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A phonogram based word list for reading and spelling : based on the Harris-Jacobson basic elementary.. Schooley, Ardelle Laurene 1982

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A PHONOGRAM BASED WORD LIST FOR READING AND SPELLING Based on the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies by ARDELLE LAURENE SCHOOLEY B. Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY, 1982 ©Ardelle Laurene Schooley, 1982 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^y^n^yy^T^P ^^SJtrtJsJtTtJ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date oJ^^j^rrJs^cSn /<?8Z DE-6 (.3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to reanalyze the graded word lists of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies according to phono gram components to provide a phonogram-based word list in graded format. The methodology of the study required a three step process. First, all of the words of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list were typed into a computer in grade level format. Phonograms from the Durrell-Murphy Phonogram List were entered in the computer. The graded word lists and the phonogram files were then combined by the computer to create graded word lists based on the occurrence of phonogram letter sequence. The second step involved a hand processing of the computer lists to match letter sequen ces representing the phonograms with consistent phonogram sounds. The final step of the study provided a word count for the occurrence of each phonogram at each grade level and a total word count for the frequency of occurrence of each phonogram across grades. A list of phonograms that produced fewer than five words across grades was prepared. The completed phonogram-based word list is comprised of 5,943 words with 232 phonogram entries. Sixty phonograms or 21 per cent of the Durre 11 -Murphy Phonogram List were omitted because the frequency of words in which these occurred was fewer than five words. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. THE PROBLEM 1 Statement of the Problem..... 1 Background of the Study..Specific Purpose of the Study 3 Design of the Study 4 Definition of Terms.... 5 Limitations of the StudySignificance of the Study. 6 Organization of the ThesisII. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE Early Evidence About the Value of the Phonogram in Word Analysis Programs 7 Recent Evidence About Letter Clusters and their Value in Word Analysis 9 Evidence From Perception ResearchEvidence From Spelling Research 12 Evidence From Reading Education Research 13 III. MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES Materials 19 Procedures 20 Producing the Computer List 2Processing the Computer Product 1 Further Analysis... 22 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary of Findings 24 Conclusions 9 REFERENCES 31 APPENDIX A — SAMPLE PAGES FROM A GRADED PHONOGRAM-BASED WORD LIST 33 APPENDIX B — PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V 51 iv LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. PHONOGRAMS OCCURRING IN FEWER THAN FIVE WORDS 25 II. TOTAL FREQUENCIES OF 232 PHONOGRAMS IN WORDS OF THE HARRIS-JACOBSON BASIC ELEMENTARY READING VOCABULARIES 27 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Grateful appreciation is extended to Dr. Jane H. Catterson for her informed assistance and sustained support while supervising this thesis. The contribution of Dr. E. G. Summers and Mr. David Barnett is acknowledged with thanks. They were responsible for the production of the initial computer pro duct. The computer related aspects of the study were supported by Research Grant 31-9027 granted by the University of British Columbia Research Committee. Note: The complete Phonogram-Based Word List is available from Dr. J. CattersonN, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia at a cost of $6.00 Canadian and $5.00 U.S. vi 1 • CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The study focusses on the development of a graded phonogram-based word list derived from the occurrence of selected phonograms in the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list. -Background of the Study Word lists based on frequency of occurrence of words in language have been an important element of basic reading literature for many years. On the assumption that a child should learn to read first those words that will be encountered most frequently in connected prose and later those words encoun tered less frequently, many word lists are developed from word counts of spo ken and printed language. In these lists frequency of occurrence in speaking or writing is the criterion for placing any word at a "high" or "low" level on the list. Examples of such word lists are the Dolch (1941) Sight Vocabulary list, the Carroll et al. (1971) American Heritage Word Frequency Book and the Harris and Jacobson (1972) Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list. Each of the many published word lists available is based on a clear rationale and is scientifically derived by either hand or computer counts from a specified data base. They are used in many ways, both to study and to construct materials in which meaning or semantics is important. In a contrasting approach, teaching materials directed at what is commonly called "phonics instruction", that is, materials constructed to teach word recognition through phonological principles, seldom have an identifiable scientific basis. Series of phonics workbooks often provide teachers with the list of words used in the series but do not provide a theoretical base for the selection of those words. It is probably fair to say that the selection rests mainly on the judgement of the authors of the material, who use their knowledge of children at various age levels to determine which words should be placed "high" or "low" on phonological word lists. Although their subjective judgement may be accurate enough to provide usable teaching materials, there is seldom scientific evidence to support their choice of words. That scientifically derived lists based on phonological principles are needed is increasingly evident. Such well known researchers as Gibson (1962, 1976) a perception specialist, Venezky (1967, 1972) a spelling spe cialist and Durrell and Wylie (1968) reading specialists have provided evi dence that orthographic units beyond the letter that represent the consistent sound-symbol patterns of English are used most by , readers and spellers in basic word processing activities. In 1962 Gibson et al. proposed that the regularities in spelling-to-sound patterns employed by readers are letter clusters. It was suggested: "...that the proper unit for analyzing the process of reading (and writing) is not the alphabetical letter but the spelling pattern which has an invariant relationship with a phonemic pattern. This may be of great importance for children's learning to read and write." (1962, p.555) Although Gibson does not specify the types of spelling patterns she considers most important, her 1962 study focussed on the vowel-consonant combination in letter clusters and the significance of this unit to ease of pronunciation. 3 The need to continue to enhance experiences of observing spelling patterns is acknowledged by Gibson (1976). Venezky's spelling research (1967) has shown that spelling-to-sound correspondences in English are much more regular than many people have assumed. Moreover, with the exception of patterns that occur infrequently in early reading material, good readers very early develop the ability to respond with appropriate pronunciations to these patterns when they appear in synthe tic words. (Venezky et al. 1972) It is the consistent sound symbol pattern of the phonogram that Durrell and Wylie (1968) stress as the recognition unit of highest utility for beginning readers. If orthographic clusters in words are so important to reading and spelling activities, it seems evident that some scientifically derived lists would be useful for instruction in both of these subjects. To produce the required lists it should only be necessary to reana lyze existing semantics-based graded word lists into new word lists in which words of each grade are grouped by designated orthographic components. Specific Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to reanalyze the graded word lists of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list according to phonogram components to provide a phonogram-based word list in graded format. 