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Academic tasks and international students : a case study Marshall Smith, Sondra Marguerite 1989

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ACADEMIC TASKS AND INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY By SONDRA MARGUERITE MARSHALL SMITH B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Langu a g e E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1989 S o n d r a M a r g u e r i t e M a r s h a l l S m i t h , 198 9 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department Of T . a n o „ a , 0 F . H n r a M n n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date October 12th, 1989. DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The m a j o r i t y o f second language r e s e a r c h pays s c a n t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t e x t and s o c i a l s e t t i n g i n language l e a r n i n g . However, a s m a l l group o f r e s e a r c h e r s r e c o g n i z e s t h a t c o n t e x t i s v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l , c o n t e x t i n t h e sense o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f u n i t s o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n beyond t h e s e n t e n c e and even beyond t h e d i s c o u r s e . U s i n g t h e l a t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e , t h i s case s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s how a group o f e i g h t C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o s u c c e e d i n a g r a d u a t e l e v e l c o u r s e even though t h e i r s k i l l s i n E n g l i s h language were v e r y l i m i t e d and t h e s t u d e n t s had no b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e f i e l d . W h i l e t r a d i t i o n a l second language r e s e a r c h f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n a t t h e s e n t e n c e l e v e l , t h i s s t u d y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e l a r g e r u n i t o f t h e whole c o u r s e and t h e r e q u i r e d a s s i g n m e n t s had c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u c c e s s . T h e o r i e s o f language and c o n t e x t , and language s o c i a l i z a t i o n were h e l p f u l i n e x a m i n i n g s y s t e m a t i c a l l y some o f t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . The s t u d y n ot o n l y i n c l u d e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s p e r i o d and l e s s o n , b u t a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e whole c o u r s e , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e homework a s s i g n m e n t s , and t h e way c l a s s work s u p p o r t e d t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . The s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e was p a r t i c u l a r l y c o h e s i v e and was c l e a r l y communicated t o t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o u r s e ; t h e a s s i g n m e n t s were i n t e g r a l t o t h e c o u r s e and were c o h e r e n t w i t h each o t h e r , and t h e r e was a c l e a r f o r m a t t o each a s s i g n m e n t . The as s i g n m e n t s engaged . s t u d e n t s i n a c t u a l work, not s i m p l y e x e r c i s e s i n comprehension, and c l a s s s e s s i o n s p r o v i d e d b a c k g r o u n d knowledge and fee d b a c k t h a t e n a b l e d s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y and presumably l e a r n t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . W i t h t h i s l a r g e r p e r s p e c t i v e t h e s t u d y u n d e r l i n e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t e x t i n language l e a r n i n g . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY 1 1.0 Background t o t h e Pr o b l e m 1 1.1 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e Q u e s t i o n 1 1.2 R e s e a r c h e r ' s Background 5 2.0 Scope o f t h e Study 5 3.0 Task as Focus 6 4.0 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework: Language A c q u i s i t i o n v e r s u s Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n 8 5.0 Some As s u m p t i o n s 12 6.0 Some Ca v e a t s 13 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE 15 1.0 Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n 15 1.1 I n p u t 16 1.2 A c t i v i t y . 20 2.0 F i r s t Language A c q u i s i t i o n 21 2.1 I n p u t 22 2.2 A c t i v i t y 22 3.0 Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n 24 4.0 Tasks i n S c h o o l 27 4.1 Task C o n d i t i o n s 29 4.1.1 S e t t i n g 29 4.1.2 I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e l i v e r y 29 4.2 P r o d u c t s 30 5.0 C o n c l u s i o n 30 6.0 R e s e a r c h Methodology 32 CHAPTER THREE: CASE STUDY NARRATIVE 37 1.0 R e s e a r c h e r ' s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 37 1.1 What was t h e s i t u a t i o n ? 37 1.2 Who were t h e s t u d e n t s ? 38 1.3 What was t h e n a t u r e o f ADED XXX? 39 1.4 The P r o f e s s o r ' s I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e 40 1.5 The P r o f e s s o r ' s R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e S t u d e n t s 42 1.6 C l a s s r o o m Environment 43 2.0 P r o f e s s o r ' s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 44 2.1 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e A s s i g n m e n t s 45 3.0 S t u d e n t s ' I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 4 8 3.1 T h e i r F e e l i n g s About t h e Tasks 48 3.2 T h e i r A p p roach t o t h e Tasks 4 9 3.3 T h e i r D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e Tasks 49 i i i CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA 55 1.0 Data C o l l e c t i o n 55 2.0 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Tasks 57 2.1 S e t t i n g 58 2.2 I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e l i v e r y 64 2.3 C o g n i t i v e P l a n s 67 3.0 Task as Game 71 3.1 Deep S t r u c t u r e o f Games 71 3.2 S t r u c t u r e d Format . . 72 3.3 Handover P r i n c i p l e 73 4.0 Task as V e h i c l e f o r Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n . . . . 77 4.1 I n t e r a c t i o n 77 4.2 S e l e c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n 78 4.3 I n d i v i d u a l R e a l i t i e s 7 9 4.4 S t o c k Knowledge 81 4.5 Communicative Accommodation 82 5.0 Task as Example o f Theory and P r a c t i c e . . . . . . 84 6.0 Summary 87 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 88 1.0 The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Course 89 2.0 A s s i g n m e n t s were I n t e g r a l U n i t s i n t h e Course . . 90 2.1 D o i n g A s s i g n m e n t s E n a b l e s S t u d e n t s t o P a r t i c i p a t e i n R e a l Work 93 3.0 C l a s s S e s s i o n s were O r g a n i z e d t o Support C l a s s A s s i g n m e n t s 95 4.0 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Study 98 5.0 Summary 99 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 102 APPENDICES 107 Ap p e n d i x I Course O u t l i n e , L i s t o f Readings . . . 108 Appe n d i x I I I n t e r v i e w P r o t o c o l 118 i v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1. Ass ignment 1 75 T a b l e 2. Ass ignment 2 75 T a b l e 3. Ass ignment 3 75 T a b l e 4. Ass ignment 4 75 T a b l e 5. Ass ignment 5 75 v LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 C o n n e c t i o n Between A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n t h e C l a s s and t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Those P a r t s t o t h e Assignment 66 F i g u r e 2 Mohan's Knowledge Framework . . 8 6 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Our d a i l y l i v e s i n v o l v e c o u n t l e s s c i r c l e s o f r e c e i v i n g and e x t e n d i n g r e q u e s t s and r e s p o n s e s , spoken and unspoken. T h i s f e a t u r e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p a r e n t when one embarks on f u r t h e r s t u d y w h i c h i n c l u d e s a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t such as t h i s . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I made numerous r e q u e s t s t o many i n d i v i d u a l s t o a s s i s t me w i t h my t a s k . I t i s w i t h p l e a s u r e now t h a t I acknowledge some o f t h e u n i q u e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . A t t h e o u t s e t I ' d l i k e t o o f f e r a s p e c i a l t h a n k you t o t h e p r o f e s s o r and t h e s t u d e n t s who were t h e f o c u s o f my s t u d y . T h e i r r e c e p t i v i t y and openness p r o v i d e d t h e impetus t o b e g i n t h e p r o j e c t and remain committed t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n . S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s due t o my F a c u l t y A d v i s o r , Dr. B e r n i e Mohan f o r h i s b e l i e f i n t h e v a l u e o f t h e s t u d y and h i s u n f l a g g i n g encouragement i n my c a p a c i t y t o complete i t . Moreover, I am i n d e b t e d t o him f o r h i s i n s i g h t s and a d v i c e on t h e s t r u c t u r e and t h e o r y o f t h e s t u d y . He has made t h e e n t i r e e x e r c i s e a f a s c i n a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y o f d i s c o v e r y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . When I c o n s i d e r t h e e n d l e s s s t r e a m o f r e q u e s t s t h a t I have made o v e r t h e p a s t two y e a r s , I am reminded above a l l o f my f a m i l y and my e x t e n d e d f a m i l y who have remained c o n s t a n t i n t h e i r p a t i e n c e and a s s i s t a n c e . I hope t h e y can t a k e p r i d e i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s work a l s o . I n r e s p o n s e , I would l i k e t o d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o my d a u g h t e r , P a r i s whose i n q u i r i n g mind d e l i g h t s i n p o s i n g q u e s t i o n s and s e e k i n g answers. v i i ISN'T IT A PLEASURE TO LEARN SOMETHING AND APPL7 IT WHEN APPROPRIATE? ISN'T IT A 20Y TO HAVE FRIENDS COME FROM AFAR? Confucius v i i i CHAPTER ONE SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY T h i s t h e s i s w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e how a group of Chinese students p a r t i c i p a t e d and succeeded i n a graduate a d u l t e d u c a t i o n course, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t they had s c o r e d below the r e q u i r e d l e v e l on a language p r o f i c i e n c y t e s t (TOEFL) . The p o l i c y o f u s i n g such t e s t s assumes ' a view of language p r o f i c i e n c y and language l e a r n i n g c o n c e i v e d i n a b s t r a c t i o n from s o c i o c u l t u r a l p r o f i c i e n c y and content l e a r n i n g . By c o n t r a s t , t h i s study w i l l use the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of "language s o c i a l i z a t i o n " , which views language l e a r n i n g and c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g as i n t e r r e l a t e d . Consequently, language s o c i a l i z a t i o n w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h language a c q u i s i t i o n . 1 . 0 Background t o the Problem 1.1 R a t i o n a l e f o r the Question The e i g h t s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study are " s t u d e n t - t r a i n e e s " sponsored by the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (CIDA) t o study i n Canada f o r one year. They are p a r t of a l a r g e b i l a t e r a l program n e g o t i a t e d by the Canadian and Chinese governments t o expand China's r e s o u r c e p o o l i n the are a s of a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , communications, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and human and s o c i a l development. T r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n Canada va r y enormously, r a n g i n g from hands-on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s , such as seed or c a t t l e b r e e d i n g , t o 2 new t e c h n o l o g i e s i n m a r k e t i n g , t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , management and e d u c a t i o n . The common p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n i n g i n a l l f i e l d s i s an adequate knowledge o f F r e n c h o r E n g l i s h and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s . The s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y can be r e g a r d e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o t h e r C h i n e s e t r a i n e e s w i t h s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g p l a c e m e n t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e y may a l s o be p r o t o t y p e s o f o t h e r n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k i n g (NNS) s t u d e n t s who a r e r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n an u n f a m i l i a r academic environment and i n a language w h i c h i s not t h e i r mother tongue. The q u e s t i o n o f what i s an adequate l e v e l o f E n g l i s h language p r o f i c i e n c y f o r n o n - n a t i v e s t u d e n t s and what i s t h e b e s t i n s t r u m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h a t p r o f i c i e n c y has been d e b a t e d f o r y e a r s by language t e a c h e r s , a d m i s s i o n s o f f i c e r s , u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l . A t p r e s e n t t h e r e i s no s i m p l e answer t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . V a r i o u s s t u d i e s have examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e s t s c o r e s and academic s u c c e s s . The T e s t o f E n g l i s h as a F o r e i g n Language (TOEFL), t h e most w i d e l y used measurement i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada ( L i g h t , 1987), i s a c c e p t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e " p e r s o n can f u n c t i o n i n E n g l i s h " (Palmer and Woodford, 1978) b u t i t i s not a good p r e d i c t o r o f academic s u c c e s s (Graham, 1987) . The same can be s a i d about t h e M i c h i g a n T e s t o f E n g l i s h Language P r o f i c i e n c y (MTELP) 3 and t h e Comprehensive E n g l i s h Language P r o f i c i e n c y T e s t (CELT). W i t h a l l t h r e e t e s t s p r o f i c i e n c y i s d e f i n e d by pe r f o r m a n c e on t h e t e s t (Graham, p.515). A l t h o u g h t h e y were n e v e r d e s i g n e d t o p r e d i c t how a s t u d e n t would f a r e once e n r o l l e d , u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s e x t r a p o l a t e from t h e s e s c o r e s t o s c r e e n a p p l i c a n t s . D e s p i t e t h e o b v i o u s i n f l u e n c e s o f o t h e r f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g h o m e s i c k n e s s , b a c k g r o u n d knowledge i n t h e s u b j e c t a r e a , m o t i v a t i o n , a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h o s t c u l t u r e , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n v a r i a b l y r e l y on language t e s t s c o r e s t o d e t e r m i n e a s t u d e n t ' s e l i g i b i l i t y . R e c e n t l y a number o f f a c u l t i e s and departments w i t h i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have o p t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e minimum TOEFL s c o r e t o 570 f o r g r a d u a t e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . What t h i s d e c i s i o n f a i l s t o acknowledge i s t h e g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e o f o t h e r f a c t o r s . I t has been s u g g e s t e d by some second language p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h a t a more c o m p e l l i n g a p p r o a c h would be t o e s t a b l i s h minimum s c o r e s f o r each d i s c i p l i n e , and t h e n t o examine each c a n d i d a t e ' s a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n a sphere o f r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n (Graham, p.517). Even though t h i s s u g g e s t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d an improvement o v e r t h e p r e s e n t system, i t i s t y p i c a l o f t h e c u r r e n t , dominant v i e w t h a t e q u a t e s language p r o f i c i e n c y w i t h a s c o r e on a t e s t . Over t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s an immense amount o f r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d by t h e E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g 4 S e r v i c e (ETS) i n Washington t o measure language p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s . However, v e r y few d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s have been d e v o t e d t o t h e a c t u a l a n a l y s i s o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n o r d e r t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t a s k s and d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by s t u d e n t s . S t u d i e s e x i s t t o a s s e s s TOEFL's c a p a c i t y t o p r e d i c t , b u t v e r y few have been c o n d u c t e d t o examine t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n t h o r o u g h l y . R a t h e r t h a n c o n t i n u e t o a s s e s s an a p p l i c a n t ' s p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h i n t h e a b s t r a c t , a s i d e from a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , i t would seem t o be w o r t h w h i l e t o a n a l y z e what a s t u d e n t needs t o do and how i t i s c a r r i e d out i n a r e l e v a n t s o c i a l c o n t e x t where E n g l i s h i s t h e medium o f l e a r n i n g . The TOEFL t e s t , o f c o u r s e , aims t o measure g e n e r a l language p r o f i c i e n c y a t t h e s e n t e n c e l e v e l , n ot language p r o f i c i e n c y i n a g i v e n s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . Case s t u d i e s such as t h i s need t o be c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o f i l e f o r each d i s c i p l i n e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a l l e i g h t s t u d e n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n XXX (ADED XXX) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r academic s u c c e s s . Had t h e TOEFL c u t o f f o f 550 o r 570 been a p p l i e d t o t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s , not one o f them would have been a d m i t t e d . A l t h o u g h i t may be easy t o d i s m i s s t h e i r s u c c e s s as u n i q u e , i t w i l l be p r o f i t a b l e t o examine why and how t h e y succeeded. 5 1.2 R e s e a r c h e r ' s Background My i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t o p i c s p r i n g s from s e v e r a l y e a r s i n v o l v e m e n t i n p r e p a r i n g f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s f o r s t u d y and work i n Canada. As a member o f a team o f t e a c h e r s i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l program i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , I o f t e n s t r u g g l e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s , such as what a r e t h e r e a l language needs o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , how do new e n t r a n t s i n t o a s o c i e t y comprehend what i s r e q u i r e d , a c c e p t a b l e and so on. S i m i l a r i s s u e s a r o s e when I was c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e s i g n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g a n a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and s u p p o r t program f o r newly a r r i v e d C h i n e s e , T h a i and o t h e r A s i a n s t u d e n t s . W h i l e r e f e r e n c e t o j o u r n a l s and o t h e r s c h o l a r l y s o u r c e s d i d p o i n t t h e way, t h e r e appeared t o be a p a u c i t y o f l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g what s t u d e n t s a c t u a l l y do and how t h e y go about t h e i r t a s k s . 2.0 Scope o f t h e Study The s t u d e n t s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e academic r e q u i r e m e n t s i n a g r a d u a t e c o u r s e d e s p i t e t h e i r l a c k o f b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e f i e l d and t h e i r l i m i t e d p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h . The s t u d y seeks t o u n d e r s t a n d how and why t h e y succeeded. By e x a m i n i n g t h e e n t i r e c y c l e o f t h e c o u r s e and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e s t u d y t a k e s s e v e r a l a s p e c t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , f o r example, t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e c o u r s e , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e p r o f e s s o r and o t h e r s t u d e n t s , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r t a s k s , and o t h e r f a c t o r s . However, i t i s not my i n t e n t i o n t o i d e n t i f y what c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g o c c u r r e d and had been l e a r n e d , but r a t h e r t o examine how t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n c o r p o r a t e d c o n t e n t m a t t e r , c u l t u r a l , l e a r n i n g and language t i e d t o g e t h e r i n a r e a l a c t i v i t y . F u r t h e r , i t i s not my purpose t o n o t e s p e c i f i c l anguage l e a r n i n g o r l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t s . I n s t e a d , t h e s t u d y v i e w s t h e s i t u a t i o n as a language s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . Data have been g a t h e r e d from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s : e x t e n s i v e f i e l d n o t e s g a t h e r e d from two p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s (the f i r s t i n v o l v e d an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e t h a t t h e y a t t e n d e d d u r i n g 1988, and t h e second p e r i o d i n v o l v e d t h e a c t u a l c o u r s e under q u e s t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e same y e a r ) , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h each o f t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e p r o f e s s o r , a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' a s s i g n m e n t s , m a t e r i a l s d i s t r i b u t e d from t h e c o u r s e , and a f i e l d d i a r y . I n a d d i t i o n , I had ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet and d i s c u s s i s s u e s i n f o r m a l l y w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s o v e r a f i v e month p e r i o d . T h i s p r o v i d e d an abundance o f r i c h d a t a from w h i c h t o draw. 3.0 Task as Focus B e f o r e o u t l i n i n g t h e p a p e r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n , i t may be h e l p f u l t o e s t a b l i s h why t a s k i s b e i n g used as a f o c u s . A l l o f l i f e i n v o l v e s a c t i v i t y . Our d a i l y r o u t i n e s 7 c o n s i s t o f s i m p l e and complex t a s k s ( H a r r e , 1972) S i m i l a r l y , c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s work o r t a s k s w h i c h r e l a t e t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e and v i c e v e r s a . D o y l e ' s r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e (1983, p.159) m a i n t a i n s t h a t "a c u r r i c u l u m can be r e g a r d e d as a c o l l e c t i o n o f academic t a s k s " . C u r r i c u l a i n v o l v e t h e p r o d u c t s t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o f o r m u l a t e , t h e o p e r a t i o n s t o be used, and t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e work. E r i c k s o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n (1986, p. 19) goes beyond t h e p r o c e s s - p r o d u c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h e r s such as D o y l e . F o r him c o n t e x t "means more t h a n t h a t w h i c h s u r r o u n d s a b e h a v i o u r — t h a t w h i c h s t a n d s o u t s i d e t h e t e x t . " " C u r r e n t s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t one does not see an a c t i o n and t h e n a c o n t e x t around i t ; one l o o k s a t t h e s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c t i o n s t h a t m u t u a l l y c o n s t r u c t t h e c o n t e x t . The o r i g i n a l L a t i n t e r m , CONTEXERE, i s a p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b meaning 'to weave t o g e t h e r s e p a r a t e s t r a n d s . ' That i s what p e o p l e a r e d o i n g . As my c o l l e a g u e Ray McDermott p u t s i t , ^people i n i n t e r a c t i o n c r e a t e e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r one a n o t h e r ' . I n o t h e r words, t h e d i s p a r a t e s t r a n d s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n a r e woven t o g e t h e r i n t o an ecosystem, and t h e e c o s y s t e m i t s e l f i s t h e c o n t e x t , f rom t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i v i s t s p o i n t o f v i e w . " I n t h i s s t u d y I w i l l a p proach t a s k from a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i v i s t v i e w , assuming t h a t t h e e n vironment o r c o n t e x t i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s o r t h r o u g h t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s . I n t h i s v i e w , c o n t e x t i s i n h e r e n t t o t h e 8 n o t i o n o f t a s k . S i n c e we w i s h t o i d e n t i f y how s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o c a r r y out t h e i r t a s k s and why t h e y were s u c c e s s f u l , a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s f o r t h e c o u r s e i s p e r t i n e n t . However, a d e t a i l e d i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s i s not enough. We need t o be aware o f t h e t a s k environment w i t h i n t h e c l a s s . The d i s c o u r s e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a s s i s t s us i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , language i s b e i n g u s e d t o s e t up t h e t a s k s and a l s o t o convey t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e c o u r s e . I n o t h e r words, language l e a r n i n g i s o c c u r r i n g w h i l e c o n t e n t i s b e i n g l e a r n e d . The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t language l e a r n i n g and c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g a r e l i n k e d r e p r e s e n t s a f u n d a m e n t a l s h i f t from c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g i n s e c ond language l e a r n i n g . A b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e s e two p e r s p e c t i v e s w i l l h e l p t o s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e t h e o r e t i c a l component o f t h e s t u d y . 4.0 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework: Language A c q u i s i t i o n v e r s u s Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n One o f t h e most c o n t r o v e r s i a l f a c t o r s i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n (SLA) i s t h e r o l e o f i n p u t t o t h e language l e a r n e r . Borrowed from, f i r s t language r e s e a r c h (FLA), t h e c o n c e p t i n c r e a s e d i n prominence w i t h K r a shen's I n p u t H y p o t h e s i s (1982, 1985) w h i c h m a i n t a i n s t h a t e f f e c t i v e l anguage l e a r n i n g o c c u r s when t h e r e i s "a g r e a t d e a l o f 9 c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t t h a t i s i n t e r e s t i n g and r e l e v a n t t o s t u d e n t s " (1982, p . 4 1 ) . D e f i n e d as s e n t e n c e grammar w h i c h i s s l i g h t l y above t h e p r o f i c i e n c y o f t h e l e a r n e r and commonly r e f e r r e d t o as i+1 ( i n p u t p l u s o n e ) , t h i s c o n s t r u c t has had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on second language r e s e a r c h and pedagogy. D u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1980's a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f SLA s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d s t y l e s and l e n g t h o f i n p u t and t h e i r e f f e c t on language p r o d u c t i o n (Chaudron, 1983; G a i e s , 1981; Gass and V a r o n i s , 1982; Long, 1985; P i c a and Doughty, 1986). A l l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a p p r o a c h language from f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e same p e r s p e c t i v e : t h e t a r g e t o f language l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y s e n t e n c e l e v e l grammar. A 1985 s t u d y by Long and P o r t e r e x t e n d e d t h e n o t i o n o f i n p u t by e x a m i n i n g t h e i n t e r l a n g u a g e between n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s i n c l a s s r o o m group work. T h e i r f i n d i n g s c a u t i o u s l y s u g g e s t t h a t group work may o f f e r a good a l t e r n a t i v e t o l e s s o n s w h i c h a r e e x c l u s i v e l y t e a c h e r - f r o n t e d . I n d o i n g so, t h e y r a i s e s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s about w h i c h t a s k s a r e b e s t s u i t e d t o language l e a r n i n g . However, d e s p i t e t h e i r e f f o r t s t o examine language l e a r n i n g more b r o a d l y , t h e p e r c e i v e d g o a l o f language l e a r n i n g i s s t i l l l i m i t e d t o s e n t e n c e grammar. They s h i f t t h e f o c u s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s from t h e grammar o f t h e s e n t e n c e t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e u t t e r a n c e and, t o some e x t e n t , t o p a i r s o f u t t e r a n c e s i n t h e exchange. F o r example, t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n t e r a c t i v e exchanges as s t u d e n t s n e g o t i a t e meaning. But i n t e r a c t i o n and 10 n e g o t i a t i o n a r e seen as a means t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e n t e n c e grammar, not as l e a r n i n g t a r g e t s i n t h e m s e l v e s . I n o t h e r words, s o c i a l c o n t e x t and c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g a r e seen as p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e main a c t i v i t y o f language p r o d u c t i o n . As m e ntioned above, SLA r e s e a r c h has drawn h e a v i l y from FLA r e s e a r c h , and because o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e , i t i s u s e f u l t o summarize t h e c o n c e p t o f i n p u t from t h e FLA v i e w p o i n t . D u r i n g t h e 1970's FLA r e s e a r c h e r s such as Snow (1981, 1983, 1986) sought t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e and i m p o r t a n c e o f an a d u l t ' s l i n g u i s t i c i n p u t t o a young c h i l d w h i l e h i s language s k i l l s were d e v e l o p i n g . The s p e c i a l language t h a t o c c u r s between c a r e g i v e r s and young c h i l d r e n has become known as "motherese". S t u d i e s o f t h i s phenomenon were l a r g e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l e n g t h o f t h e u t t e r a n c e , t h e number and k i n d o f r e p e t i t i o n s , t h e k i n d o f v o c a b u l a r y , and so on. W h i l e t h i s y i e l d e d some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s , Snow's l a t e r work i l l u s t r a t e s a v i e w t h a t language development encompasses much more t h a n d i s c r e t e i t e m i n p u t and a n a l y s i s . L a t e r s t u d i e s (Bruner, 1983; Snow & G o l d f i e l d , 1983; Snow & N i n i o , 1986) acknowledged t h a t t h e p r o c e s s e s w h i c h make language a c q u i s i t i o n p o s s i b l e r e q u i r e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t as w e l l . P r i o r t o t h i s , language a c q u i s i t i o n and c o n t e x t had been t r e a t e d as s e p a r a t e t o p i c s i n l anguage l e a r n i n g . (Snow, 1983, p.552) I n B r u n e r ' s s e m i n a l book C h i l d ' s T a l k , he d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l t h e a c t i o n s , sequences and r o l e s p l a y e d by two c a r e g i v e r s and t h e i r young c h i l d r e n d u r i n g games o f peek-a-boo and i t s v a r i a t i o n s . What becomes ap p a r e n t i s t h a t t h e c h i l d l e a r n s much more t h a n t h e v o c a b u l a r y , s e n t e n c e grammar, and i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s o f t h e d i s c o u r s e . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y t h e mothers i n i t i a t e d t h e games, p l a y e d b o t h r o l e s , and m a i n t a i n e d a l l t h e r o u t i n e s . Q u i c k l y t h e c h i l d r e n began t o r e s p o n d o r a l l y ; t h e n t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y . Moving on, t h e y assumed one o f t h e r o l e s , t h e n b o t h , f i n a l l y t h e y t o o k charge o f t h e e n t i r e f o r m a t and c o n t e x t . I n d o i n g so, t h e y had m a s t e r e d a l l o f t h e language, t r a n s a c t i o n a l r o u t i n e s and c o n c e p t s w h i c h c o u l d be a p p l i e d e l s e w h e r e . B r u n e r o b s e r v e d t h a t " [ t h e s e ] l e s s o n s a r e o b v i o u s l y as much c u l t u r a l as t h e y a r e l i n g u i s t i c . Language a c q u i s i t i o n seems t o be a b y - p r o d u c t o f c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n . The e n g i n e t h a t d r i v e s t h e e n t e r p r i s e i s n o t language a c q u i s i t i o n p e r se, b u t t h e need t o g e t on w i t h t h e demands o f t h e c u l t u r e " (p. 103). I n B r u n e r ' s language t h e c u l t u r a l u n i t i s t h e game. B r u n e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t language i s "passed on" t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f p a t t e r n e d s i t u a t i o n s , such as games between a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , g i v e s c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e n o t i o n o f a c t i v i t y and c o n t e x t i n language l e a r n i n g . S t u d i e s l i k e t h e s e r e c o n s t r u c t t h e whole p i c t u r e o f dynamic c o l l a b o r a t i o n between c a r e g i v e r and c h i l d . N o t e s , o b s e r v a t i o n s and a n a l y s i s t a k e i n a l l t h e elements o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n c l u d i n g a c t i o n s , g e s t u r e s , moods, n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , i n t e n t i o n s , s u r r o u n d i n g s , t i m e , speech r o u t i n e s . The f i n d i n g s show t h a t as t h e c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g language he i s a c q u i r i n g c u l t u r a l knowledge a t t h e same t i m e . T h i s k i n d o f language l e a r n i n g r e s e a r c h , known as language s o c i a l i z a t i o n , c a l l s f o r a q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h i n o r d e r t o b u i l d up l a y e r s o f d e t a i l and meaning. I n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h i s h o l i s t i c method, most SLA r e s e a r c h s t i l l f o c u s s e s on s m a l l e r and more d i s c r e t e l e v e l s o f i n p u t . I n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t hand, I have chosen t o use a case s t u d y a p p r o a c h t o e x p l o r e how t h e group o f e i g h t C h i n e s e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s f u l f i l l e d t h e academic r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e i r c o u r s e o f s t u d y . The t h e o r e t i c a l framework o u t l i n e d above n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t t h e e n t i r e c y c l e o f t h e c o u r s e be s c r u t i n i z e d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d how t a s k s were co m p l e t e d . Where B r u n e r used t h e game and moves i n t h e game as t h e c o n t e x t u a l u n i t s , t h i s s t u d y w i l l use t h e c o u r s e , and t h e t a s k s o r a s s i g n m e n t s w i t h i n t h e c o u r s e as c o n t e x t u a l u n i t s . 5.0 Some As s u m p t i o n s The e s s e n c e o f t h i s s t u d y l i e s i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t language and c u l t u r e a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y woven t o g e t h e r . T e a c h i n g language w i t h o u t e s t a b l i s h i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f some o f t h e fu n d a m e n t a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e c u l t u r e l i m i t s t h e l e a r n e r t o , a t b e s t , a s u p e r f i c i a l g l o s s a r y o f p r e s c r i b e d r i t u a l s . C o m p i l i n g an i n v e n t o r y o f "do's" and " d o n ' t s " w i l l 13 n e v e r g i v e l e a r n e r s a command o f how and why a s o c i e t y o p e r a t e s as i t does. But what i s c u l t u r e ? How can i t be d e f i n e d ? There a r e a m u l t i t u d e o f d e f i n i t i o n s , each e m p h a s i z i n g a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t approach. T h i s s t u d y i s shaped by an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and S p r a d l e y ' s d e f i n i t i o n u n d e r l i e s t h e work: " c u l t u r e i s t h e a c q u i r e d knowledge t h a t p e o p l e use t o i n t e r p r e t e x p e r i e n c e s and g e n e r a t e s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r " (1980, p . 2 ) . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t c u l t u r e i s l e a r n e d , t h a t i t d e f i n e s norms and s t a n d a r d s , and t h a t i t i s a p o w e r f u l t o o l i n t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . 6.0 Some Ca v e a t s The t h e o r e t i c a l framework has some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a h y b r i d form. I t does n o t f o l l o w a t o t a l l y e t h n o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h w h i c h d i c t a t e s t h a t a r e s e a r c h e r i n v e s t i g a t e a s i t u a t i o n o p e n l y t o l e t t h e p r e d ominant themes r e v e a l t h e m s e l v e s ; n o r does i t adhere t o a p o s i t i v i s t p o s i t i o n w h i c h i n i t i a t e s a s l a t e o f h y p o t h e s e s t o be t e s t e d . I n s t e a d , I have narrowed t h e f i e l d by e s t a b l i s h i n g c e r t a i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s . Once t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d , t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n s - why and how d i d t h e s t u d e n t s s u c c e e d - were examined i n an i n d u c t i v e manner. I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o r e i n f o r c e a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t t h i s i n q u i r y does not f o l l o w a n o m o t h e t i c model. As a case s t u d y , i t does not t r y t o e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n s t e a d , t h e emphasis l i e s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t s u r r o u n d s t h e s t u d e n t s . R e f e r r e d t o as h e r m e n e u t i c s c i e n c e , t h i s method p r o c e e d s : " a) w i t h o u t c o n t r o l l i n g t h e e x i s t i n g r e a l i t i e s , b) w i t h o u t p r e s u m i n g a r e s e a r c h e r ' s o b j e c t i v i t y , and c) w i t h o u t g e n e r a l i z i n g towards c a u s a l l a w s " (Ochsner, 1979, p . 5 4 ) . Thus, t h e work e v o l v e s i n t o a s y s t e m a t i c , though p e r s o n a l d i s c u s s i o n . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e t h e s i s f o l l o w s : C h a p t e r Two c o n t a i n s t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e ; C h a p t e r Three o u t l i n e s t h e n a r r a t i v e e v e n t s o f t h e c o u r s e ; C h a p t e r F o u r i n t e r p r e t s and d i s c u s s e s t h e d a t a ; and C h a p t e r F i v e summaries t h e s t u d y w i t h c o n c l u s i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 15 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE A f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t i n language l e a r n i n g i s t h e r o l e o f i n p u t t o t h e language l e a r n e r . I n b o t h f i r s t and second language t h e o r i e s , r e s e a r c h e r s have e x p l o r e d t h e n a t u r e and i n f l u e n c e o f language d i r e c t e d t o young c h i l d r e n and n o v i c e s p e a k e r s . W h i l e second language r e s e a r c h e r s s t i l l e s t a b l i s h most o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s from an " i n p u t " p e r s p e c t i v e , f i r s t l anguage r e s e a r c h e r s have broadened t h e i r t h e o r i e s t o i n c l u d e a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e language l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t . In r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h i s s t u d y , i n p u t and a c t i v i t y become key f a c t o r s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e d a t a . C h a p t e r two i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r main s e c t i o n s : second language a c q u i s i t i o n and f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n , and under each, i n p u t and a c t i v i t y a r e c o n s i d e r e d ; language s o c i a l i z a t i o n ; and t a s k s i n s c h o o l . C o n c l u d i n g t h e . r e v i e w i s a s e c t i o n w h i c h o u t l i n e s t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o r t h i s s t u d y . 1.0 Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n Second language t e a c h i n g has e x p e r i e n c e d many changes i n m e t h o d o l o g i e s o v e r t h e p a s t f i f t y y e a r s . Teachers have moved from a g r a m m a r - t r a n s l a t i o n approach t o an a u d i o - l i n g u a l method wh i c h emphasizes o r a l r e p e t i t i o n s t h a t a r e cued t o v i s u a l o r a u r a l s t i m u l i . The b a s i s f o r t h i s method i s t h e s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n d e v e l o p e d and o u t l i n e d by S k i n n e r i n h i s book V e r b a l B e h a v i o u r ( S t e r n , 1986:299) . But 16 i t wasn't l o n g b e f o r e t h i s method came under s c r u t i n y . " I n a l o n g and famous r e v i e w a r t i c l e on V e r b a l B e h a v i o u r , Chomsky made a f u n d a m e n t a l a t t a c k not o n l y on t h e t h e s i s and t h e c o n c e p t s d e v e l o p e d by S k i n n e r b u t , t h r o u g h t h i s r e v i e w , on t h e e n t i r e b e h a v i o u r i s t p o s i t i o n i n contemporary p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s " p.299. D u r i n g t h e 1960's and 70's a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r systems were d e v e l o p e d and promoted as e f f e c t i v e : S i l e n t Way, S u g g e s t o p e d i a , Community L e a r n i n g , C o g n i t i v e Code and o t h e r s b u t none were t h e r e s u l t o f grounded t h e o r i e s . I n f l u e n c e d by Chomsky, Kr a s h e n (1982) i n t r o d u c e d a s e r i e s o f f i v e ' h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t e d t o language l e a r n i n g : t h e A c q u i s i t i o n / L e a r n i n g H y p o t h e s i s ; t h e N a t u r a l Order H y p o t h e s i s ; t h e M o n i t o r H y p o t h e s i s ; t h e I n p u t H y p o t h e s i s ; t h e A f f e c t i v e F i l t e r H y p o t h e s i s . K r a s h e n ' s H y p o t h e s i s t h e o r y has had c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on t h e f i e l d o f second language l e a r n i n g , spawning a number o f s t u d i e s b a s e d on h i s c e n t r a l p r e m i s e . D e s p i t e subsequent r e s e a r c h however, t h e r e e x i s t s no e v i d e n c e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s c l a i m s . Gregg (1986:121) 1.1 I n p u t S i n c e Krashen's i d e a s s t i l l r e p r e s e n t a c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r c e i n SLA, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine h i s I n p u t H y p o t h e s i s . I t b e a r s most r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y and 17 a c c o r d i n g t o K r a s h e n , i s t h e most c r u c i a l o f a l l . Two key p o i n t s a r e : 1. "We a c q u i r e by u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n p u t c o n t a i n i n g s t r u c t u r e s t h a t a r e beyond our c u r r e n t competence. [He c a l l s t h i s c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t and s i m p l i f i e s i t as i + 1] 2. The b e s t i n p u t i s not g r a m m a t i c a l l y sequenced and i n v o l v e s g enuine communication." (1987:38) I n an attempt t o make sense o f second language l e a r n i n g K r a s h e n , l i k e most SLA r e s e a r c h e r s , f o c u s e s n a r r o w l y on t h e shape and c o n t e n t o f t h e i n p u t t o t h e l e a r n e r . I n f a c t he r e d u c e s h i s a p p r o a c h t o a s i n g l e c l a i m " P eople a c q u i r e second l a n g u a g e s when t h e y o b t a i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t , and when t h e i r A f f e c t i v e F i l t e r s a r e low enough t o a l l o w t h e i n p u t " i n " . Thus, c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t i s t h e t r u e and o n l y c a u s a t i v e v a r i a b l e i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n . " (1987:40) U s i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t , Wesche and Ready (1985) s t u d i e d t h e speech a d j u s t m e n t s made by two p s y c h o l o g y p r o f e s s o r s i n t h e i r l e c t u r e s t o f i r s t language (LI) and second language (L2) s t u d e n t s . T h e i r r e s u l t s i d e n t i f y a s e r i e s o f l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s such as d i s c o u r s e m a r kers, s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s , and communicative d e v i c e s f o r example comprehension checks and r e p e t i t i o n s . Wesche and Ready r e c o g n i z e d t h a t e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r a l s o p l a y s a r o l e i n comprehension and f o r t h a t r e a s o n i n c l u d e d q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a g a t h e r e d from 18 o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s . The a u t h o r s p o i n t t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e L I and L2 l e c t u r e s : more f r e q u e n t use o f g e s t u r e s , more t i m e spent a t t h e b l a c k b o a r d and g r e a t e r s c h e m a t i c and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w r i t t e n on t h e b o a r d . I n o t h e r words t h e p r o f e s s o r s s u p p l y more c o n t e x t u a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e L2 s t u d e n t s . The Wesche and Ready s t u d y i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t i n c l u d e s b o t h q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a t h e r e b y a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , a r a r e o c c u r r e n c e i n ESL r e s e a r c h . F u r t h e r , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y i t i s h e l p f u l because t h e two s i t u a t i o n s a r e c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d : n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e . However, h a v i n g chosen t o a p p r o a c h t h e p r o b l e m from an i n p u t p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e a u t h o r s have d e l i n e a t e d t h e environment as a one-way communication s i t u a t i o n . The p r i m a r y f o c u s i s t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s l e c t u r e . The o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e : t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e p r o f e s s o r a r e b o t h seen t o be e s t a b l i s h i n g " s h a r e d meaning". Many SLA s t u d i e s r e f e r t o i n p u t w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g as f o r e i g n e r t a l k o r t e a c h e r t a l k . I n a n o t a b l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n W o n g - F i l l m o r e (1985) examined communication p a t t e r n s i n s u c c e s s f u l " l i m i t e d E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y " (LEP) c l a s s e s . A l t h o u g h many o f h e r f i n d i n g s r e l a t e t o d i s c o u r s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s uch as r e p e t i t i o n s , c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s and s i g n a l s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s , r i c h and p l a y f u l language (as 19 opposed t o r e d u c e d f o r e i g n e r - t a l k t e r m s ) , W o n g - F i l l m o r e a l s o p o i n t s t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s w h i c h make a p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e . F o r example, f o r m a l l e s s o n s w i t h c l e a r b o u n d a r i e s marked by a change i n l o c a t i o n o r p r o p s , f o r m u l a i c cues m a r k i n g b e g i n n i n g and ends, r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d e v e n t s , c l e a r l e s s o n f o r m a t s from day t o day ( s c r i p t s ) , c l e a r and f a i r t u r n - a l l o c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , as w e l l as t a i l o r i n g e l i c i t a t i o n q u e s t i o n s t o a l l o w f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n h e r a t t empt t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s on language l e a r n i n g , W o n g - F i l l m o r e moves away from t h e s i m p l e c o n f i n e s o f a n a l y z i n g i n p u t f a c t o r s and c o n s i d e r s t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t . However, she d o e sn't go t o t h e n e x t s t e p o f e x a m i n i n g what t a s k s t h e c h i l d r e n a r e engaged i n and how t h e y use t h e i n p u t and c o n t e x t t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r t a s k s . Numerous o t h e r SLA s t u d i e s t a c k l e t h e i s s u e o f i n p u t i n language l e a r n i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Chaudron (1983) ; Long and Sato (1983); S c h i n k e - L l a n o (1983). G r a d u a l l y r e s e a r c h e r s began t o see t h a t one-way communication, t y p i c a l l y t e a c h e r - f r o n t e d l e s s o n s , was l i m i t e d i n t h e range and degree o f i n p u t a v a i l a b l e t o l e a r n e r s . O t h e r s t u d i e s e x p l o r e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f two-way i n t e r a c t i o n between s t u d e n t s . S e l i n g e r (1977); P i c a and Doughty (1985). However u s e f u l t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s may be, t h e a n a l y s i s remains f i r m l y r o o t e d a t t h e sentence-grammar l e v e l . 20 1.2 A c t i v i t y I n an i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e Long (1985) p r e s e n t s h i s c o n c e p t o f a t a s k - b a s e d s y l l a b u s . He d e f i n e s t a s k "as a p i e c e o f work u n d e r t a k e n f o r o n e s e l f o r f o r o t h e r s f r e e l y o r f o r some reward. I n o t h e r words, by " t a s k " i s meant t h e hundred and one t h i n g s p e o p l e do i n e v e r y d a y l i f e a t work, a t p l a y , and i n between." p.89. W h i l e he c a u t i o n s r e a d e r s n o t t o draw h a s t y c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f such a s y l l a b u s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t h i s r e s e a r c h i s b a s e d on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t p r i n c i p l e . I n t h e s e a r c h t o p r o v i d e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e w h i c h would g u i d e language t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s SLA r e s e a r c h e r s examined t h e t y p e s o f t a s k s t h a t r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r language p r o d u c t i o n Doughty and P i c a (1985) (1986); Long and P o r t e r , (1985); Gass and V a r o n i s (1985). These s t u d i e s l o o k a t v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s : one-way t a s k s , two-way t a s k s , t e a c h e r - t o - s t u d e n t ; and s t u d e n t - t o - s t u d e n t , t h e o b j e c t b e i n g t o d e t e r m i n e what t a s k t y p e s and what i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s f a c i l i t a t e d language a c q u i s i t i o n . A l l s u c h s t u d i e s f o l l o w t h e same b a s i c r a t i o n a l e " I n k e e p i n g w i t h second language a c q u i s i t i o n t h e o r y , such m o d i f i e d i n t e r a c t i o n i s c l a i m e d t o make i n p u t c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o l e a r n e r s and t o l e a d u l t i m a t e l y t o s u c c e s s f u l c l a s s r o o m s e c ond language a c q u i s i t i o n " Doughty and P i c a (1986:322). I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e how " t a s k " i s seen i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s : t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n 21 t h e t a s k a r e " s u b j e c t s " , engaged i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k ; t a s k c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e seen as independent v a r i a b l e s ; and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t a s k d i s c o u r s e a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be dependent v a r i a b l e s . As we w i l l d i s c u s s l a t e r i n t h i s p a p e r , t a s k i s v i e w e d v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n ; i t i s t a k e n t o mean t h e e n t i r e s o c i a l c o n t e x t . 2.0 F i r s t Language A c q u i s i t i o n The f i e l d o f L I has been s u b j e c t t o many o f t h e same i n f l u e n c e s from p s y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n as L2. F o r our pu r p o s e s i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o say t h a t b e h a v i o u r i s m , G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y , pragmatism and c o g n i t i v e t h e o r y have a l l p l a y e d a p a r t i n s h a p i n g t h e o r i e s r e l a t e d t o L I l e a r n i n g . A l t h o u g h a t r e n d has been emerging " t o l o o k i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t h e c o n t e x t s t h a t e n a b l e human b e i n g s t o a c t as t h e y do" B r u n e r (1983:124), i t wasn't u n t i l 1983 w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f B r u n e r ' s work C h i l d ' s T a l k t h a t c o n t e x t has been g i v e n s i g n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t i n language l e a r n i n g . B r u n e r ' s work marks a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l approaches t o language a c q u i s i t i o n , a l o n g t h e l i n e s w h i c h had been a r g u e d e a r l i e r by t h e l i n g u i s t H a l l i d a y (1975) . Up t o t h a t t i m e i n p u t had been r e g a r d e d as t h e key f a c t o r i n f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n . 22 2.1 I n p u t Snow's a r t i c l e on s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c language a c q u i s i t i o n approaches i n p u t from a c o n t e x t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e . (1983) By e x a m i n i n g r e c u r r e n t p i c t u r e d i s c u s - s i o n s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e t h e c h i l d ' s a c q u i s i t i o n f o r t a l k i n g about a g i v e n p i c t u r e . Snow's a n a l y s i s c e n t r e s l a r g e l y on t h e u t t e r a n c e t h a t t h e c h i l d was a b l e t o say a f t e r h e a r i n g i t i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . She h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t c h i l d r e n use a s t r a t e g y such as, i d e n t i f y a s i t u a t i o n , remember what i s s a i d , and say i t y o u r s e l f t h e n e x t t i m e t h e s i t u a t i o n r e c u r s . I f t h i s mechanism i s p r o t o t y p i c a l , i t has i n t e r e s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r language l e a r n i n g , f o r i t r e c o g n i z e s t h e v a l u e o f c o n t e x t i n language l e a r n i n g . A l t h o u g h Snow's s t u d y does i n c l u d e t h e p i c t u r e book a c t i v i t y , she f a i l s t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n h e r a n a l y s i s t h e b r o a d e r c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e a l s o b e i n g l e a r n e d . F o r example, we s i t down t o r e a d ; t h e book i s h e l d i n a c e r t a i n manner; t h e book i s l o o k e d a t and r e a d , n o t e a t e n o r thrown; and f i n a l l y we d i s c u s s what we have r e a d w i t h o t h e r s . However, she does acknowledge t h a t t h e s e p a t t e r n s a r e b e i n g l e a r n e d . 2.2 A c t i v i t y B r u n e r ' s s t u d y on m o t h e r - c h i l d communication p a t t e r n s was one o f t h e f i r s t t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on t h e a c t i v i t y w h i c h s u p p o r t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n . (1983) Where o t h e r s t u d i e s 23 have e x c l u s i v e l y a n a l y z e d t h e t a l k t h a t r e s u l t e d from i n t e r a c t i o n , B r u n e r c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e a c t i v i t y between mother and c h i l d . I n t h i s r e s e a r c h , an example o f a c t i v i t y i s t h e game o f peekaboo p l a y e d between two mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n o v e r t h e p e r i o d o f n i n e t e e n months and f i f t e e n months r e s p e c t i v e l y . A t t h e c o r e o f B r u n e r ' s t h e s i s a r e two p r i m a r y c o n c e p t s : f i r s t , human a c t i o n i s s y s t e m a t i c and o r d e r e d and much o f our c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g appears t o o p e r a t e i n s u p p o r t o f g o a l - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t y / and second, human a c t i v i t y i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s o c i a l and com m u n i c a t i v e , (p.25) T h i s p o s i t i o n a l l o w s B r u n e r t o see t h e game o f peekaboo as som e t h i n g more t h a n a c a t a l y s t t o produce l a n g u a g e . A c c o r d i n g t o him "each o f t h e games p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s i s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d 'form o f l i f e ' . The games a r e , i n a word, an i d e a l i z e d and c l o s e l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d f o r m a t . They have Meep s t r u c t u r e ' and a s e t o f r e a l i z a t i o n r u l e s by w h i c h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e game i s managed." (p.4 6) As t h e c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e a c t i v i t y , he l e a r n s a l l t h e r i t u a l s t h a t go a l o n g w i t h t h e game - t h e s e t o f sequenced p e r f o r m a n c e s , t h e r o l e s , t h e n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , t h e moves, t h e language u t t e r a n c e s . Language i n p u t i s s u r e l y i m p o r t a n t b u t i t i s p a r t o f a b r o a d e r p a t t e r n o f " c u l t u r a l a c q u i s i t i o n " . (p.55) D u r i n g t h e s e p r e d i c t a b l e f o r m a t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n c h i l d r e n l e a r n how t o i n t e r p r e t t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t : what i s o b l i g a t o r y , what i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y , (p.120) 24 T h i s knowledge t h e n becomes t r a n s f o r m e d and a p p l i e d e l s e w h e r e . C l e a r l y so much more i s b e i n g l e a r n e d t h a n r o u t i n i z e d u t t e r a n c e s . Language l e a r n i n g from B r u n e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w i s dependent on r i c h r o u t i n e s w h i c h can be d i v e r s i f i e d , t o a l l o w f o r t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n i t i a t i v e and competence o f t h e l e a r n e r as he e x e c u t e s t h e moves, (p. 60) I n p u t i s o n l y one p a r t . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t B r u n e r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l framework i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o H a r r e ' s (1985) c o n c e p t u a l system r e g a r d i n g human a c t i o n s . H a r r e ' s e t h n o g e n i c method seeks t o i d e n t i f y an approach i n w h i c h t h e f o c u s o f i n t e r e s t becomes t h e a c t i o n s f o r w h i c h human b e i n g s a r e c a l l e d t o a c c o u n t . He b e l i e v e s t h a t humans a r e s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g , r u l e - f o l l o w i n g a g e n t s who have t h e c a p a c i t y t o m o n i t o r t h e i r b e h a v i o u r and p r o v i d e a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . Through a s e r i e s o f i m p r o v i s e d s c e n a r i o s w i t h i m p l i c i t s c r i p t s and t a c i t r u l e s , p a r t i c i p a n t s l e a r n r o u g h l y how t o p r o c e e d . One i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e i s t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n s must c o n t a i n some form o f f e e d b a c k i n o r d e r t o s e l f - m o n i t o r p e r f o r m a n c e . (1972:22) I n f l u e n c e d by B r u n e r , Snow's l a t e r work (1986) p r o c e e d s t o l o o k more f u l l y a t t h e c o n t e x t s u r r o u n d i n g young c h i l d r e n as t h e y a c q u i r e l a n g u a g e . 