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Two paths to an additive form of bilingualism through instruction in French : an evaluation of the academic.. 1984

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TWO PATHS TO AN ADDITIVE FORM OF BILINGUALISM THROUGH INSTRUCTION IN FRENCH, THE MINORITY LANGUAGE By GISELLE CORBEIL B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1984 © G i s e l l e C o r b e i l , 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of fat&tMf* &&azfa7& The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date - i i - A b s t r a c t The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e outcomes of a French program i n a m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n at grades four and s i x . This program, designed f o r c h i l d r e n of Francophone f a m i l i e s , o f f e r s i n s t r u c t i o n mainly i n French. Nonetheless, two d i f f e r e n t samples were found i n the pro- gram, a more French-oriented sample and a more E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d sample. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was undertaken to f i n d out how these two sub- groups achieve on measures of French and E n g l i s h reading. Francophone and Anglophone parents wish to know how w e l l t h e i r c h i l d r e n achieve i n E n g l i s h compared to students i n s t r u c t e d only i n E n g l i s h , and f u r t h e r how w e l l t h e i r c h i l d r e n achieve i n French compared to Francophone students i n Quebec. The study consisted of a d m i n i s t e r i n g questionnaires to students and parents i n order to assess the l i n g u i s t i c background, and of t e s t i n g the two subgroups i d e n t i f i e d i n the program, w i t h measures of French and E n g l i s h . Since these two subgroups made up the sample under i n v e s t i g a - t i o n , i t was p o s s i b l e to examine claims advanced by researchers about two d i f f e r e n t ways of a t t a i n i n g b i l i n g u a l i s m — a d d i t i v e and s u b t r a c t i v e — f o r these two groups. The subjects were students at grades four and s i x e n r o l l e d i n four schools from four metropolitan Vancouver, B.C. d i s t r i c t s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the PCDF was examined by comparing the PCDF students' mean scores f o r three dependent v a r i a b l e s — t h e "Gates- M a c G i n i t i e " t e s t , the "Test de L e c t u r e " , and the "Test de Rendement" - i i i - w i t h r e s p e c t i v e l y , scores of English-speaking students e n r o l l e d i n a Regular E n g l i s h Program, scores of English-speaking students e n r o l l e d i n French Immersion Program, and scores of native-speakers of French e n r o l l e d i n Quebec schools. Further comparisons were a l s o attempted between the two subgroups' scores on these measures w i t h i n the PCDF, as t h e i r r e s u l t s on these three t e s t s were a l s o analysed i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r home language use. The data were analysed using analyses of covariance w i t h a c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y t e s t as the c o v a r i a t e . The r e s u l t s of the analyses i n d i c a t e d that the PCDF was an e f f e c - t i v e l e a r n i n g experience f o r both subgroups. Both subgroups at grades four and s i x do not experience any setback i n E n g l i s h , when compared to Regular E n g l i s h Program students (REP) on the Gates-MacGinitie. On the Test de Lec t u r e , E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students, at grades four and s i x , achieved as w e l l as French Immersion students ( E I P ) . The same r e s u l t s are a l s o found f o r grade four French-oriented students, while the grade s i x French-oriented students achieved w e l l above the 50th p e r c e n t i l e score on the Test de Lecture. Compared to native-speakers of French, E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students at grade four do not perform as w e l l on the Test de Rendement whereas grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students, while evidencing an improvement, s t i l l do not score as w e l l . Grade four French-oriented students also scored low on the Test de Rendement, while grade s i x achieved as w e l l as native-speakers of French. H i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s may account f o r the low scores of grade four French-oriented students. Furthermore, many students i n the study have been i n the PCDF f o r an average of only two years, l i m i t i n g , t h e r e f o r e , the p o s s i b i l i t y of a t t a i n i n g high scores i n French. - i v - Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r research were proposed. For i n s t a n c e , the sample groups tested i n t h i s study should be r e t e s t e d i n subsequent grades, thus p r o v i d i n g a more accurate p i c t u r e of the outcomes of the PCDF. - v - Table of Contents Page A b s t r a c t 11 Table of Contents v L i s t of Tables... v i i L i s t of Figures i x Acknowledgements x Dedication x i Chapter I . Scope and Focus of the Study 1 1. Background of the Problem 1 2. Statement of the Problem.... 6 3. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 10 4. Hypotheses 12 Chapter I I . Review of Related L i t e r a t u r e 15 1. Review of Previous Research..... 15 a) Majority-language c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n 15 second language programs of i n s t r u c t i o n b) Minority-language c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n f i r s t language programs of i n s t r u c t i o n 19 2. Summary of the State of the Art 32 Chapter I I I . Methodology 35 1. D e s c r i p t i o n of Programs 35 2. D e s c r i p t i o n of Subjects 36 3. Research Design and Procedures.... 46 4. D e s c r i p t i o n of Measures Employed 50 Chapter IV. A n a l y s i s of Data 57 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 57 2. Summary of Analyses of Covariance 57 3. Summary of Analyses of Covariance 61 4. Summary of Analyses of Covariance 67 - v i - Page 5. Summary of M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses 72 6. Summary of Analyses of Covariance 76 7. Summary of the P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n Analyses 78 8. Summary of D i s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s 78 Chapter V. Summary F i n d i n g s , Conclusion, L i m i t a t i o n , I m p l i c a t i o n s 82 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 82 2. Summary of F i n d i n g s . . 83 3. Conclusions 90 4. L i m i t a t i o n s 93 5. I m p l i c a t i o n s 96 Reference Notes 101 References 102 Appendices • 104 A. Students' Questionnaire 104 B. Parents' Questionnaire (French/English) 110 C. R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Gates-MacGinitie 114 D. Table d'Equivalence pour l e s Tests de Rendement/ Conversion Table f o r the "Tests de Rendement"... 115 E. P e r c e n t i l e Ranks and Ranges Corresponding to Stanines (used f o r the Tests de Rendement) 116 F. L i s t of Tests Employed 117 - v i i - L i s t of Tables Table Page 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Students by Grade, Sex and L i n g u i s t i c Backgrounds 37 2a Mean Number of Years of School Attendance 42 2b S t a t i s t i c s Canada Data f o r B.C. and Canada (1981) 43 3 Mean Number and Standard D e v i a t i o n of the Score on the "CCAT" 45 4 D e s c r i p t i o n of a One-way ANOVA 47 5a Summary of Analyses of Covariance of Achievement Tests Scores Dependent V a r i a b l e Gates-MacGinitie 58 5b Summary of Analyses of Covariance of Achievement Tests Scores Dependent V a r i a b l e Test De Lecture 59 5c Summary of Analyses of Covariance of Achievement Tests Scores Dependent V a r i a b l e Test De Rendement 60 6 Summary of Analyses of Covariance w i t h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Exposure to the Program" (Grade 4 ) . . . 65 7 Summary of Analyses of Covariance w i t h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Exposure to the Program" (Grade 6) 66 8 Means and Standard Deviations of "Amount of Exposure to PCDF" 68 9 Means and Standard Deviations of "Amount of Exposure to REP" ., 69 10 Summary of Analyses of Covariance wit h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Number of Years L i v e d i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " (Grade 4) 70 11 Summary of Analyses of Covariance wit h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Number of Years L i v e d i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " (Grade 6) 71 12 Means and Standard Deviations of "Number of Years Lived i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " 73 13 Summary of M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses with Four Independent V a r i a b l e s 75 - v i i i - Table Page 14 Summary of A n a l y s i s of Covariance w i t h the Independent V a r i a b l e s : "Dominant-Francophone and Mixed".* 77 15 P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n Analyses Between French Tests Scores and E n g l i s h Test Scores 79 16 Mean Number of Scores on the Dependent V a r i a b l e s Compared to Mean Number of Scores on the Independent V a r i a b l e 80 - i x - L i s t of Figur e s Figures Page 1 G r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s of P e r c e n t i l e Ranks on the Gates-MacGinitie • 62 2 G r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s of P e r c e n t i l e Ranks on the Test de Lecture . 63 3 Gra p h i c a l A n a l y s i s of P e r c e n t i l e Ranks on the Test de Rendement 64 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My s i n c e r e thanks are extended to my s u p e r v i s o r , Professor Robert Roy f o r h i s unending patience, h i s a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement. I am g r a t e f u l to Professo r M a r s h a l l A r l i n f o r h i s c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n of methodology, and h i s moral support. In a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e to thank Professor Stan Shapson f o r h i s precious advice on planning and t e s t i n g . F i n a l l y , I would a l s o l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e to the School Boards, teachers, p r i n c i p a l s , and students f o r t h e i r cooperation. - x i - DEDICATION I would l i k e to dedicate t h i s t h e s i s to my mother, Therese, my brother Jacques, and to a s p e c i a l f r i e n d Robert, who, by t h e i r constant a s s i s t a n c e and f a i t h have encouraged me i n r e a l i z i n g my o b j e c t i v e s . 1 CHAPTER I Scope and Focus of the Study 1. Background of the Problem A body of research has suggested two d i f f e r e n t ways of a c h i e v i n g b i l i n g u a l i s m , depending on whether one belongs to the majority-language group or to the minority-language group. For the majority-language group, b i l i n g u a l i s m w i l l be achieved through the teaching of the second language, while f o r the minority-language group, b i l i n g u a l i s m w i l l be achieved through the teaching of the mother tongue. These two ways, wh i l e d i f f e r e n t , must f u l f i l l the same e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n i n order to accomplish t h e i r common goal which i s the attainment of b i l i n g u a l i s m . The e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n l i e s i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of an " a d d i t i v e " form of b i l i n g u a l i s m . This concept has o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Wallace Lambert (1975), a f t e r he had reviewed studies conducted i n Singapore, South A f r i c a , S w i t z e r l a n d , I s r a e l , New York and Montreal i n d i c a t i n g that b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n , r e l a t i v e to monolingual c o n t r o l s show a d e f i n i t e advantage on measures of " c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b l i t y , " " c r e a t i v i t y " or "divergent thought" (p. 65). He observed that these s t u d i e s were comprised of b i l i n g u a l s who were "adding" a second s o c i a l l y r e levant language, the l e a r n i n g of which was not going to replace i n any way, t h e i r own language. In c o n t r a s t , t h i s researcher pointed out that other groups of c h i l d r e n may experience a " s u b t r a c t i v e " form of b i l i n g u a l i s m . These c h i l d r e n belong to ethnic minority groups, and "are f o r c e d , because of n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and s o c i a l pressures of various s o r t s , to put aside 2 t h e i r e t h n i c language f o r a n a t i o n a l language" (p. 68). Lambert sugges- ted that "the important educational task of the future (was) to t r a n s - form the pressures on e t h n i c groups so that they can p r o f i t from an a d d i t i v e form of b i l i n g u a l i s m " (p. 68). This observation i m p l i e s that i f minority-language c h i l d r e n do not put aside t h e i r e t h n i c language f o r the majority-language, they may experience an " a d d i t i v e " form of b i l i n g u a l i s m . In other words, i f minority-language c h i l d r e n are taught i n t h e i r mother tongue, t h e i r language being made the language of i n s t r u c t i o n i n schools, they w i l l develop a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the a c q u i s i t i o n of the second l a n - guage, si n c e they w i l l not f e e l threatened i n t h e i r own language. This " a d d i t i v e " form of b i l i n g u a l i s m w i l l be expressed i n terms of hig h l e v e l s of competence i n both languages. Cummins' (1979) evolved h i s hypotheses from Lambert's theory, and proposed "that there may be 'threshold' l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c competence which a b i l i n g u a l c h i l d must a t t a i n both . to avoid c o g n i t i v e disadvantages and allow the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of becoming b i l i n g u a l to i n f l u e n c e h i s c o g n i t i v e growth" (p. 42). Studies conducted on majority-language c h i l d r e n (Lambert & Tucker, 1972; Gray, 1981; Shapson & Day 1982) e n r o l l e d i n second-language pro- grams have shown that these students have a t t a i n e d high l e v e l s of b i l i n g u a l i s m i n both t h e i r mother tongue, and the second language. Therefore, they have reached t h i s higher threshold of competence. These stu d i e s w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l i n the second chapter. Cummins f u r t h e r , suggested that there may be two t h r e s h o l d s , a lower one and a higher one. While the attainment of the lower t h r e s h o l d 3 may not co n t r i b u t e to any negative c o g n i t i v e e f f e c t , i t may ne i t h e r provide any impulse towards a c o g n i t i v e growth. As a r e s u l t a c h i l d whose development i n both languages Is e q u a l l y poor, i s not equipped to b e n e f i t f u l l y of h i s edu c a t i o n a l environment through both languages. This s i t u a t i o n i s more d e s c r i p t i v e of minority-language c h i l d r e n who are e n r o l l e d In second-language programs as e a r l y as grade one. Studies conducted by Skuthabb-Kangas and Toukomaa (1976a) have found that F i n n i s h students e n r o l l e d i n Swedish comprehensive schools i n Sweden, have developed a "s e m i l i n g u a l i s m " described as knowing n e i t h e r the mother tongue, nor the majority-language p r o p e r l y . Cummins' (1978) second hypothesis emphasizes the mastery of the mother tongue as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the s u c c e s s f u l a c q u i s i t i o n of a second language. This "developmental" hypothesis proposes that "the l e v e l of L2 competence which a b i l i n g u a l c h i l d a t t a i n s i s a f u n c t i o n of the l e v e l of the c h i l d ' s LI competence at the time when Intensive exposure to L2 begins" (p. 405). Cummins commented that when LI i s adequately developed and r e i n f o r c e d by the c h i l d ' s environment outside of school as i n the case of most middle- c l a s s Anglophone c h i l d r e n i n North American 'immersion' programs, i n t e n s i v e exposure to L2 i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n high l e v e l s of L2 competence at no cost of LI competence (p. 405). In c o n t r a s t , Cummins explained that when LI i s poorly developed, as i n the case of many lower- c l a s s or disadvantaged c h i l d r e n , i n t e n s i v e exposure to L2 can impede the continued development of LI s k i l l s . In t u r n , the f a c t that LI s k i l l s remain poorly developed, w i l l exert a l i m i t i n g e f f e c t on the development of L2 (p. 405). 4 Foll o w i n g Cummins' reasoning, a question springs to mind. With regard to minority-language c h i l d r e n , i f LI Is adequately taught i n scho o l s , and supported by the home environment, i s i t reasonable to assume that these c h i l d r e n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y a t t a i n a high l e v e l of L2 competence? I f they succeed, these students may be seen as having undertaken s u c c e s s f u l l y the f i r s t step o u t l i n e d i n the "developmental" hypothesis, and being w e l l equipped to engage i n the second step described i n the "threshold hypothesis." Landry (1980) r e f e r r i n g to Cummins' hypotheses (1979), i n d i c a t e s that b i l i n g u a l i s m f o r minority-language c h i l d r e n might not imply " s u b t r a c t i v e " b i l i n g u a l i s m but, i f not properly taught i n t h e i r mother tongue, c h i l d r e n are l i k e l y to develop " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m . " Therefore, h i s observation i m p l i e s that " a d d i t i v e " b i l i n g u a l i s m r e f l e c t e d i n the attainment of high " l e v e l s " of l i n g u i s t i c competence, upon the comple- t i o n of the developmental stage, may be a p o s s i b l e e xpectation f o r minority-language c h i l d r e n . Is there any evidence confirming that minority-language c h i l d r e n taught i n t h e i r mother tongue achieve w e l l i n both languages? In Canada, Hebert et a l . (1976), Carey and Cummins (1978), Ewanyshyn (1980) have found that when these c h i l d r e n receive I n s t r u c t i o n i n schools, i n t h e i r L I , they achieve w e l l i n L I , and also i n L2, since L2 i s the language of the environment outside of the classroom. These s t u d i e s w i l l be paid more a t t e n t i o n i n the second chapter. Another point worth I n v e s t i g a t i n g f o r minority-language c h i l d r e n i s t h e i r a b i l i t y to t r a n s f e r reading s k i l l s from LI to L2. Lambert and 5 Tucker (1972), when conducting t h e i r study on French Immersion c h i l d r e n , were i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g out whether c h i l d r e n i n French Immersion would be able to t r a n s f e r and r e l a t e notions developed through French i n t o already known E n g l i s h concepts, to note and make use of c o n t r a s t s , and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the s t r u c t u r e s of French and E n g l i s h , and to g e n e r a l i z e the reading s k i l l s they have e s t a b l i s h e d i n French to E n g l i s h (p. 35). The r e s u l t s of the study have confirmed t h e i r expectations. C h i l d r e n In t h i s program showed that they have developed techniques on t h e i r own f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g reading s k i l l s from French (L2) to E n g l i s h ( L I ) . Lambert and Tucker (1972) were concerned about majority-language students, and t h e i r a b i l i t y to t r a n s f e r s k i l l s from a weaker language to t h e i r own language. One wonders i f t h i s t r a n s f e r takes place f o r minority-language c h i l d r e n , or put more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i f the c h i l d r e n taught i n t h e i r mother tongue develop techniques on t h e i r own f o r t r a n s - f e r r i n g reading s k i l l s from French ( L I ) to E n g l i s h ( L 2). Research aforementioned, conducted on minority-language c h i l d r e n have i n d i c a t e d that these c h i l d r e n are s u c c e s s f u l i n l e a r n i n g two languages. In t h i s event, an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l may be drawn between these two groups, i n r e l a t i o n w i t h t h i s process c a l l e d " t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s . " I t may be suggested that the two groups experience the process, at the same l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y , using two d i f f e r e n t ways. For m a j o r i t y - language c h i l d r e n , the process takes place through t h e i r weaker language, while f o r minority-language c h i l d r e n , the process takes place through t h e i r dominant language. Research (Skutnabb-Kangas & Toukomaa, 1976a; B r a t t - P a u l s t o n , 1975) has i n d i c a t e d that t h i s t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s 6 does not operate when minority-language c h i l d r e n are taught i n t h e i r weaker language. What does account f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e ? Researchers such as V o r i h and R o s i e r (1978) and S a v i l l e and Troike (reported i n P.E. Engle 1975) have n o t i c e d that minority-language c h i l d - ren who are taught i n t h e i r mother tongue, develop a p r i d e i n t h e i r language, s e l f a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and eagerness to l e a r n a second language, thereby, "adding" a new language i n s t e a d of " r e j e c t i n g " or " s u b t r a c t i n g " i t . This p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the second language may l a y founda- t i o n s f o r the development of a t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s . D i f f e r e n t concepts such as " a d d i t i v e " b i l i n g u a l i s m , " t h r e s h o l d " and "developmental" hypotheses, " t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s " have been explained so f a r , but w i l l take another dimension when s i t u a t e d i n a r e a l context. The "Statement of the Problem" below w i l l s o r t out the features of the study, and w i l l r e l a t e them to the concepts already d e f i n e d . 2. Statement of the Problem As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , two forms of b i l i n g u a l i s m may develop, an " a d d i t i v e " form or a " s u b t r a c t i v e " form. The " a d d i t i v e " form i s deemed to lead to a high t h r e s h o l d of b i l i n g u a l i s m , and a l s o to s t i m u l a t e a t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s across languages. The " s u b t r a c t i v e " form Is b e l i e v e d to l i m i t one person to a low t h r e s h o l d of l i n g u i s t i c competence, and to produce " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m . " While the " a d d i t i v e " form, and i t s c o r o l l a r y have been assumed to be the p r i v i l e g e of the majority-language c h i l d r e n , the " s u b t r a c t i v e " form, and i t s pendant were associated with the status of "minority-language c h i l d r e n " (Skutnabb-Kangas & Toukomaa, 1976a; Toukooma & Lasonen, 1979). 