4 Design of the Study  Materials; The study required the use of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list (1972) and the Durrell-Murphy  Phonogram List (1972), which is based on the frequency of occurrence of phono grams drawn from the Vocabulary of Rhymes in Webster's Seventh New Collegiate  Dictionary (1965). •?* Methods: The methodology of the study required a three-step process. In the first step, all of the words of the Harris-Jacobson list were typed into a computer word processor in their grade level format. Separate files representing phonograms from the Durrell-Murphy phonogram list were created in the computer. The graded word lists and the phonogram files were then combined by the computer to create graded word lists based on the occurrence of letter sequences called phonograms. The initial output, then, consisted of all words in the Harris-Jacobson list at each grade level that contained the sequences of letters representing the phonograms entered. These initial printed lists could not constitute the final product since the word processor cannot recognize phono logical boundaries. For example, the word "heroine" would be assigned by the computer to the Grade Six list of oin words but would be dropped from the final list because in the word "heroine" the oin cluster is not pronounced as it is pronounced in such words as coin or loin. The second step of the study, then, involved a hand processing of the 5 computer lists to match letter sequences representing the phonograms with con sistent phonogram sounds. Only those words that contained what was believed to be the most common phonogram sounds were included in the graded phonogram word list. A final step involved further analysis of the lists. It should perhaps be added that the completed list is not considered to be a definitive list. It is confined to the phonogram as defined below. Definition of Terms Only one definition is required for the study. For the purpose of this study a phonogram as defined in A Dictionary of Reading and Related  Terms, the official International Reading Association publication, is "a graphic sequence comprised of a vowel grapheme and an ending consonant grapheme (as the spelling of -ed in bed, red, fed). (Harris and Hodges, 1981). It is assumed that this definition includes the VCV sequence in which the final vowel is "silent" (as the spelling of -ite in bite, kite, site). Limitations of the Study The study is seen as limited in two important ways. 1) The study is confined to phonograms as they occur in only one published word list, which has its own specified limitations. Other semantics-based word lists would certainly yield a different set of word lists. 6 2) The study was confined to letter clusters that occur as phono grams, that is, as pronounceable clusters without semantic significance. It did not differentiate letter clusters spelled in the same way as phonograms but having a semantic function. Clusters like im and in function as pho nograms in such words as brimming and finish but have a semantic function in such words as import and inability. The list is confined to the phonogram as a phonological unit in its most common pronunciation. Significance of the Study The study is seen as having significance in both its product and its processes. The value of the expected product in providing a scientific base for "phonics" instruction has already been commented on. It is expected as well that the processes used may have an influence on the construction and design of future word lists. Existing graded word lists may be reanalyzed in a similar way for orthographic patterns represent ing other phonemic elements. Organization of the Thesis The thesis is organized into four chapters. Chapter one presents the problem. Chapter two reviews the related literature. Chapter three describes the procedures followed to develop the graded phonogram-based word lists. Chapter four summarizes the study and samples of the projected word list appear as an appendix. 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE For a time Gestalt psychologists influenced reading instruction when they suggested that word recognition practice should be based on a "whole word" technique on the assumption that subpatterns within words would gra dually be internalized by the naive reader and used to recognize "new" words. Generally speaking, however, reading specialists have agreed that most children must be taught how to analyze words into appropriate pronunciation units and then to "blend" these units into whole words. Some writers and com mercial programs have advised a letter by letter approach (as in c-a-t); others have advised an initial syllable approach (as in ca-t); and still others suggested a phonogram approach (as in c-at). Although some evidence was available as early as 1928 about the value of the phonogram as a pronun ciation unit, only recently has any quantity of evidence become available to support its value. Research now seems to support the phonogram as the unit of greatest utility in word recognition. Early Evidence and Opinion About the Value  of the Phonogram in Word Analysis Programmes Early statements about the value of the phonogram in word analysis programmes were based on analyses of their occurrence in beginning reading material. Gates' (1928) study of the relative frequency of letter clusters in words, although not always formally cited by later writers, probably influenced statements made by other authors soon after. Gates analyzed the frequency of occurrence of a variety of letter clusters including the CC, CV and VC, VCC forms in 3,000 words from first and grade reading material. His data led him to suggest that attention to many of these units in reading instruction would prove unprofitable. However, some combinations were considered to be of value because of both frequency of occurrence and consistent sound-symbol relationships. Gates suggested that: Elements like in, ing, er, an, en, ed,oter, and and ight which so commonly correspond to spoken syllables ... are more readily connected with spoken sounds and the associations thereby built up. (1928, p.153) He listed a total of 27 letter clusters that were very useful because of their frequency of occurrence and invariance of pronunciation. Nineteen, or approximately seventy per cent of these were of the VC and VCC form (i.e. phonogram). Although McKee (1948) accepted Gates' judgement that phonograms were useful in word analysis programmes, he pointed out that the use of the phono gram might be limited by variance of pronunciation, infrequency of occurrence and the beginning reader's word attack style, which typically showed a con centration on beginning and ending letters. However, he did list specific phonograms to be taught. Still later, Durrell (1956) agreed, although he stressed that fre quency of occurrence of phonograms in instructional reading material should form the basis for determining the elements to be taught. He advised specifi cally against the practice of teaching phonograms using unfamiliar words, that is, words not in a child's speaking vocabulary. Dolch, on the other hand, subscribed to the letter by letter phonics 9 approach and stated: We can say that phonogram phonics is only a means to an end. The end is better teaching of letter phonics and also learning of habits of word analysis that will be continually and widely useful. (1960, p.294) Dolch, nevertheless, did prepare a list of phonograms regarded as most common to phonogram lists, while warning of the limitations of phonogram recognition in word analysis practice. In 1961, the suggestion was made by Russell that phonogram recogni tion was an integral part of the child's development in reading polysyllable words. He suggested that while analysis of monosyllable words in early reading required skill with individual letters, blends and digraphs, later: In the high second or low third grades where polysyllable words begin to constitute more of the basic vocabulary, ability to detect known parts, phonograms such as light and ound and the syllables of words becomes more valuable, (p.314) Obviously, many reading specialists until 1961 were in favour of at least some use of phonograms in reading programmes but very little research evidence was available other than the Gates 1928 study of their frequency of occurrence. Recent Evidence About Letter Clusters  and Their Value in Word Analysis More recently, carefully designed research has focussed on the unit that the reader uses in word analysis activities in the reading process. Evidence has begun to appear in the perception, spelling and reading litera ture about the important of letter clusters with consistent sound-symbol rela tionships. 