3.0 Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n A l t h o u g h many L I and L2 r e s e a r c h e r s s t i l l c o n s i d e r t h e s e n t e n c e as t h e n a t u r a l frame f o r l i n g u i s t i c i n q u i r y and p l a y down t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t e x t , a g r o w i n g number r e a l i z e " t h a t v o c a l and v e r b a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d and embedded i n c u l t u r a l systems o f meaning". S c h i e f f e l i n and Ochs (1986a:164) Drawing on " s o c i o l o g i c a l , a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l approaches t o t h e s t u d y o f s o c i a l and l i n g u i s t i c competence w i t h i n a group", (p.163) t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s a r e more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f language s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a n language a c q u i s i t i o n p e r se. To d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two i t i s u s e f u l t o p o i n t out t h a t "the s t u d y o f language a c q u i s i t i o n has as i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what c o n s t i t u t e s l i n g u i s t i c competence a t d i f f e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l p o i n t s . Whereas, language s o c i a l i z a t i o n has as i t s g o a l t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how p e r s o n s become competent members o f s o c i a l groups and t h e r o l e o f language i n t h e p r o c e s s , (p.167) T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t we s h o u l d not t a k e f o r g r a n t e d a l e a r n e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f academic t a s k s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n . The accomplishment o f an academic t a s k i n f a c t , i s l i k e l y t o i n v o l v e i m p o r t a n t communicative and i n t e r p r e t i v e work b o t h by t h e i n s t r u c t o r and s t u d e n t . Language s o c i a l i z a t i o n s t u d i e s t y p i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n and communication between mothers and c h i l d r e n o r c a r e g i v e r s and young c h i l d r e n , b u t r e s e a r c h may a l s o i n c l u d e n o v i c e s p e a k e r s such as L2 s t u d e n t s . The t a l k t h a t r e s u l t s i s o f t e n termed "motherese" o r " b a b y - t a l k " , 26 m o d i f i e d speech p a t t e r n s and v o c a b u l a r y . I n c l a s s r o o m r e s e a r c h t h i s same p a t t e r n i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as f o r e i g n e r t a l k o r t e a c h e r t a l k . T h i s p o i n t s t o t h e second major d i f f e r e n c e between most language a c q u i s i t i o n s t u d i e s and language s o c i a l i z a t i o n : t h e r o l e o f i n p u t . As we have s a i d b e f o r e , i n L2 r e s e a r c h i n p u t i s l a r g e l y r e g a r d e d as t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e . However, an e s s e n t i a l t e n e t w i t h r e g a r d t o language s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s t h a t because p e o p l e use language t o a c c o m p l i s h s p e c i f i c g o a l s i n s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s , c h i l d r e n and n o v i c e s must t a k e a c t i v e and s e l e c t i v e r o l e s i n s o c i a l i z i n g c o n t e x t s , (pp.169-70) C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n p u t i s a n a l y z e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a c t i v i t y . A f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n c e w i t h K r a shen's p o s i t i o n i s t h e i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d on t h e c h i l d - c a r e g i v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p as a j o i n t e n t e r p r i s e . A l l i n t e r a c t i o n s between s m a l l c h i l d r e n and o t h e r s i s v i e w e d as a l i n g u i s t i c r e s o u r c e f o r b o t h p a r t i e s . And r a t h e r t h a n see i n p u t as a one-way communication p a t t e r n , language s o c i a l i z a t i o n c o n s i d e r s i t a m u t u a l p r o c e s s o f s h a r i n g . S c h e f f e l i n and Ochs and o t h e r s have n o t e d a d d i t i o n a l i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f language s o c i a l i z a t i o n : a) s h a r e d knowledge i s o f t e n made up o f " s t o c k knowledge". Members o f a c u l t u r a l community p o s s e s s a w e a l t h o f b a c k g r o u n d knowledge t h a t i s i m p l i c i t l y u n d e r s t o o d i n any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . F o r example, a t s o c i a l engagements o r b u s i n e s s 27 m e e t i n g s , " i n s i d e r s " w i l l be aware o f s u b t l e cues w h i c h s i g n a l t h e end o f t h e g a t h e r i n g . S i m i l a r l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s q u i c k l y u n d e r s t a n d r e f e r e n c e s made d u r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n , r e q u i s i t e d e g r e e s o f f o r m a l i t y and p o l i t e n e s s , and so on; b) members' p e r c e p t i o n s and c o n c e p t i o n s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y b r i n g d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f vi e w t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l e n c o u n t e r s (p.165); and c) i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a r e a c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e meaning and outcome not j u s t p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t s . I t i s t h r o u g h c o n s t a n t n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t h a t members conform and i n f o r m one a n o t h e r t h r o u g h language (McDermott e t a l i n S c h e f f e l i n & Ochs, 1986a) . Up t o t h i s p o i n t s e v e r a l words have been u s e d t o r e f e r t o a common c o n c e p t , namely " a c t i v i t y " , " t a s k " and "game". A c t i v i t y and t a s k may be t a k e n as synonymous, g e n e r i c terms, a l t h o u g h t a s k i s w i d e l y used i n r e f e r e n c e t o c l a s s r o o m work. B r u n e r a l s o uses t h e g e n e r a l t e r m a c t i v i t y and i n t h e case o f h i s s t u d y o f mothers and c h i l d r e n , t h e a c t i v i t y was a game (peekaboo). However, B r u n e r a p p l i e s "game" more w i d e l y s p e a k i n g o f games as s e t s o f r u l e s and manoeuvers. The n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h e pa p e r d e a l s w i t h r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n e d w i t h t a s k s i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . 4.0 Tasks i n S c h o o l P a r a l l e l t o a c t i v i t y r e s e a r c h i n language l e a r n i n g , t h e r e has been a g r o w i n g body o f r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f 28 t a s k s i n s c h o o l work. A l t h o u g h t h i s l i t e r a t u r e does n ot stem from a language s o c i a l i z a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e , i t b e a r s some s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . What f o l l o w s i s a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s , t h e n a l i n k i s made between language s o c i a l i z a t i o n and t a s k r e s e a r c h . Over t h e y e a r s t h e n a t u r e o f c l a s s r o o m work and t e a c h e r s ' and s t u d e n t s ' r o l e s has been v i e w e d from many d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . Yet d a t i n g from t h e 1890's (Mead i n E r i c k s o n ) , and. renewed a g a i n by Dewey (1938) , t h e r e has been a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f l o o k i n g a t t h e c l a s s r o o m as a p l a c e o f t a s k s , t i m e and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s theme r e a p p e a r e d a g a i n d u r i n g t h e 1970's when s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i v i s t s began t o t h i n k s y s t e m a t i c a l l y about t h e ways i n wh i c h t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s c o n s t r u c t e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r each o t h e r . The s o c i a l , i n t e r a c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f l e a r n i n g i s a t t h e h e a r t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . a p p r o a c h . E r i c k s o n (1986:14-5) Many r e s e a r c h e r s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t a s k s i n s c h o o l come from a b a c k g r o u n d i n c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y and so i t i s . n a t u r a l t h a t t h e y l o o k a t t a s k s as a s e r i e s o f p r o d u c t s t h a t s t u d e n t s p r o d u c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t a s k r e s e a r c h i s o f t e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n s and t h e r e s o u r c e s used t o p r o d u c e t h e t a s k s (Doyle, 1983; E r i c k s o n , 1986; B l u m e n f e l d & Meece, 1988). Marx and Walsh (1988) s u g g e s t t h a t t a s k r e s e a r c h s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e t h e c o g n i t i v e p l a n s used by s t u d e n t s t o a c c o m p l i s h academic work. 29 4.1 Task C o n d i t i o n s What a r e t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t s t u d e n t s d o i n g t h e i r work? Two a s p e c t s w h i c h a r e i n v a r i a b l y examined a r e s e t t i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y . 4.1.1 S e t t i n g G i v e n t h e i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d on i n t e r a c t i o n and c o n t e x t w i t h i n c l a s s r o o m s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s e t t i n g i s a pr o m i n e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n many r e s e a r c h e r s mind. Some c a l l i t " t a s k e n v i r o n m e n t " (Anderson, S t e v e n s & Prawat (1987)/ E r i c k s o n ; ) some r e f e r t o c o n t e x t as " s e t t i n g " o r " s o c i a l s e t t i n g " ( D o y l e ; Edwards, 1988; Marx & Walsh) b u t a l l seek t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t o c c u r s between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s , and s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e e r s . A l l o c a t i o n o f t i m e , degree o f t e a c h e r c o n t r o l , e x p l i c t n e s s o f ' g r o u n d - r u l e s ' ; and t h e s o c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n c l a s s r o o m s a r e p e r t i n e n t a r e a s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 4.1.2 I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e l i v e r y A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e . Who e s t a b l i s h e d t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l s ? How a r e t h e s e conveyed t o t h e s t u d e n t s ? What methods o f assessment a r e used? A r e s t u d e n t s i n s t r u c t e d d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y about t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e t a s k ? What i s t h e r o l e o f f e e d b a c k i n t h e t e a c h i n g p l a n ? 30 4.2 P r o d u c t s L o o k i n g more c l o s e l y a t t h e t a s k s t h e m s e l v e s , r e s e a r c h e r s ( D o y l e ; Marx and Walsh) have i d e n t i f i e d f o u r main t y p e s o f o p e r a t i o n s : a) memory; b) p r o c e d u r a l ; c) comprehension and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; and d) o p i n i o n . D o y l e b e l i e v e s t h a t t a s k s r e g u l a t e t h e s e l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e c h o i c e o f s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . i n e f f e c t , s t u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n what a t a s k l e a d s them t o do, a theme r e i n f o r c e d by H a r r e ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t human a c t i v i t y i s g o a l - d i r e c t e d . But l e s t we narrow our a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a s k , i t i s p e r t i n e n t t o remember t h a t t a s k i s more t h a n c o n t e n t , i t i s a l s o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h i t i s embedded. 5.0 C o n c l u s i o n A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s u s e f u l t o r e t u r n t o language s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n an a t t empt t o l i n k t h e two streams o f t h o u g h t . S c h e f f e l i n and Ochs and o t h e r s have made us aware o f t h e v a s t r e s e r v o i r o f s t o c k knowledge t h a t we b r i n g t o s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . Much o f t h i s knowledge i s assumed t o be communal, and t h r o u g h complex, f l e x i b l e manoeuvers, a s s u m p t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s become c l a r i f i e d and u n d e r s t o o d . P a r t i c i p a n t s t r y t o f i n d t h e m i s s i n g p a r t s i n any i n t e r a c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y i n c l a s s r o o m s , s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s must make t h e i r way t h r o u g h a maze of u n s t a t e d , i n c o h e r e n t 31 and o f t e n ambiguous e n c o u n t e r s i n o r d e r t o make sense o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e t a s k s r e q u i r e d o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . To make m a t t e r s more c o m p l i c a t e d , t h e r e a r e l o c a l c o n v e n t i o n s f o r p e r f o r m i n g t a s k s , such as t h o s e t h a t p e r t a i n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r e nvironment i n t h a t c l a s s (who can l e a v e h i s s e a t , f o r what r e a s o n and under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e t c e t e r a ) ; and b r o a d e r c o n v e n t i o n s w h i c h a p p l y t o e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c s o c i e t y , f o r example i s t h e t e a c h e r c o n s i d e r e d a f r i e n d l y g u i d e who f a c i l i t a t e s l e a r n i n g o r an a u t h o r i t a r i a n " t a s k - m a s t e r " . I n t h e i r s t u d y , Anderson e t a l n o t e t h a t one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f h i g h l y r a t e d c l a s s r o o m s was t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n r e d u c i n g t h e i n f e r e n c e burden on s t u d e n t s . Teachers d e l i b e r a t e l y and e x p l i c i t l y p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would a i d t h e c h i l d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e d e s i r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g about t h e c l a s s and ways o f r e s p o n d i n g t o t a s k demands, (p. 17) I t makes good sense t h a t t e a c h e r s become aware o f t h e c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and t h e c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e o f s . o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s i n o r d e r t o h e l p s t u d e n t s a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r t a s k s . B u i l d i n g on an e t h n o g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e t o make t h e known o b v i o u s , b o t h t a s k r e s e a r c h and language s o c i a l i z a t i o n seek t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t and t h e r o l e i t p l a y s i n l e a r n i n g . Language i s t h e means f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g and r e g u l a t i n g t h i s p r o c e s s . 32 6.0 R e s e a r c h Methodology I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o u t l i n e d above, i t was i m p o r t a n t t o approach t h e s t u d y h o l i s t i c a l l y , g a t h e r i n g t h e d a t a o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f s e v e r a l months i n t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g o f t h e c l a s s r o o m and r e l a t e d o u t s i d e e n v i r o n m e n t s . A methodology w h i c h l e n d s i t s e l f w e l l t o t h i s k i n d o f i n t e n s i v e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s t h e case s t u d y . Based on e t h n o g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e s , t h e c a s e s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o b u i l d up l a y e r s o f d e t a i l o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e i n o r d e r t o come t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f o r c e s t h a t shape t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e group i n v o l v e d . T h i s c a s e s t u d y i s an s y s t e m a t i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r group o f s t u d e n t s as t h e y went t h r o u g h a g r a d u a t e c r e d i t c o u r s e . I t i n v o l v e d p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e p r o f e s s o r and s t u d e n t s , s u s t a i n e d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s over t h r e e months, and c o l l e c t i o n o f p e r t i n e n t documents. D i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n as a p a r t i c i p a n t was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o g a i n a c c e s s t o t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . As a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r I had " o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o "see" t h e c o v e r t a s p e c t s o f communicative, • s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , v a r i a b l e s i n room b e h a v i o u r , and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l "work" t h a t o r g a n i z e s p a t t e r n s o f c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o u r " Mehan (1982:83). I n a d d i t i o n , I c o u l d o b s e r v e p a t t e r n s t h a t o c c u r r e d b e f o r e and a f t e r c l a s s , and d u r i n g c o f f e e b r e a k s . 33 P r i o r t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o u r s e i n q u e s t i o n and a f t e r i t s c o m p l e t i o n , I had i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s as t h e y c o n t i n u e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g . T h i s " p r o l o n g e d f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e members o f t h e group and d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n " i n t h e c o u r s e Mehan (1982:61) r e s u l t e d i n r i c h and v a r i e d o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r a p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a Schmidt (1981:201). D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a f i e l d d i a r y was m a i n t a i n e d and n o t e s w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n were c l a s s i f i e d and coded. T h i s d a t a combined w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and document a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s t r i a n g u l a t i o n . D e f i n e d as " q u a l i t a t i v e c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n " , t r i a n g u l a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e because " i t a s s e s s e s t h e s u f f i c i e n c y o f t h e d a t a a c c o r d i n g t o t h e convergence o f m u l t i p l e d a t a s o u r c e s o r m u l t i p l e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s " Wiersma (1986:246). H a v i n g b u i l t up a d a t a base, I u s e d i t as r e l e v a n t e v i d e n c e t o compose a n a r r a t i v e and t h e n l a t e r t o document t h e c o n n e c t i o n between s p e c i f i c p i e c e s o f e v i d e n c e and v a r i o u s i s s u e s i n t h e case s t u d y . Y i n (1984:94) T h i s s e c t i o n f o l l o w s i n C h a p t e r 3. B e f o r e moving on t o t h e " s t o r y " , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p o i n t out t h a t c ase s t u d i e s , l i k e a l l r e s e a r c h methods, have i n h e r e n t weakness w h i c h must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . I n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f case s t u d i e s , Y i n r a i s e s t h r e e c o n c e r n s . F i r s t , i t i s not u n u s u a l f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o become a 34 s u p p o r t e r o f t h e group and hence, d e v e l o p a b i a s w h i c h may a f f e c t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . Once one d e v e l o p s a degree o f r a p p o r t w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e group i t i s d i f f i c u l t i n d e e d t o m a i n t a i n a c l e a r p e r s p e c t i v e . To guard a g a i n s t t h i s I had a k n o w l e d g e a b l e o u t s i d e r r e a d t h e n a r r a t i v e . Second, a r o l e c o n f l i c t may emerge as one p a r t i c i p a t e s and o b s e r v e s a t t h e same t i m e . Indeed i t can be a p r o b l e m t o a c t as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n a group d i s c u s s i o n and t o o b s e r v e and t a k e n o t e s a t t h e same t i m e . U n d o u b t e d l y , some o b s e r v a t i o n s were l o s t and n o t e s were l e s s d e t a i l e d due t o my p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, i n some i n s t a n c e s I f e l t t h a t i t was more u s e f u l t o p a r t i c i p a t e l i k e a r e g u l a r group member t h a n r e m a i n d e t a c h e d w i t h my notebook . p o i s e d f o r i n s c r i p t i o n s . A c e r t a i n t e n s i o n always e x i s t s between p a r t i c i p a t i n g so t h a t o t h e r members do not v i e w you as an o u t s i d e r , and r e m a i n i n g d i s t a n t i n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e more b r o a d l y . Gaps i n t h i s p r o c e s s were compensated by t h e l e n g t h o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n (I a t t e n d e d a l l c l a s s e s ) , t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f c o n t e n t ( c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l , a c t i v i t i e s and p a t t e r n s r e a p p e a r e d ) , and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e and have c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s a c r o s s s e v e r a l s e t t i n g s . T h i r d , a g e n e r a l r i s k e x i s t s w i t h i n t e r v i e w s because t h e r e s p o n d e n t s may not answer t h e q u e s t i o n s w e l l f o r example, t h e y may not r e c a l l t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , r e s p o n d e n t s may g i v e answers t h a t 35 t h e y p e r c e i v e t o be a p p r o p r i a t e b u t w h i c h may not r e f l e c t t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e . Wiersma (1986:181) T h i s danger i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e a l w i t h C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s because t h e y p l a c e g r e a t v a l u e on c o n f o r m i n g t o a c c e p t a b l e p a t t e r n s (of a c t i o n o r t h o u g h t ) , and i n s a v i n g f a c e . Two s t r a t e g i e s were used t o o f f s e t t h i s p o s s i b l e weakness. F i r s t , t h e r e s e a r c h e r sought t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a r a p p o r t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s w h i c h would a l l o w them t o speak f r a n k l y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s f e l t t h a t t h e s t u d y was w o r t h w h i l e , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t r e s u l t e d i n a s s i s t a n c e t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s . F u r t h e r , t h e y were a s s u r e d o f a b s o l u t e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i n t h e r e p o r t i n g o f t h e d a t a . Second, t h e i n t e r v i e w was s t r u c t u r e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f d e s c r i p t i v e q u e s t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o S p r a d l e y (1979:67) e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s y m m e t r i c a l q u e s t i o n - a s k i n g , r e p e t i t i o n , t h e s e e k i n g o f e x p l a n a t i o n s and t h e p o s i n g o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g d e s c r i p t i v e q u e s t i o n s , s t r u c t u r a l q u e s t i o n s , and c o n t r a s t q u e s t i o n s . See A p p e n d i x I I f o r s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t , i n c o n t r a s t t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , one o f t h e v a l u e s o f an i n t e r v i e w i s t h a t p o i n t s can be c l a r i f i e d and a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t a m p l i f i e d , t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t f u l l o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s him o r h e r s e l f . The f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c a s e s t u d i e s w h i c h needs t o be r a i s e d i s t h a t " o b s e r v e d c o n d i t i o n s a r e not s t a t i c and a r e s u b j e c t t o i n f l u e n c e s from beyond t h e immediacy o f t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d moments, f o r example t h e l e s s o n , space and t i m e r o u t i n e s , e t c e t e r a . " Cazden (1982:223) I n o t h e r words, t h e s e a r c h f o r meaning i s e l u s i v e and t h e r e s e a r c h e r can not r e l y on a s i n g l e example t o j u s t i f y an e x p l a n a t i o n . The dynamic c h a r a c t e r o f a n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g can be m e d i a t e d by u s i n g o t h e r s o u r c e s t o check one's hunches, sometimes o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s can c l a r i f y i m p r e s s i o n s o r t h e d a t a may v e r i f y f i n d i n g s . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s l o o k i n g f o r a convergence o f d a t a t o b u i l d a c h a i n o f e v i d e n c e . Because o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a c a s e s t u d y , one does not seek c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r t r y t o g e n e r a l i z e t o o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s . The v a l u e o f a case s t u d y l i e s i n t h e i n t e n s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r group o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e i n o r d e r t o b u i l d up a d a t a bank f u l l o f r i c h and v a r i e d d e t a i l . 37 CHAPTER THREE CASE STUDY NARRATIVE C h a p t e r Three seeks t o t e l l t h e s t o r y o f t h i s case s t u d y . Here the event s w i l l be o u t l i n e d , and the s o c i a l and academic environment w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . N a r r a t i v e s have a p a r t i c u l a r i m por tanc e i n case s t u d i e s , and i n e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h as w e l l . F o r , as E r i c k s o n s a y s , "the v e r y a c t o f t e l l i n g a s t o r y about what happened - p r o d u c i n g an account o f sequences o f a c t i o n s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the p a s t - can be a means o f d e v e l o p i n g deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h o s e a c t i o n sequences" ( p .9). S t o r i e s h e l p p e o p l e t o make sense o f the p a s t . Three s e c t i o n s f o l l o w : t h e f i r s t p r e s e n t s the p i c t u r e from my p o i n t o f v i ew; the second g i v e s the p r o f e s s o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e ; and t h e t h i r d o u t l i n e s the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . By i n c l u d i n g a l l t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s we have the advantage o f b o t h the p r o f e s s o r ' s and the s t u d e n t s ' v i s i o n s and o p i n i o n s , as w e l l as my o b s e r v a t i o n s about t h e c o u r s e . 1. 0 R e s e a r c h e r ' s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 1.1 What was the s i t u a t i o n ? A group of C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a g r a d u a t e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n c o u r s e (ADED X X X ) . 38 1.2 Who w e r e t h e s t u d e n t s ? Two d i s t i n c t s t u d e n t g r o u p s c o m p o s e d t h e c l a s s . T h e r e w e r e e i g h t C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s a n d s i x o t h e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , who w e r e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h (NS) . The NS w e r e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t a n d h a d t a k e n s e v e r a l c o u r s e s i n t h i s f i e l d . They were a l l o l d e r t h a n t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s a n d h a d s e v e r a l y e a r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s . The C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s w e r e a t t e n d i n g t h e c o u r s e i n o r d e r t o g a i n a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f i e l d o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , b u t t h e y w e r e n o t r e g i s t e r e d f o r c r e d i t . T hey w e r e i n C a n a d a f o r one y e a r o f s t u d y a s p a r t o f a c o - o p e r a t i v e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m b e t w e e n an A d u l t E d u c a t i o n I n s t i t u t e i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a a n d t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . F u n d i n g a n d a p p r o v a l i s p r o v i d e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t A g e n c y ( C I D A ) . T h e i r o b j e c t i v e i s t o become k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t e i n t h e i r c i t y i n C h i n a . T h e i r m o t i v a t i o n t o s u c c e e d i s h i g h . A l l a r e y o u n g , b r i g h t w i t h r e a s o n a b l e l e v e l s o f E n g l i s h ( t h e y w o u l d s c o r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 00-550 on T O E F L ) . The e i g h t C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s a r e g r a d u a t e s o f v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t e s i n Wuhan. T h e i r u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d : p h y s i c s , m a r i n e e n g i n e e r i n g , . p h a r m a c o l o g y , c h e m i s t r y , 39 E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . None o f them had any ba c k g r o u n d i n e i t h e r program p l a n n i n g o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . P r i o r t o s t a r t i n g t h e t h r e e week c o u r s e , t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were i n t r o d u c e d t o Vancouver, and Canadian l i f e - s t y l e s t h r o u g h a six- w e e k o r i e n t a t i o n a t UBC. F o l l o w i n g t h i s , t h e y a t t e n d e d f o u r s e s s i o n s o f a n o t h e r g r a d u a t e c o u r s e i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l D imensions o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g ADED XXX, t h e y c o n t i n u e d t h e i r s t u d i e s i n o t h e r g r a d u a t e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s , f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e was made t o t h e s e c o u r s e s as p o i n t s o f co m p a r i s o n . 1.3 What was t h e n a t u r e o f ADED XXX? ADED XXX - A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Program P l a n n i n g P r a c t i c e - i s a r e g u l a r d e p a r t m e n t a l o f f e r i n g w h i c h examines t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s ' i n s p e c i f i c a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s e t t i n g s and e x p l o r e s t h e p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y .of v a r i o u s approaches t o p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . The p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r ADED XXX i s a companion c o u r s e w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e o r e t i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s had not t a k e n t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e c o u r s e was t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o r e t i c a l , c o n c e p t u a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s when t h e y a r e a p p l i e d t o program p l a n n i n g i n 40 a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s were c o v e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e : ( R e f e r t o Appendix I f o r c o u r s e o u t l i n e ) 1. p l a n n i n g as an a n t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s 2. a n a l y z i n g t h e p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system 3. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l needs 4. d e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s 5. f o r m u l a t i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n 6. f o r m u l a t i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n 7. d e v e l o p i n g an e v a l u a t i o n p l a n L e c t u r e s were t h e predominant mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n and b r a i n s t o r m i n g added t o v a r y t h e pace. The p r o f e s s o r ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n f o l l o w e d t h e c o u r s e o u t l i n e c l o s e l y . He o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o t h e r e a d i n g s d u r i n g h i s l e c t u r e s and o c c a s i o n a l l y a s k e d s t u d e n t s t o examine some a s p e c t i n d e t a i l o r used p a s s a g e s on an ov e r h e a d p r o j e c t o r . T o p i c s o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s were t h e f o c u s o f t h e l e c t u r e p r e c e d i n g t h e due d a t e . Because c l a s s e s were f o u r h o u r s l o n g , two b r e a k s were p r o v i d e d d u r i n g each s e s s i o n . 1.4 The P r o f e s s o r ' s I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e The p r o f e s s o r conveyed an a i r o f b e n i g n s u p p o r t t o w a r d t h e s t u d e n t s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o t h e C h i n e s e . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t l e c t u r e , he o f f e r e d h i n t s on how t o use t h e p r i n t m a t e r i a l i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e a s s i g n m e n t s and how t o work e f f i c i e n t l y . "Keep a l i s t o f t h e as s i g n m e n t s i n f r o n t o f you when you a r e d o i n g y o u r r e a d i n g . Make a n o t a t i o n i f i t r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y " . " R e f e r t o y o u r n o t e s when d o i n g a s s i g n m e n t s " . "Don't r e - r e a d t h e a r t i c l e s s i x t i m e s " . H i s s p e a k i n g s t y l e was s l o w , calm and d i r e c t d u r i n g o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n and i n c l a s s . He was c o n s c i o u s t h a t h a l f t h e s t u d e n t s were n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s and t h u s he a v o i d e d j a r g o n , s l a n g o r i d i o m a t i c r e f e r e n c e s . O f t e n he would c l a r i f y a t e r m f o r t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s : "Do you know what ^LaLeche' means?" ( " s i n g l e mothers", " s e n i o r s " ) . He had a p a r t i c u l a r t e n d e n c y t o be c l e a r and e x p l i c i t . Whenever a new p o i n t was i n t r o d u c e d i t was r e - p h r a s e d o r r e p e a t e d . " I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o e l i m i n a t e , g e t r i d o f wrong i n f o r m a t i o n " . " I must a n t i c i p a t e a number o f t h i n g s . I must p l a n , p r e d i c t " . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o f e s s o r i l l u s t r a t e d h i s remarks w i t h f r e q u e n t c o n c r e t e examples, such as a l l o f t h e p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n d r i v i n g a c a r w i t h a manual t r a n s m i s s i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , he g e s t u r e d w i t h h i s hands t o s i m u l a t e movements, demo n s t r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s i z e s . A t t h e end o f each s e c t i o n , he summarized t h e main p o i n t s , p e r h a p s p r o v i d i n g one more example. I n s h o r t , h i s l e c t u r e s were v e r y r e p e t i t i v e , g i v i n g t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e a r t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t and r e l a t e i t t o an example. 42 1.5 The P r o f e s s o r ' s R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Students The p r o f e s s o r sought t o e s t a b l i s h a r e l a x e d and co- o p e r a t i v e atmosphere d u r i n g the i n i t i a l c l a s s . S i t t i n g on the edge of a t a b l e , he p r o v i d e d background i n f o r m a t i o n about h i m s e l f and i n v i t e d students t o ask f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s . The Chinese students were i d e n t i f i e d as a group, and some h i s t o r y was p r o v i d e d t o the oth e r c l a s s members about the purpose of the Chinese p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the c l a s s . The p r o f e s s o r i n t r o d u c e d and welcomed me i n c l u d i n g a few statements about my presence and purpose i n the course. D u r i n g the breaks, the p r o f e s s o r made a p o i n t of m i n g l i n g c a s u a l l y w i t h the students, c h a t t i n g about common areas of i n t e r e s t . He was always w a i t i n g f o r stu d e n t s , w e l l i n advance of the b e g i n n i n g o f c l a s s , and he l i n g e r e d a f t e r the l e c t u r e . One had the im p r e s s i o n t h a t he enjoyed c o n t a c t w i t h the stu d e n t s and made o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be a v a i l a b l e t o them. A f a c t o r i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Chinese st u d e n t s and the p r o f e s s o r i s h i s r o l e as t h e i r t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r . In a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s o r f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r course, he was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the j o i n t t r a i n i n g program and f o r m o n i t o r i n g t h e i r p r o g r e s s over the course of the year. Both th e students and the p r o f e s s o r were s t a k e h o l d e r s i n the s u c c e s s f u l accomplishment of ADED XXX. 43 1.6 Classroom Environment The o v e r a l l atmosphere among the students of the c l a s s was one of s h o r t - t e r m c o r d i a l i t y and arm's-length co- o p e r a t i o n . A l l c l a s s e s were h e l d i n the evening i n an annex b u i l d i n g away from the c e n t r e of the campus. For t h i s reason, students took t u r n s b r i n g i n g refreshments t o share d u r i n g the break p e r i o d . T h i s c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavour f a c i l i t a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n and exchange as people mingled around the food. However, although the two groups of students found common t o p i c s f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n , e s s e n t i a l l y they remained s e p a r a t e . Spontaneous, easy chat was u s u a l l y conducted w i t h " l i k e " members. In oth e r words, Chinese s t u d e n t s t a l k e d among themselves, and n a t i v e speakers w i t h each o t h e r . Another f a c t o r which c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r e l a x e d atmosphere was the s e a t i n g arrangement f o r the s t u d e n t s . The p r o f e s s o r had o r g a n i z e d the students i n t o t h r e e groups around t h r e e l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r t a b l e s . A name c a r d at each t a b l e i n d i c a t e d where everyone s h o u l d s i t . The groups were ev e n l y b a l a n c e d w i t h t h r e e Chinese and two n a t i v e speakers. Once a week the groups were s h u f f l e d , a l l o w i n g everyone s e v e r a l new p a r t n e r s . These groups formed the d i s c u s s i o n or buzz groups. By and l a r g e , i n d i v i d u a l s appeared t o be r e c e p t i v e t o l e a r n i n g more about f e l l o w students and t h e i r assignments f o r the course. However, d e s p i t e the f r i e n d l y and c o r d i a l 44 atmosphere none o f t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s e v e r a s k ed any o f t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e c o u r s e t a s k s . There a r e may be two r e a s o n s f o r t h i s : 1. t h e y were a b l e t o ask me o r t h e p r o f e s s o r , 2. many s a i d t h e y f e l t h e s i t a n t t o " b o t h e r " o t h e r s . I n summary, many p e o p l e had a s t a k e i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u c c e s s . 2 . 0 P r o f e s s o r ' s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The f o l l o w i n g passage a t t e m p t s t o p r e s e n t t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . The s t a t e m e n t s were made by him e i t h e r d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s o r i n t e r v i e w s w i t h me, o r d u r i n g t h e l e c t u r e o r b r e a k p e r i o d s . A l s o , h i s remarks and comments on t h e s t u d e n t s ' assignment p a p e r s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h i s s e c t i o n so t h a t we might u n d e r s t a n d more f u l l y h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . The p r o f e s s o r ' s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e f o r t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s was t o i n t r o d u c e them t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s and p r o c e s s e s o f program p l a n n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , he wanted t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y t h e s e c o n c e p t s t o an " a u t h e n t i c " s i t u a t i o n , e i t h e r t h r o u g h a s p e c i f i c example from t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e , o r t h r o u g h t h e case s t u d y w h i c h had been p r e p a r e d f o r s t u d e n t s t o use. By t h e i r c o m p l e t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c l a s s , he e x p e c t e d them t o de m o n s t r a t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e key elements o f t h e c o u r s e . 45 A l t h o u g h t h e p r o f e s s o r d i d n ' t d w e l l e x c e s s i v e l y on h i s p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , he d i d make c l e a r h i s vi e w s on t h e r o l e o f e v a l u a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n : " I s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e t h a t no one s h o u l d f a i l " . A l s o , he e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t a t e a c h e r ' s f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was t o p r o v i d e e v e r y s u p p o r t t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r t o h e l p them l e a r n . T h i s p o i n t was r e i t e r a t e d d u r i n g t h e s e c t i o n on e v a l u a t i o n when he remarked t h a t e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d h e l p s t u d e n t s t o demon s t r a t e what t h e y know r a t h e r t h a n p e n a l i z e them f o r what t h e y do not know. C o n c e r n i n g t h e assignment p a p e r s o f t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s , he s t a t e d t h a t he d i d not e x p e c t g r a d u a t e l e v e l w r i t i n g f r om them. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f c l a s s , t h e p r o f e s s o r o f f e r e d some g u i d e l i n e s t o everybody about t h e q u a l i t y e x p e c t e d on assignment p a p e r s . He a d v i s e d s t u d e n t s n o t t o be " t o o c o n c e r n e d about t h e f i r s t a s s i g n m e n t , j u s t do i t . T h e y ' l l g e t b e t t e r and b e t t e r w i t h each one". As Bazerman (1980) s u g g e s t s , t h e p r o f e s s o r wanted them t o f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e " c o n v e r s a t i o n s o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e " (p. 658) . 2.1 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e A s s i g n m e n t s How much l a t i t u d e d i d t h e p r o f e s s o r a l l o w ? I n g e n e r a l , i t seems t h a t s u r f a c e l e v e l e r r o r s were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d , b u t m i s c o n c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s p e c i f i c t o p i c o f t h e assignment were n o t . S t u d e n t s were not p e n a l i z e d f o r 46 i n c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g , f a u l t y grammar or s t y l i s t i c weaknesses. Moreover, u n t i d y submissions were not c r i t i c i z e d e i t h e r . However, severe s p e l l i n g mistakes d i d n ' t go u n n o t i c e d ; f o r example, "medicate" f o r "moderate" and " r e s i g s t a t e " f o r " r e g i s t e r " were c o r r e c t e d . In the area of content, the p r o f e s s o r seemed t o g i v e the s t u d e n t s ample p r a i s e f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s . C o r r e c t responses were r e i n f o r c e d w i t h a check mark f o r every c o r r e c t p o i n t . F r e q u e n t l y he would add "good" or " c o r r e c t " t o d i s t i n g u i s h p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r answers; f o r example, "the p a s s i n g s c o r e of the exam i s 80%"; "the students w i l l be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y and use the i n s t r u m e n t s " . Often when an i d e a was extended or s y n t h e s i z e d the p r o f e s s o r would add comments such as "good i d e a " . S i m i l a r l y , i f the student o f f e r e d a new i d e a or a c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n , such as, "use sentence completion t o o b t a i n needs assessment from p r o s p e c t i v e c a n d i d a t e s " , the p r o f e s s o r would w r i t e a p o s i t i v e comment b e s i d e i t . A l l t h i s does not mean t h a t any answer was a c c e p t a b l e . Those t h a t were b l a t a n t l y i n c o r r e c t were t r e a t e d w i t h an emphatic "No", p l u s a q u e s t i o n or two t o d i r e c t the student t o r e - t h i n k h i s or her r e p l y . For example, "your q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s very o b t r u s i v e . Why not ...." With answers t h a t were not w e l l formulated, or those t h a t were m i l d l y o f f the mark, the p r o f e s s o r would pose q u e s t i o n s t o 47 h e l p t h e s t u d e n t c l a r i f y t h e answer, f o r i n s t a n c e "What a r e t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s ? " Each assignment r e c e i v e d an o v e r a l l grade i n t h e form o f "good", " v e r y good", " e x c e l l e n t " . I n a d d i t i o n , f o r t h e f i r s t two a s s i g n m e n t s a p e r c e n t a g e f i g u r e was a p p l i e d . I t seems t h a t a p a p e r was judged "good" when most o f t h e major p o i n t s were a d d r e s s e d , p e r h a p s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one m i s s i n g element, f o r example "What about f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i n y o u r p l a n ? " . "Good" p a p e r s were r a t e d between 75% - 85%. "Very good" was t h e n e x t l e v e l on t h e s c a l e . These p a p e r s p r e s e n t e d a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a s k e d by t h e q u e s t i o n s , d e m o n s t r a t e d a g r a s p o f a l l t h e major p o i n t s and were c l e a r l y p r e s e n t e d . The n u m e r i c a l s c a l e was 85% - 90%. Two o f t h e p a p e r s were r a t e d as " e x c e l l e n t " and ju d g e d t o be w o r t h 100%. The p r o f e s s o r ' s comments r e g a r d i n g t h e s e a s s i g n m e n t s were " v e r y c o n s i s t e n t and w e l l o r g a n i z e d " , "You have d e m o n s t r a t e d a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f program p l a n n i n g . C o n g r a t u l a t i o n s ! " A l t h o u g h i t may be u n u s u a l i n some c o u r s e s t o have such a narrow range o f marks f o r s t u d e n t a s s i g n m e n t s , t h i s method was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s s t y l e o f e v a l u a t i o n . The p r o f e s s o r ' s approach can be summarized as t h i s : pay g r e a t a t t e n t i o n t o c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e f e e d b a c k so t h a t t h e s t u d e n t can a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d outcome. Pay l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o form and r h e t o r i c i f t h e y do not i n t e r f e r e w i t h meaning. 48 From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f E r i c k s o n , t h e p r o f e s s o r seems t o be m e e t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s where t h e y a r e . By s t r u c t u r i n g t h e t a s k s and t h e d e s i r e d outcomes, t h e y a r e w i t h i n t h e g r a s p o f t h e l e a r n e r s and a l l o w f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and development a l o n g t h e way. 3.0 S t u d e n t s ' I n t e r p r e t a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n summarizes t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r t a s k s . T h e i r comments f e l l i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : a) t h e i r f e e l i n g s about t h e t a s k s , b) a d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h e y c a r r i e d out t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , and c) p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . 3.1 T h e i r F e e l i n g s About t h e Tasks A l l s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t c o n s i d e r a b l e a n x i e t y about how t o b e g i n assignment one, "The f i r s t t i m e , I don't even u n d e r s t a n d what t h e assignment s a i d . " ( S u b j e c t 8) "For t h e f i r s t u n i t , we had l o t s o f q u e s t i o n s . We don't know what he means and what he wants us t o do." ( S u b j e c t 1) However, once t h e i r f i r s t a ssignment had been marked and r e t u r n e d , t h e y f e l t g r e a t r e l i e f . A l t h o u g h e v e r y one acknowledged t h a t t h e f i r s t two a s s i g n m e n t s were t h e most d i f f i c u l t , t h r e e s t u d e n t s i n group one c o n f e s s e d t h a t d o i n g t h e case s t u d y was h a r d e r t h a n t h e y had a n t i c i p a t e d . "At t h e b e g i n n i n g i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t s i n c e we had t o a n a l y z e t h e s o c i e t y w h i c h we d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d v e r y c l e a r l y . " ( S u b j e c t 7) 49 " I d i d n ' t know t h i s s o c i e t y q u i t e w e l l , so 'what r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and a u t h o r i t y do you have' a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n Canada. I don't know t h i s . " ( S u b j e c t 1) "At f i r s t I t h o u g h t i t [the case s t u d y ] might be e a s i e r b u t when I got i n t o i t , I f e l t i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t . I had t o s t a n d i n a n o t h e r p o s i t i o n t o l o o k a t i t . The Alma S o c i e t y - I had no i d e a about • i t . " ( S u b j e c t 5) I n a d d i t i o n t o a. l i m i t e d knowledge about t h e Alma S o c i e t y i n p a r t i c u l a r and t h e Canadian s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l , t h e s t u d e n t s were a l s o l a r g e l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s u b j e c t u n d e r l y i n g t h e a s s i g n m e n t s w h i c h was c h i l d abuse. T h i s might be t h e case w i t h anyone who had not r e a d o r l e a r n e d about t h i s p r o b l e m . 3.2 T h e i r A p proach t o t h e Tasks The a p p r o a c h t h a t most o f them t o o k t o complete t h e a s s i g n m e n t s was a f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e one. 1. " I r e a d t h e a s s i g n m e n t . " A l l S u b j e c t s 2. " I r e a d t h e m a t e r i a l . " 3. "But i n o r d e r t o do t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , I had t o l o o k back o v e r my n o t e s and t h i n k about i t . 1 1 3.3 T h e i r D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e Tasks The d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s : a) a l a c k o f knowledge about t h e s o c i e t y , b) d i f f i c u l t y w i t h s p e c i f i c terms o r v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h made i t p r o b l e m a t i c t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s , and c) 50 d i f f i c u l t y w i t h f o r m u l a t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a c o h e r e n t r e s p o n s e . As m e n t i o n e d above, t h e s t u d e n t s who used t h e case s t u d y l a c k e d an i n - d e p t h knowledge about t h e l a r g e r community. They had no e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e w o r k i n g s o f a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e y were not aware o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c domain, and, on a more g e n e r a l s c a l e , t h e y had o n l y vague n o t i o n s about a d u l t o r community e d u c a t i o n endeavours. As S u b j e c t 7 s t a t e d , "we a n a l y z e d t h e c o r r e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c o n t e x t . . . [ b u t ] I t h i n k maybe I'm wrong, maybe I'm a n a l y z i n g by t h e C h i n e s e way. So when I e x p l a i n how t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e d t h e l a t e r s t e p s - i t i s v e r y c o n f u s e d f o r me. I f i t was C h i n e s e s o c i e t y we c o u l d e x p l a i n b u t i n Canada I'm n o t s u r e . 1 1 S u b j e c t 6, who d e v e l o p e d a case s t u d y u s i n g a C h i n e s e s i t u a t i o n , a d m i t t e d t o a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g about some a s p e c t s o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s because he hadn't f i n i s h e d r e a d i n g t h e c o u r s e m a t e r i a l . S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s ( S u b j e c t s 1,2,4,7) acknowledged t h a t even i f t h e c o u r s e had been g i v e n i n C h i n a u s i n g a C h i n e s e c o n t e x t , t h e y s t i l l might have e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s because i n t h e i r own work h i s t o r y t h e y had no e x p e r i e n c e w i t h program p l a n n i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , b u d g e t i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , what might p r o v e t o be p r o b l e m a t i c i n . a Canadian s e t t i n g might n o t be i n C h i n a ; f o r example, " f i n a n c e s a r e not a p r o b l e m [ i n t h e PRC]. I f a work u n i t d e c i d e s t h e y ' l l do something, l i k e a workshop on c h i l d abuse, t h e money i s a v a i l a b l e . As a p l a n n e r we n e v e r worry about t h e money". More s p e c i f i c problems a r o s e because o f t h e i r l i m i t e d v o c a b u l a r y . Words such as " p h i l o s o p h y " , " s t r a t e g y " , " i n s t r u m e n t s " , w h i c h a r e not s u b j e c t - s p e c i f i c stumped, t h e s t u d e n t s when t h e y t r i e d t o match them t o t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s t h e y f o u n d i n t h e i r C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h d i c t i o n a r i e s . The meanings j u s t d i d n ' t mesh w i t h t h e uses t h e y r e a d o r h e a r d i n t h e c l a s s . F o r example, i n C h i n e s e t h e word ' s t r a t e g y ' t h a n i t s use i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h g e n e r a l l y uses i t as a synonym f o r " t e c h n i q u e " . O t h e r p h r a s e s , such as " d e s i r e d s t a t e o f a f f a i r s " and " w e l l - d e f i n e d " , p r o v e d d i f f i c u l t because t h e y c o u l d n ' t be l o c a t e d i n a s t a n d a r d d i c t i o n a r y , and l i k e i d i o m s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s make no sense i n i s o l a t i o n . In t h e words o f S u b j e c t 5, "So sometimes I j u s t had t o guess t h e meaning". D i f f i c u l t i e s d i d n ' t s t o p a t t h e word o r p h r a s e l e v e l e i t h e r . Some c o n c e p t s , i n s p i t e o f d i s c u s s i o n s i n c l a s s , were t o t a l l y f o r e i g n t o them and r e q u i r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s a c c e p t them a l m o s t on t r u s t . S u b j e c t 8 d e s c r i b e d h i s b e w i l d e r m e n t o v e r a c o n c e p t w h i c h was embedded i n t h e c o u r s e c a s e s t u d y . The assignment s t a t e s t h a t t h e Alma S o c i e t y h i r e s you (an o u t s i d e r - on c o n t r a c t ) t o o r g a n i z e a workshop much b r o a d e r , more complex c o n n o t a t i o n 52 on a p a r t i c u l a r theme. S u b j e c t 8 s a i d , " I t h o u g h t about i t and t h o u g h t about i t because i n C h i n a t h i s would n e v e r happen. A u n i t would n e v e r b r i n g i n someone from o u t s i d e t o o r g a n i z e a p r o j e c t on h i s own". Other s t u d e n t s gave examples o f s i m i l a r c o n f u s i o n s . Once t h e y began a n a l y z i n g and w r i t i n g t h e y had t o put t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a n o t h e r frame o f mind. S u b j e c t 1 summarizes t h e p r o c e s s , "When I d i d my a s s i g n m e n t s , I j u s t p r e t e n d I'm a Canadian and someone h i r e d me t o do something. I j u s t use my im a g i n e and t r y t o f i x t h e s i t u a t i o n h e r e . I f somet h i n g i s known I ' l l base on my e x p e r i e n c e . I f something i s new I ' l l base i t on what [the p r o f e s s o r ] t a u g h t u s . " When t h e y r a n up a g a i n s t a con c e p t o r t e r m t h e y d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d , t h e y would sometimes d i s c u s s i t among t h e m s e l v e s ( a l t h o u g h t h e y d i d n ' t a l l l i v e t o g e t h e r ) o r t h e y would ask t h e p r o f e s s o r o r me. The s t u d e n t s a l s o had t h e b e n e f i t o f a d d i t i o n a l m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e p r o f e s s o r f o u r mornings a week d u r i n g t h i s c o u r s e i n whi c h t h e y examined o t h e r a s p e c t s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n Canada. Sometimes t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s u s e d t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o c l a r i f y p o i n t s . P u t t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e as s i g n m e n t s down on paper p r o v e d t o be y e t a n o t h e r h u r d l e . S u b j e c t 5 e x p r e s s e s t h e t a s k t h i s way:. " I t r i e d t o c a t c h t h e meaning o f t h e assignment by r e a d i n g i t - t r i e d t o f i n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e p o i n t s o r q u e s t i o n s . I ' d t h i n k about i t - 53 t r y i n g t o o r g a n i z e i t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n t e n t . Sometimes I ' d d i s c u s s i t w i t h my f r i e n d . " "Another p r o b l e m i s how t o o r g a n i z e . I'm not f a m i l i a r w i t h how t o o r g a n i z e . I'm f a m i l i a r w i t h l o g i c a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l [ m a t e r i a l ] b u t not t h i s form. A l s o t o t h i n k about i t i s d i f f e r e n t t h a n t o w r i t e about i t . " ( S u b j e c t 8) O t h e r s t u d e n t s t a c k l e d t h e w r i t i n g i n a n o t h e r way. " A f t e r g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e n o t e s and r e a d i n g s , t h e n I answered t h e q u e s t i o n s one by one." ( S u b j e c t 3) " I f I f i n d I can c o l l e c t some p a r t s t o g e t h e r , I t r y t o do t h a t . I f I don't, I t r y t o do i t s t e p by s t e p . " ( S u b j e c t 8) A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s muddled and s t r e t c h e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , t h e y were a b l e t o c omplete t h e i r t a s k s s u c c e s s f u l l y . When q u e s t i o n e d about t h e i r f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r work, some comments were: "Even though I know my a s s i g n m e n t s weren't good, I spent l o t s o f t i m e a t i t . " ( S u b j e c t 6) " I t h i n k I have a good b a s i c g r a s p o f t h e m a t e r i a l now." ( S u b j e c t 2) " I t ' s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r us t o g e t some outcome [ o u t p u t ] . I t ' s a p r e s s u r e f o r you t o do t h e t h i n g s [but] p r o d u c i n g something i s good f o r u s . " ( S u b j e c t 4) " J u s t a f t e r f i n i s h i n g t h i s c l a s s , I am e x c i t e d and want t o s t e p r i g h t i n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . " ( S u b j e c t 6) The s t u d e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s t o and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e i r t a s k s r a i s e an i n t e r e s t i n g p aradox, one w h i c h becomes a p p a r e n t once i t ' s a r t i c u l a t e d . L e a r n i n g i s o f t e n most e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d i f e x p e r i e n t i a l t a s k s a r e r e q u i r e d . The paradox a r i s e s because i n o r d e r t o do t h e t a s k , one must have a l r e a d y l e a r n e d t h e t a s k . 55 CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF DATA 1.0 Data C o l l e c t i o n The d a t a c o l l e c t e d c o m p r i s e d e x t e n s i v e f i e l d n o t e s , t a p e d i n t e r v i e w s , c o m p l e t e d a s s i g n m e n t s , r e a d i n g s and hand- o u t s from t h e c o u r s e . S e v e r a l s t e p s were t a k e n t o g a i n an o v e r v i e w o f t h e d a t a . F i r s t , t h e f i e l d n o t e s were r e v i e w e d many t i m e s . Some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s g u i d i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e n o t e s were as f o l l o w s : What i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s d i s c o u r s e ? I s t h e r e a s t r u c t u r e t o t h e l e c t u r e s ? How does t h e p r o f e s s o r p r e p a r e t h e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s ? What a r e some o f t h e s o c i a l p a t t e r n s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s ? How do t h e s t u d e n t s go about c o m p l e t i n g t h e a s s i g n m e n t s ? From t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i t was p o s s i b l e t o see t h a t t h e r e were d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e n a t u r e o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e s t y l e o f d i s c o u r s e and t h e s o c i a l f a b r i c o f t h e c l a s s e n v i r o n m e n t . What was not c l e a r was t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t t h e s e f a c t o r s had on t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The n e x t s t e p i n v o l v e d t r a n s c r i b i n g t h e t a p e d i n t e r v i e w s . The i n t e r v i e w s f o l l o w e d an o p e n - q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i n w h i c h each s t u d e n t was a s k e d t h e same b a s i c q u e s t i o n and a l l o w e d t o answer as f u l l y as she o r he w i s h e d (Appendix I I ) . I n some c a s e s , t h i s meant t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r n o t e s from c l a s s o r t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s ' i n o r d e r t o 56 answer as p r e c i s e l y as p o s s i b l e ( S u b j e c t s 1, 4, 8 ) . I n o t h e r c a s e s , s t u d e n t s t o o k a more round-about approach and r e p l i e d w i t h a n e c d o t e s , q u o t a t i o n s from p o p u l a r C h i n e s e c u l t u r e , i l l u s t r a t i o n s from c l a s s , and so on ( S u b j e c t s 5,6). I n many i n s t a n c e s , t h e s t u d e n t s a m p l i f i e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d u r i n g i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h me, and I added t h e s e comments t o t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l f i e l d d i a r y . S i m i l a r l y , I r e c o r d e d comments from d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e p r o f e s s o r p r i o r t o t h e c o u r s e , d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e . The t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d a r i c h s o u r c e w h i c h c o u l d be r e v i e w e d and a n a l y z e d . The n a r r a t i v e was d e v e l o p e d from t h i s base. F o r t h e a n a l y s i s p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , i t has been n e c e s s a r y t o r e a d t h e t r a n s c r i p t and t h e n o t e s a g a i n and a g a i n i n o r d e r t o see what r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e was a major i s s u e . G r a d u a l l y i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e e n t i r e e n t e r p r i s e ( c o u r s e c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e , i n s t r u c t i o n , a s s i g n m e n t s and c l a s s r o o m environment) was a p a r t i c u l a r l y c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavour. The C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s and t h e p r o f e s s o r were engaged i n a harmonious dance: t h e p r o f e s s o r l e d t h e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h t h e s t e p s o f program p l a n n i n g f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and a l t h o u g h t h e s t u d e n t s were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e themes, t h e y were a b l e t o g r a s p t h e p a t t e r n s as e x p l a i n e d by t h e p r o f e s s o r . To say i t a n o t h e r way - t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e p r o f e s s o r began ' t o s h a r e a mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o complete t h e c o u r s e . As t h e n a r r a t i v e r e v e a l s , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g was n o t f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e c o u r s e . But l i t t l e by l i t t l e t h e s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e d what was e x p e c t e d o f them i n t h i s c o n t e x t . In o r d e r f o r us t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f o r c e s and mechanisms a t work i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e d a t a w i l l now be examined i n l i g h t o f s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o aches. A c e n t r a l method o f a c h i e v i n g t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n n o t e d between t h e p r o f e s s o r and s t u d e n t s was t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e a s s i g n m e n t s . Because t h e s e a s s i g n m e n t s a r e examples o f academic work, " t a s k " w i l l p r o v i d e t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s . The r e m a i n i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine t h e d a t a under t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : 1 . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t a s k s , 2. Task as game, 3.Task as v e h i c l e f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and 4.Task as an example o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . 2.0 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Tasks A l m o s t e v e r y r e s e a r c h e r e x a m i n i n g c l a s s r o o m t a s k s c o n s i d e r s a t l e a s t two p r i m a r y f e a t u r e s : what a c t i v i t y i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d , and what i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e environment or c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e t a s k t a k e s p l a c e . Marx and Walsh s h i f t t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s somewhat. They examine t a s k under t h r e e main h e a d i n g s : a ) s e t t i n g , b ) i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y , and c) s t u d e n t s ' c o g n i t i v e p l a n s , and i n d o i n g so go a s t e p f a r t h e r t h a n r e s e a r c h e r s such as D o y l e , f o r example. 58 2.1 S e t t i n g W i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y Marx and Walsh c o n s i d e r t h r e e f e a t u r e s : i ) t e a c h e r s ' c o n t r o l , i i ) a l l o c a t i o n o f t i m e , and i i i ) t h e s o c i a l system o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . By and l a r g e , i t i s t e a c h e r s who a r e t h e p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e t a s k i t s e l f and t h e environment (Anderson e t a l , 1987, D o y l e , 1983, Edwards, 1987, Marx, 1988, S n e l b e c k e r , 1974). They e s t a b l i s h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a c t i v i t y , t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c e , t h e r e s o u r c e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e outcome and conduct a l o n g t h e way. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e i n t h i s s t u d y , a l l o f t h e above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t r u e . The p r o f e s s o r o r g a n i z e d t h e c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e ( c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s ) , t h e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h accompanied t h e t a s k s , t h e sequence and t i m i n g , g u i d e l i n e s f o r assessment and t h e o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . W h i l e a l l o w i n g s t u d e n t s t o choose t h e t o p i c f o r t h e r e q u i r e d a s s i g n m e n t s , s t u d e n t s were e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o u r s e as d e f i n e d . As f a r as I c o u l d t e l l , t h e r e was l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e f o r m a t o f t h e p a p e r s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f o c c a s i o n a l d e l a y e d s u b m i s s i o n s o f a s s i g n m e n t s . A nderson e t a l m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and b e l i e f s about t h e i r own c o m p e t e n c i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e t a s k s . They suggest t h a t c o n c e p t s o f s e l f - c o m p e t e n c e , s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e , and t h e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f t h e t a s k b e a r some r e l a t i o n t o t h e outcome o f t h e t a s k . I n a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s must l e a r n how t o r e s p o n d t o .the demands o f t h e t a s k . From t h e n a r r a t i v e and p a s s a g e s w i t h i n t h e a n a l y s i s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n them and h i s s u p p o r t o f t h e i r a t t e m p t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y c o n f i d e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s t h a t i t was incumbent upon them t o l e a r n as much as p o s s i b l e from t h i s c o u r s e because t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " t h e i r " p o r t i o n upon r e t u r n t o C h i n a . What t h i s s u g g e s t s i s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - c o m p e t e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n were e x t r e m e l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and c o m p l e t i o n o f t a s k s . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e y p a i d l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m a t e r i a l and t a s k s i n an e a r l i e r c o u r s e i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n because " i t d i d n ' t i n t e r e s t me" ( S u b j e c t 1 ) ; " I knew i t wasn't my f i e l d so I j u s t skimmed t h e r e a d i n g s " ( S u b j e c t 4 ) . The second f e a t u r e under s e t t i n g i s a l l o c a t i o n o f t i m e . R e s e a r c h e r s ( E r i c k s o n , 1983, Marx and Walsh, 1988) have ar g u e d t h a t i t i s not how much t i m e a s t u d e n t spends on a t a s k (as e a r l i e r e d u c a t o r s have m a i n t a i n e d ) but what a c t i o n s t h e t a s k r e q u i r e s o f t h e s t u d e n t . W h i l e t i m e p e r se may not be t h e c r u c i a l f e a t u r e o f t a s k accomplishment, n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y say t h a t t h e y need c o n s i d e r a b l y more t i m e t o complete a s s i g n m e n t s . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s had t h e same amount o f t i m e t o complete t h e a s s i g n m e n t s as t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s , but t h e s t a n d a r d s used t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s were d i f f e r e n t . A l s o , t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s had a c c e s s t o t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l one month p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f t h e c o u r s e . However, t h e s e a d j u s t m e n t s were not enough t o e q u a l i z e t h e t i m e f a c t o r between t h e C h i n e s e and t h e o t h e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o u r s e . F o r one t h i n g , t h e C h i n e s e l a c k e d t h e o v e r a l l knowledge o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h a t t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s had a c q u i r e d , and t h e y were h a n d i c a p p e d by l i m i t e d g e n e r a l knowledge o f Can a d i a n s o c i e t y and t h e academic system. S e c o n d l y , t h e i r E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y was l i m i t e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t can be argued t h a t t h e i r t i m e spent on a t a s k was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e academic r e q u i r e m e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s summarize t h e s i t u a t i o n : "The t i m e between t h e c l a s s e s i s v e r y s h o r t so i t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o complete a l l t h e r e a d i n g s and a s s i g n m e n t s . So sometimes I j u s t do t h e a s s i g n m e n t s " ( S u b j e c t 2 ) . "Even though my as s i g n m e n t s a r e n ' t v e r y good, I spent l o t s o f t i m e a t i t " ( S u b j e c t s 1, 8 ) . " D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e I had no t i m e t o r e - r e a d t h e m a t e r i a l " ( S u b j e c t 1 ) . There i s a n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t i m e on t a s k . F r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g t h e l e c t u r e s , many o f t h e s t u d e n t s , w h i l e l o o k i n g e n g r o s s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n , were not f o c u s s i n g on t h e t o p i c . D e s p i t e t h e urg e n c y o f t a k i n g i n e v e r y t h i n g , l i k e a l l s t u d e n t s , t h e y daydreamed. Comments from t h e i n t e r v i e w s t o t h i s e f f e c t a r e : "Sometimes I d i d n ' t f o c u s on t h e c l a s s . I l o o k e d out t h e window. I c o u l d n ' t c o n c e n t r a t e [ i n E n g l i s h ] so l o n g " ( S u b j e c t 6) . There were a l s o o t h e r o c c a s i o n s when some o f t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were c l e a r l y n ot p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n . T h i s d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e t i m e f a c t o r has s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s and f o r n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s w i t h l i m i t e d b a c k g r o u n d knowledge, t i m e does a f f e c t how w e l l a s t u d e n t i s a b l e t o a t t e n d t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s . Moreover, how t h o r o u g h l y he comprehends t h e m a t e r i a l may a l s o be r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r each t a s k . The t h i r d a s p e c t under " s e t t i n g " i s d e s c r i b e d as t h e s o c i a l system o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . Marx and Walsh and o t h e r s s u g g e s t t h a t "academic t a s k s a r e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r b r o a d e s t sense" (p. 209), and f e a t u r e s such as s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n , f o r example s e a t i n g arrangement, a r e i m p o r t a n t d e s c r i p t i v e e l e m e n t s . ADED XXX was t o a l a r g e e x t e n t an open forum. A l t h o u g h t h e p r o f e s s o r p r e s e n t e d t h e l e c t u r e s a t t h e f r o n t o f t h e room and d i r e c t e d most of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s were i n f u l l v i e w o f one a n o t h e r a l l t h e t i m e . The 14 s t u d e n t s were grouped around f o u r t a b l e s w h i c h were p l a c e d on an a n g l e i n an a p p r o x i m a t e h o r s e s h o e c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Thus, i f a s t u d e n t wanted t o make some comments o r ask a q u e s t i o n , i t was done p u b l i c l y i n f r o n t o f a l l t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s . I n f a c t , i t was o n l y t h e more o u t - g o i n g s t u d e n t s ( S u b j e c t s 5,6,7,8) who v e n t u r e d t o speak p u b l i c l y i n f r o n t o f t h e 62 whole group. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e s e f o u r s u b j e c t s were a l l males. Only on two o c c a s i o n s d i d two female s t u d e n t s ask a q u e s t i o n w h i l e c l a s s was i n p r o g r e s s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e y r e s e r v e d t h e i r q u e r i e s f o r t h e morning t u t o r i a l s w i t h t h e p r o f e s s o r : "we always asked q u e s t i o n s i n t h e morning" ( S u b j e c t 1 ) . F u r t h e r , w i t h i n t h e s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e r e was a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on each s t u d e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e exchange. When t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were a s k e d whether b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a l l e i g h t s a i d y e s . When as k e d how t h e y f e l t about p a r t i c i p a t i n g , 2 o f t h e e i g h t s a i d t h e y f e l t n e r v o u s ; t h r e e commented t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t always u n d e r s t a n d t h e t a s k and f o r t h a t r e a s o n d i d n ' t p a r t i c i p a t e . A l s o , sometimes t h e y d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d t h e comments o f t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s . From t h e f i e l d n o t e s I n o t e d t h a t t h e Canadian s t u d e n t s r a r e l y a s k e d t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s o r d i r e c t l y i n c l u d e d them i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s . I f t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s had s o m e t h i n g t o say, and t h e language was o r g a n i z e d i n t h e i r minds, t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n . On t h e whole, t h e y were much l e s s v o c a l t h a n t h e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s . However, t h e y f o u n d i t u s e f u l t o h e a r t h e i d e a s o f t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s . As m e n t i o n e d above, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e t a b l e s and t h e s e a t i n g arrangement ( r o u g h l y two n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , two C h i n e s e p e r t a b l e ) was d e l i b e r a t e l y s t a g e d t o f o s t e r 63 i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e s t u d e n t s . T h i s was s u c c e s s f u l t o a degree b u t d i d n o t r e s u l t i n n a t u r a l spontaneous m i x i n g . Sometimes t h e Can a d i a n s t u d e n t s engaged one o r two C h i n e s e i n c o n v e r s a t i o n d u r i n g t h e c o f f e e b r e a k s , b u t t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n was e x p l o r a t o r y , w i t h t h e Can a d i a n a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s about t h e C h i n e s e s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a mutual exchange. The C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s r a r e l y i n i t i a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r s and were not good a t s m a l l t a l k p a t t e r n s t h a t we n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e w i t h c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t a s k s , o r s u b - t a s k s i n t h i s c a s e , was e q u i t a b l e , b u t as d i s c u s s e d above, t h e C h i n e s e were not e q u a l p a r t n e r s i n t h e s m a l l groups d i s c u s s i o n s . I n some c a s e s , t h i s o c c u r r e d because s t u d e n t s d i d n ' t always u n d e r s t a n d t h e t a s k o r t h e language o f t h e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s . I n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e y were r e l u c t a n t t o b r e a k i n t o t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n o r l a c k e d knowledge o r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e t o p i c . When t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s were o u t l i n e d by t h e p r o f e s s o r , t h e t a s k s were not d e s i g n a t e d t o one o r two i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e group. A l s o , t h e as s i g n m e n t s and t h e r e a d i n g s were t h e same as t h o s e r e q u i r e d o f t h e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s . Thus, from t h i s s t a n d p o i n t t h e t a s k s were e q u i t a b l e . 64 2.2 I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e l i v e r y W i t h i n Marx and Walsh's o v e r v i e w (1988) o f t a s k c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a second c a t e g o r y c a l l e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y i s i d e n t i f i e d . F a c t o r s l i s t e d h e r e i n c l u d e : i ) management o f t h e t a s k , i i ) medium o f d e l i v e r y , i i i ) i n s t r u c t i o n a l g o a l s . The f i r s t f e a t u r e , management o f t h e t a s k , was t o u c h e d upon e a r l i e r under t e a c h e r c o n t r o l . I t was mentioned t h a t t h e t e a c h e r e x e r c i s e d a l m o s t complete c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t r u c t u r e , d e l i v e r y and outcome o f t h e t a s k . The c l a s s e s were o r g a n i z e d around a l e c t u r e base w i t h s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n s added t o e x p l o r e v a r i o u s t o p i c s . These t o p i c s , t h e t a s k s r e l a t e d t o them, and t h e amount o f t i m e were a l l d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p r o f e s s o r . D u r i n g t h e l e c t u r e s t h e p r o f e s s o r f r e q u e n t l y used an ov e r h e a d p r o j e c t o r t o p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l from a t e x t o r o t h e r s o u r c e s . A l s o , t h e b l a c k b o a r d was used f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s , summaries, c h a r t s and o t h e r g r a p h i c s . When t h e o v e r h e a d t r a n s p a r e n c i e s were t a k e n from t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , t h e y gave s t u d e n t s a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e a l w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l , t h e p r i n t b e i n g r e i n f o r c e d d u r i n g t h e l e c t u r e w i t h a v i s u a l , ". . . t h e c o n t e n t and t h e l e c t u r e were v e r y r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r . But sometimes t h e c o n t e n t wasn't so easy t o f i n d , f o r example i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n s e c t i o n " ( S u b j e c t 6) . However, i f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o j e c t e d f o r o n l y a s h o r t t i m e , s t u d e n t s were not a b l e t o l i s t e n , v i e w and w r i t e 65 q u i c k l y enough. F u r t h e r , S u b j e c t s 3 and 7 remarked t h a t t h e n o t e s on t h e b l a c k b o a r d were not c o n s i s t e n t . "Sometimes, he'd w r i t e new t h i n g s on t h e b o a r d , sometimes i l l u s t r a t i o n s , but not a l w a y s . Whatever, t h e p r o f e s s o r w r i t e s down on b l a c k b o a r d , I w r i t e down. I t h i n k i t ' s i m p o r t a n t " ( S u b j e c t 7). " I n C h i n a , t h e p r o f e s s o r s always w r i t e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s on t h e b l a c k b o a r d , so when Dr X does I w r i t e i t i n my n o t e s " ( S u b j e c t 4 ) . The f i n a l a r e a t o c o n s i d e r under i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u c t i o n a l g o a l s and t a s k . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e r e seems t o be a v e r y c l e a r match from b o t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w and t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ' . D u r i n g e v e r y i n t e r v i e w , t h e s t u d e n t s commented t h a t t h e l e c t u r e s and t h e c o u r s e o r g a n i z a t i o n were c l e a r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y matched t h e t o p i c s o u t l i n e d . I n t h e words o f S u b j e c t 7 " A l l t o p i c s a r e d e t a i l e d , f o l l o w i n g s t e p by s t e p , s p e c i f i c and l o g i c a l from b e g i n n i n g t o end." The c o l l e c t i o n o f r e q u i r e d r e a d i n g s were p r o v i d e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s p r i o r t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o u r s e . The l e c t u r e s i n t u r n s e t up t h e knowledge needed f o r t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , s m a l l group work ( d i s c u s s i o n s ) o f f e r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a new s i t u a t i o n o r t o examine an a s p e c t i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . T h i s meant t h a t t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s h e a r d o t h e r p o i n t s o f view o r i f n e c e s s a r y , had a n o t h e r chance t o h e a r (and comprehend) t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a g a i n . I f s t u d e n t s s t i l l had d i f f i c u l t i e s o r 66 s e s i o n s F i g u r e 1 C o n n e c t i o n Between A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n t h e C l a s s and - t h e - R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Those P a r t s t o t h e A s s i g n m e n t . i n q u i r i e s , t h e y had one more o p p o r t u n i t y d u r i n g t h e s p e c i a l m orning s e s s i o n s o r g a n i z e d j u s t f o r them. The g o a l s o f t h e c o u r s e were e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o u t l i n e and t h e p r o f e s s o r r e v i e w e d t h e s e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t c l a s s . S t u d e n t s were aware t h a t t h e c o u r s e was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s and s t a g e s i n p l a n n i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. The s t u d e n t s r e i t e r a t e d t h a t t h e s e g o a l s c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s v i s - a - v i s g a i n i n g knowledge about v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . In s p i t e o f t h e i r agreement r e g a r d i n g what was t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d , a d i s c r e p a n c y d i d o c c u r between t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l g o a l s , t h e a s s i g n m e n t s and t h e s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t o c omplete t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . A l l e i g h t s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were u n c e r t a i n how t o b e g i n t h e f i r s t a s s i g n m e n t . R e c a l l i n g t h e comments o f S u b j e c t 8, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e s t u d e n t had t o l e a r n how t o go about d o i n g t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , "... t h e f i r s t t i m e I don't even 67 u n d e r s t a n d what t h e assignment s a i d . " . . . a n o t h e r p r o b l e m i s how t o o r g a n i z e and how t o f i n d what we s h o u l d do t h e f i r s t t i m e . " However, by t h e f o u r t h assignment a l l t h e s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o examine t h e q u e s t i o n s i n ' t h e a s s i g n m e n t , l o c a t e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n s i n a- s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner. U s i n g t h e s e t o p i c s t o examine t h e d a t a , i t can be seen t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e , t h e medium o f d e l i v e r y and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e g o a l s and t h e a s s i g n m e n t s a l l p l a y e d a p a r t i n how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o complete t h e i r t a s k s . See F i g u r e 1 f o r a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n between c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s and a s s i g n m e n t s . 2.3 C o g n i t i v e P l a n s The f i n a l c a t e g o r y t h a t Marx and Walsh use t o examine t a s k s i s c a l l e d s t u d e n t s ' c o g n i t i v e p l a n s . T h i s t o p i c can be s e p a r a t e d i n t o o p e r a t i o n s and p r o d u c t s , terms t h a t a r e a l s o employed by D o y l e and E r i c k s o n . The c o n c e r n h e r e i s t h a t t a s k s r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n s and t h a t t h o s e w h i c h ask s t u d e n t s t o comprehend a s i t u a t i o n , make judgments about i t , s e l e c t p r o c e d u r e s and a p p l y them t o t h e new c o n d i t i o n s i n v o l v e " h i g h e r - o r d e r " t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . From t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e a s s i g n m e n t s r e q u i r e d t h e s e k i n d s o f s k i l l s , and t h u s t h e y were more d i f f i c u l t t h a n s i m p l y m e m o r i z i n g a l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e - s t a t i n g them on a t e s t . I t i s w o r t h 68 n o t i n g t h a t t h i s k i n d o f i n t e g r a t i v e t a s k i s not a common f e a t u r e o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . C h i n e s e t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s r e l y h e a v i l y on m e m o r i z a t i o n o f d i s c r e t e i t e m s and l o n g p a ssages o f t e x t w h i c h a r e t h e n r e c a l l e d a l m o s t v e r b a t i m i n e x a m i n a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , when t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e a s s i g n m e n t s were d i f f i c u l t f o r them and t h e y were a t a l o s s as t o how t o p r o c e e d , t h e comments were not i n s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t t h e y had n e v e r f a c e d s u ch a t a s k . The p r o f e s s o r f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r t a s k c o m p l e t i o n i n s e v e r a l ways. Many have been c i t e d e a r l i e r . But i n summary, he m o d i f i e d , h i s d i s c o u r s e , used f r e q u e n t examples, p r o v i d e d ample s u p p o r t and encouragement, and s t r u c t u r e d t h e c o u r s e t i g h t l y u s i n g t h e l e c t u r e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e main themes o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s and m a t c h i n g t h e l e c t u r e s t o t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . Marx and Walsh r e f e r a l s o t o t h e p r o d u c t s o f t a s k s . They r a i s e t h e i s s u e o f c r i t e r i a f o r assessment o f s t u d e n t s ' p r o d u c t s and t h e r o l e o f p r o d u c t s as f o c i f o r f e e d b a c k . The p r o f e s s o r d i d not e x p l i c i t l y o u t l i n e how he a r r i v e d a t t h e marks f o r s t u d e n t s ' p a p e r s . R e f e r r i n g t o s e c t i o n 2.1 i n C h a p t e r Three, we see t h a t he a p p l i e d b a s i c a l l y t h r e e g r a d e s : good 70 - 75%, v e r y good 75 - 85%, and e x c e l l e n t o v e r 85%. From t h i s s t u d y , i t i s not c l e a r how t h e s e marks e q u a t e d w i t h t h o s e o f t h e n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s . The a s s i g n m e n t s were marked i n such a way t h a t t h e p r o f e s s o r t r i e d t o g u i d e i n c o m p l e t e o r i n a c c u r a t e answers by p o s i n g a q u e s t i o n , f o r example, " I t i s n e c e s s a r y - t o ask c l i e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . How w i l l you do t h a t ? " (Assignment 1, o f S u b j e c t 8 ) . "What a u t h o r i t y does t h e program p l a n n e r have?" (Assignment 1, S u b j e c t 2 ) . A l s o , he s y s t e m a t i c a l l y checked e v e r y c o r r e c t p o i n t and p r a i s e d o r i g i n a l i d e a s w i t h remarks such as "good s u g g e s t i o n s " . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t u d e n t s had a v e r y c l e a r i d e a when t h e y were on t h e r i g h t t r a c k and when n o t . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e t o p i c s o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s were e x p l i c i t l y o u t l i n e d w i t h q u e s t i o n s . I n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e s t u d e n t s had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h s p e c i f i c v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s , s uch as " d e s i r e d - s t a t e - o f - a f f a i r s " , " i n s t r u m e n t s " and so on. Three s t u d e n t s a l s o s t a t e d t h a t some q u e s t i o n s were c o n f u s i n g f o r them, "Dr X's assignment d e s c r i p t i o n was v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d , t h e s e n t e n c e s , t h e way he d e s c r i b e s t h e t h i n g s i s h a r d f o r us t o u n d e r s t a n d " ( S u b j e c t 1 ) . I n o t h e r words, d e s p i t e t h e e x p l i c i t n a t u r e o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , t h e a c t u a l w o r d i n g l e f t some s t u d e n t s g u e s s i n g about what was e x p e c t e d . Winne and Marx (1982) show t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e p a n c i e s e x i s t between t e a c h e r s ' and s t u d e n t s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f what i s r e q u i r e d . Indeed, when one examines t h e i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , some o f t h e w o r d i n g i s vague o r l a d e n w i t h j a r g o n . A l s o , 70 q u e s t i o n s seem out o f o r d e r . F o r example, i n assignment one, s t u d e n t s a r e a s k e d t o d e f i n e t h e g o a l s o f t h e program and t h e n i n t h e same l i n e a s k e d t o s p e c i f y t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . C l e a r l y t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e not r e l a t e d and s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d . Had t h e assignment q u e s t i o n s been r e v i s e d t h e y may have a l l e v i a t e d some o f t h e language burden e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . The l a s t f e a t u r e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t h e a f f e c t i v e v a l u e o f f e e d b a c k . The f a c t t h a t t h e p r o f e s s o r g r a d e d t h e i r f i r s t two a s s i g n m e n t s w i t h a p e r c e n t a g e mark was r e c e i v e d v e r y p o s i t i v e l y be t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . N u m e r i c a l v a l u e s a r e easy t o u n d e r s t a n d , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h o s e not e n t i r e l y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e system. Moreover, a l l t h e s t u d e n t s f e l t g r e a t r e l i e f when t h e y r e c e i v e d t h e i r f i r s t a s s i g n m e n t ; t h e y knew t h e y c o u l d s u c c e e d and t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n c r e a s e d . The p r o d u c t s o f t a s k s a r e i m p o r t a n t v e h i c l e s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c l a s s r o o m work. The f e a t u r e s o f s p e c i f i c i t y and f e e d b a c k a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r s h a p i n g how t h e t a s k s a r e p e r c e i v e d and c a r r i e d o u t . U s i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t a s k t o examine t h e d a t a has p r o v i d e d a comprehensive and s t r u c t u r e d framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g how t h e s e s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o f u l f i l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f ADED XXX. Once a g a i n , we see how i m p o r t a n t i t i s f o r t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o p r e p a r e t h e s t u d e n t s , s t r u c t u r e t h e c l a s s r o o m 71 work and envir o n m e n t , and d e f i n e t h e g o a l s and t h e t a s k s c l e a r l y . I n a d d i t i o n , we see t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s worked i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h e p r o f e s s o r t o complete t h e a s s i g n m e n t s and d e v e l o p t h e i r knowledge o f p l a n n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 3.0 Task as Game I n h i s s t u d y o f mother and c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n t h r o u g h games, B r u n e r (1983) p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e game p r o v i d e s t h e " f o r m a t " , t h e p a t t e r n e d s i t u a t i o n t h a t e n a b l e s a d u l t and c h i l d t o c o o p e r a t e i n p a s s i n g on language and c u l t u r e . H i s t h e s i s r a i s e s s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s t h a t can be used t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s o r a c h i e v e d t h e i r g o a l s . 