7 However, a new trend emerged from recent studies (Vorih & Rosier, 1978; Carey & Cummins 1978; Ewanyshyn 1980) conducted on minority- language children. These studies have suggested that the benefits of an "additive" form of bilingualism were not only reserved for majority- language children, but that, under special conditions, these advantages could be also the lot of the minority-language children. These special conditions according to these researchers may be contained in one major realization which is the teaching of the mother tongue. From this perspective, i t may be reasonable to assume that a program of instruction which offers the teaching of the mother tongue to minority-language children w i l l promote a high level of linguistic s k i l l s . In the event that this program also hosts a majority-language population, the same results w i l l be then expected, since these students w i l l be attending a program of instruction in a second language follow- ing a deliberate choice. Building on this reasoning, i t may be hypothesized that both groups w i l l evidence a transfer of s k i l l s across their languages. The language of instruction being French, English-speaking children w i l l therefore, transfer linguistic s k i l l s from their L2 (French) to their LI (English), while French-speaking children w i l l transfer linguistic s k i l l s from their LI (French) to their L2 (English). The difference between the two processes li e s in the status each language enjoys. For majority- language students, their language is widely used outside of the class- room and consequently does not need to be reinforced in a school situa- tion, while for minority-language students, their language is not given 8 the same c o n s i d e r a t i o n In the m i l i e u at l a r g e , and, t h e r e f o r e , needs to be r e h a b i l i t a t e d i n an academic m i l i e u . When t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s r e a l - i z e d , then minority-language c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e i r mother tongue, and majority-language c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e i r second language should b e n e f i t f u l l y from the same l e a r n i n g experience. In B r i t i s h Columbia, a program c a l l e d the "Programme-Cadre-de- F r a n c a i s " o f f e r s i n s t r u c t i o n mainly i n French. The program was designed f o r Francophone f a m i l i e s which represent a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y i n B.C., si n c e the dominant language i s E n g l i s h . From the arguments debated p r e v i o u s l y , the students should be placed i n a favorable s i t u a t i o n to experience a form of " a d d i t i v e " b i l i n g u a l i s m , to t r a n s f e r s k i l l s from French to E n g l i s h , and as a r e s u l t to a t t a i n a high t h r e s h o l d of l i n g u i s t i c competence. Since the program has accepted Anglophone c h i l d r e n , f o r reasons that are explained i n Chapter 3, these students are expected to "add" a s o c i a l l y r e levant language to t h e i r own, and to b e n e f i t a l s o from the advantages as s o c i a t e d to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . The "Programme-Cadre-de-Francais" should, on the ba s i s of the s t u d i e s already mentioned, promote a high l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s f o r both m i n o r i t y and majority-language groups. This l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l may be expected i n t h e i r academic performance. Because French and E n g l i s h c h i l d r e n i n the PCDF have d i f f e r e n t home language backgrounds, d i f f e r e n c e s may occur i n the r e l a t i v e performance of these two groups on t e s t s of E n g l i s h s k i l l s and t e s t s of French s k i l l s . In t h i s study, separate hypotheses w i l l be formulated concerning c h i l d r e n i n each group. 9 The questions formulated below w i l l help to c i r c u m s c r i b e the issues at stake i n the PCDF study. A major question w i l l be addressed, followed by s u b s i d i a r y ones. Main Question In an Anglophone m i l i e u , w i l l a c h i l d whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s French-oriented, and who i s mainly i n s t r u c t e d i n French throughout h i s Elementary s c h o o l , perform as w e l l on E n g l i s h Reading Comprehension and E n g l i s h Vocabulary t e s t s as a c h i l d whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d and who i s mainly I n s t r u c t e d i n E n g l i s h ? S u b s i d i a r y Ones W i l l a c h i l d whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s E n g l i s h o r i e n t e d , and who i s mainly i n s t r u c t e d i n French throughout h i s Elementary s c h o o l , perform as w e l l as a c h i l d who comes from the same l i n g u i s t i c back- ground, but i s only i n s t r u c t e d i n E n g l i s h on E n g l i s h Reading Comprehen- s i o n and E n g l i s h Vocabulary t e s t s ? W i l l two c h i l d r e n , whose l i n g u i s t i c background f o r one i s more French-oriented, and f o r the other more E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d , and who are mainly i n s t r u c t e d i n French throughout Elementary s c h o o l , perform at the same l e v e l on E n g l i s h Reading Comprehension and E n g l i s h Vocabulary t e s t s ? W i l l a c h i l d whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d , and who i s mainly i n s t r u c t e d i n French perform as w e l l as a c h i l d whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s French-oriented, and who r e c e i v e s the same 10 program of i n s t r u c t i o n , on French Vocabulary and French Reading Compre- hension? On a measure of French, w i l l a c h i l d whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s French, and who i s attending a PCDF program throughout h i s Elementary school perform d i f f e r e n t l y from a c h i l d whose l i n g u i s t i c background i s E n g l i s h but who i s a t t e n d i n g a French Immersion Program? W i l l there be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these two groups at grade s i x on a measure of French as a r e s u l t of exposure to program? W i l l a c h i l d whose mother tongue i s E n g l i s h , and who i s attending a PCDF program throughout h i s Elementary school years, perform higher on a French t e s t than a c h i l d from the same l i n g u i s t i c background but who i s att e n d i n g French Immersion Program? W i l l there be a d i f f e r e n c e between these two groups at grade s i x on a French measure as a r e s u l t of exposure to program? W i l l c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais perform d i f f e r e n t l y at grade s i x than c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n the Regular E n g l i s h Program on E n g l i s h Reading Comprehension and E n g l i s h Vocabulary t e s t s as a r e s u l t of exposure to program? 3. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Programme-Cadre-de F r a n c a i s : (PCDF) i s a program designed f o r Francophone students (the son or daughter of a francophone parent or guardian, where one or both spouses or guardians are Francophone). French i s used as the e x c l u s i v e language of i n s t r u c t i o n , i n a l l but E n g l i s h Language A r t s , which i n terms of percentage represents 80% of i n s t r u c t i o n a l time. 11 E a r l y French Immersion; (EIP) This program i s designed f o r English-speaking c h i l d r e n who wish to l e a r n French as a second l a n - guage. For t h i s study, EIP group represents a set of norms i n a t e s t manual. The norming group i s defined as f o l l o w s i n the "Test de Le c t u r e " manual ( B a r i k & Swain): "Predominantly English-speaking students mostly from O n t a r i o , Quebec, New-Brunswick, and Manitoba" (p. 2 i n Test Manual). Regular E n g l i s h Program; (REP) For t h i s study, REP group i s a set of norms In a t e s t manual. The norming group i s defined as f o l l o w s i n the "Gates M a c G i n i t i e " manual: "A p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of English-speaking students l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the country, i n d i f f e r e n t urban or non-urban s e t t i n g s , and from d i f f e r e n t types of scho o l s " (p. 35, i n the Test Manual). Semilinguallsm: Occurs when students i n v o l v e d i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n score lower on w r i t t e n measures, than native-speakers of t h e i r f i r s t language, when assessed i n t h e i r mother tongue. F u r t h e r , they score lower than native-speakers of a second language when assessed i n t h i s language, a f t e r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s such as non-verbal measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e and socioeconomic status have been s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . Balanced b i l i n g u a l : A c h i l d i s s a i d to be a balanced b i l i n g u a l when "he i s eq u a l l y s k i l l e d i n o r a l and w r i t t e n French and E n g l i s h " ( P e a l & Lambert 1962). Developmental hypothesis: "The development of s k i l l s i n a second language i s a f u n c t i o n of s k i l l s already developed i n the f i r s t l a n - guage" (Cummins 1977-1978). 12 Threshold hypothesis: "There i s a thr e s h o l d l e v e l of second l a n - guage competence which p u p i l s must a t t a i n , both i n order to avoid d i s - advantages and allow the p o t e n t i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l aspects of becoming b i l i n g u a l to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g " (Cummins 1977-1978). French-Oriented student: The son or daughter of a Francophone parent or guardian, where one or both spouses or guardians are Franco- phone, and whose answers on a questionnaire (see Appendix B) i n the item r e l a t i v e to the frequency of the use of French at home were "always", and " h a l f French, h a l f E n g l i s h " . E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d student: A c h i l d who comes from a fa m i l y where both parents/guardians are Anglophone. Furthermore, parents whether French or E n g l i s h who answered on the Parents Home Background q u e s t i o n n a i r e s that French was spoken at home "sometimes" or "never" were a l s o included i n t h i s category. Home Language Use: The language spoken most of the time at home. In terms of percentage, i t means more than 50%. L I : f i r s t language or mother tongue. L2: second language. 4. Hypotheses Before s t a t i n g each hypothesis, i t may be h e l p f u l to provide the reader w i t h some information on what are the independent and the depend- ent v a r i a b l e s . In t h i s study, the independent v a r i a b l e s are l i n g u i s t i c background, i n other words the home language u s e — a c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e w i t h two " l e v e l s " — E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d and French-oriented - and grade - a 13 second c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e w i t h two l e v e l s , four and s i x . The depen- dent v a r i a b l e s are scores on French and E n g l i s h t e s t s . The French t e s t s used are the Test de Lecture and the Test de Rendement. The E n g l i s h t e s t used i s the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test. The f i r s t hypothesis r e l a t e s to the major question and reads as f o l l o w s : 1. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on a measure of E n g l i s h achievement. The French-oriented subgroup i n Programme-Cadre-de- Fr a n c a i s (PCDF) w i l l achieve as w e l l as a norm group of E n g l i s h students i n the Regular E n g l i s h Program (REP). The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses r e l a t e to the s u b s i d i a r y questions: 2. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on a measure of E n g l i s h achievement between the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup i n Programme-Cadre- de-Francais (PCDF) and a norm group of E n g l i s h students i n the Regular E n g l i s h Program (REP). 3. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on a measure of E n g l i s h achievement between the French-oriented subgroup i n the Programme- Cadre-de-Francais (PCDF) and the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup i n the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais (PCDF). 4. On a measure of French achievement, the French-oriented sub- group i n the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais (PCDF) w i l l achieve s i g n i f i c - a n t l y higher than the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup i n theProgramme-Cadre- de-Francais (PCDF), c o n t r o l l i n g f o r a b i l i t y . 5. On a measure of French achievement, the French-oriented sub- group i n the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais (PCDF) w i l l achieve higher than a norm group of E n g l i s h students i n the French Immersion Program ( E I P ) . 14 6. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on a measure of French achievement. The E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup on the Programme-Cadre-de- F r a n c a i s (PCDF) w i l l achieve higher than a norm group of E n g l i s h students i n the French Immersion Program ( E I P ) . 7. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e as a r e s u l t of exposure to the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais (PCDF) on a measure of French achievement. Both subgroups, French-oriented and E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students, i n t h i s program, at grade s i x , w i l l achieve higher than a norm group of E n g l i s h students i n the French Immersion Program ( E I P ) . 8. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e as a r e s u l t of exposure to the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais (PCDF) on a measure of E n g l i s h achievement. Both subgroups, French-oriented and E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students, i n t h i s program, at grade s i x , w i l l do as w e l l as a norm group of E n g l i s h students i n the Regular E n g l i s h Program (REP). Further comparisons w i l l be attempted, but since they do not bear the same importance as the issues r a i s e d i n t h i s chapter, they w i l l be t r e a t e d i n Chapter 3. 15 CHAPTER I I Review of Related L i t e r a t u r e 1. Review of Previous Research This review w i l l report studies conducted among majority-language students e n r o l l e d i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n , and minority-language students e n r o l l e d i n schools where t h e i r mother tongue i s made the l a n - guage of i n s t r u c t i o n . The r e s u l t s w i l l be reported and w i l l be r e l a t e d to the e f f e c t s of an " a d d i t i v e " or " s u b t r a c t i v e " form of b i l i n g u a l i s m . a) Majority-language c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n second language programs of i n s t r u c t i o n : Lambert & Tucker (1972) have reported on the b i l i n g u a l education of c h i l d r e n i n St. Lambert, Quebec. In t h i s program, En g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n were Introduced to French i n ki n d e r g a r t e n or grade one and rec e i v e d 90% of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n i n these grades i n French. From grade two on, about 60% of the school program was conducted i n French, and 40% i n E n g l i s h . A f t e r a f i v e - y e a r assessment p e r i o d , the researchers were s a t i s f i e d t hat the Experimental program has r e s u l t e d i n no n a t i v e language or subject matter ( i . e . , a r i t h m e t i c ) d e f i c i t or r e t a r d a t i o n of any s o r t , nor i s there any c o g n i t i v e r e t a r d a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. In French, the Experimental group has acquired a thorough mastery of the b a s i c elements of French phonology, morphology, and syntax, and can speak and communicate i n French without the i n h i b i t i o n or h e s i t a t i o n that so often c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t y p i c a l student of a f o r e i g n or second language (p. 152). 16 The researchers, i n an attempt to e x p l a i n these impressive r e s u l t s , suggested that a process c a l l e d "the t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s across l a n - guages" was i n operation f o r immersion" c h i l d r e n . The authors r e f e r r e d to t h i s process as being of higher-order s k i l l s of. reading and c a l c u l a - t i n g , which (although) developed e x c l u s i v e l y through the medium of French, seemed to be e q u a l l y w e l l and almost simultaneously developed i n E n g l i s h . " (p.208) Another l o n g i t u d i n a l study has been conducted by Gray i n New Brunswick (1981). This study was s e l e c t e d because of a major d i f f e r e n c e i n the time a l l o t t e d to the use of French as the language of I n s t r u c - t i o n . Anglophone students i n t h i s Immersion Program used French 100% of the time from grades one through four a p r a c t i c e which makes t h i s program e x c e p t i o n a l . Gray evaluated the French and E n g l i s h achievement of grade s i x students e n r o l l e d i n the Immersion Program. Students' scores were compared to those of u n i l i n g u a l E nglish-speaking i n F r e d e r i c t o n , b i l i n g u a l French-speaking c h i l d r e n , i n F r e d e r i c t o n , and u n i l i n g u a l French-speaking c h i l d r e n , i n Edmunston. The researcher found that the performance of the immersion c h i l d r e n i n E n g l i s h , w i t h the exception of s p e l l i n g , was comparable to that of t h e i r peers who had been educated i n E n g l i s h . In French, i n comparison w i t h n a t i v e French-speaking c h i l d r e n , the grade s i x immersion c h i l d r e n performed at about the f i f t h grade l e v e l In French Language A r t s and s l i g h t l y lower than the t h i r d of f i f t h grade l e v e l s i n French l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s . These r e s u l t s l e d the author to observe that the students very q u i c k l y achieved p a r i t y i n E n g l i s h reading and w r i t i n g s k i l l s w i t h the 17 students i n the E n g l i s h - o n l y program even though they had been taught to read and w r i t e e x c l u s i v e l y i n French from grade one on, but were s t i l l behind t h e i r peers from Francophone f a m i l i e s . Gray suggested that the d i f f e r e n c e resided i n the students' competence i n the language i t s e l f . On E n g l i s h t e s t s , these immersion students were reading and w r i t i n g i n a language that they knew very w e l l ; on the other hand, t h e i r French l a n - guage o r a l s k i l l s were weaker than t h e i r academic s k i l l s and on the t e s t s i n French they were reading and w r i t i n g i n a language they had not yet mastered. This observation i s of i n t e r e s t f o r the current study since the two groups in v o l v e d are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of d i f f e r e n t areas of l i n g u i s t i c competence. The French-oriented group may be expected to have mastered the French language and the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group to have mastered the E n g l i s h language. Pursuing t h i s reasoning, one might speculate that when tested i n French, the French-oriented group w i l l be reading and w r i t i n g i n a language they have mastered, and, on the other hand, when the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group w i l l be reading and w r i t i n g i n E n g l i s h , they w i l l be f u n c t i o n i n g i n a language they have mastered. Furt h e r , i t may be hypothesized that the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group w i l l score higher i n E n g l i s h and lower i n French than the French-oriented group and v i c e v e r s a . However, the above s i t u a t i o n i s more complicated, because i t i s not proven c e r t a i n that a large number of Francophone f a m i l i e s i n B.C. have kept t h e i r language a l i v e and have r e s i s t e d the pressure to switch to the dominant-language. With regard to the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group, t h i s 18 d i f f e r e n c e i n the home language patte r n i s not n o t i c e a b l e . On the c o n t r a r y , there i s no need f o r the l a t t e r group to switch languages i n any context, as the language of the large community i s t h e i r s . To complete t h i s b r i e f overview of French Immersion s t u d i e s , one more research study w i l l be presented. This research has an added aspect of i n t e r e s t as i t was conducted here i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Shapson and Day (1982) surveyed French Immersion students i n B.C., who formed the Experimental group, and compared them to U n i l i n g u a l English-speaking students, who composed the c o n t r o l group. They found that French Immersion students were equivalent to t h e i r peers i n the Regular E n g l i s h program i n mathematics, and despite the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n i t i a l lags In E n g l i s h language s k i l l s i n grades one and two, they a t t a i n e d equivalence with t h e i r peers i n these s k i l l s soon a f t e r E n g l i s h language a r t s were introduced i n t o the curriculum i n grade three (p. 13). Although no d i r e c t comparison was attempted w i t h u n i l i n g u a l French- speaking students, the use of the Test de Rendement de Francais stand- a r d i z e d on French-speaking students i n Montreal, enabled the researchers to get an idea of the performance of the Experimental group i n French. They observed that t h e i r l e v e l of achievement i n French language a r t s i n grade four (24th - 39th p e r c e n t i l e equivalent range, stanine 4) appeared to be s i m i l a r to those reported f o r some of the Immersion Programs i n more b i l i n g u a l regions of Canada. However, the researchers expressed t h e i r concerns about the d e c l i n e observed i n French achievement scores a f t e r grade three, when the amount of exposure to French was reduced by 25% i n grade three, and by 50% i n 19 grades four to s i x . They suggested that some measures w i t h regard to c u r r i c u l u m , i n s t r u c t i o n , reinforcement outside of the classroom should be researched. These r e s u l t s were co n s i s t e n t w i t h the trend observed i n previous s t u d i e s , and are expected to be confirmed i n the present study f o r the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup. However, the context i s d i f f e r e n t , since the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup i n the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais (PCDF), could b e n e f i t from the presence of the French-oriented subgroup, and t h e r e f o r e , should score higher i n French, than the French Immersion students. In the e v e n t u a l i t y that they score at the same l e v e l or lower, the explanation could l i e i n e i t h e r the academic or the e n v i r o n - mental h i s t o r y of the s u b j e c t s . b) M i n o r i t y - language c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n f i r s t language pro- grams of i n s t r u c t i o n : Skutnabb - Kangas and Toukomaa (1976b) were i n t e r e s t e d i n the l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l and development In both t h e i r mother tongue and Swedish of F i n n i s h migrant c h i l d r e n attending Swedish comprehensive school. The t o t a l number of subjects studied was 687 e n r o l l e d i n grades one up to nine. However, only grades one up to s i x w i l l be considered because of t h e i r relevance to the present study. In two d i f f e r e n t towns, Olofstrb'ra and Gothenburg, programs rep- r e s e n t a t i v e of two educational p r a c t i c e s were I n v e s t i g a t e d . In Gothenburg, students were given i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r mother tongue f o r a t o t a l of two hours a week, while i n Olofstrom, the main emphasis i n migrant i n s t r u c t i o n was on teaching Swedish. 