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A phonogram based word list for reading and spelling : based on the Harris-Jacobson basic elementary.. 1982

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A PHONOGRAM BASED WORD L I ST FOR READING AND SPELL ING Ba sed on t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s b y ARDELLE LAURENE SCHOOLEY B. E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f Language E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BR IT ISH COLUMBIA J U L Y , 1982 © A r d e l l e L a u r e n e S c h o o l e y , 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^y^n^yy^T^P ^^SJtrtJsJtTtJ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date oJ^^j^rrJs^cSn /<?8Z DE-6 (.3/81) ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o r e a n a l y z e t h e g r a d e d word l i s t s o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o p h o n o - gram component s t o p r o v i d e a phonog ram-ba sed word l i s t i n g r a d e d f o r m a t . The m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y r e q u i r e d a t h r e e s t e p p r o c e s s . F i r s t , a l l o f t h e word s o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t were t y p e d i n t o a c o m p u t e r i n g r a d e l e v e l f o r m a t . Phonograms f r o m t h e D u r r e l l - Murphy Phonogram L i s t were e n t e r e d i n t h e c o m p u t e r . The g r a d e d word l i s t s and t h e phonogram f i l e s were t h e n comb ined by t h e c ompu te r t o c r e a t e g r a d e d word l i s t s b a s e d on t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f phonogram l e t t e r s e q u e n c e . The s e c o n d s t e p i n v o l v e d a hand p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e compu te r l i s t s t o ma t ch l e t t e r s e q u e n - c e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e phonograms w i t h c o n s i s t e n t phonogram s o u n d s . The f i n a l s t e p o f t h e s t u d y p r o v i d e d a w o r d c o u n t f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f e a c h phonogram a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l and a t o t a l wo rd c o u n t f o r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f e a c h phonogram a c r o s s g r a d e s . A l i s t o f phonograms t h a t p r o d u c e d f e w e r t h a n f i v e wo rd s a c r o s s g r a d e s was p r e p a r e d . The c o m p l e t e d phonog r am-ba sed wo rd l i s t i s c o m p r i s e d o f 5 ,943 word s w i t h 232 phonogram e n t r i e s . S i x t y phonograms o r 21 p e r c e n t o f t h e D u r r e 11 -Murphy Phonogram L i s t were o m i t t e d b e c a u s e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f words i n w h i c h t h e s e o c c u r r e d was f e w e r t h a n f i v e w o r d s . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. THE PROBLEM 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m . . . . . 1 B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e S t u d y . . 1 S p e c i f i c P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y 3 D e s i g n o f t h e S t u d y 4 D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s . . . . 5 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 5 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y . 6 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s 6 I I . REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE E a r l y E v i d e n c e Abou t t h e V a l u e o f t h e Phonogram i n Word A n a l y s i s P rog rams 7 R e c e n t E v i d e n c e Abou t L e t t e r C l u s t e r s a n d t h e i r V a l u e i n Word A n a l y s i s 9 E v i d e n c e F rom P e r c e p t i o n R e s e a r c h 9 E v i d e n c e F rom S p e l l i n g R e s e a r c h 12 E v i d e n c e From R e a d i n g E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h 13 I I I . MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES M a t e r i a l s 19 P r o c e d u r e s 20 P r o d u c i n g t h e Computer L i s t 20 P r o c e s s i n g t h e Computer P r o d u c t 21 F u r t h e r A n a l y s i s . . . 22 i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I V . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary o f F i n d i n g s 24 C o n c l u s i o n s 29 REFERENCES 31 APPENDIX A — SAMPLE PAGES FROM A GRADED PHONOGRAM-BASED WORD L I S T 33 APPENDIX B — PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H . J . B . E . R . V 51 i v L I ST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. PHONOGRAMS OCCURRING IN FEWER THAN F IVE WORDS 25 I I . TOTAL FREQUENCIES OF 232 PHONOGRAMS IN WORDS OF THE HARRIS-JACOBSON BASIC ELEMENTARY READING VOCABULARIES 27 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS G r a t e f u l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x t e n d e d t o D r . J a n e H. C a t t e r s o n f o r h e r i n f o r m e d a s s i s t a n c e and s u s t a i n e d s u p p o r t w h i l e s u p e r v i s i n g t h i s t h e s i s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f D r . E. G. Summers and M r . D a v i d B a r n e t t i s a c k n o w l e d g e d w i t h t h a n k s . They were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l c o m p u t e r p r o - d u c t . The c o m p u t e r r e l a t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e s t u d y w e r e s u p p o r t e d by R e s e a r c h G r a n t 31 -9027 g r a n t e d b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h C o m m i t t e e . N o t e : The c o m p l e t e Phonogram-Based Word L i s t i s a v a i l a b l e f r o m D r . J . C a t t e r s o n N , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t a c o s t o f $ 6 . 0 0 C a n a d i a n and $5 .00 U.S. v i 1 • CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m The s t u d y f o c u s s e s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r a d e d p h o n o g r a m - b a s e d w o r d l i s t d e r i v e d f r o m t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s e l e c t e d phonograms i n t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t . - B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e S t u d y Word l i s t s b a s e d on f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f words i n l a n g u a g e have been an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f b a s i c r e a d i n g l i t e r a t u r e f o r many y e a r s . On t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n t o r e a d f i r s t t h o s e wo rd s t h a t w i l l be e n c o u n t e r e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n n e c t e d p r o s e and l a t e r t h o s e words e n c o u n - t e r e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , many wo rd l i s t s a r e d e v e l o p e d f r o m w o r d c o u n t s o f s p o - k e n and p r i n t e d l a n g u a g e . I n t h e s e l i s t s f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e i n s p e a k i n g o r w r i t i n g i s t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r p l a c i n g any w o r d a t a " h i g h " o r " l o w " l e v e l on t h e l i s t . E xamp le s o f s u c h wo rd l i s t s a r e t h e D o l c h (1941) S i g h t V o c a b u l a r y l i s t , t h e C a r r o l l e t a l . (1971) A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e Word F r e q u e n c y Book a n d t h e H a r r i s and J a c o b s o n (1972 ) B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t . E a c h o f t h e many p u b l i s h e d wo rd l i s t s a v a i l a b l e i s b a s e d on a c l e a r r a t i o n a l e and i s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d e r i v e d by e i t h e r hand o r c o m p u t e r c o u n t s f r o m a s p e c i f i e d d a t a b a s e . They a r e u s e d i n many w a y s , b o t h t o s t u d y a n d t o c o n s t r u c t m a t e r i a l s i n w h i c h m e a n i n g o r s e m a n t i c s i s i m p o r t a n t . I n a c o n t r a s t i n g a p p r o a c h , t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s d i r e c t e d a t wha t i s commonly c a l l e d " p h o n i c s i n s t r u c t i o n " , t h a t i s , m a t e r i a l s c o n s t r u c t e d t o t e a c h word r e c o g n i t i o n t h r o u g h p h o n o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , s e l d o m have a n i d e n t i f i a b l e s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s . S e r i e s o f p h o n i c s wo r kbook s o f t e n p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e l i s t o f wo rd s u s e d i n t h e s e r i e s b u t do n o t p r o v i d e a t h e o r e t i c a l ba se f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h o s e w o r d s . I t i s p r o b a b l y f a i r t o s a y t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n r e s t s m a i n l y on t h e j u d g e m e n t o f t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e m a t e r i a l , who u se t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f c h i l d r e n a t v a r i o u s age l e v e l s t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h words s h o u l d be p l a c e d " h i g h " o r " l o w " on p h o n o l o g i c a l word l i s t s . A l t h o u g h t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e j u d g e m e n t may be a c c u r a t e enough t o p r o v i d e u s a b l e t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e i s s e l d o m s c i e n t i f i c e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e i r c h o i c e o f w o r d s . T h a t s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d e r i v e d l i s t s b a s e d on p h o n o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e needed i s i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t . Such w e l l known r e s e a r c h e r s a s G i b s o n ( 1962 , 1976) a p e r c e p t i o n s p e c i a l i s t , V e n e z k y ( 1967 , 1972) a s p e l l i n g s p e - c i a l i s t and D u r r e l l and W y l i e (1968) r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s h a v e p r o v i d e d e v i - dence t h a t o r t h o g r a p h i c u n i t s beyond t h e l e t t e r t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h e c o n s i s t e n t s o u n d - s y m b o l p a t t e r n s o f E n g l i s h a r e u s e d mos t b y , r e a d e r s and s p e l l e r s i n b a s i c wo rd p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I n 1962 G i b s o n e t a l . p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e r e g u l a r i t i e s i n s p e l l i n g - t o - sound p a t t e r n s emp l o yed by r e a d e r s a r e l e t t e r c l u s t e r s . I t was s u g g e s t e d : " . . . t h a t t h e p r o p e r u n i t f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f r e a d i n g (and w r i t i n g ) i s n o t t h e a l p h a b e t i c a l l e t t e r b u t t h e s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n w h i c h ha s an i n v a r i a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a phonemic p a t t e r n . T h i s may b e o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e f o r c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e . " ( 1962 , p . 555 ) A l t h o u g h G i b s o n d o e s n o t s p e c i f y t h e t y p e s o f s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s she c o n s i d e r s mos t i m p o r t a n t , h e r 1962 s t u d y f o c u s s e d on t h e v o w e l - c o n s o n a n t c o m b i n a t i o n i n l e t t e r c l u s t e r s and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s u n i t t o ea se o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n . 3 The need t o c o n t i n u e t o enhance e x p e r i e n c e s o f o b s e r v i n g s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s i s a c k n o w l e d g e d b y G i b s o n ( 1 9 7 6 ) . V e n e z k y ' s s p e l l i n g r e s e a r c h (1967) ha s shown t h a t s p e l l i n g - t o - s o u n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s i n E n g l i s h a r e much more r e g u l a r t h a n many p e o p l e have a s sumed . M o r e o v e r , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f p a t t e r n s t h a t o c c u r i n f r e q u e n t l y i n e a r l y r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , good r e a d e r s v e r y e a r l y d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s t o t h e s e p a t t e r n s when t h e y a p p e a r i n s y n t h e - t i c w o r d s . ( Venezky e t a l . 