3.1 Deep S t r u c t u r e o f Games Games have a "deep s t r u c t u r e " and a s e t o f r e a l i z a t i o n moves by w h i c h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e game i s managed (p. 4 6) . The deep s t r u c t u r e o f t h e game can be compared w i t h t h e t o p i c s o r themes o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s : 1./Analyzing t h e P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t and t h e C l i e n t System, 2 . A s s e s s i n g Needs, 3 . D e v e l o p i n g O b j e c t i v e s , 4 . D e s i g n i n g an I n s t r u c t i o n a l P l a n and an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P l a n , 5 . F o r m u l a t i n g a Summative E v a l u a t i o n P l a n . F u r t h e r , each assignment had sub-themes. The q u e s t i o n s w h i c h d e l i n e a t e d each assignment can be r e g a r d e d as s u b o r d i n a t e r u l e s w h i c h h e l p s t u d e n t s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s . H a v i n g t h e themes and t h e 72 q u e s t i o n s a l l o w e d s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e "game" - a s i m u l a t e d a c t i v i t y o f program p l a n n i n g . D e s p i t e t h e s t r u c t u r e d f o r m a t , t h e s t u d e n t s s t i l l e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e f i r s t two a s s i g n m e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t d i d p r o v i d e them w i t h an e n t r e e i n t o t h e r e g u l a r work o f a g r a d u a t e c o u r s e . 3.2 S t r u c t u r e d Format The c o n t e x t f o r t h e games between mother and c h i l d were h i g h l y c o n s t r a i n e d and s y s t e m a t i c . S i m i l a r l y , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c l a s s e s was p r e d i c t a b l e and r o u t i n e . The c l a s s e s were t a s k - b a s e d , so t h a t each l e c t u r e p r e s e n t e d t h e c o n t e n t and t h e methodology needed f o r t h e subsequent a s s i g n m e n t . The p r o f e s s o r h i g h l i g h t e d t h i s p o i n t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t c l a s s . I n o t h e r words, i t was a d e l i b e r a t e s t r a t e g y t o t a i l o r t h e l e c t u r e s t o t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , d u r i n g one e v e n i n g t h e p r o f e s s o r r e v i e w e d on t h e b l a c k b o a r d a sample budget w h i c h c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program. The n e x t assignment due t h e f o l l o w i n g week, i n c l u d e d a s e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s were t o p r o p o s e a budget f o r t h e i r h y p o t h e t i c a l program. The s i t u a t i o n was c o n f i n e d even f u r t h e r by t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e . Each s e c t i o n o f t h e l e c t u r e was summarized, and he o f t e n p r e v i e w e d a t o p i c and t h e n r e v i e w e d i t as a c o n c l u s i o n . F r e q u e n t l y , i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s o r v o c a b u l a r y were " r e v i s i t e d " ; f o r example, t h e n o t i o n o f 73 p l a n n i n g as an " a n t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s " was m e n tioned i n l e c t u r e 1 and a g a i n i n l e c t u r e 6. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s y s t e m a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e l e c t u r e s , t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s d i s c o u r s e was a l s o v e r y c o n s t r a i n e d . He c o n s t a n t l y r e p h r a s e d i d e a s , r e p e a t e d new words; c l a r i f i e d c o n c e p t s ; and d e f i n e d words o r terms t h a t might be unknown t o t h e s t u d e n t s . 3.3 Handover P r i n c i p l e One o f t h e key c o n c e p t s i n B r u n e r ' s s t u d y o f mother and c h i l d i s t h a t o f " h a n d i n g o v e r " c o n t r o l o f t h e game. As t h e c h i l d becomes f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p a t t e r n s and t h e moves o f t h e game, he i n c r e a s e s h i s i n i t i a t i v e and l e a r n s how t o e x e c u t e t h e r o l e o f agent. He t a k e s charge o f t h e e n t i r e i n t e r p l a y . We can l o o k a t t h i s p r i n c i p l e on two l e v e l s j u s t as B r u n e r does: a) as c o n t e n t - t h e c h i l d l e a r n s t h e p r i n c i p l e s and sequences o f t h e moves. Then he l e a r n s t o r e a p p l y them i n a new c o n t e x t , and b) as r o l e model handover - t h e c h i l d l e a r n s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s r o l e i n t h e game, and he l e a r n s t h e i n i t i a t o r ' s r o l e . U s i n g t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s g r a d e s and comments on each p a p e r , i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t o what degree each assignment had a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e r e q u i r e d t a s k s . I n B r u n e r ' s t e r m i n o l o g y , t h e q u e s t i o n might be: To what degree d i d t h e p r o f e s s o r "handover" t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e game?". As a c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s g r a d i n g system, t h e a s s i g n m e n t s 74 were r e c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h r e e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s ( I n c o m p l e t e , Complete, Extended) as d e v e l o p e d by Schmidt (1981). The p a p e r s were coded a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e grade, t h e rank a c c o r d e d by t h e p r o f e s s o r , and o t h e r comments and remarks w r i t t e n on t h e c o m p l e t e d a s s i g n m e n t s . S i n c e i t was t h e p r o f e s s o r who d e t e r m i n e d t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e p a p e r s , i t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e f r a i n f r o m a s s e s s i n g t h e a s s i g n m e n t s by h e r s t a n d a r d s . T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h f i v e s t u d e n t s a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e f i r s t a ssignment i n a more t h a n b a s i c manner, t h r e e d i d n o t , and i n two c a s e s , two q u e s t i o n s were not a t t e m p t e d . A l t h o u g h s i x s t u d e n t s h e l d t h e i r own i n t h e second a s s i g n m e n t , two s t u d e n t s had b a r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y p a p e r s . I n assignment t h r e e , a l l b u t S u b j e c t 3 s l i p p e d t o a l o w e r s c o r e . Comments from t h e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had t r o u b l e w i t h t h e co n c e p t l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y " h i g h e r and l o w e r " l e v e l o b j e c t i v e s . By assignment f o u r , a l l s t u d e n t s comprehended t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k and c o m p l e t e d i t i n an e x t e n d e d manner. T h i s p a t t e r n i s m a i n t a i n e d i n assignment f i v e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f S u b j e c t 8. The "handover" co n c e p t may n o t be a p e r f e c t f i t f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n , b u t i t does g i v e a t e c h n i q u e f o r e x a m i n i n g what o c c u r r e d i n t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . We see, f o r example, t h a t w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o h a n d l e most o f t h e c o n t e n t , t h e r o l e handover was ne v e r e x e c u t e d . . But t h i s was not p a r t o f t h e g o a l s o f t h e c o u r s e ; s t u d e n t s were n e v e r e x p e c t e d t o 75 Table 1 Assignment 1 Subject Incomplete Complete Extended 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X Table 2 Assignment 2 Subject Incomplete Complete Extended 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X Table 3 Assignment 3 Subject Incomplete Complete Extended 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X Table 4 Assignment 4 Subject Incomplete Complete Extended 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 - X 7 X 8 X Table 5 Assignment 5 Subject Incomplete Complete Extended 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 missing 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X Incomplete = some questions not answered, answers s u p e r f i c i a l , wrong answers Complete = a l l questions answered, few o r i g i n a l answers - quotes from readings and notes, h i g h l y organized Extended = uses l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l or readings but a m p l i f i e s with own knowledge 76 become i n i t i a t o r s . Perhaps a more t e l l i n g o b s e r v a t i o n would be t h a t the p r o f e s s o r never r e - a d j u s t e d h i s speech and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e once the s t u d e n t s had demons tra ted p r o f i c i e n c y . In o t h e r words, h i s s c a f f o l d i n g was i n c o m p l e t e because i t d i d not make room f o r t h e i r growing knowledge and s k i l l s . B e f o r e l e a v i n g t h i s s e c t i o n i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o one more p o i n t made i n the B r u n e r s t u d y . He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f the game the mother a c t s as i f she knows t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e n t i o n and p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t the c h i l d w i l l i n f e r and a c c e p t h e r i n t e n t i o n (p. 41 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t same l e a p o f f a i t h between the p r o f e s s o r and t h e s t u d e n t s . These s t u d e n t s were not t y p i c a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s who had been s u b j e c t e d t o s t a n d a r d u n i v e r s i t y a d m i s s i o n s p r o c e d u r e s : t h e i r E n g l i s h language s k i l l s were m i n i m a l ; they had no b a c k g r o u n d i n the f i e l d and had not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n academic s tudy i n a wes tern i n s t i t u t i o n . In s h o r t , the p r o f e s s o r d i d not know whether t h e y c o u l d h a n d l e the academic t a s k s o f ADED XXX. However, he a c t e d as i f he knew they c o u l d . Even a r u d i m e n t a r y knowledge o f p s y c h o l o g y s u p p o r t s the n o t i o n t h a t c o n f i d e n c e bege t s c o n f i d e n c e . The s t u d e n t s knew t h a t the p r o f e s s o r was s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e i r endeavours and t h e y were encouraged by h i s c o n v i c t i o n . 77 4.0 Task as V e h i c l e f o r Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n I n C h a p t e r Two t h e con c e p t o f language s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n a comprehensive manner, but b e f o r e e x a m i n i n g t h e d a t a under t h i s h e a d i n g t h e t h e o r y w i l l be summarized h e r e . S c h e f f e l i n and Ochs e x p l a i n language s o c i a l i z a t i o n as "an i n t e r a c t i o n a l d i s p l a y ( c o v e r t and o v e r t ) t o a n o v i c e o f e x p e c t e d ways o f t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g and a c t i n g " (1986b, p . 5 ) . G e n e r a l l y , t h e n o t i o n o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s a p p l i e d t o young c h i l d r e n and c a r e g i v e r s , b u t we have seen t h a t p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n a l s o p e r t a i n t o " n o v i c e s " ( B e r r y & Kim, 1987/ S c h i e f f e l i n & Ochs, 1986b), such as s o j o u r n e r s i n a new c u l t u r e and i m m i g r a n t s . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o r e l a t e t h i s t h e o r y t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , such as t h e C h i n e s e group, because t h e y a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a new environment and l e a r n i n g t h e s o c i a l norms and r u l e s . I t i s t h r o u g h t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s come t o i n t e r n a l i z e and g a i n competence i n t h i s s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . An a n a l y s i s o f how s t u d e n t s c a r r y out t h e i r c l a s s r o o m t a s k s , such as t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l v e h i c l e f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . 4.1 I n t e r a c t i o n The p r o c e s s o f becoming a competent member o f s o c i e t y i s r e a l i z e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h r o u g h language. C h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r i s o f t e n g u i d e d , moderated, r e f o r m e d t h r o u g h 78 v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s with t h e i r c a r e g i v e r s . S i m i l a r l y , t e a c h e r s i n s t r u c t , p r a i s e , c r i t i c i z e , a d j u s t the p e r c e p t i o n s of s tudents through o r a l and w r i t t e n feedback. However, an important f e a t u r e i n language s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s i n t e r a c t i o n . The c h i l d or the n o v i c e i s not a p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t but r a t h e r an a c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r t o the meaning and outcome of the exchange. In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e are o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t S c h e f f e i i n and Ochs i d e n t i f y : a) i n d i v i d u a l s are s e l e c t i v e i n what they c o n t r i b u t e t o i n t e r a c t i o n s , and b) members b r i n g d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t i e s t o i n t e r a c t i o n s . In other words, i n d i v i d u a l s are unique, and t h e i r l e a r n i n g i s not u niform. 4.2 S e l e c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n In t h i s study, the Chinese stu d e n t s , w h i l e n o v i c e s t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r academic community are not u n i n i t i a t e d t o academic study at the post-secondary l e v e l . A l l are graduates of a f i r s t - l e v e l degree program from a Chinese i n s t i t u t i o n . They are, however, u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the r o u t i n e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of graduate l e v e l work i n a "western" u n i v e r s i t y . P r i o r t o and at the b e g i n n i n g of the course, they e x p r e s sed apprehension about whether they c o u l d f u l f i l l the requirements. The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e i r concerns: "I f e l t a f r a i d t o p a r t i c i p a t e [ i n s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n ] because I wasn't sure i f my u n d e r s t a n d i n g was c o r r e c t " (Subject 2) . "When we 79 do the assignment, everyone has d i f f i c u l t y t o understand what we s h o u l d do" (Subject 5) . "I d i d n ' t p a r t i c i p a t e as f r e e l y [ d u r i n g c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s ] as I do i n my n a t i v e language. You have t o •organize and t h a t means slo w l y , not q u i c k l y , b e f o r e you can express your own i d e a s " (Subject 6). "I was r e l u c t a n t t o speak i n f r o n t of the whole c l a s s " (Subject 3). Many of those a n x i e t i e s were eased a f t e r the f i r s t few s e s s i o n s and when t h e i r f i r s t assignments were r e t u r n e d t o them. The students used t h e i r morning t u t o r i a l s w i t h the p r o f e s s o r t o ask q u e s t i o n s about the p r e v i o u s c l a s s , m a t e r i a l or the assignments r a t h e r than r a i s i n g those concerns i n f r o n t of the group. "We always asked q u e s t i o n s i n the morning. I t h i n k we f e l t we had b e t t e r c o n t r o l and we were not w o r r i e d about wasting o t h e r s t u d e n t s ' time" (Subject 7). 4.3 I n d i v i d u a l R e a l i t i e s D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h e i r i n i t i a l s f e a r s were a l l a y e d , s tudents s t i l l had t o g r a p p l e w i t h t a s k s t h a t were v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r p r e v i o u s academic e x p e r i e n c e . Some comments t o t h a t e f f e c t are: "We d i d n ' t f i n d what sentence g i v e s a very c l e a r answer t o the q u e s t i o n , so you have t o answer y o u r s e l f . You have t o r e - o r g a n i z e and do your own concept. In Chinese t e x t you'd n e v e r f i n d t h i s . There would be d e f i n i t e answers or d e f i n i t i o n s " (Subject 8) . "I'm not used t o skimming, i n t h i s course i t ' s n e c e s s a r y " (Subject 1). " [ i n China] ...we have much more memorization. Students j u s t l i s t e n , s i t i n c l a s s and l i s t e n t o what t e a c h e r s say. Here students are a c t i v e , i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g . Sometimes argue and debate 80 w i t h t h e p r o f e s s o r . P r o f e s s o r n o t f o r m a l " ( S u b j e c t 5) . L e a r n i n g t o come t o terms w i t h t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s was h a n d l e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. As one might e x p e c t , t h e y t a l k e d among t h e m s e l v e s , d i s c u s s e d d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e p r o f e s s o r and w i t h me. I t i s c l e a r t h a t whatever o v e r t mechanisms t h e y u sed t o comprehend t h e new m a t e r i a l and en v i r o n m e n t , a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r n a l r e a d j u s t m e n t a l s o t o o k p l a c e . I n o r d e r t o do t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , a l l t h e s t u d e n t s had t o g r a p p l e w i t h new c o n c e p t s and forms o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from t h e i n t e r v i e w s r e f l e c t some o f t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t h a t went on: " S i n c e our backgrounds a r e d i f f e r e n t and a l s o t h e language, we have t o t h i n k i n a n o t h e r way. F o r example, I have no r e l i g i o n and our p o l i t i c a l systems a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t " ( S u b j e c t 5 ) . " I j u s t p r e t e n d I'm a C a n a d i a n " ( S u b j e c t 8 ) . " I j u s t want t o abs o r b t h e e x p e r i e n c e , so I t r y t o , I d i d n ' t i n t e r p r e t what Canadians do, I j u s t a c c e p t e d t h a t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n 'they' do t h i s " ( S u b j e c t 3 ) . "We a r e always g u e s s i n g . I had t o s t a n d i n a n o t h e r p o s i t i o n t o l o o k about i t " ( S u b j e c t 7 ) . In summary t h e n , t h e i r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l knowledge was v e r y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r members o f t h e c l a s s , who had come t h r o u g h C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n a l systems. As i n d i v i d u a l s t h e y b r o u g h t d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f r e a l i t y , and t h e y made p e r s o n a l and s e l e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e i r t a s k s . I n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o f e s s o r , each s t u d e n t c o n s t r u c t e d h i s o r h e r 81 p a r t i c u l a r view of how a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs s h o u l d be planned and a d m i n i s t e r e d . 4.4 Stock Knowledge There are two oth e r important aspects of language s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t s h o u l d be r a i s e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . F i r s t , the n o t i o n t h a t a l l s i t u a t i o n s or c o n t e x t s are imbued w i t h " s t o c k knowledge". Many r e s e a r c h e r s , Bruner, Cazden, Edwards, Mohan, Hymes, S c h e f f e l i n & Ochs t o name a few, agree t h a t w i t h i n any context t h e r e e x i s t s a s e t of i m p l i c i t u n derstandings t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s need i n order t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Often r e f e r r e d t o as "shared knowledge or shared meaning", p a r t i c i p a n t s r e l y on o t h e r s t o f i l l i n t h i s i m p l i c i t background knowledge ( S c h e f f e l i n & Ochs, 1986a:165). F o r example, i n classroom s i t u a t i o n s , s tudents wait e x p e c t a n t l y at the b e g i n n i n g of a l e s s o n f o r the te a c h e r or the p r o f e s s o r t o i n i t i a t e the r o u t i n e s u n l e s s otherwise d i r e c t e d . Students do not b e g i n o r g a n i z i n g one another or t h e i r t a s k s . From the responses o f the Chinese students we can see t h a t they were q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i t h some "common knowledge" about classroom r o u t i n e s , such as "the p r o f e s s o r l e c t u r e s , we take notes", but other p a t t e r n s were new, f o r example, d e b a t i n g and a r g u i n g w i t h the p r o f e s s o r . Thus, w h i l e many a c t i o n s were shared, many had t o be l e a r n e d . 82 One of the reasons t h a t a l l the Chinese students h i g h l i g h t e d f o r t h e i r success was the p r o f e s s o r ' s c a p a c i t y t o i n t u i t or sense what concepts, v o c a b u l a r y , a c t i v i t i e s would not be f a m i l i a r t o them. Hence, he made e x p l i c i t t h a t which was normally shared knowledge. However, i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t some concepts escaped t h i s s p e c i a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s the students i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l which caused c o n f u s i o n or were unknown: a) the word " p h i l o s o p h y " which was used f r e q u e n t l y throughout the course; b) the concept of e v a l u a t i o n i n Chinese e d u c a t i o n i s almost completely d i f f e r e n t ; c) the p r o c e s s of a n a l y z i n g a c l i e n t system; d) terms such as " s t r a t e g i e s " , " instruments", " d e s i r e d - s t a t e - o f - a f f a i r s " , and so on. An examination of t h e i r assignments r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e are o t h e r concepts or terms which were not t h o r o u g h l y understood a l s o . But the words of one student, "I j u s t t r y t o f i n d ways t o answer the q u e s t i o n even simply because I knew I must f i n i s h " (Subject 6 ) , suggest t h a t even they knew t h e r e was i n f o r m a t i o n m i s s i n g . 4.5 Communicative Accommodation The o t h e r aspect of language s o c i a l i z a t i o n which S c h e f f e l i n and Ochs r a i s e i s communicative' accommodation. Alt h o u g h i t i s c o n s i d e r e d mainly i n r e g a r d t o baby t a l k , t hey suggest t h a t c a r e g i v e r s may a d j u s t t h e i r speech and t o p i c t o the i n t e r e s t and l e v e l of the c h i l d . T h i s 83 accommodation may t a k e t h e form o f h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o communicate h i s i n t e n t o r h e l p i n g him t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e u t t e r a n c e s o f o t h e r s . I n t h e case o f t h i s s t u d y t h e p r o f e s s o r d i d b o t h : he a d j u s t e d h i s own d i s c o u r s e ; he m e d i a t e d t h e message o f o t h e r s , f o r example t h e m a t e r i a l s d i s t r i b u t e d f o r r e q u i r e d r e a d i n g ; and he a s s i s t e d t h e s t u d e n t s i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r own p o i n t s o f v i e w by a c c e p t i n g l e s s t h a n a g r a d u a t e l e v e l s t a n d a r d o f w r i t t e n E n g l i s h i n t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s . Where t h i s a n a l o g y weakens i s t h a t as t h e c h i l d ' s language development p r o g r e s s e s , t h e c a r e g i v e r a d j u s t s and advances h i s communicative accommodation. However, as m entioned i n s e c t i o n 3.3 o f t h i s c h a p t e r ( B r u n e r ' s handover c o n c e p t ) , t h e p r o f e s s o r d i d not change or advance h i s communication s t r a t e g i e s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s as t h e i r competency d e v e l o p e d . H i s d i s c o u r s e remained c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e . By t h i s I mean, he c o n t i n u e d t o speak i n a slow, c l e a r manner, w i t h r e l a t i v e l y few i d i o m s and w i t h f r e q u e n t r e p e t i t i o n s . These a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f what i s n o r m a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as " f o r e i g n e r - t a l k " . I n o t h e r words, t h e p r o f e s s o r d i d not s h i f t h i s s t y l e as t h e s t u d e n t s g a i n e d i n knowledge. I t i s u s e f u l t o e x p l o r e t h e d a t a from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f language s o c i a l i z a t i o n . By v i e w i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e as an i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s were a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , s e l e c t i v e l y a d d i n g t o and t a k i n g from t h e exchanges i n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t t h e i r own n o t i o n o f 84 program p l a n n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . F u r t h e r , by examining t h e i r language and t h a t of the p r o f e s s o r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see t h a t background knowledge can not be taken f o r g r a n t e d or assumed t o be common knowledge when p a r t i c i p a n t s have d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n s . F i n a l l y , language s o c i a l i z a t i o n g i v e s us another t o o l , t h a t of communicative accommodation, wi t h which t o understand the adjustments t h a t o c c u r r e d . A l though second language r e s e a r c h has p r i m a r i l y f o c u s s e d on the e f f i c a c y of c o n t r o l l e d i n p u t , t h i s study suggests t h a t t h e r e are many more f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e comprehension and competency than simply the l e n g t h or c o m p l e x i t y of i n d i v i d u a l u t t e r a n c e s . The work t h a t has been done i n language s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s a g r e a t r e s o u r c e f o r those w i s h i n g t o understand how c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s and knowledge are t r a n s m i t t e d t o second language speakers and how n o v i c e s g a i n competency w i t h i n a new environment. 