20 F i n n i s h migrant p u p i l s i n grades one to s i x were tested i n vocabu- l a r y , synonyms word groups f o r the v e r b a l t e s t s and on perceptual speed and a u d i t i o n f o r the non-verbal t e s t s . Those t e s t s were chosen from a F i n n i s h v e r s i o n . The F i n n i s h migrant p u p i l s i n grades one to s i x i n Olofstrom were al s o tested w i t h Swedish t e s t s standardized i n Sweden, using Swedish i n s t r u c t i o n s . In Gothenburg, some of the F i n n i s h p u p i l s were tested with a ba t t e r y aimed at measuring the Swedish s k i l l s of migrant p u p i l s . According to the t e s t r e s u l t s , s k i l l s i n F i n n i s h were quite poor i n both Olofstrom and Gothenburg. Gothenburg, students however, proved to be much be t t e r on synonyms t e s t s and on word group t e s t s representing v e r b a l reasoning. In the t e s t s which measured Swedish-language s k i l l s , the r e s u l t s were j u s t as poor as i n the Finnish-language t e s t i n both schools. The authors concluded that i n ve r b a l d e v e l o p m e n t — e s p e c i a l l y i n understanding v e r b a l r e l a - t i o n s , r e t e n t i o n of concepts and understanding — t h e migrant c h i l d r e n who attend c l a s s e s i n the f o r e i g n language i n the lower and upper l e v e l of comprehensive school are on average on the same l e v e l as the 10% of weakest p u p i l s among normal m a t e r i a l . This verb a l r e t a r d a t i o n occurs i n both the f o r e i g n language and the mother tongue (p. 78). On these premises, the authors suggested that the threat of semi- l i n g u a l i s r a experienced by the students under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , "can be averted by g i v i n g migrant c h i l d r e n at pre-school age and c h i l d r e n i n the lower l e v e l of comprehensive school i n t e n s i v e teaching i n the mother tongue" (p. 80). They added that "the school i n s t r u c t i o n proper should be given i n the mother tongue and i n s t r u c t i o n i n w r i t i n g the f o r e i g n 21 language should be postponed to the age of nine to ten, when the prob- a b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g true b i l i n g u a l i s m would be most l i k e l y " (p. 80). In the same v e i n , Toukomaa and Lasonen (1979) conducted a study on the l i t e r a c y of F i n n i s h immigrant p u p i l s i n Sweden e n r o l l e d i n three d i f f e r e n t models of education described below: 1) The i n s t r u c t i o n can p r i m a r i l y be given through the medium of Swedish, i n a Swedish-speaking c l a s s , together with Swedish p u p i l s , and u s u a l l y w i t h two hours i n s t r u c t i o n per week i n the mother tongue as a subject. 2) The i n s t r u c t i o n can a l s o take place i n c l a s s e s w i t h 2 teachers, w i t h both Swedish p u p i l s ( w i t h a Swedish teacher) and immigrant p u p i l s from one n a t i o n a l i t y only ( w i t h a teacher from that n a t i o n a l i t y ) . The p u p i l s i n these compound c l a s s e s are taught s e p a r a t e l y , each group i n i t s mother tongue, f o r a part of time. The propor- t i o n of Swedish-medium I n s t r u c t i o n increases q u i t e r a p i d l y , u n t i l a l l i n s t r u c t i o n takes place through the medium of Swedish. 3) The i n s t r u c t i o n can a l s o p r i m a r i l y be given i n the n a t i v e tongue of the p u p i l s , w i t h Swedish as a second language (p. 1). The population of the study was the F i n n i s h immigrant p u p i l s i n grades three to s i x of the Norrkoping Comprehensive School. A l l the subjects were from working c l a s s f a m i l i e s . These students had the op- p o r t u n i t y of choosing among the three programs of i n s t r u c t i o n described above. The main emphasis of t h i s study was on reading i n the mother tongue ( F i n n i s h ) , but the author tested a l s o a number of the subjects w i t h reading t e s t s i n Swedish. They f u r t h e r I n v e s t i g a t e d "the r e l a t i o n - ship between l i t e r a c y i n F i n n i s h and i n Swedish as w e l l as the e f f e c t s of some background and t a l e n t f a c t o r s on l i t e r a c y " (p. 9 ) . "Reading a b i l i t y i n the mother tongue, F i n n i s h , was measured by means of a reading t e s t developed by Vahapassi (1977). The t e s t i s 22 intended f o r the t h i r d grade p u p i l s (10 years of age) of the F i n n i s h comprehensive school" (p. 11). The norms of the t h i r d grade c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n F i n l a n d were a l s o used f o r the f o u r t h to s i x t h grade immigrant c h i l d r e n . "Reading the Swedish language was measured by a t e s t d e v e l - oped by B r u n e l l (1975) f o r f o u r t h to s i x t h grade p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g the F i n n i s h comprehensive school who speak Swedish as t h e i r mother tongue" (p. ID. The authors found that "among the F i n n i s h p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g Swedish-medium c l a s s e s the backwardness was more than three years i n F i n n i s h language reading, and one to two years i n reading Swedish. In t h i s study, teaching i n the mother tongue (Finnish-medium c l a s s e s ) , proved to be p r e f e r a b l e to compound teaching from the point of view of reading, at l e a s t up to the t h i r d grade. For o l d e r groups, no r e s u l t s e x i s t as f a r as t h i s matter i n concerned, since Finnish-medium c l a s s e s , at the time of the study only e x i s t e d i n grades one to three. Teaching i n compound c l a s s e s seems to provide readiness f o r c o r r e c t r e c o g n i t i o n reading, but not f o r a deeper, e v a l u a t i v e k i n d of reading (p. 23). Toukomaa and Lasonen discovered that on the reading t e s t s , "the immigrant p u p i l s were heterogeneous i n the l e v e l of t h e i r achievement. As a consequence, each age-group should be provided wi t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l teaching m a t e r i a l " (p. 24). They suggested that "the text should be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y e a s i e r than m a t e r i a l f o r c h i l d r e n of a corresponding age i n F i n l a n d , adding that the teaching m a t e r i a l f o r s i x t h grade immigrant p u p i l s should be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y at the same l e v e l as books f o r t h i r d graders i n F i n l a n d , but the content should correspond to t h e i r own age- 23 group. They, a l s o i n d i c a t e d that the good readers, on the other hand should be provided w i t h more d i f f i c u l t teaching m a t e r i a l " (p. 24). The authors a l s o conducted a p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between the F i n n i s h and Swedish language t e s t scores with l e n g t h of residence i n Sweden and general i n t e l l i g e n c e c o n t r o l l e d . They discovered that even w i t h t h i s process of e q u a l i z a t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between l i t e r a c y scores i n F i n n i s h and scores on the Swedish language reading t e s t s remained s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In c o n c l u s i o n , the authors gave support to Anderson (1978) and C h r i s t i a n (1976) who advocated the teaching of l i t e r a c y and w r i t i n g i n the mother tongue before school entry f o r immigrant c h i l d r e n i n a b i l i n - gual environment. The s i t u a t i o n , the F i n n i s h students experience i n Sweden may be compared to the s i t u a t i o n experienced by Francophone students i n B.C., w i t h some d i f f e r e n c e s . The two populations i n v o l v e d are not completely I d e n t i c a l . The F i n n i s h migrant population expects to come back to i t s homeland, and t h e r e f o r e w i l l tend to group together i n the host country, thereby, i n c r e a s i n g i t s chances to preserve i t s mother tongue. Since the popula- t i o n plans to f u n c t i o n f u l l y In I t s h e r i t a g e c u l t u r e , i t s mother tongue must remain i n t a c t . However, these reasons do not generate the same response i n Franco- phone f a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The rate of a s s i m i l a t i o n i s high s i n c e some of the f a m i l i e s have been i n B.C. f o r more than 15 years, and the newcomers intend to earn a l i v i n g i n the host country. Only a small number of f a m i l i e s w i l l l i k e l y r e t u r n home, since the p r o x i m i t y of the 24 two homelands i s not the same as the one which e x i s t s between Sweden and F i n l a n d . From Skutnabb-Kangas and Toukomaa (1976b) as w e l l as from Toukomaa and Lasonen (1979), i t may be suggested that the program i n v e s - t i g a t e d i n B.C. w i t h i t s emphasis on the teaching of the mother tongue should produce p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , should prevent s e m i l i n g u a l i s m , and should promote " t r u e " b i l i n g u a l i s m . V o r i h and Rosier (1978) have i n v e s t i g a t e d the outcomes of a B i l i n - gual Elementary School Program implemented i n Rock Point A r i z o n a f o r Navajo c h i l d r e n . The authors i n d i c a t e d that: Navajo (was) the dominant language of communication at Rock Poi n t and at most places on the r e s e r v a t i o n , other than border towns. A Navajo (could) get along very w e l l on the r e s e r v a - t i o n without speaking E n g l i s h . I t was only when the Navajo (was) at school or when he ( l e f t ) the r e s e r v a t i o n that he (needed) to know E n g l i s h (p. 263). The authors explained that i n 1960, students from Rock P o i n t Community were found to rank at the bottom among eight Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s schools i n the Chinle Agency, i n student achievement as measured by standardized t e s t s . Therefore, an i n t e n s i v e program c a l l e d "Teaching of E n g l i s h as a second language" (TESL) was i n s t i t u t e d In 1963. By 1965, standardized t e s t s showed that Rock Point had moved to the top i n the ranking of Chinle Agency schools had that Rock Point student r e s u l t s were w e l l above the average of the e n t i r e Navajo Area. However, Rock Point s i x t h grade students were s t i l l a two f u l l years below the n a t i o n a l norms i n read- ing and mathematics (p. 263). Concerned with t h i s weakness shown by grade s i x students, the Rock Point a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had been i n v e s t i g a t i n g b i l i n g u a l - b i c u l t u r a l educa- t i o n i n order to f i n d a remedy to t h i s s i t u a t i o n . A program was eventu- a l l y implemented and was s t r u c t u r e d as f o l l o w s : 25 From Kindergarten through second grade, the classrooms were organized i n t o language areas. A team of two teachers (three i n kindergarten) (was) i n each classroom. One teacher used Navajo as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and a l l communication (was) i n Navajo: s o c i a l conversation w i t h students, calendar, alphabet, p i c t u r e word cards, and Navajo l i t e r a c y . At the opposite end of the room, the teacher (used) E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and communication (was) i n E n g l i s h . The c h i l d r e n were l e a r n i n g to choose the language to meet the s i t u a t i o n . They (were) l e a r n i n g to be co-ordinate b i l i n g u a l s (p. 264). They added t h a t : From grades three through s i x , the E n g l i s h Language Teacher, who (was) e i t h e r Navajo or Anglo (had) complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s or her classroom. The average number of students per classroom (was) 25, but the c h i l d r e n ( l e f t ) the room i n h a l f - c l a s s groups to attend s p e c i a l i t y c l a s s e s such as Navajo l i t e r a c y or science taught i n Navajo. The time spent i n each language v a r i e s , depending on grade l e v e l , f o r i n s t a n c e : i n Kindergarten: 70% of the i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n Navajo; 1st and 2nd grade: 50% of the i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n Navajo and 50% i s i n E n g l i s h ; 3rd to 7th grade: 75% of the i n s t r u c t i o n time i s i n E n g l i s h . Rock Po i n t c h i l d r e n who i n i t i a l l y learned to read i n E n g l i s h were compared to Rock Point c h i l d r e n who learned to read i n Navajo f i r s t . The measures used were the Stanford Achievement reading s u b - t e s t s . The r e s u l t s of students i n B i l i n g u a l Program at grades two, f i v e and s i x exceeded the r e s u l t s of students i n the TESL program while at grade f o u r , the r e s u l t s were e q u i v a l e n t , and at grade three, the TESL group scored s l i g h t l y higher. When compared with the achievement of Navajo students attending monolingual E n g l i s h programs with w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d 26 TESL cur r i c u l u m , the Rock Point students' performance was s l i g h t l y lower at grade two, equal at grade three, and i n c r e a s i n g l y higher from grade four on, ending up w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e of almost two years higher than the c o n t r o l schools mean score. The program was demonstrated to be e f f e c t i v e . The proponents of t h i s program f e l t that i t was only l o g i c a l to have the major p o r t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i n kindergarten i n a language the c h i l d r e n under- stand. They str e s s e d the f a c t that " i f Navajo c h i l d r e n are to be given a q u a l i t y education, then t h e i r c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s must be developed as thoroughly, and i n the same manner, as those of A n g l o - c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r mother tongue" (p. 264). This study suggests the importance of educating minority-language c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r mother tongue f o r the purpose of a s u c c e s s f u l second language a c q u i s i t i o n . However, t h i s study should be I n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n , since the study does not mention whether i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s on i n t e l l i g e n c e and socio-economic status between the Experimental and c o n t r o l groups were c o n t r o l l e d . Moreover, a strong p a r e n t a l commitment has been observed from the beginning of t h i s program, suggesting that a "Hawthorne" e f f e c t may have taken place. The f i n d i n g s cannot be considered impressive because of these flaws and because of one other feature of the program: the Navajo students were exposed to E n g l i s h f o r 50% of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i n grades one and two, and f o r 75% of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l time from grade three to grade seven. The f o l l o w i n g question springs to mind. Would these r e s u l t s 27 have remained the same, had these students been i n s t r u c t e d i n E n g l i s h f o r 20% of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l time, which i s the treatment the students i n the PCDF program are exposed to? On t h i s matter, one might argue that Navajo students needed to r e c e i v e more E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n , since they were not exposed to E n g l i s h o u t side of the classroom, i n contrast to Francophone students i n B.C. This point i s l e g i t i m a t e and deserves to be considered. However, another important feature worth mentioning i s the d i f f e r e n c e i n the l i n g u i s t i c background between the comparison groups i n the Rock Point study, and i n the B.C. study. While the comparison groups i n the former study come from q u i t e the same l i n g u i s t i c background, the two groups compared i n the l a t t e r one come from two d i f f e r e n t home language back- grounds, t h i s s i t u a t i o n accounting f o r a considerable d i f f e r e n c e . N evertheless, the study i n Rock Point community School i s s t i l l of i n t e r e s t . The authors described the students at Rock Po i n t as "aggres- s i v e , a c t i v e and i n v o l v e d , " and added that t h i s behavior was i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the way Navajo c h i l d r e n are o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d as being " l i s t l e s s , q u i e t , passive and dumb" (p. 268). Ewanyshyn (1980) conducted an e v a l u a t i o n of an U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l program. This program was implemented i n the f a l l of 1974, and was designed to provide students with the opportunity to l e a r n the Ukranian language as a "language of I n s t r u c t i o n , " along wi t h a c q u i r i n g E n g l i s h language communication s k i l l s . The author explained that: In k i n d e r g a r t e n , emphasis i s given to the development of o r a l s k i l l s i n both E n g l i s h and Uk r a i n i a n . In grades one to f i v e , 28 c h i l d r e n take regular i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h i n the academic subject areas f o r approximately 50% of the school day, and i n s t r u c t i o n i n Ukr a i n i a n i n the c u l t u r a l subject areas f o r the balance of the day (p. 5). The experimental groups of students e n r o l l e d i n the U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h B i l i n g u a l Program i n three of the Edmonton C a t h o l i c schools were matched w i t h c o n t r o l groups of students e n r o l l e d i n the Regular E n g l i s h Program and coming from the same schools or from neighboring schools. F i v e v a r i a b l e s were considered: Grade, sex, age, Primary A b i l i t y score, and socio-economic s t a t u s . Four grades were evaluated: two, th r e e , four and f i v e . The instruments s e l e c t e d were: Canadian Test of Bas i c S k i l l s (CTBS), Gates-MacGinitie Reading (Vocabulary and Comprehension), Science Research Ass o c i a t e s (SRA) A r i t h m e t i c Test, School System S p e l l - i n g and U k r a i n i a n Language S k i l l s t e s t s . The .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used i n t e s t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between the means, and a t w o - t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used i n the a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that no s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s were evident on the vocabulary t e s t s at the grade f i v e , grade three and grade two l e v e l s . At the Grade two l e v e l , however, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the mean on the Comprehension t e s t f o r the b i l i n g u a l program students was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the mean f o r the re g u l a r program students. R e s u l t s on mathematics achievement w i l l not be repor t e d , s i n c e t h i s area i s not covered by the current study. This study corroborates the f i n d i n g s of Rock Point Community study. Meanwhile, as pointed out i n that study, the r e s u l t s mentioned above are not so impressive, since the students are provided w i t h E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n i n the academic subject areas while the mother 29 tongue i s r e s t r i c t e d to the c u l t u r a l s u bjects areas. A l s o , as the E n g l i s h measures used are t e s t i n g academic subject areas, how reason- able i s i t to expect a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups? For these reasons, the study does not bear the same c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h regard to the b e n e f i t of the teaching of the mother tongue to minority-language c h i l d r e n as the f o l l o w i n g one which deals w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n i n the mother tongue f o r most of the school day. This study has been brought up f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g a d i s t i n c t i o n betwen d i f f e r e n t forms of b i l i n g u a l programs. According to Fishman's (1976) four categories of B i l i n g u a l Education Programs, t h i s U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h program w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d as: "A program (seeking) fl u e n c y and l i t e r a c y i n both languages, but l i t e r a c y i n the mother tongue i s r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n subject matter, most g e n e r a l l y that r e l a t e d to the e t h n i c group and i t s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e " (p. 26). One may foresee the danger of t h i s type of b i l i n g u a l program as being a means towards a gradual e x t i n c t i o n of the f i r s t language. Carey and Cummins (1978), examined the achievement i n E n g l i s h and French i n Edmonton of a l l Grade f i v e c h i l d r e n from E n g l i s h , French and Mixed French-English home backgrounds att e n d i n g the French/English b i l i n g u a l program of the Edmonton Separate School System (ESSS). The program i s based on an 80%/20% s p l i t between French and E n g l i s h i n s t r u c - t i o n throughout elementary school. The researchers used Cloze French and E n g l i s h t e s t s which enabled them to e s t a b l i s h p a r a l l e l s with the Lapkin and Swain (1977) study. 30 The study encompassed u n i l i n g u a l francophone from Quebec, Franco- Ontarian c h i l d r e n , and c h i l d r e n i n French Immersion Programs i n Ontar i o . The French scores of the three ESSS groups were compared w i t h the scores of u n i l i n g u a l francophone c h i l d r e n from Quebec, Franco- Ontarian c h i l d r e n , and c h i l d r e n i n French Immersion Programs while the E n g l i s h scores were compared w i t h those of c h i l d r e n i n French Immersion and Regular E n g l i s h Programs i n Ontario. The authors conducted two- t a i l e d t - t e s t s and found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .05) between the French and E n g l i s h home background groups on the French Cloze t e s t , but no d i f f e r e n c e on the E n g l i s h Cloze t e s t . The ESSS French group performed at about the same l e v e l i n French as d i d the Franco-Ontarian group ( a t t e n d i n g separate francophone s c h o o l s ) , but l e s s w e l l than Quebec francophone groups. A l l three ESSS groups performed at about the same l e v e l on the E n g l i s h Cloze t e s t s as the two Ontario groups (p. 46). These r e s u l t s l e d the authors to suggest that even though the ESSS "French" c h i l d r e n d i d not speak E n g l i s h at home and recei v e d 80% of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n i n French, t h e i r s k i l l s i n E n g l i s h were as w e l l developed as those of equivalent anglophone c h i l d r e n i n French Immersion or Regular E n g l i s h Programs. This study has a l o t In common with the present study as the p o p u l a t i o n , program and o b j e c t i v e s are almost the same. However, d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n the measures employed, and i n the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures. The' researchers used a Cloze t e s t i n French and E n g l i s h to assess the students l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , while the study under way w i l l choose more conservative measures, such as the Gates-MacGinitie, the "Test de Rendement de F r a n c a i s , " and the "Test de Lec t u r e . " Carey 31 and Cummins favored a t w o - t a i l e d t t e s t , while the current study w i l l be conducting an a n a l y s i s of Covariance with c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y as c o v a r i - ate. In the case that the r e s u l t s c o n t r a d i c t themselves, then, these d i f f e r e n t measures would have to be considered. In the same v e i n , Hebert et a l , (1976) evaluated the Academic Achievement and Language of I n s t r u c t i o n among Franco-Manitoban P u p i l s . D i f f e r e n t amounts of exposure to French were examined. The authors concluded that i f : One had to define the school s i t u a t i o n which would provide maximum academic achievement i n the two languages, i t i s necessary, based upon the research f i n d i n g s , to choose the school or c l a s s where French only i s used as the language of i n s t r u c t i o n (except f o r the E n g l i s h course) (p. 21). However, the conclusion should be taken w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s as recommended by M.P. Yakimishyn (1976) and Maurice and Roy (1976, 1977). A s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n i n treatment q u a n t i t y , a f a i l u r e to c a t e g o r i z e the d i f f e r e n t language backgrounds, as w e l l as weaknesses In s t a t i s t i c a l procedures l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these f i n d i n g s . As examples of flaws i n s t a t i s t i c a l procedures, Yakimishyn (1976) has pointed out that the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and analyses of covariances were not c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d , thus l e a d i n g to an ov e r e s t i m a t l o n of the r e s u l t s . For i n s t a n c e , one c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was .4287, and was considered of 2 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .001 l e v e l . However r = (.4287) 2 = 18%, i n d i c a t i n g that 18% of the variance i n one v a r i a b l e can be accounted f o r by the variance i n the other v a r i a b l e , which i s considered low p r e d i c t a b i l i t y or a s s o c i a t i o n . 