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Two paths to an additive form of bilingualism through instruction in French : an evaluation of the academic… Corbeil, Giselle 1984

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TWO PATHS TO AN ADDITIVE FORM OF BILINGUALISM THROUGH INSTRUCTION IN FRENCH, THE MINORITY LANGUAGE  By GISELLE CORBEIL B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language E d u c a t i o n  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1984 © G i s e l l e C o r b e i l , 1984  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  offat&tMf*&&azfa7&  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  Columbia  written  - ii  -  Abstract  The  purpose  of t h i s  study was  to i n v e s t i g a t e outcomes of a F r e n c h  program i n a m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n a t grades  f o u r and  six.  T h i s program,  d e s i g n e d f o r c h i l d r e n of Francophone f a m i l i e s , o f f e r s i n s t r u c t i o n m a i n l y i n French.  Nonetheless,  two  different  samples were found  i n the  pro-  gram, a more F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d sample and a more E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d sample. The  investigation  was  undertaken  to f i n d  out  how  these  groups a c h i e v e on measures of F r e n c h and E n g l i s h r e a d i n g . and Anglophone p a r e n t s w i s h to know how  well  two  Francophone  t h e i r c h i l d r e n achieve i n  E n g l i s h compared to s t u d e n t s i n s t r u c t e d o n l y i n E n g l i s h , and f u r t h e r well their  sub-  c h i l d r e n a c h i e v e i n F r e n c h compared to Francophone  how  students  i n Quebec. The  study c o n s i s t e d of a d m i n i s t e r i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to s t u d e n t s and  p a r e n t s i n o r d e r to a s s e s s the l i n g u i s t i c background, two  subgroups  English. tion, two —for six  identified  S i n c e these two  i t was  possible  different  i n four  the  program, w i t h measures of F r e n c h  and  subgroups made up the sample under i n v e s t i g a -  to examine c l a i m s advanced by  ways of a t t a i n i n g  t h e s e two groups. enrolled  i n the  and of t e s t i n g  The  r e s e a r c h e r s about  bilingualism—additive  and  subtractive  s u b j e c t s were s t u d e n t s at grades  schools  from  four  f o u r m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver,  and B.C.  districts. The  effectiveness  students' MacGinitie"  mean test,  scores the  of the PCDF was for "Test  three de  examined by  dependent  L e c t u r e " , and  comparing  the PCDF  variables—the the  "Test  de  "Gates-  Rendement"  - iii  with  respectively,  scores  -  of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g students  enrolled  in a  R e g u l a r E n g l i s h Program, s c o r e s o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n French  Immersion  enrolled  Program,  and  i n Quebec s c h o o l s .  between the two subgroups' their  results  their  home  on these  language  scores  Further  of  native-speakers  comparisons  were  of  also  French  attempted  s c o r e s on these measures w i t h i n the PCDF, as  three  use.  tests  were  The d a t a  a l s o analysed  were  analysed  i n r e l a t i o n to  using  analyses of  c o v a r i a n c e w i t h a c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y t e s t as the c o v a r i a t e . The tive  r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d  l e a r n i n g experience  t h a t the PCDF was an e f f e c -  f o r b o t h subgroups.  Both  subgroups a t grades  f o u r and s i x do not e x p e r i e n c e any s e t b a c k i n E n g l i s h , when compared t o R e g u l a r E n g l i s h Program s t u d e n t s (REP) on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e . Test  de L e c t u r e , E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s ,  a t grades  a c h i e v e d as w e l l as French Immersion s t u d e n t s  (EIP).  On t h e  f o u r and  six,  The same r e s u l t s  a r e a l s o found f o r grade f o u r F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s , w h i l e the grade six  French-oriented  s c o r e on the Test English-oriented Test  students  de L e c t u r e .  well  Compared  above  the 50th  an improvement,  grade  percentile  to native-speakers of French,  s t u d e n t s at grade f o u r do not perform  de Rendement whereas  evidencing  achieved  as w e l l  on t h e  s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students,  still  do not s c o r e  as w e l l .  Grade  while four  F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s a l s o s c o r e d low on the Test de Rendement, w h i l e grade  s i x achieved  factors  may account  students.  as w e l l  as n a t i v e - s p e a k e r s  f o r the low s c o r e s  Furthermore,  of French.  o f grade  Historical  four French-oriented  many s t u d e n t s i n the study have been i n the PCDF  f o r an average o f o n l y two y e a r s , l i m i t i n g , of a t t a i n i n g h i g h s c o r e s i n F r e n c h .  t h e r e f o r e , the p o s s i b i l i t y  - iv -  Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  were proposed.  the sample groups t e s t e d i n t h i s study should g r a d e s , thus p r o v i d i n g PCDF.  a more a c c u r a t e  For instance,  be r e t e s t e d i n subsequent  p i c t u r e o f the outcomes o f t h e  - v Table of Contents Page Abstract  11  Table of Contents  v  L i s t of T a b l e s . . .  v i i  L i s t of F i g u r e s Acknowledgements Dedication Scope and Focus o f the Study Background o f the Problem Statement of t h e Problem.... D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Hypotheses  C h a p t e r I I . Review o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e 1.  2.  1 6 10 12 15 15  a)  Majority-language children enrolled i n second language programs o f i n s t r u c t i o n  15  b)  Minority-language children enrolled i n f i r s t language programs o f i n s t r u c t i o n  Summary o f t h e S t a t e o f the A r t Methodology  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Programs D e s c r i p t i o n of S u b j e c t s Research Design and P r o c e d u r e s . . . . D e s c r i p t i o n o f Measures Employed  Chapter IV. A n a l y s i s of Data 1. 2. 3. 4.  1  Review o f P r e v i o u s R e s e a r c h . . . . .  Chapter I I I . 1. 2. 3. 4.  x xi  Chapter I . 1. 2. 3. 4.  ix  Introduction Summary o f A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e Summary of A n a l y s e s of C o v a r i a n c e Summary o f A n a l y s e s of C o v a r i a n c e  19 32 35 35 36 46 50 57 57 57 61 67  - viPage 5. 6. 7. 8. Chapter V.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Summary Summary Summary Summary  of of of of  M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses Analyses of Covariance the P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s e s Discriptive Statistics  Summary F i n d i n g s , C o n c l u s i o n , L i m i t a t i o n , Implications Introduction Summary o f F i n d i n g s . . Conclusions Limitations Implications  72 76 78 78  82 82 83 90 93 96  R e f e r e n c e Notes  101  References  102  Appendices  •  104  A.  Students' Questionnaire  104  B.  Parents' Questionnaire (French/English)  110  C.  R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Gates-MacGinitie  114  T a b l e d ' E q u i v a l e n c e pour l e s T e s t s de Rendement/ C o n v e r s i o n Table f o r the " T e s t s de Rendement"...  115  P e r c e n t i l e Ranks and Ranges C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S t a n i n e s (used f o r the T e s t s de Rendement)  116  L i s t o f T e s t s Employed  117  D. E. F.  - vii -  L i s t of Tables Table 1  Page D i s t r i b u t i o n of S t u d e n t s by Grade, Sex and L i n g u i s t i c Backgrounds  37  2a  Mean Number o f Y e a r s o f S c h o o l Attendance  42  2b  S t a t i s t i c s Canada Data f o r B.C. and Canada (1981)  43  3  Mean Number and Standard D e v i a t i o n o f the Score on t h e "CCAT"  45  4  D e s c r i p t i o n o f a One-way ANOVA  47  5a  Summary of A n a l y s e s of T e s t s Scores Dependent Summary o f A n a l y s e s o f T e s t s Scores Dependent Summary o f A n a l y s e s of T e s t s Scores Dependent  5b 5c  C o v a r i a n c e of Achievement Variable Gates-MacGinitie C o v a r i a n c e o f Achievement V a r i a b l e T e s t De L e c t u r e C o v a r i a n c e o f Achievement V a r i a b l e T e s t De Rendement  58 59 60  6  Summary o f A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e w i t h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Exposure t o t h e Program" (Grade 4 ) . . .  65  7  Summary o f A n a l y s e s of C o v a r i a n c e w i t h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Exposure t o the Program" (Grade 6)  66  Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s o f "Amount o f Exposure to PCDF"  68  Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s o f "Amount o f Exposure to REP" .,  69  Summary o f A n a l y s e s of C o v a r i a n c e w i t h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Number of Years L i v e d i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " (Grade 4)  70  Summary o f A n a l y s e s of C o v a r i a n c e w i t h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Number of Years L i v e d i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " (Grade 6)  71  Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s o f "Number o f Y e a r s L i v e d i n an Anglophone M i l i e u "  73  Summary of M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s w i t h Four Independent V a r i a b l e s  75  8 9 10  11  12  13  - viii  -  Table 14  15 16  Page Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e Independent V a r i a b l e s : "Dominant-Francophone and M i x e d " . *  77  P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s e s Between French T e s t s S c o r e s and E n g l i s h Test S c o r e s  79  Mean Number o f Scores on t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e s Compared t o Mean Number o f Scores on the Independent Variable  80  - ix L i s t of Figures Figures 1 2  3  Page G r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s of P e r c e n t i l e Ranks on the Gates-MacGinitie  •  62  G r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s o f P e r c e n t i l e Ranks on the Test de L e c t u r e .  63  G r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s o f P e r c e n t i l e Ranks on the T e s t de Rendement  64  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My Roy  s i n c e r e thanks are extended to my s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r Robert  f o r h i s unending p a t i e n c e , h i s a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement. I  am  grateful  to Professor  Marshall  e x p l a n a t i o n o f methodology, and h i s moral  Arlin  f o r h i s clear  support.  I n a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e t o thank P r o f e s s o r Stan Shapson f o r h i s p r e c i o u s a d v i c e on p l a n n i n g and Finally,  testing.  I would a l s o l i k e t o express  B o a r d s , t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and s t u d e n t s  my g r a t i t u d e t o the  for their  cooperation.  School  - xi -  DEDICATION  I would l i k e to d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o my T h e r e s e , my b r o t h e r J a c q u e s , and f r i e n d R o b e r t , who, and  to a s p e c i a l  by t h e i r c o n s t a n t  f a i t h have encouraged me  mother,  assistance  i n r e a l i z i n g my  objectives.  1 CHAPTER I Scope and Focus o f t h e Study  1.  Background of the Problem A body of r e s e a r c h has  suggested  two  different  ways of  achieving  b i l i n g u a l i s m , depending on whether one b e l o n g s to the m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e group  or  to  the  m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e group.  For  the m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e  group, b i l i n g u a l i s m w i l l be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the t e a c h i n g of the second language, w h i l e achieved  f o r the m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e group,  through the t e a c h i n g of  w h i l e d i f f e r e n t , must f u l f i l l accomplish t h e i r  the mother  bilingualism w i l l  tongue.  These  two  be  ways,  the same e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n i n o r d e r to  common g o a l which i s the a t t a i n m e n t of  bilingualism.  The e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n l i e s i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of an " a d d i t i v e " form of bilingualism.  T h i s concept has o r i g i n a t e d w i t h W a l l a c e Lambert ( 1 9 7 5 ) ,  after  reviewed  he  had  Switzerland, children,  Israel,  studies  New  York  conducted and  Montreal i n d i c a t i n g  (p.  65).  who  were "adding" a second  He  observed  that  "creativity"  socially  relevant  contrast, may  this  t h e i r own  researcher pointed  experience a  "subtractive"  policies  and  social  on  bilinguals  language, the l e a r n i n g of  out  form  c h i l d r e n b e l o n g to e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , and national  bilingual  or " d i v e r g e n t thought"  these s t u d i e s were comprised of  w h i c h was not g o i n g t o r e p l a c e i n any way,  children  that  Africa,  r e l a t i v e t o m o n o l i n g u a l c o n t r o l s show a d e f i n i t e advantage  measures of " c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b l i t y , "  In  i n S i n g a p o r e , South  language.  that  other  groups  of b i l i n g u a l i s m .  These  "are f o r c e d , because  p r e s s u r e s of v a r i o u s  sorts,  to put  of  of  aside  2  t h e i r e t h n i c language f o r a n a t i o n a l language" (p. 6 8 ) .  Lambert  ted  (was)  t h a t "the i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l t a s k of the f u t u r e  form  the  p r e s s u r e s on  ethnic  groups  so  that  they can  sugges-  to t r a n s -  profit  from  an  a d d i t i v e form of b i l i n g u a l i s m " (p. 6 8 ) . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t i f m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n do not put  aside  their  experience  an  ethnic  language  "additive"  form  minority-language language  children  f o r the  of  are  develop a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e  bilingualism.  taught  b e i n g made the language  m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e , they  i n their  of i n s t r u c t i o n  towards  In  o t h e r words, i f  mother  his  their will  the a c q u i s i t i o n of the second  lan-  T h i s " a d d i t i v e " form of b i l i n g u a l i s m w i l l levels  tongue,  i n s c h o o l s , they  guage, s i n c e they w i l l not f e e l t h r e a t e n e d i n t h e i r own  high  may  of competence i n b o t h languages.  language.  be e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f Cummins' (1979) e v o l v e d  hypotheses from Lambert's t h e o r y , and proposed " t h a t t h e r e may be ' t h r e s h o l d ' l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c competence w h i c h a b i l i n g u a l c h i l d must a t t a i n both . to a v o i d c o g n i t i v e d i s a d v a n t a g e s and a l l o w the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of becoming b i l i n g u a l t o i n f l u e n c e h i s c o g n i t i v e growth" ( p . 4 2 ) . S t u d i e s conducted on m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n (Lambert & T u c k e r ,  1972;  Gray,  1981;  grams  have  shown  bilingualism  Shapson & Day that  i n both  these their  1982)  e n r o l l e d i n second-language  s t u d e n t s have  mother  tongue,  attained and  the  high second  pro-  levels  of  language.  T h e r e f o r e , they have reached t h i s h i g h e r t h r e s h o l d of competence.  These  s t u d i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n the second c h a p t e r . Cummins  further,  suggested  l o w e r one and a h i g h e r one.  that  t h e r e may  be  two  thresholds,  a  W h i l e the a t t a i n m e n t of the lower t h r e s h o l d  3  may  not c o n t r i b u t e  t o any n e g a t i v e c o g n i t i v e  p r o v i d e any impulse towards a c o g n i t i v e whose development benefit  fully  effect,  growth.  i t may  neither  As a r e s u l t  a  child  i n b o t h languages I s e q u a l l y poor, i s not equipped t o  of h i s e d u c a t i o n a l  environment  t h r o u g h both  languages.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s more d e s c r i p t i v e o f m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n who a r e enrolled  I n second-language  conducted Finnish have  by  programs  Skuthabb-Kangas  students enrolled  developed  a  and  Toukomaa  i n Swedish  "semilingualism"  as e a r l y  as grade (1976a)  comprehensive described  one.  have  Studies  found  that  s c h o o l s i n Sweden,  as knowing  neither  the  mother tongue, nor the m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e p r o p e r l y . Cummins'  (1978)  mother  tongue  second  language.  second  h y p o t h e s i s emphasizes  as a p r e r e q u i s i t e This  the mastery  f o r the s u c c e s s f u l  of the  acquisition  " d e v e l o p m e n t a l " h y p o t h e s i s proposes  of a  t h a t "the  l e v e l o f L2 competence which a b i l i n g u a l c h i l d a t t a i n s i s a f u n c t i o n o f the  level  o f the c h i l d ' s  L I competence  a t t h e time  when  Intensive  exposure t o L2 b e g i n s " ( p . 4 0 5 ) . Cummins commented t h a t when L I i s a d e q u a t e l y developed and r e i n f o r c e d by the c h i l d ' s environment o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l as i n t h e case of most m i d d l e c l a s s Anglophone children i n N o r t h American 'immersion' programs, i n t e n s i v e exposure t o L2 i s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n h i g h l e v e l s of L2 competence a t no c o s t o f L I competence ( p . 4 0 5 ) . In  c o n t r a s t , Cummins e x p l a i n e d  that  when L I i s p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d , as i n t h e case of many l o w e r c l a s s or d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n , i n t e n s i v e exposure t o L2 can impede the c o n t i n u e d development o f L I s k i l l s . In t u r n , the f a c t t h a t L I s k i l l s remain p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d , w i l l e x e r t a l i m i t i n g e f f e c t on the development of L2 ( p . 4 0 5 ) .  4  Following regard  Cummins'  r e a s o n i n g , a q u e s t i o n s p r i n g s t o mind.  to minority-language  schools,  and supported  children,  by the home environment,  assume t h a t these c h i l d r e n w i l l competence? undertaken  I f they  succeed,  these  and  being  well  students  step o u t l i n e d  equipped  taught i n  i s i t reasonable to  eventually attain  s u c c e s s f u l l y the f i r s t  hypothesis,  i f L I Is adequately  With  a high  may  level  be seen  of L2  as h a v i n g  i n the "developmental"  t o engage  i n the second  step  described i n the " t h r e s h o l d h y p o t h e s i s . " Landry that  (1980) r e f e r r i n g  bilingualism  "subtractive"  t o Cummins' hypotheses  f o r minority-language  (1979),  children  might  indicates not  imply  bilingualism  b u t , i f n o t p r o p e r l y taught i n t h e i r mother  tongue, c h i l d r e n a r e l i k e l y  t o develop " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m . " Therefore, h i s  observation  "additive"  implies  that  bilingualism  attainment of high " l e v e l s "  of l i n g u i s t i c  tion  stage,  o f the developmental  may  reflected  i n the  competence, upon t h e comple-  be  a possible  expectation f o r  minority-language c h i l d r e n . Is  there  taught  any e v i d e n c e  i n their  mother  confirming that minority-language  tongue  achieve  well  i n both  children  languages?  In  Canada, Hebert e t a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Carey and Cummins ( 1 9 7 8 ) , Ewanyshyn (1980) have found their  t h a t when these c h i l d r e n  L I , they  language  achieve  well  of the environment  receive Instruction  i n L I , and a l s o  i n schools, i n  i n L 2 , s i n c e L2 i s the  o u t s i d e o f the c l a s s r o o m .  w i l l be p a i d more a t t e n t i o n i n t h e second  These s t u d i e s  chapter.  Another p o i n t worth I n v e s t i g a t i n g f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n i s their  ability  to transfer  reading s k i l l s  from L I t o L 2 .  Lambert and  5  Tucker  ( 1 9 7 2 ) , when c o n d u c t i n g t h e i r study on French Immersion c h i l d r e n ,  were i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g out whether c h i l d r e n i n F r e n c h Immersion would be a b l e to t r a n s f e r and r e l a t e n o t i o n s developed t h r o u g h F r e n c h i n t o a l r e a d y known E n g l i s h c o n c e p t s , t o note and make use of c o n t r a s t s , and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the s t r u c t u r e s o f French and E n g l i s h , and t o g e n e r a l i z e the r e a d i n g s k i l l s they have e s t a b l i s h e d i n F r e n c h to E n g l i s h (p. 3 5 ) . The  r e s u l t s of the study have c o n f i r m e d t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . C h i l d r e n I n  t h i s program showed t h a t they have developed t e c h n i q u e s on t h e i r own f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g reading s k i l l s Lambert  and  Tucker  from F r e n c h (L2) t o E n g l i s h ( L I ) .  (1972) were concerned  s t u d e n t s , and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r s k i l l s their  own  language.  minority-language  One  wonders  children,  i f this  o r put  about  majority-language  from a weaker language transfer  takes  more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  place  i f the  taught i n t h e i r mother tongue d e v e l o p t e c h n i q u e s on t h e i r own ferring  reading  aforementioned,  skills conducted  from  French  ( L I ) to  English  e v e n t , an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l may  for  children  for trans-  (L2).  Research  have  indicated  on m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n  t h a t these c h i l d r e n are s u c c e s s f u l i n l e a r n i n g two  to  languages.  In t h i s  be drawn between these two groups, i n  r e l a t i o n w i t h t h i s p r o c e s s c a l l e d " t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s . " I t may  be suggested t h a t the two groups  the same l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y , u s i n g two language  children,  the  process  e x p e r i e n c e the p r o c e s s , a t  d i f f e r e n t ways.  takes  place  through  For m a j o r i t y their  weaker  language, w h i l e f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n , the p r o c e s s takes p l a c e through t h e i r dominant language. 1976a; B r a t t - P a u l s t o n , 1975)  Research  has i n d i c a t e d  (Skutnabb-Kangas  & Toukomaa,  t h a t t h i s t r a n s f e r of  skills  6  does not  o p e r a t e when m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n a r e taught i n  weaker language.  What does account f o r t h i s  R e s e a r c h e r s such as V o r i h and R o s i e r  their  difference?  (1978) and S a v i l l e and  Troike  ( r e p o r t e d i n P.E. E n g l e 1975) have n o t i c e d t h a t m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d ren  who  a r e taught i n t h e i r  mother  tongue,  develop a p r i d e  language, s e l f a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and eagerness to l e a r n a second t h e r e b y , " a d d i n g " a new it.  in  their  language,  language i n s t e a d of " r e j e c t i n g " o r " s u b t r a c t i n g "  T h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the second language may  t i o n s f o r the development  l a y founda-  of a t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s .  D i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s such as " a d d i t i v e " b i l i n g u a l i s m , " t h r e s h o l d " " d e v e l o p m e n t a l " h y p o t h e s e s , " t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s " have been e x p l a i n e d far,  but w i l l  The  "Statement  take a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n when s i t u a t e d i n a r e a l o f the Problem" below w i l l  context.  defined.  Statement o f the P r o b l e m As mentioned  p r e v i o u s l y , two forms of b i l i n g u a l i s m may  " a d d i t i v e " form o r a " s u b t r a c t i v e " form. to  so  s o r t out the f e a t u r e s of the  s t u d y , and w i l l r e l a t e them t o the c o n c e p t s a l r e a d y  2.  and  lead  to a h i g h  threshold  " a d d i t i v e " form i s deemed  of b i l i n g u a l i s m , and  t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s a c r o s s languages.  also  to s t i m u l a t e  a  The " s u b t r a c t i v e " form I s b e l i e v e d  t o l i m i t one person to a low t h r e s h o l d produce " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m . "  The  d e v e l o p , an  of l i n g u i s t i c competence,  and to  While the " a d d i t i v e " form, and i t s c o r o l l a r y  have been assumed t o be the p r i v i l e g e of the m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n , the  " s u b t r a c t i v e " form, and i t s pendant  of  "minority-language c h i l d r e n "  Toukooma & Lasonen,  1979).  were a s s o c i a t e d  (Skutnabb-Kangas  &  w i t h the Toukomaa,  status 1976a;  7  However, a new trend emerged from recent studies (Vorih & Rosier, 1978;  Carey  & Cummins  language children. "additive" language  form  1978; Ewanyshyn  1980) conducted  on minority-  These studies have suggested that the benefits of an  of bilingualism were not only  reserved  f o r majority-  children, but that, under special conditions, these advantages  could be also the l o t of the minority-language children.  These special  conditions according to these researchers may be contained i n one major r e a l i z a t i o n which i s the teaching of the mother tongue. From  this  perspective, i t may  be  reasonable  to assume  that  a  program of i n s t r u c t i o n which offers the teaching of the mother tongue to minority-language skills.  