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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teachers’ evaluations of foreign-accented speech Martin, Karen L. 1983

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TEACHERS'  EVALUATIONS  OF F O R E I G N - A C C E N T E D  SPEECH  By KAREN B.A.,  The  A THESIS THE  University  SUBMITTED  L.  MARTIN  of  IN  REQUIREMENTS  British  PARTIAL  Columbia,  F U L F I L L M E N T OF  FOR T H E D E G R E E OF  MASTER OF  ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y  OF GRADUATE  (Language  We a c c e p t to  THE  this the  required  UNIVERSITY  ©  Karen  as  L.  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  May  STUDIES  Education)  thesis  COLUMBIA  1983 Martin,  1978  1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis i n partial  fulfilment of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  copying of t h i s  understood that financial  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  gain  Department  of  Language E d u c a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 May 0 6 , 1983  It i s thesis  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Date  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for  I further  Columbia  written  ii ABSTRACT T h i s study gathered  e m p i r i c a l data concerning  e v a l u a t i o n s of f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speech.  I t was  teachers'  hypothesized  t h a t these e v a l u a t i o n s would i n d i c a t e the t e a c h e r s ' underl y i n g a t t i t u d e s to the speakers presented.  of the language v a r i e t i e s  C u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e s t a t e s t h a t these a t t i t u d e s  w i l l conform to a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c stereotype and the i n t e n t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o examine the presence and extent of such b i a s e s i n Vancouver The  teachers.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of language s t i m u l i and semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s t o a s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s how f a v o u r a b l e or unfavourable v a r i e t y and subsequently, order  the Ss w i l l be toward the language to the speakers  themselves.  In  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b l e presence o f s t e r e o t y p e d  a t t i t u d e s to f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers, presented scales.  a l l s u b j e c t s were  with language s t i m u l i and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l The language s t i m u l i c o n s i s t e d of two l e v e l s of  f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d E n g l i s h speech from the f o l l o w i n g language groups:  1) Chinese,  2) Quebecois, and 3) P u n j a b i , i n  a d d i t i o n to two standard E n g l i s h samples used both as a c o n t r o l and f o r purposes of comparison. d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s were designed  The semantic  to e l i c i t  the r e a c t i o n s  of the Ss on four dependent v a r i a b l e s of speech, p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l d i s t a n c e and work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . One hundred and nineteen p r a c t i c i n g and p r o s p e c t i v e teachers a t t e n d i n g courses  a t UBC were administered the  iii experiment i n e i g h t s e s s i o n s .  j  The sample was i d e n t i f i e d as  coming from the Vancouver d i s t r i c t and was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . The data c o l l e c t e d were analysed  using a repeated  measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and the B o n f e r r o n i  t-test.  E v a l u a t i o n s of the s l i g h t and heavy f o r e i g n accents were compared t o those of the standard E n g l i s h speech, r e v e a l i n g negative  s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s on the speech  (t=14.51, p <0.01) and p e r s o n a l  (t=12.23, p <0.01) v a r i a b l e s .  I n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d f o r the s o c i a l d i s t a n c e v a r i a b l e and a s i g n i f i c a n t t (t=5.72, p <0.01) on the work v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d p o s i t i v e s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s f o r the e t h n i c groups. Stereotypes  conforming t o a p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n were not  s i g n i f i c a n t , though a supplementary a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a new p a t t e r n f o r the Quebecois-accented Analyses speakers  speakers  (t=3.37, p < 0 . 0 1 ) .  performed on the three s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d  compared t o the three h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d  speakers  w i t h i n accent groups r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s on the speech v a r i a b l e (Chinese: Punjabi:  t=6.59, Quebecois:  t=7.37,  t=6.73, p <0.01), i n d i c a t i n g stereotyped a t t i t u d e s  are a f u n c t i o n o f accent broadness. (p <0.05) f o r the Punjabi-accented  A significant speakers  result  on s o c i a l  d i s t a n c e and the i n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s on p e r s o n a l and work f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t e r e o t y p i n g . comparing the two standard  An a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s  E n g l i s h speakers  found  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s , not a c c o r d i n g t o s t e r e o t y p e s but to paralinguistic  f e a t u r e s on speech  (t=14.36, p <0.01),  personal  (t=7.67, p <0.01) and s o c i a l d i s t a n c e  (t=9.84, p  <0.01).  The r e s u l t on the work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was  insignificant. A repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d e t h n i c i t y o f l i s t e n e r was the o n l y teacher  characteristic  to y i e l d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t on the p e r s o n a l  (F=8.21,  df=3/115, p <0.01) and work (F=3.85, df=3/115, p <0.05) variables, teachers'  indicating  t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mediated these  ratings.  T h i s study concluded  with a d i s c u s s i o n o f the  p r a c t i c a l and r e s e a r c h i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these  results.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF DIAGRAMS LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I :  V viii x xi xii  THE PROBLEM  1  Introduction Statement of the Problem O b j e c t i v e s of the Study Hypotheses D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms Used P i l o t Study S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study  1 2 4 5 6 8 8  CHAPTER I I :  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  A t t i t u d e s to Languages A t t i t u d e s t o D i a l e c t s and Second-Language Accents A t t i t u d e s and Employment Teachers* A t t i t u d e s to Speech Summary CHAPTER I I I : DEVELOPMENT OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALES Introduction Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s S e l e c t i o n of Adjectives F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f the S c a l e Item A n a l y s i s B i o g r a p h i c a l Data Sheet  11 11 1622 23 33  36 36 36 37 38 43 43  vi CHAPTER I V :  RESEARCH PROCEDURES  45  Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample P o p u l a t i o n Development o f the T e s t Passage S e l e c t i o n of the Stimulus Voices Development o f t h e Tapes V a l i d a t i o n o f t h e Speech Samples Format o f t h e T e s t i n g S e s s i o n s P i l o t Study Scoring o f the Instrument Analysis of the Results Conclusion  45 45 47 48 49 51 52 54 55 56 56  CHAPTER V:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Introduction P r e s e n t a t i o n Order A n a l y s i s Listener Characteristics P r a c t i c i n g vs P r o s p e c t i v e Teachers Sex Age Years of Experience Percentage of Ethnic M i n o r i t y Students Taught Teacher E t h n i c i t y Interspeaker C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Hypothesis I Hypothesis I I Hypothesis I I I H y p o t h e s i s IV Hypothesis V Hypothesis VI Residual Issues Conclusion CHAPTER V I :  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Summary Interpretation of the Findings I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Teaching I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research Weaknesses o f t h e Study  58 58 58 61 61 64 66 66 69 71 77 79 82 84 86 87 89 90 93 94 94 97 100 101 103  REFERENCES  105  BIBLIOGRAPHY  106  vii APPENDIX A Subject Booklets  113  APPENDIX B Prototype Scales  125  APPENDIX C Test Passages  127  APPENDIX D P r e s e n t a t i o n Orders  130  APPENDIX E Coding Legend  131  and S a m p l e P r o f i l e  APPENDIX F P l o t t e d Means f o r A l l S p e a k e r s o n A l l Four Dependent V a r i a b l e s  132  Vlll  L I S T OF TABLES TABLE 1 Subtests  before  factor analysis  39  TABLE 2 F a c t o r Loading o f Teacher Responses t o 19 S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s  42  TABLE 3 Subtests  39  after factor analysis  TABLE 4 LERTAP  44  TABLE 5 F R a t i o s f o r t h e f o u r dependent measures when p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r t e s t e d and t h r e e l e v e l s o f a c c e n t used  60  TABLE 6 F R a t i o s f o r t h e f o u r dependent measures when p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r t e s t e d and two l e v e l s o f a c c e n t u s e d  60  TABLE 7 E f f e c t of p r a c t i c i n g versus prospective t e a c h e r s on t h e f o u r dependent variables  63  TABLE 8 E f f e c t o f s e x on t h e f o u r variables  dependent  65  TABLE 9 E f f e c t o f age on t h e f o u r variables  dependent  TABLE 10 E f f e c t of years of experience four dependent v a r i a b l e s TABLE 11 E f f e c t of percentage of ethnic s t u d e n t s t a u g h t on t h e f o u r variables  67 on t h e 68 minority dependent  TABLE 12 E f f e c t o f teacher e t h n i c i t y on t h e f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s  70  72  ix TABLE 13 Mean r a t i n g s f o r t e a c h e r e t h n i c i t y on two d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s  73  TABLE 14 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r teacher e t h n i c i t y on two d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s  73  TABLE 15 Mean r a t i n g s f o r a l l e i g h t s p e a k e r s the four dependent v a r i a b l e s TABLE 16 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r foreign-accented standard E n g l i s h speakers  on 78 versus 80  TABLE 17 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r stereotyped attitudes toward f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers  83  TABLE 18 t-statistics for slightly-accented versus heavily-accented speakers w i t h i n accent groups  85  TABLE 19 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r standard E n g l i s h speaker (1) v e r s u s s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r (2)  91  LIST OF DIAGRAMS DIAGRAM 1 Legend f o r Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T a b l e s  xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 P l o t t e d Means f o r Teacher E t h n i c i t y on P e r s o n a l  74  FIGURE 2 P l o t t e d Means f o r Teacher E t h n i c i t y on Work  75  FIGURE 3 (Appendix F) P l o t t e d means f o r a l l speakers on Speech  133  FIGURE 4 (Appendix F) P l o t t e d means f o r a l l speakers on Personal  134  FIGURE 5 (Appendix F) P l o t t e d means f o r a l l speakers on S o c i a l Distance  135  FIGURE 6 (Appendix F) P l o t t e d means f o r a l l speakers on Work  136  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e  to thank my committee f o r the h e l p and  advice they provided throughout the w r i t i n g of t h i s  thesis.  S p e c i a l thanks go to Nancy Mann, whose w i l l i n g n e s s to h e l p and sense o f humour made data c o l l e c t i o n a more p l e a s a n t task, and Bob P r o s s e r , whose extreme p a t i e n c e aided i n data analysis.  I would a l s o l i k e  t o thank Jane Gibson,  Arlene  B a s t i o n , S h e i l a Campbell, J a c q u e l i n e Hare and Nancy Mann of Hut  03 f o r the tremendous amount o f encouragement they  contributed. I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e  t o thank Meyer Aaron, who made  me r e a l i z e I had the p o t e n t i a l t o succeed.  1 CHAPTER I :  THE  PROBLEM  Introduction A considerable has  body o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  i d e a t h a t , b a s e d on  l i s t e n e r s w i l l make e v a l u a t i o n s ethnicity, speaker.  education, The  sciences  speech c l u e s  about the  intelligence  social  personality,  or even appearance of  independent v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s research  been s p e e c h s t i m u l i  ranging  d e t a i l s of p a r t i c u l a r  f r o m any  dialects,  alone,  given  a c c e n t s or  have  language to styles.  or  traits.  The  tendency of  experiments to respond with t o t h e phenomenon o f The  effect  on  perception and  individual  the  e t a l . (1976) shows t h a t and  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of such  listener characteristics,  previously 1962;  that these responses are  stated variables  R y a n and  (Anisfeld,  a s s o c i a t e s , 1975,  1977,  an  self-  This  research  stereotyping  concern,  namely,  These e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s  t h a t people respond to speech i n terms of and  the  have  degree of accent, speaker  academic e x p e c t a t i o n s .  stereotypes  points  these  t h i s can  students i n their classes.  have i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l  and  judges i n these  s c h o l a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t and  a number o f o t h e r  behavior  a high degree of consensus  also present i n teachers  both the of  about i n d i v i d u a l  from  stereotyping.  work o f W i l l i a m s  r e a c t i o n s are  the  the  The  d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s h a v e b e e n j u s t as d i v e r s e , r a n g i n g p e r s o n a l i t y assessments to d e t a i l s  a  ethnicity argue  cultural influenced  Bogo and 1980(b)).  by  the  Lambert, The  2  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the e f f e c t s o f teacher speaker  e t h n i c i t y and accent broadness  characteristics,  are o f major  interest  to t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . The  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and the  r e s u l t s t h i s p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h may have f o r c u r r i c u l u m development must be c o n s i d e r e d .  I f i t i s true that teachers a l s o  hold stereotyped a t t i t u d e s of accented speakers,  educators  i n t h e i r commitment to improve the l e a r n i n g environments o f t h e i r students might w e l l address themselves  to t h i s  fact  i n teaching t r a i n i n g programs, workshops and i n - s e r v i c e training.  I t i s important  i n a p l u r a l i s t i c society  that  the s c h o o l s do not p e r p e t u a t e , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , a d o c t r i n e t h a t supports ethnocentrism and a u n i t a r y culture. Statement o f the Problem Current r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e suggests that upon hearing some minimal cues  i n a person's  listeners,  speech,  call  up a s t e r e o t y p e and that t h i s s t e r e o t y p e c o l o u r s a l l t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h a t person. such r e a c t i o n s as e l i c i t e d samples.  T h i s study proposes  t o examine  by f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d E n g l i s h  speech  Of c e n t r a l concern i s the presence and d e s c r i p t i o n  of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s teachers w i l l make between the v a r i o u s accents and accent groups presented.  Broadly s t a t e d ,  w i l l the l i s t e n e r s make gross g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the speakers of accented E n g l i s h speech and w i l l  these  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s p a t t e r n a s t e r e o t y p e f o r each accent group?  3  L i n g u i s t i c stereotyping  i s measured by i n d i r e c t s c a l i n g  methods such as the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e B).  Subjects  are r e q u i r e d  (Appendix  to choose between b i p o l a r  a d j e c t i v e s and mark the degree o f t h e i r c h o i c e .  The degree  ranges from n e u t r a l to h i g h l y i n the d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r chosen a d j e c t i v e . compilation  The a d j e c t i v e s used i n t h i s study are a  of personal  t r a i t s e.g., l i k e a b l e , s o c i a b l e ) ,  speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (e.g., ability), and  s o c i a l distance  i n d i s t i n c t , good speaking  scales  (e.g., s i m i l a r to m y s e l f ) ,  work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (e.g., Another v a r i a b l e d i s c u s s e d  s t y l e s and s t e r e o t y p i n g  ambitious). i n the l i t e r a t u r e on speech  i s that of l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Language and e t h n i c background, SES, age and, of i n t e r e s t to t h i s study, years of teaching  experience are f a c t o r s  which have shown both s i g n i f i c a n t and i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s (Lambert e t a l . , 1966; M i l l e r , 1972; W i l l i a m s 1971).  T h i s study intends  various  teacher  et a l . ,  to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n f l u e n c e of  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the responses.  These  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be c o l l e c t e d through the use of a questionnaire  requesting  biographical  data.  Accent broadness was the focus o f s e v e r a l (Arthur, F a r r a r and B r a d f o r d , 1981)  studies  1974; G i l e s , 1972(b); Rey,  and i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the study i s an attempt to  assess the degree o f s t e r e o t y p i n g  a f f o r d e d minimally  heavily-accented  I t i s expected, i n l i g h t  E n g l i s h speech.  of the f i n d i n g s i n previous  and  s t u d i e s , that an i n c r e a s e i n  accent f e a t u r e s w i l l lead to the p e r c e p t i o n of speech as more nonstandard and of the l i s t e n e r a c c o r d i n g more s o c i a l d i s t a n c e between him or h e r s e l f and the speaker. In  summary, the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s w i l l  i n t h i s study, 1) the E n g l i s h language s t i m u l i of  speakers from each o f the f o l l o w i n g n a t i v e  be c o n s i d e r e d consisting language  groups; Cantonese, Quebecois and P u n j a b i i n a d d i t i o n t o two standard E n g l i s h speakers, 2) two degrees o f accentedness for  each of the Cantonese, Quebecois and Punjabi groups, 3)  teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and 4) s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s o f teachers. O b j e c t i v e s of the Study The major o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study are to answer the following questions: When presented with semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s and s t i m u l i c o n s i s t i n g of f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d and standard E n g l i s h speech, 1.  how w i l l  t e a c h e r s r a t e the s o c i a l d i s t a n c e and the  p e r s o n a l , speech and work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers as compared t o the standard English 2.  how w i l l  speakers? teachers e v a l u a t e the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speaker  from the three accent groups? 3.  how w i l l  teachers r a t e the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers as compared to those of s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers w i t h i n the same accent group  4.  how  will  teachers r a t e the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers  as compared to those  s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers 5.  how  will  the h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers  s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers how  will  of  will  the  w i t h i n the same accent group?  as compared to those  s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers how  and  teachers p e r c e i v e the work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers  7.  w i t h i n the same accent group?  teachers p e r c e i v e the s o c i a l d i s t a n c e between  themselves and  6.  of  of  w i t h i n the same accent group?  teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t the e v a l u a t i o n s  the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d  speakers?  Hypotheses The  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses w i l l  When presented accented 1.  and  be t e s t e d :  with s t i m u l i c o n s i s t i n g of f o r e i g n -  standard E n g l i s h speech,  teachers w i l l  r a t e n e g a t i v e l y the speech, p e r s o n a l ,  and work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  2.  foreign-accented  speakers  and  accord more s o c i a l d i s t a n c e to such  speakers  than to the standard E n g l i s h  speakers.  teachers w i l l conform to stereotyped a t t i t u d e s when e v a l u a t i n g the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers.  In  particular, (A)  the Cantonese-accented speakers as hard-working, ambitious,  (B)  the Punjabi-accented  conscientious  speakers  as u n s o c i a b l e , untrustworthy  w i l l be p e r c e i v e d . . . .  w i l l be p e r c e i v e d . . . .  (C)  the Quebecois-accented  speakers w i l l  as h u m o u r o u s , l i k e a b l e teachers w i l l  be p e r c e i v e d  . . . .  r a t e the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s more n e g a t i v e l y t h a n of  slightly-accented  those  s p e a k e r s w i t h i n t h e same a c c e n t  group. teachers w i l l  rate the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s more n e g a t i v e l y t h a n of  those  s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n t h e same a c c e n t  group. teachers w i l l  accord greater s o c i a l distance t o h e a v i l y -  accented speakers than t o s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d  speakers  w i t h i n t h e same a c c e n t g r o u p . teachers w i l l  r a t e t h e work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h e a v i l y -  a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s more n e g a t i v e l y t h a n t h o s e o f s l i g h t l y a c c e n t e d s p e a k e r s w i t h i n t h e same a c c e n t teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  group,  (e.g., e t h n i c i t y , years of  t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , s e x ....) w i l l  n o t have a s i g n i f -  i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers. D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms Used The  t e r m s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y were d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s :  Accent  i s the degree t o which o n l y the p h o n o l o g i c a l  structures of English are influenced s t r u c t u r e s of the speaker's native  by t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l  language.  2.  Heavy f o r e i g n a c c e n t i s t h e h i g h e r  frequency,  to the lower frequency o f a s l i g h t  foreign  with which s p e c i f i c pronunciations  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e  phonological  f r e q u e n c y o f a heavy f o r e i g n  with which s p e c i f i c p r o n u n c i a t i o n s phonological occur  by t h e language  structures of English.  among members o f one g r o u p r e g a r d i n g  i s a consensus  the a t t r i b u t e s of  ( T a y l o r , 1 9 8 1 , p.155) a s m e a s u r e d by t h e  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l 5.  accent,  influenced  Stereotype i s the degree t o which there  another  relative  s t r u c t u r e s of the speaker's native  i n the phonological  language  structures of English.  S l i g h t f o r e i g n accent i s the lower frequency, to the higher  4.  accent,  s t r u c t u r e s of the speaker's native  occur i n the phonological 3.  relative  rating scale.  A t t i t u d e i s a system o f a f f e c t i v e , e v a l u a t i v e b a s e d upon and r e f l e c t i n g  reactions  the evaluative concepts or  b e l i e f s w h i c h h a v e been l e a r n e d  about the c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s of a s o c i a l object or class of s o c i a l  objects  (Shaw and W r i g h t , 1 9 6 7 , p.10) a s m e a s u r e d by t h e semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l 6.  Social distance standing and  rating scale.  i s the d i f f e r e n t degrees o f under-  and f e e l i n g t h a t e x i s t b e t w e e n g i v e n  persons  c e r t a i n s o c i a l groups o r the degree o f intimacy  i n d i v i d u a l would a l l o w  t h e members o f t h e s e g r o u p s  ( B o g a r d u s , 1 9 2 5 , p.299) a s m e a s u r e d by t h e s e m a n t i c differential  rating scale.  an  8  Pilot A pilot  s t u d y was  Study  c a r r i e d o u t a t UBC  unexpected p o i n t s of d i f f i c u l t y experiment.  to i d e n t i f y  i n administering  any  the  F a c t o r s such as a p p r o x i m a t e l e n g t h o f time f o r  e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w i l l i n g n e s s o f Ss t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y and t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e method o f  recording  measures f o r s c o r i n g were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d .  