1972) I t i s t h e c o n s i s t e n t sound s y m b o l p a t t e r n o f t h e phonogram t h a t D u r r e l l and W y l i e (1968) s t r e s s a s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n u n i t o f h i g h e s t u t i l i t y f o r b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r s . I f o r t h o g r a p h i c c l u s t e r s i n wo rd s a r e so i m p o r t a n t t o r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t some s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d e r i v e d l i s t s w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n b o t h o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s . To p r o d u c e t h e r e q u i r e d l i s t s i t s h o u l d o n l y be n e c e s s a r y t o r e a n a - l y z e e x i s t i n g s e m a n t i c s - b a s e d g r a d e d word l i s t s i n t o new word l i s t s i n w h i c h word s o f e a c h g r a d e a r e g r o u p e d by d e s i g n a t e d o r t h o g r a p h i c c o m p o n e n t s . S p e c i f i c P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o r e a n a l y z e t h e g r a d e d word l i s t s o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t a c c o r d i n g t o phonogram component s t o p r o v i d e a phonog ram-ba sed wo rd l i s t i n g r a d e d f o r m a t . 4 D e s i g n o f t h e S t u d y M a t e r i a l s ; The s t u d y r e q u i r e d t h e u s e o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t (1972) and t h e D u r r e l l - M u r p h y Phonogram L i s t ( 1 9 7 2 ) , w h i c h i s b a s e d on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f p h o n o - grams drawn f r o m t h e V o c a b u l a r y o f Rhymes i n W e b s t e r ' s S e v e n t h New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y ( 1 9 6 5 ) . •?* M e t h o d s : The m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y r e q u i r e d a t h r e e - s t e p p r o c e s s . I n t h e f i r s t s t e p , a l l o f t h e words o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n l i s t were t y p e d i n t o a c ompu te r wo rd p r o c e s s o r i n t h e i r g r a d e l e v e l f o r m a t . S e p a r a t e f i l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g phonograms f r o m t h e D u r r e l l - M u r p h y phonogram l i s t were c r e a t e d i n t h e c o m p u t e r . The g r a d e d word l i s t s and t h e phonogram f i l e s were t h e n c o m b i n e d by t h e compu te r t o c r e a t e g r a d e d word l i s t s b a s e d on t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s c a l l e d phonog rams . The i n i t i a l o u t p u t , t h e n , c o n s i s t e d o f a l l wo rd s i n t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n l i s t a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l t h a t c o n t a i n e d t h e s e q u e n c e s of l e t t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e phonograms e n t e r e d . These i n i t i a l p r i n t e d l i s t s c o u l d n o t c o n s t i t u t e t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t s i n c e t h e wo rd p r o c e s s o r c a n n o t r e c o g n i z e p h o n o - l o g i c a l b o u n d a r i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e wo rd " h e r o i n e " w o u l d be a s s i g n e d by t h e compu te r t o t h e G r ade S i x l i s t o f o i n word s b u t w o u l d be d r o p p e d f r o m t h e f i n a l l i s t b e c a u s e i n t h e wo rd " h e r o i n e " t h e o i n c l u s t e r i s n o t p r o n o u n c e d as i t i s p r o n o u n c e d i n s u c h wo rd s a s c o i n o r l o i n . The s e c o n d s t e p o f t h e s t u d y , t h e n , i n v o l v e d a hand p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e 5 c ompu te r l i s t s t o ma tch l e t t e r s equence s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e phonog rams w i t h c o n - s i s t e n t phonogram s o u n d s . O n l y t h o s e words t h a t c o n t a i n e d w h a t was b e l i e v e d t o be t h e most common phonogram sounds were i n c l u d e d i n t h e g r a d e d phonogram w o r d l i s t . A f i n a l s t e p i n v o l v e d f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e l i s t s . I t s h o u l d p e r h a p s be added t h a t t h e c o m p l e t e d l i s t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be a d e f i n i t i v e l i s t . I t i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e phonogram a s d e f i n e d b e l o w . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms O n l y one d e f i n i t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s t u d y . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y a phonog ram a s d e f i n e d i n A D i c t i o n a r y o f R e a d i n g and R e l a t e d T e r m s , t h e o f f i c i a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n , i s " a g r a p h i c s equence c o m p r i s e d o f a v o w e l grapheme and an e n d i n g c o n s o n a n t grapheme ( a s t h e s p e l l i n g o f - e d i n b e d , r e d , f e d ) . ( H a r r i s a n d Hodge s , 1 981 ) . I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e VCV s e q u e n c e i n w h i c h t h e f i n a l v o w e l i s " s i l e n t " ( a s t h e s p e l l i n g o f - i t e i n b i t e , k i t e , s i t e ) . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y The s t u d y i s s een as l i m i t e d i n two i m p o r t a n t way s . 1) The s t u d y i s c o n f i n e d t o phonograms a s t h e y o c c u r i n o n l y one p u b l i s h e d w o r d l i s t , w h i c h ha s i t s own s p e c i f i e d l i m i t a t i o n s . O t h e r s e m a n t i c s - b a s e d wo rd l i s t s w o u l d c e r t a i n l y y i e l d a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f wo rd l i s t s . 6 2) The s t u d y was c o n f i n e d t o l e t t e r c l u s t e r s t h a t o c c u r a s p h o n o - g rams , t h a t i s , a s p r o n o u n c e a b l e c l u s t e r s w i t h o u t s e m a n t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t d i d n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e l e t t e r c l u s t e r s s p e l l e d i n t h e same way as phonograms b u t h a v i n g a s e m a n t i c f u n c t i o n . C l u s t e r s l i k e i m and i n f u n c t i o n a s p h o - nograms i n s u c h w o r d s a s b r i m m i n g and f i n i s h b u t have a s e m a n t i c f u n c t i o n i n s u c h word s as i m p o r t and i n a b i l i t y . The l i s t i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e phonogram as a p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t i n i t s mos t common p r o n u n c i a t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y The s t u d y i s s een as h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e i n b o t h i t s p r o d u c t and i t s p r o c e s s e s . The v a l u e o f t h e e x p e c t e d p r o d u c t i n p r o v i d i n g a s c i e n t i f i c b a s e f o r " p h o n i c s " i n s t r u c t i o n ha s a l r e a d y been commented o n . I t i s e x p e c t e d as w e l l t h a t t h e p r o c e s s e s u s e d may have an i n f l u e n c e on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e s i g n o f f u t u r e wo rd l i s t s . E x i s t i n g g r a d e d w o r d l i s t s may be r e a n a l y z e d i n a s i m i l a r way f o r o r t h o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s r e p r e s e n t - i n g o t h e r p h o n e m i c e l e m e n t s . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s The t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f o u r c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r one p r e s e n t s t h e p r o b l e m . C h a p t e r two r e v i e w s t h e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . C h a p t e r t h r e e d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d t o d e v e l o p t h e g r a d e d p h o n o g r a m - b a s e d wo rd l i s t s . C h a p t e r f o u r s ummar i z e s t h e s t u d y and s amp le s o f t h e p r o j e c t e d w o r d l i s t a p p e a r a s an a p p e n d i x . 7 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE F o r a t i m e G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n f l u e n c e d r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n when t h e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t word r e c o g n i t i o n p r a c t i c e s h o u l d be b a s e d on a " w h o l e w o r d " t e c h n i q u e on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s u b p a t t e r n s w i t h i n wo rd s wou l d g r a - d u a l l y be i n t e r n a l i z e d b y t h e n a i v e r e a d e r and u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e "new" w o r d s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , h o w e v e r , r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s have a g r e e d t h a t mos t c h i l d r e n mus t be t a u g h t how t o a n a l y z e words i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n u n i t s and t h e n t o " b l e n d " t h e s e u n i t s i n t o who l e w o r d s . Some w r i t e r s and c o m - m e r c i a l p r o g r ams have a d v i s e d a l e t t e r b y l e t t e r a p p r o a c h (as i n c - a - t ) ; o t h e r s have a d v i s e d an i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e a p p r o a c h (as i n c a - t ) ; and s t i l l o t h e r s s u g g e s t e d a phonogram a p p r o a c h (as i n c - a t ) . A l t h o u g h some e v i d e n c e was a v a i l a b l e a s e a r l y a s 1928 a b o u t t h e v a l u e o f t h e phonogram as a p r o n u n - c i a t i o n u n i t , o n l y r e c e n t l y h a s any q u a n t i t y o f e v i d e n c e become a v a i l a b l e t o s u p p o r t i t s v a l u e . R e s e a r c h now seems t o s u p p o r t t h e phonogram a s t he u n i t o f g r e a t e s t u t i l i t y i n wo rd r e c o g n i t i o n . E a r l y E v i d e n c e and O p i n i o n A b o u t t h e V a l u e o f t h e Phonogram i n Word A n a l y s i s Programmes E a r l y s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e v a l u e o f t h e phonogram i n word a n a l y s i s programmes were b a s e d on a n a l y s e s o f t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i n b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . G a t e s ' (1928) s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f l e t t e r c l u s t e r s i n w o r d s , a l t h o u g h n o t a l w a y s f o r m a l l y c i t e d by l a t e r w r i t e r s , p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d s t a t e m e n t s made by o t h e r a u t h o r s soon a f t e r . G a t e s a n a l y z e d t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f a v a r i e t y o f l e t t e r c l u s t e r s i n c l u d i n g t h e CC, CV and VC , VCC f o r m s i n 3,000 w o r d s f r o m f i r s t and g r a d e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . H i s d a t a l e d h i m t o s u g g e s t t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o many o f t h e s e u n i t s i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n w o u l d p r o v e u n p r o f i t a b l e . However , some c o m b i n a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f v a l u e b e c a u s e o f b o t h f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e and c o n s i s t e n t s o u n d - s y m b o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . G a t e s s u g g e s t e d t h a t : E l e m e n t s l i k e i n , i n g , e r , a n , e n , e d , o t e r , and and i g h t w h i c h so commonly c o r r e s p o n d t o spoken s y l l a b l e s . . . a r e more r e a d i l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h s poken sounds and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h e r e b y b u i l t u p . (1928, p . 