children  will  promote  a high  level  of  linguistic  In the event that this program also hosts a majority-language  population, the same results w i l l be then expected, since these students w i l l be attending a program of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a second language  follow-  ing a deliberate choice. Building on this reasoning, i t may be hypothesized that both groups w i l l evidence a transfer of s k i l l s across their languages. of  The language  instruction being French, English-speaking children w i l l therefore,  transfer l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s from their L2 (French) to their LI (English), while  French-speaking  children  will  transfer  t h e i r LI (French) to their L2 (English). processes language  lies  i n the status each  students, their language  linguistic  skills  from  The difference between the two  language  enjoys.  i s widely used  For majority-  outside of the c l a s s -  room and consequently does not need to be reinforced i n a school s i t u a t i o n , while for minority-language students, their language  i s not given  8  the  same c o n s i d e r a t i o n  I n t h e m i l i e u a t l a r g e , and, t h e r e f o r e , needs t o  be r e h a b i l i t a t e d i n an academic  milieu.  When t h i s  condition  i z e d , then m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e i r mother and  majority-language children  instructed  i n their  second  i s realtongue, language  s h o u l d b e n e f i t f u l l y from t h e same l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . In  British  Francais" for  program  called  t h e "Programme-Cadre-de-  previously, experience  Since  language  i s English.  t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be p l a c e d  From  the arguments  i n a favorable  i n B.C., debated  s i t u a t i o n to  a form o f " a d d i t i v e " b i l i n g u a l i s m , t o t r a n s f e r s k i l l s  to English,  linguistic  The program was d e s i g n e d  f a m i l i e s which r e p r e s e n t a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y  t h e dominant  French  a  o f f e r s i n s t r u c t i o n mainly i n French.  Francophone  since  Columbia,  and as a  result  to a t t a i n  a  high  threshold  from of  competence. t h e program  has a c c e p t e d Anglophone  children,  f o r reasons  t h a t a r e e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter 3, t h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o "add" a socially  relevant  language t o t h e i r own, and t o b e n e f i t  advantages a s s o c i a t e d The  also  from t h e  to this p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .  "Programme-Cadre-de-Francais"  should,  on  the b a s i s  of the  s t u d i e s a l r e a d y mentioned, promote a h i g h l e v e l o f l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s f o r b o t h m i n o r i t y and m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e groups. This  level  performance. different  home  of l i n g u i s t i c Because  French  language  skill  may be expected i n t h e i r  and E n g l i s h  backgrounds,  children  differences  academic  i n t h e PCDF may  occur  have  i n the  r e l a t i v e performance o f these two groups on t e s t s o f E n g l i s h s k i l l s and tests  of F r e n c h s k i l l s .  In this  s t u d y , s e p a r a t e hypotheses w i l l  f o r m u l a t e d c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d r e n i n each group.  be  9  The q u e s t i o n s at  stake  formulated  i n t h e PCDF  below w i l l h e l p t o c i r c u m s c r i b e  study.  A  major  question  will  the i s s u e s  be  addressed,  whose l i n g u i s t i c  background  i n s t r u c t e d i n French  throughout  f o l l o w e d by s u b s i d i a r y ones.  Main Question I n an Anglophone m i l i e u , w i l l is  French-oriented,  and who  a child  i s mainly  his  Elementary s c h o o l , perform as w e l l on E n g l i s h R e a d i n g Comprehension  and  E n g l i s h V o c a b u l a r y t e s t s as a c h i l d  whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d and who i s m a i n l y I n s t r u c t e d i n E n g l i s h ?  S u b s i d i a r y Ones Will who  a c h i l d whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s E n g l i s h o r i e n t e d , and  i s mainly  perform  i n s t r u c t e d i n French  as w e l l  as a c h i l d  who  throughout  comes  from  h i s Elementary  the same  school,  linguistic  back-  ground, but i s o n l y i n s t r u c t e d i n E n g l i s h on E n g l i s h R e a d i n g Comprehens i o n and E n g l i s h V o c a b u l a r y t e s t s ? Will  two c h i l d r e n , whose  French-oriented,  linguistic  and f o r the o t h e r  background  f o r one  more E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d ,  i s more  and who a r e  m a i n l y i n s t r u c t e d i n F r e n c h throughout Elementary s c h o o l , p e r f o r m at the same  level  on  English  Reading  Comprehension  and  English  Vocabulary  tests? Will who  a child  i s mainly  linguistic  whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d , and  i n s t r u c t e d i n French  background  perform  i s French-oriented,  as w e l l and who  as a  child  receives  whose  the same  10  program of i n s t r u c t i o n , on French V o c a b u l a r y and F r e n c h Reading Comprehension? On a measure of F r e n c h , w i l l a c h i l d whose l i n g u i s t i c background F r e n c h , and  who  i s a t t e n d i n g a PCDF program throughout  s c h o o l perform  differently  E n g l i s h but who  i s a t t e n d i n g a French Immersion Program?  a  significant  difference  from a c h i l d  his  between  whose l i n g u i s t i c  these  two  measure of F r e n c h as a r e s u l t of exposure  groups  is  Elementary  background  is  W i l l t h e r e be  a t grade  s i x on  a  to program?  W i l l a c h i l d whose mother tongue i s E n g l i s h , and who  i s attending a  PCDF program throughout h i s Elementary s c h o o l y e a r s , p e r f o r m h i g h e r on a F r e n c h t e s t than a c h i l d from the same l i n g u i s t i c background  but who i s  a t t e n d i n g F r e n c h Immersion Program?  W i l l t h e r e be a d i f f e r e n c e between  these  a  two  groups  at  grade  s i x on  French  measure  as  a  result  of  exposure to program? Will  children  enrolled  d i f f e r e n t l y a t grade  i n the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais  s i x than c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d  perform  i n the R e g u l a r  English  Program on E n g l i s h Reading Comprehension and E n g l i s h V o c a b u l a r y t e s t s as a r e s u l t of exposure  3.  to program?  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Programme-Cadre-de  Francophone guardian, French  students  where  i s used  one as  Francais:  ( t h e son  or daughter  or  spouses  both  the e x c l u s i v e  E n g l i s h Language A r t s , which i n s t r u c t i o n a l time.  (PCDF)  or  language  i n terms  is a of a  program  francophone  guardians of  designed  are  instruction,  of percentage  parent  for or  Francophone). i n a l l but  r e p r e s e n t s 80%  of  11  Early  French  English-speaking guage.  Immersion;  children  (EIP) This  who  wish  F o r t h i s s t u d y , E I P group  manual.  The  norming  Lecture"  manual  group  (Barik  &  program  to learn  i s designed f o r  French  as a  second  lan-  r e p r e s e n t s a s e t o f norms i n a t e s t  i s defined Swain):  as  follows  i n the "Test  "Predominantly  de  English-speaking  s t u d e n t s m o s t l y from O n t a r i o , Quebec, New-Brunswick, and M a n i t o b a "  (p. 2  i n Test M a n u a l ) . R e g u l a r E n g l i s h Program; of  norms I n a t e s t manual.  the  "Gates  MacGinitie"  (REP) F o r t h i s s t u d y , REP group The norming  manual:  English-speaking  students l i v i n g  different  o r non-urban  urban  "A  group  i s d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s i n  proportional  i n different  settings,  and  i s a set  representation of  p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y , i n from  different  types  of  s c h o o l s " ( p . 35, i n t h e T e s t M a n u a l ) . Semilinguallsm:  Occurs  acquisition  score  their  language, when a s s e s s e d  first  lower  when s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d  on w r i t t e n  measures, i n their  i n second  than  language  native-speakers of  mother tongue.  Further,  they s c o r e lower than n a t i v e - s p e a k e r s o f a second language when a s s e s s e d i n t h i s language, a f t e r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s such as n o n - v e r b a l measures of  intelligence  and  socioeconomic  status  have  been  statistically  controlled. Balanced  bilingual:  when "he i s e q u a l l y ( P e a l & Lambert  skilled  i s said  i n oral  t o be a b a l a n c e d  and w r i t t e n  French  bilingual  and E n g l i s h "  1962).  Developmental language  A child  hypothesis:  i s a function  "The development o f s k i l l s  of s k i l l s  guage" (Cummins 1977-1978).  a l r e a d y developed  in a  i n the f i r s t  second lan-  12  Threshold hypothesis:  l e v e l o f second  lan-  guage competence which p u p i l s must a t t a i n , b o t h i n o r d e r t o a v o i d  dis-  advantages  and a l l o w  "There i s a t h r e s h o l d  the p o t e n t i a l l y  beneficial  aspects of  b i l i n g u a l t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g " (Cummins French-Oriented  student:  The son o r daughter  of a  becoming  1977-1978). Francophone  p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n , where one o r b o t h spouses o r g u a r d i a n s a r e F r a n c o phone, and whose answers on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix B) i n t h e i t e m relative  t o t h e f r e q u e n c y of the use of F r e n c h a t home were " a l w a y s " ,  and " h a l f F r e n c h , h a l f E n g l i s h " . English-oriented both  student:  A child  who comes from a f a m i l y  p a r e n t s / g u a r d i a n s a r e Anglophone.  French  or  English  questionnaires  that  who  answered  on  F r e n c h was spoken  Furthermore, parents the Parents  where  whether  Home  Background  a t home "sometimes"  o r "never"  were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Home Language Use:  The language spoken most o f t h e time a t home.  I n terms o f p e r c e n t a g e , i t means more than 50%.  4.  LI:  f i r s t language o r mother  L2:  second language.  tongue.  Hypotheses Before  stating  each h y p o t h e s i s , i t may be h e l p f u l  to provide the  r e a d e r w i t h some i n f o r m a t i o n on what a r e the independent and the dependent v a r i a b l e s .  I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e independent v a r i a b l e s a r e l i n g u i s t i c  background, i n o t h e r words the home language u s e — a c a t e g o r i c a l  variable  w i t h two " l e v e l s " — E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d and F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d - and grade - a  13  second c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e w i t h  two l e v e l s , f o u r  and s i x .  dent v a r i a b l e s a r e s c o r e s on French and E n g l i s h t e s t s . used  a r e the T e s t de L e c t u r e and  The  depen-  The F r e n c h t e s t s  the T e s t de Rendement.  The  English  t e s t used i s the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t . The  first  hypothesis relates  to the major  question  and  reads  as  follows: 1.  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on a measure o f E n g l i s h  achievement.  The  French-oriented  subgroup  in  Programme-Cadre-de-  F r a n c a i s (PCDF) w i l l a c h i e v e as w e l l as a norm group of E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i n the R e g u l a r E n g l i s h Program (REP). The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses r e l a t e t o the s u b s i d i a r y 2.  questions:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on a measure of E n g l i s h  achievement  between  the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d  subgroup  d e - F r a n c a i s (PCDF) and a norm group of E n g l i s h  i n Programme-Cadre-  s t u d e n t s i n the R e g u l a r  E n g l i s h Program (REP). 3.  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on a measure of E n g l i s h  achievement  between  Cadre-de-Francais  the  (PCDF)  Programme-Cadre-de-Francais 4. group  On  French-oriented and  the  English-oriented  in  the  Programme-  subgroup  in  the  (PCDF).  a measure of French achievement,  i n the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais  antly higher  subgroup  than the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d  the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  (PCDF) w i l l subgroup  in  sub-  achieve s i g n i f i c theProgramme-Cadre-  d e - F r a n c a i s (PCDF), c o n t r o l l i n g f o r a b i l i t y . 5.  On  a measure of French achievement,  group i n the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais  the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  sub-  (PCDF) w i l l a c h i e v e h i g h e r than  a norm group of E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i n the F r e n c h Immersion Program  (EIP).  14  6.  There w i l l  achievement. Francais  The  be a s i g n i f i c a n t  English-oriented  (PCDF) w i l l  d i f f e r e n c e on a measure o f F r e n c h  subgroup  achieve higher  than  s t u d e n t s i n the F r e n c h Immersion Program 7. to  the  There w i l l  be a s i g n i f i c a n t  Programme-Cadre-de-Francais  achievement.  Both  subgroups,  on  the Programme-Cadre-de-  a norm  group  of  English  (EIP).  d i f f e r e n c e as a r e s u l t o f exposure (PCDF)  on  a  French-oriented  measure and  of  French  English-oriented  s t u d e n t s , i n t h i s program, a t grade s i x , w i l l a c h i e v e h i g h e r t h a n a norm group of E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i n the F r e n c h Immersion Program 8. to  the  (EIP).  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e as a r e s u l t of exposure Programme-Cadre-de-Francais  achievement.  Both  subgroups,  (PCDF)  on  French-oriented  a  measure and  of  English  English-oriented  s t u d e n t s , i n t h i s program, a t grade s i x , w i l l do as w e l l as a norm group of E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i n the R e g u l a r E n g l i s h Program ( R E P ) . F u r t h e r comparisons w i l l the  be a t t e m p t e d , but s i n c e  same importance as the i s s u e s r a i s e d  t r e a t e d i n Chapter 3.  in this  they do not bear  c h a p t e r , they w i l l  be  15  CHAPTER I I Review o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e  1.  Review o f P r e v i o u s This  review w i l l  Research r e p o r t s t u d i e s conducted  s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n second  among  majority-language  language a c q u i s i t i o n , and m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e  s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l s where t h e i r mother tongue i s made t h e l a n guage o f i n s t r u c t i o n . to  be r e p o r t e d and w i l l  M a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n second  language programs  instruction: Lambert & Tucker  (1972) have r e p o r t e d on t h e b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n o f  children  i n S t . Lambert,  children  were  Introduced  Quebec. to French  In this  program, E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  i n k i n d e r g a r t e n o r grade  r e c e i v e d 90% o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n i n these grades  i n French.  two on, about 60% o f the s c h o o l program was conducted in  be r e l a t e d  t h e e f f e c t s o f an " a d d i t i v e " o r " s u b t r a c t i v e " form o f b i l i n g u a l i s m . a)  of  The r e s u l t s w i l l  one and  From grade  i n F r e n c h , and 40%  English. A f t e r a f i v e - y e a r assessment p e r i o d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s were s a t i s f i e d  that the E x p e r i m e n t a l program has r e s u l t e d i n no n a t i v e language o r s u b j e c t matter ( i . e . , a r i t h m e t i c ) d e f i c i t o r r e t a r d a t i o n o f any s o r t , nor i s t h e r e any c o g n i t i v e r e t a r d a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. I n F r e n c h , t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l group has a c q u i r e d a thorough mastery o f the b a s i c elements o f F r e n c h phonology, morphology, and s y n t a x , and can speak and communicate i n French w i t h o u t the i n h i b i t i o n o r h e s i t a t i o n t h a t so o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t y p i c a l s t u d e n t o f a f o r e i g n or second language ( p . 152).  16  The r e s e a r c h e r s , i n an attempt to e x p l a i n these i m p r e s s i v e r e s u l t s , suggested  that  guages" was to  a  process  called  "the  transfer  i n o p e r a t i o n f o r immersion"  of  children.  t h i s p r o c e s s as b e i n g of h i g h e r - o r d e r s k i l l s  ting,  which  (although)  developed  skills The  across  authors referred  of. r e a d i n g and  exclusively  lan-  through  the  calcula-  medium  of  F r e n c h , seemed to be e q u a l l y w e l l and almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y developed i n English."  (p.208)  Another  longitudinal  B r u n s w i c k (1981). in  the  T h i s study was  the time a l l o t t e d  tion.  has  been  conducted  by  Gray  s e l e c t e d because of a major  to the use of F r e n c h as  the language  in  New  difference of  Instruc-  Anglophone s t u d e n t s i n t h i s Immersion Program used F r e n c h 100% of time  from  grades  program e x c e p t i o n a l . of  study  grade  scores  one  through  Fredericton,  practice  which  Gray e v a l u a t e d the F r e n c h and E n g l i s h  s i x students e n r o l l e d were  four a  compared  bilingual  to  i n the  those  of  French-speaking  makes  achievement  Immersion Program. unilingual children,  this  Students'  English-speaking i n i n Fredericton,  and  u n i l i n g u a l F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n , i n Edmunston. The r e s e a r c h e r found t h a t the performance in  of the immersion  E n g l i s h , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of s p e l l i n g , was  t h e i r peers who with native performed  had been educated  French-speaking  at about  the f i f t h  in English.  children, grade  to t h a t of  I n F r e n c h , i n comparison  the grade  level  comparable  children  s i x immersion  In French  children  Language A r t s  s l i g h t l y lower than the t h i r d of f i f t h grade l e v e l s i n F r e n c h  and  linguistic  skills. These  results  l e d the  q u i c k l y achieved p a r i t y  author  to observe  i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g and  that  the  writing  students  skills  very  w i t h the  17  s t u d e n t s i n the E n g l i s h - o n l y program even though they had been taught t o read and w r i t e e x c l u s i v e l y  i n F r e n c h from grade one on, but were  b e h i n d t h e i r peers from Francophone difference resided  families.  Gray  still  suggested t h a t the  i n the s t u d e n t s ' competence i n the language  itself.  On E n g l i s h t e s t s , these immersion s t u d e n t s were r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n a language t h a t they knew v e r y w e l l ; on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e i r F r e n c h l a n guage  oral  skills  were weaker  than  their  academic  t e s t s i n F r e n c h they were r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g yet  skills  and on the  i n a language they had not  mastered. T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s of i n t e r e s t f o r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y s i n c e the two  groups  involved  competence. the  writing  be  areas  of  linguistic  The F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d group may be e x p e c t e d t o have mastered  language.  when t e s t e d  will  of d i f f e r e n t  F r e n c h language and the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group t o have mastered the  English  the  are representative  Pursuing t h i s  reasoning,  i n French, the French-oriented  one might group w i l l  speculate  that  be r e a d i n g and  i n a language they have m a s t e r e d , and, on t h e o t h e r hand, when  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group w i l l  be r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g  i n E n g l i s h , they  be f u n c t i o n i n g i n a language they have m a s t e r e d .  F u r t h e r , i t may  hypothesized that  English  and lower  the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d  i n F r e n c h than  group  will  the French-oriented  score higher i n group  and v i c e  versa. However, the above s i t u a t i o n i s more c o m p l i c a t e d , because i t i s not proven c e r t a i n  t h a t a l a r g e number o f Francophone  k e p t t h e i r language a l i v e the  dominant-language.  and have r e s i s t e d  families  i n B.C. have  the p r e s s u r e to s w i t c h t o  W i t h r e g a r d t o the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group, t h i s  18  difference  i n the  home  language  c o n t r a r y , t h e r e i s no need any  context,  complete  this  as  f o r the l a t t e r  the language  brief  r e s e a r c h study w i l l  pattern  overview  of  the  of  French  be p r e s e n t e d .  i s not group  large  noticeable.  community  Immersion  i s theirs.  studies,  one  (1982)  who  Experimental s t u d e n t s , who  group,  and  To more  T h i s r e s e a r c h has an added a s p e c t of Shapson  French  the  to s w i t c h languages i n  i n t e r e s t as i t was conducted here i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . surveyed  On  Immersion compared  students them  in  B.C.,  to U n i l i n g u a l  and  formed  Day the  English-speaking  composed the c o n t r o l group.  They found t h a t F r e n c h Immersion s t u d e n t s were e q u i v a l e n t to t h e i r peers i n the R e g u l a r E n g l i s h program i n mathematics, and d e s p i t e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n i t i a l l a g s I n E n g l i s h language s k i l l s i n grades one and two, they a t t a i n e d e q u i v a l e n c e w i t h t h e i r peers i n t h e s e s k i l l s soon a f t e r E n g l i s h language a r t s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m i n grade t h r e e (p. 13). Although  no  direct  comparison  was  attempted  with  unilingual  s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s , the use of the T e s t de Rendement de F r a n c a i s  Frenchstand-  a r d i z e d on F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s i n M o n t r e a l , enabled the r e s e a r c h e r s to  get an i d e a of the performance of the E x p e r i m e n t a l group i n F r e n c h .  They observed that t h e i r l e v e l of achievement i n F r e n c h language a r t s i n grade f o u r ( 2 4 t h - 39th p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t range, s t a n i n e 4) appeared to  be  similar  to those r e p o r t e d  f o r some of the Immersion Programs  in  more b i l i n g u a l r e g i o n s of Canada. However, the r e s e a r c h e r s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n s about the d e c l i n e observed i n French achievement s c o r e s a f t e r grade t h r e e , when the amount of  exposure to French was  reduced by 25% i n grade t h r e e , and by 50% i n  19  grades f o u r to s i x .  They suggested  curriculum, instruction, be  t h a t some measures w i t h r e g a r d  reinforcement  o u t s i d e of  the  classroom  to  should  researched. These r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the  s t u d i e s , and  are expected  to be c o n f i r m e d  t r e n d observed  i n previous  i n the p r e s e n t  study f o r the  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup.  However, the c o n t e x t i s d i f f e r e n t , s i n c e the  English-oriented  in  could  subgroup  b e n e f i t from  therefore,  should  students.  In  the  the  presence  score  higher  the  Programme-Cadre-de-Francais  of  the  French-oriented  i n French,  e v e n t u a l i t y that  they  than score  the at  subgroup,  French  the  (PCDF), and  Immersion  same l e v e l  or  l o w e r , the e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d l i e i n e i t h e r the academic or the e n v i r o n mental h i s t o r y of the s u b j e c t s . b)  M i n o r i t y - language c h i l d r e n  enrolled  in first  language  pro-  grams of i n s t r u c t i o n : Skutnabb  -  Kangas  and  Toukomaa  (1976b) were  interested  l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l and development I n both t h e i r mother tongue and of F i n n i s h migrant  However, o n l y grades one  t h e i r r e l e v a n c e to the p r e s e n t In  two  resentative  different of  two  687  enrolled  up to s i x w i l l  the  Swedish  c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g Swedish comprehensive s c h o o l .  t o t a l number of s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d was nine.  in  i n grades one  up  The to  be c o n s i d e r e d because of  study.  towns, Olofstrb'ra and educational  practices  Gothenburg, were  programs  Investigated.  repIn  Gothenburg, s t u d e n t s were g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r mother tongue f o r a total  of  migrant  two  hours a week, w h i l e  i n s t r u c t i o n was  i n Olofstrom,  on t e a c h i n g Swedish.  the  main  emphasis  in  20  F i n n i s h migrant p u p i l s i n grades one t o s i x were t e s t e d l a r y , synonyms word groups f o r the v e r b a l and  audition  Finnish  version.  Olofstrom using  f o r the n o n - v e r b a l t e s t s . The F i n n i s h m i g r a n t  were a l s o  tested  with  Swedish i n s t r u c t i o n s .  were  tested  with  a battery  i n vocabu-  t e s t s and on p e r c e p t u a l  Those t e s t s were chosen from a pupils  i n grades  Swedish t e s t s  one t o s i x i n  standardized  i n Sweden,  I n Gothenburg, some o f the F i n n i s h aimed  speed  a t measuring  pupils  the Swedish s k i l l s  of  migrant p u p i l s . A c c o r d i n g t o the t e s t r e s u l t s , s k i l l s b o t h O l o f s t r o m and Gothenburg. be  much b e t t e r  verbal the  i n F i n n i s h were q u i t e poor i n  Gothenburg, s t u d e n t s however, proved t o  on synonyms t e s t s and on word group t e s t s  reasoning.  representing  I n the t e s t s which measured Swedish-language  skills,  r e s u l t s were j u s t as poor as i n t h e F i n n i s h - l a n g u a g e t e s t i n b o t h  schools. The  a u t h o r s concluded t h a t i n  verbal development—especially i n understanding verbal r e l a t i o n s , r e t e n t i o n o f concepts and u n d e r s t a n d i n g — t h e migrant c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d c l a s s e s i n t h e f o r e i g n language i n the lower and upper l e v e l o f comprehensive s c h o o l a r e on average on the same l e v e l as the 10% o f weakest p u p i l s among normal material. T h i s v e r b a l r e t a r d a t i o n o c c u r s i n b o t h the f o r e i g n language and the mother tongue ( p . 