e students a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e course; t h e assignments were i n t e g r a l t o t h e c o u r s e and were c o h e r e n t w i t h e a c h o t h e r , a n d t h e r e was a c l e a r f o r m a t t o e a c h a s s i g n m e n t . The assignments engaged . s t u d e n t s i n a c t u a l work, n o t s i m p l y exercises i n comprehension, and c l a s s sessions provided background knowledge and feedback t h a t e n a b l e d s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y and presumably l e a r n t h e c u l t u r e o f the classroom. With this larger p e r s p e c t i v e t h e study u n d e r l i n e s t h e importance o f context i n language l e a r n i n g .  ii  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  CHAPTER ONE: SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY  1  1.0  1 1 5 5 6  2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0  Background t o t h e Problem 1.1 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e Q u e s t i o n 1.2 R e s e a r c h e r ' s B a c k g r o u n d Scope o f t h e Study Task as Focus T h e o r e t i c a l Framework: Language A c q u i s i t i o n v e r s u s Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n Some A s s u m p t i o n s Some C a v e a t s  8 12 13  CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE  15  1.0  15 16 20 21 22 22 24 27 29 29 29 30 30 32  2.0 3.0 4.0  5.0 6.0  Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n 1.1 Input 1.2 A c t i v i t y F i r s t Language A c q u i s i t i o n 2.1 Input 2.2 A c t i v i t y Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n Tasks i n School 4.1 T a s k C o n d i t i o n s 4.1.1 Setting 4.1.2 Instructional Delivery 4.2 P r o d u c t s Conclusion Research Methodology  .  CHAPTER THREE: CASE STUDY NARRATIVE  37  1.0  37 37 38 39 40  2.0 3.0  Researcher's Interpretation 1.1 What was t h e s i t u a t i o n ? 1.2 Who w e r e t h e s t u d e n t s ? 1.3 What was t h e n a t u r e o f ADED XXX? 1.4 The P r o f e s s o r ' s I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e 1.5 The Professor's Relationship with Students 1.6 Classroom Environment Professor's Interpretation 2.1 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Assignments Students' Interpretation 3.1 T h e i r F e e l i n g s A b o u t t h e T a s k s 3.2 T h e i r Approach t o t h e Tasks 3.3 T h e i r D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e T a s k s  iii  the  42 43 44 45 48 48 49 49  CHAPTER FOUR: 1.0 2.0  3.0  4.0  5.0 6.0  A N A L Y S I S OF DATA  55  Data C o l l e c t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Tasks 2.1 Setting 2.2 Instructional Delivery 2.3 C o g n i t i v e P l a n s T a s k a s Game 3.1 Deep S t r u c t u r e o f Games 3.2 S t r u c t u r e d Format . . 3.3 H a n d o v e r P r i n c i p l e Task as V e h i c l e f o r Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n . . . . 4.1 Interaction 4.2 Selective Participation 4.3 Individual Realities 4.4 S t o c k Knowledge 4.5 C o m m u n i c a t i v e A c c o m m o d a t i o n Task as Example o f Theory and P r a c t i c e . . . . . . Summary  55 57 58 64 67 71 71 72 73 77 77 78 79 81 82 84 87  CHAPTER F I V E : CONCLUSION  88  1.0 2.0  89 90  3.0 4.0 5.0  The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C o u r s e A s s i g n m e n t s were I n t e g r a l U n i t s i n t h e Course . . 2.1 D o i n g Assignments Enables Students to P a r t i c i p a t e i n R e a l Work Class S e s s i o n s were O r g a n i z e d t o S u p p o r t Class Assignments I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Study Summary  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES Appendix Appendix  93 95 98 99 102  I Course O u t l i n e , L i s t I I Interview Protocol  iv  of Readings  . . .  107 108 118  L I S T OF TABLES  Table  1.  Assignment  1  75  Table  2.  Assignment  2  75  Table  3.  Assignment  3  75  Table  4.  Assignment  4  75  Table  5.  Assignment  5  75  v  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure  Figure  1  2  Connection Between Activities Within the C l a s s and t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Those P a r t s t o the Assignment  66  Mohan's K n o w l e d g e F r a m e w o r k  86  vi  . .  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Our d a i l y l i v e s i n v o l v e c o u n t l e s s c i r c l e s o f r e c e i v i n g a n d e x t e n d i n g r e q u e s t s and r e s p o n s e s , spoken and unspoken. T h i s f e a t u r e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p a r e n t when one e m b a r k s on f u r t h e r s t u d y w h i c h i n c l u d e s a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s u c h as t h i s . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I made n u m e r o u s r e q u e s t s t o many i n d i v i d u a l s t o a s s i s t me w i t h my t a s k . I t i s w i t h pleasure now that I acknowledge some of the unique c o n t r i b u t i o n s . At the outset I'd l i k e t o o f f e r a s p e c i a l t h a n k y o u t o t h e p r o f e s s o r a n d t h e s t u d e n t s who w e r e t h e f o c u s o f my s t u d y . T h e i r r e c e p t i v i t y and o p e n n e s s p r o v i d e d t h e i m p e t u s t o b e g i n t h e p r o j e c t and r e m a i n c o m m i t t e d t o i t s conclusion. Sincere a p p r e c i a t i o n i s due t o my Faculty A d v i s o r , D r . B e r n i e Mohan f o r h i s b e l i e f i n t h e v a l u e o f t h e s t u d y a n d h i s u n f l a g g i n g e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n my c a p a c i t y t o complete i t . Moreover, I am i n d e b t e d t o him for his i n s i g h t s a n d a d v i c e on t h e s t r u c t u r e and t h e o r y o f t h e study. He has made t h e entire exercise a fascinating o p p o r t u n i t y o f d i s c o v e r y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . When I c o n s i d e r t h e e n d l e s s s t r e a m o f r e q u e s t s t h a t I h a v e made o v e r t h e p a s t two y e a r s , I am r e m i n d e d a b o v e a l l o f my f a m i l y a n d my e x t e n d e d f a m i l y who h a v e r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t i n t h e i r p a t i e n c e and a s s i s t a n c e . I hope t h e y can t a k e p r i d e i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s work a l s o . I n r e s p o n s e , I w o u l d l i k e to dedicate this thesis to my daughter, Paris whose i n q u i r i n g m i n d d e l i g h t s i n p o s i n g q u e s t i o n s and seeking answers.  vii  ISN'T IT A PLEASURE TO LEARN SOMETHING AND APPL7 IT WHEN APPROPRIATE? ISN'T IT A 20Y TO HAVE FRIENDS COME FROM AFAR? Confucius  viii  CHAPTER SCOPE AND  This  thesis  students  participated  education below  will  course,  the  The p o l i c y  language  proficiency  learning.  from  and  language  of  on  a  and  and  language  cultural  adult  had  scored test  assumes ' a v i e w conceived and  of in  content  use t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  learning  socialization will  which  as  views  interrelated.  be c o n t r a s t e d  with  acquisition.  Background t o t h e Problem  1.1  Rationale  f o r the Question  The  subjects  eight  sponsored  by  i n t h i s study  t h e Canadian  (CIDA)  t o study  i n Canada  large  bilateral  program  areas  Chinese  proficiency  socialization",  1.0  Chinese  they  learning  will  of  graduate  proficiency  study  "language  that  tests  language  group a  language  such  this  a in  fact  sociocultural  learning  Consequently,  the  STUDY  how  succeeded  of using  By c o n t r a s t ,  perspective  language  investigate  level  (TOEFL) .  abstraction  FOCUS OF THE  despite  required  ONE  governments of  situations  f o r one y e a r . negotiated  t o expand  a n d human  i n Canada  agricultural  International  agriculture,  transportation,  vary  projects,  are  by  China's  enormously,  such  as seed  Development They  Agency  are part  the  resource  forestry, and s o c i a l  "student-trainees"  of a  Canadian pool  and  i n the  communications,  development.  Training  ranging  hands-on  from  or c a t t l e breeding,  to  2  new  technologies  management successful of French  and  in  marketing,  education.  training  The  telecommunications,  common  in a l l fields  prerequisite  i s an  adequate  students  representative training  in  of  this  other  placements.  prototypes  of  study  can  Chinese  trainees  Additionally,  other non-native  be  they  regarded with  (NNS)  speaking  environment  also  be  students  who  question  language  instrument  is  studies  no  have  Language  to  which  i s not  States  Woodford,  Michigan  Test  the  their  that  but  to  proficiency  these  Test  most  "person  of  widely  (Light,  English  has  between  English  1987),  present Various  test  as  a  scores Foreign  measurement  in  i s accepted  as  can f u n c t i o n i n E n g l i s h " i t  is  not  English  a  good  said  Proficiency  the an  (Palmer  predictor  same c a n be  Language  been  officers,  questions.  used  (Graham, 1987) . The of  of  s t u d e n t s a n d what i s t h e  relationship  The  Canada  1978)  level  teachers, admissions  answer  the  and  adequate  student support personnel. At  success.  academic success the  language  examined  (TOEFL),  i s an  determine  simple  i n d i c a t i o n that the and  what  f a c u l t y and  academic  United  language  f o r non-native  f o r y e a r s by  university there  of  proficiency  debated  and  in a  unfamiliar  tongue.  The  best  and  as  similar  may  a r e r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n an  mother  knowledge  o r E n g l i s h and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s .  The  academic  for  of  about  (MTELP)  3  and  the  Comprehensive  English  Language  Proficiency  Test  (CELT). With  a l l three  performance never  on t h e t e s t  designed  enrolled,  tests  (Graham, p . 5 1 5 ) .  to predict  universities  how  other  knowledge host test  factors,  defined  administrators  student  would  extrapolate  from  invariably  score  Columbia to  decision  570 fails  have  opted  f o r graduate  these  influences  acceptance of the rely  on  language  Recently a  within the University of  to increase foreign  t o acknowledge  once  background  scores t o determine a student's e l i g i b i l i t y .  British  fare  homesickness,  and departments  by  A l t h o u g h t h e y were  i n the subject area, motivation,  culture,  is  Despite the obvious  including  number o f f a c u l t i e s  other  a  and c o l l e g e s  scores t o screen applicants. of  proficiency  t h e minimum  students.  i s the great  TOEFL  What  this  importance  of  factors. It  has  professionals establish examine  been that  minimum each  related  suggested a more scores  candidate's  information  by  some  second  c o m p e l l i n g approach f o r each  (Graham,  would  discipline,  application p.517).  within Even  language be t o  and t h e n t o a  sphere  though  of this  s u g g e s t i o n c a n be c o n s i d e r e d an improvement o v e r t h e p r e s e n t system,  i t i s typical  of the current,  dominant  view  that  e q u a t e s l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y w i t h a s c o r e on a t e s t . Over research  the has  past been  twenty  years  conducted  by  an the  immense  amount  Educational  of  Testing  4  Service  (ETS)  levels.  Washington t o measure language  However,  devoted gain  in  to  an  the  actual  Studies  predict,  but  very  learning  situation an  student social  aside  n e e d s t o do  test,  few  of  to  have  studies  performance  and  TOEFL's  conducted  thoroughly.  Rather  proficiency  seem t o and  be  how  worthwhile  course,  at the  aims  sentence  to  that  the  factors TOEFL  a  XXX  which cut  it  will  examine  the  continue  to  in  the  what  level,  not  account  i t may  of  not  f o r each of  be  a l l  i n a relevant  550  easy  general  language  The  language  proficiency  or of  eight  that  been would  be p r o f i t a b l e t o e x a m i n e why  there  is  have  been  success  a n d how  they  clear  in  Adult  are  other  success. applied  to dismiss their  i n order  It  students  academic  570  them  conducted  discipline.  demonstrates  for their  one  a  context.  (ADED XXX)  off  applications, Although  profile  performance  Education  to  analyze  out  measure  C a s e s t u d i e s s u c h a s t h i s n e e d t o be establish  capacity  socio-cultural  to  i t i s carried  by  English  a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of  in a given socio-cultural  to  than  to  faced  to  in  been  i n order  difficulties  assess  been  have  w h e r e E n g l i s h i s t h e medium o f l e a r n i n g .  of  proficiency  detailed  tasks  exist  from  i t would  context  TOEFL  of  applicant's  abstract, context,  few  analysis  understanding  students.  assess  very  proficiency  Had to  the their  admitted. as  unique,  succeeded.  5  1.2  Researcher's  Background  My  in this  interest  involvement in  As  international  the  a  member  program  of  i n the  a  entrants  language  needs  into  a  society  so  on.  acceptable charged  and with  implementing  several  j o u r n a l s and  the  there  what  what  students  and  years  issues  to  arose  of and  in  China,  as  what  how  do  I are  required,  when  I  was and  program f o r  students.  sources  be  a  paucity  of  actually  do  and  they  how  an  new  designing  support  scholarly  work  of  is  other Asian  other  appeared  such  comprehend  orientation  to  Republic  students,  a national  Thai  teachers  foreign  responsibility  reference  regarding  of  Similar  Chinese,  of  questions,  the  newly a r r i v e d  way,  from  team  People's  struggled with d i f f i c u l t  real  springs  i n p r e p a r i n g f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s f o r s t u d y and  Canada.  often  topic  While  did point literature go  about  their tasks.  2.0  Scope o f t h e The  students  accomplish despite  the  in  lack  how  and  c y c l e of the  study  example,  takes  the  this  academic  proficiency  understand entire  the  their  limited  Study  of  requirements background  in why  English. they  course  several  background  investigation  of  in  in  the The  succeeded.  and  the  aspects the  a  were graduate field study  By  students,  to  course  and  their  seeks  to  examining  the  surrounding into  able  environment,  consideration, for their  preparation  for  the  other  course,  their  students,  relationship with  the  nature  factors.  However,  cultural  learning occurred  to  examine  how  i t i s not  these  cultural, learning activity.  of  Further,  had  language  i t i s not  have  extensive  been  field  observation  involved  notes  periods  t h a t they the  attended  actual  and  and  discuss  In  T a s k as  be  focus.  This  a  during  1988,  under  in  and  specific the  of  study  sources:  participant  adult the  question  real  process.  two an  a  note  variety  from  matter,  education  second p e r i o d in  this  study  professor,  a l l  distributed  from  an  the  the  students'  course,  ample o p p o r t u n i t y  i n f o r m a l l y with the provided  of  students  abundance  of  the  and  a  to  meet  over a  five  rich  data  from  draw.  Before may  to  what rather  content  Instead,  involved  a d d i t i o n , I had  issues  month p e r i o d .  3.0  aspects.  from  but  together  purpose  other  same y e a r ) , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e a c h o f  materials  diary.  which to  tied  my  first  course  the  assignments, field  been l e a r n e d ,  gathered  (the  o c c u r r i n g during the students  gathered  and  and  identify  s i t u a t i o n as a l a n g u a g e s o c i a l i z a t i o n  Data  course  tasks,  incorporated  language l e a r n i n g or l i n g u i s t i c views the  professor  intention to  students  and  their  my  and  the  Focus o u t l i n i n g the paper's t h e o r e t i c a l  helpful to A l l of  life  e s t a b l i s h why involves  task  activity.  foundation,  i s being Our  used  daily  as  i t a  routines  7 consist  of  Similarly, relate  simple classroom  theory  literature as  involve  the  formulate, available  activity  to practice  a  products  the  researchers  work.  the  such  the  text."  that  one  it;  one  that  does not looks  mutually  term,  the  be  and  separate  As  colleague  him  performative  strands.' Ray  That  words,  disparate  into  context,  from the s o c i a l  this view,  study  an  strands  together  ecosystem,  I will  assuming  constructed interactions.  by  a  and  the  the  stands  The  the  actions  action  Latin  'to are  weave doing.  ^people  another'.  social  around  original  i t ,  f o r one  than  suggests  meaning  puts  of  outside  context  i s what p e o p l e  of  p. 19)  in  In are  ecosystem i t s e l f  other woven i s the  c o n s t r u c t i v i s t s p o i n t of view."  environment  students this  (1986,  between  approach t a s k from a s o c i a l  that  In  then  view,  and  or  context  is  In  constructivist  context  professor  to  resources  research  verb  McDermott  create environments  the  "means more  which  context.  interaction the  context  relationships  the  required  interpretation  scientific  of  Curricula  definition  a c t i o n and  set  is a  together  tasks".  used,  Erickson's  an  construct  CONTEXERE,  my  are  social  see  at  be  students  For  which  t h a t "a c u r r i c u l u m c a n  a behaviour—that  "Current  tasks  of  that to  1972)  review  academic  Doyle.  which surrounds  or  v i c e versa. Doyle's  process-product  as  (Harre,  of  operations  f o r the  tasks  i n v o l v e s work  and  collection  beyond  that  complex  ( 1 9 8 3 , p.159) m a i n t a i n s  regarded  goes  and  is  socially  through  inherent  their to  the  8 notion of task. able to carry a  close  S i n c e we w i s h t o i d e n t i f y how  out t h e i r  tasks  examination of  pertinent.  the  However,  assignments  is  not  The  understanding language  of  in  We  need  i s occurring  recognition linked in  that  to  second  set  be  course i s of  aware  assists  up  the  A  us  this  the  of  the  in  our  tasks  situation, and  also  I n o t h e r words,  learning  learning.  In  content i s being  a fundamental  language  perspectives w i l l  while  language  represents  to  classroom  convey t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e c o u r s e . learning  f o r the  inspection  environment.  used  successful,  class.  the  the  i s being  detailed  enough.  discourse  t h e y were  assignments  a  t a s k environment w i t h i n the  a n d why  s t u d e n t s were  and  shift  language  learned.  The  content learning  are  from c u r r e n t  brief  to  thinking  overview of these  help to set the stage f o r the  two  theoretical  component o f t h e s t u d y .  4.0  Theoretical  Framework:  Language  Socialization  One  the  of  most  language  acquisition  language  learner.  (FLA),  the  concept  controversial  (SLA)  Borrowed  learning  is  occurs  the  from,  increased  I n p u t H y p o t h e s i s (1982, 1985) language  Language  Acquisition  versus  factors  second  role  first  of  in  input  language  i n prominence  to  the  research  with  Krashen's  which maintains that  effective  when  there  is  "a  great  deal  of  9 comprehensible students" is  input  (1982,  slightly  that  p.41).  above  has  had  considerable  and  pedagogy. D u r i n g  studies  on  Gass and  these  1982;  the  same p e r s p e c t i v e :  A  by  speakers suggest  on  studies  study  and  by  the  length  this  of  raise  several  questions  a  about  s u i t e d t o language l e a r n i n g . to goal  examine of  grammar. grammar and,  language  language They of  the  shift  For  example,  as  students  the  sentence  they  more  is  focus to  of  the  negotiate  1981;  concerned  good  learning  notion  of  non-native  In doing  tasks  limited  data  the to  analysis  function  meaning.  and  alternative to  broadly,  with  1986).  findings cautiously  to p a i r s of utterances  are  SLA  Gaies,  between  which  still  of  their  are  However, d e s p i t e t h e i r  learning  learning  t o some e x t e n t ,  research  fundamentally  lessons which are e x c l u s i v e l y t e a c h e r - f r o n t e d . they  construct  grammar.  interlanguage  offer  and  and  P o r t e r extended the  may  which  Doughty,  from  group work. T h e i r work  1983;  language  sentence l e v e l  the  input  P i c a and  to  learner  language  of  language  target  Long and  i n classroom group  grammar  the  (Chaudron,  approach  examining  that  of  second  L o n g , 1985;  is essentially  1985  sentence  relevant  t h e e a r l y 1980's a c o n c e n t r a t i o n  of  teaching  and  (input p l u s one),  influence  All  input  i+1  language p r o d u c t i o n Varonis,  as  proficiency  investigated styles  effect  interesting  Defined  the  commonly r e f e r r e d t o as  is  of  the  so, best  efforts  perceived sentence from  the  utterance  i n the  exchange.  interactive  exchanges  But  interaction  and  10 negotiation  are  seen  as  s e n t e n c e grammar, n o t other  words,  social  as  FLA  summarize  the  During the  concept  to  were  between  "motherese". concerned with of  While  yielded  illustrates  of  the  some  kind  studies  Snow  &  make  language  of  the  Ninio,  has  view  that  acquisition in  and  language  seminal actions,  book  1983;  that  as  c o n t e x t had  learning. Child's  sequences  and  well.  the  number and  so  Snow's  and  1983;  the  processes  which  investigations  separate  p.552)  describes by  later  Goldfield,  as  played  on.  analysis.  been t r e a t e d  roles  and  development  this,  he  as  largely  to  Talk,  an  &  required  1983,  of  known  Prior  (Snow,  1983,  occurs  were  input  Snow  acknowledged  context  become  language  to  language  that  vocabulary,  acquisition possible  social  his  interesting results,  (Bruner,  1986)  (1981,  importance  utterance, of  from  viewpoint.  language  e n c o m p a s s e s much more t h a n d i s c r e t e i t e m Later  FLA  phenomenon  the  seen  production.  Snow  and  children  are  i t i s useful  the  nature  this  length  a  In  drawn h e a v i l y  s u c h as  special  young of  repetitions,  this  work  the  The  and  Studies  i n themselves.  t o a young c h i l d w h i l e  developing.  caregivers  has  from  researchers the  of  influence,  input  understand  acquisition  of language  research  of  input  the  cultural learning  because of t h i s  linguistic  skills  kind  and  main a c t i v i t y  1970's FLA  sought  adult's  and  to  learning targets  m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , SLA  research,  1986)  means  context  as p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e As  a  two  In in  language topics  Bruner's  detail  the  caregivers  and  their  young  children  variations. much  during  games  What b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t  more  than  the  o f peek-a-boo i s that  vocabulary,  and i t s  the child  sentence  learns  grammar,  and  intonation patterns of the discourse. In t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e study t h e mothers i n i t i a t e d t h e games, p l a y e d b o t h Quickly  roles,  the children  participated  began  actively.  to  Moving  roles,  then  format  and c o n t e x t . I n d o i n g  the  both,  and m a i n t a i n e d a l l t h e r o u t i n e s .  language,  could  be  lessons  linguistic. cultural  obviously  g e t on  with  Bruner's language Bruner's through  a  series  notion of activity these  of patterned  collaboration  between  observations  and a n a l y s i s  situation  cultural  engine  including  "[these] they  are  drives  the  (p. 1 0 3 ) .  In  i s t h e game.  language  i s  situations,  whole  caregiver take  which  p e r se, b u t t h e need  gives central  the  actions,  as  that  and c o n t e x t i n language  reconstruct  that  of the culture"  that  a l l of  seems t o b e a b y - p r o d u c t o f  the cultural unit  contention  entire  concepts  observed  acquisition  between a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n ,  like  and  much  t h e demands  of the  routines  The  i s n o t language  charge  they  one o f t h e  had mastered  Bruner  as  transmission.  