1 5 3 ) He l i s t e d a t o t a l o f 27 l e t t e r c l u s t e r s t h a t were v e r y u s e f u l b e c a u s e o f t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e and i n v a r i a n c e o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n . N i n e t e e n , o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e s e were o f t h e VC a n d VCC f o r m ( i . e . p h o n o g r a m ) . A l t h o u g h McKee (1948) a c c e p t e d G a t e s ' j udgement t h a t phonograms w e r e u s e f u l i n w o r d a n a l y s i s p rog rammes , he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e u s e o f t h e p h o n o - gram m i g h t be l i m i t e d by v a r i a n c e o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n , i n f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r ' s wo rd a t t a c k s t y l e , w h i c h t y p i c a l l y showed a c o n - c e n t r a t i o n on b e g i n n i n g and e n d i n g l e t t e r s . However , he d i d l i s t s p e c i f i c phonograms t o be t a u g h t . S t i l l l a t e r , D u r r e l l (1956) a g r e e d , a l t h o u g h he s t r e s s e d t h a t f r e - q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f phonograms i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s h o u l d f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e l e m e n t s t o be t a u g h t . He a d v i s e d s p e c i f i - c a l l y a g a i n s t t h e p r a c t i c e o f t e a c h i n g phonograms u s i n g u n f a m i l i a r w o r d s , t h a t i s , wo rd s n o t i n a c h i l d ' s s p e a k i n g v o c a b u l a r y . D o l c h , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e l e t t e r by l e t t e r p h o n i c s 9 a p p r o a c h and s t a t e d : We c a n s a y t h a t phonogram p h o n i c s i s o n l y a means t o an e n d . The end i s b e t t e r t e a c h i n g o f l e t t e r p h o n i c s a n d a l s o l e a r n i n g o f h a b i t s o f word a n a l y s i s t h a t w i l l be c o n t i n u a l l y and w i d e l y u s e f u l . ( 1960 , p . 294 ) D o l c h , n e v e r t h e l e s s , d i d p r e p a r e a l i s t o f phonograms r e g a r d e d a s most common t o phonogram l i s t s , w h i l e w a r n i n g o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f phonogram r e c o g n i t i o n i n wo rd a n a l y s i s p r a c t i c e . I n 1961 , t h e s u g g e s t i o n was made b y R u s s e l l t h a t phonogram r e c o g n i - t i o n was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t i n r e a d i n g p o l y s y l l a b l e w o r d s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h i l e a n a l y s i s o f m o n o s y l l a b l e word s i n e a r l y r e a d i n g r e q u i r e d s k i l l w i t h i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r s , b l e n d s and d i g r a p h s , l a t e r : I n t h e h i g h s e c o n d o r l o w t h i r d g r a d e s where p o l y s y l l a b l e words b e g i n t o c o n s t i t u t e more o f t h e b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y , a b i l i t y t o d e t e c t known p a r t s , phonograms s u c h a s l i g h t and ound and t h e s y l l a b l e s o f words becomes more v a l u a b l e , ( p . 3 14 ) O b v i o u s l y , many r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s u n t i l 1961 we re i n f a v o u r o f a t l e a s t some u se o f phonograms i n r e a d i n g programmes b u t v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e was a v a i l a b l e o t h e r t h a n t h e G a t e s 1928 s t u d y o f t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e . R e c e n t E v i d e n c e A b o u t L e t t e r C l u s t e r s and T h e i r V a l u e i n Word A n a l y s i s More r e c e n t l y , c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d r e s e a r c h ha s f o c u s s e d on t h e u n i t t h a t t h e r e a d e r u s e s i n word a n a l y s i s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . E v i d e n c e ha s begun t o a p p e a r i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n , s p e l l i n g and r e a d i n g l i t e r a - t u r e a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n t o f l e t t e r c l u s t e r s w i t h c o n s i s t e n t s o u n d - s y m b o l r e l a - t i o n s h i p s . 10 E v i d e n c e F rom P e r c e p t i o n R e s e a r c h W o r k i n g f r o m a p e r c e p t i o n v i e w p o i n t , G i b s o n ha s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r e a d e r u t i l i z e s n o t t h e l e t t e r o r t h e w h o l e wo rd when a n a l y z i n g w o r d s b u t l e t t e r c l u s t e r s c o m p r i s i n g s p e l l i n g - t o - s o u n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s . G i b s o n , P i c k , O s s e r and Hammond (1962) compared s k i l l e d r e a d e r s ' v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and p e r c e p t u a l m a t c h i n g o f m o n o s y l l a b i c p r o n o u n c e a b l e a n d u n p r o n o u n c e a b l e p s e u d o w o r d s . C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h b r i e f t a c h i s t o s c o p i c e x p o s u r e s t o l i s t s o f p seudoword s c o n s t r u c t e d by e x c h a n g i n g i n i t i a l and f i n a l c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r s and c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r h i g h o r l o w s p e l l i n g - t o - s o u n d c o r r e l a t i o n s ( e x . CLATS - T S A C L ) . H i g h s p e l l i n g - t o - s o u n d c o r r e l a t i o n s we re shown t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f p s e u d o w o r d s . I t i s t o be n o t e d h e r e t h a t a l t h o u g h no a c t u a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n was r e q u i r e d o f t h e s t u d e n t s t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p o t e n t i a l l y p r o n o u n c e a b l e u n i t s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e t a s k . I n a n o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t , G i b s o n , P i c k and O s s e r ( 1963 ) u s e d t h e same p r o c e d u r e t o p r e s e n t m o n o s y l l a b i c f a m i l i a r wo rd s and p r o n o u n c e a b l e and u n p r o - n o u n c e a b l e t r i g r a m s as w e l l a s f o u r and f i v e l e t t e r p s eudowo rd s o f b o t h p r o - n o u n c e a b l e and u n p r o n o u n c e a b l e f o r m s ( e x . RAN, NAR, NRA : SLAND, NADSL) t o e x a m i n e t h e s t a g e a t w h i c h e a r l y r e a d e r s f i n i s h i n g f i r s t o r t h i r d g r a d e b e g i n t o r e s p o n d t o s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s a s u n i t s o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n . F i r s t g r a d e r s r e a d a n d s p e l l e d o r a l l y t h e f a m i l i a r wo rd s b e s t b u t r e a d t h e p r o n o u n c e a b l e t r i g r a m s s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e u n p r o n o u n c e a b l e p a t t e r n s . The l o n g e r p s e u d o - w o r d s w e r e r e a d p o o r l y w i t h no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n shown f o r p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y , p r o b a b l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . The t h i r d g r a d e r s r e a d a l l o f t h e t h r e e l e t t e r c o m b i n a t i o n s e q u a l l y w e l l b u t p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y was shown t o b e a 11 f a c t o r i n t h e r e a d i n g o f l o n g e r p s e u d o w o r d s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e s e e a r l y s t u d i e s l e d G i b s o n t o c o n c l u d e : The f a c t t h a t a c h i l d c an b e g i n v e r y e a r l y t o p e r c e i v e r e g u l a r i t i e s o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e be tween t h e p r i n t e d and s p o k e n p a t t e r n s and t r a n s f e r them as u n i t s , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i s c o v e r i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d - e n c e b e t w e e n p a t t e r n s m i g h t w e l l be enhanced i n p rogrammed r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . ( 1965 , p . 1 072 ) I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t t h a t G i b s o n l a t e r r e v i e w e d h e r t h i n k i n g abou t h e r u s e o f t h e t e r m " p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y " i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f u n i t s i n wo rd r e c o g n i t i o n and m o d i f i e d h e r s t a t e m e n t s t o accommodate f i n d i n g s f r o m a s t u d y o f dea f s u b j e c t s ( G i b s o n , S h u r c l i f f and Y o n a s , 1 970 ) . The same p s e u d o - wo rd s o f h i g h o r l o w p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y we re p r e s e n t e d t a c h i s t o s c o p i c a l l y one a t a t i m e on a s c r e e n f o r 100 m i l l i s e c o n d s t o 34 c o n g e n i t a l l y d e a f a n d 34 h e a r i n g c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . The dea f s t u d e n t s made more e r r o r s o v e r a l l i n r e c o r d i n g t h e p s e u d o w o r d s b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e f a v o u r i n g t h e p r o n o u n c e a b l e u n i t s was j u s t a s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e dea f a s f o r t h e h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s . G i b s o n e t a l . c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y i n p r o c e s s i n g u n i t s was s e r i o u s l y weakened by t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y and c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e mapp i n g r e l a t i o n t o s ound i s n o t e s s e n t i a l " . I t s h o u l d b e s t a t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e i s r e a l l y n o r e a s o n e n t i r e l y t o d i s c a r d t h e p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y n o t i o n . The f a c t t h a t dea f s u b j e c t s r e s p o n d t o v i s u a l p a t t e r n s s h o u l d n o t l e a d us t o suppose t h a t h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s do n o t u s e t h e v i s u a l p a t t e r n s a s p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s . T h i s i s i m p l i e d b y G i b s o n e t a l . i n t h e s t a t e m e n t : 12 An i n t e l l i g e n t dea f r e a d e r doe s m a s t e r and u s e t h e r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s o f t h e l a n g u a g e i n p r o c e s s i n g g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l and i s f a c i l i a t e d by t h e i r p r e s e n c e . The r e d u n - d a n c y c o n t r i b u t e d by i n v a r i a n t mapp ing t o s peech s ound s may w e l l make i t e a s i e r f o r t h e h e a r i n g c h i l d t o p i c k up t h e common s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s a n d r e g u l a r i t i e s a s he l e a r n s t o r e a d , b u t c l e a r l y i t c a n be done w i t h o u t t h i s . ( 1 970 , p . 