7 8 ) . On these p r e m i s e s , the a u t h o r s suggested lingualisra  experienced  by the s t u d e n t s  under  that  the t h r e a t  o f semi-  investigation,  "can be  a v e r t e d by g i v i n g migrant c h i l d r e n a t p r e - s c h o o l age and c h i l d r e n i n the lower  level  o f comprehensive  school  tongue" ( p . 8 0 ) . They added t h a t be  g i v e n i n the mother  intensive  "the s c h o o l  teaching  i n the mother  i n s t r u c t i o n proper s h o u l d  tongue and i n s t r u c t i o n i n w r i t i n g  the f o r e i g n  21  language s h o u l d be  postponed to the  a b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g I n the the  age  t r u e b i l i n g u a l i s m would be most l i k e l y "  same v e i n , Toukomaa and  literacy  of  of n i n e to t e n , when the  Finnish  immigrant  80).  Lasonen (1979) conducted a study pupils  d i f f e r e n t models of e d u c a t i o n d e s c r i b e d 1) The i n s t r u c t i o n of Swedish, i n Swedish p u p i l s , per week i n the  (p.  prob-  i n Sweden e n r o l l e d  in  on  three  below:  can p r i m a r i l y be g i v e n t h r o u g h the medium a Swedish-speaking c l a s s , together with and u s u a l l y w i t h two hours i n s t r u c t i o n mother tongue as a s u b j e c t .  2) The i n s t r u c t i o n can a l s o take p l a c e i n c l a s s e s w i t h 2 teachers, w i t h b o t h Swedish p u p i l s ( w i t h a Swedish t e a c h e r ) and immigrant p u p i l s from one n a t i o n a l i t y o n l y ( w i t h a t e a c h e r from t h a t n a t i o n a l i t y ) . The p u p i l s i n t h e s e compound c l a s s e s are taught s e p a r a t e l y , each group i n i t s mother tongue, f o r a p a r t of t i m e . The p r o p o r tion of Swedish-medium I n s t r u c t i o n increases quite r a p i d l y , u n t i l a l l i n s t r u c t i o n takes p l a c e t h r o u g h the medium of Swedish. 3) The i n s t r u c t i o n can a l s o p r i m a r i l y be g i v e n i n n a t i v e tongue of the p u p i l s , w i t h Swedish as language (p. 1 ) . The grades  population three  subjects  the  s i x of  study was  the  above.  of c h o o s i n g among the The  main emphasis of  ( F i n n i s h ) , but  the  between l i t e r a c y  of some background and "Reading means of  a  ability  reading  Finnish  immigrant  test  All  the  the  op-  These s t u d e n t s had  t h i s study was tested  also  on  reading  They f u r t h e r I n v e s t i g a t e d  developed  the  by  tongue, F i n n i s h , Vahapassi  mother subjects  "the r e l a t i o n -  i n Swedish as w e l l as the  mother  described  i n the  a number of  t a l e n t f a c t o r s on l i t e r a c y " (p. the  in  t h r e e programs of i n s t r u c t i o n  i n F i n n i s h and  in  pupils  Comprehensive S c h o o l .  families.  author  w i t h r e a d i n g t e s t s i n Swedish. ship  the  Norrkoping  were from w o r k i n g c l a s s  portunity  tongue  to  of  the a second  effects  9). was  (1977).  measured The  test  by is  22  intended  f o r the t h i r d  comprehensive  school"  grade p u p i l s  (10 y e a r s o f age)  ( p . 11). The  norms of the t h i r d  of the grade  Finnish children  l i v i n g i n F i n l a n d were a l s o used f o r the f o u r t h to s i x t h grade immigrant children. oped  "Reading the Swedish language was  by B r u n e l l  (1975)  F i n n i s h comprehensive (p.  for fourth  s c h o o l who  measured by a t e s t  devel-  t o s i x t h grade p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g  speak Swedish as t h e i r  mother  the  tongue"  ID. The  authors  Swedish-medium  found  classes  that  "among  the backwardness  F i n n i s h language r e a d i n g , and one this  study,  teaching  the  Finnish  was  pupils  attending  more than t h r e e  years i n  to two y e a r s i n r e a d i n g Swedish.  i n the mother  tongue  (Finnish-medium  In  classes),  proved t o be p r e f e r a b l e to compound t e a c h i n g from the p o i n t of view of r e a d i n g , a t l e a s t up t o the t h i r d g r a d e .  F o r o l d e r g r o u p s , no  results  e x i s t as f a r as t h i s m a t t e r i n c o n c e r n e d , s i n c e Finnish-medium  classes,  a t the time of the study o n l y e x i s t e d i n grades one t o t h r e e .  Teaching  i n compound c l a s s e s seems to p r o v i d e r e a d i n e s s f o r c o r r e c t  recognition  r e a d i n g , but not f o r a deeper, e v a l u a t i v e k i n d of r e a d i n g ( p . 2 3 ) . Toukomaa and immigrant  Lasonen  discovered  on  the  reading  p u p i l s were heterogeneous i n the l e v e l of t h e i r  As a consequence, each age-group teaching  that  material"  (p. 24).  tests,  achievement.  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t  They  suggested  that  "the  "the t e x t  level  s h o u l d be  l i n g u i s t i c a l l y e a s i e r than m a t e r i a l f o r c h i l d r e n of a c o r r e s p o n d i n g age i n F i n l a n d , a d d i n g t h a t the t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l f o r s i x t h grade immigrant pupils  s h o u l d be  linguistically  at  the  same l e v e l  as books  for third  g r a d e r s i n F i n l a n d , but the c o n t e n t s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d to t h e i r own  age-  23  group.  They, a l s o i n d i c a t e d  t h a t the good r e a d e r s , on  the o t h e r hand  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h more d i f f i c u l t t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l " ( p . 2 4 ) . The Finnish  authors and  Sweden and with  this  scores  also  Swedish  conducted  language  process  of  scores  equalization,  remained s t a t i s t i c a l l y  scores  (1976) who  on  the  correlation  with  l e n g t h of  between  the  residence  in  They d i s c o v e r e d t h a t even  correlations  between  the  Swedish  language  gave  support  to  literacy  reading  tests  significant.  c o n c l u s i o n , the  Christian  test  partial  general i n t e l l i g e n c e c o n t r o l l e d .  i n F i n n i s h and  In  a  authors  advocated  Anderson  the t e a c h i n g of l i t e r a c y  and  (1978)  and  writing  in  the mother tongue b e f o r e s c h o o l e n t r y f o r immigrant c h i l d r e n i n a b i l i n gual  environment.  Sweden  may  be  two  to  will  the  the  F i n n i s h students  situation  experienced  experience by  in  Francophone  w i t h some d i f f e r e n c e s .  populations  F i n n i s h migrant therefore  situation,  compared  s t u d e n t s i n B.C., The  The  i n v o l v e d are  p o p u l a t i o n expects tend  to  group  not  completely  t o come back  together  i n the  to  host  i n c r e a s i n g i t s chances to p r e s e r v e i t s mother tongue. t i o n p l a n s to f u n c t i o n f u l l y  Identical.  The  i t s homeland,  and  country, S i n c e the  thereby, popula-  I n I t s h e r i t a g e c u l t u r e , i t s mother tongue  must remain i n t a c t . However, these reasons do not generate phone f a m i l i e s  in British  Columbia.  The  the same response  r a t e of a s s i m i l a t i o n  s i n c e some of the f a m i l i e s have been i n B.C.  likely  i s high  f o r more than 15 y e a r s , and  the newcomers i n t e n d to earn a l i v i n g i n the host c o u n t r y . number of f a m i l i e s w i l l  i n Franco-  Only a s m a l l  r e t u r n home, s i n c e the p r o x i m i t y of  the  24  two  homelands  and F i n l a n d .  i s not  the same as the one which e x i s t s between  From Skutnabb-Kangas  Sweden  and Toukomaa (1976b) as w e l l as from  Toukomaa and Lasonen (1979), i t may be suggested t h a t the program  inves-  t i g a t e d i n B.C.  w i t h i t s emphasis  tongue  should  positive  produce  on the t e a c h i n g  results,  should  of the mother  prevent  semilingualism,  and  s h o u l d promote " t r u e " b i l i n g u a l i s m . V o r i h and R o s i e r gual  Elementary School  Navajo c h i l d r e n .  (1978) have i n v e s t i g a t e d the outcomes Program  implemented  i n Rock  Point  of a  Bilin-  Arizona  for  The a u t h o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t :  Navajo (was) the dominant language of communication at Rock P o i n t and at most p l a c e s on the r e s e r v a t i o n , o t h e r than b o r d e r towns. A Navajo ( c o u l d ) get a l o n g v e r y w e l l on the r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h o u t speaking E n g l i s h . I t was o n l y when the Navajo (was) a t s c h o o l or when he ( l e f t ) the r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t he (needed) t o know E n g l i s h ( p . 263). The  authors  explained  that  in  1960,  students  from  Rock  Point  Community were found t o rank a t the bottom among e i g h t Bureau of I n d i a n A f f a i r s schools  i n the C h i n l e Agency, i n student  by s t a n d a r d i z e d  tests.  Therefore,  achievement as  measured  an i n t e n s i v e program c a l l e d "Teaching  of E n g l i s h as a second language" (TESL) was i n s t i t u t e d I n 1963. By 1965, s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s showed t h a t Rock P o i n t had moved to the top i n the r a n k i n g of C h i n l e Agency s c h o o l s had t h a t Rock P o i n t student r e s u l t s were w e l l above the average of the e n t i r e Navajo A r e a . However, Rock P o i n t s i x t h grade s t u d e n t s were s t i l l a two f u l l y e a r s below the n a t i o n a l norms i n r e a d i n g and mathematics (p. 2 6 3 ) . Concerned w i t h t h i s weakness  shown by grade s i x s t u d e n t s ,  the Rock  P o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had been i n v e s t i g a t i n g b i l i n g u a l - b i c u l t u r a l t i o n i n o r d e r t o f i n d a remedy t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n . a l l y implemented and was s t r u c t u r e d as f o l l o w s :  educa-  A program was e v e n t u -  25  From K i n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h second g r a d e , the c l a s s r o o m s were o r g a n i z e d i n t o language a r e a s . A team of two t e a c h e r s ( t h r e e i n k i n d e r g a r t e n ) (was) i n each c l a s s r o o m . One t e a c h e r used Navajo as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and a l l communication (was) i n Navajo: s o c i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s , c a l e n d a r , a l p h a b e t , p i c t u r e word c a r d s , and Navajo l i t e r a c y . At the o p p o s i t e end of the room, the t e a c h e r (used) E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and communication (was) i n E n g l i s h . The c h i l d r e n were l e a r n i n g t o choose the language t o meet the situation. They (were) l e a r n i n g t o be c o - o r d i n a t e b i l i n g u a l s (p. 264). They added t h a t : From grades t h r e e t h r o u g h s i x , the E n g l i s h Language T e a c h e r , who (was) e i t h e r Navajo o r Anglo (had) complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s o r her c l a s s r o o m . The average number of s t u d e n t s per c l a s s r o o m (was) 25, but the c h i l d r e n ( l e f t ) the room i n h a l f - c l a s s groups to a t t e n d s p e c i a l i t y c l a s s e s such as Navajo l i t e r a c y o r s c i e n c e taught i n N a v a j o . The  time spent  i n each  language  varies,  depending  on  grade  level,for  instance: in Kindergarten:  70% of the i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n Navajo;  1st and 2nd grade:  50% of the i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n Navajo and  50%  is i n English; 3rd t o 7 t h grade:  75% of the i n s t r u c t i o n time i s i n E n g l i s h .  Rock P o i n t c h i l d r e n who compared t o Rock P o i n t  initially  c h i l d r e n who  learned  learned  t o read  t o read  The measures used were the S t a n f o r d Achievement results  of s t u d e n t s  exceeded four, scored  the  in Bilingual  results  of  students  students  higher.  attending  i n Navajo  two,  five  i n the TESL program w h i l e at grade  When compared w i t h  first.  reading sub-tests.  Program a t grades  the r e s u l t s were e q u i v a l e n t , and slightly  i n E n g l i s h were  The  and s i x at  grade  t h r e e , the TESL  group  the achievement  m o n o l i n g u a l E n g l i s h programs w i t h  of  Navajo  well established  26  TESL c u r r i c u l u m , t h e Rock P o i n t s t u d e n t s ' performance was s l i g h t l y l o w e r at  grade two, e q u a l a t grade t h r e e , and i n c r e a s i n g l y h i g h e r from  grade  f o u r o n , e n d i n g up w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f almost two y e a r s h i g h e r than the c o n t r o l s c h o o l s mean s c o r e . The  program  was demonstrated  t o be e f f e c t i v e .  t h i s program f e l t t h a t i t was o n l y l o g i c a l the  to have the major p o r t i o n o f  i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i n k i n d e r g a r t e n i n a language the c h i l d r e n under-  stand. a  The proponents o f  They s t r e s s e d the f a c t t h a t " i f Navajo c h i l d r e n a r e t o be g i v e n  quality  education, then t h e i r  cognitive  s k i l l s must be d e v e l o p e d as  t h o r o u g h l y , and i n t h e same manner, as those o f A n g l o - c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r mother tongue" ( p . 2 6 4 ) . T h i s study s u g g e s t s the importance o f e d u c a t i n g m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r mother language a c q u i s i t i o n .  tongue f o r the purpose o f a s u c c e s s f u l  However, t h i s  second  study s h o u l d be I n t e r p r e t e d  with  c a u t i o n , s i n c e the s t u d y does n o t mention whether i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s on intelligence  and  socio-economic  status  between  the E x p e r i m e n t a l and  c o n t r o l groups were c o n t r o l l e d . Moreover, a s t r o n g p a r e n t a l commitment has been observed from t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s program, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a "Hawthorne"  e f f e c t may have  taken place. The f i n d i n g s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i m p r e s s i v e because o f these f l a w s and because o f one o t h e r f e a t u r e o f the program: were exposed  the Navajo s t u d e n t s  t o E n g l i s h f o r 50% of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i n grades one  and two, and f o r 75% o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l time from grade t h r e e t o grade seven.  The f o l l o w i n g  question  springs  t o mind.  Would  these  results  27  have for  remained  the same, had these s t u d e n t s been  20% o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  instructed  i n English  t i m e , which i s the t r e a t m e n t the s t u d e n t s  i n t h e PCDF program a r e exposed to? On  this  m a t t e r , one might  argue  that  Navajo  s t u d e n t s needed  to  r e c e i v e more E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n , s i n c e they were n o t exposed t o E n g l i s h outside This  o f the c l a s s r o o m , i n c o n t r a s t  point  another  i s legitimate  and d e s e r v e s  important feature  linguistic  background  come  compared  from q u i t e  t o be  s t u d e n t s i n B.C.  considered.  However,  worth m e n t i o n i n g i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e  between  s t u d y , and i n the B.C. s t u d y . study  t o Francophone  the comparison groups  i n the  i n t h e Rock  Point  While t h e comparison groups i n t h e former  the same l i n g u i s t i c  background, t h e two groups  i n t h e l a t t e r one come from two d i f f e r e n t  home language back-  grounds, t h i s s i t u a t i o n accounting f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s t u d y i n Rock P o i n t community interest.  School i s s t i l l of  The a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e d the s t u d e n t s a t Rock P o i n t as " a g g r e s -  s i v e , a c t i v e and i n v o l v e d , "  and added  contrast  children  t o the way Navajo  that  this  are o f t e n  b e h a v i o r was i n s h a r p characterized  as b e i n g  " l i s t l e s s , q u i e t , p a s s i v e and dumb" ( p . 2 6 8 ) . Ewanyshyn bilingual  (1980)  program.  conducted an e v a l u a t i o n  This  o f an U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h  program was implemented  i n the f a l l  o f 1974,  and was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n the U k r a n i a n language as a "language o f I n s t r u c t i o n , "  along with  acquiring  E n g l i s h language communication s k i l l s . The a u t h o r e x p l a i n e d  that:  In k i n d e r g a r t e n , emphasis i s g i v e n t o the development o f o r a l s k i l l s i n b o t h E n g l i s h and U k r a i n i a n . I n grades one to f i v e ,  28 c h i l d r e n take r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h i n the academic s u b j e c t areas f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% o f the s c h o o l day, and i n s t r u c t i o n i n U k r a i n i a n i n the c u l t u r a l s u b j e c t areas f o r t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e day ( p . 5 ) . The  experimental  groups  of students  e n r o l l e d i n the U k r a i n i a n -  E n g l i s h B i l i n g u a l Program i n t h r e e o f t h e Edmonton C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s were matched w i t h c o n t r o l groups o f s t u d e n t s  e n r o l l e d i n the Regular  Program and coming from the same s c h o o l s F i v e v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d : and  socio-economic  f o u r and f i v e . Skills  status.  Four grades were e v a l u a t e d :  The i n s t r u m e n t s  s e l e c t e d were:  of Basic  and Comprehension),  R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s (SRA) A r i t h m e t i c T e s t , School tests.  score,  two, t h r e e ,  Canadian Test  Reading ( V o c a b u l a r y  i n g and U k r a i n i a n Language S k i l l s was  schools.  Grade, s e x , age, P r i m a r y A b i l i t y  (CTBS), G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Science  o r from n e i g h b o r i n g  English  System  Spell-  The .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  used i n t e s t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e means, and a t w o - t a i l e d  t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was used i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The  results  i n d i c a t e d that  e v i d e n t on the v o c a b u l a r y two  levels.  no s i g n i f i c a n t  t e s t s a t the grade f i v e , grade t h r e e and grade  A t t h e Grade two l e v e l , however, t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  the mean on the Comprehension t e s t was  significantly  students.  Results  higher  than  study  corroborates  study.  Meanwhile, as p o i n t e d  above  a r e not so i m p r e s s i v e ,  English  instruction  f o r the b i l i n g u a l  t h e mean  on mathematics  s i n c e t h i s a r e a i s not covered This  mean d i f f e r e n c e s were  f o r the  achievement  by the c u r r e n t the f i n d i n g s  will  i n the academic  of  Rock  regular  program  not be  reported,  Point  Community  t h e r e s u l t s mentioned  the s t u d e n t s subject  students  study.  out i n t h a t s t u d y , since  program  areas  are provided while  with  the mother  29  tongue  i s restricted  E n g l i s h measures  t o the c u l t u r a l  used a r e t e s t i n g  subjects  academic  areas.  subject  Also,  areas,  how  as the reason-  a b l e i s i t t o e x p e c t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups? For with  t h e s e r e a s o n s , the study  regard  t o the b e n e f i t  minority-language  children  does  not bear the same  o f the t e a c h i n g as  the  credibility  o f the mother  following  one  which  tongue t o deals  with  i n s t r u c t i o n i n the mother tongue f o r most o f the s c h o o l day. T h i s study has been brought up f o r the purpose o f e s t a b l i s h i n g distinction Fishman's  betwen d i f f e r e n t forms o f b i l i n g u a l programs.  (1976) f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f B i l i n g u a l be c l a s s i f i e d  fluency  and l i t e r a c y  languages, but l i t e r a c y  tongue  i s restricted  i n both  to certain  subject  According to  E d u c a t i o n Programs,  U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h program w i l l  as:  "A program  m a t t e r , most  a  this  (seeking)  i n t h e mother generally  that  r e l a t e d t o t h e e t h n i c group and i t s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e " ( p . 2 6 ) . One may foresee  t h e danger o f t h i s  type o f b i l i n g u a l program as b e i n g a means  towards a g r a d u a l e x t i n c t i o n o f the f i r s t language. Carey and Cummins ( 1 9 7 8 ) , examined F r e n c h i n Edmonton o f a l l Mixed  French-English  bilingual  Grade  home  the achievement i n E n g l i s h and  five children  backgrounds  from E n g l i s h , F r e n c h and  attending  the  program o f the Edmonton S e p a r a t e S c h o o l System  French/English (ESSS).  program i s based on an 80%/20% s p l i t between F r e n c h and E n g l i s h  The  instruc-  t i o n throughout elementary school. The them  r e s e a r c h e r s used C l o z e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h  to e s t a b l i s h  parallels  with  the L a p k i n  t e s t s which enabled  and Swain  (1977)  study.  30  The  study  encompassed  unilingual  The F r e n c h s c o r e s o f t h e t h r e e ESSS groups were compared w i t h francophone  Immersion  Franco-  Ontario.  of u n i l i n g u a l  i n French  Quebec,  children,  scores  children  from  Ontarian  the  and  francophone  children  from  Programs  Quebec,  in  Franco-  O n t a r i a n c h i l d r e n , and c h i l d r e n i n F r e n c h Immersion Programs w h i l e t h e E n g l i s h s c o r e s were compared w i t h those o f c h i l d r e n i n F r e n c h and  Regular  English  Programs i n O n t a r i o .  The a u t h o r s  Immersion  conducted two-  t a i l e d t - t e s t s and found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .05) between t h e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h home background groups on t h e F r e n c h C l o z e t e s t , b u t no d i f f e r e n c e on the E n g l i s h C l o z e t e s t . The ESSS F r e n c h group performed a t about the same l e v e l i n F r e n c h as d i d t h e Franco-Ontarian group (attending separate francophone s c h o o l s ) , but l e s s w e l l than Quebec francophone groups. A l l t h r e e ESSS groups performed a t about t h e same l e v e l on t h e E n g l i s h C l o z e t e s t s as t h e two O n t a r i o groups ( p . 4 6 ) . These r e s u l t s l e d t h e a u t h o r s t o suggest t h a t even though "French" their  children  d i d not speak E n g l i s h  instruction  i n French,  their  t h e ESSS  a t home and r e c e i v e d 80% o f  skills  developed as those o f e q u i v a l e n t anglophone  i n English  were  as  well  c h i l d r e n i n F r e n c h Immersion  o r R e g u l a r E n g l i s h Programs. This  study  has a l o t I n common w i t h  population,  program  differences  exist  procedures.  and o b j e c t i v e s  i n the measures  the present  a r e almost employed,  study  t h e same.  as t h e However,  and i n the s t a t i s t i c a l  The' r e s e a r c h e r s used a C l o z e t e s t i n French and E n g l i s h t o  a s s e s s t h e s t u d e n t s l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , w h i l e the study under way w i l l choose "Test  more  c o n s e r v a t i v e measures,  de Rendement  de F r a n c a i s , "  such  as t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e , the  and t h e "Test  de L e c t u r e . "  Carey  31  and Cummins f a v o r e d a t w o - t a i l e d t t e s t , w h i l e the c u r r e n t s t u d y w i l l be c o n d u c t i n g an a n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e w i t h c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y ate.  I n t h e case  that  the r e s u l t s  contradict  as c o v a r i -  t h e m s e l v e s , t h e n , these  d i f f e r e n t measures would have t o be c o n s i d e r e d . In  t h e same v e i n ,  Achievement Different  Hebert  e t a l , (1976)  and Language o f I n s t r u c t i o n amounts  o f exposure  evaluated  the Academic  among F r a n c o - M a n i t o b a n  to French  were  examined.  Pupils.  The a u t h o r s  concluded that i f : One had t o d e f i n e the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n w h i c h would p r o v i d e maximum academic achievement i n the two l a n g u a g e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y , based upon the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , t o choose the s c h o o l o r c l a s s where F r e n c h o n l y i s used as the language o f i n s t r u c t i o n (except f o r the E n g l i s h c o u r s e ) ( p . 2 1 ) . However,  the conclusion  should  be  taken  with  reservations  recommended by M.P. Y a k i m i s h y n (1976) and M a u r i c e and Roy (1976, A s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n i n treatment q u a n t i t y , a f a i l u r e the  1977).  to categorize  d i f f e r e n t language backgrounds, as w e l l as weaknesses I n s t a t i s t i c a l  procedures l i m i t  t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f these f i n d i n g s .  flaws i n s t a t i s t i c a l the  as  correlation  correctly results. one  As examples o f  p r o c e d u r e s , Y a k i m i s h y n (1976) has p o i n t e d out t h a t  coefficients  interpreted,  thus  and  analyses  leading  to  of an  covariances  were  o v e r e s t i m a t l o n o f the  For instance, correlation  coefficient  was .4287, and was c o n s i d e r e d o f 2  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l . However r = ( . 4 2 8 7 ) = 18%, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t 18% o f the v a r i a n c e i n one v a r i a b l e can be accounted f o r by the v a r i a n c e i n the o t h e r variable, which i s considered low predictability or association. 2  not  32  Yakimishyn  (1976)  incomplete  as the a u t h o r s  using  also  indicated  that  should  have  analyses conducted  a p p r o p r i a t e m u l t i p l e comparison procedures  o f means which a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  of  covariance  additional to i d e n t i f y  were  analyses the p a i r s  different.  