took  assumed  then  so, they  Language a c q u i s i t i o n  enterprise to  they  elsewhere.  orally;  on, t h e y  transactional  applied are  finally  respond  such  as  learning. of  child.  i n a l l t h e elements gestures,  on" games  importance t o t h e  picture and  "passed  moods,  Studies dynamic Notes, of the  negotiation  procedures, The is  intentions,  findings  surroundings, time,  show t h a t a s t h e c h i l d  speech r o u t i n e s .  i s learning  l a n g u a g e he  a c q u i r i n g c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e a t t h e same t i m e .  of  language  learning  socialization, build this  calls  up l a y e r s holistic  research,  f o ra qualitative  of detail  method,  most  case  the investigation  study  Chinese  approach graduate  requirements  to  i n order t o  still  focusses  explore  I have  how  chosen  t h e group  fulfilled of study.  of  the The  theoretical  of  scrutinized  t a s k s were completed. in  Where B r u n e r  and t h e t a s k s  contextual  cycle  t o understand  how  u s e d t h e game a n d moves  t h e game a s t h e c o n t e x t u a l u n i t s ,  course,  5.0  i n order  eight  academic  above n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t t h e e n t i r e  be  on  t o use a  framework o u t l i n e d t h e course  with  of input.  a t hand,  course  language  In contrast  SLA r e s e a r c h  students  for their  as  approach  and meaning.  s m a l l e r a n d more d i s c r e t e l e v e l s In  known  This kind  this  o r assignments  study w i l l  within  use t h e  t h e course  as  units.  Some A s s u m p t i o n s The  language Teaching  essence and  of this  culture  language  are  without  some o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l learner rituals.  t o , at best,  study  lies  i n the belief  inextricably  establishing  woven  together.  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  patterns of the culture  a superficial  that  glossary  of  limits the  of prescribed  C o m p i l i n g an i n v e n t o r y o f "do's" and " d o n ' t s "  will  13 never  give  learners  o p e r a t e s as  i t does.  But a  command  what i s c u l t u r e ?  multitude  of  different  approach.  u n d e r l i e s the use  behaviour"  that  6.0  Some C a v e a t s theoretical  characteristics totally  of  a  ethnographic  researcher  investigate  a  to  be  establishing boundaries. initial  this  which  situation  I  certain Once t h e  questions  is  It  also  have  - why  an  that  standards,  does  of  not  openly  how  to  the  follow  a  that  a  let  the  does i t adhere  a s l a t e of  narrowed  d i d the  and  process.  the  and  to  hypotheses field  by  theoretical  a s s u m p t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d ,  and  that  social  suggests  dictates  philosophical  basic  by  knowledge  some  themselves; nor  Instead,  w e r e e x a m i n e d i n an It  has  form.  slightly  generate  norms and  p o s i t i o n which i n i t i a t e s  tested.  and  are  definition  socialization  approach  p r e d o m i n a n t themes r e v e a l a positivist  acquired  framework  hybrid  a  shaped  definition  i t defines  society  There  Spradley's  experiences  i t i s a powerful t o o l i n the  a  defined?  is  and  This  why  emphasizing  study  that  The  and  i t be  " c u l t u r e i s the  p.2).  culture i s learned,  how  each  This  interpret  (1980,  of  can  perspective  work:  to  How  definitions,  anthropological  people  a  students  the  succeed  -  i n d u c t i v e manner.  important  i n q u i r y does not  to  reinforce  at  the  f o l l o w a nomothetic model.  outset  that  As  case  a  study,  i t does  Instead, that  the  not  emphasis  surrounds  science, existing  this  the  establish  lies  in  students.  and  (Ochsner,  b)  c) 1979,  " a)  without  relationships.  interpreting  without  p.54).  causal  Referred  method p r o c e e d s :  realities,  objectivity, laws"  t r y to  to  without  presuming  generalizing Thus, t h e  the as  situation hermeneutic  controlling a  the  researcher's  towards  causal  work e v o l v e s  into  a  systematic, though personal d i s c u s s i o n . The contains  remainder the  review  of  the  of  literature;  the  n a r r a t i v e events  and  discusses the data;  w i t h c o n c l u s i o n s and  of the and  thesis  course;  follows: Chapter  Chapter  Three  Chapter Four  outlines interprets  C h a p t e r F i v e summaries t h e  suggestions  Two  for further research.  study  15 CHAPTER REVIEW OF A of  LITERATURE  fundamental concept i n language  input  t o the language  language t h e o r i e s , influence  of  learning  In both  first  d i r e c t e d t o young c h i l d r e n  findings  from  researchers  reviewing  activity Chapter  under  become two  language  is  have  each,  a  the key  an  "input"  broadened  input  section  literature factors  divided  acquisition  socialization; is  and  and  and tasks  which  in  into  and  second  their  activity  i n school. the  first to  context.  study, input the  sections:  language are  establish  theories  understanding main  and  and n o v i c e  perspective,  for this  four  first  outlines  role  have e x p l o r e d t h e n a t u r e  i n c l u d e a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the language l e a r n i n g In  i s the  While second language r e s e a r c h e r s s t i l l their  language  learner.  researchers  of language  speakers. most  TWO  and  data. second  acquisition,  considered;  and  language  Concluding the.review  research  design  for  this  study.  1.0  in  Second Language  Acquisition  Second  teaching  language  e x p e r i e n c e d many  methodologies over the past f i f t y  moved lingual  from  a  method  cued t o v i s u a l is  has  the  years.  grammar-translation approach which  emphasizes  or aural  stimuli.  stimulus-response pattern  oral The  developed  S k i n n e r i n h i s book V e r b a l B e h a v i o u r  Teachers to  an  repetitions basis  (Stern,  changes  audio-  that  for this and  have  are  method  outlined  1986:299) .  by But  16 it  wasn't l o n g b e f o r e t h i s  a  long  and  famous  m e t h o d came u n d e r s c r u t i n y .  review  Chomsky made a f u n d a m e n t a l the  concepts  on  the  by  Skinner but,  behaviourist  and  psycholinguistics"  70's  a  promoted  as  variety  of  other  effective:  Silent  L e a r n i n g , C o g n i t i v e Code a n d of grounded  by  Chomsky,  of five' hypotheses  Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis; the  the  Affective  theory  has  language  Verbal  Behaviour,  through  position  in  p.299.  systems Way,  this  and  review,  contemporary  During  were  the  1960's  developed  Suggestopedia,  and  Community  o t h e r s b u t none were t h e  result  theories.  Influenced series  on  a t t a c k n o t o n l y on t h e t h e s i s  entire  psychology and  developed  article  "In  had  premise.  exists  no  related  Filter  (1982)  introduced  t o language  Hypothesis;  Monitor  the  Hypothesis;  a the  Order  Input  Hypothesis;  Krashen's  Hypothesis of  second  s p a w n i n g a number o f s t u d i e s b a s e d  on h i s  Despite  evidence  to  subsequent  on  learning:  Natural  the  Hypothesis.  c o n s i d e r a b l e impact  learning,  central  Krashen  the  field  r e s e a r c h however,  substantiate  his  claims.  there Gregg  (1986:121)  1.1  Input Since  force  in  Hypothesis.  Krashen's SLA, It  i t bears  ideas is  still  important most  represent to  relevance  a  considerable  examine  his  to  study  this  Input and  17 according t o Krashen,  i s t h e most  crucial  of a l l .  Two  key  points are: 1.  "We acquire by understanding input containing s t r u c t u r e s t h a t are beyond our c u r r e n t competence. [He c a l l s t h i s c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t a n d s i m p l i f i e s i t as i + 1]  2.  The b e s t i n p u t i s n o t g r a m m a t i c a l l y s e q u e n c e d i n v o l v e s g e n u i n e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . " (1987:38)  I n an a t t e m p t t o make s e n s e o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e Krashen,  like  shape and reduces second when  researchers,  content of the input  his  approach  languages  their  input  most SLA  to  single  Filters  are  claim  low  variable  in  second  "People  enough  he  acquire  input,  and  allow  the  to  i s the true  language  the  In f a c t  comprehensible  Thus, c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t  causative  learning  f o c u s e s n a r r o w l y on  to the learner.  when t h e y o b t a i n  Affective  "in".  a  and  and  only  acquisition."  (1987:40) Using Ready  (1985)  psychology (LI)  the  and  identify markers,  concept studied  professors second  a  series  repetitions.  the  comprehensible speech  in their  language of  syntactic  communicative  of  adjustments  lectures  (L2)  linguistic  features  structures,  and  to  comprehension  for that  reason included  qualitative  as  by  two  results discourse  items, checks  recognized in  and  language  Their  such  e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c behaviour also plays a role and  made  vocabulary  Ready  Wesche  first  students.  d e v i c e s f o r example Wesche  input,  and and that  comprehension  data gathered  from  18 observation  sessions.  differences use  between  the  of  gestures,  more  greater  schematic  and  on  the  board.  In  contextual support The  Wesche  includes  both  of  the  study  closely  LI  and  time  words  f o r t h e L2 Ready  i n ESL  authors  have  professor's is  exactly  both  and  Many  SLA  setting  as  problem  The  talk  i n successful  classes.  Although  characteristics signals  for  quantitative of  statistical  two  thereby  situations  primary  focus  orientation  of  s t u d e n t s and "shared to  or  her  teacher  perspective,  the  a  the  one-way is  present  the study  the p r o f e s s o r are  within  the  talk.  In  (1985) e x a m i n e d English  findings  and  chosen  meaning".  input  rich  are  students  as  The  a  purposes  speaking  input  s u c h as r e p e t i t i o n s ,  instructions,  more  analysis,  environment  "limited  many o f  written  data  the  Wong-Fillmore  patterns  and  because i t  an  studies refer  investigation  i s interesting  from  establishing  foreigner  blackboard  c o u r s e . However, h a v i n g  the opposite: the t o be  frequent  professors supply  because the  situation.  seen  more  information  non-native  lecture.  several  research. Further, f o r the  delineated  communication  the  to  students.  study  i t i s helpful  the  at  the  limitations  paralleled:  approach  lectures:  spent  participating in a university to  L2  point  representational  other  and  occurrence  this  authors  qualitative  acknowledging rare  The  classroom a  notable  communication  proficiency" relate  to  (LEP)  discourse  consistent patterns playful  language  and (as  19 opposed t o reduced f o r e i g n e r - t a l k terms), points  to  organizational  difference.  For  boundaries  cues  scheduled  by  and  different  levels  understand  the  in  lesson  and  positive  with  clear  or  props,  ends,  regularly day  t u r n - a l l o c a t i o n procedures,  as  of  from  questions  day  to  In  allow  her  instructional  o f a n a l y z i n g i n p u t f a c t o r s and  context.  However,  examining they  use  what the  she  tasks  language and  to  practices  on  began  of  see  explored  the  students.  Selinger  useful  these  firmly  rooted  available to  structure (1977);  of  P i c a and  limited  sentence-grammar  and  how  (1983) ;  in  Long  Gradually  i n the Other  interaction  the  of  communication,  Doughty  be,  step  tasks.  (1983).  learners.  two-way  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s may at the  was  larger  issue of input  one-way  lessons,  in  their  Chaudron  that  simple  the  next  engaged  Schinke-Llano  to  input  the  to accomplish  classroom.  teacher-fronted  degree  to  studies t a c k l e the  (1983);  researchers  and  context  SLA  go  considers  c h i l d r e n are  l e a r n i n g i n the  Sato  typically  the  i n p u t and  Numerous o t h e r  doesn't  for  attempt  l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , W o n g - F i l l m o r e moves away f r o m t h e confines  also  to  participation.  influence  a  location  formats  elicitation of  make  lessons  beginning  fair  tailoring  which  formal  change  clear  clear  as  a  marking  events,  (scripts), well  example,  marked  formulaic  patterns  Wong-Fillmore  range  studies between  (1985).  However  analysis  remains  level.  20 1.2  Activity In  an  concept  important  of  a  article  task-based  Long  (1985)  syllabus.  He  presents  defines  task  p i e c e o f work u n d e r t a k e n f o r o n e s e l f o r f o r o t h e r s for  some  hundred  reward. and  at play, not a  to  one  and  In  other  things people  conclusions  syllabus, i t i s clear  comprehensible input In the  examined the  (1985);  that  and  Pica  various  aspects  tasks,  teacher-to-student;  object  being  interaction  his  studies  with  second  interaction and  result  tradition  is  the  (1986);  (1985).  These  and  work, readers  of  such  on  the  lead  task  basic  make  note  look  tasks,  at  two-way  types  and  rationale theory,  input  how  such  A l l  keeping modified  comprehensible  successful Pica  "task"  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l experiments:  "In  the what  language a c q u i s i t i o n .  ultimately to  to  studies  Porter,  student-to-student,  acquisition to  language  L o n g and  one-way  what  same  claimed  important  the  researchers  i n greater  s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n " D o u g h t y and It  or  which would  SLA  (1985)  facilitated  language  to  at  i s based  e m p i r i c a l evidence  determine  follow  is  research  interactions:  patterns  such  learners  to  life  cautions  methodologies  Varonis of  i s meant  i n everyday W h i l e he  of tasks that  Doughty and  Gass  "task"  a  principle.  teaching  types  by  "as  freely  regarding the process  search to provide  language  production  do  i n b e t w e e n . " p.89.  draw h a s t y  guide  words,  his  the  to  classroom  (1986:322).  is  seen  in  the  participants in  21 the  task  task  are "subjects",  characteristics  characteristics  of  engaged  a r e seen as independent task  discourse  d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . A s we w i l l task  i s viewed  very  i ti s taken  2.0  Language A c q u i s i t i o n  The  field  influences purposes  a part a  contexts  a  language earlier  emerging  i t wasn't  work  until  Child's  treatment  significant acquisition,  Talk  change along  i n p u t had been regarded acquisition.  context.  o f t h e same  as L 2 .  For our Gestalt  have a l l p l a y e d  "to look  t o a c t as t h e y  1983 w i t h that  has  i n psychological  Halliday  at the  do" B r u n e r  the publication of  context  the lines  Although  increasingly  i n language l e a r n i n g .  by t h e l i n g u i s t  paper,  t o say that behaviourism,  t h a t e n a b l e human b e i n g s  significant  t o many  and e d u c a t i o n  be  anthropological  theories related to LI learning.  has been  (1983:124), Bruner's  subject  to  i n this  i n the  pragmatism and c o g n i t i v e t h e o r y  i n shaping  trend  marks  psychology  i ti s sufficient  psychology,  considered  t o mean t h e e n t i r e s o c i a l  o f L I has been  from  are  task;  v a r i a b l e s ; and  discuss later  differently  tradition;  First  i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l  been  given  Bruner's  work  approaches t o  which had been  (1975) .  argued  Up t o t h a t  as t h e key f a c t o r i n f i r s t  time  language  22 2.1  Input Snow's  article  acquisition  about  largely  on  that  input  By e x a m i n i n g  a  given  the utterance  hearing  i t in a  remember what i s s a i d , situation recurs. interesting  Although  picture  she  However,  centres t o say  was  similar  situation.  She  such as, i d e n t i f y  f o r language  of  study  context  does  to  patterns  manner; t h e book i s l o o k e d we  analysis  the child  able  hypothesizes a  situation,  discuss  learning,  in  language  include  incorporate that  e x a m p l e , we s i t down t o r e a d ;  finally  acquisition for  I f t h i s mechanism i s p r o t o t y p i c a l , i t has  fails  cultural  discus-  and s a y i t y o u r s e l f t h e n e x t t i m e t h e  value  Snow's  activity, broader  the  Snow's  contextual  that  implications  recognizes  language  a  recurrent  picture.  c h i l d r e n use a s t r a t e g y  and  from  i t was p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e t h e c h i l d ' s  talking  after  situation-specific  approaches  p e r s p e c t i v e . (1983) sions,  on  the  i n her  for i t learning.  picture analysis  book the  are also being  learned. For  t h e book i s h e l d  i n a certain  a t and read, what  we  not eaten o r thrown;  have  read  she does acknowledge t h a t t h e s e  with  patterns  others. are being  learned.  2.2  Activity Bruner's  was  one  which  study  on m o t h e r - c h i l d  of the f i r s t  supported  t o focus  communication  attention  c o n v e r s a t i o n . (1983)  on  Where  patterns  the  activity  other  studies  23 have  exclusively  interaction,  analyzed  Bruner  mother and c h i l d .  the  talk  concentrated  on  In t h i s research,  that  resulted  the activity  from  between  an e x a m p l e o f a c t i v i t y  i s t h e game o f p e e k a b o o p l a y e d b e t w e e n t w o m o t h e r s a n d t h e i r children months  over  of nineteen  months  and  fifteen  respectively.  At  the  concepts: much  the period  of  core  first, our  of  Bruner's  human a c t i o n  cognitive  thesis  i s systematic  processing  goal-directed  are  primary  and o r d e r e d and  appears  to  in  of  second,  human  activity  i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s o c i a l and communicative,  (p.25)  something According  more  parents  are,  in a  rules As  B r u n e r t o s e e t h e game  than  a  i s a self-contained  word,  They h a v e  an  idealized  Meep  by which t h e s u r f a c e  rituals  that  performances,  go a l o n g  interaction  (p.55) children  'form o f l i f e ' . and  closely  language. and  The games  circumscribed  and a s e t o f r e a l i z a t i o n  o f t h e game  with  i s managed." he l e a r n s  (p.4 6) a l l the  t h e game - t h e s e t o f s e q u e n c e d the negotiation  utterances.  but i t i s part  acquisition".  context:  produce  i n the activity,  the roles,  t h e language  important  to  structure'  the c h i l d participates  moves,  catalyst  o f peekaboo as  t o h i m " e a c h o f t h e games p l a y e d b y c h i l d r e n  their  format.  allows  and  operate  support  This p o s i t i o n  activity/  two  Language  procedures, input  of a broader pattern  During learn  what i s o b l i g a t o r y ,  these how  to  predictable interpret  the  i s surely  of " c u l t u r a l formats  of  the cultural  what i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y ,  (p.120)  24 This  knowledge  elsewhere.  Clearly  routinized point  of  then  view  competence  much  to  allow  of the  the  to  He  approach  actions  agents  that  who  provide  of  learn  i s that  from which  Language  their  t h e moves,  be and  (p. 60)  the  framework  conceptual  the focus of i n t e r e s t are  called  behaviour.  situations  to  a  and  proceed.  must  account.  series  tacit One  c o n t a i n some  Snow's l a t e r w o r k  becomes  behaviour  Through  scripts  to  to  rule-following  to monitor t h e i r  how  system  e t h n o g e n i c method seeks  self-regulating,  roughly  and of  rules,  important form  of  (1972:22) (1986)  proceeds  a t t h e c o n t e x t s u r r o u n d i n g young  children  language.  Socialization  A l t h o u g h many L I a n d as  can  initiative  i n order t o s e l f - m o n i t o r performance.  as t h e y a c q u i r e  than  Bruner's  theoretical  (1985)  scenarios with implicit  t o l o o k more f u l l y  sentence  executes  human b e i n g s  I n f l u e n c e d by B r u n e r ,  3.0  increasing  applied  learned  routines  Bruner's  Harre's  humans a r e  accounts  participants  feedback  he  being  learning  rich  Harre's  have t h e c a p a c i t y  improvised  feature  as  i n which  f o r which  believes  the  noting that  linked  an  is  and  part.  r e g a r d i n g human a c t i o n s . identify  more  on  for  learner  i s worth  closely  transformed  Language  i s dependent  I n p u t i s o n l y one  is  so  utterances.  diversified,  It  becomes  the  natural  L2  researchers s t i l l  frame  for  linguistic  consider the inquiry  and  play  down  realize  the  importance  "that  socially  vocal  organized  meaning".  the  the  (p.163)  process  acquisition useful has  of  per  its  se.  (p.167)  To  of  (1986a:164)  Drawing  on  approaches  competence  are  more  than  between  an  a  with  language  the  "the study of language goal  within  concerned  socialization  persons  the  two  i t is  acquisition  understanding  of  what  at d i f f e r e n t developmental  become  role  understanding  particularly of  in  an  of  of a  the  and  or caregivers  also  include  that  results  novice  in  members the  of  process,  requirements  task and  of  academic  situation.  i n fact,  is likely  interpretive  work  The to both  student.  socialization  interaction  language  cross-cultural  important communicative  Language  competent  should not take f o r g r a n t e d a  academic  by t h e i n s t r u c t o r and  children  of  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  competence  how  and  accomplishment  the  generally systems  distinguish  out t h a t  are  number  cultural  linguistic  T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t we  learner's  involve  in  Ochs  language  growing  Whereas, l a n g u a g e s o c i a l i z a t i o n has as i t s g o a l t h e  groups  tasks,  and  ultimate  understanding social  and  a  activities  researchers  constitutes linguistic points.  verbal embedded  social these  to point  as  context,  anthropological  study of  group",  and  Schieffelin  "sociological, to  and  of  studies  communication and young  termed  between  children,  s p e a k e r s s u c h as  i s often  typically  L2  investigate mothers  but research  students.  "motherese"  or  The  and may talk  "baby-talk",  26 modified  speech  research  this  foreigner major and  patterns  same  talk  or  pattern  teacher  d i f f e r e n c e between  language  said before,  and  vocabulary.  is  frequently  talk. most  socialization:  In  This  the  role  referred  points  language of  classroom  to  the  acquisition input.  variable.  studies  As  we  i s t h a t because  use  goals  take  active  and  specific  activities,  selective  Consequently,  as  children  roles input  in  in and  tenet people  socially  and  novices  socializing  i s analyzed  the  must  contexts,  i n the  context  activity. A  further difference with  importance joint and  accomplish  organized  (pp.169-70) of  to  have  H o w e v e r , an e s s e n t i a l  w i t h regard t o language s o c i a l i z a t i o n language  as  second  i n L2 r e s e a r c h i n p u t i s l a r g e l y r e g a r d e d  s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t  culturally  to  placed  on  the  Krashen's  is  parties.  viewed  And  is  child-caregiver relationship  enterprise. A l l interactions others  position  as  rather  a  between  linguistic  than  see  small  as  as  a  children  resource  input  the  for a  both  one-way  communication p a t t e r n , language s o c i a l i z a t i o n c o n s i d e r s i t a mutual process  of sharing.  Scheffelin important  and  features  Ochs of  and  language  k n o w l e d g e i s o f t e n made up a  cultural  knowledge situation.  community that For  is  others  noted  socialization:  of " s t o c k knowledge".  possess  implicitly  example,  have  at  a  additional a)  shared  Members o f  wealth  of  background  understood  in  any  social  engagements  or  given business  27  meetings, signal  "insiders"  be  understand  r e q u i s i t e degrees members'  references  of formality  experiences.  