10 Evidence From Perception Research Working from a perception viewpoint, Gibson has suggested that a reader utilizes not the letter or the whole word when analyzing words but letter clusters comprising spelling-to-sound correspondences. Gibson, Pick, Osser and Hammond (1962) compared skilled readers' visual discrimination and perceptual matching of monosyllabic pronounceable and unpronounceable pseudowords. College students were presented with brief tachistoscopic exposures to lists of pseudowords constructed by exchanging initial and final consonant clusters and containing either high or low spelling-to-sound correlations (ex. CLATS - TSACL). High spelling-to-sound correlations were shown to be a significant factor in the perception of pseudowords. It is to be noted here that although no actual pronunciation was required of the students the combinations of potentially pronounceable units facilitated the task. In another experiment, Gibson, Pick and Osser (1963) used the same procedure to present monosyllabic familiar words and pronounceable and unpro nounceable trigrams as well as four and five letter pseudowords of both pro nounceable and unpronounceable forms (ex. RAN, NAR, NRA : SLAND, NADSL) to examine the stage at which early readers finishing first or third grade begin to respond to spelling patterns as units of pronunciation. First graders read and spelled orally the familiar words best but read the pronounceable trigrams significantly better than the unpronounceable patterns. The longer pseudo-words were read poorly with no differentiation shown for pronounceability, probably a reflection of reading ability. The third graders read all of the three letter combinations equally well but pronounceability was shown to be a 11 factor in the reading of longer pseudowords. The findings of these early studies led Gibson to conclude: The fact that a child can begin very early to perceive regularities of correspondence between the printed and spoken patterns and transfer them as units, suggests that the opportunities for discovering the correspond ence between patterns might well be enhanced in programmed reading materials. (1965, p.1072) It is an interesting fact that Gibson later reviewed her thinking about her use of the term "pronounceability" in the perception of units in word recognition and modified her statements to accommodate findings from a study of deaf subjects (Gibson, Shurcliff and Yonas, 1970). The same pseudo-words of high or low pronounceability were presented tachistoscopically one at a time on a screen for 100 milliseconds to 34 congenitally deaf and 34 hearing college students. The deaf students made more errors overall in recording the pseudowords but the difference favouring the pronounceable units was just as significant for the deaf as for the hearing students. Gibson et al. concluded that the importance of pronounceability in processing units was seriously weakened by the results of this study and concluded that "the mapping relation to sound is not essential". It should be stated, however, that there is really no reason entirely to discard the pronounceability notion. The fact that deaf subjects respond to visual patterns should not lead us to suppose that hearing subjects do not use the visual patterns as phonological units. This is implied by Gibson et al. in the statement: 12 An intelligent deaf reader does master and use the regular spelling patterns of the language in processing graphic material and is faciliated by their presence. The redun dancy contributed by invariant mapping to speech sounds may well make it easier for the hearing child to pick up the common spelling patterns and regularities as he learns to read, but clearly it can be done without this. (1970, p.71) In an additional statement, Gibson (1976) suggested that there are many repetitive patterns in English representing consistent pronunciation units which are generalized by the reader and facilitate the reading process. For example, the spelling patterns shown in fat-fate and bit-bite are suggested to be "easily classified and contrasted". While the term "phonogram" was not used to designate the spelling-to— sound patterns used as units of recognition in pronounceable words and pseudo-words, it should be noted that the phonogram pattern as defined in this study was the basic element in the pronounceable pseudowords and trigrams used in the Gibson studies. Evidence from Spelling Research An examination of the spelling literature shows that research in the field of spelling, aided by the computer, also began in the 1960's to study recurring patterns of print within words and to draw conclusions about their significance in the interaction between orthographic patterns and phonological patterns. Venezky (1967) contended that English contains two basic sets of pat terns. The first, he said, pertains to the allowable letter sequences or 13 orthographic regularities; the second contains those patterns which relate spelling-to-sound. After a very thorough analysis of orthographic regularities, including consonant patterns, vowel patterns, vowel + consonant(s) patterns and vowel + consonant + vowel patterns, he was able to describe the extent to which graphemic environment determined vowel pronunciation in both mono syllable and polysyllable words. He pointed out that for polysyllables morphemic structure also influenced pronunciation significantly. He added, however, a statement about the beginning reader that can be assumed to be a reference to the reading of monosyllables. Learning to read is to a great extent learning to relate orthographic forms to already existing phonological forms. The more that reading pedagogy can take advantage of this fact, the more successful the teaching of reading will be. (1967, p.105) He tested this conclusion in a 1972 study. (See below) Evidence From Reading Education Research Evidence about the value of the phonogram in word analysis is of two types; (1) Studies of application and (2) Studies of frequency of occurrence of phonograms in common words. Studies of application. Evidence has been collected about the value of the phonogram in word recognition. 14 The blending methods employed by first graders to decode unfamiliar one syllable words was investigated by Canham et al. (1966) to determine whether an initial syllable (as in ca-t) or a final phonogram (as in c-at) would serve as a more useful unit in word analysis when transfer was made to unknown words. The children were asked to respond to a total of 139 words representing all of the possible phonetically "pure" combinations of three letter words when paired according to initial syllable or phonogram similari ties (i.e. man-map; cap-map). Transfer to the paired word was expected within ten seconds after the examiner prompted with: "If this says 'man', this says ." or alternately "If this says 'cap', this says .". The phonogram approach was found to be significantly more successful in producing correct pronunciation regardless of the phonics method employed by the class-room teacher. The utility of the phonogram as a recognition unit used by first gra ders was also supported by Wylie (1967) in an elaboration of the Canham study. A thirty-two item test consisting of sets of five short vowel phonograms in which only the vowel varied was used to determine whether 230 first graders showing normal intelligence and reading progress would respond better to pho nogram or separate vowel identification. From a display such as (ed id od ud ad) the child was asked to circle the phonogram pronounced. The next day the same displays were used again and the child was asked to circle the vowel sound pronounced. All children identified the phonogram sound significantly better than the vowel sound. Wylie strongly suggests that the recognition unit is the phonogram rather than the separate vowel. In discussing phonics problems in beginning reading Durrell (1968) 15 stated: Our studies indicate that the phonogram is the unit most children depend upon in recognizing words in beginning reading. The phonogram stabilizes the vowel quite depend ably; in one syllable words the consonants which follow the vowel set the vowel value. (p.22) To determine developmental ability in predicting pronunciation from orthographic patterns, Venezky, Chapman and Calfee (1972) constructed a set of 69 pseudowords for use with good and poor readers from second, fourth and sixth grade. The pseudowords represented long and short vowel patterns, invariant consonant sounds