32 Yakimishyn (1976) a l s o i n d i c a t e d that analyses of covariance were incomplete as the authors should have conducted a d d i t i o n a l analyses u s i n g appropriate m u l t i p l e comparison procedures to i d e n t i f y the p a i r s of means which are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Based on these authors' f i n d i n g s , the PCDF program under i n v e s t i g a - t i o n i n B.C. should provide maximum academic achievement i n both l a n - guages, since students i n t h i s program are provided w i t h a percentage of French i n s t r u c t i o n comparable to the maximum amount i n t h e i r study. The authors f u r t h e r suggested that i n Manitoba, a s o c i e t y which i s overwhelmingly anglophone and where French i s the language which i s d i f f i c u l t to preserve, school programmes having a high percentage o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n French o f f e r the best p o s s i b i l i t y of ensuring e f f e c t i v e b i l i n - gualism among c h i l d r e n , combined w i t h high achievement i n other academic subjects (p. 22). The l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n described by the authors a p p l i e s a l s o to B.C., where French i s al s o d i f f i c u l t to preserve. In t h i s context, a program such as PCDF should ensure e f f e c t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m among c h i l d r e n . 2. Summary of the State of the A r t : The s t u d i e s reported above show the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r both m a j o r i t y - language c h i l d r e n and minority-language c h i l d r e n to achieve b i l i n g u a l - ism. A body of research (Lambert & Tucker, 1972; Gray 1981; Shapson & Day, 1982) has found that majority-language c h i l d r e n achieve high l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c competence i n both languages, when exposed to a second language i n schools. I t has been proposed that the students, since they 33 come from a community where t h e i r language i s h i g h l y valued do not need a reinforcement of t h e i r language i n schools, and as a r e s u l t , wish to "add" a second s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t language. The second language i s not going to replace the f i r s t one. Therefore, the students show a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e , and are i n the best p o s i t i o n to acquire s u c c e s s f u l l y a second language. For the students, i t has been hypothesized that they t r a n s f e r s k i l l s from t h e i r language to the second language. In p r a c t i c e , t h i s means that even i f the students are not exposed to formal i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r f i r s t language, they perform as w e l l as t h e i r peers who attend schools i n t h e i r f i r s t language. In other words, these students are able to t r a n s f e r and r e l a t e notions developed through a second language i n t o already known concepts i n t h e i r f i r s t language. For these students, a program of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a second language should take them to a high l e v e l of b i l i n g u a l i s m . In r e l a t i o n to the c u r r e n t study i t i s assumed that majority-language c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d In a program such as PCDF which o f f e r s i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r second l a n - guage, should succeed w e l l i n both languages, French and E n g l i s h . Another body of research ( V o r i h & R o s i e r , 1978; Carey & Cummins, 1978; Ewanyshyn, 1980) has discovered that minority-language c h i l d r e n have a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y of achieving high l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c compet- ence i n t h e i r f i r s t and second languages. I t has been suggested that since the students do not have t h e i r f i r s t language valued outside of t h e i r home, they need to see i t s r e c o g n i t i o n somewhere e l s e . A school s i t u a t i o n which acknowledges the importance of the mother tongue for the minority-language c h i l d r e n by making i t the language of i n s t r u c t i o n , 34 gi v e s the c h i l d r e n a p r i d e , a s e l f - a s s e r t l v e n e s s . Consequently, the c h i l d r e n may express a d e s i r e to "add" another language to t h e i r own, si n c e they do not f e e l that t h e i r own language w i l l be replaced. The p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e w i l l t r i g g e r a t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s from t h e i r LI to t h e i r L2. In p r a c t i c e , these c h i l d r e n w i l l be expected to succeed i n both languages. Even though, these c h i l d r e n are not exposed to formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s proposed that they w i l l succeed as w e l l as c h i l d r e n i n the Regular E n g l i s h Program. I t has to be mentioned that o u t s i d e of the classroom, these students are immersed i n an "Anglophone" m i l i e u . For these students, a program of I n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r f i r s t language such as the PCDF i n B.C. should promote a high l e v e l of b i l i n - gualism. In c o n c l u s i o n , the program c a l l e d the PCDF i n B.C. should b r i n g students from a majority-language group as w e l l as from a m i n o r i t y - language group towards the goal of b i l i n g u a l i s m . This program provides both groups according to the researchers mentioned above with the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n f o r developing high l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c competence. 35 CHAPTER I I I Methodology 1. D e s c r i p t i o n of Programs: D e s c r i p t i o n of the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais: In the f a l l of 1978, the B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education o f f e r e d Franco- phone f a m i l i e s i n B.C. the option of the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais (PCDF) f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s education. This program was designed to provide students wit h the opportunity to l e a r n French by using i t as a "language of i n s t r u c t i o n . " A consequence of d e f i n i n g the target p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s way i s that the program serves c h i l d r e n w i t h v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of French a b i l i t y going from no understanding at a l l of French, when the c h i l d comes from a family where the Francophone person works out to a f a i r l y good command of French where both parents are francophone or where the Francophone person stays at home. D e s c r i p t i o n of other programs to which the program under i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be compared E a r l y French Immersion: Such programs i n Canada t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e i n s t r u c t i o n of English-speaking c h i l d r e n i n French according to the f o l l o w i n g schedule: i n ki n d e r g a r t e n , the e n t i r e half-day i n French: i n grades one to four, the f u l l program i n French except f o r one hour per day of i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h Language A r t s , which i s introduced i n e i t h e r grade two or grade three; and i n higher grades, with some f u r t h e r 36 i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h , e v e n t u a l l y a 50% French/50% E n g l i s h program, g e n e r a l l y by grade s i x " ... The Tests de Lecture b a t t e r y was developed i n the context of the l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of French immersion and b i l i n g u a l education programs i n Ontario (p. 1 Test de L e c t u r e ) . Regular E n g l i s h Program: (REP) E n g l i s h i s the language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a l l content E n g l i s h area c l a s s e s . As i n d i c a t e d i n the f i r s t chapter norms of students drawn from a Canadian sample have been used i n the current study. D i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the PCDF compared to FIP and REP groups: In the PCDF, teachers teach c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t grades i n the same classroom. The enrollment i n each grade v a r i e s from two or three to 10 or 12 students. A c l a s s may Include a l l grades i n the elementary school from Kindergarten to grade seven. Regulations s t a t e that where there are 10 Francophone students of elementary school age, a c l a s s s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . I f there are 25 students r e g i s t e r e d i n the group, two teachers are r e q u i r e d ; w i t h 45 students, three teachers; w i t h 60 students, four teachers. In the study, t h i s phenomenon accounted f o r seven out of e i g h t c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d . Only one grade four classroom d e a l t with a s i n g l e grade l e v e l . 2. D e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t s : The subjects i n t h i s study were grades four and s i x students from e i g h t c l a s s e s of PCDF. Four schools were inv o l v e d representing one from each of four metropolitan Vancouver d i s t r i c t s . S i x t y - t h r e e students encompassing 38 g i r l s and 25 boys coming from e i t h e r English-speaking or 37 French-speaking f a m i l i e s made up the population under I n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e provides Information about the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the students: Table 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of students by grade, sex and l i n g u i s t i c background Grade 4 (n = 34) Grade 6 (n = 29) L i n g u i s t i c background G i r l s Boys G i r l s Boys French (n = 29) 6 8 9 6 E n g l i s h (n - 34) 11 9 10 4 Among the schools i n v e s t i g a t e d , one out of four o f f e r e d PCDF, FIP and a l s o REP; two o f f e r e d PCDF and FIP, while FIP was j u s t given i n the lower grades; and one school only o f f e r e d the PCDF to the e x c l u s i o n of other programs. Teachers with the exception of one are na t i v e speakers of French. The neighborhood i n which the schools are loc a t e d i s not a good i n d i c a t o r of the socio-economic s t a t u s , since some students l i v e f a r away, and use common or p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to get to schools. C o n t r o l of Independent V a r i a b l e s : L i n g u i s t i c Background: Students were given a questionnaire to assess t h i s v a r i a b l e . (see Appendix A). The questions emphasized t h e i r 38 use of French at home i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h t h e i r parents, t h e i r s i b l i n g s , and t h e i r f r i e n d s . The r e s u l t s on the students' questionnaires show that 42.8% of the parents of grade four French-oriented students speak always i n E n g l i s h when t a l k i n g to each other, while at grade s i x , t h i s p r o p o r t i o n of parents drops to 26.7%, suggesting that the parents of grade s i x French-oriented students are using more French i n t h e i r c o nversation w i t h each other. Another point worth mentioning i s the p r o p o r t i o n of French-oriented students at grade f o u r , 57.1% who speak always i n E n g l i s h when p l a y i n g w i t h f r i e n d s at home compared to 73.3% of grade s i x French-oriented students who claimed to speak always i n E n g l i s h i n the same s i t u a t i o n . A trend may be i n d i c a t e d i n the d i r e c t i o n of a higher incidence of the use of E n g l i s h when p l a y i n g with f r i e n d s f o r a l l the groups. This observation suggests that f o r Francophone f a m i l i e s who do not l i v e i n c l o s e - k n i t communities, the la c k of Francophone neighbors may add to the d i f f i c u l t y of maintaining t h e i r language. Answers on students' questionnaires r e v e a l that the proportion of E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n both grades who always use E n g l i s h when communicating w i t h s i b l i n g s i s not so d i f f e r e n t from the pro p o r t i o n of French-oriented students. This s i t u a t i o n may suggest that some E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students have brothers and s i s t e r s a l s o e n r o l l e d i n French programs, and may a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e i r d e s i r e to speak French. With regard to French-oriented students, answers on students' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on t h i s matter may appear s u r p r i s i n g , as w e l l as answers r e l a t e d to the use of French by parents when speaking to each other, e s p e c i a l l y In the 39 case of grade four students. An explanation may be that t h i s category a l s o encompasses parents from a mixed l i n g u i s t i c background, In c r e a s i n g t h e r e f o r e the chances of a higher incidence i n the use of E n g l i s h . The answers on questions 6 and 7 Indicate that the pr o p o r t i o n of French-oriented i n both grades who always use E n g l i s h when communicating w i t h t h e i r parents or guardians i s lower than the p r o p o r t i o n of French-oriented students who always use E n g l i s h i n the s i t u a t i o n s described i n the previous paragraph. This observation may r e f l e c t a d e s i r e to counteract the i n f l u e n c e of the m i l i e u at l a r g e , and may als o i n d i c a t e the d i f f i c u l t y f o r m i n o r i t i e s to maintain t h e i r language. A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was required of parents through a ques t i o n - n a i r e (see Appendix B). Questions asked r e l a t e d to t h e i r mother tongue, t h e i r second language, the frequency of the use of French at home, the number of years spent i n e i t h e r an Anglophone or Francophone m i l i e u , and the academic h i s t o r y of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Upon the r e c e p t i o n of students and parents' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , students were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : French-oriented and E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d sub-groups. The "Dominant-Francophone" group or the parents whose answers on the use of French at home were "always" or "o f t e n " was too small a sample, 13 only, and was, there f o r e combined w i t h the 15 students i n the "Mixed" groups. In the study, the combined group was l a b e l l e d the "French-oriented" subgroup. This category encom- passed students coming from f a m i l i e s , where one or both spouses or guardians are Francophone, and furthermore who answered on the Parents Home Background questionnaires that French was spoken at home "always," 40 " o f t e n " or " h a l f - F r e n c h , h a l f - E n g l i s h . " The other group was l a b e l l e d the " E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d " subgroup, and was comprised of students coming from f a m i l i e s where the mother tongue of both parents was E n g l i s h . Furthermore, parents whether French or E n g l i s h who answered on the Parents Home Background questionnaires that French was spoken at home "sometimes" or "never," were al s o included i n t h i s category. I t has to be emphasized that students from a l i n g u i s t i c background other than French and E n g l i s h were excluded from the study. An attempt has been made to r e c o n c i l e both parent and student q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . An ambiguity was found when some Francophone students answered that they were using E n g l i s h at home, whereas t h e i r parents answered that they were using French. In t h i s case, parents q u e s t i o n - n a i r e s were p r e f e r r e d , and t h e i r answers r e l a t i n g to t h e i r mother tongue and t h e i r use of French were the c r i t e r i a considered f o r the c l a s s i f i c a - t i o n . I f they s a t i s f i e d the c o n d i t i o n s described e a r l i e r f o r being accepted as French-oriented, then they j o i n e d t h i s group. I f they f a i l e d to meet these p r e r e q u i s i t e s then, they were associated w i t h the other group. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was thought to be f a i r , s i n c e i t respected the d e f i n i t i o n of a "Francophone" w r i t t e n i n the p o l i c y . F u r t h e r , the a d d i - t i o n of the aforementioned requirements helped i n narrowing down t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , and consequently aided i n p u r i f y i n g the category. E d u c a t i o n a l Background: This v a r i a b l e i s b e l i e v e d to c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h academic r e s u l t s . C h i l d r e n from h i g h l y educated f a m i l i e s are provided w i t h more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to develop t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l 41 c u r i o s i t y . T h e i r environment s u p p l i e s books, t r a v e l , and worthwhile experiences which w i l l enhance t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l development. In t h i s study, the socioeconomic status v a r i a b l e (SES) was replaced by the one w r i t t e n above f o r reasons of accuracy. A re c e s s i o n period has to to be acknowledged i n these days, accounting f o r a high rate of unemployment. Many h i g h l y educated people are unemployed. As a con- sequence, i t can be argued that the SES index which combines measures of earnings and educational attainment would not be v a l i d today f o r many people. To make sure that a l l students came from approximately the same e d u c a t i o n a l background, a question to that e f f e c t was added to parent q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , (see Appendix B). The f o l l o w i n g s c a l e was developed i n order to a s s i g n a rank to the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of school attendance: Secondaire CEGEP U n i v e r s i t e Autre 8 - 9 - 1 0 - 1 1 1(12) - 2(13) - 3(14) 1(14) - 2(15) - 3(16) - 4(16) J u n i o r High School Senior High School U n i v e r s i t y Master's degree Ph.D 8 - 9 - 1 0 11 - 12 1(13) - 2(14) - 3(15) - 4(16) - 5(16) 18 20 42 The category "autre" encompassed a master's degree, a doctorate as w e l l other types of c e r t i f i c a t i o n . A baccalaureat degree was assessed as 16 years of s c h o o l i n g , a master's degree, 18 years, and a d o c t o r a t e , 20 years. Furthermore, parents with other v o c a t i o n a l and/or p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g were given an e d u c a t i o n a l measure, t a k i n g i n t o account d i f f e r e n c e s between the French and E n g l i s h school systems. Both parents' e d u c a t i o n a l background l e v e l s were averaged. The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 2a. Table 2a Mean Number of Years, and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of School Attendance Grade 4 Grade 6 X SD X SD E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d subgroup: 14.4 2.66 14.5 2.24 French-Oriented subgroup: 13.4 2.44 12.2 1.55 This t a b l e shows a d i f f e r e n c e of one year at grade f o u r , and of almost two years at grade s i x . However at grade s i x , the standard d e v i a t i o n shows that the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup i s more heterogeneous than the French-oriented subgroup. 43 The v a r i a b l e "Educational background" has a l s o been compared to S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1981 data f o r B.C. and Canada as a whole. These f i g u r e s are given i n Table 2b. Table 2b S t a t i s t i c s Canada Data f o r B.C. (1981) and Canada Less than Grade 9 Grades 9 - 1 3 More than 13 Years B.C. 15% 76.9% 8.2% Canada 21.9% 70.1% 8.0% Grade Four E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d 0 [0] 15 [41.6] 21 [58.3] French-oriented 0 [0] 15 [53.5] 13 [46.4] Grade S i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d 0 (0] 9 [33.3] 18 [66.6] French-oriented 0 [0] 7 [29.1] 17 [70.8] Note: Figure i n brackets are percentages. This t a b l e shows that 60% of the parents have more than 13 years of s c h o o l i n g , and therefore are c l a s s i f i e d i n the f i r s t category which encompasses 8.2% of the whole population, while 40% of them rank In the second category which encompasses 76.9% of the general p o p u l a t i o n . None of them are included i n the t h i r d category. From these data, i t appears that the sample under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s w e l l above average compared to the population i n B.C. and i n Canada. 44 However, i t has to be noticed that f o r students at grade f o u r , 58.3% of the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d parents rank i n the f i r s t category against 46.4% of the French-oriented parents. For students at grade s i x , 66.6% of the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d parents are c l a s s i f i e d i n the f i r s t category against 70.8% of the French-oriented parents. The r e s u l t s at grade s i x seem to be i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n with the information given i n Table 2a, but examining the s i z e of the standard d e v i a t i o n of the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group helps to understand t h i s apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n . C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y : C o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y i s deemed to be h i g h l y c o r - r e l a t e d w i t h academic achievement. A c h i l d who performs w e l l on a t e s t of c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s i s expected to achieve s i m i l a r l y good r e s u l t s e i t h e r i n Mathematics, Sciences, or Language A r t s t e s t s . Fishman and Lovas (1970) wrote about the high coincidence between underdevelopment and b i l i n g u a l i s m and between lower IQ scores and b i l i n g u a l i s m , but continued to say that there i s no necessary connection between these f a c t o r s . To make sure that t h i s v a r i a b l e was c o n t r o l l e d , a t e s t of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y was administered: "Canadian Cognitive A b i l i t y Test" (CCAT). The t h i r d s e c t i o n which deals w i t h nonverbal tasks was given, since i t i s described as being c u l t u r e f a i r . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , thought to be appropriate f o r the sample i n the study which shows d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i n g u i s t i c background. The r e s u l t s are given i n Table 3. The f i g u r e s show that grade four students are d i f f e r e n t on t h i s measure, while grade s i x students are comparable. With regard to Canadian norms, while the grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students seem to be s l i g h t l y above average, grade s i x French-oriented, and grade four E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d scored average. However, grade four French-oriented 45 Table 3 Mean Number and Standard D e v i a t i o n of the Scores on the "CCAT" Grade 4 Grade 6 X~ SD X SD En g l i s h - O r i e n t e d subgroup: 14.4 (14) 11.1 [29] 63.8 (15) 11.7 [45] French-Oriented subgroup: 13.4 (20) 12.9 [46] 66.0 (14) 12.9 [57] Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n each c e l l . F i g u r e s i n brackets are p e r c e n t i l e ranks compared to Canadian norms drawn from the "CCAT". students scored w e l l below average. The d i f f e r e n c e at grade four i s la r g e enough to be considered a t t e n t i v e l y when comparisons are made between these groups. Another e f f i c i e n t way to ensure that t h i s v a r i a b l e does not i n f l u e n c e the r e s u l t s , i n other words, to ensure that the students are even on t h i s v a r i a b l e , i s to use a s t a t i s t i c a l procedure c a l l e d the A n a l y s i s of covariance with the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y as a c o v a r i a t e . This procedure represents an attempt to equalize the groups on i n t e l l i g e n c e , and enables the researcher to analyze the variance i n the r e s u l t s accounted f o r by the independent v a r i a b l e "Home Language Use." There- f o r e , a d i f f e r e n c e i n the scores on the dependent v a r i a b l e s , i s not compounded by the i n t r u s i o n of a concomitant v a r i a b l e . Once t h i s f a c t o r i s a djusted, any d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r i n g i n the French and E n g l i s h t e s t s may be a t t r i b u t e d to the "Home Language Use." 46 Two other independent v a r i a b l e s deemed to i n f l u e n c e the r e s u l t s are age and sex. These two v a r i a b l e s were not c o n t r o l l e d , s i n c e the groups were i n t a c t c l a s s e s of the PCDF. But, i t can be assumed that the f a c t o r age i s accounted f o r by the f a c t o r grade. Grade four u s u a l l y represents a p o p u l a t i o n of nine y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n , while grade s i x represents a p o p u l a t i o n of eleven year-old c h i l d r e n . The f a c t o r sex was not taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the same reason. Because of the smallness of the sample, i t was a l s o impossible to randomly drop some students, i n order to make the groups even on these two v a r i a b l e s . Therefore, the study was comprised of 17 g i r l s and 17 boys at grade four. This r e s u l t i s r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n t a c t c l a s s e s as samples. At grade s i x , however, a wide discrepancy i s obvious between the number of boys and g i r l s , as 19 g i r l s and 10 boys made up the sample. This d i f f e r e n c e should be considered, when analy z i n g the r e s u l t s . 3. Research Design and Procedures: This research can be described as "ex post f a c t o " s i n c e i t was con- ducted a f t e r the treatment was given. In t h i s study, the treatment was the l i n g u i s t i c background. This treatment was b e l i e v e d to produce an e f f e c t on other v a r i a b l e s such as academic achievement. In a n a l y z i n g the students' scores on French and E n g l i s h t e s t s , i t was expected that one can f i n d out the magnitude of the e f f e c t of t h i s l i f e t i m e treatment on these scores. I t i s obvious that t h i s k i nd of study could not use a p r e - t e s t . I t was decided that an appropriate s t a t i s t i c a l procedure would be the a n a l y s i s of covariance with a t e s t on c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s (CCAT) 47 taken as a c o v a r i a t e . This procedure was intended to t e s t hypotheses three and fou r , while the other hypotheses were taken care of by the use of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s . An a n a l y s i s of covariance i s the product of an a n a l y s i s of variance to which a l i n e a r model i s added. The a n a l y s i s of varia n c e deals w i t h c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s . For the present study, one c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e was examined f o r i t s e f f e c t on the three dependent v a r i a b l e s . The cate- g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e was the treatment "Home Language Use," and the three dependent v a r i a b l e s were one t e s t of E n g l i s h and two t e s t s of French. Separate analyses were conducted f o r grade four and grade six,and are shown i n the Table 3. Table 4 D e s c r i p t i o n of the One Way ANOVA (Grade 4) Grade 4 French-oriented students: E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students: Note: The same procedure a p p l i e s to Grade s i x . A l i n e a r model i s described as fo l l o w s by K e r l i n g e r & Pedhazur, (1973): T - T + T + b ( X t j - X) + 48 where Y = the score of subject i under treatment j ; Y = the grand mean on the dependent v a r i a b l e ; Tj = the e f f e c t of treatment j ; b = a common r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r Y on X; X^j = the score on the c o v a r i a t e f o r subject i under treatment j ; X = the grand mean of the co- v a r i a t e ; e^j = the e r r o r associated w i t h the score of subject i under treatment j . Tables 5a, 5b and 5c i n chapter 4 show two means; an unadjusted and an adjusted one. The adjusted means i n d i c a t e what part of the v a r i a t i o n i n the unadjusted means remains a f t e r the v a r i a t i o n due to the c o v a r i a t e i s removed. The a n a l y s i s of covariance i s h e l p f u l i n keeping the researcher away from p o s s i b l e erroneous conclusions due to the presence of an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e . A second s t a t i s t i c a l procedure has been used: the Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n . I t has o f t e n been suggested that a b i l i t y i n the home language has a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with a b i l i t y i n a f o r e i g n language. In t h i s study, t h i s means that scores on t e s t s w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h should c o r r e l a t e with t e s t s w r i t t e n i n French f o r French- speaking students, and v i c e - v e r s a f o r English-speaking students. In order to f i n d out the presence of such a r e l a t i o n s h i p , a product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n has been thought to be a s u i t a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l procedure. Ferguson (1981) explained that measures of c o r r e l a t i o n by common conven- t i o n are defined to take values ranging from -1 to +1. A value of -1 describes a perfect negative r e l a t i o n . A l l points l i e on a s t r a i g h t l i n e , and X decreases as Y i n c r e a s e s . A value of +1 describes a p e r f e c t 49 p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n . A l l p oints l i e on a s t r a i g h t l i n e , and X increases as Y i n c r e a s e s . A value of 0 means that X and Y are independent of each other or bear a random r e l a t i o n to each other (p. 111). The f o l l o w i n g s c a t t e r diagrams give an idea of a p o s i t i v e , nega- t i v e , and zero c o r r e l a t i o n . v.. « « a) p o s i t i v e (+1) b) negative (-1) c) 0 c o r r e l a t i o n ( O ) I t has to be i n d i c a t e d that the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y was c o n t r o l l e d f o r the purpose of f i n d i n g out the " r e a l " c o r r e l a t i o n s . Otherwise a c h i l d might have achieved high scores on both t e s t s because of h i s s u p e r i o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , and not because of a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n - s h i p e x i s t i n g between both t e s t s . Thus, i t was thought that using the f o l l o w i n g formula would e l i m i n a t e the e f f e c t of a t h i r d v a r i a b l e , and would show the c o r r e l a t i o n between French and E n g l i s h t e s t s . Let us assume that Test de Lecture = X., TDRF = X 2 and CCAT = X 3 f o r the f o l l o w i n g equation. r 1 2 - 3 = r n r?3 / ( l - r 1 3 2 ) d - r 2 3 2) 50 Let t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n between the three v a r i a b l e s be as f o l l o w s : r 1 2 = 0.5597, r 1 3 = 0.52 and r 2 3 = 0.34. The p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s : - 0.5597 - (0.52)(0.34) = 0.3829 _ ,, 7 R r12.3 " ̂ Z Z = = = " 0.803 " 0 , 4 6 7 8 / (1-0.52 2) (1-0.34 2) By squaring r , we obt a i n the pr o p o r t i o n of the variance of one t e s t that can be pre d i c t e d from the other t e s t . In the r e s u l t s reported 2 2 above r = (0.4678) = 0.22, which represents the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i - ance, and when m u l t i p l i e d by 100, we o b t a i n 22%, a percentage which cannot be considered high. 4. D e s c r i p t i o n of measures employed: a) Questionnaires: 1) Students' q u e s t i o n n a i r e : (A copy i s included i n Appendix A) A questionnaire was administered to students i n a f i r s t step i n order to assess t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c background. This questionnaire has been modeled l a r g e l y on the que s t i o n n a i r e constructed by the Franco-Ontarian researchers, Raymond Mougeon and Michael Canale f o r elementary l e v e l . l i ) Parents' questionnaire (see Appendix B). Parents were asked questions concerning the frequency of t h e i r use of French at home, t h e i r educational background as w e l l the amount of years t h e i r c h i l d r e n involved i n the study have l i v e d i n an Anglophone m i l i e u . 51 b) French Language Tests: i ) Test de Lecture: Content: The 'Test de Lecture' i s designed to assess reading comprehension rather than the mechanics of reading as such. The t e s t c o n s i s t s of a number of passages followed by questions based on i t s content. The passages were e i t h e r adapted from already published m a t e r i a l or w r i t t e n by a s p e c i a l i s t i n c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e . The passages vary i n length and type of m a t e r i a l t r e a t e d . The ques- t i o n s tap the p u p i l ' s comprehension of the content of the passages and inferences that he or she can make from them (p. 1, Test Manual). T e c h n i c a l aspect: In May-June 1977, the four l e v e l s of the 'Tests de Lecture' were administered to French Immersion p u p i l s at the appropriate grade l e v e l s by a number of school commis- sions throughout Canada i n order to e s t a b l i s h norms. Data from p u p i l s coming from a French or b i l i n g u a l background (wi t h French spoken at home) were excluded; thus the norms r e f l e c t the performance of predominantly English-speaking c h i l d r e n (p. 2, Test Manual). I t has to be mentioned that the Tests de Lecture b a t t e r y was developed i n the context of the l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of French Immersion and b i l i n - gual education programs i n Ontario (p. 1, Test Manual). As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the population e n r o l l e d i n the PCDF i s composed of Dominant-English speaking students as w e l l as Dominant- French speaking ones. In order to prevent the occurrence of a c e i l i n g e f f e c t on a measure of French Language s k i l l s f o r Dominant-French speak- ing c h i l d r e n (a p o s s i b i l i t y i f only the Test de Lecture were used), another t e s t , the "Test de Rendement" was a l s o administered. For the grades analyzed i n t h i s study, the f o l l o w i n g Test s t a t i s - t i c s were found i n page 2 of the "Tests de Lecture" manual. 52 No. of No. of _ St. Error Test GRADE Items Pupils X Score SD of Meas Rellab. 3e 3 28 708 20.19 5.35 2.00 0.85 5e/6e 5 35 489 17.39 7.18 2.59 0.87 As the authors have not developed norms in the F a l l , the grades four and six students w i l l be given the grades three and five tests. This difference in grade level, should be acknowledged when the results are computed. Timing: grade four: 30 minutes grade six: 40 minutes i i ) The "Test de Rendement de Francais:" The following description appeared in the "Annotated Lis t of French Tests" presented by the Modern Language Centre at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. The Test de Rendement de Francais measures the students' knowledge of vocabulary, their listening comprehension, inferenclng s k i l l s , spelling, and a b i l i t y to draw basic grammatical distinctions. A l l test Items are of a multiple choice type. Pupils are required to identify words on the basis of written definitions, select synonyms and antonyms of words, choose s t y l i s t i c a l l y more precise substitutions for words in given contexts, and complete sentences with the correct conjunctions ... In grade six, the students must also read short passages and answer multiple choice questions based on their contents, determine the main idea or the least important sentence of a passage, select a t i t l e for a passage and identify the sequence of events, and complete open-ended passages with the most appropriate continuations (pp. 44-45). 53 Information on norms, v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y could not be obtained. Note: The "Test de Rendement de F r a n c a i s " has norms expressed only i n stanines (see Appendix D). In t h i s study, the stanines have been converted i n t o p e r c e n t i l e s f o l l o w i n g the table given In Appendix E. c) E n g l i s h Language Test: Gates-MacGinitie: This t e s t has been sel e c t e d among others f o r i t s emphasis on Vocabulary and Comprehension. These two components are deemed to be the most relevant i n order to make sure that a language i s " f e l t " . In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s are of secondary impor- tance. Content: The Vocabulary Test samples the student's reading vocabulary. This t e s t contains 50 items, each c o n s i s t i n g of a t e s t word followed by f i v e other words, one of which i s s i m i l a r i n meaning to the t e s t word. The student's task i s to choose the word that means most nearly the same as the t e s t word. The f i r s t items are composed of easy and commonly used words. Gradually the words become l e s s common and more d i f f i c u l t (p. 1, Test Manual). The Comprehension Test measures the students' a b i l i t y to read complete prose passages with understanding. I t contains 21 passages i n which a t o t a l of 52 blank spaces have been introduced. For each blank space a choice of f i v e completions i s o f f e r e d . The student must decide which one of the f i v e completions best conforms to the meaning of the whole passage. The f i r s t passages are simply w r i t t e n , but the l a t t e r ones become p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t (p. 1, Test Manual). T e c h n i c a l aspect: S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n : The 1964-65 norms f o r the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests were developed by a d m i n i s t e r i n g the t e s t s to a nationwide sample" of approximately 40,000 students i n 37 communities. The communities were c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the basis of s i z e , geographical l o c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , and f a mily income (p. 1). 54 R e l i a b i l i t y : A r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s an index of the accuracy of the scores obtained on a t e s t . The a l t e r n a t e - f o r m r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t takes i n t o account v a r i a t i o n s i n a student's performance from one day to another and v a r i a t i o n s i n the content of the t e s t from one form to another (p. 4 ) . A l t e r n a t e - f o r m r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were obtained by a d m i n i s t e r i n g one form of the t e s t on one day and a second form on another day. Order of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t forms was counterbalanced (p. 4 ) . S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were al s o computed i n order that comparisons could be made with t e s t s which report only s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s (see Appendix 3). V a l i d i t y : The v a l i d i t y of an achievement t e s t i s u s u a l l y evaluated i n terms of i t s content v a l i d i t y . The content v a l i d i t y of a reading achievement t e s t r e f e r s to how w e l l the items of that t e s t cover the o b j e c t i v e s of a p a r t i c u l a r reading program. The t e s t user may best understand the tasks that the t e s t impose by reading the t e s t s and c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r i n g what i s i n v o l v e d i n g e t t i n g the c o r r e c t answers (p. 4, Test Manual). Concurrent v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n of Primary C at grade three and Survey D at grade f i v e w i t h four other standardized reading t e s t s were obtained i n a study by Davis. The medium c o e f f i c i e n t s were .84 f o r Primary C Vocabulary, .79 f o r Primary C Comprehension, .78 f o r Survey D Vocabulary, and .80 f o r Survey D Comprehension (p. 4 ). Timing: Vocabulary Test : 15 min. Comprehension Test : 25 min. T o t a l : 40 min. 55 d) Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s Test; Content: The Canadian Cogn i t i v e A b i l i t i e s Test (CCAT) has evolved from the well-accepted Lorge-Thorndike I n t e l l i g e n c e Tests s e r i e s which was modified and standardized i n Canada as the Canadian Lorge-Thorndike I n t e l l i g e n c e Tests (p. 2 ) . This t e s t provides a set of measures of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to use and manipulate a b s t r a c t and symbolic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Three-main types of symbols play s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e s i n the t h i n k i n g of students and a d u l t s : Symbols re p r e s e n t i n g words, symbols representing q u a n t i t i e s , and symbols representing s p a t i a l , geometric or f i g u r a l p a t t e r n s (p. 2 ). In t h i s t e s t , the authors have attempted to emphasize r e l a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g the p e r c e i v i n g of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a b s t r a c t elements i n a v a r i e t y of media and s e t t i n g s . Throughout each of the subtests the b a s i c elements have been kept r e l a t i v e l y simple, c l e a r and f a m i l i a r (p. 2 ) . Te c h n i c a l aspect: Norms: The Canadian Cogn i t i v e A b i l i t i e s Test was normed j o i n t l y w i t h the Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s , Forms 3 and 4, (grades 3-8). Thus, norms f o r the Canadian Cognitive A b i l i t i e s Test are based on the same students used to norm the achievement t e s t b a t t e r y . Robert C. Ni c h o l s c i t e d i n the Eighth Mental Measurements Yearbook (Buros) has made the f o l l o w i n g statement about the t e s t CAT: R e l i a b i l i t y : Kuder-Richardson 20 r e l i a b i l i t i e s range from .91 to .96 f o r the various b a t t e r i e s and l e v e l s i n the m u l t i - l e v e l b ooklet. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the primary l e v e l s are s l i g h t l y lower, going down to .89 (p. 181). The Lorge-Thorndike verb a l and nonverbal t e s t s are reasonably p a r a l l e l forms of the corresponding CAT Te s t s . The median c o r e l a t i o n s of the CAT with the Lorge-Thorndike over a six-month period f o r seventh and n i n t h grade c h i l d r e n were .86 for verbal and about .73 for nonverbal. This shows very good stability over a short time and over forms for the verbal battery and adequate stability for the nonverbal battery. Parallel form retest r e l i a b i l i t i e s over 13 months for the primary levels were about .73 for students i n i t i a l l y tested in kindergarten and about .81 for students i n i t i a l l y tested in f i r s t and second grades (p. 181).. As an indication of concurrent validity, the manual presents correlations with achievement as measured by ITBS and TAP based on 500 students at each grade level from the standardizations sample "typicalcorrelation with the achievement test composite is .80 to .85 for the verbal battery, .70 to .80 for the quantitative battery and .65 to .70 for the nonverbal battery (p. 181). 57 CHAPTER IV A n a l y s i s of Data 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n The r e s u l t s of the analyses described i n Chapter Three are presen- ted i n t h i s chapter. In a d d i t i o n , other analyses have been conducted, and the r e s u l t s appear In t h i s chapter as w e l l . Analyses of covariance explained i n the previous chapter w i l l be Introduced f i r s t , f o l l o wed by supplementary analyses, and the Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l be analysed at the conc l u s i o n of t h i s chapter. Note: For a l l analyses, the dependent v a r i a b l e "GMTOT" means the t o t a l score of both subtests vocabulary and comprehension of the Gates- M a c G i n i t i e . 2. Summary of Analyses of Covariance "Subgroup" as Independent V a r i a b l e . In order to determine whether the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean scores on achievement t e s t s are due to the v a r i a b l e "Home Language Use" represented by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n "French- o r i e n t e d " and " E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d " students, an a n a l y s i s of covariance was done using the Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y Test (CCAT) scores as the c o v a r i a t e . The r e s u l t s of these analyses are given i n Table 5a, 5b and 5c. The r e s u l t s show that s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s are obtained f o r grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students, on the Gates-MacGinltie Test," F ( l , 2 2 ) = 4.55, p < .05, f o r grade s i x , French-oriented students, on the "Test de Lecture," F(l,27) = 5.87, p < .05, and f o r grade s i x French- Table 5a Summary of Analyses of Covariance of Achievement Tests Scores Dependent V a r i a b l e Gates-MacGinitie French--Oriented Students E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Grades Unadj. X SD Adj. X Unadj. X SD Adj. X F 4 (13) 44.23 13.46 46.01 [58] (18) 54.61 11.61 53.31 [73] 2.62 6 (14) 61.64 16.35 61.98 [50] (11) 72.63 10.09 72.20 [76] 4.55* * S i g n i f l e a n t at .05. Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n c e l l s . Figures i n brackets are p e r c e n t i l e ranks corresponding to adjusted X of each dependent v a r i a b l e . Table 5b Summary of Analyses of Covariance of Achievement Tests Scores Dependent V a r i a b l e Test De Lecture French-Oriented Students E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Grades Unadj. X SD Adj. X Unadj. X SD Adj. X F 4 (13) 21.76 3.89 22.42 [54] (18) 23.44 3.5 22.97 [54] 0.19 6 (15) 24.33 6.69 24.46 [79] (12) 18.58 6.81 18.41 [54] 5.87* • S i g n i f i c a n t at .05. Note; Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n c e l l s . Figures i n brackets are p e r c e n t i l e ranks corresponding to adjusted X of each dependent v a r i a b l e . Table 5c Summary of Analyses of Covariance of Achievement Tests Scores Dependent V a r i a b l e Test De Rendement French--Oriented Students E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Grades Unadj. X SD Adj. X Unadj. X SD Adj. X F 4 (12) 11.75 4.88 12.93 [11-231 (19) 11.63 5.09 10.88 [4-11] 1.44 6 (15) 20.26 7.09 20.44 [40-60] (13) 15.84 3.91 15.63 [11-23] 5.19* • S i g n i f i c a n t at .05. Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n c e l l s . Figures i n brackets are p e r c e n t i l e ranks corresponding to adjusted X of each dependent v a r i a b l e . 61 o r i e n t e d students, on the "Test de Rendement." F ( l , 2 8 ) = 5.19, p < .05. Furthermore, g r a p h i c a l analyses of these scores are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 1, 2, and 3. Both subgroups scores at grade four and grade s i x are expressed i n terms of p e r c e n t i l e ranks, a c c o r d i n g l y to the norms i n d i c a t e d i n t e s t manuals provided w i t h each t e s t . 3. Summary of Analyses of Covariance; "Subgroup and Amount of Exposure to the Program" as Independent V a r i a b l e s ( w i t h CCAT p a r t i a l e d o u t ) . "Amount of Exposure to the Program" has been assessed from parents' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to the question 9 (see Appendix B). "Subgroup" represents French-oriented and E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students. Thus, two way (2 x 2) analyses of covariance were conducted i n order to examine the i n f l u e n c e of the number of years spent i n the PCDF on each of the three t e s t s f o r French-oriented and E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students. The r e s u l t s are given i n Table 6 f o r grade four. The r e s u l t s show a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r exposure to the program when "Test de Lecture" i s the dependent v a r i a b l e F ( l , 2 6 ) = 4.6, p < .05. There i s no exposure by subgroup i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r any of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s obtained f o r the c o v a r i a t e (CCAT), F ( l , 2 6 ) = 10.16, p < .05 on the "Test de Lecture," F ( l , 2 6 ) = 8.02, p < .05 on the Gates-MacGinitie, and a l s o F ( l , 2 6 ) = 9.18 p < .05 on the Test de Rendement. Results f o r grade s i x are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 7. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r subgroup f o r each of the three t e s t s ; when the Gates-MacGinitie i s the dependent v a r i a b l e F ( l , 2 0 ) = 4.62, p < .05, Figure 1 P e r c e n t i l e Ranks of two Subgroups on the "Gates-MacGinitie Test (compared to a norm group). Grade 63 Figure 2 P e r c e n t i l e Ranks of two Subgroups on the "Test de Lecture' (compared to a norm group). 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Group FR.-OR. ENG.-OR 10 0 Grade 64 Figure 3 Percentile Ranks of two Subgroups on the "Test de Rendement' (compared to a norm group). 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 •i Group FR.-OR. ENG.-OR Grade Table 6 Summary of Analyses of Covariance with the Independent Variable "Exposure to the Program' Grade 4 French-Oriented English-Oriented Independent Variables Exposure Exposure High Low High Low Expo MS F Subgroup MS F (8) (5) (15) (3) Gates-MacG. 41.00 49.40 55.27 51.33 34.26 0.256 393.62 2.945 MS-RES df 133.65 (26) (8) (5) (15) (3) Test de Lect. 22.75 20.20 23.93 21.00 45.85 4.6* 0.069 0.007 MS-RES df 9.96 (26) (7) (5) (16) (3) Test de Rend. 13.29 9.60 12.00 9.67 69.27 3.85 55.45 3.08 MS-RES df 17.96 (26) •Significant at .05. Note: Figures in parentheses are numbers of students. High = 2-3 years of exposure to the "PCDF". Low = less than 2 years of exposure to the "PCDF". df = are In parentheses for Exposure and for Subgroup. Table 7 Summary of Analyses of Covariance with the Independent V a r i a b l e "Exposure to the Program' Grade 6 French-Oriented English-Oriented Independent V a r i a b l e s Exposure Exposure High Low High Low Expo MS F Subgroup MS F (9) (5) (7) (4) Gates-MacG. 64.11 57.20 75.29 68.00 298.62 2.13 647.17 4.62* MS-RES df 140.03 (20) (9) (6) (7) (5) Test de Lect. 24.00 24.83 18.86 18.2 0.04 0.001 243.04 5.416* MS-RES df 44.87 (22) (9) (6) (8) (5) Test de Rend. 21.00 19.17 15.88 15.8 6.78 0.206 160.44 4.86* MS-RES df 32.95 (23) • S i g n i f i c a n t at .05. Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students. High = 3-4-5 years of exposure to the progam. Low = le s s than 3 years of exposure to the program, df = are i n parentheses f o r Exposure and f o r Subgroup. 67 when the Test de Lecture i s the dependent v a r i a b l e F ( l , 2 6 ) = 5.41, p < .05, and when the Test de Rendement i s the dependent v a r i a b l e F ( l , 2 3 ) = 4.86, p < .05. However, these analyses needed to be supplemented by i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n Tables 8 and 9. In Table 8, the independent v a r i a b l e was al s o assessed from respon- ses to the qu e s t i o n 9, on parents' questionnaire (see Appendix B). In the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , amount of years i n a Regular E n g l i s h Pro- gram (REP) was assessed from responses to the question 9 on the parents' q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix B). Tables 8 and 9 w i l l be discussed i n Chapter F i v e i n r e l a t i o n to the a n a l y s i s of the hypotheses stated i n Chapter One. 4. Summary of Analyses of Covariance; "Subgroup and number of years l i v e d i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " as Independent V a r i a b l e s . "The number of years l i v e d i n an Anglophone m i l i e u " has been c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o two l e v e l s : High and Low. A f i r s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been attempted looking at three c a t e g o r i e s , High, Medium and Low. As the number of the students i n the low category was too s m a l l , the middle category was pooled w i t h the low category. This s t r a t e g y provided a low category with 5 students i n I t and a high c a t e - gory w i t h 8 students. The number of years corresponding to each c a t e - gory i s given i n the note at the bottom of Tables 10 and 11. These two way (2 x 2) analyses of covariance, amount of "years" by "subgroup" have been done w i t h CCAT as the c o v a r i a t e . The r e s u l t s are given i n Table 9 Table 8 .Means and Standard Deviations of "Amount of Exposure to PCDF (grades 4 and 6) French-Oriented Students E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Grade X SD Grade X SD 4 (n = 14) 2.2 1.57 4 (n = 20) 2.3 0.82 6 (n = 15) 2.8 1.47 6 (n = 14) 2.7 0.91 Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n each c e l l . Years are school years. Table 9 Means and Standard Deviations of "Amount of Exposure to REP" (grades 4 and 6) French-Oriented Students E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Grade X SD Grade X SD 4 (n = 14) 1.51 4 (n = 20) 0.75 0.74 6 (n = 15) 1.5 1.84 6 (n = 14) 2.42 1.82 Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n each c e l l . Years are school years. Table 10 Summary of Analyses of Covariance w i t h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Number of Years Lived i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " Grade 4 French-Oriented English-Oriented Independent V a r i a b l e s Exposure Exposure High Low High Low Years Subgroup MS F MS F (8) (5) (18) (0) Gates-MacG. 46.00 41.4 54.6 41.73 0.296 182.69 1.295 MS-RES df 141.02 (27) (8) (5) (18) (0) Test de Lect. 21.38 22.4 23.44 5.73 0.511 5.82 0.51 MS-RES df 11.21 (27) (7) (5) (19) (0) Test de Rend. 11.00 12.8 11.63 10.84 0.55 7.36 0.37 MS-RES df 19.46 (27) • S i g n i f i c a n t at .05. Note; Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n every c e l l . High = 7 up to 9 years. Low = less than 7 years. Table 11 Summary of Analyses of Covariance w i t h the Independent V a r i a b l e "Number of Years Lived i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " Grade 6 French-Oriented English-Oriented Independent V a r i a b l e s Exposure Exposure High Low High Low Years Subgroup MS F MS F (8) (6) (11) (0) Gates-MacG. 61.63 61.67 72.64 7.30 0.05 422.99 2.87 MS-RES df 147.28 (21) (8) (7) (12) (0) Test de Le c t . 21.5 27.57 18.58 122.22 3.23 53.77 1.42 MS-RES df 37.87 (23) (8) (7) (13) (0) Test de Rend. 17.13 23.86 15.85 153.82 6.004* 15.51 0.60 MS-RES df 25.62 (24) * S i g n i f l e a n t at .05. Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n each c e l l . High = 10 or 11 years. Low = le s s than 10 years. 72 f o r grade four. No s i g n i f i c a n t "years" or "subgroup" main e f f e c t s are obtained. I t has to be noted that there were no students i n one c e l l — the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d low years c e l l — t h e r e f o r e , no two way i n t e r a c t i o n was t e s t e d . The c o v a r i a t e has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t F ( l , 2 7 ) = 7.60, p < .05 when the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the Gates-MacGinitie t e s t scores, al s o when the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the Test de Rendement F ( l , 2 7 ) = 8.48, p < .05, and when the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the Test de Lecture F ( l , 2 7 ) = 9.03, p < .05. For grade s i x , the r e s u l t s are given i n Table 11. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t i s found f o r the v a r i a b l e "years" when the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the Test de Rendement F( l , 2 4 ) = 6.004, p < .05. I t has to be noted again that there were no students i n one c e l l — t h e E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d low years c e l l — t h e r e f o r e , no two way i n t e r a c t i o n was t e s t e d . The c o v a r i a t e CCAT has a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t F ( l , 2 1 ) = 10.18, p < .05, when the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the Gates-MacGinitie t e s t . These r e s u l t s needed to be supplemented by the f o l l o w i n g informa- t i o n . In Table 12, the amount of years l i v e d i n an Anglophone m i l i e u was assessed from responses to the question 8, on parents' q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix B). This t a b l e w i l l be r e f e r r e d to when the f i n d i n g s are discussed i n Chapter F i v e . 5. Summary of M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses Four independent v a r i a b l e s : Grade, Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y Test (CCAT), number of years l i v e d i n an Anglophone m i l i e u , and amount of Table 12 Means and Standard Deviations of "Number of Years Lived i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " (grades 4 and 6) French-Oriented Students E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Grade X SD Grade X SD 4 (n - 14) 7.14 2.68 4 (n = 20) 8.8 0.3 6 (n - 15) 7.6 4.01 6 (n = 14) 11.5 0.35 Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n each c e l l . 74 exposure to the PCDF were used i n s i x m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses, two f o r each of the three dependent measures. In a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , the order of entry of the v a r i a b l e s i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n equa- t i o n does make a d i f f e r e n c e . Since other independent v a r i a b l e s such as Grade and C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y are deemed to infuence any s c h o l a s t i c achievement scores they have to be given p r i o r i t y i n the order of entry over other v a r i a b l e s . When these two v a r i a b l e s are assessed, then i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine the amount of variance accounted f o r by the other v a r i a b l e s "Number of Years i n an Anglophone M i l i e u " and "Amount of Expo- sure to the PCDF." In order to f i n d out which of those v a r i a b l e s had more i n f l u e n c e on the three dependent v a r i a b l e s , "Gates-MacGinitie t o t a l score, Test de L e c t u r e , and Test de Rendement" two analyses were per- formed f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e i n which "years" was entered f i r s t followed by "Expo", and i n a second time, where "Expo" was entered f i r s t f o llowed by "years." R e s u l t s are given i n Table 13. 2 However, squares of p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( r ) i n d i c a t e the c o n t r i b u t i o n to the variance of the dependent v a r i a b l e that each independent v a r i a b l e adds a f t e r the variance c o n t r i b u t i o n of preceding v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s given i n Table 13 show that the v a r i a b l e "years" accounts f o r 16% of the variance i n the Gates-MacGinitie, f o r 10% i n the "Test de Lecture," and f o r 2% i n the "Test de Rendement," whereas the v a r i a b l e "Expo" accounts f o r 0.8 of 1% i n the Gates-MacGinitie; f o r 0.3 of 2% i n the "Test de Lecture," and f o r 4% i n the "Test de Rendement." Table 13 Summary of M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses w i t h four Independent V a r i a b l e s GMTOT Test de Lecture Test de Rend. V a r i a b l e s R 2* r 2** (n = 56) R 2 r 2 * * (n = 58) R 2 r 2 * * (n = 59) Grade [1] 0.25 0.25 0.007 0.007 0.26 0.26 CCAT [2] 0.43 0.24 0.131 0.111 0.37 0.17 Years [3] 0.50 0.16 0.258 0.102 0.47 0.027 Expo [4] 0.51 0.008 0.265 0.003 0.49 0.041 Grade [1] 0.25 0.25 0.007 0.007 0.26 0.26 CCAT [2] 0.43 0.24 0.13 0.111 0.37 0.17 Expo [3] 0.43 0.008 0.13 0.003 0.38 0.041 Years [4] 0.51 0.16 0.26 0.102 0.49 0.027 Note: Figures Figures i n i n parentheses are numbers brackets are orders of of students i n each entry of v a r i a b l e s . c e l l . *From m u l t i p l e regression a n a l y s i s . •Squares of simple Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between dependent v a r i a b l e and each of the independent v a r i a b l e s . 76 6. Summary of Analyses of Covariance "Dominant-Francophone" and "Mixed" as the independent v a r i a b l e s : So f a r , analyses of covariance have been done on "French-oriented" students i n c l u d i n g "Dominant-Francophone" and "Mixed French-English" c h i l d r e n . The s i z e of these two groups taken separately was too small to be compared to the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d group. Therefore, they have been combined, and analysed as one major category French-oriented students. However, f o r the purpose of these analyses, the subcategories aforemen- t i o n e d were set up according to the answers to questions one, two and f i v e on parents' q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix B). C h i l d r e n from parents who answered "Often" or "Always" were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the category "Dominant-Francophone," whereas c h i l d r e n from parents who answered " h a l f French, h a l f E n g l i s h " were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the "Mixed" category. Two way (2 x 2) analyses of covariance, "Dominance" by "Grade" have been done w i t h CCAT as the c o v a r i a t e . The resuts are given i n Table 14. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r the v a r i a b l e "grade" when the dependent v a r i a b l e s are the Gates-MacGinitie test scores F ( l , 2 2 ) = 7.37, p < .05 and the "Test de Rendement" F( l , 2 2 ) = 5.42, p. < .05. There i s no dominance by grade i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r any of the three dependent v a r i a b l e s . The c o v a r i a t e has a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t F ( l , 2 2 ) = 6.94, p < .05, when the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the "Test de Rendement," and a l s o a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t F ( l,23) = 12.22, p < .05, when the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the "Test de Lecture." Table 14 Summary of Analyses of Covariance with the Independent V a r i a b l e : Dominant French and Mixed Dominant Mixed Independent V a r i a b l e s Gr. 4 Gr. 6 Gr. 4 Gr. 6 Grade M.S. F Dominance M.S. F (5) (7) (8) (7) GMTOT 40.75 54.05 48.33 67.01 1431.47 7.37* 606.004 3.12 MS-RES df 194.24 (22) (5) (8) (8) (7) Test De Lec t . 24.17 24.56 22.41 21.6 .0.24 0.01 32.94 1.44 MS-RES df 22.95 (23) (5) (8) (7) (7) Test De Rendement 14.29 19.30 12.42 18.87 175.38 5.42* 7.84 0.24 MS-RES df 32.34 (22) • S i g n i f i c a n t at .05. Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n each c e l l , df are i n parentheses f o r grade and f o r dominance. 78 7. Summary of the P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n Analyses C o r r e l a t i o n s are analysed between French t e s t s scores (Test de Lecture and Test de Rendement) and E n g l i s h t e s t scores (Gates- M a c G i n i t i e ) when CCAT i s p a r t i a l e d out. The r e s u l t s given i n Table 15 show that there e x i s t negative c o r r e l a t i o n s between the "Test de Lec t u r e , " and the "Gates-MacGinitie," and a l s o between the "Test de Rendement," and the "Gates-MacGinitie" f o r grade four French-oriented students. P o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s are found between these t e s t s f o r grade four E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students. At grade s i x , f o r both subgroups, a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i s observed between the two measures of French, and the measure of E n g l i s h . Figures i n brackets give percentages of variance of t e s t 1 explained by v a r i a t i o n of t e s t 2, when CCAT has been c o n t r o l l e d . 8. Summary of D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s ; Comparisons between the Cogni t i v e A b i l i t y Test scores and the three other t e s t s scores, the Gates-MacGinitie (GMTOT), the Test de Lecture and the Test de Rendement have been attempted. R e s u l t s are given i n Table 16. P e r c e n t i l e ranks i n parentheses show that grade four French- o r i e n t e d students achieved higher on the GMTOT, and on the Test de Lecture than on the CCAT, whereas they achieved lower on the Test de Rendement. Grade s i x French-oriented students achieved at about the same p e r c e n t i l e rank on the GMTOT and on the Test de Rendement as on the CCAT, whereas they achieved much higher on the Test de Lecture. Grade four E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students achieved much higher on the GMTOT, and on Table 15 P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n Analyses Between French Tests when CCAT i s P a r t i a l e d Scores and E n g l i s h Test Out Score French-Oriented Students Gates-MacGinitie E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Gates-MacGinitie Grade 4 Grade 6 Grade 4 Grade 6 Test de Lect. (9) (11) (15) (7) -0.0122 [.01] 0.4561 [20] 0.6763 [46] 0.2698 [7] Test de Rend. (9) (11) (15) (7) -0.0435 [.2] 0.3693 [14] 0.5769 [33] 0.5475 [29] Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n each c e l l . F igures i n brackets are percentages of variance. Table 16 Mean Number of Scores on the Dependent V a r i a b l e s vs Independent V a r i a b l e (CCAT) French-Oriented Students E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students V a r i a b l e s Grade 4 Grade 6 Grade 4 Grade 6 CCAT (29) (45) (46) (57) 55.9 63.8 63.8 66.0 GMTOT (54) (42) (73) (79) 44.2 57.5 53.63 73.1 Test de Lecture (48) (79) (62) (58) 21.5 24.3 23.6 19.15 Test de Rendement (10) (50) (10) (23) 11.5 20.3 11.25 15.85 Note: Figures i n parentheses are p e r c e n t i l e ranks. 81 the Test de Lecture compared to t h e i r performance on CCAT, w h i l e they achieved much lower on the Test de Rendement. F i n a l l y , grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students achieved s i m i l a r l y on both CCAT and the Test de L e c t u r e , whereas they achieved much higher on the GMTOT, and much lower on the Test de Rendement. On an o v e r a l l b a s i s , no c o n s i s t e n t trend i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the d i r e c t i o n of a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between CCAT scores and scores on the three dependent v a r i a b l e s . 82 CHAPTER V Summary of F i n d i n g s , Conclusion, L i m i t a t i o n s , I m p l i c a t i o n s 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n : The research problem, i d e n t i f i e d i n the f i r s t chapter, was to i n v e s t i g a t e i f students e n r o l l e d i n a French program i n a m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n were expe r i e n c i n g an a d d i t i v e form of b i l i n g u a l i s m . I t has to be remembered that t h i s French program (PCDF) hosts two subgroups i n terras of l i n g u i s t i c background, a French-oriented subgroup, and an E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup. As the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup belongs to a language m a j o r i t y i n the s e t t i n g of B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e i r enrollment i n the PCDF denotes t h e i r m o t i vation i n l e a r n i n g or adding a second language. For t h i s group, the a c q u i s i t i o n of a second language w i l l not threaten the s u r v i v a l of t h e i r own. In c o n t r a s t , French-language c h i l d r e n In B.C. form a m i n o r i t y - language. The a c q u i s i t i o n of the majority-language becomes a matter of s u r v i v a l f o r them. Studies conducted on minority-language c h i l d r e n have shown that these c h i l d r e n develop a "sem i l i n g u a l i s m " , when they are introduced to a second language i n t h e i r e a r l y school years. However, other s t u d i e s have evidenced that minority-language c h i l d r e n may a l s o experience an a d d i t i v e form of b i l i n g u a l i s m when t h e i r mother tongue i s made the language of i n s t r u c t i o n i n schools. Since the PCDF o f f e r s the teaching of a second language f o r majority-language c h i l d r e n , and the teaching of the f i r s t language f o r minority-language c h i l d r e n , i t was assumed that t h i s program would 83 f o s t e r a form of a d d i t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m f o r these two groups. This form of " a d d i t i v e " b i l i n g u a l i s m i s expected to be r e f l e c t e d through s c h o l a s t i c achievement. These expectations were formulated i n terms of hypotheses mentioned i n the f i r s t chapter. The c o n f i r m a t i o n of these hypotheses means that both subgroups i n t h i s French program i n a m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n experience a form of " a d d i t i v e " b i l i n g u a l i s m . 2. Summary of F i n d i n g s : The f i r s t h ypothesis, d e a l i n g w i t h French-oriented students i n the PCDF, s t a t e d that t h i s subgroup w i l l achieve as w e l l as a norm group of E n g l i s h students i n the Regular E n g l i s h Program (REP) on a measure of E n g l i s h achievement. For the purpose of t h i s study, the expression "as w e l l as" r e f e r s to a range of p e r c e n t i l e ranks going from the 45th to the 55th. Table 4a shows that grade four French-oriented students achieved as w e l l as the norm group of E n g l i s h students on the Gates M a c G l n i t i e t e s t , and that grade s i x French-oriented students achieved s l i g h t l y higher. Thus, the n u l l hypothesis as a n t i c i p a t e d was not r e j e c t e d . In reference to the second hypothesis, which s t i p u l a t e d that there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n the PCDF, and a norm group of English-speaking students i n the REP, on a measure of E n g l i s h achievement, the f i n d i n g s given i n Table 5a show that t h i s subgroup a t t a i n e d r e s p e c t i v e l y , the 73th p e r c e n t i l e and the 76th p e r c e n t i l e ranks. The second n u l l hypothesis as a n t i c i p a t e d was not r e j e c t e d . 