One  purpose of the p i l o t  s t u d y was  to validate  further  the p e r c e i v e d  e t h n i c i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l speakers i n the language A complete d i s c u s s i o n of the p i l o t findings  i s included  stimuli.  s t u d y and i t s  i n Chapter I I I .  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study Much r e s e a r c h h a s been d e v o t e d t o t h e b e t w e e n s p e e c h s t y l e and l i s t e n e r s '  relationship  attitudes.  Studies  h a v e shown t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c r e s p o n d s t o s p e e c h i n t e r m s o f c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s and  that teachers are not  exempt f r o m t h e s e s t e r e o t y p e s when e v a l u a t i n g o r a l language  (Lambert e t a l . ,  children's  1960; W i l l i a m s e t a l . ,  To d a t e t h o u g h , t h e r e h a s o n l y been one  s t u d y t h a t has  1976). dealt  s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t e a c h e r s ' r e a c t i o n s to the accented speech of second language speakers  (Rey, 1981)  which i s of c e n t r a l concern t o t h i s If  and  i t i s t h i s area  researcher.  the p r e s e n t study c o n f i r m s the s u p p o s i t i o n put  i n t h e S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m i t c a n be shown t h a t students with f o r e i g n accents are at a disadvantage i n  forth  9 school.  S u c h f i n d i n g s w o u l d be  r e s e a r c h t h a t shows t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s and  i n accordance with  other  i s the case w i t h s t u d e n t s  possessing nonstandard  of  speech  characteristics. The  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the t r a i n i n g of teachers i s  addressed  by B u r l i n g  (1971).  T e a c h e r s must be h e l p e d  l e a r n more a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f d i a l e c t i c a l nonstandard  English.  c h i l d r e n w i t h such  He  feels this  variability  i s necessary  because  as  'inferior'  but a l s o w i t h the s e v e r e l y d e p r e c i a t o r y a t t i t u d e s of toward  their  speech.  development of c u r r i c u l a , like,  that a l e r t  of conveying pointed out  and  speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s must l e a r n t o  cope not o n l y w i t h l i n g u i s t i c codes regarded  teachers  to  The  teacher  t e a c h e r s and  n e c e s s i t y of  the  f u t u r e t e a c h e r s t o the danger  i n much o f t h e p r e v i o u s  been  research.  of the present  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s  the  t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s and  n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s has  A f u r t h e r concern  their  r e s e a r c h i s a l s o the  i n terms of o t h e r  recent  research. Suter  (1976) and  P u r c e l l and  Suter  p r e d i c t o r s of p r o n u n c i a t i o n accuracy learning.  I t was  found  (1980) e x a m i n e d  i n second  language  t h a t w i t h the s i x t y - o n e s u b j e c t s  t e s t e d , t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were t h e most i m p o r t a n t those  t h a t t e a c h e r s h a v e t h e l e a s t i n f l u e n c e on  second language c l a s s e s .  Out  were  in their  of the four v a r i a b l e s which  m e a s u r e d a s p e c t s o f f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , none p r o v e d  important  in accounting  for variations  view o f these  f i n d i n g s , a s l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r s we. h a v e v e r y  little  o r no c o n t r o l o v e r  degree o f accentedness The  In  the pronunciation accuracy or  the students acquire.  work o f Fathman  Hoefnagel-Hohle  i n pronunciation accuracy.  ( 1 9 7 5 ) , Oyama  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Snow and  (1977) and t h e many more who h a v e d e a l t  w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f age and n a t i v e p r o n u n c i a t i o n f l u e n c y is enlightening i n that i tt e l l s t o pronounce a second but  i ti s limited  us o l d e r l e a r n e r s c a n l e a r n  language as w e l l as younger l e a r n e r s  i n t h a t i t does n o t t e l l  t h i s g o a l c a n be a c h i e v e d p e d a g o g i c a l l y .  us how o r i f To d a t e ,  f i n d i n g s h a v e n o t been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f i n d i n g eradicate foreign Accents,  their  solutions to  accents.  i t appears,  are s t i l l  probably quite i n e v i t a b l e .  v e r y much a r e a l i t y and  Time must be s p e n t  t r a i n i n g and  retraining  t e a c h e r s and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o r e s p o n d  negatively  t o f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speech.  and  judgements a r e concerns  racial  of p a r t i c u l a r  concern  Intergroup  behavior  o f everyone but they a r e  to educators.  In view o f the p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d f i n d i n g s , t h i s area i n which  r e m e d i a l work must be i n s t i g a t e d  r e s u l t s o f the problem will,  less  being  i t i s hoped, f u r t h e r  investigated  support  this  i s the  and t h e  i n this statement.  study  11 CHAPTER I I : The  research  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  involving evaluations  a t t i t u d e s t o s p e e c h must be v i e w e d numerous o t h e r s t u d i e s to speech p e r c e p t i o n provided used.  of  teachers'  i n relation  i n the s o c i a l sciences  pertain  as i t i s t h e s e s t u d i e s w h i c h have  s e c t i o n , w h i c h i s n o t meant t o be a n e x h a u s t i v e  review o f a l l such l i t e r a t u r e , w i l l of a t t i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s linguistic The  pertaining  present only  the f i n d i n g s  to stereotyping  through  cues.  methodology o f a l l these s t u d i e s  pattern.  follows a similar  Taped s p e e c h s a m p l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o an e x p e r i -  mental group which i s then asked t o r a t e semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  scale  example o f such a s c a l e good The  :  t h e s e samples on a  (Osgood e t a l . , 1 9 5 7 ) .  :  :  development o f t h i s  a t t i t u d i n a l evaluations  :  :  :  bad.  t y p e o f s c a l e p r o v i d e s an and q u a n t i f y i n g  o f the speech samples  In a d d i t i o n , d i r e c t a t t i t u d e measures,  s c a l e s , open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e s introduced Attitudes  An  i s as f o l l o w s :  i n d i r e c t measurement t e c h n i q u e f o r e l i c i t i n g  The  which  t h e c o n t e x t and much o f t h e t h e o r y and m e t h o d o l o g y  This  1974).  t o the  and t h e l i k e  (Williams, prejudice are frequently  into the studies. t o Languages  m o s t p r o m i n e n t name i n t h e f i e l d  l a n g u a g e s i s W a l l a c e E. L a m b e r t .  of attitudes to  I n L a m b e r t e t a l . (1960)  12 the matched-guise  technique - one speaker, two languages -  was i n t r o d u c e d provoking much r e s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e . The major p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g t h i s technique i s - t h e c o n t r o l which  i s e x e r c i s e d over a l l v a r i a b l e s  (i.e.,  voice  q u a l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y of speaker) except that of language variety.  I f there i s adequate  c o n t r o l o f the other  v a r i a b l e s , the e v a l u a t i o n s made o f the speakers must be prompted by the judge's g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n t o the speakers of that p a r t i c u l a r language  r a t h e r than by any r e a c t i o n to the  s p e c i f i c speaker i n the experimental s i t u a t i o n .  Any s i g -  n i f i c a n t u n i f o r m i t y i n the e v a l u a t i o n s made by a group o f r a t e r s i s s a i d t o i n d i c a t e that the r e a c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t the stereotyped impressions o f that group toward of the p a r t i c u l a r  the speakers  language or language v a r i e t y p r e s e n t e d .  In the study, 130 French and E n g l i s h Canadian s u b j e c t s were presented with taped speech samples o f b i l i n g u a l speakers of French and E n g l i s h reading a passage i n philosophy.  The f a c t that the same speaker read both the  French and E n g l i s h g u i s e s was unknown to the s u b j e c t s and they were asked to r a t e the speakers a c c o r d i n g t o 14 p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ranging from T r a i t s such as s o c i a b i l i t y ,  'very l i t t l e '  i n t e l l i g e n c e , d e p e n d a b i l i t y and  good looks were used to form these semantic scales.  to 'very much'.  differential  I t was found that when the speakers adopted the  French Canadian g u i s e they were not o n l y regarded f a v o u r a b l y by E n g l i s h Canadians  less  but a l s o by French Canadians.  13 T h i s supported Lambert's h y p o t h e s i s that community-wide s t e r e o t y p i n g of French and E n g l i s h speaking Canadians and people respond types.  to speech  i n terms of c u l t u r a l  Commenting on the matched-guise  i n d i r e c t measure, Tucker and Lambert  exists  stereo-  technique as an  (1969) s t a t e  that  The technique appears to expose the l i s t e n e r s ' more p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s and stereotyped a t t i t u d e s towards a c o n t r a s t i n g group or groups whose language, accent or d i a l e c t i s d i s t i n c t i v e , and i t appears to be r e l i a b l e i n that the same p r o f i l e of r e a c t i o n s emerges on repeated sampling of a p a r t i c u l a r group (pp. 463-64). Similar Studies:  S i n c e the p u b l i c a t i o n of Lambert's  r e s e a r c h , s e v e r a l s i m i l a r s t u d i e s have been undertaken, some using matched-guise, samples.  o t h e r s i n d i v i d u a l or f r e e  speech  These s t u d i e s have maintained the same p o i n t of  view as Lambert and the r e s u l t s p r o v i d e strong evidence to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v o i c e cues and A study by d'Anglejan and Tucker  stereotyping.  (1972) which  included  a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and f r e e speech samples showed that t e a c h e r s , students and workers i n Quebec a l s o devalued t h e i r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to European  French.  French  Standard European  French  speakers were c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d as more i n t e l l i g e n t , l i k e a b l e and ambitious than e i t h e r upper or lower Canadian French speakers. Komshian  class  Lambert, A n i s f e l d and Y e n i -  (1965), i n v e s t i g a t i n g Arab I s r a e l i and  Jewish  I s r a e l i a d o l e s c e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s to A r a b i c and Hebrew, d i d not r e v e a l d e v a l u a t i o n of one  language  over another  but  , 14 instead, perfect polarisation  i n t h a t A r a b i c was  r a t e d l e s s f a v o u r a b l y by J e w i s h I s r a e l i Hebrew was One  a d o l e s c e n t s and  s i m i l a r l y r a t e d by A r a b a d o l e s c e n t s .  factor  t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f  p e r s o n a l i t y from speech background.  i s that of the l i s t e n e r ' s  In a f u r t h e r  s t u d y by A n i s f e l d  (1964) mono- and b i l i n g u a l F r e n c h C a n a d i a n listened  consistently  and  language  Lambert  10 y e a r  olds  t o t a p e - r e c o r d i n g s o f c h i l d r e n ' s E n g l i s h and  v o i c e s and  rated  t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s on 15 t r a i t s .  F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g m o n o l i n g u a l s upgraded s p e a k e r s on a l l t r a i t s  the French  whereas the b i l i n g u a l s  give a l l speakers s i m i l a r  ratings.  The  The  Canadian  tended  results  French  to  indicate  t h a t t h e s e 10 y e a r o l d s , u n l i k e t h e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n L a m b e r t e t a l . ( 1 9 6 0 ) , do n o t y e t h a v e a n e g a t i v e b i a s t h e i r own  group.  Lambert,  F r a n k e l and T u c k e r  b i a s a g a i n s t o n e ' s own age and the  that s o c i a l  found t h a t a n e g a t i v e  background  was  12 y e a r s o f  an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n  e v a l u a t i o n s g i v e n by t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n g i r l s .  the E n g l i s h Canadian In  guises.  a study using d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s rather (1969)  than  f o u n d t h a t 10 and  White middle c l a s s c h i l d r e n r a t e d  speakers of White middle c l a s s , White lower c l a s s d i a l e c t s  These  were e s p e c i a l l y b i a s e d i n f a v o u r  d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s , Ryan old  (1966)  g r o u p emerged a t a b o u t  upper m i d d l e c l a s s g i r l s of  toward  11-year-  the p e r s o n a l i t i e s  of  l o w e r c l a s s and B l a c k  i n a descending order of  favourability.  15 The  trends  i n r a t i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e  a d u l t s and show t h a t 10 and 1 1 - y e a r - o l d of the s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e attached It  i s interesting  s u b j e c t s o f such suggest,  t o note  c h i l d r e n a r e aware  t o language d i f f e r e n c e s .  that stereotypes exist at a l l i n  a young age.  I f , a s many  s t e r e o t y p e s a r e evoked through  researchers  attitudes  by t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i a l o r e t h n i c g r o u p t h e n t h a t these a t t i t u d e s a r e absorbed t h a t s c h o o l s , as s o c i a l i z i n g aid  i n this rapid  speakers.  i t seems  i n s t i t u t i o n s , could  actually  (1978)  attempted  t o E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e  I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such  speakers, on  as p o l i t e n e s s and t h r i f t y - e c o n o m i c a l ,  w o u l d be r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o s t e r e o t y p e s f o u n d  on  obvious  absorption.  stereotyped attitudes  Vancouver area.  expressed  a t a v e r y y o u n g age a n d  I n a more r e c e n t s t u d y , S a i n t - J a c q u e s to e l i c i t  found i n  The h i g h e r  rating  i n the Greater  f o r the Chinese  voices  " f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d " was t h e o n l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r o n g l y  supported  by t h e r e s u l t s .  r e s u l t s as i n d i c a t i n g stereotypes concerning  The a u t h o r  interprets  t h a t many o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese  i n t h e minds  Perhaps r e p l i c a t i o n s of the e a r l i e r  s t u d i e s done i n Quebec w o u l d y i e l d a trend i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n feelings.  cultural  and E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s i n t h e  G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a a r e no l o n g e r p r e s e n t o f young p e o p l e .  these  similar  r e s u l t s o r even  because o f s e p a r a t i s t  16 A t t i t u d e s to D i a l e c t s and Second-Language Accents S t u d i e s of a t t i t u d e s to d i a l e c t s probably comprise l a r g e s t body of s t u d i e s of language al.  (1976) has c l a s s i f i e d (1)  attitudes.  Williams et  these s t u d i e s i n t o two  those which d e a l with extended  the  categories:  samples of d i a l e c t s ,  and (2)  those which d e a l with s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s of d i a l e c t s - e s p e c i a l l y phonetic f e a t u r e s .  Dialects:  In the f i r s t c a t e g o r y , much work has been devoted  to d i s t i n g u i s h i n g r a c e , o c c u p a t i o n and SES  from White and  Black speakers of both standard and nonstandard  accented  d i a l e c t s and a l s o r a t i n g the f a v o u r a b l e n e s s of speech (Tucker and Lambert, 1969). i t was  Using i n d i v i d u a l speech  samples samples  r e p o r t e d that not o n l y d i d Southern Negro c o l l e g e  students have more f a v o u r a b l e impressions of people  who  used Standard Network S t y l e E n g l i s h than they d i d of those who  spoke t h e i r own  s t y l e but i n a d d i t i o n they were more  impressed with t h e i r own educated Southern Whites. classifying  speech s t y l e than with t h a t of These judges appeared  the d i a l e c t s along a continuum  to be  of a c c e p t a b i l i t y  and the r e s u l t s tended to c o n f i r m the s o c i a l s t e r e o t y p i n g h y p o t h e s i s suggested al.  i n the p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by Lambert e t  (1960). In a f u r t h e r study using the matched-guise  speakers who  were b i d i a l e c t a l i n standard and  technique, Jewish-accented  E n g l i s h p r o v i d e d speech samples which were rated by G e n t i l e  17 and  Jewish  judges  ( A n i s f e l d , Bogo and  using the Jewish-accented regarded  by G e n t i l e s and  a u t h o r s , c o m m e n t i n g on  Lambert, 1962).  g u i s e , speakers  were l e s s  When  favourably  v a r i a b l y regarded  by J e w s .  The  the l e s s f a v o u r a b l e  ratings,  state  that i n t h i s v i r t u a l l y impossible task of e v a l u a t i n g people from t h e i r v o i c e s ( L i c k l i d e r and M i l l e r , 1 9 5 1 ) , t h e S s a p p a r e n t l y s e i z e d upon w h a t e v e r i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e t o them. The m a i n s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , i t seems were c o m m u n i t y - w i d e s t e r e o t y p e s a b o u t people with accents, i . e . immigrants (p.229). I n B r i t a i n , e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h has Giles  ( 1 9 7 0 , 1971  (a)).  T h i s work has  Ss' p e r c e p t i o n of r e g i o n a l accents was  t h e f a c t t h a t i t was  and  been c a r r i e d o u t  by  d e a l t mostly  with  an  finding  important  p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e the a c c e n t s  at a  r e l a t i v e p o i n t on a c o n t i n u u m r a n g i n g  from h i g h t o low  ( G i l e s , 1970).  a specific prestige  Each accent  possesses  value which, according  t o G i l e s , can  formulate  impressions.  Pronunciation  (RP)  having  Received  stereotyped  i s perceived  the h i g h e s t p r e s t i g e v a l u e , v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l  are next  whereas a c c e n t s  found  in industrial  status  as  accents  towns p o s s e s s  the l e a s t p r e s t i g e . Giles Woosley  (1971  (1967) and  (a)), citing Cheyne  the r e s e a r c h of Strongman  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , was  interested in finding  the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  various  regional accents.  studying  S t r o n g m a n and  the r e a c t i o n s of n o r t h e r n  and  Woosley, a f t e r  southern  and  English listeners  to  18  matched-guises of London and Y o r k s h i r e accents both groups judged the Y o r k s h i r e speakers and  r e l i a b l e while the London speakers  found  that  as more honest  were p e r c e i v e d as  more s e l f - c o n f i d e n t . Cheyne, studying r a t i n g s o f S c o t t i s h and E n g l i s h r e g i o n a l accents, d i s c o v e r e d that male E n g l i s h speakers  were viewed as possessing more i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  ambition  and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .  G i l e s thus hypothesized  that s i n c e RP, South Welsh and  Somerset-accented speech represented  h i g h , intermediate and  low p o s i t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y on the s t a t u s continuum a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n would emerge on the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .  I t was  shown that the RP speaker was stereotyped as possessing more competence  (i.e.,  i n t e l l i g e n c e and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e )  than a r e g i o n a l speaker while the r e g i o n a l speakers  were  a s s o c i a t e d with p o s s e s s i n g more p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y and s o c i a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ( i . e . , humour and good n a t u r e ) . A l l three s t u d i e s a l s o noted and  the r a t i n g s of p e r s o n a l  integrity  s o c i a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s were l i n k e d to the presence of  accent  loyalty.  In other words, v o i c e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  the judge's own speech community would be evaluated more f a v o u r a b l y i n p a r t i c u l a r aspects t h a t the other  accents  presented. F i n d i n g s of the above s t u d i e s have been l a r g e l y supported  by a number of other s t u d i e s t h a t have employed  the same approach  ( G i l e s , 1972(a), 1973; G i l e s e t a l .  and B o u r h i s , G i l e s and Lambert,  (1975)).  (1975)  !9 Specific  features  with  second c a t e g o r y ,  the  Labov  (1966).  English  His  i n New  enlightening. order  of d i a l e c t s :  specific  s t u d y on  York c i t y  i s m o n u m e n t a l and  'r' colouring)  that a greater  associated  with higher  asking  shop a t t e n d a n t s  correspond to three  [f,r^ffl,r]  or  with  s t a t u s was  of d i a l e c t s ,  the  l e v e l s of  social  I t was  and  t o the p o p u l a t i o n  e i t h e r on  the  five phonological  at large.  speculate  due  to the  may  be  the  speech e l i c i t s  in  to t h e i r  by  [f,:^fl,:],  variables in  large Eastern  speech  s o c i a l c l a s s and social  l i k e New  Y o r k e r s d i d not  t h a t t h e New  that  class  Most i n t e r e s t i n g l y , the  majority York  like i t  York accent i s such  European immigrant p o p u l a t i o n .  p o s s i b l e , as A n i s f e l d , Bogo and  general.  be  location  found t h a t speakers v a r i e d t h e i r  more t h a n h a l f t h e New can  His  to  s t a t u s f o r the  Y o r k e r s f e l t o u t - o f - t o w n e r s d i d not  One  variables  confirmed  believed  t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were e f f e c t i v e i n d i c a t o r s o f  either.  in  somewhere i n b e t w e e n .  d i f f e r e n t ways a c c o r d i n g  s p e e c h and  are  ' r ' c o l o u r i n g would  t e s t e d and  is  of  findings  social status.  a t s t o r e s w h i c h he  a l s o examined the  several contexts  o f New  dealing  five phonological  degree of  of a c e r t a i n department.  He  features  study  social stratification  to attempt a c o r r e l a t i o n of  hypothesis  in  the  pioneering  S o c i a l s u r v e y s t y l e t e c h n i q u e s were u s e d  ( i . e . , degree of  the  The  Lambert s t a t e ,  unfavourable stereotypes  about  It that  immigrants  20  Second language a c c e n t s : literature Carranza and  i n the f i e l d  and Ryan  D o m i n a t i n g much o f t h e r e c e n t o f second language accents a r e  ( 1 9 7 5 ) , R y a n and C a r r a n z a  Ryan, Carranza  and M o f f i e  r e a c t i o n s t o accentedness bilinguals.  Carranza  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , w i t h t h e i r work o n  i n the speech o f Spanish E n g l i s h  The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e  findings revealed i n other Using  (1975, 1980(b))  taped  research.  readings of standard  (1975) f o u n d  passages,  Ryan and  that Mexican-American speakers of  s t r o n g l y - a c c e n t e d E n g l i s h were n o t v i e w e d a s f a v o u r a b l y a s speakers  of standard E n g l i s h .  The e v a l u a t o r s were  B l a c k and M e x i c a n - A m e r i c a n h i g h s c h o o l I n an a t t e m p t of speech s t y l e s ,  females.  t o demonstrate the f u n c t i o n a l  separation  two a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s o f home a n d s c h o o l  s p e e c h c o n t e x t s p l u s two s e t s o f r a t i n g corporated  Anglo,  into the study.  s c a l e s were i n -  I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i n  a d d i t i o n t o E n g l i s h r e c e i v i n g more f a v o u r a b l e n e s s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n t h e s c h o o l than for  context  i n t h e home c o n t e x t and f o r t h e s t a t u s r a t i n g s t h a n the s o l i d a r i t y  ratings.  Thus t h e s u b j e c t s  were more t o l e r a n t o f d e v i a t i o n s f r o m s t a n d a r d s p e e c h i n a home c o n t e x t t h a n in a school context. I t w o u l d seem t h a t a wider range o f speech s t y l e s i s a c c e p t a b l e i n an i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g t h a n i n a f o r m a l s e t t i n g ( G i l e s and P o w e s l a n d , 1975, p. 8 5 ) . These f i n d i n g s a r e s i m i l a r Ryan  t o those  ( 1 9 7 5 ) , where i t i s n o t e d  found  i n C a r r a n z a and  21 that l i s t e n e r s a l s o r e a c t to the appropriateness of the language v a r i e t y used by the speaker f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n (p. 99). One  d i f f e r e n c e was  the E n g l i s h and  revealed  i n t h i s study though.  Spanish languages i n s t e a d of accents,  r e s u l t s obtained  i n an attempt to support the  Using the  hypothesis  that the Mexican-American Ss would r a t e Spanish higher the s o l i d a r i t y r a t i n g s were not c o n c l u s i v e . Ryan, commenting on  Carranza  t h i s phenomenon, speculate  on and  that perhaps  the Mexican-American student has deeply i n t e r n a l i z e d the value placed extent  on E n g l i s h by the dominant s o c i e t y to such an  that Spanish may  solidarity Ryan and  (p. 99).  