and the variant consonant sounds of the letters c and cj. Oral responses to such items as "cabe" and "cipe" were taped and coded as correct, incorrect or plausible. Readers in second and to some extent fourth grade showed high correlations between reading ability and the ability to generalize pronunciation patterns although predicting pronunciation for the variant consonant patterns for c and c[ remained a problem with good and poor readers at sixth grade level. Venezky et al. noted that position of the letter in the word was important to its predictable pronunciation and suggested that the introduction of real word examples for each pattern in early reading material was important if the child was to notice structure in words. They stressed that spelling to sound correspondences are both regular and predictable and are used by readers to perceive and pronounce words. i A number of studies have attempted to isolate the patterns which represent the specific spelling-to-sound units employed by the reader. A study by Fletcher (1973) of the transfer of alternate spelling pat terns in initial reading using computer assisted instruction was cited by 16 Gibson and Levin (1976). Apparently words and pronounceable non-words of the CVC, CCVC, CVCC and CCVCC forms were presented to first grade children who had been taught according to two of the following treatment procedures. Treatment B provided practice with both initial and final letter clusters (ca- cla-; -ad, and); treatment I provided practice with initial units only (ca- cla); treatment F provided practice with only final units (-ad, -and); treatment N provided no practice. In the criterion test the treatment words were pre sented as whole units and the subjects were tested on all treatments. Training on the B and F treatments, both of which contained letter clusters of the phonogram form was superior to the I and N treatments. An investigation was also conducted by Santa (1977) to determine the unit employed by second, fifth and college level readers. Real word stimuli of the CCVCC form were presented simultaneously with corresponding pictures and same-different reaction time was measured. The words were presented as probes in which spelling-to-sound patterns were either maintained or disrupted (ex. BLAST B LAST BL AST BLAS T). Santa suggests that the task was probably too easy for fifth graders and adults since all probes were pro cessed equally well. However, children at second grade reading level responded significantly faster to both the whole words and the probes con taining the final triplet or phonogram. Santa concluded that "the final triplet functioned as a perceptual unit, but the data showed no evidence sup porting the final consonant cluster." (p.143) Studies of phonogram frequency. In light of the evidence supporting the phonogram as a critical unit of perception in word processing activities the question of frequency of occurrence in reading material has been re-examined. Frequency of occurrence of phonograms in materials used by elemen tary school readers, it is suggested, is not much greater than previously believed. However, both the informal design and the size of the data base suggest interpreting the findings with caution. Jones (1970) analyzed Dechant's (1964) list of 149 words common to primary grade basal readers for phonogram components. She concluded that 79.1 per cent of the words in this list could be decoded by phonogram iden tification. A random sampling of 1,400 words representing every tenth word in the Thorndike Barnhart (1962) Beginning Dictionary was then examined to determine phonogram frequencies in multisyllable words which were expected to be in the reading content of elementary school students. Jones concluded that the majority of words encountered by elementary.school readers can be decoded according to phonogram components that demonstrate consistent sound-symbol pattern. A list of the 50 most commonly occurring phonograms from this search was provided by Jones. Glass (1971) also has suggested that concern about both the numbers of phonograms and their frequency of occurrence in early reading materials must be answered by proponents of the phonogram approach. After examining the new vocabulary presented in basal readers of the first three grades Glass concluded that the number of different phonograms encountered is not onerous for the beginning reader and that frequency of occurrence is great enough to warrant their use in word analysis activities. A list of approximately 100 phonograms and their frequency of occurrence in basal reader for the first three grades was prepared. Half of these 100 phonograms occurred ten times or more and Glass has suggested that: 18 If these vowel phonograms could be consistently identified in whole words the youngster will have the vowel sounds introduced in over 90 per cent of the new vocabulary. (1971, p.230) It should be pointed out that these investigations of phonogram fre quency in elementary reading material seem to have been conducted informally by hand count. In more recent investigations related to units of perceptual pro cessing, the phonogram has been shown to be a unit of high recognition value. It would appear to be the letter cluster form most readily perceived by naive readers and one which good readers at a later stage use for predicting pronun ciation with unfamiliar word forms. Some evidence has also been provided suggesting that phonograms are basic components of the words encountered in reading material by elementary grade students. 19 CHAPTER III MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES This chapter presents a description of the materials required and the procedures employed in the development of phonogram-based word list derived from the occurrence of phonograms in the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary  Reading Vocabularies list. Materials The study required the use of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary  Reading Vocabularies list and the Durrell-Murphy Phonogram List. The American  College Standard Reference Dictionary (Barnhard, 1959) was used to check syllabication and pronunciation. The Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list is a computer-generated word list derived from an analysis of 4,500,000 words from fourteen series of elementary school texts. These include six basal reader series and two series from Social Studies, Science, Mathematics and English. The Core list contains words which appear in at least three of the six basal reader series at each grade level. The Additional list contains words which appear in fewer than half of the basal reader series but in at least four of the fourteen series at each level. The Core list of 5,167 words and the Additional list of 1,641 words are both graded and comprise the graded General Vocabulary list. 20 The ungraded Technical Vocabulary list consists of 805 words not included in the Core list but found in both series of a content area and judged to have technical meaning in that area. A Total Alphabetical list is provided for all 7,613 words included in the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list. The Durrell-Murphy Phonogram List is based on the frequency of occurrence of phonograms drawn from the Vocabulary of Rhymes in Webster's  Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary. A sample list of one syllable words is provided for each commonly occurring phonogram sound. Only one sample is given in parentheses for less frequently occurring alternate pronunciations. For example, separate sample lists are provided for the pronunciations of eat as in beat and threat but the less commonly occurring pronunciation as in great is suggested in parentheses. Procedures The procedure involved three major steps. The first step involved the production of a computer list that grouped the words of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list at each grade level by phonogram cluster. The second step was the processing of the computer product to produce a graded phonogram based word list that would be usable by reading teachers. A third step involved further analyses that provided information about specific characteristics of the word list produced. Producing the Computer List. All of the words of the General Vocabulary list 4 I of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list were typsd into the computer in graded format. The ungraded Technical Vocabulary list was then typed into the computer. The phonograms from the Durrell-Murphy Phonogram List were next entered alphabetically into