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A part of something much bigger : a case study of the Kwak'wala teacher training project Wild, Joy H. 1988-12-31

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A PART OF SOMETHING MUCH BIGGER: A CASE STUDY OF THE KWAK'WALA TEACHER TRAINING PROJECT by JOY WILD B.A.,University of British Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1988 © Joy Wild, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British''Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada Department of V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT The issues and factors which affected the planning, development and implementation of the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project, a program for training Kwakwa_ka'wakw people to teach in the Native language programs of their communities, are described and discussed. The study focusses on the five courses oriented toward teaching methods and the development of teaching materials for the local Native language programs. The over-all purpose of the study is to gain understandings of the factors and issues in Native language teacher education. The specific goals are: 1. To gain an understanding of the factors and influences which affected the planning, development and implementation of the- Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project, from the perspectives of the students and the instructors. 2. To describe the "planned instructional program" designed for the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project, and to describe the changes that occurred in the process of developing and implementing the planned courses. Included in this is an exploration of the underlying assumptions made by the instructors in planning the program. 3. To provide a description of the process by which the KTTP program developed, and to map the parameters of the program. 4. To gain insights into: a) the characteristics of the Native students and their learning needs, b) the concerns and issues facing Native people involved in learning to become better teachers of the Kwak'wala language, c) the concerns and issues professionals working in language teachers. facing the KTTP with non-Nat i ve Native i i i Data for the study was collected from a number of different sources. These included observations and fieldnotes recorded during the period the program operated, a variety of documents pertaining to the program, and interviews conducted with a representative number of students from the program.. A two-part curriculum-design model, proposed by Jarvis (1982), was used as a checklist for exploring various elements of both the planned instructional program and the broader context, as well as the relationship between them, and to help focus the study which showed a wide range of factors and influences affecting the program from both the broader social context in which it occurred, and from within the program itself. This included insights gained by the instructors, regarding the students perception of teaching and learning in a school setting and their orientation toward learning and teaching. Changes occurred in the program, the students, and the instructors understandings as KTTP progressed. A number of cultural value orientations held by the students, which influenced the development of the instructional program, and appear to have significance for future teacher training programs were identified and described. The findings of this study suggest that instructors and others involved in the setting up and teaching of Native language teachers can facilitate the process of Native language teacher education by: 1. working with Native teachers to explore their underlying assumptions about what constitutes teaching and learning in a school setting, 2. designing Native teacher training education programs which facilitate Native social interaction patterns, recognize the learning preferences of Native students, and seek to discover the students' cultural value orientations, 3. emphasizing the relationship of language and culture, and the importance of recognizing that language and culture are interrelated, 4. recognizing and valuing the knowledge and experiences of Native people, and 'the need for them to be involved in the decision-making process by sharing in the processes of planning and assessing the program as it progresses. The approach taken in KTTP to Native language teaching emphasized the interrelatedness of language and culture. It was not expository in nature or verbalistic in its orientation, but was activity-based and experiential. The use of social and cultural activities actually occurring in the community provided the basis for developing materials for the Native language program, and for teaching-learning activities. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background to the Study1.2 The Nature and Purpose of the Study 8 1.2.1 Goals of the Study 10 1.3 Benefits of the Study 2 1.4 Limitations of the Study 3 1.5 General izabi I ity 15 CHAPTER 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 16 2.1 Introduction 12.2 Language Suppression 27 2.3 Language Retention 9 CHAPTER 3: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 33 3.1 General Discussion of Native as a Second Language (NASL) Programs 33.1.1 A Generalized View of Native as a Second Language (NASL) in British Columbia 36 3.1.2 Issues Related to School-Based Programs 40 3.1.3 Difficulties Facing NASL Programs in the School 49 3.1.4 Needs for Planning 51 3.1.5 Research on the Languages 53 3.2 Native Language Teachers 6 3.3 What is Available on the Training of Native Language Teachers 60 i i v viii ix v i 3.3.1 Issues and Needs as Presented by Professionals 61 3.3.2 Issues and Needs as Presented in Conference 67 3.3.3 Native Teacher Education Program 75 3.3.4 Continuing Calls for Training 78 3.4 Broader Perspectives 81 3.4.1 Needs for Information About Actual Teacher Training Programs 3 3.4.2 Summary of the Factors Relating to the Lack of Information on the Training of Native Language Teachers 86 3.5 Summary 93 CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY 96 4.1 Historical Perspective on Qualitative Research In Educational Evaluation 94.1.1 Illuminative Evaluation 100 4.1.2 Ethnography 102 4.2 Background Information on the Research Design of the Study 103 4.2.1 A Comparison of Illuminative Evaluation and Ethnographic Evaluation 104 4.2.2 Model for Curriculum Design 110 4.3 Design of the Study 118 4.3.1 Theoretical Assumptions 114.3.2 Treatment of Data 122: 4.3.3 Source of Data 124 CHAPTER 5: THE KWAK'WAKA TEACHER TRAINING PROJECT 129 5.1 Introduction 125.1.1 Structure of the Study 132 5.2 Background Information on KTTP 133 5.2.1 The U'mista Cultural Centre5.2.2 The Students 134 5.2.3 The Instructors 9 v i i 5.3 The Broader Context in Which KTTP was Planned, Developed and Implemented 141 5.3.1. Sociological Factors5.3.2 Philosophical Factors 193 5.3.3 Social Policy Factors 246 5.3.4 Perceived Demands/Needs 253 5.3.5 Psychological Factors 266 5.3.6 Resources 279 5.3.7 Advertised Programs 287 5.3.8 Actual Demand 296 5.3.9 Actual Curriculum 8 5.3.10 Evaluation 299 CHAPTER 6: THE ACTUAL CURRICULUM OF KTTP ALIAS THE LEARNING/TEACHING PROCESS 304 6.1 The Four Components in the Learning/Teaching Process 306.1.1 Aims and. Objectives 304 6.1.2 Organization and Methods 312 6.1.3 Subject Matter 345 6.1.4 Evaluation 359 CHAPTER 7: UNDERSTANDING AND IMPLICATIONS 368 7.1 Factors and. Influences Affecting KTTP 367.1.1 Cell 1:: Language Teaching Theory 368 7.1.2 Cell 2: The Language Teaching Situation 373 7.1.3 Cell 3: Teacher Characteristics 380 7.1.4 Cell 4: Language Teacher Education 383 7.2 Conclusion 387 7.2.1 Implications for Teaching a Native Language 388 7.2.2 Implications for Further Research 394 BIBLIOGRAPHY 395 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Stern's Model of Initial Training and Inservice Training Stern's Model of Factors in Language Teacher Education A Comparison of Illuminative Evaluation and Ethnographic Evaluation A Curriculum Planning Model for the Education of Adults A Learning and Teaching Process Model For the Education of Adults A Learning and Teaching Process Model For the Education of Adults (Repeated) Stern's Model of Factors in Language Teacher Education (Repeated) i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people have helped me along the way in this study; many more than I could individually thank- There are a number, however, whom I would like to especially thank: The members of my thesis committee - to Mary Ashworth for her faith in me, her wisdom, and her patience; to Bernard Mohan for his clear insights and willingness to help. My husband, Reg, and: my daughters, Jennifer, Erin and Kate who kept loving me even when I was buried in studies. Gloria Cranmer Webster and the students of the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Program for introducing me to the culture of the Kwakwa_ka' wakw, their friendship and wi 11 ingness to trust me. - My friends and colleagues, Vickie Jensen and Jay Powell who have shared themselves so willingly. My Mother and Father, my sisters, Anne and Valerie, and my large extended family who were always there to help with my young family and words of encouragement. - Denise and Bill Cranmer and their sons, Tyler and Eli, who shared their home and hospitality with Vickie and me whenever we were in The Bay. My friend, Jean, who has kept me on track during the past months and for being who she is. And last, but by no means least, Nadia Wakefield whose nimble fingers and incredible energy and patience helped to make this possible. The section on the social history of the Kwakwaka' wakw draws heavily on Dara Culhane Speck's book, An Error in Judgement:  The Politics of Medical Care in an I ndiarT/Whi te Community (1987) .. I have used two models to facilitate the description of the study:. H.H. Stern's (1983) of Language Teacher Education and of Factors in Language Teacher Education and also Jarvis' (1982) Two Part Curriculum Design Model. X To the- U'mista Cultural Centre and to the Kwakw aka 1 wakw who are- striving to maintain their own unique way of being in the world 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 .1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Since the early years of the 1970's Native language programs in B.C. have developed through a number of stages. The initial years were characterized by a sense of excitement of great possibilities. Programs began; conferences were held; materials were developed; teachers were recruited. In some communities the programs have steadily grown; in some they have started, then closed down, started, then closed down again; in yet others, they have started and then stopped. There are also communities that are just now beginning to consider setting up Native language programs. The growing awareness amongst Native people that their tradi tional languages are in the process of dying has motivated an increasing number of communities to initiate Native language pro grams. Another impetus, in setting up the programs is the knowledge that Native language maintenance and revival is an important factor in establishing Aboriginal Title to lands, and in settling Native land claims. At the same time there is an increasing acknowledgement in many of the communities which have been running Native language programs, and amongst the non-Native professionals working with them, that the programs are not succeeding, in teaching Native children to speak their ancestral languages, thereby ensuring that the languages do not die. This is causing many to take a second look at the programs being run, and to ask why they are not succeedi ng. A number of issues have been identified as being important to the success of Native language programs; however, the one that has received a great deal of attention recently is that Native language teachers generally have had little, or no, systematic training in 2 second language teaching, methods and techniques, and in classroom management skills. It is believed that training could improve the teaching of Native languages in schools, and could help Native language teachers to better cope with the classroom situation. There have been many calls from a variety of sources for the training of Native language teachers (Burnaby, 1980; Clarke and MacKenzie, 1981 ; Gal loway, 1977; Hebert, 1984; Indian Control of  Indian Education, 1972; Kirkness, 1980; Leap, 1984; Pacific Regional Conference on Native Languages, 1984, 1986; TESOL-Canada, 1982).. These come amidst calls in a broader context for evaluation research to be conducted on educational programs,, generally, and on programs for the training of second, language teachers in particular. . References for the former include (Cazden, 1981; Fetterman, 1982; Kleinfeld,. 1983; Wolcott, 1976), and for the latter (Ashworth, 1983; Brown, 1983; Brumfit,. 1983; Fanes low, 1983; Stern, 1983). A- small number of programs for training Native language tea chers in second . language teaching techniques, the development of teaching materials and classroom management skills have been offered through the three universities, and there have also been numerous short workshops in which a non-Native professional travels to a Native community, works with the teacher, then leaves.. Very little information is available on these training sessions and programs with the. exception of Toohey and Hansen's 1985 article. What is available are regular university course descriptions and student evaluation questionnaires. Burnaby (1980, 1982),. Hebert (1984) and Kirkness (1980) are amongst a growing number of professionals who are acknowledging that much needs to be learned about the factors affecting the training of Native language and culture teachers if programs are to be developed which adequately prepare them to teach in their Native language and culture programs, and to be advocates of those programs in their communities.. There are many different influences and forces, brought to bear on the development of any program, programs for training Native language teachers being no exception. To date little concrete research has been conducted to discover the factors and influences affecting regular teacher training programs much less those being offered, in Native communities. At this point, teacher training programs are- often determined, by the instructor's "common sense notion" of what should be included, rather than being based on concrete researched evidence (Faneslow, 1983). H.H.. Stern (1983) identifies a number of important issues in the training of second language teachers including the sparsity of research, the unique nature of training for second language teachers and a typology of different kinds of second language teachers. He also describes two models by which to conceptualize the process and factors affecting a Language Teacher Education (LTE) program. The models include- a simple input-process-output model of initial or inservice training (Figure 1a, 1b) and, a model showing the factors in language teacher education (Figure 2). Both models are presented in general terms in order to encompass the many different kinds of second language teachers and teaching situations that exist. Stern's model showing the factors in language teacher education will be described here since it serves to delineate the broad areas of investigation in a program for training Native language teachers, and will be used to summarize the understandings and conclusions at the end. The model suggests that prospective second language teachers bring, to the training program "certain qualities, and a background of experience, which are needed in a language teacher, but that they lack other qualities which are also needed." The training program is intended to strengthen the qualities potential teachers already have and to develop those they lack. Stern states that the answers to two basic questions offer a basis for the curriculum of a training program for second language teachers: gure 1. STERN'S MODEL OF INITIAL TRAINING AND OF INSERVICE TRAINING a) Initial Training IN Prospective student teachers PROCESS Language teacher education OUT Trained teachers b) Inservice Training. Practitioners Inservice-programs Post-lnservice practitioners gure 2.. STERN'S MODEL. OF FACTORS IN LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION 3.Prospective student teacher char acted sties Educational Social context context 4. Language 2. Language teacher teaching education situation 5 r 1. Which of the needed characteristics of a language teacher are already present before training and. therefore need not be specifically developed through training? 