Based on these a u t h o r s ' f i n d i n g s , t h e PCDF program under i n v e s t i g a tion  i n B.C. should  p r o v i d e maximum academic achievement  i n both  lan-  guages, s i n c e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s program a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a percentage o f F r e n c h i n s t r u c t i o n comparable to the maximum amount i n t h e i r The  a u t h o r s f u r t h e r suggested  study.  that  i n M a n i t o b a , a s o c i e t y which i s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y anglophone and where French i s t h e language w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e s e r v e , s c h o o l programmes h a v i n g a h i g h percentage o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n F r e n c h o f f e r the b e s t p o s s i b i l i t y o f e n s u r i n g e f f e c t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m among c h i l d r e n , combined w i t h h i g h achievement i n o t h e r academic s u b j e c t s ( p . 2 2 ) . The  l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d by t h e a u t h o r s a p p l i e s a l s o t o B.C.,  where French  i s also d i f f i c u l t  to preserve.  I n t h i s c o n t e x t , a program  such as PCDF s h o u l d ensure e f f e c t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m among c h i l d r e n .  2.  Summary o f t h e S t a t e o f t h e A r t : The  s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d above show the p o s s i b i l i t y  language c h i l d r e n  and m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e  children  f o r both m a j o r i t y -  to achieve  bilingual-  ism. A body o f r e s e a r c h Day, of  (Lambert & T u c k e r ,  1982) has found t h a t m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e linguistic  competence  language i n s c h o o l s .  i n both  1972; Gray  1981; Shapson &  c h i l d r e n achieve high  languages,  when exposed  to a  levels second  I t has been proposed t h a t the s t u d e n t s , s i n c e they  33  come from a community where t h e i r language i s h i g h l y v a l u e d do not need a r e i n f o r c e m e n t of t h e i r language i n s c h o o l s , and as a r e s u l t , w i s h t o "add" a second  socially  r e l e v a n t language.  g o i n g t o r e p l a c e t h e f i r s t one.  The  second  language i s not  T h e r e f o r e , the s t u d e n t s show a p o s i t i v e  a t t i t u d e , and are i n the b e s t p o s i t i o n t o a c q u i r e s u c c e s s f u l l y a second language. skills  For the s t u d e n t s , i t has been h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t they t r a n s f e r  from t h e i r  language  t o the second  language.  In p r a c t i c e ,  this  means t h a t even i f the s t u d e n t s are not exposed t o f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n their  first  schools  language,  i n their  they p e r f o r m as w e l l  first  language.  as t h e i r  I n o t h e r words,  peers who  these  students are  a b l e t o t r a n s f e r and r e l a t e n o t i o n s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h a second i n t o a l r e a d y known concepts i n t h e i r f i r s t For should  these s t u d e n t s , a program  attend  language  language.  of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a second  take them t o a h i g h l e v e l of b i l i n g u a l i s m .  language  In r e l a t i o n  to the  c u r r e n t study i t i s assumed t h a t m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d I n a  program  such as PCDF which  offers  instruction  in their  second  lan-  guage, s h o u l d succeed w e l l i n b o t h l a n g u a g e s , F r e n c h and E n g l i s h . A n o t h e r body of r e s e a r c h ( V o r i h & R o s i e r , 1978;  Ewanyshyn,  1980)  has  discovered  that  1978;  Carey & Cummins,  minority-language children  have a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g h i g h l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c competence  in their  first  and  second  languages.  since  the s t u d e n t s do not have t h e i r  their  home, they need  language  children  that  valued outside  to see i t s r e c o g n i t i o n somewhere e l s e .  s i t u a t i o n which acknowledges minority-language  first  I t has been suggested  of  A school  the importance of the mother tongue f o r the by  making  i t the  language  of  instruction,  34  gives  the c h i l d r e n  c h i l d r e n may express since  they  positive their  will  In practice,  b o t h languages. English  a d e s i r e t o "add" another  Consequently,  language  do not f e e l t h a t t h e i r own language w i l l  attitude  L2.  a pride, a self-assertlveness.  trigger a transfer these  children w i l l  Even though, these  instruction,  i t i s proposed  c h i l d r e n i n the R e g u l a r  of s k i l l s  the  to t h e i r  own,  be r e p l a c e d .  The  from  be expected  their  LI to  t o succeed i n  c h i l d r e n a r e not exposed t o f o r m a l t h a t they w i l l  E n g l i s h Program.  succeed  as w e l l as  I t has t o be mentioned  that  o u t s i d e o f the c l a s s r o o m , these s t u d e n t s a r e immersed i n an "Anglophone" milieu.  F o r these  s t u d e n t s , a program o f I n s t r u c t i o n  i n their  first  language such as t h e PCDF i n B.C. s h o u l d promote a h i g h l e v e l o f b i l i n gualism. In students  c o n c l u s i o n , t h e program c a l l e d from a m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e  group  t h e PCDF i n B.C. s h o u l d as w e l l  language group towards the g o a l o f b i l i n g u a l i s m .  bring  as from a m i n o r i t y T h i s program p r o v i d e s  b o t h groups a c c o r d i n g t o the r e s e a r c h e r s mentioned above w i t h the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n f o r d e v e l o p i n g h i g h l e v e l s o f l i n g u i s t i c competence.  35  CHAPTER I I I Methodology  1.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Programs:  D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Programme-Cadre-de-Francais: In phone  the f a l l o f 1978, t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d F r a n c o families  i n B.C.  (PCDF) f o r t h e i r  the o p t i o n  children's  o f the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais  education.  This  program  was d e s i g n e d t o  p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n F r e n c h by u s i n g i t as a "language o f i n s t r u c t i o n . " A consequence o f d e f i n i n g t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s way i s t h a t the  program  ability  going  serves  children  with  from no u n d e r s t a n d i n g  vastly  different  levels  of French  a t a l l o f F r e n c h , when the c h i l d  comes from a f a m i l y where the Francophone  p e r s o n works out t o a f a i r l y  good command o f F r e n c h where b o t h p a r e n t s a r e francophone or where the Francophone p e r s o n s t a y s a t home.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f o t h e r programs t o w h i c h t h e program under  investigation  w i l l be compared E a r l y F r e n c h Immersion: Such programs i n Canada t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e i n s t r u c t i o n of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n i n F r e n c h a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g s c h e d u l e : i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , the e n t i r e h a l f - d a y i n F r e n c h : i n grades one t o f o u r , the f u l l program i n French except f o r one hour per day o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h Language A r t s , which i s i n t r o d u c e d i n e i t h e r grade two o r grade t h r e e ; and i n h i g h e r g r a d e s , w i t h some f u r t h e r  36 i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h , e v e n t u a l l y a 50% French/50% E n g l i s h program, g e n e r a l l y by grade s i x " ... The T e s t s de L e c t u r e battery was developed i n the context of the l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of F r e n c h immersion and b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n programs i n O n t a r i o (p. 1 Test de L e c t u r e ) . Regular instruction first  English  Program:  is As  the  language  of  i n d i c a t e d i n the  c h a p t e r norms of s t u d e n t s drawn from a Canadian sample have been  Distinctive groups:  study.  characteristics  I n the PCDF, t e a c h e r s  same c l a s s r o o m .  The  school  10  s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . teachers  students, In classes  are  four the  Include  to grade seven.  Francophone  PCDF compared t o FIP  i n each grade v a r i e s from two  A c l a s s may  from K i n d e r g a r t e n are  f o r the  and  REP  t e a c h c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t grades i n the  enrollment  t o 10 or 12 s t u d e n t s .  two  English  f o r a l l content E n g l i s h area c l a s s e s .  used i n the c u r r e n t  there  (REP)  students  of  a l l grades i n the Regulations  elementary  or  three  elementary  state that  school  age,  where  a  class  I f t h e r e are 25 s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n the group,  required;  with  45  students,  three  phenomenon  accounted  for  teachers;  with  60  teachers.  study,  involved.  this  Only one  grade  four  seven  classroom dealt  out  of  with  a  eight single  grade l e v e l .  2.  D e s c r i p t i o n of the The  subjects  in this  e i g h t c l a s s e s of PCDF. each  of  four  subjects: study were grades f o u r  and  s i x students  Four s c h o o l s were i n v o l v e d r e p r e s e n t i n g  metropolitan  encompassing 38 g i r l s and  Vancouver  districts.  Sixty-three  one  from from  students  25 boys coming from e i t h e r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  or  37  French-speaking The  families  made  up  the population  f o l l o w i n g table provides Information  under  Investigation.  about the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of the  students:  Table 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t u d e n t s by  g r a d e , sex and l i n g u i s t i c background Grade 4 (n = 34)  L i n g u i s t i c background French  Boys  Girls  Boys  (n = 29)  6  8  9  6  E n g l i s h (n - 34)  11  9  10  4  Among t h e s c h o o l s and  Girls  Grade 6 (n = 29)  i n v e s t i g a t e d , one out o f f o u r o f f e r e d  a l s o REP; two o f f e r e d PCDF and F I P , w h i l e  l o w e r g r a d e s ; and one s c h o o l o t h e r programs. of French.  Teachers w i t h  only  offered  FIP was j u s t g i v e n  i n the  the PCDF t o the e x c l u s i o n o f  the e x c e p t i o n  of one a r e n a t i v e  The neighborhood i n which the s c h o o l s  good i n d i c a t o r o f the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  PCDF, F I P  status,  since  are located  speakers i s not a  some s t u d e n t s  live  f a r away, and use common o r p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o get t o s c h o o l s .  C o n t r o l o f Independent V a r i a b l e s : Linguistic  Background:  assess t h i s v a r i a b l e .  Students  were  given  a  questionnaire  ( s e e Appendix A ) . The q u e s t i o n s emphasized  to their  38  use  of French  a t home i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h t h e i r  p a r e n t s , t h e i r s i b l i n g s , and t h e i r The the  results  parents  friends.  on the s t u d e n t s '  o f grade  four  questionnaires  French-oriented  show t h a t 42.8% o f  students  speak  always i n  E n g l i s h when t a l k i n g to each o t h e r , w h i l e a t grade s i x , t h i s p r o p o r t i o n of  parents  drops  French-oriented  students  w i t h each o t h e r . French-oriented  t o 26.7%, s u g g e s t i n g are using  that  the p a r e n t s  more French  Another p o i n t w o r t h mentioning students  a t grade  four,  o f grade s i x  i n their  conversation  i s the p r o p o r t i o n o f  57.1% who  speak  always i n  E n g l i s h when p l a y i n g w i t h f r i e n d s a t home compared t o 73.3% o f grade s i x French-oriented  students  who c l a i m e d  t o speak always i n E n g l i s h i n the  same s i t u a t i o n . A t r e n d may be i n d i c a t e d i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a h i g h e r of  t h e use o f E n g l i s h when p l a y i n g w i t h  T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n suggests  f r i e n d s f o r a l l t h e groups.  t h a t f o r Francophone f a m i l i e s who do not l i v e  i n c l o s e - k n i t communities, t h e l a c k o f Francophone neighbors the  difficulty  incidence  of maintaining  their  language.  Answers  may add t o  on  students'  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e v e a l t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n of E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d  students  in  both  siblings  is  not so d i f f e r e n t  This  grades who always use E n g l i s h when communicating w i t h  situation  may  b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s interpreted  from  the p r o p o r t i o n o f F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  suggest  that  some  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students  a l s o e n r o l l e d i n French  as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e i r  regard t o French-oriented on t h i s matter use o f French  students. have  programs, and may a l s o be  d e s i r e to speak French.  s t u d e n t s , answers on s t u d e n t s '  With  questionnaires  may appear s u r p r i s i n g , as w e l l as answers r e l a t e d t o the by p a r e n t s when s p e a k i n g  to each o t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y I n t h e  39  case o f grade f o u r s t u d e n t s . a l s o encompasses p a r e n t s  An e x p l a n a t i o n may be t h a t t h i s  from a mixed l i n g u i s t i c background,  category  Increasing  t h e r e f o r e t h e chances o f a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e i n the use o f E n g l i s h . The  answers on q u e s t i o n s  French-oriented with  their  i n b o t h grades who always use E n g l i s h when communicating  parents  French-oriented described  6 and 7 I n d i c a t e t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n o f  or guardians  students  who  i n the previous  desire to counteract  i s lower  always  than  use E n g l i s h  paragraph.  This  the p r o p o r t i o n  of  i n the s i t u a t i o n s  observation  may r e f l e c t  a  the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m i l i e u a t l a r g e , and may a l s o  i n d i c a t e t h e d i f f i c u l t y f o r m i n o r i t i e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r language. A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was r e q u i r e d o f p a r e n t s n a i r e (see Appendix B ) . their  through a q u e s t i o n -  Q u e s t i o n s asked r e l a t e d t o t h e i r mother tongue,  second language, t h e frequency  o f t h e use o f F r e n c h a t home, t h e  number o f y e a r s spent i n e i t h e r an Anglophone o r Francophone m i l i e u , and the academic h i s t o r y o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Upon students  the reception were  classified  English-oriented parents  whose  of  students  into  sub-groups.  and  two c a t e g o r i e s :  " o f t e n " was t o o s m a l l a sample,  13 o n l y ,  passed  where  guardians  families,  a r e Francophone, and furthermore  Home Background q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  or the  combined  I n t h e s t u d y , t h e combined  subgroup.  from  and  "always" o r  and was, t h e r e f o r e  i n t h e "Mixed" groups.  coming  French-oriented  a t home were  group was l a b e l l e d t h e " F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d " students  questionnaires,  The "Dominant-Francophone" group  answers on the use of F r e n c h  w i t h t h e 15 s t u d e n t s  parents'  This category  one o r b o t h  encom-  spouses o r  who answered on t h e P a r e n t s  t h a t French was spoken a t home "always,"  40  "often" the  or "half-French, h a l f - E n g l i s h . "  "English-oriented"  from  families  Furthermore, Parents  where  subgroup, the mother  parents  whether  Home Background  The o t h e r group was  and was comprised tongue  French  of both  or E n g l i s h  of students  parents who  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t French  was  emphasized  that  students  from  coming  English.  answered  on t h e  was spoken a t home  "sometimes" o r "never," were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . be  labelled  I t has t o  a l i n g u i s t i c background  other  than  F r e n c h and E n g l i s h were e x c l u d e d from the s t u d y . An  attempt  questionnaires. answered  has been  made  to reconcile  both  parent  and  An a m b i g u i t y was found when some Francophone  t h a t they  were u s i n g E n g l i s h  answered t h a t they were u s i n g F r e n c h .  a t home, whereas In this  student students  their  parents  case, parents q u e s t i o n -  n a i r e s were p r e f e r r e d , and t h e i r answers r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r mother tongue and t h e i r use o f F r e n c h were t h e c r i t e r i a c o n s i d e r e d f o r the c l a s s i f i c a tion.  I f they  accepted failed other  satisfied  the c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r  as F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d , then  they  joined  this  I f they  t o meet these p r e r e q u i s i t e s t h e n , they were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the group.  T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was thought  to be f a i r ,  s i n c e i t r e s p e c t e d the  d e f i n i t i o n o f a "Francophone" w r i t t e n i n the p o l i c y . tion  group.  f o r being  o f t h e aforementioned  requirements  helped  F u r t h e r , the a d d i -  i n narrowing  down  this  d e f i n i t i o n , and c o n s e q u e n t l y a i d e d i n p u r i f y i n g the c a t e g o r y . Educational highly are  Background:  w i t h academic r e s u l t s .  provided  with  more  This  variable  C h i l d r e n from  i s b e l i e v e d to c o r r e l a t e highly  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o develop  educated their  families  intellectual  41  curiosity.  Their  environment  s u p p l i e s books,  travel,  and  worthwhile  e x p e r i e n c e s which w i l l enhance t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l development. I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e socioeconomic by has  t h e one w r i t t e n above f o r reasons  s t a t u s v a r i a b l e (SES) was r e p l a c e d of accuracy.  A recession period  t o t o be acknowledged i n these days, a c c o u n t i n g f o r a h i g h r a t e o f  unemployment.  Many h i g h l y  sequence, i t can be argued  educated  people  a r e unemployed.  As a  con-  t h a t the SES i n d e x which combines measures o f  e a r n i n g s and e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t would not be v a l i d  today  f o r many  approximately  the same  people. To  make  educational  sure  that a l l students  background,  questionnaires,  came  from  a question to that e f f e c t  ( s e e Appendix  was added t o p a r e n t  B ) . The f o l l o w i n g s c a l e was developed i n  o r d e r t o a s s i g n a rank t o the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e :  Secondaire  8 - 9 - 1 0 - 1 1  CEGEP  1(12) - 2(13) - 3 ( 1 4 )  Universite  1(14) - 2(15) - 3(16) - 4(16)  Autre  J u n i o r High School  8 - 9 - 1 0  S e n i o r High  11 - 12  School  University  1(13) - 2(14) - 3(15) - 4(16) - 5 ( 1 6 )  Master's  18  Ph.D  degree  20  42  The  c a t e g o r y " a u t r e " encompassed a master's degree, a d o c t o r a t e as  w e l l other types of c e r t i f i c a t i o n .  A b a c c a l a u r e a t degree was a s s e s s e d  as 16 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g , a master's degree, 18 y e a r s , and a d o c t o r a t e , 20  years.  Furthermore,  professional  training  were  account d i f f e r e n c e s between parents'  educational  parents given  other  educational  vocational  measure,  and/or  taking  into  the F r e n c h and E n g l i s h s c h o o l systems.  Both  background  an  with  l e v e l s were averaged.  The  results  are  shown i n T a b l e 2a.  T a b l e 2a Mean Number of Y e a r s , and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e  Grade 4 X  Grade 6 SD  X  SD  E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d subgroup:  14.4  2.66  14.5  2.24  F r e n c h - O r i e n t e d subgroup:  13.4  2.44  12.2  1.55  This almost  two  table  shows a d i f f e r e n c e  y e a r s at  grade  six.  of one However  year at grade at  grade  f o u r , and  of  s i x , the s t a n d a r d  d e v i a t i o n shows t h a t the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup i s more heterogeneous than the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  subgroup.  43  The  variable  Statistics  Canada  "Educational 1981  background"  d a t a f o r B.C.  and  has  also  Canada  as  been  compared  a whole.  to  These  f i g u r e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 2b.  Table 2b S t a t i s t i c s Canada Data f o r B.C.  Less than Grade 9 B.C. Canada  (1981) and Canada  Grades  15% 21.9%  More than 13 Y e a r s  9-13  76.9% 70.1%  8.2% 8.0%  Grade Four English-oriented French-oriented  0 [0] 0 [0]  15 15  [41.6] [53.5]  21 13  [58.3] [46.4]  0 (0] 0 [0]  9 7  [33.3] [29.1]  18 17  [66.6] [70.8]  Grade S i x English-oriented French-oriented Note:  F i g u r e i n b r a c k e t s are p e r c e n t a g e s .  T h i s t a b l e shows that 60% of the p a r e n t s have more than 13 y e a r s o f schooling,  and  therefore  are  classified  i n the  first  category which  encompasses 8.2% of the whole p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e 40% of them rank In the second c a t e g o r y which encompasses 76.9% of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . of  None  them are i n c l u d e d i n the t h i r d c a t e g o r y . From these d a t a , i t appears t h a t the sample under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s  w e l l above average compared to the p o p u l a t i o n i n B.C.  and i n Canada.  44  However,  i t has  to  be  noticed  that  f o r students  58.3%  of the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d p a r e n t s rank i n the f i r s t  46.4%  of the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d p a r e n t s .  of  the  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d parents  a g a i n s t 70.8%  are  at  grade  category against  F o r s t u d e n t s at grade s i x , 66.6% classified  of the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d p a r e n t s .  i n the The  first  category  r e s u l t s at grade s i x  seem to be i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n T a b l e examining  the  size  of  the  group h e l p s to understand Cognitive A b i l i t y :  standard  of c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s in  Mathematics,  (1970) wrote  d e v i a t i o n of  t h i s apparent  i s expected  the  high  the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d  A c h i l d who  performs w e l l on a  t o a c h i e v e s i m i l a r l y good r e s u l t s  coincidence  tests.  between  say t h a t t h e r e i s no n e c e s s a r y  make s u r e t h a t t h i s v a r i a b l e was was  administered:  section  which  described  as  appropriate  being for  with  l i n g u i s t i c background. The measure,  figures while  continued  The  six  tasks I t was,  the  study  was  given,  grade  four  students  are  The  since  third i t is  t h e r e f o r e , thought  which  shows  r e s u l t s are g i v e n i n Table  show t h a t grade  in  To  c o n t r o l l e d , a t e s t of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y  nonverbal  sample  and  c o n n e c t i o n between these f a c t o r s .  culture fair.  the  Lovas  underdevelopment  "Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y T e s t " (CCAT).  deals  test  either  Fishman and  b i l i n g u a l i s m and between lower IQ s c o r e s and b i l i n g u a l i s m , but to  but  i s deemed to be h i g h l y c o r -  S c i e n c e s , o r Language A r t s  about  2a,  contradiction.  Cognitive a b i l i t y  r e l a t e d w i t h academic achievement.  four,  students  are  to  be  differences i n  3. different  comparable.  With  on  regard  this to  Canadian norms, w h i l e the grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s seem to be slightly  above  English-oriented  average, scored  grade average.  six  French-oriented,  However, grade  four  and  grade  four  French-oriented  45  Table 3 Mean Number and Standard D e v i a t i o n o f t h e Scores on t h e "CCAT"  Grade 4  Grade 6  X~  SD  X  SD  E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d subgroup: 14.4 (14)  11.1 [29]  63.8 (15)  11.7 [45]  F r e n c h - O r i e n t e d subgroup:  12.9 [46]  66.0 (14)  12.9 [57]  Note:  13.4 (20)  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers o f s t u d e n t s i n each Figures i n brackets are percentile norms drawn from the "CCAT".  students large  scored w e l l  enough  below average.  ranks  compared  The d i f f e r e n c e  t o be c o n s i d e r e d a t t e n t i v e l y  when  cell.  t o Canadian  a t grade  comparisons  four i s a r e made  between t h e s e groups. Another  efficient  i n f l u e n c e the r e s u l t s , even  on t h i s  variable,  way  t o ensure  i n o t h e r words,  that  this  t o ensure  i s t o use a s t a t i s t i c a l  A n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y  variable  does n o t  t h a t the s t u d e n t s a r e procedure  c a l l e d the  as a c o v a r i a t e .  This  p r o c e d u r e r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to e q u a l i z e the groups on i n t e l l i g e n c e , and  enables  the researcher to analyze  a c c o u n t e d f o r by the independent v a r i a b l e fore,  a difference  the v a r i a n c e  "Home Language Use."  i n the s c o r e s on the dependent  compounded by t h e i n t r u s i o n of a concomitant v a r i a b l e . is  adjusted,  any d i f f e r e n c e  occurring  i n the r e s u l t s  variables, Once t h i s  i n the F r e n c h and E n g l i s h  may be a t t r i b u t e d to the "Home Language Use."  Thereis  not  factor tests  46  Two age and  o t h e r independent v a r i a b l e s deemed to i n f l u e n c e the r e s u l t s a r e sex.  These two v a r i a b l e s were not c o n t r o l l e d , s i n c e the groups  were i n t a c t c l a s s e s of the PCDF. age i s accounted a  But, i t can be assumed t h a t the  f o r by the f a c t o r grade.  