Carranza  seem l e s s and  l e s s as a symbol of  T h i s same s p e c u l a t i o n  i s voiced  (1980(b)), where as language  in  minority  c h i l d r e n become a s s i m i l a t e d , they tend to adopt the dominant b e l i e f s held by s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g the view that accented E n g l i s h i s down-graded Accent broadness:  (p.  200).  Accent broadness or t h i c k n e s s has  also  been the focus of s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Anglo c o l l e g e students i n A r t h u r , (1974) rated speakers who  F a r r a r and  Bradford  at the beginning of the r a t i n g  s e s s i o n s were a l l i d e n t i f i e d as Mexican-Americans and a l l possessed at l e a s t some phonetic them as such.  The  features  that  those belonging  identified  r e s u l t s showed that the negative  were not towards t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group but to t h i s group who  laden with nonstandard phonetic  who  reactions  towards  speak E n g l i s h h e a v i l y  features.  Such speakers  22 were v i e w e d  a s l e s s e d u c a t e d , l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t and l e s s  dependable.  v  Similar Moffie  findings are reported  (1977), Brennan,  (1972(b)).  i n R y a n , C a r r a n z a and  Ryan and Dawson (1975)  and G i l e s  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t S s make r a t h e r  fine  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s among v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f a c c e n t e d n e s s i n rating  a person's personal  a t t r i b u t e s and s p e e c h .  (1972(b))) s t a t e s that people are c l e a r l y broadness  able  differences  i n pronunciation  evaluations  are a function of this perceptual  I n Ryan e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) , s m a l l were a s s o c i a t e d  Giles  to detect  and t h a t  their  dimension.  increments of accentedness  with gradually l e s s favourable  ratings of  s t a t u s , s o l i d a r i t y and s p e e c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  These  f i n d i n g s support the p r o p o s i t i o n that Spanish accent i n spoken E n g l i s h a r e n e g a t i v e l y s t e r e o t y p e d the prominence  features  and t h e g r e a t e r  of these f e a t u r e s , the stronger  the stereo-  typing . Through s c a l i n g methods o f magnitude sensory-modality  matching, Brennan  t h a t even n o n - l i n g u i s t i c a l l y give  reliable  judgments  pronunciation  e t a l . (1975)  demonstrated  t r a i n e d l i s t e n e r s were a b l e t o  o f degree  were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  e s t i m a t i o n and  o f a c c e n t e d n e s s and t h e s e  the occurrence of s p e c i f i c  f e a t u r e s endemic t o a c c e n t e d  speech.  A t t i t u d e s and E m p l o y m e n t I n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e r o l e w h i c h a t t i t u d e s o f employers  plays  the language  i n employment i n t e r v i e w i n g ,  23  H o p p e r and A s s o c i a t e s ( r e p o r t e d  i n W i l l i a m s , 1976) t e s t e d  t h e t h e s i s t h a t an i n t e r v i e w e e ' s s p e e c h f u r n i s h cues which  form employer's  characteristics  a t t i t u d e s toward the  s p e a k e r and t h a t t h e s e a t t i t u d e s  influence  decisions.  t h e f a c t t h a t judgments  The r e s u l t s  included  e t h n i c i t y o f speech d i d n o t appear  employment of  to militate against  e m p l o y m e n t , a l t h o u g h s t a n d a r d s p e a k e r s were f a v o u r e d i n t h e sphere o f white c o l l a r little  importance  j o b s , w h i l e speech  seemed t o be o f  i n h i r i n g manual l a b o u r .  T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e c o n t r a r y t o t h o s e f o u n d by Shuy In t h i s study employers from a l l  ranked speech  samples  collected  s o c i a l s t r a t a o f t h e B l a c k community.  that employers  (1977)  I t was f o u n d  c o n s i s t e n t l y ranked p r o f e s s i o n a l B l a c k s i n  t h e same ' l o w e r ' c a t e g o r i e s a l o n g w i t h s a l e s m e n Rey  (1970).  and m e c h a n i c s .  found t h a t t o possess a standard White  American  a c c e n t e n a b l e d one t o a c h i e v e t h e h i g h e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , s l i g h t accents (Black American t h e n e x t h i g h e s t and a h e a v y the l o w e s t p o s i t i o n s  accent  and C u b a n N a t i o n a l )  (Cuban N a t i o n a l ) o n l y  possible.  Teachers' A t t i t u d e s t o Speech Of  the research l i t e r a t u r e  i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s which  d e a l s w i t h s p e e c h p e r c e p t i o n and l a n g u a g e relatively particular. literature  attitudes, only a  small section pertains t o teacher a t t i t u d e s i n The work w h i c h g e n e r a t e d much o f t h i s i s R o s e n t h a l and J a c o b s o n ' s  t h e C l a s s r o o m and t h e p r e s u m p t i o n  (1968)  Pygmalion i n  that teachers' b e l i e f s  24  may  affect  the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of the c h i l d r e n i n  t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d , as a c o n s e q u e n c e ,  a f f e c t the  children's  progress i n school. The 1976)  work o f F r e d e r i c k W i l l i a m s and h i s a s s o c i a t e s  dominates  t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s o f  teachers to student language.  The m e t h o d o l o g y  t h e numerous s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n was v a r i e t y o f d a t a was The  first  (1973,  employed i n  m u l t i f a c e t e d and a  wide  collected.  s t e p i n t h e i r methodology  o f s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s t o use  was  the  construction  i n the experiments.  T e a c h e r s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a u d i o o r v i d e o t a p e s a m p l e s i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s language comment f r e e l y on them.  The  a d j e c t i v e s produced  s e s s i o n s went i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t t h e n be u s e d  and were a s k e d  to  i n these  of the s c a l e s which  t o measure t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n s t o  of  could  language  samples. After asked  the a c t u a l experiment  t o r a t e speech  factor analysis,  samples  i t was  use o f t h e s c a l e s was  and  i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s were through the a p p l i c a t i o n  found t h a t u n d e r l y i n g  a two-dimension  the t e a c h e r s '  judgemental  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' r e a c t i o n s c o u l d be f o r by two g r o s s d i m e n s i o n s : ethnicity-nonstandardness.  speech  samples  model. accounted  c o n f i d e n c e - e a g e r n e s s and According to Williams,  two m a i n d i m e n s i o n s w e r e r e l a t i v e l y quantified characteristics  of  independent  these  and  (predictor v a r i a b l e s ) of  the  were r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t o r s o f t e a c h e r ' s r a t i n g s .  25  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as h e s i t a t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s , enthusiasm and continuous and f l u e n t speech c o u l d p r e d i c t c o n f i d e n c e eagerness r a t i n g s , while a v a r i e t y o f nonstandard E n g l i s h grammatical or p r o n u n c i a t i o n f e a t u r e s could p r e d i c t nonstandardness. of  ethnicity-  The r e s e a r c h e r s note that as the frequency  h e s i t a t i o n phenomena i n c r e a s e s , the r a t i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e -  eagerness become more negative and as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d with low p r e s t i g e or a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c increases of  group  ( i . e . , d f o r th s u b s t i t u t i o n s ) , the more r a t i n g s  ethnicity-nonstandardness w i l l also Using t h i s two-dimension  increase.  judgemental model, semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f s c a l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g both dimensions and s e v e r a l f i l l e r  s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d and  used i n v a r i o u s experiments i n v e s t i g a t i n g speech  stereotypes.  Upon p r e s e n t i n g teachers with audio, video and audiov i d e o tapes, W i l l i a m s , Whitehead  and Traupman (1971) expected  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n accordance with the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f middle and lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n of White, Black and Mexican-American  e t h n i c groups.  On the average, r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e d that middle s t a t u s c h i l d r e n were rated l e s s nonstandard and more c o n f i d e n t than lower s t a t u s c h i l d r e n .  It  was a l s o found t h a t among the middle income groups White and Black c h i l d r e n were rated more c o n f i d e n t - e a g e r than Mexican-American  c h i l d r e n , while i n the lower income groups  White and Mexican-American  c h i l d r e n were rated more  c o n f i d e n t - e a g e r than Black c h i l d r e n .  As the authors e x p l a i n ,  26 these r e s u l t s suggest that teachers w i l l e v a l u a t e c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h and the  consistently  such e v a l u a t i o n s are along  two a f o r e m e n t i o n e d d i m e n s i o n s . U s i n g the knowledge g a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , W i l l i a m s ,  Whitehead other  and M i l l e r  ( i n W i l l i a m s , 1976)  a t t e m p t e d among  things to: (a)  F i n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of teacher experience and e t h n i c i t y t o t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s o f speech samples,  (b)  f i n d the degree t o which speech r a t i n g s c o u l d be u s e d t o p r e d i c t t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p u p i l s ' academic p e r f o r m a n c e (p. 5 7 ) .  The  S s , 175 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e C e n t r a l  Texas a r e a were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a randomized  sequence  v i d e o t a p e d A n g l o , B l a c k and M e x i c a n - A m e r i c a n from a m i d d l e or low s t a t u s group. responding, i n their to the  elicit  own  spontaneous  The  children  children  each  were  w o r d s , t o two q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d  speech.  E a c h Ss was  asked to e v a l u a t e  t a p e s o n b o t h a s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e and o n  card r e q u i r i n g assignment of the c h i l d The  graded c l a s s e s ranged  far  above average c l a s s  grammar and  from  to a graded  (5)  i n s u b j e c t s s u c h a s a r t , P.E.,  reading.  that teachers held  s t e r e o t y p i c views of the  as s u c h .  studies  ethnicity-  n o n s t a n d a r d n e s s o f m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n and r a t e d t h e samples  a  class.  (1) r e m e d i a l c l a s s t o  Many o f t h e r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r in  of  language  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s ' amount o f  e x p e r i e n c e appeared  unrelated  i n any way  t o the r a t i n g s  and  their  academic e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n were p r e d i c t a b l e  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  language a t t i t u d e s .  when t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r was d i r e c t l y arts subjects. whose s p e e c h was  This  related  increased  to language  G e n e r a l l y the f i n d i n g s are that students j u d g e d more n o n s t a n d a r d were e x p e c t e d t o  p e r f o r m w o r s e a c a d e m i c a l l y t h a n t h o s e whose s p e e c h was  judged  more s t a n d a r d . W i l l i a m s i m p l i e s t h a t the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n  between  l a n g u a g e and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n l a n g u a g e a r t s r e l a t e d  subjects  i s a r e s u l t of the tendency of t e a c h e r s to confuse language differences with d e f i c i t s . the  I t i s f u r t h e r noted that  given  a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s language as e t h n i c  n o n s t a n d a r d , i t may  and  be i n a c c u r a t e t o e x p e c t t h i s t y p e o f  speech i n a l l speech s i t u a t i o n s .  To p r e v e n t l a n g u a g e  a t t i t u d e s f r o m s e r v i n g as f a l s e o r s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s , t e a c h e r s m u s t be t r a i n e d d i a l e c t s or performance Teacher e t h n i c i t y :  t o be s e n s i t i v e (p. 6 8 ) .  A s t u d y by M i l l e r  f r o m t h i s s t u d y and f u r t h e r  types s i m i l a r  I t was  (1972) u s e s t h e d a t a  a n a l y s e s i t i n terms o f the  r e a c t i o n s of the Mexican-American population.  to variations i n  t e a c h e r s i n the  found t h a t these t e a c h e r s h e l d  subject stereo-  to those of Anglo teachers i n that Anglo  c h i l d r e n were t h o u g h t t o p o s s e s s more c o n f i d e n c e and less ethnic-sounding.  They were a l s o t h o u g h t t o h a v e  academic e x p e c t a n c i e s than t h e i r counterparts.  Mexican-American  be higher  The an  s o c i a l s t a t u s of  important  the Mexican-American c h i l d r e n  f a c t o r a l s o i n making both language  a c a d e m i c j u d g m e n t s , w h e r e a s t h i s was for  the Anglo c h i l d r e n .  t h i s study f o r any  i s the  f o u n d t o be  along  teachers  the v a l u e s  with  Naremore  e t h n i c i t y d i d not  fluency  (1971),  the above  and  expectations  i n the  of  the  t h i s was  t h e most i m p o r t a n t I t was  independent of  language.  reacted  to race  f a c t o r when e v a l u a t i n g  and  speech  n o t e d t h a t t h e s e r a t i n g s were somewhat  t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e and  points  the c h i l d r e n ' s  ethnic  i n f l u e n c i n g r a t e r s ' judgments.  A d d i t i o n a l research linguistic  a t t i t u d e s has  (1970) and hypothesis  grades should  tested  concerning  teachers'  stereotyped  b e e n done by F r e n d e r , B r o w n  C r o w l and  MacGinitie  t h a t lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n w i t h  better  speech  than lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n with poorer  i n Frender et a l . .  The  and  (1974).  h a v e d i s t i n c t l y more f a v o u r a b l e  characteristics was  seems t o  own  similarly  t o t h e phenomenon o f v i s u a l e v i d e n c e o f  The  have  results.  words, a l l teachers  Lambert  account  majority  also using Williams' data,  In other  samples.  to  Miller  o f a m i n o r i t y r a c e may  I n no c a s e d i d b l a c k s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e c h i l d r e n of t h e i r r a c e a b o v e w h i t e c h i l d r e n (p. 2 4 ) .  identity  true  most i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n  f a c t that teacher  t h a t the  internalized  confirm  and  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t i n g behavior.  speculates  race  The  not  was  r e s u l t s supported  grades the  hypothesis  e v e n t h o u g h a l l p u p i l s were m a t c h e d f o r a g e ,  v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . The c o n t r a s t i n g of  s p e e c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s showed t h a t  more a p p r o p r i a t e  i n t o n a t i o n , higher  q u i c k l y than "poorer" students.  pattern  " b e t t e r " s t u d e n t s had  p i t c h and s p o k e more  I t was c o n c l u d e d  that  how a c h i l d p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f t h r o u g h h i s s p e e c h . . . may v e r y w e l l i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f him ( F r e n d e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 0 , p. 3 0 4 ) . C r o w l and M a c G i n i t i e students'  a c t u a l academic performance i s judged  because o f v o i c e cues. year-olds  gave i d e n t i c a l  accurately  identified  t a p e d a n s w e r s t o two  fifteenquestions.  the e t h n i c background c o u l d  from the speech samples.  the White judges r a t e d better  differently  S i x W h i t e and s i x B l a c k  I t was p r e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t  questions  (1974) a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d o u t i f  be  In a l l cases  t h e White s t u d e n t s as answering t h e  than the Black  students.  The o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y supported the notion that the content o f t h e same o r a l a n s w e r i s e v a l u a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y when s p o k e n by d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s whose d i f f e r e n c e i n e t h n i c g r o u p i s i d e n t i f i a b l e from t h e i r speech (p. 307) . Prospective research  teachers:  has d e a l t w i t h  In a d d i t i o n t o these s t u d i e s , the l i n g u i s t i c  attitudes of  other teacher  trainees. The  research  o f W i l l i a m s , W h i t e h e a d and M i l l e r  was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f e t h n i c typing  i n a design  audio samples c o u l d  where r a t i n g s o f t h e same s t a n d a r d be c o m p a r e d when m a t c h e d w i t h  a  (1971) stereoEnglish video  30 image o f a W h i t e , B l a c k other  and M e x i c a n - A m e r i c a n c h i l d .  w o r d s , how w o u l d t h e S s e v a l u a t e  hear as standard  s p e a k e r s whom t h e y  E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g b u t whom t h e y s e e a s  belonging  t o an e t h n i c m i n o r i t y .  if  stereotyping  ethnic  I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d  The  conditions  ratings revealed  (p. 167).  E n g l i s h samples.  White o r Black  children.  t h a t p a i r i n g s w i t h B l a c k and a s more e t h n i c - n o n s t a n d a r d  Thus, d e s p i t e  t a p e s had been s u p e r i m p o s e d w i t h e t h n i c c h i l d r e n were p e r c e i v e d  I t should typed as video  the  with  Analysis of the ethnicity-non-  M e x i c a n - A m e r i c a n s were r a t e d  (more e t h n i c )  Mexican-  lower than tapes p a i r e d  standardness r a t i n g s revealed  than p a i r i n g s with Whites.  differences  The c o n f i d e n c e - e a g e r n e s s  t h a t t h e same t a p e s p a i r e d w i t h  A m e r i c a n c h i l d r e n were r a t e d  original  under t h e  r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  among t h e s t a n d a r d  that  does a f f e c t speech r a t i n g s then t h e  r a t i n g s o f t h e same l a n g u a g e s a m p l e w o u l d d i f f e r various  In  standard  the f a c t that a l l White speech, the  as speaking l e s s  standardly  than the White c h i l d r e n . be n o t e d t h a t t h e s e r a t i n g s were n o t a s s t e r e o ratings of the minority c h i l d r e n with  s o u n d t r a c k , w h i c h were i n c l u d e d  i n f l u e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y on s t e r e o t y p i n g  subsequently lower e v a l u a t i o n s  i n the study, but and t h e  o f speech n o n e t h e l e s s  significance. S e l i g m a n , T u c k e r and L a m b e r t  their  (1972) e x p l o r e d t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f s p e e c h s a m p l e s o n r a t e r s ' j u d g m e n t s when  attained  31 combined w i t h c o m p o s i t i o n s , drawings  and p h o t o g r a p h s .  authors hypothesized that the powerful e f f e c t of style reported i n earlier e v a l u a t i o n o f each c h i l d  speech  s t u d i e s would a f f e c t the Ss o v e r a l l even i n t h e presence  of other  a t t r i b u t e s t o c o n s i d e r d u r i n g the assessment. were a s k e d  The  The t e a c h e r s  t o r a t e 8 h y p o t h e t i c a l p u p i l s on s c a l e s l a b e l l e d  for  example:  i n t e l l i g e n t , good s t u d e n t and s e l f - c o n f i d e n t .  The  r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e b o y s w i t h good v o i c e s were a l w a y s e v a l u a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a v o r a b l y than those w i t h poor v o i c e s (p. 1 3 5 ) .  The  e f f e c t s o f speech  s t y l e d i d n o t d i m i n i s h when c o m b i n e d  w i t h t h e o t h e r c u e s p r e s e n t and a p u p i l w i t h a good v o i c e was j u d g e d more i n t e l l i g e n t , p r i v i l e g e d , e n t h u s i a s t i c , c o n f i d e n t , g e n t l e and a b e t t e r Hypothesizing  student.  that prospective English  t e a c h e r s would  have u n f a v o u r a b l e s t e r e o t y p e s o f s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s , Hewett  nonstandard  (1971) a s k e d W h i t e , n a t i v e - s p e a k i n g  Ss t o r a t e c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and p r o b a b l e o c c u p a t i o n s o f s p e a k e r s . p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used used  by L a m b e r t  (1968).  self  the races  Many o f t h e  were i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e  J u d g i n g s o l e l y on p h o n o l o g i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the following  r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d :  s t a n d a r d s p e a k e r s were r a n k e d  h i g h e s t on e d u c a t i o n and l o w e s t  on p e r s o n a l i t y , w h i l e n o n s t a n d a r d on h o n e s t y  s p e a k e r s were r a n k e d  and l o w e s t o n s p e a k i n g a b i l i t y .  i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s a s f i t t i n g some  highest  The a u t h o r interesting  32 stereotypes.  The s u b j e c t s were a l s o a l m o s t u n a n i m o u s i n  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s r a c e ; a l l r a c e s were accurately  identified  by s p e e c h  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n that  B l a c k s t a n d a r d s p e a k e r s were p e r c e i v e d a s W h i t e . p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s chosen  The  f o r each group were a l s o  con-  s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s t e r e o t y p e s p r e s e n t i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and r a c e r a t i n g s and t h u s t h e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d H e w e t t ' s hypothesis. S t u d e n t s s p e a k i n g RP i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom were p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g t h e b e s t speech most l i k e l y  t o do w e l l  and b e h a v i o r and t h e  i n s c h o o l i n a s t u d y by E d w a r d s  I n l i g h t o f t h e s e r e s u l t s and t h o s e f o u n d s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , Edwards n o t e s  (1978).  i n the other  that  t e a c h e r s d i f f e r l i t t l e from the r e s t o f s o c i e t y i n the s t e r e o t y p e s which they h o l d o f m i n o r i t y groups (p. 5 7 ) . A note of c a u t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g three l a t t e r  studies i s necessary.  the r e s u l t s of these  I n n o t one o f t h e  experiments d i d the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n exceed the r e s u l t s are not h i g h l y Accent broadness:  Accent broadness  (Arthur, Farrar  and  1 9 7 7 ; G i l e s , 1 9 7 2 ( b ) ; and  R y a n and Dawson, 1975) h a s been i n c l u d e d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n by Rey  thus  generalizable.  B r a d f o r d , 1974; R y a n e t a l . , Brennan,  25 and  (1981) i n w h i c h  i n an  the a t t i t u d i n a l  o f a S p a n i s h a c c e n t on t e a c h e r s i n S o u t h F l o r i d a  effect  i s examined.  The m a i n c o n c e r n was t o d e t e r m i n e what e f f e c t an a c c e n t or l a c k o f a c c e n t would have on t e a c h e r s '  evaluations of that speaker's e d u c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s (p. 5 9 ) . The  speech  American C.N.  samples c o n s i s t e d of White American  (W.A.), B l a c k  (B.A.) and Cuban N a t i o n a l (C.N.) s p e a k e r s .  s p e a k e r s , t h e s e were d i v i d e d  heavy a c c e n t c a t e g o r i e s . was  possible  The  Of  into minimal, medial  r e s u l t s show t h a t W.A.  j u d g e d m o s t p o s i t i v e l y on a l l 3 d i m e n s i o n s :  the and  speech  social  s t a t u s , s t a n d a r d n e s s - s t y l e and  correctness-complexity, while  m e d i a l and  speech  heavy-accented  favourably.  The  C.N.  g e n e r a l t r e n d was  was  judged  t h a t W.A.  the  speakers  r a t e d as h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r a c a d e m i c t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r s p e a k e r s . C.N.  speakers  B.A.  and  least were  success  minimally-accented  i n t h a t o r d e r w o u l d be n e x t , w h i l e m e d i a l  heavy-accented  C.N.  and  speakers could p o s s i b l y achieve o n l y  the lowest e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s .  Summary The  i n t e n t of the f i r s t  s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r was  to  p r e s e n t a broad, h i s t o r i c a l o u t l i n e o f the s t u d i e s showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between speech using either  the matched-guise  and  stereotyping.  Studies  technique or i n d i v i d u a l  s a m p l e s were l a r g e l y u n a n i m o u s i n t h e i r  speech  f i n d i n g s t h a t the  g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n does indeed possess  stereotyped attitudes  to speakers of a v a r i e t y of languages,  d i a l e c t s and  (Lambert 1972;  and  et a l . ,  1960;  Ryan e t a l . ,  L a b o v , 1966; 1977).  