7 1 ) I n an a d d i t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t , G i b s o n (1976) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e many r e p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n s i n E n g l i s h r e p r e s e n t i n g c o n s i s t e n t p r o n u n c i a t i o n u n i t s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l i z e d by t h e r e a d e r and f a c i l i t a t e t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s shown i n f a t - f a t e and b i t - b i t e a r e s u g g e s t e d t o b e " e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d and c o n t r a s t e d " . W h i l e t h e t e r m "phonog ram" was n o t u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e t h e s p e l l i n g - t o — s ound p a t t e r n s u s e d as u n i t s o f r e c o g n i t i o n i n p r o n o u n c e a b l e w o r d s and p s e u d o - w o r d s , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e phonogram p a t t e r n as d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y was t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t i n t h e p r o n o u n c e a b l e p s eudowo rd s and t r i g r a m s u s e d i n t h e G i b s o n s t u d i e s . E v i d e n c e f r o m S p e l l i n g R e s e a r c h An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s p e l l i n g l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d o f s p e l l i n g , a i d e d by t h e c o m p u t e r , a l s o began i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s t o s t u d y r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s o f p r i n t w i t h i n wo rd s and t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n o r t h o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s a n d p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s . V e n e z k y (1967 ) c o n t e n d e d t h a t E n g l i s h c o n t a i n s two b a s i c s e t s o f p a t - t e r n s . The f i r s t , he s a i d , p e r t a i n s t o t h e a l l o w a b l e l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s o r 13 o r t h o g r a p h i c r e g u l a r i t i e s ; t h e s e c o n d c o n t a i n s t h o s e p a t t e r n s w h i c h r e l a t e s p e l l i n g - t o - s o u n d . A f t e r a v e r y t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f o r t h o g r a p h i c r e g u l a r i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g c o n s o n a n t p a t t e r n s , v o w e l p a t t e r n s , v o w e l + c o n s o n a n t ( s ) p a t t e r n s and v o w e l + c o n s o n a n t + v o w e l p a t t e r n s , he was a b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h g r a p h e m i c e n v i r o n m e n t d e t e r m i n e d v o w e l p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n b o t h mono- s y l l a b l e and p o l y s y l l a b l e w o r d s . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t f o r p o l y s y l l a b l e s morphemic s t r u c t u r e a l s o i n f l u e n c e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y . He a d d e d , h o w e v e r , a s t a t e m e n t abou t t h e b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r t h a t c a n be assumed t o b e a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e a d i n g o f m o n o s y l l a b l e s . L e a r n i n g t o r e a d i s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t l e a r n i n g t o r e l a t e o r t h o g r a p h i c f o r m s t o a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l f o r m s . The more t h a t r e a d i n g pedagogy c a n t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s f a c t , t h e more s u c c e s s f u l t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g w i l l b e . ( 1967 , p . 1 0 5 ) He t e s t e d t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i n a 1972 s t u d y . (See b e l o w ) E v i d e n c e F r om R e a d i n g E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h E v i d e n c e about t h e v a l u e o f t h e phonogram i n wo rd a n a l y s i s i s o f two t y p e s ; (1 ) S t u d i e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n and (2 ) S t u d i e s o f f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f phonograms i n common w o r d s . S t u d i e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n . E v i d e n c e ha s been c o l l e c t e d a b o u t t h e v a l u e o f t h e phonog ram i n wo rd r e c o g n i t i o n . 14 The b l e n d i n g methods emp loyed by f i r s t g r a d e r s t o d e c o d e u n f a m i l i a r one s y l l a b l e wo rd s was i n v e s t i g a t e d by Canham e t a l . ( 1966 ) t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r an i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e (as i n c a - t ) o r a f i n a l phonog ram (a s i n c - a t ) w o u l d s e r v e as a more u s e f u l u n i t i n wo rd a n a l y s i s when t r a n s f e r was made t o unknown w o r d s . The c h i l d r e n were a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o a t o t a l o f 139 wo rd s r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l o f t h e p o s s i b l e p h o n e t i c a l l y " p u r e " c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h r e e l e t t e r words when p a i r e d a c c o r d i n g t o i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e o r phonog ram s i m i l a r i - t i e s ( i . e . man-map; c a p - m a p ) . T r a n s f e r t o t h e p a i r e d wo rd was e x p e c t e d w i t h i n t e n s e c o n d s a f t e r t h e e x a m i n e r p r o m p t e d w i t h : " I f t h i s s a y s ' m a n ' , t h i s s a y s . " o r a l t e r n a t e l y " I f t h i s s a y s ' c a p ' , t h i s s a y s . " . The phonogram a p p r o a c h was f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o d u c i n g c o r r e c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p h o n i c s method emp loyed b y t h e c l a s s - r o o m t e a c h e r . The u t i l i t y o f t h e phonogram as a r e c o g n i t i o n u n i t u s e d by f i r s t g r a - d e r s was a l s o s u p p o r t e d by W y l i e (1967) i n an e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e Canham s t u d y . A t h i r t y - t w o i t e m t e s t c o n s i s t i n g o f s e t s o f f i v e s h o r t v o w e l phonograms i n w h i c h o n l y t h e v o w e l v a r i e d was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r 230 f i r s t g r a d e r s s h o w i n g n o r m a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e a d i n g p r o g r e s s w o u l d r e s p o n d b e t t e r t o p h o - nogram o r s e p a r a t e v o w e l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . From a d i s p l a y s u c h a s (ed i d od u d ad) t h e c h i l d was a s k e d t o c i r c l e t h e phonogram p r o n o u n c e d . The n e x t day t h e same d i s p l a y s w e r e u s e d a g a i n and t h e c h i l d was a s k e d t o c i r c l e t h e v o w e l s ound p r o n o u n c e d . A l l c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d t h e phonogram s ound s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e v o w e l s o u n d . W y l i e s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n u n i t i s t h e phonog ram r a t h e r t h a n t h e s e p a r a t e v o w e l . I n d i s c u s s i n g p h o n i c s p r o b l e m s i n b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g D u r r e l l (1968) 15 s t a t e d : Our s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e phonogram i s t h e u n i t most c h i l d r e n depend upon i n r e c o g n i z i n g word s i n b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g . The phonogram s t a b i l i z e s t h e v o w e l q u i t e d e p e n d - a b l y ; i n one s y l l a b l e words t h e c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h f o l l o w t h e v o w e l s e t t h e v o w e l v a l u e . ( p . 2 2 ) To d e t e r m i n e d e v e l o p m e n t a l a b i l i t y i n p r e d i c t i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n f r o m o r t h o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , V e n e z k y , Chapman and C a l f e e (1972) c o n s t r u c t e d a s e t o f 69 p s eudowo rd s f o r u s e w i t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s f r o m s e c o n d , f o u r t h and s i x t h g r a d e . The p s eudowo rd s r e p r e s e n t e d l o n g and s h o r t v o w e l p a t t e r n s , i n v a r i a n t c o n s o n a n t sounds and t h e v a r i a n t c o n s o n a n t sounds o f t h e l e t t e r s c a n d cj. O r a l r e s p o n s e s t o s u c h i t e m s as " c a b e " and " c i p e " w e r e t a p e d a n d c o d e d as c o r r e c t , i n c o r r e c t o r p l a u s i b l e . Reade r s i n s e c o n d and t o some e x t e n t f o u r t h g r a d e showed h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and t h e a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e p r o n u n c i a t i o n p a t t e r n s a l t h o u g h p r e d i c t i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n f o r t h e v a r i a n t c o n s o n a n t p a t t e r n s f o r c and c[ r e m a i n e d a p r o b l e m w i t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s a t s i x t h g r a d e l e v e l . V e n e z k y e t a l . n o t e d t h a t p o s i t i o n o f t h e l e t t e r i n t h e wo rd was i m p o r t a n t t o i t s p r e d i c t a b l e p r o n u n c i a t i o n and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r e a l wo rd examp le s f o r e a c h p a t t e r n i n e a r l y r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l was i m p o r t a n t i f t h e c h i l d was t o n o t i c e s t r u c t u r e i n w o r d s . They s t r e s s e d t h a t s p e l l i n g t o sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s a r e b o t h r e g u l a r a n d p r e d i c t a b l e a n d a r e u s e d b y r e a d e r s t o p e r c e i v e and p r o n o u n c e w o r d s . i A number o f s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o i s o l a t e t h e p a t t e r n s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h e s p e c i f i c s p e l l i n g - t o - s o u n d u n i t s emp loyed by t h e r e a d e r . A s t u d y by F l e t c h e r (1973) o f t h e t r a n s f e r o f a l t e r n a t e s p e l l i n g p a t - t e r n s i n i n i t i a l r e a d i n g u s i n g compute r a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n was c i t e d by 16 G i b s o n and L e v i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) . A p p a r e n t l y word s and p r o n o u n c e a b l e non -wo rd s o f t h e CVC, CCVC, CVCC a n d CCVCC f o r m s were p r e s e n t e d t o f i r s t g r a d e c h i l d r e n who h a d been t a u g h t a c c o r d i n g t o two o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t p r o c e d u r e s . T r e a t m e n t B p r o v i d e d p r a c t i c e w i t h b o t h i n i t i a l and f i n a l l e t t e r c l u s t e r s ( c a - c l a - ; - a d , a n d ) ; t r e a t m e n t I p r o v i d e d p r a c t i c e w i t h i n i t i a l u n i t s o n l y ( c a - c l a ) ; t r e a t m e n t F p r o v i d e d p r a c t i c e w i t h o n l y f i n a l u n i t s ( - a d , - a n d ) ; t r e a t m e n t N p r o v i d e d no p r a c t i c e . I n t h e c r i t e r i o n t e s t t h e t r e a t m e n t word s we re p r e - s e n t e d as w h o l e u n i t s and t h e s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d on a l l t r e a t m e n t s . T r a i n i n g on t h e B and F t r e a t m e n t s , b o t h o f w h i c h c o n t a i n e d l e t t e r c l u s t e r s o f t h e phonogram f o r m was s u p e r i o r t o t h e I and N t r e a t m e n t s . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a l s o c o n d u c t e d by S a n t a (1977) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e u n i t e m p l o y e d by s e c o n d , f i f t h and c o l l e g e l e v e l r e a d e r s . R e a l wo rd s t i m u l i o f t h e CCVCC f o r m w e r e p r e s e n t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g p i c t u r e s and s a m e - d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n t i m e was m e a s u r e d . The words w e r e p r e s e n t e d a s p r o b e s i n w h i c h s p e l l i n g - t o - s o u n d p a t t e r n s we re e i t h e r m a i n t a i n e d o r d i s r u p t e d ( e x . BLAST B LAST BL AST BLAS T ) . S a n t a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t a s k was p r o b a b l y t o o e a s y f o r f i f t h g r a d e r s and a d u l t s s i n c e a l l p r o b e s w e r e p r o - c e s s e d e q u a l l y w e l l . However , c h i l d r e n a t s e c o n d g r a d e r e a d i n g l e v e l r e s p o n d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r t o b o t h t h e w h o l e wo rd s and t h e p r o b e s c o n - t a i n i n g t h e f i n a l t r i p l e t o r phonog ram. S a n t a c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e f i n a l t r i p l e t f u n c t i o n e d as a p e r c e p t u a l u n i t , b u t t h e d a t a showed no e v i d e n c e s u p - p o r t i n g t h e f i n a l c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r . " ( p . 