84 With regard to the t h i r d hypothesis, at grade s i x , contrary to e x p e c t a t i o n s , the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d and a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r - ence was found. The E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the French-oriented students. However, at grade f o u r , the n u l l hypothesis as a n t i c i p a t e d was not r e j e c t e d . Table 7 i n d i c a t e s that there was a d i f f e r e n c e between the two subgroups i n terms of exposure to formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n . This d i f f e r e n c e , which was to the advantage of the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup, may account f o r the r e j e c t i o n of t h i s hypothesis at grade s i x . The f o u r t h hypothesis asserted that the French-oriented subgroup i n the PCDF would achieve s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on a measure of French achievement than the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup i n the PCDF. The f i n d i n g s given i n Tables 5b, and 5c i n d i c a t e that grade s i x French-oriented students support the hypothesis on both measures of French, the "Test de Lecture," and the "Test de Rendement," while grade four French-oriented students f a i l to support i t . Meanwhile, Table 6 shows that both subgroups at grade four have been exposed to the program f o r approximately the same period of time, therefore reducing the chances of f i n d i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these two subgroups. With regard to the f i f t h hypothesis which affirmed that French- o r i e n t e d students i n the PCDF w i l l achieve higher than a norm group of E n g l i s h students i n the French Immersion Program, the grade s i x French- o r i e n t e d students supported the hypothesis, while grade four French- o r i e n t e d students r e j e c t e d i t (see Table 5b). These r e s u l t s are not s u r p r i s i n g , since grade four French-oriented students, as shown i n Table 8 have been exposed i n the o v e r a l l to a 85 l e s s e r extent to formal French I n s t r u c t i o n than English-speaking students i n French Immersion Programs who have been exposed to formal French I n s t r u c t i o n s i n c e Kindergarten (see Tests de l e c t u r e , p. 1). In terms of years, the d i f f e r e n c e found i s almost two years. Furthermore, Table 12 shows that the French-oriented students have been l i v i n g i n an Anglophone m i l i e u f o r almost the same period of time as the t y p i c a l E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g students, suggesting that exposure to formal French i n s t r u c t i o n p r i o r to PCDF was non s i g n i f i c a n t . This i n f o r m a t i o n helps i n e x p l a i n i n g these f i n d i n g s at grade four. The f i n d i n g s concerning the s i x t h hypothesis shown i n Table 5b were a l s o expected. The E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n the PCDF at both grades four and s i x d i d not achieve higher than the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n the French Immersion Program on a measure of French achievement as s t i p u l a t e d i n the hypothesis. Table 8 shows that E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n the PCDF have been exposed to t h i s program f o r an average of two years and seven months at grade s i x , and of two years and three months at grade f o u r , i n terms of school years. Furthermore, the former group has been exposed to formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n f o r an average of two years and four months and f o r an average of seven months f o r the l a t t e r group as shown i n Table 9. On an o v e r a l l b a s i s , the French Immersion students have received more formal French i n s t r u c t i o n than the PCDF students. This information aids i n e x p l a i n i n g the r e s u l t s . The seventh hypothesis d e a l t w i t h the amount of exposure to the program. Grade s i x French-oriented students achieved higher than grade s i x French Immersion students on the "Test de Lecture" as shown i n Table 5b which 86 t h e r e f o r e confirmed the hypothesis. However grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n the PCDF achieved as w e l l as a norm group of French Immer- s i o n students and thus, r e j e c t e d the hypothesis. The explanations given i n the previous paragraph should a l s o be considered In the a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s w i t h regard to E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n the PCDF. Con- cerning the eight hypothesis, both subgroups E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d and French-oriented students at grade s i x e n r o l l e d i n the PCDF, as shown i n Table 5a achieved as w e l l as a norm group of grade s i x English-speaking students, i n the REP, on the Gates-MacGinitie t e s t . Therefore, the hypothesis i s supported. I t has to be noticed however, that the r e s u l t s of the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup at grade s i x surpassed by f a r the expectations formulated i n t h i s hypothesis. Other analyses have been conducted on the "Amount of Exposure to the Program" as w e l l as on the number of "Years spent i n an Anglophone m i l i e u . " The r e s u l t s reported i n Table 6 f o r grade four students con- cerning the f i r s t v a r i a b l e suggest that t h i s v a r i a b l e does not i n f l u e n c e s t a t i s t i c a l l y the r e s u l t s on the E n g l i s h Test. However, the r e s u l t s on the "Test de Lecture" are shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d while those on the "Test de Rendement" are not f a r from being s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d (p = 0.06), suggesting that a higher l e v e l of exposure would have i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y . No subgroup e f f e c t i s reported. At grade s i x , t h i s v a r i a b l e seems to be of no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e on the E n g l i s h and the French t e s t s . However, a s i g n i f i c a n t subgroup e f f e c t i s reported, meaning that both low-exposure and high-exposure E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students succeeded bet t e r on the Gates-MacGinitie, than 87 low-exposure and high-exposure French-oriented students. A r e v e r s a l took place i n the French t e s t s . An e x p l a n a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i s found i n Tables 8 and 9. At grade f o u r , a subgroup e f f e c t could not have been p o s s i b l y expected, s i n c e the two subgroups are q u i t e s i m i l a r i n terms of t o t a l exposure to both languages E n g l i s h and French. Therefore, these two subgroups w i l l b e n e f i t from an exposure to the PCDF, and w i l l probably progress at the same pace. However, grade s i x students o f f e r some d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of amount of exposure to REP, as w e l l as i n terms of amount of years spent i n an Anglophone m i l i e u , accounting therefore f o r a subgroup e f f e c t . A program e f f e c t could not be expected, since these two sub- groups have only been exposed to PCDF f o r a small reduced amount of time as shown i n Table 8. The second v a r i a b l e mentioned above was "Number of years spent i n an Anglophone m i l i e u " . The r e s u l t s of analyses of covariance given i n Table 10 f o r grade four students show no "Years" e f f e c t as w e l l as no subgroup e f f e c t . The explanations provided i n the previous paragraph can be a p p l i e d a l s o to t h i s v a r i a b l e , w i t h respect to grade four students. However, at grade s i x , a low exposure to an Anglophone m i l i e u seems to a f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y the scores on the "Test de Rendement." No subgroup e f f e c t takes place. Information given i n Table 12 concerning the grade s i x French-oriented and E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students shows that the former subgroup has s t i l l been l i v i n g i n an Anglophone m i l i e u f o r an average of 7-1/2 years, t h e r e f o r e , reducing the p o s s i b i l i t y of a sub- group e f f e c t on the three dependent v a r i a b l e s . I t has to be a l s o added 88 t h a t h a l f of the French-oriented students at grade s i x , have been i n an Anglophone m i l i e u f o r an average of 10 to 11 years. I n an attempt to f i n d out which of the v a r i a b l e s discussed above has more i n f l u e n c e on the r e s u l t s of the three t e s t s , m u l t i p l e regres- s i o n analyses have been done. The r e s u l t s d i s p l a y e d i n Table 13 show that the v a r i a b l e "Years" weighs more than the v a r i a b l e "Expo" on two t e s t s out of three. However, i t has to be remembered that the v a r i a b l e "Expo" Is not given a f a i r treatment, since the students i n the PCDF have not been i n the Program long enough. Table 13 I n d i c a t e s that the v a r i a b l e "Years" accounts f o r 16% of the variance i n the "Gates- M a c G i n i t i e " , whereas the v a r i a b l e "Expo" accounts f o r only 0.8 of 1%, and f o r 2% i n the "Test de Rendement", while the v a r i a b l e "Expo" accounts f o r a l i t t l e b i t more, i . e . 4%. In the o v e r a l l , i t seems that the v a r i a b l e "Years" has more i n f l u e n c e i n the Gates-MacGinitie, and l e s s Influence i n the "Test de Rendement," the r e s u l t s of which are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those given i n Table 11. Concerning the v a r i a b l e "Expo", these r e s u l t s are i n the same d i r e c t i o n as the r e s u l t s of grade s i x students shown i n Table 7. The r e s u l t s of analyses of covariance conducted on the "Dominant- Francophone" and the "Mixed" students given i n Table 14, show that t h i s independent v a r i a b l e has no e f f e c t on any of the t e s t s . However a grade e f f e c t i s found on the "Gates-MacGinitie", and on the "Test de Rendement" meaning that there i s an increase i n the scores on these two t e s t s from grade four to grade s i x , regardless of the l i n g u i s t i c domin- ance. I t has to be pointed out that the scores on the "Test de Lecture" 89 are not r e l i a b l e , s i n c e h a l f of the students i n grade four were admin- i s t e r e d the same t e s t i n the previous s p r i n g . Furthermore, i t i s almost impossible to ensure what proportion of a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t i s l e f t over the summer h o l i d a y s . Another point worth mentioning i s that the term "Dominance," i n the context of the current study, may be a misleading v a r i a b l e , since at both grades four and s i x , the lowest l e v e l of Exposure to an Anglophone m i l i e u ranges from one to f i v e years. Furthermore, students have been c l a s s i f i e d on these two v a r i a b l e s according to t h e i r parents' answers on the use of French at home, which might not r e f l e c t the use of French by the c h i l d r e n . Furthermore, too, one wonders I f t h i s question does not imply a response based on s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y , r a t h e r than a c t u a l i t y . F u rther comparisons have been attempted between the scores obtained on French and E n g l i s h t e s t s by means of an a n a l y s i s of covariance w i t h the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y p a r t i a l e d out. R e s u l t s given i n Table 15 suggest trends i n the d i r e c t i o n of a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the exception of grade four French-oriented students whose r e s u l t s show a negative r e l a - t i o n s h i p . However, the h i s t o r i c a l complexity of the nature of t h i s sub- group may account f o r t h i s f i n d i n g . Another p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p has been i n v e s t i g a t e d between the scores on the Cogn i t i v e A b i l i t y Test, and the scores on the three dependent v a r i a b l e s . However, the ambiguity of the r e s u l t s given i n Table 16 does not allow any d e f i n i t i v e statement to be made, although a trend towards a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i d e n t i f i e d . 90 3. Conclusions The French program i n a m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n (PCDF) according to the f i n d i n g s discussed p r e v i o u s l y , seems to be s u c c e s s f u l i n generating an a d d i t i v e form of b i l i n g u a l i s m . This a d d i t i v e form i s expressed on both E n g l i s h and French t e s t r e s u l t s . Both subgroups do not experience any hindrance i n t h e i r E n g l i s h s k i l l s compared to a norm group of E n g l i s h - speaking students i n the Regular E n g l i s h Program. On the French measures used, grade s i x French-oriented students obtained good r e s u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y when compared to native-speakers of French, and these r e s u l t s may be p a r t i c u l a r l y considered impressive when t h e i r low amount of exposure to PCDF i s remembered. In c o n t r a s t , grade four French-oriented students' performance i s r a t h e r unexpected, but the a n a l y s i s of t h e i r academic background e x p l a i n s t h i s f i n d i n g . I t i s to be expected t h a t , at the grade s i x l e v e l , these grade four students w i l l achieve as w e l l as the ones a c t u a l l y i n the program, as a r e s u l t of exposure to the program. The r e s u l t s achieved by E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n French t e s t s at grade s i x represent q u i t e an accomplishment when taking i n t o account t h e i r low amount of exposure to the program. They seem to achieve as w e l l as the English-speaking c h i l d r e n i n French Immersion, and compared to native-speakers of French, they appear to perform at an acceptable l e v e l , c o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t o r "exposure" described above. At grade f o u r , E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students achieve as w e l l as the English-speaking c h i l d r e n i n the French Immersion Program. However, caution i s warranted when accepting t h i s r e s u l t f o r reasons of p r a c t i c e e f f e c t mentioned 91 e a r l i e r . Compared to n a t i v e speakers of French, t h e i r r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r to French-oriented students and t h e r e f o r e , are also expected to show an improvement through the years. At t h i s point of d i s c u s s i o n , a question may a r i s e which can be expressed as f o l l o w s : Does the PCDF provide the students w i t h a l l the requirements needed to a t t a i n a " t r u e " b i l i n g u a l i s m ? This question cannot be adequately answered by t h i s study, since t h i s study could not give an accurate account of t h i s program f o r reasons p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. Furthermore, the l i m i t e d range of t e s t s used i n the study could not provide a complete p i c t u r e of students' l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s . However, the r e s u l t s at grade s i x are encouraging, as they show a trend i n that d i r e c t i o n . I t seems that both subgroups b e n e f i t from such a program. With respect to E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students, they need more formal French i n s t r u c t i o n than French-oriented students, and a program which o f f e r s an i n t e n s i v e French i n s t r u c t i o n completed by a 20% of formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n i s l i k e l y to help them i n a t t a i n i n g t h i s g o a l . Concerning the French-oriented students, t h e i r r e s u l t s at grade s i x on French measures are promising, and i t i s expected that w i t h 20% of i n t e n s i v e formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e i r r e s u l t s In E n g l i s h w i l l improve, l e a d i n g them on the path towards b i l i n g u a l i s m . To sum up, i t seems reasonable to assume that f o r the time being, t h i s l e a r n i n g experience seems to b e n e f i t both E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d and French-oriented students and to provide them with the necessary r e q u i r e - ments to develop a " t r u e " b i l i n g u a l i s m . Before ending t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i t might be appropriate to r e l a t e the r e s u l t s to the f i n d i n g s of previous research reported i n the f i r s t 92 chapter. G e n e r a l l y , i t appears that the r e s u l t s of the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n the study are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s reported by other researchers i n t e r e s t e d i n majority-language c h i l d r e n engaged i n second-language l e a r n i n g (Lambert & Tucker 1972; Gray 1981; Shapson & Day 1982). The students i n the study do not experience any impediment i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e i r f i r s t language. Further, they make adequate gains i n t h e i r second language c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r low exposure to second language i n s t r u c t i o n . However, i t i s i n a d v i s a b l e to d i r e c t l y compare the r e s u l t s of the students i n the study w i t h those of the students i n French Immersion Programs, since the degree of exposure to the second language f o r the two groups d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y . The r e s u l t s of the French-oriented students i n t h i s study g e n e r a l l y corroborate the f i n d i n g s of previous research conducted on m i n o r i t y - language c h i l d r e n (Skutnabb-Kangas & Toukomaa, 1976; Carey & Cummins 1978). The students i n the study achieved as w e l l as the E n g l i s h - speaking c h i l d r e n i n the Regular E n g l i s h Programs on a measure of E n g l i s h . In French achievement, grade s i x French-oriented students i n the study showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e from grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students, w h i l e at grade f o u r , f o r reasons p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, French-oriented students d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e from grade four E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students. However, i t must be noted that the small s i z e of the sample d i d not a l l o w the researcher to c l a s s i f y the students according to Carey and Cummins' three c a t e g o r i e s . Therefore, the combination of students from both "mixed" l i n g u i s t i c background and "dominant-Francophone " l i n g u i s t i c 93 background might have helped to c o n t r i b u t e to p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n E n g l i s h achievement. On the other hand, i n French achievement, the r e s u l t s might be seen to be more impressive f o r grade s i x students, and more acceptable f o r grade four students due to t h i s aggregate. 4. L i m i t a t i o n s : In t h i s study, students i n the PCDF have been compared to norm groups of students e n r o l l e d In French Immersion Programs as w e l l i n Regular E n g l i s h Programs. A p r e l i m i n a r y plan f o r the present study aimed at i n v e s t i g a t i n g s k i l l s l e v e l s of the Francophone p o p u l a t i o n e n r o l l e d i n three d i f f e r e n t programs of i n s t r u c t i o n , the PCDF, the EIP, and the REP. The PCDF students would have made up an experimental group, w h i l e students i n the other programs would have formed c o n t r o l groups. These three groups would have been tested i n French and i n E n g l i s h , on reading comprehension and vocabulary s k i l l s . However, t h i s plan was not used f o r the study, because one major school d i s t r i c t decided not to p a r t i c i p a t e i n v o k i n g l o s s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l time and p o s s i b l e l a c k of I n t e r e s t from parents as reasons f o r non p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Therefore, the researcher was able to study only students i n the PCDF program; the two groups of students i n t h i s program could only be compared w i t h norms f o r comparable students i n the REP, and the EIP programs. This study has provided i n f o r m a t i o n about a French program i n a m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n . However, t h i s study i s not a l o n g i t u d i n a l one and, as such, cannot pretend to be as accurate. For the time being, s i n c e 94 the program Is s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y , i n B.C. i t i s impossible to c a r r y out l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , the French-oriented p o p u l a t i o n to which t h i s program i s addressed, i s composed of f a m i l i e s who have e l e c t e d to s e t t l e i n B.C., and a l s o of f a m i l i e s whose choice on a place of settlement i s not d e f i n i t i v e , and who are bound f o r other d e s t i n a t i o n s . This v a r i a b i l i t y i n the population accounts f o r the d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a reasonable s i z e d sample of students who have been attending the program since"~grade one. R e s u l t s reported i n Table 14 suggest that the frequency of the use of French at home does not i n f l u e n c e the scores e i t h e r i n French achievement or i n E n g l i s h achievement. These r e s u l t s seem to c o n t r a d i c t the f i n d i n g s reported by those researchers who observed on the b a s i s of t h e i r study that the b e t t e r a c h i l d preserves h i s mother tongue, the b e t t e r he succeeds at school i n h i s f i r s t language, and the b e t t e r he i s at l e a r n i n g a second language. However, the r e s u l t s i n the present study should not be taken at face value because of the i n s u f f i c i e n t number of students i n each c e l l as w e l l as a l a c k of r i g o r o u s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between the two samples. One w i l l remember that the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s study was determined by parents' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , suggesting the p o s s i b i l i t y of a response based on s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . To counteract t h i s p o s s i b l e f a c t o r , students' questionnaires should be used i n f u r t h e r research f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Another question that i s d i f f i c u l t to address i n t h i s study i s the e f f e c t of i n t e g r a t i o n of anglophone and francophone students. Since 95 most of the schools In the study were comprised of these two l i n g u i s t i c subgroups, the researcher d i d not have any point of comparison. In order to measure adequately e i t h e r the gain or l o s s of French f o r Anglophone and Francophone as w e l l the gain or l o s s of E n g l i s h f o r Anglophone and Francophone, samples of 'pure' Francophone and 'pure' Anglophone are needed. These two samples when exposed to the same program of I n s t r u c t i o n f o r the same period of time can serve as p o i n t s of reference. These c o n d i t i o n s may be d i f f i c u l t to f u l f i l l i n B.C. where l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of Franco-Colombians are not numerous. Furthermore, i t must be mentioned that the Educational Background of the parents on the average was 12.8 years f o r the French-oriented subgroup, and 14.4 years f o r the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup. This d i f f e r e n c e of almost 2 years between the two subgroups must be i n d i c a t e d as i t might have i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s . Another d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the v a r i a b i l i t y across schools i n terms of time allotment to formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n which ranges from no i n s t r u c t i o n or l i t t l e i n grade one to grade three, to 5% up to 20% from grade three to grade seven. This v a r i a b i l i t y should be considered when analysing the r e s u l t s . Other l i m i t a t i o n s about the program which should be i n d i c a t e d are: 1) the Programme-Cadre-de-Francais i s only s i x years o l d , and as a r e s u l t i s s t i l l developing appropriate m a t e r i a l and c u r r i c u l a , 2) teachers In the PCDF are confronted w i t h s p e c i a l teaching c o n d i t i o n s such as the teaching of m u l t i l e v e l c l a s s e s , and the wide range of students' l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s . These cons i d e r a t i o n s when kept i n mind, help i n understanding the r e s t r i c t i o n s placed on the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s . 