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A phonogram based word list for reading and spelling : based on the Harris-Jacobson basic elementary… Schooley, Ardelle Laurene 1982

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A PHONOGRAM BASED WORD L I S T FOR READING AND Based on t h e Basic  SPELLING  Harris-Jacobson  Elementary Reading  Vocabularies  by  A R D E L L E LAURENE SCHOOLEY B.  E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1968  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Language  We a c c e p t t h i s  thesis  to the required  as  Education  conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA JULY,  ©Ardelle  Laurene  1982  Schooley,  1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my  permission.  Department  o f ^y^n^yy^T^P  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (.3/81)  oJ^^j^rrJs^cSn  ^^SJtrtJsJtTtJ  Columbia  /<?8Z  written  ABSTRACT  The the  purpose  Harris-Jacobson  gram components methodology words  of  typed  into  Basic  the  study  study  a  computer List  and  phonogram  files  required  grade  were  i n v o l v e d a hand p r o c e s s i n g  of  the  study  a t each grade e a c h phonogram five  words  list  is  or  21  the  cent of  f r e q u e n c y o f words  in  the  of  the computer consistent  was  of  prepared.  5,943 words  the  list  i n which these  sounds.  phonograms The  Phonogram  second sequen-  The  phonogram  fewer  phonogram-based  entries.  Sixty  of  than word  phonograms  L i s t were o m i t t e d because fewer than f i v e  final  occurrence  that produced  completed  lists graded  The  each  the frequency o f  were  word  t o match l e t t e r  phonogram  the  Durrell-  create  sequence.  the occurrence of  for  o c c u r r e d was  to  The  of  list  the  The g r a d e d  letter  w i t h 232 p h o n o g r a m  D u r r e 11 -Murphy  from  of  phono-  a l l  Vocabularies  computer  lists  to  format.  First,  Phonograms  phonogram  lists  according  process.  the  word  i n graded  computer.  a word count f o r  A  list  Reading  combined by  with  grades.  grades  step  format.  and a t o t a l word c o u n t  comprised of  per  of  phonograms  across  across  occurrence  provided  level  level  then  step  step  the  were  word  three  the graded  Vocabularies  Elementary  entered  lists  representing  on  reanalyze  Reading  a  Basic  word  ces  based  to  a phonogram-based  in  Phonogram  was  Elementary  Harris-Jacobson  Murphy the  the  to provide  of  the  of  words.  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  II.  PAGE THE PROBLEM  1  Statement of t h e P r o b l e m . . . . .  1  Background of t h e S t u d y . .  1  Specific  3  Purpose of the Study  Design of the Study  4  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms....  5  L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study  5  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study.  6  O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e T h e s i s  6  REVIEW OF THE RELATED L I T E R A T U R E E a r l y E v i d e n c e About t h e V a l u e of t h e  Phonogram 7  i n Word A n a l y s i s P r o g r a m s Recent Evidence About L e t t e r  Clusters  a n d t h e i r V a l u e i n Word A n a l y s i s E v i d e n c e From P e r c e p t i o n Research  III.  9 9  E v i d e n c e From S p e l l i n g Research  12  E v i d e n c e From R e a d i n g E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h  13  MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES Materials  19  Procedures  20  P r o d u c i n g t h e Computer L i s t  20  P r o c e s s i n g t h e Computer P r o d u c t  21  Further  22  Analysis...  i i i  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER IV.  PAGE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary o f F i n d i n g s  24  Conclusions  29  REFERENCES  31  APPENDIX A —  SAMPLE PAGES FROM A GRADED PHONOGRAM-BASED WORD L I S T  33  APPENDIX B —  PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES I N WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V  51  iv  L I S T OF TABLES  TABLE  PAGE  I.  PHONOGRAMS OCCURRING I N FEWER THAN F I V E WORDS  II.  TOTAL FREQUENCIES OF 232 PHONOGRAMS I N WORDS OF THE HARRIS-JACOBSON BASIC  ELEMENTARY READING VOCABULARIES  V  25  27  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Grateful informed  assistance  contribution thanks.  appreciation  of  and  Dr.  E.  is  sustained G.  extended support  Summers a n d  They were r e s p o n s i b l e  to  Dr.  while  Mr.  David  Jane  H.  supervising Barnett i s  f o r the production of  Catterson this  for  her  thesis.  The  acknowledged  with  the i n i t i a l  computer  pro-  duct.  The c o m p u t e r Grant  31-9027  r e l a t e d aspects  granted  by  the  of  the study  University  of  were  supported  British  by  Columbia  Research Research  Committee.  Note: Dr.  J.  cost of  The  Catterson , N  complete  Phonogram-Based  Faculty of Education,  $6.00 Canadian  and $5.00  U.S.  vi  Word  University  of  List  is  available  B r i t i s h Columbia a t  from a  1  • CHAPTER THE  I  PROBLEM  Statement of t h e The word  list  study  focusses  derived from  on  the  the  Problem  development  occurrence  of  of  a  graded  phonogram-based  s e l e c t e d phonograms  in  the  Harris-  Jacobson B a s i c Elementary Reading Vocabularies l i s t .  Background of t h e  -  Study  Word l i s t s b a s e d on f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f words b e e n an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t of assumption  that  e n c o u n t e r e d most tered less  a  child  should  frequently in  or w r i t i n g i s list.  list, Harris  learn to  Examples  the C a r r o l l et and J a c o b s o n  of  r a t i o n a l e and i s specified  In  read f i r s t  connected prose  these  are  those  and l a t e r  words those  data  of  such  al.  word  l i s t s frequency of  lists  a  are the Dolch  words  (1941)  scientifically They  available is  spo-  speaking  "low" level  Sight  used  in  many  ways,  approach,  teaching  both  the  list.  b a s e d on a  to  on  Vocabulary  clear  d e r i v e d by e i t h e r hand o r computer c o u n t s are  be  encoun-  ( 1 9 7 1 ) A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e Word F r e q u e n c y Book a n d  t h e many p u b l i s h e d w o r d l i s t s  contrasting  On t h e  that w i l l  occurrence i n  (1972) B a s i c Elementary Reading V o c a b u l a r i e s  base.  have  developed from word counts of  c o n s t r u c t m a t e r i a l s i n which meaning or semantics i s  In  f o r many y e a r s .  t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r p l a c i n g any word a t a " h i g h " o r  Each  a  reading l i t e r a t u r e  f r e q u e n t l y , many w o r d l i s t s  ken and p r i n t e d language.  the  basic  i n language  study  from  and  to  what  is  important.  materials  directed at  commonly c a l l e d " p h o n i c s word  recognition  scientific list  basis.  of words  s e l e c t i o n of mainly  on  knowledge placed  is  through  phonological  Series  used i n  of phonics  the s e r i e s  those words. the  of  It  judgement  is  of  or  may b e  "low"  are  needed  (1962,  1976)  cialist  and  dence  is a  sound  authors  age  Durrell  and  patterns  1962  patterns  units of  lists Such  (1968) beyond  English  lists. usable  the  are  used  known  who  use  their be  subjective there  words.  principles  researchers 1972)  specialists that  rests  should  phonological  (1967,  most  the  materials,  well  letter  for  teaching  on  reading  the  their  based  Venezky  with  Although  t h e i r choice of  specialist,  Wylie  material,  t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h words  word  to support  teachers  t h a t the s e l e c t i o n  the  teach  an i d e n t i f i a b l e  a t h e o r e t i c a l base  t o say  of  levels  evident.  perception  seldom have  often provide  fair  enough t o p r o v i d e  increasingly  b a s i c word p r o c e s s i n g  In  probably  s c i e n t i f i c a l l y derived  that orthographic  sound-symbol  workbooks  the  seldom s c i e n t i f i c evidence  That  principles,  on p h o n o l o g i c a l  accurate  materials constructed to  b u t do n o t p r o v i d e  children at various  "high"  judgement  instruction", that i s ,  as  Gibson  a  spelling  spe-  have  provided  evi-  represent  the  by , readers  and  regularities  in  consistent spellers  in  activities.  Gibson employed  e t a l . proposed by  readers  are  t h a t the letter  clusters.  It  spelling-to-  was  suggested:  " . . . t h a t the proper u n i t f o r a n a l y z i n g the process of reading (and w r i t i n g ) i s n o t t h e a l p h a b e t i c a l l e t t e r b u t t h e s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n w h i c h has an i n v a r i a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a phonemic pattern. This may b e of great importance f o r c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e . " (1962, p.555) Although most  Gibson  important,  letter  clusters  does not  specify  her  study  and  1962 the  the  types  focussed  significance  of  on  of  spelling patterns  the vowel-consonant  this  unit  to  ease  of  she  considers  combination  in  pronunciation.  3  The n e e d t o c o n t i n u e  t o enhance  acknowledged by Gibson  Venezky's correspondences assumed.  Moreover,  English  research are  (Venezky e t a l .  Durrell  is  the  and W y l i e  beginning  much  has  more  shown  regular  that than  spelling-to-sound many  that occur  people  have  infrequently in to  respond  t o t h e s e p a t t e r n s when t h e y a p p e a r i n  synthe-  1972)  consistent  (1968) s t r e s s  sound as  symbol  pattern  of  the  phonogram  that  the r e c o g n i t i o n u n i t of h i g h e s t u t i l i t y  for  orthographic  activities,  i t  clusters  in  and  words  seems e v i d e n t t h a t  are  so  To p r o d u c e  the  required  lists  i t  important  to  some s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  would be u s e f u l f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n b o t h o f t h e s e  reading  derived  of each grade  should  only  be n e c e s s a r y  a r e grouped by d e s i g n a t e d o r t h o g r a p h i c  S p e c i f i c Purpose The  purpose  of  the  study  was  of to  the  to  reanawhich  components.  Study  reanalyze  the H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n  Basic  phonogram  t o p r o v i d e a phonogram-based  components  lists  subjects.  l y z e e x i s t i n g s e m a n t i c s - b a s e d g r a d e d w o r d l i s t s i n t o new w o r d l i s t s i n words  is  readers.  