1 4 3 ) S t u d i e s o f phonogram f r e q u e n c y . I n l i g h t o f t h e e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e phonogram as a c r i t i c a l u n i t o f p e r c e p t i o n i n wo rd p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l ha s been r e - e x a m i n e d . F r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f phonograms i n m a t e r i a l s u s e d by e l e m e n - t a r y s c h o o l r e a d e r s , i t i s s u g g e s t e d , i s n o t much g r e a t e r t h a n p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d . However , b o t h t h e i n f o r m a l d e s i g n and t h e s i z e o f t h e d a t a ba se s u g g e s t i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s w i t h c a u t i o n . J o n e s (1970) a n a l y z e d D e c h a n t ' s (1964) l i s t o f 149 word s common t o p r i m a r y g r a d e b a s a l r e a d e r s f o r phonogram c o m p o n e n t s . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t 79.1 p e r c e n t o f t h e words i n t h i s l i s t c o u l d be d e c o d e d b y phonogram i d e n - t i f i c a t i o n . A random s a m p l i n g o f 1,400 words r e p r e s e n t i n g e v e r y t e n t h word i n t h e T h o r n d i k e B a r n h a r t (1962) B e g i n n i n g D i c t i o n a r y was t h e n e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e phonogram f r e q u e n c i e s i n m u l t i s y l l a b l e w o r d s w h i c h we re e x p e c t e d t o be i n t h e r e a d i n g c o n t e n t o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . J o n e s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f words e n c o u n t e r e d by e l e m e n t a r y . s c h o o l r e a d e r s c a n be decoded a c c o r d i n g t o phonogram component s t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e c o n s i s t e n t s o u n d - s y m b o l p a t t e r n . A l i s t o f t h e 50 mos t commonly o c c u r r i n g phonograms f r o m t h i s s e a r c h was p r o v i d e d b y J o n e s . G l a s s (1971) a l s o ha s s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n c e r n a b o u t b o t h t h e numbers o f phonograms and t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e i n e a r l y r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s mus t be an swe red b y p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e phonogram a p p r o a c h . A f t e r e x a m i n i n g t h e new v o c a b u l a r y p r e s e n t e d i n b a s a l r e a d e r s o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e g r a d e s G l a s s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t phonograms e n c o u n t e r e d i s n o t o n e r o u s f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r and t h a t f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e i s g r e a t enough t o w a r r a n t t h e i r u se i n wo rd a n a l y s i s a c t i v i t i e s . A l i s t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 phonograms and t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e i n b a s a l r e a d e r f o r t h e f i r s t t h r e e g r a d e s was p r e p a r e d . H a l f o f t h e s e 100 phonograms o c c u r r e d t e n t i m e s o r more and G l a s s ha s s u g g e s t e d t h a t : 18 I f t h e s e v o w e l phonograms c o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d i n w h o l e wo rd s t h e y o u n g s t e r w i l l have t h e v o w e l s ound s i n t r o d u c e d i n o v e r 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e new v o c a b u l a r y . ( 1 9 7 1 , p . 2 3 0 ) I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f phonog ram f r e - q u e n c y i n e l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l seem t o have been c o n d u c t e d i n f o r m a l l y b y hand c o u n t . I n more r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o u n i t s o f p e r c e p t u a l p r o - c e s s i n g , t h e phonogram has been shown t o be a u n i t o f h i g h r e c o g n i t i o n v a l u e . I t w o u l d appea r t o be t h e l e t t e r c l u s t e r f o r m mos t r e a d i l y p e r c e i v e d by n a i v e r e a d e r s and one w h i c h good r e a d e r s a t a l a t e r s t a g e u s e f o r p r e d i c t i n g p r o n u n - c i a t i o n w i t h u n f a m i l i a r wo rd f o r m s . Some e v i d e n c e ha s a l s o b e e n p r o v i d e d s u g g e s t i n g t h a t phonograms a r e b a s i c components o f t h e word s e n c o u n t e r e d i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l by e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s t u d e n t s . 19 CHAPTER I I I MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d and t h e p r o c e d u r e s emp l o yed i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f phonog ram-ba sed w o r d l i s t d e r i v e d f r o m t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f phonograms i n t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t . M a t e r i a l s The s t u d y r e q u i r e d t h e u s e o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t and t h e D u r r e l l - M u r p h y Phonogram L i s t . The A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e S t a n d a r d R e f e r e n c e D i c t i o n a r y ( B a r n h a r d , 1959) was u s e d t o c h e c k s y l l a b i c a t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t i s a c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d w o r d l i s t d e r i v e d f r o m an a n a l y s i s o f 4 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 w o r d s f r o m f o u r t e e n s e r i e s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e x t s . These i n c l u d e s i x b a s a l r e a d e r s e r i e s and two s e r i e s f r o m S o c i a l S t u d i e s , S c i e n c e , M a t h e m a t i c s a n d E n g l i s h . The C o r e l i s t c o n t a i n s wo rd s w h i c h a p p e a r i n a t l e a s t t h r e e o f t h e s i x b a s a l r e a d e r s e r i e s a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l . The A d d i t i o n a l l i s t c o n t a i n s w o r d s w h i c h a p p e a r i n f e w e r t h a n h a l f o f t h e b a s a l r e a d e r s e r i e s b u t i n a t l e a s t f o u r o f t h e f o u r t e e n s e r i e s a t e a c h l e v e l . The C o r e l i s t o f 5,167 w o r d s and t h e A d d i t i o n a l l i s t o f 1,641 word s a r e b o t h g r a d e d and c o m p r i s e t h e g r a d e d G e n e r a l V o c a b u l a r y l i s t . 20 The u n g r a d e d T e c h n i c a l V o c a b u l a r y l i s t c o n s i s t s o f 805 wo rd s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e C o r e l i s t b u t f o u n d i n b o t h s e r i e s o f a c o n t e n t a r e a and j u d g e d t o h a v e t e c h n i c a l m e a n i n g i n t h a t a r e a . A T o t a l A l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i s p r o v i d e d f o r a l l 7 ,613 w o r d s i n c l u d e d i n t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t . The D u r r e l l - M u r p h y Phonogram L i s t i s b a s e d on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f phonograms drawn f r o m t h e V o c a b u l a r y o f Rhymes i n W e b s t e r ' s S e v e n t h New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y . A s amp le l i s t o f one s y l l a b l e word s i s p r o v i d e d f o r e a ch commonly o c c u r r i n g phonogram s o u n d . O n l y one s amp le i s g i v e n i n p a r e n t h e s e s f o r l e s s f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , s e p a r a t e s amp le l i s t s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f e a t a s i n b e a t and t h r e a t b u t t h e l e s s commonly o c c u r r i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n as i n g r e a t i s s u g g e s t e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s . P r o c e d u r e s The p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d t h r e e m a j o r s t e p s . The f i r s t s t e p i n v o l v e d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a c ompu te r l i s t t h a t g r o u p e d t h e word s o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l by phonog ram c l u s t e r . The s e c o n d s t e p was t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e c ompu te r p r o d u c t t o p r o d u c e a g r a d e d phonogram b a s e d w o r d l i s t t h a t w o u l d be u s a b l e by r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s . A t h i r d s t e p i n v o l v e d f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s t h a t p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e wo rd l i s t p r o d u c e d . P r o d u c i n g t h e Compute r L i s t . A l l o f t h e word s o f t h e G e n e r a l V o c a b u l a r y l i s t 4 I o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t were t y p s d i n t o t h e compute r i n g r a d e d f o r m a t . The u n g r a d e d T e c h n i c a l V o c a b u l a r y l i s t was t h e n t y p e d i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r . The phonograms f r o m t h e D u r r e l l - M u r p h y Phonogram L i s t were n e x t e n t e r e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r t o c r e a t e s e p a r a t e phonogram f i l e s . The H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n l i s t s w e r e t h e n c o m p u t e r s e a r c h e d f o r o c c u r r e n c e o f l e t t e r c l u s t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g each o f t h e phonog ram s p e l l i n g s . The p r i n t o u t f r o m t h i s s e a r c h i d e n t i f i e d t h e w o r d s a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l w h i c h m i g h t c o n t a i n t h e phonogram s o u n d , t h a t i s , t h e w o r d s t h a t h a d t h e s p e c i f i e d sequence o f l e t t e r s and t h e r e f o r e m i g h t c o n t a i n t h e phonog ram s o u n d . S i n c e t h e c ompu te r c a n n o t r e c o g n i z e p h o n o l o g i c a l b o u n d a r i e s , t h e p r i n t o u t l i s t s g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r many word s t h a t c o n t a i n e d t h e phonog ram s p e l l i n g b u t n o t t h e phonogram s o u n d . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e w o r d p e a c e was i n c l u d e d i n t h e G r ade F i v e p r i n t o u t l i s t f o r a ce phonograms ( w i t h b r a c e , g r a c e and t r a c e ) b u t i n t h e f i n a l l i s t was p l a c e d w i t h e a c e w o r d s . P r o c e s s i n g t h e Compute r P r o d u c t . The s e c o n d s t e p o f t h e s t u d y i n v o l v e d a hand p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e c ompu te r l i s t s t o ma tch l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e phonograms w i t h c o n s i s t e n t phonogram s o u n d s . O n l y t h o s e w o r d s t h a t c o n t a i n e d t h e most common phonogram sounds were i n c l u d e d i n t h e g r a d e d p h o n o g r a m - b a s e d wo rd l i s t . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t a phonogram must o c c u r i n a minimum o f f i v e word s a c r o s s t h e g r a d e s t o b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t . The A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e S t a n d a r d R e f e r e n c e D i c t i o n a r y was u s e d t o c h e c k b o t h s y l l a b i c a t i o n o f wo rd s and phonogram p r o n u n c i a t i o n w i t h i n w o r d s . The d i c t i o n a r y was u s e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e phonogram s p e l l i n g f o r m e d a l l o r p a r t 22 o f a s y l l a b l e i n e a c h o f t h e words i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l phonog ram-ba sed wo rd l i s t . The p r o n u n c i a t i o n k e y was t h e n u sed i n a c r o s s - c h e c k p r o c e d u r e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e phonogram f o rmed a p r o n o u n c e a b l e u n i t w i t h t h e r e q u i r e d s o u n d . A p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y word s i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l l i s t d i d n o t show t h e same s y l l a b i c d i v i s i o n i n t h e s y l l a b i c a t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n k e y s b u t we re i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l l i s t b e c a u s e t h e phonogram f o rmed t h e r e q u i r e d p r o - n o u n c e a b l e u n i t i n t h e ba se word ( l e a d e r , p o s t e r ) . The D u r r e l l - M u r p h y Phonogram L i s t was u sed a s a g u i d e i n t h e p r o - c e s s i n g o f a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f phonog rams . However , a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n - c i a t i o n s o f phonograms n o t n o t e d by D u r r e l l and Murphy f o r s i n g l e s y l l a b l e wo rd s b u t o c c u r r i n g f r e q u e n t l y i n m u l t i s y l l a b l e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e l e v e l words o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n l i s t were a l s o p r o c e s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . F u r t h e r A n a l y s e s . Word c o u n t s were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e c o m p l e t e d l i s t s f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f e a c h phonogram a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l . A t o t a l wo rd c o u n t was t h e n o b t a i n e d f o r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f e a c h phonogram w i t h i n word s o f t h e G e n e r a l V o c a b u l a r y l i s t o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t . L i s t s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e T e c h n i c a l V o c a b u l a r y l i s t were i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l phonog ram-ba sed word l i s t b u t e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e t o t a l c o u n t s i n c e t h e T e c h n i c a l V o c a b u l a r y l i s t i s u n g r a d e d and c o n t a i n s many word s t h a t a p p e a r i n t h e g r a d e d A d d i t i o n a l V o c a b u l a r y l i s t . 23 A l i s t o f phonograms t h a t p r o d u c e d f e w e r t h a n f i v e word s e a c h was p r e p a r e d . The o r t h o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n / p r o n u n c i a t i o n p a t t e r n m a t c h i n g was done on t h e b a s i s o f what i s b e l i e v e d t o be s t a n d a r d C a n a d i a n d i a l e c t . O t h e r d i a l e c t s w o u l d p r o d u c e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p i n g s . 24 CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o r e a n a l y z e t h e g r a d e d word l i s t s o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t a c c o r d i n g t o phonogram component s t o p r o v i d e a phonog ram-based word l i s t o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n B a s i c E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g V o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t i n g r a d e d f o r m a t . Summary o f F i n d i n g s The c o m p l e t e d l i s t i s c o m p r i s e d o f 5,943 word s w i t h 232 phonogram e n t r i e s . Sample page s a r e i n c l u d e d a s A p p e n d i x A ( e v e r y 5 t h page o f an 88 page l i s t ) . A c o u n t o f phonogram f r e q u e n c y a c r o s s g r a d e s a p p e a r s a s A p p e n d i x B. S i x t y phonograms ( o r 21 p e r c e n t o f t h e D u r r e l l - M u r p h y phonograms) were o m i t t e d f r o m t h e f i n a l l i s t b e c a u s e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f wo rd s i n w h i c h t h e s e we re f o u n d was f e w e r t h a n f i v e w o r d s . The l i s t o f phonograms o m i t t e d i s p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e I. Table I Phonograms Occurring in Fewer Than Five Words af e alf andle arn arp aught ause awk eap earn eft eld esk etter i l k imp inch ipe i r d (safe) (half) (candle) (barn) (harp) (caught) (cause) (hawk) (heap) (learn) (left) (held) (desk) (better) (milk) (limp) (pinch) (ripe) (bird) i r l oach oaf oak oal oan oap oar obe ode odge oft oice oin oise ood oof oor oot (girl) (coach) (loaf) (soak) (coal) (moan) (soap) (roar) (robe) (rode) (lodge) (soft) (voice) (coin) (noise) (food) (roof) (poor) (foot) ork ost ough oul ould ount ouse ove oze ube uch umb unny urse urt ush usk uss uy (fork) (cost) (rough) (foul) (could) (count) (house) (love) (doze) (tube) (such) (thumb) (funny) (nurse) (hurt) (push) (dusk) (fuss) (buy) 26 A total word count for each phonogram appears as Table II. A number of phonogram pronunciations not found in the Durrell-Murphy l i s t but found occurring frequently in words of more than one syllable in the Barris-Jacobson l i s t were included in the f i n a l l i s t . These were able (suitable), age (village), ant (giant), ard (lizzard), ease (grease), our (detour) and ure (picture). T a b l e I I T o t a l F r e q u e n c i e s o f 232 Phonograms i n Words o f t h e H . J . B . E . R . V . ab ( g r a b ) 25 a b l e ( t a b l e ) 11 a b l e ( s u i t a b l e ) 28 a c e ( f a c e ) 23 a c k ( b a c k ) 39 a c t ( f a c t ) 17 ad (had) 46 ade (made) 18 a g (bag) 36 age ( c a ge ) 7 age ( v i l l a g e ) 37 a i d ( a f r a i d ) 9 a i l ( m a i l ) 28 a i n ( t r a i n ) 37 a i n t ( p a i n t ) 6 a i r ( h a i r ) 28 a i t ( w a i t ) 7 a ke ( c a k e ) 27 a l e ( s a l e ) 15 a l k ( t a l k ) 7 a l l ( b a l l ) 26 am (swam) 58 ame (came) 17 amp ( s tamp) 11 an (man) 137 ane ( cane ) 10 and (hand) 38 ange ( s t r a n g e ) 8 ank (bank ) 21 a n t ( g r a n t ) 11 a n t ( g i a n t ) 42 ap ( t r a p ) 52 ape ( t a p e ) 12 a r ( c a r ) 79 a r c h (march) 5 a r d ( ha rd ) 22 a r d ( l i z z a r d ) 25 a r e ( c a r e ) 35 a r g e ( l a r g e ) 5 a r k ( b a r k ) 17 arm ( f arm) 10 a r t ( p a r t ) 19 a se ( c ha se ) 11 a sh ( c r a s h ) 17 ask (mask) 5 a s s ( g r a s s ) 28 a s t ( f a s t ) 16 a s t e (wa s te ) 6 a t ( t h a t ) 66 a t c h ( c a t c h ) 12 a t e ( g a t e ) 75 a t h ( b a t h ) 13 a t t l e ( c a t t l e ) 7 ave (gave) 12 aw (saw) 27 a w l ( c r a w l ) 5 awn ( l awn ) 5 ay (may) 77 e a c h ( t e a c h ) 8 ead (bead) 9 ead (head) 34 eak ( s p e a k ) 14 e a l ( r e a l ) 15 earn (beam) 18 ean (mean) 11 e a r ( h e a r ) 28 e a r ( b e a r ) 7 ea se ( p l e a s e ) 5 ea se ( g r e a s e ) 6 e a s t ( f e a s t ) 11 e a t ( s e a t ) 22 e c k ( n e c k ) 17 ed ( s l e d ) 33 edge ( l e d g e ) 9 ee ( t r e e ) 35 eed ( f e e d ) 21 eek (week) 8 e e l ( f e e l ) 14 een ( g r e e n ) 23 eep ( s l e e p ) 19 e e r ( c h e e r ) 17 e e t ( f e e t ) 12 e e z e ( s n e e z e ) 6 e g ( l e g ) 13 e l f ( s h e l f ) 11 e l l ( t e l l ) 38 e l p ( h e l p ) 5 e l t ( b e l t ) 5 em (them) 58 en ( t h e n ) 247 ence ( s i l e n c e ) 29 ench (bench ) 5 end ( send ) 26 e n t (went ) 130 e p t ( k e p t ) 8 e r r y (me r r y ) 12 e sh ( f r e s h ) 5 e s s ( d r e s s ) 231 e s t ( b e s t ) 33 e t ( g e t ) 94 i b ( r i b ) 16 i c e ( n i c e ) 15 i c k ( l i c k ) 47 i d ( h i d ) 48 i d e ( r i d e ) 32 i d g e ( b r i d g e ) 5 i e ( t i e ) 6 i e f ( t h i e f ) 9 i e l d ( f i e l d ) 9 i f e ( l i f e ) 9 i f t ( l i f t ) 8 i g ( b i g ) 31 i g h ( h i g h ) 7 i g h t ( n i g h t ) 44 i g n ( s i g n ) 6 i k e ( l i k e ) 15 T a b l e I I ( c o n t ' d ) T o t a l F r e q u e n c i e s o f 232 Phonograms i n Words o f t h e H . J . B . E . R . V . i l d ( c h i l d ) 6 i l e . ( m i l e ) 17 i l l ( w i l l ) 56 i m (h im) 64 ime ( t i m e ) 19 i n (w i n ) 204 i n c e ( p r i n c e ) 5 i n d ( f i n d ) 17 i n e ( f i n e ) 34 i n g ( s i n g ) 92 i n k ( p i n k ) 15 i n t ( p r i n t ) 13 i p ( t r i p ) 53 i r e ( f i r e ) 29 i r t ( d i r t ) 6 i s ( h i s ) 18 i s ( t h i s ) 91 i s h ( f i s h ) 45 i s k ( b r i s k ) 6 i s s ( m i s s ) 6 i s t ( l i s t ) 27 i t ( s i t ) 58 i t e ( k i t e ) 21 i v e ( g i v e ) 36 i v e ( f i v e ) 16 i x ( s i x ) 10 i z e ( p r i z e ) 15 oad ( r o a d ) 9 o a s t ( c o a s t ) 7 o a t ( b o a t ) 22 o a r d ( boa rd ) 10 ob ( j o b ) 30 ock ( r o c k ) 28 od (nod) 24 oe ( t o e ) 7 og (dog) 21 o i l ( b o i l ) 8 o i n t ( p o i n t ) 8 oke ( j o k e ) 10 o l d ( c o l d ) 18 o l e ( h o l e ) 11 o i l ( d o l l ) 13 o i l ( r o l l ) 6 o l t ( c o l t ) 7 ome (home) 8 ome (some) 19 on (upon) 84 on ( sen) 114 ond (pond) 8 one (done) 7 one (bone) 20 ong ( l o n g ) 14 ood (good) 21 ook ( l o o k ) 22 o o l ( p o o l ) 11 oom (room) 15 oon ( soon) 21 oop (hoop) 10 oo se ( goo se ) 6 o o t ( b o o t ) 7 op ( s t o p ) 50 ope (hope) 13 o r e (more) 38 orm ( f o r m ) 10 o r n ( c o r n ) 15 o r t ( s h o r t ) 20 o se ( no se ) 16 o s s ( c r o s s ) 20 o s t (most ) 14 o t ( n o t ) 33 o t e ( n o t e ) 9 o t h ( c l o t h ) 6 o u c h ( c r o u c h ) 5 oud ( l o u d ) 6 o ugh t ( bough t ) 7 ound ( g r ound ) 23 o u r ( y o u r ) 13 o u r ( h o u r ) 7 o u r ( d e t o u r ) 16 o u t ( s h o u t ) 33 ove ( s t o v e ) 8 ow (now) 39 ow (know) 71 o w l ( g r o w l ) 7 own (down) 19 own (grown) 11 ox ( f o x ) 10 oy (boy) 24 ub ( r u b ) 31 u c k ( duck ) 20 u d (bud) 13 udge ( j u d g e ) 7 u f f ( s t u f f ) 16 u g (bug) 26 u l e (mu le ) 5 u l l ( f u l l ) 9 u l l ( d u l l ) 7 urn (drum) 61 umb l e (mumble) 10 ump (bump) 11 un ( f u n ) 115 u n c h ( l u n c h ) 6 une . ( t u n e ) 6 u n g (hung) 14 unk (bunk) 12 u n t ( h u n t ) 6 up ( cup ) 29 u r ( f u r ) 76 u r e ( p i c t u r e ) 38 u r e ( s u r e ) 8 u r n ( bu r n ) 7 u s (bu s ) 47 u s h ( r u s h ) 10 u s t ( j u s t ) 13 u t ( b u t ) 35 u z z ( b u z z ) 5 C o n c l u s i o n s I n t h e p r o c e s s o f w o r k i n g w i t h t h e l i s t some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p h o - nograms and t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n were n o t e d . D a t a - B a s e d C o n c l u s i o n s The s t u d y seemed t o v e r i f y t h e p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n - c i a t i o n s o f phonograms i n t h e D u r r e l l - M u r p h y Phonogram L i s t . T h a t i s , t h e a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f f e r e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n t h e D u r r e l l - M u r p h y l i s t u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d i n f e w e r t h a n f i v e word s o f t h e H a r r i s - J a c o b s o n l i s t . Two e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e phonograms i_s ( t h i s ) and o i l ( d o l l ) . F o u r o f t h e f i v e a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f phonograms n o t n o t e d by D u r r e l l and Murphy b u t f o u n d o c c u r r i n g f r e q u e n t l y i n word s o f more t h a n one s y l l a b l e c o n t a i n e d a schwa sound when t h e phonogram s e r v e d as t h e f i n a l s y l l a b l e ( s ) . The se we re a b l e ( s u i t a b l e ) , age ( v i l l a g e ) , a n t ( g i a n t ) and a r d ( l i z z a r d ) . O t h e r O b s e r v a t i o n s I n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were a l s o made abou t a number o f phonograms t h a t p r o d u c e d t h r e e o r more p r o n u n c i a t i o n s i n a s m a l l number o f w o r d s . The phonogram o_e o c c u r r e d s e v e n t i m e s w i t h t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n as i n t o e , t h r e e t i m e s w i t h t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n as i n shoe and once w i t h t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n a s i n d o e s . 30 The phonogram ough o c c u r r e d i n 14 words w i t h f i v e d i f f e r e n t p r o n u n - c i a t i o n s ( enough , c o u g h , dough , t h r o u g h and b o u g h ) . The m a j o r i t y o f a r phonogram words c o n t a i n e d t h e s ound o f a r a s i n c a r ; howeve r a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n a s m a l l number o f wo rd s w i t h t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f a r a s i n s u g a r , q u a r t e r , m a r r y and w a r . S y l l a b i c a t i o n a f f e c t e d t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f a number o f phonograms t h a t o c c u r r e d i n m u l t i s y l l a b l e w o r d s . The phonograms a c t , e l d , i l d , i m p , i n t , i s t , u n d , u r n and u r t we re g e n e r a l l y d i v i d e d b e t w e e n c o n s o n a n t s i n w o r d s o f more t h a n one s y l l a b l e a s i n a c t i v i t y , e l d e r , b e w i l d e r , s i m p l i f y , s u p e r i n t e n - d e n t , m i n i s t e r , b l u n d e r , f u r n i s h and f r a n k f u r t e r . S u g g e s t i o n s F o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h Two s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e made. 1. R e a n a l y z e l i s t s f o r o c c u r r e n c e o f p r e f i x e s , s u f f i x e s and r o o t s a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l . 