5.0 Task as Example of Theory and P r a c t i c e In the study, t a s k i s regarded as h a v i n g a t h e o r y and a p r a c t i c e component. The p r a c t i c e i s e s s e n t i a l l y what i s done, the sequence of a c t i o n s t h a t the students go through i n o r d e r t o complete the assignments. The t h e o r y i s the background knowledge r e l e v a n t t o and brought t o bear on those sequence of a c t i o n s , the knowledge drawn on t o 85 c o m p l e t e t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . T h i s i n q u i r y , t h e r e f o r e , e x a m i n e s n o t o n l y t h e d i r e c t a c t i o n s t a k e n b y t h e s t u d e n t s i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s , b u t a l s o e x a m i n e s t h e b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e t h e a s s i g n m e n t s a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h a t k n o w l e d g e t o t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e c o u r s e . A c c o r d i n g t o P i a g e t ( 1 9 2 3 ) , H a r r e a n d B r u n e r , human a c t i o n i s s y s t e m a t i c a n d o r d e r e d . M o h a n ' s t h e o r y (1987) o f t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s e x p a n d s on t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e b y p r o v i d i n g a f r a m e w o r k f o r a n a l y z i n g a c t i v i t y . T h e b a s i s o f h i s t h e o r y i s t h a t a l l a c t i v i t y h a s a t h e o r e t i c a l a n d a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l : a n u p s t a i r s a n d a d o w n s t a i r s c o m p o n e n t . A t t h e l o w e r o r p r a c t i c e l e v e l a n a c t i v i t y c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s : d e s c r i p t i o n , s e q u e n c e , o r c h o i c e . T h e s e f u n c t i o n s a n d t h e i r r e l a t e d s k i l l s a r e g o v e r n e d b y b r o a d e r a n d m o r e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s n a m e l y : c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s a n d e v a l u a t i o n . See F i g u r e 2 f o r a g r a p h i c o f t h e f r a m e w o r k . T h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r u s e f u l t o o l f o r a n a l y z i n g how t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r t a s k . A n e x c e r p t f r o m t h e h a n d o u t w h i c h d e s c r i b e s ADED XXX s t a t e s t h a t " t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s e w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t s i s t o p r o v i d e a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r y o u t o a p p l y , i n a s y s t e m a t i c way , t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d i n s i g h t y o u h a v e a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h r e a d i n g , d i s c u s s i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e " . T h e p r o f e s s o r r e i t e r a t e d t h i s p o i n t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t l e c t u r e . H i s 86 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r i n c i p l e s E v a l u a t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n Sequence C h o i c e Figure 2. Mohan's Knowledge Framework o b j e c t i v e f o r t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s was c l o s e l y a l i g n e d , i f not as a m b i t i o u s . He s t a t e d t h a t he wanted t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f program p l a n n i n g and t o a p p l y them i n a h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . I n Mohan's language t h a t can be p h r a s e d , an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s o f program p l a n n i n g and a chance t o d e m o n s t r a t e comprehension o f t h e c o n c e p t s by a p p l y i n g them t o a s i m u l a t e d s i t u a t i o n : t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . The p r o f e s s o r goes about t h i s by d e f i n i n g and d e s c r i b i n g t h e s t e p s i n a s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n . I n t u r n , t h e s t u d e n t s work t h r o u g h t h i s knowledge by c a r r y i n g out a s s i g n m e n t s w h i c h a r e o r g a n i z e d so t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s must d e a l w i t h t h e b a s i c a s p e c t s o f each t o p i c . T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l a pproach h e l p s s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n by d o i n g . They a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e "background knowledge" and t h e n g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p l y i t . I n d o i n g so, t h e y d e s c r i b e r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o u t l i n e t h e c o n t e n t and o r d e r o f t h e program, d e c i d e on budget l e v e l s , methods f o r a d v e r t i s i n g , make c h o i c e s about 'the r e l e v a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , g i v e r e a s o n s , s t a t e o p i n i o n s and f i n a l l y 87 p r o v i d e a p l a n f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e program. The p r o f e s s o r • s t r u c t u r e s knowledge s y s t e m a t i c a l l y so t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l have a b e t t e r chance o f comprehending i t . The s t u d e n t s ' comments r e f l e c t t h e i r ease and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i s a p proach. 6.0 Summary In t h i s c h a p t e r t h e d a t a have been examined from f o u r d i f f e r e n t a p p r o aches: a) academic t a s k s , b) B r u n e r ' s a c t i v i t y t h e o r y , c) language s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and d) Mohan's t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e model. A l t h o u g h each b r i n g s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e and a i d s our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f o r c e s a t work i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a r i n mind t h a t each v i e w g i v e s c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e t o c o n t e x t . A l s o , i t may seem somewhat a r b i t r a r y t o s e p a r a t e t h e a n a l y s i s i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . Perhaps we would have a deeper and more comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g i f t h e s t u d y c o u l d be p o r t r a y e d i n a p a i n t i n g o r m u r a l w h i c h d e p i c t e d themes m i n g l i n g i n l a y e r s and p a t t e r n s a l l o v e r a huge can v a s . . F o r t h e n we would see how t h e i n f l u e n c e o f one a s p e c t o r a n o t h e r i s n e v e r f a r away. 88 C h a p t e r F i v e CONCLUSION T h i s s t u d y has a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r how and why a group o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s was a b l e t o s u c c e e d i n a g r a d u a t e l e v e l c o u r s e , d e s p i t e t h e o b v i o u s d e f i c i e n c i e s o f i n a d e q u a t e b a c k g r o u n d knowledge about a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and l i m i t e d l a nguage s k i l l s . Under normal c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e s e s t u d e n t s w ould n e v e r have been a d m i t t e d t o a u n i v e r s i t y program, but t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n came t h r o u g h "the back do o r " under s p e c i a l f e d e r a l government s p o n s o r s h i p . I t became c l e a r t h r o u g h d o i n g t h e s t u d y t h a t t h e r e were d i f f i c u l t i e s o t h e r t h a n language t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s f a c e d : c o u r s e c o n t e n t assumed knowledge o f Canadian s o c i e t y ; and c o u r s e p r o c e s s d i f f e r e d from t h e " c u l t u r e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m " i n C h i n a . T h e i r academic p e r f o r m a n c e rewarded t h e p r o f e s s o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who had f a i t h t h a t t h e s e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s c o u l d l e a r n t h e major elements o f program p l a n n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s ' a c h ievements have been examined from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . B o t h language and c o n t e x t , and language s o c i a l i z a t i o n p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis t h a n second language r e s e a r c h does on t h e r o l e t h a t s o c i a l s e t t i n g and communication p l a y w i t h i n an en v i r o n m e n t . That i s , we become more i n t e r e s t e d i n "how" something i s a c h i e v e d , r a t h e r t h a n "what" t h e r e s u l t i s . I n o r d e r t o come t o some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l a r g e r p i c t u r e , I have examined 89 t h e whole c o u r s e , t h e as s i g n m e n t s as examples o f s t u d e n t t a s k s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c l a s s r o o m s e s s i o n s and c o u r s e a s s i g n m e n t s . As s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r 2, t h i s s t u d y d i d not a t t e m p t t o i t e m i z e what c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g o c c u r r e d , n o r no t e s p e c i f i c language f e a t u r e s w h i c h had been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g o r speech. O f t e n t h e s e i t e m s a r e s t u d i e d s e p a r a t e l y , o r i n i s o l a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y shows how t h e s e a s p e c t s work i n c o n c e r t i n a r e a l s i t u a t i o n . What emerges i s not a s t a r t l i n g r e v e l a t i o n b u t t h e o b v i o u s r e s u l t o f how s t u d e n t s manage academic t a s k s . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h o s e elements o f communication w h i c h s u p p o r t t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r t a s k s . The main f i n d i n g o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h e way t h e p l a n and t h e conduct o f t h e c o u r s e e n a b l e d s t u d e n t s t o complete t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s s u c c e s s f u l l y . S p e c i f i c a l l y t h i s p r o c e s s o p e r a t e d a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e whole c o u r s e , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o u r s e a s s i g n m e n t s , and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s s e s s i o n s t o s u p p o r t t h e c l a s s a s s i g n m e n t s . 1.0 The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Course The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e was i m p o r t a n t f o r s t u d e n t s ' comprehension and achievement. The p l a n o f ADED XXX was a c o h e s i v e package i n whi c h l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l , r e a d i n g s , and a s s i g n m e n t s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o - o r d i n a t e d . There was a c o n c e p t u a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l framework, and p r a c t i c a l methodology f o r p l a n n i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. 90 R e l e v a n t t h e o r i e s and a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h accompanied t h e s t e p - b y - s t e p a p p r o a c h t a k e n i n t h i s c o u r s e . The p l a n was c a r e f u l l y communicated t o t h e s t u d e n t s . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o u r s e , g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , r e a d i n g l i s t and m a t e r i a l , s t u d e n t s ' r e q u i r e m e n t s , and assignment o u t l i n e were a l l c a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d and d i s t r i b u t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t c l a s s . The C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s t o o k g r e a t c o m f o r t from t h i s . F i r s t , i t gave them a c l e a r v i e w o f e x a c t l y how t h e c o u r s e would be s t r u c t u r e d and what t h e y must do. Second, t h e y c o u l d r e f e r t o t h e o u t l i n e and see how v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r . When p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a new endeavour, i t o f t e n h e l p s t o have a s y s t e m a t i c o v e r v i e w t o r e f e r t o . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s who have a penchant f o r w a n t i n g t o know what , l i e s ahead. L i n k i n g l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l and r e a d i n g s t o s e q u e n t i a l a s s i g n m e n t s p r o v i d e d a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s t o do t h e i r t a s k s . They c i t e d t h i s h i g h e r l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n as a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r s u c c e s s . T r a d i t i o n a l ESL r e s e a r c h , w h i c h f o c u s s e s on t h e s e n t e n c e l e v e l , f a i l s t o t a k e i n t o account t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s may p l a y . 2 . 0 A s s i g n m e n t s were I n t e g r a l U n i t s i n t h e Course F i r s t we w i l l d i s c u s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s t o t h e c o u r s e . The f u n c t i o n t h a t t h e a s s i g n m e n t s p l a y e d i n t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ' s u c c e s s i s not 91 i n s i g n i f i c a n t . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s can be n o t e d . F i r s t , t h e a s s i g n m e n t s were d e s i g n e d t o s i m u l a t e t h e a c t u a l s t e p s t h a t one might t a k e when p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . The a s s i g n m e n t s p r o v i d e d t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h . Second, t h e y were sequenced i n such a way t h a t t h e y f o l l o w e d t h e t y p i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n u s e d when p l a n n i n g programs. I n o t h e r words, t h e t a s k s were n o t random n o r were t h e y i s o l a t e d . T h i r d , t h e c o u r s e s u p p l i e d t h e ba c k g r o u n d knowledge so t h a t t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s c o u l d p r o c e e d w i t h t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . The p r o f e s s o r c o n s c i o u s l y o r g a n i z e d t h i s s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e ; i t was not c o i n c i d e n t a l . To summarize, a c y c l e e x i s t e d : b a c k g r o u n d knowledge was p r o v i d e d , a s s i g n m e n t s were completed, and f e e d b a c k was s t r u c t u r e d f o r . c o n t i n u e d l e a r n i n g . A l t h o u g h t h i s may seem an o b v i o u s p o i n t t h a t s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e b a c k g r o u n d knowledge b e f o r e c a r r y i n g out a t a s k , l e c t u r e r s f r e q u e n t l y by-pass t h i s s t e p , assuming t h a t s t u d e n t s can g a i n adequate b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n by r e a d i n g on t h e i r own. I n t h e case o f second language l e a r n e r s , t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s f a u l t y and s h o r t s i g h t e d . We now t u r n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f each a s s i g n m e n t . An i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t o n o t e about t h e a s s i g n m e n t s i s t h a t t h e y f u n c t i o n e d as r o u t i n e s o r f o r m a t s . From B r u n e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e t h i s means t h a t t h e y have a deep s t r u c t u r e and s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s . A l l f i v e a s s i g n m e n t s have t h e same p a t t e r n : each 92 has a c e n t r a l f o c u s , such as a s s e s s i n g needs, d e s i g n i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n , and so on, f o l l o w e d by a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h l e d s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h t h e complete a s s i g n m e n t . The deep s t r u c t u r e i m p l i e s r u l e s f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t i n g t h e t a s k s . I n some ca s e s t h e r e were h e l p f u l , e x p l i c i t r u l e s s t a t e d f o r c o m p l e t i n g q u e s t i o n s , f o r example, "use p r o p e r form and a v o i d f u s s i n e s s " , " i f you p l a n t o use a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e n a t t a c h i t " . I n f o r m a l c o u r s e p r o c e s s e s p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g what was an a c c e p t a b l e f o r m a t . The s u r f a c e l e v e l o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s c o n c e r n s t h e a c t u a l c o n t e n t o f t h e answers - d i d t h e s t u d e n t use t h e p r e p a r e d case s t u d y o r d e v e l o p h i s o r h e r own; d i d t h e s t u d e n t choose t o answer i n b r o a d d e s c r i p t i v e s e n t e n c e s o r c h a r t f o r m a t ; d i d t h e s t u d e n t make analogo u s c o n n e c t i o n s o r were t h e answers s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and c o n c r e t e . I n B r u n e r ' s l a n g u a g e , t h e s u r f a c e l e v e l o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e "moves o f t h e game", f o r w h i l e t h e deep s t r u c t u r e r e mains c o n s t a n t , i t i s t h e s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h v a r i e s . The a s s i g n m e n t s were a comprehensive, i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e , and t h e y r e f l e c t e d a h i g h l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n p u t . 93 2.1 D o i n g A s s i g n m e n t s E n a b l e s S t u d e n t s t o P a r t i c i p a t e i n R e a l Work A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o u r s e , t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s e x p r e s s e d g r a v e c o n c e r n s about b e i n g a b l e t o h a n d l e a l l t h e t a s k s r e q u i r e d o f them. They were a n x i o u s about p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , u n c e r t a i n about how t o do t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s , and d i d n ' t know whether t h e y would be a b l e t o f o l l o w t h e l e c t u r e s and t a k e n o t e s . I n s h o r t , t h e y were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s new domain. G r a d u a l l y , as t h e y became engaged i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r e a s e d i n scope and c o n f i d e n c e . They were a b l e t o make p o i n t s i n d i s c u s s i o n s , r a i s e q u e s t i o n s i n f r o n t o f t h e whole c l a s s , and t h e y l e a r n e d how t o t a k e adequate n o t e s i n E n g l i s h . As a c t i v e members o f t h e c l a s s , t h e y were a b l e t o not o n l y o b s e r v e a new s o c i a l dynamic b u t p a r t i c i p a t e as w e l l . Thus, t h e y became s o c i a l i z e d i n t o a new r o l e o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n a w e s t e r n academic e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s p r o g r e s s appeared t o be a r e s u l t o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e r e a l work o f d o i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . The a s s i g n m e n t s and c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n were e v a l u a t e d as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t u n d e r s t o o d t h e c o n t e n t s and c o u l d a p p l y t h e knowledge t o a p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . The C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were engaged i n d o i n g t h e same t a s k s as a l l o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n ADED XXX. T h i s meant t h a t t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s had t o do t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , t h e r e q u i r e d r e a d i n g , and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n s . S e v e r a l 94 s t u d e n t s m entioned t h e v a l u e o f d o i n g " r e a l work" t h a t was r e l a t e d t o t h e i r a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n C h i n a . I n c o n t r a s t , C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r Canada-China development programs do not have t h e advantage o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g as a c t i v e members i n c r e d i t c o u r s e work. I n s t e a d t h e y a u d i t c o u r s e s , and t h e r e i s no s y s t e m a t i c method f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r new s k i l l s o r knowledge. U n d e r s t a n d a b l y t h e n , t h e r e i s no c o m p u l s i o n f o r them t o d i g deep and come t o g r i p s w i t h d i f f i c u l t , new m a t e r i a l . They a r e n ot f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e c o u r s e s . They a r e m e r e l y l i s t e n e r s and comprehenders. T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t l e a r n i n g i s f a c i l i t a t e d by f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e q u a l o u t p u t . By c o n t r a s t , t h e con c e p t o f comprehension o f v e r b a l i n p u t may be s e r i o u s l y i n a d e q u a t e . By d o i n g a s s i g n m e n t s , s t u d e n t s can check t h e i r own comprehension, and t h e p r o f e s s o r can a l s o e v a l u a t e t h e e x t e n t o f l e a r n i n g t h a t i s t a k i n g p l a c e . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f d o i n g r e a l work on a s s i g n m e n t s i s t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s work i s accompanied by s t r u c t u r e d feedback from t h e p r o f e s s o r . I n t h e case o f t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s who had l i m i t e d b a c k g r o u n d knowledge, t h e i r " o u t p u t " was a c c e p t e d and m o d i f i e d by t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s r e s p o n s e . He i n t u r n c o u l d a d j u s t h i s " i n p u t " t o t h e i r l a nguage l e v e l and comprehension. Thus, a p r o c e s s o f n e g o t i a t i o n d e v e l o p e d between t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e p r o f e s s o r . Through t h e r e g u l a r s u b m i s s i o n o f a s s i g n m e n t s , 95 a d d i t i o n a l morning s e s s i o n s , and t h e i n t e r p l a y d u r i n g c l a s s , t h e p r o f e s s o r was a b l e t o " s c a f f o l d " h i s i n p u t t o t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . As t h e s t u d e n t s ' knowledge and c o n f i d e n c e i n c r e a s e d , t h e y were a b l e t o r e s p o n d a t t h e i r l e v e l . E x a m i n i n g i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h i s l a r g e r frame o f a s signment work i s a marked c o n t r a s t from second language r e s e a r c h w h i c h l o o k s a t exchange a t an u t t e r a n c e l e v e l o n l y . 3.0 C l a s s S e s s i o n s were O r g a n i z e d t o Support C l a s s A s s i g n m e n t s C l a s s e s c o n s i s t e d o f l e c t u r e s , s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n and i n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were s h e l t e r e d s e s s i o n s . E f f e c t i v e c ommunication i n t h i s c o u r s e o c c u r r e d a t e v e r y l e v e l - t h e o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s t o t h e l e c t u r e s and r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s f e e d b a c k t o t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e i n f o r m a l communication between t h e p r o f e s s o r and t h e s t u d e n t s , and f i n a l l y t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e o f i n t e r a c t i o n . I d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e e l e m e n t s i s u s e f u l because each promoted e f f e c t i v e communication, w h i c h i n t u r n s u p p o r t e d t h e s t u d e n t s i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e i r t a s k s . A b r i e f summary o f how t h e p r o f e s s o r c a r r i e d t h i s out w i l l s u f f i c e . On t h e f i r s t day o f t h e c l a s s he d i s t r i b u t e d and d i s c u s s e d t h e c omplete o u t l i n e o f t h e c o u r s e and a s s i g n m e n t s . S t u d e n t s were i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e o v e r a l l p h i l o s o p h y and c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s o f t h e c o u r s e , t h e 96 p r o f e s s o r ' s b a ckground, d e s i r e d outcomes from t h e c o u r s e , and s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . There was a d i s c u s s i o n about t h e m a r k i n g scheme f o r t h e a s s i g n m e n t s and t h e scope e x p e c t e d . S t u d e n t s were encouraged t o submit t h e i r f i r s t a s signment w i t h o u t undue c o n c e r n . The p r o f e s s o r e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t was an i n i t i a l p i e c e o f work and t h a t f u t u r e a s s i g n m e n t s would get b e t t e r . H i s f eedback on t h e p a p e r s r e f l e c t e d t h e same approach, a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s , making s t a t e m e n t s t o p r o d t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s . G r a d u a l l y t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s began t o u n d e r s t a n d what was e x p e c t e d o f them. Ample o p p o r t u n i t y was p r o v i d e d f o r s t u d e n t s t o t a l k t o one a n o t h e r , t o me and t o t h e p r o f e s s o r . A d d i t i o n a l morning s e s s i o n s gave s t u d e n t s " s h e l t e r e d " s i t u a t i o n s t o ask f o r a s s i s t a n c e o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . They us.ed t h e s e , b u t as t h e c o u r s e e v o l v e d t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e and knowledge i n c r e a s e d , and t h e y began t o speak out more f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g t h e r e g u l a r l e c t u r e s . W i t h i n t h e c l a s s , t h e p r o f e s s o r a r r a n g e d t h e s e a t i n g so t h a t C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were engaged i n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s who were n a t i v e s p e a k e r s and g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . S p e c i a l t o p i c s were d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n t h e s e s m a l l groups g i v i n g t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o comprehend a p o i n t i f t h e y hadn't g r a s p e d i t e a r l i e r . To sum up, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e , t h e atmosphere o f s u p p o r t w i t h i n t h e c l a s s and t h e 97 p r o f e s s o r ' s c l e a r s t y l e o f communication s u p p o r t e d t h i s c o - o p e r a t i v e , c o l l a b o r a t i v e endeavour. A l t h o u g h i t may seem l i k e I'm b e l a b o u r i n g a common- sense argument, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a r i n mind t h a t r e s e a r c h i n second language has c o n s i s t e n t l y f a i l e d t o acknowledge t h e impact t h a t c o n t e x t and communication have i n l e a r n i n g . SL r e s e a r c h c o n t i n u e s t o a n a l y z e d i s c r e t e i t e m s a t t h e l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e . Even t h o s e s t u d i e s w h i c h r e c o g n i z e " t a s k " as b e i n g a u s e f u l f o c u s s t i l l base t h e i r argument on an a n a l y s i s o f s u r f a c e l e v e l f e a t u r e s , such as i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s and f a l s e s t a r t s . F i n a l l y , I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s more t h a n j u s t an example o f "good t e a c h i n g " . L i t e r a t u r e on e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g emphasizes t h e r o l e o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r - h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n , management, communication s t y l e , and so on. However, i t does n o t r e c o g n i z e t h a t l e a r n i n g i s a two-way s t r e e t . S t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r a r e engaged i n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e endeavour t o b r i n g about some d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . "The communicative t a s k i s not s i m p l y a m a t t e r o f making t h i n g s f a m i l i a r by t h e use o f c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t , b u t o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n o r i n t e r p r e t i v e r e s o n a n c e i s evoked" (B r u n e r , 1988, p.16) To do t h i s , t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n must be s t r u c t u r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e a j o i n t l e a r n i n g e n t e r p r i s e . The C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ADED XXX i s an e x c e l l e n t example o f how t h i s can be c a r r i e d o u t . 98 4.0 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Study Because t h i s s t u d y i s i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c and b a s e d on a s m a l l group o f s u b j e c t s i t i s unwise t o make s p e c i f i c recommendations b a s e d on t h e f i n d i n g s . However, t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f language s o c i a l i z a t i o n have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r SLA r e s e a r c h and t e a c h i n g . F i r s t , language s o c i a l i z a t i o n reminds us t h a t c o n t e x t i s s i g n i f i c a n t and must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when s t u d y i n g language t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . Even though K r a s h e n pays l i p s e r v i c e t o t h e n o t i o n o f c o n t e x t i n h i s t h e o r y , he f a i l s t o d e f i n e what c o n t e x t i s o r t o examine i n d e t a i l ways i n w h i c h i t can f a c i l i t a t e SLA. F u r t h e r , language s o c i a l i z a t i o n c a l l s r e s e a r c h e r s t o a n a l y z e more t h a n s e n t e n c e s and more t h a n exchanges. We s h o u l d examine l a r g e r u n i t s , s uch as how a s s i g n m e n t s a r e embedded w i t h i n a whole c o u r s e . Second, language s o c i a l i z a t i o n c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f t e s t s l i k e TOEFL. Because t h e s e t e s t s a r e b a s e d on l i m i t e d r e s p o n s e s t o g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , t h e y i g n o r e t h e complex s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s t h a t s u p p o r t o r h i n d e r comprehension. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t use TOEFL s c o r e s as t h e o n l y a d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i o n may be d o i n g a d i s s e r v i c e t o t h e m s e l v e s and t o t h e a p p l i c a n t . O ther f a c t o r s may be f a r more c r u c i a l t o a s t u d e n t ' s s u c c e s s t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s c o r e . F o r example, how s t a b l e i s h e r f u n d i n g b a s e, what s u p p o r t e x i s t s t o ease h i s a d j u s t m e n t t o a new e n v i r o n m e n t , how e x t e n s i v e i s h e r b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e f i e l d ? 99 A more e q u i t a b l e system might c o n s i d e r a d m i s s i o n based on a s l i d i n g s c a l e o f language s c o r e s , t h e n d e p ending on t h e s t r e n g t h o f r e l a t e d f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n e t h e m e r i t o f a c a n d i d a t e i n a more h o l i s t i c manner. F i n a l l y , language s o c i a l i z a t i o n s u g g e s t s an o r i e n t a t i o n t o t e a c h i n g w h i c h encompasses t h e l a r g e r p i c t u r e . L e a r n e r s a r e n o t m e r e l y l i s t e n e r s and comprehenders; t h e y a r e a c t i v e and s e l e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and l e a r n i n g i s most p r o d u c t i v e i f t h e l e a r n e r does something w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . U s i n g B r u n e r ' s model t e a c h e r s might e s t a b l i s h c i r c u m s c r i b e d r o u t i n e s t h a t f i t i n t o a n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t a s s i g n m e n t s i n c o n t e n t c o u r s e s p r o v i d e n a t u r a l t a s k s o f language use i f t h e y a r e w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a s u p p o r t i v e c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c l a r i f y t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h does not recommend o r g a n i z i n g random l i s t s o f a c t i v i t i e s and i t e m s w i t h i n them. But once an a c t i v i t y has been i d e n t i f i e d , t h e t e a c h e r must s t a n d back and a s s e s s what a s t u d e n t needs t o know i n o r d e r t o complete t h e t a s k . Mohan's Knowledge Framework i s v e r y u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s t o b e g i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f a t a s k and i t s e n v i r o n m e n t . 