the computer to create separate phonogram files. The Harris-Jacobson lists were then computer searched for occurrence of letter clusters representing each of the phonogram spellings. The printout from this search identified the words at each grade level which might contain the phonogram sound, that is, the words that had the specified sequence of letters and therefore might contain the phonogram sound. Since the computer cannot recognize phonological boundaries, the printout lists grouped together many words that contained the phonogram spelling but not the phonogram sound. For example, the word peace was included in the Grade Five printout list for ace phonograms (with brace, grace and trace) but in the final list was placed with eace words. Processing the Computer Product. The second step of the study involved a hand processing of the computer lists to match letter sequences representing the phonograms with consistent phonogram sounds. Only those words that contained the most common phonogram sounds were included in the graded phonogram-based word list. It was decided that a phonogram must occur in a minimum of five words across the grades to be included in the final product. The American College Standard Reference Dictionary was used to check both syllabication of words and phonogram pronunciation within words. The dictionary was used to ensure that the phonogram spelling formed all or part 22 of a syllable in each of the words included in the final phonogram-based word list. The pronunciation key was then used in a cross-check procedure to ensure that the phonogram formed a pronounceable unit with the required sound. Approximately twenty words included in the final list did not show the same syllabic division in the syllabication and pronunciation keys but were included in the final list because the phonogram formed the required pro nounceable unit in the base word (leader, poster). The Durrell-Murphy Phonogram List was used as a guide in the pro cessing of alternate pronunciations of phonograms. However, alternate pronun ciations of phonograms not noted by Durrell and Murphy for single syllable words but occurring frequently in multisyllable intermediate grade level words of the Harris-Jacobson list were also processed separately. Further Analyses. Word counts were obtained from the completed lists for the occurrence of each phonogram at each grade level. A total word count was then obtained for the frequency of occurrence of each phonogram within words of the General Vocabulary list of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading  Vocabularies list. Lists derived from the Technical Vocabulary list were included in the final phonogram-based word list but excluded from the total count since the Technical Vocabulary list is ungraded and contains many words that appear in the graded Additional Vocabulary list. 23 A list of phonograms that produced fewer than five words each was prepared. The orthographic pattern/pronunciation pattern matching was done on the basis of what is believed to be standard Canadian dialect. Other dialects would produce different groupings. 24 CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of the study was to reanalyze the graded word lists of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list according to phonogram components to provide a phonogram-based word list of the Harris-Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies list in graded format. Summary of Findings The completed list is comprised of 5,943 words with 232 phonogram entries. Sample pages are included as Appendix A (every 5th page of an 88 page list). A count of phonogram frequency across grades appears as Appendix B. Sixty phonograms (or 21 per cent of the Durrell-Murphy phonograms) were omitted from the final list because the frequency of words in which these were found was fewer than five words. The list of phonograms omitted is provided in Table I. Table I Phonograms Occurring in Fewer Than Five Words af e alf andle arn arp aught ause awk eap earn eft eld esk etter ilk imp inch ipe ird (safe) (half) (candle) (barn) (harp) (caught) (cause) (hawk) (heap) (learn) (left) (held) (desk) (better) (milk) (limp) (pinch) (ripe) (bird) irl oach oaf oak oal oan oap oar obe ode odge oft oice oin oise ood oof oor oot (girl) (coach) (loaf) (soak) (coal) (moan) (soap) (roar) (robe) (rode) (lodge) (soft) (voice) (coin) (noise) (food) (roof) (poor) (foot) ork ost ough oul ould ount ouse ove oze ube uch umb unny urse urt ush usk uss uy (fork) (cost) (rough) (foul) (could) (count) (house) (love) (doze) (tube) (such) (thumb) (funny) (nurse) (hurt) (push) (dusk) (fuss) (buy) 26 A total word count for each phonogram appears as Table II. A number of phonogram pronunciations not found in the Durrell-Murphy list but found occurring frequently in words of more than one syllable in the Barris-Jacobson list were included in the final list. These were able (suitable), age (village), ant (giant), ard (lizzard), ease (grease), our (detour) and ure (picture). Table II Total Frequencies of 232 Phonograms in Words of the H.J.B.E.R.V. ab (grab) 25 able (table) 11 able (suitable) 28 ace (face) 23 ack (back) 39 act (fact) 17 ad (had) 46 ade (made) 18 ag (bag) 36 age (cage) 7 age (village) 37 aid (afraid) 9 ail (mail) 28 ain (train) 37 aint (paint) 6 air (hair) 28 ait (wait) 7 ake (cake) 27 ale (sale) 15 alk (talk) 7 all (ball) 26 am (swam) 58 ame (came) 17 amp (stamp) 11 an (man) 137 ane (cane) 10 and (hand) 38 ange (strange) 8 ank (bank) 21 ant (grant) 11 ant (giant) 42 ap (trap) 52 ape (tape) 12 ar (car) 79 arch (march) 5 ard (hard) 22 ard (lizzard) 25 are (care) 35 arge (large) 5 ark (bark) 17 arm (f arm) 10 art (part) 19 ase (chase) 11 ash (crash) 17 ask (mask) 5 ass (grass) 28 ast (fast) 16 aste (waste) 6 at (that) 66 atch (catch) 12 ate (gate) 75 ath (bath) 13 attle (cattle) 7 ave (gave) 12 aw (saw) 27 awl (crawl) 5 awn (lawn) 5 ay (may) 77 each (teach) 8 ead (bead) 9 ead (head) 34 eak (speak) 14 eal (real) 15 earn (beam) 18 ean (mean) 11 ear (hear) 28 ear (bear) 7 ease (please) 5 ease (grease) 6 east (feast) 11 eat (seat) 22 eck (neck) 17 ed (sled) 33 edge (ledge) 9 ee (tree) 35 eed (feed) 21 eek (week) 8 eel (feel) 14 een (green) 23 eep (sleep) 19 eer (cheer) 17 eet (feet) 12 eeze (sneeze) 6 eg (leg) 13 elf (shelf) 11 ell (tell) 38 elp (help) 5 elt (belt) 5 em (them) 58 en (then) 247 ence (silence) 29 ench (bench) 5 end (send) 26 ent (went) 130 ept (kept) 8 erry (merry) 12 esh (fresh) 5 ess (dress) 231 est (best) 33 et (get) 94 ib (rib) 16 ice (nice) 15 ick (lick) 47 id (hid) 48 ide (ride) 32 idge (bridge) 5 ie (tie) 6 ief (thief) 9 ield (field) 9 ife (life) 9 ift (lift) 8 ig (big) 31 igh (high) 7 ight (night) 44 ign (sign) 6 ike (like) 15 Table II (cont'd) Total Frequencies of 232 Phonograms in Words of the H.J.B.E.R.V. ild (child) 6 ile . (mile) 17 ill (will) 56 im (him) 64 ime (time) 19 in (win) 204 ince (prince) 5 ind (find) 17 ine (fine) 34 ing (sing) 92 ink (pink) 15 int (print) 13 ip (trip) 53 ire (fire) 29 irt (dirt) 6 is (his) 18 is (this) 91 ish (fish) 45 isk (brisk) 6 iss (miss) 6 ist (list) 27 it (sit) 58 ite (kite) 21 ive (give) 36 ive (five) 16 ix (six) 10 ize (prize) 15 oad (road) 9 oast (coast) 7 oat (boat) 22 oard (board) 10 ob (job) 30 ock (rock) 28 od (nod) 24 oe (toe) 7 og (dog) 21 oil (boil) 8 oint (point) 8 oke (joke) 10 old (cold) 18 ole (hole) 11 oil (doll) 13 oil (roll) 6 olt (colt) 7 ome (home) 8 ome (some) 19 on (upon) 84 on (sen) 114 ond (pond) 8 one (done) 7 one (bone) 20 ong (long) 14 ood (good) 21 ook (look) 22 ool (pool) 11 oom (room) 15 oon (soon) 21 oop (hoop) 10 oose (goose) 6 oot (boot) 7 op (stop) 50 ope (hope) 13 ore (more) 38 orm (form) 10 orn (corn) 15 ort (short) 20 ose (nose) 16 oss (cross) 20 ost (most) 14 ot (not) 33 ote (note) 9 oth (cloth) 6 ouch (crouch) 5 oud (loud) 6 ought (bought) 7 ound (ground) 23 our (your) 13 our (hour) 7 our (detour) 16 out (shout) 33 ove (stove) 8 ow (now) 39 ow (know) 71 owl (growl) 7 own (down) 19 own (grown) 11 ox (fox) 10 oy (boy) 24 ub (rub) 31 uck (duck) 20 ud (bud) 13 udge (judge) 7 uff (stuff) 16 ug (bug) 26 ule (mule) 5 ull (full) 9 ull (dull) 7 urn (drum) 61 umble (mumble) 10 ump (bump) 11 un (fun) 115 unch (lunch) 6 une . (tune) 6 ung (hung) 14 unk (bunk) 12 unt (hunt) 6 up (cup) 29 ur (fur) 76 ure (picture) 38 ure (sure) 8 urn (burn) 7 us (bus) 47 ush (rush) 10 ust (just) 13 ut (but) 35 uzz (buzz) 5 Conclusions In the process of working with the list some characteristics of pho nograms and their pronunciation were noted. Data-Based Conclusions The study seemed to verify the priority given to