2 . E x p l o r e i n a c r o s s g r a d e s s t u d y t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n l e a r n e a r l i e s t t h o s e phonograms t h a t o c c u r mos t f r e q u e n t l y . 31 REFERENCES B a r n h a r t , C . L . 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S p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f l e x i b l e wo rd r e c o g n i - t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 12, 1 2 5 - 1 4 4 . T h o r n d i k e , E . L . & B a r n h a r t , C . L . B e g i n n i n g d i c t i o n a r y . New Y o r k : S c o t t , Fo resman & C o . , 1962 . V e n e z k y , R . L . E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y : i t s r e l a t i o n t o s o u n d . R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1967, 2, 7 5 - 1 0 6 . V e n e z k y , R . L . , Chapman, R.S. & C a l f e e , R.C. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f l e t t e r - s o u n d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s f r o m s e c o n d t h r o u g h s i x t h g r a d e . T e c h n i c a l r e p o r t . U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : 1972 . (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No . ED 073 443) W e b s t e r , N. W e b s t e r ' s s e v e n t h new c o l l e g i a t e d i c t i o n a r y . S p r i n g f i e l d , M a s s . : G . s C . M e r r i a m C o . , 1965 . W y l i e , R. Word e l e m e n t p e r c e p t i o n i n b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r - t a t i o n , B o s t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 7 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1968, ^ 9 , 4398A; ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No . 69 -7839 ) W y l i e , R .E . & D u r r e l l , D.D. T e a c h i n g v o w e l s t h r o u g h phonog rams , E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 1970, 47 , 787-791. 33 APPENDIX A SAMPLE PAGES FROM A GRADED PHONOGRAM-BASED WORD LIST (every 5 t h page of an 88 page l i s t ) AGE - (V I LLAGE) c o n t ' d 3 rd COTTAGE COURAGE LANGUAGE MANAGE MESSAGE PACKAGE V ILLAGE 4 t h BANDAGE CARRIAGE GARBAGE SAUSAGE SAVAGE LUGGAGE POSTAGE SEWAGE SHORTAGE 5 t h ADVANTAGE AVERAGE BAGGAGE DISCOURAGE ENCOURAGE IMAGE PASSAGE VOYAGE DISADVANTAGE HERITAGE MILEAGE USAGE 6 t h ACREAGE CABBAGE DAMAGE ENCOURAGEMENT MARRIAGE PASSAGEWAY RUMMAGE STORAGE PERCENTAGE T e c h n i c a l CARTILAGE VANTAGE 3 rd 4 t h 5 t h LA ID MAID PAID AID BRAID MAIDEN MERMAID RAID 6 t h N I L T e c h n i c a l RAIDER A I L - (MAIL) PP/P N I L 1 s t N I L 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h MAIL P A I L TA I L SAILBOAT J A I L NA IL RA I L SA I L SAILOR TRA IL MAILBOX F A I L RAILROAD TAILOR WAIL P IGTA IL AVA ILAbLE DETAIL HAIL TRAILER RAILWAY A ID - (AFRAID) PP/P N I L 1 s t N I L 2nd AFRAID 6 t h AILMENT BA I L FA ILURE FRA I L PREVAIL QUAIL SNAIL AN - (MAN) c o n t ' d 4th 6 t h T e c h n i c a l ANTIQUE BAN CANDIDATE FANTASY F INANCIAL MANUSCRIPT MILKMAN PECAN SANITATION TRANSCRIBE TRANSISTOR ANTHEM* ANTHRACITE CANDIDATE* EMANCIPATION MANOR OVERRAN PANHANDLE PANTHEON TANNERY ANTENNA* CANCER* ORGANISM* RANDOM ANTHOLOGY ANTONYM FANTASY* TRANSITION TRANSITIONAL TRANSLATION AND - (HAND) PP/P AND 5 t h 6 t h T e c h n i c a l COMMAND DEMAND GRAND INLAND GRANDPARENT GRANDSON GREAT-GRANDFATHER MAINLAND RAND SANDPAPER WOODLAND BRAND BRAND-NEW LANDSCAPE STRAND FARMLAND GLAND LANDMARK LANDSLIDE OVERLAND WASTELAND EXPAND LANDLORD OUTSTANDING WONDERLAND COASTLAND COMMANDMENT FARMLAND* HOMELAND NORTHLAND STANDSTILL GLAND* SANDSTONE HANDWRITING* HANDWRITTEN 1 s t 2nd 3 r d HAND GRANDFATHER GRANDMOTHER LAND SAND STAND BAND HANDFUL SANDWICH UNDERSTAND GRASSLAND HANDWRITING ANE - (CANE) PP/P N I L A IRPLANE 1 s t 2nd 3 rd 4 t h PANE N I L CANE LANE MANE ARD - (L IZZARD) c o n t ' d 4 t h INWARD MALLARD WESTWARD 5 t h 6 t h AFTERWARD HOMEWARD LEOPARD EASTWARD NORTHWARD SKYWARD SOUTHWARD VINEYARD DOWNWARD MUSTARD OUTWARD STANDARD CUSTARD T e c h n i c a l N I L ARE - (CARE) PP/P N I L 1 s t 2nd 3 rd 4 t h N I L CARE CAREFUL SCARE SCARECROW STARE BARE DARE DECLARE PREPARE SHARE SPARE SQUARE AWARE CARELESS COMPARE FLARE GLARE RARE BEWARE HARDWARE PARE 5 t h FARE FAREWELL MARE NIGHTMARE WAREHOUSE BAREBACK SILVERWARE 6 t h BAREFOOT BLARE HARE SHARE WARE WELFARE WARFARE T e c h n i c a l CHINAWARE SHARECROPPER ARGE - (LARGE) PP/P N I L 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h N I L LARGE N I L BARGE CHARGE ENLARGE DISCHARGE T e c h n i c a l DISCHARGE* ARK - (BARK) PP/P N I L 1 s t 2nd 3 r d BARK DARK MARK PARK DARKNESS SPARK SPARKLE ATE - (GATE) c o n t ' d 6 t h PENETRATE PLAYMATE SPECULATE TRANSLATE CANDIDATE CONTAMINATE DELEGATE DOMINATE ELEVATE IRRITATE ORIGINATE PARTIC IPATE TOLERATE T e c h n i c a l CANDIDATE* CO-OPERATE* DEBATE* DELEGATE* CARBOHYDRATE CARBONATE CIRCULATE CONTAMINATE* DOMINATE* GENERATE* GERMINATE* INFLATE N ITRATE* POLLINATE SULFATE PUNCTUATE ATH - (BATH) PP/P N IL 1 s t N I L 2nd N I L 3 r d BATH PATH BATHROOM 4 t h N I L 5 t h ATHLETIC BATHTUB MATHEMATIC MATH 6 t h ATHLETE MATHEMATICAL MATHEMATICIAN WRATH HATH PATHWAY T e c h n i c a l N I L ATTLE - (CATTLE) PP/P N I L 1 s t N I L 2nd N I L 3 rd CATTLE RATTLESNAKE 4 t h BATTLE RATTLE 5 t h BATTLEGROUND BATTLESHIP 6 t h BATTLEFIELD T e c h n i c a l BATTLEGROUND* CATTLEMEN AVE - (GAVE) PP/P 1 s t GAVE 2nd BRAVE SAVE WAVE 3 r d BEHAVE CAVE 4 t h PAVE 5 t h SLAVE SHAVE 6 t h GRAVE PAVEMENT ENGRAVE T e c h n i c a l N I L EAR - (HEAR) PP/P N I L 1 s t HEAR 2nd CLEAR DEAR EAR NEAR NEARBY TEAR YEAR 3 r d APPEAR BEARD DISAPPEAR FEARFUL REAR SPEAR EARDRUM 4 t h 1 FEAR SMEAR FEARLESS REAPPEAR 5 t h DREARY GEAR SHEAR WEARY YEARLING 6 t h APPEARANCE WEARINESS EARPHONE SPEARHEAD T e c h n i c a l CLEARING EARDRUM EAR - (BEAR) PP 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h N I L BEAR TEAR WEAR N I L PEAR 5 t h BEARING SWEAR UNBEARABLE 6 t h N I L EASE - (PLEASE) PP/P N I L 1 s t PLEASE 2nd N I L 3 r d TEASE 4 t h DISEASE EASE D ISPLEASE 5 t h N I L 6 t h N I L EASE - (GREASE) PP/P N I L 1 s t N I L 2nd N I L 3 r d N I L 4 t h INCREASE 5 t h CEASE CREASE GREASE RELEASE 6 t h DECREASE EAST - (FEAST) PP/P N I L 1 s t N I L 2nd N I L EEZE - (SNEEZE) c o n t ' d 4 t h 3 rd 4 t h 5 t h . 6 t h SNEEZE BREEZE FREEZE SQUEEZE FREEZER WHEEZE N IL T e c h n i c a l N I L EG - (LEG) PP/P N I L 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h b t h LEG EGG BEG REGULAR BEGGAR KEG PEG REGULATION NEGATIVE NUTMEG REGULATE SEGMENT IRREGULAR T e c h n i c a l LEGUME SEGMENT* E L F - (SHELF) PP/P N I L N I L 1 s t 2nd 3 r d HERSELF HIMSELF MYSELF YOURSELF SHELF 5 t h I TSELF SELF I SH ELF UNSELFISH SELF 6 t h TWELFTH T e c h n i c a l N I L T-rr.T. — ( TELL ) PP/P YELLOW 1 s t 2nd 3 rd 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h HELLO TELL BELL CELLAR F E L L SELL SMELL WELL. YELL DOORBELL FELLOW SHELL BELLOW J E L L Y PROPELLER SPELL SWELL UMBRELLA DWELLER SHELLF ISH SPELLER STORYTELLER STORYTELLING FAREWELL INTELLIGENCE INTELL IGENT BELLY CELLOPHANE SELLER CELL DWELLING MELLOW DWELL GAZELLE 4 0 ENCE - ( S I LENCE) c o n t ' d 5 t h INDEPENDENCE INFLUENCE REFERENCE CORRESPONDENCE INTERFERENCE OBEDIENCE 6 t h ENCH PP/P 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h ABSENCE CONFERENCE CONFIDENCE CONSCIENCE CONSEQUENCE CONVENIENCE EVIDENCE EXISTENCE PRESENCE VIOLENCE CIRCUMFERENCE HENCE INNOCENCE PROVIDENCE SEQUENCE (BENCH) N I L N I L N I L BENCH N I L N I L CLENCH DRENCH TRENCH WRENCH END - (SEND) PP/P N I L 1 s t FRIEND 3 rd BEND PRETEND SPEND 4 t h ATTEND BLEND DEFEND DEPEND INTEND MEND TEND WEEKEND ENDLESS 5 t h EXTEND INDEPENDENCE LEND 6 t h ASCEND DEPENDANT DESCEND RECOMMEND RENDER SURRENDER SUSPEND T e c h n i c a l AMENDMENT PITCHBLEND ADDEND DIVIDEND ENDPOINT ENT - (WENT) PP/P WENT 1 s t N I L 2nd 3 r d 2nd END FRIENDLY SEND APARTMENT DIFFERENT SENT TENT ACCIDENT BENT CENT CONTENT CURRENT EXCITEMENT EXPERIMENT IMPATIENT INVENT MOMENT PARENT ( G E T ) * ET - (POCKET) c o n t ' d D IET HORNET INLET INTERPRET LETTUCE LOCKET MAGNET PUPPET SCARLET TRUMPET BANQUET BOOKLET CABINET COMET OUTLET SK I L LET SPAGHETTI* WALLET T e c h n i c a l BALL-AND-SOCKET COMET DROPLET ELECTROMAGNET GENETIC RETINA* RICKETS SKELETAL SKYROCKET ULTRAVIOLET SUBSET* ALPHABETIC* FIDGET GANNET MIDGET MUSKET NUGGET PROPHET REGRET* R IVET SILHOUETTE SOCKET SONNET SUPERMARKET TABLET TARGET VETERAN* V IOLET BRACKET DUET* GADGET HATCHET METRIC* NETWORK* PELLET PLUMMET 42 IGHT - (NIGHT) PP/P N I L 1 s t FIGHT LIGHT NIGHT RIGHT 2nd BRIGHT FRIGHTEN MIGHT SIGHT TONIGHT 3 rd DELIGHT FRIGHT LIGHTNING TIGHT LAMPLIGHT T e c h n i c a l BULLFIGHT COPYRIGHT IGN - (SIGN) PP/P NIL NIL 1 s t 2nd 3 rd 4 t h 5 t h SIGN N I L DESIGN ASSIGN ASSIGNMENT DESIGNER RESIGN 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h DAYLIGHT FLASHLIGHT FLIGHT LIGHTHOUSE NIGHTFALL SLIGHT SUNLIGHT EYESIGHT FIGHTER MOONLIGHT UPRIGHT KNIGHT MIDNIGHT NIGHTMARE PLIGHT TWILIGHT BRIGHTNESS DELIGHTFUL LIGHTNESS STARLIGHT BRIGHTEN CANDLELIGHT HEADLIGHT OVERNIGHT RIGHTFUL BLIGHT ENLIGHTEN FRIGHTFUL LIGHTEN NIGHTINGALE 6 t h N I L I KE - ( L I K E ) PP/P B IKE L I K E 1 s t N I L 2nd N I L 3 rd STRIKE D I SL IKE 4 t h AL IKE UNLIKE DIKE LIKENESS 5 t h HIKE THREADLIKE TURNPIKE 6 t h P IKE SP IKE L IKEWISE WARLIKE T e c h n i c a l D IKE D I SL IKE HAIRL IKE IN - (WIN) c o n t ' d 6 t h INVESTIGATE PINTO TARPAULIN TINDERBOX CL IN IC CONTINUOUS INDICATOR INV I S I BLE INEXPENSIVE INFLUENZA INHERIT INHERITANCE INJECT INNOCENCE INSCRIPTION INTRIGUE JAVEL IN NIGHTINGALE P E N I C I L L I N PINPOINT PINWHEEL V IOL IN I ST WINTRY VACCINATION CARDINAL INEQUALITY INDEFINITE INTERJECTION INTERROGATIVE INTRODUCTORY INCE PP/P 1 s t 2nd 3 rd 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h (PRINCE) N I L N I L N I L PRINCE CONVINCE PROVINCE MINCE WINCE T e c h n i c a l BASIN BITUMINOUS DOMINION INAUGURATION INCENSE INCOMING RES IN V IRGIN CHINOOK CHLORINATE GERMINATE HEMOGLOBIN INDICATION INERTIA INFECTIOUS INFLATE INFRARED INHALE INSTALLATION INSULATION INSULATOR INTAKE INTENSITY INVERT INVERTEBRATE POLLINATE POLLINATION RETINA IND - (F IND) PP/P N I L 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h BEHIND FIND MIND WIND HIND FINDER BLIND GRIND REMIND BIND MANKIND UNKIND KINDNESS BLINDFOLD BLINDNESS REMINDER BINDING I S - (THIS ) c o n t ' d 5 t h SATISFACTION TENNIS ADVERTISEMENT CHEMISTRY DISADVANTAGE DISAGREEABLE DISCOVERER DISOBEY DISPATCH D ISSAT ISF IED DISTINCTION EMPHASIS HISTORIC MISJUDGE SATISFACTORY RESISTANCE TUBERCULOSIS UNDISCOVERED DISCOUNT DISTRIBUTIVE ISH - (F I SH) PP/P F I SH 1 s t WISH 2nd DISH F IN I SH SWISH RADISH 6 t h BL ISTER BR ISTLE CR IS I S DISAGREE D I SBEL IEF DISCARD DISCONTENT DISCUSSION DISDAIN DISPOSE DISTINCT DISTRACT DISTRIBUTE DISTRICT DISTURBANCE EXISTENCE MISFORTUNE MISPLACE PISTOL REGISTER DISCHARGE DISCUSS DISPUTE HISTORIAN MISCHIEVOUS MISSPELL TRANSISTOR TUBERCULOSIS T e c h n i c a l LEG I SLAT IVE CHRYSALIS DISCONNECT PHOTOSYNTHESIS P I S T I L PISTON 3 rd 4th 5 t h 6 t h FISHERMEN FOOLISH PUNISH ASTONISH ASTONISHMENT FOOLISHNESS GOLDFISH POLISH PUBLISH SELF I SH VANISH FISHER FISHHOOK REDDISH SHELLF ISH STARFISH UNFINISHED UNSELFISH DISTINGUISH ESTABLISH FURNISH DIMINISH FURNISHING GREENISH PERISH PUBLISHER PUNISHMENT RUBBISH ACCOMPLISH ACCOMPLISHMENT BISHOP CATFISH OAD - (ROAD) PP/P N I L 1 s t 2nd 3 rd 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h ROAD N I L LOAD TOAD RAILROAD UNLOAD BOATLOAD CROSSROAD GOAD ROADSIDE T e c h n i c a l SHIPLOAD OAST - (COAST) PP/P N I L 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h N I L N I L ROAST BOAST COAST COASTAL SEACOAST TOASTER TOAST N I L T e c h n i c a l COASTLAND OAT - (BOAT) PP/P 1 s t 2nd BOAT GOAT COAT FLOAT SAILBOAT 3 rd OATMEAL 4 t h THROAT BOATHOUSE BOATLOAD FERRYBOAT GOATSKIN OVERCOAT RAINCOAT TUGBOAT 5 t h OAT COATING STEAMBOAT 6 t h GLOAT PETTICOAT REDCOAT ROWBOAT AFLOAT T e c h n i c a l FLATBOAT KEELBOAT MOAT OARD PP/P 1 s t 2nd 3 rd 4 t h 5 t h - (BOARD) N I L N I L N I L 6 t h OB - (JOB) PP/P 1 s t ABOARD BOARD CHALKBOARD CARDBOARD CUPBOARD BLACKBOARD STARBOARD BILLBOARD OVERBOARD KEYBOARD N I L N I L OME - (SOME) c o n t ' d 6 t h AWESOME INCOME OVERCOME SOMEWHAT ON - (UPON) PP/P ON 1 s t N I L 2nd N I L 3 r d BONNET CONTENT CONTEST CONTINUE HONOR UPON 4 t h ASTONISH ASTONISHMENT CONCERT CONCRETE CONSTANT CONVERSATION DON FRONTIER HONEST HONORABLE MONARCH NONSENSE ONTO CONSONANT CONSTELLATION CONTINENTAL DISHONEST MONASTERY 5 t h CONCENTRATE CONCORD CONFIDENT CONQUER CONSTITUTION CONSTRUCT CONTACT CONTINENT CONTRIBUTION MONSTER MONUMENT YONDER ANACONDA 46 ASTRONOMY CON CONCEPT CONFEDERATE CONGRESSMEN CONQUEROR CONQUEST CONSUL CONVERT CONVEYER ECONOMY ELECTRONIC NEON PENTAGON 6 t h BATON BRONCO BRONZE CONDUCT CONFERENCE CONFIDENCE CONSCIENCE CONSEQUENCE CONSERVATION CONSOLE CONTEXT CONTRACT CONTRARY CONTRAST HORIZONTAL MONITOR MONSTROUS NYLON PONDER PYTHON RESPONSE RESPONSIBLE SONNET SPONSOR CONCENTRATION CONFLICT CONSCIOUS ELECTRON GONDOLA PHENOMENON RAYON S IL ICON ' T e c h n i c a l CONSTITUTIONAL CONVICT MONARCHY MONSOON TRANSCONTINENTAL ASTRONOMY CONVEX OOP - (HOOP) 2nd GOOSE . 