p o p u l a t i o n of n i n e  year-old children,  p o p u l a t i o n of e l e v e n y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n .  sample, i t was to  comprised  while  grade  factor  s i x represents sex was  and  of  17  girls  these and  two  17  variables.  boys at grade  however, a wide d i s c r e p a n c y g i r l s , as 19 g i r l s  and  i s obvious  Therefore, four.  This  Research  D e s i g n and  the  study  result  At grade  This difference  results.  Procedures:  T h i s r e s e a r c h can be d e s c r i b e d as "ex post f a c t o " s i n c e i t was ducted a f t e r the treatment the  linguistic  effect  on  background.  was  given.  This  In t h i s  treatment  was  was  b e l i e v e d to produce  as  academic achievement.  the s t u d e n t s ' s c o r e s on French  and  English tests,  i t was  an  In a n a l y z i n g expected  one can f i n d out the magnitude of the e f f e c t of t h i s l i f e t i m e I t i s obvious  con-  s t u d y , the treatment  o t h e r v a r i a b l e s such  on these s c o r e s .  is  between the number of boys  10 boys made up the sample.  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d , when a n a l y z i n g the  3.  taken  Because of the s m a l l n e s s of the  r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n t a c t c l a s s e s as samples. six,  not  a  a l s o i m p o s s i b l e to randomly drop some s t u d e n t s , i n o r d e r  make the groups even on  was  Grade f o u r u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s  The  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the same reason.  factor  that  treatment  t h a t t h i s k i n d of study c o u l d not use  a  pre-test. It the  was  decided  a n a l y s i s of  t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l  covariance  with a  test  on  procedure  would  cognitive a b i l i t i e s  be  (CCAT)  47  taken  as a c o v a r i a t e .  T h i s procedure was i n t e n d e d  to test  hypotheses  t h r e e and f o u r , w h i l e t h e o t h e r hypotheses were taken c a r e o f by t h e use of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s . An a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e i s the product to  w h i c h a l i n e a r model i s added.  categorical variables. was  of an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e d e a l s w i t h  F o r the p r e s e n t  s t u d y , one c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e  examined f o r i t s e f f e c t on t h e t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s . The c a t e -  gorical  v a r i a b l e was the treatment  dependent v a r i a b l e s were one t e s t Separate  analyses  were conducted  "Home Language Use," and t h e t h r e e o f E n g l i s h and two t e s t s o f French.  f o r grade f o u r and grade s i x , a n d a r e  shown i n the Table 3.  Table 4 D e s c r i p t i o n o f the One Way ANOVA  (Grade 4 )  Grade 4 French-oriented  students:  English-oriented Note:  students:  The same procedure a p p l i e s to Grade s i x .  A  linear  model i s d e s c r i b e d  as f o l l o w s by K e r l i n g e r & Pedhazur,  (1973): T  - T  +  T  +  b(X  t j  - X)  +  48  where Y  =  mean on common  the s c o r e  of s u b j e c t i  under treatment  j ; Y = the  the dependent v a r i a b l e ; Tj = the e f f e c t of treatment regression  coefficient  for  Y  on  c o v a r i a t e f o r s u b j e c t i under treatment variate;  e^j  the  =  X;  X^j  =  the  grand  j ; b =  score  on  j ; X = the grand mean of the  e r r o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  score  of s u b j e c t  a  the co-  i under  treatment j . Tables  5a, 5b and  5c i n c h a p t e r 4 show two means; an u n a d j u s t e d  an a d j u s t e d one.  The  i n the u n a d j u s t e d  means remains a f t e r the v a r i a t i o n due  is  removed.  researcher  The  a d j u s t e d means i n d i c a t e what p a r t of the  analysis  of  covariance  and  variation  t o the c o v a r i a t e  i s h e l p f u l i n keeping  away from p o s s i b l e erroneous c o n c l u s i o n s due  the  to the  presence  the  Pearson  o f an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e . A  second  statistical  procedure  product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n . the home language has language. English speaking  In  this  should  o r d e r to f i n d out correlation  has  been  used:  I t has o f t e n been suggested t h a t a b i l i t y i n  a p o s i t i v e correlation with a b i l i t y  study,  correlate  students,  has  and  t h i s means t h a t with  tests  vice-versa  scores  written  in  on  in a foreign  tests written i n  French  for English-speaking  for  French-  students.  In  the presence of such a r e l a t i o n s h i p , a product-moment been  thought  to  be  a  suitable statistical  procedure.  Ferguson (1981) e x p l a i n e d t h a t measures of c o r r e l a t i o n by common convent i o n are describes line,  defined a  to take  values  perfect negative  ranging  relation.  and X d e c r e a s e s as Y i n c r e a s e s .  from -1  t o +1.  A l l points A v a l u e of +1  A value  l i e on  of  -1  a straight  describes a perfect  49  positive  relation.  as Y i n c r e a s e s .  A l l p o i n t s l i e on  a straight  A v a l u e of 0 means t h a t X and  Y are  o t h e r o r bear a random r e l a t i o n to each o t h e r The  following  t i v e , and  scatter  diagrams g i v e  l i n e , and  (p.  an  X  increases  independent of each 111).  i d e a of  a  positive,  zero c o r r e l a t i o n .  v.. a) p o s i t i v e It for  has  the  child  (+1)  to be  might  have  indicated finding achieved  intellectual  that out  the  high  ability,  would assume  f o r m u l a would e l i m i n a t e  show the that  following  correlation  Test  de  cognitive "real"  scores  and  c) 0  (-1)  the  not  e x i s t i n g between both t e s t s .  following  «  b) n e g a t i v e  purpose of  superior ship  nega-  on  Thus, i t was  =  X.,  effect  of  TDRF =  X  a  r  12-3  =  /(l-r  2 1 3  and  2  n ?3 r  )d-r  2 2 3  Otherwise  because  possible  third  English  equation.  r  tests  controlled  )  of  a  his  relation-  thought t h a t  between F r e n c h and  Lecture  was  correlations.  because of a  the  correlation(O)  ability  both  «  using  the  variable,  and  tests.  CCAT =  X  3  Let for  us the  50  L e t t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n between the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s be as f o l l o w s : r  1  =  2  0.5597, r  1 3  =  0.52  and  r 3 = 2  0.34.  The  partial  correlation  coefficient i s :  r  - 0.5597 - (0.52)(0.34) 0.3829 _ " ^ Z Z = = = " 0.803 " / (1-0.52 ) (1-0.34 ) =  12.3  2  0  ,  ,, 4  6  7  7R 8  2  By s q u a r i n g r , we o b t a i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a n c e of one t e s t that  can be p r e d i c t e d 2  above r  from  test.  In the r e s u l t s  reported  2 = (0.4678)  = 0.22, w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s  ance, and when m u l t i p l i e d cannot be c o n s i d e r e d 4.  the o t h e r  by  100, we  obtain  the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i 22%, a  percentage  which  high.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f measures employed: a)  Questionnaires:  1)  Students'  questionnaire:  A questionnaire order  to assess  been  modeled  elementary  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  their  linguistic  largely  Franco-Ontarian  (A copy i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A)  on  researchers,  the  to s t u d e n t s  background.  This  questionnaire  Raymond  Mougeon  in a first  step i n  questionnaire  constructed  and M i c h a e l  by  has the  Canale f o r  level.  l i ) P a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix B ) . Parents of  were asked q u e s t i o n s  F r e n c h a t home, t h e i r  years  their children  milieu.  concerning  educational  the frequency  of t h e i r use  background as w e l l the amount o f  i n v o l v e d i n the study  have l i v e d  i n an Anglophone  51  b)  French Language T e s t s :  i)  T e s t de L e c t u r e :  Content: The 'Test de L e c t u r e ' i s d e s i g n e d to a s s e s s r e a d i n g comprehension r a t h e r than the mechanics of r e a d i n g as such. The t e s t c o n s i s t s o f a number o f passages f o l l o w e d by q u e s t i o n s based on i t s c o n t e n t . The passages were e i t h e r adapted from a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l or w r i t t e n by a s p e c i a l i s t i n c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e . The passages v a r y i n l e n g t h and type of m a t e r i a l t r e a t e d . The quest i o n s tap the p u p i l ' s comprehension of the c o n t e n t of the passages and i n f e r e n c e s t h a t he or she can make from them (p. 1, Test M a n u a l ) . Technical aspect: In May-June 1977, the f o u r l e v e l s of the 'Tests de L e c t u r e ' were a d m i n i s t e r e d to F r e n c h Immersion p u p i l s a t the a p p r o p r i a t e grade l e v e l s by a number of s c h o o l commiss i o n s throughout Canada i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h norms. Data from p u p i l s coming from a French or b i l i n g u a l background ( w i t h F r e n c h spoken a t home) were e x c l u d e d ; thus the norms r e f l e c t the performance of p r e d o m i n a n t l y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n ( p . 2, Test M a n u a l ) . I t has to be mentioned  t h a t the  T e s t s de L e c t u r e b a t t e r y was developed i n the c o n t e x t o f the l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of F r e n c h Immersion and b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n programs i n O n t a r i o (p. 1, T e s t M a n u a l ) . As composed  previously of  mentioned,  Dominant-English  F r e n c h s p e a k i n g ones.  the  population enrolled  speaking  students  children  (a  possibility  i f only  as  Dominant-  analyzed i n t h i s  f o r Dominant-French  the Test  another t e s t , the "Test de Rendement" was F o r the grades  well  PCDF i s  I n o r d e r to prevent the o c c u r r e n c e of a  e f f e c t on a measure of French Language s k i l l s ing  as  i n the  de  L e c t u r e were  ceiling speakused),  also administered.  s t u d y , the f o l l o w i n g Test  t i c s were found i n page 2 of the "Tests de L e c t u r e " manual.  statis-  52  GRADE  No. of Items  3e  3  28  5e/6e  5  35  Test  No. of Pupils  _ X Score  SD  St. Error of Meas  708  20.19  5.35  2.00  0.85  489  17.39  7.18  2.59  0.87  Rellab.  As the authors have not developed norms i n the F a l l , the grades four and six  students  will  be  given  the  grades  three  and  five  tests.  This  difference i n grade l e v e l , should be acknowledged when the results are computed. Timing:  grade four:  30 minutes  grade s i x :  40 minutes  i i ) The "Test de Rendement de Francais:" The French  following description  Tests" presented  by  appeared  i n the  "Annotated  the Modern Language Centre  List  at the  I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education. The Test de Rendement de Francais measures the students' knowledge of vocabulary, their listening comprehension, inferenclng s k i l l s , s p e l l i n g , and a b i l i t y to draw basic grammatical d i s t i n c t i o n s . A l l test Items are of a multiple choice type. Pupils are required to i d e n t i f y words on the basis of written d e f i n i t i o n s , select synonyms and antonyms of words, choose s t y l i s t i c a l l y more precise substitutions for words in given contexts, and complete sentences with the correct conjunctions ... In grade s i x , the students must also read short passages and answer multiple choice questions based on their contents, determine the main idea or the least important sentence of a passage, select a t i t l e for a passage and i d e n t i f y the sequence of events, and complete open-ended passages with the most appropriate continuations (pp. 44-45).  of  Ontario  53  I n f o r m a t i o n on norms, v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y c o u l d not be Note:  The  stanines  "Test de Rendement de F r a n c a i s " has (see  Appendix  D).  In  this  study,  obtained.  norms e x p r e s s e d the  stanines  only i n  have  been  c o n v e r t e d i n t o p e r c e n t i l e s f o l l o w i n g the t a b l e g i v e n I n Appendix E. c)  E n g l i s h Language T e s t :  Gates-MacGinitie: emphasis  on  Vocabulary  T h i s t e s t has been s e l e c t e d among o t h e r s f o r i t s and  Comprehension.  These  two  components  are  deemed to be the most r e l e v a n t i n o r d e r to make sure t h a t a language i s "felt".  In t h i s  perspective, technical  s k i l l s are of secondary  tance. Content: The Vocabulary Test samples the student's reading v o c a b u l a r y . T h i s t e s t c o n t a i n s 50 i t e m s , each c o n s i s t i n g o f a t e s t word f o l l o w e d by f i v e o t h e r words, one of which i s s i m i l a r i n meaning to the t e s t word. The s t u d e n t ' s t a s k i s to choose the word t h a t means most n e a r l y the same as the t e s t word. The f i r s t items a r e composed o f easy and commonly used words. G r a d u a l l y the words become l e s s common and more d i f f i c u l t (p. 1, Test Manual). The Comprehension Test measures the s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o read complete prose passages w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g . It c o n t a i n s 21 passages i n which a t o t a l of 52 b l a n k spaces have been i n t r o d u c e d . For each b l a n k space a c h o i c e o f f i v e c o m p l e t i o n s i s o f f e r e d . The student must d e c i d e which one o f the f i v e c o m p l e t i o n s best conforms to the meaning of the whole passage. The f i r s t passages are s i m p l y w r i t t e n , but the l a t t e r ones become p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t (p. 1, Test M a n u a l ) . Technical aspect: Standardization: The 1964-65 norms f o r the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s were developed by a d m i n i s t e r i n g the t e s t s to a n a t i o n w i d e sample" of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40,000 s t u d e n t s i n 37 communities. The communities were c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the b a s i s of s i z e , g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , and f a m i l y income (p. 1 ) .  impor-  54  Reliability: A r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s an i n d e x of the a c c u r a c y o f the scores obtained on a test. The a l t e r n a t e - f o r m r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t takes i n t o account v a r i a t i o n s i n a s t u d e n t ' s performance from one day to another and v a r i a t i o n s i n the c o n t e n t of the t e s t from one form to another (p. 4 ) . Alternate-form r e l i a b i l i t y a d m i n i s t e r i n g one form of the form on another day. Order forms was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d (p. Split-half t h a t comparisons reliabilities  reliability  c o e f f i c i e n t s were o b t a i n e d by t e s t on one day and a second of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t 4).  coefficients  were  also  c o u l d be made w i t h t e s t s which  (see Appendix  computed  report only  in  split-half  3).  Validity: The v a l i d i t y of an achievement t e s t i s u s u a l l y e v a l u a t e d i n terms of i t s c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . The c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y of a r e a d i n g achievement t e s t r e f e r s to how w e l l the items o f t h a t t e s t cover the o b j e c t i v e s of a p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g program. The t e s t u s e r may best understand the t a s k s t h a t the test impose by r e a d i n g the tests and carefully c o n s i d e r i n g what i s i n v o l v e d i n g e t t i n g the c o r r e c t answers (p. 4, T e s t M a n u a l ) . C o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n of P r i m a r y C at grade t h r e e and Survey D at grade f i v e w i t h f o u r o t h e r s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s were o b t a i n e d i n a study by D a v i s . The medium c o e f f i c i e n t s were .84 f o r P r i m a r y C V o c a b u l a r y , .79 f o r P r i m a r y C Comprehension, .78 f o r Survey D V o c a b u l a r y , and .80 f o r Survey D Comprehension (p. 4 ) .  Timing: Vocabulary Test  :  15  min.  Comprehension Test  :  25  min.  Total  :  40  min.  order  55  d)  Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s  Test;  Content: The Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s Test (CCAT) has e v o l v e d from t h e w e l l - a c c e p t e d L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s s e r i e s which was m o d i f i e d and s t a n d a r d i z e d i n Canada as t h e Canadian L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s ( p . 2 ) . T h i s t e s t p r o v i d e s a s e t o f measures o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ability t o use and m a n i p u l a t e abstract and symbolic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Three-main types o f symbols p l a y s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e s i n the t h i n k i n g o f s t u d e n t s and a d u l t s : Symbols r e p r e s e n t i n g words, symbols r e p r e s e n t i n g q u a n t i t i e s , and symbols r e p r e s e n t i n g s p a t i a l , geometric o r f i g u r a l p a t t e r n s (p. 2 ) . I n t h i s t e s t , t h e authors have attempted to emphasize r e l a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g the p e r c e i v i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a b s t r a c t elements i n a v a r i e t y o f media and s e t t i n g s . Throughout each o f t h e s u b t e s t s the b a s i c elements have been kept r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e , c l e a r and f a m i l i a r ( p . 2 ) . Technical Norms: with  aspect:  The Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s  t h e Canadian T e s t s  Test  was normed  o f B a s i c S k i l l s , Forms 3 and 4, (grades 3 - 8 ) .  Thus, norms f o r the Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s Test same s t u d e n t s  jointly  a r e based on t h e  used t o norm the achievement t e s t b a t t e r y .  Robert C. N i c h o l s c i t e d i n the E i g h t h M e n t a l Measurements Yearbook ( B u r o s ) has made the f o l l o w i n g statement about the t e s t CAT: Reliability: K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n 20 r e l i a b i l i t i e s range from .91 t o .96 f o r the v a r i o u s b a t t e r i e s and l e v e l s i n the m u l t i - l e v e l booklet. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the p r i m a r y l e v e l s are s l i g h t l y l o w e r , going down t o .89 ( p . 181). The Lorge-Thorndike v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l tests are r e a s o n a b l y p a r a l l e l forms o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g CAT T e s t s . The median c o r e l a t i o n s of the CAT w i t h the L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e over a six-month p e r i o d f o r seventh and n i n t h grade c h i l d r e n  were .86 f o r verbal and about .73 for nonverbal. This shows very good s t a b i l i t y over a short time and over forms for the verbal battery and adequate s t a b i l i t y for the nonverbal battery. P a r a l l e l form retest r e l i a b i l i t i e s over 13 months for the primary levels were about .73 for students i n i t i a l l y tested i n kindergarten and about .81 for students i n i t i a l l y tested i n f i r s t and second grades (p. 181).. As an indication of concurrent v a l i d i t y , the manual presents correlations with achievement as measured by ITBS and TAP based on 500 students at each grade l e v e l from the standardizations sample "typicalcorrelation with the achievement test composite i s .80 to .85 for the verbal battery, .70 to .80 for the quantitative battery and .65 to .70 for the nonverbal battery (p. 181).  57  CHAPTER IV A n a l y s i s o f Data  1.  Introduction The  r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter  ted  i n t h i s chapter.  and  the r e s u l t s appear I n t h i s c h a p t e r as w e l l .  Three a r e p r e s e n -  I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r a n a l y s e s have been  e x p l a i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r w i l l  be a n a l y s e d a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s  Analyses of covariance  be I n t r o d u c e d  supplementary a n a l y s e s , and t h e Pearson  conducted,  f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by  product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n  will  chapter.  Note:  F o r a l l a n a l y s e s , t h e dependent v a r i a b l e "GMTOT" means t h e t o t a l  score  of both  subtests  vocabulary  and comprehension  o f the Gates-  MacGinitie.  2.  Summary o f A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e "Subgroup" as Independent V a r i a b l e .  I n o r d e r t o determine  whether  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean s c o r e s on achievement t e s t s a r e due t o t h e v a r i a b l e "Home Language Use" r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  "French-  o r i e n t e d " and " E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d " s t u d e n t s , an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was done  using  covariate. 5c. grade  t h e Canadian  Cognitive A b i l i t y  Test  (CCAT) s c o r e s  as t h e  The r e s u l t s o f these a n a l y s e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 5a, 5b and  The r e s u l t s  show t h a t  significant  s i x English-oriented students,  d i f f e r e n c e s are obtained f o r  on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n l t i e  Test,"  F ( l , 2 2 ) = 4.55, p < .05, f o r grade s i x , F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s , on t h e "Test  de L e c t u r e , " F ( l , 2 7 ) = 5.87, p < .05, and f o r grade s i x F r e n c h -  T a b l e 5a Summary of A n a l y s e s of C o v a r i a n c e of Achievement T e s t s Scores Dependent V a r i a b l e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students  French--Oriented Students Grades 4  Unadj. X  SD  Adj.  X  (13) 44.23  Unadj. X  SD  13.46  46.01  (14) 61.64  54.61  11.61  F  53.31  2.62  [73]  (11) 16.35  61.98  72.63  10.09  [50] * S i g n i f l e a n t at .05. Note:  X  (18)  [58]  6  Adj.  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers of s t u d e n t s i n c e l l s . Figures i n brackets are p e r c e n t i l e dependent v a r i a b l e .  ranks c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a d j u s t e d X of each  72.20 [76]  4.55*  T a b l e 5b Summary of A n a l y s e s of C o v a r i a n c e of Achievement T e s t s Scores Dependent V a r i a b l e Test De L e c t u r e  F r e n c h - O r i e n t e d Students Grades 4  Unadj. X  SD  E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students  Adj. X  (13) 21.76  Unadj. X  SD  Adj. X  3.5  22.97  (18) 3.89  22.42  23.44  [54]  (15) 6  24.33  0.19  [54]  (12) 6.69  24.46  18.58  6.81  [79] • S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05. Note;  F  F i g u r e s i n parentheses are numbers of s t u d e n t s i n c e l l s . F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s a r e p e r c e n t i l e ranks c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a d j u s t e d X of each dependent v a r i a b l e .  18.41 [54]  5.87*  T a b l e 5c Summary of Analyses of C o v a r i a n c e o f Achievement T e s t s Scores Dependent V a r i a b l e Test De Rendement  E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students  French--Oriented Students Grades 4  Unadj. X  SD  Adj. X  (12) 11.75  Unadj. X  SD  Adj.  4.88  12.93  (15) 20.26  11.63  5.09  10.88  1.44  [4-11]  (13) 7.09  20.44  15.84  3.91  [40-60] • S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05. Note:  F  (19)  [11-231  6  X  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers of s t u d e n t s i n c e l l s . F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s are p e r c e n t i l e ranks c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a d j u s t e d X of each dependent v a r i a b l e .  15.63 [11-23]  5.19*  61  o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s , on the "Test de Rendement." F ( l , 2 8 ) = 5.19, F u r t h e r m o r e , g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s e s of these F i g u r e s 1, 2, and are  expressed  3.  s c o r e s are  p <  .05.  illustrated  in  Both subgroups s c o r e s a t grade f o u r and grade s i x  i n terms of  p e r c e n t i l e ranks,  accordingly  to  the  norms  i n d i c a t e d i n t e s t manuals p r o v i d e d w i t h each t e s t .  3.  Summary o f A n a l y s e s of "Subgroup and  Variables  (with  Program" has 9  Amount o f Exposure t o  CCAT  partialed  been assessed  (see Appendix B ) .  oriented  students.  Covariance;  out).  the  Program"  "Amount  of  as  Independent  Exposure  to  from p a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to the  "Subgroup" r e p r e s e n t s F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d Thus, two  way  (2 x 2)  analyses  of  question  and E n g l i s h -  covariance  conducted i n o r d e r t o examine the i n f l u e n c e of the number of y e a r s i n the PCDF on each of the t h r e e t e s t s f o r F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d oriented The  students.  The  r e s u l t s are  given  r e s u l t s show a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t de  Lecture"  i s the  i n Table  the  were spent  and E n g l i s h -  6 f o r grade f o u r .  f o r exposure to the  when  "Test  .05.  There i s no exposure by subgroup i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r any of the  dependent  variables.  covariate  (CCAT), F ( l , 2 6 ) =  F ( l , 2 6 ) = 8.02,  A  dependent v a r i a b l e F ( l , 2 6 )  program  significant 10.16, p <  difference .05  on  = 4.6,  i s obtained  the  "Test  de  for  p  <  the  Lecture,"  p < .05 on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e , and a l s o F ( l , 2 6 ) =  9.18  p < .05 on the Test de Rendement. Results  f o r grade  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  s i x are  illustrated  i n Table  f o r subgroup f o r each of the  7.  There  is  three  tests;  when  i s the dependent v a r i a b l e F ( l , 2 0 ) = 4.62,  p <  a  .05,  Figure 1 P e r c e n t i l e Ranks o f two Subgroups on t h e " G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e T e s t (compared t o a norm g r o u p ) .  Grade  63 Figure 2 P e r c e n t i l e Ranks o f two Subgroups on the "Test de L e c t u r e ' (compared t o a norm g r o u p ) . 