d'Anglejan  and  accents Tucker,  T h e s e a t t i t u d e s were f o r t h e  most p a r t m e a s u r e d u s i n g s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s  34 (Osgood e t a l . , 1957) o f more v a l u e  which are  i n d i r e c t measures t h a t  than d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g  f e e l i n g s toward v a r i e t i e s of speech The  in eliciting  a person's  (Edwards, 1978).  development of the matched-guise technique  subsequent r e s u l t s of Lambert's f o r numerous s t u d i e s and  (1960) s t u d y  was  and  the  L a m b e r t ' s methodology has  a t t i t u d e measurement i n s t r u m e n t s  complex  evaluations  i n many a r e a s o f s t u d y ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , SES,  of major i n t e r e s t t o t h i s  The  second s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter i n the  i n speech  e.g.,  literature  study  o p i n i o n s o f a p e r s o n and  sample  personal  i s teacher  but  these  can  the  evaluations.  d e a l s w i t h the  that teachers  other  to  employability, solidarity;  one  existing  s c a l e s and  h a v e been u s e d  i n v e s t i g a t e the presence of s t e r e o t y p e s  speech  impetus  (Ryan, 1973).  Speech samples, s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l  typed  the  served  as a b a s i s on w h i c h t o b u i l d more m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y research  are  suggestion  also hold  stereo-  be e l i c i t e d  using  samples.  T h i s second s e c t i o n i s to p r o v i d e research  problem of  this  support  t o t h e s u b j e c t and  stereotype  reactions did exist consistently  were c o n s t a n t  student  subject populations, across  general  i n t h i s area of r e s e a r c h ,  restricted  experimental  the  thesis.  W i l l i a m s e t a l . (1976) s t a t e s t h a t t h e conclusions obtained  for  t i m e and  they  though  p o p u l a t i o n s , are  t h a t these could  throughout  that the  stereotypes  be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  35 stereotype reactions e l i c i t e d was  f u r t h e r concluded  from a u d i o - v i s u a l cues.  It  that  persons tend to employ stereotyped s e t s of a t t i t u d e s as anchor p o i n t s f o r t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of whatever i s presented to them as a sample of a person's speech (Shuy and F a s o l d , 1973, p. 126). In other words, teachers are not exempt from employing a t t i t u d e s to evaluate speech  these  and  although we cannot p r e d i c t with c e r t a i n t y how they w i l l a c t u a l l y behave towards . . . m i n o r i t y group c h i l d r e n i n the classroom, there seems a very r e a l danger t h a t they w i l l convey these negative f e e l i n g s to the c h i l d r e n (Edwards, 1978, p. 57). Translated  i n t o terms of the present r e s e a r c h , t h i s  review of the l i t e r a t u r e would suggest  that t e a c h e r s , upon  hearing c e r t a i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n d e v i a t i o n s w i l l  immediately  r e a c t with a stereotyped judgment and w i l l a c c o r d i n g l y r a t e the speaker  lower on a l l measures, r e g a r d l e s s of h i s a c t u a l  characteristics.  As suggested  i n the l i t e r a t u r e , v a r i a b l e s  such as teacher e t h n i c i t y , language background and years of experience w i l l be i n c l u d e d .  36 CHAPTER I I I :  DEVELOPMENT OF SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L SCALES  Introduction The t e c h n i q u e o f s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l was c h o s e n t o measure t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t s The m a j o r c r i t e r i a the  f o r choosing  3. t h e r e p o r t e d  raters'  evaluations  ranging  from  t o use o b j e c t  specific  attitude  adjectives in eliciting  of objects.  reliabilities  evidence of v a l i d i t y from  t o other  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the scale  .83 t o a s h i g h  scales ranging  stimuli.  t y p e o f s c a l e were 1.  s i m p l i c i t y o f such a s c a l e r e l a t i v e  s c a l e s , 2. t h e a b i l i t y and  this  t o the speech  Test - r e t e s t  a s .97 h a v e been r e p o r t e d  and  i s apparent i n c o r r e l a t i o n s with  other  .74 t o .82 (Shaw and W r i g h t , 1 9 6 7 , p . 3 0 ) .  The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s u s e d by t h e S s i n evaluating for  t h e s p e e c h s a m p l e s were d e v e l o p e d  t h i s task  Construction in this  and were t e s t e d u s i n g  specifically  f a c t o r and i t e m  o f the b i o g r a p h i c a l data sheet i s a l s o  analysis. included  chapter.  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  Scales  The c o n c e p t o f ' s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l ' 1957) o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e s  (Osgood e t a l . ,  a t t i t u d e as q u a n t i f i e d s e t s o f  responses t o b i p o l a r s c a l e s .  The e v a l u a t i v e  factor i n  a t t i t u d e m e a s u r e s t h e d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward t h e o b j e c t s the  bipolar scales  these objects  being  r a t e d and  f o c u s d i r e c t l y on t h e o b j e c t s , as i t i s  which s t i m u l a t e  the scored  responses  (Agheyisi  and  Fishman, 1970).  Attitude  i s further defined  i n t e r n a l s t a t e aroused by the s t i m u l a t i o n and  as  the  subsequent  e x t e r n a l response i s a measure of t h i s a t t i t u d e . sense, a t t i t u d e may  be considered  object  In making language e v a l u a t i o n s hears speech s t i m u l i and  the a d j e c t i v e s respondents can  specific.  the l i s t e n e r u s u a l l y  The  continuum, as  each a d j e c t i v e on an  i n t e n s i t y scale  from p o s i t i v e through n e u t r a l to negative, following  tall  highly pos.  such a  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between  i m p l i e s an u n d e r l y i n g score  In t h i s  then r a t e s them a g a i n s t  s e r i e s of b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s .  the  as i n the  example: very somewhat : pos. : pos.  somewhat : neutral : neg.  Choosing from a s e t of provided problem of the  listeners' failing  dimension o n l y and  very highly : neg. : neg.  categories  to focus on  short  removes  the  the  expected  seems to p r o v i d e a p r a c t i c a l measurement  technique f o r e l i c i t i n g  and  quantifying  evaluations  of  speech. S e l e c t i o n of The B)  Adjectives  a d j e c t i v e s used to c o n s t r u c t  the s c a l e s  (Appendix  were a composite of s p e c i f i c a d j e c t i v e s found i n p r e v i o u s  research  (Lambert, 1967;  Bourhis et a l . , 1975; 1978).  Strongman and  W i l l i a m s et a l . , 1976;  In some cases the o p p o s i t e s  more c l o s e l y to r e g i o n a l speech. items were v a l i d and  Woosley,  1967;  Saint-Jacques,  were r e v i s e d to conform  I t was  f e l t that  reliable in e l i c i t i n g  these  evaluations  of  38 s p e e c h i n t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s and i t was e x p e c t e d would perform  i n t h e same manner i n t h e p r e s e n t  This technique of developing was common t h r o u g h o u t  semantic  1971(a)),  research.  differential  the research l i t e r a t u r e  and W o o s l e y , 1967; G i l e s ,  they  scales  (Strongman  though the  a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f t h i s method o f s e l e c t i o n h a s been criticized  (Lee, 1971).!  A f t e r a l l 19 i t e m s had been s e l e c t e d , t h e y randomly ordered  t o produce the f i n a l  i d e n t i c a l f o r a l l e i g h t speakers  were  s c a l e , which  was  as w e l l as f o r t h e  practice voice. In included speaker  a d d i t i o n t o these  items, the p i l o t  the open-ended q u e s t i o n :  study  also  perceived e t h n i c i t y of  is  .  F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of the S c a l e The 19 v a r i a b l e s were i n i t i a l l y subtests labelled  classified  1) p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and 3) s o c i a l d i s t a n c e  into  2) s p e e c h  (Table 1 ) .  The p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were t a k e n l a r g e l y Lambert  three  (1967) and were i n c l u d e d i n an a t t e m p t  to  from  elicit  e v a l u a t i o n s w h i c h were on what c o u l d be t e r m e d a  ^ P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ( G i l e s and B o u r h i s , 1 9 7 3 ; W i l l i a m s e t a l . , 1976) s t a t e s t h a t a more v a l i d s e l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e i s a v a i l a b l e through the e l i c i t a t i o n o f a d j e c t i v e s from a s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e one i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t and then a p p l y i n g these a d j e c t i v e s t o the s c a l e . T h i s was a t t e m p t e d by t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h e r b u t t h e r e s u l t s were unsatisfactory for scale construction.  Table 1 Subtests  1 (Personal)  2 (Speech)  3(Social  likeable character conscientious ambitious sociable nervous/calm self-confidence humour intelligence attractive education trustworthy hard-working conservative  speaking a b i l i t y distinctness standardness  s i m i l a r i t y to s e l f d e s i r a b i l i t y as colleague  Distance)  Table 3 Subtests  1 (Personal)  2 (Speech)  3 (Social Distance) 4 (Work)  likeable character sociable trustworthy standardness  nervous/calm self-confidence intelligence education standardness speaking a b i l i t y distinctness  likeable humour attractive conservative similarity to self desirability as colleague  conscientious ambitious hard-working conservative  p e r s o n a l i t y dimension. found i n W i l l i a m s was  The  speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  (1976) and  to determine p o s s i b l e  the  i n c l u s i o n of these  speech d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s of  speakers, even though they were a l l reading a passage.  Bourhis et a l . (1975) provided the  distance the  variables the  standardized two  s c a l e s which were added to i n v e s t i g a t e  social the  l i s t e n e r s were w i l l i n g to accord the speakers.  distance The  d i v i s i o n of the v a r i a b l e s  i n t o these subgroups was  of an attempt to f i n d any  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s in attitude  Ss might have along these dimensions. would be  that the  result the  An example of t h i s  l i s t e n e r s might have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e  toward the p e r s o n a l i t y of the greater  the  s o c i a l distance  speaker but  still  grant them  than t h i s p e r s o n a l dimension would  indicate. After  the data had  been c o l l e c t e d a Factor  was  performed using  The  number of f a c t o r s to be r e t a i n e d  the K a i s e r after  the  the AGFAP package  (Hakstian, was  completed.  These three  19 v a r i a b l e s could  i n terms of f i v e u n d e r l y i n g  common f a c t o r s .  f i v e orthogonal rotated  ( f o l l o w i n g a varimax r o t a t i o n ) whether the v a r i a b l e s c l u s t e r e d Using the c r i t e r i o n of ( a f t e r an AGFAP run  using  image a n a l y s i s  methods suggested that the  of the v a r i a b l e s on  1977).  determined  Guttman r u l e , the SCREE t e s t and f a c t o r e x t r a c t i o n was  Analysis  be The  interpreted loadings  factors  were examined to determine i n meaningful groups.  i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y , i t was  r e t a i n i n g four  f a c t o r s and  decided  i n which a  v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n was p e r f o r m e d ) t h a t f o u r u s e d i n c l u s t e r i n g t h e 19 v a r i a b l e s . c l u s t e r e d on e a c h f a c t o r c o u l d instead of only was t h e n t r i e d four  three using  be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r  as h y p o t h e s i z e d .  An o b l i q u e  subtests solution  a Harris-Kaiser transformation  The f i n a l  on t h e  component  r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 2.  v a r i a b l e was c o n s i d e r e d  be  The v a r i a b l e s w h i c h  f a c t o r s r e t a i n e d from the p r i n c i p a l  extraction.  f a c t o r s should  A  t o l o a d s u b s t a n t i a l l y on a f a c t o r  when i t s p a t t e r n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h a t f a c t o r was g r e a t e r i n absolute  value  than  loadings  i t was  .30.  included  When a v a r i a b l e had two i n two  significant  subtests.  As c a n be s e e n i n t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s , a new f a c t o r , labelled  'work' emerged o v e r and a b o v e t h o s e  t o be p r e s e n t regrouped and  i n the instrument.  hypothesized  The 19 v a r i a b l e s a l s o  themselves a c c o r d i n g l y w i t h i n the four  a new p a t t e r n a p p e a r e d  (Table  3).  This  new  subtests pattern  shows t h a t t h e l i s t e n e r s were r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s p e a k e r s i n t e r m s o f t h e s e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s and e v a l u a t i n g  them  accordingly.  reflect  In other  words, the e v a l u a t i o n s  four  b a s i c d i m e n s i o n s o f j u d g e m e n t i n s t e a d o f 19 d i m e n s i o n s corresponding hypothesized  t o the i n d i v i d u a l s c a l e s or the p r e v i o u s l y three.  In view of these f i n d i n g s a l l subsequent analyses done u s i n g  the four  pertaining  t o work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was i n c o r p o r a t e d  the  study.  subtests  and an a d d i t i o n a l  were  hypothesis into  42 Table  2  Factor Loading of Teacher Responses to 19 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s  Factors Variables likeable character conscientious ambitious sociable nervous/calm self-confidence humour intelligence attractive education trustworthy speaking a b i l i t y distinctness standardness hard-working conservative s i m i l a r i t y to s e l f d e s i r a b i l i t y as colleague  I  II  III  IV  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18  -.05 .17 -.06 .21 .12 1.06* .82* -.10 .58* .07 .72* -.12 .53* .65* .51* .06 -.00 .13  -.43* -.01 .10 -.27 -.15 .27 -.10 -.87* -.03 -.58* .29 .20 -.24 -.05 -.12 -.08 .61* -.68*  .50* .69* .08 -.02 .75* -.00 -.03 -.00 .13 .26 .14 .92* .07 .08 -.34* -.20 .21 -.25  -.07 -.07 -.89* -.52* .21 .36 .23 .09 -.16 -.01 -.09 -.06 -.09 -.12 -.29 -.84* -.66* -.17  19  .04  -.40*  .24  * f a c t o r l o a d i n g s above  .30  -.32  43  Item A n a l y s i s The  19 items were f u r t h e r analysed using the LERTAP  item a n a l y s i s package were checked The  (Nelson, 1974)  and  the four s u b t e s t s  t o see i f the instrument was  r e s u l t s f o r speakers  i n Table 4.  unidimensional.  number 1, 4, 6 and  8 are presented  These four speakers were the same f o r a l l Ss  i n both p r e s e n t a t i o n s and  i t was  felt  that these  results  would be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l speakers and s u b t e s t s i n the study.  6  Cronbach's s t r a t i f i e d from  alpha f o r the instrument  .81 to .85, which i n d i c a t e s that the instrument  not as u n i d i m e n s i o n a l as d e s i r e d .  ranged was  In other words, the four  s u b t e s t s were somewhat c o r r e l a t e d and were not d i s c r e t e categories testing d i s t i n c t attitudes. g e n e i t y was  expected  more than one  T h i s l e v e l of homo-  i n that c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s occupied  category.  Hoyt's estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y ranged which i n d i c a t e s that the instrument has B i o g r a p h i c a l Data  from  Sheet  s t r u c t e d by the researcher and attached to the d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s d i s t r i b u t e d to the s u b j e c t s The purpose of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  also  con-  semantic (Appendix  to e l i c i t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to apply to the r e s e a r c h hypotheses as to a s s i s t  .91,  internal consistency.  An open-ended b i o g r a p h i c a l data sheet was  A).  .88 to  teacher as w e l l  i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample p o p u l a t i o n .  44 Table 4 LERTAP Speakers  Personal  Speech  Social Distance  Work  T o t a l Test  1  4  6  8  Hoyt Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y  .73  .75  .80  .73  Hoyt Estimate of  Reliability  .83  .72  .87  .80  Hoyt Estimate of  Reliability  .71  .71  .64  .71  Hoyt Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y  .77  .75  .68  .86  Hoyt Estimate of  .91  .88  .91  .91  .83  .81  .85  .83  Cronbach's Alpha  Reliability  45 CHAPTER IV:  RESEARCH PROCEDURES  Introduction The  purpose o f t h i s chapter  i s to g i v e the reader  a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the sample p o p u l a t i o n , the experimental  procedures and the m a t e r i a l s used i n t h i s  study.  A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p i l o t study w i l l a l s o be given. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Sample P o p u l a t i o n The  s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d o f 119 p r a c t i c i n g and p r o s p e c t i v e  teachers a t t e n d i n g day, l a t e afternoon  and evening  a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Of these  m a j o r i t y attended 94).  l a t e afternoon  The remaining  and evening  Ss (n = 25) attended  pective  c l a s s e s (n =  those  the other c l a s s e s were a combination of p r o s -  (n = 24) and p r a c t i c i n g  (n = 70) t e a c h e r s .  o r i g i n a l i n t e n t to use o n l y p r a c t i c i n g to i n c l u d e student teacher  119 Ss the  day c l a s s e s and  these S_s were a l l p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s , while attending  courses  The  teachers was expanded  teachers when i t was found t h a t the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r a c t i c i n g versus  teachers and years o f teaching experience  prospective  d i d not a f f e c t  the r a t i n g s . Teachers who taught many d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t areas i n the s c h o o l system were i n c l u d e d to avoid a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n that might be more s e n s i t i z e d to language variations.  I t should a l s o be noted t h a t i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y  46 a l a r g e percentage of these p r a c t i c i n g teachers would be graduate students and t h i s must be c o n s i d e r e d when g e n e r a l i z i n g any  findings.  P r i o r t o the date of the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n a l l c l a s s e s had been asked by t h e i r p r o f e s s o r s i f they were w i l l i n g give up c l a s s time to partake i n an experiment.  to  A l l classes  agreed and t h i s f a c t combined with the f a c t that a l l Ss had the freedom  t o withdraw a t any time d u r i n g the  experiment  makes them v o l u n t e e r s . Despite t h i s apparent s e l e c t i o n by convenience, there was of  no reason to expect v a s t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s type l i s t e n e r and the type of l i s t e n e r  Vancouver s c h o o l s . be f a i r l y  I t was  felt  found teaching i n  that these l i s t e n e r s would  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as they came from a l l d i f f e r e n t  schools and areas i n Vancouver and taught d i v e r s e s u b j e c t matter. O v e r a l l there were more female than male s u b j e c t s (n = 96 and 23, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and the age range was through 52, with the m a j o r i t y f a l l i n g  from  21  i n the 20 - 29 category  (n = 63) . The s u b j e c t s ' years of t e a c h i n g experience ranged 0 f o r a p r o s p e c t i v e teacher to more than 11 y e a r s .  from  I t was  found t h a t the m a j o r i t y had 0 years of experience (n = 49), while the second l a r g e s t group f e l l - 5 years  (n = 33).  i n t o the category of 1  A broader comparison  between p r o s p e c t i v e  and experienced teachers r e v e a l e d that i n t o t a l numbers,  there were more experienced  (n = 70) than  i n e x p e r i e n c e d (n  = 49) t e a c h e r s . In terms o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y students group (n = 34) taught  l e s s than  taught,  the l a r g e s t  20% of such students and  the e t h n i c i t y o f the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n i t s e l f was overwhelmingly of Western or E a s t e r n European descent I t appears that except  (n = 101).  f o r being remarkably homogeneous  i n terms o f e t h n i c i t y the t o t a l s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n does reach a degree o f h e t e r o g e n e i t y which would be found  i n the  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n the researcher wishes to g e n e r a l i z e t o . A complete sample p r o f i l e  i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix E.  Development of the Test Passage A t e s t passage  (Appendix C) c o n t a i n i n g maximum  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the e l i c i t a t i o n of the p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n s o f the s i x f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers by the researcher English S k i l l s  from a passage found  was adapted  i n Mastering  (McClelland e t a l . , 1978:  Essential  p. 90). The  context o f the passage was both simple and e m o t i o n a l l y n e u t r a l and r e q u i r e d approximately  18 seconds to read.  It  was f e l t t h a t 18 seconds was long enough f o r the l i s t e n e r s to i d e n t i f y the accent and to formulate  a judgment  without  f i n d i n g e i t h e r the passage too long or the task too t e d i o u s . Though i t has been suggested 1971)  i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Lee,  that f r e e speech samples are more i n d i c a t i v e of n a t u r a l  speech and thus more l i k e l y to e l i c i t responses,  authentic  listener  a reading sample was used i n the present  research  48 to c o n t r o l f o r grammar and vocabulary. passage was  the speech s t i m u l i  1970;  context of  Carranza  been argued that the c o n t e x t u a l domain i s very important  and Ryan, 1975;  S e l e c t i o n of the Stimulus  (Agheyisi and  Voices  the f o l l o w i n g accent groups: 2) Punjabi-accented  speakers  category and  from  1) standard Canadian E n g l i s h ,  E n g l i s h , 3) Cantonese-accented E n g l i s h ,  4) Quebecois-accented Two  Fishman,  W i l l i a m s , 1976).  Speech samples were s e l e c t e d by the researcher  and  the  a l s o c o n t r o l l e d through the use of a reading  passage, though i t has of  The  English.  were s e l e c t e d to represent each  accent  i n the three f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d groups these  two  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o h e a v i l y and s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers.  The degree of accent  was  determined by the researcher  and was  the  dependent on  presence of s p e c i f i c f o r e i g n - a c c e n t f e a t u r e s r e l a t i v e  to  standard E n g l i s h speech. For t h i s experiment the matched-guise technique considered  i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the range of  accents and accentedness necessary.  Two  basic  i n using matched-guise were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d : g u i s e s i n two to  f i n d and  guise  languages  (or i n two  2) Ss can e a s i l y  (Saint-Jacques, 1978)  speakers  was  were used.  Any  difficulties 1) p e r f e c t  accent groups) are  hard  i d e n t i f y the v o i c e of a p e r f e c t and  as a r e s u l t o n l y n a t i v e  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the speech  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the speakers  w i t h i n and  between each  49 category were purposely overlooked  even though  speaker d i f f e r e n c e s have been suggested ( A n i s f e l d et a l . , 1964;  important  i n previous  research  Lambert e t a l . , 1966).  Male v o i c e s were used f o r the speech stimulus and a d d i t i o n , l a r g e l y due  to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of such  o n l y a d u l t v o i c e s were used. age  levels  Since teachers who  decided  taught a l l  t h a t a d u l t v o i c e s would be  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the type of f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d f r e q u e n t l y heard  rehearse  passage was  the reading passage.  The  with  experimenter a l s o  the p r o n u n c i a t i o n and meaning  about the g e n e r a l procedure f o r t a p i n g . taped  and  i n as n a t u r a l a sounding manner  A natural-sounding  n e c e s s i t y i n order  manner was  p e r c e i v e d as a  to have language samples that were  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of some universe of speakers (Williams, 1976)  The  as o f t e n as needed to ensure that i t had  been r e c i t e d verbatim as p o s s i b l e .  speech  given time to become f a m i l i a r  answered q u e s t i o n s concerning words and  fairly  by the sample p o p u l a t i o n .  Each speaker was  of  speakers,  (K - a d u l t s ) i n the s c h o o l system were i n c l u d e d  as s u b j e c t s , i t was  and  in  and  and  discourse  to keep a r t i f i c i a l i t y to a minimum.  