2. Which qualities should be developed through training? On the surface these are seemingly simple questions; however, the answers are not readily forthcoming, and require a considerable amount of background knowledge and research. Stern's model showing the factors in Language Teacher Education presents the planner's theory of language teaching as the base of the model and points to the need for analyzing the language teaching situation (Cell 2), for defining the teachers' entrance qualifications (Cell 3), and. for determining the actual design of the training curriculum or program (Cell 4). Because it is the only model of second language teacher education this researcher has found, it will be described in the following section. Later it will be used to help summarize the study. Cell 1: Language Teaching Theory Stern places Language Teaching Theory at the base of the model arguing that "theory is basic for all decisions and judgements to be made in LTE (Language Teacher Education)". He states: Language teaching theory is to be understood as a compre hensive construct which comprises the more or less syste matic body of knowledge, beliefs, and interpretations that enter into making decisions and judgements about language teaching. Language teaching theory, as I have tried to show elsewhere (Stern, 1983), implies a view of the nature of language, a concept of language learning, an awareness of social context, an interpretation of teaching in general, and a view of language pedagogy. Theory is not to be understood as fixed or final, but as a constantly evolving body of thought, concept, beliefs, values and knowledge. (Stern, 1983:349). Thus, Stern maintains that programs for training second language teachers, are strongly influenced by the program planner's knowledge, beliefs, and interpretations of the nature of language, of how language is learned, and of how teaching influences learning. It is also affected by the planner's values.. Cell 2: Analyzing the Language Teaching Situation Stern states that it is important to very deliberately relate the training programs of language teachers to the educational system and social context in which teachers will work, otherwise teachers may not be prepared for the demands of their teaching situation. In analyzing the language teaching situation program designers may: 1.. Take the situation as it exists; ie: maintain the status quo, and train people to work within that situation.. or 2.. Base the training program on an interpretation of what language teaching should be. The latter pertains to situations where existing practices have been criticized and calls made for change. He refers to the lack of specific information and concrete recommendations in the training of second language teachers: The literature on LTE (Language Teacher Education) tends to be rather ambiguous in this respect. Recommendations for LTE are frequently couched in universal terms without differentiating what is a specific response to a given situation at a particular moment in the history of language teaching in a particular system, eg. the United States, or Canada or Europe in 1983, and what can be regarded as universal desiderata of LTE (Ibid., 350). Cell 3: Prospective Student Teacher Characteristics Stern identifies four factors pertaining to student characteristics which are likely to have an effect on training programs: 1. Students' command of the second language. 2. Students' linguistic knowledge of the second language. 3. Students' knowledge of the target culture. 4. The extent to which students are familiar with the socio-cultural setting and system of education within which they are expected to operate. Stern's model appears to assume a learning/teaching style cul turally compatible with the professionals teaching the training program. Cell 4: Defining the Process of Language Teacher Education (LTE) According to Stern, the design of Language Teacher Education curriculum is the core- of this model: The rationale of the model is that the specifics of the LTE process depend on an interpretation of the foregoing three cells in the model: the language teaching theory, the language teaching situation (the educational and socio-cultural milieu) and the qualities of trainees before entry. ((1983:351). This rationale points to the need for research to be conducted and information obtained on actual Native communities, the health and status of the Native language, sociol inguistic patterns of language use, functions of language, community, expectations and goals, for profiles to be drawn up of Native language teachers and the professionals training, them.. 8 The writings of many people involved in educational pursuits, both Native and mainstream, are pointing to the need for programs to be documented and described, and for evaluations to be conducted which provide information and insights into the interrelatedness of instructional program plans and the contexts within which the program occurs. Because of the many unknown factors involved in a cross-cultural teacher training program there is also a need for studies which seek the perspectives of both Native participants and non-Native instructors, and which are flexible enough to allow for and- incorporate unanticipated results. Barnhardt (1986) writing about the unique opportunities for learning available to both students and instructors in field-based programs for training Alaskan Native teachers states that non-Native university instructors and their Native students "are in a position to create a new kind of order, to formulate new paradigms or explanatory frameworks that help us establish a greater equilibrium and congruence between our literate view of the world and the reality we encounter when we step outside the walls of the- Ivory Tower" (p. 139). 1.2 THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The thesis is to take the form of a case-study, and will employ qualitative research strategies and techniques within the social anthropology research paradigm. In a general sense, the study will begin to seek understandings of the factors and issues in Native language teacher education by investigating the context, nature and structure of an actual program, the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project. The study will include describing the process by which the program evolved, and will seek to discover program participants' perceptions of the program. In an ethnographic sense these percep tions will be the "meanings" participants attribute to being involved in the program. The Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project, KTTP, as it came to be known locally, was a community-based, teacher training program which utilized a workshop format. It was open to Kwakwaka'wakw^ people from any of the bands interested and/or involved in the teaching of Kwak' wala, the language of the Kwakwaka'wakw of Northern Vancouver Island. The progam was held at the U'mista Cultural Centre in Alert Bay,. B.C., and ran for two and a half years from January 1984 to May 1986. While those attending the course were all of Kwakwaka'wakw descent, they came from a wide variety of work and academic backgrounds, and a range of age groups. Course participants included Native language teachers, Kwakwaka'wakw culture teachers of traditional art and dance, Native teacher aides, and other interested community members. Several Old People attended and also contributed as resource people. The overall aims of the program were to enable Kwakwaka'wakw people to develop teaching techniques suitable for working in Native as a Second Language (NASL) classes in the community and in schools, and to plan and develop curriculum materials to supplement and enhance existing Kwak'wala teaching materials, and to learn more about Kwak'wala, especially how to read and write it. Although some of the people in KTTP had attended workshops on language teaching and Kwak'wala literacy in the past, and many had received help and support from regular classroom teachers who worked in the same school, none had previously been involved in a Kwakwaka'wakw is the preferred term used by the Native people of the Northwest coast cultural group which stretches from Cape Mudge in the south to Rivers Inlet in the north. It means' Kwak'wala speaking people. The English term is Kwakiutl. If a shortened term is to be used, the people prefer Kwagul over Kwak i utI. long-term systematically planned program. The program was comprised of eight separate, but related courses: five were oriented toward second language teaching methods and techniques, and the development of teaching materials; three were oriented toward developing reading and writing skills in Kwak'wala. This, study will focus on the five courses oriented toward teaching, methods and the development of materials. The reason for this being that the researcher was not directly involved in teaching the three courses on Kwak'wala literacy. References to the literacy courses- made by KTTP participants in the data will be included. 1.2.1 GOALS OF THE STUDY While the over-all purpose of the study is to gain understand ings of the factors and issues in Native language- teacher education, the specific goals are: 1. To gain an understanding of the factors and influences which affected the planning, development and implementation of the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project from the perspectives of the participants: the Native language and culture teachers, the Native teacher aides, and the non-Native professionals teaching the course. 2. To describe the planned instructional program designed for the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project, and to describe the changes that occurred in the process of developing and implementing the planned course. Included in this is an exploration of the underlying assumptions made by the instructors in planning the program.. 3. To provide a description of the process by which the KTTP program developed, and to map the parameters of the program. 11 4. To gain insights into: a) the characteristics of the Native students and their learning needs. b) the concerns and issues facing Native people involved in learning to become better teachers of the Kwak'wala language. c) the- concerns and issues facing non-Native professionals working in the KTTP program Native language teachers. It is felt by the researcher that a full-scale, ethnography of the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project- would be beyond the scope of this thesis. Such a study would require that the research be con ducted simultaneously with the planning, development and implemen tation of the program, and would require that the researcher have some; previous experience in ethnographic research. However, a strong; case can be made for conducting a. qualitative study of a more limited nature since research into the factors in Native language teacher education is in its early stages. Such research could help to provide an understanding of important issues and point the direction for further, more directed research.. To date there have not been many programs offered for training Native language and culture teachers to work in classrooms. Those that have been offered are cross-cultural in nature: the instructors and the students are from different cultural backgrounds; the programs are often run in a Native community in which the cultural and social dynamics are unfamiliar to the instructor; and, what is more,, the teaching situation in which Native language teachers work, as well as the Native content of the teaching materials they use, encompass many cultural factors and influences which are also unknown to the non-Native instructor of the teacher training program. Because of the cultural differences and "unknowns", it is necessary that the perceptions and understandings of the Native participants in a teacher training program become an important part of any study seeking to describe or understand the program. 12 This study is perceived by the researcher as being a beginning to understanding the various factors and issues involved in develop ing training programs for Native people to teach their ancestral language to their children in a school setting. It will not attempt to complete a definitive study of the training of Native language and culture teachers, but rather to begin mapping the parameters of Language Teacher Education for Native language teachers. 1.3 BENEFITS OF THE STUDY The proposed study would* be beneficial to a number of differ ent groups.. a. Native communities have asserted the principle of ownership of their own programs and have stated the desire to maintain control of the development process of programs and materials.. This requires that Native- people be knowledgeable about such processes. Back ground; knowledge of the factors and influences affecting the planning,, development and. implementation would be a useful indicator of areas that need: to receive- attention, and would facilitate- future planning. b. . Often people closely involved with a program are not aware of the over-all process by which a program is planned,, developed and. implemented. They are too close to it, and their perceptions are shaped by the role they played in the program, ie. student, administrator, instructor, resource person. A descriptive study which seeks to portray the participants' viewpoint provides an opportunity for people to reflect on what has occurred, and by doing so to gain clearer understandings and insights. As in the case of a. above, such information could, lead to improved programs in the. future, and could also be useful to other Native communities seeking training programs for Native language and culture teachers. c. Non-native school administrators and teachers would gain 13 insights into the factors and influences affecting educational programs within the Native community. Native community schools both federal and provincial suffer from a high teacher turn-over rate. Often it is difficult for teachers to obtain information or gain an understanding of the. dynamics within Native communities unless they live in a community for a length of time, and then, only if they actively involve themselves in community events. In many cases there is a tendency for teachers not to become involved — perhaps from fear of the unknown, differences in life style or differences in communication style. Whatever the reason, if teachers want to have valid insights into the learning of their Native students they need to become familiar with their cultural and community backgrounds, and sensitive to possible areas of cultural conflict. Knowledge is the precursor of understanding. d. This study would contribute to the broader field of Native language teacher education by providing detailed information, insights- and understandings, of a particular program. 1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. A common statement running throughout many articles pertaining to ethnography is that one of the major criteria for conducting ethnographic research is that the researcher be an experienced ethnographer. The fact that this researcher has not previously been involved in ethnographic research could be considered a limitation. 2. The program to be studied, KTTP, ended in May 1986, and it is no longer possible to conduct participant observations, which is a valuable source of data. In addition, the cost of flying to Alert Bay will reduce the amount of time available for data collection and cross-checking with participants that could have been done had the program still be operating. 3. Alert Bay and its neighbouring Kwakwaka'wakw communities are 14 small communities in which people know each other very well. Participants in KTTP could easily be identified in a variety of ways by outside readers. Thus,, the question of confidentiality will have to be very carefully handled, and in some cases data may have to be omitted. 4. As a. result of community and school politics at. work during the period of time the program was running, KTTP, like all local programs was perceived by the program participants and community members to be involved in the political arena, even though members of the various groups were participating in the program. As a result of this, some valuable sources of data are not available. 