If spelling  spelling patterns  good r e a d e r s v e r y e a r l y d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y  with appropriate pronunciations  It  (1967)  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of p a t t e r n s  early reading material,  t i c words.  observing  (1976).  spelling  in  experiences of  the graded  Elementary Reading Vocabularies word l i s t  list  word  lists  according  i n graded  of to  format.  4  Design of t h e Materials; Basic  Elementary  Phonogram L i s t  The  study  Reading  (1972),  Study  required the  Vocabularies  which i s  list  of  (1972)  the  and  Harris-Jacobson  the  Durrell-Murphy  b a s e d on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e of  g r a m s d r a w n f r o m t h e V o c a b u l a r y o f Rhymes i n Dictionary  use  Webster's  phono-  S e v e n t h New C o l l e g i a t e  (1965).  •?*  Methods:  In  The m e t h o d o l o g y of t h e s t u d y r e q u i r e d a t h r e e - s t e p  the f i r s t  typed  into  files  representing  created then  a  in  computer  the  combined  o c c u r r e n c e of  The Jacobson  list  representing constitute logical computer  the  The  sequences  initial  output,  the  each  phonograms  boundaries. the  grade  Grade  the Harris-Jacobson l i s t  their  grade  to  level  Durrell-Murphy  create  format.  Separate  phonogram  list  graded  then,  consisted  level  that  entered.  list  list  word  lists  of  all  contained  These  words  the  based  initial  the word p r o c e s s o r  in  on  the  the  Harris-  of  letters  sequences  printed  lists  could  cannot recognize  it  pronounced i n such words as  of  oin  words  but  would be  i n t h e word " h e r o i n e " the o i n c l u s t e r i s  The s e c o n d s t e p of  were  and t h e phonogram f i l e s were  e x a m p l e , t h e word " h e r o i n e " w o u l d be a s s i g n e d  Six  were  c a l l e d phonograms.  final is  because  the  of  graded word l i s t s  product since For  in  from  computer  letter  at  t h e words  word p r o c e s s o r  computer. by  a l l of  phonograms  the f i n a l  to  step,  process.  coin or  the study,  dropped  not  phonoby  the  from  the  not pronounced  as  loin.  t h e n , i n v o l v e d a hand p r o c e s s i n g of  the  5  computer sistent to  be  lists  phonogram  the  word  t o match l e t t e r  most  sounds.  sequences  Only  those  common p h o n o g r a m  r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e phonograms w i t h  words  that  sounds were  It  step involved f u r t h e r analysis  should perhaps  t o be a d e f i n i t i v e l i s t .  believed  graded  phonogram  the  Only study  Terms,  one  a  It  is  the  official  graphic  sequence  grapheme  (as  is  final  definition  phonogram  as  vowel i s  is  required  International  comprised  that  this  "silent"  1) published  study The  of  a  vowel  (as  word  semantics-based lists.  list, word  is  study.  includes  as  confined has would  the  its  considered  and  Reading  an  (Harris VCV  the  certainly  and  ending  Related is  kite,  in  "a  consonant  and Hodges,  sequence  of  1981).  which  the  site).  Study in  phonograms own  the purpose  publication,  -ite in bite,  limited to  not  defined below.  For  Association  grapheme  t h e s p e l l i n g of  which lists  the  -ed i n bed, red, f e d ) .  seen  is  as  A D i c t i o n a r y of  Reading  definition  is  study  lists.  Terms  for  in  L i m i t a t i o n s of The  the  c o n f i n e d t o t h e phonogram  defined  the s p e l l i n g of  assumed  of  be added t h a t t h e c o m p l e t e d l i s t  D e f i n i t i o n of  It  included in  w h a t was  list.  A final  this  contained  con-  two  as  specified yield  a  they  important occur  in  ways. only  limitations. different  set  one Other  of  word  6  The  2) grams,  that  did  not  but  having  is,  study as  was  confined  pronounceable  differentiate letter  nograms  a  in  semantic  such words  such words  as  import  clusters  and i n a b i l i t y .  study  is  seen  The v a l u e  of  the  as  spelled  the  like  The  common  having  list  im  occur  and  in  as  phono-  significance.  same way  have  is  that  semantic  in  and f i n i s h b u t  Significance The  clusters  without  Clusters  brimming  a p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t i n i t s most  letter  clusters  function. as  to  as  It  phonograms  function  a semantic  as  pho-  function  in  c o n f i n e d t o t h e phonogram  as  pronunciation.  of t h e  Study  significance  in  b o t h i t s p r o d u c t and  its  processes.  "phonics"  i n s t r u c t i o n has  It on  the  lists  expected product  is  a l r e a d y b e e n commented  e x p e c t e d as  construction  and  may b e r e a n a l y z e d  i n g o t h e r phonemic  well  design in  of  future  a s i m i l a r way f o r  the  procedures  Chapter appear  four as  an  for  u s e d may h a v e a n  lists.  Existing  orthographic  influence  graded  patterns  word  represent-  elements.  The t h e s i s Chapter  word  a s c i e n t i f i c base  on.  that the processes  Organization  problem.  in providing  is  organized  two r e v i e w s  followed summarizes  appendix.  to the  of  the  Thesis  into four chapters.  the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . develop study  the and  graded samples  C h a p t e r one p r e s e n t s Chapter  three  phonogram-based of  the  describes  word  projected  the  word  lists. list  7  CHAPTER  II  REVIEW OF THE RELATED L I T E R A T U R E  For they  a  time G e s t a l t psychologists  suggested  word"  that  technique  on  word the  assumption  d u a l l y be i n t e r n a l i z e d by Generally children units  speaking, must  be  programs  others  have  others  suggested  advised  a v a i l a b l e as  ciation  unit,  support i t s  have  a  how  reading to  only  value.  greatest u t i l i t y  subpatterns  an  a  initial  phonogram as  letter  by  syllable (as  any  R e s e a r c h now seems  "whole gra-  words.  that  most  pronunciation  Some w r i t e r s a n d c o m -  (as  c-at).  quantity of  a  would  agreed  approach  approach  of  on  words  appropriate  letter  about the value  r e c e n t l y has  have  into  in  based  t o r e c o g n i z e "new"  i n t o whole words.  approach  1928  words  be  within  specialists  analyze  advised  early  should  t h e n a i v e r e a d e r and u s e d  however,  taught  practice  that  and t h e n t o " b l e n d " t h e s e u n i t s  mercial  was  recognition  i n f l u e n c e d r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n when  in  (as  in  ca-t);  Although  and  some  the phonogram  c-a-t); still  evidence  as a  pronun-  e v i d e n c e become a v a i l a b l e  to support  t h e phonogram  as  the u n i t  to of  i n word r e c o g n i t i o n .  E a r l y E v i d e n c e and O p i n i o n About t h e V a l u e o f t h e P h o n o g r a m i n Word A n a l y s i s P r o g r a m m e s Early  statements  programmes  were  material.  Gates'  words,  based  although  on  about  the  analyses  (1928) s t u d y o f not  always  value of  their  analyzed  the  the  phonogram  occurrence  in  in  word  formally  cited  frequency  of  soon  by  later  analysis  beginning  the r e l a t i v e frequency of l e t t e r  i n f l u e n c e d s t a t e m e n t s made b y o t h e r a u t h o r s  Gates  of  reading  clusters  writers,  in  probably  after.  occurrence  of  a  variety  of  letter  clusters  including  t h e CC,  grade  reading material.  these  units  in  combinations occurrence  His  reading  were and  CV a n d V C ,  in  3,000 words  from f i r s t  and  d a t a l e d h i m t o s u g g e s t t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o many  instruction  considered  consistent  VCC f o r m s  to  would prove  be  of  sound-symbol  value  unprofitable. because  of  relationships.  However,  both  Gates  some  frequency  suggested  of  of  that:  E l e m e n t s l i k e i n , i n g , e r , a n , e n , e d , o t e r , and and i g h t w h i c h so commonly c o r r e s p o n d t o spoken s y l l a b l e s . . . a r e more readily connected w i t h spoken sounds and the associations thereby b u i l t up. (1928, p.153) He l i s t e d a t o t a l frequency  of  of  27 l e t t e r  occurrence  approximately  seventy  clusters  and  per  t h a t were v e r y u s e f u l because  invariance  cent  of  these  of  pronunciation.  were  of  the  VC  of  their  Nineteen,  and  VCC  form  or  (i.e.  phonogram).  Although useful  i n word a n a l y s i s  gram m i g h t and  the  be  on  Still of  words  word  and  later,  he p o i n t e d o u t  of  attack  style,  were  of  the  infrequency  of  occurrence  which  letters.  t h a t phonograms  that the use  pronunciation,  ending  Durrell of  (1956)  phonograms  t y p i c a l l y showed  However,  he  agreed, in  although  did  he  list  not i n a c h i l d ' s  phono-  a  con-  specific  that  material  He a d v i s e d  hand,  freshould  specifi-  t e a c h i n g phonograms u s i n g u n f a m i l i a r words,  speaking  on t h e o t h e r  stressed  instructional reading  d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e l e m e n t s t o be t a u g h t .  t h e p r a c t i c e of  Dolch,  judgement  taught.  form the basis f o r  is,  reader's  occurrence  against  accepted Gates'  programmes,  beginning  phonograms t o be  quency  (1948)  l i m i t e d by v a r i a n c e  beginning  centration  cally  McKee  that  vocabulary.  subscribed  to the  letter  by  letter  phonics  9 a p p r o a c h and s t a t e d : We c a n s a y t h a t p h o n o g r a m p h o n i c s i s o n l y a means t o a n e n d . The end is b e t t e r teaching of l e t t e r phonics and a l s o l e a r n i n g o f h a b i t s o f word a n a l y s i s t h a t w i l l be c o n t i n u a l l y and w i d e l y u s e f u l . (1960, p.294) Dolch,  nevertheless,  t o phonogram  l i s t s , while warning  i n word a n a l y s i s  tion  was  words.  d i d prepare a l i s t  regarded as  most  the l i m i t a t i o n s o f phonogram  common  recognition  practice.  In  1961,  an  integral part  He  of  o f phonograms  the  suggestion  suggested  of  that  was  the  made b y  child's  while  Russell  t h a t phonogram  development i n  analysis  of  reading required s k i l l with individual letters,  recogni-  reading polysyllable  monosyllable  words  b l e n d s and d i g r a p h s ,  in  early  later:  In t h e h i g h second o r l o w t h i r d grades where p o l y s y l l a b l e w o r d s b e g i n t o c o n s t i t u t e more o f the b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y , a b i l i t y t o d e t e c t known p a r t s , phonograms s u c h as l i g h t a n d o u n d a n d t h e s y l l a b l e s o f w o r d s b e c o m e s more v a l u a b l e , (p.314)  Obviously, least  some  evidence  use  was  of  many  reading  phonograms  available other  specialists  in  reading  than  the  until  1961  programmes  Gates  1928  but  were very  study of  in  favour  little  of  at  research  t h e i r frequency  of  occurrence.  