Development of the Tapes A f t e r a l l the o r i g i n a l samples had editing  f o r the f i n a l  tapes began.  been  recorded,  These f i n a l  tapes  s i s t e d of the best r e c o r d i n g of the e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l p l u s one  standard E n g l i s h p r a c t i c e v o i c e .  read the t e s t passage only once.  conspeakers  Each speaker  To develop p r e s e n t a t i o n A the speakers were ordered, with q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and randomized develop p r e s e n t a t i o n B v o i c e was to  (Appendix D).  speaker was t h i s was  once again to  The p r a c t i c e  the same f o r both p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  the randomization procedure was  randomly  The  test  qualification  that a standard E n g l i s h  to occupy p o s i t i o n number 1.  I t was  felt  that  a necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n to ensure that the Ss  would not, upon h e a r i n g the accented v o i c e ,  immediately  guess the a c t u a l i n t e n t of the experiment and perhaps to p a r t i c i p a t e or g i v e unauthentic responses. t h i s response was experiment,  Even  refuse  though  a p o s s i b i l i t y f u r t h e r along i n the  i t was decided the Ss might f e e l more comfortable  and l e s s i n c l i n e d  to r e a c t i n such a manner as the study  progressed. In  a d d i t i o n to the 18 seconds allowed f o r each  speaker  on the tape, a pause of 45 seconds preceded by a 'beep* s i g n a l to begin f i l l i n g  i n the s c a l e was  provided to g i v e  time f o r the Ss to f i l l  i n the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  s c a l e before the next speaker's r e c o r d i n g was  rating  played.  At  the  end of the 45 seconds a standard E n g l i s h v o i c e asked  the  Ss to turn to the next r a t i n g s c a l e .  t h i s v o i c e was  both to ensure t h a t the s u b j e c t s turned the  page and to prevent them from comparing The f i n a l minutes tire  The purpose of  the s t i m u l u s v o i c e s .  e d i t i o n s of both taped p r e s e n t a t i o n s were 14  l o n g , a time span c o n s i d e r e d not long enough to  the l i s t e n e r s .  51 The  original  speech  samples  were r e c o r d e d u s i n g a Sony  C a s s e t t e - C o r d e r TC-182 and were r e p r o d u c e d o n t o a W o l l e n s a k 3M:2820 AV t o d e v e l o p t h e f i n a l II  tapes.  ( C 0 2 ) c a s s e t t e t a p e s were u s e d r  and  final  stimulus materials.  a Wollensak  Sony UCX-S 6 0 , Type  f o r both the o r i g i n a l  The t a p e s were p r e s e n t e d on  3M:2520 AV i n a l l t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n s .  V a l i d a t i o n o f t h e Speech Samples To e n s u r e identified pilot of  t h a t each  a c c u r a t e l y from h i s speech, t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e  s t u d y were a s k e d  each  s p e a k e r ' s a c c e n t g r o u p c o u l d be  t o w r i t e down t h e p e r c e i v e d  speaker.  The o v e r a l l identification  accuracy of the i n d i v i d u a l  s p e a k e r s was h i g h , r a n g i n g f r o m 80% t o  100% w i t h a mean o f 88.8%. slightly-accented  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  here can perhaps  The l o w p e r c e n t a g e  be e x p l a i n e d by t h e i n a b i l i t y o f n o n -  t r a i n e d people t o detect s l i g h t  v a r i a t i o n s or the i n a b i l i t y  t o c l a s s i f y accent  when o n l y m i n i m a l c u e s a r e g i v e n . o p i n i o n t h a t the l a t t e r case  to  a d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c group  accent variations  I t i s the researcher's  i s a more v a l i d  Ss p e r c e i v e d the s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d  explanation.  speakers as b e l o n g i n g  ( i . e . not 'English  b u t t h e y were s i m p l y u n a b l e t o a c c u r a t e l y group.  of the  s p e a k e r s was much l e s s a c c u r a t e , r a n g i n g  f r o m 32% t o 59% w i t h a mean o f 4 5 . 3 % .  linguistically  subject's  o f t h e s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s and t h e  heavily-accented  All  ethnicity  Canadian')  identify  I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y had t h e a b i l i t y  that  to perceive a  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between h e a v i l y and  s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speech  as i s apparent by these r e s u l t s ; even though i n a number of cases the r e s u l t s tended to be  incorrect.  In l i g h t of the above f i n d i n g s a f u r t h e r attempt made to v a l i d a t e the speech samples.  Based on  was  the phono-  l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n s present i n each v o i c e , a l i n g u i s t accurately  classified  a l l speakers according  to t h e i r  ethnicity. The  i m p l i c a t i o n s these f i n d i n g s might have f o r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  the  in a later  chapter. Format of the T e s t i n g The  t e s t i n g was  assistant external and  Sessions c a r r i e d out  in eight sessions  to the experiment to avoid  eight sessions given  The was  only departure from u n i f o r m i t y  groups.  The  two  A and  orders  receiving  58 Ss r e c e i v i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n  At the beginning of the s e s s i o n s  B.  booklets containing  i n s t r u c t i o n pages, 9 pages of semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l and A).  i n the  o r d e r s were almost  e q u a l l y d i v i d e d among the groups with 61 Ss presentation  standardized  the d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e s e n t a t i o n  to the v a r i o u s  an  contamination  i n order to reduce e r r o r s the procedure was  for a l l groups.  by  a b i o g r a p h i c a l data sheet were d i s t r i b u t e d  2  scales  (Appendix  S u b j e c t s were t o l d a cover s t o r y which, keeping i n  mind the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s u b j e c t probable a b i l i t y to guess the  population  r e a l i n t e n t of the  and  their  study,  was  53 not f a r from the t r u t h . the study was  They were t o l d that the purpose of  to examine the extent to which d i f f e r e n t  r e a c t to d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of speech and q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be answered when i t was At no time  people  that more  over  (Rey,  1979).  i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s to the s u b j e c t s were  judge-  ments of races or c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s mentioned. The the cover  f i r s t page of g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s which contained s t o r y and  explained the t e s t i n g procedure  was  read aloud by the t e s t e r while the s u b j e c t s f o l l o w e d i n their booklets.  Page two,  which contained  the use of the 7-point r a t i n g s c a l e s , was  instructions similarly  taking s p e c i a l note of the Ss' need to f i l l  on  read,  i n a l l the  s c a l e s and c e l l s c a r e f u l l y to i n d i c a t e t h e i r judgement of the degree to which the speaker characteristic.  possessed  the named  Next the t e s t passage was  read to the Ss  to  f a m i l i a r i z e them with the content and  to  concentrate only on the p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n each  speech sample  (Lambert e t a l . ,  When the Ss f e l t p r a c t i c e tape was ratings.  to leave them f r e e  1960).  f a m i l i a r with the i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  played and  the  the l i s t e n e r s made t h e i r  At t h i s p o i n t , a l l questions were answered  and  the formal t e s t i n g s e s s i o n began. A f t e r a l l e i g h t speakers  had  were g i v e n f i v e minutes to f i l l  been e v a l u a t e d , the Ss  out the s h o r t b i o g r a p h i c a l  data sheet attached to the back of the booklet and  the  54 b o o k l e t s were then c o l l e c t e d . each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was Pilot  The approximate l e n g t h of  thirty-five  minutes.  Study In order to i d e n t i f y p r o c e d u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s  a c t u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the experiment, a p i l o t c a r r i e d out a t I t was willing  i n the study  was  UBC.  found that f o r the most p a r t s u b j e c t s were  to cooperate a f t e r  the cover s t o r y and the procedures  were e x p l a i n e d to them and t h a t the t o t a l l e n g t h o f time for a d m i n i s t e r i n g  the experiment was  as adequate as expected.  The data from t h i s study were a l s o used to d e v i s e a s u i t a b l e method of s c o r i n g f o r f u t u r e data a n a l y s i s .  The f a c t  that  the Ss i n the p i l o t study were f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l sample p o p u l a t i o n made t h i s p o s s i b l e .  As noted i n  the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , v a l i d a t i o n of the speech samples  was  another purpose of t h i s study. I t should a l s o be noted here that i n both the p i l o t and the a c t u a l experiment there were some unexpected r e a c t i o n s which may of t h i s study.  or may  subject  not have i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s  Ss were g i v e n the freedom to withdraw  at  any time d u r i n g the experiment and a very small percentage d i d take advantage  of t h i s by walking out a f t e r  page of i n s t r u c t i o n s was t h i s may  read to them.  the  first  An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r  be the f a c t that the Ss f e l t uncomfortable making  judgements  based on speech alone.  This a t t r i t i o n  might  have been avoided by the t e s t e r s t r e s s i n g the importance of  55 the study to the main r e s e a r c h e r and should be c o n s i d e r e d for future research. Those who  d i d remain  f i l l e d out a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n as  requested, though i n s e v e r a l cases notes to the r e s e a r c h e r were w r i t t e n a t the bottom of the b i o g r a p h i c a l data sheet. These notes commented e i t h e r on the format of the  instrument  i n that n e u t r a l should have been e a s i e r to f i n d , or on the p e r c e i v e d t r u e i n t e n t of the study.  The  p r e j u d i c e d and/or r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s was of such comments.  Two  the task, i . e . , how  Ss noted  search f o r  the o v e r a l l  consensus  the d i f f i c u l t y of completing  c o u l d they p o s s i b l y judge  attractiveness  from speech alone, and had doubts as to the v a l i d i t y of any future  results.  Twenty-five s u b j e c t s were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study  and  s i n c e the means and v a r i a n c e s of t h i s group were s i m i l a r those found  i n the a c t u a l study, a l l the data were combined  to c r e a t e a l a r g e r s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n . S c o r i n g of the  Instrument  Response data on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s were q u a n t i f i e d by the assignment  of the numbers one  seven to correspond with the pole marked with an i n Appendix B.  The assignment  of one  through asterisk  to the negative  a d j e c t i v e and of seven to the p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e of these b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s was tabulation.  to  c o n s i s t e n t throughout  the data  An example of the s c o r i n g procedure  unsociable  1:2:  3 : 4 : 5 : 6 : 7  follows:  sociable  56 Subsequently  matched with these response  p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r s and identified  the s e l e c t e d  teacher  f o r t h i s research p r o j e c t  data were the characteristics  (Appendix  E).  A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s Three techniques were used of  f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis  the data. The  presence  initial  step i n data a n a l y s i s was  of p r e s e n t a t i o n order e f f e c t s .  to determine  the  An a n a l y s i s of  v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e with repeated measures was  performed  two ways on each of the four dependent v a r i a b l e s .  Both  three l e v e l s  (heavy,  (heavy,  s l i g h t , none) and  s l i g h t ) , of accent as the t r i a l  were found  with  factor.  i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r s  to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t , another  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was  levels  f a c t o r were used  p r e s e n t a t i o n s A and B as the grouping A f t e r the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s  two  then executed  and  interspeaker c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  was  the grouping  repeated measures to examine l i s t e n e r  Listener  characteristics  f a c t o r with the four s u b t e s t s as the  trial  factor. Using the r e s u l t s from t h i s l a s t a n a l y s i s , comparisons between the speakers were c a l c u l a t e d using the B o n f e r r o n i t-test  ( K i r k , 1968).  Conclusion Chapter  IV began with a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the  s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by an o u t l i n e of the  procedures  57  and m a t e r i a l s used i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The  chapter  concluded  with a p l a n f o r the a n a l y s i s of d a t a .  following  chapter presents the r e s u l t s of data  The analysis.  58 CHAPTER V:  RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a and of the s t a t i s t i c a l seven hypotheses Presentation Prior  analyses of the data r e l e v a n t  tested  Order  d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and  i n t o the t r i a l  The t o be  two  ways by  the  factor constant  as r e c o r d e d  i n Table  the  p  found  5.  l e v e l s of accent  p e r s o n a l and  r a t i o , F=4.24, d f = l / 1 1 7 , variable  four  factor.  i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f two  v a r i a b l e s of speech,  of  incorporating d i f f e r e n t accent  analysis resulted in insignificant  distance  Keeping  r e s u l t s f o r t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f a c c e n t were  insignificant, The  the grouping  influence  investigated using  a repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e .  levels  the  Analysis  o r d e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s was  d a t a were a n a l y s e d  to  in this investigation.  t o the main a n a l y s i s , the p o s s i b l e  presentation  the r e s u l t s  i n t o the  f i n d i n g s f o r the dependent work.  <0.05 was  A significant  found  f o r the  F  social  (Table 6 ) .  In l i g h t of the i n s i g n i f i c a n t r a t i o s f o r a l l the dependent measures t e s t e d  i n b o t h a n a l y s e s and  p r e t a b i l i t y of t h i s r e s u l t ,  the  uninter-  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s  was  not c o n s i d e r e d  i n d i c a t i v e of a presentation  due  t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t o c c u r r i n g  other  ratio  order e f f e c t  by c h a n c e a l o n e .  59  In summary, when a l l speakers p r e s e n t a t i o n order as a grouping  were compared with  f a c t o r , only  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on t h i s grouping  one  f a c t o r was  found.  The p o s s i b i l i t y of t h i s o c c u r r i n g by chance alone and u n i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y of i t s occurrence  the  l e a d the researcher  to  r e j e c t i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n favour o f the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of the other r a t i o s .  P r e s e n t a t i o n order d i f f e r e n c e s was  ignored i n subsequent a n a l y s e s .  thus  60 Table 5 F R a t i o s f o r t h e f o u r d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s when p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r t e s t e d and t h r e e l e v e l s o f a c c e n t  used  Dependent Measures Speech Prob.  F  .86  .3549  Personal F Prob. 3.17  .0775  Social Distance F Prob. 3.40  .0675  Work F  Prob  1.92  .1683  Table 6 F R a t i o s f o r t h e f o u r d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s when p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r t e s t e d and two l e v e l s o f a c c e n t u s e d Dependent Measures  F .60  *p  Speech Prob. .4385  <.05  Personal F Prob. 2.95  .0885  Social Distance F Prob. 4.24  .0417*  F 2.20  Work  Prob  .1403  61 Listener  Characteristics  H y p o t h e s i s seven proposes t h a t t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s will  n o t h a v e an a f f e c t on t h e e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e s p e e c h  samples.  P e r f o r m i n g a r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s  v a r i a n c e s , s i x independent v a r i a b l e s were used as t h e g r o u p i n g f a c t o r f o u r s u b t e s t s as t h e t r i a l individual  characteristics)  and w e r e a n a l y s e d w i t h  factor.  independent v a r i a b l e s  (teacher  of  The  influence  the  of the  i s presented i n t h i s  A l s o i n c l u d e d are the i n t e r s p e a k e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  section.  which  show any r a t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s p e a k e r s i n the  language s t i m u l i .  Any  i n t e r a c t i o n between t e a c h e r  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s p e a k e r s and  i t s significance  i s also  noted. To r e d u c e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f T a b l e s 7 t o 12 t h e diagram w i l l  following  s e r v e as a l e g e n d ( D i a g r a m 1 ) . Diagram 1  Legend f o r Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Source Listener  MS Characteristics  Tables DF  F  (LC)  Error Speaker  (S)  Interaction  (LC x S)  Error Practicing  vs P r o s p e c t i v e  As s t a t e d original  intent  Teachers  i n Chapter IV, Research P r o c e d u r e s , the t o use o n l y p r a c t i c i n g  t e a c h e r s was  expanded  to  i n c l u d e p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s when i t was  w e r e no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s two g r o u p s .  listener  there  b e t w e e n t h e r a t i n g s made by  T a b l e 7 shows t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c on The  found  these  teacher  the r a t i n g s of the four s u b t e s t s . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p r a c t i c i n g  versus  pros-  p e c t i v e t e a c h e r i s t h u s shown t o h a v e an i n s i g n i f i c a n t on t h e r a t i n g s o f t h e f o u r dependent T h i s f i n d i n g was  anticipated  variables.  i n t h a t the  student  t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e d i n the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n d i v i d e d two d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : B.Ed,  p r o g r a m and  Student  w o u l d h a v e been e x p o s e d  similar  i n the f i f t h  t e a c h e r s i n t h e B.Ed,  year program  to teaching experience through  to those of a p r a c t i c i n g  an u n d e r g r a d u a t e  teacher.  degree i n another  t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e p e r se may  Enrollment i n  f a c u l t y and  be l i m i t e d  the time of data c o l l e c t i o n ) ,  o l d e r and  their  t h u s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t would have e x p e r i e n c e s  the t r a n s f e r program r e q u i r e s the s t u d e n t t o have  (at  into  i n the f i n a l year of a  2. t h o s e e n r o l l e d  t r a n s f e r program.  p r a c t i c a and  1. t h o s e  effect  completed  though  t o one  practicum  such s t u d e n t s are  i n p o s s e s s i o n o f a w i d e and  varied  range  generally of  experiences. In  conclusion, i t i s felt  t h a t s u b j e c t homogeneity  t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a n be a t t r i b u t e d Table speaker  t o t h e s e two  7 f u r t h e r n o t e s t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t  differentiations, F =  (7.36), df=7/819, p  <0.01.  (84.51),  (32.08),  on  reasons. inter-  (17.48),  Table 7 Effect of practicing versus prospective teachers on the four dependent variables Speech Rating  Practicing and Prospective Teachers  .84 163.4  1 117  2405.4 57.2 28.5  7 7 819  **p <.01  Personal Rating .01  146.9 68.9  1 117  84.51** 281.4 2.01 11.6 8.8  7 7 819  2.13  Social Distance Rating 69.9 70.0  1 117  32.08** 207.4 1.32 23.2 11.9  7 7 819  1.00  Work Rating 54.2 38.9  1 117  1.39  17.48** 55.9 1.96 8.3 7.6  7 7 819  7.36** 1.10  64  These s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o s  indicate the evaluations of  the e i g h t s p e a k e r s a r e d i f f e r e n t though a d d i t i o n a l  analyses  must be p e r f o r m e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r d i r e c t i o n a n d s i g nificance.  These a n a l y s e s  will  be p r e s e n t e d  i n the section  Interspeaker C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Sex The  e f f e c t o f s e x o n t h e f o u r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was  a l s o f o u n d t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t It and  i sclearly  men s i m i l a r l y  nothing  (Table 8 ) .  i n d i c a t e d by t h e s e r e s u l t s t h a t women rated  the speech s t i m u l i .  There i s a l s o  t o i n d i c a t e t h a t even though a l l s p e a k e r s were  male, t h i s another.  i n f l u e n c e d t h e r a t i n g s o f one s e x more t h a n I t would thus appear t h a t t h e sexes a r e  comparable i n t h e i r  e v a l u a t i o n s o f speech and i n s p i t e o f  l i t e r a t u r e p o i n t i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t women more t h a n men tend  t o s p e a k t h e more s t a n d a r d  form o f a language  ( T r u d g i l l , 1 9 7 4 ; S c h e r e r a n d G i l e s , 1979) t h i s d o e s n o t i n any  way seem t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e  speech  stimuli.  These r e s u l t s tend has  them f r o m men when r a t i n g  t o support current research  that  shown no d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s i n a s u b j e c t  population  that  included high  u n i v e r s i t y teachers Since  (Rey,  s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and  1978).  sex as a v a r i a b l e engendered c o n s i d e r a b l e  inequality  (n = 9 6 , n = 2 3 ) ,  researcher  t o ignore  this  f i n d i n g enabled the  i t i n subsequent  analyses.  cell  65 Table 8 Effect of sex on the four dependent variables Speech Rating 81.0 162.7  1 117  1560.6 35.0 28.7  7 7 819  **p <.01  Personal Rating .50  Social Distance Rating  Work Rating  38.4 69.8  1 117  .55  21.3 70.4  1 117  .30  38.4 39.1  1 117  .98  54.46** 132.0 1.22 14.4 8.7  7 7 819  15.09** 1.64  93.4 19.5 11.9  7 7 819  7.85** 1.64  34.1 4.1 7.6  7 7 819  4.47** .54  66 Age The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f age d o e s n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e  listeners  i n a n y way a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t F  r a t i o s presented  i n Table  9.  T h i s f i n d i n g was n o t u n e x p e c t e d and a p p e a r s with the r e s u l t s obtained teachers.  for practicing  versus  compatible prospective  I t seems t h a t t e a c h e r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f a g e , w i l l  r a t e spoken language s i m i l a r l y .  I n o t h e r w o r d s , no  p a r t i c u l a r age g r o u p w i t h i n t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n i s more o r l e s s t o l e r a n t o f d e v i a t i o n s i n s p e e c h when c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r age  groups.  Research to  showing e v a l u a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s  age h a s been r e p o r t e d  but  (Lambert e t a l . ,  i t appears t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l  according  1 9 6 6 ; G i l e s , 1970)  disappear  p a s t t h e age  o f 20 when more h o m o g e n e i t y b e t w e e n v a r i o u s a g e s o c c u r s . Years  of Experience C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s f o r t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e and  age  are the i n s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o s f o r years of teaching  experience The  (Table 1 0 ) .  amount o f c o n t a c t a t e a c h e r h a s h a d w i t h  students  d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o i n f l u e n c e t h e way i n w h i c h he o r s h e will  evaluate speech.  in previous research  Similar  f i n d i n g s have been r e p o r t e d  (Williams et a l . ,  f i n d i n g was n o t u n e x p e c t e d .  1976), so t h i s  The s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t a s t e a c h e r s  come i n c o n t a c t w i t h a l a r g e number o f s t u d e n t s varying speaking  abilities  they w i l l  with  be more s y m p a t h e t i c  of  67 Table 9 Effect of age on the four dependent variables Speech Rating 146.1 162.3  2 116  2064.4 31.7 28.7  7 14 812  **p <.01  Personal Rating .90  48.6 69.9  2 116  72.04** 219.3 1.11 12.7 8.7  7 14 812  .69  Social Distance Rating 34.4 70.6  2 116  25.12** 145.9 1.46 15.4 11.9  7 14 812  Work Rating 11.5 39.5  2 116  .29  12.26** 35.5 1.30 11.9 7.5  7 14 812  4.72** 1.59  .49  68 Table 10  !  