o f view  individuals  Similarly,  made  and p o l i t e n e s s ,  to interpersonal  t o t h e meaning  recipients.  I t i s through  t h a t members c o n f o r m  a n d s o o n ; b) to  they  different  and outcome  bring  Up t o t h i s p o i n t concept,  their  ( p . 1 6 5 ) ; a n d c) are active  not just  negotiation  passive  procedures  a n d i n f o r m one a n o t h e r t h r o u g h  (McDermott e t a l i n S c h e f f e l i n  a common  participants  interaction  constant  which  are related  encounters  i n social  cues  during conversation,  Consequently  participating  contributors  Activity  of subtle  p e r c e p t i o n s and c o n c e p t i o n s  individual  to  aware  t h e end o f t h e g a t h e r i n g .  quickly  points  will  language  & O c h s , 1986a) .  s e v e r a l words have been used t o r e f e r namely  "activity",  "task"  a n d "game".  a n d t a s k may b e t a k e n a s s y n o n y m o u s , g e n e r i c t e r m s ,  a l t h o u g h t a s k i s w i d e l y u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o c l a s s r o o m work. Bruner of  also  uses  h i s study  game  the general term  o f mothers  (peekaboo).  activity  and c h i l d r e n ,  However, B r u n e r a p p l i e s  and i n t h e case  the activity  o f t h e paper  deals  with  a  "game" more w i d e l y  s p e a k i n g o f games a s s e t s o f r u l e s a n d m a n o e u v e r s . section  was  research  The n e x t  concerned  with  tasks i n school settings.  4.0  Tasks  i n School  Parallel  to  activity  research  i n language  learning,  t h e r e h a s been a g r o w i n g body o f r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f  28 tasks  i n school  stem  from  a  work.  Although  language  socialization  some s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . of  the  salient  features,  language s o c i a l i z a t i o n Over  the  teachers'  the  students'  different perspectives. Erickson), a  tasks,  then  a  time  nature  roles  construct  of  has  from  a  researchers  n a t u r a l that they  with  research students  1988). should  between  and  from  many  (Mead i n  (1938) , t h e r e h a s b e e n  This  as a p l a c e o f  theme  reappeared  c o n s t r u c t i v i s t s began t o teachers  f o r each other.  The  and  social, of  this  (1986:14-5)  investigating  tasks  psychology  i n school and  so  come i t  l o o k a t t a s k s as a s e r i e s o f p r o d u c t s Consequently,  the operations  produce t h e tasks Meece,  viewed  t h e ways i n w h i c h  i n cognitive  produce.  concerned  review  work  of learning i s at the heart  Erickson  background  students  classroom  been  relationships.  environments  nature  research.approach. Many  i s made  of looking at the classroom  and s o c i a l  interactional  i t bears  Y e t d a t i n g from t h e 1890's  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y about  students  perspective,  research.  a g a i n d u r i n g t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s when s o c i a l think  does n o t  link  and. r e n e w e d a g a i n b y Dewey  long t r a d i t i o n  literature  What f o l l o w s i s a b r i e f  and t a s k  years  and  this  (Doyle,  and  research  i s  the resources  that often  used  to  1983; E r i c k s o n , 1986; B l u m e n f e l d  Marx  and Walsh  also  include  t o accomplish  task  (1988)  suggest  that  the cognitive plans  academic work.  is.  used  &  task by  29 4.1  Task C o n d i t i o n s What a r e t h e f a c t o r s  work? and  Two a s p e c t s w h i c h  instructional  4.1.1  which  affect  students  are invariably  doing  examined a r e s e t t i n g  delivery.  Setting Given  within  t h e importance  classrooms,  p l a c e d on i n t e r a c t i o n  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  that  and c o n t e x t setting  prominent  consideration  i n many r e s e a r c h e r s m i n d .  it  environment"  (Anderson,  "task  Erickson;) setting" to  their  some  refer  (Doyle;  understand  Stevens  t o context  Edwards,  as  1988; Marx  t h e dynamic  Some  & Prawat  "setting"  or  is a call  (1987)/ "social  & Walsh) b u t a l l seek  interaction  that  occurs  between  t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s , and s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e e r s . Allocation explictness  of  classrooms  4.1.2  Instructional Another  established  are pertinent  of  teacher  variable  the learning  students?  What  instructed  cognitive  process  feedback  areas  control,  configurations  of investigation.  Delivery  important  students  of  degree  o f 'ground-rules'; and t h e s o c i a l  within  the  time,  i s instructional style.  goals?  methods  are these  o f assessment  directly  required  How  or  f o r the task?  i n the teaching plan?  conveyed t o  a r e used?  indirectly  Who  about  Are the  What i s t h e r o l e  30 4.2  Products Looking  more  researchers main  (Doyle;  types  of  and  believes  tasks  that  the  in  leads  do,  our  a)  of effect,  tasks have  memory;  the  students  will  information  learn  what  Harre's But  i t i s a l s o the  that a  task  contention  lest  i t i s pertinent to  c)  Doyle  processing  i s goal-directed. task,  opinion.  s e l e c t i o n of for  four  procedural;  d)  a theme r e i n f o r c e d by  the  themselves,  identified  b)  and  strategies  i s more t h a n c o n t e n t ,  we  narrow  remember  situation  that  i n which  i s embedded.  5.0  Conclusion At  this  point  socialization thought. of  Walsh)  regulate  activity  a n a l y s i s of  task it  them t o human  Marx  and  the  understanding;  choice  information.  that  at  operations:  comprehension  and  closely  the  social  in  i t  an  is  attempt  S c h e f f e l i n and vast  communal,  and  try  interaction.  Similarly way  to  find  the  two  language  streams  that  we  of  aware  bring  to  knowledge i s assumed t o  be  flexible  become c l a r i f i e d the  to  h a v e made us  knowledge  missing  i n classrooms,  through  return  others  complex,  perceptions  Participants  m u s t make t h e i r  stock  to  link  Much o f t h i s through  a s s u m p t i o n s and  to  Ochs a n d  r e s e r v o i r of  situations.  useful  a maze o f  manoeuvers,  and  understood.  parts  students  and  unstated,  in  any  teachers incoherent  31 and  o f t e n ambiguous e n c o u n t e r s  subject matter To  make  to  the  his  and t h e t a s k s r e q u i r e d o f t h e  matters  conventions  more  cetera); practices  f o r p e r f o r m i n g t a s k s , s u c h as t h o s e t h a t  pertain  environment  f o r what  reason  broader  within  and  i n that under  conventions  a  specific  there  class  what  which  society,  e t a l n o t e t h a t one  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  inference  burden  on  ways sense  of  structure  the  to  task  demands,  become  subject  of s.ocial r e l a t i o n s  aware  matter, i n the  t o make t h e known o b v i o u s ,  language s o c i a l i z a t i o n  highly the  deliberately  and  about (p. 17)  the  regulating this  class  and  I t makes  good  of  the  content  and  and  the  content  and  i n order to  help  class  both  seek t o understand  and t h e r o l e i t p l a y s i n l e a r n i n g . i n t e r p r e t i n g and  Anderson  reducing  s t u d e n t s a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r t a s k s . B u i l d i n g on an principle  the  learning  study,  in  Teachers  et  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would a i d the c h i l d i n  teachers of  is  f e a t u r e s of  role  desired understanding  responding  that  structure  the  example  In t h e i r  teacher's  students.  e x p l i c i t l y presented constructing  the  leave  to educational  facilitates  "task-master".  was  can  circumstances,  for  o r an a u t h o r i t a r i a n  classrooms  (who  apply  t e a c h e r c o n s i d e r e d a f r i e n d l y g u i d e who  rated  participants. local  and  complicated,  the  are  particular  seat,  i n o r d e r t o make s e n s e o f  ethnographic  task research the s o c i a l  and  context  L a n g u a g e i s t h e means f o r  process.  32 6.0  Research In  above,  Methodology  keeping i t was  with  the  important  theoretical  t o approach  g a t h e r i n g the data over the natural  setting  of  the  perspective  the  course  study  outlined  holistically,  o f s e v e r a l months i n t h e  classroom  and  related  outside  well  to  kind  environments. A  methodology which  intensive  data  collection  ethnographic p r i n c i p l e s , l a y e r s of d e t a i l to  an  of  the group  itself  is  the  the case  case  this  study.  study attempts  and  up  of the  f o r c e s t h a t shape t h e  behaviour  involved.  case  course.  informal  sustained  on  to build  study  is  an  systematic  examination  p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s as t h e y went t h r o u g h credit  Based  of  o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e i n o r d e r t o come  understanding  This  lends  It involved participant interviews with  contact with the  the  over  and  a  graduate  observation,  professor  students  a  of  formal  students,  t h r e e months,  and  c o l l e c t i o n o f p e r t i n e n t documents. Direct order  to  o b s e r v a t i o n as  gain  access  to  a  participant  the  classroom  participant-observer  I  covert  communicative,  aspects  variables that  in  room  organizes  (1982:83). occurred  of  In  before  had  behaviour, of  addition,  I  after  necessary  situation.  "opportunities to  patterns  and  was  and  • social  the  class,  and  "see"  the  "work"  behaviour"  observe  a  organization,  interactional  classroom could  As  in  Mehan  patterns  during coffee  that  breaks.  33 Prior its  to the  beginning  completion,  I had  of the  course  i n f o r m a l contact w i t h the  they continued t h e i r t r a i n i n g . contact  with  the  participation" rich  and  in  varied  after  students  as  This "prolonged face-to-face  members the  of  course  the  Mehan  observations  process-oriented  i n q u e s t i o n and  and  (1982:61)  which  interpretation  group  provide of  the  diary  was  direct  resulted  support data  in  for  a  Schmidt  (1981:201). During  this  period  a  field  maintained  and  n o t e s w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n were  classified  and  interview  coded.  This  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and Defined  as  valuable  to  combined  with  cross-validation",  " i t assesses  the  the  convergence  of  evidence the  to  built  a  data  issues  between in  case  s e c t i o n f o l l o w s i n Chapter Before  moving  on  p o i n t out t h a t case inherent  of  case  i t i s not  I  and  Yin  data  sources  i t as  later  pieces  the  or  (1986:246).  used  then  study.  the  "story",  like  must be  studies,  unusual  of  is  of  relevant  to  document  evidence  (1984:94)  and This  3.  studies,  weakness which  description First,  to  Wiersma  base,  specific  the  triangulation  m u l t i p l e data  compose a n a r r a t i v e  connection  various  up  triangulation.  sufficiency  multiple data c o l l e c t i o n procedures" Having  the  document a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s  "qualitative  because  according  data  for  i t is  important  to  a l l r e s e a r c h methods, have taken  into  account.  Yin  raises  three  the  researcher  to  In h i s  concerns. become  a  34  supporter  of the  affect  the  degree  of  and  hence,  interpretation rapport  difficult against  group  indeed this  of  with  the  had  data.  individuals  to maintain  I  develop  a  a  a b i a s which  Once one in  clear  the  develops  group  i t  p e r s p e c t i v e . To  knowledgeable  may  outsider  a is  guard  read  the  narrative. Second, and  observes  act  as  and  a role  a participant  take  notes  in a  at  were  remain  participates  I n d e e d i t c a n be  a problem to  same  and  A  participating outsider,  and  broadly. length  so  time.  notes  of  the  repetition  of  patterns  certain that  in  content  example,  they  information.  detailed  may may  (I  and  the  students risk not not  In a d d i t i o n ,  always not  order  were  exists  due  view to  to  that i t member for  between  you  as  observe  compensated  attended  an  more  by  the  a l l classes),  the  material, opportunity  activities  and  to  and  observe  across several settings.  exists answer  recall  some  notebook . p o i s e d  in  process  observe  r e g u l a r group  members do  (certain  general  respondents  my  distant  observation  have c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a  less  a  tension  other  this  reappeared),  Third,  to  Undoubtedly,  were  like  with  remaining  Gaps  d i s c u s s i o n and  H o w e v e r , i n some i n s t a n c e s I f e l t  detached  inscriptions.  the  one  more u s e f u l t o p a r t i c i p a t e  than  emerge a s  group  the  lost  participation.  was  may  a t t h e same t i m e .  observations my  conflict  with the  their  respondents  interviews questions  well  for  or  the  answers  that  impressions may  give  because  35  they  perceive  their  own  value  real on  or thought), Two  maintain  and  i n saving  Second,  in  was  questions.  ethnographic  interviews  the  different  descriptive questions. be  questions, See  remembered  the  values  and  areas  of of  respondent f u l l The be are  final  an  to  they  is  place  (of a c t i o n  which would a l l o w  them  i t  they  to  that  the  resulted  in  were a s s u r e d  reporting  seeking  types  of  structural  contrast  of  with  a  and  him  or  be  and  including contrast It  questionnaires,  opportunity to express characteristic  asymmetrical  questions.  thereby  of  (1979:67)  of explanations  can  of  data.  variety  Spradley  questions,  to  the  questions,  amplified,  "observed  felt  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  possible and  Further, the  this  to  interview i s that points  interest  raised i s that subject  in  danger  patterns  i f  Appendix I I f o r survey that,  reflect  establish  structured  are  repetition,  of  This  students  According  question-asking, posing  not  because  sought  students  students.  interview  may  offset  especially  confidentiality  descriptive  to  a d d i t i o n , the  worthwhile,  the  acceptable  used  with the  assistance to other  students  researcher  In  which  face.  were  the  frankly.  absolute  to  but  (1986:181)  Chinese  conforming  a rapport  was  Wiersma  with  First,  speak  study  appropriate  strategies  weakness.  to  be  experience.  particularly great  to  should one  of  clarified  allowing  the  herself.  of case s t u d i e s which needs t o conditions  are  i n f l u e n c e s from beyond the  not  static  immediacy  of  and the  social  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  example  the  Cazden  (1982:223)  elusive to  lesson,  and  justify  check  clarify  space  rely  an  explanation.  The  dynamic  setting  can  of  seek  for  cetera."  of  examination to  build  a single  example  character  using other  other  of  may  verify  a  sources  participants  i s looking for a  can  findings.  convergence  of  evidence.  causal relationships  intense  detail.  data  on  by  characteristics  The  varied  the  researcher  the  mediated sometimes  or  other populations.  order  be  hunches,  the  Because  in  r o u t i n e s , et  not  data t o b u i l d a chain of  time  time  moments,  I n o t h e r words, t h e s e a r c h f o r meaning i s  impressions  does not  and  r e s e a r c h e r can  one's  Essentially  institutionalized  the  naturalistic to  the  value  of  or a  a particular up  a  of  data  a  case  t r y to  case group bank  one  generalize to  study over full  study,  lies  in  a period of  rich  the of and  37 CHAPTER THREE CASE STUDY NARRATIVE  Chapter study.  Here the  academic  research telling  of  as a  of  well.  story  make s e n s e o f Three my  advantage  as  studies,  and  in  "the  understanding of Stories  and  have  a  ethnographic very  past the  case  social  p r o d u c i n g an  occurred i n the  (p.9).  this  Narratives  says, -  of  and t h e  described.  happened  that  story  outlined,  Erickson  what  follow: view;  and  the  the  the  first  second  third  -  act  of  account c a n be  a  organization  help  both  and o p i n i o n s ,  the as  presents gives  people  three  professor's  well  as  the  the  outlines  By i n c l u d i n g a l l of  the  to  past.  of  interpretations.  visions  case  deeper  sections  perspective;  the  in  sequences"  the  point  be be  actions  action  tell  will  about  of  to  will  For,  developing  those  from  events  importance  sequences  means  seeks  environment  particular  of  Three  professor's  the  students'  perspectives and  the  my o b s e r v a t i o n s  picture  we  have  students' about  the  course.  1. 0  Researcher's  Interpretation  1.1  What was  the  situation?  A  of  group  graduate  Adult  Chinese  students  Education course  were  participating  (ADED X X X ) .  in  a  38 1.2  Who  were t h e  students?  Two  distinct  student  were e i g h t Chinese who  were  students  native  graduate  speakers  students  i n the  taken  several courses  than  the  Chinese  professional The to but  an  they  Canada  for  not  People's  Republic  adult  is  institute  to  levels  in i s  of  an  in  their  high.  and and  They  There  students,  The  NS  department  had  were  were  and  had  a l l older  several  years  of  fields.  field  for as  Adult  China  of  part  Adult  a  i s  to  establish  city  in  China.  A l l are  young,  (they would  score  an  (CIDA). the  in  by  the  the Their  field  adult  Their bright  in  co-operative  provided  about  order  were  Association for  Agency  knowledgeable  order  Education,  Institute  Canadian  approval  in  They  of  Education  the  course  credit.  Development  become  of E n g l i s h  the  class.  (NS) .  attending the  study  Funding  education  succeed  of  International  objective  and  were  of  program between  Canadian  field.  the  graduate  Education  registered  year  Education.  English  in related  training  Adult  of  students  students  one  s i x other  Adult  understanding  were  composed  and  in this  experience  Chinese  gain  groups  education  motivation with  approximately  of  to  reasonable 500-550  on  TOEFL). The institutes physics,  eight  Chinese  i n Wuhan. marine  students Their  are  graduates  undergraduate  engineering, .  of  various  studies included:  pharmacology,  chemistry,  39 English  literature.  None  o f them  e i t h e r program p l a n n i n g o r a d u l t Prior students styles this, in  to starting  were through  they  After  International  graduate  the i n t e r v i e w s , frequent as p o i n t s o f  1.3  regular  application specific  of  course  of  Adult  continued  their  courses.  During courses  o f ADED XXX?  planning  adult education  The  Program P l a n n i n g P r a c t i c e  offering and  which  evaluation  examines  -  the  principles  ' in  s e t t i n g s and e x p l o r e s t h e p r a c t i c a l  approaches  theoretical  education.  graduate  r e f e r e n c e was made t o t h e s e  p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r ADED  provides  life-  Following  Dimensions  adult education  departmental  u t i l i t y .of v a r i o u s The  Chinese  comparison.  What was t h e n a t u r e  a  a t UBC.  ADED XXX, t h e y  ADED XXX - A d u l t E d u c a t i o n is  the  and Canadian  orientation  completing  i n other  course,  four sessions o f another  Education,  Education.  week  t o Vancouver,  six-week  attended  Adult  studies  a  education.  the three  introduced  h a d any b a c k g r o u n d i n  to planning  XXX i s a c o m p a n i o n  and c o n c e p t u a l  Chinese  and e v a l u a t i o n .  students  course  perspectives had  not  was  to  which  i n adult  taken  the  prerequisite. The  objective  opportunity between  of  the  f o r students theoretical,  perspectives  when  they  to  course  understand  conceptual  the  and  a r e a p p l i e d t o program  provide  an  relationship philosophical planning i n  40 adult  education.  course:  The  following topics  (Refer t o Appendix I f o r course  1.  planning  2.  analyzing the planning  3.  identification  4.  developing  5.  f o r m u l a t i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  6.  f o r m u l a t i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n  7.  developing  Lectures  context  of educational  educational  presentation  He  often  lectures  and  occasionally  referred  aspect  i n detail  Topics  of the assignments  preceding  system  needs  plan  t h e due  date.  The P r o f e s s o r ' s  students,  you  readings  students  outline  during  his  t o examine  some  were  the focus  Because  classes  of the lecture were  hours  d u r i n g each s e s s i o n .  and i n p a r t i c u l a r , offered  your  support  t o the Chinese.  hints  on  how  toward  During the  t o use t h e  t o the assignments  "Keep a l i s t  are doing  four  Instructional Style  i n relation  efficiently.  the  t h e course  c o n v e y e d an a i r o f b e n i g n  l e c t u r e , he  material  added t o v a r y t h e pace.  followed to  small  o r u s e d p a s s a g e s on an o v e r h e a d p r o j e c t o r .  The p r o f e s s o r  when  and c l i e n t  process  plan  asked  l o n g , two b r e a k s were p r o v i d e d  first  outline)  objectives  an e v a l u a t i o n  closely.  the  i n the  w e r e t h e p r e d o m i n a n t mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h  professor's  1.4  covered  as an a n t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  group d i s c u s s i o n and b r a i n s t o r m i n g The  were  a n d how  print  to  work  o f t h e assignments i n f r o n t o f you reading.  Make  a  notation  i f  i t  relates  directly".  assignments". His  the  style  students jargon,  would c l a r i f y what  "Don't r e - r e a d  conversation  the  avoided  to  speaking  ordinary half  "Refer  and  slang  had  Whenever repeated.  new "It  or  times".  and  direct  calm He  was  when  during  conscious  speakers  idiomatic  doing  and  references.  Chinese students:  that  thus  he  Often  he  "Do  you  know  ("single mothers", " s e n i o r s " ) .  point  t e n d e n c y t o be  was  very  wrong i n f o r m a t i o n " .  six  slow,  a term f o r the  is  articles  non-native  a particular  a  notes  in class.  were  ^LaLeche' means?" He  was  your  introduced  difficult  to  c l e a r and  i t was  explicit.  re-phrased  eliminate,  get  or  rid  " I must a n t i c i p a t e a number o f t h i n g s .  of I  must p l a n , p r e d i c t " . In a d d i t i o n , the p r o f e s s o r frequent  concrete  actions  involved  transmission.  examples, in  such  driving  Furthermore,  he  simulate  movements, d e m o n s t r a t e  the  of  end  each  perhaps p r o v i d i n g were  very  opportunity example.  section, one  i l l u s t r a t e d h i s remarks  he  as a  to hear the  giving  car  gestured  the  with with  physical a  his  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and summarized  more e x a m p l e .  repetitive,  a l l of  the  important  the  In s h o r t , Chinese  point  and  with  manual hands  to  sizes.  At  main  points,  his  lectures  students  ample  r e l a t e i t to  an  42 1.5  The P r o f e s s o r ' s R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h The  professor  sought  operative  atmosphere  the  of  edge  a  about h i m s e l f The  Chinese  history  students  of  professor  he  and i n v i t e d  students  introduced  mingling areas in  of interest.  class  welcomed  me  the students,  questions. a n d some about t h e  class.  including  The  a  few  i n the course. made  chatting  He was a l w a y s w a i t i n g of class,  on  information  i n the  professor  One h a d t h e i m p r e s s i o n  the students  Sitting  members  and purpose  the  of the beginning  lecture.  with  breaks,  c a s u a l l y with  advance  the  the  and c o -  as a group,  participating  s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t my p r e s e n c e During  class.  