5.0 Summary I have m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a case s t u d y was t h e b e s t method f o r g a i n i n g a comprehensive p i c t u r e o f t h e c o u r s e and t h e s t u d e n t s . Indeed, a c t i n g as a p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r has 100 p e r m i t t e d a c o n t i n u o u s , i n s i d e r v i e w o f what o c c u r r e d from s e v e r a l p o i n t s o f v i e w . However, case s t u d i e s by t h e i r n a t u r e a r e not g e n e r a l i z a b l e , n o r can a cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p be made about t h e f i n d i n g s . F u r t h e r m o r e , any o b s e r v e d c o n d i t i o n s a r e not s t a t i c and a r e a l s o s u b j e c t t o i n f l u e n c e s beyond t h e immediacy o f t h e c l a s s r o o m (Cazden, 1982, p.223). T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s uch as t h i s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e scope o f t h e s t u d y p r e c l u d e d a m i c r o e x a m i n a t i o n w h i c h might have l e d t o g r e a t e r d e p t h o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t would a l s o have been d e s i r a b l e t o move from t h e l e v e l o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t s as r o u t i n e s t o a f i n e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ' p a p e r s . T h i s s t u d y has been an attempt t o examine c l o s e l y t h e c o n t e x t o f a g r a d u a t e c o u r s e , t h e c l a s s r o o m environment and a group o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d and succee d e d i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n . Because i t r e p r e s e n t s a f i r s t l o o k a t how a group o f n o n - n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s went about t h e i r t a s k s , t h e r e i s g r e a t scope f o r f u r t h e r work. I t would be u s e f u l , f o r example, t o know how s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s manage t h e i r work, how o t h e r c o u r s e s a r e s t r u c t u r e d and how a s s i g n m e n t s and c l a s s r o o m r e l a t i o n s h i p s a f f e c t t h e p r o c e s s . I t would a l s o be v a l u a b l e t o s t u d y o t h e r n a t i o n a l groups and t o see how t h e y manage t h e i r academic work. F i n a l l y , as s t a t e d above, t h e r e i s a 101 need t o a n a l y z e more c l o s e l y s t u d e n t s ' work, and s t u d e n t s ' and p r o f e s s o r ' s d i s c o u r s e . Not w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e s t u d y can be c o n s i d e r e d w o r t h w h i l e . By u s i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s o f language and c o n t e x t , and language and s o c i a l i z a t i o n we have g a i n e d v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e l a r g e r p r o c e s s o f how s t u d e n t s who had l i m i t e d language p r o f i c i e n c y and no b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e f i e l d c o u l d s u c c e e d . We see t h e b e n e f i t o f a r r a n g i n g s p e c i a l e n c o u n t e r s i n t h e form o f s t r u c t u r e d a s s i g n m e n t s and c o h e s i v e c o u r s e o r g a n i z a t i o n so t h a t s t u d e n t s can g r a s p what i s i n t e n d e d and i n t e r p r e t t h a t c o n t e n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own p o i n t s o f v i e w . 102 S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y Anderson, L.M., S t e v e n s , D.D., Prawat, R.S. & N i c k e r s o n , J . (1987). C l a s s r r o m Task E n v i r o n m e n t s and S t u d e n t s ' Task- R e l a t e d B e l i e f s . M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y : The I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h on T e a c h i n g . Bazerman, C. (1980) . A r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g : The c o n v e s a t i o n a l model. C o l l e g e E n g l i s h . 41, 656-661. B e r k e n k i t t e r , C , H u c k i n , T.N. & Ackerman, J . 1988. 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S t u d e n t s ' and T e a c h e r s ' Views o f T h i n k i n g P r o c e s s e s f o r C l a s s r o o m L e a r n i n g . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 82, 493-518. W o n g - F i l l m o r e , L. (1985) . When Does Teacher T a l k Work as I n p u t ? I n p u t i n Second Language A c g u i s i t i o n . Gass, S. & Madden, C. (Eds.) Rowley Mass: Newbury House P u b l i s h i n g . 17-50. Y i n , R.K. (1984). Case Study R e s e a r c h . B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . A P P E N D I C E S 108 APPENDIX I APED XXX ~ ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM PLANNING PRACTICE Program p l a n n i n g i s t h e mechanism t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o a d u l t development and l e a r n i n g , t o management, i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n , e v a l u a t i o n and m a r k e t i n g a r e a p p l i e d t o d e s i g n e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . A program i s t h e framework i n w h i c h i n s t r u c t i o n i s d e l i v e r e d . D e l i v e r i n g w e l l - p l a n n e d programs i s t h e major g o a l o f most p r o v i d e r s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . P e r f e c t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making and, t h e r e f o r e , p e r f e c t i o n i n p l a n n i n g can n e v e r be a t t a i n e d because we n e v e r have a l l t h e needed i n f o r m a t i o n , know a l l t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s , use a l l t h e c o r r e c t c r i t e r i a , u n d e r s t a n d a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r employ t h e b e s t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g systems. However, by s t u d y i n g t h e p r o c e s s and by p r a c t i c i n g making t h e k i n d s o f d e c i s i o n s w h i c h must be made, we can r e duce our e r r o r s t o a minimum. A l t h o u g h i t may be p o s s i b l e t o l e a r n t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f p l a n n i n g w i t h o u t a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l , c o n c e p t u a l , and p h i l o s o p h i c p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h u n d e r g i r d p r a c t i c e , t h i s c o u r s e w i l l emphasize t h e development o f such u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h e i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o r y and i n f o r m e d , i n s i g h t f u l , and r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e . E x p e c t e d Outcomes A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e c o u r s e , p a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d be a b l e t o : 1. A r t i c u l a t e t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i n . r e l a t i o n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs; 2. I d e n t i f y t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l / i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s i n w h i c h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program p l a n n i n g o c c u r s ; 3. D e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t f o r m a l p l a n n i n g models r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and be a b l e t o compare and c o n t r a s t t h e e lements o f t h e models; 4. I d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r s t o e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g and p r e s c r i b e s t r a t e g i e s f o r overcoming such b a r r i e r s . 109 Suggested R e a d i n g Boone, Edgar J . D e v e l o p i n g Programs i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1985. B o y l e , P a t r i c k G. P l a n n i n g B e t t e r Programs. New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1981. H o u l e , C y r i l 0. The D e s i g n o f E d u c a t i o n . San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s , 1972. Knowles, M a l c o l m S. The Modern P r a c t i c e o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : From Pedagogy t o Andragogy. ( R e v i s e d and u p d a t e d ) . C h i c a g o : A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s / F o l l e t t , 1980. Course O u t l i n e The f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s w i l l be c o v e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e : 1. P l a n n i n g as an a n t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . 2. A n a l y z i n g t h e p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system. 3. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l needs. 4. D e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . 5. F o r m u l a t i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n . 6. F o r m u l a t i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n . 7. D e v e l o p i n g an e v a l u a t i o n p l a n . I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e s s e s A v a r i e t y o f p r o c e s s e s w i l l be used t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e . Because many q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o p l a n n i n g t h e o r y have not * r i g h t ' o r Awrong' answers, a good d e a l o f t i m e w i l l be s p e n t d i s c u s s i n g and d e b a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w s . and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a d o p t i n g each a l t e r n a t i v e . The p l a n n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s (both good and bad) o f c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i n s t r u c t o r w i l l be u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e p roblems and o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t e n c o n f r o n t e d by program p l a n n e r s . S i n c e t h i s c o u r s e w i l l emphasize e x p l o r a t i o n o f c o n c e p t u a l , t h e o r e t i c a l , and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l format w i l l be p a r t i c i p a t o r y . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be p r e p a r e d t o engage i n d i s c u s s i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t i d e a s as w e l l as s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s . 110 L e a r n i n g R e s o u r c e s Textbooks and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s used i n ADED XXX, which i s t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e c o u r s e , w i l l be u s e f u l i n t h i s c o u r s e . S i n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s may have had v a r y i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r p r e r e q u i s i t e c o u r s e , a s e t o f p r i n t m a t e r i a l g a r n e r e d from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d i n c l a s s . I n o r d e r t o c o v e r t h e c o s t o f t h i s m a t e r i a l , a m a t e r i a l s d u p l i c a t i o n f e e o f $9.00 w i l l be c o l l e c t e d from each s t u d e n t . T h i s m a t e r i a l w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t b a c k g r o u n d t o c o m plete y o u r w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t s , b u t you a r e encouraged t o do a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g . C l a s s S c h e d u l e Assignment C l a s s T o p i c I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Course and t h e Systems D e s i g n o f I n s t r u c t i o n P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t and C l i e n t System I d e n t i f y i n g Needs #1 due D e v e l o p i n g O b j e c t i v e s #2 due I n s t r u c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P l a n n i n g #3 due C h o o s i n g A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n i q u e s #4 due E v a l u a t i o n and T e s t i n g #5 due Review and Summary As s i g n m e n t s The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s e w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t s i s t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r you t o a p p l y , i n a s y s t e m a t i c way, t h e knowledge and i n s i g h t you have a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h r e a d i n g , d i s c u s s i o n , and e x p e r i e n c e . C r i t i q u e from c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s and f e e d b a c k from t h e i n s t r u c t o r a r e i n t e n d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e y o u r i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g about t h e p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs. I l l Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f some p r o j e c t s , one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s may not a p p l y . I f you f e e l t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m does n ot a p p l y t o your p r o j e c t , t h e n s i m p l y s t a t e t h a t t o g e t h e r w i t h a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f why you t h i n k so. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e may be a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s not l i s t e d below w h i c h c l e a r l y a p p l y t o your p r o j e c t and s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . The p r o j e c t you choose t o examine may be an a c t u a l r e a l - l i f e program o r may be a h y p o t h e t i c a l program. I n e i t h e r c a s e , i t s h o u l d be a s u b s t a n t i a l program and not t r i v i a l . Each o f t h e f i v e u n i t s w i l l have e q u a l v a l u e . Each assignment s h o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , t i g h t l y o r g a n i z e d , and h i g h l y f o c u s e d . You ' may use p o i n t form wherever a p p r o p r i a t e , r a t h e r t h a n an e s s a y s t y l e . Some 3 - 5 pages ( t y p e w r i t t e n i f p o s s i b l e ) may be s u f f i c i e n t i f you a r e s u c c i n c t i n y o u r e x p l a n a t i o n s . The i n s t r u c t o r w i l l t r y t o p r o v i d e f e e d b a c k on each assignment i n t h e week f o l l o w i n g each s u b m i s s i o n . ************************** UNIT 1 - Due A n a l y z i n g t h e P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t and t h e C l i e n t System P r o v i d e a comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system and e x p l a i n how t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may i n f l u e n c e l a t t e r s t e p s i n t h e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t . What a r e t h e g o a l s ( p r i m a r y and secondary) o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and how does e d u c a t i o n a l programming f i t i n t o t h e s e g o a l s ? What r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and what a u t h o r i t y do you have w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ? What r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i n g t h e same c l i e n t s ? What c o n s t r a i n t s t o y o u r p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s f i n a n c i a l , p h y s i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l ? How w e l l d e f i n e d a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l i e n t system - demographic, g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n , p o s s i b l e b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p o s s i b l e m o t i v a t i o n ? How w e l l a r e t h e r o l e s d e f i n e d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between: c o n t e n t e x p e r t ( s ) , p r o c e s s e x p e r t ( s ) , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( s ) o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and o f t h e c l i e n t s , o t h e r s ? Make c l e a r i f t h i s i s a MS, ES o r PS program, and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r y o u r p l a n n i n g . 112 UNIT 2 - A s s e s s i n g Needs What s t r a t e g y would you employ t o a s s e s s t h e needs o f t h e c l i e n t system and what s p e c i f i c needs do you t h i n k you would i d e n t i f y i f t h e s t r a t e g y was implemented? Would you use a s i n g l e o r m u l t i p l e methods and how e x t e n s i v e would be y o u r coverage o f t h e c l i e n t group? What r e l a t i o n s h i p do t h e s e needs have w i t h t h e g o a l s o f t h e s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n ? How u n o b t r u s i v e a r e you ' i n s t r u m e n t s ' and how c o u l d you use e x i s t i n g d a t a ? I f you p l a n t o use a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e n a t t a c h an example. How w i l l t h e " d e s i r e d s t a t e o f a f f a i r s " (DSA) be d e t e r m i n e d and who w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w r i t i n g needs s t a t e m e n t s ? How w i l l p r i o r i t y among i d e n t i f i e d needs be e s t a b l i s h e d and who w i l l make t h i s judgement. NOTE: Because you w i l l n o t a c t u a l l y conduct t h e needs assessment f o r t h i s a s s i g nment, you must d e v e l o p a s e t o f needs s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h a r e y o u r " b e s t g uess" o f what you p r o b a b l y would d i s c o v e r i f you had done t h e a c t u a l assessment. How w e l l d e v e l o p e d and c o n v i n c i n g i s t h e argument t h a t t h e s e needs a r e amenable t o an e d u c a t i o n a l program? S e p a r a t e e d u c a t i o n a l from n o n - e d u c a t i o n a l needs. UNIT 3 - D e v e l o p i n g O b j e c t i v e s F o r m u l a t e t h e l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n outcome s t a t e m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n p r o c e s s s t a t e m e n t s . Use p r o p e r form and a v o i d f u z z i n e s s . How c l e a r l y r e l a t e d a r e t h e program o b j e c t i v e s t o t h e needs d e s c r i b e d i n U n i t 2? A r e outcomes c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o t h e ' d e s i r e d s t a t e o f a f f a i r s ' ? I s t h e r e a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o w e r and h i g h e r l e v e l o b j e c t i v e s ? How c l e a r and complete a r e t h e assumed e n t e r i n g l e v e l o f competence o f c l i e n t s ? 113 UNIT 4 - D e s i g n i n g an I n s t r u c t i o n a l P l a n and an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P l a n (a) S p e c i f y t h e c o n t e n t and t h e p r o c e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e sequence and t h e t i m i n g o f v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s o f t h e program. How a p p r o p r i a t e a r e t h e a c t i v i t i e s f o r each o b j e c t i v e - d u r a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t i m e w i t h i n t h e program, v a r i e t y i n s c h e d u l e ? A r e media u s e d t o b e s t advantage? How c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a r e t h e human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s needed t o r u n t h e program - i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l , t y p e o f f a c i l i t y , arrangement o f s e a t i n g , equipment and m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d , e t c . ? (b) S p e c i f y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements n e c e s s a r y t o en s u r e f i n a n c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s o f t h e program. What s t r a t e g y i s p r o p o s e d t o p u b l i c i z e t h e program and what i n f o r m a t i o n would be p r o v i d e d ? A t t a c h an example o f y o u r "announcement". I n c l u d e a p r o p o s a l budget w h i c h i t e m i z e s a l l a n t i c i p a t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s and r e c e i p t s / c o n t r i b u t i o n s and w h i c h r e f l e c t s r e a l i s t i c p r i c i n g . P r o v i d e a l i s t d e s c r i b i n g a l l t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s t o be p e r f o r m e d ( b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r t h e event) i n c l u d i n g t a r g e t d a t e s f o r c o m p l e t i o n and who t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f each t a s k . UNIT 5 - F o r m u l a t i n g a Summative E v a l u a t i o n P l a n D e s c r i b e a comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t i n v a l i d judgements o f t h e w o r t h o f t h e program. How c l e a r i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e v a l u a t i v e q u e s t i o n s and t h e o b j e c t i v e s and d e s i g n o f t h e program? How and when w i l l d a t a be c o l l e c t e d ? I n c l u d e a sample o f a l l e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . These s h o u l d r e f l e c t c l a r i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n and s e q u e n c i n g , c h o i c e o f r e s p o n s e f o r m a t , ease o f t a b u l a t i o n . Who w i l l c a r r y out t h e e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y and how w i l l t h e r e s u l t s be p r o c e s s e d ? P r o v i d e a t i m e t a b l e o f e v a l u a t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s and a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r who w i l l r e c e i v e t h e r e s u l t s . 114 NOTE: S i n c e each u n i t b u i l d s upon p r e v i o u s u n i t s , you may want t o keep a copy o f each assignment s u b m i t t e d so t h a t s u c c e e d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w i l l f l o w s m o o t h l y out o f p r e v i o u s u n i t s , on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t you w i l l be w o r k i n g on t h e n e x t u n i t w h i l e t h e i n s t r u c t o r i s a n a l y z i n g t h e c u r r e n t s u b m i s s i o n . 115 The f o l l o w i n g Case Study may be chosen by t h o s e who do not have a r e a l - l i f e program o r have not d e v e l o p e d a h y p o t h e t i c a l program o f t h e i r own. CASE STUDY The Alma S o c i e t y was founded i n 1956 as a community s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n by a group o f c i t i z e n s who were c o n c e r n e d about t h e w e l f a r e o f c h i l d r e n . The S o c i e t y s e c u r e s i t s f u n d i n g from an a n n u a l campaign i n t h e community, g i f t s and c h a r i t a b l e d o n a t i o n s , i n t e r e s t from i n v e s t m e n t s , and moderate f e e s from v a r i o u s p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s . The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e community s t o o d a t 178,2 63 as o f t h e l a s t Census. The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y s t a t e s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t : "The S o c i e t y w i l l be an a d v o c a t e w i t h i n t h e community and w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e f o r t h e improvement o f t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e f a m i l y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on t h e c h i l d t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f means, i n c l u d i n g ; l o b b y i n g o f l e g i s l a t o r s , p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n campaigns, p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l programs, and, l i a i s o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l w e l f a r e a u t h o r i t i e s . " The S o c i e t y l e a s e s o f f i c e space f o r i t s f i v e f u l l - t i m e s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g an E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r , a c a s h i e r / b ookkeeper, a s c e n o g r a p h e r / t y p i s t , a c l e r k / r e c e p t i o n i s t , and a d i r e c t o r o f p u b l i c i t y . These p r e m i s e s c o n t a i n no e x t r a room f o r B o a r d o r o t h e r m e e t i n g s , w h i c h must be h e l d e l s e w h e r e . The B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s i s e l e c t e d a t t h e A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y . The B o a r d meets q u a r t e r l y t o r e c e i v e a c t i v i t y and f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s from t h e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , and t o d i s c u s s o n g o i n g f u n d - r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y i s l e f t c o m p l e t e l y i n t h e hands o f t h e E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r , g u i d e d o n l y by t h e O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S o c i e t y and t h e approved budget. The p a t t e r n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s o v e r t h e p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s has been t o p r o v i d e a t l e a s t one workshop i n t h e F a l l and one i n t h e S p r i n g . The a n n u a l budget u s u a l l y makes p r o v i s i o n f o r h i r i n g a s h o r t - t e r m program p l a n n e r f o r each workshop. L a t e l y t h e r e has been much w r i t i n g i n t h e l o c a l newspaper c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d abuse. Even a t t h e l a s t B o a r d m e e t i n g , s e v e r a l B o a r d members n o t e d t h a t two l o c a l c a s e s o f c h i l d abuse had become p r o m i n e n t i n t h e news and t h a t c r i m i n a l c h a r g e s might be l a i d i n a t l e a s t one o f t h e c a s e s . The E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t would be t i m e l y t o 116 g i v e f o c u s t o t h i s theme a t t h e n e x t Workshop. There s h o u l d be i n t e r e s t among s o c i a l w o r k e r s , t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , c o u r t w o r k e r s , and o t h e r c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s . The E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r has j u s t h i r e d you t o p l a n a Workshop on C h i l d Abuse. I n a d d i t i o n t o your s a l a r y , t h e S o c i e t y budget has s e t a s i d e a $150 s u b s i d y f o r t h e Workshop, so as t o reduce t h e p a r t i c i p a n t f e e . P r e v i o u s workshops have v a r i e d from 1 t o 2 days and f e e s have ranged from $8 t o $20 p e r s o n . A t t e n d a n c e has r a n g e d from 16 t o 44. The S p r i n g workshop has always been h e l d i n March t o A p r i l , o f t e n c o i n c i d i n g w i t h E a s t e r s c h o o l h o l i d a y s . The E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r s h a r e d t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s w i t h you f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y . You a r e f r e e t o d e v e l o p your own p r o p o s a l s . However, t h e E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r w i s h e s t o be c o n s u l t e d and t o have f i n a l a p p r o v a l on t h e budget and t h e f e e . The program d e s i g n and a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements a r e i n y o u r hands. As t h e E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r s u g g e s t e d , "You a r e i n charge o f a l l program and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements, b u t I hope you w i l l d e v e l o p a r a t i o n a l e o r good r e a s o n f o r each d e c i s i o n you make, j u s t i n case a B o a r d member s h o u l d a s k . " 117 R E Q U I R E D R E A D I N G P a g e ( a ) G e n e r a l O v e r v i e w A k e r C u r r i c u l u m D e / e l o p m e n t 1 P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g G u i d e f o r H e a l t h . . . 6 ( b ) P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t a n d C l i e n t S y s t e m B o y l e A p p r o a c h e s t o C l i e n t e l e A n a l y s i s 25 " A p p r o a c h e s t o P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t 30 " A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e s 38 ( c ) P l a n n i n g M o d e l s a n d D e s i g n o f I n s t r u c t i o n M a g e r & Beach S t r a t e g y o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t 39 D i c k & C a r e y O r i g i n s o f S y s t e m a t i c a l l y D e s i g n e d . . . 43 T i n d l e P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t S y s t e m 49 ( d ) I d e n t i f y i n g N e e d s D a v i s T h e P r o b l e m A n a l y s i s M e t h o d 50 " T h e C o m p e t e n c y M o d e l M e t h o d 53 K n o w l e s A s s e s s i n g N e e d s a n d I n t e r e s t s 58 ( e ) D e v e l o p i n g O b j e c t i v e s K n o w l e s D e f i n i n g P u r p o s e s a n d O b j e c t i v e s 81 B o y l e T h e C o n c e p t o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s 88 K i b l e r I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s 94 W h e e l e r W h o s e O b j e c t i v e s A r e T h e s e , A n y w a y s ? 1 0 2 ( f ) P l a n n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n S n e l b e c k e r C o g n i t i v e C o n s t r u c t I n s t r u c t i o n a l . . . 1 0 3 A k e r C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t ( s e e ' a ' ) 1 P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g G u i d e f o r . . . ( s e e ' a ' ) 6 ( g ) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P l a n n i n g G . I . S . P h y s i c a l A r r a n g e m e n t s 1 1 8 G . I . S . P h y s i c a l A r r a n g e m e n t s 122 ( h ) C h o o s i n g A p p r o p r i a t e F o r m a t s V e r n e r & B o o t h M a n a g i n g t h e L e a r n i n g E x p e r i e n c e 125 R e n n e r S e l e c t i n g A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n i q u e s 137 ( i ) E v a l u a t i o n D i c k i n s o n E v a l u a t i o n 1 4 0 B u t t e d a h l S u m m a r y o f E v a l u a t i o n 145 D a v i s E v a l u a t i n g 1 4 6 B e a l E n d o f M e e t i n g C o m m e n t s & S u g g e s t i o n s 151 " M o r e B a s i c G r o u p E v a l u a t i o n 155 E v a l u a t i o n o f C o n t e n t a n d O b j e c t i v e s 1 59 118 APPENDIX I I INTERVIEW QUESTIONS G e n e r a l 1. Have you e v e r p l a n n e d a program b e f o r e ? How d i d you go about i t ? 2. Now t h a t you've c o m p l e t e d t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e , a r e t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a pproach t a k e n i n China? I n C l a s s 2. I n o t i c e d t h a t some s t u d e n t s t o o k more n o t e s t h a n o t h e r s . How e x t e n s i v e were y o u r n o t e s ? D i d you w r i t e i n C h i n e s e , E n g l i s h , b o t h ? 3. How d i d you know what t o w r i t e down? 4. I f you d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d something t h e p r o f e s s o r s a i d , what d i d you do? 5. A l m o s t e v e r y n i g h t we had some s m a l l - g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s . D i d t h e s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n make any d i f f e r e n c e t o y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a t o p i c ? 6. I f t h e l e c t u r e and m a t e r i a l had been i n C h i n e s e , how would you have responded d u r i n g t h e c l a s s ? R e a d i n gs 7. Here a r e a l i s t o f t h e r e a d i n g s . How d i d you f e e l about them? 8. The r e a d i n g s a r e b a s e d on p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t s o f v i e w . Were t h e r e i d e a s t h a t you f o u n d u n u s u a l ? 9. How d i d you r e s o l v e t h e d i f f e r e n c e ? A s s i g n m e n t s 10. D i d you choose t o use t h e case s t u d y or d i d you w r i t e about y o u r s i t u a t i o n i n PRC? Why? 119 11. How d i d you go about d o i n g t h e a s s i g n m e n t s ? Were some more d i f f i c u l t t h a n o t h e r s ? Which ones? Why? 12. Were t h e r e some c o n c e p t s w h i c h were new t o you? How d i d you go about u n d e r s t a n d i n g them? O v e r a l l 13. As you t h i n k o v e r t h e c o u r s e a r e t h e r e some t o p i c s w h i c h you f e e l u n c l e a r about? 14. Do you t h i n k y o u r E n g l i s h l e v e l was adequate f o r your s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e ? 15. What p r e p a r a t i o n do you t h i n k i s n e c e s s a r y f o r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s ? 16. Suppose t h a t you were t h e i n s t r u c t o r d e s i g n i n g t h i s c o u r s e , what measures would you t a k e t o h e l p t h e ESL s t u d e n t s i n your c l a s s ? 17. Can you add a n y t h i n g t h a t I may have o v e r l o o k e d ?

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