Effect of years of experience on the four dependent variables Speech Rating  Years of Experience  35.8 165.3  3 115  2279.7 44.5 28.3  7 21 805  **p <.01  Personal Rating .22  50.6 70.0  3 115  80.57** 260.9 260.9 1.57 9.1 8.8  7 21 805  .72  Social Distance Rating 33.3 71.0  3 115  29.69** 29.69** 193.3 1.04 18.5 11.81  7 21 805  Work Rating 39.2 39.0  3 115  1.00  16.40** 33.0 1.57 9.2 7.6  7 21 805  4.37** 1.22  .47  d e v i a t i o n s i n s p e e c h p e r f o r m a n c e was o b v i o u s l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e s e  not .  results.  Percentage o f E t h n i c M i n o r i t y S t u d e n t s Taught T a b l e 11 shows t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t characteristic, taught,  percentage of ethnic minority  on r a t i n g  This  though a n t i c i p a t e d ,  I t was f e l t  rest  direct  i n their  contact  more p o s i t i v e  evaluations.  with  at least  T h i s was o b v i o u s l y  insignificant results  I t c a n be s p e c u l a t e d  that  would l e a d t o i f n o t a a more n e u t r a l  attitude  ethnic  n o t the case though the  may be a t t r i b u t e d  to the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of t h e p e r c e n t a g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n . be  o r more  (n = 75) c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e who  interspeaker  characteristics,  a significant  between t h e l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c speech r a t i n g  considered  on t h e interaction  and s p e a k e r s o n t h e  i s reported.  A more t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s  complexity  taught  (n = 4 4 ) .  In a d d i t i o n t o the s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s  not  As c a n  s e e n i n A p p e n d i x E , t h e m a j o r i t y o f S s t a u g h t 60% o r  fewer e t h n i c s t u d e n t s 60%  large from  t h a n t h e one h e l d by t h o s e who do n o t t e a c h students.  teaching  would d i f f e r e n t i a t e  such students  attitude,  i s somewhat  that the teachers  percentages of minority students the  students  differentiations.  finding,  surprising.  of the  interaction  n e c e s s a r y by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  of the d i f f e r e n t  was  because o f the  combinations of l i s t e n e r  70 Table 11 Effect of percentage of ethnic minority students taught on the four dependent variables Speech Rating 259.5 Percentage of 157.7 Ethnic Minority Students 1944.2 Taught 52.0 27.7 **p <.01  5 113 7 35 791  1.65  Personal Rating 71.8 69.5  5 113  70.26** 246.8 8.2 1.88** 8.8  7 35 791  1.03  Social Distance Rating  Work Rating  150.8 66.4  5 113  2.27  18.7 40.0  5 113  .47  27.97** 169.6 .93 11.5 12.0  7 35 791  14.16** .96  57.8 7.4 7.6  7 35 791  7.59** .97  71 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and occurring Teacher  speaker.  The  by c h a n c e a l o n e was  also considered.  Ethnicity  A n a l y s i s of the l i s t e n e r e t h n i c i t y , y i e l d e d two Table  p o s s i b i l i t y of i t  characteristic,  teacher  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s as r e p o r t e d i n  12. In order  necessary  to interpret this significance  t o e x a m i n e t h e means and  ( T a b l e 13, F i g u r e s 1 and The  means on  i t was  g r a p h s shown b e l o w  2).  the p e r s o n a l r a t i n g  ( T a b l e 13)  clearly  i n d i c a t e a d i v i s i o n between the e v a l u a t i o n s of the and  Southern  E u r o p e a n g r o u p s and  those of the European  A s i a n groups.  The  e i g h t speakers  further substantiate this  ( t = 13.16; p  t h a n by  < 0.01).  (Figure 1).  shows a l l s p e a k e r s  t h e p e r s o n a l s u b t e s t , by  European teachers  t h e E u r o p e a n and  Table  Figure It  Asian  14 a l s o shows a  t h e work v a r i a b l e a s  A t-  were r a t e d more  I n d i a n and  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e E u r o p e a n g r o u p and s u b g r o u p s on  and  p l o t t e d means f o r a l l g r o u p s on a l l  t e s t a n a l y s i s ( T a b l e 14) f a v o u r a b l y on  Indian  Southern teachers  significant  the o t h e r  i n d i c a t e d by T a b l e  three 13  and  2. is interesting  to note  t h a t of a l l the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t e s t e d , o n l y e t h n i c i t y had o n l y on  two d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s .  results  i s complicated  by  teacher  an e f f e c t  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  the f l u c t u a t i o n s  and these  i n r a t i n g s made  by t h e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r s .  The  non-  E u r o p e a n t e a c h e r s , w h i l e g e n e r a l l y g i v i n g more p o s i t i v e  72 Table 12 E f f e c t o f teacher e t h n i c i t y on the four dependent v a r i a b l e s Speech Rating  Teacher Ethnicity  Personal Rating  S o c i a l Distance Rating  Work Rating  370.0 156.6  3 115  2.36  482.5 58.8  3 115  8.21**  139.6 68.2  3 155  2.05  140.4 36.4  3 115  3.85*  354.3 41.3 28.4  7 21 805  12.49** 1.46  34.6 8.6 8.8  7 21 805  3.93** .97  59.1 15.0 11.9  7 21 805  4.98** 1.26  30.6 22.2 7.2  7 21 805  4.23** 3.07**  *p <.05 **p <.01  73 Table 13 Mean r a t i n g s f o r teacher e t h n i c i t y on two dependent v a r i a b l e s  Personal  Work  European (E)  21.3  17.5  A s i a n (A)  22.3  19.1  Indian (I)  26.7  20.4  Southern European (SE)  27.0  19.6  Table 14 t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r teacher e t h n i c i t y on two dependent v a r i a b l e s  Personal I & SE compared  to E & A  I & SE & A compared  **p <.01  to E  13.16**  —  Work  — 7.55**  74 Figure 1 P l o t t e d Means f o r Teacher E t h n i c i t y on  Personal  75 Figure 2 P l o t t e d Means f o r Teacher E t h n i c i t y on Work  Southern European  Asian European Indian  r a t i n g s , are i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s f o r both w i t h i n group s l i g h t and heavy accents and between group accents.  One  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s may  be the s m a l l number  of Ss i n t h i s group (n = 18) compared to the l a r g e r group (n = 101).  A p o r t i o n , or a l l , or these teachers may  guessed the i n t e n t of the study and g i v e n responses,  thereby causing the responses  particular pattern.  unauthentic to d e v i a t e from a  The chance of t h i s o c c u r r i n g i n the  l a r g e r group i s c o n t r o l l e d by the l a r g e r I t may  have  n.  a l s o be the case t h a t the three e t h n i c subgroups  f e e l a degree of s o l i d a r i t y towards the speakers a c c o r d i n g l y r a t e them more f a v o u r a b l y .  and  T h i s would be most  a p p l i c a b l e on the work s u b t e s t where the standard E n g l i s h speakers  are r a t e d the l e a s t f a v o u r a b l y by a l l groups but  i n p a r t i c u l a r , by Southern  Europeans.  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n r a t i n g s a c c o r d i n g to teacher have been found  i n previous research  (Naremore, 1971)  a l s o of i n t e r e s t to t h i s study  i s r e s e a r c h showing  insignificant results.  (1972) found  Miller  race but  no  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between Mexican-American and Anglo teachers when r a t i n g the speech of c h i l d r e n .  The  e t h n i c teachers  (Black American and Cuban N a t i o n a l ) i n Rey  (1978) r a t e d  s i m i l a r l y to the White Americans i n the s u b j e c t sample. T h i s study f u r t h e r supports these r e s u l t s by the i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s on the speech and s o c i a l d i s t a n c e r a t i n g s . The  s u g g e s t i o n that e t h n i c m i n o r i t y teachers have  internalized  the v a l u e s o f the dominant c u l t u r e must be  c o n s i d e r e d here. The and  s i m i l a r i t y o f response made by the e t h n i c  Asian  European teachers on the p e r s o n a l r a t i n g must a l s o be  noted.  Two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e :  1. the A s i a n  teachers have i n t e r n a l i z e d the values o f the dominant s o c i e t y or  2.  the l a r g e A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n  has i n t e g r a t e d so  completely i n t o a 'Canadian' s o c i e t y , as the e t h n i c have, so as t o c r e a t e attitudes.  true  'Canadians' with  Europeans  'Canadian'  These a t t i t u d e s would be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  a c c o r d i n g to e t h n i c i t y . As  i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the  i n t e r a c t i o n between the l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and the work v a r i a b l e was c o n s i d e r e d unnecessary. Interspeaker C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Hypotheses one t o s i x are d i f f e r e n t from h y p o t h e s i s seven i n that they are concerned with d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between the e v a l u a t i o n s  of the speakers r a t h e r  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between the e v a l u a t o r s .  than  As noted i n the  p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , while d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n l i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s y i e l d e d mostly i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  (p <0.01) i n the e v a l u a t i o n s  of the e i g h t speakers.  i s f u r t h e r evidenced i n the  This  v a r i a t i o n s between the means f o r a l l e i g h t speakers on the four dependent v a r i a b l e s  (Table 15).  78 Table 15 Mean r a t i n g s f o r a l l e i g h t speakers four dependent v a r i a b l e s  on the  Speech  Personal  Social Distance  Work  28.5  21.5  24.5  18. 5  23.9  20.5  23.5  18. 4  S l i g h t Quebecois  29.9  21.6  24.5  17. 7  Heavy Quebecois  24.8  20.7  24.4  17. 5  Slight  32.1  21.5  24.7  18. 2  27.4  20.5  23.5  18. 3  Slight Heavy  Chinese Chinese  Punjabi  Heavy Punjabi Standard  English  (1)  28.6  22.3  22.8  16. 5  Standard  English  (2)  38.6  25.2  27.2  17. 3  T h i s s e c t i o n a n a l y s e s each h y p o t h e s i s s e p a r a t e l y , u s i n g t h e mean v a l u e s and t h e B o n f e r r o n i t - t e s t examine both  t h e l o c a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s  among t h e e i g h t s p e a k e r s .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the reader i s  t o A p p e n d i x F, w h i c h  contains the p l o t t e d  for a l l speakers  on t h e f o u r dependent  Hypothesis  Foreign-accented  I -  significance  For a further d e s c r i p t i o n of the  mean v a l u e s and a i d i n d a t a directed  (1 t a i l e d ) t o  means  variables.  versus standard E n g l i s h  speakers Hypothesis will  I proposes  that the foreign-accented  be r a t e d n e g a t i v e l y o n a l l f o u r d e p e n d e n t  speakers  variables  when c o m p a r e d t o t h e s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . T h i s was c l e a r l y  t h e case on both  t h e s p e e c h and  p e r s o n a l s u b t e s t s , a s c a n be s e e n i n T a b l e 16. These f i n d i n g s c o r r e s p o n d  t o those  found  r e s e a r c h u s i n g b o t h t e a c h i n g and n o n - t e a c h i n g  i n previous s u b j e c t s , and  i n d i c a t e t h a t V a n c o u v e r t e a c h e r s a r e n o t exempt  from  p o s s e s s i n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o both t h e speech and p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p members.  They a l s o  support the theory that negative a t t i t u d e s are associated with particular  v a r i e t i e s of non-standard  language.  d i s p l a y negative a t t i t u d e s t o these types of ' f o r e i g n ' and  i n turn attach unfavourable  the speakers  o f such  speech.  Teachers speech  personal characteristics to  As a r e s u l t t h e s p e a k e r s a r e  r a t e d as being u n l i k e a b l e , u n s o c i a b l e , u n t r u s t w o r t h y , e t c . ,  80 Table t-statistics  f o r foreign-accented versus English speakers  Speech  Foreign-accented versus Standard English  **p <.01 ^significance  16  14.51**  i s i n favour  Personal  12.23**  standard  Social Distance  .92  of foreign-accented  Worka  5.72**  speakers  81  i n a d d i t i o n to being uneducated, u n i n t e l l i g e n t poor speaking The  and having  ability.  insignificant finding  for s o c i a l distance i s at  v a r i a n c e with the other two f i n d i n g s .  Difficulty in  e x p l a i n i n g t h i s i s i n c r e a s e d when i t i s seen t h a t the item likeable  i s present i n both s u b t e s t s .  Ss found  f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers  dimension  but l i k e a b l e ,  interpreted feelings  u n l i k e a b l e on a p e r s o n a l  attractive,  on a s o c i a l d i s t a n c e dimension.  I t appears t h a t the  similar  to s e l f , e t c . ,  T h i s r e s u l t can perhaps be  to mean t h a t though the Ss have negative  toward the speech and p e r s o n a l  characteristics,  they are q u i t e w i l l i n g to a s s o c i a t e with such speakers social level.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s r e s u l t does not t e l l us  the l e v e l or type of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n such  on a  the Ss would  afford  speakers. The  result  f o r the work category i s the reverse o f  that hypothesized  i n t h i s study.  The  i n d i c a t e s the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers  significance a r e more  c o n s c i e n t i o u s , ambitious, harder working and c o n s e r v a t i v e than t h e i r standard-accented  counterparts.  This  finding  was u n a n t i c i p a t e d i n terms of the argument o f t h i s  study  and a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s r e s u l t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V I . Thus Hypothesis  I was supported  t o some e x t e n t , though  the r e s u l t s were not as c o n c l u s i v e as p r e d i c t e d .  82  Hypothesis  II -  Stereotyped  a t t i t u d e s to foreign-accented x  speakers The  s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s of teachers toward the three  e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups as presented a l l found  to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t  T h i s can be t r a n s l a t e d  i n Hypothesis  I I were  (Table 17).  to mean t h a t even though negative  a t t i t u d e s toward f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers were p r e s e n t , these a t t i t u d e s d i d not conform to a p a r t i c u l a r group s t e r e o type. To conclude  t h a t there was no s t e r e o t y p i n g a c c o r d i n g  to e t h n i c i t y was an a t t r a c t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , u n t i l an examination speakers  o f the means f o r the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d  (Table 15, F i g u r e 6 (Appendix F)) r e v e a l e d more  negative work r a t i n g s f o r the Quebecois-accented compared t o the other two accent groups.  group when  The r e s u l t s o f  the B o n f e r r o n i t - t e s t performed t o t e s t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e shows a s i g n i f i c a n t t - v a l u e words, the Quebecois-accented being l e s s work-oriented accented  speakers.  (t = 3.37, p <0.01).  In other  speakers were s t e r e o t y p e d a t  than e i t h e r the Chinese  This finding  or P u n j a b i -  i s d i f f e r e n t but neverthe-  l e s s c o n s i s t e n t with the s t e r e o t y p e proposed f o r the Quebecois i n the h y p o t h e s i s .  Though they were not r a t e d as  more l i k e a b l e , humourous, e t c . , the presence  o f these  factors  i n the a t t i t u d e s of the l i s t e n e r s may have mediated the work r a t i n g s t o the extent t h a t the e v a l u a t i o n s became s i g n i f i c a n t l y more n e g a t i v e .  83 Table  17  t - s t a t i s t i c s for stereotyped attitudes foreign-accented speakers  toward  Personal Social Distance  P u n j a b i v s C h i n e s e and Quebecois-accented speakers  .45  Q u e b e c o i s v s C h i n e s e and Punjabi-accented speakers  -  C h i n e s e v s Q u e b e c o i s and Punjabi-accented speakers  -  -  Q u e b e c o i s v s C h i n e s e and Punjabi-accented speakers  -  -  **p  <.01  Work  1.32 2.46 3.37**  84 In not  c o n c l u s i o n , i t can be s a i d that Hypothesis II was  supported, though  i n the process of s t a t i s t i c a l  an a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g was d i s c o v e r e d .  analysis  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of  t h i s f i n d i n g to the o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s was d i s c u s s e d . S l i g h t l y versus h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers on four dependant variables Table 18 r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s f o r hypotheses t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e and s i x .  Reference w i l l be made to both  this  t a b l e and Appendix F d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of each o f the individual  hypotheses.  Hypothesis I I I - S l i g h t l y versus h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers on Speech Hypothesis I I I proposes that the speech of h e a v i l y accented speakers w i l l be more n e g a t i v e l y r a t e d than the speech of s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers w i t h i n the same accent group.  T h i s was  c l e a r l y the case as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 18.  F i g u r e 3 (Appendix F) g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s  the  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the mean r a t i n g s of a l l f o r e i g n accented speakers. It  i s obvious by these r e s u l t s that the l i s t e n e r s were  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g speech on the b a s i s of the p h o n o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s p r e s e n t (or absent) i n the speech H e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speech was of  stimuli.  viewed more n e g a t i v e l y i n s p i t e  the f a c t that i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y d i d not d i m i n i s h with the  i n c r e a s e i n nonstandard f e a t u r e s and the content of the message remained c o n s t a n t .  These f i n d i n g s support the  85 Table  18  t - s t a t i s t i c s f o r slightly-accented versus heavilyaccented speakers w i t h i n accent groups  Speech P e r s o n a l S o c i a l Distance  Work  S l i g h t v e r s u s Heavy C h i n e s e  6. 59**  2. 66  2.35  .12  S l i g h t v e r s u s Heavy Q u e b e c o i s  7. 37**  2. 23  .26  .66  S l i g h t v e r s u s Heavy P u n j a b i  6. 7 3 * *  2. 62  2.68*  .26  *p **p  <.05 <.01  86 c o n t e n t i o n t h a t as speech d i v e r g e s from the standard 'acceptable' form i t w i l l r e c e i v e l e s s f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g s . The  speakers  o f t h i s nonstandard form w i l l a l s o r e c e i v e  l e s s f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g s i n terms of i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  education,  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , e t c . A stereotyped a t t i t u d e toward such speakers  i s r e v e a l e d through the r e s u l t s presented  here.  These r e s u l t s a l s o p o i n t t o the f a c t that the teachers had the a b i l i t y  t o d e t e c t accent broadness and r a t e d the speakers'  speech a c c o r d i n g l y . Thus Hypothesis of  I I I was supported.  A further discussion  how t h i s may a f f e c t h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers  i s presented Hypothesis  i n Chapter V I .  IV -  S l i g h t l y versus h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d on  The  i n school  speakers  Personal  i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r the p e r s o n a l r a t i n g s i n  Table 18 do not support Hypothesis  IV.  The Ss d i d not  d i s t i n g u i s h the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers  as being d i f f e r e n t from those of s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d  speakers  w i t h i n the same accent group.  These r e s u l t s need t o be i n t e r p r e t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n with those  found  (Table 16).  f o r the p e r s o n a l r a t i n g s i n Hypothesis  I t appears t h a t the reason  I  the Ss d i d not  d i f f e r e n t i a t e between speakers  on the b a s i s o f degree o f  accent was because they simply  r a t e d a l l the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d  speakers  more n e g a t i v e l y on t h i s dimension.  These  unfavour-  able r a t i n g s can a l s o be seen i n F i g u r e 4 (Appendix F ) ,  87 where i n no case does the mean r a t i n g f o r a f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speaker exceed  that o f a standard E n g l i s h  speaker.  Examination o f the other graphs r e v e a l that t h i s i s a unique tendency. The d e v a l u a t i o n o f f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speech seems t o be t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o d e v a l u a t i o n o f the speaker as i n d i c a t e d by these r e s u l t s .  Such speakers are u n l i k e a b l e , have bad  c h a r a c t e r s and are untrustworthy, among other t h i n g s . f a c t that spoken language  The  e x e r t s a major i n f l u e n c e on a  l i s t e n e r ' s impression of a speaker  i s of s o c i a l  importance  and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f t e a c h e r s t o t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s a critical  issue.  Hypothesis IV was not supported by the o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s , though i t i s noted that such r e s u l t s are not i n c o n s i s t e n t with the o v e r a l l premise of t h i s study. Hypothesis V -  S l i g h t l y versus h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers on S o c i a l D i s t a n c e  Hypothesis V proposes  that the l i s t e n e r s w i l l accord  g r e a t e r s o c i a l d i s t a n c e t o the h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d speakers than t o the s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers w i t h i n the same accent group.  Table 18 i n d i c a t e s that the r e s u l t s  significance  reached  (p <0.05) f o r the P u n j a b i - a c c e n t e d speakers  only. The o v e r a l l i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these f i n d i n g s was a n t i c i p a t e d through the i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r t h i s dimension r e p o r t e d i n Table 16.  I t seems that  listeners  88  who  r a t e n e g a t i v e l y the  s p e e c h and  foreign-accented  on  a s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n , though the degree t h i s attain The  i s not  finding  t h o u g h , would  ance b a s e d on  accent  f o r the  s p e a k e r may  have been p e r c e i v e d  speaker  all,  the  would r e s u l t degrees of the  conversely,  to y i e l d there  to accent  smaller  the  the  two  levels  and  Quebecois-accented  enough t o f e r r e t  speakers. are  the of  possessing  the  accent  out  or  latter  both  (Figure  i s the  case).  In  as  a highly visible  degrees of of  s p e a k e r s and  this  due  t o the  minority  and  finding  two  warrant distance  insig-  accent.  would n o t  This  perceiving  be  Chinese strong  distance. i s that  d i s t a n t from fact  This  a t t r i b u t e d to  f o r the  differences in social  be  and  the  t h e Ss  less distinct  t h e most s o c i a l l y  T h i s may  result  t h i s case  result  5  between t h e  r e s u l t s w o u l d be  the  Punjabi  heaviest  are d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  felt  the  social  s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d Punjabi  all,  between t h e  d i s t a n c e would be  listeners  as  accept-  this  heavily-accented  a significant  two  smaller  Another  the  broadness.  other  distance  of  interaction  within  i n a l a r g e enough d i s t i n c t i o n  accent  n i f i c a n c e of  accent  indicates that  statement that  according  the  or  slightest  ( A p p e n d i x F)  them  Punjabi-accented  broadness does e x i s t  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  of  with  i n d i c a t e that a h i e r a r c h y of  dimension.  accent  interact  evident.  significant  speakers,  still  characteristics  of  will  speakers w i l l  personal  the  Punjabi  that Punjabi  i n t e g r a t i o n of  the  speakers  this  group  89 i n t o Vancouver two g r o u p s  society  i s m i n i m a l when c o m p a r e d t o t h e o t h e r  studied.  H y p o t h e s i s V was t h u s p a r t i a l l y , s u p p o r t e d by t h e s e Hypothesis VI -  though  not conclusively,  results.  S l i g h t l y versus heavily-accented speakers on Work  Hypothesis VI proposes >  will  that heavily-accented speakers  be more n e g a t i v e l y r a t e d on work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  slightly-accented  speakers w i t h i n  t h e same a c c e n t  than  group.  T a b l e 18 i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l r e s u l t s f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s failed  t o reach  significance.  I n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e r e s u l t s depends on t h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 1 6 , where i t i s n o t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e reached hypothesized.  i s i n the d i r e c t i o n opposite to that  I t appears  that foreign-accented speakers i n  g e n e r a l , r e g a r d l e s s o f degree positively  o f a c c e n t , a r e p e r c e i v e d more  t h a n s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s on work  characteristics. this.  F i g u r e 6 ( A p p e n d i x F) f u r t h e r  I n no c a s e d o e s t h e mean r a t i n g  speaker  exceed  that of a foreign-accented speaker. to a prevalent stereotype that  are  people.  