96 5. I m p l i c a t i o n s : However, the study has i n v e s t i g a t e d the current s i t u a t i o n of the program, at grades four and s i x . According to December 1983 f i g u r e s of school attendance i n the PCDF the samples analyzed i n t h i s study account f o r 21.3% of the PCDF f o u r t h graders i n B.C., and f o r 25.4% of the PCDF s i x t h graders i n B.C. In B r i t i s h Columbia, i t may be suggested that the a c t u a l p i c t u r e of the PCDF w i l l remain the same i n the f u t u r e , s i n c e the French-oriented p o p u l a t i o n i n the PCDF i s l i k e l y to show the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s described above. Therefore i t could be recommended that the trends of t h i s study i n terms of long term e f f e c t s might merit a t t e n t i o n . At the secondary l e v e l , both subgroups w i l l face a choice whether to r e g i s t e r i n an E n g l i s h Program or to continue i n a PCDF program. In the event that the French-oriented subgroups chooses to attend a Regular E n g l i s h Program, i t may be expected that once provided w i t h I n t e n s i v e formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n , they w i l l close the gap observed at grade s i x between t h e i r scores, and the scores obtained by E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students, but one cannot p r e d i c t the l o s s they w i l l experience i n French. The question i s : Is the amount of French i n s t r u c t i o n r e c e i v e d i n Elementary school s u f f i c i e n t enough to prevent these students from a severe r e g r e s s i o n i n French when deprived of t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n ? On the other hand, the choice of attending a PCDF program w i l l l i k e l y lead them towards high l e v e l s of p r o f i c i e n c y i n French, but i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s a percentage of 20% formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n l a r g e enough to provide these students w i t h appropriate E n g l i s h s k i l l s , when they w i l l have to 97 compete w i t h students i n s t r u c t e d s o l e l y i n E n g l i s h at u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . The E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d subgroup w i l l also have the same choice. In the event that they choose to stay i n a PCDF program, i n t e n s i v e formal French i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l help them to close the gap observed at grade s i x between t h e i r scores and the scores obtained by French-oriented students. However, the same concerns mentioned e a r l i e r with regard to French-oriented students' E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y apply, although to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The question here i s : When these students compete at u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l w i t h students only i n s t r u c t e d i n E n g l i s h , how s u c c e s s f u l w i l l they be? These questions w i l l have to be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n f u r t h e r research at a l a t e r time, when the number of students at the secondary l e v e l make a study f e a s i b l e . U n t i l then, research should concentrate on the same sample i n the subsequent grades, and evaluate the performance of the two subgroups i n both languages. I t w i l l be of i n t e r e s t , f o r i n s t a n c e , to v e r i f y i f E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students, supported by t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c background, maintain t h e i r achievement i n E n g l i s h at the same l e v e l even w i t h only 20% of formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n . Moreover, i t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to v e r i f y i f French-oriented students, w i t h t h i s percentage of formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l s t i l l achieve as w e l l as Eng l i s h - s p e a k i n g students i n a Regular E n g l i s h program? In French, research i s a l s o needed to f i n d out i n which p r o p o r t i o n E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students are going to improve t h e i r scores. The same question a l s o a p p l i e s to French-oriented students. I t may also be i n t e r e s t i n g to f i n d out i f grade s i x French-oriented students, when at grade seven w i l l 98 m a i n t a i n t h e i r advantage i n French over the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students i n the same p r o p o r t i o n and i f E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students w i l l a l s o maintain t h e i r advantage i n E n g l i s h over the.French-oriented students i n the same p r o p o r t i o n . To summarize, the current study has i d e n t i f i e d trends emerging from the program under I n v e s t i g a t i o n . As long as these trends are not strengthened by other research, i n subsequent years, l o o k i n g at a more adult PCDF, there w i l l not be a thorough e v a l u a t i o n of the outcomes of t h i s program. For the b e n e f i t of both subgroups e n r o l l e d i n the PCDF, i n the s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g of B r i t i s h Columbia, other research i s needed. On a l a r g e r s c a l e , the present study may be seen as an i n d i c a t o r of the behavior of a program of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the language of a m i n o r i t y . As such, t h i s study may be r e p l i c a t e d i n other s i t u a t i o n s , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the way the language of other m i n o r i t i e s behave compared to the s p e c i f i c minority-language analysed i n t h i s study. In order to help the undertaking of f u r t h e r r e p l i c a t i o n as w e l l as to help to g e n e r a l i z e the f i n d i n g s to other s i t u a t i o n s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population i n t h i s study are redefined b r i e f l y . On Linguistic Background: The l i n g u i s t i c p u r i t y of the minority-language sample could not be maintained f o r reasons of sample s i z e . Therefore, the combination of both the pure minority-language group and the mixed language group does not provide r e s u l t s that are as e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e as might have been the case had these two groups been treated s e p a r a t e l y . 99 Furthermore, the minority-language students i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study i n d i c a t e a v a r i a b i l i t y of l i n g u i s t i c patterns on t h e i r q u e s t i o n - n a i r e s . This v a r i a b i l i t y i s perhaps accounted f o r by the l a c k of support from the environment, since these f a m i l i e s do not l i v e w i t h i n "enclaves". On Educational Background; The parents of students i n each of the l i n g u i s t i c subsample were above Canadian norms f o r l e v e l of Ed u c a t i o n a l l i n g u i s t i c background. Furthermore, parents of grade s i x E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students ranked almost two years higher than parents of French-oriented students at the same grade l e v e l , w h i l e parents of grade four E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d students ranked one year higher than parents of French-oriented students at the same grade l e v e l . On Cognitive Ability: Compared to Canadian norms, the French and E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d higher grade students and the E n g l i s h - o r i e n t e d lower grade students scored at the average l e v e l . However, the French-oriented lower grade students scored w e l l below average l e v e l . At both grade l e v e l s , the m a j o r i t y - language students appear to' score higher than the minority-language students on general c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . To sum up, t h i s study may be g e n e r a l i z e d to other s i t u a t i o n s provided that samples are matched on the above mentioned c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s , and that the program of i n s t r u c t i o n under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s at the 100 same stage of development as the program i n t h i s study. This study should be r e p l i c a t e d by researchers l o o k i n g at other m i n o r i t y and m a j o r i t y language s i t u a t i o n s to f i n d out whether or not the hypotheses formulated i n the f i r s t chapter would be supported given the matching on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Before concluding the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study, another i s s u e worth addressing i n f u r t h e r research i s to measure the i n f l u e n c e of French s c h o o l i n g on the frequency of the use of French outside of the classroom. Mougeon and Canale (1978-1979) found that French language schoo l i n g does not seem to have had a strong e f f e c t on the student's use of the French language .... that French language schools l o c a t e d i n predominantly E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Ontarian communities w i l l experience more d i f f i c u l t i e s i n having t h e i r students reach a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of French language mastery than French language schools s e r v i n g Franco-Ontarian m a j o r i t y communities (p. 32). This o b s e r v a t i o n leads one to speculate on the s i t u a t i o n of the French language i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where Franco-Colombian m a j o r i t y communities are p r a c t i c a l l y l n e x i s t e n t . Therefore, the f o l l o w i n g ques- t i o n may come to mind: "Is education i n French enough to maintain the French language i n B r i t i s h Columbia?" Answers on students' q u e s t i o n - n a i r e s already provided some in f o r m a t i o n on t h i s matter, but a d d i t i o n a l data are required i n order to answer t h i s question adequately. Further research should t h e r e f o r e concentrate a l s o on t h i s t h i s important i s s u e . 101 Reference Notes Anderson, T. (1979). Preschool b l l l t e r a c y : e ducational i m p l i c a t i o n s . Paper presented at SEAMEO seminar on b i l i n g u a l i s m 16-21 A p r i l 1979, Singapore. Carey, S. T. and Cummins, J . (1978) E n g l i s h and French achievement of grade 5 c h i l d r e n from E n g l i s h , French and mixed French-English home backgrounds a t t e n d i n g the Edmonton Separate School System E n g l i s h - French immersion program. Report submitted to the EdmontonSeparate School System. Ewanyshyn, E. (1980) E v a l u a t i o n of a Ukranian-English B i l i n g u a l Program (78-79), Planning and Research, A l b e r t a . Gray, V. 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(1979) On the l i t e r a c y of F i n n i s h immigrant p u p i l s i n Sweden. Research Reports No. 86-1979 - Department of Education - U n i v e r s i t y of J y v a s k y l a . Yakimishyn, M. P. (1976) Review and e v a l u a t i o n of a research study - e n t i t l e d Report - Academic achievement of the Franco-Manitoban student. Report prepared f o r the Superintendent of Schools Norwood School D i v i s i o n . 102 References B r a t t - P a u l s t o n , C. (1975) E t h n i c R e l a t i o n s and B i l i n g u a l Education. Accounting f o r C o n t r a d i c t o r y Data. Working Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m 1-44, 01SE. C h r i s t i a n , C. C , J r . (1976) C u l t u r a l components of reading. An examination of p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c processes i n reading and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the b i l i n g u a l classroom. Singapore: Singapore U n i v e r s i t y Press. Cummins, J . (1977-1978) E d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of mother tongue maintenance i n minority-language groups. Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 395-416. Cummins, J . (1979) B i l i n g u a l i s m and educational development i n anglo- phone and m i n o r i t y francophone groups i n Canada, Interchange, 9̂ , 40-51. Engle, P. L. (1975) Language medium i n e a r l y schools years f o r minority-language groups. Review of Educational Research, 45, 283-325. Ferguson, G. A. (1981) S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n Psychology and Education. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Montreal. Fishman, J . & Lovas J . (1970) B i l i n g u a l education i n s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e , TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 4̂ , 215-222. Fishman, A. (1976) B i l i n g u a l education, an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Newbury House, Rowley Mass. Genesee, F. (1978) A l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of an e a r l y immersion school program. Canadian J o u r n a l of Education 1978, 3̂ , 31-50. K e r l i n g e r , F. N. & Pedhazur, E. J . (1973) M u l t i p l e Regression In B e h a v i o r a l Research, H o l t , Rinehart and Winston. Lambert, W. E. (1975) Culture and Language as f a c t o r s i n l e a r n i n g and education. In A. Wolfang (Ed.) Education of Immigrant Students, Toronto: OISE. Lapk i n , S. & Swain, M. (1977) The use of E n g l i s h and French c l o z e t e s t s i n a b i l i n g u a l education program e v a l u a t i o n . Language Le a r n i n g , 27_, 279-314. Mougeon, R. & Canale M. (1978-1979) Maintenance of French i n Ontario: Is Education i n French Enough? Interchange, 9̂  No.4. 103 Shapson, S. M. & Day, E. M. (1982) A l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of an e a r l y immersion program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. J o u r n a l of M u l t i l i n - gual and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Development, 3^ No. 1. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. & Toukomaa, P. (1976a) Semilingualism and middle c l a s s b i a s , Working Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m , 19, 181-197. V o r i h , L. & R o s i e r , P. (1978) Rock Point Community School: An Example of a Navajo-English B i l i n g u a l Elementary School Program TESOL Qu a r t e r l y , 12, No. 3. 104 Appendix A Questionnaire d e s t i n e aux eleves/students' questionnaires Questionnaire e c r i t / W r i t t e n Questionnaire and Summary of the Answers 1. Nom/Name 2. Adresse/Address: 3. Date de naissance/Date of b i r t h : jour/day mois/month annee/year 4. a) Annee s c o l a i r e / g r a d e : 4 6 b) Nom de l'ecole/Name of school: 5. Sexe/sex: M F 6. Dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que tu parie s aux personnes qui prennent s o i n de t o i , mais q u i t r a v a i l l e n t a 1'ext e r i e u r ? / I n which language do you speak to the people who are responsible f o r you and who work out? * ne s'applique pas dans raon cas/does not apply to me a) Tout l e temps en francais/Always i n French b) Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n French c) Autant en f r a n c a i s qu'en anglais/As much i n French as i n E n g l i s h d) Souvent en a n g l a i s / O f t e n i n E n g l i s h e) Tout l e temps en anglais/Always i n E n g l i s h 105 Dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que tu pa r i e s aux personnes qui prennent s o i n de t o i , et qui rest e n t a l a maison/In which language do you speak to the people who are responsible f o r you, but do not work out? * ne s'applique pas dans mon cas/does not apply to me a) Tout l e temps en francais/Always i n French b) Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n French c) Autant en f r a n c a i s qu'en anglais/As much i n French as i n E n g l i s h - d) Souvent en angl a i s / O f t e n i n E n g l i s h e) Tout l e temps en anglais/Always i n E n g l i s h Dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que l e s personnes qui prennent s o i n de t o i a l a maison se pa r l e n t entre eux?/In which language do the people who are resp o n s i b l e f o r you speak to each other? * ne s'applique pas dans mon cas/does not apply to me a) Tout l e temps en francais/Always i n French b) Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n French c) Autant en f r a n c a i s qu'en anglais/As much i n French as i n E n g l i s h d) Souvent en angl a i s / O f t e n i n E n g l i s h e) Tout l e temps en anglais/Always i n E n g l i s h Quand tu es a l a maison, dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que tu p a r i e s a ton/tes f r e r e ( s ) et soeur(s)?/When at home, i n which language do you speak to your brother(s) and s i s t e r ( s ) ? * ne s'applique pas dans mon cas/does not apply to me a) Tout l e temps en francais/Always i n French b) Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n French c) Autant en f r a n c a i s qu'en anglais/As much i n French as i n E n g l i s h d) Souvent en anglais/Often i n E n g l i s h • e) Tout l e temps en anglais/Always i n E n g l i s h 106 10. Quand tu joues chez t o i , dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que t u p a r i e s a tes amis(es)?/When you are p l a y i n g with your f r i e n d s at your house, i n which language do you speak to them? * ne s'applique pas dans raon cas/does not apply to me a) Tout l e temps en francais/Always i n French b) Souvent en f r a n c a i s / O f t e n i n French c) Autant en f r a n c a i s qu'en anglais/As much i n French as i n E n g l i s h d) Souvent en an g l a i s / O f t e n i n E n g l i s h e) Tout l e temps en anglais/Always i n E n g l i s h 107 Summary of the Answers on Each Question 6. Dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que tu par i e s aux personnes qui prennent s o i n de t o i , mais qui t r a v a i l l e n t a l ' e x t e r i e u r ? / I n which language do you speak to the people who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r you and who work out? Grade 4 Grade 6 French-Oriented E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d French-Oriented E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Students Students Students (n = 14) (n = 20) (n = 15) (n = 14) [%] [%] [%] [%] * 0 0 1 - 6.7 1 = 7.14 a) 3 = 21.4 - 5 = 33.3 0 b) 4 = 28.6 2 = 10 2 = 13.3 1 = 7.14 c) 3 = 21.4 2 = 10 2 = 13.3 1 = 7.14 d) 0 3 - 15 1 = 6.7 3 - 21.4 e) 4 = 28.6 13 - 65 4 = 26.7 8 = 57.14 7. Dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que tu p a r i e s aux personnes qui prennent s o i n de t o i , et qui r e s t e h t a l a maison/In which language do you speak to the people who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r you, but do not work out? Grade 4 Grade 6 French-Oriented E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d French-Oriented Eng l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Students Students Students (n = 14) (n = 20) (n = 15) (n = 14) [%) IX] [%] [%] * 0 1 = 5 3 = 20 1 = 7.14 a) 5 = 35.7 0 4 = 26.7 0 b) 3 = 21.4 0 2 = 13.3 0 c) 1 = 7.1 2 = 10 2 = 13.3 1 = 7.14 d) 2 = 14.3 3 = 15 1 = 6.7 1 = 7.14 e) 3 = 21.4 14 = 70 3 = 20 11 = 78.6 108 8. Dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que l e s personnes qui prennent s o i n de t o i a l a maison se p a r l e n t entre eux?/In which language do the people who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r you speak to each other? Grade 4 Grade 6 French-Oriented E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d French-Oriented E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Students Students Students (n = 14) (n = 20) (n = 15) (n = 14) [%] l % ] l % ] [%] * 0 0 3 - 20 1 = 7.14 a) 4 = 28.6 0 5 = 33.3 0 b) 2 = 14.3 1 = 5 0 0 c) 0 1 = 5 1 = 6.7 0 d) 2 = 14.3 2 = 10 21 = 13.3 1 - 7.14 e) 6 - 42.8 16 = 80 4 = 26.7 12 - 85.7 9. Quand tu es a l a maison, dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que tu p a r i e s a ton/tes f r e r e ( s ) et soeur(s)?/When at home, i n which language do you speak to your b r o t h e r ( s ) and s i s t e r ( s ) ? Grade 4 Grade 6 French-Oriented E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d French-Oriented E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students Students Students Students (n = 14) (n = 20) (n = 15) (n = 14) [%] [%] [%] [%] 1 = 7.1 1 = 5 2 = 13.3 0 a) 3 = 21.4 0 3 = 20 0 b) 1 = 7.1 1 = 5 0 1 = 7.14 c) 2 = 14.3 4 = 20 0 1 = 7.14 d) 1 = 7.1 2 = 10 4 = 26.7 5 = 35.7 e) 6 = 42.8 12 = 60 6 = 40 7 = 50 109 10. Quand tu joues chez t o i , dans q u e l l e langue est-ce que tu p a r i e s a tes amis(es)?/When you are p l a y i n g w i t h your f r i e n d s at your house, i n which language do you speak to them? Grade 4 Grade 6 French-Oriented Students (n = 14) l%] * 0 a) 2 = 14.3 b) 0 c) 2 = 14.3 d) 2 - 14.3 e) 8 = 57.1 E n g l i s h - O r i e n t e d Students (n = 20) French-Oriented Students (n = 15) [%] English-Oriented Students (n = 14) [%] 0 0 0 0 1 = 7.14 13 = 92.8 0 0 0 0 0 1 = 6.7 2 = 10 1 = 6.7 4 = 20 2 - 13.3 14 = 70 11 = 73.3 Note: Figures i n parentheses are numbers of students i n each c e l l . 110 Appendix B (French v e r s i o n ) Questionnaire d e s t i n e aux parents S.V.P. repondre aux questions suivantes par un (x) 1. Langue maternelle du pere ou du gardien: f r a n c a i s : a n g l a i s : autre: 2. Langue maternelle de l a mere ou de l a gardienne: f r a n c a i s : a n g l a i s : autre: 3. Langue seconde du pere ou du gardien: f r a n c a i s : a n g l a i s : autre: 4. Langue seconde da l a mere ou de l a gardienne: f r a n c a i s : a n g l a i s : autre: 5. Degre d ' u t i l i s a t i o n du f r a n c a i s a l a maison: Toujours: Souvent: M o i t i e f r a n c a i s , m o i t i e a n g l a i s : Un peu: Jamais: N.B. Les questions #6 e t , #7 sont importantes pour c e t t e recherche, mais neanmoins sont l a i s s e e s a votre d i s c r e t i o n . M e r c i . 6. Formation academique du pere ou du gardien: (years) secondaire: 1 2 3 4 CEGEP: 1 - 2 3 U n i v e r s i t e : 1 2 3 4 Autre: 7. Formation academique de l a mere ou de l a gardienne: (years) secondaire: 1 2 3 4 CEGEP: 1 2 3 U n i v e r s i t e : 1 2 3 4 Autre: I l l 8. Nombre d'annees que vo t r e enfant a passees dan un m i l i e u f r anco- phone ou/et anglophone depuls sa nalssance: a. m i l i e u francophone dans une province ou pays francophone b. m i l i e u francophone dans une province ou pays anglophone ' c. m i l i e u anglophone dans une province ou pays francophone • d. m i l i e u anglophone dans une province ou pays anglophone 9. Ce tableau represente l e s annees que votre enfant a passees dans l e programme en cours, et a u s s i l e s annees q u ' i l a passees dans des programmes a n t e r l e u r s : Kg. l e a 2 e a 3 ea 4 ea 5 ea 6 ea Programme-Cadre-de-Francais: Ecole d*Immersion Francaise: Ecole de langue f r a n c a i s e : Ecole de langue a n g l a l s e : N.B.: S ' i l a r r i v a i t que votre enfant a i t repete une annee, v e u i l l e z l ' I n d i q u e r c i - a p r e s en mentionnant l'annee et l e genre de programme en cours: Programme: Annee: 112 Appendix B ( E n g l i s h v e r s i o n ) Parent' s Questionnaire Please answer the f o l l o w i n g question by a x 1. Mother tongue of the f a t h e r or guardian: French: E n g l i s h : Other: 2. Mother tongue of the mother or guardian: French: E n g l i s h : Other: 3. Second language of the f a t h e r or guardian: French: E n g l i s h : Other: 4. Second language of the mother or guardian: French: E n g l i s h : Other: 5. Use of French at home: Always: Often: 1/2 French 1/2 E n g l i s h : Sometimes: Never: N.B. Parents please note that the i n f o r m a t i o n requested i n questions 6 and 7 i s very u s e f u l and important f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h , however, i f one chooses, one may e l e c t not to answer. 6. E d u c a t i o n a l background of the f a t h e r or guardian: J u n i o r High School 8 9 10 Senior High School 11 12 U n i v e r s i t y : 1 2 3 4 5 Graduate Studies: Other: 7. E d u c a t i o n a l background of the mother or guardian: J u n i o r High School 8 9 10 Senior High School 11 12 U n i v e r s i t y : 1 2 3 4 5 Graduate Studies: Other: 113 8. Number of years that your c h i l d spent In Francophone and/or Anglo- phone m i l i e u x , since h i s / h e r b i r t h : a. Francophone m i l i e u i n a Francophone province or country b. Francophone m i l i e u i n an Anglophone province or country c. Anglophone m i l i e u i n a Francophone province or country d. Anglophone m i l i e u i n an Anglophone province or country 9. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e represents the years that your c h i l d spent i n PCDF as w e l l as the years spent i n previous programs: Kg. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Programme-Cadre-de-Francais: French Immersion: French School: E n g l i s h School: N.B.: I f your c h i l d has repeated one grade, please i n d i c a t e the grade and the program he/she was attending at that time: Program: Grade: 114 Appendix C R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Gates-MacGinitie Test (Decimal P o i n t s Omitted) Test L e v e l and Form Grade L e v e l Vocabulary Comprehension* R l 1.2 - 87 A2 1.5 91 92 B l 2.2 92 92 CI 3.2 94 90 Dl 4.2 87 87 Dl 5.2 90 89 Dl 6.2 90 89 E l 7.2 85 86 E l 8.2 87 87 E l 9.2 89 88 F l 10.2 87 86 F l 11.2 88 85 F l 12.2 89 85 115 Appendix D Table d'Equivalence pour l e s Tests de Rendement/ Conversion Table f o r the Tests de Rendement 1982-83 Stanine F r a n c a i s - 4e Francais - 6e Francais 1 0 - 8 0 - 8 - 2 9 - 11 9 - 11 - 3 12 - 15 12 - 15 - 4 16 - 19 16 - 19 - 5 20 - 23 20 - 23 - 6 24 - 27 24 - 26 - 7 28 - 29 27 - 29 - 8 30 - 33 30 - 31 - 9 34 - 35 32 - 34 - 116 Appendix E P e r c e n t i l e Ranks and Ranges Corresponding to Stanines (used f o r the Test de Rendement) P e r c e n t i l e P e r c e n t i l e Stanine Rank Range 9 98 96 - 100 8 92.5 89 - 96 7 83 77 - 89 6 68.5 60 - 77 5 50 40 - 60 4 31.5 23 - 40 3 17 11 - 23 2 5.5 4 - 11 1 2 0 - 4 117 Appendix F L i s t of Test Employed Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s Test (Form 1: Levels A-F; Grades 3-9). Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1974. Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (Forms 1, 2 L e v e l D) Toronto: Nelson Canada L t d . , 1980. Test de Lecture (Grade 3 and Grade 5 l e v e l s ) . Toronto: B i l i n g u a l Education P r o j e c t , The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1979. Test de Rendement en Francais (Grade 4 l e v e l , 1983 e d i t i o n ; Grade 6 l e v e l , 1983 e d i t i o n ) . Montreal: La Commission des Ecoles Catholiques de Montreal.

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