background  identified  and  relaxed  t o ask f u r t h e r  t o the other  the Chinese  a  the i n i t i a l provided  were  was p r o v i d e d  purpose  to establish  during  table,  the Students  a  point  about  common  f o r students,  a n d he l i n g e r e d  t h a t he e n j o y e d  of  well after  contact  a n d made o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be a v a i l a b l e t o  them. A  factor  students  the  relationship  and t h e p r o f e s s o r  director. particular  In  monitoring  in  their  students  successful  addition  course,  participation  the  in  he  i s h i s role  t o being was  the  progress  their  also  joint over  the  as t h e i r  responsible  were  o f ADED XXX.  for this for  program  t h e course  Chinese training  professor  training  and t h e p r o f e s s o r  accomplishment  between  and f o r  of the year.  stakeholders  their  Both  i n the  43 1.6  Classroom The  was  Environment  overall  one  of  operation. building  atmosphere  short-term  cordiality  A l l c l a s s e s were h e l d away  from  reason,  students  during  the  the  took  break  around  food.  they  found  remained  and  separate.  of  members.  students  talked  among  themselves,  i n an annex  campus.  For to  as  easy  two  In  chat  other  share  endeavour  people  the  this  mingled  groups  of  essentially was  usually  words,  Chinese  and n a t i v e  speakers  with  other. Another  factor  which  contributed  a t m o s p h e r e was t h e s e a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t professor  had  around t h r e e table  organized  where  balanced a  several  week new  the  with  the  everyone  students  three  groups  partners.  should  Chinese were  These  into  a  relaxed The  three  groups  A name c a r d  at each  s i t . The  groups  a n d two n a t i v e  shuffled,  groups  to  f o r the students.  large rectangular tables.  indicated  evenly  were  speakers.  allowing  everyone  formed t h e d i s c u s s i o n o r  groups. By  learning for  co-  co-operative  Spontaneous,  "like"  buzz  arm's-length  f o r conversation,  with  Once  class  refreshments  although  conducted  each  the  exchange  topics  of the  i n the evening  This  However,  common  and  bringing  period.  conversation  the  centre  turns  facilitated  students  among t h e s t u d e n t s  and  large,  more  about  the course.  individuals fellow  However,  appeared  students  despite  and  t o be their  the f r i e n d l y  receptive to assignments and  cordial  44  atmosphere the  none  other  course  of t h e Chinese  students  tasks.  students  f o r information  There  a r e may  ever  or assistance  be two r e a s o n s  they  w e r e a b l e t o a s k me o r t h e p r o f e s s o r ,  felt  hesitant  had  2.0  a stake  others.  i n the students'  any o f  with the  for this:  2. many s a i d  I n summary,  many  1. they  people  success.  Professor's Interpretation The  following  professor's either the  t o "bother"  asked  perspective.  during  or  on  The students  break  the  incorporated more f u l l y  The  discussions  lecture  comments  passage  into  this  to  introduce  addition,  he  wanted  to  students  to  apply  these  prepared  for  course.  an  made me,  the  by him  or during  h i s remarks papers  have  we m i g h t  objective them  to in  provide  and been  understand  through  the  students  to  understanding  adult  use.  to  Chinese  principles education.  opportunity  concepts  case  f o r the  the  an  a specific  assignments and p a r t i c i p a t i n g demonstrate  so t h a t  planning  e i t h e r through or  assignment  primary  program  Also,  present  of t h e assignments.  of  experience,  were  section  processes  situation,  statements  periods.  h i s treatment  was  to  or interviews with  students'  professor's  attempts  an  By  i n class,  which their  In  f o r the  "authentic"  example from t h e i r study  and  had  own been  completing  he e x p e c t e d t h e m t o  o f t h e key elements  of the  45 Although the professor personal of  philosophy,  evaluation  should  fail".  first  in  i n education: Also,  that  was to  t o provide  help  them  procedures  what  on h i s  "I strongly believe that that  every learn.  they  know  should rather  This  teacher's to the  point  was  when he r e m a r k e d  help  than  a  no one  support  t h e s e c t i o n on e v a l u a t i o n  evaluative  demonstrate  excessively  he e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w  order  reiterated during  dwell  he d i d make c l e a r h i s v i e w s on t h e r o l e  responsibility  students  didn't  students  penalize  to  them f o r  what t h e y do n o t know. Concerning students,  he  writing  from  professor quality not  the  stated them.  offered  expected  assignment that  the f i r s t  guidelines  on a s s i g n m e n t  They'll  Bazerman familiar  get better  (1980) with  suggests,  the  and  better  "conversations  about  each wanted  the  students  assignment, with  level  of class, the  He a d v i s e d  professor of  Chinese  graduate  t o everybody  papers.  the  the  session  t o be " t o o c o n c e r n e d about t h e f i r s t  it.  of  he d i d n o t e x p e c t  During some  papers  j u s t do  one". As them  the discipline"  to (p.  658) .  2.1  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e Assignments How much l a t i t u d e d i d t h e p r o f e s s o r  it  seems t h a t  surface  misconceptions assignment  were  level  regarding not.  allow?  In general,  e r r o r s were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d , b u t the  Students  specific were  not  topic  of  the  penalized  for  46 incorrect  spelling,  Moreover,  untidy  However,  In the  were  the  responses  to  to  idea  was  content,  reinforced Frequently  offered  exam  identify  and  use  extended  a  sentence  All Those  with  a  unnoticed;  for  "resigstate"  or  for  add  mark  "good"  for  or  every  "correct"  is  students  80%";  "the  instruments". the  Often  professor  Similarly,  obtain the  needs  "the  will  be  when  an  would  i f the  solution,  give  Correct  f o r example,  creative  to  to  c l e a r answers;  idea". a  seemed  efforts.  check  would  the  candidates",  this  does  were  "No",  that  not  add  student  such  as,  "use  assessment  professor  mean t h a t  blatantly  plus  or  is  very  were  not  o f f the  mark,  her  any  would  or  two  the  were to  reply.  obtrusive. well  a n s w e r was  incorrect  a question  his  questionnaire  mildly  and  their  synthesized  "good  idea  re-think  answers  go  either.  from  write  a  comment b e s i d e i t .  that  emphatic  or  completion  prospective positive  as  new  weaknesses.  criticized  professor  for  he  the  such  not didn't  the  praise  of  comments  stylistic  "moderate"  distinguish particularly  able  to  of  were  score  were  mistakes  for  ample  point.  passing  or  corrected.  area  students  correct  spelling  "medicate"  "register"  grammar  submissions  severe  example,  faulty  professor  treated  direct  For Why  formulated,  acceptable.  or  ...."  those  pose  an  student  example, not  would  the  with  that  "your With were  questions  to  47 help the student c l a r i f y the  assignment  "good",  first  received  " v e r y good",  two a s s i g n m e n t s  seems t h a t points  a paper  were  missing  These  a percentage  "What a r e  for  "Very  presented  demonstrated  were c l e a r l y  i n t h e form  In addition, figure  with  example  good"  grade  was  applied. I t  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one  "What  about  formative  "Good" p a p e r s w e r e r a t e d was t h e n e x t  level  a l l the information  between  on t h e s c a l e . asked  a grasp o f a l l t h e major  presented.  f o r the  " g o o d " when most o f t h e m a j o r  perhaps  i n your plan?".  papers  questions,  "excellent".  addressed,  - 85%.  an o v e r a l l  was j u d g e d  element,  evaluation 75%  f o r instance  prerequisites?" Each  of  t h e answer,  by t h e  p o i n t s and  The n u m e r i c a l s c a l e was 8 5 % - 9 0 % .  Two o f t h e p a p e r s w e r e r a t e d a s " e x c e l l e n t "  a n d j u d g e d t o be  worth  regarding  100%.  assignments  The  were  assignments,  Although such  this  professor's style  and w e l l  i t may  a narrow method  range  was  be  the  attention student  can  o f marks  in  some  f o r student  characteristic  of  the  of evaluation.  t o content achieve  and s t r u c t u r e  the desired  a t t e n t i o n t o form and r h e t o r i c meaning.  planning.  unusual  The p r o f e s s o r ' s a p p r o a c h c a n b e s u m m a r i z e d great  these  o r g a n i z e d " , "You  a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f program  Congratulations!" t o have  comments  "very consistent  have demonstrated  courses  professor's  as t h i s : pay  feedback  outcome.  Pay  so  that  little  i f t h e y do n o t i n t e r f e r e  with  48 From t h e to  be  the  and  meeting  tasks  grasp  p e r s p e c t i v e of  of  the  and the  students  the  3.0  Students'  a)  description  of  a b o u t how  Their  comments  their  feelings  how  first he  However, returned,  to begin  they  the case  we  means  and  once  their  acknowledged difficult,  fell  out  the  that  what  he  the  first  s t u d y was  felt  one,  "The  first  general  tasks,  b)  assignments, i n the  a and  process.  of  first  us  relief.  to  h a r d e r t h a n t h e y had  We  do."  had  I  been  don't  don't  know 1)  marked  and  every  one  the  most  were  confessed  "For  (Subject  Although  assignments  i n g r o u p one  time,  ( S u b j e c t 8)  questions.  wants  two  considerable anxiety  said."  assignment  great  three students  the  of  Tasks  assignment lots  three  the  they experienced  had  felt  into  about  carried  assignment  what t h e  unit,  they  within  for individual differences  students s t a t e d t h a t they  even understand  what  are  T h e i r F e e l i n g s About the All  the  they  way.  c) p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s  3.1  outcomes,  structuring  summarizes the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  tasks.  categories:  By  seems  Interpretation  This section their  are.  allow  development a l o n g the  professor  where t h e y  desired  l e a r n e r s and  Erickson, the  that  anticipated.  " A t t h e b e g i n n i n g i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t s i n c e we had to analyze the society which we didn't u n d e r s t a n d v e r y c l e a r l y . " ( S u b j e c t 7)  doing  49  " I d i d n ' t know t h i s s o c i e t y q u i t e w e l l , s o 'what r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d a u t h o r i t y do y o u h a v e ' a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n Canada. I d o n ' t know t h i s . " ( S u b j e c t 1) "At f i r s t I t h o u g h t i t [ t h e c a s e s t u d y ] might be e a s i e r b u t when I g o t i n t o i t , I f e l t i t was v e r y difficult. I had t o stand i n another p o s i t i o n t o look at i t . The A l m a S o c i e t y - I h a d no i d e a a b o u t • it." ( S u b j e c t 5) In Society the  addition  underlying  largely  t h e assignments with  anyone  society  unfamiliar  which who  was  about  with  child  the  Alma  i n general, the subject  abuse.  This  had not read o r  learned  problem.  T h e i r Approach The  knowledge  and t h e Canadian  also  be t h e c a s e  about t h i s  3.2  a. l i m i t e d  i n particular  s t u d e n t s were  might  to  approach  t o t h e Tasks that  most  o f them  took  t o complete  the  a s s i g n m e n t s was a f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e o n e . 1.  " I read t h e assignment." A l l Subjects  2.  " I read the material."  3.  " B u t i n o r d e r t o do t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , I h a d t o l o o k o v e r my n o t e s a n d t h i n k a b o u t  3.3  difficulties  main  society, which  1 1  T h e i r D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e Tasks The  three  it.  back  b)  made  t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d c o u l d be d i v i d e d  categories: difficulty  a)  a  with  lack  o f knowledge  specific  i t p r o b l e m a t i c t o answer  terms  about  into the  or vocabulary  the questions,  a n d c)  50 difficulty  with  f o r m u l a t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  i n t o a coherent As study  response.  mentioned lacked  above,  an  the students  in-depth  community.  They  non-profit  organization,  structure on  knowledge  h a d no e x p e r i e n c e  of social  a more g e n e r a l  they  Subject  about  with  were  used  the  the  larger  t h e workings  not  aware  case  of a  of  the  s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c domain, and, scale,  they  a d u l t o r community e d u c a t i o n As  who  had only  vague n o t i o n s  about  endeavours.  7 stated,  "we a n a l y z e d t h e c o r r e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c o n t e x t . . . [ b u t ] I t h i n k maybe I'm w r o n g , maybe I'm a n a l y z i n g b y t h e C h i n e s e way. So when I e x p l a i n how t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e d t h e l a t e r s t e p s - i t i s v e r y c o n f u s e d f o r me. If i t was C h i n e s e s o c i e t y we c o u l d e x p l a i n b u t i n C a n a d a I'm n o t s u r e . 1 1  Subject situation, aspects  admitted  of  reading  6, who  the  developed  a case  to a lack  assignments  t h e course  study  using  of understanding because  material.  he  Several  China  using  encountered they  had  not  be  prove  Chinese  difficulties no  administration, might  a  context,  because  experience evaluation,  with  f o r example,  given have  history  planning,  Furthermore,  i n . a Canadian "finances  might  own w o r k  program  budgeting.  t o be p r o b l e m a t i c  i n China;  i n their  (Subjects  had been  still  some  finished  students  they  Chinese  about  hadn't  1,2,4,7) a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t e v e n i f t h e c o u r s e in  a  what  setting  are not a  might  problem  [ i n t h e PRC]. like  I f a work u n i t  a w o r k s h o p on  a planner  we  More  specific  found  in  the  such  which  when t h e y  meanings  in  just  as  are  not  tried  their  arose  because  i t s use  For  t o match them t o Chinese-English  example,  "well-defined",  individual of  a  such  proved  stumped,  the  the  translations  dictionaries.  the  read  word  more c o m p l e x  The  or  heard  'strategy' connotation  w h i c h g e n e r a l l y u s e s i t as  standard  5,  "So  as  " d e s i r e d s t a t e of  difficult  because  dictionary,  p a r t s make no  Subject  limited  "technique".  Other phrases,  in  As  "strategy",  uses they  i n Chinese  i n adult education,  a synonym f o r  located  something,  their  subject-specific  d i d n ' t mesh w i t h t h e  class.  of  "philosophy",  much b r o a d e r , than  do  a b u s e , t h e money i s a v a i l a b l e .  problems  Words  "instruments",  they  they'll  n e v e r w o r r y a b o u t t h e money".  vocabulary.  students  child  decides  sense  and  I  just  and  they  couldn't  like  idioms,  in isolation.  sometimes  affairs"  had  In the to  be the  words  guess  the  meaning". Difficulties either. were accept  didn't  Some c o n c e p t s ,  totally them  foreign almost  stop  at  the  i n spite  of  to on  them trust.  bewilderment over  a concept  case  assignment  study.  h i r e s you  The  and  word  states  phrase  discussions i n required  Subject  w h i c h was  or  8  that  the  class,  students  described  embedded i n t h e that  level  Alma  his  course Society  (an o u t s i d e r - on c o n t r a c t ) t o o r g a n i z e a w o r k s h o p  52 on  a particular  and  thought  theme.  about  Subject 8 said,  i t because  " I thought  i n China  this  about i t  would  never  A u n i t w o u l d n e v e r b r i n g i n someone f r o m o u t s i d e t o  happen. organize examples  a  project  on  of similar  h i s own".  Other  students  gave  confusions.  Once t h e y b e g a n  analyzing  t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a n o t h e r frame  and w r i t i n g  o f mind.  they had t o put  Subject 1  summarizes  the process, "When I d i d my a s s i g n m e n t s , I j u s t p r e t e n d I'm a C a n a d i a n a n d someone h i r e d me t o do s o m e t h i n g . I j u s t u s e my i m a g i n e a n d t r y t o f i x t h e s i t u a t i o n here. I f something i s known I ' l l base on my experience. I f s o m e t h i n g i s new I ' l l b a s e i t on what [ t h e p r o f e s s o r ] t a u g h t u s . " When t h e y r a n up a g a i n s t  a concept o r term they  u n d e r s t a n d , t h e y w o u l d s o m e t i m e s d i s c u s s i t among (although the  they didn't  professor  additional during adult  o r me.  meetings  this  course  a l l live  with the professor  e d u c a t i o n i n Canada.  used t h i s  Putting proved  they  the material  t o be y e t a n o t h e r  had t h e b e n e f i t o f f o u r mornings  examined  Sometimes  opportunity t o c l a r i f y  themselves  together) o r they would ask  The s t u d e n t s a l s o  i n which  didn't  a week  other aspects of  t h e Chinese  students  points.  f o rt h e assignments hurdle.  down  on p a p e r  Subject 5 expresses the  t a s k t h i s way:. " I t r i e d t o c a t c h t h e meaning o f t h e assignment by r e a d i n g i t - t r i e d t o f i n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the points or questions. I ' d t h i n k about i t -  53 t r y i n g to organize i t according to the S o m e t i m e s I ' d d i s c u s s i t w i t h my f r i e n d . "  content.  " A n o t h e r p r o b l e m i s how to organize. I'm not familiar with how t o o r g a n i z e . I'm f a m i l i a r w i t h l o g i c a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l [ m a t e r i a l ] but not t h i s form. A l s o t o t h i n k about i t i s d i f f e r e n t t h a n t o w r i t e a b o u t i t . " ( S u b j e c t 8) Other  students  "After going the  one  by  one."  i t s t e p by  Although stretched  the  writing  (Subject  students  found  s u c c e s s f u l l y . When  3)  another  way.  then I answered  "If I  find  I  can  I t r y t o do t h a t . I f I d o n ' t ,  step."  intellectually,  in  readings,  (Subject  some p a r t s t o g e t h e r ,  t r y t o do  tasks  the  t h r o u g h t h e n o t e s and  questions  collect  tackled  they  I  8) themselves  were  able  questioned  to  about  muddled  complete their  and their  feelings  r e g a r d i n g t h e i r w o r k , some comments w e r e : " E v e n t h o u g h I know my a s s i g n m e n t s w e r e n ' t g o o d , s p e n t l o t s o f t i m e a t i t . " ( S u b j e c t 6) " I t h i n k I have a good b a s i c g r a s p of t h e now." ( S u b j e c t 2)  I  material  " I t ' s very important f o r u s t o g e t some o u t c o m e [ o u t p u t ] . I t ' s a p r e s s u r e f o r y o u t o do t h e t h i n g s [but] producing something is good for us." ( S u b j e c t 4) " J u s t a f t e r f i n i s h i n g t h i s c l a s s , I am want to step right into adult ( S u b j e c t 6) The  students'  tasks  raise  apparent easily  once  reactions an  to  interesting  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  paradox,  i t ' s articulated.  e x c i t e d and education."  one  Learning  which is  their becomes  often  accomplished i f e x p e r i e n t i a l t a s k s are r e q u i r e d .  most The  paradox  arises  have a l r e a d y  because  learned the  in  order  task.  to  do  the  task,  one  must  55  CHAPTER FOUR A N A L Y S I S OF DATA 1.0  Data  Collection  The taped outs  data  collected  interviews, from  overview  comprised  completed  the course.  extensive  assignments,  Several steps  of the data. F i r s t ,  notes,  r e a d i n g s and hand-  were  the f i e l d  field  taken  notes  t o g a i n an  were  reviewed  many t i m e s . Some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s g u i d i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the  notes  were  as  follows:  What  i s the  nature  of the  professor's discourse? Is there a structure to the lectures? How  does  the  assignments? the  professor What  class?  How  prepare  a r e some  do  the  students  of the social  the students  go  for  patterns  about  their within  completing the  assignments? F r o m t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i t was p o s s i b l e were  distinctive  instruction,  patterns  with  regard  t o see t h a t to  there  the nature  of  the style  o f d i s c o u r s e and t h e s o c i a l f a b r i c o f  the c l a s s environment.  What was n o t c l e a r was t h e i n f l u e n c e  that  these  factors  had  on  the  students  and  their  the  taped  f o l l o w e d an o p e n - q u e s t i o n  format  participation. The  next  interviews. in  which  allowed II). their  step  involved  The i n t e r v i e w s  each  transcribing  s t u d e n t was a s k e d t h e same b a s i c  t o answer  as f u l l y  a s s h e o r he  q u e s t i o n and  wished  (Appendix  I n some c a s e s , t h i s meant t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s r e f e r r e d t o notes  from  class  or their  assignments' i n order  to  56 a n s w e r a s p r e c i s e l y a s p o s s i b l e ( S u b j e c t s 1, cases, with  students took anecdotes,  illustrations instances,  class,  the  8). In  a more r o u n d - a b o u t a p p r o a c h  quotations  from  4,  from  and  students  popular  s o on  and  replied  Chinese  culture,  ( S u b j e c t s 5,6).  amplified  their  other  I n many  feelings  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d u r i n g i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h me, added  these  Similarly,  from has  recorded  comments  prior  The  c o u l d be  to  I  professor course.  comments  to  total  chronological  collection  analyzed.  base.  For  the  been  necessary  to  field  during  The  analysis  read  the  and  organization  Gradually  i t became  (course content classroom  and  of  The  Chinese  engaged  in  students  through  education,  a  and  themes,  explained  by  students  and  understanding  was  source  study, i t  harmonious the  and  although they the the  were  of  the  professor  o f what was  and  the  assignments  grasp  say  necessary  professor  were  led for  the adult  unfamiliar the  with  patterns  i t another  began ' t o  and  co-operative  planning  were  issue.  enterprise  professor  program  to To  the  notes  existed.  major  entire  the  students  able  professor.  the  a  particularly  dance:  steps  was  instruction,  students  which  p o r t i o n of the transcript  a  the  developed  that  structure,  the  n a r r a t i v e was  course  apparent  environment)  endeavour.  the  I  diary.  following  a g a i n i n o r d e r t o s e e what r e l a t i o n s h i p s  The  and  discussions with  represented a r i c h  and  this  from  course,  reviewed  a g a i n and  the  the  the  or  share  way a  -  as the  mutual  i n order t o complete  the  course. firmly  As  little  in  this  the  and now  f o r us  be  focus  A  of  for  chapter  the  for  t h e o r y and  course.  But  expected  not  little of  them  in this  in  light  method  of  work,  of  every  at  least  conducted,  context  The data  s t u d e n t s was these  remaining  2.  Task  and  data  co-operation  the  completion  assignments the  as  game, as  an  are  central  sections following  4.Task  the  the  theoretical  provide  under the  tasks,  of  of  this  headings: 3.Task  as  example  of  examining  two  f e a t u r e s : what  and  primary  what the  i s the  task  nature  takes  classroom  activity  of the  place.  tasks is  environment  Marx  and  Walsh  c a t e g o r i e s somewhat. They e x a m i n e t a s k u n d e r  headings:  c) s t u d e n t s '  Tasks  researcher  i n which  s h i f t t h e s e two main  several  a c h i e v i n g the  Because  socialization,  Characteristics  considers  of  "task" w i l l  analysis.  examine t h e  situation,  of  practice.  Almost  and  work  assignments.  academic  will  vehicle  three  at  central  1.Characteristics  being  of the  was  gain a better understanding  examined  course  examples  or  to  between t h e p r o f e s s o r and  the  2.0  outset  understanding  p e r c e i v e d what was  mechanisms  approaches.  