alternate pronun ciations of phonograms in the Durrell-Murphy Phonogram List. That is, the alternate pronunciations offered in parentheses in the Durrell-Murphy list usually occurred in fewer than five words of the Harris-Jacobson list. Two exceptions to this occurred with the phonograms i_s (this) and oil (doll). Four of the five alternate pronunciations of phonograms not noted by Durrell and Murphy but found occurring frequently in words of more than one syllable contained a schwa sound when the phonogram served as the final syllable(s). These were able (suitable), age (village), ant (giant) and ard (lizzard). Other Observations Informal observations were also made about a number of phonograms that produced three or more pronunciations in a small number of words. The phonogram o_e occurred seven times with the pronunciation as in toe, three times with the pronunciation as in shoe and once with the pronunciation as in does. 30 The phonogram ough occurred in 14 words with five different pronun ciations (enough, cough, dough, through and bough). The majority of ar phonogram words contained the sound of ar as in car; however alternate pronunciations occurred in a small number of words with the pronunciations of ar as in sugar, quarter, marry and war. Syllabication affected the pronunciation of a number of phonograms that occurred in multisyllable words. The phonograms act, eld, ild, imp, int,  ist, und, urn and urt were generally divided between consonants in words of more than one syllable as in activity, elder, bewilder, simplify, superinten  dent, minister, blunder, furnish and frankfurter. Suggestions For Further Research Two suggestions for further research are made. 1. Reanalyze lists for occurrence of prefixes, suffixes and roots at each grade level. 2. Explore in a cross grades study the extent to which children learn earliest those phonograms that occur most frequently. 31 REFERENCES Barnhart, C.L. (Ed.) The American college standard reference dictionary, Chicago: Spencer Press, Inc., 1959. Canham, A.E. et al. Phonogram clusters in beginning reading. Unpublished Ed. M. thesis. Boston University: 1966. Carroll, J.B., Davies, P. & Richman, B. American heritage word frequency  book. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1971. Dechant, E. Improving the teaching of1 reading. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964. Dolch, E.W. Teaching primary reading. Champaign, Illinois: Garrard Press, 1941. Dolch, E.W. Teaching primary reading (3rd ed.). Champaign, Illinois: Garrard Press, 1960. Durrell, D.D. Improving reading instruction. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1956. Durrell, D.D. Phonics problems in beginning reading. In J.A. Figurel (Ed.) Forging ahead in reading. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1968. Durrell, D.D. & Murphy, H.A. Speech to print phonics. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972. Fletcher, J.D. Transfer from alternative presentations of spelling patterns in  initial reading. Technical Report no. 216. Stanford University: Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences. 1973. Gates, A.E. New methods in primary reading. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1928. Gibson, E.J. Learning to read. Science. 1965, 148, 1066-1072. Gibson, E.J. Trends in perceptual development: implications for the reading process. In H. Singer & R. B. Ruddell (Eds.) Theoretical models and  processes of reading. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1976. Gibson, E.J. & Levin, H. The psychology of reading. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1976. Gibson, E.J., Osser, H. & Pick, A.D. A study in the development of grapheme-phoneme correspondences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1963, 2, 142-146. 32 REFERENCES (cont'd) Gibson, E.J., Pick, A., Osser, H. & Hammond, M. The role of grapheme-phoneme correspondences in the perception of words. American Journal of Psychology, 1962, 75, 554-570. Gibson, E.J., Shurcliff, A. & Yonas, A. Utilization of spelling patterns by deaf and hearing subjects. In H. Levin and J.P. Williams (Eds.) Basic  studies on reading. New York: Basic Books, 1970. Glass, G.D. The teaching of word analysis through perceptual conditioning. In M. A. Dawson (Ed.) Teaching word recognition skills. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1971. Harris, A.J. & Jacobson, M.D. Basic elementary reading vocabularies. New York: The MacMillan Co., 1972. Harris, T.L. & Hodges, R.E. (Eds.) A dictionary of reading and related terms. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1981. Jones, V.W. Decoding and learning to read. Portland, Ore.: Northwest Regional Laboratory, 1970. McKee, P. The teaching of reading in the elementary school. Cambridge, Mass.: Houghton, Mifflin, 1948. Russell, D.H. Children learn to read. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1961. Santa, D.M. Spelling patterns and the development of flexible word recogni tion strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 1977, 12, 125-144. Thorndike, E.L. & Barnhart, C.L. Beginning dictionary. New York: Scott, Foresman & Co., 1962. Venezky, R.L. English orthography: its relation to sound. Reading Research  Quarterly, 1967, 2, 75-106. Venezky, R.L., Chapman, R.S. & Calfee, R.C. The development of letter-sound  generalizations from second through sixth grade. Technical report. University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin: 1972. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 073 443) Webster, N. Webster's seventh new collegiate dictionary. Springfield, Mass.: G. s C. Merriam Co., 1965. Wylie, R. Word element perception in beginning reading. (Doctoral disser tation, Boston University, 1967). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1968, ^9, 4398A; (University Microfilms No. 69-7839) Wylie, R.E. & Durrell, D.D. Teaching vowels through phonograms, Elementary  English, 1970, 47, 787-791. 33 APPENDIX A SAMPLE PAGES FROM A GRADED PHONOGRAM-BASED WORD LIST (every 5th page of an 88 page list) AGE - (VILLAGE) cont'd 3rd COTTAGE COURAGE LANGUAGE MANAGE MESSAGE PACKAGE VILLAGE 4th BANDAGE CARRIAGE GARBAGE SAUSAGE SAVAGE LUGGAGE POSTAGE SEWAGE SHORTAGE 5th ADVANTAGE AVERAGE BAGGAGE DISCOURAGE ENCOURAGE IMAGE PASSAGE VOYAGE DISADVANTAGE HERITAGE MILEAGE USAGE 6th ACREAGE CABBAGE DAMAGE ENCOURAGEMENT MARRIAGE PASSAGEWAY RUMMAGE STORAGE PERCENTAGE Technical CARTILAGE VANTAGE 3rd 4th 5th LAID MAID PAID AID BRAID MAIDEN MERMAID RAID 6th NIL Technical RAIDER AIL - (MAIL) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd 3rd 4th 5th MAIL PAIL TAIL SAILBOAT JAIL NAIL RAIL SAIL SAILOR TRAIL MAILBOX FAIL RAILROAD TAILOR WAIL PIGTAIL AVAILAbLE DETAIL HAIL TRAILER RAILWAY AID - (AFRAID) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd AFRAID 6th AILMENT BAIL FAILURE FRAIL PREVAIL QUAIL SNAIL AN - (MAN) cont'd 4th 6th Technical ANTIQUE BAN CANDIDATE FANTASY FINANCIAL MANUSCRIPT MILKMAN PECAN SANITATION TRANSCRIBE TRANSISTOR ANTHEM* ANTHRACITE CANDIDATE* EMANCIPATION MANOR OVERRAN PANHANDLE PANTHEON TANNERY ANTENNA* CANCER* ORGANISM* RANDOM ANTHOLOGY ANTONYM FANTASY* TRANSITION TRANSITIONAL TRANSLATION AND - (HAND) PP/P AND 5th 6th Technical COMMAND DEMAND GRAND INLAND GRANDPARENT GRANDSON GREAT-GRANDFATHER MAINLAND RAND SANDPAPER WOODLAND BRAND BRAND-NEW LANDSCAPE STRAND FARMLAND GLAND LANDMARK LANDSLIDE OVERLAND WASTELAND EXPAND LANDLORD OUTSTANDING WONDERLAND COASTLAND COMMANDMENT FARMLAND* HOMELAND NORTHLAND STANDSTILL GLAND* SANDSTONE HANDWRITING* HANDWRITTEN 1st 2nd 3rd HAND GRANDFATHER GRANDMOTHER LAND SAND STAND BAND HANDFUL SANDWICH UNDERSTAND GRASSLAND HANDWRITING ANE - (CANE) PP/P NIL AIRPLANE 1st 2nd 3rd 4th PANE NIL CANE LANE MANE ARD - (LIZZARD) cont'd 4th INWARD MALLARD WESTWARD 5th 6th AFTERWARD HOMEWARD LEOPARD EASTWARD NORTHWARD SKYWARD SOUTHWARD VINEYARD DOWNWARD MUSTARD OUTWARD STANDARD CUSTARD Technical NIL ARE - (CARE) PP/P NIL 1st 2nd 3rd 4th NIL CARE CAREFUL SCARE SCARECROW STARE BARE DARE DECLARE PREPARE SHARE SPARE SQUARE AWARE CARELESS COMPARE FLARE GLARE RARE BEWARE HARDWARE PARE 5th FARE FAREWELL MARE NIGHTMARE WAREHOUSE BAREBACK SILVERWARE 6th BAREFOOT BLARE HARE SHARE WARE WELFARE WARFARE Technical CHINAWARE SHARECROPPER ARGE - (LARGE) PP/P NIL 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th NIL LARGE NIL BARGE CHARGE ENLARGE DISCHARGE Technical DISCHARGE* ARK - (BARK) PP/P NIL 1st 2nd 3rd BARK DARK MARK PARK DARKNESS SPARK SPARKLE ATE - (GATE) cont'd 6th PENETRATE PLAYMATE SPECULATE TRANSLATE CANDIDATE CONTAMINATE DELEGATE DOMINATE ELEVATE IRRITATE ORIGINATE PARTICIPATE TOLERATE