5. Qualitative research and especially ethnographic research is characterized by its "loose- structure" and lack of predetermined hypotheses.. This study could be subject to some criticism because a curriculum planning and teaching/learning model proposed by Jarvis (1982) will be> used to help focus the research. It may be felt that the model forces an organization into data collection,, and thereby interferes with the natural generation of topics.. It could be argued,, however, that the categories are only being used as guides, and that they function in the same way as understandings or "insights" from the literature by facilitating the research. Another possible limitation regarding the model is that it has only been used to study a range of programs in one educational institute- in England (Jarvis, 1982), and is presently in the process of being used in a M.A.. research study on the Native Adult Basic  Literacy/Lifeski I Is Curriculum. As Susan Morgan, who is conducting the research, points out, "It is difficult to discern whether the model will be effective in studying one program in a small Canadian institution" (Proposal, 1986:37). It is also difficult to determine how effective it will be in investigating a small, community-based teacher training program! 1 .5. GENERAL IZABILI TY A frequently stated concern regarding the use of inductive methods to study a particular program is that the findings will not be general izable to other situations.. A number of researchers, among them Kleinfeld, (1983), Parlett and Hamilton (1977), Wblcott (1975), maintain that although the specifics of programs and individual communities differ, many of the underlying factors and influences affecting the programs and students are similar in nature. In this researcher's previous experiences over the past thirteen years in conducting workshops- and working with Native- language teachers- in a number of different communities, there are many similarities regarding the characteristics of Native language teachers,, the conditions under which Native language programs are set up and taught, and the over-all status of the Native languages in the communities. Thus, while the findings of this study will be specific to one program, the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project (KTTP), the understandings arrived at regarding the factors affecting Native language teacher education may serve to provide signposts and indicators of important considerations in the training of other Native language teachers.. 16 CHAPTER 2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 2.1 INTRODUCTION British Columbia is a region of linguistic richness without equal anywhere in the world in terms of the number of indigenous cultures and language families represented in the region, and the variety of languages spoken (Levine and Cooper, 1976). Before the arrival.of Europeans, six distinct language families, as well as a number of language isolates, and the Chinook trade jargon were spoken. Mul ti I ingual ism was a common occurrence as many Native people spoke more than one language (Hebert, 1984). At the present time, however, not a single Native language continues to flourish in all domains of daily life (Levine, 1976; Hebert, 1984). Levine and Cooper (1976) in addressing the question "How many languages are spoken in the Province?" point out the ambiguity of the question: on the one hand if the question refers to the number of aboriginal languages spoken by at least one Native person in British Columbia in- 1976 the figure was 28 distinctive languages. Each of these 28 different languages contains variant forms technically known as dialects, in the same way that English or French or any other major world language encompasses dialects. In describing, the diversity Levine- and Cooper write: The total number of dialects for all the languages indi genous to British Columbia is unknown and may never be known... The 28 languages themselves belong to six distinct superstocks, among which no historical resemblance can be demonstrated. Thus, Coast Tsimshian, Tlingit, Heiltsuk, and Bella Coola, adjacent to each other on the British Columbia coast, are no more closely related to each other than are English, Hebrew, Vietnamese, and Demara Hottentot. To appreciate this situation, it should be borne in mind that these six historically unrelated superstocks were represented, on the eve of contact, by probably not more than 80,000 people occupying a territory one fortieth the size of modern Europe.. On the other hand, if the question is interpreted to mean how many Native languages are used as everyday means of communication in Native communities, by all generations of people from young to old, there are very few. Levine and Cooper cite figures from a survey conducted by the B.C. Provincial Museum in the early 1970's showing the- relative health of five' coastal languages according to the number of speakers and the age-spread of these speakers. Language Sechelt Lumni (a dialect of Straits Salish) Skidegate (dialect of Haida) Chilliwack (dialect of Halkomelem) Haisl a Number of Speakers a few dozen four or five 40 to 60 20 Age-Spread Of Speakers middle-aged and ol der all over 70 al I but one or two over 65 all over 60 between 200 and 400 all over 25 A number of linguists working in Native languages have pointed out that a critical factor, in fact the key factor in determining; a language's viability and thus its survival, is the age distribution of those who speak it, this, more so than the number of speakers (Bauman, 1980; Levine and Cooper, 1976). "A language spoken by every member of a group numbering 100 is healthy; a language spoken by 5,000 people all of whom are over 25,. is almost certainly bound to be extinct within a hundred years" (Levine and Cooper, 1976:46). The realization in Native communities that virtually no children are learning their Native language has motivated an increasing number of Native people and organizations to seek solutions. In 1974, Phyllis Chelsea, a Shuswap speaker from Alkali Lake, wrote the following as part of a report on the Williams Lake Longhouse Conference. I think we should preserve our language (Shuswap) because within the last few years it has been fading away.. By keeping the language alive, we are teaching the children the old way of life of our ancestors. Also, we are giving them reason to be proud of their heritage. Even though our generation of people understand the language- and can speak it, I do not think we will ever be- able to pass it down as we understand it. Some of our deep understanding of our old way of life and language is something which comes along with having lived the old way of life. This was before the invasion of the white people (foreigners). Only, the very old people of the reserve now understand, use and speak this deep understanding of what I call the real Indian language. (Write-On, 1974:39) This was one of the- earliest conferences in B.C. in which Native people and non-Native professionals met to explore issues related to maintain and revive Native languages.. At that point of time, there were still substantial numbers of people* in B.C.'s Native communities who had a deep understanding of the language. In fact, the languages were still used within many of the more isolated Interior communities for everyday communication by both children and adults. Of the people attending the conference, the Chilcotin and Carrier languages were healthy; in those communities the children learned to speak Chilcotin and Carrier as their first language. Shuswap, however, was used only by the older adults, and although the children had a "small Shuswap vocabulary" they did not understand the language- when it was spoken. Their "native" language had become a local dialect of English (Wr i te-On , 1975: v ) .. The- forces underlying the decline of the Native languages and cultures are rooted in the political, social and economic processes of colonialism and have been very evident in educational policies. These forces can be seen at work in many countries around the 19 world. The decline has been accelerated in the past, quarter century by the increased accessibility of radio, television and newspapers to Indian communities, and by improved roads which accommodate greater ease of movement between Native and non-Native communities. In the 1980's the accelerated decline in the use of Native languages and in the number of speakers is alarming. While previ ously it had been evident to many professionals, especially in the fields of linguistics and anthropology, and to some Native people, that the Native languages were in danger, it is only relatively recently that this awareness is reaching. Native people at large. It is becoming increasingly clear to many Native people in British Columbia that their languages are very seriously threatened with extinction in the near future. (Toohey and'. Hansen, 1985). A QUESTION AND A STORY Why are Native people working to. retain their traditional languages and culture? The answer to this question has been offered by a number of people, and contains within it the rationale for the multicultural policy of Canada. First,, and foremost, is that the Native people of Canada do not want their languages and cultures to die. Axu, a Kwakwaka'wakw Old Person1, from Alert Bay, talking at the 1982 101 d Person is a term of respect by the Kwakwaka'wakw to acknowledge the value and importance placed on the knowledge and experience of the older generation. Other terms include Old People, Old Lady, Old Man. Some Native groups use the term Elder. First Educational Conference of the Kwakwaka'wakw said: First Educational Conference of the. Kwakwaka'wakw said: ...our language and culture was given to us by God, and it would not be good to lose it (p.7). The languages and traditional cultures are a link to the past: peoples.' history and heritage; their roots and understandings of where they have come from, of who they are today; their unique ways of seeing- and. being in the world. (Ashworth, 1979; Haig-Brown; 1981, Hebert, 1982; Kirkness, 1980; Levine, 1976; Manuel and Poslum, 1974; Sterling, 1982). Just as important is the conviction that a knowledge of their Native language and culture will aid Native children in developing pride in their Native heritage and: in themselves as Native people. The National Indian Brotherhood in its historical paper Indian  Control of Indian Education (1972) stated: Language- is the outward expression of an accumulation of learning;, and, experience shared by a group of people over centuries- of development. It is not simply a vocal symbol ; it is a dynamic force which shapes the way a man looks at the world, his thinking about the world, and his philosophy of life. Knowing his maternal language helps a man- to know himself; being proud of his language helps a man to be proud of himself. The Indian people are expressing growing concerns that the5 native languages are being lost; that the younger generation can no longer speak or understand their mother tongue.. If the Indian identity is to be preserved, steps must be taken to reverse this trend. While much can be done by parents in the home and by the community on the reserve to foster facility in speaking and understanding, there is a great need for formal instruction in the language. There are two aspects of this language instruction: (1) teaching in the native language, and (2) teaching the native language (p. 14-15). Another statement reads: Unless a child learns about the forces which shape him: the history of his people, their values and customs, their 21 language, he will never really know himself or his potential as a human being (p. 17). Writing about integration in Canadian schools, Chief Dan George said: Indian children will continue to be strangers in Canadian classrooms until the curriculum recognizes Indian customs and values, Indian languages, and the contribu tions which the Indian people have made to Canadian history. The success of integration is not the responsibili ty of Indians alone. Non-Indians must be ready to recog nize the value of another way of life; to learn about Indian history, customs, and language; and to modify, if necessary, some of their ideas and practices (1970:44). In an informal evening discussion at the Williams Lake Long House Conference in October, 1974 the following exchange occurred: STATEMENT The old, days are- gone; why try to bring them back? English is the language of communication now. Even the Indian languages still spoken use English words to talk about the modern worlds; they're dy ing. RESPONSE We're not trying to bring back the old days, we're just trying to remember- them. Everyone else has their history. We want ours too! Lots of English words come from other languages. Does that mean that English is dying too? There are some things you can't translate into English. They can only be understood in Shuswap (Carrier, Chilcotin, etc.). Our stories need to be taught, read, expressed in our language. Bringing back our languages into the schools would bring Indians and whites together. This would help improve the school situation. Our kids could come home and use both English and Chilcotin (Shuswap, Carrier, etc.) and the white kids could do the same. In 1974 Marjorie Mitchell, then Co-ordinator- of the B.C..- Inter-Cultural Curriculum Project at the University of Victoria, gave a 22 very thought provoking presentation on Language and Culture at the Long House Conference. In it, she addressed the question: How can learning our Indian languages help us to revive our Indian cultures? She first defined culture and language: Culture refers to all learned, patterned behaviour that is shared by members of a society and that is passed down from generation to generation. It is a total system of living and behaving meaningfully. A new born baby has to learn the culture of his parents. He isn't born knowing it... Culture includes all the patterns for behaving and all the rules for behaving. The way you make your living,, the skills and techniques you have, your family organization, the way you raise children, your religion, your values, and attitudes are all part of cultural behaviour. Language is part of culture too. Language is learned, and shared behaviour. It is a very special kind of behaviour. It is symbolic behaviour. Language is a shared system of symbolic, verbal and non-verbal behaviour by which we communicate the rules and patterns for living in a culture. Language is a, way of expressing culture — it is the best way. Language is like a tool for learning about how to behave in our culture and for sharing what we learn with others. I am quite- safe in saying that without language of some kind, you can't have culture. Without culture, you can't have, language. No matter how much of the language of your ancestors is revived and re-learned by native Indian people today, it will not bring back the old cultures, the traditional ways of life. You cannot go back and pick up where you were 500 years ago, as if nothing had happened in between. I don't really think you thought you could. But it is important to recognize that if you learn your original language, you will not learn the culture that went with it, in the sense of learning all of the rules and then being able to behave according to those rules. You cannot learn the old culture the way a baby learned it, as he grew up to be an adult 500 years ago. But, the more of 23 the old language you learn the more you can learn about the old traditional culture. And it is worth doing. The things of value in the old culture are still worthwhile today. Basically I am making a distinction between learning the culture of your ancestors — something you cannot do — and learning about that culture — something you can do (p. 6 and 7).. The story she then told was of a discussion she had had with a young Native student which provides valuable and important insights into the question of "How can the teaching of traditional languages help to revive Native culture and benefit Native people?", and offers the opportunity to reflect upon the answers: I was discussing the problem of language and. culture with a young native student at the University of Victoria.. He expressed considerable bitterness that he did not know the language of his ancestors and remarked that he felt he was a stranger in his home community. He said that he had gone home for the summer and tried, with some, difficulty, to learn Gitk'san. When he attended a feast in his home community, he felt very out of place because, although he knew everyone there and was able to imitate; their behaviour, he could, not understand any of the speeches and, what was more important, he could not understand the meaning of the feast. He said, "I didn't know my place, because I didn't know my language." For him, the meaning of the feast did not lie in any English translation provided him, but in the total social situation, in the behaviour he observed at the feast. He wanted to be a full, active participant in what was happening so that he could understand and contribute as a. member of his society- Instead, he remained on the fringe, able only to imitate without comprehending.. He asked me if I thought his people could revive their culture and I kept saying — not as it was. And he kept saying — but that feast was part of the old culture. Can't we- bring back other parts? And then the answer occurred to both of us at the same time. I'll give you my version and then his, because his is much more effective, in summing up. I said: The old culture belongs to the past; this is here and now and we can't change that- But Indian people have always had their history and they have taken that history and recognized it and learned about it and it was part of their culture. History is just culture in the past tense. We can't erase what has happened in the last 200 or so years;" we are stuck with the present — with all that has happened up to. this time. Indian people never denied their history in the old days. They accepted it, learned from it, and put it in its place, as part of the total shared experience of living. Surely, Indian people can look on the recent past, on contact with the white man, as part of their history, part of their culture, just as they looked on contact with other Indian cultures that way. Not all of it, in fact very little of it, has been pleasant or satisfying. But Indian people have learned from it and are continuing to learn, to share, to grow. And then the student said: Perhaps the goal of Native language learning programmes and the idea of reviving them ought to be looked at far in the future. Maybe, we should start to re-learn our languages so that 200 years from now, my descendants, my grandchildren's grandchildren, can describe what happened, to our people in the last 200 years and what, is happening right now in 1974, in their own native language. Two hundred years from now, or even 100 years from now, my descendants can talk about not only the dim distant past but also about 1974 in the Gitk'san language.. (Write-On, 1974: 10, 11). The scars left on the Native peoples and their cultures from two centuries of policies aimed at language suppression and cultural assimilation are unfathomable to the non-Native population of Canada. One can only try to imagine, to empathize, to understand. The process by which Europeans, bit by bit, asserted their control over Native lands and lives is an area of British Columbian history that has not been well documented, and certainly does not appear in the school history books. Levine and Cooper (1976) com mented in an article entitled "The Suppression of B.C. Languages: Filling in the Gaps in the Documentary Record" that linguistic sup pression has generally been a neglected area of investigation. The search for documents, and the process of pouring over church and 25 government letters, records and reports, diaries and personal letters of non-Native people working in government positions and in religious communities sheds light on part of what happened. However, there are few first hand, accounts which portray the perspectives and feelings of the Native people as their life styles and community structures underwent drastic changes. Changes occurred in their economic systems brought on first by the fur trade, then later farming and primary industries; their families and communities died of European diseases; their young children were taken away to become "civilized" in schools, and then returned home — unable to speak their Native language, unskilled in the ways of Native living and rejecting the old ways and traditions. Ann Cameron, a white woman who has been given permission by the Nootkan women of Ahousat to tell their stories, portrays the confusion and pain in Daughters of Copperwoman (1981:61, 62, 63). And then the world turned upside- down. Strange men arrived in dugouts with sails that smelled terrible and were infested with sharp-faced,, bright eyed creatures the like of which had never been on the island. These men wanted water and food, they wanted trees for masts, they wanted: women, for it seemed as if they had none of their own. Their teeth were pitted and black, their breath smelled, their bodies were hairy, they never purified themselves with sweating and swimming, and they talked in loud voices. They wanted otter and seal skin and were willing to pay with things such as the people had never even dreamed. And then the- world turned upside down. People got sick and died in ways they had never known. Children coughed until they bled from the lungs and died. Children choked on things that grew from the sickness in their throats. Children were covered with running sores and died vomiting black blood.. Nobody was safe, not the slaves, not the commoners, not the nobility, not the royalty. Entire villages died of sickness or killed each other in the madness that came from drinking the strange liquid the foreigners gave for seal and otter skins. And then new men arrived. Men who never talked to women, never ate with women, never slept with women, never laughed with women. Men who frowned on singing and dancing, on laughter and love. 26 In less than a generation the world turned upside down and all reason and truth flowed out and was nearly lost. The priests.... .saw the fighting and drunkness where once there was love and respect. They saw men beating their wives and children and even abandoning them. They saw girls who should have been clan mothers become prostitutes in the cities the invaders built. Much was. lost.. Much will never be regained. We have only the shredded fragments of what was once a beautiful dance cape of learning. The number of accounts, both Native and non-Native, telling of the pain and struggle and the anger of people caught in the web of an official government goal of assimilation aimed at eradicating Native cultures is growing. Mary Ashworth (1979), writing: about the history of the education of Native children in British Columbia, documents the steps by which first the missionaries, and later federal and provincial government officials, brought about the suppression of Native languages.. She offers insights into the relationship between the Native people, and the federal and provincial educational policies which sought to assimilate Native children into the broader Canadian society by separating them from their homes and communities through the institution of the school. Missionaries were not the first white contact that the Native people of British Columbia had. A hundred years earlier sea explor ers, land explorers, fur traders and. merchants had come to B.C. bringing with them a new economic system which soon brought havoc to the traditional Native economic systems, and European diseases which Native people had never before encountered. The conditions of those tribes which had had contact with white people was, in many aspects, deplorable. It had not always been that way:-the old Indian societies were organized and integrated, each had a strong value system, each had come to terms with its environment. But 27 during the one hundred years preceding Duncan's arrival, Indian contact with whites had accelerated steadily. First came the maritime explorers: Bering, Cook, Hernandez, Meares, and Vancouver; then the land explorers: MacKenzie,. Fraser, and Thompson. They were followed by the traders who brought goods to barter for furs, but who also brought measles, smallpox,, tuberculosis, syphilis and alcohol.. The old way of life was destroyed not only by disease and alcohol, but also by the changing pattern of life brought on by the new. economic system based first on the fur trade but expanding into lumbering, farming and mining industries which required land — Indian land. Many of the coastal tribes were quickly decimated and degraded by the new developments against which they had no defence. This adverse influence of the white man was acknowledged in 1862 by Richard Charles Mayne who wrote, "The Indians of the interior are, both physically and morally, vastly superior to the tribes of the coast. This is no doubt owing, in great part to their comparatively slight intercourse with white men, as the northern and least known coast tribes of both the island and mainland are- much finer men than those found in the neighbourhood of the settlements." (Ashworth, 1979:5) Thus, the Native people and: practises- observed by the early missionaries and settlers were not representative of the traditional cultures. Yet, these perceptions and understandings of what. Native cultures were, viewed through the eyes of Europeans convinced of the superiority of their civilization, its values and lifestyles, became the basis upon which the Federal Government of Canada formulated its policies, social, educational and political, which drastically affected Native peoples' lives, languages and cultures. The policies eventually found form in the system of large resi dential schools located away from reserves and operated by various religious denominations, in small day schools operated on reserve, and in the official policy of language suppression embodied in the "English only" rule in the schools. 2.2 LANGUAGE SUPPRESSION The suppression of Native languages was a conscious and 28 deliberate action initiated by the early missionaries, and later by government officials, in the belief that in order to Christianize the Indians it was necessary to also "civilize" them. To be civilized was to adhere to the values, and the style of living of the British and to speak the English language (Ashworth, 1979; Levine, 1976). The policy of language suppression was given official sanction by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1895. To a certain stage in an Indian's advancement there exists but little doubt that he should be kept in commu nities; but as soon as that stage is reached, and it should be at an early period, he should be brought to compete- with his fellow whites; but in order that this may be done effectually he must be taught the English language. So long as he keeps his native tongue, so long will he remain a community apart. (DIA., Annual Report, 1983: xviii, cited by Mary Ashworth, 1979:26,27). Language suppression continued into the 1960's, and in a per-erse way has found its way into present day schools in the form of attitudes of many educators toward the- non-standard dialects of English known as Indian English spoken in many Native communities. Many Native people, even in the early years of schooling in British Columbia,, viewed "school" as a means of enabling their children to gain access to the skills of the whiteman, skills which would enable them to participate in the broader Canadian society. But they did not foresee this happening at the expense of the Native culture. They did not envision the alienation of their children from their own families and communities, and the death of their languages and cultures. Alan Haig-Brown writing of the alienation caused by schools says: The alienation is a result of the school system supplanting the individual's home culture rather than supplementing the home culture. In most cases the social system has, by 29 plan or neglect, encouraged the replacement of the Indian languages with English. The schools have taken no res ponsibility for the damage that results to the individual's language, culture and self identity. An often heard classroom teacher's statement is "We have nothing against the Indian language but we're here to teach English." One cannot overlook the similarity between this and the statement of the logging company that had been charged with spoiling the salmon stream; "We have nothing against salmon but we had to get the logs out." We have legis lated against the attitude of the logging company, but we continue to ignore similar attitudes in the school system. (Haig-Brown 1979:2). 2.3 LANGUAGE RETENTION As was stated earlier, the active policy of language suppres sion was in place in both the- Federal and Provincial government schools until the late 1960's, and, then, within relatively short time it; changed, and the value of the Native languages acknowledged, at least in principle. The social attitudes toward the Native language on the part of many Native people as well as non-Native people, unfortunately, do not change as quickly, and the language use patterns cannot be reversed. The change was brought about by occurrences which affected two distinct though related groups in Canadian society — Native people and immigrants. The issues ultimately converged around the question of language and its relationship to cultural retention, more: specifically to the status of the French language in Canadian society. The former will be briefly treated at this point and expanded upon later. Changes in the predominant society' s' attitudes toward Native culture, combined with community development programs designed to make Native people more self-reliant, and the appearance of Native political, organizations gave impetus to Native self-determination and had long term consequences for Native education. Much questioning and introspection occurred after the Second World War regarding the status and treatment of Native people. This 30 combined with large scale immigration and the unrest and dissatisfaction in Quebec regarding the French language and culture exerted pressure on the Federal government to assess its former position on language and culture. The change in 1969 to a Liberal Government with a new vision for society led to the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Bicu I tura I i snr (1970) which was mandated, to deal with French-English relations in Canada and led to new policies for all ethnic groups. In the end the Commission felt called upon to devote an entire volume — Book IV — to the contribution made by other ethnic groups to the cultural enrichment of Canada and the measures that should be taken to safeguard that contribution (RCBB, 1, p. xxi). Inevitably, however, the Commission approached the subject of the 'other' Canadian ethnic groups in the context of its overall mandate, that is, in relation to the basic problems of bilingualism and biculturalism and: in the context of the coexistence of francophone and anglophone communities. As a result, Book IV was not an exhaustive study of the non-British and non-French ethnic groups in Canada, but rather, 'an examination of the way they have taken their place within the two societies that provided Canada's social structures and institutions (RCBB, IV: p3). (Minister Responsible for Mu11icuI tural ism , Non-Official Languages, 1976:1) Two basic questions were posed by the Commission (RCBB, IV: 1.1)': To what degree have Canadians whose origin is neither French nor British integrated with anglophone or francophone society? To what degree have they remained attached to their original cultures and languages? The lack of a systematic body of data on Canadian ethnic relations was explicitly stated in the Commission Report, and in response to this "the Federal Government proposed the Culture Development Program. This program emphasized research on Ianguage, the desire for language retention, and, to an extent,, the 31 relation between language and cultural retention". (Non-Official Languages, 1976:1). The control of Native Education from the time of Confederation until the early 1970's was exclusively in the hands of the Department of Indian Affairs.. However-, beginning in the early 1950's a number of hearings, studies, and reports were initiated and/or presented to the Federal Government. These eventually led to major changes in the orientations taken toward Native education. The following information is taken from Mary Ashworth's The Forces Which Shaped Them (1979:35-40). 1958 - A study of the Indians of British Columbia by Dr. Harry B. Hawthorne, Dr.. Cyril Belshaw and. Dr.. Stuart Jamieson of the University of British Columbia entitled The Indians of British  Columbia. This was commissioned by the Department of Citizenship and. Immigration in 1954. A range of topics were covered from the cultural and historical background of the people, to their role in industry, their living conditions and educat ion.. 1960 — The Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons on Indian Affairs heard briefs from Indian bands across Canada. 1967 - A second report by Dr. Hawthorne, A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada. This was a comprehensive, wide ranging survey which outlined many differences between Native and middle class white children.. It emphasized "a variety of educational needs of the Native child and endorsed the trend toward the integration of Native children into Provinical schools. (Barman, Hebert and McCaskill state "The Federal government sought to placate the growing criticism, (from people and groups supporting them) by initiating the Hawthorne survey of Indian conditions." (1985:14) This writer's addition.) 1967 - The Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development out-lined the Federal Government's seven point policy on Indian education in Canada.. 