Recent Evidence About L e t t e r C l u s t e r s a n d T h e i r V a l u e i n Word A n a l y s i s More that  the  Evidence  recently,  reader has  uses  begun  to  c a r e f u l l y designed in  appear  ture about the important of tionships.  word in  analysis the  letter  r e s e a r c h has  activities  in  focussed the  on  reading  the  unit  process.  p e r c e p t i o n , s p e l l i n g and r e a d i n g  c l u s t e r s w i t h c o n s i s t e n t sound-symbol  literarela-  10  E v i d e n c e From P e r c e p t i o n Working reader  utilizes  letter  clusters  not  and  the  Pick,  discrimination  unpronounceable  tachistoscopic initial  and  were  pseudowords.  It  facilitated  the  In procedure  is  whole  and  to  to  of  be  a  when  of  analyzing  students  the  trigrams  nounceable  and  -  constructed  TSACL). factor  with  by  either High  readers'  experiment,  Gibson,  monosyllabic as  well  as  of  high  Pick  forms  and f i v e (ex.  at which e a r l y readers  t o s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s as u n i t s  probably  a  better  read  than  poorly  r e f l e c t i o n of  three letter  or  low  spelling-to-sound  in  the  perception  p o t e n t i a l l y pronounceable  and  f a m i l i a r words  four  unpronounceable  stage  were  brief  exchanging  Osser  used  and p r o n o u n c e a b l e  letter  RAN,  (1963)  of was  units  NAR,  pseudowords NRA  finishing first  :  of p r o n u n c i a t i o n .  and  of  SLAND,  or  the  combinations  the  with  unpronounceable no  reading  patterns.  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n shown ability.  unpro-  The for  The t h i r d g r a d e r s  pro-  NADSL)  t h i r d grade First  same  both  longer  to  begin  graders  and s p e l l e d o r a l l y t h e f a m i l i a r words b e s t but r e a d the pronounceable  words  but  pronounceable  were p r e s e n t e d  containing  significant  combinations  a  task.  nounceable  significantly  that  words  skilled  monosyllabic  students  and  CLATS  suggested  compared  pseudowords  clusters (ex.  (1962)  matching  College  lists  word  has  correspondences.  Hammond  perceptual  Gibson  t o b e n o t e d h e r e t h a t a l t h o u g h no a c t u a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n  to present  to respond  the  and  consonant  another  examine the  Osser  shown  viewpoint,  spelling-to-sound  correlations  correlations  the  or  pseudowords.  final  of  letter  exposures  spelling-to-sound  required  a perception  comprising  Gibson, visual  from  Research  read  trigrams pseudo-  pronounceability, r e a d a l l of  e q u a l l y w e l l b u t p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y w a s shown t o b e  the a  11  factor  i n t h e r e a d i n g of  The  findings  longer  of  pseudowords.  these  early  studies  led  Gibson  to  conclude:  The f a c t t h a t a c h i l d c a n b e g i n v e r y e a r l y t o p e r c e i v e r e g u l a r i t i e s of correspondence between the p r i n t e d and spoken p a t t e r n s and t r a n s f e r them as u n i t s , suggests that the opportunities f o r discovering the correspondence between p a t t e r n s might well be enhanced in programmed r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . (1965, p.1072)  It about  her  is  an  interesting  use  of  the  word  recognition  study  of  deaf  and m o d i f i e d her (Gibson,  students.  The deaf  but  the  significant  for  t h e deaf  the  It to  discard  in to  accommodate  and Yonas,  students  i n the  thinking units  findings T h e same  of t h i s  study  in  a n d 34  units  was  Gibson e t a l .  processing  units  in  from  a  pseudoat  hearing  just  the as  concluded  was  and c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e mapping  seriously relation  essential".  to visual patterns  al.  her  overall in recording  the pronounceable  pronounceability  the pronounceability n o t i o n .  the v i s u a l  1970).  made m o r e e r r o r s  should be s t a t e d , however, t h a t t h e r e i s  use  reviewed  the p e r c e p t i o n of  as f o r t h e h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s .  of  weakened by t h e r e s u l t s not  Shurcliff  difference favouring  importance  t o sound i s  statements  later  100 m i l l i s e c o n d s t o 34 c o n g e n i t a l l y d e a f  pseudowords  that  Gibson  low p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y were p r e s e n t e d t a c h i s t o s c o p i c a l l y one  a t i m e on a s c r e e n f o r college  that  term " p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y "  subjects  words of h i g h or  fact  should  patterns  statement:  as  not  l e a d us  to  phonological  The  fact  r e a l l y no reason that  deaf  subjects  entirely respond  suppose t h a t h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s do units.  This  is  i m p l i e d by Gibson  not et  12  An i n t e l l i g e n t d e a f r e a d e r d o e s m a s t e r and u s e t h e r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s of the language i n processing graphic m a t e r i a l and i s f a c i l i a t e d by t h e i r p r e s e n c e . The r e d u n dancy c o n t r i b u t e d by i n v a r i a n t mapping t o speech sounds may w e l l make i t easier for t h e h e a r i n g c h i l d t o p i c k up t h e common s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s a n d r e g u l a r i t i e s a s h e l e a r n s t o r e a d , b u t c l e a r l y i t c a n be done w i t h o u t t h i s . (1970, p.71)  In  an  additional  many  repetitive  units  which are  For  example,  suggested  statement,  patterns  in  English  the  spelling  patterns  it  the  basic  element  in  there  pronunciation  the reading  fat-fate  and  are  process.  bit-bite  are  was n o t u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e  in  the  spelling-to—  of r e c o g n i t i o n i n pronounceable words and  the pronounceable  p a t t e r n as  pseudo-  defined in this  pseudowords  and t r i g r a m s  study  used  in  studies.  Evidence from S p e l l i n g  Research  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f of  shown  that  consistent  and f a c i l i t a t e  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e phonogram  the Gibson  field  suggested  t o be " e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d and c o n t r a s t e d " .  s o u n d p a t t e r n s u s e d as u n i t s  was  (1976)  representing  g e n e r a l i z e d by t h e r e a d e r  W h i l e t h e term "phonogram"  words,  Gibson  spelling,  recurring patterns  aided of  the by  print  spelling  the  l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t r e s e a r c h i n  computer,  w i t h i n words  also  and  began  to  in  the  1960's  draw c o n c l u s i o n s  the  to  study  about  their  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between o r t h o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s and p h o n o l o g i c a l patterns.  Venezky terns.  The  (1967) contended t h a t E n g l i s h  first,  he  said,  pertains  to  the  contains  two b a s i c  allowable  letter  sets  of  sequences  pator  13  orthographic  regularities;  the  second  contains  those  patterns  which  relate  spelling-to-sound.  After including  very  consonant  and vowel + which  a  patterns,  consonant  graphemic  thorough  analysis  vowel  of  patterns,  + v o w e l p a t t e r n s , h e was  environment  polysyllable  determined  words.  He  orthographic  vowel  +  consonant(s)  patterns  able to describe the extent  vowel  pronunciation  syllable  and  pointed  morphemic  structure also influenced pronunciation  out  that  in  for  both  to  mono-  polysyllables  significantly.  He a d d e d , h o w e v e r , a s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e b e g i n n i n g assumed t o be a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e a d i n g of  regularities,  r e a d e r t h a t c a n be  monosyllables.  Learning to read i s t o a great extent learning to r e l a t e orthographic forms to already existing phonological forms. The more t h a t r e a d i n g pedagogy c a n t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s f a c t , t h e more s u c c e s s f u l t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g w i l l be. (1967, p.105)  He t e s t e d t h i s  c o n c l u s i o n i n a 1972 s t u d y .  E v i d e n c e From Reading E d u c a t i o n Evidence types;  (1)  about  Studies  of  o f p h o n o g r a m s i n common  Studies of t h e phonogram  of  (See  below)  Research  the value  of  t h e phonogram  a p p l i c a t i o n and  (2)  Studies  i n word a n a l y s i s of frequency of  is  of  two  occurrence  words.  application.  E v i d e n c e has  i n word r e c o g n i t i o n .  been c o l l e c t e d  about the  value  14  The one  blending  syllable  whether would  an  initial  serve  unknown  words  as  methods  was  investigated  syllable  (as  a more u s e f u l  words.  The  employed by f i r s t  in  unit  asked  to  when p a i r e d a c c o r d i n g t o i n i t i a l  ten  seconds ."  after  cap-map).  the  was  found  pronunciation  to  be  regardless  this  says  the  to  a  "pure"  "If  'cap', this  phonics  to  phonogram  determine  (as  total  this  says  says  c-at)  of  in  employed  to  139  words  of  three  similari-  expected w i t h i n 'man', this  .".  successful  method  in  combinations  t o t h e p a i r e d w o r d was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more of  (1966)  unfamiliar  s y l l a b l e or phonogram  examiner prompted w i t h :  or a l t e r n a t e l y "If  approach  Transfer  decode  when t r a n s f e r was made  respond  phonetically  to  al.  i n word a n a l y s i s  letter  ( i . e . man-map;  et  a final  all  ties  possible  or  representing words  the  Canham  ca-t)  c h i l d r e n were  of  by  graders  The  phonogram  producing by  the  says  correct  class-room  teacher.  The u t i l i t y d e r s was A  also  thirty-two  which  only  showing nogram  item test  the  vowel  separate  ad)  the  same d i s p l a y s  sound pronounced.  unit  is  vowel  t h e c h i l d was  than  was  of  used  sets to  the  identification.  