Technical CANDIDATE* CO-OPERATE* DEBATE* DELEGATE* CARBOHYDRATE CARBONATE CIRCULATE CONTAMINATE* DOMINATE* GENERATE* GERMINATE* INFLATE NITRATE* POLLINATE SULFATE PUNCTUATE ATH - (BATH) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd NIL 3rd BATH PATH BATHROOM 4th NIL 5th ATHLETIC BATHTUB MATHEMATIC MATH 6th ATHLETE MATHEMATICAL MATHEMATICIAN WRATH HATH PATHWAY Technical NIL ATTLE - (CATTLE) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd NIL 3rd CATTLE RATTLESNAKE 4th BATTLE RATTLE 5th BATTLEGROUND BATTLESHIP 6th BATTLEFIELD Technical BATTLEGROUND* CATTLEMEN AVE - (GAVE) PP/P 1st GAVE 2nd BRAVE SAVE WAVE 3rd BEHAVE CAVE 4th PAVE 5th SLAVE SHAVE 6th GRAVE PAVEMENT ENGRAVE Technical NIL EAR - (HEAR) PP/P NIL 1st HEAR 2nd CLEAR DEAR EAR NEAR NEARBY TEAR YEAR 3rd APPEAR BEARD DISAPPEAR FEARFUL REAR SPEAR EARDRUM 4th 1 FEAR SMEAR FEARLESS REAPPEAR 5th DREARY GEAR SHEAR WEARY YEARLING 6th APPEARANCE WEARINESS EARPHONE SPEARHEAD Technical CLEARING EARDRUM EAR - (BEAR) PP 1st 2nd 3rd 4th NIL BEAR TEAR WEAR NIL PEAR 5th BEARING SWEAR UNBEARABLE 6th NIL EASE - (PLEASE) PP/P NIL 1st PLEASE 2nd NIL 3rd TEASE 4th DISEASE EASE DISPLEASE 5th NIL 6th NIL EASE - (GREASE) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd NIL 3rd NIL 4th INCREASE 5th CEASE CREASE GREASE RELEASE 6th DECREASE EAST - (FEAST) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd NIL EEZE - (SNEEZE) cont'd 4th 3rd 4th 5th. 6th SNEEZE BREEZE FREEZE SQUEEZE FREEZER WHEEZE NIL Technical NIL EG - (LEG) PP/P NIL 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th bth LEG EGG BEG REGULAR BEGGAR KEG PEG REGULATION NEGATIVE NUTMEG REGULATE SEGMENT IRREGULAR Technical LEGUME SEGMENT* ELF - (SHELF) PP/P NIL NIL 1st 2nd 3rd HERSELF HIMSELF MYSELF YOURSELF SHELF 5th ITSELF SELFISH ELF UNSELFISH SELF 6th TWELFTH Technical NIL T-rr.T. — (TELL) PP/P YELLOW 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th HELLO TELL BELL CELLAR FELL SELL SMELL WELL. YELL DOORBELL FELLOW SHELL BELLOW JELLY PROPELLER SPELL SWELL UMBRELLA DWELLER SHELLFISH SPELLER STORYTELLER STORYTELLING FAREWELL INTELLIGENCE INTELLIGENT BELLY CELLOPHANE SELLER CELL DWELLING MELLOW DWELL GAZELLE 40 ENCE - (SILENCE) cont'd 5th INDEPENDENCE INFLUENCE REFERENCE CORRESPONDENCE INTERFERENCE OBEDIENCE 6th ENCH PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th ABSENCE CONFERENCE CONFIDENCE CONSCIENCE CONSEQUENCE CONVENIENCE EVIDENCE EXISTENCE PRESENCE VIOLENCE CIRCUMFERENCE HENCE INNOCENCE PROVIDENCE SEQUENCE (BENCH) NIL NIL NIL BENCH NIL NIL CLENCH DRENCH TRENCH WRENCH END - (SEND) PP/P NIL 1st FRIEND 3rd BEND PRETEND SPEND 4th ATTEND BLEND DEFEND DEPEND INTEND MEND TEND WEEKEND ENDLESS 5th EXTEND INDEPENDENCE LEND 6th ASCEND DEPENDANT DESCEND RECOMMEND RENDER SURRENDER SUSPEND Technical AMENDMENT PITCHBLEND ADDEND DIVIDEND ENDPOINT ENT - (WENT) PP/P WENT 1st NIL 2nd 3rd 2nd END FRIENDLY SEND APARTMENT DIFFERENT SENT TENT ACCIDENT BENT CENT CONTENT CURRENT EXCITEMENT EXPERIMENT IMPATIENT INVENT MOMENT PARENT (GET)* ET - (POCKET) cont'd DIET HORNET INLET INTERPRET LETTUCE LOCKET MAGNET PUPPET SCARLET TRUMPET BANQUET BOOKLET CABINET COMET OUTLET SKILLET SPAGHETTI* WALLET Technical BALL-AND-SOCKET COMET DROPLET ELECTROMAGNET GENETIC RETINA* RICKETS SKELETAL SKYROCKET ULTRAVIOLET SUBSET* ALPHABETIC* FIDGET GANNET MIDGET MUSKET NUGGET PROPHET REGRET* RIVET SILHOUETTE SOCKET SONNET SUPERMARKET TABLET TARGET VETERAN* VIOLET BRACKET DUET* GADGET HATCHET METRIC* NETWORK* PELLET PLUMMET 42 IGHT - (NIGHT) PP/P NIL 1st FIGHT LIGHT NIGHT RIGHT 2nd BRIGHT FRIGHTEN MIGHT SIGHT TONIGHT 3rd DELIGHT FRIGHT LIGHTNING TIGHT LAMPLIGHT Technical BULLFIGHT COPYRIGHT IGN - (SIGN) PP/P NIL NIL 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th SIGN NIL DESIGN ASSIGN ASSIGNMENT DESIGNER RESIGN 4th 5th 6th DAYLIGHT FLASHLIGHT FLIGHT LIGHTHOUSE NIGHTFALL SLIGHT SUNLIGHT EYESIGHT FIGHTER MOONLIGHT UPRIGHT KNIGHT MIDNIGHT NIGHTMARE PLIGHT TWILIGHT BRIGHTNESS DELIGHTFUL LIGHTNESS STARLIGHT BRIGHTEN CANDLELIGHT HEADLIGHT OVERNIGHT RIGHTFUL BLIGHT ENLIGHTEN FRIGHTFUL LIGHTEN NIGHTINGALE 6th NIL IKE - (LIKE) PP/P BIKE LIKE 1st NIL 2nd NIL 3rd STRIKE DISLIKE 4th ALIKE UNLIKE DIKE LIKENESS 5th HIKE THREADLIKE TURNPIKE 6th PIKE SPIKE LIKEWISE WARLIKE Technical DIKE DISLIKE HAIRLIKE IN - (WIN) cont'd 6th INVESTIGATE PINTO TARPAULIN TINDERBOX CLINIC CONTINUOUS INDICATOR INVISIBLE INEXPENSIVE INFLUENZA INHERIT INHERITANCE INJECT INNOCENCE INSCRIPTION INTRIGUE JAVELIN NIGHTINGALE PENICILLIN PINPOINT PINWHEEL VIOLINIST WINTRY VACCINATION CARDINAL INEQUALITY INDEFINITE INTERJECTION INTERROGATIVE INTRODUCTORY INCE PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th (PRINCE) NIL NIL NIL PRINCE CONVINCE PROVINCE MINCE WINCE Technical BASIN BITUMINOUS DOMINION INAUGURATION INCENSE INCOMING RESIN VIRGIN CHINOOK CHLORINATE GERMINATE HEMOGLOBIN INDICATION INERTIA INFECTIOUS INFLATE INFRARED INHALE INSTALLATION INSULATION INSULATOR INTAKE INTENSITY INVERT INVERTEBRATE POLLINATE POLLINATION RETINA IND - (FIND) PP/P NIL 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th BEHIND FIND MIND WIND HIND FINDER BLIND GRIND REMIND BIND MANKIND UNKIND KINDNESS BLINDFOLD BLINDNESS REMINDER BINDING IS - (THIS) cont'd 5th SATISFACTION TENNIS ADVERTISEMENT CHEMISTRY DISADVANTAGE DISAGREEABLE DISCOVERER DISOBEY DISPATCH DISSATISFIED DISTINCTION EMPHASIS HISTORIC MISJUDGE SATISFACTORY RESISTANCE TUBERCULOSIS UNDISCOVERED DISCOUNT DISTRIBUTIVE ISH - (FISH) PP/P FISH 1st WISH 2nd DISH FINISH SWISH RADISH 6th BLISTER BRISTLE CRISIS DISAGREE DISBELIEF DISCARD DISCONTENT DISCUSSION DISDAIN DISPOSE DISTINCT DISTRACT DISTRIBUTE DISTRICT DISTURBANCE EXISTENCE MISFORTUNE MISPLACE PISTOL REGISTER DISCHARGE DISCUSS DISPUTE HISTORIAN MISCHIEVOUS MISSPELL TRANSISTOR TUBERCULOSIS Technical LEGISLATIVE CHRYSALIS DISCONNECT PHOTOSYNTHESIS PISTIL PISTON 3rd 4th 5th 6th FISHERMEN FOOLISH PUNISH ASTONISH ASTONISHMENT FOOLISHNESS GOLDFISH POLISH PUBLISH SELFISH VANISH FISHER FISHHOOK REDDISH SHELLFISH STARFISH UNFINISHED UNSELFISH DISTINGUISH ESTABLISH FURNISH DIMINISH FURNISHING GREENISH PERISH PUBLISHER PUNISHMENT RUBBISH ACCOMPLISH ACCOMPLISHMENT BISHOP CATFISH OAD - (ROAD) PP/P NIL 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th ROAD NIL LOAD TOAD RAILROAD UNLOAD BOATLOAD CROSSROAD GOAD ROADSIDE Technical SHIPLOAD OAST - (COAST) PP/P NIL 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th NIL NIL ROAST BOAST COAST COASTAL SEACOAST TOASTER TOAST NIL Technical COASTLAND OAT - (BOAT) PP/P 1st 2nd BOAT GOAT COAT FLOAT SAILBOAT 3rd OATMEAL 4th THROAT BOATHOUSE BOATLOAD FERRYBOAT GOATSKIN OVERCOAT RAINCOAT TUGBOAT 5th OAT COATING STEAMBOAT 6th GLOAT PETTICOAT REDCOAT ROWBOAT AFLOAT Technical FLATBOAT KEELBOAT MOAT OARD PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th - (BOARD) NIL NIL NIL 6th OB - (JOB) PP/P 1st ABOARD BOARD CHALKBOARD CARDBOARD CUPBOARD BLACKBOARD STARBOARD BILLBOARD OVERBOARD KEYBOARD NIL NIL OME - (SOME) cont'd 6th AWESOME INCOME OVERCOME SOMEWHAT ON - (UPON) PP/P ON 1st NIL 2nd NIL 3rd BONNET CONTENT CONTEST CONTINUE HONOR UPON 4th ASTONISH ASTONISHMENT CONCERT CONCRETE CONSTANT CONVERSATION DON FRONTIER HONEST HONORABLE MONARCH NONSENSE ONTO CONSONANT CONSTELLATION CONTINENTAL DISHONEST MONASTERY 5th CONCENTRATE CONCORD CONFIDENT CONQUER CONSTITUTION CONSTRUCT CONTACT CONTINENT CONTRIBUTION MONSTER MONUMENT YONDER ANACONDA 46 ASTRONOMY CON CONCEPT CONFEDERATE CONGRESSMEN CONQUEROR CONQUEST CONSUL CONVERT CONVEYER ECONOMY ELECTRONIC NEON PENTAGON 6th BATON BRONCO BRONZE CONDUCT CONFERENCE CONFIDENCE CONSCIENCE CONSEQUENCE CONSERVATION CONSOLE CONTEXT CONTRACT CONTRARY CONTRAST HORIZONTAL MONITOR MONSTROUS NYLON PONDER PYTHON RESPONSE RESPONSIBLE SONNET SPONSOR CONCENTRATION CONFLICT CONSCIOUS ELECTRON GONDOLA PHENOMENON RAYON SILICON ' Technical CONSTITUTIONAL CONVICT MONARCHY MONSOON TRANSCONTINENTAL ASTRONOMY CONVEX OOP - (HOOP) 2nd GOOSE . 