100  90  80  70  60  50  40  Group FR.-OR. ENG.-OR  30  20  10  0 Grade  64 Figure 3 Percentile Ranks o f two Subgroups on the "Test de Rendement' (compared to a norm group). 100  90  80  70  60  50  •i  40  Group FR.-OR. ENG.-OR  30  20  10  Grade  Table 6 Summary of Analyses of Covariance with the Independent Variable "Exposure to the Program' Grade 4 French-Oriented Exposure  Gates-MacG.  Test de Lect.  Test de Rend.  High  Low  (8)  English-Oriented Exposure High  Low  (5)  (15)  (3)  41.00  49.40  55.27  51.33  (8)  (5)  (15)  (3)  22.75  20.20  23.93  21.00  (7)  (5)  (16)  (3)  13.29  9.60  12.00  9.67  Expo  Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students. High = 2-3 years of exposure to the "PCDF". Low = less than 2 years of exposure to the "PCDF". df = are In parentheses for Exposure and for Subgroup.  Variables Subgroup  F  MS  F  34.26 MS-RES 133.65  0.256 df (26)  393.62  2.945  45.85 MS-RES 9.96  4.6* df (26)  69.27 MS-RES 17.96  3.85 df (26)  MS  • S i g n i f i c a n t at .05. Note:  Independent  0.069  55.45  0.007  3.08  Table 7 Summary of A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e Independent  V a r i a b l e "Exposure t o t h e Program'  Grade 6 French-Oriented Exposure High  Low  English-Oriented Exposure High  Independent  Low  Expo  Gates-MacG.  T e s t de L e c t .  Test de Rend.  (5)  (7)  (4)  64.11  57.20  75.29  68.00  (9)  (6)  (7)  (5)  24.00  24.83  18.86  (9)  (6)  (8)  21.00  19.17  15.88  18.2  MS  F  298.62 MS-RES 140.03  2.13 df (20)  647.17  4.62*  0.04 MS-RES 44.87  0.001 df (22)  243.04  5.416*  6.78 MS-RES 32.95  0.206 df (23)  160.44  4.86*  (5) 15.8  • S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05. Note:  Subgroup F  MS (9)  Variables  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers o f s t u d e n t s . High = 3-4-5 years o f exposure t o t h e progam. Low = l e s s than 3 y e a r s o f exposure to t h e program, df = a r e i n parentheses f o r Exposure and f o r Subgroup.  67  when t h e T e s t de L e c t u r e i s the dependent v a r i a b l e F ( l , 2 6 ) = 5.41, p < .05, and when t h e T e s t de Rendement i s the dependent v a r i a b l e F ( l , 2 3 ) = 4.86, p < .05. However, t h e s e  a n a l y s e s needed  t o be supplemented  by i n f o r m a t i o n  c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e s 8 and 9. In T a b l e 8, the independent  v a r i a b l e was a l s o a s s e s s e d from  respon-  ses t o t h e q u e s t i o n 9, on p a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s e e Appendix B ) . In  the f o l l o w i n g  t a b l e , amount of years i n a R e g u l a r E n g l i s h  Pro-  gram (REP) was a s s e s s e d from responses t o the q u e s t i o n 9 on the p a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s e e Appendix B ) . T a b l e s 8 and 9 w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter F i v e i n r e l a t i o n t o the a n a l y s i s o f t h e hypotheses  4.  s t a t e d i n Chapter One.  Summary o f A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e ; "Subgroup and number o f y e a r s  Independent milieu"  Variables.  Medium and Low.  i n an Anglophone M i l i e u "  "The number of y e a r s  has been c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o  classification  lived  has been  attempted  two l e v e l s : looking  lived  i n an Anglophone  H i g h and Low.  at t h r e e  as  A  first  c a t e g o r i e s , High,  As t h e number of the s t u d e n t s i n t h e low c a t e g o r y was  too s m a l l , t h e m i d d l e c a t e g o r y was pooled w i t h the low c a t e g o r y .  This  s t r a t e g y p r o v i d e d a low c a t e g o r y w i t h 5 s t u d e n t s i n I t and a h i g h c a t e gory w i t h 8 s t u d e n t s .  The number of years c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o each  gory i s g i v e n i n the note a t the bottom of T a b l e s 10 and 11.  These two  way (2 x 2) a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e , amount of " y e a r s " by "subgroup" been done w i t h CCAT as the c o v a r i a t e .  cate-  have  The r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 9  Table 8 .Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of "Amount of Exposure (grades 4 and 6)  F r e n c h - O r i e n t e d Students  t o PCDF  E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students  Grade  X  SD  Grade  X  SD  4 (n = 14)  2.2  1.57  4 (n = 20)  2.3  0.82  6 (n = 15)  2.8  1.47  6 (n = 14)  2.7  0.91  Note:  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers of s t u d e n t s i n each Years are s c h o o l y e a r s .  cell.  Table 9 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of "Amount of Exposure (grades 4 and 6)  F r e n c h - O r i e n t e d Students Grade  X  4 (n = 14) 6 (n = 15)  Note:  1.5  t o REP"  E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students  SD  Grade  X  SD  1.51  4 (n = 20)  0.75  0.74  1.84  6 (n = 14)  2.42  1.82  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers of s t u d e n t s i n each Years a r e s c h o o l y e a r s .  cell.  T a b l e 10 Summary o f A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e Independent V a r i a b l e "Number of Years L i v e d i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " Grade 4 French-Oriented Exposure High  Low  English-Oriented Exposure High  Independent  Low  Years  Gates-MacG.  46.00  (8) Test de L e c t .  T e s t de Rend.  21.38  (5)  (18)  41.4  54.6  (5)  (18)  22.4  MS  F  41.73 MS-RES 141.02  0.296 df (27)  182.69  1.295  5.73 MS-RES 11.21  0.511 df (27)  5.82  0.51  10.84 MS-RES 19.46  0.55 df (27)  7.36  0.37  (0)  (0)  23.44  (7)  (5)  (19)  11.00  12.8  11.63  (0)  • S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05. Note;  Subgroup F  MS (8)  Variables  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers o f s t u d e n t s i n every H i g h = 7 up t o 9 y e a r s . Low = l e s s than 7 y e a r s .  cell.  T a b l e 11 Summary o f A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e Independent V a r i a b l e "Number of Years L i v e d i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " Grade 6  French-Oriented Exposure  Gates-MacG.  Test de L e c t .  High  Low  High  Low  (8)  (6)  (11)  (0)  61.63  61.67  72.64  (8)  (7)  (12)  27.57  18.58  (7)  (13)  23.86  15.85  21.5  (8) T e s t de Rend.  English-Oriented Exposure  17.13  Independent  MS  Subgroup  F  MS  7.30 MS-RES 147.28  0.05 df (21)  422.99  2.87  F  122.22 MS-RES 37.87  3.23 df (23)  53.77  1.42  153.82 MS-RES 25.62  6.004* df (24)  15.51  0.60  (0)  (0)  * S i g n i f l e a n t a t .05. Note:  Years  Variables  F i g u r e s i n parentheses are numbers o f s t u d e n t s i n each H i g h = 10 o r 11 y e a r s . Low = l e s s than 10 y e a r s .  cell.  72  f o r grade f o u r . obtained.  No s i g n i f i c a n t " y e a r s " o r "subgroup" main e f f e c t s a r e  I t has t o be noted  the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d was t e s t e d . .05  when  also  low years  The c o v a r i a t e  t h e dependent  For main  variable  i s found  variable  i s t h e Test  be  again  noted  oriented  that  low y e a r s  covariate  10.18, p <  cell—  interaction  i s the Gates-MacGinitie i s the Test  test  scores,  de Rendement F ( l , 2 7 ) i s t h e Test  =  de L e c t u r e  p < .05.  grade s i x , t h e r e s u l t s  effect  i n one  has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t F ( l , 2 7 ) = 7.60, p <  p < .05, and when the dependent v a r i a b l e  F ( l , 2 7 ) = 9.03,  The  t h e r e were no s t u d e n t s  c e l l — t h e r e f o r e , no two way  variable  when t h e dependent  8.48,  that  are given  f o r the v a r i a b l e  i n Table "years"  11.  A significant  when  the dependent  de Rendement F ( l , 2 4 ) = 6.004, p < .05. there  were no s t u d e n t s  I t has t o  i n one c e l l — t h e  English-  c e l l — t h e r e f o r e , no two way i n t e r a c t i o n was  CCAT has a .05, when  statistically  the dependent  significant  variable  effect  tested.  F(l,21)  =  i s the Gates-MacGinitie  test. These r e s u l t s tion.  I n Table  was a s s e s s e d  needed t o be supplemented by t h e f o l l o w i n g  12, the amount of years  l i v e d i n an Anglophone  from responses t o the q u e s t i o n 8, on p a r e n t s '  informamilieu  questionnaire  (see Appendix B ) . This Chapter  5.  table  will  be r e f e r r e d  t o when the f i n d i n g s  are discussed i n  Five.  Summary o f M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n Four independent v a r i a b l e s :  (CCAT), number of y e a r s  lived  Analyses Grade, Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y  i n an Anglophone m i l i e u ,  Test  and amount o f  Table  12  Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of "Number o f Years L i v e d (grades 4 and 6)  F r e n c h - O r i e n t e d Students  i n an Anglophone M i l i e u "  E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students  Grade  X  SD  Grade  X  SD  4 (n - 14)  7.14  2.68  4 (n = 20)  8.8  0.3  6 (n - 15)  7.6  4.01  6 (n = 14)  11.5  Note:  F i g u r e s i n parentheses are numbers of s t u d e n t s i n each  cell.  0.35  74  exposure to the PCDF were used i n s i x m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s , for  each of  the  three  dependent  measures.  In a  two  multiple regression  a n a l y s i s , the o r d e r of e n t r y of the v a r i a b l e s i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n equat i o n does make a d i f f e r e n c e . Grade  and  Cognitive  S i n c e o t h e r independent v a r i a b l e s such  Ability  are  deemed  to  infuence  any  as  scholastic  achievement s c o r e s they have to be g i v e n p r i o r i t y i n the o r d e r o f e n t r y over o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . p o s s i b l e to determine  When these two v a r i a b l e s are a s s e s s e d , then i t i s the amount of v a r i a n c e accounted  v a r i a b l e s "Number of Years i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " and sure  to the PCDF."  In order  to f i n d  f o r by the  "Amount of Expo-  out which of those  v a r i a b l e s had  more i n f l u e n c e on the t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s , " G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e s c o r e , Test  de L e c t u r e , and  Test  de  formed f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e  Rendement" two  analyses  i n which " y e a r s " was  f o l l o w e d by "Expo", and i n a second t i m e , where "Expo" was f o l l o w e d by " y e a r s . "  R e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n Table  other  total  were  per-  entered  first  entered  first  13. 2  However, squares the  c o n t r i b u t i o n to  of p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s the  v a r i a n c e of  independent v a r i a b l e adds a f t e r variables.  The  the  (r )  dependent v a r i a b l e  the v a r i a n c e c o n t r i b u t i o n of  indicate that  each  preceding  r e s u l t s g i v e n i n T a b l e 13 show t h a t the v a r i a b l e  "years"  accounts  f o r 16% of the v a r i a n c e i n the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e , f o r 10% i n the  "Test  L e c t u r e , " and  de  v a r i a b l e "Expo" accounts  f o r 2% f o r 0.8  i n the  "Test  de Rendement," whereas  the  of 1% i n the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ; f o r  0.3  of 2% i n the "Test de L e c t u r e , " and f o r 4% i n the "Test de Rendement."  Table 13 Summary of M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s w i t h f o u r Independent GMTOT Variables  Test de L e c t u r e  R*  ** (n = 56)  2  Variables  2  r  R  2  ** (n = 58) 2  r  Test de Rend. R  2  ** (n = 59) 2  r  Grade  [1]  0.25  0.25  0.007  0.007  0.26  0.26  CCAT  [2]  0.43  0.24  0.131  0.111  0.37  0.17  Years  [3]  0.50  0.16  0.258  0.102  0.47  0.027  Expo  [4]  0.51  0.008  0.265  0.003  0.49  0.041  Grade  [1]  0.25  0.25  0.007  0.007  0.26  0.26  CCAT  [2]  0.43  0.24  0.13  0.111  0.37  0.17  Expo  [3]  0.43  0.008  0.13  0.003  0.38  0.041  Years  [4]  0.51  0.16  0.26  0.102  0.49  0.027  Note:  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers of s t u d e n t s i n each c e l l . F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s a r e o r d e r s of e n t r y of v a r i a b l e s .  *From m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . •Squares of simple Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between dependent v a r i a b l e and each of the independent v a r i a b l e s .  76  6.  Summary o f A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e "Dominant-Francophone" and "Mixed"  So  f a r , analyses  students  including  children.  of covariance  have  as the independent been  "Dominant-Francophone"  The s i z e o f these  done and  "French-oriented"  "Mixed  French-English"  two groups taken s e p a r a t e l y was t o o s m a l l  t o be compared t o the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group. combined, and a n a l y s e d  on  variables:  T h e r e f o r e , they have been  as one major c a t e g o r y F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  students.  However, f o r the purpose o f these a n a l y s e s , the s u b c a t e g o r i e s  aforemen-  t i o n e d were s e t up a c c o r d i n g  t o the answers t o q u e s t i o n s one, two and  f i v e on p a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix answered  "Often"  or  "Always"  were  B).  C h i l d r e n from p a r e n t s  classified  into  the  who  category  "Dominant-Francophone," whereas c h i l d r e n from p a r e n t s who answered " h a l f French,  half  E n g l i s h " were c l a s s i f i e d  way (2 x 2) a n a l y s e s done w i t h  of covariance,  CCAT as t h e c o v a r i a t e .  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  main e f f e c t  into  the "Mixed" c a t e g o r y .  Two  "Dominance" by "Grade" have  been  The r e s u t s a r e g i v e n f o r the v a r i a b l e  i n Table  "grade"  14.  when t h e  dependent v a r i a b l e s a r e t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t e s t s c o r e s F ( l , 2 2 ) = 7.37, p < .05 and the "Test de Rendement" F ( l , 2 2 ) = 5.42, p. < .05.  There i s  no dominance by grade i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r any o f the t h r e e dependent variables.  The c o v a r i a t e has a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t  F(l,22)  = 6.94, p < .05, when the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the "Test de Rendement," and  also a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  effect  F ( l , 2 3 ) = 12.22, p < .05,  when the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the "Test de L e c t u r e . "  T a b l e 14 Summary o f A n a l y s e s of C o v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e Independent V a r i a b l e : Dominant F r e n c h and M i x e d  Dominant Gr. 4  Mixed  Gr. 6  Gr. 4  Independent Grade  Gr. 6 M.S.  GMTOT  T e s t De L e c t .  T e s t De Rendement  (5)  (7)  (8)  (7)  40.75  54.05  48.33  67.01  (5)  (8)  (8)  (7)  24.17  24.56  22.41  (5)  (8)  (7)  (7)  14.29  19.30  12.42  18.87  21.6  1431.47 MS-RES 194.24  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers of s t u d e n t s i n each df a r e i n parentheses f o r grade and f o r dominance.  7.37* df (22)  .0.24 MS-RES 22.95  0.01 df (23)  175.38 MS-RES 32.34  5.42* df (22)  • S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05. Note:  F  cell,  Variables Dominance M.S. F  606.004  3.12  32.94  1.44  7.84  0.24  78  7.  Summary o f t h e P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s e s Correlations  Lecture  and Test  are analysed de  between  French  Rendement) and E n g l i s h  M a c G i n i t i e ) when CCAT i s p a r t i a l e d  out.  show  correlations  that  Lecture,"  there  students. four  exist  negative  and t h e " G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e , "  Rendement,"  and the " G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e "  scores  test  (Test  scores  de  (Gates-  The r e s u l t s g i v e n i n T a b l e 15 between  and a l s o  between  f o r grade  four  t h e "Test  de  t h e "Test  de  French-oriented  P o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e found between these t e s t s f o r grade  English-oriented students.  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i s observed the  tests  measure  of E n g l i s h .  At grade  s i x , f o r both  subgroups, a  between the two measures o f F r e n c h , and  Figures  i n brackets  give  percentages  of  v a r i a n c e o f t e s t 1 e x p l a i n e d by v a r i a t i o n o f t e s t 2, when CCAT has been controlled.  8.  Summary o f D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s ; Comparisons between t h e C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y Test s c o r e s and the t h r e e  other and  tests  the Test  Table  scores, the Gates-MacGinitie  de Rendement have been attempted.  16. P e r c e n t i l e ranks i n parentheses  oriented Lecture  students than  Rendement.  (GMTOT), t h e Test  achieved  higher  Results are given i n  show t h a t grade f o u r  French-  on t h e GMTOT, and on t h e T e s t  on the CCAT, whereas they a c h i e v e d Grade  de L e c t u r e  s i x French-oriented  students  lower achieved  de  on the Test de a t about t h e  same p e r c e n t i l e rank on the GMTOT and on the Test de Rendement as on the CCAT, whereas they a c h i e v e d much h i g h e r on the Test  de L e c t u r e .  Grade  f o u r E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e d much h i g h e r on the GMTOT, and on  T a b l e 15 P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s e s Between French T e s t s Scores and E n g l i s h Test Score when CCAT i s P a r t i a l e d Out  E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Gates-MacGinitie  F r e n c h - O r i e n t e d Students Gates-MacGinitie  Test de L e c t .  Grade 4  Grade 6  Grade 4  Grade 6  (9)  (11)  (15)  (7)  -0.0122  T e s t de Rend.  (9) -0.0435  Note:  [.01]  0.4561  [20]  0.6763  (15)  (11) [.2]  0.3693  [46]  [14]  0.5769  F i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e numbers of s t u d e n t s i n each c e l l . F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s a r e percentages of v a r i a n c e .  0.2698  [7]  (7) [33]  0.5475  [29]  T a b l e 16 Mean Number of Scores on the Dependent V a r i a b l e s vs Independent V a r i a b l e (CCAT)  F r e n c h - O r i e n t e d Students Variables CCAT  GMTOT  T e s t de L e c t u r e  T e s t de Rendement  Note:  English-Oriented Grade 4  Students Grade 6  Grade 4  Grade 6  (29)  (45)  (46)  (57)  55.9  63.8  63.8  66.0  (54)  (42)  (73)  (79)  44.2  57.5  53.63  73.1  (48)  (79)  (62)  (58)  21.5  24.3  23.6  19.15  (10)  (50)  (10)  (23)  11.5  20.3  11.25  15.85  F i g u r e s i n parentheses are p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s .  81  the Test  de L e c t u r e compared t o t h e i r performance on CCAT, w h i l e  achieved  much  lower  English-oriented  on the T e s t  students achieved  de L e c t u r e , whereas they lower  on the T e s t  achieved  de Rendement.  de Rendement.  Finally,  they  grade s i x  s i m i l a r l y on both CCAT and the Test much h i g h e r  on the GMTOT, and much  On an o v e r a l l  basis,  no  consistent  t r e n d i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p CCAT s c o r e s and s c o r e s on the t h r e e dependent  variables.  between  82  CHAPTER V Summary o f F i n d i n g s , C o n c l u s i o n , L i m i t a t i o n s , I m p l i c a t i o n s  1.  Introduction: The  research  investigate  problem,  identified  i f students enrolled  i n the f i r s t  i n a French  c h a p t e r , was t o  program  in a  s i t u a t i o n were e x p e r i e n c i n g an a d d i t i v e form o f b i l i n g u a l i s m . be  remembered  terras  of  that  this  linguistic  F r e n c h program  background,  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup.  a  minority I t has t o  (PCDF) h o s t s two subgroups i n  French-oriented  subgroup,  and an  As the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup b e l o n g s t o  a language m a j o r i t y i n t h e s e t t i n g o f B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t in  t h e PCDF denotes  language.  their  motivation  i n learning  or a d d i n g a  second  F o r t h i s group, t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a second language w i l l n o t  t h r e a t e n t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e i r own. In  contrast,  language.  that  introduced other  children  I n B.C.  form  a  minority-  The a c q u i s i t i o n o f the m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e becomes a m a t t e r o f  s u r v i v a l f o r them. shown  French-language  S t u d i e s conducted on m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n have  these c h i l d r e n  develop  a  "semilingualism",  t o a second language i n t h e i r e a r l y  studies  have  evidenced that  when  they a r e  school years.  However,  minority-language children  may  also  e x p e r i e n c e an a d d i t i v e form o f b i l i n g u a l i s m when t h e i r mother tongue i s made t h e language of i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c h o o l s . Since  the PCDF  offers  the t e a c h i n g  of a  second  m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n , and the t e a c h i n g of the f i r s t minority-language  children,  i t was  assumed  that  this  language f o r language f o r program  would  83  f o s t e r a form of a d d i t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m f o r these two This through  form  of  "additive"  scholastic  terms of hypotheses t h e s e hypotheses  bilingualism  achievement.  i s expected  to be  reflected  These e x p e c t a t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d i n  mentioned i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r .  The  confirmation of  means t h a t both subgroups i n t h i s French  m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e a form of " a d d i t i v e "  2.  groups.  program i n a  bilingualism.  Summary o f F i n d i n g s : The  first  h y p o t h e s i s , d e a l i n g w i t h F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s i n the  PCDF, s t a t e d t h a t t h i s subgroup w i l l English  students  i n the R e g u l a r  a c h i e v e as w e l l as a norm group o f  E n g l i s h Program  (REP)  on a measure of  E n g l i s h achievement. For  the purpose of t h i s s t u d y , the e x p r e s s i o n "as w e l l a s "  to  a range of p e r c e n t i l e ranks g o i n g from the 45th  4a  shows t h a t grade f o u r F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e d  the norm group of E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s  on  refers  to the 5 5 t h .  Table  as w e l l  the Gates M a c G l n i t i e t e s t ,  t h a t grade s i x F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r . the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s as a n t i c i p a t e d was In will in  r e f e r e n c e to the second  not  as and  Thus,  rejected.  h y p o t h e s i s , which  stipulated  that there  be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s the PCDF, and  a norm group of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s i n the  REP,  on a measure of E n g l i s h achievement, the f i n d i n g s g i v e n i n T a b l e 5a show that  this  76th  percentile  not  subgroup  rejected.  attained respectively,  ranks.  The  second  null  the 73th  percentile  h y p o t h e s i s as  and  the  anticipated  was  84  With  regard  to  the  third  hypothesis, at  e x p e c t a t i o n s , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was ence was  found.  h i g h e r than  The  r e j e c t e d and a s i g n i f i c a n t  the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s .  to  differ-  significantly  However, at grade f o u r , the  not r e j e c t e d .  Table 7 i n d i c a t e s t h a t  a d i f f e r e n c e between the two subgroups i n terms of exposure  formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n . of  s i x , contrary  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students achieved  n u l l h y p o t h e s i s as a n t i c i p a t e d was t h e r e was  grade  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e , which was  the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup, may  account  to  to the advantage  f o r the r e j e c t i o n o f  this  h y p o t h e s i s a t grade s i x . The the  f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s a s s e r t e d t h a t the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d subgroup i n  PCDF would  achieve  significantly  higher  on  a  measure  of  French  achievement than the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup i n the PCDF. The  findings  French-oriented  given  students  i n Tables support  the  F r e n c h , the "Test de L e c t u r e , " and four French-oriented students  5b,  and  5c  indicate  hypothesis  on  t h a t grade s i x  both  measures  of  the "Test de Rendement," w h i l e grade  fail  to support  i t . Meanwhile, T a b l e  6  shows t h a t b o t h subgroups a t grade f o u r have been exposed to the program for  approximately  the  same  period  of  time,  therefore  reducing  chances of f i n d i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these two With oriented  regard  to the  fifth  hypothesis  s t u d e n t s i n the PCDF w i l l  which  the  subgroups.  affirmed that  French-  a c h i e v e h i g h e r than a norm group of  E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i n the French Immersion Program, the grade s i x F r e n c h oriented  students  supported  the  hypothesis, while  o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s r e j e c t e d i t (see Table  grade  four  French-  5b).  These r e s u l t s are not s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e grade f o u r F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s , as  shown i n Table  8 have been exposed  i n the  overall  to  a  85  lesser  extent  students French  to  i n French  formal  French  Instruction  Immersion Programs who  English-speaking  have been exposed  to  I n s t r u c t i o n s i n c e K i n d e r g a r t e n (see T e s t s de l e c t u r e , p.  terms of y e a r s , the d i f f e r e n c e found Table  than  i s almost  two  years.  formal 1).  Furthermore,  12 shows t h a t the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s have been l i v i n g  Anglophone m i l i e u English-speaking instruction  f o r almost students,  prior  the  same p e r i o d  suggesting  to PCDF was  non  that  of  time  exposure  significant.  