i n fact lazy  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o degree  supported.  supports  f o r a standard English  f i n d i n g conforms  concluded  that the  This  Canadians  of accent cannot  be  f r o m t h e s e r e s u l t s and H y p o t h e s i s V I i s t h u s n o t As n o t e d  i n a p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , though,  findings are not contradictory  t o the assumptions  such  set forth  i n t h i s i n q u i r y and w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r  i n Chapter  VI.  Residual  Issues  Throughout the data a n a l y s i s , tendencies f o r the e v a l u a t o r s to respond  i n manners d i f f e r e n t from, or i n  a d d i t i o n to those h y p o t h e s i z e d , were r e a l i z e d by researcher.  One  of these f i n d i n g s has a l r e a d y been examined  in a previous section.  The  i n t e n t of t h i s s e c t i o n i s not  to present a l l such f i n d i n g s , as that of t h i s paper,  but rather  i s beyond the scope  to present an a n a l y s i s s i m i l a r to  the analyses put f o r t h i n hypotheses Differences  between the two  three through s i x .  speakers w i t h i n  each accent  group were examined i n the preceding s e c t i o n and to examine the d i f f e r e n c e s speakers was English  between the two  made when i t became obvious  speaker  the  one was  than standard E n g l i s h  standard  that  English  standard  c o n s i s t e n t l y rated more  speaker  the d e c i s i o n  negatively  two.  Table 19 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r a t i n g s were indeed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more negative f o r speaker speaker  number one  than f o r  number two on the three dependent v a r i a b l e s of  speech, p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l d i s t a n c e . I t i s obvious by these r e s u l t s that even though both speakers  spoke with a standard accent, other  influenced  the r a t i n g s of these two speakers.  factors These f a c t o r s ,  which can be termed p a r a l i n g u i s t i c phenomena ( i . e . ,  speech  91 T a b l e 19 t-statistics  f o r standard E n g l i s h speaker s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r (2)  Speech  Standard E n g l i s h speaker versus Standard E n g l i s h speaker  **p  <.01  (1) v e r s u s  Personal Social Distance  Work  (1) (2)  14.36**  7.67**  9.84**  2.0  92 r a t e , h e s i t a t i o n pauses, tone o f v o i c e ) , are very d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l except through the use of the matched-guise technique.  The e v a l u a t o r s appear  t o have r e a c t e d  quite  n e g a t i v e l y to the v o i c e q u a l i t y of speaker number one and a l s o q u i t e p o s i t i v e l y t o the v o i c e q u a l i t y o f speaker number two.  F i g u r e s 3 , 4 and 5 g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e  this  (Appendix F ) . I t can be s p e c u l a t e d that both speakers are unique i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s and t h a t the i n c l u s i o n of two d i f f e r e n t standard speech samples would y i e l d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s i n terms of these f i n d i n g s and those presented f o r Hypothesis I.  T h i s may be the case but i t can a l s o be argued t h a t the  mean r a t i n g s f o r these two speakers are averaged  i n the  analyses and thus tend t o balance each o t h e r ' s uniqueness. The  i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t on the work s u b t e s t i n d i c a t e s  that v o i c e q u a l i t y was not an important f a c t o r when determining the work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of standard E n g l i s h speakers.  T h i s i s compatible with the r e s u l t s o f Hypotheses  IV and V I , where i t was found that degree of accent f a i l e d to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the e v a l u a t i o n s .  In other  words, r e g a r d l e s s of d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r a l i n g u i s t i c phenomena, standard-accented speakers are r a t e d more n e g a t i v e l y than f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers on work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Conclusion Chapter  V has  In the f i r s t h a v e an  presented  the r e s u l t s of data  a n a l y s i s , p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r was  i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on  T h i s r e s u l t was  anticipated  was  terms o f s e x , age,  The  the e v a l u a t i o n s  years of teaching experience,  o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s t a u g h t and  of e t h n i c i t y .  the  Even though the t e a c h e r s d i f f e r e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which  differentiated  in  percentage  e t h n i c i t y , the o n l y  t h e t e a c h e r s was  that  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  two o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s  to  identical.  e f f e c t o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on  a l s o examined.  found  the speech e v a l u a t i o n s .  i n view of the f a c t  p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r s were a l m o s t The  analysis.  ( p e r s o n a l and w o r k )  on  was  discussed. The presented  r e s u l t s o f H y p t h e s e s I t h r o u g h V I were a l s o and d i s c u s s e d .  In a d d i t i o n to these  r e s u l t s , s e v e r a l supplementary  hypothesized  f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d .  94  CHAPTER V I :  SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  Summary The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s and t h e i r presented  i n this  Hypothesis  analyses  have  study.  I states that teachers w i l l  r e a c t i o n s toward f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d  speakers  have  negative  on s p e e c h ,  p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l d i s t a n c e and work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . compared t o t h e s t a n d a r d the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d n e g a t i v e l y on b o t h An i n s i g n i f i c a n t  E n g l i s h speakers  speakers  i t was f o u n d  t h e s p e e c h and p e r s o n a l s u b t e s t s  result  was r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s o c i a l  (p <0.01) r a t i n g  When that  w e r e r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  s u b t e s t and an u n a n t i c i p a t e d f i n d i n g , positive  been  (p < 0 . 0 1 ) . distance  a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  f o r the foreign-accented  speakers  o n t h e work s u b t e s t , was d i s c o v e r e d . Hypothesis teachers  I I tested the stereotyped  reactions of the  t o the three e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n c l u d e d i n  the study.  The r e s u l t s  any o f t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d a n a l y s i s of the data  of data a n a l y s i s d i d not support s t e r e o t y p e s , though supplementary  revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t  t-value  (t =  3.37, p <0.01) f o r t h e Q u e b e c o i s o n t h e work s u b t e s t . this result hypothesis  i n d i r e c t l y supported  How  the p r e v i o u s l y stated  was d i s c u s s e d .  Hypothesis  I I I states that heavily-accented  will  be r a t e d more n e g a t i v e l y o n s p e e c h  than  s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers  speakers  characteristics  w i t h i n t h e same a c c e n t  group.  95 The  results  indicating  f i r m l y support that possession  more n e g a t i v e  t h i s statement  (p < 0 . 0 1 ) ,  o f a heavy accent  e v a l u a t i o n o f one's speech.  e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f , among o t h e r r a t i n g s i n terms o f e d u c a t i o n ,  results  This  items,  in a  negative  unfavourable  i n t e l l i g e n c e and  speaking  ability. I n s i g n i f i c a n t results are reported which proposes that h e a v i l y - a c c e n t e d more n e g a t i v e l y o n p e r s o n a l accented of  speakers w i l l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than  s p e a k e r s w i t h i n t h e same a c c e n t  group.  t h i s r e s u l t i n conjunction with Hypothesis  interpretation  that possession  how s l i g h t o r b r o a d , r e s u l t s (for  o f an a c c e n t ,  i n negative  IV,  be r a t e d slightly-  Examination  I l e d to the regardless of  personal  evaluations  example, u n l i k e a b l e , u n s o c i a b l e ) . The  proposal  speakers w i l l accented  i n Hypothesis  V, t h a t  heavily-accented  be a f f o r d e d more s o c i a l d i s t a n c e  s p e a k e r s w i t h i n t h e same a c c e n t  partially for  f o r Hypothesis  supported.  than  g r o u p , was  I n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s were  slightlyonly  reported  t h e e t h n i c C h i n e s e and Q u e b e c o i s g r o u p s , b u t a s i g -  nificant Punjabi  t ( t = 2 . 6 8 , p <0.05) was r e p o r t e d group.  suggestion  f o r the ethnic  An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s f i n d i n g  included the  t h a t t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s between t h e  s l i g h t and h e a v y P u n j a b i  s p e a k e r s were g r e a t e r  between t h e s p e a k e r s i n t h e o t h e r  than  those  two e t h n i c g r o u p s and  t h i s contributed t o the p r o b a b i l i t y of i t a t t a i n i n g significance.  The f a c t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s  regard  East  Indians  as being the most s o c i a l l y d i s t a n t from themselves was  also  considered. The accented  a n a l y s i s of Hypothesis speakers  V I , which s t a t e s t h a t h e a v i l y -  w i l l be r a t e d more n e g a t i v e l y on work  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers  w i t h i n the  same accent group, y i e l d e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . concluded speakers  It  t h a t , i n view of the r e s u l t s of Hypothesis possessing  r e g a r d l e s s of accent  I,  a f o r e i g n accent were considered  working, c o n s c i e n t i o u s , ambitious  and  hard-  conservative,  broadness.  L i s t e n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were hypothesized  to have an  i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the t e a c h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s of speech samples i n Hypothesis  VII.  T h i s was  case f o r the teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of age, experience The  was  clearly  the the  sex, years of  and percentage of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y students  taught.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of teacher e t h n i c i t y a t t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e  on the dependent v a r i a b l e s of p e r s o n a l and work.  A  d i s c u s s i o n of these r e s u l t s r e v e a l s that the e t h n i c m i n o r i t y teachers gave more f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g s to the speakers  and  foreign-accented  t h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d to f e e l i n g s of  toward the e t h n i c m i n o r i t y  speakers.  Supplementary a n a l y s i s of the data r e v e a l e d differences  (p <0.01) between the e v a l u a t i o n s of  E n g l i s h speaker one  and  significant standard  standard E n g l i s h speaker two on  three dependent v a r i a b l e s of speech, p e r s o n a l and distance.  solidarity  the  social  These d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s were a t t r i b u t e d to v o i c e  quality.  The  insignificant  f i n d i n g on  t h e work  i n d i c a t e s that standard  E n g l i s h speakers  less work-oriented  their  than  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the most s t r i k i n g  p r e s e n c e and  irrelevant  counterparts,  quality.  Findings  f i n d i n g presented  t h e f a c t t h a t , b a s e d on  considered  foreign-accented  i r r e s p e c t i v e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n voice  The  are  subtest  i n t h i s study  i n f o r m a t i o n such  degree of f o r e i g n accent  and  voice  as  quality,  t e a c h e r s w i l l make s e r i o u s j u d g e m e n t s a b o u t a p e r s o n . judgements w i l l  is  These  i n c l u d e assumptions about a person's  intelligence, education, ambition,  s o c i a b i l i t y and  even  attractiveness. The looked.  social I f we  institutions culture,  i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s f i n d i n g c a n n o t be d e p e n d on  t h e s c h o o l s as  t o t r a n s m i t t h e v a l u e s and  t o what d e g r e e do  the s t u d e n t s  in society?  i n d i c a t o r o f e t h n i c i t y and a stereotype  inhibit  i d e a l s of  the growth  Speech i s a  i s important  that listeners feel  s o c i a l group represented  socializing  by t h e  i n t h a t i t can  i s appropriate to  Whether these  of s m a l l consequence.  I n one  evoke  the  speech.  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s and beliefs.  of  conspicuous  T h i s s t e r e o t y p i n g i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the  shared  the  the t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s toward  i n the classroom  multiculturalism  over-  b e l i e f s are s e n s e t h e y may  teachers'  reflects  socially  t r u e or not be  is  t r u e and  be  98 u s e f u l as a guide to behavior i n i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s . the other sense they may prejudice.  In  be f a l s e or negative and lead to  Group membership i s the b a s i s f o r t h i s p r e j u d i c e ,  not i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or behavior.  The Ss i n t h i s  study tended to agree i n t h e i r b e l i e f s about the e t h n i c groups and e v a l u a t e d the speakers a c c o r d i n g l y ,  regardless  of the v a l i d i t y o f the common s t e r e o t y p e i n f o r m a t i o n they share. S t e r e o t y p i n g of the e t h n i c groups represented by the speech samples  would account f o r both the negative and  p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s found i n Hypothesis I . v a r i e t i e s may  Particular  language  be r a t e d f a v o u r a b l y on some dimensions, but  l e s s f a v o u r a b l y on other dimensions.  The tendency of the  Ss to r a t e the f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speakers n e g a t i v e l y on the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which  included  intelligence,  e d u c a t i o n , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and standardness of speech, r e f l e c t s the image of the uneducated, n o t - s o - b r i g h t immigrant.  P o s i t i v e r e s u l t s on the work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  combine with the preceding n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s to c r e a t e the uneducated,  n o t - s o - b r i g h t but hard-working,  conscientious  immigrant. T h i s dichotomy  i n s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s can l e a d t o  d i f f e r e n t i a l behavior i n t e n t i o n s toward such  immigrants,  both i n and out of the classroom. On the s o c i a l l e v e l , a non-immigrant i n t e r a c t with immigrants  may  be w i l l i n g  i n business r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a  to  99  n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l nature because they are hard-working c o n s c i e n t i o u s , but l e s s w i l l i n g  and  t o i n t e r a c t with them on a  p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l because they are uneducated and l e s s intelligent. In the classroom  these a t t i t u d e s c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y  work i n the students' f a v o u r .  I f the teacher expects the  e t h n i c students t o work harder and be more ambitious probably w i l l .  they  T h i s m o t i v a t i o n , coupled with the  i n t e l l i g e n c e which, though c o n t r a r y t o the teacher's o p i n i o n , the student probably has, w i l l  i n d u b i t a b l y lead to the  student a t t a i n i n g academic s u c c e s s .  The t r u t h of t h i s can  be v a l i d a t e d by the f a c t t h a t l a r g e numbers of immigrant students do a t t a i n a very high l e v e l of success i n s c h o o l . I t can a l s o be argued  though t h a t the r e v e r s e of t h i s  i s true and t h i s i s e v i d e n t by the numbers of immigrants who do not a t t a i n any l e v e l of academic success. could a c t u a l l y be promoting  The teacher  t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s by 1)  a t t i t u d e s toward the students and t h e i r v a r i e t y of  language,  2) s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s about the e t h n i c groups t o which these students belong  ( i . e . , s t e r e o t y p e s ) , and 3)  c o m p i l a t i o n of these a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s with behavior t o p r o j e c t unfavourable  images t o the s t u d e n t s .  The a t t i t u d e s a teacher has toward the e t h n i c m i n o r i t y students i n the classroom mediates but does not p r e d i c t the behavior the teacher w i l l d i s p l a y toward these s t u d e n t s . The  r e s u l t s of t h i s study do not i n d i c a t e the o v e r t behavior  100 of  teachers.  Rather  they suggest  h a v e c o n s e q u e n c e s on t u r n may of  t h e way  success.  which  the e d u c a t i o n a l performance  Whether a t t i t u d e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d  into  a  behavior  a student r e c e i v e s i s not  known, as t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a t t i t u d e and  The  this in  teachers concerning h i s p r o b a b i l i t y  a f f e c t s the feedback  infrequently  may  M o t i v a t i o n i s a f f e c t e d by t h e f e e d b a c k  s t u d e n t r e c e i v e s from of  attitudes  t e a c h e r s b e h a v e and  h a v e c o n s e q u e n c e s on  the s t u d e n t s .  t h a t such  yet  behavior i s  stable.  o v e r a l l r e s u l t s of t h i s study tend to support  hypothesis that teachers w i l l t y p e d a t t i t u d e s and  respond  the  to speech w i t h s t e r e o -  t h a t these a t t i t u d e s are evoked  f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d speech i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The  by  following  d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s these r e s u l t s w i l l  section  h a v e on  teacher  training.  Implications for teaching The  nature of teacher-student i n t e r a c t i o n  room i s an o b v i o u s study.  concern  class-  when r e a d i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f  V o c a l s t e r e o t y p i n g has  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n and  i n the  an  impact  a t t i t u d e s toward  on b o t h  the  school through  this  students' the  p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s b a s e d on s t e r e o t y p e s . Even the most w e l l - m e a n i n g ments of s t u d e n t s which  t e a c h e r may  be m a k i n g  conform t o a stereotype.  judge-  Considering  the frequency of t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n  i n the  101  classroom,  the impact  t h i s may  have on the students can  be  great. Teacher  t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l a must be designed  to i n c l u d e  s t u d i e s i n a t t i t u d e s to s e n s i t i z e teachers to v a r i a t i o n s i n language and performance and make them aware of the s o c i o c u l t u r a l dynamics u n d e r l y i n g language l e a r n i n g and use.  language  To accept c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i s to accept language  d i v e r s i t y , though at the present time i t seems we  are o n l y  paying l i p - s e r v i c e to c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y as a s o c i a l  fact.  In other words, our r e a l a t t i t u d e s l i e elsewhere  are  r e v e a l e d through  s t u d i e s such as  this.  Teachers must a l s o be informed a speaker she i s .  and  t h a t the degree of accent  possesses does not i n d i c a t e how  i n t e l l i g e n t he or  The present study seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t the  of i n t e l l i g e n c e i s s t i l l  concept  l i n k e d to a f o r e i g n accent as i n  previous years.  The  f a c t t h a t teachers b e l i e v e t h i s i s of  great importance  to everyone.  They must be a l e r t e d  to  a t t i t u d i n a l tendencies such as these to avoid the u n d e t e c t i o n of p o s s i b l e b i a s i n t h e i r  classrooms.  To summarize, the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teaching l i e i n the d i r e c t i o n of changing  the teacher r a t h e r than the s t u d e n t .  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research These f i n d i n g s support the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h using d i f f e r e n t language v a r i e t i e s and  different  102 s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n s as w e l l as r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g to e t h n i c m i n o r i t y  attitudes  groups.  T h e r e a r e two d i r e c t i o n s r e s e a r c h c a n f o l l o w w h i c h c a n be e n t i t l e d :  1) i n q u i r y and 2)  Further  implementation.  i n q u i r i e s c a n be made i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t have on c l a s s r o o m room b e h a v i o r  ethnicity  interaction.  to find  the e f f e c t  they  Inquiries into actual class-  on t h e p a r t o f t h e teacher  i s another  important  a r e a t o examine whether these a t t i t u d e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d action.  Research  examining  the accent  specific  cues t h a t evoke v a r i o u s s t e r e o t y p e d responses of the l i s t e n e r  has obvious  practical  second o r f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r . has  reported the minimal  pronunciation accuracy, made aware o f t h e s e The  on t h e p a r t  Though p r e v i o u s  i n f l u e n c e the teacher  research  has over  the student could nonetheless  be  cues. of attitude studies  t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s and w o r k s h o p s t o a l e r t  teachers t o the presence seems t o be a n o b v i o u s is unlikely  linguistic  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  i n t o teacher  into  and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e s e  long-term  attitudes  proposal f o rresearch.  It  that the e t h n i c s t r u c t u r e i n our s o c i e t y w i l l  c h a n g e t o a v a s t d e g r e e and t e a c h e r s must accommodate s t r u c t u r e i n t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , behavior support m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . teacher ethnocentrism ethnocentrism  and c l a s s r o o m s t o  The f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s o f  c a n be r e d u c e d  that fosters  this  them.  o n l y by r e d u c i n g t h e  103 Weaknesses o f the  study  S e v e r a l b a s i c w e a k n e s s e s o f t h i s s t u d y must be in this  section.  First, presented  i t i s obvious  situation  a t e a c h e r may  i s speculative.  base t h e i r  two  t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l  act i n a t y p i c a l  judgements o f s t u d e n t s on.  also their  Thus  any  classroom  T e a c h e r s h a v e many o t h e r c u e s  acquaintance  Various v i s u a l  with i n d i v i d u a l students  to  cues are  o f t h e more p r o m i n e n t o n e s . I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d  factors  i n a person's  a scale.  t h a t t h e r e a r e s o many c o m p l e x  a t t i t u d e on any  t h a t i t c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y on  situation  does not s i m u l a t e the a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m .  d i s c u s s i o n o f how  and  discussed  social  i s s u e or  object  d e s c r i b e d by a s i n g l e number  Such a weakness i s p r e s e n t  i n many s t u d i e s o f  attitudes. The  i n a b i l i t y of the s u b j e c t s to a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y  the e t h n i c group t o which the s l i g h t l y - a c c e n t e d speakers belonged may  c o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d a w e a k n e s s .  have m a n i f e s t e d  itself  reported for Hypothesis  i n the  II.  insignificant  This  results  In other words, a group s t e r e o -  t y p e d i d n o t emerge b e c a u s e t h e l i s t e n e r s c o u l d n o t the speakers  i n t o three d i s t i n c t e t h n i c groups.  supplementary f i n d i n g  f o r the Quebecois-accented  r e f u t e s t h i s t o some d e g r e e . p o p u l a t i o n may  inability  The  f a c t t h a t the  classify  The group subject  h a v e been r e a c t i n g t o t h e f o r e i g n a c c e n t s  in  104 a more g e n e r a l s e n s e t h o u g h d o e s n o t c o m p r o m i s e t h e f i n d i n g s in  this  study.  A f i n a l p o i n t to note i s the f a c t t h a t the t e a c h e r s t h e s t u d y were a l l a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s a t u n i v e r s i t y and be  somewhat d i f f e r e n t f r o m t e a c h e r s who  classes.  I t can  be s p e c u l a t e d  s e n s i t i z e d or l i b e r a l seem t o c o n f i r m  this.  group but  do  not  in may  attend  t h a t t h e y a r e a more t h e r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s do  not  105 REFERENCES 1.  H a k s t i a n , R. and B a y , K. U s e r ' s M a n u a l t o Accompany the A l b e r t a General F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program. D i v i s i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l Research S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1973.  