asked  were used All vowel  t h e phonogram  In  a r e c o g n i t i o n u n i t u s e d by f i r s t  ( 1 9 6 7 ) i n an e l a b o r a t i o n o f  consisting  varied  as  of  five  discussing  to c i r c l e again  short  From a d i s p l a y  strongly  rather than the separate  phonics  first  problems  in  study.  such  as  (ed  suggests  that  pho-  id  od  The n e x t  day  asked t o c i r c l e the sound  in  graders  better to  t h e phonogram p r o n o u n c e d .  a n d t h e c h i l d was  Wylie  230  would respond  c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d t h e phonogram sound.  t h e Canham  gra-  v o w e l phonograms  determine whether  i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e a d i n g p r o g r e s s  ud  better  t h e phonogram  s u p p o r t e d by W y l i e  normal or  of  vowel  significantly  the  recognition  vowel.  beginning  reading  Durrell  (1968)  15  stated: Our s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e phonogram is t h e u n i t most c h i l d r e n depend upon in recognizing words i n beginning reading. The phonogram s t a b i l i z e s the vowel q u i t e dependa b l y ; i n one s y l l a b l e words t h e c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h f o l l o w t h e vowel set t h e vowel v a l u e . (p.22)  To  determine  orthographic 69  grade.  invariant a n d cj. as  with  use  The  pseudowords sounds  ability in  Chapman  for  consonant  good  and  and  poor  variant  incorrect  grade  showed  or  high  plausible.  generalize pronunciation patterns  variant  consonant  readers  at  letter  sixth  in  suggested  patterns  the that  early  reading  words.  They  grade  word the  for  was  m a t e r i a l was stressed  important  that  spelling  consonant  second,  short sounds  fourth  vowel of  in  second  and  patterns,  the  to  remained et  letters  some  a b i l i t y and t h e  to  its  real if to  and p r e d i c t a b l e and a r e used by r e a d e r s  that  predictable  word  the  noted  examples  c h i l d was  position  extent ability the poor  of  the  pronunciation  for  each  to notice  sound correspondences  and  pattern  in  structure  in  are both  t o p e r c e i v e and pronounce  c  coded  a p r o b l e m w i t h good and  al.  of and  although p r e d i c t i n g pronunciation f o r  important of  and  between r e a d i n g  Venezky  introduction  from  " c a b e " and " c i p e " were t a p e d and  c a n d c[  level.  long  Readers  correlations  from  (1972) c o n s t r u c t e d a s e t  readers  represented the  predicting pronunciation  and C a l f e e  O r a l r e s p o n s e s t o s u c h i t e m s as  correct,  fourth to  p a t t e r n s , Venezky,  pseudowords  sixth  developmental  regular  words.  i A represent  number  of  studies  in  attempted  the s p e c i f i c spelling-to-sound  A s t u d y by F l e t c h e r terns  have  initial  reading  units  to  computer  the  employed by t h e  (1973) of t h e t r a n s f e r  using  isolate  assisted  of  patterns reader.  alternate spelling  instruction  which  was  pat-  cited  by  16  Gibson  and L e v i n  C V C , CCVC,  (1976).  A p p a r e n t l y words  and p r o n o u n c e a b l e  CVCC a n d CCVCC f o r m s w e r e p r e s e n t e d t o f i r s t  non-words  of  the  g r a d e c h i l d r e n who  had  been taught  a c c o r d i n g t o two o f  the f o l l o w i n g treatment procedures.  B  practice  initial  provided  -ad,  and);  treatment  treatment  I  both  provided  and  no as  practice. whole  In  units  the  and  final  practice with  F provided practice with only  provided sented  with  final  criterion test  the  subjects  letter  initial units the  were  clusters  units  (-ad,  only  -and);  f o r m was s u p e r i o r t o t h e I  A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n was unit of  employed by  the  and  CCVCC  second,  f o r m were  same-different  probes (ex.  fifth  tested  presented  reaction  college  level  on  all  (1977)  BLAST B  cessed  too  equally  responded taining  LAST  BL  easy f o r well.  with  measured.  final  Studies t h e phonogram  as  faster  triplet  f u n c t i o n e d as  p o r t i n g the f i n a l  fifth  a  graders  were  The  words  or  critical  and a d u l t s  since  R e a l word  of  second  Santa  concluded  the  stimuli pictures  were p r e s e n t e d  a l l probes  words  grade and  as  disrupted task  were p r o -  reading the  probes  that  "the  b u t t h e d a t a showed no e v i d e n c e  level confinal sup-  (p.143)  frequency. of  pre-  clusters  suggests that the  whole  the  phonogram.  unit  Santa  both  cluster."  phonogram  T).  at  to  N  treatments.  corresponding  children  a perceptual unit,  consonant  of  BLAS  However,  significantly the  AST  cla);  to determine  readers.  simultaneously  t i m e was  (ca-  and N t r e a t m e n t s .  c o n d u c t e d by Santa  and  cla-;  treatment  i n w h i c h s p e l l i n g - t o - s o u n d p a t t e r n s were e i t h e r m a i n t a i n e d o r  was p r o b a b l y  triplet  also  (ca-  t r e a t m e n t words  T r a i n i n g on t h e B and F t r e a t m e n t s , b o t h o f w h i c h c o n t a i n e d l e t t e r t h e phonogram  Treatment  In  light  perception  in  of  the evidence  supporting  word p r o c e s s i n g  activities  t h e q u e s t i o n of f r e q u e n c y of o c c u r r e n c e i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l has been  re-  examined. tary  Frequency  school  believed.  of  readers, However,  o c c u r r e n c e o f phonograms  i t  is  both  suggested,  the  (1970)  primary grade b a s a l per  cent  of  the  tification. in  the  A  words  random  Thorndike  determine  analyzed  readers  Barnhart  phonogram  Dechant's  this  sampling  list of  and  (1964)  greater  the  size  list  of  components.  could  1,400  (1962)  frequencies  much  according pattern.  to  A list  Glass phonograms  of  be  words  Beginning  concluded for  the  warrant  that  (1971)  also  their  the  number  their  in  three grades  has  decoded  by  data  base  common  Dictionary  every  was  demonstrate  to 79.1  phonogram  representing  use  their  has  suggested  iden-  tenth  word  then examined  to  which were e x p e c t e d  to  Jones  concluded c a n be  consistent  of  of  that concern  occurrence  t h e phonogram  that  decoded  sound-symbol  from t h i s  search  basal  of  d i f f e r e n t phonograms  and  word  that  analysis  frequency  suggested  of  Half of that:  readers  frequency  of  of  the  these  early  first  both  the  reading  three  encountered  occurrence  activities. occurrence  in  about  numbers  materials  approach. A f t e r examining  in  was p r e p a r e d .  more a n d G l a s s  that  frequency  presented  reader  and  words  t h e 50 m o s t c o m m o n l y o c c u r r i n g p h o n o g r a m s  beginning  phonograms  the  Jones.  and  vocabulary  previously  She c o n c l u d e d t h a t  i n m u l t i s y l l a b l e words  components  must be answered by p r o p o n e n t s new  of  encountered by e l e m e n t a r y . s c h o o l r e a d e r s  phonogram  was p r o v i d e d b y  of  words  than  149  be i n t h e r e a d i n g c o n t e n t o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . the m a j o r i t y of  by e l e m e n -  with caution.  f o r phonogram  in  not  informal design  suggest i n t e r p r e t i n g the f i n d i n g s  Jones  is  i n m a t e r i a l s used  A in  list  basal  100 phonograms  of  is  grades  is  not  great  Glass onerous  enough  approximately  reader  for  the  the  to 100  first  occurred ten times  or  18  I f t h e s e v o w e l phonograms c o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d in whole words t h e youngster w i l l have the vowel sounds introduced in o v e r 90 p e r c e n t of t h e new v o c a b u l a r y . (1971, p.230)  It quency  in  by hand  should  be p o i n t e d out  elementary  that these  r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l seem t o h a v e  cessing,  t h e phonogram  has  phonogram  conducted  fre-  informally  related to units  c l u s t e r f o r m most r e a d i l y p e r c e i v e d by  and one w h i c h good r e a d e r s  at a later  Some e v i d e n c e h a s  suggesting  components  are basic  r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l by e l e m e n t a r y grade  students.  value.  naive  stage use f o r p r e d i c t i n g p r o n u n -  c i a t i o n w i t h u n f a m i l i a r word forms.  t h a t phonograms  of p e r c e p t u a l p r o -  b e e n shown t o b e a u n i t o f h i g h r e c o g n i t i o n  would appear t o be t h e l e t t e r  readers  been  of  count.  I n more r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  It  investigations  a l s o been  of t h e words  provided  encountered  in  19 CHAPTER  III  MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES  This procedures from  chapter presents  employed  in  the occurrence  the  of  Reading Vocabularies  a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d and t h e  development  phonograms  of  phonogram-based  word  i n the Harris-Jacobson  list  derived  Basic  Elementary  Basic  Elementary  list.  Materials The s t u d y r e q u i r e d t h e u s e Reading Vocabularies l i s t College  Standard  of  the Harris-Jacobson  and t h e D u r r e l l - M u r p h y Phonogram L i s t .  Reference  Dictionary  (Barnhard,  1959)  The A m e r i c a n  was  used t o  check  s y l l a b i c a t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n .  The H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n computer-generated word l i s t fourteen series  series  basal  words  d e r i v e d f r o m an a n a l y s i s  elementary school  Core  reader  which  appear  list  contains  series in  The both  Core graded  words  each  grade  fewer  than  half  list and  of  5,167  comprise  appear  level. of  a t each  words  These  of  include six  the  The basal  in  is  4,500,000 words  at  basal  least  Additional reader  a  from  reader  English.  three of list  series  the  contains but  in  at  level.  and t h e A d d i t i o n a l l i s t  the  list  S c i e n c e , Mathematics and  which  at  l e a s t f o u r of the f o u r t e e n s e r i e s  are  texts.  and two s e r i e s f r o m S o c i a l S t u d i e s ,  The six  of  B a s i c Elementary Reading Vocabularies  graded  General  of  1,641  Vocabulary  words list.  20  The included  ungraded  in  the  Technical  Core  list  Vocabulary  but  found  in  judged t o have t e c h n i c a l meaning i n t h a t  A Total Alphabetical l i s t the Harris-Jacobson  The occurrence  phonograms  provided  for  given  parentheses  For as  in  example, in  beat  Phonogram  great i s  of  for  suggested i n  less  but  A  List  is  based  the  phonogram  area  and  content  words  commonly  included  the  frequency in  in  Only  alternate  one  sample  is is  pronunciations.  