In  as to  the  i n an  typical  formal  French  This information helps  i n e x p l a i n i n g these f i n d i n g s a t grade f o u r . The  f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the s i x t h h y p o t h e s i s shown i n T a b l e 5b were  a l s o expected. f o u r and in  the  The E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s i n the PCDF a t b o t h grades  s i x d i d not  French  stipulated  achieve higher  Immersion Program on  in  the  hypothesis.  than  the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s  a measure of French  Table  8  shows  achievement  as  that English-oriented  s t u d e n t s i n the PCDF have been exposed to t h i s program f o r an average o f two  years  and  seven months a t  grade  s i x , and  months a t grade f o u r , i n terms of s c h o o l y e a r s .  of  two  Furthermore,  group has been exposed to f o r m a l E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n two  years  latter  and  group  f o u r months and as  shown i n Table  f o r an 9.  years  and  three  the  former  f o r an average o f  average of seven months f o r the On  an  overall  b a s i s , the  French  Immersion s t u d e n t s have r e c e i v e d more f o r m a l French i n s t r u c t i o n than  the  PCDF s t u d e n t s .  The  seventh  This  hypothesis  i n f o r m a t i o n a i d s i n e x p l a i n i n g the  dealt with  the  amount of  exposure  to  results. the  program.  Grade s i x F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e d h i g h e r than grade s i x French Immersion s t u d e n t s  on  the "Test de L e c t u r e " as shown i n Table  5b which  86  t h e r e f o r e confirmed students  the h y p o t h e s i s .  i n the PCDF a c h i e v e d  However grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d  as w e l l as a norm group of F r e n c h  s i o n s t u d e n t s and t h u s , r e j e c t e d the h y p o t h e s i s . i n the p r e v i o u s  paragraph should  a l s o be  The  considered  the  eight  French-oriented  hypothesis,  both  subgroups  explanations  given  In the a n a l y s i s o f  the r e s u l t s w i t h r e g a r d to E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s cerning  Immer-  i n the PCDF.  Con-  English-oriented  and  s t u d e n t s a t grade s i x e n r o l l e d i n the PCDF, as shown i n  Table 5a a c h i e v e d  as w e l l as a norm group of grade s i x E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  students,  REP,  in  the  on  hypothesis i s supported. of  the  the  Gates-MacGinitie  I t has  Other a n a l y s e s  in this  Therefore,  to be n o t i c e d however, t h a t the  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup  expectations formulated  test.  at  grade  s i x surpassed  by  The  have been conducted  results  results far  the  hypothesis. on  the  "Amount of Exposure  the Program" as w e l l as on the number of "Years spent i n an milieu."  the  reported  i n Table  to  Anglophone  6 f o r grade f o u r s t u d e n t s  con-  c e r n i n g the f i r s t v a r i a b l e suggest t h a t t h i s v a r i a b l e does not i n f l u e n c e statistically  the r e s u l t s on the E n g l i s h T e s t .  However, the r e s u l t s  the "Test de L e c t u r e " are shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d w h i l e  on  those  on the "Test de Rendement" are not f a r from b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d (p  =  0.06),  influenced  suggesting  the  results  that  a  higher  significantly.  At grade s i x , t h i s v a r i a b l e seems to be on  the E n g l i s h and  effect  i s reported,  the  French  meaning  tests. that  both  level No  of  exposure  subgroup e f f e c t  of no  statistical  would  i s reported. significance  However, a s i g n i f i c a n t low-exposure  and  have  subgroup  high-exposure  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s succeeded b e t t e r on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ,  than  87  low-exposure  and  high-exposure  took p l a c e i n the French  French-oriented  students.  A  reversal  tests.  An e x p l a n a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i s found i n Tables 8 and 9.  At grade  f o u r , a subgroup e f f e c t c o u l d not have been p o s s i b l y e x p e c t e d ,  s i n c e the  two  subgroups  languages  are  quite  E n g l i s h and  similar  French.  i n terms  of  Therefore,  these  b e n e f i t from an exposure to the PCDF, and w i l l same pace.  in  an  effect.  exposure  two  Anglophone  as w e l l  milieu,  A program e f f e c t  as shown i n T a b l e  as  accounting  therefore  c o u l d not be e x p e c t e d ,  can  be  The  for  effect. applied  students.  a  s i n c e these  years  subgroup two  sub-  amount of  time  The also  "Number of y e a r s  show no  "Years"  explanations provided to  spent  this  variable,  effect  i n the  with  as w e l l  previous  respect  to  as  grade  four  However, a t grade s i x , a low exposure to an Anglophone m i l i e u  subgroup e f f e c t  takes p l a c e .  the grade s i x F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  average of  no  paragraph  seems to a f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y the s c o r e s on the "Test de Rendement."  the former  in  r e s u l t s of a n a l y s e s of c o v a r i a n c e g i v e n i n  f o r grade f o u r s t u d e n t s  subgroup  will  i n terms of amount of  second v a r i a b l e mentioned above was  10  subgroups  8.  an Anglophone m i l i e u " . Table  both  p r o b a b l y p r o g r e s s a t the  groups have o n l y been exposed to PCDF f o r a s m a l l reduced  The  to  However, grade s i x s t u d e n t s o f f e r some d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms  o f amount of exposure to REP, spent  total  subgroup has s t i l l 7-1/2  years,  I n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n Table and  12  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students  No  concerning shows t h a t  been l i v i n g i n an Anglophone m i l i e u f o r an  t h e r e f o r e , reducing  the  group e f f e c t on the t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s .  possibility I t has  of a  sub-  to be a l s o added  88  t h a t h a l f of the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  s t u d e n t s a t grade s i x , have been i n an  Anglophone m i l i e u f o r an average of 10 t o 11 y e a r s . I n an has  attempt  to f i n d  more i n f l u e n c e on analyses  that  the v a r i a b l e "Years"  have been done.  t e s t s out of t h r e e . "Expo" I s not  accounts the  given a  "Years"  fair  2%  in  the  Influence  consistent  s i n c e the  s i x students  of  Table  the  students  de  Rendement",  b i t more, i . e . 4%. has  two  the  the  PCDF the  "Gates-  0.8  of  variable  1%,  "Expo"  I n the o v e r a l l , i t seems t h a t  more i n f l u e n c e i n the de  Rendement," the  those  given  in  Table  11.  Gates-MacGinitie,  and  results  are  Concerning  of which the  variable  r e s u l t s are i n the same d i r e c t i o n as the r e s u l t s of grade shown i n T a b l e  results  7.  of analyses  of c o v a r i a n c e  conducted on  the "Mixed" s t u d e n t s g i v e n i n Table  found  on  the  "Gates-MacGinitie",  and  the  "Dominant-  14, show t h a t  independent v a r i a b l e has no e f f e c t on any of the t e s t s . is  in  for only  while  "Test  Francophone" and  effect  i n the  13 I n d i c a t e s t h a t  variance  i n the  with  "Expo", these  The  the v a r i a b l e "Expo" on  v a r i a b l e "Expo" accounts  "Test  for a l i t t l e  16%  13 show  to be remembered t h a t the v a r i a b l e  treatment,  for  above  tests, multiple regres-  r e s u l t s d i s p l a y e d i n Table  weighs more than  accounts  v a r i a b l e "Years"  less  The  However, i t has  M a c G i n i t i e " , whereas the for  the v a r i a b l e s d i s c u s s e d  been i n the Program l o n g enough.  variable  and  which of  the r e s u l t s of the t h r e e  sion  have not  out  on  this  However a grade the  "Test  de  Rendement" meaning t h a t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n the s c o r e s on these  two  t e s t s from grade f o u r to grade s i x , r e g a r d l e s s of the l i n g u i s t i c ance.  I t has  domin-  to be p o i n t e d out t h a t the s c o r e s on the "Test de L e c t u r e "  89  a r e not r e l i a b l e ,  s i n c e h a l f of the s t u d e n t s  i n grade f o u r were admin-  i s t e r e d the same t e s t i n the p r e v i o u s s p r i n g .  Furthermore,  i t i s almost  i m p o s s i b l e t o ensure what p r o p o r t i o n o f a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t the summer h o l i d a y s . "Dominance," variable, Exposure  i n the c o n t e x t  since to  Furthermore,  A n o t h e r p o i n t worth m e n t i o n i n g  an  at  both  students  have  over  i s t h a t the  term  o f the c u r r e n t s t u d y , may  grades  Anglophone  i s left  four  milieu been  and  ranges classified  s i x , the from on  be a m i s l e a d i n g lowest  one  to  these  level  five  two  of  years.  variables  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ' answers on the use o f French a t home, w h i c h might not r e f l e c t  the use of French by the c h i l d r e n .  Furthermore,  one wonders I f t h i s q u e s t i o n does not i m p l y a response d e s i r a b i l i t y , r a t h e r than  based on  too, social  actuality.  F u r t h e r comparisons have been attempted  between the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d  on F r e n c h and E n g l i s h t e s t s by means o f an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y p a r t i a l e d o u t .  R e s u l t s given i n Table  15  with  suggest  t r e n d s i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f grade f o u r F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s whose r e s u l t s show a n e g a t i v e tionship. group may  rela-  However, the h i s t o r i c a l c o m p l e x i t y o f the n a t u r e o f t h i s subaccount  for this  finding.  Another p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p  has  been i n v e s t i g a t e d between the s c o r e s on the C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y T e s t , and the s c o r e s on the t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s .  However, the a m b i g u i t y o f  the r e s u l t s g i v e n i n T a b l e 16 does not a l l o w any d e f i n i t i v e statement  to  be made, a l t h o u g h a t r e n d towards a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i d e n t i f i e d .  90  3.  Conclusions The  French  findings  program i n a m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n  discussed  p r e v i o u s l y , seems t o be  a d d i t i v e form of b i l i n g u a l i s m . E n g l i s h and hindrance  French  (PCDF) a c c o r d i n g to  successful i n generating  T h i s a d d i t i v e form i s e x p r e s s e d  test results.  Both  in their English s k i l l s  the  on  an  both  subgroups do not e x p e r i e n c e  any  compared to a norm group of E n g l i s h -  s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s i n the R e g u l a r E n g l i s h Program. On  the  obtained  French  good  F r e n c h , and  measures  results,  used,  especially  these r e s u l t s may  grade  s i x French-oriented  when compared  students  to n a t i v e - s p e a k e r s  of  be p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s i d e r e d i m p r e s s i v e when  t h e i r low amount of exposure to PCDF i s remembered.  I n c o n t r a s t , grade  f o u r F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s ' performance i s r a t h e r unexpected, but a n a l y s i s of t h e i r academic background e x p l a i n s t h i s  finding.  I t i s to  be expected  t h a t , a t the grade s i x l e v e l , these grade f o u r s t u d e n t s  achieve  well  as  as  the  ones a c t u a l l y  i n the  program, as  the  will  a result  of  exposure to the program. The at  results  achieved  by  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students  grade s i x r e p r e s e n t q u i t e an accomplishment when t a k i n g i n t o  their  low  amount of exposure to the program.  native-speakers  level,  of F r e n c h ,  c o n s i d e r i n g the  they  factor  appear  "exposure"  tests account  They seem to a c h i e v e  w e l l as the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n i n French to  i n French  Immersion, and  to perform described  a t an above.  as  compared acceptable At  grade  f o u r , E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e as w e l l as the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n i n the French Immersion Program.  However, c a u t i o n i s w a r r a n t e d  when  of  accepting  this  result  for  reasons  practice  effect  mentioned  91  earlier.  Compared  to  native  speakers  of  s i m i l a r to F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s and  French,  their  results  are  t h e r e f o r e , are a l s o expected  to  show an improvement through the y e a r s . At  this  expressed  as  requirements  p o i n t of  discussion, a  follows:  Does the PCDF p r o v i d e the s t u d e n t s w i t h a l l the  needed  to  cannot be a d e q u a t e l y give  an  could  not  account  Furthermore, provide  a  may  a  that d i r e c t i o n .  program.  With  of  the  this  limited  complete  respect  instruction  which  an  to  range o f  t e s t s used i n the  p i c t u r e of  goal.  Concerning  reasons  students'  the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  to  help  as they show a t r e n d  i n t e n s i v e formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n ,  they  s t u d e n t s , and completed them  need  a  more  a  program  a  20%  of this  r e s u l t s a t grade  i t i s expected their  by  such  in attaining  students, t h e i r  on F r e n c h measures are p r o m i s i n g , and  study  skills.  subgroups b e n e f i t from  instruction  is likely  previously  linguistic  English-oriented students,  i n t e n s i v e French  English instruction  of  be  question  for  than F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  formal  six  This  can  program  I t seems t h a t both  formal French offers  which  "true" bilingualism?  However, the r e s u l t s a t grade s i x a r e e n c o u r a g i n g , in  arise  answered by t h i s s t u d y , s i n c e t h i s study c o u l d not  accurate  mentioned.  attain  question  that with  20%  r e s u l t s In E n g l i s h  will  improve, l e a d i n g them on the path towards b i l i n g u a l i s m . To this  sum  up,  i t seems r e a s o n a b l e  l e a r n i n g experience  seems  F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s and  to  to assume t h a t f o r the time b e n e f i t both  being,  English-oriented  and  to p r o v i d e them w i t h the n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e -  ments to develop a " t r u e " b i l i n g u a l i s m . Before  ending  the r e s u l t s to the  this  d i s c u s s i o n , i t might be  a p p r o p r i a t e to  f i n d i n g s of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d i n the  relate first  92  chapter.  G e n e r a l l y , i t appears t h a t the r e s u l t s of the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d  s t u d e n t s i n the s t u d y a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by o t h e r researchers  interested  second-language Day  1982).  The  in  learning  majority-language  (Lambert  & Tucker  children  1972;  Gray  engaged  1981;  in  Shapson  &  s t u d e n t s i n the s t u d y do not e x p e r i e n c e any impediment  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e i r f i r s t language.  F u r t h e r , they make adequate  g a i n s i n t h e i r second language c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r low exposure t o second language  instruction.  However, i t i s i n a d v i s a b l e  to d i r e c t l y  compare  the r e s u l t s of the s t u d e n t s i n the s t u d y w i t h those of the s t u d e n t s i n F r e n c h Immersion  Programs,  since  the degree of exposure to the  language f o r the two groups d i f f e r s  second  considerably.  The r e s u l t s of the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s i n t h i s study g e n e r a l l y corroborate language 1978).  the  children The  speaking English.  findings  of  previous research  (Skutnabb-Kangas  s t u d e n t s i n the  children  i n the  & Toukomaa,  conducted 1976;  s t u d y a c h i e v e d as w e l l  Regular  English  Programs  on  minority-  Carey as on  &  the a  I n F r e n c h achievement, grade s i x F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  Cummins English-  measure  of  students i n  the s t u d y showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e from grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students,  while  at  grade  four,  for  reasons  previously  F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e four English-oriented  mentioned, from grade  students.  However, i t must be noted t h a t the s m a l l s i z e of the sample d i d not allow  the r e s e a r c h e r  to c l a s s i f y  Cummins' t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s .  the s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g  t o Carey  and  T h e r e f o r e , the c o m b i n a t i o n of s t u d e n t s from  b o t h "mixed" l i n g u i s t i c background and "dominant-Francophone  "linguistic  93  background English  might  have  helped  achievement.  On  to  the  contribute  other  hand,  to  positive  i n French  results  in  achievement,  the  r e s u l t s might be seen to be more i m p r e s s i v e f o r grade s i x s t u d e n t s , and more a c c e p t a b l e f o r grade f o u r s t u d e n t s due  4.  to t h i s  aggregate.  Limitations: In  this  groups  of  Regular aimed  study,  students  students enrolled  E n g l i s h Programs. at  investigating  i n the In  A  PCDF have been compared  French  Immersion Programs  preliminary plan  skills  levels  of  the  f o r the  to  as  well  present  Francophone  norm  study  population  e n r o l l e d i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t programs of i n s t r u c t i o n , the PCDF, the and  the  REP.  The  PCDF  group, w h i l e students groups.  These  students  would  have made up  an  have been  plan  was  decided  not not  possible  used to  lack  f o r the  participate of  participation.  study,  invoking  Interest  Therefore,  because  from the  loss  one of  parents  researcher  control  tested i n French  E n g l i s h , on r e a d i n g comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y s k i l l s .  was  major  EIP,  experimental  i n the o t h e r programs would have formed  t h r e e groups would  in  and  in  However, t h i s school  district  instructional  time  and  as  for  non  study  only  reasons able  to  s t u d e n t s i n the PCDF program; the two groups of s t u d e n t s i n t h i s program could  o n l y be  and the EIP This  compared w i t h norms f o r comparable s t u d e n t s i n the  programs.  study  has  minority situation. as  such,  REP,  cannot  provided  program  in a  However, t h i s study i s not a l o n g i t u d i n a l one  and,  pretend  i n f o r m a t i o n about  to be as a c c u r a t e .  a French  For the time b e i n g , s i n c e  94  t h e program I s s t i l l out  longitudinal  i n i t s i n f a n c y , i n B.C.  studies.  In  i t i s impossible to c a r r y  a d d i t i o n to  this,  p o p u l a t i o n to w h i c h t h i s program i s addressed, who a  have e l e c t e d to s e t t l e i n B.C., place  of  settlement  destinations. difficulty  This  i s not  in finding  in  a reasonable  of  French  at  home  does  study  that  the  are bound  sized  sample of  students  t h a t the f r e q u e n c y scores  learning a  r e s e a r c h e r s who  better a child  study  should  number  of  second  not  be  language. taken  students  in  face  each  cell  discrimination  between  classification  i n t h i s study was  suggesting To  in  two  the p o s s i b i l i t y  counteract  used  the  this  further  f o r other for  the  who  have  of the  either  observed  preserves  However, the  at  value as  in  use  French  samples.  One  determined  on the b a s i s o f  h i s mother tongue,  results  as  the  and the b e t t e r he i s  because  well  of a response  of a  will  i n the the  lack  present  insufficient of  remember  rigorous that  the  by p a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ,  based on  social  desirability.  p o s s i b l e f a c t o r , students' questionnaires should research  for  on  These r e s u l t s seem t o c o n t r a d i c t  b e t t e r he succeeds a t s c h o o l i n h i s f i r s t language, at  families  one.  i n f l u e n c e the  the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by those  who  accounts  achievement or i n E n g l i s h achievement.  their  and  population  14 suggest  not  i s composed of  the  been a t t e n d i n g the program since"~grade R e s u l t s reported i n Table  French-oriented  and a l s o of f a m i l i e s whose c h o i c e  definitive,  variability  the  the  purpose  of  establishing  be  this  classification. Another q u e s t i o n t h a t i s d i f f i c u l t effect  of  integration  of  to address  anglophone and  i n t h i s s t u d y i s the  francophone  students.  Since  95  most o f the s c h o o l s I n t h e study were comprised o f these two l i n g u i s t i c subgroups, order  the r e s e a r c h e r  t o measure  d i d not have  adequately  Anglophone  and Francophone  Anglophone  and Francophone,  Anglophone  a r e needed.  either  the g a i n  as w e l l  the g a i n  samples  These  any p o i n t  In  or l o s s of French f o r or l o s s  o f 'pure'  two samples  o f comparison.  of E n g l i s h f o r  Francophone  when  exposed  and  'pure'  t o t h e same  program o f I n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e same p e r i o d o f time can serve as p o i n t s of  reference.  These c o n d i t i o n s may  be d i f f i c u l t  to f u l f i l l  i n B.C.  where l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f Franco-Colombians a r e not numerous. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t must be mentioned of  the p a r e n t s  subgroup,  and  t h a t the E d u c a t i o n a l  on the average was 12.8 y e a r s 14.4  years  Background  f o r the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d  f o r the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d  subgroup.  This  d i f f e r e n c e o f a l m o s t 2 y e a r s between the two subgroups must be i n d i c a t e d as i t might have i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s . variability  Another d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e  a c r o s s s c h o o l s i n terms o f time a l l o t m e n t t o f o r m a l E n g l i s h  i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h ranges from no i n s t r u c t i o n o r l i t t l e grade  three,  variability  t o 5% up t o 20% from grade t h r e e  i n grade one t o  t o grade seven.  This  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when a n a l y s i n g the r e s u l t s .  Other l i m i t a t i o n s about t h e program which should be i n d i c a t e d a r e : 1)  t h e Programme-Cadre-de-Francais  result  is still  developing  appropriate  teachers  I n t h e PCDF a r e c o n f r o n t e d  such  the teaching  as  students' l i n g u i s t i c help i n understanding the  results.  i s only  of m u l t i l e v e l  abilities.  with  s i x years  material special  and  o l d , and as a curricula,  teaching  2)  conditions  c l a s s e s , and the wide  These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s when kept  range o f i n mind,  the r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f  96  5.  Implications: However, the  study  has  program, a t grades f o u r and s c h o o l attendance for  21.3%  i n v e s t i g a t e d the six.  According  i n B.C.  situation  to December 1983  i n the PCDF the samples a n a l y z e d  of the PCDF f o u r t h g r a d e r s  s i x t h graders  current  i n B.C.,  of  f i g u r e s of  i n t h i s study  and  f o r 25.4%  In B r i t i s h Columbia, i t may  the  account  of the PCDF  be suggested  t h a t the  a c t u a l p i c t u r e o f the PCDF w i l l  remain the same i n the f u t u r e , s i n c e the  French-oriented  the  population  in  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d above. the  trends  of  this  study  in  PCDF  is  Therefore  terms  of  likely  to  show  the  same  i t c o u l d be recommended t h a t  long  term  effects  might  merit  attention. At to  the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l , b o t h  subgroups w i l l  r e g i s t e r i n an E n g l i s h Program or to c o n t i n u e  the event t h a t the F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d English  Program, i t may  be  formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n , six  between  students, French.  their  but The  one  s c o r e s , and cannot  the  c l o s e the  scores the  gap  obtained  loss  r e g r e s s i o n i n French  enough to prevent  when d e p r i v e d  of t h i s  with  In  Regular  Intensive  observed  at  grade  by E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d  they  I s the amount of French  i n Elementary school s u f f i c i e n t severe  i n a PCDF program.  t h a t once p r o v i d e d  will  predict  question i s :  whether  subgroups chooses to a t t e n d a  expected they  face a choice  will  experience  in  instruction received these  students  instruction?  o t h e r hand, the c h o i c e of a t t e n d i n g a PCDF program w i l l  from a On  the  l i k e l y l e a d them  towards h i g h l e v e l s of p r o f i c i e n c y i n French, but i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s a percentage these  of  students  20%  formal  English instruction  large  enough  w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e E n g l i s h s k i l l s , when they  to  provide  will  have to  97  compete w i t h s t u d e n t s i n s t r u c t e d s o l e l y i n E n g l i s h a t u n i v e r s i t y The  E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup w i l l  t h e event  a l s o have the same c h o i c e .  In  t h a t they choose t o s t a y i n a PCDF program, i n t e n s i v e f o r m a l  F r e n c h i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l h e l p them t o c l o s e the gap observed between  level.  their  students.  scores  the  scores  However, the same concerns  French-oriented  students'  l e s s e r extent, to t h e i r students  and  English  E n g l i s h , how s u c c e s s f u l w i l l  by  French-oriented  mentioned e a r l i e r w i t h r e g a r d t o  proficiency  situation.  compete a t u n i v e r s i t y  obtained  a t grade s i x  apply,  The q u e s t i o n here  level  w i t h students  although is:  to a  When  these  only i n s t r u c t e d i n  they be?  These q u e s t i o n s w i l l have t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a t a  later  time,  make a s t u d y  when  t h e number  feasible.  