1969 - A new Liberal Government led by Pierre Trudeau came to power with a promise of a "just society", and the new government spelled out its approach to Native people in a White Paper of June, 1969 (p. 35-40). According to Barman et.. al. (1984) the approach 32 "was premised on the achievement of individual Indian equality at the expense of cultural survival. All legislative and constitutional bases of discrimination were to be removed- Indians would receive the same services, including education, available to members of the dominant society. The Department of Indian Affairs would be abolished and the reserve system dismantled. Indians as individuals would, become equal participants in the just society" (1985:15). Native people's reaction to the White Paper was strongly negative. Native groups, including the newly formed National Indian Brotherhood (1968), worked together to oppose the White Paper which was viewed as a "mechanism for the Federal government to escape from its historical responsibility for Indian affairs, including the obligation to right past injustices in such areas as land claims and treaties" (Barman, et.. al.., 1985:15).. In 1972, the National Indian Brotherhood issued its own position paper entitled. Indian Control of Indian Education which had at its base two basic educational principles: parental responsibility and local control of education. The paper reaffirmed the Federal Governments commitment to provide schooling, but asserted that "only Indian people can develop a suitable philosophy of education based on Indian values adapted to modern living." 33 CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 3.1 GENERAL DISCUSSION OF NATIVE AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (NASL) PROGRAMS The responses made by Native people and communities during the past decade to the decline of their languages have varied. Some bands have not yet acknowledged that their traditional language is in imminent danger of becoming extinct, while others are actively attempting, to stem the flow of language decline. Some bands have contracted with linguists to develop orthographies for previously unwritten languages, and/or to develop dictionaries for those languages which did not have them. Bands have also worked to initiate or strengthen programs for teaching Native languages to school students and currently there are persons working in British Columbia schools who teach Native languages. (Toohey &• Hansen, 1985:14) Indian Control of Indian Education (1972) strongly supported the formal teaching of Native language and culture within the context of the school. The two over-all goals presented for teaching the ancestral language were: 1. The enhancement of the Native child's sense of identity and cultural pride.. 2. The maintenance and revival of the Native languages. Burnaby (1980) stresses the complexity of discussing the issues and factors surrounding the learning and teaching of a Native language. A variety of differences exist from one community to another with regard to language and culture; differences in: the languages themselves the language use patterns 34 the numbers and age distribution of speakers the contexts in which the language is used the status of the Native language ie. the attitudes which people have toward the language and toward English. There are* children whose mother tongue is a Native language; those whose mother tongue is English or French; and. those who speak varying degrees of both their Native language and the official languages. A wide variety of programs are possible depending upon the language of the children, the language use patterns of the community, the attitude held toward the Native language and the goals set for the Native language program. However, a complicating factor in planning and designing Native language programs is the lack of hard data on language use patterns in communities, on the attitudes of people toward teaching children their ancestral language, and on the effect of programs which, are or have been, in existence (Burnaby,. 1980).. The type of program which will be considered in this discussion is one in which the Native language is taught to English speaking Native children. These- are known as Native as a Second Lanugage or NASL programs. Programs for Native speaking children or Native-English bilingual speakers will not be discussed. Three types of programs could be used to teach the Native language to English speaking children: 1. Native as a Second Language (NASL): The Native language is taught as a subject in the school, program. There is a wide variety of possible objectives for NASL programs, ranging from familiarity with the language (learning the alphabet, names of colours, animals, body parts, clothing, etc. and common greetings) to various degrees of fluency including full fluency and literacy.. 35 2. Expanded Use: As well as being taught in a NASL program, the Native language is used as the medium of instruction for one or two subjects. Generally the goal of this type of program is to achieve at least a limited degree of fluency. 3. Native Immersion: The Native language is used as the medium of instruction for all, or the majority of subjects. The goal is to teach fluency.. Burnaby points out that for a community in which the Native language is no longer the everyday language of communication, and in which the children are learning English as their first language, the easiest type of program to set up is a. NASL program aimed at having children become familiar with the language. It is also the one requiring the fewest: resources. Such a program is aimed at teaching the Native alphabet, identifying common objects, teaching common social greetings and teaching about the history of the language. It does not lead to fluency,, and children do not learn to communicate in the language. Several researchers involved in Native languages have empha sized that a program aimed at fluency is both demanding and complex, involving issues regarding the- current status and use of the language in the community (Anthony, 1986; Bauman, 1982; Burnaby, 1980; Levine, 1976). For a second language learner, to acquire from a school language- program any level of the language that could be minimally cal led: f Iuency requires a great deal of motivation as well as a good program. At this point the argument becomes circular. If the children did not learn the Native language at home, then it is not demanding enough in their environment to motivate them to learn it. If it is taught in the school to develop their sense of Native identity, the school will have to use rather abstract arguments to motivate them, for example that their ancestors spoke it or that some other Native groups 36 stilt speak it. In other words, the school will have to use their sense of Native identity to encourage them to do something difficult to develop their sense of Native i denti ty. (Burnaby, 1980:179) In Burnaby's opinion, a well taught NASL program aimed at familiarity with the language could achieve the desired goal of enhancing Native children's sense of identity and cultural pride. A poorly taught program, on the other hand, would do the opposite. However, a NASL program aimed at familiarity with the language would not achieve the second goal of maintaining or reviving the Native languages. The most effective type of program for this would be a full Native language immersion program. The resources required, including curriculum, materials, trained teachers, community support and involvement, would be extensive and very costly. Another consideration in determining the type of language program to be set up is that Native parents have clearly stated that they want their children to be able to speak English/French and to learn the skills necessary to be successful in the modern world, in addition to learning their Native language and culture. 3.1.1 A GENERALIZED VIEW OF NATIVE AS A SECOND  LANGUAGE (NASL) IN BRITISH COLUMBIA High expectations and great hopes have been held for Native language programs. Many Native people see them as the last hope for the survival of the Native languages and cultures. While the potential exists for any number of different kinds of language programs to be set up in Native communities, to date the majority of communities in British Columbia, as in other parts of Canada, have chosen to establish NASL programs within the school setting. Native language programs began appearing in B.C. schools in the early 1970's at about the same time as English as a Second Language (ESL) classes were being initiated in the larger population centers, and prior to the large scale French immersion programs that 37 were implemented in the latter half of the 1970's. Initially Native resource people came into the schools to talk about the language and culture. These were commonly known as "Indian Days". In some communities Indian Days have gradually grown into full-fledged language and culture classes which are now taught as part of the school program. While French Immersion programs have had the full backing of the Federal Government with massive amounts of Federal money poured into them in the form of research, materials and curriculum development, and ESL programs have had the grudging support of the Provincial Ministry of Education, Native language programs until recently have been barely acknowledged, if at all. They have been looked on as supplemental learning, and are frequently the first to be dropped when cutbacks occur. Funding is often on a yearly basis.. The schools which Native children attend fall under three different categories and jurisdictions: some schools are controlled and operated by the local band, some are controlled and operated by the Federal Department of Indian Affairs, some are provincial schools controlled and operated: by the Provincial Ministry of Education. In each case the channels by which Native language programs are authorized and funded differ from regular school programming. British Columbia as yet does not have an official government act recognizing the Native languages and cultures. Up to the Fall of 1979, Native language and culture programs were offered in the public provincial schools mainly at the discretion of the school principal. If community members could persuade a local school board or the school principal of the benefits of such programs, then time, space and some funding would usually be found. However, in October 1979 a policy statement regarding Native languages and cultures was issued by the Special Programs Division: Director of Indian Programs in the Ministry of Education, thereby giving official 38 sanction for such programs. This was not an active policy for the promotion of programs by providing additional funding and resources, but rather one that acknowledged possibilities. Among other items, this policy explained: 1. The goal of parity for native Indian children is a priority concern. Parity means that through regular and special needs education programs, Indian children will in time reach their full potential; and their culture, history and contemporary life will be reflected adequately in the overall curriculum of the public schools. 2. The Ministry supports the preservation of Native languages through the use of the public schools in teaching these languages and, where a native language is the language of dominance for a significant group of native children in a school or school district, the Ministry supports the development and implementation of bilingual-bicultural programs, thereby allowing a student to become proficient in two languages and two cultures.. (English as a Second Language/ Dialect Resource Book K-12, 1981:36) While having a policy statement is a large and important step forward, in many ways it did not change the realities of the programs. The amount, of funding available, the Native language speakers available- to work as teachers, the lack of research on the languages, the lack of materials and curriculum guidelines to work with, and the basic social attitudes towards the Native languages on the part of the larger society, and even within many members of the Native communities remained the same. On the surface school-based Native language and culture pro grams offer a seemingly straightforward solution to the problem of language and culture decline, and to the enhancement of the cultural identity and self-esteen of Native children. Underlying such programs, however, are many complex and emotion laden issues for Native communities and their people. Among them are past government policies and educational practises which prohibited previous generations of Native children from speaking their Native 39 language in school, the societal forces behind language decline, and the ongoing processes of acculturation and assimilation. (Ashworth, 1979; Burnaby, 1980; Cardinal, 1969; DINA, 1971; Hawthorne Report, 1967;. Hebert, 1985; Indian Control, 1972; Levine, 1976; Manuel and Poslums, 1974). Although many Native people and local school personnel recognize the importance of Native children learning their ancestral language and culture,, few appear to have an awareness of the enormity of the task of setting up and running a second language program, the resources required, or the complexity of learning a second language. This is not surprising considering the field of second language education is relatively new, and has undergone many changes since the early 1970's. Native language and culture programs are a unique type of program in schools in that they are the shared responsibility of both the school administration and the local community. The school makes available time in the regular program for the teaching of the Native language and culture,, it provides space and supplies, and usually pays the Native language teacher's salary. The community provides the crucial resources: speakers of the language who become the teachers, and the linguistic and cultural base from which the program draws its substance. The Native language/culture program differs from other programs in the school in three major aspects. a) Teachers: The only suitable teachers are members of Native communities fluent in the Native language. Very few have had teacher training., b) Funding: Funding for teaching programs is generally obtained outside of the usual channels for regular programs (ie. from the Special Programs, Division of the Ministry of Education or the Department of Indian Affairs).. c) Resources: Other school programs draw materials and knowledge from the broader base of mainstream Canadian and world society and culture. Native language/culture programs have a much smaller base to draw from, ie. the local community or tribe. They rely on locally produced materials, the raw materials of which are derived from the activities, values, attitudes, social interaction patterns and discourse systems, in short the language and culture, of the Native community. 40 The development of the "raw" linguistic and cultural materials into teaching materials for the Native language and culture programs has involved a third group comprised of "specialists". These include linguists, anthropologists, curriculum developers and second language specialists, who often work independently of the school, and are hired as consultants by the Band. Ideally, they would work in co-operation with the school and community; however, this is not always the case. The over-all needs of Native communities are many; housing, health care, social welfare, local work projects, land claims, food preservation, general education issues, to name a few.. The resources, both financial and human, are finite and must be shared. Often it is the people actively working on the broader community needs who are most aware that the language and traditional culture are declining. The linguist who has initiated linguistic research on the language, and has played an important role in helping to start up the language program and provide some basic materials must attend to his/her academic research or university position. School administrators and regular classroom teachers, too, are very busy with the over-all operations of the regular school program. Frequently, after the initial setting up of the language program, the major responsibility for running it has fallen to the Native language teacher. 