the pronunciations  occurring  of  Webster's  one s y l l a b l e words  sound.  are provided f o r  less  not  list.  on  of  frequently occurring  lists  words  area.  sample l i s t  occurring  sample  threat  a  805  d r a w n f r o m t h e V o c a b u l a r y o f Rhymes  commonly  separate and  series  of  i s p r o v i d e d f o r a l l 7,613  S e v e n t h New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y . each  both  consists  Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies  Durrell-Murphy of  list  of  pronunciation  as  eat in  parentheses.  Procedures The p r o c e d u r e the  production  of  a  involved computer  three list  major  that  steps.  grouped  Jacobson  Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies  phonogram  cluster.  The s e c o n d  to produce  a graded phonogram  teachers.  A third  about  step  the  list  s t e p was t h e p r o c e s s i n g based word l i s t  involved  s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  P r o d u c i n g t h e Computer L i s t .  The  further  words  step of  the  involved Harris-  at each grade l e v e l  by  of t h e computer  product  t h a t w o u l d be u s a b l e by  reading  analyses  t h e word l i s t  first  that provided  information  produced.  A l l of t h e words of t h e G e n e r a l V o c a b u l a r y  list  4  of  the Harris-Jacobson  Basic  Elementary Reading Vocabularies  list  were  i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r i n g r a d e d f o r m a t . The u n g r a d e d T e c h n i c a l V o c a b u l a r y then  typed  into  the  Phonogram  List  separate  phonogram  searched f o r spellings.  computer.  The  phonograms  were n e x t e n t e r e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y i n t o files.  The  occurrence of  letter  The p r i n t o u t  Harris-Jacobson clusters  from t h i s  search  l e v e l w h i c h might c o n t a i n t h e phonogram s p e c i f i e d sequence of  Since printout  lists  spelling  but  the  computer  the  cannot  together phonogram  recognize  many sound.  and t r a c e )  but i n the f i n a l  Processing  t h e Computer P r o d u c t .  processing  of  phonograms  w i t h c o n s i s t e n t phonogram  most  word words  the  It  across  was  list  computer  common p h o n o g r a m  list.  then  computer  each o f  the  phonogram  lists  that  For  contained  example,  the  f o r ace phonograms  dictionary  was  used  t h a t had  the study  sounds.  letter  in  must  t o be i n c l u d e d i n the f i n a l  the  graded  occur  in  of to  words ensure  and  phonogram  that  phonogram peace  was grace  hand  representing  the  that  contained  phonogram-based  a minimum o f  five  product.  pronunciation  t h e phonogram  the  involved a  Only those words  included  a phonogram  sequences  the  sound.  (with brace,  The s e c o n d s t e p o f match  the word  words.  to  grade  boundaries,  was p l a c e d w i t h e a c e  sounds were  decided that  the grades  syllabication  at each  the words  The A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e S t a n d a r d R e f e r e n c e D i c t i o n a r y both  create  were  phonological  words  was  Durrell-Murphy  i d e n t i f i e d the words that is,  list  computer t o  lists  typsd  l e t t e r s and t h e r e f o r e might c o n t a i n t h e phonogram  grouped not  the  the  representing  sound,  i n c l u d e d i n t h e Grade F i v e p r i n t o u t l i s t  the  from  I  was u s e d t o within  words.  s p e l l i n g formed a l l or  check The part  22 of  a syllable  list.  The  ensure  i n each of  pronunciation  t h a t t h e phonogram  Approximately the  the words  same  syllabic  key  twenty  then  division  words  in  the  list  of  Durrell-Murphy  phonograms  in  noted  in  the  final  and  list  did  pronunciation  the H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n  Further  Analyses.  counts  o c c u r r e n c e o f e a c h phonogram  List  was  Durrell  obtained for General  Vocabularies  Lists final  formed the r e q u i r e d  pro-  used as  and  a guide  However, Murphy  of  in  the  alternate  for  single  the  pro-  pronunsyllable  level  words  separately.  level.  for  A t o t a l w o r d c o u n t was  Harris-Jacobson  Basic  w i t h i n words Elementary  the then  of  the  Reading  list.  d e r i v e d from the T e c h n i c a l Vocabulary  phonogram-based  Technical  list  show but  t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f e a c h phonogram  Vocabulary  not  were o b t a i n e d from the c o m p l e t e d l i s t s  a t each grade  sound.  poster).  l i s t were a l s o p r o c e s s e d  Word  to  keys  words b u t o c c u r r i n g f r e q u e n t l y i n m u l t i s y l l a b l e i n t e r m e d i a t e grade of  word  procedure  u n i t w i t h the r e q u i r e d  o f phonograms. by  cross-check  t h e phonogram  (leader,  Phonogram  not  a  syllabication  of a l t e r n a t e pronunciations  ciations  used  included  because  u n i t i n the base word  The cessing  was  the f i n a l phonogram-based  formed a pronounceable  were i n c l u d e d i n the f i n a l nounceable  included in  Vocabulary  word list  list is  but  excluded  ungraded  the graded A d d i t i o n a l Vocabulary  list.  and  from  contains  l i s t were i n c l u d e d i n the  total  many w o r d s  count  since  t h a t appear  the the in  23 A  list  of  phonograms  that  produced  fewer  than  five  words  each  was  prepared.  The o r t h o g r a p h i c the basis  o f what i s  p a t t e r n / p r o n u n c i a t i o n p a t t e r n m a t c h i n g was d o n e  b e l i e v e d t o be s t a n d a r d C a n a d i a n d i a l e c t .  would produce d i f f e r e n t  groupings.  Other  on  dialects  24  CHAPTER  IV  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  The the  purpose  Harris-Jacobson  phonogram  components  of  the  study  was  to  reanalyze  Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies to  provide  a  phonogram-based  Jacobson Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies l i s t  Summary o f The entries. page  were  the graded word  completed  list  is  word  list  list  i n graded  lists  of  according to  of  the  Harris-  format.  Findings  comprised  of  5,943  words  with  232  phonogram  Sample pages a r e i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x A ( e v e r y 5 t h page o f an  88  list).  A c o u n t o f phonogram f r e q u e n c y a c r o s s  grades  Sixty  the  omitted  phonograms from  the  (or final  21  per  list  cent of  because  t h e s e w e r e f o u n d was f e w e r t h a n f i v e w o r d s . provided i n Table  I.  the  appears as Appendix  Durrell-Murphy  frequency  The l i s t  of  phonograms)  words  o f phonograms  B.  in  which  omitted  is  Table I Phonograms Occurring i n Fewer Than Five Words  af e  (safe)  irl  (girl)  ork  (fork)  alf  (half)  oach  (coach)  ost  (cost)  andle  (candle)  oaf  (loaf)  ough  (rough)  arn  (barn)  oak  (soak)  oul  (foul)  arp  (harp)  oal  (coal)  ould  (could)  aught  (caught)  oan  (moan)  ount  (count)  ause  (cause)  oap  (soap)  ouse  (house)  awk  (hawk)  oar  (roar)  ove  (love)  eap  (heap)  obe  (robe)  oze  (doze)  earn  (learn)  ode  (rode)  ube  (tube)  eft  (left)  odge  (lodge)  uch  (such)  eld  (held)  oft  (soft)  umb  (thumb)  esk  (desk)  oice  (voice)  unny  (funny)  etter  (better)  oin  (coin)  urse  (nurse)  ilk  (milk)  oise  (noise)  urt  (hurt)  imp  (limp)  ood  (food)  ush  (push)  inch  (pinch)  oof  (roof)  usk  (dusk)  ipe  (ripe)  oor  (poor)  uss  (fuss)  ird  (bird)  oot  (foot)  uy  (buy)  26 A t o t a l word count f o r each phonogram appears as Table I I .  A number of phonogram pronunciations not found i n the Durrell-Murphy l i s t but found occurring frequently i n words of more than one s y l l a b l e i n the Barris-Jacobson (suitable),  age  list  were  included  i n the f i n a l  ( v i l l a g e ) , ant (giant),  (detour) and ure ( p i c t u r e ) .  list.  These  ard ( l i z z a r d ) , ease  were  able  (grease), our  Table T o t a l F r e q u e n c i e s of  ab able able ace ack act ad ade ag age age aid ail ain aint air ait ake ale alk all am ame amp an ane and ange ank  (grab) 25 (table) 11 ( s u i t a b l e ) 28 (face) 23 (back) 39 (fact) 17 (had) 46 (made) 18 (bag) 36 7 (cage) (village) 37 (afraid) 9 (mail) 28 (train) 37 (paint) 6 (hair) 28 (wait) 7 27 (cake) (sale) 15 (talk) 7 (ball) 26 (swam) 58 (came) 17 (stamp) 11 (man) 137 (cane) 10 (hand) 38 (strange) 8 (bank) 21  ant ant ap ape ar arch ard ard are arge ark arm art ase ash ask ass ast aste at atch ate ath attle ave aw awl awn ay  II  232 P h o n o g r a m s i n W o r d s o f t h e  11 (grant) (giant) 42 (trap) 52 (tape) 12 (car) 79 (march) 5 (hard) 22 ( l i z z a r d ) 25 (care) 35 5 (large) (bark) 17 ( f arm) 10 (part) 19 (chase) 11 17 (crash) (mask) 5 (grass) 28 (fast) 16 (waste) 6 (that) 66 (catch) 12 (gate) 75 (bath) 13 7 (cattle) (gave) 12 (saw) 27 (crawl) 5 (lawn) 5 (may) 77  each ead ead eak eal earn ean ear ear ease ease east eat eck ed edge ee eed eek eel een eep eer eet eeze eg elf ell elp  H.J.B.E.R.V.  (teach) (bead) (head) (speak) (real) (beam) (mean) (hear) (bear) (please) (grease) (feast) (seat) (neck) (sled) (ledge) (tree) (feed) (week) (feel) (green) (sleep) (cheer) (feet) (sneeze) (leg) (shelf) (tell) (help)  8 9 34 14 15 18 11 28 7 5 6 11 22 17 33 9 35 21 8 14 23 19 17 12 6 13 11 38 5  elt em en ence ench end ent ept erry esh ess est et ib ice ick id ide idge ie ief ield ife ift ig igh ight ign ike  (belt) (them) (then) (silence) (bench) (send) (went) (kept) (merry) (fresh) (dress) (best) (get) (rib) (nice) (lick) (hid) (ride) (bridge) (tie) (thief) (field) (life) (lift) (big) (high) (night) (sign) (like)  5 58 247 29 5 26 130 8 12 5 231 33 94 16 15 47 48 32 5 6 9 9 9 8 31 7 44 6 15  Table II T o t a l F r e q u e n c i e s of  ild ile . i l l im ime in ince ind ine ing ink int ip ire irt is is ish isk iss ist it ite ive ive ix ize oad oast  (child) (mile) (will) (him) (time) (win) (prince) (find) (fine) (sing) (pink) (print) (trip) (fire) (dirt) (his) (this) (fish) (brisk) (miss) (list) (sit) (kite) (give) (five) (six) (prize) (road) (coast)  6 17 56 64 19 204 5 17 34 92 15 13 53 29 6 18 91 45 6 6 27 58 21 36 16 10 15 9 7  oat oard ob ock od oe og oil oint oke old ole oil oil olt ome ome on on ond one one ong ood ook ool oom oon oop  (cont'd)  232 P h o n o g r a m s i n W o r d s o f t h e  (boat) (board) (job) (rock) (nod) (toe) (dog) (boil) (point) (joke) (cold) (hole) (doll) (roll) (colt) (home) (some) (upon) (sen) (pond) (done) (bone) (long) (good) (look) (pool) (room) (soon) (hoop)  22 10 30 28 24 7 21 8 8 10 18 11 13 6 7 8 19 84 114 8 7 20 14 21 22 11 15 21 10  oose oot op ope ore orm orn ort ose oss ost ot ote oth ouch oud ought ound our our our out ove ow ow owl own own ox  H.J.B.E.R.V.  (goose) (boot) (stop) (hope) (more) (form) (corn) (short) (nose) (cross) (most) (not) (note) (cloth) (crouch) (loud) (bought) (ground) (your) (hour) (detour) (shout) (stove) (now) (know) (growl) (down) (grown) (fox)  6 7 50 13 38 10 15 20 16 20 14 33 9 6 5 6 7 23 13 7 16 33 8 39 71 7 19 11 10  oy ub uck ud udge uff ug ule ull ull urn umble ump un unch une . ung unk unt up ur ure ure urn us ush ust ut uzz  (boy) 24 (rub) 31 (duck) 20 (bud) 13 (judge) 7 (stuff) 16 (bug) 26 5 (mule) (full) 9 7 (dull) (drum) 61 (mumble) 10 (bump) 11 (fun) 115 (lunch) 6 (tune) 6 (hung) 14 (bunk) 12 (hunt) 6 29 (cup) (fur) 76 ( p i c t u r e ) 38 (sure) 8 (burn) 7 47 (bus) (rush) 10 13 (just) 35 (but) (buzz) 5  Conclusions In  the process  of  working with the l i s t  some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  pho-  nograms and t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n were n o t e d .  Data-Based  Conclusions  The ciations  of  alternate usually  study  seemed  phonograms  in  pronunciations  occurred  in  fewer  to  verify  the  the p r i o r i t y  Durrell-Murphy  offered than  in  five  of  e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e phonograms  Four of Durrell  and  syllable  the f i v e  Murphy  contained  syllable(s).  These  but a  to  alternate pronun-  Phonogram L i s t .  parentheses words  given  in  the  That  the Harris-Jacobson i_s ( t h i s )  schwa  were a b l e  occurring frequently in sound  when  the  and o i l  ( s u i t a b l e ) , age  words  phonogram  the  Durrell-Murphy  a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s of phonograms  found  is,  of  list.  Two  (doll).  not n o t e d by more t h a n  served  ( v i l l a g e ) , ant  list  as  the  (giant)  one  final  and  ard  (lizzard).  Other  Observations I n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e a l s o made a b o u t a n u m b e r o f p h o n o g r a m s  p r o d u c e d t h r e e o r more p r o n u n c i a t i o n s i n a s m a l l number o f  that  words.  T h e p h o n o g r a m o_e o c c u r r e d s e v e n t i m e s w i t h t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n a s i n t o e , t h r e e t i m e s w i t h t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n as i n shoe and once w i t h t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n as in  does.  30  The ciations  phonogram  (enough,  The car;  ough o c c u r r e d  cough,  majority  of  dough,  ar  in  t h r o u g h and  phonogram  however a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s  the pronunciations  o f a r as  Syllabication  14 w o r d s  with  five  the  words  contained  the  sound of  pronunciation  of  a  number  ist,  und,  d i v i d e d between consonants  more  t h a n one  urt  syllable  were as  dent, minister, blunder,  generally  1. a t each grade  2.  Reanalyze  of  int,  i n words  lists  Research made.  f o r occurrence of p r e f i x e s , s u f f i x e s  i n a cross  l e a r n e a r l i e s t t h o s e phonograms  grades  study  the e x t e n t to which  t h a t o c c u r most  frequently.  of  superinten-  and  roots  level.  Explore  with  f u r n i s h and f r a n k f u r t e r .  f o r f u r t h e r research are  in  phonograms  a c t , e l d , i l d , imp,  in a c t i v i t y , elder, bewilder, simplify,  Suggestions For Further Two s u g g e s t i o n s  as  war.  The p h o n o g r a m s  and  ar  o c c u r r e d i n a s m a l l number o f words  t h a t occurred i n m u l t i s y l l a b l e words. urn  pronun-  bough).  i n s u g a r , q u a r t e r , m a r r y and  affected  different  children  31 REFERENCES  B a r n h a r t , C.L. (Ed.) The Chicago: Spencer P r e s s ,  American college Inc., 1959.  standard  Canham, A . E . e t a l . Phonogram c l u s t e r s i n b e g i n n i n g M. t h e s i s . B o s t o n U n i v e r s i t y : 1966. Carroll, book.  J.B., D a v i e s , P. Boston: Houghton,  D e c h a n t , E. Improving the Prentice-Hall, 1964. D o l c h , E.W. 1941.  Teaching  primary  of  reading.  D o l c h , E.W. Teaching primary reading Press, 1960. D u r r e l l , D.D. Improving W o r l d , 1956.  reading.  & R i c h m a n , B. American M i f f l i n , 1971. teaching  reading  1  reading.  Champaign,  (3rd e d . ) .  instruction.  reference  Unpublished  heritage  word  Englewood  Illinois:  Champaign,  New Y o r k :  dictionary,  Ed.  frequency  Cliffs,  N.J.:  Garrard  Press,  Illinois:  Garrard  Harcourt Brace  and  D u r r e l l , D.D. Phonics problems in beginning reading. In J . A . F i g u r e l (Ed.) F o r g i n g ahead i n r e a d i n g . Newark, D e l . : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1968. D u r r e l l , D.D. & M u r p h y , H.A. Speech Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972.  to  print  phonics.  New Y o r k :  Harcourt  F l e t c h e r , J.D. T r a n s f e r from a l t e r n a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s i n i n i t i a l reading. T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t no. 216. Stanford University: Institute f o r Mathematical Studies i n the S o c i a l Sciences. 1973. G a t e s , A . E . New m e t h o d s i n p r i m a r y r e a d i n g . New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1928. Gibson,  E.J.  Learning  to read.  Science.  1965,  148,  Bureau of  Publications,  1066-1072.  Gibson, E.J. Trends i n p e r c e p t u a l development: i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the reading process. In H . S i n g e r & R. B. R u d d e l l ( E d s . ) T h e o r e t i c a l models and processes of reading. Newark, D e l . : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1976. G i b s o n , E . J . & L e v i n , H. Press, 1976.  The p s y c h o l o g y  of r e a d i n g . Cambridge,  Mass.:  M.I.T.  G i b s o n , E . J . , O s s e r , H. & P i c k , A . D . A study i n the development of graphemephoneme c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s . Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1963, 2, 1 4 2 - 1 4 6 .  32  REFERENCES  (cont'd)  G i b s o n , E . J . , P i c k , A . , O s s e r , H. & Hammond, M . The r o l e o f g r a p h e m e - p h o n e m e correspondences i n the p e r c e p t i o n of words. American J o u r n a l of Psychology, 1962, 75, 5 5 4 - 5 7 0 . G i b s o n , E . J . , S h u r c l i f f , A. & Yonas, A. U t i l i z a t i o n o f s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s by d e a f and h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . I n H. L e v i n a n d J . P . W i l l i a m s ( E d s . ) B a s i c s t u d i e s on r e a d i n g . New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, 1970. G l a s s , G . D . The t e a c h i n g o f w o r d a n a l y s i s t h r o u g h p e r c e p t u a l c o n d i t i o n i n g . M . A . Dawson ( E d . ) Teaching word recognition skills. Newark, D e l . : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1971. H a r r i s , A . J . & J a c o b s o n , M.D. Basic York: The M a c M i l l a n C o . , 1 9 7 2 .  elementary reading vocabularies.  New  H a r r i s , T . L . & Hodges, R.E. ( E d s . ) A d i c t i o n a r y o f r e a d i n g and r e l a t e d Newark, D e l . : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981. J o n e s , V.W. D e c o d i n g a n d l e a r n i n g L a b o r a t o r y , 1970.  to read.  M c K e e , P . The t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g Houghton, M i f f l i n , 1948.  i n the elementary s c h o o l .  Russell,  D.H.  Children learn to read.  Portland, Ore.:  Boston:  Northwest  Venezky, R.L. Quarterly,  Barnhart, 1962.  C.L.  English orthography: 1 9 6 7 , 2, 7 5 - 1 0 6 .  Beginning  its  dictionary.  r e l a t i o n to sound.  Mass.:  1961.  S a n t a , D.M. Spelling patterns and the development o f f l e x i b l e word tion strategies. R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 12, 1 2 5 - 1 4 4 . Thorndike, E.L. & Foresman & C o . ,  terms.  Regional  Cambridge,  Ginn & Co.,  In  recogni-  New Y o r k :  Reading  Scott,  Research  Venezky, R.L., Chapman, R.S. & C a l f e e , R.C. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f l e t t e r - s o u n d generalizations from second through sixth grade. Technical report. U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin: 1972. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e N o . ED 073 4 4 3 ) W e b s t e r , N. W e b s t e r ' s s e v e n t h new c o l l e g i a t e d i c t i o n a r y . G. s C. Merriam C o . , 1965.  Springfield,  Mass.:  W y l i e , R. Word e l e m e n t p e r c e p t i o n i n b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g . (Doctoral dissert a t i o n , Boston U n i v e r s i t y , 1967). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1968, ^ 9 , 4398A; ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 69-7839) W y l i e , R.E.  English,  & D u r r e l l , D.D.  1970,  Teaching vowels  4 7 , 787-791.  through phonograms,  Elementary  33  APPENDIX A SAMPLE PAGES FROM A GRADED PHONOGRAM-BASED WORD LIST (every 5 t h page of an 88 page l i s t )  AGE -  (VILLAGE)  3rd  COTTAGE COURAGE LANGUAGE MANAGE MESSAGE PACKAGE VILLAGE  4th  BANDAGE CARRIAGE GARBAGE SAUSAGE SAVAGE LUGGAGE POSTAGE SEWAGE SHORTAGE  5th  ADVANTAGE AVERAGE BAGGAGE DISCOURAGE ENCOURAGE IMAGE PASSAGE VOYAGE DISADVANTAGE HERITAGE MILEAGE USAGE  6th  ACREAGE CABBAGE DAMAGE ENCOURAGEMENT MARRIAGE PASSAGEWAY RUMMAGE STORAGE PERCENTAGE  Technical  AID -  cont'd  3rd  LAID MAID PAID  4th  AID BRAID MAIDEN MERMAID  5th  RAID  6th  NIL  Technical  RAIDER  AIL PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  MAIL PAIL TAIL SAILBOAT  3rd  JAIL NAIL RAIL SAIL SAILOR TRAIL MAILBOX  4th  FAIL RAILROAD TAILOR WAIL PIGTAIL  5th  AVAILAbLE DETAIL HAIL TRAILER RAILWAY  6th  AILMENT BAIL FAILURE FRAIL PREVAIL QUAIL SNAIL  CARTILAGE VANTAGE  (AFRAID)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  AFRAID  (MAIL)  AN -  (MAN)  6th  Technical  AND -  cont'd  4th  ANTIQUE BAN CANDIDATE FANTASY FINANCIAL MANUSCRIPT MILKMAN PECAN SANITATION TRANSCRIBE TRANSISTOR  COMMAND DEMAND GRAND INLAND GRANDPARENT GRANDSON GREAT-GRANDFATHER MAINLAND RAND SANDPAPER WOODLAND  5th  BRAND BRAND-NEW LANDSCAPE STRAND FARMLAND GLAND LANDMARK LANDSLIDE OVERLAND WASTELAND  6th  EXPAND LANDLORD OUTSTANDING WONDERLAND  Technical  COASTLAND COMMANDMENT FARMLAND* HOMELAND NORTHLAND STANDSTILL GLAND* SANDSTONE HANDWRITING* HANDWRITTEN  ANTHEM* ANTHRACITE CANDIDATE* EMANCIPATION MANOR OVERRAN PANHANDLE PANTHEON TANNERY ANTENNA* CANCER* ORGANISM* RANDOM ANTHOLOGY ANTONYM FANTASY* TRANSITION TRANSITIONAL TRANSLATION  (HAND)  PP/P  AND  