3rd LOOSE 4th NIL 5th CABOOSE MOOSE NOOSE 6th PAPOOSE OOT - (BOOT) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd BOOT 3rd ROOT SHOOT TOOT 4th HOOT 5th SCOOTER 6th UPROOT OP - (STOP) PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd STOP DROP HOP STOPPED POP SHOP TOP POPCORN CHOP CLOP COPPER CROP FLOP HELICOPTER POPPY GRASSHOPPER LOLLIPOP 47 4th COPY MOP OPERATOR OPPOSITE PROP TOPICAL MICROSCOPIC MOUNTAINTOP OPERATE RAINDROP ROOFTOP SHOPKEEPER TOPSOIL TREETOP 5th OPERATION POPULAR TOPIC TOPPLE ATOP OPERA TROPIC 6th CHOPPY CO-OPERATE CO-OPERATION HILLTOP OPPORTUNITY PLOP POPLAR POPULATION CHOPSTICKS SHOPPER SHORTSTOP TABLETOP Technical .COPRA HOPPER OPPOSITION SHARECROPPER DROPLET DROPPER STOPPER OPE - (HOPE) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd HOPE ROPE 3rd TELESCOPE OUND - (GROUND) cont'd Technical ROUNDWORMS OUR - (YOUR) PP/P YOUR 1st FOUR 2nd FOURTH YOURSELF 3rd POUR 4th MOURN COURTYARD DOWNPOUR 5th FOURTEEN FOURTEENTH 6th MOURNFUL SOURCE RESOURCEFUL OUR - (HOUR) PP/P NIL 1st OUR 2nd NIL 3rd FLOUR HOUR 4th OURSELVES 5th SOURDOUGH 6th DEVOUR SOUR OUR - (DETOUR) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd NIL 3rd COURAGE 4th JOURNEY 5th DISCOURAGE ENCOURAGE TOURIST COURTESY DETOUR 6th COURAGEOUS ENCOURAGEMENT FLOURISH JOURNAL NOURISH TOUR TOURNAMENT COURTEOUS NOURISHMENT Technical JOURNEYMAN TOURISM OUT - (SHOUT) PP/P ABOUT OUT 1st NIL 2nd OUTSIDE SHOUT WITHOUT 3rd OUTDOOR OUTLINE 4th OUTER ROUTE SCOUT TROUT 5th LOOKOUT OUTFIT OUTLAW OUTSMART OUTWIT SNOUT SPROUT OUTCOME OUTLET OUTNUMBER OUTSKIRTS OUTSTRETCH UDGE - (JUDGE) cont'd 2nd NIL JUDGE 3rd 3rd 4th 5 th 6th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th NUDGE TRUDGE BUDGE MISJUDGE SMUDGE GRUDGE UFF - (STUFF) PP/P NIL NIL NIL BUFFALO PUFF STUFF FLUFF GRUFF SHUFFLE SUFFER MUFFIN MUFFLER SUFFIX BLUFF RUFFLE SCUFFLE MUFFLE SCUFF SUFFICIENT Technical FOODSTUFFS UG - (BUG) PP/P NIL 1st NIL 2nd UGLY 4th 5th 6th BUG DUG HUG RUG STRUGGLE TUG DRUG BUGGY DRUGSTORE JUG JUGGLE MUG SHRUG SNUG LUGGAGE TUGBOAT CHUG PLUG RUGGED DRUGGIST JUGGLER SLUG NUGGET SNUGGLE UGH Technical DRUG MUGGY ULE - (MOLE) PP/P NIL 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th NIL NIL MULE RULE NIL SCHEDULE RIDICULE MOLECULE Technical OVULE DP - (COP) 3rd BURST CHURCH PP/P UP CURL CURRENT 1st NIL CURTAIN FUR 2nd CUP HURRAH CUPCAKE HURRIED PUP PURPLE PUPPY SURFACE SUPPER SURROUND TURKEY 3rd SUPPOSE TURNIP 4th 5th 6th Technical UPON UPSIDE UPSTAIRS UPWARD CUPFUL SYRUP SUPPLY SUPPER UPPER UPROAR UPSET UPRIGHT UPSTREAM GUPPY PUPPET ROUNDUP STIRRUP BUTTERCUP CATSUP PICKUP GROWNUP UPROOT UPLAND UPRIVER 4th 5th OR - (FOR) PP/P NIL 1st 2nd • HURRY SURPRISE TURTLE NIL BURROW BURY FURNACE FURNITURE FURRY FURTHER GURGLE HAMBURGER MURMUR PURPOSE STURDY URGE HURRICANE' NURSERY PLURAL BLUR BURDEN BURRO FURNISH HURTLE OCCUR PURCHASE PURR PURCHASE PURR PURSUE SPUR SURVIVE BURGESS EXCURSION FRANKFURTER FURNISHING FURROW MURDER MURKY RURAL SULFUR APPENDIX B PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. 52 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6 th ab (grab) __ _ _ 5 g 11 able (table) - - 2 - 2 3 4 able (suitable) - - - - 7 9 12 ace (face) - - 3 1 7 6 6 ack (back) - 2 2 4 12 15 4 act (fact) - - 1 2 - 9 5 ad (had) 1 1 7 7 10 14 6 ade (made) - 1 2 2 7 3 3 ag (bag) - 2 3 4 4 13 10 age (cage) - 1 - 2 1 - 3 age (village) - - - 79 12 9 aid (afraid) - - 1 3 4 1 -ail (mail) - . - 4 7 5 5 7 ain (train) 12 1 612 6 9 aint (paint) 1 - - - 2 1 2 air (hair) - 2 6 5 9 3 3 ait (wait) - - 1 - 3 1 2 ake (cake) 3 - 3 5 7 4 5 ale (sale) - _ _ 44 5 2 alk (talk) - 2 11 2 1 all (ball) 3 1 4 7 2 5 4 am (swam) - - 3 8 11 12 24 ame (came) - 3 1 3 6 1 3 amp (stamp) - - 1 4 1 4 1 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th an (man) 3 7 9 9 31 41 37 and (hand) 1 15 6 11 10 4 ane (cane) - 1 1 - 6 2 ange (strange) - - 1 1 4 2 -ank (bank) - - 2 1 67 5 ant (grant) - - - 16 3 1 ant (giant) - - 2 3 9 14 14 ap (trap) - 1 5 12 9 12 10 ape (tape) - - 2 2 1 6 1 ar (car) 2 2 4 10 23 20 18 arch (march) - - - 1 2 - 2 ard (hard) 1 3 3 6 5 4 ard (lizzard) - - - 4 8 8 5 are (care) - - 57 9 77 arge (large) - - 1 - 2 1 1 ark (bark) - 2 2 3 53 2 arm (farm) - 1 2 3 2 2 -art (part) • - 4 255 3 ase (chase) - - 1 2 6 - 2 ash (crash) - - 1 3 6 5 2 ask (mask) 1 - _ _ 12 1 ass (grass) - 1 5 4 3 411 ast (fast) 2 2 1 3 4 3 aste (waste) - - - 2 - 1 3 54 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM PP/P 1st GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th at atch ate ath attle ave aw awl awn ay (that) (catch) (gate) (bath) (cattle) (gave) (saw) (crawl) (lawn) (may) 4 1 3 2 1 6 4 6 3 2 2 4 11 13 2 12 2 1 9 1 4 16 19 2 23 4 2 2 8 1 1 19 17 3 31 6 1 3 3 2 15 each ead ead eak eal earn ean ear ear ease ease east eat (teach) (bead) (head) (speak) (real) (beam) (mean) (hear) (bear) (please) (grease) (feast) (seat) 1 3 2 7 2 1 3 10 3 5 5 3 7 5 6 2 5 6 3 3 2 4 1 3 1 2 6 3 4 7 3 4 4 3 5 3 4 4 7 7 2 2 3 1 4 55 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th eck (neck) - -1 1 8 5 2 ed (sled) 1 1 3 6 8 6 8 edge (ledge) _ _ - 1 1 43 ee (tree) 2 2 1 6 9 8 7 eed (feed) - - 3 4 6 5 3 eek (week) - - 1 2 4 1 eel (feel) - - 2 14 4 3 een (green) 1 1 2 4 4 7 4 eep (sleep) - 1 5 45 3 1 eer (cheer) - - 2 5 15 4 eet (feet) - 23 2 2 3-eeze (sneeze) - - - 1 4 1 eg (leg) - 1 111 8 1 elf (shelf) - - 4 1 41 1 oil (tell) 1 2 7 3 11 60 elp (help) 1 - -12 1 elt (belt) - - 2 1 - 2 em (them) - 1 34 7 17 26 en (then) 1 6 16 37 58 65 64 ence (silence) - - - 3 5 6 15 ench (bench) _ _ _ 1 _ _ 4 end (send) - 1 3 3 9 3 7 ent (went) 1 - 4 17 28 45 35 ept (kept) - - 1 4 12 56 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th erry (merry) - - 4 2 4 2 -esh (fresh) - - -1 - 31 es (dress) - 2 1 14 29 29 26 est (best) - - 4 7 107 5 et (get) 3 5 4 14 23 21 24 ib (rib) - - - 2 3 2 9 ice (nice) 1 2 2 4 1 5 ick (lick) - - 6 8 13 14 6 id (hid) 1 1 2 4 11 16 13 ide (ride) 1- 7 4 13 3 4 idge (bridge) - - 1 - 1 2 1 ie (tie) - - 2 3 1 ief (thief) ---3132 ield (field) - - 2 1 2 1 3 ife (life) - 2 2 2 1 2 ift (lift) - - - 4 1 12 ig (big) 1 1 1 4 7 5 12 igh (high) - - 1 12 1 2 ight (night) - 4 5 5 11 9 10 ign (sign) - - 1 - 1 4 _ ike (like) 2 - - 2 4 3 4 ild (child) - - - 2 2 2 ile (mile) - - 4-4 5 4 57 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th ill (will) 12 5 10 14 9 15 im (him) 1 - 2 7 14 18 22 ime (time) - 11 4 5 5 3 in (win) 2 1 11 27 38 68 57 ince (prince) - - - 1 1 1 2 ind (find) - 22 2 6 3 2 ine (fine) - - 3 7 9 8 7 ing (sing) 1 5 10 16 24 20 16 ink (pink) 1 1 2 3 4 4 int (print) - - - 31 4 5 ip (trip) - - 2 10 17 10 14 ire (fire) - 2 1 2 8 7 9 irt (dirt) - - 2 11 1 1 is (his) 2 - 2 27 2 3 is (this) 1 1 2 9 20 30 28 ish (fish) 1 1 4 3 15 10 11 isk (brisk) - - - 1 1 3 1 iss (miss) - 1 - 11 2 1 1st (list) - - - 3 412 8 it (sit) 2 2 5 4 2 24 19 ite (kite) - 1 3 4 5 4 4 ive (give) - 2 1-5 10 18 ive (five) - 1 1 42 6 2 ix (six) - 2 34 1-58 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th ize (prize) 1 - 3 1 5 5 oad (road) - 1 - 2 3 1 2 oast (coast) - - - 1 5 1 _ oat (boat) 2 1 2 18 3 5 oard (board) - - - 3 3 3 1 ob (job) - - 2 5 66 11 ock (rock) - 2445 7 6 od (nod) - - - 6 6 5 7 oe (toe) - - - 2 2 2 1 og (dog) 1 - 4 67 3 oil (boil) ~ - 1 1 4 1 1 oint (point) - 1 1 - 2 4 oke (joke) - - 4 2 3 - 1 old (cold) - 4 1 4 7 2 ole (hole) - - 1 2 3 4 1 oil (doll) 3 1 5 2 2 oil (roll) - - 2 - - 3 1 olt, (colt) - - 2 2 3 ome (home) 1 - - - 2 3 2 ome (some) 3 - 2 4 4 2 4 on (upon) 1 - - 6 18 27 32 on (son) - 11 8 30 26 39 ond (pond) - - 1 1 1 4 1 59 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th one (done) 1 1 5 - - _ one (bone) -'-41348 ong (long) - 2 4 - 3 1 4 ood (good) 1 1 2 3 7 6 1 ook (look) 2 1 4 3 .6 51 ool (pool) - 11 6 3 oom (room) - - 2 3 4 4 2 oon (soon) 1 1 1 5 7 2 4 oop (hoop) - - - - 6 3 1 oose (goose) - - 11 - 3 1 oot (boot) - - 1 31 11 op (stop) 1 3 4 9 14 7 12 ope (hope) - - 2 1 6 2 2 ore (more) - 3 - 4 10 1011 orm (form) - - - 3 3 3 1 orn (corn) - - 4 3 3 2 3 ort (short) - - 12 7 3 7 ose (nose) - 1 2 3 3 2 5 oss (cross) - - 2 5 6 2 5 ost (most) - - 4 - 4 3 3 ot (not) 1 1 9 3 9 6 4 ote (note) - - 2 1 - 3 3 oth (cloth) - - - 11 - 4 ouch (crouch) - - - - 1 2 2 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM PP/P 1st GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th oud ought ound our our our out ove ow ow owl own own ox oy (loud) (bought) (ground (your) (hour) (detour) (shout) (stove) (now) (know) (growl) (down) (grown) (fox) (boy) 1 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 11 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 7 12 2 5 3 1 2 1 2 5 3 1 1 4 3 9 18 2 3 4 5 4 5 2 1 5 12 3 10 12 1 2 1 1 7 1 1 4 3 2 9 10 7 12 1 6 2 1 6 ub uck ud udge uff ug ule ull (rub) (duck) (bud) (judge) (stuff) (bug) (mule) (full) 4 4 4 1 3 7 2 1 5 5 3 2 7 9 12 3 2 2 3 6 1 4 9 5 3 2 3 3 2 1 61 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM PP/P 1st GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th ull um umble ump un unch une ung unk unt up ur ure ure urn us ush ust ut uzz (dull) (drum) (mumble) (bump) (fun) (lunch) (tune) (hung) (bunk) (hunt) (cup) (fur) (picture) (sure) (burn) (bus) (rush) (just) (but) (buzz) 1 4 1 2 1 1 5 1 1 3 1 2 2 4 15 3 2 2 7 13 4 1 1 2 2 1 5 2 1 16 5 4 35 3 2 2 2 7 15 11 1 1 9 3 5 9 1 4 17 3 2 24 2 1 5 4 1 5 24 11 3 1 11 3 4 10 1 2 18 2 32 2 3 3 3 4 21 10 2 1 22 2 1 6 1 

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