of  the  students  order  forces  r e v e a l s , an  context.  In  noted  narrative  e s t a b l i s h e d at  by  will  the  a)setting,  cognitive  plans,  f a r t h e r than r e s e a r c h e r s such  b)instructional and  i n doing  as D o y l e ,  so  delivery, go  f o r example.  a  step  58  2.1  Setting Within  features: iii)the  this  i)teachers'  social  t e a c h e r s who and  the  conduct course true.  along  of  Walsh  the  the  et  and  time,  large,  1987,  expectations  to the  the  above  professor organized  the  course  i t is itself 1983,  establish  opportunities  about the  a l l of  and  Doyle,  1 9 7 4 ) . They  the  regard  of  three  of the task  al,  Snelbecker,  With  study,  By  determinants  activity,  way.  consider  ii)allocation  (Anderson  resources,  in this The  control,  M a r x , 1988,  structure the  and  system of the classroom.  environment  practice,  Marx  are the primary  E d w a r d s , 1987, the  category  for  outcome  adult  and  education  characteristics structure  are  (content  and p r o c e s s ) , t h e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e t a s k s ,  the  sequence  the  and  timing,  overall  organization  students  to  students course  choose  were  As  responsible their that the  own  et  al  intrinsic  of  f o r the  of  the  the  perceptions  task  allowing  assignments, to  t h e r e was  the  little  exception  of  assignments.  that  regarding  and  according  of the papers w i t h the  students'  of  While  required  I could t e l l ,  self-competence,  value  assessment  participate  maintain  competencies  for  classroom.  submissions  f o r the  concepts  to f a r as  format  occasional delayed  the  topic  expected  i n the  Anderson  of  the  as d e f i n e d .  variation  guidelines  the  and  tasks.  success bear  teacher  and  is  beliefs They  also about  suggest  failure,  some r e l a t i o n  to  and the  outcome to  of the task.  In a d d i t i o n , students  r e s p o n d t o .the demands o f t h e t a s k .  and  passages  Chinese  within  students  confidence  course upon  in  them  because return  his  i t i s clear  that  the  were  China.  factors  support  of  responsible What  material  (Subject  in  of tasks.  International  their  attempts.  for "their"  suggests  motivation their  Conversely,  and  1 ) ; " I knew  this  and the  tasks  Education  readings"  in  were  paid  an  extremely  earlier  field  so  argued task the be  that  in  (Erickson,  i t i s n o t how  the crucial  they  1983,  feature  considerably  study,  course  in  interest  me"  I just  skimmed  Walsh,  a student  of time.  1988)  more  time  accomplishment,  to  students  time t o complete the assignments  not  non-native  frequently complete  a  actions  W h i l e t i m e p e r s e may  will  have  s p e n d s on  h a v e m a i n t a i n e d ) b u t what  of task  the Chinese  and  much t i m e  i n t e r n a t i o n a l students  need  In t h i s  Marx  requires of the student.  speaking  and  (Subject 4 ) .  (as e a r l i e r e d u c a t o r s task  the  less attention  " i t didn't  i t w a s n ' t my  that  participation  they  because  is  this  portion  The s e c o n d f e a t u r e u n d e r s e t t i n g i s a l l o c a t i o n Researchers  the  c o n f i d e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s t h a t i t was  self-competence  completion  the  and  they  to  significant  how  From t h e n a r r a t i v e  u p o n t h e m t o l e a r n a s much a s p o s s i b l e f r o m  students'  to  analysis,  learn  were g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s  Furthermore, they incumbent  the  must  say  that  assignments.  h a d t h e same amount o f  as t h e o t h e r  students,  but  the  standards  different.  used  Also,  to  evaluate  t h e Chinese  their  students  assignments had  access  r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l one m o n t h p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t However, time  these  factor  students the  adjustments  between  overall  knowledge  of the course.  Chinese  and  the  F o r one t h i n g , of  adult  other  knowledge  system.  Secondly,  Therefore, was  of  education  an  Canadian  their  i t c a n be a r g u e d important  requirements.  The  society  English  that  in  following  lacked  the by  other  limited  and  the  academic  proficiency  was  limited.  that their  factor  graduate  t h e Chinese  s t u d e n t s h a d a c q u i r e d , and t h e y were h a n d i c a p p e d general  to the  were n o t enough t o e q u a l i z e t h e  the  i n the course.  were  time  spent  completing statements  on a t a s k  the  academic  summarize  the  situation: "The t i m e b e t w e e n t h e c l a s s e s i s v e r y s h o r t s o i t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o complete a l l t h e r e a d i n g s and assignments. So sometimes I just do t h e assignments" (Subject 2 ) . " E v e n t h o u g h my a s s i g n m e n t s a r e n ' t v e r y g o o d , s p e n t l o t s o f t i m e a t i t " ( S u b j e c t s 1, 8 ) . " D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e I h a d no t i m e m a t e r i a l " (Subject 1). There i s another  consideration  I  to re-read the  w i t h respect t o time  on  task.  F r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g t h e l e c t u r e s , many o f t h e s t u d e n t s ,  while  looking  focussing  engrossed  on t h e t o p i c .  everything,  like  in  the  Despite  a l lstudents,  from t h e i n t e r v i e w s t o t h i s  presentation,  t h e urgency they  effect  were  not  of taking i n  daydreamed.  Comments  a r e : "Sometimes I d i d n ' t  f o c u s on t h e c l a s s . concentrate also  I l o o k e d out t h e  [ i n E n g l i s h ] so  long"  window.  (Subject  This  data  dimensions  suggest  and  that  for  the  non-native  able t o attend to the comprehends  couldn't  There  were  students  were  attention. time  factor  speakers  b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e , t i m e d o e s a f f e c t how  he  6) .  o t h e r o c c a s i o n s when some o f t h e C h i n e s e  c l e a r l y not paying  I  the  activities.  material  may  has with  limited  w e l l a student i s  M o r e o v e r , how also  several  be  thoroughly  related  to  the  as  the  amount o f t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h t a s k . The social  third  system  suggest  aspect  under  of the  classroom.  sense"  interaction  and  (p.  209),  social  professor  room a n d in  view  grouped  presented  of  was  fact,  activities  features  one  descriptive  the  another  around  publicly  i t was  5,6,7,8)  such  for  lectures  four  a l l the  tables  horseshoe  who  only  in  front  the  ventured  of  more to  at  in  as  their social  example  the  seating  which  front  The  were  14  ask  were  students on  an  Thus, i f a  students.  students in  the  a question, i t  other  publicly  of  placed  configuration.  out-going  Although  the students  time.  a l l the  speak  others  elements.  w a n t e d t o make some comments o r  done  and  t o a l a r g e e x t e n t an o p e n f o r u m .  a n g l e i n an a p p r o x i m a t e student  and  Walsh  d i r e c t e d most o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n ,  full  were  was  social  configuration,  arrangement, are important ADED XXX  i s described  M a r x and  t h a t "academic t a s k s are  broadest  the  "setting"  front  In  (Subjects of  the  62 whole  group.  males.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , these  O n l y on two o c c a s i o n s  question  while  class  reserved  their  queries  professor:  "we  Further,  exchange.  i n progress.  asked  within the small on  When  each  in  the  a l l eight  students  i n the  s a i d yes.  didn't  notes  I noted  t h e Chinese  that  students  their  minds,  s a i d they  t h e Canadian  f o rtheir  whole,  they  felt  felt  nervous;  students. students  they From  rarely  or  directly  I f t h e Chinese  students  was  organized  participated i n the discussion.  w e r e much l e s s v o c a l  their  sometimes  opinions  t o say, and t h e language they  whether  always understand t h e task  i n c l u d e d them i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s . something  was  i n the  facilitated  u n d e r s t a n d t h e comments o f t h e o t h e r  field  there  asked  f o r that reason didn't p a r t i c i p a t e . Also,  had  morning"  When a s k e d how t h e y  they  commented t h a t  were  discussions  three  asked  they  with the  to participate  2 of the eight  the  tutorials  group d i s c u s s i o n s ,  about p a r t i c i p a t i n g ,  didn't  ask a  In general,  questions  student  t h e Chinese  involved  understanding,  and  were a l l  d i d two female s t u d e n t s  f o r t h e morning  always  responsibility  being  subjects  1).  (Subject  a  was  four  than  the native  However, t h e y f o u n d i t u s e f u l t o h e a r t h e i d e a s  in  On t h e speakers.  o f t h e other  students. As the  m e n t i o n e d above, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  seating  Chinese  per  arrangement table)  was  (roughly  o f t h e t a b l e s and  two n a t i v e  deliberately  speakers,  staged  to  two  foster  63  interaction degree  among t h e s t u d e n t s .  but d i d not result  Sometimes t h e C a n a d i a n in  conversation  conversation questions  The  conversation patterns  with  Chinese  we  breaks,  to a  mixing.  one o r t w o  the  situation,  Chinese  but  Canadian  the  asking  rather than  a mutual  rarely  initiated  students  with the others  that  coffee  exploratory,  successful  spontaneous  engaged  the  about t h e Chinese  exchange.  was  i n natural  students  during  was  This  and were n o t good a t s m a l l  normally  associate  with  of tasks,  or sub-tasks  talk  casual  conversation. The  distribution  was e q u i t a b l e , b u t a s d i s c u s s e d equal  partners  cases,  this  i n the small occurred  i n this  case,  above, t h e C h i n e s e were n o t  groups  because  discussions.  students  I n some  didn't  always  understand the task  o r t h e language o f t h e n a t i v e  speakers.  In  they  into  some  instances,  conversation topic.  or lacked  When  were  knowledge  the discussion  professor,  the tasks  individuals  w i t h i n t h e group.  readings speakers. equitable.  were  were  t h e same  Thus,  from  reluctant  as this  or information  topics  not  t o break  were  about t h e  outlined  designated  to  the  one  by t h e o r two  A l s o , t h e assignments and t h e those  required  standpoint  of the  the  tasks  native were  64 2.2  Instructional Delivery Within  Marx  characteristics, delivery  a  Walsh's  second  i s identified.  management  of  instructional The  and  the  Factors  task,  under teacher  the  exercised  were  delivery  organized  discussions the  tasks  called  listed  i i ) medium  here of  of  task  instructional include: i )  delivery, i i i )  f e a t u r e , management o f t h e t a s k ,  upon e a r l i e r  structure,  category  (1988)  goals.  first  teacher  overview  almost  a  to explore  r e l a t e d t o them,  control  of the task.  lecture  touched  I t was m e n t i o n e d  complete  and outcome  around  added  control.  was  base  various  with  that  over  The  the  classes  small  group  t o p i c s . These t o p i c s ,  a n d t h e amount o f t i m e  were a l l  d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p r o f e s s o r . During  the lectures the professor  overhead p r o j e c t o r t o present sources.  Also,  summaries,  transparencies gave s t u d e n t s  time,  graphics.  from  other  When  the  overhead  materials,  they  t o deal with the material,  reinforced during the lecture with a visual, and t h e l e c t u r e were v e r y  in  the  evaluation  i f the information  students  an  for illustrations,  the reading  But sometimes t h e content  example  However,  was u s e d  another opportunity  ". . . t h e c o n t e n t  for  other  were t a k e n  the p r i n t being  another.  and  used  m a t e r i a l from a t e x t o r  the blackboard  charts  frequently  were  not  wasn't so e a s y t o f i n d , section"  was p r o j e c t e d  able  to  r e l a t e d t o one  listen,  (Subject  f o r only view  6) .  a  short  and  write  65  q u i c k l y enough. notes  Further, Subjects  3 and  7 remarked t h a t  the  on t h e b l a c k b o a r d w e r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t . " S o m e t i m e s , h e ' d w r i t e new t h i n g s on t h e b o a r d , sometimes illustrations, but not always. W h a t e v e r , t h e p r o f e s s o r w r i t e s down on b l a c k b o a r d , I w r i t e down. I t h i n k i t ' s i m p o r t a n t " ( S u b j e c t 7 ) . "In China, the p r o f e s s o r s always w r i t e important t h i n g s on t h e b l a c k b o a r d , so when D r X d o e s I w r i t e i t i n my n o t e s " ( S u b j e c t 4 ) . The  final  area t o c o n s i d e r under i n s t r u c t i o n a l  i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u c t i o n a l this the  study  there  researcher's  During  every  l e c t u r e s and the  reading  In  the  to  view  the course  the  of  s t e p by  the  match  from  Chinese commented  matched  7  the  specific  and  logical  required  readings  both  that  the  Similarly,  topics  " A l l topics  In  students'.  o r g a n i z a t i o n were c l e a r .  Subject step,  and  clear  students  material directly  collection  students  lectures  in  prior turn  assignments. offered  an  situation  In  of to  the  set  up  addition,  opportunity or to  meant t h a t t h e or i f necessary, the  point  of  a very  task.  outlined.  are  detailed,  from  beginning  end." The  the  be  interview,  words  following  seems t o  g o a l s and  delivery  to  e x a m i n e an Chinese had  the  of  the  knowledge  small apply  group the  aspect  students  another  information again.  beginning  were  needed  work  chance t o hear still  had  The  for  the  (discussions)  information  other  to  course.  in  i n greater detail.  heard  I f students  provided  p o i n t s of (and  a  new This view  comprehend)  difficulties  or  66  sesions  Figure  1  C o n n e c t i o n Between A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n t h e C l a s s and - t h e - R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Those P a r t s t o t h e A s s i g n m e n t .  inquiries,  they  had  one  more o p p o r t u n i t y d u r i n g t h e  morning sessions organized The course  goals  outline  first  to  principles  their  course  the  provide  were  aware  that  learning  In  spite  of  accomplished, instructional understanding students first is  their  a  o f how  assignment.  they  Recalling  c l e a r that the student  the assignments,  were  "...  had the  what  programs. with  gaining  and  was  to  between  be the  the  students'  assignments.  A l l eight  to  comments o f  t o l e a r n how first  general  education.  u n c e r t a i n how  the  the  was  coincided  occur  assignments  t o complete the  stated that  of  regarding did  the  course  vis-a-vis  of a d u l t  agreement  the  the  goals  objectives  discrepancy  goals,  that  the  during  adult education  these  knowledge about v a r i o u s aspects  stated in  these  application  i n planning  reiterated  personal  were e x p l i c i t l y  practical  stages  f o r them.  professor reviewed  Students  and  students  the  and  class.  designed  The  of  just  special  time  begin  Subject  t o go I  the  8,  i t  about  doing  don't  even  67  understand  what  is  organize  how  first  to  time."  students  the  questions  and  find  how  able  by  the  to  locate  to  what  fourth  examine  the  "...another  that the  these  between  p l a y e d a p a r t i n how  and  then  tasks.  See  style, the  data,  a l l  the the  i n ' the  answer  i t can  goals  and  the  1 for a graphic  and  assignments  w e l l t h e s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o  Figure  be  t h e medium o f d e l i v e r y  the c o n n e c t i o n between c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s  the  seen the a l l  complete  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  and  assignments.  Cognitive Plans The  tasks be  do  questions  t o p i c s t o examine t h e  instructional  relationship  2.3  should  assignment  the  information  we  problem  i n a- s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner.  Using  their  said.  However,  were  assignment,  assignment  final  category  i s called  separated  t h a t Marx  students'  into  and  Walsh use  cognitive plans.  operations  and  products,  to  examine  This  topic  can  terms  that  are  a l s o e m p l o y e d by D o y l e and E r i c k s o n . The  concern  o p e r a t i o n s and situation, apply  them  that those  make to  thinking skills. the they  assignments were  more  characteristics  here i s that tasks r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t w h i c h ask  judgments the  new  about  From t h i s required difficult and  s t u d e n t s t o comprehend a  i t , select  conditions  than  procedures  involve  description, these  mental  kinds simply  r e - s t a t i n g t h e m on  "higher-order"  i t i s apparent of  and  skills,  memorizing a test.  and a  list  that thus of  I t i s worth  68 noting  that  feature rely  this  kind  of Chinese education.  heavily  on  examinations.  at  loss  as  insignificant. such a  of  discrete  Therefore,  to  when  were  how  the  Chinese  difficult  to  the  long  and t h e y  comments  in  stated were  were  not  t h a t they had never  ways.  facilitated  Many  have  their  been  provided  task  cited  summary, he m o d i f i e d , h i s d i s c o u r s e ,  faced  completion  earlier.  used  frequent  But  in in  examples,  ample s u p p o r t and encouragement, and s t r u c t u r e d t h e  course  tightly  themes  of the assignments  using  the  lectures  to  illustrate  and m a t c h i n g  the  main  the lectures to the  material.  Marx  and  Walsh  refer  also  They r a i s e t h e i s s u e o f c r i t e r i a  t o the products  The p r o f e s s o r  d i d not e x p l i c i t l y  in  that  good  85%.  70  we  see  - 75%, v e r y  From t h i s  study,  he good  applied 75  students'  o u t l i n e how he a r r i v e d  papers. Referring  Three,  tasks.  f o r feedback.  a t t h e marks f o r s t u d e n t s ' Chapter  of  f o r assessment of  p r o d u c t s and t h e r o l e o f p r o d u c t s as f o c i  over  and  students  f o r them  proceed,  I t i s quite l i k e l y  professor  several  grades:  items  students  task.  The  reading  and  common  which are then r e c a l l e d almost verbatim  the assignments a  i s not a  Chinese teachers  memorization  passages of t e x t  that  of i n t e g r a t i v e task  -  to section basically  85%, and  i t i s n o t c l e a r how  equated with those of the native E n g l i s h speaking  2.1  three  excellent  these  marks  students.  The  assignments  were  marked  i n such  professor t r i e d t o guide incomplete posing  a  client  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . How  1,  question,  of Subject  have?"  will  y o u do t h a t ? "  t o ask  (Assignment  "What a u t h o r i t y d o e s t h e p r o g r a m  original  suggestions". when t h e y As  ideas  Therefore,  planner  with  mentioned  students  remarks  the students  earlier,  outlined with  had d i f f i c u l t y  students  also  confusing  f o r them,  "Dr  assignment  X's  understand, i s hard  with  stated  "good  clear idea  other  what  words,  considerable  representations  examines  some o f t h e w o r d i n g  very  the explicit left  i s vague  were  difficult  to  the things  and Marx  exist  nature  some s t u d e n t s (1982)  between  o f what i s r e q u i r e d .  the individual  and so on.  (Subject 1 ) .  Winne  discrepancies  items,  questions  t h e way he d e s c r i b e s  despite  expected.  some  was  instances,  vocabulary  "instruments"  that  the a c t u a l wording was  assignments  I n some  specific  description  t h e sentences,  assignments,  students'  as  of the  questions.  f o r us t o u n d e r s t a n d "  In  such  had a very  the topics  such as " d e s i r e d - s t a t e - o f - a f f a i r s " , Three  c o r r e c t p o i n t and  w e r e on t h e r i g h t t r a c k a n d when n o t .  were e x p l i c i t l y  one  the  ( A s s i g n m e n t 1, S u b j e c t 2 ) .  praised  about  that  " I t i s necessary-  A l s o , he s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c h e c k e d e v e r y  the  way  o r i n a c c u r a t e answers by  f o r example,  8).  a  questions or laden  of the guessing  show  that  teachers'  and  I n d e e d , when  of t h e assignments, with  jargon.  Also,  70  questions  seem  one,  students  and  then  out  of  are  asked  in  the  responsibility  and  Clearly  these  separated. may  by t h e C h i n e s e  of  feedback.  two  the  easy  to  familiar  example,  define the line  assignment  f e a t u r e of t h i s The  be  fact  with the  a  section  mark  especially  for  and t h e i r  of  tasks  and  feedback  Once instructor  nature  of  comprehensive  requirements  been  should revised  be they  experienced  was  their  received  those  not  a l l the first  values  how  these  o f ADED  again,  we  to prepare  and  students  very are  entirely felt  assignment;  they  important  important  carried task  first  confidence increased.  are  are  value  students  vehicles  t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c l a s s r o o m w o r k . The  the  understanding  and  Numerical  Moreover,  t h e t a s k s a r e p e r c e i v e d and  a  their  i s the a f f e c t i v e  students.  system.  products  specificity  provided  program  organization.  language burden  percentage  Chinese  knew t h e y c o u l d s u c c e e d  Using  the  related  g r e a t r e l i e f when t h e y r e c e i v e d t h e i r  of  specify  t h a t the p r o f e s s o r graded  with the  understanding  to  questions  some o f t h e  understand,  The  of the  asked  not  assignment  goals  within  are  in  students.  assignments  positively  For  authority  questions  Had  last  to  same  have a l l e v i a t e d  The  order.  to  for  for  features  shaping  how  out. examine  the  structured were  able  data  has  framework  for  to  fulfill  the  XXX. see the  how  important  students,  i t  structure  is the  for  the  classroom  71 work  and environment,  clearly.  and d e f i n e  In addition,  concert  with  we  the goals  see t h a t  the professor  t h e students  t o complete  develop t h e i r knowledge o f p l a n n i n g  3.0  and t h e t a s k s worked i n  t h e assignments and  i n adult  education.  T a s k a s Game In  h i s study  games,  Bruner  "format", child  o f mother  (1983)  thesis  proposed  the patterned  t o cooperate  how  that  situation  i n passing  raises several  understand  and c h i l d  i n t e r a c t i o n through  t h e game that  enables  on l a n g u a g e  important  t h e students  issues  provides  the  adult  and  and c u l t u r e . H i s  that  c a n be used t o  and p r o f e s s o r  achieved  their  goals.  3.1  Deep S t r u c t u r e o f Games Games h a v e a "deep s t r u c t u r e " a n d a s e t o f r e a l i z a t i o n  moves b y w h i c h t h e s u r f a c e The  deep  topics  structure  or  Planning  themes  Context  3.Developing and  an  The  interpret  of  the  Plan.  as  4.Designing  each  rules  assignments.  ( p . 4 6) . with the  1./Analyzing 2.Assessing  the Needs,  an I n s t r u c t i o n a l P l a n  5.Formulating assignment  delineated  subordinate  compared  assignments:  Plan,  Further,  which  their  c a n be  and t h e C l i e n t System,  Objectives,  questions  regarded  o f t h e game  Administrative  Evaluation  o f t h e game i s managed  each which  Having  had  a  Summative sub-themes.  assignment help  can  students  t h e themes  be to  and t h e  72 questions  allowed  simulated  students  activity  s t r u c t u r e d format, with  the  provide graduate  3.2  with  The In  context  still  assignments. entree  Despite  experienced  Nevertheless,  into  the  the  regular  and  was  systematic.  