1st  HAND  2nd  GRANDFATHER GRANDMOTHER LAND SAND STAND  3rd  BAND HANDFUL SANDWICH UNDERSTAND GRASSLAND HANDWRITING  ANE -  (CANE)  PP/P  NIL  1st  AIRPLANE  2nd  PANE  3rd  NIL  4th  CANE LANE MANE  ARD -  (LIZZARD)  cont'd  4th  INWARD MALLARD WESTWARD  5th  AFTERWARD HOMEWARD LEOPARD EASTWARD NORTHWARD SKYWARD SOUTHWARD VINEYARD DOWNWARD MUSTARD OUTWARD STANDARD CUSTARD  6th  5th  FARE FAREWELL MARE NIGHTMARE WAREHOUSE BAREBACK SILVERWARE  6th  BAREFOOT BLARE HARE SHARE WARE WELFARE WARFARE  Technical  CHINAWARE SHARECROPPER  ARGE Technical  ARE -  (LARGE)  NIL  (CARE)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  PP/P  NIL  2nd  LARGE  1st  NIL  3rd  NIL  2nd  CARE CAREFUL SCARE SCARECROW STARE  4th  BARGE CHARGE  5th  ENLARGE  6th  DISCHARGE  Technical  DISCHARGE*  3rd  4th  BARE DARE DECLARE PREPARE SHARE SPARE SQUARE AWARE CARELESS COMPARE FLARE GLARE RARE BEWARE HARDWARE PARE  ARK -  (BARK)  PP/P  NIL  1st  BARK DARK  2nd  MARK PARK  3rd  DARKNESS SPARK SPARKLE  ATE -  (GATE)  6th  cont'd  PENETRATE PLAYMATE SPECULATE TRANSLATE CANDIDATE CONTAMINATE DELEGATE DOMINATE ELEVATE IRRITATE ORIGINATE PARTICIPATE TOLERATE  Technical  CANDIDATE* CO-OPERATE* DEBATE* DELEGATE* CARBOHYDRATE CARBONATE CIRCULATE CONTAMINATE* DOMINATE* GENERATE* GERMINATE* INFLATE NITRATE* POLLINATE SULFATE PUNCTUATE  MATHEMATICIAN WRATH HATH PATHWAY Technical  ATTLE -  NIL  (CATTLE)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  CATTLE RATTLESNAKE  4th  BATTLE RATTLE  5th  BATTLEGROUND BATTLESHIP  6th  BATTLEFIELD  Technical  BATTLEGROUND* CATTLEMEN  AVE -  (GAVE)  PP/P ATH -  (BATH)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  BATH PATH BATHROOM NIL  4th 5th  6th  ATHLETIC BATHTUB MATHEMATIC MATH ATHLETE MATHEMATICAL  1st  GAVE  2nd  BRAVE SAVE WAVE  3rd  BEHAVE CAVE  4th  PAVE  5th  SLAVE SHAVE  6th  GRAVE PAVEMENT ENGRAVE  Technical  NIL  EAR - (HEAR) PP/P  5th  BEARING SWEAR  NIL UNBEARABLE  1st  HEAR 6th  2nd  CLEAR DEAR EAR NEAR NEARBY TEAR YEAR  3rd  4th  APPEAR BEARD DISAPPEAR FEARFUL REAR SPEAR EARDRUM 1  FEAR SMEAR FEARLESS REAPPEAR  NIL  EASE - (PLEASE) PP/P  NIL  1st  PLEASE  2nd  NIL  3rd  TEASE  4th  DISEASE EASE DISPLEASE  5th  NIL  6th  NIL  EASE - (GREASE) 5th  6th  Technical  DREARY GEAR SHEAR WEARY YEARLING APPEARANCE WEARINESS EARPHONE SPEARHEAD CLEARING EARDRUM  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  NIL  4th  INCREASE  5th  CEASE CREASE GREASE RELEASE  6th  DECREASE  EAR - (BEAR) PP  NIL  1st  BEAR  EAST - (FEAST)  2nd  TEAR WEAR  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  3rd  NIL 2nd  NIL  4th  PEAR  EEZE -  (SNEEZE)  cont'd  3rd  SNEEZE  4th  BREEZE FREEZE SQUEEZE FREEZER  5th.  WHEEZE  6th  NIL  Technical  NIL  4th  ITSELF SELFISH ELF UNSELFISH  5th  SELF  6th  TWELFTH  Technical  NIL  T-rr.T. — ( T E L L )  EG -  (LEG)  PP/P  NIL  1st  LEG  2nd  EGG  3rd  BEG  4th  REGULAR  5th  BEGGAR KEG PEG REGULATION NEGATIVE NUTMEG REGULATE SEGMENT  bth  IRREGULAR  Technical  LEGUME SEGMENT*  ELF -  (SHELF)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  HERSELF HIMSELF MYSELF YOURSELF  3rd  SHELF  PP/P  YELLOW  1st  HELLO TELL  2nd  BELL CELLAR FELL SELL SMELL WELL. YELL  3rd  DOORBELL FELLOW SHELL  4th  BELLOW JELLY PROPELLER SPELL SWELL UMBRELLA DWELLER SHELLFISH SPELLER STORYTELLER STORYTELLING  5th  FAREWELL INTELLIGENCE INTELLIGENT BELLY CELLOPHANE SELLER  6th  CELL DWELLING MELLOW DWELL GAZELLE  40  ENCE 5th  6th  ENCH  (SILENCE)  cont'd  INDEPENDENCE INFLUENCE REFERENCE CORRESPONDENCE INTERFERENCE OBEDIENCE ABSENCE CONFERENCE CONFIDENCE CONSCIENCE CONSEQUENCE CONVENIENCE EVIDENCE EXISTENCE PRESENCE VIOLENCE CIRCUMFERENCE HENCE INNOCENCE PROVIDENCE SEQUENCE  (BENCH)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  BENCH  4th  NIL  5th  NIL  6th  CLENCH DRENCH TRENCH WRENCH  3rd  BEND PRETEND SPEND  4th  ATTEND BLEND DEFEND DEPEND INTEND MEND TEND WEEKEND ENDLESS  5th  EXTEND INDEPENDENCE LEND  6th  ASCEND DEPENDANT DESCEND RECOMMEND RENDER SURRENDER SUSPEND  Technical  AMENDMENT PITCHBLEND ADDEND DIVIDEND ENDPOINT  ENT -  END -  (SEND)  PP/P  NIL  1st  FRIEND  2nd  END FRIENDLY SEND  (WENT)  PP/P  WENT  1st  NIL  2nd  APARTMENT DIFFERENT SENT TENT  3rd  ACCIDENT BENT CENT CONTENT CURRENT EXCITEMENT EXPERIMENT IMPATIENT INVENT MOMENT PARENT  (GET)*  ET -  (POCKET)  DIET HORNET INLET INTERPRET LETTUCE LOCKET MAGNET PUPPET SCARLET TRUMPET BANQUET BOOKLET CABINET COMET OUTLET SKILLET SPAGHETTI* WALLET FIDGET GANNET MIDGET MUSKET NUGGET PROPHET REGRET* RIVET SILHOUETTE SOCKET SONNET SUPERMARKET TABLET TARGET VETERAN* VIOLET BRACKET DUET* GADGET HATCHET METRIC* NETWORK* PELLET PLUMMET  cont'd  Technical  BALL-AND-SOCKET COMET DROPLET ELECTROMAGNET GENETIC RETINA* RICKETS SKELETAL SKYROCKET ULTRAVIOLET SUBSET* ALPHABETIC*  42  IGHT -  (NIGHT)  PP/P  NIL  1st  FIGHT LIGHT NIGHT RIGHT  2nd  3rd  4th  5th  6th  BRIGHT FRIGHTEN MIGHT SIGHT TONIGHT DELIGHT FRIGHT LIGHTNING TIGHT LAMPLIGHT DAYLIGHT FLASHLIGHT FLIGHT LIGHTHOUSE NIGHTFALL SLIGHT SUNLIGHT EYESIGHT FIGHTER MOONLIGHT UPRIGHT KNIGHT MIDNIGHT NIGHTMARE PLIGHT TWILIGHT BRIGHTNESS DELIGHTFUL LIGHTNESS STARLIGHT BRIGHTEN CANDLELIGHT HEADLIGHT OVERNIGHT RIGHTFUL BLIGHT ENLIGHTEN FRIGHTFUL LIGHTEN NIGHTINGALE  Technical  IGN -  BULLFIGHT COPYRIGHT  (SIGN)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  SIGN  3rd  NIL  4th  DESIGN  5th  ASSIGN ASSIGNMENT DESIGNER RESIGN  6th  NIL  IKE -  (LIKE)  PP/P  BIKE LIKE  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  STRIKE DISLIKE  4th  ALIKE UNLIKE DIKE LIKENESS  5th  HIKE THREADLIKE TURNPIKE  6th  PIKE SPIKE LIKEWISE WARLIKE  Technical  DIKE DISLIKE HAIRLIKE  IN -  (WIN)  6th  Technical  VACCINATION CARDINAL INEQUALITY INDEFINITE INTERJECTION INTERROGATIVE INTRODUCTORY  cont'd INVESTIGATE PINTO TARPAULIN TINDERBOX CLINIC CONTINUOUS INDICATOR INVISIBLE INEXPENSIVE INFLUENZA INHERIT INHERITANCE INJECT INNOCENCE INSCRIPTION INTRIGUE JAVELIN NIGHTINGALE PENICILLIN PINPOINT PINWHEEL VIOLINIST WINTRY BASIN BITUMINOUS DOMINION INAUGURATION INCENSE INCOMING RESIN VIRGIN CHINOOK CHLORINATE GERMINATE HEMOGLOBIN INDICATION INERTIA INFECTIOUS INFLATE INFRARED INHALE INSTALLATION INSULATION INSULATOR INTAKE INTENSITY INVERT INVERTEBRATE POLLINATE POLLINATION RETINA  INCE  (PRINCE)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  PRINCE  4th  CONVINCE  5th  PROVINCE  6th  MINCE WINCE  IND -  (FIND)  PP/P  NIL  1st  BEHIND FIND  2nd  MIND WIND  3rd  HIND FINDER  4th  BLIND GRIND REMIND BIND MANKIND UNKIND  5th  KINDNESS BLINDFOLD BLINDNESS  6th  REMINDER BINDING  IS  -  (THIS)  5th  6th  Technical  cont'd SATISFACTION TENNIS ADVERTISEMENT CHEMISTRY DISADVANTAGE DISAGREEABLE DISCOVERER DISOBEY DISPATCH DISSATISFIED DISTINCTION EMPHASIS HISTORIC MISJUDGE SATISFACTORY  BLISTER BRISTLE CRISIS DISAGREE DISBELIEF DISCARD DISCONTENT DISCUSSION DISDAIN DISPOSE DISTINCT DISTRACT DISTRIBUTE DISTRICT DISTURBANCE EXISTENCE MISFORTUNE MISPLACE PISTOL REGISTER DISCHARGE DISCUSS DISPUTE HISTORIAN MISCHIEVOUS MISSPELL TRANSISTOR TUBERCULOSIS LEGISLATIVE CHRYSALIS DISCONNECT PHOTOSYNTHESIS PISTIL PISTON  RESISTANCE TUBERCULOSIS UNDISCOVERED DISCOUNT DISTRIBUTIVE  ISH -  (FISH)  PP/P  FISH  1st  WISH  2nd  DISH FINISH SWISH RADISH  3rd  FISHERMEN FOOLISH PUNISH  4th  ASTONISH ASTONISHMENT FOOLISHNESS GOLDFISH POLISH PUBLISH SELFISH VANISH FISHER FISHHOOK REDDISH SHELLFISH STARFISH UNFINISHED UNSELFISH  5th  DISTINGUISH ESTABLISH FURNISH DIMINISH FURNISHING GREENISH PERISH PUBLISHER PUNISHMENT RUBBISH  6th  ACCOMPLISH ACCOMPLISHMENT BISHOP CATFISH  OAD - (ROAD)  3rd  OATMEAL  PP/P  NIL  4th  1st  ROAD  2nd  NIL  3rd  LOAD TOAD  THROAT BOATHOUSE BOATLOAD FERRYBOAT GOATSKIN OVERCOAT RAINCOAT TUGBOAT  4th  RAILROAD UNLOAD BOATLOAD  5th  OAT COATING STEAMBOAT  5th  CROSSROAD  6th  6th  GOAD ROADSIDE  GLOAT PETTICOAT REDCOAT ROWBOAT AFLOAT  Technical  SHIPLOAD Technical  FLATBOAT KEELBOAT MOAT  OAST - (COAST) PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  ROAST  4th  BOAST  OARD - (BOARD) PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  ABOARD BOARD CHALKBOARD  4th  CARDBOARD CUPBOARD BLACKBOARD  5th  STARBOARD BILLBOARD OVERBOARD  OAT - (BOAT)  6th  KEYBOARD  PP/P  BOAT GOAT  OB - (JOB)  1st  COAT  2nd  FLOAT SAILBOAT  COAST COASTAL SEACOAST TOASTER 5th  TOAST  6th  NIL  Technical  COASTLAND  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  46  OME -  (SOME)  6th  ON -  cont'd  ASTRONOMY CON CONCEPT CONFEDERATE CONGRESSMEN CONQUEROR CONQUEST CONSUL CONVERT CONVEYER ECONOMY ELECTRONIC NEON PENTAGON  AWESOME INCOME OVERCOME SOMEWHAT  (UPON)  PP/P  ON  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  BONNET CONTENT CONTEST CONTINUE HONOR UPON  4th  ASTONISH ASTONISHMENT CONCERT CONCRETE CONSTANT CONVERSATION DON FRONTIER HONEST HONORABLE MONARCH NONSENSE ONTO CONSONANT CONSTELLATION CONTINENTAL DISHONEST MONASTERY  5th  CONCENTRATE CONCORD CONFIDENT CONQUER CONSTITUTION CONSTRUCT CONTACT CONTINENT CONTRIBUTION MONSTER MONUMENT YONDER ANACONDA  6th  BATON BRONCO BRONZE CONDUCT CONFERENCE CONFIDENCE CONSCIENCE CONSEQUENCE CONSERVATION CONSOLE CONTEXT CONTRACT CONTRARY CONTRAST HORIZONTAL MONITOR MONSTROUS NYLON PONDER PYTHON RESPONSE RESPONSIBLE SONNET SPONSOR CONCENTRATION CONFLICT CONSCIOUS ELECTRON GONDOLA PHENOMENON RAYON SILICON '  Technical  CONSTITUTIONAL CONVICT MONARCHY MONSOON TRANSCONTINENTAL ASTRONOMY CONVEX  47  OOP -  (HOOP)  2nd  GOOSE .  