2.  K i r k , R.E. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n : Procedures f o rthe Behavioural Sciences. Belmont, C a l i f . : W a d s w o r t h P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1 9 6 8 .  106 BIBLIOGRAPHY A g h e y i s i , R. and F i s h m a n , J.A. 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S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s , 1 9 7 3 , 40_, p p . 296302.  109 L a b o v , W. The S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f E n g l i s h i n New City. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: Center f o r Applied L i n g u i s t i c s , 1966.  York  L a b o v , W. The S t u d y o f N o n s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h . U r b a n a , N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , 1975.  111.:  L a m b e r t , W.E. A s o c i a l psychology of b i l i n g u a l i s m . o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1 9 6 7 , 2 3 , pp. 91-109.  Journal  L a m b e r t , W.E., A n i s f e l d , M. and Y e n i - K o m s h i a n , G. E v a l u a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s o f J e w i s h and A r a b a d o l e s c e n t s t o d i a l e c t and l a n g u a g e v a r i a t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 5 , 2 ( 1 ) , p p . 84-90. L a m b e r t , W.E., F r a n k e l , H. and T u c k e r , G.R. 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A c c e n t and e m p l o y a b i l i t y : Attitudes. L a n g u a g e S c i e n c e s , 1977, 12.  Language O c t . , pp.  7-  A l b e r t o . A c c e n t and e d u c a t i o n : B l a c k A m e r i c a n , W h i t e A m e r i c a n , and Cuban t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a d u l t Spanish-accented E n g l i s h . A c t a S y m b o l i c a , 1978, 7-9 ( 1 ) , pp. 5 7 - 7 1 .  R o s e n t h a l , R. and J a c o b s o n , L. Pygmalion i n the Classroom. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1968. R y a n , E.B. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a t t i t u d e study. Studies i n L a n g u a g e and L a n g u a g e B e h a v i o r , 1969, 8, pp. 4 3 7 - 4 5 0 . R y a n , E.B. S u b j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s toward accented speech. In Language A t t i t u d e s : C u r r e n t T r e n d s and P r o s p e c t s . S h u y , R.W. and F a s o l d , R.W. (Eds.). Washington, D.C: G e o r g e t o w n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978. 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S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n . Harmondsworth, England: P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1974. T u c k e r , G.R. and L a m b e r t , W.E. W h i t e and N e g r o l i s t e n e r s ' reactions to various American-English dialects. S o c i a l F o r c e s , 1969, £ 7 , pp. 463-468. W e b b e r , R.D. An o v e r v i e w o f l a n g u a g e a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o teachers' language a t t i t u d e s . E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 1 9 7 9 , 31 ( 3 ) , p p . 2 1 7 - 2 3 2 .  112 W e b s t e r , W.G. and K r a m e r , E. A t t i t u d e s and e v a l u a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s to accented E n g l i s h speech. J o u r n a l of S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 8 , 15, p p . 2 3 1 - 2 4 0 . W i l l i a m s , F. E x p l o r a t i o n s o f t h e L i n g u i s t i c A t t i t u d e s o f Teachers. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , 1976. W i l l i a m s , F. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . L i n g u i s t i c s , 1974, 136, pp. 21-32. W i l l i a m s , F. P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s of speech characteristics: On s o u n d i n g " d i s a d v a n t a g e d " . J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h and H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , 1 9 7 0 , 13/ p p . 472-488. W i l l i a m s , F. Some r e s e a r c h n o t e s on d i a l e c t a t t i t u d e s and stereotypes. I n Language A t t i t u d e s : C u r r e n t T r e n d s and P r o s p e c t s . S h u y , R.W. and F a s o l d , R.W. (Eds.). Washington, D.C: Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973. W i l l i a m s , F., W h i t e h e a d , J . L . and M i l l e r , L.M. Ethnic s t e r e o t y p i n g and j u d g m e n t s o f c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h . S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s , 1 9 7 1 , 3 8 , p p . 166-170 ( b ) . W i l l i a m s , F., W h i t e h e a d , J . L . and M i l l e r , L.M. Relations b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a t t i t u d e s and t e a c h e r e x p e c t a n c y . A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 2 , 9, p p . 263-277. W i l l i a m s , F., W h i t e h e a d , J . L . and Traupmann, J . T e a c h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s speech. Speech T e a c h e r , 1971, 2 0 , p p . 2 4 7 - 2 5 4 .  113 APPENDIX A Page 1  B o o k l e t No.  PLEASE DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL ASKED TO To e n s u r e a n o n y m i t y , p l e a s e DO NOT p u t y o u r name o n t h e booklet. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of subjects i s not necessaryf o r t h i s study.  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x a m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h d i f f e r e n t people r e a c t t o d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s o f speech. More q u e s t i o n s c a n be a n s w e r e d a f t e r i t i s o v e r . Y o u w i l l be a s k e d t o l i s t e n t o e i g h t (8) s p e a k e r s a n d t o e v a l u a t e them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r s o n a l t r a i t s o u t l i n e d i n t h e scales contained i n the booklet. There i s a s e p a r a t e s c a l e f o r each s p e a k e r and each e v a l u a t o r has a d i f f e r e n t form o f the same s c a l e . You w i l l h e a r e a c h s p e a k e r o n l y o n c e . PLEASE L I S T E N CAREFULLY. The t a p e w i l l t e l l y o u when t o b e g i n f i l l i n g i n the s c a l e . Do n o t w r i t e a n y t h i n g u n t i l y o u a r e a s k e d t o . When y o u a r e f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g , t h e t a p e w i l l t h e n a s k y o u to t u r n t o t h e n e x t s c a l e and y o u w i l l hear t h e n e x t speaker. The t h i r d page o f t h e b o o k l e t c o n t a i n s a p r a c t i c e s c a l e . You w i l l h e a r a p r a c t i c e t a p e and be a s k e d t o f i l l i n t h e scale. I f y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e a s k them a f t e r the p r a c t i c e t a p e . A f t e r t h e s p e a k e r s have a l l been e v a l u a t e d , t h e b o o k l e t s w i l l be c o l l e c t e d and y o u w i l l be a s k e d t o f i l l o u t a s h o r t questionnaire.  PLEASE NOTE THAT YOU HAVE THE FREEDOM TO WITHDRAW AT ANY TIME OR TO REFUSE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS WITHOUT PREJUDICING FURTHER TREATMENT OR INFLUENCING CLASS STANDING.  I F THE QUESTIONNAIRE I S COMPLETED I T WILL BE  ASSUMED THAT CONSENT HAS BEEN GIVEN.  114 Page 2  The s e m a n t i c  differential  scales contained  i n the booklet  consist of a series of adjectives given i n opposites. Between the o p p o s i t e s a r e seven  (7) c e l l s .  nearest the a d j e c t i v e s i n d i c a t e  ' h i g h l y * , the next  indicate  ' v e r y ' and 'somewhat' u n t i l  indicates For  'neither' or  The p o s i t i o n s  the centre  cells  cell  'neutral'.  example;  t a l l h i g h l y ; very : somewhat ; n e u t r a l : somewhat : very : h i g h l y short  P l e a s e mark o n l y one  (1) c e l l  w i t h a c h e c k mark  to which degree the a d j e c t i v e b e s t d e s c r i b e s your to  the speaker's  Please f i l l you  response  voice.  i n a l l the c e l l s  cannot respond,  Thank y o u .  (/) t o show  i n each s c a l e .  p l e a s e check  (/)  neutral.  I f you  feel  115  Page 3 PRACTICE TEST  THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likeable bad  :  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable  character  :  :  :  :  :  :  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable nervous not  : :  : :  : :  :  self confident  humourous  :  unintelligent  :  : :  : :  good  character  unconscientious  sociable calm  :  :  :  :  :  :  self confident  :  :  :  :  :  humourless  :  :  :  :  :  :  intelligent  attractive  :  :  :  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  :  good s p e a k i n g  ability  indistinct  :  :  :  :  : :  :  non-standard speech  : :  : :  : :  : :  untrustworthy :  : :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  conservative  :  :  :  :  :  :  t o myself  undesirable as colleague  :  : :  : :  : :  speaking  ability  distinct  hard-working  similar  :_joor  :  :  standard  speech  lazy unconservative :  :  d i s s i m i l a r t o myself d e s i r a b l e as colleague  116  THIS IS SPEAKER NO:  1  THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likeable bad  :  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable  character  :  :  :  :  :  :  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable nervous not  :  :  :  :  : :  self confident  humourous  :  unintelligent  : :  :  :  :  :  good  character  unconscientious  sociable  calm  _:  :  :  :  :  :  self confident  :  :  :  :  :  humourless  :  :  :  :  :  :  intelligent  attractive  :  :  :  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  :  good s p e a k i n g  ability  indistinct  :  :  :  :  : :  :  non-standard speech  : :  :  :  : :  : :  untrustworthy :  :  :  :  : _ p o o r speaking  distinct  :  :  :  standard  hard-working  :  :  :  :  :  :  lazy  conservative  :  :  _:  :  :  :  unconservative  similar  t o myself  undesirable as colleague  :  : :  : :  : :  ability  : :  : :  speech  d i s s i m i l a r t o myself :  d e s i r a b l e as colleague  117  T H I S I S S P E A K E R NO:  THE  SPEAKER  likeable  SOUNDS:  :  :  :  :  :  :_  unlikeable  bad c h a r a c t e r  :  :  :  :  :  :  good c h a r a c t e r  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  unconscientious  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable nervous not  2  : :  : :  : :  s e l f confident  humourous  :  unintelligent  : :  :  :  : :  sociable  calm  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  humourless  :  :  :  :  _:  :  s e l f confident  intelligent  attractive  :  :  :  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  :  :  :  :  good speaking a b i l i t y indistinct  :  :  : :  non-standard speech  : :  : :  : :  : :  untrustworthy :  : :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  conservative  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  undesirable as colleague  :  :  : :  poor speaking a b i l i t y  distinct  hard-working  s i m i l a r t o myself  :  :  standard speech  lazy unconservative :  :  : :  dissimilar to myself :  desirable as colleague  118  THIS  THE  SPEAKER  likeable bad  IS  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable  character  :  :  :  :  :  :  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable  not  : :  : :  : :  humourous  : :  self confident  : :  : :  good  character  unconscientious  sociable calm  :  :  :  :  :  :  self confident  :  :  :  :  :  :  humourless  unintelligent  :  :  :  :  :  :  intelligent  attractive  :  :  :  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  :  good s p e a k i n g  ability  indistinct  :  :  :  :  :  :  : :  non-standard speech  : :  :  : :  : :  untrustworthy :  : :  :  :  poor speaking  :  :  :  standard  :  :  :  :  :  :  lazy  conservative  :  :  :  :  :  :  unconservative  to myself  undesirable as colleague  :  : :  : :  :_ :  ability  distinct  hard-working  similar  3  SOUNDS:  :  nervous  SPEAKER NO:  : :  : :  speech  d i s s i m i l a r t o myself :  d e s i r a b l e as colleague  1 1 9  THIS IS SPEAKER NO:  4  THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likeable  :  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable  bad c h a r a c t e r  :  :  :  :  :  :  good c h a r a c t e r  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  unconscientious  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable nervous not  : :  : :  : :  s e l f confident  humourous  :  unintelligent  : :  :  :  : :  sociable  calm  :  :  :  :  :  :  s e l f confident  :  :  :  :  :  humourless  :  :  :  :  :  :  intelligent  attractive  :  :  :  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  _:  :  :  _:  good speaking a b i l i t y indistinct  :  :  : :  non-standard speech  : :  : :  : :  : :  untrustworthy :  : :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  conservative  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  undesirable as colleague  : :  : :  : :  :__poor speaking a b i l i t y  distinct  hard-working  s i m i l a r to myself  :  :  standard speech  lazy unconservative :  :  : :  dissimilar to myself :  desirable as colleague  120  THIS IS SPEAKER NO:  5  THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likeable  :  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable  bad c h a r a c t e r  :  :  :  :  :  :  good c h a r a c t e r  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  unconscientious  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable nervous not  : :  : :  : :  selfconf ident  humourous  :  unintelligent  : :  : :  : :  sociable  calm  :  :  :  :  :  :  s e l f confident  :  :  :  :  :  humourless  :  :  :  :  :  :  intelligent  attractive  :  :  :  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  :  :  :  :  good speaking a b i l i t y indistinct  :  :  :  : :  :  untrustworthy  :__: :  :  non-standard speech  : :  :  s  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  conservative  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  undesirable as colleague  : :  :  poor speaking a b i l i t y  standard speech  :  lazy unconservative :  :  :  distinct  hard-working  s i m i l a r t o myself  :  :  : :  dissimilar to myself :  desirable as colleague  121  THIS IS SPEAKER NO:  6  THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likeable bad  :  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable  character  :  :  :  :  :  :  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable nervous not  : :  :  :  :  :  :  unintelligent  :  :  self confident  humourous  :  :  :  good  character  unconscientious  sociable  calm  :  :  :  :  :  :  self confident  :  :  :_  :  :  humourless  :  :  :  :  :  :  intelligent  attractive  :  :  :  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  :  good s p e a k i n g  ability  indistinct  :  :  :  :  : :  :  non-standard speech  : :  :  _:  : :  : :  untrustworthy :  :  :  :  :__J»or speaking  distinct :  :  :  standard  hard-working  :  :  :  :  :  :  lazy  conservative  :  :  :  :  :  :  unconservative  similar  t o myself  undesirable as colleague  :  : :  : :  : :  ability  : :  : :  speech  d i s s i m i l a r t o myself :  d e s i r a b l e as colleague  122  THIS IS  THE  SPEAKER  likeable  SPEAKER NO:  SOUNDS:  :  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable  bad c h a r a c t e r  :  :  :  :  :  :  good c h a r a c t e r  conscientious  :  _:  :  :  :  :  unconscientious  ambit ious_  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable nervous not  7  : :  : :  : :  :  self confident  humourous  :  unintelligent  :  : :  : :  sociable  calm  :  :  :  :  :  :  self confident  :  :  :  :  :  humourless  :  :  :  :  :  :  intelligent  attractive  :  :  _:  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  :  :  :  :  good speaking a b i l i t y indistinct  :  :  : :  non-standard speech  : :  : :  *• :  : :  untrustworthy :  : :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  conservative  :  :  :  :  *•  *•  :  undesirable as colleague  : :  : :  : :  : _ j ? o o r speaking a b i l i t y  distinct  hard-working  s i m i l a r to myself  :  :  standard speech  lazy  : :  unconservative : :  dissimilar to myself :  desirable as colleague  123 i  THIS IS SPEAKER NO:  8  THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likeable  :  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable  bad c h a r a c t e r  :  :  :  :  :  :  good c h a r a c t e r  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  unconscientious  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable nervous  : :  :  :  : :  :  :  : :  : :  sociable  calm  not s e l f c o n f i d e n t  :  :  :  :  :  humourous  :  :  :  :  :  humourless  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  unintelligent  :  self confident  intelligent  attractive  :  :  :  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  :  :  :  :  good speaking a b i l i t y :  :  :  :  :  untrustworthy  :  :__j?oor speaking a b i l i t y  non-standard  speech  hard-working  :  :  :  :  :  :  lazy  conservative  :  :  :  :  :  :  unconservative  :  undesirable as colleague  :  : :  :  :  :  :  :  :  indistinct  s i m i l a r t o myself  :  :  :  : :  distinct :  : :  :  : :  :  : *•  standard  speech  dissimilar to myself ••  desirable as colleague  124 QUESTIONNAIRE Please answer the f i r s t two questions with r e f e r e n c e to your present or most recent teaching p o s i t i o n . 1.  grade l e v e l ( s ) most f r e q u e n t l y taught  2.  subject(s)  3.  years o f teaching  4.  Are you a p r o s p e c t i v e  5.  h i g h e s t academic degree h e l d  6.  percentage o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y students  K-3 4-7 8-10  11-12 adults  taught experience teacher_  taught 100% 80-100% 60-80% 40-60% 20-40% l e s s than 20%  7.  What i s your  age nationality e t h n i c background sex  8.  Do you speak another language besides E n g l i s h yes  9.  I f - yes - how many  no  fluently  125 APPENDIX B THIS IS SPEAKER NO: THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: 1.  likeable  :  :  :  2.  *bad character  3.  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  4.  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious*  5.  *unsociable  6.  *nervous  7.  *not selfconfident  8.  humourous  9.  *unintelligent  :  :  :  10.  attractive  :  :  :_:  11.  * uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  12.  trustworthy  :  :  :  :  :  *•  untrustworthy*  13.  good speaking a b i l i t y  14.  *indistinct  15.  *non-standard speech  :  :  :  :  :  16.  hard-working  :  :  :  :  :  :  lazy*  17.  conservative  :  :  :  :  :  :_unconservative*  18.  similar to myself  :  :  :  :  :  dissimilar to myself*  19.  *undesirable as colleague  :  :  :  :  :  :  : : :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  self confident  humourless*  :  :  intelligent  unattractive*  : :  unconscientious*  calm  :  :  good character  sociable  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable*  }  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  : :  : :  :  :__J?oor speaking a b i l i t y *  distinct :  standard speech  :  desirable as colleague  *Asterisks define the pole of the scale assigned a value of '1' in the data tabulation. They do not appear on the actual instrument.  126 THIS IS SPEAKER NO:  THE SPEAKER SOUNDS: likeable  :  :  :  :  :  :  unlikeable  bad c h a r a c t e r  :  :  :  :  :  :  good c h a r a c t e r  conscientious  :  :  :  :  :  :  unconscientious  ambitious  :  :  :  :  :  unambitious  :  unsociable nervous not  : :  : :  : :  s e l f c o n f ident  humourous  :  unintelligent  : :  : :  : :  sociable  calm  :  :  :  :  :  :  s e l f confident  :  :  :  :  :  humourless  :  :  :  :  :  :  intelligent  attractive  :  :  :  :  :  :  unattractive  uneducated  :  :  :  :  :  :  educated  trustworthy  :  :  :  :  good speaking a b i l i t y indistinct  :  :  :  : :  non-standard speech  :  : :  : :  : :  untrustworthy :  : :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  conservative  :  :  :  :  :  :  t o myself  :  undesirable as colleague  : :  : :  : :  p e r c e i v e d e t h n i c i t y o f speaker i s :  :  poor speaking a b i l i t y  distinct  hard-working  similar  :  :  standard speech  lazy unconservative :  :  : :  dissimilar to myself :  desirable as colleague  127 APPENDIX C TEST PASSAGES  SLIGHT PUNJABI A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which  are noted f o r t h e i r beauty,  and g r a c e , h a v e b e e n u s e d new  breeds.  A man  f o r hundreds of years to develop  named Homer D a v e n p o r t ,  these horses a t a t World's later  succeeded  United States.  stamina  Fair  i n bringing  first  saw  i n eighteen ninety-three,  twenty-seven  T o d a y a b o u t one  who  o f them i n t o  hundred  the  and e i g h t y A r a b i a n  h o r s e s go b a c k d i r e c t l y t o t h e s e i m p o r t s . Characteristic  Features;  1.  syllable-timed vs. stress-timed  2.  s l i g h t r e t r o f l e x i o n on  CM-,  consonants  [ t ]  HEAVY PUNJABI A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which  are noted f o r t h e i r beauty,  and g r a c e , h a v e b e e n u s e d new  breeds.  A man  f o r hundreds of years t o develop  named Homer D a v e n p o r t ,  these horses a t a t World's later  succeeded  United States.  stamina  i n bringing  Fair  first  hundred  o f them i n t o  1.  Features:  syllable-timed vs. stress-timed t  3.  —  ->  Ju—  the  and e i g h t y A r a b i a n  h o r s e s go b a c k d i r e c t l y t o t h e s e i m p o r t s . Characteristic  saw  i n eighteen ninety-three,  twenty-seven  T o d a y a b o u t one  who  f  A-  +L\1  • DO  128  SLIGHT QUEBECOIS A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which and  a r e noted f o r t h e i r  g r a c e , have been used  new b r e e d s .  A man named Homer D a v e n p o r t ,  succeeded  United States.  Fair  who f i r s t  saw  i n eighteen ninety-three,  i n bringing  twenty-seven  Today about  one h u n d r e d  h o r s e s go b a c k d i r e c t l y  stamina  f o r hundreds o f years t o develop  these horses a t a t World's later  beauty,  o f them i n t o t h e and e i g h t y A r a b i a n  t o these imports.  Characteristic Features; 1.  slightly  syllable-timed vs. stress-timed  2.  a b s e n c e o f | _ h j i n one word - i n i t i a l  position  3.  HEAVY QUEBECOIS A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which a r e noted f o r t h e i r and g r a c e , h a v e b e e n u s e d new b r e e d s .  A man named Homer D a v e n p o r t ,  succeeded  United States.  Fair  who f i r s t  twenty-seven  Today about  one h u n d r e d  o f them i n t o t h e and e i g h t y A r a b i a n  t o these imports.  Characteristic Features: 1.  syllable-timed vs. stress-timed  2.  t o t a l a b s e n c e o f £ h l i n word - i n i t i a l  3.  velarf^  4.  +  friction  saw  i n eighteen ninety-three,  i n bringing  h o r s e s go b a c k d i r e c t l y  stamina  f o r hundreds o f years t o develop  these horses a t a t World's later  beauty,  position  129  SLIGHT CHINESE (CANTONESE) A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which  a r e noted f o r t h e i r  and g r a c e , h a v e b e e n u s e d new b r e e d s .  A man named Homer D a v e n p o r t ,  succeeded  United States.  Fair  i n bringing  who f i r s t  saw  i n eighteen ninety-three,  twenty-seven  T o d a y a b o u t one h u n d r e d  h o r s e s go b a c k d i r e c t l y  stamina  f o r hundreds o f y e a r s t o develop  these horses a t a t World's later  beauty,  o f them i n t o t h e and e i g h t y A r a b i a n  t o these imports.  Characteristic Features: 1.  syllable-timed vs. stress-timed  2.  s l i g h t r e t r o f l e x i o n o f f r i c a t i v e s and v o i c e l e s s consonants  3.  HEAVY CHINESE (CANTONESE) A r a b i a n h o r s e s , which  are noted f o r t h e i r  and g r a c e , h a v e been u s e d new b r e e d s .  A man named Homer D a v e n p o r t ,  succeeded  United States.  i n bringing  Fair  twenty-seven  2. 3. 4.  saw  o f them i n t o t h e and e i g h t y A r a b i a n  t o these imports.  Characteristic Features: 1.  who f i r s t  i n eighteen ninety-three,  T o d a y a b o u t one h u n d r e d  h o r s e s go b a c k d i r e c t l y  stamina  f o r hundreds o f years t o develop  these horses a t a t World's later  beauty,  syllable-timed vs. stress-timed  130 APPENDIX D  P r e s e n t a t i o n 'a' Practice  Test  1.  Standard E n g l i s h  2.  Heavy P u n j a b i  3.  Slight  Chinese  4.  Heavy  Quebecois  5.  Slight Punjabi  6.  Standard E n g l i s h  7.  Slight  8.  Heavy C h i n e s e  Quebecois  Presentation Practice  'b'  Test  1.  Standard E n g l i s h  2.  Slight  3.  Heavy P u n j a b i  4.  Heavy  Quebecois  5.  Slight  Chinese  6.  Standard E n g l i s h  7.  Slight Punjabi  8.  Heavy C h i n e s e  Quebecois  131 APPENDIX E  Coding Legend and Sample P r o f i l e n= p r a c t i c i n g teachers — p r o s p e c t i v e teachers —  1 2  70 49  p r e s e n t a t i o n 'a' p r e s e n t a t i o n 'b'  1 2  61 58  1 2  96 23  1 2 3  63 37 19  characteristics  — —  (A) (B)  sex age  female male  —  20-29 30-39 40—  —  —  —  (C)  % of e t h n i c mi n o r i t y 100% 20 - 1 2 80-1001 11 60-80% - 3 13 40-60% - 4 18 20-40% - 5 23 l e s s than 20% — 34 6  (D)  years of experience 0 49 - 1 1-5 33 - 2 6-10 22 - 3 — 11 4 15  (E)  ethnicity Western and Eastern European  1  101  (English, Scottish, P o l i s h , etc.)  Asian  -  2  12  Indian  -  3  2  (Chinese, Japanese, e t c . (from India)  4  (Spanish, Greek, Portuguese, e t c . )  Southern European  -  4  132 APPENDIX F P l o t t e d Means f o r A l l Speakers on A l l Four Dependent V a r i a b l e s  133 Figure 3 P l o t t e d means f o r a l l speakers on Speech  134 Figure 4 P l o t t e d means f o r a l l speakers on  Personal  135 Figure 5 P l o t t e d means f o r a l l speakers on S o c i a l D i s t a n c e  28r 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 SC  HC  SQ  HQ  SP  HP  SE1  SE2  136 Figure 6 P l o t t e d means f o r a l l  speakers on Work  

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