predictable  so  that  methodology  Similarly,  other  words, to  one  sample  education week,  i t  work  did of  and  routine.  each l e c t u r e presented  needed  for  the  i t was  the  a  budget  the  a  the  The  could  be  next  section  reviewed  the  content  assignment. first  assignment  in  which  the  to due  class.  tailor  For  on  applied  structure classes  subsequent  assignments.  professor  which  program.  included  of  were  The  a deliberate strategy to  content  evening  child  the  professor h i g h l i g h t e d t h i s point during the  during  the  difficulty  f o r t h e games b e t w e e n m o t h e r a n d  classes  lectures  a  planning.  a  Format  were t a s k - b a s e d , and  students  an  constrained  the  program  "game" -  course.  The  of  two  Structured  highly  the  first them  of  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  the  instance,  the  blackboard  a  continuing  the  following  students  were  to  propose a budget f o r t h e i r h y p o t h e t i c a l program. The  situation  professor's was  or  instructional  summarized,  reviewed  was  i t as  vocabulary  and  he  confined style. often  a conclusion. were  even  by  Each s e c t i o n of the previewed  Frequently,  "revisited";  further  a  topic  important  f o r example,  the  the  lecture  and  then  concepts notion  of  73 planning  as  an  " a n t i c i p a t o r y decision-making  m e n t i o n e d i n l e c t u r e 1 and In  addition  lectures,  the  constrained. words;  the  professor's He  Handover One  of the  key of  child  becomes  familiar  execute  he  the  interplay. as  reapply he  the  r o l e of can  and  look  his  as  sequences  words  or  new  terms  that  i t was  a s s i g n m e n t had  He  the  the  patterns  and  the  moves  of  learns  how  to  takes  and  charge  principle  the  on  -the  b)  the  two  Then  possible  learns he  the  learns  to  as r o l e m o d e l h a n d o v e r game,  and  role.  to  grades  "handover" the  reference  to the professor's  comments  to  what  required tasks.  m i g h t be:  professor  and  determine  accomplished the question  entire  levels just  child  moves.  and  of  p a r t i c i p a n t ' s r o l e i n the  professor's  the  and  game. As  content of  of mother  the  initiative  context,  initiator's  the  terminology,  repeated  c o n t r o l of  the  at t h i s  a)  learns  learns the Using  with  agent.  t h e m i n a new child  paper,  "handingover"  does:  principles  very  students.  increases  We  Bruner  ideas,  defined  the  also  concepts i n Bruner's study  i s that  game,  and  was  of  Principle  child  the  organization  rephrased  was  6.  discourse  constantly  unknown t o t h e  in lecture  systematic  c l a r i f i e d concepts;  m i g h t be  3.3  to  again  process"  To  c o n t r o l of the grading  on  degree In  game?". As  each  Bruner's  what d e g r e e  system, the  each  did a  the  cross-  assignments  74  were  reclassified  (Incomplete,  Complete,  (1981).  The  papers  grade,  the  rank  comments Since  to  coded  accorded  accomplished  the  first  to the  attempted.  Although  although  assignment  in  s i x students  a  more  students i n an  had  This  this  "handover"  situation,  concept  may  b u t i t does g i v e  what o c c u r r e d i n t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . while the students  of the goals  of the course;  of the task pattern  n o t be  i n the  satisfactory  3 slipped to a they  especially  We  executed..  and  a l l  completed  i s maintained  in  8.  a perfect  a technique  students  were  By a s s i g n m e n t f o u r ,  f i t  for  f o r examining  see, f o r example,  were a b l e t o h a n d l e  t h e r o l e h a n d o v e r was n e v e r  basic  indicated that  assignment f i v e w i t h the exception of Subject The  own  learning objectives,  objectives.  manner.  barely  the students  comprehended t h e n a t u r e extended  than  held their  In assignment t h r e e , a l l but Subject  " h i g h e r and l o w e r " l e v e l  students  two q u e s t i o n s  papers.  it  students  t r o u b l e w i t h t h e concept  refrain  five  assignment,  had  acceptability  by h e r s t a n d a r d s .  that  s c o r e . Comments f r o m  other  assignments.  the  second  lower  two  and  that the researcher  manner, t h r e e d i d n o t , a n d i n two c a s e s , not  Schmidt  percentage  professor,  determined  important  indicates  by  on t h e c o m p l e t e d  a s s e s s i n g t h e assignments 1  categories  developed  the  i t was t h e p r o f e s s o r who  Table  as  basic  according  by  written  i t was  three  Extended)  were  and remarks  of the papers, from  according  that  most o f t h e c o n t e n t , B u t t h i s was n o t p a r t  were n e v e r  expected  to  75  Table 1 Assignment  1  Subject  Incomplete  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Extended  X X X  X  X X X  X  Table 2 Assignment  2  Subject  Incomplete  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Complete  Extended  X X X  X  T a b l e 3 Assignment  X X X X  3  Subject  Incomplete  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Table  Complete  Complete  Extended  X X  4 Assignment  X X X X  4  Subject  Incomplete  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  X  X  Complete  Extended X X X X X X X X  -  T a b l e 5 Assignment  5  Subject  Incomplete  Complete  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Extended X X X missing X X X  X  Incomplete  =  some q u e s t i o n s  Complete  =  a l l q u e s t i o n s answered, few and n o t e s , h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d  Extended  = uses  lecture  not answered,  material  or  answers  superficial,  original  readings  answers  but  -  amplifies  wrong quotes with  answers from own  readings knowledge  76 become be  initiators.  that  the  professor  instructional  style  proficiency. because  it  Perhaps  never  once  In o t h e r  d i d not  a more t e l l i n g re-adjusted  the  words,  observation  students  his  his  make room f o r t h e i r  speech  had  scaffolding  would and  demonstrated was  incomplete  g r o w i n g knowledge  and  skills. Before attention  leaving  to  one  maintained  that  acts  as  she  that  the  It  is  the  if  child  during  the  course  knows  the  the  and  had  could  he  acted  rudimentary confidence professor  handle as  begets  if  he  confidence. of  conviction.  and  of  the  (p.  41).  between  were  not  subjected their  to  English  study  professor  knew  their  presupposes  students  academic  academic  The  He  mother  faith  been  draw  h a d no b a c k g r o u n d i n in  of psychology  supportive  e n c o u r a g e d by h i s  the  the  intention  leap  had  to  study.  game  procedures:  they  short,  Bruner  the  her  who  admissions  knowledge  was  students  participated  they  of  These  not  whether However,  students.  In  the  same  minimal;  institution.  in  interesting  intention  that  were  western  is  and a c c e p t  recognize  and  skills  child's  infer  university  language field  made  international  standard  it  point  to  professor  section  more  will  possible  typical  this  tasks  they  supports students endeavours  d i d not  the  in  a  know  of  ADED X X X .  could.  Even  the  notion  knew  that  and t h e y  a  that the were  77  4.0  Task as V e h i c l e f o r Language  Socialization  I n C h a p t e r Two t h e c o n c e p t o f l a n g u a g e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s discussed the  data  in a  comprehensive  under  this  heading  manner,  but before  the theory  will  be  examining summarized  here. Scheffelin "an  a n d Ochs  explain  display  (covert  interactional  expected p.5).  ways  of thinking,  Generally,  young  children  the notion and  a  1987/ S c h i e f f e l i n  new  this  culture  theory  group, and  they  we  i s applied to  have  seen  I t i s appropriate students,  come  social-cultural out t h e i r  provides  socialization  (1986b,  that  (Berry &  & Ochs, 1986b), s u c h as s o j o u r n e r s i n  students  carry  acting"  also pertain t o "novices"  are participating  that  students  assignments,  such  a  relate  as t h e C h i n e s e  i n a new  environment  I t i s through  to internalize context.  classroom  useful  to  and  gain  An a n a l y s i s o f  tasks,  vehicle  their  such  as t h e  f o r examining  the  process.  Interaction The  is  but  l e a r n i n g t h e s o c i a l norms a n d r u l e s .  competence i n t h i s  4.1  and  as  t o a novice of  of socialization  to international  participation  how  feeling  and immigrants.  because  socialization  and overt)  caregivers,  patterns of socialization Kim,  language  process  realized  behaviour  o f becoming  t o a large i s  often  extent  guided,  a competent through  member  language.  moderated,  of  society  Children's  reformed  through  78 verbal  interactions  teachers of  instruct,  students  important The  rather the  an  through  or  the  exchange.  that  in  members b r i n g words,  and  and  what  they  to  passive  the  meaning  are  other  identify:  realities  are  the  unique,  perceptions  feedback.  a  contribute  different  individuals  not  there  Ochs  Similarly,  However,  socialization is  is  addition,  adjust  written  language  contributor  In  caregivers.  criticize,  novice  Scheffeiin  selective  oral  in  active  their  praise,  feature  child  with  a)  to to  interaction.  recipient and  but  outcome  individuals  interactions,  their  of  characteristics  interactions.  and  an  are  and In  learning  b)  other  is  not  uniform.  4.2  Selective In  this  this  Participation study,  particular  academic  study  graduates  of  institution. routines  and  a  the  Chinese  students,  academic  community  at  post-secondary  the  first-level They  are,  expectations  degree  of  course,  apprehension  several  the  requirements.  interviews  are  The  and  novices  to  uninitiated  to  level. from  unfamiliar  graduate  Prior  fulfill  to  not  program  however,  "western" u n i v e r s i t y . they expressed  are  while  at  level  the  All a  Chinese  with work  beginning  characteristic  of  their  the in  of  about whether t h e y following  are  the  could  excerpts concerns:  "I felt a f r a i d to participate [in small group discussion] because I wasn't sure if my u n d e r s t a n d i n g was correct" ( S u b j e c t 2) . "When we  a  from  79 do the assignment, everyone has difficulty to understand what we s h o u l d do" ( S u b j e c t 5) . " I didn't participate as freely [during class d i s c u s s i o n s ] as I do i n my n a t i v e l a n g u a g e . You have to •organize and that means slowly, not q u i c k l y , b e f o r e you c a n e x p r e s s y o u r own ideas" ( S u b j e c t 6 ) . " I was r e l u c t a n t t o s p e a k i n f r o n t o f t h e whole c l a s s " ( S u b j e c t 3 ) .  Many o f t h o s e sessions them.  The  professor material concerns in  and  when  not  (Subject  4.3  to  questions  or  ask the  of  their  the  morning about  worried  felt  about  "We we  wasting  than  first  with  previous  asked  to the  class,  raising  those  questions  better control  other  few  returned  tutorials  always  had  the  were  the  rather  group.  I t h i n k we  after  assignments  assignments  i n front  and  students'  we  time"  7).  Despite  very  were e a s e d  first  used  Individual  allayed,  their  students  the morning.  were  anxieties  Realities  the  fact  students  still  different  from  that had  their  Some comments t o t h a t e f f e c t  their  to  grapple  previous  initials with  fears  tasks  academic  that  were were  experience.  are:  "We d i d n ' t f i n d what s e n t e n c e g i v e s a v e r y c l e a r answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n , so you have t o answer yourself. You h a v e t o r e - o r g a n i z e and do y o u r own concept. In Chinese t e x t you'd never find this. T h e r e w o u l d be d e f i n i t e a n s w e r s o r definitions" (Subject 8) . "I'm not used to skimming, i n t h i s c o u r s e i t ' s n e c e s s a r y " (Subject 1 ) . " [ i n C h i n a ] ...we h a v e much more m e m o r i z a t i o n . S t u d e n t s j u s t l i s t e n , s i t i n c l a s s and l i s t e n t o what teachers say. Here students are active, i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g . Sometimes a r g u e and d e b a t e  80 with the professor. ( S u b j e c t 5) . Learning  t o come  t o terms  h a n d l e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. among t h e m s e l v e s , and  Professor with  not  these  formal"  differences  A s one m i g h t e x p e c t ,  discussed  differences with  they  was  talked  the professor  w i t h me. I t i s c l e a r t h a t w h a t e v e r o v e r t m e c h a n i s m s  they  u s e d t o c o m p r e h e n d t h e new m a t e r i a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t , a g r e a t deal do  of internal  readjustment  a l s o took  the assignments, a l l the students  concepts  In order  had t o grapple  and forms o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .  from t h e i n t e r v i e w s r e f l e c t  place.  The f o l l o w i n g  with  to new  excerpts  some o f t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  that  went o n : " S i n c e o u r backgrounds a r e d i f f e r e n t and a l s o t h e l a n g u a g e , we h a v e t o t h i n k i n a n o t h e r way. For e x a m p l e , I h a v e no r e l i g i o n and our political systems a r e very d i f f e r e n t " (Subject 5 ) . "I  just pretend  I'm a C a n a d i a n "  (Subject 8 ) .  " I j u s t want t o a b s o r b t h e e x p e r i e n c e , so I t r y to, I didn't i n t e r p r e t what C a n a d i a n s d o , I j u s t accepted that i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ' t h e y ' do t h i s " (Subject 3 ) . "We a r e a l w a y s g u e s s i n g . I h a d t o s t a n d i n a n o t h e r position t o l o o k about i t " (Subject 7 ) . In very  summary  different  Canadian  brought  different  with  selective  their  socio-cultural  knowledge  f r o m o t h e r members o f t h e c l a s s ,  through  and  then,  educational views  systems.  of r e a l i t y ,  each  student  who h a d come  As i n d i v i d u a l s they  and they  contributions to their tasks.  the professor,  was  made  personal  In co-operation  constructed  h i s or her  81 particular planned  4.4  view  are  socialization  two  other  that  should  aspects  be  i n this  "stock  knowledge".  Mohan,  Many  Hymes,  understandings participate.  that Often  s h a r e d meaning", implicit  should  referred  participants  teacher  another  at  directed.  or t h e i r  students "common  we  the  professor  f o r example, while  learned.  to  From  can see t h a t they  lectures,  many  there exists  be  about we  rely  debating actions  a r e imbued Cazden,  to  a  name  in  order  do  students f o r the unless  o r g a n i z i n g one of the  quite familiar  notes",  Ochs,  the routines  the responses were  &  lesson  not begin  Chinese  with  routines,  such  but other  patterns  and a r g u i n g  with  shared,  or  i n this  situations, a  to  knowledge  (Scheffelin  of  few,  a set of implicit  "shared  initiate  were  discussion.  on o t h e r s t o f i l l  classroom  take  language  Bruner,  need  as  beginning  Students  tasks.  knowledge"  Ochs  i n classroom  or the professor  otherwise  &  knowledge  F o r example,  expectantly  researchers,  to  of  or contexts  participants  background  1986a:165).  Thus,  raised  Scheffelin  a g r e e t h a t w i t h i n any c o n t e x t  new,  programs  important  the notion that a l lsituations  Edwards,  wait  education  Knowledge  There  with  adult  and a d m i n i s t e r e d .  Stock  First,  o f how  some  as " t h e were  the professor.  many  had  to  be  82  One  of  the  highlighted to  intuit  which  for their or  would not  reasons  be  was  sense  normally that  a)  the  the  course;  education  process  of  there  An are  find  other also.  ways  knew I must t h e r e was  4.5  Scheffelin Although they topic  to  concepts But  caused  of  special students  were  unknown:  frequently  evaluation  different;  system;  d)  c)  terms  in the  such  as  "desired-state-of-affairs", their  assignments  terms  words the  or  was  the  used  completely  i t  this  was  concept  client  or  However,  confusion  the  activities  made e x p l i c i t t h a t  escaped  which  b)  of  professor's capacity  interviews  of  one  student, even  suggest  and  reveals  w h i c h were n o t  question  (Subject 6 ) ,  finish"  that  thoroughly "I  simply  just  try  because  t h a t even t h e y  I  knew  information missing.  other and i t  is  suggest to  the  answer  Communicative The  the  students  vocabulary,  concepts  "instruments",  examination  understood to  a  the  Chinese  knowledge.  almost  analyzing  "strategies", on.  is  the  Hence, he  "philosophy"  Chinese  so  shared  s e v e r a l which  throughout  was  t o them.  During  word  a l l  concepts,  some  clarification. identified  success what  familiar  inevitable  that  the  Accommodation  aspect Ochs  of  raise  considered  that  language is  interest  and  which  communicative' accommodation.  mainly  caregivers  socialization  may  in  regard  adjust  level  of  to  their the  baby speech child.  talk, and This  83 accommodation communicate  his  utterances  of  professor mediated  may  distributed  the  intent  he  message  of  of  helping  In  both:  for  form  or  others.  did the  take  the  required  reading;  less  standard  their the  graduate  assignments.  child's  adjusts  level  advances  as  mentioned  However,  analogy  development  and  his  this  own  of  study  the  he  their  his  communication  competency  consistent  developed.  accepting English in  weakens  i s that  the  throughout  the  course.  caregiver  this  c o n t i n u e d t o speak i n a slow, few  idioms  and  characteristics  with of  "foreigner-talk".  In  is  other  normally the  s h i f t h i s s t y l e as t h e s t u d e n t s g a i n e d It of  i s useful  language  interactive active the  to  explore the  socialization. process,  participants,  exchanges  in  By  viewing  selectively to  as  remained  I  mean,  he  relatively These  are  referred  to  as  professor  did  not  from the  the  adding  perspective  experience  that the  construct  or  i n knowledge.  data  i t i s apparent  order  this  repetitions.  words,  change  students  c l e a r manner, w i t h  frequent  what  the  chapter  discourse By  as  accommodation.  of  for  His  the  written  3.3  strategies  he  materials  (Bruner's handover concept), the p r o f e s s o r d i d not advance  the  assisted  progresses,  section  the  discourse;  communicative  in  to  understand  of  and  child  p o i n t s o f v i e w by  Where t h i s  language  the  f o r example  own  a  to  his  students i n presenting t h e i r than  him  case  adjusted others,  helping  to  their  students  and own  as  an  were  taking notion  from of  84 program p l a n n i n g their see or  language  that  i n adult  and  that  background  assumed  to  different  be  common  the  Further,  professor, can  not  knowledge  us  with  another  by  examining  i t is possible  be  taken  when  perceptions.  gives  accommodation,  of  knowledge  cultural  socialization  education.  for  tool,  granted  participants Finally,  that  of  which t o understand the  to  have  language  communicative  adjustments  that  occurred. Although  second  focussed  on  the  suggests  that  complexity The is  a  and  of  are  of  that  has  resource  many  been  primarily  input,  more  factors  than  simply  for  done  those  beliefs  and  knowledge  language  speakers  and  how  this  that  study  influence  the  length  or  in  language  wishing are  novices  to  socialization  understand  transmitted  gain  to  competency  how  second  within  a  environment.  5.0  T a s k as In t h e  practice done, in  has  utterances.  cultural  new  research  controlled  competency  individual  work  great  efficacy  there  comprehension  language  study,  task  component.  the  order  background those  Example o f Theory  sequence to  complete knowledge  sequence  of  i s regarded  The of  and  practice  actions the  that  Practice as is the  assignments.  relevant actions,  to the  and  having  a theory  essentially students The  theory  brought  knowledge  go  to drawn  and  what  a is  through is bear on  the on to  85 complete not  the  only  assignments.  the  completing  their  background and  the  direct  action the  is  a  practical  is  lower  or  the  following  broader  that  principles  an  for  all  the the  in the  assignments communicative  and  on  analyzing  upstairs level  an  a  a  and e v a l u a t i o n .  See  The  contains  skills  are  namely: 2  of by  basis  at  or  of  and  component.  sequence,  Figure  (1987)  theoretical  activity  concepts  human  perspective  downstairs  related  general  theory  activity.  description,  their  Bruner,  this  has  and  and  Mohan's  activity  elements:  more  to  Harre  expands  practice  and  students examines  complete  (1923),  structures  functions  the  also  knowledge  ordered.  level:  the  to  and  framework  theory  These  Piaget  systematic  providing  that  by  examines  course.  to  knowledge  his  of  therefore,  but  necessary  the  According  taken  assignments,  relationship in  inquiry,  actions  knowledge  interactions  This  a At  least choice.  governed  by  classification,  for  a  graphic  of  the  framework. The for  analyzing  task. states to  knowledge  An  excerpt  that  provide  way,  how  the  reading, reiterated  "the an  framework the  students  from  the  knowledge  and  discussion this  point  were  handout  objective  opportunity  provides  of for  insight and  able  to  which  these you  another  to you  the  tool  accomplish  their  describes  written apply, have  ADED XXX  assignments in  a  first  The  is  systematic  attained  experience".  during  useful  through professor  lecture.  His  86  Classification  Principles  Evaluation  Sequence  Choice  Description  Figure 2.  Mohan's K n o w l e d g e F r a m e w o r k  objective  f o r the  not  as  Chinese  ambitious.  students  t o be  planning  and  to  apply  language  explore  the to  stated  familiar  Mohan's  chance  He  students  was  closely  he  wanted  that  with the  that  can  be  phrased,  aspects  demonstrate  professor  students  steps  work  of  which  deal  the  with  instructional  goes  of  program  of  planning  the  by  this  organized  basic  approach  knowledge so  aspects helps  w i t h the  that  of  a by  practice.  defining  and  In t u r n ,  the  by  carrying  out  the  students  must  each  students  to  and  concepts  t h e o r y and  this  In  opportunity  i n a sequential pattern.  are  They a r e p r e s e n t e d  about  an  program  comprehension  through  assignments  Chinese  them i n a h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n .  theoretical  describing the  the  b a s i c concepts  a p p l y i n g them t o a s i m u l a t e d s i t u a t i o n : The  aligned, i f  to  topic. learn  This  by  doing.  " b a c k g r o u n d knowledge" and  then  g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p l y i t .  In d o i n g so, they  describe  roles  the  order  the  and  relationships,  program,  advertising, information,  decide make give  outline on  choices reasons,  budget about state  content  and  levels,  methods  'the  relevance  opinions  and  of for of  finally  87  provide The  a plan  f o r evaluating  professor •structures  students w i l l students'  comments r e f l e c t  approach.  6.0  Summary In  this  different activity theory  t h e o r y , c)  perspective  themes  each  i t may  analysis  could  a)  and p r a c t i c e model.  that  deeper  their  into  and be  our  situation, gives  seem  somewhat  For then  we  would  tasks,  and  with  from  b)  four  Bruner's  a n d d)  Mohan's  a slightly  understanding  importance  arbitrary  categories.  i n layers  i t . The  of the  i t i s important t o bear i n  central  comprehensive  that  and s a t i s f a c t i o n  A l t h o u g h each b r i n g s  Perhaps  s e e how  a s p e c t o r a n o t h e r i s n e v e r f a r away.  context.  separate  we  would  or mural  patterns  to  to  understanding  portrayed i n a painting  mingling  canvas. .  