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Teachers’ evaluations of foreign-accented speech Martin, Karen L. 1983

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T E A C H E R S ' E V A L U A T I O N S OF F O R E I G N - A C C E N T E D S P E E C H B . A . , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF T H E F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S ( L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May 1983 © K a r e n L . M a r t i n , 1983 B y KAREN L . MARTIN MASTER OF ARTS i n I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Language Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date May 06, 1983 i i ABSTRACT This study gathered empirical data concerning teachers' evaluations of foreign-accented speech. It was hypothesized that these evaluations would indicate the teachers' under-lyi n g attitudes to the speakers of the language v a r i e t i e s presented. Current l i t e r a t u r e states that these attitudes w i l l conform to a p a r t i c u l a r ethnic stereotype and the intent of t h i s investigation was to examine the presence and extent of such biases in Vancouver teachers. The administration of language stimuli and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales to a subject population indicates how favourable or unfavourable the Ss w i l l be toward the language variety and subsequently, to the speakers themselves. In order to investigate the possible presence of stereotyped attitudes to foreign-accented speakers, a l l subjects were presented with language stimuli and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales. The language stimuli consisted of two l e v e l s of foreign-accented English speech from the following language groups: 1) Chinese, 2) Quebecois, and 3) Punjabi, in addition to two standard English samples used both as a control and for purposes of comparison. The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales were designed to e l i c i t the reactions of the Ss on four dependent variables of speech, personal, s o c i a l distance and work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . One hundred and nineteen practicing and prospective teachers attending courses at UBC were administered the i i i j experiment in eight sessions. The sample was i d e n t i f i e d as coming from the Vancouver d i s t r i c t and was representative of the target population. The data c o l l e c t e d were analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance and the Bonferroni t - t e s t . Evaluations of the s l i g h t and heavy foreign accents were compared to those of the standard English speech, revealing negative stereotyped attitudes on the speech (t=14.51, p <0.01) and personal (t=12.23, p <0.01) variables. I n s i g n i f i c a n t findings were reported for the s o c i a l distance variable and a s i g n i f i c a n t t (t=5.72, p <0.01) on the work variable indicated pos i t i v e stereotyped attitudes for the ethnic groups. Stereotypes conforming to a predicted pattern were not s i g n i f i c a n t , though a supplementary analysis revealed a new pattern for the Quebecois-accented speakers (t=3.37, p<0.01). Analyses performed on the three slightly-accented speakers compared to the three heavily-accented speakers within accent groups revealed s i g n i f i c a n t results on the speech variable (Chinese: t=6.59, Quebecois: t=7.37, Punjabi: t=6.73, p <0.01), indicating stereotyped attitudes are a function of accent broadness. A s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t (p <0.05) for the Punjabi-accented speakers on s o c i a l  distance and the i n s i g n i f i c a n t findings on personal and work further indicate stereotyping. An additional analysis comparing the two standard English speakers found d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s , not according to stereotypes but to p a r a l i n g u i s t i c features on speech (t=14.36, p <0.01), personal (t=7.67, p <0.01) and s o c i a l distance (t=9.84, p <0.01). The re s u l t on the work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was i n s i g n i f i c a n t . A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed e t h n i c i t y of l i s t e n e r was the only teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to y i e l d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t on the personal (F=8.21, df=3/115, p <0.01) and work (F=3.85, df=3/115, p <0.05) variables, indicating t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mediated these teachers' ratings. This study concluded with a discussion of the p r a c t i c a l and research implications of these r e s u l t s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF DIAGRAMS x LIST OF FIGURES x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Objectives of the Study 4 Hypotheses 5 Defin i t i o n s of Terms Used 6 P i l o t Study 8 Significance of the Study 8 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 Attitudes to Languages 11 Attitudes to Dialects and Second-Language Accents 16-Attitudes and Employment 22 Teachers* Attitudes to Speech 23 Summary 33 CHAPTER I I I : DEVELOPMENT OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALES 36 Introduction 36 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales 36 Selection of Adjectives 37 Factor Analysis of the Scale 38 Item Analysis 43 Biographical Data Sheet 43 v i CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH PROCEDURES 45 I n t r o d u c t i o n 45 D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Sample P o p u l a t i o n 45 Development o f the T e s t Passage 47 S e l e c t i o n o f the S t i m u l u s V o i c e s 48 Development o f t h e Tapes 49 V a l i d a t i o n o f the Speech Samples 51 Format o f the T e s t i n g S e s s i o n s 52 P i l o t Study 54 S c o r i n g o f the In s t r u m e n t 55 A n a l y s i s o f the R e s u l t s 56 C o n c l u s i o n 56 CHAPTER V: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 58 I n t r o d u c t i o n 58 P r e s e n t a t i o n Order A n a l y s i s 58 L i s t e n e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 61 P r a c t i c i n g vs P r o s p e c t i v e Teachers 61 Sex 64 Age 66 Ye a r s o f E x p e r i e n c e 66 Pe r c e n t a g e o f E t h n i c M i n o r i t y S t u d e n t s Taught 69 Teacher E t h n i c i t y 71 I n t e r s p e a k e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 77 H y p o t h e s i s I 79 H y p o t h e s i s I I 82 H y p o t h e s i s I I I 84 H y p o t h e s i s IV 86 H y p o t h e s i s V 87 H y p o t h e s i s V I 89 R e s i d u a l I s s u e s 90 C o n c l u s i o n 93 CHAPTER V I : SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 94 Summary 94 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e F i n d i n g s 97 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T e a c h i n g 100 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research 101 Weaknesses o f the Study 103 REFERENCES 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY 106 v i i APPENDIX A S u b j e c t B o o k l e t s 113 APPENDIX B P r o t o t y p e S c a l e s 125 APPENDIX C T e s t Passages 127 APPENDIX D P r e s e n t a t i o n Orders 130 APPENDIX E Coding Legend and Sample P r o f i l e 131 APPENDIX F P l o t t e d Means f o r A l l Speakers on A l l Four Dependent V a r i a b l e s 132 V l l l LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 S u b t e s t s b e f o r e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s 39 TABLE 2 F a c t o r L o a d i n g o f Teacher Responses t o 19 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s 42 TABLE 3 S u b t e s t s a f t e r f a c t o r a n a l y s i s 39 TABLE 4 LERTAP 44 TABLE 5 F R a t i o s f o r t h e f o u r dependent measures when p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r t e s t e d and t h r e e l e v e l s o f a c c e n t used 60 TABLE 6 F R a t i o s f o r the f o u r dependent measures when p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r t e s t e d and two l e v e l s o f a c c e n t used 60 TABLE 7 E f f e c t o f p r a c t i c i n g v e r s u s p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s on the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s 63 TABLE 8 E f f e c t o f sex on the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s 65 TABLE 9 E f f e c t o f age on the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s 67 TABLE 10 E f f e c t o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e on the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s 68 TABLE 11 E f f e c t o f p e r c e n t a g e o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y  s t u d e n t s t a u g h t on the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s 70 TABLE 12 E f f e c t o f t e a c h e r e t h n i c i t y on the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s 72 i x TABLE 13 Mean r a t i n g s f o r t e a c h e r e t h n i c i t y on two dependent v a r i a b l e s 73 TABLE 14 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r t e a c h e r e t h n i c i t y on two dependent v a r i a b l e s 73 TABLE 15 Mean r a t i n g s f o r a l l e i g h t s p e a k e r s on the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s 78 TABLE 16 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d v e r s u s s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s 80 TABLE 17 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s toward f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s 83 TABLE 18 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d v e r s u s h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n a c c e n t groups 85 TABLE 19 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h speaker (1) v e r s u s s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h speaker (2) 91 LIST OF DIAGRAMS DIAGRAM 1 Legend for Teacher Charact e r i s t i c s Tables x i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 Plotted Means for Teacher E t h n i c i t y on Personal 74 FIGURE 2 Plotted Means for Teacher E t h n i c i t y on Work 75 FIGURE 3 (Appendix F) Plotted means for a l l speakers on Speech 133 FIGURE 4 (Appendix F) Plotted means for a l l speakers on Personal 134 FIGURE 5 (Appendix F) Plotted means for a l l speakers on So c i a l Distance 135 FIGURE 6 (Appendix F) Plotted means for a l l speakers on Work 136 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank my committee for the help and advice they provided throughout the writing of th i s thesis. Special thanks go to Nancy Mann, whose willingness to help and sense of humour made data c o l l e c t i o n a more pleasant task, and Bob Prosser, whose extreme patience aided in data analysis. I would also l i k e to thank Jane Gibson, Arlene Bastion, Sheila Campbell, Jacqueline Hare and Nancy Mann of Hut 03 for the tremendous amount of encouragement they contributed. I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e to thank Meyer Aaron, who made me r e a l i z e I had the pot e n t i a l to succeed. 1 CHAPTER I : THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n A c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s has i n v e s t i g a t e d the i d e a t h a t , based on speech c l u e s a l o n e , l i s t e n e r s w i l l make e v a l u a t i o n s about the p e r s o n a l i t y , e t h n i c i t y , e d u c a t i o n , i n t e l l i g e n c e o r even appearance o f a s p e a k e r . The independent v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h have been speech s t i m u l i r a n g i n g from any g i v e n language t o the d e t a i l s o f p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t s , a c c e n t s or s t y l e s . The dependent v a r i a b l e s have been j u s t as d i v e r s e , r a n g i n g from p e r s o n a l i t y assessments t o d e t a i l s about i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r or t r a i t s . The tendency of the i n d i v i d u a l judges i n t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s t o respond w i t h a h i g h degree o f consensus p o i n t s t o the phenomenon o f s t e r e o t y p i n g . The work of W i l l i a m s e t a l . (1976) shows t h a t these r e a c t i o n s are a l s o p r e s e n t i n t e a c h e r s and t h i s can have an e f f e c t on both the s c h o l a s t i c achievement and the s e l f -p e r c e p t i o n o f the s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . T h i s r e s e a r c h and a number o f o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f such s t e r e o t y p i n g have i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n , namely, l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , degree o f a c c e n t , speaker e t h n i c i t y and academic e x p e c t a t i o n s . These e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s argue t h a t p e o p l e respond t o speech i n terms of c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s and t h a t these responses a r e i n f l u e n c e d by the p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d v a r i a b l e s ( A n i s f e l d , Bogo and Lambert, 1962; Ryan and a s s o c i a t e s , 1975, 1977, 1 9 8 0 ( b ) ) . The 2 investigations into the ef f e c t s of teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , speaker e t h n i c i t y and accent broadness are of major interest to this researcher. The implications of these generalizations and the res u l t s t h i s present research may have for curriculum develop-ment must be considered. If i t i s true that teachers also hold stereotyped attitudes of accented speakers, educators in their commitment to improve the learning environments of their students might well address themselves to thi s fact in teaching training programs, workshops and in-service t r a i n i n g . It i s important in a p l u r a l i s t i c society that the schools do not perpetuate, either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , a doctrine that supports ethnocentrism and a unitary culture. Statement of the Problem Current research l i t e r a t u r e suggests that l i s t e n e r s , upon hearing some minimal cues in a person's speech, c a l l up a stereotype and that this stereotype colours a l l their perceptions of that person. This study proposes to examine such reactions as e l i c i t e d by foreign-accented English speech samples. Of central concern i s the presence and description of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s teachers w i l l make between the various accents and accent groups presented. Broadly stated, w i l l the l i s t e n e r s make gross generalizations about the speakers of accented English speech and w i l l these generalizations pattern a stereotype for each accent group? 3 L i n g u i s t i c stereotyping i s measured by in d i r e c t scaling methods such as the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scale (Appendix B). Subjects are required to choose between bipolar adjectives and mark the degree of their choice. The degree ranges from neutral to highly in the d i r e c t i o n of their chosen adjective. The adjectives used in this study are a compilation of personal t r a i t s e.g., l i k e a b l e , sociable), speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (e.g., i n d i s t i n c t , good speaking  a b i l i t y ) , s o c i a l distance scales (e.g., similar to myself), and work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (e.g., ambitious). Another variable discussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e on speech styles and stereotyping i s that of l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Language and ethnic background, SES, age and, of interest to this study, years of teaching experience are factors which have shown both s i g n i f i c a n t and i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s (Lambert et a l . , 1966; M i l l e r , 1972; Williams et a l . , 1971). This study intends to investigate the influence of various teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the responses. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be co l l e c t e d through the use of a questionnaire requesting biographical data. Accent broadness was the focus of several studies (Arthur, Farrar and Bradford, 1974; G i l e s , 1972(b); Rey, 1981) and i t s incorporation into the study i s an attempt to assess the degree of stereotyping afforded minimally and heavily-accented English speech. I t i s expected, in l i g h t of the findings in previous studies, that an increase in accent features w i l l lead to the perception of speech as more nonstandard and of the l i s t e n e r according more s o c i a l distance between him or herself and the speaker. In summary, the following variables w i l l be considered in t h i s study, 1) the English language stimuli consisting of speakers from each of the following native language groups; Cantonese, Quebecois and Punjabi in addition to two standard English speakers, 2) two degrees of accentedness for each of the Cantonese, Quebecois and Punjabi groups, 3) teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and 4) stereotyped attitudes of teachers. Objectives of the Study The major objectives of this study are to answer the following questions: When presented with semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales and stimuli consisting of foreign-accented and standard English speech, 1. how w i l l teachers rate the s o c i a l distance and the personal, speech and work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the foreign-accented speakers as compared to the standard English speakers? 2. how w i l l teachers evaluate the foreign-accented speaker from the three accent groups? 3. how w i l l teachers rate the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of heavily-accented speakers as compared to those of slightly-accented speakers within the same accent group 4. how w i l l teachers rate the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of heavily-accented speakers as compared to those of slightly-accented speakers within the same accent group? 5. how w i l l teachers perceive the s o c i a l distance between themselves and the heavily-accented speakers and the slightly-accented speakers within the same accent group? 6 . how w i l l teachers perceive the work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of heavily-accented speakers as compared to those of slightly-accented speakers within the same accent group? 7. how w i l l teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t the evaluations of the foreign-accented speakers? Hypotheses The following hypotheses w i l l be tested: When presented with stimuli consisting of foreign-accented and standard English speech, 1. teachers w i l l rate negatively the speech, personal, and work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the foreign-accented speakers and accord more s o c i a l distance to such speakers than to the standard English speakers. 2. teachers w i l l conform to stereotyped attitudes when evaluating the foreign-accented speakers. In p a r t i c u l a r , (A) the Cantonese-accented speakers w i l l be perceived as hard-working, ambitious, conscientious . . . . (B) the Punjabi-accented speakers w i l l be perceived as unsociable, untrustworthy . . . . (C) the Q u e b e c o i s - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i l l be p e r c e i v e d as humourous, l i k e a b l e . . . . t e a c h e r s w i l l r a t e the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s more n e g a t i v e l y than those of s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n the same a c c e n t group. t e a c h e r s w i l l r a t e the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s more n e g a t i v e l y than those of s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n the same a c c e n t group. t e a c h e r s w i l l a c c o r d g r e a t e r s o c i a l d i s t a n c e t o h e a v i l y -a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s than t o s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n the same a c c e n t group. t e a c h e r s w i l l r a t e the work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h e a v i l y -a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s more n e g a t i v e l y than those o f s l i g h t l y -a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n the same a c c e n t group, t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e . g . , e t h n i c i t y , y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , sex ....) w i l l not have a s i g n i f -i c a n t e f f e c t on the e v a l u a t i o n s o f the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s . D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms Used The terms used i n t h i s s t u d y were d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : A c c e n t i s the degree t o which o n l y the p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h a re i n f l u e n c e d by the p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f the s p e a k e r ' s n a t i v e language. 2. Heavy f o r e i g n a c c e n t i s the h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y , r e l a t i v e t o the lower f r e q u e n c y o f a s l i g h t f o r e i g n a c c e n t , w i t h which s p e c i f i c p r o n u n c i a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d by the p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f the s p e a k e r ' s n a t i v e language o c c u r i n the p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h . 3. S l i g h t f o r e i g n a c c e n t i s the lower f r e q u e n c y , r e l a t i v e t o the h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y o f a heavy f o r e i g n a c c e n t , w i t h which s p e c i f i c p r o n u n c i a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d by the p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f the s p e a k e r ' s n a t i v e language o c c u r i n the p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h . 4. S t e r e o t y p e i s the degree t o which t h e r e i s a consensus among members o f one group r e g a r d i n g the a t t r i b u t e s o f another ( T a y l o r , 1981, p.155) as measured by the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t i n g s c a l e . 5. A t t i t u d e i s a system o f a f f e c t i v e , e v a l u a t i v e r e a c t i o n s based upon and r e f l e c t i n g the e v a l u a t i v e c o n c e p t s or b e l i e f s which have been l e a r n e d about the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f a s o c i a l o b j e c t o r c l a s s o f s o c i a l o b j e c t s (Shaw and W r i g h t , 1967, p.10) as measured by the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t i n g s c a l e . 6. S o c i a l d i s t a n c e i s the d i f f e r e n t degrees o f under-s t a n d i n g and f e e l i n g t h a t e x i s t between g i v e n p e r s o n s and c e r t a i n s o c i a l groups o r the degree o f i n t i m a c y an i n d i v i d u a l would a l l o w the members o f the s e groups (Bogardus, 1925, p.299) as measured by the se m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t i n g s c a l e . 8 P i l o t Study A p i l o t s t u d y was c a r r i e d o ut a t UBC t o i d e n t i f y any unexpected p o i n t s o f d i f f i c u l t y i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t . F a c t o r s such as approximate l e n g t h o f time f o r each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w i l l i n g n e s s o f Ss t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y and the most a p p r o p r i a t e method of r e c o r d i n g measures f o r s c o r i n g were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d . One f u r t h e r purpose o f the p i l o t s t u d y was t o v a l i d a t e the p e r c e i v e d e t h n i c i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r s i n the language s t i m u l i . A complete d i s c u s s i o n o f the p i l o t s t u d y and i t s f i n d i n g s i s i n c l u d e d i n Chapter I I I . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study Much r e s e a r c h has been devoted t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech s t y l e and l i s t e n e r s ' a t t i t u d e s . S t u d i e s have shown t h a t the g e n e r a l p u b l i c responds t o speech i n terms of c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s and t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e not exempt from these s t e r e o t y p e s when e v a l u a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l language (Lambert e t a l . , 1960; W i l l i a m s e t a l . , 1976). To d a t e though, t h e r e has o n l y been one s t u d y t h a t has d e a l t s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t e a c h e r s ' r e a c t i o n s t o the a c c e n t e d speech of second language s p e a k e r s (Rey, 1981) and i t i s t h i s a r e a which i s o f c e n t r a l c o n c e r n t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . I f the p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n f i r m s the s u p p o s i t i o n p u t f o r t h i n the Statement o f the Problem i t can be shown t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h f o r e i g n a c c e n t s are a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n 9 s c h o o l . Such f i n d i n g s would be i n accordance w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h t h a t shows t h a t t h i s i s the case w i t h s t u d e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s and p o s s e s s i n g n o n s t a n d a r d speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s i s a d d r e s s e d by B u r l i n g (1971). Teachers must be h e l p e d t o l e a r n more about the n a t u r e o f d i a l e c t i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y and nonstandard E n g l i s h . He f e e l s t h i s i s n e c e s s a r y because c h i l d r e n w i t h such speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s must l e a r n t o cope not o n l y w i t h l i n g u i s t i c codes r e g a r d e d as ' i n f e r i o r ' but a l s o w i t h the s e v e r e l y d e p r e c i a t o r y a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i r t e a c h e r s toward t h e i r speech. The n e c e s s i t y o f the development of c u r r i c u l a , t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programs and the l i k e , t h a t a l e r t t e a c h e r s and f u t u r e t e a c h e r s t o the danger of c o n v e y i n g n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s has been p o i n t e d out i n much of the p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . A f u r t h e r c o n c e r n o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s a l s o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s i n terms of o t h e r r e c e n t r e s e a r c h . S u t e r (1976) and P u r c e l l and S u t e r (1980) examined p r e d i c t o r s o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n a c c u r a c y i n second language l e a r n i n g . I t was found t h a t w i t h the s i x t y - o n e s u b j e c t s t e s t e d , the v a r i a b l e s which were the most i m p o r t a n t were those t h a t t e a c h e r s have the l e a s t i n f l u e n c e on i n t h e i r second language c l a s s e s . Out o f the f o u r v a r i a b l e s which measured a s p e c t s o f f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , none proved i m p o r t a n t i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n a c c u r a c y . I n view o f these f i n d i n g s , as language t e a c h e r s we. have v e r y l i t t l e or no c o n t r o l over the p r o n u n c i a t i o n a c c u r a c y or degree o f a c c e n t e d n e s s t h e s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e . The work o f Fathman (1975), Oyama (1976), Snow and Hoefn a g e l - H o h l e (1977) and the many more who have d e a l t w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f age and n a t i v e p r o n u n c i a t i o n f l u e n c y i s e n l i g h t e n i n g i n t h a t i t t e l l s us o l d e r l e a r n e r s can l e a r n t o pronounce a second language as w e l l as younger l e a r n e r s but i t i s l i m i t e d i n t h a t i t does not t e l l us how or i f t h i s g o a l can be a c h i e v e d p e d a g o g i c a l l y . To d a t e , t h e i r f i n d i n g s have not been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s t o e r a d i c a t e f o r e i g n a c c e n t s . A c c e n t s , i t a p p e a r s , a re s t i l l v e r y much a r e a l i t y and p r o b a b l y q u i t e i n e v i t a b l e . Time must be spent t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o respond l e s s n e g a t i v e l y t o f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speech. I n t e r g r o u p b e h a v i o r and r a c i a l judgements a r e c o n c e r n s o f everyone but they a r e of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o e d u c a t o r s . I n v i e w o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d f i n d i n g s , t h i s i s t h e a r e a i n which r e m e d i a l work must be i n s t i g a t e d and the r e s u l t s o f the problem b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l , i t i s hoped, f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t h i s s t a t e m e n t . 11 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g e v a l u a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o speech must be viewed i n r e l a t i o n t o the numerous o t h e r s t u d i e s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s which p e r t a i n t o speech p e r c e p t i o n as i t i s the s e s t u d i e s which have p r o v i d e d the c o n t e x t and much o f the t h e o r y and methodology used. T h i s s e c t i o n , which i s not meant t o be an e x h a u s t i v e r e v i e w o f a l l such l i t e r a t u r e , w i l l p r e s e n t o n l y the f i n d i n g s o f a t t i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o s t e r e o t y p i n g through l i n g u i s t i c c u es. The methodology o f a l l t h e s e s t u d i e s f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n . Taped speech samples are p r e s e n t e d t o an e x p e r i -m e ntal group which i s then asked t o r a t e t h e s e samples on a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e (Osgood e t a l . , 1957). An example o f such a s c a l e i s as f o l l o w s : good : : : : : : bad. The development o f t h i s type o f s c a l e p r o v i d e s an i n d i r e c t measurement t e c h n i q u e f o r e l i c i t i n g and q u a n t i f y i n g a t t i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n s o f the speech samples ( W i l l i a m s , 1974). In a d d i t i o n , d i r e c t a t t i t u d e measures, p r e j u d i c e s c a l e s , open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the l i k e a r e f r e q u e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the s t u d i e s . A t t i t u d e s t o Languages The most prominent name i n the f i e l d o f a t t i t u d e s t o languages i s W a l l a c e E. Lambert. I n Lambert e t a l . (1960) 12 the matched-guise technique - one speaker, two languages -was introduced provoking much research and l i t e r a t u r e . The major p r i n c i p l e underlying t h i s technique is-the control which i s exercised over a l l variables ( i . e . , voice quality and personality of speaker) except that of language variety. If there i s adequate control of the other variables, the evaluations made of the speakers must be prompted by the judge's general reaction to the speakers of that p a r t i c u l a r language rather than by any reaction to the s p e c i f i c speaker in the experimental s i t u a t i o n . Any s i g -n i f i c a n t uniformity in the evaluations made by a group of raters i s said to indicate that the reactions represent the stereotyped impressions of that group toward the speakers of the pa r t i c u l a r language or language variety presented. In the study, 130 French and English Canadian subjects were presented with taped speech samples of b i l i n g u a l speakers of French and English reading a passage in philosophy. The fact that the same speaker read both the French and English guises was unknown to the subjects and they were asked to rate the speakers according to 14 personality t r a i t s ranging from 'very l i t t l e ' to 'very much'. T r a i t s such as s o c i a b i l i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e , dependability and good looks were used to form these semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales. It was found that when the speakers adopted the French Canadian guise they were not only regarded less favourably by English Canadians but also by French Canadians. 13 This supported Lambert's hypothesis that community-wide stereotyping of French and English speaking Canadians exists and people respond to speech in terms of c u l t u r a l stereo-types. Commenting on the matched-guise technique as an in d i r e c t measure, Tucker and Lambert (1969) state that The technique appears to expose the l i s t e n e r s ' more private feelings and stereotyped attitudes towards a contrasting group or groups whose language, accent or d i a l e c t i s d i s t i n c t i v e , and i t appears to be r e l i a b l e in that the same p r o f i l e of reactions emerges on repeated sampling of a p a r t i c u l a r group (pp. 463-64). Similar Studies: Since the publication of Lambert's research, several similar studies have been undertaken, some using matched-guise, others individual or free speech samples. These studies have maintained the same point of view as Lambert and the results provide strong evidence to the relationship between voice cues and stereotyping. A study by d'Anglejan and Tucker (1972) which included a questionnaire and free speech samples showed that teachers, students and workers in Quebec also devalued their French in r e l a t i o n s h i p to European French. Standard European French speakers were consistently rated as more i n t e l l i g e n t , l i keable and ambitious than either upper or lower class Canadian French speakers. Lambert, An i s f e l d and Yeni-Komshian (1965), investigating Arab I s r a e l i and Jewish I s r a e l i adolescents' reactions to Arabic and Hebrew, did not reveal devaluation of one language over another but , 14 i n s t e a d , p e r f e c t p o l a r i s a t i o n i n t h a t A r a b i c was c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d l e s s f a v o u r a b l y by J e w i s h I s r a e l i a d o l e s c e n t s and Hebrew was s i m i l a r l y r a t e d by Arab a d o l e s c e n t s . One f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y from speech i s t h a t o f the l i s t e n e r ' s language background. In a f u r t h e r s t u d y by A n i s f e l d and Lambert (1964) mono- and b i l i n g u a l F r e n c h Canadian 10 year o l d s l i s t e n e d t o t a p e - r e c o r d i n g s o f c h i l d r e n ' s E n g l i s h and F r e n c h v o i c e s and r a t e d t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s on 15 t r a i t s . The F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g m o n o l i n g u a l s upgraded the F r e n c h Canadian s p e a k e r s on a l l t r a i t s whereas the b i l i n g u a l s tended t o g i v e a l l s p e a k e r s s i m i l a r r a t i n g s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t these 10 year o l d s , u n l i k e the c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n Lambert e t a l . (1960), do not y e t have a n e g a t i v e b i a s toward t h e i r own group. Lambert, F r a n k e l and Tucker (1966) found t h a t a n e g a t i v e b i a s a g a i n s t one's own group emerged a t about 12 y e a r s o f age and t h a t s o c i a l background was an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n the e v a l u a t i o n s g i v e n by the F r e n c h Canadian g i r l s . These upper m i d d l e c l a s s g i r l s were e s p e c i a l l y b i a s e d i n f a v o u r of the E n g l i s h Canadian g u i s e s . In a s t u d y u s i n g d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s r a t h e r than d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s , Ryan (1969) found t h a t 10 and 11-year-o l d White m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d r e n r a t e d the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f s p e a k e r s of White m i d d l e c l a s s , White lower c l a s s and B l a c k lower c l a s s d i a l e c t s i n a d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f f a v o u r a b i l i t y . 15 The t r e n d s i n r a t i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those found i n a d u l t s and show t h a t 10 and 1 1 - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n a r e aware of the s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t a c h e d t o language d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t s t e r e o t y p e s e x i s t a t a l l i n s u b j e c t s o f such a young age. I f , as many r e s e a r c h e r s s u g g e s t , s t e r e o t y p e s a r e evoked through a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d by the dominant s o c i a l or e t h n i c group then i t seems o b v i o u s t h a t these a t t i t u d e s a r e absorbed a t a v e r y young age and t h a t s c h o o l s , as s o c i a l i z i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o u l d a c t u a l l y a i d i n t h i s r a p i d a b s o r p t i o n . I n a more r e c e n t s t u d y , S a i n t - J a c q u e s (1978) attempted t o e l i c i t s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s t o E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e s p e a k e r s . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t the Ch i n e s e s p e a k e r s , on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as p o l i t e n e s s and t h r i f t y - e c o n o m i c a l , would be r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o s t e r e o t y p e s found i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . The h i g h e r r a t i n g f o r the C h i n e s e v o i c e s on " f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d " was t h e o n l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d by the r e s u l t s . The au t h o r i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e r e s u l t s as i n d i c a t i n g t h a t many o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s c o n c e r n i n g C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h Canadians i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a a r e no l o n g e r p r e s e n t i n the minds of young p e o p l e . Perhaps r e p l i c a t i o n s o f the e a r l i e r s t u d i e s done i n Quebec would y i e l d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s or even a t r e n d i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n because o f s e p a r a t i s t f e e l i n g s . 16 Attitudes to Dialects and Second-Language Accents Studies of attitudes to d i a l e c t s probably comprise the largest body of studies of language attitudes. Williams et a l . (1976) has c l a s s i f i e d these studies into two categories: (1) those which deal with extended samples of d i a l e c t s , and (2) those which deal with s p e c i f i c features of d i a l e c t s - e s p e c i a l l y phonetic features. Dialects: In the f i r s t category, much work has been devoted to distinguishing race, occupation and SES from White and Black speakers of both standard and nonstandard accented d i a l e c t s and also rating the favourableness of speech samples (Tucker and Lambert, 1969). Using i n d i v i d u a l speech samples i t was reported that not only did Southern Negro college students have more favourable impressions of people who used Standard Network Style English than they did of those who spoke their own s t y l e but i n addition they were more impressed with their own speech st y l e than with that of educated Southern Whites. These judges appeared to be c l a s s i f y i n g the d i a l e c t s along a continuum of a c c e p t a b i l i t y and the re s u l t s tended to confirm the s o c i a l stereotyping hypothesis suggested in the previous research by Lambert et a l . (1960). In a further study using the matched-guise technique, speakers who were b i d i a l e c t a l in standard and Jewish-accented English provided speech samples which were rated by Gentile 17 and J e w i s h judges ( A n i s f e l d , Bogo and Lambert, 1962). When u s i n g the J e w i s h - a c c e n t e d g u i s e , s p e a k e r s were l e s s f a v o u r a b l y r e g a r d e d by G e n t i l e s and v a r i a b l y r e g a r d e d by Jews. The a u t h o r s , commenting on the l e s s f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g s , s t a t e t h a t i n t h i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t a s k o f e v a l u a t i n g p e o p l e from t h e i r v o i c e s ( L i c k l i d e r and M i l l e r , 1951), th e Ss a p p a r e n t l y s e i z e d upon whatever i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e t o them. The main s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , i t seems were community-wide s t e r e o t y p e s about pe o p l e w i t h a c c e n t s , i . e . immigrants (p.229). I n B r i t a i n , e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h has been c a r r i e d o u t by G i l e s (1970, 1971 ( a ) ) . T h i s work has d e a l t m o s t l y w i t h Ss' p e r c e p t i o n o f r e g i o n a l a c c e n t s and an i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g was the f a c t t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e the a c c e n t s a t a r e l a t i v e p o i n t on a continuum r a n g i n g from h i g h t o low s t a t u s ( G i l e s , 1970). Each a c c e n t p o s s e s s e s a s p e c i f i c p r e s t i g e v a l u e w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o G i l e s , can f o r m u l a t e s t e r e o t y p e d i m p r e s s i o n s . R e c e i v e d P r o n u n c i a t i o n (RP) i s p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g the h i g h e s t p r e s t i g e v a l u e , v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l a c c e n t s are n e x t whereas a c c e n t s found i n i n d u s t r i a l towns p o s s e s s the l e a s t p r e s t i g e . G i l e s (1971 ( a ) ) , c i t i n g the r e s e a r c h o f Strongman and Woosley (1967) and Cheyne (1970), was i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l a c c e n t s . Strongman and Woosley, a f t e r s t u d y i n g the r e a c t i o n s o f n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n E n g l i s h l i s t e n e r s t o 18 matched-guises of London and Yorkshire accents found that both groups judged the Yorkshire speakers as more honest and r e l i a b l e while the London speakers were perceived as more self-confident. Cheyne, studying ratings of Scottish and English regional accents, discovered that male English speakers were viewed as possessing more i n t e l l i g e n c e , ambition and self-confidence. Giles thus hypothesized that since RP, South Welsh and Somerset-accented speech represented high, intermediate and low positions respectively on the status continuum a similar pattern would emerge on the personality t r a i t s . I t was shown that the RP speaker was stereotyped as possessing more competence ( i . e . , i n t e l l i g e n c e and self-confidence) than a regional speaker while the regional speakers were associated with possessing more personal i n t e g r i t y and s o c i a l attractiveness ( i . e . , humour and good nature). A l l three studies also noted the ratings of personal i n t e g r i t y and s o c i a l attractiveness were linked to the presence of accent l o y a l t y . In other words, voices representative of the judge's own speech community would be evaluated more favourably in p a r t i c u l a r aspects that the other accents presented. Findings of the above studies have been largely supported by a number of other studies that have employed the same approach (Giles, 1972(a), 1973; Giles et a l . (1975) and Bourhis, Giles and Lambert, (1975)). !9 S p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o f d i a l e c t s : The p i o n e e r i n g s t u d y d e a l i n g w i t h the second c a t e g o r y , s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o f d i a l e c t s , i s Labov (1966). H i s s t u d y on the s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f E n g l i s h i n New York c i t y i s monumental and the f i n d i n g s a r e e n l i g h t e n i n g . S o c i a l s u r v e y s t y l e t e c h n i q u e s were used i n o r d e r t o a t t empt a c o r r e l a t i o n o f f i v e p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , degree o f ' r ' c o l o u r i n g ) w i t h s o c i a l s t a t u s . H i s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a g r e a t e r degree of ' r ' c o l o u r i n g would be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r s t a t u s was t e s t e d and c o n f i r m e d by a s k i n g shop a t t e n d a n t s a t s t o r e s which he b e l i e v e d t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h r e e l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s t a t u s f o r the l o c a t i o n o f a c e r t a i n department. I t was e i t h e r on the [ f , : ^ f l , : ] , the [ f , r ^ f f l , r ] o r somewhere i n between. He a l s o examined the f i v e p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n s e v e r a l c o n t e x t s and found t h a t s p e a k e r s v a r i e d t h e i r speech i n d i f f e r e n t ways a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s o c i a l c l a s s and t h a t t hese v a r i a b l e s were e f f e c t i v e i n d i c a t o r s o f s o c i a l c l a s s t o the p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . Most i n t e r e s t i n g l y , the m a j o r i t y o f New Y o r k e r s f e l t o u t - o f - t o w n e r s d i d not l i k e New York speech and more than h a l f the New Y o r k e r s d i d not l i k e i t e i t h e r . One can s p e c u l a t e t h a t the New York a c c e n t i s such due t o the l a r g e E a s t e r n European immigrant p o p u l a t i o n . I t may be p o s s i b l e , as A n i s f e l d , Bogo and Lambert s t a t e , t h a t the speech e l i c i t s u n f a v o u r a b l e s t e r e o t y p e s about immigrants i n g e n e r a l . 20 Second language a c c e n t s : Dominating much o f the r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d o f second language a c c e n t s a r e C a r r a n z a and Ryan (1975), Ryan and C a r r a n z a (1975, 1980(b)) and Ryan, C a r r a n z a and M o f f i e (1977), w i t h t h e i r work on r e a c t i o n s t o acc e n t e d n e s s i n the speech o f S p a n i s h E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l s . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h . U s i n g taped r e a d i n g s o f s t a n d a r d p a s s a g e s , Ryan and C a r r a n z a (1975) found t h a t Mexican-American s p e a k e r s o f s t r o n g l y - a c c e n t e d E n g l i s h were not viewed as f a v o u r a b l y as spea k e r s o f s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h . The e v a l u a t o r s were A n g l o , B l a c k and Mexican-American h i g h s c h o o l f e m a l e s . In an attempt t o demonstrate the f u n c t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n o f speech s t y l e s , two a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s o f home and s c h o o l speech c o n t e x t s p l u s two s e t s o f r a t i n g s c a l e s were i n -c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the s t u d y . I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o E n g l i s h r e c e i v i n g more f a v o u r a b l e n e s s , the d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n the s c h o o l c o n t e x t than i n the home c o n t e x t and f o r the s t a t u s r a t i n g s than f o r the s o l i d a r i t y r a t i n g s . Thus the s u b j e c t s were more t o l e r a n t o f d e v i a t i o n s from s t a n d a r d speech i n a home c o n t e x t than i n a s c h o o l c o n t e x t . I t would seem t h a t a w i d e r range o f speech s t y l e s i s a c c e p t a b l e i n an i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g than i n a f o r m a l s e t t i n g ( G i l e s and Powesland, 1975, p. 8 5 ) . These f i n d i n g s a r e s i m i l a r t o those found i n C a r r a n z a and Ryan (1975), where i t i s noted 21 that l i s t e n e r s also react to the appropriateness of the language variety used by the speaker for a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n (p. 99). One difference was revealed in this study though. Using the English and Spanish languages instead of accents, the r e s u l t s obtained in an attempt to support the hypothesis that the Mexican-American Ss would rate Spanish higher on the s o l i d a r i t y ratings were not conclusive. Carranza and Ryan, commenting on this phenomenon, speculate that perhaps the Mexican-American student has deeply internalized the value placed on English by the dominant society to such an extent that Spanish may seem less and less as a symbol of s o l i d a r i t y (p. 99). This same speculation i s voiced in Ryan and Carranza (1980(b)), where as language minority children become assimilated, they tend to adopt the dominant b e l i e f s held by society, including the view that accented English i s down-graded (p. 200). Accent broadness: Accent broadness or thickness has also been the focus of several investigations. Anglo college students in Arthur, Farrar and Bradford (1974) rated speakers who at the beginning of the rating sessions were a l l i d e n t i f i e d as Mexican-Americans and who a l l possessed at least some phonetic features that i d e n t i f i e d them as such. The results showed that the negative reactions were not towards t h i s p a r t i c u l a r ethnic group but towards those belonging to t h i s group who speak English heavily laden with nonstandard phonetic features. Such speakers 22 were viewed as l e s s e d u c a t e d , l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t and l e s s d ependable. v S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s a r e r e p o r t e d i n Ryan, C a r r a n z a and M o f f i e (1977), Brennan, Ryan and Dawson (1975) and G i l e s ( 1 9 7 2 ( b ) ) . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t Ss make r a t h e r f i n e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s among v a r y i n g degrees o f acce n t e d n e s s i n r a t i n g a pe r s o n ' s p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s and speech. G i l e s (1972(b))) s t a t e s t h a t p e o p l e a re c l e a r l y a b l e t o d e t e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n broadness and t h a t t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s a re a f u n c t i o n o f t h i s p e r c e p t u a l d i m e n s i o n . I n Ryan e t a l . (1977), s m a l l i n c r e m e n t s o f a c c e n t e d n e s s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r a d u a l l y l e s s f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g s o f s t a t u s , s o l i d a r i t y and speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t S p a n i s h a c c e n t f e a t u r e s i n spoken E n g l i s h a r e n e g a t i v e l y s t e r e o t y p e d and the g r e a t e r the prominence o f these f e a t u r e s , the s t r o n g e r the s t e r e o -t y p i n g . Through s c a l i n g methods o f magnitude e s t i m a t i o n and s e n s o r y - m o d a l i t y m a t c h i n g , Brennan e t a l . (1975) demonstrated t h a t even n o n - l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t r a i n e d l i s t e n e r s were a b l e t o g i v e r e l i a b l e judgments o f degree o f acce n t e d n e s s and these were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the o c c u r r e n c e o f s p e c i f i c p r o n u n c i a t i o n f e a t u r e s endemic t o a c c e n t e d speech. A t t i t u d e s and Employment In an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the r o l e which the language a t t i t u d e s o f employers p l a y s i n employment i n t e r v i e w i n g , 23 Hopper and A s s o c i a t e s ( r e p o r t e d i n W i l l i a m s , 1976) t e s t e d the t h e s i s t h a t an i n t e r v i e w e e ' s speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f u r n i s h cues which form employer's a t t i t u d e s toward the speaker and t h a t these a t t i t u d e s i n f l u e n c e employment d e c i s i o n s . The r e s u l t s i n c l u d e d the f a c t t h a t judgments o f e t h n i c i t y o f speech d i d n o t appear t o m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t employment, a l t h o u g h s t a n d a r d s p e a k e r s were f a v o u r e d i n the sphere o f w h i t e c o l l a r j o b s , w h i l e speech seemed t o be o f l i t t l e i mportance i n h i r i n g manual l a b o u r . These r e s u l t s a r e c o n t r a r y t o those found by Shuy (1970). I n t h i s s t u d y employers ranked speech samples c o l l e c t e d from a l l s o c i a l s t r a t a o f the B l a c k community. I t was found t h a t employers c o n s i s t e n t l y ranked p r o f e s s i o n a l B l a c k s i n the same 'lower' c a t e g o r i e s a l o n g w i t h salesmen and mechanics. Rey (1977) found t h a t t o p o s s e s s a s t a n d a r d White American a c c e n t e n a b l e d one t o a c h i e v e the h i g h e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , s l i g h t a c c e n t s ( B l a c k American and Cuban N a t i o n a l ) the n e x t h i g h e s t and a heavy a c c e n t (Cuban N a t i o n a l ) o n l y the l o w e s t p o s i t i o n s p o s s i b l e . T e a c h e r s ' A t t i t u d e s t o Speech Of the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s which d e a l s w i t h speech p e r c e p t i o n and language a t t i t u d e s , o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s e c t i o n p e r t a i n s t o t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . The work which g e n e r a t e d much o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i s R o s e n t h a l and Jacobson's (1968) Pygmalion i n  the C l a s s r o o m and the p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s 24 may a f f e c t the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s r o o m and, as a consequence, a f f e c t the c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s i n s c h o o l . The work o f F r e d e r i c k W i l l i a m s and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1973, 1976) dominates the l i t e r a t u r e on s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s t o s t u d e n t language. The methodology employed i n the numerous s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n was m u l t i f a c e t e d and a wide v a r i e t y o f d a t a was c o l l e c t e d . The f i r s t s t e p i n t h e i r methodology was the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s t o use i n the e x p e r i m e n t s . Teachers were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a u d i o or v i d e o t a p e samples o f i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s language and were asked t o comment f r e e l y on them. The a d j e c t i v e s produced i n t h e s e s e s s i o n s went i n t o the development o f the s c a l e s which c o u l d then be used t o measure t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n s t o language samples. A f t e r t h e a c t u a l e x p e r i m e n t i n which t e a c h e r s were asked t o r a t e speech samples and through the a p p l i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , i t was found t h a t u n d e r l y i n g the t e a c h e r s ' use o f the s c a l e s was a two-dimension judgemental model. The m a j o r i t y o f the t e a c h e r s ' r e a c t i o n s c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r by two g r o s s d i m e n s i o n s : c o n f i d e n c e - e a g e r n e s s and e t h n i c i t y - n o n s t a n d a r d n e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m s , these two main d i m e n s i o n s were r e l a t i v e l y independent and q u a n t i f i e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s ) o f the speech samples were r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t o r s o f t e a c h e r ' s r a t i n g s . 25 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as hes i t a t i o n frequencies, enthusiasm and continuous and fluent speech could predict confidence-eagerness ratings, while a variety of nonstandard English grammatical or pronunciation features could predict e t h n i c i t y -nonstandardness. The researchers note that as the frequency of h e s i t a t i o n phenomena increases, the ratings of confidence-eagerness become more negative and as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with low prestige or a p a r t i c u l a r ethnic group increases ( i . e . , d for th substitutions), the more ratings of ethnicity-nonstandardness w i l l also increase. Using t h i s two-dimension judgemental model, semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales consisting of scales representing both dimensions and several f i l l e r scales were constructed and used in various experiments investigating speech stereotypes. Upon presenting teachers with audio, video and audio-video tapes, Williams, Whitehead and Traupman (1971) expected d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n accordance with the speech character-i s t i c s of middle and lower class children of White, Black and Mexican-American ethnic groups. On the average, results indicated that middle status children were rated less non-standard and more confident than lower status children. It was also found that among the middle income groups White and Black children were rated more confident-eager than Mexican-American children, while in the lower income groups White and Mexican-American children were rated more confident-eager than Black children. As the authors explain, 26 t h e s e r e s u l t s suggest t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l c o n s i s t e n t l y e v a l u a t e c h i l d r e n ' s speech and such e v a l u a t i o n s a r e a l o n g the two a f o r e m e n t i o n e d d i m e n s i o n s . U s i n g the knowledge g a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , W i l l i a m s , Whitehead and M i l l e r ( i n W i l l i a m s , 1976) attempted among o t h e r t h i n g s t o : (a) F i n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e and e t h n i c i t y t o the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s o f speech samples, (b) f i n d the degree t o which speech r a t i n g s c o u l d be used t o p r e d i c t t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p u p i l s ' academic performance (p. 5 7 ) . The S s , 175 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s from the C e n t r a l Texas a r e a were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a randomized sequence o f v i d e o t a p e d A n g l o , B l a c k and Mexican-American c h i l d r e n each from a m i d d l e or low s t a t u s group. The c h i l d r e n were r e s p o n d i n g , i n t h e i r own words, t o two q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d to e l i c i t spontaneous speech. Each Ss was asked t o e v a l u a t e the t a p e s on b o t h a s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e and on a c a r d r e q u i r i n g assignment o f the c h i l d t o a graded c l a s s . The graded c l a s s e s ranged from (1) r e m e d i a l c l a s s t o (5) f a r above average c l a s s i n s u b j e c t s such as a r t , P.E., grammar and r e a d i n g . Many o f the r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s i n t h a t t e a c h e r s h e l d s t e r e o t y p i c v iews o f the e t h n i c i t y -n o n s t andardness o f m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n and r a t e d the language samples as such. In a d d i t i o n , the t e a c h e r s ' amount o f e x p e r i e n c e appeared u n r e l a t e d i n any way t o the r a t i n g s and t h e i r academic e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the c h i l d r e n were p r e d i c t a b l e on the b a s i s o f t h e i r language a t t i t u d e s . T h i s i n c r e a s e d when the s u b j e c t m a t t e r was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o language a r t s s u b j e c t s . G e n e r a l l y the f i n d i n g s are t h a t s t u d e n t s whose speech was judged more nonstandard were e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m worse a c a d e m i c a l l y than t h o s e whose speech was judged more s t a n d a r d . W i l l i a m s i m p l i e s t h a t the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between language and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n language a r t s r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s i s a r e s u l t o f the tendency o f t e a c h e r s t o c o n f u s e language d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h d e f i c i t s . I t i s f u r t h e r noted t h a t g i v e n the a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s language as e t h n i c and n o n s t a n d a r d , i t may be i n a c c u r a t e t o e x p e c t t h i s type o f speech i n a l l speech s i t u a t i o n s . To p r e v e n t language a t t i t u d e s from s e r v i n g as f a l s e or s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s , t e a c h e r s must be t r a i n e d t o be s e n s i t i v e t o v a r i a t i o n s i n d i a l e c t s o r performance (p. 6 8 ) . Teacher e t h n i c i t y : A s t u d y by M i l l e r (1972) uses the d a t a from t h i s s t u d y and f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s i t i n terms o f the r e a c t i o n s o f the Mexican-American t e a c h e r s i n the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n . I t was found t h a t these t e a c h e r s h e l d s t e r e o -t y p e s s i m i l a r t o those o f A n g l o t e a c h e r s i n t h a t A n g l o c h i l d r e n were thought t o p o s s e s s more c o n f i d e n c e and be l e s s e t h n i c - s o u n d i n g . They were a l s o thought t o have h i g h e r academic e x p e c t a n c i e s than t h e i r Mexican-American c o u n t e r p a r t s . The s o c i a l s t a t u s o f the Mexican-American c h i l d r e n was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a l s o i n making both language and academic judgments, whereas t h i s was not found t o be t r u e f o r the A n g l o c h i l d r e n . The most i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n t o t h i s s t u d y i s the f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r e t h n i c i t y d i d not account f o r any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t i n g b e h a v i o r . M i l l e r s p e c u l a t e s t h a t the t e a c h e r s o f a m i n o r i t y r a c e may have i n t e r n a l i z e d the v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the m a j o r i t y r a c e a l o n g w i t h f l u e n c y i n the language. Naremore (1971), a l s o u s i n g W i l l i a m s ' d a t a , seems t o c o n f i r m the above r e s u l t s . I n no case d i d b l a c k s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r own r a c e above w h i t e c h i l d r e n (p. 2 4 ) . In o t h e r words, a l l t e a c h e r s r e a c t e d s i m i l a r l y t o r a c e and t h i s was the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r when e v a l u a t i n g speech samples. I t was noted t h a t t h e s e r a t i n g s were somewhat independent o f the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t u a l performance and p o i n t s t o the phenomenon o f v i s u a l e v i d e n c e o f the c h i l d r e n ' s e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i n f l u e n c i n g r a t e r s ' judgments. A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g t e a c h e r s ' s t e r e o t y p e d l i n g u i s t i c a t t i t u d e s has been done by F r e n d e r , Brown and Lambert (1970) and C r o w l and M a c G i n i t i e (1974). The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n w i t h b e t t e r grades s h o u l d have d i s t i n c t l y more f a v o u r a b l e speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n w i t h p o o r e r grades was t e s t e d i n F r e n d e r e t a l . . The r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d the h y p o t h e s i s even though a l l p u p i l s were matched f o r age, v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . The c o n t r a s t i n g p a t t e r n o f speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s showed t h a t " b e t t e r " s t u d e n t s had more a p p r o p r i a t e i n t o n a t i o n , h i g h e r p i t c h and spoke more q u i c k l y than " p o o r e r " s t u d e n t s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t how a c h i l d p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f through h i s speech . . . may v e r y w e l l i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f him (Frender e t a l . , 1970, p. 304). C r o w l and M a c G i n i t i e (1974) attempted t o f i n d o u t i f s t u d e n t s ' a c t u a l academic performance i s judged d i f f e r e n t l y because o f v o i c e c u e s . S i x White and s i x B l a c k f i f t e e n -y e a r - o l d s gave i d e n t i c a l taped answers t o two q u e s t i o n s . I t was p r e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t the e t h n i c background c o u l d be a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d from the speech samples. I n a l l c a s e s the White judges r a t e d the White s t u d e n t s as answering the q u e s t i o n s b e t t e r t h a n the B l a c k s t u d e n t s . The o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s o f the s t u d y s u p p o r t e d the n o t i o n t h a t the c o n t e n t of the same o r a l answer i s e v a l u a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y when spoken by d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s whose d i f f e r e n c e i n e t h n i c group i s i d e n t i f i a b l e from t h e i r speech (p. 307) . P r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s : I n a d d i t i o n t o these s t u d i e s , o t h e r r e s e a r c h has d e a l t w i t h the l i n g u i s t i c a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r t r a i n e e s . The r e s e a r c h o f W i l l i a m s , Whitehead and M i l l e r (1971) was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t s o f e t h n i c s t e r e o -t y p i n g i n a d e s i g n where r a t i n g s o f the same s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h a u d i o samples c o u l d be compared when matched w i t h a v i d e o 30 image o f a W h i t e , B l a c k and Mexican-American c h i l d . I n o t h e r words, how would t h e Ss e v a l u a t e s p e a k e r s whom they hear as s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g but whom they see as b e l o n g i n g t o an e t h n i c m i n o r i t y . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f e t h n i c s t e r e o t y p i n g does a f f e c t speech r a t i n g s t h e n the r a t i n g s o f the same language sample would d i f f e r under the v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s (p. 167). The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h samples. The c o n f i d e n c e - e a g e r n e s s r a t i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t the same tapes p a i r e d w i t h M e x i c a n -American c h i l d r e n were r a t e d lower than tapes p a i r e d w i t h White or B l a c k c h i l d r e n . A n a l y s i s o f the e t h n i c i t y - n o n -s t a n d a r d n e s s r a t i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t p a i r i n g s w i t h B l a c k and Mexican-Americans were r a t e d as more e t h n i c - n o n s t a n d a r d than p a i r i n g s w i t h W h i t e s . Thus, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t a l l tapes had been superimposed w i t h s t a n d a r d White speech, the e t h n i c c h i l d r e n were p e r c e i v e d as s p e a k i n g l e s s s t a n d a r d l y (more e t h n i c ) than the White c h i l d r e n . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t these r a t i n g s were not as s t e r e o -typed as v i d e o r a t i n g s o f the m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r o r i g i n a l sound t r a c k , which were i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y , but the i n f l u e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y on s t e r e o t y p i n g and the s u b s e q u e n t l y lower e v a l u a t i o n s o f speech n o n e t h e l e s s a t t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . S e l i g m a n , Tucker and Lambert (1972) e x p l o r e d the i n f l u e n c e o f speech samples on r a t e r s ' judgments when 31 combined w i t h c o m p o s i t i o n s , drawings and photographs. The a u t h o r s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the p o w e r f u l e f f e c t o f speech s t y l e r e p o r t e d i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s would a f f e c t the Ss o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n o f each c h i l d even i n the presence o f o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s t o c o n s i d e r d u r i n g the assessment. The t e a c h e r s were asked t o r a t e 8 h y p o t h e t i c a l p u p i l s on s c a l e s l a b e l l e d f o r example: i n t e l l i g e n t , good s t u d e n t and s e l f - c o n f i d e n t . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the boys w i t h good v o i c e s were always e v a l u a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a v o r a b l y than those w i t h poor v o i c e s (p. 135). The e f f e c t s o f speech s t y l e d i d not d i m i n i s h when combined w i t h the o t h e r cues p r e s e n t and a p u p i l w i t h a good v o i c e was judged more i n t e l l i g e n t , p r i v i l e g e d , e n t h u s i a s t i c , s e l f c o n f i d e n t , g e n t l e and a b e t t e r s t u d e n t . H y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t p r o s p e c t i v e E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s would have u n f a v o u r a b l e s t e r e o t y p e s o f s p e a k e r s o f nonstandard E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s , Hewett (1971) asked W h i t e , n a t i v e - s p e a k i n g Ss t o r a t e c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the r a c e s and p r o b a b l e o c c u p a t i o n s o f s p e a k e r s . Many o f the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used were i d e n t i c a l t o those used by Lambert (1968). J u d g i n g s o l e l y on p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d : s t a n d a r d s p e a k e r s were ranked h i g h e s t on e d u c a t i o n and l o w e s t on p e r s o n a l i t y , w h i l e n o n s t a n d a r d s p e a k e r s were ranked h i g h e s t on honesty and l o w e s t on s p e a k i n g a b i l i t y . The auth o r i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s as f i t t i n g some i n t e r e s t i n g 32 s t e r e o t y p e s . The s u b j e c t s were a l s o almost unanimous i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the s p e a k e r ' s r a c e ; a l l r a c e s were a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d by speech w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t B l a c k s t a n d a r d s p e a k e r s were p e r c e i v e d as White. The p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s chosen f o r each group were a l s o con-s i s t e n t w i t h the s t e r e o t y p e s p r e s e n t i n the p e r s o n a l i t y and r a c e r a t i n g s and thus the r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d Hewett's h y p o t h e s i s . S t u d e n t s s p e a k i n g RP i n the U n i t e d Kingdom were p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g the b e s t speech and b e h a v i o r and the most l i k e l y t o do w e l l i n s c h o o l i n a s t u d y by Edwards (1978). In l i g h t o f these r e s u l t s and those found i n the o t h e r s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , Edwards n o t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s d i f f e r l i t t l e from the r e s t o f s o c i e t y i n the s t e r e o t y p e s which they h o l d o f m i n o r i t y groups (p. 5 7 ) . A note o f c a u t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s o f th e s e t h r e e l a t t e r s t u d i e s i s n e c e s s a r y . In not one o f the e x p e r i m e n t s d i d the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n exceed 25 and thus the r e s u l t s a r e not h i g h l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e . A c c e n t b r o a d n e s s : A c c e n t broadness ( A r t h u r , F a r r a r and B r a d f o r d , 1974; Ryan e t a l . , 1977; G i l e s , 1 9 72(b); and Brennan, Ryan and Dawson, 1975) has been i n c l u d e d i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by Rey (1981) i n which the a t t i t u d i n a l e f f e c t o f a S p a n i s h a c c e n t on t e a c h e r s i n South F l o r i d a i s examined. The main c o n c e r n was t o d e t e r m i n e what e f f e c t an a c c e n t or l a c k o f a c c e n t would have on t e a c h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h a t s p e a k e r ' s p o s s i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s (p. 5 9 ) . The speech samples c o n s i s t e d o f White American (W.A.), B l a c k American (B.A.) and Cuban N a t i o n a l (C.N.) s p e a k e r s . Of the C.N. s p e a k e r s , these were d i v i d e d i n t o m i n i m a l , m e d i a l and heavy a c c e n t c a t e g o r i e s . The r e s u l t s show t h a t W.A. speech was judged most p o s i t i v e l y on a l l 3 d i m e n s i o n s : s o c i a l s t a t u s , s t a n d a r d n e s s - s t y l e and c o r r e c t n e s s - c o m p l e x i t y , w h i l e m e d i a l and heavy-accented C.N. speech was judged the l e a s t f a v o u r a b l y . The g e n e r a l t r e n d was t h a t