3 rd LOOSE 4 t h N I L 5 t h CABOOSE MOOSE NOOSE 6 t h PAPOOSE OOT - (BOOT) PP/P N I L 1 s t N I L 2nd BOOT 3 r d ROOT SHOOT TOOT 4 t h HOOT 5 t h SCOOTER 6 t h UPROOT OP - (STOP) PP/P 1 s t 2nd 3 r d STOP DROP HOP STOPPED POP SHOP TOP POPCORN CHOP CLOP COPPER CROP FLOP HELICOPTER POPPY GRASSHOPPER LOLL IPOP 47 4 t h COPY MOP OPERATOR OPPOSITE PROP TOPICAL MICROSCOPIC MOUNTAINTOP OPERATE RAINDROP ROOFTOP SHOPKEEPER TOPSOIL TREETOP 5 t h OPERATION POPULAR TOPIC TOPPLE ATOP OPERA TROPIC 6 t h CHOPPY CO-OPERATE CO-OPERATION HILLTOP OPPORTUNITY PLOP POPLAR POPULATION CHOPSTICKS SHOPPER SHORTSTOP TABLETOP T e c h n i c a l .COPRA HOPPER OPPOSITION SHARECROPPER DROPLET DROPPER STOPPER OPE - (HOPE) PP/P N I L 1 s t N I L 2nd HOPE ROPE 3 r d TELESCOPE OUND - (GROUND) c o n t ' d T e c h n i c a l ROUNDWORMS OUR - (YOUR) PP/P YOUR 1 s t FOUR 2nd FOURTH YOURSELF 3 r d POUR 4 t h MOURN COURTYARD DOWNPOUR 5 t h FOURTEEN FOURTEENTH 6 t h MOURNFUL SOURCE RESOURCEFUL OUR - (HOUR) PP/P N I L 1 s t OUR 2nd N I L 3 r d FLOUR HOUR 4 t h OURSELVES 5 t h SOURDOUGH 6 t h DEVOUR SOUR OUR - (DETOUR) PP/P N I L 1 s t N I L 2nd N I L 3 rd COURAGE 4 t h JOURNEY 5 t h DISCOURAGE ENCOURAGE TOURIST COURTESY DETOUR 6 t h COURAGEOUS ENCOURAGEMENT FLOURISH JOURNAL NOURISH TOUR TOURNAMENT COURTEOUS NOURISHMENT T e c h n i c a l JOURNEYMAN TOURISM OUT - (SHOUT) PP/P ABOUT OUT 1 s t N I L 2nd OUTSIDE SHOUT WITHOUT 3 rd OUTDOOR OUTLINE 4 t h OUTER ROUTE SCOUT TROUT 5 t h LOOKOUT OUTFIT OUTLAW OUTSMART OUTWIT SNOUT SPROUT OUTCOME OUTLET OUTNUMBER OUTSKIRTS OUTSTRETCH UDGE - (JUDGE) c o n t ' d 2nd N I L JUDGE 3 rd 3 rd 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h NUDGE TRUDGE BUDGE MISJUDGE SMUDGE GRUDGE UFF - (STUFF) PP/P N I L N I L N I L BUFFALO PUFF STUFF FLUFF GRUFF SHUFFLE SUFFER MUFFIN MUFFLER SUFF IX BLUFF RUFFLE SCUFFLE MUFFLE SCUFF SUFF IC IENT T e c h n i c a l FOODSTUFFS UG - (BUG) PP/P N I L 1 s t N I L 2nd UGLY 4 t h 5 t h 6th BUG DUG HUG RUG STRUGGLE TUG DRUG BUGGY DRUGSTORE JUG JUGGLE MUG SHRUG SNUG LUGGAGE TUGBOAT CHUG PLUG RUGGED DRUGGIST JUGGLER SLUG NUGGET SNUGGLE UGH T e c h n i c a l DRUG MUGGY ULE - (MOLE) PP/P N I L 1 s t 2nd 3 rd 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h N I L N I L MULE RULE N I L SCHEDULE R ID ICULE MOLECULE T e c h n i c a l OVULE DP - (COP) 3 r d BURST CHURCH PP/P UP CURL CURRENT 1 s t N I L CURTAIN FUR 2nd CUP HURRAH CUPCAKE HURRIED PUP PURPLE PUPPY SURFACE SUPPER SURROUND TURKEY 3 rd SUPPOSE TURNIP 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h T e c h n i c a l UPON UPSIDE UPSTAIRS UPWARD CUPFUL SYRUP SUPPLY SUPPER UPPER UPROAR UPSET UPRIGHT UPSTREAM GUPPY PUPPET ROUNDUP STIRRUP BUTTERCUP CATSUP P ICKUP GROWNUP UPROOT UPLAND UPRIVER 4 t h 5 t h OR - (FOR) PP/P N I L 1 s t 2nd • HURRY SURPRISE TURTLE N I L BURROW BURY FURNACE FURNITURE FURRY FURTHER GURGLE HAMBURGER MURMUR PURPOSE STURDY URGE HURRICANE' NURSERY PLURAL BLUR BURDEN BURRO FURNISH HURTLE OCCUR PURCHASE PURR PURCHASE PURR PURSUE SPUR SURVIVE BURGESS EXCURSION FRANKFURTER FURNISHING FURROW MURDER MURKY RURAL SULFUR APPENDIX B PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H . J . B . E . R . V . 52 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6 t h ab (grab) _ _ _ _ 5 g 1 1 a b l e ( t a b l e ) - - 2 - 2 3 4 able ( s u i t a b l e ) - - - - 7 9 12 ace (face) - - 3 1 7 6 6 ack (back) - 2 2 4 12 15 4 ac t ( f a c t ) - - 1 2 - 9 5 ad (had) 1 1 7 7 10 14 6 ade (made) - 1 2 2 7 3 3 ag (bag) - 2 3 4 4 13 10 age (cage) - 1 - 2 1 - 3 age ( v i l l a g e ) - - - 7 9 12 9 a i d ( a f r a i d ) - - 1 3 4 1 - a i l (mail) - . - 4 7 5 5 7 a i n ( t r a i n ) 1 2 1 6 1 2 6 9 a i n t ( p a i n t ) 1 - - - 2 1 2 a i r ( h a i r ) - 2 6 5 9 3 3 a i t (wait) - - 1 - 3 1 2 ake (cake) 3 - 3 5 7 4 5 a l e ( s a l e ) - _ _ 4 4 5 2 a l k ( t a l k ) - 2 1 1 2 1 a l l ( b a l l ) 3 1 4 7 2 5 4 am (swam) - - 3 8 11 12 24 ame (came) - 3 1 3 6 1 3 amp (stamp) - - 1 4 1 4 1 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H . J . B . E . R . V . PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h an (man) 3 7 9 9 31 41 37 and (hand) 1 1 5 6 11 10 4 ane ( c a n e ) - 1 1 - 6 2 ange ( s t r a n g e ) - - 1 1 4 2 - ank (bank ) - - 2 1 6 7 5 a n t ( g r a n t ) - - - 1 6 3 1 a n t ( g i a n t ) - - 2 3 9 14 14 ap ( t r a p ) - 1 5 12 9 12 10 ape ( t a p e ) - - 2 2 1 6 1 a r ( c a r ) 2 2 4 10 23 20 18 a r c h (march ) - - - 1 2 - 2 a r d ( h a r d ) 1 3 3 6 5 4 a r d ( l i z z a r d ) - - - 4 8 8 5 a r e ( c a r e ) - - 5 7 9 7 7 a r g e ( l a r g e ) - - 1 - 2 1 1 a r k ( b a r k ) - 2 2 3 5 3 2 arm ( f a r m ) - 1 2 3 2 2 - a r t ( p a r t ) • - 4 2 5 5 3 a s e ( c h a s e ) - - 1 2 6 - 2 a s h ( c r a s h ) - - 1 3 6 5 2 a s k (mask) 1 - _ _ 1 2 1 a s s ( g r a s s ) - 1 5 4 3 4 1 1 a s t ( f a s t ) 2 2 1 3 4 3 a s t e ( w a s t e ) - - - 2 - 1 3 54 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM PP/P 1 s t GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h a t a t c h a t e a t h a t t l e a v e aw a w l awn ay ( t h a t ) ( c a t c h ) ( g a t e ) ( b a t h ) ( c a t t l e ) ( g ave ) (saw) ( c r a w l ) ( l a w n ) (may) 4 1 3 2 1 6 4 6 3 2 2 4 11 13 2 12 2 1 9 1 4 16 19 2 23 4 2 2 8 1 1 19 17 3 31 6 1 3 3 2 15 e a c h ead ead eak e a l earn ean e a r e a r e a s e e a s e e a s t e a t ( t e a c h ) (bead ) (head ) ( s p e a k ) ( r e a l ) (beam) (mean) ( h e a r ) ( b e a r ) ( p l e a s e ) ( g r e a s e ) ( f e a s t ) ( s e a t ) 1 3 2 7 2 1 3 10 3 5 5 3 7 5 6 2 5 6 3 3 2 4 1 3 1 2 6 3 4 7 3 4 4 3 5 3 4 4 7 7 2 2 3 1 4 55 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th eck (neck) - - 1 1 8 5 2 ed ( s l e d ) 1 1 3 6 8 6 8 edge (ledge) _ _ - 1 1 4 3 ee ( t r e e ) 2 2 1 6 9 8 7 eed (feed) - - 3 4 6 5 3 eek (week) - - 1 2 4 1 e e l ( f e e l ) - - 2 1 4 4 3 een (green) 1 1 2 4 4 7 4 eep ( s l e e p ) - 1 5 4 5 3 1 eer (cheer) - - 2 5 1 5 4 eet ( f e e t ) - 2 3 2 2 3 - eeze (sneeze) - - - 1 4 1 eg ( l e g ) - 1 1 1 1 8 1 e l f ( s h e l f ) - - 4 1 4 1 1 o i l ( t e l l ) 1 2 7 3 11 6 0 elp (help) 1 - - 1 2 1 e l t ( b e l t ) - - 2 1 - 2 em (them) - 1 3 4 7 17 26 en (then) 1 6 16 37 58 65 64 ence ( s i l e n c e ) - - - 3 5 6 15 ench (bench) _ _ _ 1 _ _ 4 end (send) - 1 3 3 9 3 7 ent (went) 1 - 4 17 28 45 35 ept (kept) - - 1 4 1 2 56 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th er r y (merry) - - 4 2 4 2 - esh ( f r e s h ) - - - 1 - 3 1 es (dress) - 2 1 14 29 29 26 est (best) - - 4 7 1 0 7 5 et (get) 3 5 4 14 23 21 24 i b ( r i b ) - - - 2 3 2 9 i c e ( n i c e ) 1 2 2 4 1 5 i c k ( l i c k ) - - 6 8 13 14 6 i d ( hid) 1 1 2 4 11 16 13 id e ( r i d e ) 1 - 7 4 13 3 4 idge (bridge) - - 1 - 1 2 1 i e ( t i e ) - - 2 3 1 i e f ( t h i e f ) - - - 3 1 3 2 i e l d ( f i e l d ) - - 2 1 2 1 3 i f e ( l i f e ) - 2 2 2 1 2 i f t ( l i f t ) - - - 4 1 1 2 i g ( b ig) 1 1 1 4 7 5 12 i g h (high) - - 1 1 2 1 2 i g h t ( n i g h t ) - 4 5 5 11 9 10 i g n ( s i g n ) - - 1 - 1 4 _ i k e ( l i k e ) 2 - - 2 4 3 4 i l d ( c h i l d ) - - - 2 2 2 i l e ( m i le) - - 4 - 4 5 4 57 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H . J . B . E . R . V . PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h i l l ( w i l l ) 1 2 5 10 14 9 15 i m (h im) 1 - 2 7 14 18 22 ime ( t i m e ) - 1 1 4 5 5 3 i n ( w i n ) 2 1 11 27 38 68 57 i n c e ( p r i n c e ) - - - 1 1 1 2 i n d ( f i n d ) - 2 2 2 6 3 2 i n e ( f i n e ) - - 3 7 9 8 7 i n g ( s i n g ) 1 5 10 16 24 20 16 i n k ( p i n k ) 1 1 2 3 4 4 i n t ( p r i n t ) - - - 3 1 4 5 i p ( t r i p ) - - 2 10 17 10 14 i r e ( f i r e ) - 2 1 2 8 7 9 i r t ( d i r t ) - - 2 1 1 1 1 i s ( h i s ) 2 - 2 2 7 2 3 i s ( t h i s ) 1 1 2 9 20 30 28 i s h ( f i s h ) 1 1 4 3 15 10 11 i s k ( b r i s k ) - - - 1 1 3 1 i s s ( m i s s ) - 1 - 1 1 2 1 1 s t ( l i s t ) - - - 3 4 1 2 8 i t ( s i t ) 2 2 5 4 2 24 19 i t e ( k i t e ) - 1 3 4 5 4 4 i v e ( g i v e ) - 2 1 - 5 10 18 i v e ( f i v e ) - 1 1 4 2 6 2 i x ( s i x ) - 2 3 4 1 - 58 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h i z e ( p r i z e ) 1 - 3 1 5 5 oad ( r o a d ) - 1 - 2 3 1 2 o a s t ( c o a s t ) - - - 1 5 1 _ o a t ( b o a t ) 2 1 2 1 8 3 5 o a r d ( b o a r d ) - - - 3 3 3 1 ob ( j o b ) - - 2 5 6 6 11 ock ( r o c k ) - 2 4 4 5 7 6 o d (nod) - - - 6 6 5 7 oe ( t o e ) - - - 2 2 2 1 o g (dog) 1 - 4 6 7 3 o i l ( b o i l ) ~ - 1 1 4 1 1 o i n t ( p o i n t ) - 1 1 - 2 4 oke ( j o k e ) - - 4 2 3 - 1 o l d ( c o l d ) - 4 1 4 7 2 o l e ( h o l e ) - - 1 2 3 4 1 o i l ( d o l l ) 3 1 5 2 2 o i l ( r o l l ) - - 2 - - 3 1 o l t , ( c o l t ) - - 2 2 3 ome (home) 1 - - - 2 3 2 ome (some) 3 - 2 4 4 2 4 on (upon) 1 - - 6 18 27 32 on ( s on ) - 11 8 30 26 39 ond (pond) - - 1 1 1 4 1 59 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H . J . B . E . R . V . PHONOGRAM GRADE LEVEL PP/P 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h one (done) 1 1 5 - - _ one (bone ) - ' - 4 1 3 4 8 ong ( l o n g ) - 2 4 - 3 1 4 ood (good) 1 1 2 3 7 6 1 ook ( l o o k ) 2 1 4 3 . 6 5 1 o o l ( p o o l ) - 1 1 6 3 oom (room) - - 2 3 4 4 2 oon ( s oon ) 1 1 1 5 7 2 4 oop (hoop) - - - - 6 3 1 o o se ( g oo se ) - - 1 1 - 3 1 o o t ( b o o t ) - - 1 3 1 1 1 op ( s t o p ) 1 3 4 9 14 7 12 ope (hope) - - 2 1 6 2 2 o r e (more) - 3 - 4 10 1 0 1 1 orm ( f o r m ) - - - 3 3 3 1 o r n ( c o r n ) - - 4 3 3 2 3 o r t ( s h o r t ) - - 1 2 7 3 7 o s e ( no se ) - 1 2 3 3 2 5 o s s ( c r o s s ) - - 2 5 6 2 5 o s t (mos t ) - - 4 - 4 3 3 o t ( n o t ) 1 1 9 3 9 6 4 o t e ( n o t e ) - - 2 1 - 3 3 o t h ( c l o t h ) - - - 1 1 - 4 ouch ( c r o u c h ) - - - - 1 2 2 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM PP/P 1st GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6 t h oud ought ound our our our out ove ow ow owl own own ox oy (loud) (bought) (ground (your) (hour) (detour) (shout) (stove) (now) (know) (growl) (down) (grown) (fox) (boy) 1 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 11 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 7 12 2 5 3 1 2 1 2 5 3 1 1 4 3 9 18 2 3 4 5 4 5 2 1 5 12 3 10 12 1 2 1 1 7 1 1 4 3 2 9 10 7 12 1 6 2 1 6 ub uck ud udge u f f ug u l e u l l (rub) (duck) (bud) (judge) ( s t u f f ) (bug) (mule) ( f u l l ) 4 4 4 1 3 7 2 1 5 5 3 2 7 9 12 3 2 2 3 6 1 4 9 5 3 2 3 3 2 1 61 PHONOGRAM FREQUENCIES ACROSS GRADES IN WORDS OF THE H.J.B.E.R.V. PHONOGRAM PP/P 1 s t GRADE LEVEL 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h u l l um umb le ump un u n c h une u n g unk u n t up u r u r e u r e u r n u s u s h u s t u t u z z ( d u l l ) (drum) (mumble) (bump) ( f u n ) ( l u n c h ) ( t u n e ) (hung) (bunk ) ( h u n t ) ( cup ) ( f u r ) ( p i c t u r e ) ( s u r e ) ( b u r n ) ( bu s ) ( r u s h ) ( j u s t ) ( b u t ) ( b u z z ) 1 4 1 2 1 1 5 1 1 3 1 2 2 4 15 3 2 2 7 13 4 1 1 2 2 1 5 2 1 16 5 4 35 3 2 2 2 7 15 11 1 1 9 3 5 9 1 4 17 3 2 24 2 1 5 4 1 5 24 11 3 1 11 3 4 10 1 2 18 2 32 2 3 3 3 4 21 10 2 1 22 2 1 6 1

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