3.1.2. ISSUES RELATED TO SCHOOL-BASED PROGRAMS A number of issues related to teaching of a Native language in a school context have been raised by people currently working in the field. Amongst them are Bauman (1980), Burnaby (1980), Hebert (1984), Kirkness (1981). Others are raised by the researcher. Burnaby in Languages and Their Roles In Educating Native  Chi Idren (1980) provides a very thorough description and discussion of the various types of programs, their goals, their advantages, and 41 disadvantages. She raises questions regarding the existing language use patterns of the Native community, and their relationship to the goals which have been set for the programs. She also points to the need for involvement in the programs by community members and raises the issue of what type of teaching and learning are best suited to Native language programs. Hebert (1984) raises many of the same questions, and also discusses the sociopolitical context in which the programs occur. Like Burnaby, she refers to the goals of the programs and who is involved in determining them. She also discusses the roles of specialists in the program, and the involvement of the community. Wyatt (1974) who has been involved in the Simon Fraser Native Teacher Education Program raises the question of the Native community's reaction to different types of programs or teaching approaches being used in the school. The following are some of the important issues which have been raised. 1'- Types of Goals and the Question of Results The question of whether the types of goals which have been set for the programs can be achieved in a school setting has been raised by Burnaby. A number of reasons have been given for including NASL programs in school.. Burnaby (1980:313) describes these as: - "to revive or maintain the use of these languages in the Native community". - "to prepare the Native child to make a reasonable and informed choice in his life between the Native approach and the majority culture approach to doing things." - "to help the child adjust to school and achieve more in regular school work." Burnaby elaborates on the last reason by saying "Native as a Second Language programs are usually introduced into Native schools on the hypothesis that the recognition of the ancestrol language in school 42 may improve the child's ethnic self-image, and that such improvement will be reflected in their success in their regular school work" (Ibid., 314). She later points out that to date no hard data has been collected to substantiate such a claim. This also appears to be. the case for the other goals, although there is a report on the teaching of Native languages awaiting release by the Department of the Secretary of State (personal communication, Staff member of the Pacific Region Office)., 2. Advantages and Disadvantages of School-Based Programs. There appear to be both advantages and disadvantages to having Native language programs within the context of the school: Advantages a) Burnaby (1980), like the authors of Indian Control of Indian  Education (1972), points to the importance of the school recognizing the value of Native languages and cultures by incorporating such programs into the regular school program. This form of validation is considered important for the Native community, adults and children, as well as for the non-Native population. b) Many of the costs of the programs are assumed by education departments. c) In areas where non-Native teachers are supportive and interested, they can be of great assistance to Native language teachers in helping them to develop classroom management skills and teaching materials. d) The programs create jobs for Native peoples in the community. e) Native language programs provide a way for Native adults to 43 gain access to the school, and become familiar with its workings. f) The school can increase the need for the use of the Native language, especially if a subject is taught using a Native immersion format, eg. an Expanded Use program. Disadvantages There is an increasing tendency throughout all of society to view schools as having the main responsibility for educating children. In the case-of Native language and culture programs, which rely almost exclusively on the local Native community for resources (teachers, content in form of language and culture, activities and materials), such reliance could be disastrous to the over-all maintenance of the Native language. This position is based on the premise that language is a system of communication, and a social tool used by a group in meaningful interactions. The school by itself does not have the capacity, nor the resources necessary to counteract the powerful societal influences which promote the use of English as the language of everyday communication in Native communities, and which push the Native languages toward extinction. The question of whether or not a school-based program is adequate to maintain or revive a Native language is addressed by Fishman. Can the School "Go It Alone" for Bilingual Education? Definitely not, not even when there is a clear man date to do so. One of the major conclusions to be derived from the International Study of Secondary Bilingual Education is that not only is community consensus needed if bilingual education is to succeed, but that the help of the unmarked language community is needed every bit as much as, if not more than that of the marked language community. The main trouble with foreign-language learning thus far has been that it was entirely a school-dependent affair with no out-of-school contextual signifi cance whatsoever. Bilingual education that is left to the 44 schools alone will have the same sad fate. The school can provide instructional power for bilingual education but not functional power for it. The latter must be provided by the community itself in terms of either dignifying its own diversity or the diversity of the international community. (Fishman, 1976:111; quoted by Burnaby, 1980:236) From the perspective of the researcher of this study the idea that learning the Native language is important so that it will not die is a. very adult concept, and does not make much sense to children — especially if the language is not being used to any extent by adults around them. Children have a wonderful ability to detect inconsistencies in adults: if the Native language is not valued enough by the adults that they use it, then why should children exert themselves in school on such a difficult task? 3. The Importance of Community Support and Invovlement An important issue raised by Hebert (1984), as well as Burnaby (1980) and Bauman (1980) is the necessity of community support and. involvement in the language programs if they are to help children to learn to communicate in the Native language. Even more important is the issue of whether or not the Native community wants to have a Native language program for its children. Given that the community does want a program, there is a need to consider the health of the language and the community's language use patterns, in setting the goals for it.. 4. Tight Schedules and. Core Curriculum There are many skills to be taught and areas of knowledge in the various subject areas taught within the school program. Native parents have made it very clear that in addition to wanting their children to develop a strong Native identity and their cultural knowledge, they also want them to receive "the training necessary for making a good living in modern society". This position, first stated in Indian Control of Indian Education (1972), was restated in 45 the results of a follow-up survey conducted in 1986 by the Association of First Nations (personal communication, Joanne Morris, National Director Education Secretariat, Association of First Nations at the Second Pacific Region Language Conference, Kamloops, B.C., October 1986). Learning a second language requires a great deal of time, effort and motivation. While there is evidence to suggest that the most efficient way to teach a second language would be to run a full immersion program, this is not feasible in the majority of communities because of the- lack of resources, nor do Native parents appear to desire a full immersion Native language program. The question then arises regarding which subjects will be cut or not taught in order to facilitate the Native language program. Native language programs have to compete for time with "core curriculum" subjects which receive priority in terms of time allottment. Consequently, programs are often taught in 15 to 20 minute periods anywhere from once a week to 5 times a week, in some cases once a week classes run for a longer period of time. Burnaby maintains that given the difficult task of learning a second language it is impossible to teach anything more than "symbolic language" - the alphabet, naming animals, articles of clothing and other objects, and common forms of greetings - in 20 minute periods. 5. The Nature of the Native Language Program and Methods of Teaching and Learning There is a need for compromises to be made by both the school and the Native community in developing Native cultural materials and programs. Burnaby raises an important is/sue regarding the nature of programs offered within the school context: the methods of teaching and learning, forms of teacher-student interaction, types of materials and activities — and the reaction of students to programs that are different from what they are accustomed to and expect. Native cultures are essentially strangers to the formal education context and Canadian formal education is not used to recognizing certain Native cultural patterns. But if one or the other is forced to do all the compromising, then it will be so changed that it will be no longer repre sentative of the real culture outside the school. At this point the cultural program is in danger of doing more harm than good. The children are always well aware of the basic parameters of their society. If the school repre sents a Native culture as something that has nothing to do with Nativeness as the children know it, they are certain to have a neutral or negative reaction. Also, if the school transforms itself into something that does not resemble what school should be in the children's eyes, then they will probably not be able to take it seriously (Burnaby , 1980:174). Wyatt (1977) makes a similar point with regard to the-reaction of Mt. Currie adults to programs that differ from the norm that are offered within the school, even Band-operated schools. Such observations are not surprising in light of the findings of sociol inguistic research which points to the significance of context in relationship to social norms of behaviour and interaction. "School" as a social context has evolved expected norms of behaviour and types of social interaction for children and adults (parents, teachers and community members) as well as for school personnel, whether in the Native or non-Native society. There is evidence to indicate that people, any people, tend to teach in the way they themselves were taught, unless they are trained otherwise (Burnaby, 1980; Rivers, 1983). Thus, Native language teachers who themselves were students in public and residential schools may have internalized those models of teaching and learning common to their own school experience, even though they may conflict with traditional Native teaching/learning styles used in the informal education contexts of Native homes and communities. Within the school context Native language teachers, like other members of the community, many have set notions of how school teaching and learning should be, and they are uncomfortable with deviations from this (Wyatt, 1974). 6.. A Lack of Data on the Programs With regard to the actual impact of NASL programs, Burnaby comments on the lack of actual data stating that again she must fal back on her own observations:: It seems as if language has become a rallying point around which mainly English-speaking Native communities have gathered to affirm their solidarity in their Nativeness. The bulk of the Native language impact in the school programs is in the learning of symbolic vestiges of the language, the numbers, the names of animals and some traditional objects, some greetings and social formulae and so on. Little or no skill in manipulating the phonological and syntactic patterns of the language is gained. (This observation does not include- the Native immersion program. This writer does not have any direct observation about the language impact of that program). Outside the school the language is used more by the remaining speakers, its functions are extended to literate ones such as records of meetings and newspapers, Native speakers have become literate in the Native language, and classes are given for teenagers and adults to learn the language.. All this is an indirect consequence of the interest in the Native language brought out by the initia tion of Native language programs in the local schools. But the actual patterns of language maintenance are not basically changed. Everything new done in the Native language is translated, into English. Nothing in the language environment is demanding enough to motivate child or adult to spend the time and effort to actually learn to use the language as a medium of communication. The language is being treated as a treasured artifact that can be admired, cherished and identified with, but not used for any practical purpose any more (1982:183-84). Burnaby's conclusion regarding the effect of current Native a Second Language programs is that while the objective of reinforcing Native identity of children is being met, the definition given to "language" in this context has narrow, rigid boundaries, and that "people are willing to spend the kind of time and effort learning it that one would spend learning some historical information" (p.185). The resul ti ng' lesson for educators is to gear the content of the second language programs to symbolic language learning which is not as expensive or difficult to run as a program aiming at even a minimal degree of fluency. It is believed by the writer that another interpretation could be made of why NASL programs concentrate on numbers, names of animals, etc. The teaching of any language as a second language is a relatively new field, and differs in many ways from regular classroom teaching. As it was stated in 5 it is well known that people tend to teach in the way they themselves were taught unless they have had special training. In the case of Native language teachers, the majority have had little or no systematic training. They are unaware of the differences between teaching Language Arts and teaching a second language (as are many regular classroom teachers!), and; thus teach in the way they themselves were taught -— numbers, names of things, etc. — often through writing words on the- blackboard, and having children read them. While non-Native educators may think that all Native communities want is symbolic language learning, few Native people would concur with that. One thing the position ignores is the second major objective for teaching Native languages: the maintenance/revival of the languages. 7... The Relationship Between Language and Culture A final issue raised by the researcher which pertains to Native language programs, but is not necessarily tied to the school context, is the relationship between language and culture. This relationship is continuing to be investigated by researchers from a number of different disciplines, amongst them sociol inguistics, social psychology, social and cultural anthropology, 49 and education. The concept of 'communicative competence' presented by Hymes in the early 1970's, and the work in sociol inguistics by Labov in the late 1960's has been very significant to the field of language education in general, and to second language teaching in particular. It provides insights into the relationship between language and culture which had earlier been ignored. Previously, the majority of studies of child acquisition and learning were based on the concept of language as an ideal linguistic system, separate and distinct from culture. This concept is still at the base of some programs and materials being designed. What it ignores is the perception of language as a social tool used by a group of people. It fails to address the social/ cultural aspect of how language is actually used in various social contexts, its functions, and the rules governing social interaction. The latter has been established as essential to the processes of communication, and to an extent has found form in the communicative approach to second language learning which is gaining momentum in the field of English as a Second: Language (ESL). Another area in which the relationship between language and culture is being explored is that of Language Across the Curriculum. Dr., Bernard Mohan in Language and Culture (1986) explores the relationship between teaching language, either a first or a second language, and the teaching of other subjects in the content areas through the use of a knowledge. 