Until  of students  two subgroups  instance,  i n both  to verify  t h e secondary  then, research should  same sample i n t h e subsequent g r a d e s , the  at  and e v a l u a t e  languages.  It will  level  c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e the performance o f  be o f i n t e r e s t , f o r  i f English-oriented students,  supported  by  their  l i n g u i s t i c background, m a i n t a i n t h e i r achievement i n E n g l i s h a t the same level will  even w i t h o n l y be i n t e r e s t i n g  percentage  20% o f f o r m a l E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n . to v e r i f y  i f French-oriented  of formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l  English-speaking  students  i n a Regular  still  Moreover, i t  students, with achieve  E n g l i s h program?  this  as w e l l as In  French,  r e s e a r c h i s a l s o needed t o f i n d out i n which p r o p o r t i o n E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students  are going  t o improve  their  applies to French-oriented students. out  i f grade  s i x French-oriented  scores.  The same q u e s t i o n  also  I t may a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g to f i n d  s t u d e n t s , when a t grade  seven  will  98  m a i n t a i n t h e i r advantage i n F r e n c h over the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s i n the same p r o p o r t i o n and i f E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s w i l l  also maintain  t h e i r advantage i n E n g l i s h over t h e . F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s i n the same proportion. To summarize, the c u r r e n t study has i d e n t i f i e d t r e n d s emerging the  program  strengthened  under  Investigation.  long  as  these  trends  a r e not  by o t h e r r e s e a r c h , i n subsequent y e a r s , l o o k i n g a t a more  a d u l t PCDF, t h e r e w i l l this  As  from  program.  not be a thorough  e v a l u a t i o n o f the outcomes o f  F o r t h e b e n e f i t o f both subgroups e n r o l l e d  i n t h e s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  i n t h e PCDF,  o t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed.  On a l a r g e r s c a l e , t h e p r e s e n t study may be seen as an i n d i c a t o r o f the b e h a v i o r o f a program o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n the language o f a m i n o r i t y . As such, t h i s study may be r e p l i c a t e d i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s ,  investigating  the way t h e language o f o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s behave compared t o the s p e c i f i c minority-language analysed i n t h i s study. In to  o r d e r t o h e l p the u n d e r t a k i n g o f f u r t h e r r e p l i c a t i o n as w e l l as  help  to  generalize  the  findings  to  other  situations,  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s study a r e r e d e f i n e d b r i e f l y .  On L i n g u i s t i c Background: The  l i n g u i s t i c p u r i t y o f the m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e sample c o u l d not be  maintained  f o r reasons  o f sample s i z e .  T h e r e f o r e , the c o m b i n a t i o n o f  b o t h the pure m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e group and the mixed language group does not p r o v i d e r e s u l t s t h a t a r e as e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e as might have been the case had these two groups been t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y .  99  Furthermore, study  the minority-language  indicate a v a r i a b i l i t y  naires.  This  support  from  variability  students  of l i n g u i s t i c i s perhaps  the environment,  investigated  p a t t e r n s on t h e i r  accounted  s i n c e these  f o r by  families  i n the  question-  the l a c k  do not l i v e  of  within  "enclaves".  On Educational Background; The above  parents  Canadian  Furthermore, almost  o f s t u d e n t s i n each o f the l i n g u i s t i c norms  parents  subsample were  for level  of E d u c a t i o n a l l i n g u i s t i c  of  s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students  grade  background. ranked  two y e a r s h i g h e r than p a r e n t s o f F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s a t t h e  same grade l e v e l , w h i l e p a r e n t s o f grade f o u r E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s ranked  one y e a r h i g h e r than p a r e n t s o f F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s a t t h e  same grade l e v e l .  On Cognitive Ability: Compared t o Canadian norms, t h e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d h i g h e r grade s t u d e n t s and t h e E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d lower grade s t u d e n t s the  average  level.  However, t h e F r e n c h - o r i e n t e d lower  s c o r e d w e l l below average l e v e l . language  students  appear  At both  to' s c o r e  higher  grade  grade l e v e l s , than  scored a t students  the m a j o r i t y -  the m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e  s t u d e n t s on g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . To provided  sum  up, t h i s  study  may  be  generalized  to other  t h a t samples a r e matched on the above mentioned  situations characteris-  t i c s , and t h a t the program of i n s t r u c t i o n under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a t the  100  same  stage  should  of  be  development  replicated  by  as  the  program i n t h i s  researchers  m a j o r i t y language s i t u a t i o n s  to f i n d  looking  at  study. other  study  minority  out whether or not  f o r m u l a t e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r would be supported  This  the  and  hypotheses  g i v e n the matching on  characteristics. Before worth  concluding  addressing  French  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  i n further research  s c h o o l i n g on  classroom.  the  the  frequency  Mougeon and Canale  this  i s to  of the  use  study,  measure  another  the  of French  issue  i n f l u e n c e of  o u t s i d e of  the  (1978-1979) found  t h a t F r e n c h language s c h o o l i n g does not seem to have had a s t r o n g e f f e c t on the s t u d e n t ' s use of the French language .... t h a t F r e n c h language s c h o o l s l o c a t e d i n p r e d o m i n a n t l y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g O n t a r i a n communities w i l l e x p e r i e n c e more d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h a v i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s reach a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of French language mastery than French language s c h o o l s s e r v i n g F r a n c o - O n t a r i a n m a j o r i t y communities (p. 3 2 ) . This French  observation  language  in  leads  British  one  to  speculate  Columbia,  communities are p r a c t i c a l l y l n e x i s t e n t . t i o n may French  come t o mind:  language  where  on  Columbia?"  situation  of  the  Franco-Colombian m a j o r i t y  T h e r e f o r e , the f o l l o w i n g  " I s e d u c a t i o n i n French  in British  the  ques-  enough to m a i n t a i n  Answers on  students'  n a i r e s a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d some i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s m a t t e r , but d a t a are r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n a d e q u a t e l y .  the  questionadditional Further  r e s e a r c h s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e c o n c e n t r a t e a l s o on t h i s t h i s i m p o r t a n t i s s u e .  101  Reference  Notes  Anderson, T. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . P r e s c h o o l b l l l t e r a c y : educational implications. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t SEAMEO seminar on b i l i n g u a l i s m 16-21 A p r i l 1979, Singapore. Carey, S. T. and Cummins, J . (1978) E n g l i s h and F r e n c h achievement o f grade 5 c h i l d r e n from E n g l i s h , F r e n c h and mixed F r e n c h - E n g l i s h home backgrounds a t t e n d i n g t h e Edmonton S e p a r a t e S c h o o l System E n g l i s h F r e n c h immersion program. Report s u b m i t t e d to the EdmontonSeparate S c h o o l System. Ewanyshyn, E. (1980) Evaluation of a Ukranian-English Program ( 7 8 - 7 9 ) , P l a n n i n g and R e s e a r c h , A l b e r t a . Gray,  Bilingual  V. (1981) E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h immersion programme i n F r e d e r i c t o n , N.B.: Grades F i v e and S i x . ~ F r e d e r i c t o n , N.B. U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k .  H e b e r t , R., B i l o d e a u , M., F o i d a r t , D., L e g e r , R., Saindon, C. (1976) Summary - Academic achievement and language o f i n s t r u c t i o n among Franco-Manitoban p u p i l s . A p r i l 1976. C o l l e g e U n i v e r s i t a i r e de St. Boniface. M a u r i c e , J . L. & Roy, R. R. (1976) F r e n c h E d u c a t i o n R e p o r t . " Mimeo.  "Data C o n t r a d i c t C o n c l u s i o n s i n  Skutnabb-Kangas, T. & Toukomaa, P. (1976b). Teaching migrant c h i l d r e n ' s mother tongue and l e a r n i n g t h e language o f t h e h o s t country i n the context o f the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n of the migrant f a m i l y . T u t k i m u k s i a R e s e a r c h Reports - Department o f S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Tampere - F i n l a n d . Toukomaa, P. & Lasonen, K. (1979) On t h e l i t e r a c y o f F i n n i s h immigrant p u p i l s i n Sweden. R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s No. 86-1979 - Department o f Education - U n i v e r s i t y of J y v a s k y l a . Y a k i m i s h y n , M. P. (1976) Review and e v a l u a t i o n o f a r e s e a r c h s t u d y e n t i t l e d Report - Academic achievement of the Franco-Manitoban s t u d e n t . Report prepared f o r the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s Norwood School D i v i s i o n .  102  References  B r a t t - P a u l s t o n , C. (1975) E t h n i c R e l a t i o n s and B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n . A c c o u n t i n g f o r C o n t r a d i c t o r y Data. Working Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m 1-44, 01SE. C h r i s t i a n , C. C , J r . (1976) C u l t u r a l components o f r e a d i n g . An examination of psycholinguistic processes in reading and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the b i l i n g u a l classroom. Singapore: Singapore U n i v e r s i t y Press. Cummins, J . (1977-1978) E d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f mother tongue maintenance i n m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e groups. Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 395-416. Cummins, J . (1979) B i l i n g u a l i s m and e d u c a t i o n a l development i n a n g l o phone and m i n o r i t y f r a n c o p h o n e groups i n Canada, I n t e r c h a n g e , 9^, 40-51. E n g l e , P. L. (1975) Language medium i n e a r l y s c h o o l s y e a r s f o r minority-language groups. Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 45, 283-325. F e r g u s o n , G. A. (1981) S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, M o n t r e a l . Fishman, J . & Lovas J . (1970) B i l i n g u a l education i n s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e , TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 4^, 215-222. Fishman, A. (1976) B i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Newbury House, Rowley Mass. Genesee, F. (1978) s c h o o l program.  sociological  A l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of an e a r l y immersion Canadian J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n 1978, 3^, 31-50.  K e r l i n g e r , F. N. & Pedhazur, E. J . (1973) Multiple B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston.  Regression  In  Lambert, W. E. (1975) C u l t u r e and Language as f a c t o r s i n l e a r n i n g and education. I n A. Wolfang (Ed.) E d u c a t i o n o f Immigrant S t u d e n t s , Toronto: OISE. L a p k i n , S. & Swain, M. (1977) The use of E n g l i s h and French c l o z e t e s t s i n a b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n program e v a l u a t i o n . Language L e a r n i n g , 27_, 279-314. Mougeon, R. & Canale M. (1978-1979) Maintenance of F r e n c h i n O n t a r i o : I s E d u c a t i o n i n F r e n c h Enough? I n t e r c h a n g e , 9^ No.4.  103 Shapson, S. M. & Day, E. M. (1982) A l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of an e a r l y immersion program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. J o u r n a l o f M u l t i l i n g u a l and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Development, 3^ No. 1. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. & Toukomaa, P. (1976a) S e m i l i n g u a l i s m and m i d d l e c l a s s b i a s , W o r k i n g P a p e r s on B i l i n g u a l i s m , 19, 181-197. V o r i h , L. & R o s i e r , P. (1978) Rock P o i n t Community S c h o o l : An Example of a N a v a j o - E n g l i s h B i l i n g u a l Elementary School Program TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 12, No. 3.  104  Appendix A Questionnaire Questionnaire  d e s t i n e aux e l e v e s / s t u d e n t s '  e c r i t / W r i t t e n Questionnaire  1.  Nom/Name  2.  Adresse/Address:  3.  Date de n a i s s a n c e / D a t e o f b i r t h : mois/month  4.  questionnaires  and Summary o f t h e Answers  jour/day  annee/year  a)  Annee s c o l a i r e / g r a d e :  b)  Nom de l'ecole/Name o f s c h o o l : M  4  6  5.  Sexe/sex:  F  6.  Dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que t u p a r i e s aux personnes q u i prennent s o i n de t o i , mais q u i t r a v a i l l e n t a 1 ' e x t e r i e u r ? / I n which language do you speak t o the people who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r you and who work out? *  ne s ' a p p l i q u e  pas dans raon cas/does not a p p l y t o me  a)  Tout l e temps en f r a n c a i s / A l w a y s  b)  Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n French  c)  A u t a n t en f r a n c a i s qu'en a n g l a i s / A s much i n French  i n French  as i n E n g l i s h d)  Souvent en a n g l a i s / O f t e n i n E n g l i s h  e)  Tout l e temps en a n g l a i s / A l w a y s  i n English  105 Dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que t u p a r i e s aux personnes q u i prennent s o i n de t o i , e t q u i r e s t e n t a l a maison/In which language do you speak t o t h e people who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r you, but do not work out? *  ne s ' a p p l i q u e  pas dans mon cas/does not apply t o me  a)  Tout l e temps en f r a n c a i s / A l w a y s  b)  Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n F r e n c h  c)  A u t a n t en f r a n c a i s qu'en a n g l a i s / A s much i n F r e n c h as i n E n g l i s h -  d)  Souvent en a n g l a i s / O f t e n i n E n g l i s h  e)  Tout l e temps en a n g l a i s / A l w a y s  i n French  i n English  Dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que l e s personnes q u i prennent s o i n de t o i a l a maison se p a r l e n t e n t r e e u x ? / I n w h i c h language do t h e people who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r you speak t o each o t h e r ? *  ne s ' a p p l i q u e  pas dans mon cas/does not a p p l y  t o me  a)  Tout l e temps en f r a n c a i s / A l w a y s  b)  Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n F r e n c h  c)  A u t a n t en f r a n c a i s qu'en a n g l a i s / A s much i n F r e n c h  i n French  as i n E n g l i s h d)  Souvent en a n g l a i s / O f t e n i n E n g l i s h  e)  Tout l e temps en a n g l a i s / A l w a y s  i n English  Quand t u es a l a maison, dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que t u p a r i e s a t o n / t e s f r e r e ( s ) e t soeur(s)?/When at home, i n which language do you speak t o your b r o t h e r ( s ) and s i s t e r ( s ) ? *  ne s ' a p p l i q u e  pas dans mon cas/does not apply  t o me  a)  Tout l e temps en f r a n c a i s / A l w a y s  b)  Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n F r e n c h  c)  Autant en f r a n c a i s qu'en a n g l a i s / A s much i n F r e n c h  i n French  as i n E n g l i s h d)  Souvent en a n g l a i s / O f t e n i n E n g l i s h  e)  Tout l e temps en a n g l a i s / A l w a y s  i n English  •  106 10.  Quand t u j o u e s chez t o i , dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que t u p a r i e s a t e s amis(es)?/When you are p l a y i n g w i t h your f r i e n d s at your house, i n w h i c h language do you speak t o them? *  ne s ' a p p l i q u e pas dans raon cas/does not a p p l y t o me  a)  Tout l e temps en f r a n c a i s / A l w a y s i n F r e n c h  b)  Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n F r e n c h  c)  A u t a n t en f r a n c a i s qu'en a n g l a i s / A s much i n F r e n c h as i n E n g l i s h  d)  Souvent en a n g l a i s / O f t e n i n E n g l i s h  e)  Tout l e temps en a n g l a i s / A l w a y s i n E n g l i s h  107 Summary o f t h e Answers on Each Q u e s t i o n  6.  Dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que t u p a r i e s aux personnes q u i prennent s o i n de t o i , mais q u i t r a v a i l l e n t a l ' e x t e r i e u r ? / I n which language do you speak to the people who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r you and who work out? Grade 4  French-Oriented Students (n = 14)  Grade 6  English-Oriented Students (n = 20)  [%]  * a) b) c) d) e)  0 3 4 3 0 4  7.  [%] 0  = = =  21.4 28.6 21.4  =  28.6  French-Oriented Students (n = 15)  2 2 3 13  = = -  10 10 15 65  [%] 1 5 2 2 1 4  = = = = =  1 0 1 1 3 8  =  7.14  = = =  7.14 7.14 21.4 57.14  Dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que t u p a r i e s aux personnes q u i prennent s o i n de t o i , e t q u i r e s t e h t a l a maison/In w h i c h language do you speak to the people who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r you, but do not work out?  French-Oriented Students (n = 14)  Grade 6  English-Oriented Students (n = 20)  0 5 3 1 2 3  = = = = =  35.7 21.4 7.1 14.3 21.4  French-Oriented Students (n = 15)  IX]  [%) a) b) c) d) e)  [%]  6.7 33.3 13.3 13.3 6.7 26.7  Grade 4  *  English-Oriented Students (n = 14)  1 0 0 2 3 14  = 5 = 10 = 15 = 70  English-Oriented Students (n = 14)  [%] 3 4 2 2 1 3  = 20 = 26.7 = 13.3 = 13.3 = 6.7 = 20  [%] 1 0 0 1 1 11  =  7.14  = 7.14 = 7.14 = 78.6  108 8.  Dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que l e s personnes q u i prennent s o i n de t o i a l a maison se p a r l e n t e n t r e eux?/In which language do t h e people who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r you speak t o each o t h e r ?  Grade 4 French-Oriented Students (n = 14)  Grade 6  English-Oriented Students (n = 20)  [%]  * a) b) c) d) e)  9.  0 4 2 0 2 6  French-Oriented E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Students (n = 15) (n = 14)  l%] 0 0 1 1 2 16  = 28.6 = 14.3 = 14.3 - 42.8  = = = =  5 5 10 80  l%] 3 5 0 1 21 4  1 = 7.14 0 0 0 1 - 7.14 12 - 85.7  - 20 = 33.3 = 6.7 = 13.3 = 26.7  Quand t u es a l a maison, dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que t u p a r i e s a t o n / t e s f r e r e ( s ) et soeur(s)?/When a t home, i n which language do you speak t o your b r o t h e r ( s ) and s i s t e r ( s ) ? Grade 4  French-Oriented Students (n = 14)  Grade 6  English-Oriented Students (n = 20)  [%] a) b) c) d) e)  [%]  1 3 1 2 1 6  = 7.1 = 21.4 = 7.1 = 14.3 = 7.1 = 42.8  French-Oriented English-Oriented Students Students (n = 15) (n = 14)  [%] 1 0 1 4 2 12  =  5  = 5 = 20 = 10 = 60  [%] 2 3 0 0 4 6  = 13.3 = 20 = 26.7 = 40  [%] 0 0 1 1 5 7  = 7.14 = 7.14 = 35.7 = 50  109 10.  Quand t u j o u e s chez t o i , dans q u e l l e langue e s t - c e que t u p a r i e s a tes amis(es)?/When you are p l a y i n g w i t h your f r i e n d s at your house, i n which language do you speak t o them? Grade 4  French-Oriented Students (n = 14)  Grade 6  English-Oriented Students (n = 20)  French-Oriented Students (n = 15)  l%] * a) b) c) d) e)  0 2 0 2 2 8  Note:  =  14.3  = 14.3 - 14.3 = 57.1  Figures  English-Oriented Students (n = 14)  [%] 0 0 0 2 = 10 4 = 20 14 = 70  0 0 1 1 2 11  = 6.7 = 6.7 - 13.3 = 73.3  [%] 0 0 0 0 1 = 7.14 13 = 92.8  i n p a r e n t h e s e s are numbers of s t u d e n t s i n each  cell.  110 Appendix B ( F r e n c h v e r s i o n ) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s t i n e aux p a r e n t s  S.V.P. repondre aux q u e s t i o n s s u i v a n t e s par un ( x ) 1.  Langue m a t e r n e l l e du pere ou du g a r d i e n :  francais: anglais: autre:  2.  Langue m a t e r n e l l e de l a mere ou de l a gardienne:  francais: anglais: autre:  3.  Langue seconde du pere ou du g a r d i e n :  francais: anglais: autre:  4.  Langue seconde da l a mere ou de l a gardienne:  francais: anglais: autre:  5.  Degre d ' u t i l i s a t i o n du f r a n c a i s a l a maison: Toujours: Souvent: Moitie francais, moitie anglais: Un peu: Jamais: N.B. L e s q u e s t i o n s #6 e t , #7 sont i m p o r t a n t e s r e c h e r c h e , mais neanmoins sont l a i s s e e s a votre Merci.  6.  Formation  academique du pere ou du g a r d i e n : ( y e a r s )  secondaire: CEGEP: Universite: Autre: 7.  Formation  pour c e t t e discretion.  1 1 1  -  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4  academique de l a mere ou de l a gardienne:  secondaire: CEGEP: Universite: Autre:  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4  (years)  Ill  8.  9.  Nombre d'annees que v o t r e e n f a n t a passees dan un m i l i e u phone ou/et anglophone d e p u l s sa n a l s s a n c e :  franco-  a.  m i l i e u francophone dans une p r o v i n c e ou pays francophone  b.  m i l i e u francophone dans une p r o v i n c e ou pays anglophone  '  c.  m i l i e u anglophone dans une p r o v i n c e ou pays francophone  •  d.  m i l i e u anglophone dans une p r o v i n c e ou pays anglophone  Ce t a b l e a u r e p r e s e n t e l e s annees que v o t r e e n f a n t a passees dans l e programme en c o u r s , et a u s s i l e s annees q u ' i l a passees dans des programmes a n t e r l e u r s : Kg.  l a e  2 a e  3 a e  4 a e  5 a e  6 a e  Programme-Cadre-de-Francais: E c o l e d*Immersion  Francaise:  E c o l e de langue f r a n c a i s e : E c o l e de langue a n g l a l s e : N.B.: S ' i l a r r i v a i t que v o t r e e n f a n t a i t r e p e t e une annee, v e u i l l e z l ' I n d i q u e r c i - a p r e s en mentionnant l'annee e t l e genre de programme en c o u r s : Programme: Annee:  112 Appendix B ( E n g l i s h v e r s i o n ) Parent' s Questionnaire P l e a s e answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n by a x 1.  Mother tongue of the f a t h e r or g u a r d i a n :  French: English: Other:  2.  Mother tongue of the mother or g u a r d i a n :  French: English: Other:  3.  Second language  of the f a t h e r or g u a r d i a n :  French: English: Other:  4.  Second language o f the mother or g u a r d i a n :  French: English: Other:  5.  Use of F r e n c h a t home: Always: Often: 1/2 F r e n c h 1/2 Sometimes: Never: N.B.  6.  English:  P a r e n t s p l e a s e note t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d i n q u e s t i o n s 6 and 7 i s v e r y u s e f u l and i m p o r t a n t f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h , however, i f one chooses, one may e l e c t not to answer.  E d u c a t i o n a l background J u n i o r High School Senior High School University: Graduate S t u d i e s : Other:  7.  E d u c a t i o n a l background J u n i o r High School S e n i o r High S c h o o l University: Graduate S t u d i e s : Other:  of the f a t h e r o r g u a r d i a n : 8 11 1  9 12 2  10 3  4  5  4  5  of the mother or g u a r d i a n : 8 11 1  9 12 2  10 3  113 8.  9.  Number o f y e a r s t h a t your c h i l d spent phone m i l i e u x , s i n c e h i s / h e r b i r t h :  I n Francophone and/or A n g l o -  a.  Francophone m i l i e u i n a Francophone p r o v i n c e o r c o u n t r y  b.  Francophone m i l i e u i n an Anglophone p r o v i n c e o r c o u n t r y  c.  Anglophone m i l i e u i n a Francophone p r o v i n c e o r c o u n t r y  d.  Anglophone m i l i e u i n an Anglophone p r o v i n c e o r c o u n t r y  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e y e a r s t h a t your c h i l d PCDF as w e l l as the y e a r s spent i n p r e v i o u s programs: Kg.  1  2  3  4  5  spent i n  6  Programme-Cadre-de-Francais: French Immersion: French S c h o o l : E n g l i s h School: N.B.: I f your c h i l d has repeated one grade, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h e grade and t h e program he/she was a t t e n d i n g a t t h a t time: Program: Grade:  114  Appendix C R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Gates-MacGinitie Test (Decimal P o i n t s O m i t t e d )  Test L e v e l and Form  Grade L e v e l  Rl  1.2  -  87  A2  1.5  91  92  Bl  2.2  92  92  CI  3.2  94  90  Dl  4.2  87  87  Dl  5.2  90  89  Dl  6.2  90  89  El  7.2  85  86  El  8.2  87  87  El  9.2  89  88  Fl  10.2  87  86  Fl  11.2  88  85  Fl  12.2  89  85  Vocabulary  Comprehension*  115  Appendix D T a b l e d ' E q u i v a l e n c e pour l e s T e s t s de Rendement/ C o n v e r s i o n T a b l e f o r t h e T e s t s de Rendement 1982-83  Stanine  F r a n c a i s - 4e  - 8  F r a n c a i s - 6e  Francais  0  - 8  -  11  9  - 11  -  15  12  -  15  -  16  - 19  16  - 19  -  5  20  - 23  20  - 23  -  6  24  - 27  24  - 26  -  7  28  - 29  27  - 29  -  8  30  - 33  30  - 31  -  9  34  - 35  32  - 34  -  1  0  2  9  3  12  -  4  116  Appendix E P e r c e n t i l e Ranks and Ranges C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S t a n i n e s (used f o r t h e T e s t de Rendement)  Stanine  Percentile Rank  Percentile Range  9  98  96 - 100  8  92.5  89 -  96  7  83  77 -  89  6  68.5  60 -  77  5  50  40 -  60  4  31.5  23 -  40  3  17  11 -  23  2  5.5  4 -  11  1  2  0 -  4  117 Appendix F L i s t o f T e s t Employed Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s T e s t (Form 1: Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1974. G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s Canada L t d . , 1980.  (Forms  1,  Levels  2 L e v e l D)  A-F;  Grades  Toronto:  3-9).  Nelson  Test  de L e c t u r e (Grade 3 and Grade 5 l e v e l s ) . Toronto: Bilingual E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t , The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1979.  Test  de Rendement en F r a n c a i s (Grade 4 l e v e l , 1983 e d i t i o n ; Grade 6 level, 1983 edition). Montreal: La Commission des Ecoles C a t h o l i q u e s de M o n t r e a l .  

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