W.A. s p e a k e r s were r a t e d as h a v i n g the h i g h e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r academic s u c c e s s than any o f the o t h e r s p e a k e r s . B.A. and m i n i m a l l y - a c c e n t e d C.N. s p e a k e r s i n t h a t o r d e r would be n e x t , w h i l e m e d i a l and heavy-accented C.N. s p e a k e r s c o u l d p o s s i b l y a c h i e v e o n l y the l o w e s t e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . Summary The i n t e n t o f the f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r was t o p r e s e n t a b r o a d , h i s t o r i c a l o u t l i n e o f the s t u d i e s showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech and s t e r e o t y p i n g . S t u d i e s u s i n g e i t h e r the matched-guise t e c h n i q u e or i n d i v i d u a l speech samples were l a r g e l y unanimous i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s t h a t the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n does indeed p o s s e s s s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s t o s p e a k e r s o f a v a r i e t y o f l a n g u a g e s , d i a l e c t s and a c c e n t s (Lambert e t a l . , 1960; Labov, 1966; d ' A n g l e j a n and T u c k e r , 1972; and Ryan e t a l . , 1977). These a t t i t u d e s were f o r the most p a r t measured u s i n g semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s 34 (Osgood e t a l . , 1957) which are i n d i r e c t measures t h a t are o f more v a l u e than d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g i n e l i c i t i n g a p e r s o n ' s f e e l i n g s toward v a r i e t i e s o f speech (Edwards, 1978). The development o f the matched-guise t e c h n i q u e and the subsequent r e s u l t s o f Lambert's (1960) s t u d y was the impetus f o r numerous s t u d i e s and Lambert's methodology has s e r v e d as a b a s i s on which t o b u i l d more m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y complex r e s e a r c h (Ryan, 1973). Speech samples, semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s and o t h e r a t t i t u d e measurement i n s t r u m e n t s have been used t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p r e s e n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s i n speech sample e v a l u a t i o n s i n many a r e a s o f s t u d y , e.g., p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , SES, e m p l o y a b i l i t y , s o l i d a r i t y ; but the one o f major i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y i s t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n s . The second s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n e x i s t i n g i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t e a c h e r s a l s o h o l d s t e r e o -typed o p i n i o n s o f a p e r s o n and t h e s e can be e l i c i t e d u s i n g speech samples. T h i s second s e c t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r the r e s e a r c h problem o f t h i s t h e s i s . W i l l i a m s e t a l . (1976) s t a t e s t h a t the g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h , though r e s t r i c t e d t o the s u b j e c t and s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s , a r e t h a t s t e r e o t y p e r e a c t i o n s d i d e x i s t c o n s i s t e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t the e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n s , t h a t these s t e r e o t y p e s were c o n s t a n t a c r o s s time and they c o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h 35 stereotype reactions e l i c i t e d from audio-visual cues. It was further concluded that persons tend to employ stereotyped sets of attitudes as anchor points for their evaluation of whatever i s presented to them as a sample of a person's speech (Shuy and Fasold, 1973, p. 126). In other words, teachers are not exempt from employing these attitudes to evaluate speech and although we cannot predict with certainty how they w i l l actually behave towards . . . minority group children in the classroom, there seems a very r e a l danger that they w i l l convey these negative feelings to the children (Edwards, 1978, p. 57). Translated into terms of the present research, t h i s review of the l i t e r a t u r e would suggest that teachers, upon hearing cer t a i n pronunciation deviations w i l l immediately react with a stereotyped judgment and w i l l accordingly rate the speaker lower on a l l measures, regardless of his actual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As suggested in the l i t e r a t u r e , variables such as teacher e t h n i c i t y , language background and years of experience w i l l be included. 36 CHAPTER I I I : DEVELOPMENT OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALES I n t r o d u c t i o n The t e c h n i q u e o f semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l was chosen t o measure the r e a c t i o n s o f the s u b j e c t s t o the speech s t i m u l i . The major c r i t e r i a f o r c h o o s i n g t h i s type o f s c a l e were 1. the s i m p l i c i t y o f such a s c a l e r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , 2. the a b i l i t y t o use o b j e c t s p e c i f i c a d j e c t i v e s and 3. the r e p o r t e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the s c a l e i n e l i c i t i n g r a t e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s o f o b j e c t s . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s r a n g i n g from .83 t o as h i g h as .97 have been r e p o r t e d and e v i d e n c e o f v a l i d i t y i s apparent i n c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s c a l e s r a n g i n g from .74 t o .82 (Shaw and W r i g h t , 1967, p. 3 0 ) . The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s used by the Ss i n e v a l u a t i n g the speech samples were dev e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s t a s k and were t e s t e d u s i n g f a c t o r and it e m a n a l y s i s . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a sheet i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s The c o n c e p t o f 'semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l ' (Osgood e t a l . , 1957) o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e s a t t i t u d e as q u a n t i f i e d s e t s o f responses t o b i p o l a r s c a l e s . The e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r i n a t t i t u d e measures the d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward the o b j e c t s b e i n g r a t e d and the b i p o l a r s c a l e s f o c u s d i r e c t l y on the o b j e c t s , as i t i s thes e o b j e c t s which s t i m u l a t e the s c o r e d responses ( A g h e y i s i and Fishman, 1970). Attitude i s further defined as the i n t e r n a l state aroused by the stimulation and the subsequent external response i s a measure of this attitude. In this sense, attitude may be considered object s p e c i f i c . In making language evaluations the l i s t e n e r usually hears speech stimuli and then rates them against such a series of bipolar adjectives. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the adjectives implies an underlying continuum, as respondents can score each adjective on an intensity scale from positive through neutral to negative, as in the following example: highly very somewhat somewhat very highly t a l l pos. : pos. : pos. : neutral : neg. : neg. : neg. short Choosing from a set of provided categories removes the problem of the l i s t e n e r s ' f a i l i n g to focus on the expected dimension only and seems to provide a p r a c t i c a l measurement technique for e l i c i t i n g and quantifying evaluations of speech. Selection of Adjectives The adjectives used to construct the scales (Appendix B) were a composite of s p e c i f i c adjectives found in previous research (Lambert, 1967; Strongman and Woosley, 1967; Bourhis et a l . , 1975; Williams et a l . , 1976; Saint-Jacques, 1978). In some cases the opposites were revised to conform more c l o s e l y to regional speech. It was f e l t that these items were v a l i d and r e l i a b l e in e l i c i t i n g evaluations of 38 speech i n the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s and i t was ex p e c t e d they would p e r f o r m i n the same manner i n the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . T h i s t e c h n i q u e o f d e v e l o p i n g s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s was common throughout the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e (Strongman and Woosley, 1967; G i l e s , 1 9 7 1 ( a ) ) , though the a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f t h i s method o f s e l e c t i o n has been c r i t i c i z e d (Lee, 1 9 7 1 ) . ! A f t e r a l l 19 items had been s e l e c t e d , they were randomly o r d e r e d t o produce the f i n a l s c a l e , which was i d e n t i c a l f o r a l l e i g h t s p e a k e r s as w e l l as f o r the p r a c t i c e v o i c e . In a d d i t i o n t o these i t e m s , the p i l o t s t u d y a l s o i n c l u d e d the open-ended q u e s t i o n : p e r c e i v e d e t h n i c i t y o f speaker i s . F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f the S c a l e The 19 v a r i a b l e s were i n i t i a l l y c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e s u b t e s t s l a b e l l e d 1) p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 2) speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and 3) s o c i a l d i s t a n c e (Table 1 ) . The p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were taken l a r g e l y from Lambert (1967) and were i n c l u d e d i n an attempt t o e l i c i t e v a l u a t i o n s which were on what c o u l d be termed a ^ P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ( G i l e s and B o u r h i s , 1973; W i l l i a m s e t a l . , 1976) s t a t e s t h a t a more v a l i d s e l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e i s a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h the e l i c i t a t i o n o f a d j e c t i v e s from a s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o the one i n the experiment and then a p p l y i n g t h e s e a d j e c t i v e s t o the s c a l e . T h i s was attempted by the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h e r but the r e s u l t s were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Table 1 Subtests 1 (Personal) likeable character conscientious ambitious sociable nervous/calm self-confidence humour in t e l l i g e n c e a t t r a c t i v e education trustworthy hard-working conservative 2 (Speech) speaking a b i l i t y d istinctness standardness 3(Social Distance) s i m i l a r i t y to s e l f d e s i r a b i l i t y as colleague Table 3 Subtests 1 (Personal) 2 (Speech) 3 (Social Distance) 4 (Work) likeable character sociable trustworthy standardness nervous/calm self-confidence intelligence education standardness speaking ability distinctness likeable humour attractive conservative similarity to self desirability as colleague conscientious ambitious hard-working conservative personality dimension. The speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were found in Williams (1976) and the inclusion of these variables was to determine possible speech d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s of the speakers, even though they were a l l reading a standardized passage. Bourhis et a l . (1975) provided the two s o c i a l distance scales which were added to investigate the distance the l i s t e n e r s were w i l l i n g to accord the speakers. The d i v i s i o n of the variables into these subgroups was the r e s u l t of an attempt to f i n d any d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s in attitude the Ss might have along these dimensions. An example of t h i s would be that the l i s t e n e r s might have a positive attitude toward the personality of the speaker but s t i l l grant them greater s o c i a l distance than this personal dimension would indicate. After the data had been collected a Factor Analysis was performed using the AGFAP package (Hakstian, 1977). The number of factors to be retained was determined using the Kaiser Guttman rule, the SCREE test and image analysis after the factor extraction was completed. These three methods suggested that the 19 variables could be interpreted in terms of f i v e underlying common factors. The loadings of the variables on f i v e orthogonal rotated factors (following a varimax rotation) were examined to determine whether the variables clustered in meaningful groups. Using the c r i t e r i o n of i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y , i t was decided (after an AGFAP run retaining four factors and in which a varimax r o t a t i o n was performed) t h a t f o u r f a c t o r s s h o u l d be used i n c l u s t e r i n g the 19 v a r i a b l e s . The v a r i a b l e s which c l u s t e r e d on each f a c t o r c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s u b t e s t s i n s t e a d o f o n l y t h r e e as h y p o t h e s i z e d . An o b l i q u e s o l u t i o n was then t r i e d u s i n g a H a r r i s - K a i s e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n on the f o u r f a c t o r s r e t a i n e d from the p r i n c i p a l component e x t r a c t i o n . The f i n a l r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 2. A v a r i a b l e was c o n s i d e r e d t o l o a d s u b s t a n t i a l l y on a f a c t o r when i t s p a t t e r n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h a t f a c t o r was g r e a t e r i n a b s o l u t e v a l u e than .30. When a v a r i a b l e had two s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g s i t was i n c l u d e d i n two s u b t e s t s . As can be seen i n the f a c t o r l o a d i n g s , a new f a c t o r , l a b e l l e d 'work' emerged over and above those h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be p r e s e n t i n the i n s t r u m e n t . The 19 v a r i a b l e s a l s o regrouped themselves a c c o r d i n g l y w i t h i n the f o u r s u b t e s t s and a new p a t t e r n appeared (Table 3 ) . T h i s new p a t t e r n shows t h a t the l i s t e n e r s were r e s p o n d i n g t o the s p e a k e r s i n terms o f t h e s e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s and e v a l u a t i n g them a c c o r d i n g l y . In o t h e r words, the e v a l u a t i o n s r e f l e c t f o u r b a s i c d i m e n s i o n s o f judgement i n s t e a d o f 19 d i m e n s i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the i n d i v i d u a l s c a l e s or the p r e v i o u s l y h y p o t h e s i z e d t h r e e . In view o f these f i n d i n g s a l l subsequent a n a l y s e s were done u s i n g the f o u r s u b t e s t s and an a d d i t i o n a l h y p o t h e s i s p e r t a i n i n g t o work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the s t u d y . 42 Table 2 Factor Loading of Teacher Responses to 19 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales Factors Variables I II III IV likeable 1 -.05 -.43* .50* -.07 character 2 .17 -.01 .69* -.07 conscientious 3 -.06 .10 .08 -.89* ambitious 4 .21 -.27 -.02 -.52* sociable 5 .12 -.15 .75* .21 nervous/calm 6 1.06* .27 -.00 .36 self-confidence 7 .82* -.10 -.03 .23 humour 8 -.10 -.87* -.00 .09 in t e l l i g e n c e 9 .58* -.03 .13 -.16 at t r a c t i v e 10 .07 -.58* .26 -.01 education 11 .72* .29 .14 -.09 trustworthy 12 -.12 .20 .92* -.06 speaking a b i l i t y 13 .53* -.24 .07 -.09 distinctness 14 .65* -.05 .08 -.12 standardness 15 .51* -.12 -.34* -.29 hard-working 16 .06 -.08 -.20 -.84* conservative 17 -.00 .61* .21 -.66* s i m i l a r i t y to s e l f 18 .13 -.68* -.25 -.17 d e s i r a b i l i t y as colleague 19 .04 -.40* .24 -.32 *factor loadings above .30 43 Item Analysis The 19 items were further analysed using the LERTAP item analysis package (Nelson, 1974) and the four subtests were checked to see i f the instrument was unidimensional. The results for speakers number 1, 4, 6 and 8 are presented in Table 4. These four speakers were the same for a l l Ss in both presentations and i t was f e l t that these results would be representative of a l l speakers and subtests in the study. 6 Cronbach's s t r a t i f i e d alpha for the instrument ranged from .81 to .85, which indicates that the instrument was not as unidimensional as desired. In other words, the four subtests were somewhat correlated and were not discrete categories testing d i s t i n c t attitudes. This l e v e l of homo-geneity was expected in that certain variables occupied more than one category. Hoyt's estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y ranged from .88 to .91, which indicates that the instrument has internal consistency. Biographical Data Sheet An open-ended biographical data sheet was also con-structed by the researcher and attached to the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales d i s t r i b u t e d to the subjects (Appendix A). The purpose of this questionnaire was to e l i c i t teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to apply to the research hypotheses as well as to a s s i s t in the description of the sample population. 44 Table 4 LERTAP Speakers 1 4 6 8 Personal Hoyt Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y .73 .75 .80 .73 Speech Hoyt Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y .83 .72 .87 .80 Soc i a l Distance Hoyt Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y .71 .71 .64 .71 Work Hoyt Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y .77 .75 .68 .86 Total Test Hoyt Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y .91 .88 .91 .91 Cronbach's Alpha .83 .81 .85 .83 45 CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH PROCEDURES Introduction The purpose of this chapter i s to give the reader additional information about the sample population, the experimental procedures and the materials used in thi s study. A more detailed description of the p i l o t study w i l l also be given. Description of the Sample Population The subjects consisted of 119 practicing and prospective teachers attending day, late afternoon and evening courses at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Of these 119 Ss the majority attended late afternoon and evening classes (n = 94). The remaining Ss (n = 25) attended day classes and these S_s were a l l prospective teachers, while those attending the other classes were a combination of pros-pective (n = 24) and practicing (n = 70) teachers. The o r i g i n a l intent to use only practicing teachers was expanded to include student teachers when i t was found that the teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of prac t i c i n g versus prospective teachers and years of teaching experience did not af f e c t the ratings. Teachers who taught many d i f f e r e n t subject areas i n the school system were included to avoid a highly specialized subject population that might be more sensitized to language variations. It should also be noted that in a l l p r o b a b i l i t y 46 a large percentage of these p r a c t i c i n g teachers would be graduate students and this must be considered when generalizing any findings. Prior to the date of the testing session a l l classes had been asked by their professors i f they were w i l l i n g to give up class time to partake in an experiment. A l l classes agreed and this fact combined with the fact that a l l Ss had the freedom to withdraw at any time during the experiment makes them volunteers. Despite this apparent selection by convenience, there was no reason to expect vast differences between this type of l i s t e n e r and the type of l i s t e n e r found teaching in Vancouver schools. It was f e l t that these l i s t e n e r s would be f a i r l y representative as they came from a l l d i f f e r e n t schools and areas in Vancouver and taught diverse subject matter. Overall there were more female than male subjects (n = 96 and 23, respectively) and the age range was from 21 through 52, with the majority f a l l i n g in the 20 - 29 category (n = 63) . The subjects' years of teaching experience ranged from 0 for a prospective teacher to more than 11 years. It was found that the majority had 0 years of experience (n = 49), while the second largest group f e l l into the category of 1 - 5 years (n = 33). A broader comparison between prospective and experienced teachers revealed that in t o t a l numbers, there were more experienced (n = 70) than inexperienced (n = 49) teachers. In terms of ethnic minority students taught, the largest group (n = 34) taught less than 20% of such students and the e t h n i c i t y of the subject population i t s e l f was over-whelmingly of Western or Eastern European descent (n = 101). It appears that except for being remarkably homogeneous in terms of e t h n i c i t y the t o t a l subject population does reach a degree of heterogeneity which would be found in the t o t a l population the researcher wishes to generalize to. A complete sample p r o f i l e i s included in Appendix E. Development of the Test Passage A test passage (Appendix C) containing maximum opportunity for the e l i c i t a t i o n of the phonological variations of the six foreign-accented speakers was adapted by the researcher from a passage found in Mastering E s s e n t i a l  English S k i l l s (McClelland et a l . , 1978: p. 90). The context of the passage was both simple and emotionally neutral and required approximately 18 seconds to read. It was f e l t that 18 seconds was long enough for the l i s t e n e r s to i d e n t i f y the accent and to formulate a judgment without finding either the passage too long or the task too tedious. Though i t has been suggested in the l i t e r a t u r e (Lee, 1971) that free speech samples are more indicative of natural speech and thus more l i k e l y to e l i c i t authentic l i s t e n e r responses, a reading sample was used in the present research 48 to control for grammar and vocabulary. The context of the passage was also controlled through the use of a reading passage, though i t has been argued that the contextual domain of the speech stimuli i s very important (Agheyisi and Fishman, 1970; Carranza and Ryan, 1975; Williams, 1976). Selection of the Stimulus Voices Speech samples were selected by the researcher from the following accent groups: 1) standard Canadian English, 2) Punjabi-accented English, 3) Cantonese-accented English, and 4) Quebecois-accented English. Two speakers were selected to represent each accent category and in the three foreign-accented groups these two representatives were further divided into heavily and slightly-accented speakers. The degree of accent was determined by the researcher and was dependent on the presence of s p e c i f i c foreign-accent features r e l a t i v e to standard English speech. For t h i s experiment the matched-guise technique was considered inappropriate for representing the range of accents and accentedness necessary. Two basic d i f f i c u l t i e s in using matched-guise were also considered: 1) perfect guises in two languages (or in two accent groups) are hard to f i n d and 2) Ss can e a s i l y i d e n t i f y the voice of a perfect guise (Saint-Jacques, 1978) and as a re s u l t only native speakers were used. Any differences in the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the speakers within and between each 49 category were purposely overlooked even though important speaker differences have been suggested in previous research (Anisfeld et a l . , 1964; Lambert et a l . , 1966). Male voices were used for the speech stimulus and in addition, largely due to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of such speakers, only adult voices were used. Since teachers who taught a l l age lev e l s (K - adults) in the school system were included as subjects, i t was decided that adult voices would be f a i r l y representative of the type of foreign-accented speech frequently heard by the sample population. Each speaker was given time to become familiar with and rehearse the reading passage. The experimenter also answered questions concerning the pronunciation and meaning of words and about the general procedure for taping. The passage was taped as often as needed to ensure that i t had been recited verbatim and in as natural a sounding manner as possible. A natural-sounding manner was perceived as a necessity in order to have language samples that were representative of some universe of speakers and discourse (Williams, 1976) and to keep a r t i f i c i a l i t y to a minimum. Development of the Tapes After a l l the o r i g i n a l samples had been recorded, editing for the f i n a l tapes began. These f i n a l tapes con-sisted of the best recording of the eight i n d i v i d u a l speakers plus one standard English practice voice. Each speaker read the test passage only once. To develop presentation A the speakers were randomly ordered, with q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and randomized once again to develop presentation B (Appendix D). The practice test voice was the same for both presentations. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n to the randomization procedure was that a standard English speaker was to occupy position number 1. It was f e l t that this was a necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n to ensure that the Ss would not, upon hearing the accented voice, immediately guess the actual intent of the experiment and perhaps refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e or give unauthentic responses. Even though this response was a p o s s i b i l i t y further along in the experiment, i t was decided the Ss might f e e l more comfortable and less inclined to react in such a manner as the study progressed. In addition to the 18 seconds allowed for each speaker on the tape, a pause of 45 seconds preceded by a 'beep* signal to begin f i l l i n g in the scale was provided to give time for the Ss to f i l l in the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l rating scale before the next speaker's recording was played. At the end of the 45 seconds a standard English voice asked the Ss to turn to the next rating scale. The purpose of t h i s voice was both to ensure that the subjects turned the page and to prevent them from comparing the stimulus voices. The f i n a l editions of both taped presentations were 14 minutes long, a time span considered not long enough to t i r e the l i s t e n e r s . 51 The o r i g i n a l speech samples were r e c o r d e d u s i n g a Sony C a s s e t t e - C o r d e r TC-182 and were reproduced onto a Wo l l e n s a k 3M:2820 AV t o d e v e l o p the f i n a l t a p e s . Sony UCX-S 60, Type I I (C r02) c a s s e t t e tapes were used f o r both the o r i g i n a l and f i n a l s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s . The tapes were p r e s e n t e d on a W o l l e n s a k 3M:2520 AV i n a l l the e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n s . V a l i d a t i o n o f the Speech Samples To ensure t h a t each s p e a k e r ' s a c c e n t group c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d a c c u r a t e l y from h i s speech, the s u b j e c t s i n the p i l o t s t u d y were asked t o w r i t e down the p e r c e i v e d e t h n i c i t y o f each s p e a k e r . The o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y o f the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s and the h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s was h i g h , r a n g i n g from 80% t o 100% w i t h a mean o f 88.8%. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s was much l e s s a c c u r a t e , r a n g i n g from 32% t o 59% w i t h a mean o f 45.3%. The low pe r c e n t a g e here can perhaps be e x p l a i n e d by the i n a b i l i t y o f non-l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t r a i n e d p e o p l e t o d e t e c t s l i g h t a c c e n t v a r i a t i o n s o r the i n a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y a c c e n t v a r i a t i o n s when o n l y m i n i m a l cues a re g i v e n . I t i s the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t the l a t t e r case i s a more v a l i d e x p l a n a t i o n . A l l Ss p e r c e i v e d the s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s as b e l o n g i n g t o a d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c group ( i . e . not ' E n g l i s h Canadian') but they were s i m p l y unable t o a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y t h a t group. In o t h e r words, they had the a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between heavily and slightly-accented speech as i s apparent by these r e s u l t s ; even though in a number of cases the results tended to be incorrect. In l i g h t of the above findings a further attempt was made to validate the speech samples. Based on the phono-l o g i c a l variations present in each voice, a l i n g u i s t accurately c l a s s i f i e d a l l speakers according to their e t h n i c i t y . The implications these findings might have for the interpretation of the results w i l l be discussed in a l a t e r chapter. Format of the Testing Sessions The testing was carried out in eight sessions by an assistant external to the experiment to avoid contamination and in order to reduce errors the procedure was standardized for a l l groups. The only departure from uniformity in the eight sessions was the difference in presentation orders given to the various groups. The two orders were almost equally divided among the groups with 61 Ss receiving presentation A and 58 Ss receiving presentation B. At the beginning of the sessions booklets containing 2 i n s t r u c t i o n pages, 9 pages of semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales and a biographical data sheet were dis t r i b u t e d (Appendix A). Subjects were told a cover story which, keeping in mind the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the subject population and their probable a b i l i t y to guess the r e a l intent of the study, was 53 not far from the truth. They were told that the purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which d i f f e r e n t people react to d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of speech and that more questions could be answered when i t was over (Rey, 1979). At no time in the instructions to the subjects were judge-ments of races or c u l t u r a l stereotypes mentioned. The f i r s t page of general instructions which contained the cover story and explained the testing procedure was read aloud by the tester while the subjects followed in their booklets. Page two, which contained instructions on the use of the 7-point rating scales, was s i m i l a r l y read, taking special note of the Ss' need to f i l l in a l l the scales and c e l l s c a r e f u l l y to indicate their judgement of the degree to which the speaker possessed the named c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Next the test passage was read to the Ss to f a m i l i a r i z e them with the content and to leave them free to concentrate only on the phonological variations in each speech sample (Lambert et a l . , 1960). When the Ss f e l t familiar with the instructions, the practice tape was played and the l i s t e n e r s made their ratings. At t h i s point, a l l questions were answered and the formal testing session began. After a l l eight speakers had been evaluated, the Ss were given f i v e minutes to f i l l out the short biographical data sheet attached to the back of the booklet and the 54 booklets were then c o l l e c t e d . The approximate length of each administration was t h i r t y - f i v e minutes. P i l o t Study In order to i d e n t i f y procedural d i f f i c u l t i e s in the actual administration of the experiment, a p i l o t study was carried out at UBC. It was found that for the most part subjects were w i l l i n g to cooperate after the cover story and the procedures were explained to them and that the t o t a l length of time for administering the experiment was as adequate as expected. The data from th i s study were also used to devise a suitable method of scoring for future data analysis. The fact that the Ss in the p i l o t study were f a i r l y representative of the t o t a l sample population made t h i s possible. As noted i n the previous section, v a l i d a t i o n of the speech samples was another purpose of this study. It should also be noted here that in both the p i l o t and the actual experiment there were some unexpected subject reactions which may or may not have influenced the results of this study. Ss were given the freedom to withdraw at any time during the experiment and a very small percentage did take advantage of this by walking out after the f i r s t page of instructions was read to them. An explanation for thi s may be the fact that the Ss f e l t uncomfortable making judgements based on speech alone. This a t t r i t i o n might have been avoided by the tester stressing the importance of 55 the study to the main researcher and should be considered for future research. Those who did remain f i l l e d out a l l the information as requested, though in several cases notes to the researcher were written at the bottom of the biographical data sheet. These notes commented either on the format of the instrument in that neutral should have been easier to f i n d , or on the perceived true intent of the study. The search for prejudiced and/or r a c i s t attitudes was the o v e r a l l consensus of such comments. Two Ss noted the d i f f i c u l t y of completing the task, i . e . , how could they possibly judge attractiveness from speech alone, and had doubts as to the v a l i d i t y of any future r e s u l t s . Twenty-five subjects were involved in t h i s study and since the means and variances of this group were similar to those found in the actual study, a l l the data were combined to create a larger subject population. Scoring of the Instrument Response data on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s were quantified by the assignment of the numbers one through seven to correspond with the pole marked with an asterisk in Appendix B. The assignment of one to the negative adjective and of seven to the posi t i v e adjective of these bipolar adjectives was consistent throughout the data tabulation. An example of the scoring procedure follows: unsociable 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 : 6 : 7 sociable 56 Subsequently matched with these response data were the presentation orders and the selected teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d for this research project (Appendix E). Analysis of the Results Three techniques were used for the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the data. The i n i t i a l step in data analysis was to determine the presence of presentation order e f f e c t s . An analysis of variance and covariance with repeated measures was performed two ways on each of the four dependent variables. Both three levels (heavy, s l i g h t , none) and two l e v e l s (heavy, s l i g h t ) , of accent as the t r i a l factor were used with presentations A and B as the grouping factor. After the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s in the presentation orders were found to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t , another repeated measures analysis of variance was then executed to examine l i s t e n e r and interspeaker c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Listener c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was the grouping factor with the four subtests as the t r i a l factor. Using the results from t h i s l a s t analysis, comparisons between the speakers were calculated using the Bonferroni t-test (Kirk, 1968). Conclusion Chapter IV began with a detailed description of the subject population, followed by an outline of the procedures 57 and materials used in the investigation. The chapter concluded with a plan for the analysis of data. The following chapter presents the results of data analysis. 58 CHAPTER V: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a and the r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f the d a t a r e l e v a n t t o the seven hypotheses t e s t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P r e s e n t a t i o n Order A n a l y s i s P r i o r t o the main a n a l y s i s , the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s was i n v e s t i g a t e d u s i n g a r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . Keeping the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s and the g r o u p i n g f a c t o r c o n s t a n t the d a t a were a n a l y s e d two ways by i n c o r p o r a t i n g d i f f e r e n t a c c e n t l e v e l s i n t o the t r i a l f a c t o r . The r e s u l t s f o r the t h r e e l e v e l s o f a c c e n t were found t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t , as r e c o r d e d i n T a b l e 5. The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f two l e v e l s o f a c c e n t i n t o the a n a l y s i s r e s u l t e d i n i n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e s o f speech, p e r s o n a l and work. A s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o , F=4.24, d f = l / 1 1 7 , p <0.05 was found f o r the s o c i a l  d i s t a n c e v a r i a b l e (Table 6 ) . In l i g h t o f the i n s i g n i f i c a n t r a t i o s f o r a l l the o t h e r dependent measures t e s t e d i n both a n a l y s e s and the u n i n t e r -p r e t a b i l i t y o f t h i s r e s u l t , the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s r a t i o was not c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t i v e o f a p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r e f f e c t due t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t o c c u r r i n g by chance a l o n e . 59 In summary, when a l l speakers were compared with presentation order as a grouping factor, only one s i g n i f i c a n t difference on t h i s grouping factor was found. The p o s s i b i l i t y of t h i s occurring by chance alone and the u n i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y of i t s occurrence lead the researcher to re j e c t i t s si g n i f i c a n c e in favour of the in s i g n i f i c a n c e of the other r a t i o s . Presentation order differences was thus ignored in subsequent analyses. 60 T a b l e 5 F R a t i o s f o r the f o u r dependent measures when p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r t e s t e d and t h r e e l e v e l s o f a c c e n t used Dependent Measures Speech P e r s o n a l S o c i a l D i s t a n c e Work F Prob. F Prob. F Prob . F Prob .86 .3549 3.17 .0775 3.40 .0675 1.92 .1683 T a b l e 6 F R a t i o s f o r the f o u r dependent measures when p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r t e s t e d and two l e v e l s o f a c c e n t used Dependent Measures Speech P e r s o n a l S o c i a l D i s t a n c e Work F Pro b . F Prob . F Prob . F Prob .60 .4385 2.95 .0885 4.24 .0417* 2.20 .1403 *p <.05 61 L i s t e n e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s H y p o t h e s i s seven proposes t h a t t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l not have an a f f e c t on the e v a l u a t i o n s o f the speech samples. P e r f o r m i n g a r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e s , s i x independent v a r i a b l e s ( t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) were used as t h e g r o u p i n g f a c t o r and were a n a l y s e d w i t h t h e f o u r s u b t e s t s as the t r i a l f a c t o r . The i n f l u e n c e o f the i n d i v i d u a l independent v a r i a b l e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A l s o i n c l u d e d a r e the i n t e r s p e a k e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which show any r a t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between the s p e a k e r s i n the language s t i m u l i . Any i n t e r a c t i o n between t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s p e a k e r s and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i s a l s o n o t e d . To reduce the c o m p l e x i t y o f T a b l e s 7 t o 12 the f o l l o w i n g d i agram w i l l s e r v e as a l e g e n d (Diagram 1 ) . Diagram 1 Legend f o r Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T a b l e s Source MS DF F L i s t e n e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (LC) E r r o r Speaker (S) I n t e r a c t i o n (LC x S) E r r o r P r a c t i c i n g vs P r o s p e c t i v e Teachers As s t a t e d i n Chapter IV, Research P r o c e d u r e s , the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t t o use o n l y p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s was expanded t o i n c l u d e p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s when i t was found t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between the r a t i n g s made by these two groups. T a b l e 7 shows the e f f e c t o f t h i s t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c on the r a t i n g s o f the f o u r s u b t e s t s . The l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p r a c t i c i n g v e r s u s p r o s -p e c t i v e t e a c h e r i s thus shown t o have an i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the r a t i n g s o f the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s . T h i s f i n d i n g was a n t i c i p a t e d i n t h a t the s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e d i n the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n d i v i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : 1. those i n the f i n a l year o f a B.Ed, program and 2. those e n r o l l e d i n the f i f t h y e a r t r a n s f e r program. S t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n the B.Ed, program would have been exposed t o t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e through t h e i r p r a c t i c a and t h u s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t would have e x p e r i e n c e s s i m i l a r t o those o f a p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r . E n r o l l m e n t i n the t r a n s f e r program r e q u i r e s the s t u d e n t t o have completed an undergraduate degree i n another f a c u l t y and though t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e per se may be l i m i t e d t o one p r a c t i c u m (at the time o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ) , such s t u d e n t s are g e n e r a l l y o l d e r and i n p o s s e s s i o n o f a wide and v a r i e d range o f e x p e r i e n c e s . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s f e l t t h a t s u b j e c t homogeneity on t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can be a t t r i b u t e d t o these two r e a s o n s . T a b l e 7 f u r t h e r n o t e s t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r -speaker d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s , F = (84.51), (32.08), (17.48), ( 7 . 3 6 ) , df=7/819, p <0.01. Table 7 Effect of practicing versus prospective teachers on the four dependent variables Speech Rating Personal Rating Social Distance Rating Work Rating .84 1 .01 146.9 1 2.13 69.9 1 1.00 54.2 1 1.39 163.4 117 68.9 117 70.0 117 38.9 117 Practicing and Prospective 2405.4 7 84.51** 281.4 7 32.08** 207.4 7 17.48** 55.9 7 7.36** Teachers 57.2 7 2.01 11.6 7 1.32 23.2 7 1.96 8.3 7 1.10 28.5 819 8.8 819 11.9 819 7.6 819 **p <.01 64 These s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o s i n d i c a t e the e v a l u a t i o n s o f the e i g h t s p e a k e r s a re d i f f e r e n t though a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s e s must be performed t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r d i r e c t i o n and s i g -n i f i c a n c e . These a n a l y s e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n the s e c t i o n I n t e r s p e a k e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Sex The e f f e c t o f sex on the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s was a l s o found t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 8 ) . I t i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by the s e r e s u l t s t h a t women and men s i m i l a r l y r a t e d the speech s t i m u l i . There i s a l s o n o t h i n g t o i n d i c a t e t h a t even though a l l s p e a k e r s were male, t h i s i n f l u e n c e d the r a t i n g s o f one sex more than a n o t h e r . I t would thus appear t h a t the sexes a r e comparable i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s o f speech and i n s p i t e o f l i t e r a t u r e p o i n t i n g t o the f a c t t h a t women more than men tend t o speak the more s t a n d a r d form o f a language ( T r u d g i l l , 1974; S c h e r e r and G i l e s , 1979) t h i s does n ot i n any way seem t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from men when r a t i n g speech s t i m u l i . These r e s u l t s tend t o s u p p o r t c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h t h a t has shown no d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes i n a s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e d h i g h s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h e r s (Rey, 1978). S i n c e sex as a v a r i a b l e engendered c o n s i d e r a b l e c e l l i n e q u a l i t y (n = 96, n = 2 3 ) , t h i s f i n d i n g e n a b l e d the r e s e a r c h e r t o i g n o r e i t i n subsequent a n a l y s e s . 65 Table 8 Effect of sex on the four dependent variables Speech Rating Personal Rating Social Distance Rating Work Rating 81.0 1 .50 38.4 1 .55 21.3 1 .30 38.4 1 .98 162.7 117 69.8 117 70.4 117 39.1 117 1560.6 7 54.46** 132.0 7 15.09** 93.4 7 7.85** 34.1 7 4.47** 35.0 7 1.22 14.4 7 1.64 19.5 7 1.64 4.1 7 .54 28.7 819 8.7 819 11.9 819 7.6 819 **p <.01 66 Age The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f age does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e the l i s t e n e r s i n any way as i n d i c a t e d by the i n s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9. T h i s f i n d i n g was not unexpected and appears c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r p r a c t i c i n g v e r s u s p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . I t seems t h a t t e a c h e r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f age, w i l l r a t e spoken language s i m i l a r l y . I n o t h e r words, no p a r t i c u l a r age group w i t h i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n i s more or l e s s t o l e r a n t o f d e v i a t i o n s i n speech when compared t o o t h e r age gro u p s . Research showing e v a l u a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o age has been r e p o r t e d (Lambert e t a l . , 1966; G i l e s , 1970) but i t appears t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l d i s a p p e a r p a s t the age of 20 when more homogeneity between v a r i o u s ages o c c u r s . Y e a r s o f E x p e r i e n c e C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s u l t s f o r t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e and age a r e the i n s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o s f o r y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e (Table 1 0 ) . The amount o f c o n t a c t a t e a c h e r has had w i t h s t u d e n t s does not appear t o i n f l u e n c e the way i n which he or she w i l l e v a l u a t e speech. S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s have been r e p o r t e d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ( W i l l i a m s e t a l . , 1976), so t h i s f i n d i n g was not unexpected. The s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t as t e a c h e r s come i n c o n t a c t w i t h a l a r g e number o f s t u d e n t s w i t h v a r y i n g s p e a k i n g a b i l i t i e s t h ey w i l l be more s y m p a t h e t i c o f 67 Table 9 Effect of age on the four dependent variables Speech Rating Personal Rating Social Distance Rating Work Rating 146.1 2 .90 48.6 2 .69 34.4 2 .49 11.5 2 .29 162.3 116 69.9 116 70.6 116 39.5 116 2064.4 7 72.04** 219.3 7 25.12** 145.9 7 12.26** 35.5 7 4.72** 31.7 14 1.11 12.7 14 1.46 15.4 14 1.30 11.9 14 1.59 28.7 812 8.7 812 11.9 812 7.5 812 **p <.01 68 Table 10 ! Effect of years of experience on the four dependent variables Speech Rating Personal Rating Social Distance Rating Work Rating 1.00 165.3 115 70.0 115 71.0 115 39.0 115 Years of Experience 2279.7 7 80.57** 260.9 7 29.69** 193.3 7 16.40** 33.0 7 4.37** 1.22 35.8 3 .22 50.6 3 .72 33.3 3 .47 39.2 3 44.5 21 1.57 9.1 21 1.04 18.5 21 1.57 9.2 21 28.3 805 8.8 805 11.81 805 7.6 805 **p <.01 d e v i a t i o n s i n speech performance was o b v i o u s l y not . s u p p o r t e d by t h e s e r e s u l t s . P e r c e n t a g e o f E t h n i c M i n o r i t y S t u d e n t s Taught T a b l e 11 shows the i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , p e r c e n t a g e o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s t a u g h t , on r a t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s . T h i s f i n d i n g , though a n t i c i p a t e d , i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g . I t was f e l t t h a t the t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e s o f m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s would d i f f e r e n t i a t e from the r e s t i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s . I t can be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h such s t u d e n t s would l e a d t o i f not a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e , a t l e a s t a more n e u t r a l a t t i t u d e than the one h e l d by those who do not t e a c h e t h n i c s t u d e n t s . T h i s was o b v i o u s l y not the case though the i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p e r c e n t a g e t h r o u g h o u t the sample p o p u l a t i o n . As can be seen i n Appendix E, the m a j o r i t y o f Ss ta u g h t 60% or fewer e t h n i c s t u d e n t s (n = 75) compared t o those who ta u g h t 60% or more (n = 4 4 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o the s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s on the i n t e r s p e a k e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between the l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and s p e a k e r s on the speech r a t i n g i s r e p o r t e d . A more thorough e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n was not c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y by the r e s e a r c h e r because o f the c o m p l e x i t y o f the d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f l i s t e n e r 70 Table 11 Effect of percentage of ethnic minority students taught on the four dependent variables Speech Rating Personal Rating Social Distance Rating Work Rating 259.5 5 1.65 71.8 5 1.03 150.8 5 2.27 18.7 5 .47 Percentage of 157.7 113 69.5 113 66.4 113 40.0 113 Ethnic Minority Students 1944.2 7 70.26** 246.8 7 27.97** 169.6 7 14.16** 57.8 7 7.59** Taught 52.0 35 1.88** 8.2 35 .93 11.5 35 .96 7.4 35 .97 27.7 791 8.8 791 12.0 791 7.6 791 **p <.01 71 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and s p e a k e r . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t o c c u r r i n g by chance a l o n e was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . Teacher E t h n i c i t y A n a l y s i s o f the l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t e a c h e r e t h n i c i t y , y i e l d e d two s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s as r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 12. In o r d e r t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o examine the means and graphs shown below (Table 13, F i g u r e s 1 and 2 ) . The means on the p e r s o n a l r a t i n g (Table 13) c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e a d i v i s i o n between the e v a l u a t i o n s o f the I n d i a n and S o u t h e r n European groups and those o f the European and A s i a n groups. The p l o t t e d means f o r a l l groups on a l l e i g h t s p e a k e r s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s ( F i g u r e 1 ) . A t -t e s t a n a l y s i s (Table 14) shows a l l s p e a k e r s were r a t e d more f a v o u r a b l y on the p e r s o n a l s u b t e s t , by I n d i a n and S o u t h e r n European t e a c h e r s than by the European and A s i a n t e a c h e r s ( t = 13.16; p < 0.01). T a b l e 14 a l s o shows a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the European group and the o t h e r t h r e e subgroups on the work v a r i a b l e as i n d i c a t e d by T a b l e 13 and F i g u r e 2. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t o f a l l the t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t e s t e d , o n l y e t h n i c i t y had an e f f e c t and o n l y on two dependant v a r i a b l e s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the f l u c t u a t i o n s i n r a t i n g s made by the t e a c h e r s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r s . The non-European t e a c h e r s , w h i l e g e n e r a l l y g i v i n g more p o s i t i v e 72 Table 12 Effect of teacher e t h n i c i t y on the four dependent variables Speech Rating Personal Rating S o c i a l Distance Rating Work Rating 370.0 3 2.36 482.5 3 8.21** 139.6 3 2.05 140.4 3 3.85* 156.6 115 58.8 115 68.2 155 36.4 115 Teacher Et h n i c i t y 354.3 7 12.49** 34.6 7 3.93** 59.1 7 4.98** 30.6 7 4.23** 41.3 21 1.46 8.6 21 .97 15.0 21 1.26 22.2 21 3.07** 28.4 805 8.8 805 11.9 805 7.2 805 *p <.05 **p <.01 73 Table 13 Mean ratings for teacher e t h n i c i t y on two dependent variables Personal Work European (E) 21.3 17.5 Asian (A) 22.3 19.1 Indian (I) 26.7 20.4 Southern European (SE) 27.0 19.6 Table 14 t - s t a t i s t i c s for teacher e t h n i c i t y on two dependent variables Personal Work I & SE compared to E & A 13.16** — I & SE & A compared to E — 7.55** **p <.01 74 Figure 1 Plotted Means for Teacher E t h n i c i t y on Personal 75 Figure 2 Plotted Means for Teacher E t h n i c i t y on Work Southern European Asian European Indian ratings, are inconsistent in their d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s for both within group s l i g h t and heavy accents and between group accents. One explanation for t h i s may be the small number of Ss in t h i s group (n = 18) compared to the larger group (n = 101). A portion, or a l l , or these teachers may have guessed the intent of the study and given unauthentic responses, thereby causing the responses to deviate from a p a r t i c u l a r pattern. The chance of t h i s occurring in the larger group i s controlled by the larger n. It may also be the case that the three ethnic subgroups f e e l a degree of s o l i d a r i t y towards the speakers and accordingly rate them more favourably. This would be most applicable on the work subtest where the standard English speakers are rated the least favourably by a l l groups but in p a r t i c u l a r , by Southern Europeans. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s in ratings according to teacher race have been found in previous research (Naremore, 1971) but also of inte r e s t to t h i s study i s research showing i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . M i l l e r (1972) found no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between Mexican-American and Anglo teachers when rating the speech of children. The ethnic teachers (Black American and Cuban National) in Rey (1978) rated s i m i l a r l y to the White Americans in the subject sample. This study further supports these results by the i n -s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s on the speech and s o c i a l distance ratings. The suggestion that ethnic minority teachers have i n t e r n a l i z e d the values of the dominant culture must be considered here. The s i m i l a r i t y of response made by the ethnic Asian and European teachers on the personal rating must also be noted. Two interpretations are possible: 1. the Asian teachers have internalized the values of the dominant society or 2. the large Asian population has integrated so completely into a 'Canadian' society, as the ethnic Europeans have, so as to create true 'Canadians' with 'Canadian' attitudes. These attitudes would be indistinguishable according to e t h n i c i t y . As in the previous section, further analysis of the interaction between the l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and the work variable was considered unnecessary. Interspeaker C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Hypotheses one to six are d i f f e r e n t from hypothesis seven in that they are concerned with d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between the evaluations of the speakers rather than d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between the evaluators. As noted in the previous section, while d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s in l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s yielded mostly i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences (p <0.01) in the evaluations of the eight speakers. This i s further evidenced in the variations between the means for a l l eight speakers on the four dependent variables (Table 15). 78 Table 15 Mean ratings for a l l eight speakers on the four dependent variables Speech Personal S o c i a l Work Distance S l i g h t Chinese 28.5 21.5 24.5 18. 5 Heavy Chinese 23.9 20.5 23.5 18. 4 Sl i g h t Quebecois 29.9 21.6 24.5 17. 7 Heavy Quebecois 24.8 20.7 24.4 17. 5 Sl i g h t Punjabi 32.1 21.5 24.7 18. 2 Heavy Punjabi 27.4 20.5 23.5 18. 3 Standard English (1) 28.6 22.3 22.8 16. 5 Standard English (2) 38.6 25.2 27.2 17. 3 T h i s s e c t i o n a n a l y s e s each h y p o t h e s i s s e p a r a t e l y , u s i n g the mean v a l u e s and the B o n f e r r o n i t - t e s t (1 t a i l e d ) t o examine both the l o c a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e among the e i g h t s p e a k e r s . For a f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the mean v a l u e s and a i d i n d a t a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the r e a d e r i s d i r e c t e d t o Appendix F, which c o n t a i n s the p l o t t e d means f o r a l l s p e a k e r s on the f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s . H y p o t h e s i s I - F o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d v e r s u s s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s H y p o t h e s i s I pro p o s e s t h a t the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i l l be r a t e d n e g a t i v e l y on a l l f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s when compared t o the s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . T h i s was c l e a r l y the case on both the speech and p e r s o n a l s u b t e s t s , as can be seen i n T a b l e 16. These f i n d i n g s c o r r e s p o n d t o those found i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h u s i n g b o t h t e a c h i n g and n o n - t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s , and i n d i c a t e t h a t Vancouver t e a c h e r s a re not exempt from p o s s e s s i n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o both the speech and p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y group members. They a l s o s u p p o r t the t h e o r y t h a t n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r v a r i e t i e s o f non-standard language. Teachers d i s p l a y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o the s e t y p e s o f ' f o r e i g n ' speech and i n t u r n a t t a c h u n f a v o u r a b l e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o the s p e a k e r s o f such speech. As a r e s u l t the s p e a k e r s a r e r a t e d as b e i n g u n l i k e a b l e , u n s o c i a b l e , u n t r u s t w o r t h y , e t c . , 80 Table 16 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d versus standard E n g l i s h speakers Speech P e r s o n a l S o c i a l Worka Di s t a n c e F o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d versus 14.51** 12.23** .92 5.72** Standard E n g l i s h **p <.01 ^ s i g n i f i c a n c e i s i n favour of f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers 81 in addition to being uneducated, u n i n t e l l i g e n t and having poor speaking a b i l i t y . The i n s i g n i f i c a n t finding for s o c i a l distance i s at variance with the other two findings. D i f f i c u l t y in explaining t h i s i s increased when i t i s seen that the item likeable i s present in both subtests. It appears that the Ss found foreign-accented speakers unlikeable on a personal dimension but li k e a b l e , a t t r a c t i v e , similar to s e l f , etc., on a s o c i a l distance dimension. This r e s u l t can perhaps be interpreted to mean that though the Ss have negative feelings toward the speech and personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , they are quite w i l l i n g to associate with such speakers on a s o c i a l l e v e l . Unfortunately t h i s r e s u l t does not t e l l us the l e v e l or type of s o c i a l interaction the Ss would afford such speakers. The r e s u l t for the work category i s the reverse of that hypothesized in this study. The significance indicates the foreign-accented speakers are more conscientious, ambitious, harder working and conservative than their standard-accented counterparts. This finding was unanticipated in terms of the argument of thi s study and a possible explanation of thi s r e s u l t w i l l be discussed in Chapter VI. Thus Hypothesis I was supported to some extent, though the results were not as conclusive as predicted. 82 Hypothesis II - Stereotyped attitudes to foreign-accented speakers x The stereotyped attitudes of teachers toward the three ethnic minority groups as presented in Hypothesis II were a l l found to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 17). This can be translated to mean that even though negative attitudes toward foreign-accented speakers were present, these attitudes did not conform to a p a r t i c u l a r group stereo-type. To conclude that there was no stereotyping according to e t h n i c i t y was an a t t r a c t i v e proposition to t h i s researcher, u n t i l an examination of the means for the foreign-accented speakers (Table 15, Figure 6 (Appendix F)) revealed more negative work ratings for the Quebecois-accented group when compared to the other two accent groups. The res u l t s of the Bonferroni t - t e s t performed to test t h i s difference shows a s i g n i f i c a n t t-value (t = 3.37, p <0.01). In other words, the Quebecois-accented speakers were stereotyped at being less work-oriented than either the Chinese or Punjabi-accented speakers. This finding i s d i f f e r e n t but neverthe-less consistent with the stereotype proposed for the Quebecois in the hypothesis. Though they were not rated as more l i k e a b l e , humourous, etc., the presence of these factors in the attitudes of the l i s t e n e r s may have mediated the work ratings to the extent that the evaluations became s i g n i f i c a n t l y more negative. 83 T a b l e 17 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s toward f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s P e r s o n a l S o c i a l D i s t a n c e Work P u n j a b i vs C h i n e s e and Q u e b e c o i s - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s .45 Quebecois vs C h i n e s e and P u n j a b i - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s - 1.32 C h i n e s e vs Quebecois and P u n j a b i - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s - - 2.46 Quebecois vs C h i n e s e and P u n j a b i - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s - - 3.37** **p <.01 84 In conclusion, i t can be said that Hypothesis II was not supported, though in the process of s t a t i s t i c a l analysis an additional finding was discovered. The rela t i o n s h i p of th i s finding to the o r i g i n a l hypothesis was discussed. S l i g h t l y versus heavily-accented speakers on four dependant  variables Table 18 reports the re s u l t s for hypotheses three, four, f i v e and s i x . Reference w i l l be made to both th i s table and Appendix F during the discussion of each of the ind i v i d u a l hypotheses. Hypothesis III - S l i g h t l y versus heavily-accented speakers on Speech Hypothesis III proposes that the speech of heavily-accented speakers w i l l be more negatively rated than the speech of slightly-accented speakers within the same accent group. This was c l e a r l y the case as indicated i n Table 18. Figure 3 (Appendix F) graphically i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the mean ratings of a l l foreign-accented speakers. It i s obvious by these re s u l t s that the l i s t e n e r s were discriminating speech on the basis of the phonological deviations present (or absent) in the speech s t i m u l i . Heavily-accented speech was viewed more negatively i n spite of the fact that i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y did not diminish with the increase in nonstandard features and the content of the message remained constant. These findings support the 85 T a b l e 18 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d v e r s u s h e a v i l y -a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n a c c e n t groups Speech P e r s o n a l S o c i a l Work D i s t a n c e S l i g h t v e r s u s Heavy Ch i n e s e 6. 59** 2. 66 2.35 .12 S l i g h t v e r s u s Heavy Quebecois 7. 37** 2. 23 .26 .66 S l i g h t v e r s u s Heavy P u n j a b i 6. 73** 2. 62 2.68* .26 *p <.05 **p <.01 86 contention that as speech diverges from the standard 'acceptable' form i t w i l l receive less favourable ratings. The speakers of t h i s nonstandard form w i l l also receive less favourable ratings in terms of i n t e l l i g e n c e , education, self-confidence, etc. A stereotyped attitude toward such speakers i s revealed through the res u l t s presented here. These results also point to the fact that the teachers had the a b i l i t y to detect accent broadness and rated the speakers' speech accordingly. Thus Hypothesis III was supported. A further discussion of how this may a f f e c t heavily-accented speakers in school i s presented in Chapter VI. Hypothesis IV - S l i g h t l y versus heavily-accented speakers on Personal The i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s for the personal ratings i n Table 18 do not support Hypothesis IV. The Ss did not distinguish the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of heavily-accented speakers as being d i f f e r e n t from those of slightly-accented speakers within the same accent group. These r e s u l t s need to be interpreted i n conjunction with those found for the personal ratings in Hypothesis I (Table 16). It appears that the reason the Ss did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between speakers on the basis of degree of accent was because they simply rated a l l the foreign-accented speakers more negatively on t h i s dimension. These unfavour-able ratings can also be seen in Figure 4 (Appendix F ) , 87 where in no case does the mean rating for a foreign-accented speaker exceed that of a standard English speaker. Examination of the other graphs reveal that t h i s i s a unique tendency. The devaluation of foreign-accented speech seems to be translatable into devaluation of the speaker as indicated by these r e s u l t s . Such speakers are unlikeable, have bad characters and are untrustworthy, among other things. The fact that spoken language exerts a major influence on a l i s t e n e r ' s impression of a speaker i s of s o c i a l importance and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of teachers to t h i s influence i s a c r i t i c a l issue. Hypothesis IV was not supported by the obtained r e s u l t s , though i t i s noted that such results are not inconsistent with the o v e r a l l premise of t h i s study. Hypothesis V - S l i g h t l y versus heavily-accented speakers on S o c i a l Distance Hypothesis V proposes that the l i s t e n e r s w i l l accord greater s o c i a l distance to the heavily-accented speakers than to the slightly-accented speakers within the same accent group. Table 18 indicates that the results reached significance (p <0.05) for the Punjabi-accented speakers only. The o v e r a l l i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of these findings was anticipated through the i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s for t h i s dimension reported in Table 16. It seems that l i s t e n e r s 88 who r a t e n e g a t i v e l y the speech and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers w i l l s t i l l i n t e r a c t with them on a s o c i a l dimension, though the degree t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l a t t a i n i s not e v i d e n t . The s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g f o r the Punjabi-accented speakers, though, would i n d i c a t e t h a t a h i e r a r c h y of accept-ance based on accent broadness does e x i s t w i t h i n t h i s s o c i a l dimension. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d Punjabi speaker may have been p e r c e i v e d as p o s s e s s i n g the h e a v i e s t accent of a l l , or c o n v e r s e l y , the s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d Punjabi speaker the s l i g h t e s t accent of a l l , or both (Figure 5 (Appendix F) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l a t t e r i s the c a s e ) . T h i s would r e s u l t i n a l a r g e enough d i s t i n c t i o n between the two degrees of accent to y i e l d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t and warrant the statement t h a t there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l d i s t a n c e a c c o r d i n g to accent broadness. In t h i s case the i n s i g -n i f i c a n c e of the other two r e s u l t s would be a t t r i b u t e d to the s m a l l e r d i s t a n c e between the degrees of accent. T h i s s m a l l e r d i s t a n c e would be the r e s u l t of the Ss p e r c e i v i n g the two l e v e l s of accent as l e s s d i s t i n c t f o r the Chinese and Quebecois-accented speakers and would not be s t r o n g enough to f e r r e t out d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l d i s t a n c e . Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g i s t h a t the l i s t e n e r s f e l t the most s o c i a l l y d i s t a n t from the Punjabi speakers. T h i s may be due to the f a c t t h a t Punjabi speakers are a h i g h l y v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n of t h i s group 89 i n t o Vancouver s o c i e t y i s m i n i m a l when compared t o the o t h e r two groups s t u d i e d . H y p o t h e s i s V was thus p a r t i a l l y , though n ot c o n c l u s i v e l y , s u p p o r t e d by the s e r e s u l t s . H y p o t h e s i s V I - S l i g h t l y v e r s u s h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s on Work H y p o t h e s i s V I proposes t h a t h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s > w i l l be more n e g a t i v e l y r a t e d on work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n the same a c c e n t group. T a b l e 18 i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l r e s u l t s f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e r e s u l t s depends on the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 16, where i t i s noted t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e reached i s i n the d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e t o t h a t h y p o t h e s i z e d . I t appears t h a t f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s i n g e n e r a l , r e g a r d l e s s o f degree o f a c c e n t , a r e p e r c e i v e d more p o s i t i v e l y than s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s on work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i g u r e 6 (Appendix F) f u r t h e r s u p p o r t s t h i s . I n no case does the mean r a t i n g f o r a s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h speaker exceed t h a t o f a f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r . T h i s f i n d i n g conforms t o a p r e v a l e n t s t e r e o t y p e t h a t Canadians are i n f a c t l a z y p e o p l e . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o degree o f a c c e n t c a n n o t be c o n c l u d e d from t h e s e r e s u l t s and H y p o t h e s i s VI i s thus not s u p p o r t e d . As noted i n a p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , though, such f i n d i n g s a re not c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o the assumptions s e t f o r t h in t h i s inquiry and w i l l be discussed further in Chapter VI. Residual Issues Throughout the data analysis, tendencies for the evaluators to respond in manners d i f f e r e n t from, or in addition to those hypothesized, were realized by the researcher. One of these findings has already been examined in a previous section. The intent of t h i s section i s not to present a l l such findings, as that i s beyond the scope of t h i s paper, but rather to present an analysis similar to the analyses put forth in hypotheses three through s i x . Differences between the two speakers within each accent group were examined in the preceding section and the decision to examine the differences between the two standard English speakers was made when i t became obvious that standard English speaker one was consistently rated more negatively than standard English speaker two. Table 19 indicates that the ratings were indeed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more negative for speaker number one than for speaker number two on the three dependent variables of speech, personal and s o c i a l distance. It i s obvious by these results that even though both speakers spoke with a standard accent, other factors influenced the ratings of these two speakers. These factors, which can be termed p a r a l i n g u i s t i c phenomena ( i . e . , speech 91 T a b l e 19 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h speaker (1) v e r s u s s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h speaker (2) Speech P e r s o n a l S o c i a l Work D i s t a n c e S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h speaker (1) v e r s u s 14.36** 7.67** 9.84** 2.0 St a n d a r d E n g l i s h speaker (2) **p <.01 92 rate, hes i t a t i o n pauses, tone of voice), are very d i f f i c u l t to control except through the use of the matched-guise technique. The evaluators appear to have reacted quite negatively to the voice qu a l i t y of speaker number one and also quite p o s i t i v e l y to the voice quality of speaker number two. Figures 3 , 4 and 5 graphically i l l u s t r a t e t h i s (Appendix F ). It can be speculated that both speakers are unique in opposite d i r e c t i o n s and that the inclusion of two d i f f e r e n t standard speech samples would y i e l d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s i n terms of these findings and those presented for Hypothesis I. This may be the case but i t can also be argued that the mean ratings for these two speakers are averaged in the analyses and thus tend to balance each other's uniqueness. The i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t on the work subtest indicates that voice qu a l i t y was not an important factor when determining the work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of standard English speakers. This i s compatible with the res u l t s of Hypotheses IV and VI, where i t was found that degree of accent f a i l e d to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the evaluations. In other words, regardless of differences in p a r a l i n g u i s t i c phenomena, standard-accented speakers are rated more negatively than foreign-accented speakers on work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C o n c l u s i o n Chapter V has p r e s e n t e d the r e s u l t s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s . I n the f i r s t a n a l y s i s , p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r was found t o have an i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the speech e v a l u a t i o n s . T h i s r e s u l t was a n t i c i p a t e d i n view o f the f a c t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r s were a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . The e f f e c t o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the e v a l u a t i o n s was a l s o examined. Even though the t e a c h e r s d i f f e r e d i n terms o f s e x , age, y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , p e r c e n t a g e of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s t a u g h t and e t h n i c i t y , the o n l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the t e a c h e r s was t h a t of e t h n i c i t y . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c on two o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s ( p e r s o n a l and work) was d i s c u s s e d . The r e s u l t s o f Hyptheses I through VI were a l s o p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o these h y p o t h e s i z e d r e s u l t s , s e v e r a l supplementary f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d . 94 CHAPTER V I : SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses and t h e i r a n a l y s e s have been p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . H y p o t h e s i s I s t a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l have n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s toward f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s on speech, p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l d i s t a n c e and work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . When compared t o the s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s i t was found t h a t the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s were r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more n e g a t i v e l y on both the speech and p e r s o n a l s u b t e s t s (p <0.01). An i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t was r e p o r t e d f o r the s o c i a l d i s t a n c e s u b t e s t and an u n a n t i c i p a t e d f i n d i n g , a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e (p <0.01) r a t i n g f o r the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s on the work s u b t e s t , was d i s c o v e r e d . H y p o t h e s i s I I t e s t e d the s t e r e o t y p e d r e a c t i o n s o f the t e a c h e r s t o the t h r e e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y . The r e s u l t s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s d i d not s u p p o r t any o f the h y p o t h e s i z e d s t e r e o t y p e s , though supplementary a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t t - v a l u e ( t = 3.37, p <0.01) f o r the Quebecois on the work s u b t e s t . How t h i s r e s u l t i n d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t e d the p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d h y p o t h e s i s was d i s c u s s e d . H y p o t h e s i s I I I s t a t e s t h a t h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i l l be r a t e d more n e g a t i v e l y on speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t han s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n the same a c c e n t group. 95 The r e s u l t s f i r m l y s u p p o r t t h i s statement (p <0.01), i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p o s s e s s i o n o f a heavy a c c e n t r e s u l t s i n a more n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f one's speech. T h i s n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f , among o t h e r i t e m s , u n f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g s i n terms o f e d u c a t i o n , i n t e l l i g e n c e and s p e a k i n g a b i l i t y . I n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d f o r H y p o t h e s i s IV, which proposes t h a t h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i l l be r a t e d more n e g a t i v e l y on p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a n s l i g h t l y -a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n the same a c c e n t group. E x a m i n a t i o n of t h i s r e s u l t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h H y p o t h e s i s I l e d t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t p o s s e s s i o n o f an a c c e n t , r e g a r d l e s s o f how s l i g h t o r b r o a d , r e s u l t s i n n e g a t i v e p e r s o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s ( f o r example, u n l i k e a b l e , u n s o c i a b l e ) . The p r o p o s a l i n H y p o t h e s i s V, t h a t h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i l l be a f f o r d e d more s o c i a l d i s t a n c e than s l i g h t l y -a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n the same a c c e n t group, was o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d . I n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d f o r the e t h n i c C h i n e s e and Quebecois g r o u p s , but a s i g -n i f i c a n t t (t=2.68, p <0.05) was r e p o r t e d f o r the e t h n i c P u n j a b i group. An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s f i n d i n g i n c l u d e d the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the p h o n o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s between the s l i g h t and heavy P u n j a b i s p e a k e r s were g r e a t e r t h a n th o s e between the s p e a k e r s i n the o t h e r two e t h n i c groups and t h i s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p r o b a b i l i t y o f i t a t t a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f a c t t h a t the t e a c h e r s r e g a r d E a s t I n d i a n s as being the most s o c i a l l y distant from themselves was also considered. The analysis of Hypothesis VI, which states that heavily-accented speakers w i l l be rated more negatively on work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than slightly-accented speakers within the same accent group, yielded i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . It was concluded that, in view of the results of Hypothesis I, speakers possessing a foreign accent were considered hard-working, conscientious, ambitious and conservative, regardless of accent broadness. Listener c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were hypothesized to have an i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the teachers' evaluations of the speech samples in Hypothesis VII. This was c l e a r l y the case for the teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of age, sex, years of experience and percentage of ethnic minority students taught. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of teacher e t h n i c i t y attained significance on the dependent variables of personal and work. A discussion of these results reveals that the ethnic minority teachers gave more favourable ratings to the foreign-accented speakers and t h i s can be attributed to feelings of s o l i d a r i t y toward the ethnic minority speakers. Supplementary analysis of the data revealed s i g n i f i c a n t differences (p <0.01) between the evaluations of standard English speaker one and standard English speaker two on the three dependent variables of speech, personal and s o c i a l distance. These d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s were attributed to voice q u a l i t y . The i n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g on the work s u b t e s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d l e s s w o r k - o r i e n t e d than t h e i r f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n v o i c e q u a l i t y . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the F i n d i n g s The most s t r i k i n g f i n d i n g p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s the f a c t t h a t , based on i r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n such as p r e s e n c e and degree o f f o r e i g n a c c e n t and v o i c e q u a l i t y , t e a c h e r s w i l l make s e r i o u s judgements about a p e r s o n . These judgements w i l l i n c l u d e assumptions about a p e r s o n ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e , e d u c a t i o n , a m b i t i o n , s o c i a b i l i t y and even a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . The s o c i a l i mportance o f t h i s f i n d i n g cannot be o v e r -l o o k e d . I f we depend on the s c h o o l s as s o c i a l i z i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t o t r a n s m i t the v a l u e s and i d e a l s o f the c u l t u r e , t o what degree do the t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s toward the s t u d e n t s i n the c l a s s r o o m i n h i b i t the growth o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n s o c i e t y ? Speech i s a c o n s p i c u o u s i n d i c a t o r o f e t h n i c i t y and i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t i t can evoke a s t e r e o t y p e t h a t l i s t e n e r s f e e l i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s o c i a l group r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e speech. T h i s s t e r e o t y p i n g i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f the t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups and r e f l e c t s s o c i a l l y s h a r e d b e l i e f s . Whether the s e b e l i e f s are t r u e or n o t i s o f s m a l l consequence. I n one sense they may be t r u e and be 98 useful as a guide to behavior in intergroup r e l a t i o n s . In the other sense they may be f a l s e or negative and lead to prejudice. Group membership i s the basis for th i s prejudice, not i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or behavior. The Ss in t h i s study tended to agree in their b e l i e f s about the ethnic groups and evaluated the speakers accordingly, regardless of the v a l i d i t y of the common stereotype information they share. Stereotyping of the ethnic groups represented by the speech samples would account for both the negative and po s i t i v e r e s u l t s found in Hypothesis I. P a r t i c u l a r language v a r i e t i e s may be rated favourably on some dimensions, but less favourably on other dimensions. The tendency of the Ss to rate the foreign-accented speakers negatively on the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which included i n t e l l i g e n c e , education, self-confidence and standardness of speech, r e f l e c t s the image of the uneducated, not-so-bright immigrant. Positive results on the work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s combine with the preceding negative findings to create the uneducated, not-so-bright but hard-working, conscientious immigrant. This dichotomy in stereotyped attitudes can lead to d i f f e r e n t i a l behavior intentions toward such immigrants, both in and out of the classroom. On the s o c i a l l e v e l , a non-immigrant may be w i l l i n g to interact with immigrants in business relationships of a 99 non-professional nature because they are hard-working and conscientious, but less w i l l i n g to interact with them on a professional l e v e l because they are uneducated and less i n t e l l i g e n t . In the classroom these attitudes could conceivably work in the students' favour. If the teacher expects the ethnic students to work harder and be more ambitious they probably w i l l . This motivation, coupled with the in t e l l i g e n c e which, though contrary to the teacher's opinion, the student probably has, w i l l indubitably lead to the student attaining academic success. The truth of t h i s can be validated by the fact that large numbers of immigrant students do at t a i n a very high l e v e l of success in school. It can also be argued though that the reverse of this i s true and t h i s i s evident by the numbers of immigrants who do not at t a i n any l e v e l of academic success. The teacher could a c t u a l l y be promoting t h i s state of a f f a i r s by 1) attitudes toward the students and their variety of language, 2) s o c i a l and personal b e l i e f s about the ethnic groups to which these students belong ( i . e . , stereotypes), and 3) compilation of these attitudes and b e l i e f s with behavior to project unfavourable images to the students. The attitudes a teacher has toward the ethnic minority students in the classroom mediates but does not predict the behavior the teacher w i l l display toward these students. The results of th i s study do not indicate the overt behavior 100 o f t e a c h e r s . Rather they suggest t h a t such a t t i t u d e s may have consequences on the way t e a c h e r s behave and t h i s i n t u r n may have consequences on the e d u c a t i o n a l performance of the s t u d e n t s . M o t i v a t i o n i s a f f e c t e d by the feedback a s t u d e n t r e c e i v e s from t e a c h e r s c o n c e r n i n g h i s p r o b a b i l i t y of s u c c e s s . Whether a t t i t u d e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o b e h a v i o r which a f f e c t s the feedback a s t u d e n t r e c e i v e s i s not y e t known, as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r i s i n f r e q u e n t l y s t a b l e . The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y tend t o s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l respond t o speech w i t h s t e r e o -typed a t t i t u d e s and t h a t t h e s e a t t i t u d e s a r e evoked by f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speech i n p a r t i c u l a r . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e s e r e s u l t s w i l l have on t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g The n a t u r e o f t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n i n the c l a s s -room i s an o b v i o u s c o n c e r n when r e a d i n g the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . V o c a l s t e r e o t y p i n g has an impact on both the s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n and a t t i t u d e s toward s c h o o l through the p r o j e c t i o n o f the t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s based on s t e r e o t y p e s . Even the most we l l - m e a n i n g t e a c h e r may be making j u d g e -ments of s t u d e n t s which conform t o a s t e r e o t y p e . C o n s i d e r i n g the f r e q u e n c y o f t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n the 1 0 1 classroom, the impact t h i s may have on the students can be great. Teacher training c u r r i c u l a must be designed to include studies in attitudes to s e n s i t i z e teachers to variations in language and performance and make them aware of the socio-c u l t u r a l dynamics underlying language learning and language use. To accept c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i s to accept language d i v e r s i t y , though at the present time i t seems we are only paying l i p - s e r v i c e to c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y as a s o c i a l f a c t . In other words, our r e a l attitudes l i e elsewhere and are revealed through studies such as t h i s . Teachers must also be informed that the degree of accent a speaker possesses does not indicate how i n t e l l i g e n t he or she i s . The present study seems to indicate that the concept of i n t e l l i g e n c e i s s t i l l linked to a foreign accent as in previous years. The fact that teachers believe this i s of great importance to everyone. They must be alerted to a t t i t u d i n a l tendencies such as these to avoid the undetection of possible bias in their classrooms. To summarize, the implications for teaching l i e in the d i r e c t i o n of changing the teacher rather than the student. Implications for Research These findings support the results reported in previous research using d i f f e r e n t language v a r i e t i e s and d i f f e r e n t 102 s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n s as w e l l as r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g a t t i t u d e s t o e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . There a r e two d i r e c t i o n s r e s e a r c h can f o l l o w which can be e n t i t l e d : 1) i n q u i r y and 2) i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r i n q u i r i e s can be made i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t e t h n i c i t y t o f i n d the e f f e c t they have on c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n . I n q u i r i e s i n t o a c t u a l c l a s s -room b e h a v i o r on the p a r t o f the t e a c h e r i s another i m p o r t a n t a r e a t o examine whether th e s e a t t i t u d e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n . R esearch examining the a c c e n t s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c cues t h a t evoke v a r i o u s s t e r e o t y p e d r e s p o n s e s on the p a r t of the l i s t e n e r has o b v i o u s p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the second or f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r . Though p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has r e p o r t e d the m i n i m a l i n f l u e n c e the t e a c h e r has over p r o n u n c i a t i o n a c c u r a c y , the s t u d e n t c o u l d n o n e t h e l e s s be made aware o f thes e cues. The development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s i n t o t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programs and workshops t o a l e r t t e a c h e r s t o the pr e s e n c e and consequences o f thes e a t t i t u d e s seems t o be an o b v i o u s l o n g - t e r m p r o p o s a l f o r r e s e a r c h . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the e t h n i c s t r u c t u r e i n our s o c i e t y w i l l change t o a v a s t degree and t e a c h e r s must accommodate t h i s s t r u c t u r e i n t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , b e h a v i o r and c l a s s r o o m s t o s u p p o r t m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . The f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r e t h n o c e n t r i s m can be reduced o n l y by r e d u c i n g the e t h n o c e n t r i s m t h a t f o s t e r s them. 103 Weaknesses o f the s t u d y S e v e r a l b a s i c weaknesses of t h i s s t u d y must be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . F i r s t , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d does not s i m u l a t e the a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m . Thus any d i s c u s s i o n o f how a t e a c h e r may a c t i n a t y p i c a l c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n i s s p e c u l a t i v e . Teachers have many o t h e r cues t o base t h e i r judgements o f s t u d e n t s on. V a r i o u s v i s u a l cues and a l s o t h e i r a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s a r e two o f the more prominent ones. I t s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t t h e r e a r e so many complex f a c t o r s i n a p e r s o n ' s a t t i t u d e on any s o c i a l i s s u e or o b j e c t t h a t i t cannot be a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e d by a s i n g l e number on a s c a l e . Such a weakness i s p r e s e n t i n many s t u d i e s o f a t t i t u d e s . The i n a b i l i t y o f the s u b j e c t s t o a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y the e t h n i c group t o which the s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s belonged c o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d a weakness. T h i s i n a b i l i t y may have m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n the i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d f o r H y p o t h e s i s I I . In o t h e r words, a group s t e r e o -type d i d not emerge because the l i s t e n e r s c o u l d not c l a s s i f y the s p e a k e r s i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t e t h n i c groups. The supplementary f i n d i n g f o r the Q u e b e c o i s - a c c e n t e d group r e f u t e s t h i s t o some degree. The f a c t t h a t the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n may have been r e a c t i n g t o the f o r e i g n a c c e n t s i n 104 a more g e n e r a l sense though does not compromise the f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y . A f i n a l p o i n t t o note i s the f a c t t h a t the t e a c h e r s i n the s t u d y were a l l a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s a t u n i v e r s i t y and may be somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t e a c h e r s who do not a t t e n d c l a s s e s . I t can be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t they are a more s e n s i t i z e d o r l i b e r a l group but the r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s do n o t seem t o c o n f i r m t h i s . 105 REFERENCES 1. H a k s t i a n , R. and Bay, K. U s e r ' s Manual t o Accompany  the A l b e r t a G e n e r a l F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program. D i v i s i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l R esearch S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1973. 2. K i r k , R.E. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n : P r o c e d u r e s f o r the B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s . Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1968. 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY A g h e y i s i , R. and Fishman, J.A. 