3.1.3 DIFFICULTIES FACING NASL PROGRAMS IN THE SCHOOL Perhaps it is the interdependence upon school, community and professional resource people which accounts for the "fuzziness" of Native language programs; perhaps it is that the field of second language teaching is quite specialized, and few people have know ledge and experience in second language teaching/learning issues; perhaps it is that the teaching of Native languages has unique characteristics, hitherfore not encountered, and requiring a different orientation toward teaching and learning,and developing materials. 50 Whatever the reasons, on the whole, there is a distinct lack of an over-all perspective on the teaching of a Native language as a second language. Program goals are loosely articulated, and are frequently based on an idealistic notion of bringing back the language by ensuring that Native children learn to speak it. The main goal of the majority of Native language programs in B.C. is fluency,, despite the health of the languages, the languages use patterns of communities or the availability of resources. Little information is available on these. Programs based on unrealistic goals and inappropriate teaching methods and techniques have little chance of success. The effects of such programs can be discouraging if not disastrous in terms of promoting the use of the Native language, for children in such programs soon develop the attitude that Native language classes are "boring", and behaviour problems begin to appear in class. (Bauman, 1980; Burnaby, 1980). In the early years the difficulties encountered on a local level were, largely attributed to the newness of the programs, to difficult working conditions, to lack of suitable materials and sometimes to the poor selection of the teachers (Burnaby, 1980; Hebert, 1984). On the' provincial level, difficulties were attributed to lack of government recognition of the languages and cultures and the resulting lack of funding, lack of recognition of language programs and accreditation of teachers, and to lack of a structure for disseminating and for sharing information. As time moves on, and the early language programs have had a chance to establish themselves, sometimes several times over, there is a growing awareness in Native communities and amongst the professionals working with the communities that the programs are not succeeding — no Native children are beginning to speak their ancestral language as a result of attending Native language classes. A number of difficulties which impede the ongoing development 51 of Native language programs were identified in the More Than One  Language Report (1977:46): 1. The diversity of native languages in B.C. (materials, dictionaries and grammars developed in one area cannot necessarily be used in another). 2. The reticence of native communities to support instruc tion in a language ordinarily considered dysfunctional in the schools. 3. The decreasing use of native languages on a day-to day basis. 4.. The scarcity of models of teaching appropriate to the material and the community setting. 5. The shortage of funding. 3.1.4 NEED FOR PLANNING All of the above do contribute to the poor success record of Native languages in teaching children to speak the languages, and yet another broader issue needs to be addressed: that of over-all, co-ordinated planning. Amongst each band there are leaders and community members who "know" the value of their language and do not want it to die. Linguists and anthropologists see how the languages- are declining and attempt to describe, record and preserve as much as they can by working with the communities. Many educators understand the significance of positive cultural identity and high self-esteem for children. Native Old People see the language slipping away and attempt to encourage its use. However, each of these groups see only a small part of the larger picture from the vantage point of their own perspectives and positions. There is a need for co-ordinated assessment and long term realistic planning for programs, and for community involvement in the process. If programs are to have a chance of being successful they need to be based on a solid foundation of realistic goals arising out of community needs and solid pedagogical practices. The good intentions, dedication and spirit that motivate them (communities) are certainly the most essential part of a language revitalization program, but they must be embedded in a program with realistic goals, and then reinforced with effective procedures. (Bauman, 1980:vii) According to Bauman, there are five necessary and interlocking aspects of planning a Native language retention program. All must be considered and worked on if the program is to have a chance of being, successful. a) The health and status of the Native language in the community -What are the number and ages of speakers; the domains in which the language is used; the importance of the language to community members? b) Community needs — What are the needs and how does the language- fit in with those needs? Who determines the needs? c) The setting of realistic goals and objectives for the program based on a) and b) above. d) The recruitment and training of teachers. e) The development of materials and assessment of resources. Who does this and how? Burnaby, in discussing the innumerable variables that could influence the effectiveness of any program in any particular community cites six main areas outside of directly pedagogical concerns suggested by Bernard Spolsky and his colleagues "which must be taken into account before and while action is taken. These are I inguistic, psychological , sociological, economic, political and rel igio-cultural factors" (1980:247). 53 To groups such as Band Education Authorities, Band Councils or local school personnel such considerations are unfamiliar and difficult to carry out, particularly so in view of the other demands of developing communities including the ongoing negotiations for political control between the Bands and external agencies, and the scarcity of funding and resources for Native language programs. Questions arise as to what assessment tools to use, who would carry out the assessment, how should teachers be trained and materials developed, what are realistic goals for a program, who will pay for all of this? In examining Bauman's five aspects of planning it appears that the one that has received the greatest attention in B.C. Native language programs is the development of materials. This is understandable in that materials are a concrete reality that teachers can hold in their hands and give to students. But materials alone are not enough.. 3.1.5 RESEARCH ON THE LANGUAGES An imbalance seems to exist in terms of the amount of research and "work" that has been done in Native communities by non-Native professionals, most noteably linguists and anthropologists. There is a strong impression that Native cultures and languages have been studied to death; certainly many Native people feel this. For some Native groups in Canada this is true. Many of the languages and cultures, belonging to the Algonkian and Iroquoian language families have been well researched and documented. The coastal cultures of the Pacifc Northwest complex have been studied since the late 1800's; however, the languages themselves have really only been receiving focussed attention for the past two decades. Much less has been done on the languages spoken in the Interior and northern parts of British Columbia, particularly those of the Interior Salishan and Athapaskan language families. 54 Levine, in discussing his attempt to provide an historical perspective of educational policy toward Native languages in post-contact British Columbia, points out the virtual lack of secondary sources, and the lack of information on the "dynamics of linguistic extinction" which would include the conscious suppression of Native languages by non-Natives. He comments on LaViolette's seeming disregard of language as an integral feature in the "struggle for survival" of the Native cultures he describes (LaViolette, 1961), and maintains that the impression LaViolette conveys is "that the erosion of aboriginal languages is a prerequisite for cultural and political survival". Levine asserts that LaViol lette1 s writing ignores the success of a partially bilingual population, such as the Chinese in North America, in organizing politically at least as affectively as a newly monoligual English speaking indigenous society" (Levine, 1976:49). Regarding the relationship between language and culture Levine writes" ...songs, the dances accompanying them, rhetorical accompanyments to ceremonies such as the potlatch, and the vast cycles of myth and legendary history are all necessarily dependent upon the maintenance of the Native languages". (Levine, 1976:49). Referring to a comment written by Duff in 1964 that "most of the languages are still spoken and little are in immediate danger of being forgotten" Levine states, that: ....The first part of this statement is true but misleading since, as suggested earlier, there is an important distic-tion between languages which are still spoken, but only by a narrow cross-section of a population, and. those spoken generally. The second part of Duff's claim is contradicted by the observably terminal condition of many British Columbian languages.. When children are not learning their parents' language, that language is being forgotten, even though its actual disappearance may not occur for several generations. Standard accounts of the educational history of the Province make absolutely no reference to linguistic suppression at all. The omission in such sources of any close examination of the acculturative processes carried out in the residential schools is not surprising, since it was taken for granted for several 55 generations that such acculturation was the proper business of the schools vis-a-vis Native peoples (1976:49). Little money has been available for research on the many and varied languages. Much of the research conducted to date has occurred, as a result of university graduates and academics seeking areas of study. Funding for the research has been minimal, often from short-term grants given by a variety of private foundations and by government offices or by foreign countries. In the case of the Interior Salishan languages, a large portion of the research conducted to date has been funded by the Netherlands Organization for- the Advancement of. Pure Research in Holland with the research being conducted by Dutch graduate students from the University of Leiden working under the guidance of Dr. Aert Kuipers, a Dutch linguist. Another example is the research being conducted on the Chilcotin language by Dr. Ed Cook of the University of Alberta in Cal gary.. A search of the literature shows that while, there has been a gradual increase in the amount of interest taken and the research being done on many of the Native languages in British Columbia, the primary focus has been on linguistic features and systems. Little has been done on such topics as the health and status of Native languages in their communities, the sociol inguistic patterns of language use in Native communities (an exception to this is work on Nicola by Hebert and Sterling (1979)). Nor has research been conducted on Native language programs: the types and effects of programs, the actual needs of programs, the training of Native language teachers (Burnaby, 1980:183). More has been written on Native language programs in the United States, largely because the monies provided by Title VII under the American Federal Government require thai: 25% of each grant be used for evaluating the project; however as in Canada, there is virtually no information on the training, of Native language teachers. What can be found in both countries is academic linguistic research: descriptive structural linguistics, historical linguistics. These are necessary to language programs, yet they are only a part. Without people who know how to use linguistic information in producing materials appropriate for use with children, without Native people knowledgeable in how to use the teaching materials with children, without communities and families in which the Native language is used, linguistic research alone is not sufficient. 3.2 NATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHERS While many Native language programs have been in operation for a number of years there has been limited attention paid to the "training" of Native language teachers. The assumption seems to be that if Native people speak their language, and especially if they read and write it, they are able to teach it. Toohey and Hansen point out that although some Native language teachers in British Columbia have received some systematically-planned training, this is not generally the case. What is more typical is for the community-based Native language teacher to have acted as an informant or as a co-worker with a linguist in developing an orthography and/or dictionary for a language, to have attended teacher training workshops planned by a variety of agencies, and to have had experience working with children in cl assrooms. (Toohey & Hansen, 1984:12). Native language teachers are caught in the dilemma of being responsible for teaching in and for developing language programs and materials, while having had little or no training, background knowledge or experience in the area. Kirkness (1984) outlines what she calls the "impossible task" that faces the untrained teachers of Canadian Native languages: they are expected to design Native language curriculuni for kindergaten to grade twelve, to prepare their own lesson plans, materials, maintain classroom control and do other related activities. Burnaby (1980) discusses similar problems of Native language instructors in Ontario. 57 Pauline Alfred, a Kwak'wala teacher from Alert Bay, stated the case very succinctly: I still say that it's really unfair when they just grab us and throw us into a classroom. We never had any train ing- We never went to university to be teachers. We don't: know- the first thing about it.. We can speak our language, but how do we go about teaching it?...that was my was so many years since I'd been in school ...when- I first started it was really hard because I didn't have any materials. It all had to come out of my mouth and I was just exhausted because I was talking all day (Toohey & Hansen, 1985:12). There are valid reasons for the lack of training. Many of the teachers have heavy family and community commitments; they live in relatively isolated areas of the province and do not want to or cannot afford to leave home for- an extended period of time. Because of distances it is expensive to hire professionals to train a small number of teachers over a period of time or to travel regularly to a community for workshops.. There are not many professionals who have experience in the field and/or are available to< travel or live in the communities. Until recently none of the universities, with the exception of the University of Victoria, were willing to offer courses to Native people who were not enrolled in a regular university program- Many language teachers, though fluent in their Native language, had not completed high school, and were mainly interested in Native, language teaching, not in acquiring a university degree. For several years the University of Victoria did offer a two year diploma course in teaching a Native language; however, the emphasis was primarily on developing linguistic research skills in each student's own Native language, and on literacy skills, with a little attention given to teaching skills. The program was primarily campus-based requiring people to move to Victoria. The linguistic orientation which focuses on training Native language teachers in linguistic analysis and in literacy skills is common to other programs in both Canada and the United: States, and will be referred to later in the proposal. Suffice it to say, at this point, that to date the professional group having the greatest input into Native language programs is that of linguists. This is understandable given that linguists were one of the first groups interested in, and involved with the Native languages and communities because of their need to do linguistic research; added to this is the fact that language is seen to be the traditional domain of the linguist. In many communities the. linguist doing research on the language has also been involved in helping to develop the Native language program and get the teacher started. Linguists have played a significant and important role in setting up the programs. Their analyses and descriptions of Native languages provide important, and necessary