ease  aids  so  o f comprehending  socialization,  view  four  more  and  program.  systematically  academic  language  f o r c e s a t work i n t h i s  Also,  chance  of the  c h a p t e r t h e d a t a have been examined  approaches:  different  mind  knowledge  have a b e t t e r  this  the success  have  i f the which  a l l over  the influence  the a  study  depicted a of  huge one  88  Chapter  Five  CONCLUSION This  study  has  group o f Chinese level  course,  background language  despite t h e obvious  skills.  about  Under  i n this  under  became  difficulties  investigation federal  through  doing  other than  course  content  assumed  course  process  differed  and  of  education  circumstances  a n d why  in a  deficiencies  adult  normal  special  clear  i n China.  how  came  through  inadequate limited students  government the  study  sponsorship. that  language t h a t these knowledge from  there  students  of Canadian  the "culture  "the back It were faced:  society;  and  of the classroom"  T h e i r academic performance rewarded t h e p r o f e s s o r s  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who h a d f a i t h t h a t t h e s e C h i n e s e  could  graduate  and these  a  have been a d m i t t e d t o a u n i v e r s i t y program, b u t  subjects  door"  to discover  s t u d e n t s was a b l e t o s u c c e e d  knowledge  would never the  attempted  l e a r n t h e major elements  students  o f program p l a n n i n g i n a d u l t  education. The several and  students' different  context,  achievements theoretical  and  language  emphasis than second social That  have  been  examined  perspectives. socialization  Both  language  place  greater  l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h does on t h e r o l e  s e t t i n g a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n p l a y w i t h i n an i s , we  achieved,  become more  rather than  t o some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  interested  i n "how"  "what" t h e r e s u l t  from  that  environment. something  i s  i s . I n o r d e r t o come  of the larger picture,  I have examined  89  the  whole  course,  t h e assignments  tasks,  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  course  assignments.  not  attempt  note into  these  As s t a t e d  language  students'  i n Chapter  or  speech.  i n concert  s e s s i o n s and study d i d  occurred, nor  Often  these  This  i n a real  items  study  are  shows  how  situation.  What  emerges i s n o t a s t a r t l i n g r e v e l a t i o n b u t t h e o b v i o u s  result  of  work  student  had been i n c o r p o r a t e d  separately, or i n isolation.  aspects  of  2, t h i s  learning  f e a t u r e s which  writing  examples  between c l a s s r o o m  t o i t e m i z e what c u l t u r a l  specific  studied  as  how s t u d e n t s manage a c a d e m i c t a s k s .  describes those  elements  students i n t h e i r The  The f o l l o w i n g  o f communication  which  section  support the  tasks.  main f i n d i n g  of this  s t u d y i s t h e way t h e p l a n a n d  the conduct  o f t h e course enabled students t o complete  assignments  successfully.  at  the level  organization the class  1.0  t h i s process  o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e whole of course  assignments,  operated  course, the  and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  sessions t o support t h e c l a s s  assignments.  The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C o u r s e The  students'  organization  of  comprehension  ADED XXX was a c o h e s i v e readings, There  Specifically  their  was  practical  and assignments a  conceptual  the  course  was  and  achievement.  package  i n which  were and  important The  lecture  systematically philosophical  plan  for of  material,  co-ordinated. framework,  and  methodology f o r p l a n n i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs.  90  Relevant by-step  t h e o r i e s and approach taken  The The  and  outline the  plan  was  s t r u c t u r e of  list  a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h accompanied the in this  carefully the  course. communicated  course,  goals  material, students' were a l l c a r e f u l l y  first  class.  The  step-  and  to  the  objectives, reading  requirements,  d e s c r i b e d and  Chinese  students  students.  and  assignment  distributed took  great  during comfort  from t h i s .  First,  i t gave them a c l e a r v i e w o f e x a c t l y  how  the  would  be  do.  course  Second, t h e y  structured  could refer  s e c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o one  to the  i t often helps  refer to.  This  have a penchant f o r wanting  assignments students  provided  t o do  their  level,  fails  ESL  a  t r u e f o r Chinese  a  foundation  solid  readings  t a s k s . They c i t e d  to take  into  we  will  played  in  the  Chinese  in a  new  overview  to  to  who  this  sequential the  higher  contribution to their  which  focusses  account  the  on  Chinese level  of  success.  the  sentence  influence that  larger  play.  discuss  assignments to the course.  various  students  for  A s s i g n m e n t s were I n t e g r a l U n i t s i n t h e First  how  systematic  and  research,  see  must  When p a r t i c i p a t i n g  material  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s may  2.0  and  they  t o know what , l i e s a h e a d .  o r g a n i z a t i o n as a s i g n i f i c a n t Traditional  outline  t o have  i s especially  lecture  what  another.  endeavour,  Linking  and  The  the  Course  relationship  f u n c t i o n that the students'  success  of  the  assignments is  not  91 insignificant.  Several  factors  c a n be  a s s i g n m e n t s were d e s i g n e d t o s i m u l a t e one  might  take  education  courses.  application sequenced  of  the  tasks  the  course  theory  used  a  and way  when  supplied  students  consciously theory  summarize, provided,  require  this  were  may  background  lecturers  n o r were  implementing  they  they the  this  specific  n o t c o i n c i d e n t a l . To  background  completed,  knowledge  was  feedback  was  and  learning. seem a n o b v i o u s before  by-pass  point  that  carrying  this  step,  features.  turn  point  means  students  out a  task,  assuming  that  reading  In t h e case o f second language l e a r n e r s ,  assumption i s f a u l t y  this  The  relationship  own.  functioned  the  the assignments.  on t h e i r  important  Third,  so t h a t  can g a i n adequate b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n by  now  words,  isolated.  knowledge  were  typical  In other  students  We  adult  the practical  Second,  i t was  knowledge  frequently  that  followed  with  existed:  structured for.continued  steps  programs.  organized  cycle  the actual  provided  they  proceed  assignments  Although  that  and p r a c t i c e ;  a  the  and  t h e background  could  First,  research.  planning  w e r e n o t random  professor between  planning  The a s s i g n m e n t s  i n such  progression  Chinese  when  noted.  and s h o r t s i g h t e d .  to the structure  t o note  about  they  A l l five  have  a  of each  assignment.  t h e assignments  as r o u t i n e s o r formats. that  this  i s that  From B r u n e r ' s  deep  structure  An they  perspective and  surface  a s s i g n m e n t s h a v e t h e same p a t t e r n :  each  92 has  a central  instructional questions  focus, plan,  which  such and  led  as a s s e s s i n g so  on,  needs,  followed  students  by  through  designing  an  a  of  series  the  complete  assignment. The  deep  completing explicit  structure  the tasks.  implies  I n some  rules  cases  for  there  successfully  were  rules stated f o rcompleting questions,  "use p r o p e r f o r m and a v o i d f u s s i n e s s " , questionnaire provided  then  attach  opportunities  it".  "if  helpful,  f o r example,  you p l a n t o use a  Informal course  f o r learning  what  processes  was a n a c c e p t a b l e  format. The actual  surface content  prepared student chart were  case  of  the  o f t h e answers study  -  or develop  choose t o answer i n b r o a d  assignments  t h e answers  straightforward  the surface  level  concerns  use t h e  h i s o r h e r own;  d i d the  descriptive  sentences or  connections or  and c o n c r e t e . I n Bruner's  o f t h e assignments  t h e "moves o f t h e game",  f o r while  i s concerned  t h e deep  structure  remains constant, i ti s t h e surface s t r u c t u r e which The the  assignments  course,  organizational  and input.  the  d i d the student  f o r m a t ; d i d t h e s t u d e n t make a n a l o g o u s  language, with  level  were a c o m p r e h e n s i v e ,  integral  they  high  reflected  a  varies. part of  level  of  93  2.1  Doing  Assignments  Enables  Students  to Participate  in  R e a l Work At  the beginning  expressed tasks  grave  do  concerns  required  participating their  of the course,  of  assignments,  unfamiliar  became  increased  this  in  i n scope  and  English. not  Thus,  how  social  became  i n a western  progress  appeared  t o be  as  could  apply  Chinese other  participation  They w e r e a b l e t o make  to  take  adequate  dynamic  a  they  into  a  in  were a b l e t o  but p a r t i c i p a t e  academic  result  notes  new  role  environment.  of p a r t i c i p a t i n g  as of This  i n the  and c l a s s  the student  t h e knowledge  to  participation understood a  were e v a l u a t e d  the contents  practical  situation.  and The  s t u d e n t s w e r e e n g a g e d i n d o i n g t h e same t a s k s a s a l l students  students and  that  they  assignments.  assignments  evidence  their  socialized  students  r e a l work o f d o i n g  In short, they  G r a d u a l l y , as  members o f t h e c l a s s ,  graduate  The  how t o  r a i s e q u e s t i o n s i n f r o n t o f t h e whole  a new  they  u n c e r t a i n about  activities,  learned  observe  about  domain.  and c o n f i d e n c e .  As a c t i v e  only  well.  they  anxious  and t a k e n o t e s . new  the  points i n discussions, class,  were  a l l the  a n d d i d n ' t know w h e t h e r t h e y w o u l d be  with  engaged  They  discussions,  able t o follow the lectures were  students  about b e i n g a b l e t o handle  them.  i n class  t h e Chinese  i n ADED  XXX.  This  meant  h a d t o do t h e a s s i g n m e n t s ,  participate  i n the  small  group  that  the  Chinese  the required reading, discussions.  Several  94  students  mentioned t h e value  of doing  related  to  responsibility  contrast,  their  area  Chinese  development  students  programs  participating  as  Instead  audit  they  method  for  of  do  active  courses,  Understandably  then,  deep  to grips  are not f u l l  not  their  there  new  with  i n these  and  comprehenders.  This  learning  is  facilitated  full  doing  In  of work.  systematic  or  knowledge.  f o r them t o d i g  new  material.  They  They a r e m e r e l y  study  suggests  that  participation  with  f o r e q u a l o u t p u t . By c o n t r a s t , t h e c o n c e p t  comprehension By  by  course  i s no  courses.  listeners  China.  advantage  skills  difficult,  was  Canada-China  credit  t h e r e i s no c o m p u l s i o n  participants  responsibility  in  the  in  and  work" t h a t  i n other  have  members  evaluating  a n d come  involved  "real  o f v e r b a l i n p u t may  assignments,  comprehension,  and  the  be s e r i o u s l y  students  can  professor  can  inadequate.  check also  of  their  own  evaluate  the  extent of learning that i s taking place. Another assignments  i s that  structured Chinese  important  feedback  a from  feature student's  of  doing  work  real  work  on  i s accompanied  by  t h e p r o f e s s o r . I n t h e case  of the  s t u d e n t s who h a d l i m i t e d b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e ,  "output"  was  accepted  response.  He  i n turn  language  level  and  negotiation professor.  modified  could  adjust  comprehension.  developed Through  and  between  the  by  the  professor's  h i s "input" to Thus,  a  students  the regular submission  of  their  their  process and  of the  assignments,  95  a d d i t i o n a l m o r n i n g s e s s i o n s , and the  professor  Chinese  was  students.  increased, Examining  they  able As  assignment  the  were  i n p u t and work  is  to  the  "scaffold"  students' able  to  marked  his  input  knowledge and respond  interaction a  interplay during  at  within this  contrast  Class  Sessions  were  the  their  level.  l a r g e r frame  from  Organized  to  confidence  second  r e s e a r c h w h i c h l o o k s a t e x c h a n g e a t an u t t e r a n c e  3.0  class,  to  of  language  level  only.  Support  Class  Assignments Classes and  in  consisted  addition, there  communication overall  in this  lectures,  were  to  professor's  the  effective students  between  these  course,  to  i n accomplishing  brief  summary o f  will  suffice.  and  discussed  assignments. philosophy  On  the the  and  their how  day  were  conceptual  Effective  level  the  of  the  material, the  the  style  -  turn  informal  students,  of  the  and  interaction. each  promoted  supported  the  tasks.  the  complete  Students  and  in  discussion  relationship  i s u s e f u l because which  first  every  students,  individual  communication,  at  reading  professor  elements  group  sessions.  the  and  the  the  professor's  Identifying  occurred  lectures  feedback  communication finally  the  small  sheltered  course  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  assignments  A  of  professor of  the  outline  of  this  out  c l a s s he  distributed  of  course  introduced basis  carried  the to the  the  and  overall  course,  the  96  professor's  background,  and  students'  the  marking  expected.  i t  assignments  for  undue  an  the  statements  to  the  encouraged  get  prod  students  of  approach,  the  began  to  and  explained future  the  papers  questions,  what  first  that on  responses.  scope  their  and  feedback  understand  the  professor  asking  students'  course,  a d i s c u s s i o n about  work  His  the  submit  The  piece  better.  same  to  concern.  initial  would  reflected  Chinese  scheme  without  assignments  from  T h e r e was  were  was  outcomes  responsibilities.  Students  assignment that  desired  making  Gradually was  the  expected  of  to talk  to  them. Ample o p p o r t u n i t y one  another,  sessions  gave  assistance course they  t o me  speak  Within  seating  that  other  students within  out  the  i n adult  more  p r o f e s s o r . A d d i t i o n a l morning  They  who  were  another  opportunity  grasped  i t  course,  the  earlier.  groups to  atmosphere  sum of  ask  for  as  the  knowledge i n c r e a s e d ,  and  these,  frequently during the  professor  but  the  regular  arranged  the  were engaged i n d i s c u s s i o n  native  and  graduate  S p e c i a l t o p i c s were  discussed  giving  comprehend  To  s i t u a t i o n s to  us.ed  and  students  education.  small  f o r students  "sheltered"  class,  Chinese  students  these  to the  t h e i r confidence  lectures.  with  provided  clarification.  evolved  so  and  students  or  began t o  was  up,  support  speakers  the a  the  Chinese  point  i f they  organization  w i t h i n the  students hadn't of  the  c l a s s and  the  97 professor's  c l e a r s t y l e of communication supported t h i s co-  operative,  c o l l a b o r a t i v e endeavour.  Although sense  argument,  research  in  acknowledge in  the  recognize argument  seem  i t is  second  of  "task"  that  I  bear  in  consistently  context  a  common-  mind  that  failed  and communication  continues t o analyze discrete  as b e i n g  Even  those  focus  still  of surface  level  features,  believe  to have  items  studies  a useful  i n c o m p l e t e sentences and f a l s e Finally,  belabouring to  has  discourse.  on a n a n a l y s i s  I'm  important  SL r e s e a r c h  level  like  language  t h e impact  learning.  at  i t may  which  base  their  such  as  starts.  that  this  situation  i s more  than  j u s t an example o f "good t e a c h i n g " .  L i t e r a t u r e on e f f e c t i v e  teaching  the  emphasizes  organization,  the  management,  role  of  communication  on.  S t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r a r e engaged i n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e  communicative  task  about  some  i s not simply  desired a matter  f a m i l i a r by t h e use o f c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t , that  the correct  evoked" situation  (Bruner,  1988,  The C h i n e s e  two-way  results. o f making but of  "The things  ensuring  or i n t e r p r e t i v e resonance i s  p.16)  m u s t be s t r u c t u r e d  enterprise. is  association  is a  so  street.  bring  learning  and  her  i t does  to  that  style,  -  However,  endeavour  not recognize  instructor  To  do  this,  to facilitate  students'  the  learning  a joint  learning  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ADED XXX  a n e x c e l l e n t e x a m p l e o f how t h i s  c a n be c a r r i e d o u t .  98  4.0  Implications of the  Study  Because  i s impressionistic  small  this  group  of  subjects  recommendations principles  of  based  is  is  the  unwise  and  to  make  findings.  socialization  based  on  specific  However,  have  a  the  implications  for  teaching.  language  significant  i t  on  language  SLA r e s e a r c h a n d First,  study  socialization  a n d must be  reminds  taken into  us  that  a c c o u n t when  context studying  l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . Even t h o u g h K r a s h e n pays l i p service to the notion  of context i n h i s theory,  d e f i n e what c o n t e x t i s o r t o e x a m i n e it  can f a c i l i t a t e  researchers  to  exchanges.  We  SLA.  Further,  a n a l y z e more should  he  fails  i n d e t a i l ways i n w h i c h  language s o c i a l i z a t i o n  than  examine  to  sentences  larger  and  units,  calls  more  such  than  as  how  a s s i g n m e n t s a r e embedded w i t h i n a w h o l e c o u r s e . Second, validity on  of t e s t s  limited  the  language  TOEFL. B e c a u s e  situational  comprehension. as  like  calls  into  these tests  the  factors  Consequently, only  that  institutions  admission  criterion  be  far  more  crucial  particular  score.  base,  support e x i s t s  what  environment,  how  For  to  a  example,  extensive  student's how  t o ease  or  hinder  use  be Other  i s her  h i s adjustment  i s her background  TOEFL  doing  success  stable  based ignore  that may  are  the  they  support  d i s s e r v i c e t o t h e m s e l v e s and t o t h e a p p l i c a n t . may  question  responses t o grammatical structures,  complex  scores  socialization  to  i n the  a  factors that  a  funding a  new  field?  99  A more e q u i t a b l e s y s t e m sliding  scale  strength  of  of  might c o n s i d e r admission  language  related  scores,  factors  c a n d i d a t e i n a more h o l i s t i c Finally, to  and if  merely  selective the  l e a r n e r does  Bruner's  model  routines suggests tasks  that  f i t into  language  supportive course this  approach  activities  and  student  Mohan's teachers  use  an  to  Knowledge begin  the of  picture.  the  are  active  information.  Using  circumscribed  situation.  are  Learners  i s most p r o d u c t i v e  establish  i n content  This  study  courses provide n a t u r a l well-integrated  into  I t i s important to c l a r i f y  within  them. But  once  an  activity  in  order  Framework the  is  to  very  analysis  of  complete useful a  assess the in  task  a  that  recommend o r g a n i z i n g r a n d o m l i s t s  know  a  orientation  t h e t e a c h e r must s t a n d b a c k a n d  needs  to  learning  natural  structure.  items  larger  might  a  suggests  with  i f they  does not  been i d e n t i f i e d , a  and  teachers  merit  comprehenders; they  something  t h a t assignments  of  and  participants,  the  on  a  manner.  encompasses t h e  listeners  depending  determine  language s o c i a l i z a t i o n  t e a c h i n g which  are not  then  b a s e d on  of has  what task.  helping and  its  environment.  5.0  Summary I have m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a case  for  gaining a  students.  comprehensive  Indeed,  acting  s t u d y was  picture as  a  of  the best  the  participant  course  method and  the  observer  has  100 permitted several  a continuous, insider  points  nature  observed  b e made a b o u t  conditions  influences  beyond  p.223).  situation In  o f what o c c u r r e d f r o m case  studies  nor can a  cause  the findings.  are not s t a t i c t h e immediacy  by and  effect  Furthermore,  and a r e a l s o  any  subject to  of the classroom  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  their  (Cazden,  true i n a cross-cultural  such as t h i s .  addition,  examination  t h e scope  which  understanding. from  However,  are not generalizable,  relationship  1982,  of view.  view  might  have  I t would  the level  of the study precluded a micro  also  led to have  o f t h e assignments  been  greater  depth  desirable  as r o u t i n e s  of  t o move  to a  finer  a n a l y s i s of t h e Chinese students' papers. This  study has been  an a t t e m p t  t o examine  closely the  context  o f a graduate course, t h e classroom environment  a  group  of Chinese  that  situation.  in how  a  group  students further students courses  went work.  s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d Because  of non-native about  their  I t would  English tasks,  i n other d i s c i p l i n e s  study  a n d how  their  other national  academic  work.  groups  Finally,  speaking  f o r example,  assignments  look  at  international  there i s great  manage t h e i r  relationships affect the process. to  succeeded  i t represents a f i r s t  be u s e f u l ,  are structured  and  and  scope f o r  t o know  work, and  how  how  other  classroom  I t would a l s o be v a l u a b l e  a n d t o s e e how as s t a t e d  above,  they  manage  there i s a  101  need t o analyze  more  closely  students'  work,  and  students'  and p r o f e s s o r ' s d i s c o u r s e . Not  withstanding  considered and  context,  worthwhile.  limited  field  could  language succeed.  cohesive course intended  and  limitations, using  and s o c i a l i z a t i o n  proficiency We  the  perspectives  into the larger process  s p e c i a l encounters  is  By  and language  valuable insight had  these  see  i n t h e form  and the  no  we  o f how  study of  can  language  have  gained  students  background  benefit  of  arranging  of s t r u c t u r e d assignments  own p o i n t s o f v i e w .  that  content  according  who  i n the  o r g a n i z a t i o n so t h a t s t u d e n t s can g r a s p interpret  be  to  and what their  102 SELECTED  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A n d e r s o n , L.M., S t e v e n s , D.D., P r a w a t , R.S. & N i c k e r s o n , J . (1987). C l a s s r r o m Task Environments and S t u d e n t s ' TaskRelated Beliefs. Michigan State University: The I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h on T e a c h i n g . B a z e r m a n , C. (1980) . 