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S o c i a l M a r k e r s i n Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979. S e l i g m a n , C.R., T u c k e r , G.R. and Lambert, W.E. The e f f e c t s o f speech s t y l e and o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s on t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards p u p i l s . Language i n S o c i e t y , 1972, 1, pp. 131-142. Shaw, M.E. and W r i g h t , J.M. S c a l e s f o r the Measurement o f  A t t i t u d e s . New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1967. Shuy, R.W. S u b j e c t i v e judgements i n s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . I n L i n g u i s t i c s and the Tea c h i n g o f S t a n d a r d  E n g l i s h t o Speakers o f Other Languages and D i a l e c t s . A l a t i s , J . ( E d . ) . Washington, D.C: Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. Shuy, R.W. and F a s o l d , R.W. ( E d s . ) . Language A t t i t u d e s :  C u r r e n t Trends and P r o s p e c t s . Washington, D.C: Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973. Snow, C E . and H o e f n a g e l - H o h l e , M. Age d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f f o r e i g n sounds. Language and Speech, 1977, 20, pp. 357-365. Strongman, K.T. and Woosley, J . S t e r e o t y p e d r e a c t i o n s t o r e g i o n a l a c c e n t s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l and  C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1967, 6, pp. 164-167. S u t e r , R.W. P r e d i c t o r s o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n a c c u r a c y i n second language l e a r n i n g . Language L e a r n i n g , 1976, 2_6, pp. 233-253. T a y l o r , O.M. S t e r e o t y p e s and i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s . I n A Canadian S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f E t h n i c R e l a t i o n s . G a r d n e r , R. and K a l i n , R. ( E d s . ) . T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1981. T r u d g i l l , P. S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n . Harmondsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1974. T u c k e r , G.R. and Lambert, W.E. White and Negro l i s t e n e r s ' r e a c t i o n s t o v a r i o u s A m e r i c a n - E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s . S o c i a l F o r c e s , 1969, £7, pp. 463-468. Webber, R.D. An o v e r v i e w o f language a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o t e a c h e r s ' language a t t i t u d e s . E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 1979, 31 ( 3 ) , pp. 217-232. 112 Webster, W.G. and Kramer, E. A t t i t u d e s and e v a l u a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s t o a c c e n t e d E n g l i s h speech. J o u r n a l o f  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, 15, pp. 231-240. W i l l i a m s , F. E x p l o r a t i o n s o f the L i n g u i s t i c A t t i t u d e s o f  T e a c h e r s . Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , 1976. W i l l i a m s , F. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . L i n g u i s t i c s , 1974, 136, pp. 21-32. W i l l i a m s , F. P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : On sounding " d i s a d v a n t a g e d " . J o u r n a l o f Speech and H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , 1970, 13/ pp. 472-488. W i l l i a m s , F. Some r e s e a r c h n o t e s on d i a l e c t a t t i t u d e s and s t e r e o t y p e s . In Language A t t i t u d e s : C u r r e n t Trends  and P r o s p e c t s . Shuy, R.W. and F a s o l d , R.W. ( E d s . ) . Washington, D.C: Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973. W i l l i a m s , F., Whitehead, J . L . and M i l l e r , L.M. E t h n i c s t e r e o t y p i n g and judgments o f c h i l d r e n ' s speech. Speech Monographs, 1971, 38, pp. 166-170 ( b ) . W i l l i a m s , F., Whitehead, J . L . and M i l l e r , L.M. R e l a t i o n s between language a t t i t u d e s and t e a c h e r e x p e c t a n c y . American E d u c a t i o n a l R esearch J o u r n a l , 1972, 9, pp. 263-277. W i l l i a m s , F., Whitehead, J . L . and Traupmann, J . T e a c h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s speech. Speech Teacher, 1971, 20, pp. 247-254. 113 APPENDIX A Page 1 B o o k l e t No. PLEASE DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL ASKED TO To ensure anonymity, p l e a s e DO NOT put your name on the b o o k l e t . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s i s not n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s s t u d y . The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine the e x t e n t t o which d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e r e a c t t o d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s o f speech. More q u e s t i o n s can be answered a f t e r i t i s o v e r . You w i l l be asked t o l i s t e n t o e i g h t (8) s p e a k e r s and t o e v a l u a t e them a c c o r d i n g t o the p e r s o n a l t r a i t s o u t l i n e d i n the s c a l e s c o n t a i n e d i n the b o o k l e t . There i s a s e p a r a t e s c a l e f o r each speaker and each e v a l u a t o r has a d i f f e r e n t form o f the same s c a l e . You w i l l hear each speaker o n l y once. PLEASE LISTEN CAREFULLY. The tape w i l l t e l l you when t o b e g i n f i l l i n g i n the s c a l e . Do n o t w r i t e a n y t h i n g u n t i l you a r e asked t o . When you are f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g , the tape w i l l then ask you t o t u r n t o the n e x t s c a l e and you w i l l hear the n e x t s p e a k e r . The t h i r d page o f the b o o k l e t c o n t a i n s a p r a c t i c e s c a l e . You w i l l hear a p r a c t i c e tape and be asked t o f i l l i n the s c a l e . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e ask them a f t e r the p r a c t i c e t a p e . A f t e r the s p e a k e r s have a l l been e v a l u a t e d , the b o o k l e t s w i l l be c o l l e c t e d and you w i l l be asked t o f i l l o u t a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . PLEASE NOTE THAT YOU HAVE THE FREEDOM TO WITHDRAW AT ANY TIME OR TO REFUSE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS WITHOUT PREJUDICING FURTHER TREATMENT OR INFLUENCING CLASS STANDING. I F THE QUESTIONNAIRE IS COMPLETED IT WILL BE ASSUMED THAT CONSENT HAS BEEN GIVEN. 114 Page 2 The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s c o n t a i n e d i n the b o o k l e t c o n s i s t o f a s e r i e s o f a d j e c t i v e s g i v e n i n o p p o s i t e s . Between the o p p o s i t e s a r e seven (7) c e l l s . The p o s i t i o n s n e a r e s t the a d j e c t i v e s i n d i c a t e ' h i g h l y * , the n e x t c e l l s i n d i c a t e 'very' and 'somewhat' u n t i l the c e n t r e c e l l i n d i c a t e s ' n e i t h e r ' or ' n e u t r a l ' . For example; t a l l highly ; very : somewhat ; neutral : somewhat : very : highly short P l e a s e mark o n l y one (1) c e l l w i t h a check mark (/) t o show t o which degree the a d j e c t i v e b e s t d e s c r i b e s your response t o the s p e a k e r ' s v o i c e . P l e a s e f i l l i n a l l the c e l l s i n each s c a l e . I f you f e e l you cannot r e s p o n d , p l e a s e check (/) n e u t r a l . Thank you. 115 Page 3 PRACTICE TEST THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: l i k e a b l e : : : : : : u n l i k e a b l e bad c h a r a c t e r : : : : : : good c h a r a c t e r c o n s c i e n t i o u s : : : : : : u n c o n s c i e n t i o u s a m b i t i o u s : : : : : : u n a m b i t i o u s u n s o c i a b l e : : : : : : s o c i a b l e nervous : : : : : : calm not s e l f c o n f i d e n t : : : : : : s e l f c o n f i d e n t humourous : : : : : : humourless u n i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : : : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : : : : : u n a t t r a c t i v e uneducated : : : : : : educated t r u s t w o r t h y : : : : : : u n t r u s t w o r t h y good s p e a k i n g a b i l i t y : : : : : :_joor speaking a b i l i t y i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t n o n - s t a n d a r d speech : : : : : : s t a n d a r d speech h a r d - w o r k i n g : : : : : : l a z y c o n s e r v a t i v e : : : : : : u n c o n s e r v a t i v e s i m i l a r t o m y s e l f : : : : : : d i s s i m i l a r to myself undesirable as colleague : : : desirable as colleague 116 THIS IS SPEAKER NO: 1 THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: l i k e a b l e : : : : : : u n l i k e a b l e bad c h a r a c t e r : : : : : : good c h a r a c t e r c o n s c i e n t i o u s : : : : : : u n c o n s c i e n t i o u s a m b i t i o u s : : : : : : u n a m b i t i o u s u n s o c i a b l e : : : : : : s o c i a b l e nervous : : : : : : calm not s e l f c o n f i d e n t _: : : : : : s e l f c o n f i d e n t humourous : : : : : : humourless u n i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : : : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : : : : : u n a t t r a c t i v e uneducated : : : : : : educated t r u s t w o r t h y : : : : : : u n t r u s t w o r t h y good s p e a k i n g a b i l i t y : : : : : : _ p o o r speaking a b i l i t y i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t n o n - s t a n d a r d speech : : : : : : s t a n d a r d speech h a r d - w o r k i n g : : : : : : l a z y c o n s e r v a t i v e : : _: : : : u n c o n s e r v a t i v e s i m i l a r t o m y s e l f : : : : : : d i s s i m i l a r to myself undesirable as colleague : : : : : : desirable as colleague 117 THIS I S SPEAKER NO: 2 THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: l i k e a b l e : : : : : :_ unlikeable bad character : : : : : : good character conscientious : : : : : : unconscientious ambitious : : : : : : unambitious unsociable : : : : : : sociable nervous : : : : : : calm not s e l f confident : : : : : : s e l f confident humourous : : : : : : humourless u n i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : _: : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : : : : : unattractive uneducated : : : : : : educated trustworthy : : : : : : untrustworthy good speaking a b i l i t y : : : : : poor speaking ability i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t non-standard speech : : : : : : standard speech hard-working : : : : : : lazy conservative : : : : : : unconservative similar to myself : : : : : : dissimilar to myself undesirable as colleague : : : : desirable as colleague 118 T H I S I S S P E A K E R N O : 3 THE S P E A K E R SOUNDS: l i k e a b l e : : : : : : u n l i k e a b l e bad c h a r a c t e r : : : : : : good c h a r a c t e r c o n s c i e n t i o u s : : : : : : u n c o n s c i e n t i o u s a m b i t i o u s : : : : : : u n a m b i t i o u s u n s o c i a b l e : : : : : : s o c i a b l e nervous : : : : : : calm not s e l f c o n f i d e n t : : : : : : s e l f c o n f i d e n t humourous : : : : : : humourless u n i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : : : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : : : : : u n a t t r a c t i v e uneducated : : : : : : educated t r u s t w o r t h y : : : : : : u n t r u s t w o r t h y good s p e a k i n g a b i l i t y : : : : : : poor speaking a b i l i t y i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t n o n - s t a n d a r d speech : : : : : : s t a n d a r d speech h a r d - w o r k i n g : : : : : : l a z y c o n s e r v a t i v e : : : : : : u n c o n s e r v a t i v e s i m i l a r t o m y s e l f : : : :_ : : d i s s i m i l a r to myself undesirable as colleague : : : : : : desirable as colleague 1 1 9 THIS IS SPEAKER NO: 4 THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likea b l e : : : : : : unlikeable bad character : : : : : : good character conscientious : : : : : : unconscientious ambitious : : : : : : unambitious unsociable : : : : : : sociable nervous : : : : : : calm not s e l f confident : : : : : : s e l f confident humourous : : : : : : humourless u n i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : : : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : : : : : unattractive uneducated : : : : : : educated trustworthy _: : : _: : : untrustworthy good speaking a b i l i t y : : : : : :__poor speaking ability i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t non-standard speech : : : : : : standard speech hard-working : : : : : : lazy conservative : : : : : : unconservative similar to myself : : : : : : dissimilar to myself undesirable as colleague : : : : : : desirable as colleague 120 THIS IS SPEAKER NO: 5 THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likea b l e : : : : : : unlikeable bad character : : : : : : good character conscientious : : : : : : unconscientious ambitious : : : : : : unambitious unsociable : : : : : : sociable nervous : : : : : : calm not selfconf ident : : : : : : s e l f confident humourous : : : : : : humourless u n i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : : : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : : : : : unattractive uneducated : : : : : : educated trustworthy : : : : : : untrustworthy good speaking a b i l i t y : :__: : : : poor speaking ability i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t non-standard speech : s : : standard speech hard-working : : : : : : lazy conservative : : : : : : unconservative similar to myself : : : : dissimilar to myself undesirable as colleague : : : : : : desirable as colleague 1 2 1 THIS IS SPEAKER NO: 6 THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: l i k e a b l e : : : : : : u n l i k e a b l e bad c h a r a c t e r : : : : : : good c h a r a c t e r c o n s c i e n t i o u s : : : : : : u n c o n s c i e n t i o u s a m b i t i o u s : : : : : : un a m b i t i o u s u n s o c i a b l e : : : : : : s o c i a b l e nervous : : : : : calm not s e l f c o n f i d e n t : : : : : : s e l f c o n f i d e n t humourous : : : :_ : : humourless u n i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : : : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : : : : : u n a t t r a c t i v e uneducated : : : : : : educated t r u s t w o r t h y : : : : : : u n t r u s t w o r t h y good s p e a k i n g a b i l i t y : : : : : :__J»or speaking a b i l i t y i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t n o n - standard speech _: : : : : : s t a n d a r d speech h a r d - w o r k i n g : : : : : : l a z y c o n s e r v a t i v e : : : : : : u n c o n s e r v a t i v e s i m i l a r t o m y s e l f : : : : : : d i s s i m i l a r to myself undesirable as colleague : : : : : : desirable as colleague 122 THIS IS SPEAKER NO: 7 THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: l i k e a b l e : : : : : : unlikeable bad character : : : : : : good character conscientious : _: : : : : unconscientious ambit ious_ : : : : : : unambitious unsociable : : : : : : sociable nervous : : : : : : calm not s e l f confident : : : : : : s e l f confident humourous : : : : : : humourless un i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : : : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : _: : : : unattractive uneducated : : : : : : educated trustworthy : : : : : *• untrustworthy good speaking a b i l i t y : : : : : :_j?oor speaking ability i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t non-standard speech : : : : : : standard speech hard-working : : : : : : lazy conservative : : : : *• *• unconservative similar to myself : : : : : : dissimilar to myself undesirable as colleague : : : : : : desirable as colleague 123 i THIS IS SPEAKER NO: 8 THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likea b l e : : : : : : unlikeable bad character : : : : : : good character conscientious : : : : : : unconscientious ambitious : : : : : : unambitious unsociable : : : : : : sociable nervous : : : : : : calm not s e l f confident : : : : : : s e l f confident humourous : : : : : : humourless u n i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : : : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : : : : : unattractive uneducated : : : : : : educated trustworthy : : : : : : untrustworthy good speaking a b i l i t y : : : : : :__j?oor speaking ability i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t non-standard speech : : : : : : standard speech hard-working : : : : : : lazy conservative : : : : : : unconservative similar to myself : : : : : : dissimilar to myself undesirable as colleague : : : : *• •  desirable as colleague 124 QUESTIONNAIRE Please answer the f i r s t two questions with reference to your present or most recent teaching p o s i t i o n . 1. grade level(s) most frequently taught K-3 11-12 4-7 adults 8-10 2. subject(s) taught 3. years of teaching experience 4. Are you a prospective teacher_ 5. highest academic degree held 6. percentage of ethnic minority students taught 100% 80-100% 60-80% 40-60% 20-40% less than 20% 7. What i s your age na t i o n a l i t y ethnic background sex 8. Do you speak another language besides English f l u e n t l y yes no 9. If - yes - how many 125 APPENDIX B THIS IS SPEAKER NO: THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: 1. likeable : : : : : : unlikeable* 2. *bad character : : : : : : good character 3. conscientious : : : : : : unconscientious* 4. ambitious : : : : : : unambitious* 5. *unsociable : : : : } : sociable 6. *nervous : : : : : : calm 7. *not self confident : : : : : : self confident 8. humourous : : : : : : humourless* 9. *unintelligent : : : : : : intelligent 10. attractive : : : : _ : unattractive* 11. * uneducated : : : : : : educated 12. trustworthy : : : : : *• untrustworthy* 13. good speaking ability : : : : : :__J?oor speaking ability* 14. *indistinct : : : : : : distinct 15. *non-standard speech : : : : : : standard speech 16. hard-working : : : : : : lazy* 17. conservative : : : : : :_unconservative* 18. similar to myself : : : : : : dissimilar to myself* 19. *undesirable as colleague : : : : : : desirable as colleague *Asterisks define the pole of the scale assigned a value of '1' in the data tabulation. They do not appear on the actual instrument. 126 THIS IS SPEAKER NO: THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: lik e a b l e : : : : : : unlikeable bad character : : : : : : good character conscientious : : : : : : unconscientious ambitious : : : : : : unambitious unsociable : : : : : : sociable nervous : : : : : : calm not selfconf ident : : : : : : s e l f confident humourous : : : : : : humourless un i n t e l l i g e n t : : : : : : i n t e l l i g e n t a t t r a c t i v e : : : : : : unattractive uneducated : : : : : : educated trustworthy : : : : : : untrustworthy good speaking a b i l i t y : : : : : : poor speaking ability i n d i s t i n c t : : : : : : d i s t i n c t non-standard speech : : : : : : standard speech hard-working : : : : : : lazy conservative : : : : : : unconservative similar to myself : : : : : : dissimilar to myself undesirable as colleague : : : : : : desirable as colleague perceived e t h n i c i t y of speaker i s : 127 APPENDIX C TEST PASSAGES SLIGHT PUNJABI A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which a r e noted f o r t h e i r b eauty, s t a m i n a and g r a c e , have been used f o r hundreds of y e a r s t o d e v e l o p new b r e e d s . A man named Homer Davenport, who f i r s t saw t h e s e h o r s e s a t a t World's F a i r i n e i g h t e e n n i n e t y - t h r e e , l a t e r succeeded i n b r i n g i n g twenty-seven o f them i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Today about one hundred and e i g h t y A r a b i a n h o r s e s go back d i r e c t l y t o t h e s e i m p o r t s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c F e a t u r e s ; 1. s y l l a b l e - t i m e d v s . s t r e s s - t i m e d 2. s l i g h t r e t r o f l e x i o n on consonants CM-, [ t ] HEAVY PUNJABI A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which a r e noted f o r t h e i r b e a u t y , s t a m i n a and g r a c e , have been used f o r hundreds of y e a r s t o d e v e l o p new b r e e d s . A man named Homer Davenport, who f i r s t saw t h e s e h o r s e s a t a t World's F a i r i n e i g h t e e n n i n e t y - t h r e e , l a t e r succeeded i n b r i n g i n g twenty-seven o f them i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Today about one hundred and e i g h t y A r a b i a n h o r s e s go back d i r e c t l y t o t h e s e i m p o r t s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c F e a t u r e s : 1. s y l l a b l e - t i m e d v s . s t r e s s - t i m e d 3 . -> Ju— t +L\1 — f A- • DO 128 SLIGHT QUEBECOIS A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which a r e noted f o r t h e i r b e a u t y , s t a m i n a and g r a c e , have been used f o r hundreds o f y e a r s t o d e v e l o p new br e e d s . A man named Homer Davenport, who f i r s t saw thes e h o r s e s a t a t World's F a i r i n e i g h t e e n n i n e t y - t h r e e , l a t e r succeeded i n b r i n g i n g twenty-seven o f them i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Today about one hundred and e i g h t y A r a b i a n h o r s e s go back d i r e c t l y t o the s e i m p o r t s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c F e a t u r e s ; 1. s l i g h t l y s y l l a b l e - t i m e d v s . s t r e s s - t i m e d HEAVY QUEBECOIS A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which a r e noted f o r t h e i r b e a u t y , s t a m i n a and g r a c e , have been used f o r hundreds o f y e a r s t o d e v e l o p new br e e d s . A man named Homer Davenport, who f i r s t saw thes e h o r s e s a t a t World's F a i r i n e i g h t e e n n i n e t y - t h r e e , l a t e r succeeded i n b r i n g i n g twenty-seven o f them i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Today about one hundred and e i g h t y A r a b i a n h o r s e s go back d i r e c t l y t o these i m p o r t s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c F e a t u r e s : 1. s y l l a b l e - t i m e d v s . s t r e s s - t i m e d 2. t o t a l absence o f £ hl i n word - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n 3. v e l a r f ^ + f r i c t i o n 2. 3. absence o f |_hj i n one word - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n 4. 129 SLIGHT CHINESE (CANTONESE) A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which a r e noted f o r t h e i r b e a u t y , s t a m i n a and g r a c e , have been used f o r hundreds o f y e a r s t o d e v e l o p new br e e d s . A man named Homer Davenport, who f i r s t saw thes e h o r s e s a t a t World's F a i r i n e i g h t e e n n i n e t y - t h r e e , l a t e r succeeded i n b r i n g i n g twenty-seven o f them i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Today about one hundred and e i g h t y A r a b i a n h o r s e s go back d i r e c t l y t o the s e i m p o r t s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c F e a t u r e s : 1. s y l l a b l e - t i m e d v s . s t r e s s - t i m e d 2. s l i g h t r e t r o f l e x i o n o f f r i c a t i v e s and v o i c e l e s s c onsonants HEAVY CHINESE (CANTONESE) A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which a r e noted f o r t h e i r b e auty, s t a m i n a and g r a c e , have been used f o r hundreds o f y e a r s t o d e v e l o p new br e e d s . A man named Homer Davenport, who f i r s t saw thes e h o r s e s a t a t World's F a i r i n e i g h t e e n n i n e t y - t h r e e , l a t e r succeeded i n b r i n g i n g twenty-seven o f them i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Today about one hundred and e i g h t y A r a b i a n h o r s e s go back d i r e c t l y t o the s e i m p o r t s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c F e a t u r e s : 1. s y l l a b l e - t i m e d v s . s t r e s s - t i m e d 3 . 3 . 2. 4. 130 APPENDIX D P r e s e n t a t i o n 'a' P r a c t i c e T e s t 1. S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h 2. Heavy P u n j a b i 3. S l i g h t C h i n e s e 4. Heavy Quebecois 5. S l i g h t P u n j a b i 6. S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h 7. S l i g h t Quebecois 8. Heavy C h i n e s e P r e s e n t a t i o n 'b' P r a c t i c e T e s t 1. S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h 2. S l i g h t Quebecois 3. Heavy P u n j a b i 4. Heavy Quebecois 5. S l i g h t C h i n e s e 6. S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h 7. S l i g h t P u n j a b i 8. Heavy C h i n e s e 131 APPENDIX E Coding Legend and Sample P r o f i l e n= pr a c t i c i n g teachers — 1 70 prospective teachers — 2 49 presentation 'a' — 1 61 presentation 'b' — 2 58 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (A) sex female — 1 96 male — 2 23 (B) age 20-29 — 1 63 30-39 - 2 37 4 0 — — 3 19 (C) % of ethnic mi nority 100% - 1 20 80-1001 2 11 60-80% - 3 13 40-60% - 4 18 20-40% - 5 23 less than 20% — 6 34 (D) years of experience 0 - 1 49 1-5 - 2 33 6-10 - 3 22 11 — 4 15 (E) e t h n i c i t y Western and Eastern European 1 101 Asian - 2 12 Indian - 3 2 Southern European - 4 4 (English, S c o t t i s h , P o l i s h , etc.) (Chinese, Japanese, etc. (from India) (Spanish, Greek, Portuguese, etc.) 132 APPENDIX F Plotted Means for A l l Speakers on A l l Four Dependent Variables 133 Figure 3 Plotted means for a l l speakers on Speech 134 Figure 4 Plotted means for a l l speakers on Personal 135 Figure 5 Plotted means for a l l speakers on S o c i a l Distance 28r 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 SC HC SQ HQ SP HP SE1 SE2 136 Figure 6 Plotted means for a l l speakers on Work 

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