3rd  LOOSE  4th  NIL  5th  CABOOSE MOOSE NOOSE  6th  PAPOOSE  OOT -  (BOOT)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  BOOT  3rd  ROOT SHOOT TOOT  4th  HOOT  5th  SCOOTER  6th  UPROOT  OP -  STOP  1st  DROP HOP STOPPED  3rd  COPY MOP OPERATOR OPPOSITE PROP TOPICAL MICROSCOPIC MOUNTAINTOP OPERATE RAINDROP ROOFTOP SHOPKEEPER TOPSOIL TREETOP  5th  OPERATION POPULAR TOPIC TOPPLE ATOP OPERA TROPIC  6th  CHOPPY CO-OPERATE CO-OPERATION HILLTOP OPPORTUNITY PLOP POPLAR POPULATION CHOPSTICKS SHOPPER SHORTSTOP TABLETOP  (STOP)  PP/P  2nd  4th  POP SHOP TOP POPCORN CHOP CLOP COPPER CROP FLOP HELICOPTER POPPY GRASSHOPPER LOLLIPOP  Technical  OPE -  .COPRA HOPPER OPPOSITION SHARECROPPER DROPLET DROPPER STOPPER  (HOPE)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  HOPE ROPE  3rd  TELESCOPE  OUND -  (GROUND)  Technical  OUR -  cont'd  ROUNDWORMS  YOUR  1st  FOUR  2nd  FOURTH YOURSELF  3rd  POUR  4th  MOURN COURTYARD DOWNPOUR  5th  FOURTEEN FOURTEENTH  6th  MOURNFUL SOURCE RESOURCEFUL  4th  JOURNEY  5th  DISCOURAGE ENCOURAGE TOURIST COURTESY DETOUR  6th  COURAGEOUS ENCOURAGEMENT FLOURISH JOURNAL NOURISH TOUR TOURNAMENT COURTEOUS NOURISHMENT  Technical  JOURNEYMAN TOURISM  OUT -  (SHOUT)  PP/P  ABOUT OUT  1st  NIL  2nd  OUTSIDE SHOUT WITHOUT  3rd  OUTDOOR OUTLINE  4th  OUTER ROUTE SCOUT TROUT  5th  LOOKOUT OUTFIT OUTLAW OUTSMART OUTWIT SNOUT SPROUT OUTCOME OUTLET OUTNUMBER OUTSKIRTS OUTSTRETCH  (HOUR)  PP/P  NIL  1st  OUR  2nd  NIL  3rd  FLOUR HOUR  4th  OURSELVES  5th  SOURDOUGH  6th  DEVOUR SOUR  OUR -  COURAGE  (YOUR)  PP/P  OUR -  3rd  (DETOUR)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  UDGE -  (JUDGE)  cont'd  2nd  NIL  3rd  JUDGE  4th  NUDGE TRUDGE  5 th  BUDGE MISJUDGE  6th  SMUDGE GRUDGE  UFF -  BUG DUG HUG RUG STRUGGLE TUG DRUG  4th  BUGGY DRUGSTORE JUG JUGGLE MUG SHRUG SNUG LUGGAGE TUGBOAT  5th  CHUG PLUG RUGGED DRUGGIST JUGGLER SLUG  6th  NUGGET SNUGGLE UGH  Technical  DRUG MUGGY  (STUFF)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  3rd  BUFFALO PUFF STUFF FLUFF GRUFF SHUFFLE SUFFER MUFFIN MUFFLER SUFFIX  4th  BLUFF RUFFLE SCUFFLE  5th  6th  Technical  UG -  3rd  ULE -  (MOLE)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  NIL  MUFFLE SCUFF SUFFICIENT  3rd  MULE RULE  FOODSTUFFS  4th  NIL  5th  SCHEDULE  6th  RIDICULE MOLECULE  Technical  OVULE  (BUG)  PP/P  NIL  1st  NIL  2nd  UGLY  DP  - (COP)  PP/P  UP  1st  NIL  2nd  CUP CUPCAKE PUP PUPPY SUPPER  3rd  SUPPOSE UPON UPSIDE UPSTAIRS UPWARD CUPFUL SYRUP  4th  SUPPLY SUPPER UPPER UPROAR UPSET UPRIGHT UPSTREAM  5th  GUPPY PUPPET ROUNDUP STIRRUP BUTTERCUP  6th  CATSUP PICKUP GROWNUP UPROOT  Technical  UPLAND UPRIVER  OR -  (FOR)  PP/P  NIL  1st  HURRY SURPRISE TURTLE  2nd •  NIL  3rd  BURST CHURCH CURL CURRENT CURTAIN FUR HURRAH HURRIED PURPLE SURFACE SURROUND TURKEY TURNIP  4th  BURROW BURY FURNACE FURNITURE FURRY FURTHER GURGLE HAMBURGER MURMUR PURPOSE STURDY URGE HURRICANE' NURSERY PLURAL  5th  BLUR BURDEN BURRO FURNISH HURTLE OCCUR PURCHASE PURR PURCHASE PURR PURSUE SPUR SURVIVE BURGESS EXCURSION FRANKFURTER FURNISHING FURROW MURDER MURKY RURAL SULFUR  APPENDIX B PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES I N WORDS OF THE H . J . B . E . R . V .  52  PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V.  PHONOGRAM PP/P  1st  GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd  4th  5th  6th  _  _  5  g  -  2  -  2  3  4  -  -  -  -  7  9  12  (face)  -  -  3  1  7  6  6  ack  (back)  -  2  2  4  12  15  4  act  (fact)  -  -  1  2  -  9  5  ad  (had)  1  1  7  7  10  14  6  ade  (made)  -  1  2  2  7  3  3  ag  (bag)  -  2  3  4  4  13  10  age  (cage)  -  1  -  2  1  -  3  age  (village)  -  -  -  7  12  9  aid  (afraid)  -  -  1  3  4  1  -  ail  (mail)  -  .-  4  7  5  5  7  ain  (train)  1  1  6  2  6  9  aint  (paint)  1  -  -  -  2  1  2  air  (hair)  -  2  6  5  9  3  3  ait  (wait)  -  -  1  -  3  1  2  ake  (cake)  3  -  3  5  7  4  5  ale  (sale)  -  _  _  4  5  2  alk  (talk)  -  2  1  all  (ball)  3  1  4  am  (swam)  -  -  ame  (came)  -  amp  (stamp)  -  ab  (grab)  _  able  (table)  -  able  (suitable)  ace  _  2  1  9  1  4  1  1  2  1  7  2  5  4  3  8  11  12  24  3  1  3  6  1  3  -  1  4  1  4  1  PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES I N WORDS OF THE  PHONOGRAM PP/P  GRADE L E V E L 2nd 3rd  1st  9  H.J.B.E.R.V.  4th  5th  6th  9  31  41  37  6  11  10  4  an  (man)  3  7  and  (hand)  1  1  ane  (cane)  -  1  1  -  6  2  ange  (strange)  -  -  1  1  4  2  ank  (bank)  -  -  2  1  6  ant  (grant)  -  -  -  1  ant  (giant)  -  -  2  3  ap  (trap)  -  1  5  ape  (tape)  -  -  ar  (car)  2  arch  (march)  -  ard  (hard)  ard  (lizzard)  are  5  -  7  6  5 3  1  9  14  14  12  9  12  10  2  2  1  6  1  2  4  10  23  20  18  -  -  1  2  -  2  1  3  3  6  5  4  -  -  -  4  8  8  5  (care)  -  -  5  arge  (large)  -  -  1  -  2  ark  (bark)  -  2  2  3  5  arm  (farm)  -  1  2  3  2  art  (part)  •  -  4  2  ase  (chase)  -  -  1  2  6  -  2  ash  (crash)  -  -  1  3  6  5  2  ask  (mask)  1  -  _  _  1  ass  (grass)  -  1  5  4  3  ast  (fast)  2  2  1  3  4  3  aste  (waste)  -  -  -  2  -  1  7  9  5  7  7  1  1  3  2 2  -  5  3  2  1 4  1  1  3  54  PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V.  PHONOGRAM PP/P  1st  GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd  4th  5th  6th  at  (that)  4  6  13  19  17  atch  (catch)  1  4  2  2  3  ate  (gate)  6  12  23  31  ath  (bath)  3  4  6  attle  (cattle)  2  2  2  1  ave  (gave)  3  2  1  2  3  aw  (saw)  2  4  9  8  3  awl  (crawl)  1  1  1  2  awn  (lawn)  4  1  ay  (may)  each  (teach)  1  ead  (bead)  3  2  4  ead  (head)  10  5  7  7  eak  (speak)  3  6  3  2  eal  (real)  1  5  3  4  2  earn  (beam)  3  5  3  4  3  ean  (mean)  2  3  2  3  1  ear  (hear)  7  7  4  5  4  ear  (bear)  2  1  3  ease  (please)  3  ease  (grease)  1  4  east  (feast)  5  2  4  eat  (seat)  6  6  7  11  16  19  15  3  55  PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V.  PHONOGRAM PP/P  GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd  1st  eck  (neck)  -  -  ed  (sled)  1  1  edge  (ledge)  _  ee  (tree)  eed  1  4th  5th  6th  1  8  5  2  3  6  8  6  8  _  -  1  1  2  2  1  6  9  8  7  (feed)  -  -  3  4  6  5  3  eek  (week)  -  -  1  2  4  1  eel  (feel)  -  -  2  1  een  (green)  1  1  2  4  eep  (sleep)  -  1  5  4  eer  (cheer)  -  -  2  5  1  eet  (feet)  -  2  2  2  eeze  (sneeze)  -  -  -  1  4  eg  (leg)  -  1  1  elf  (shelf)  -  -  4  1  4  oil  (tell)  1  2  7  3  11  elp  (help)  1  -  -  elt  (belt)  -  -  em  (them)  -  1  3  en  (then)  1  6  16  ence  (silence)  -  -  ench  (bench)  _  end  (send)  ent ept  3  1  1 2  4  4 4 5  3  4  3  7  4  3  1 4  5 3  -  1  1  8  1  1  1 6  2  0  1 1  -  2  7  17  26  37  58  65  64  -  3  5  6  15  _  _  1  _  _  4  -  1  3  3  9  3  7  (went)  1  -  4  17  28  45  35  (kept)  -  -  1  4  4  1  2  56  PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V.  PHONOGRAM PP/P  GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd  1st  4th  (merry)  -  -  4  esh  (fresh)  -  -  -  es  (dress)  -  2  1  14  29  est  (best)  -  -  4  7  1  et  (get)  3  5  4  14  23  21  24  ib  (rib)  -  -  -  2  3  2  9  ice  (nice)  1  2  2  4  1  5  ick  (lick)  -  -  6  8  13  14  6  id  (hid)  1  1  2  4  11  16  13  ide  (ride)  1  7  4  13  3  4  idge  (bridge)  -  -  1  -  1  2  1  ie  (tie)  -  -  2  3  1  ief  (thief)  ield  (field)  ife  (life)  ift  (lift)  ig  -  -  4  1  2  6th  erry  -  2  5th  -  -  -  3 29 0  3  1  1 26  7  5  3  2  -  2  1  2  1  3  -  2  2  2  1  2  -  -  -  4  1  (big)  1  1  1  4  7  igh  (high)  -  -  1  1  ight  (night)  -  4  5  5  ign  (sign)  -  -  1  ike  (like)  2  -  ild  (child)  -  ile  (mile)  -  1  2  5  12  1  2  11  9  10  -  1  4  _  -  2  4  3  4  -  -  2  2  2  -  4  -  2  4  5  4  57 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE  PHONOGRAM PP/P  GRADE 2nd  1st  2  H.J.B.E.R.V.  LEVEL 3rd  4th  5th  5  10  14  9  15  2  7  14  18  22  4  5  5  3  68  57  6th  i l l  (will)  1  im  (him)  1  -  ime  (time)  -  1  in  (win)  2  1  11  27  38  ince  (prince)  -  -  -  1  1  ind  (find)  -  2  2  6  3  2  ine  (fine)  -  -  3  7  9  8  7  ing  (sing)  1  5  10  16  24  20  16  ink  (pink)  1  1  2  3  4  4  int  (print)  -  -  -  3  4  5  ip  (trip)  -  -  2  10  17  10  14  ire  (fire)  -  2  1  2  8  7  9  irt  (dirt)  -  -  2  1  1  1  1  is  (his)  2  -  2  2  7  2  3  is  (this)  1  1  2  9  20  30  28  ish  (fish)  1  1  4  3  15  10  11  isk  (brisk)  -  -  -  1  1  3  1  iss  (miss)  -  1  -  1  2  1  1st  (list)  -  -  -  3  4  it  (sit)  2  2  5  4  2  24  19  ite  (kite)  -  1  3  4  5  4  4  ive  (give)  -  2  1  10  18  ive  (five)  -  1  1  4  2  6  2  ix  (six)  -  2  3  4  1  2  -  1  1  1  5  1  2  2  8  1  -  58  PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V.  PHONOGRAM PP/P  ize  (prize)  oad  (road)  oast  1st  GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd  4th  5th  6th  1  -  3  1  5  5  -  1  -  2  3  1  2  (coast)  -  -  -  1  5  1  _  oat  (boat)  2  1  2  1  3  5  oard  (board)  -  -  -  3  3  3  1  ob  (job)  -  -  2  5  6  ock  (rock)  -  2  od  (nod)  -  -  -  6  oe  (toe)  -  -  -  og  (dog)  1  -  oil  (boil)  ~  -  oint  (point)  -  oke  (joke)  -  old  (cold)  ole  (hole)  oil  (doll)  oil  (roll)  -  -  olt,  (colt)  -  -  ome  (home)  1  -  -  -  ome  (some)  3  -  2  on  (upon)  1  -  on  (son)  -  ond  (pond)  -  4  6  5  11 7  6  6  5  7  2  2  2  1  4  6  1  1  4  1  1  1  1  -  2  4  -  4  2  3  -  1  -  4  1  4  7  2  -  -  1  2  3  4  1  3  1  5  2  2  2  -  -  3  1  2  3  2  3  2  4  4  2  4  -  6  18  27  32  11  8  30  26  39  1  1  1  4  1  -  4  8  2  7  3  59  PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES  ACROSS GRADES  PHONOGRAM PP/P  GRADE L E V E L 2nd 3rd  1st  1  I N WORDS OF THE  1  5  H.J.B.E.R.V.  4th  6th  one  (done)  one  (bone)  ong  (long)  -  2  4  -  3  1  4  ood  (good)  1  1  2  3  7  6  1  ook  (look)  2  1  4  3  .6  ool  (pool)  -  1  oom  (room)  -  -  oon  (soon)  1  oop  (hoop)  oose  -  '  -  5th  -  -  4  1  1  _ 3  4  8  5  1  6  3  2  3  4  4  2  1  1  5  7  2  4  -  -  -  -  6  3  1  (goose)  -  -  1  -  3  1  oot  (boot)  -  -  1  3  op  (stop)  1  3  4  9  14  7  12  ope  (hope)  -  -  2  1  6  2  2  ore  (more)  -  3  -  4  10  orm  (form)  -  -  -  3  3  3  1  orn  (corn)  -  -  4  3  3  2  3  ort  (short)  -  -  1  7  3  7  ose  (nose)  -  1  2  3  3  2  5  oss  (cross)  -  -  2  5  6  2  5  ost  (most)  -  -  4  -  4  3  3  ot  (not)  1  1  9  3  9  6  4  ote  (note)  -  -  2  1  -  3  3  oth  (cloth)  -  -  -  1  -  4  ouch  (crouch)  -  -  -  -  2  2  1 1  2  1  1 1  1  0  1  1  1  PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V.  PHONOGRAM  PP/P  1st  GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd  4th  5th  6th  oud  (loud)  2  1  1  1  ought  (bought)  3  1  2  1  ound  (ground  2  3  3  5  5  4  our  (your)  1  2  1  3  2  3  our  (hour)  1  2  1  1  2  our  (detour)  1  1  5  9  out  (shout)  2  4  12  10  ove  (stove)  2  3  3  (now)  1  2  3  7  9  10  7  ow  (know)  3  3  11  12  18  12  12  owl  (growl)  1  2  2  1  1  own  (down)  2  1  5  3  2  6  own  (grown)  1  3  4  1  2  ox  (fox)  2  1  5  1  1  oy  (boy)  2  2  4  7  6  ub  (rub)  4  5  12  9  uck  (duck)  4  5  3  5  ud  (bud)  4  3  2  3  udge  (judge)  1  2  2  2  uff  (stuff)  3  7  3  3  ug  (bug)  7  9  6  3  ule  (mule)  2  1  2  ull  (full)  1  4  1  ow  61 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V.  PHONOGRAM PP/P  1st  GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd  4th  5th  6th  1  4  2  16  17  18  5  3  2  ull  (dull)  um  (drum)  umble  (mumble)  ump  (bump)  1  4  4  2  un  (fun)  4  15  35  24  unch  (lunch)  1  3  2  une  (tune)  ung  (hung)  2  2  unk  (bunk)  1  2  unt  (hunt)  1  up  (cup)  5  ur  (fur)  ure  (picture)  ure  32  1  2  2  5  3  2  4  3  2  1  3  7  7  5  4  13  15  24  21  1  4  11  11  10  (sure)  1  1  1  3  2  urn  (burn)  3  1  1  1  1  us  (bus)  1  2  9  11  22  ush  (rush)  2  3  3  2  ust  (just)  2  1  5  4  1  ut  (but)  2  5  9  10  6  uzz  (buzz)  2  1  3  1  1  

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