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Beverly H i l l s :  Sage  APPENDICES  108 APPENDIX I APED XXX  ~ ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM PLANNING PRACTICE  Program p l a n n i n g i s t h e mechanism t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o a d u l t d e v e l o p m e n t and l e a r n i n g , t o management, i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n , e v a l u a t i o n a n d marketing are a p p l i e d t o design e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . A program is the framework in which instruction i s delivered. D e l i v e r i n g w e l l - p l a n n e d p r o g r a m s i s t h e m a j o r g o a l o f most providers of adult education. Perfection in decision making and, therefore, p e r f e c t i o n i n p l a n n i n g c a n n e v e r be a t t a i n e d b e c a u s e we never have a l l the needed information, know a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e s , use a l l t h e c o r r e c t c r i t e r i a , u n d e r s t a n d a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r employ t h e b e s t decision-making systems. H o w e v e r , by s t u d y i n g t h e process a n d b y p r a c t i c i n g m a k i n g t h e k i n d s o f d e c i s i o n s w h i c h must be made, we c a n r e d u c e o u r e r r o r s t o a minimum. A l t h o u g h i t may be p o s s i b l e t o l e a r n t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f planning without a thorough understanding of the t h e o r e t i c a l , c o n c e p t u a l , and p h i l o s o p h i c p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h undergird practice, this course will emphasize the development of such understanding and the important r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o r y and i n f o r m e d , insightful, and reflective practice. Expected At the able to:  Outcomes  c o n c l u s i o n of the course,  p a r t i c i p a n t s should  be  1.  A r t i c u l a t e t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i n . r e l a t i o n t o a d u l t education programs;  2.  I d e n t i f y the various o r g a n i z a t i o n a l / i n s t i t u t i o n a l environments i n which adult education program planning occurs;  3.  D e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g models r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e a b l e t o c o m p a r e and c o n t r a s t t h e e l e m e n t s models;  4.  Identify potential barriers and prescribe strategies barriers.  formal a n d be of the  to effective planning for overcoming such  109 Suggested  Reading  Boone, E d g a r J . D e v e l o p i n g Programs i n A d u l t Education. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1985. Boyle, Patrick G. Planning McGraw-Hill, 1981. Houle, C y r i l 0. Jossey-Bass,  The D e s i g n 1972.  Better of  Programs.  Education.  San  K n o w l e s , M a l c o l m S. The M o d e r n P r a c t i c e o f A d u l t From Pedagogy t o Andragogy. ( R e v i s e d and Chicago: A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s / F o l l e t t , 1980.  New  York:  Francisco: Education: updated).  Course O u t l i n e The  following topics w i l l as  an  be  covered  i n the  1.  Planning process.  anticipatory  2.  A n a l y z i n g t h e p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and  3.  Identification  4.  Developing  5.  F o r m u l a t i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n .  6.  F o r m u l a t i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n .  7.  Developing  course:  decision-making client  system.  of e d u c a t i o n a l needs.  educational objectives.  an e v a l u a t i o n p l a n .  Instructional  Processes  A v a r i e t y o f p r o c e s s e s w i l l be u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e . B e c a u s e many q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o p l a n n i n g t h e o r y h a v e n o t * r i g h t ' o r wrong' answers, a good d e a l o f t i m e w i l l be spent d i s c u s s i n g and d e b a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w s . and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of adopting each a l t e r n a t i v e . The planning e x p e r i e n c e s ( b o t h g o o d a n d bad) o f c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s and the i n s t r u c t o r w i l l be u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e p r o b l e m s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t e n c o n f r o n t e d by p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s . Since this course will emphasize e x p l o r a t i o n of conceptual, theoretical, and philosophical issues found in the l i t e r a t u r e , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l f o r m a t w i l l be p a r t i c i p a t o r y . Students should, t h e r e f o r e , be prepared to engage in discussion of relatively abstract ideas as well as s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c problems. A  110 Learning  Resources  T e x t b o o k s a n d o t h e r m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n ADED XXX, which i s t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e c o u r s e , w i l l be u s e f u l i n t h i s c o u r s e . S i n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s may have had varying experiences and m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r p r e r e q u i s i t e course, a set of print material garnered from a variety of sources will be distributed i n class. In order to cover the cost of this material, a m a t e r i a l s d u p l i c a t i o n f e e o f $9.00 w i l l be c o l l e c t e d f r o m each student. T h i s m a t e r i a l w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t b a c k g r o u n d t o c o m p l e t e y o u r w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t s , b u t you a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o do a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g . Class Assignment  Schedule Class  Topic  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Course the Systems Design Instruction  and of  Planning Context and Client System I d e n t i f y i n g Needs #1  due  Developing  Objectives  #2  due  Instructional Administrative  Planning Planning  #3  due  Choosing  A p p r o p r i a t e  and  Techniques #4  due  E v a l u a t i o n and  #5  due  R e v i e w and  Testing  Summary  Assignments The o b j e c t i v e of these w r i t t e n assignments is to p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r y o u t o a p p l y , i n a s y s t e m a t i c way, t h e knowledge and i n s i g h t you have a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h r e a d i n g , d i s c u s s i o n , and e x p e r i e n c e . C r i t i q u e from c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s and f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r a r e intended to f a c i l i t a t e your i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g about the process of p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs.  Ill  Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f some p r o j e c t s , one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s may n o t a p p l y . I f you f e e l t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m does n o t a p p l y t o y o u r p r o j e c t , t h e n s i m p l y s t a t e t h a t t o g e t h e r w i t h a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f why y o u t h i n k s o . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e may b e a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s not l i s t e d below which c l e a r l y apply t o your p r o j e c t and s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . The p r o j e c t y o u c h o o s e t o e x a m i n e may b e a n a c t u a l r e a l - l i f e p r o g r a m o r may b e a h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o g r a m . In e i t h e r case, i t s h o u l d be a s u b s t a n t i a l program and n o t trivial. Each o f t h e f i v e u n i t s w i l l have e q u a l v a l u e . Each a s s i g n m e n t s h o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , tightly organized, and h i g h l y focused. Y o u ' may u s e p o i n t form w h e r e v e r a p p r o p r i a t e , r a t h e r t h a n an e s s a y s t y l e . Some 3 - 5 p a g e s ( t y p e w r i t t e n i f p o s s i b l e ) may b e s u f f i c i e n t i f y o u a r e s u c c i n c t i n your explanations. The i n s t r u c t o r w i l l t r y t o provide feedback a s s i g n m e n t i n t h e week f o l l o w i n g e a c h s u b m i s s i o n .  on  each  ************************** UNIT 1 - Due Analyzing the Planning  C o n t e x t and t h e C l i e n t  System  Provide a comprehensive description of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system and e x p l a i n how t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may i n f l u e n c e l a t t e r s t e p s i n the planning e f f o r t . What a r e t h e g o a l s ( p r i m a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y ) o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d how d o e s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m i n g f i t into these goals? What responsibility a n d what a u t h o r i t y do y o u h a v e w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ? What r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i n g t h e same clients? What c o n s t r a i n t s t o your planning efforts f i n a n c i a l , physical, geographical, philosophical? How w e l l d e f i n e d a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l i e n t system - demographic, geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n , possible barriers to participation, possible motivation? How w e l l a r e t h e r o l e s d e f i n e d a n d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between: content expert(s), process expert(s), representative(s) of the organization and o f t h e c l i e n t s , others? Make c l e a r i f t h i s i s a MS, ES o r PS p r o g r a m , a n d the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r your planning.  112 UNIT 2 A s s e s s i n g Needs What s t r a t e g y w o u l d y o u e m p l o y t o a s s e s s t h e n e e d s o f t h e c l i e n t s y s t e m a n d what s p e c i f i c n e e d s do y o u think you would identify i f the strategy was implemented? W o u l d y o u u s e a s i n g l e o r m u l t i p l e m e t h o d s a n d how e x t e n s i v e w o u l d be y o u r c o v e r a g e o f t h e c l i e n t group? What r e l a t i o n s h i p do t h e s e n e e d s h a v e w i t h t h e g o a l s o f the sponsoring organization? How u n o b t r u s i v e a r e you 'instruments' a n d how c o u l d you use e x i s t i n g data? I f you p l a n t o use a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e n a t t a c h an e x a m p l e . How w i l l t h e " d e s i r e d s t a t e o f a f f a i r s " (DSA) b e d e t e r m i n e d a n d who w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w r i t i n g needs s t a t e m e n t s ? How w i l l p r i o r i t y among i d e n t i f i e d n e e d s b e e s t a b l i s h e d a n d who w i l l make t h i s j u d g e m e n t . NOTE: Because you w i l l not a c t u a l l y conduct t h e n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t f o r t h i s a s s i g n m e n t , y o u must d e v e l o p a s e t o f needs statements which a r e your "best guess" o f what y o u p r o b a b l y w o u l d d i s c o v e r i f y o u h a d done t h e a c t u a l assessment. How w e l l d e v e l o p e d a n d c o n v i n c i n g i s t h e a r g u m e n t that these needs a r e amenable t o an educational program? Separate educational from non-educational needs. UNIT 3 Developing Objectives Formulate the learning objectives i n outcome statements r a t h e r than process statements. Use p r o p e r form and a v o i d f u z z i n e s s . How c l e a r l y r e l a t e d a r e t h e p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s t o t h e n e e d s d e s c r i b e d i n U n i t 2? A r e outcomes c l e a r l y related t o the 'desired state of a f f a i r s ' ? Is t h e r e a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between lower and higher level objectives? How c l e a r a n d c o m p l e t e a r e t h e a s s u m e d e n t e r i n g l e v e l o f competence o f c l i e n t s ?  113  UNIT 4 Designing Plan  an  Instructional Plan  a n d an  Administrative  (a) Specify the content and t h e p r o c e s s of i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e sequence and t h e t i m i n g o f v a r i o u s elements o f t h e program. How appropriate are the a c t i v i t i e s f o r each o b j e c t i v e - duration, d i s t r i b u t i o n of time w i t h i n the program, v a r i e t y i n schedule? A r e media used t o best advantage? How c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a r e t h e human a n d p h y s i c a l resources needed t o r u n t h e program - i n s t r u c t i o n a l personnel, type of f a c i l i t y , arrangement o f s e a t i n g , equipment and m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d , e t c . ? (b) Specify the administrative arrangements n e c e s s a r y t o ensure f i n a n c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l success of t h e program. What s t r a t e g y i s p r o p o s e d t o p u b l i c i z e t h e p r o g r a m and what i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d be p r o v i d e d ? A t t a c h an example o f y o u r "announcement". Include a proposal budget which itemizes a l l a n t i c i p a t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s and r e c e i p t s / c o n t r i b u t i o n s and which r e f l e c t s r e a l i s t i c p r i c i n g . Provide a l i s t describing a l l the administrative t a s k s t o be p e r f o r m e d ( b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r t h e e v e n t ) i n c l u d i n g t a r g e t d a t e s f o r c o m p l e t i o n a n d who t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f e a c h t a s k . UNIT 5  -  F o r m u l a t i n g a Summative E v a l u a t i o n P l a n Describe a comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y which w i l l r e s u l t i n v a l i d judgements o f t h e worth o f t h e program. How c l e a r i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e v a l u a t i v e q u e s t i o n s and t h e o b j e c t i v e s and d e s i g n o f t h e program? How a n d when w i l l d a t a b e c o l l e c t e d ? I n c l u d e a sample o f a l l e v a l u a t i o n instruments. These should reflect clarity of instructions f o r completion, appropriate question construction and sequencing, choice of response format, ease of tabulation. Who w i l l c a r r y o u t t h e e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y a n d how w i l l t h e r e s u l t s be p r o c e s s e d ? P r o v i d e a t i m e t a b l e o f e v a l u a t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s a n d a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r who w i l l r e c e i v e t h e results.  114  NOTE:  S i n c e e a c h u n i t b u i l d s upon p r e v i o u s u n i t s , you may want t o keep a copy of each assignment s u b m i t t e d so t h a t s u c c e e d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w i l l f l o w s m o o t h l y o u t o f p r e v i o u s u n i t s , on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t y o u w i l l b e w o r k i n g on t h e n e x t u n i t w h i l e the instructor is analyzing the current submission.  115 The f o l l o w i n g C a s e S t u d y may b e c h o s e n b y t h o s e who do not have a r e a l - l i f e program o r have n o t d e v e l o p e d a h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o g r a m o f t h e i r own. CASE STUDY The A l m a S o c i e t y was f o u n d e d i n 1956 a s a c o m m u n i t y service organization by a group of c i t i z e n s who were concerned about t h e w e l f a r e of children. The Society secures i t s funding from an annual campaign i n the community, g i f t s and c h a r i t a b l e d o n a t i o n s , i n t e r e s t from investments, and moderate fees from various public activities. The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e community s t o o d at 178,2 63 a s o f t h e l a s t C e n s u s . The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y s t a t e s , among other t h i n g s , t h a t : "The S o c i e t y w i l l be an a d v o c a t e w i t h i n t h e community and w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e f o r t h e improvement o f t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e f a m i l y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s on t h e c h i l d t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f means, i n c l u d i n g ; l o b b y i n g o f legislators, public information campaigns, provision of e d u c a t i o n a l programs, and, l i a i s o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l w e l f a r e authorities." The S o c i e t y l e a s e s o f f i c e s p a c e f o r i t s f i v e f u l l - t i m e staff, including an Executive-Director, a cashier/ bookkeeper, a s c e n o g r a p h e r / t y p i s t , a c l e r k / r e c e p t i o n i s t , and a director of publicity. T h e s e p r e m i s e s c o n t a i n no e x t r a room f o r B o a r d o r o t h e r meetings, w h i c h m u s t be held elsewhere. The B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s i s e l e c t e d a t t h e A n n u a l G e n e r a l Meeting of the Society. The B o a r d m e e t s q u a r t e r l y t o r e c e i v e a c t i v i t y and f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s from t h e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , and t o d i s c u s s ongoing f u n d - r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y i s l e f t completely i n t h e hands o f t h e E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r , g u i d e d o n l y by t h e O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S o c i e t y and t h e approved budget. The pattern of educational s e r v i c e s over t h e past s e v e r a l y e a r s h a s b e e n t o p r o v i d e a t l e a s t one w o r k s h o p i n t h e F a l l a n d one i n t h e S p r i n g . The a n n u a l b u d g e t u s u a l l y makes p r o v i s i o n f o r h i r i n g a s h o r t - t e r m p r o g r a m p l a n n e r f o r each workshop. Lately there h a s b e e n much writing i n the local newspaper c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d abuse. Even a t t h e l a s t Board m e e t i n g , s e v e r a l B o a r d members n o t e d t h a t t w o l o c a l c a s e s o f c h i l d a b u s e h a d become p r o m i n e n t i n t h e news a n d t h a t c r i m i n a l c h a r g e s m i g h t b e l a i d i n a t l e a s t one o f t h e c a s e s . The E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t w o u l d b e t i m e l y t o  116 g i v e f o c u s t o t h i s theme a t t h e n e x t W o r k s h o p . There be i n t e r e s t among s o c i a l w o r k e r s , t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , w o r k e r s , and o t h e r c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s .  should court  The E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r h a s j u s t h i r e d y o u t o p l a n a W o r k s h o p on C h i l d A b u s e . In a d d i t i o n t o your s a l a r y , the Society budget has set aside a $150 subsidy f o r the W o r k s h o p , s o as t o r e d u c e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t f e e . P r e v i o u s workshops have v a r i e d from 1 t o 2 days and f e e s h a v e r a n g e d f r o m $8 t o $20 p e r s o n . A t t e n d a n c e has r a n g e d f r o m 16 t o 44. The S p r i n g w o r k s h o p h a s a l w a y s b e e n h e l d i n March t o A p r i l , o f t e n c o i n c i d i n g w i t h E a s t e r s c h o o l holidays. The E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r s h a r e d t h e s e statistics w i t h you f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y . You a r e f r e e t o d e v e l o p y o u r own p r o p o s a l s . H o w e v e r , t h e E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r w i s h e s t o be c o n s u l t e d a n d t o h a v e f i n a l a p p r o v a l on t h e b u d g e t a n d t h e fee. The p r o g r a m d e s i g n a n d a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s are i n your hands. As t h e E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r suggested, "You are i n charge of a l l program and administrative a r r a n g e m e n t s , b u t I hope you w i l l d e v e l o p a r a t i o n a l e o r g o o d r e a s o n f o r e a c h d e c i s i o n y o u make, j u s t i n c a s e a B o a r d member s h o u l d a s k . "  117  REQUIRED (a) General Aker (b) P l a n n i n g Boyle " "  Overview C u r r i c u l u m De/elopment Program P l a n n i n g Guide f o r H e a l t h . . . C o n t e x t and C l i e n t System Approaches to C l i e n t e l e Analysis Approaches to Program Development Advisory Committees  (c) Planning Models M a g e r & Beach D i c k & Carey Tindle (d)  READING  and D e s i g n o f I n s t r u c t i o n Strategy of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Development Origins of Systematically Designed... Program Development System  I d e n t i f y i n g Needs Davis The Problem A n a l y s i s Method " The Competency Model Method Knowles A s s e s s i n g Needs and I n t e r e s t s  (e) D e v e l o p i n g Knowles Boyle Kibler Wheeler  Objectives D e f i n i n g P u r p o s e s and O b j e c t i v e s The C o n c e p t o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s Instructional Objectives Whose O b j e c t i v e s A r e T h e s e , A n y w a y s ?  Page 1 6 25 30 38 39 43 49 50 53 58 81 88 94 102  (f) Planning I n s t r u c t i o n Snelbecker C o g n i t i v e C o n s t r u c t I n s t r u c t i o n a l . . . 103 Aker C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t ( s e e 'a') 1 Program P l a n n i n g G u i d e f o r . . . ( s e e 'a') 6 (g) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P l a n n i n g G.I.S. Physical Arrangements G.I.S. Physical Arrangements  118 122  (h) C h o o s i n g A p p r o p r i a t e Formats Verner & Booth M a n a g i n g t h e L e a r n i n g E x p e r i e n c e Renner Selecting Appropriate Techniques  125 137  (i)  Evaluation Dickinson Buttedahl Davis Beal "  Evaluation Summary o f E v a l u a t i o n Evaluating End o f M e e t i n g Comments & S u g g e s t i o n s More B a s i c Group E v a l u a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n o f C o n t e n t and O b j e c t i v e s  140 145 146 151 155 159  118 APPENDIX  II  INTERVIEW QUESTIONS General 1.  Have y o u e v e r p l a n n e d a p r o g r a m How d i d y o u go a b o u t i t ?  2.  Now are  In  Class  before?  t h a t you've completed the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n course, there d i f f e r e n c e s i n the approach taken i n China?  2.  I noticed that some s t u d e n t s t o o k more n o t e s than others. How e x t e n s i v e w e r e y o u r n o t e s ? D i d you w r i t e i n Chinese, E n g l i s h , both?  3.  How  4.  I f you d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d what d i d y o u do?  5.  A l m o s t e v e r y n i g h t we h a d some s m a l l - g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s . D i d t h e s m a l l g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n make any d i f f e r e n c e t o your understanding of a t o p i c ?  6.  I f t h e l e c t u r e and m a t e r i a l h a d b e e n i n C h i n e s e , w o u l d you have r e s p o n d e d d u r i n g t h e c l a s s ?  d i d you  know what t o w r i t e  down?  something the  professor  said,  how  Readings 7.  Here are a a b o u t them?  8.  The r e a d i n g s a r e b a s e d on p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t s of view. Were t h e r e i d e a s t h a t found unusual?  9.  How  d i d you  list  of  the  resolve the  readings.  How  did  you  feel and you  difference?  Assignments 10.  D i d you c h o o s e t o use t h e c a s e s t u d y a b o u t y o u r s i t u a t i o n i n PRC? Why?  or  d i d you  write  119 11.  How d i d y o u go a b o u t d o i n g t h e a s s i g n m e n t s ? Were some more d i f f i c u l t t h a n o t h e r s ? W h i c h o n e s ? Why?  12.  Were t h e r e some c o n c e p t s w h i c h w e r e d i d y o u go a b o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g them?  new  t o you?  How  Overall 13.  As you t h i n k o v e r t h e c o u r s e which you f e e l u n c l e a r about?  are there  some  topics  14.  Do y o u t h i n k y o u r E n g l i s h l e v e l was a d e q u a t e successful p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the course?  15.  What p r e p a r a t i o n do y o u t h i n k i s n e c e s s a r y f o r C h i n e s e students e n t e r i n g graduate studies?  16.  Suppose t h a t you were t h e i n s t r u c t o r d e s i g n i n g this c o u r s e , what m e a s u r e s w o u l d y o u t a k e t o h e l p t h e E S L students i n your c l a s s ?  17.  Can y o u a d d a n y t h i n g t h a t  f o r your  I may h a v e o v e r l o o k e d ?  

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