understandings of the linguistic systems the languages employ. Their work in communities has often helped Native people- to become aware of what has been happening to the languages, that is the decline, and has encouraged programs to be initiated. Generally speaking,, however, the strength of linguists lies in the discipline of linguistics,, and they are not familiar with educational issues and considerations. The main thrust of their work in Native language programs, outside of linguistic research on the structure of the language, has been the development of materials: orthographies, alphabet sheets, dictionaries, student workbooks, and the teaching of literacy skills to Native language teachers and community members.. These are important, and necessary, but they are not enough to ensure a successful language program, just as the ability to speak a language does not equip a person to teach it, although fluency is a necessary prerequisite for teaching. The Native language teacher is seen as playing a very important role in organizing and implementing local language programs.. In the "Native Indian Language Development Seminar" of the More Than One Language Conference Report (1977:46), it was stated that: 59 The native Indian language teacher plays a key role in the organization and implementation of these programs. Native language teachers embark on their preparation with varying degrees of fluency in their respective languages and few, if any of the conventional academic or teaching experiences of most language teachers. Their achieve ments, nevertheless, are outstanding. In consultation with linguists and community resource people they are learning to do linguistic analysis. As teachers they are developing materials and strategies appropriate to a variety of age levels- As community members they serve as positive models to students and parents uncertain of the benefits of learning their native language.. In more recent years people are beginning to express the need for Native language teachers to receive systematic training. The "impossible task" facing untrained Native language teachers is beginning to be acknowledged and solutions are being sought. A complicating factor- in planning and developing Native language programs and teaching materials, in planning training programs for Native teachers,, and in conducting research in the field is the difficulty of locating, and accessing information and materials. In the course of examining the goals for Native language programs in B.C., Hebert (1984) writes: It is difficult to survey the B.C. situation since there is no. organization or institutional centre which co-ordinates or provides resources and guidance for all these language programs... Most of the information presented here comes from project descriptions and news updates published in the Northwest Languages Newsletter (1978 - present, U.B.C.) and from personal contact with language workers (p.122). This- sentiment was repeated during the course of a telephone conversation with Hebert in July 1986 in which references and papers pertaining to this research project were being sought. Others in the field have commented on the same difficulties (Robert Anthony, B.C.; Rita Bouviere, Sask.; Mike Mallin, N.W.T.; Jay Powell, B.C.; Phyllis Chelsea,. (Shuswap), B.C.; Kellen Toohey, B.C.). 60 3.3 WHAT IS AVAILABLE ON THE TRAINING OF NATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHERS Little information is available from the usual academic literary sources on the training of Native language teachers. To date a review of the literature including books, professional journals, conference proceedings, reports and unpublished papers has revealed very ' I ittle information directly pertaining (describing, discussing, evaluating) to actual programs which have occurred for training, Native language teachers.. One article, "Two Contexts for Training Teachers of Native Languages" (Toohey and Hansen, 1984) provides an insightful description of the two different contexts in which Native- language teachers have received training in language teaching methods and techniques and the development of teaching materials in British Columbia: an off-campus, university-oriented program,offered by Simon Fraser University and a work-shop, community-based program sponsored by a Halkomel'em group of teachers in the Fraser Valley. Also available are course/program descriptions appearing in university academic calendars, Secretary of State project evaluations describing, what the projects accomplished, and regular university student course evaluations. Then, there is also information to be gleaned from talking to others at conferences and meetings who have been involved in programs, and finally conference reports. Such a lack of information leads to different Native communities "re-inventing" the wheel in terms of developing their own language programs, and does not promote a forward momentum in the overall attempts to improve the teaching skills of people working to revive and maintain the Native languages of British Columbia.. The following section will examine the issues and needs of Native language teachers as perceived by professionals working in the field and as described by a variety of people attending conferences on the Native languages. 3.3.1 ISSUES AND NEEDS AS PRESENTED BY PROFESSIONALS Although information is scanty regarding actual programs that have been run, and overall, they are few, there are a number of more general discussions regarding the development and needs of Native language programs, and suggestions for the training of Native language teachers. One of the earliest statements regarding the needs of the Native language programs and Native language teachers was voiced by the Indian National Brotherhood in its 1972 policy statement on education, Indian Control of Indian Education, which chose to focus on language as an important issue in Indian self-determination (Barman, 1984). The beginning section on languages identifies the Native language as being important to the development of a strong cultural identity and a healthy self concept for Native people. It acknowledges the role of the home and community in fostering the use of the language, and stresses the need for formal instruction in the Native language-More specific objectives regarding training of Native language teachers, the development of materials, and research, into both include:. Objective XI That rigid teaching requirements be waived to enable Indian people who are fluent in Indian languages to become full-fledged teachers (p.. 16). Objective XVI That government funds be given for studies in Native languages and for the development of teaching tools and instructional materials despite the fact that governments are reluctant to invest in any but the two official languages (p. 16) . Objective XVI I That provincial and federal authorities should consult with Native people to redesign Native teacher training programs to meet the present needs (p. 18). Objective XIX That research be done under the direction and control of Indian people, responsible to the Indian community and with funds channeled to research projects identified by Band Councils and Indian organizations in relation to their priorities and programs i (p .. 24). Brent Galloway, B.C. linguist, in a presentation entitled "Models for Training Native Language Instructors", given at the 1979 conference, "Wawa Kunamokst Nesika", in Richmond, B.C., spoke of important questions for the preparation of Native language instructors: Programs for the Preparation of Native Language Instructors can be designed with a number of factors in mind: I. . Who will be the Native Language Instructor? (What education, fluency, etc..?).. 2. Who will be- the students they teach? What, ages? 3.. Who will design the courses they teach and how? and when? 4. What material is available on the native language? 5.. Who- speaks the native language, where, and when? How viable is the language? 6. What degree of fluency and/or literacy is desired? In how long? 7. Who will teach the instructors course? Where? For how long? 8.. What money is needed for the training course? For how long? (months, years)? What money is available. 9.. What money is needed for the language course? For how long (years)? What money is available? 10. Are these programs urgent (is the language endang ered)? II. What research needs to be done? By whom? 12.. What preservation needs to be done (tape recording, video-taping, interviews, group meetings to preserve and revive the language amongst the elders, etc.)? 13. Other factors? Can you suggest any others? (p. 2). He also suggested the following topics, stating that they "should be taught at the educational level of the fluent speakers of the Indian language taking the course. Each topic should be covered in general, and then with specific attention to the language to be taught." (p. 6). 1 . Phonology 2. Applied Phonology 3. Morphology 4., Applied Morphology 5. Syntax 6. Applied Syntax 7. Semantics 8. Applied Semantics 9. Field, methods and discovery procedures 10. Applied field methods 11. Language- history 12. Language revival and maintenance 13. Teaching, techniques 14. Developing lessons and teaching materials 15. Teaching different groups 16. Practice teaching 17. Working with administrations, teachers, parents and funding (political psychology). 18. Others? In the keynote speech at the same conference, Dr. Robert Levine, then Associate Curator of Linguistics, British Columbia Provincial Museum, discussed Native languages and language teaching in British Columbia.. Among many of the- important issues he raised was that of the social and political climate in which the programs began. Levine said that the movement to maintain and revive the use of Native languages in the province was very new in 1972 when he first came to B.C. "There was a tremendous optimism, but not much in the way of organization, and no very clear understanding on very many peoples part of what sorts of methods ought to be used... there was this feeling in the air that we were on the verge of great things." Two of the major problems he identified were: 1) Writing systems: Conflicts occurred within and between communities and linguists over which orthography (writing system) was the best for a given language, and 2) Political problems: It was necessary to convince politi cians and government officials that Native language 64 teaching was important. There was no official government policy on Native languages, and little recognition given them. Five years later, in 1977, local teaching conditions were different. Native language programs had been set up, materials were being developed, people were more relaxed, about writing systems; however, what had not changed was the endangered status of every single B.C. Native language, and a continued lack of recognition by the government. Verna Kirkness in her Keynote Address entitled "Native Language: Facts and Goals - The Need for Planning and The Need for Training" at the Preserving Our Language, Native Language  Instructors Conference, October 1980, Winnipeg, Manitoba, suggested that the following be included in the training of Native Language Teachers: 1. Courses in linguistics which include the study of phonology, morphology, grammar and syntax. o 2. Techniques for doing field work in language research: use of various types of equipment, organizational skills, interviewing techniques, analysis techniques. 3. Development of teaching materials and lesson planning. 4. Awareness of the nature of language generally and an understanding of the historical development of local Native language. 5. Sociol inguistic understandings of language particularly regarding the social use of language, the status of language and ways of motivating language learning. 6. Language teaching methods and techniques and class room management skills. 7. Development of materials and lessons for various age groups and language abilities. 8. Practicum experience in which a new teacher learned from an experienced teacher. 9. Skills for working with a variety of administrators, teachers, parents, funding agencies and government offices. Burnaby in discussing Native Language instructors in Ontario identifies two main problems that NASL training must deal with: the twenty-minutes a day format commonly used to run NASL classes and the limited development, to date, of curriculum and materials for NASL programs. Both of these also pertain to the British Columbia situation. 1.. Twenty-Minutes-a-Day Format A very common teaching situation for Native language teachers to find themselves in is to provide short lessons, often 20 minutes long, to each class in the school. The expectation for these programs, although often vaguely stated, are that the children will acquire some degree of conversational fluency after a few years of studying in the NASL classes. It is an ambitious undertaking in a. twenty-minute-a-day schedule. The instructor must plan carefully, keep to a tight schedule in class, and provide as much opportunity as possible for each child to hear and use the structure being taught. This demands aggressiveness and strict control on the part of the instructor, and enthusiasm and discipline- on the part of the children. That is a lot to ask of an instructor after three weeks of training, and of Native children who may not be sure why they are being taught this language. A part from the problem of the brevity of training, this kind of behaviour is likely to be uncharacteristic of the kind of people who are recruited to become NASL instructors. Normal Native transaction with children is traditionally never highly structured, verbal or demanding- Also, NASL instructors probably learned English themselves by submersion,, and therefore the mental pattern of second language instruction as being very much like normal first language instruction with an emphasis on the literacy and a good deal of need and opportunity to learn on the part of the student. Unless the objectives for NASL programs are clearly spelled out and realistically set in light of the circumstances, NASL instructors are going to continue to be under pressure in the classroom to behave in an uncharacteristic way (1980: 363-364). 66 2. Curriculum and Materials The development of curriculum and materials for NASL programs is really still in its infancy. "Until very recently NASL instructors have had to go into classrooms armed only with their own resourcefulness and whatever materials they could produce during their difficult schedule" (1980:364). Burnaby feels that given the existing three week NASL training program in Ontario little can be done to "make the situation more fair for the NASL instructor until progress has been made on developing curriculum and materials." Yvonne Hebert (1984:126-132) in describing the sociopolitical context of Native Indian language education in British Columbia, identifies major goals and objectives for language programs, and focuses on a variety of factors which affect them. The five contexts referred to are: 1. the responsibility and participation of the community and the home, 2. the role of the school or educational institution, 3. government funding and policy, 4. the role of specialists (outside specialists and those within the local Indian community), 5. the language learner. (p. 126 - 132). Amongst the important pedagogical and linguistic issues facing the developers of language programs, Hebert identifies teacher preparation and training, as well as the need for research, albeit linguistic research; however, these are not elaborated upon, for the main focus of the article is an examination of the sociopolitical context of Native language education in British Columbia. Hebert's focus upon the five factors for the social and political contexts in which Native language programs occur could also apply to programs for training Native language teachers. Her statement that the contexts "crucially affect the existence and survival of these language programs in B.C., even those with the. 67 very best of teachers and curriculum materials," (p. 126) underlies an assumption that the success of programs depends upon much more than teaching methods, and good materials, upon more than what happens on a day to day basis in the classroom, although that too is important!. In order to understand both Native language programs and training programs for the language teachers, it is necessary to look at the broader contexts in which the programs occur. Gumperz echoes this. To understand modern education problems we need to know, how and by what mechanisms cultural, political and econo mic factors interact with teaching strategies to affect the acquisition of knowledge and skill. (Gumperz, 1981 :4) Stearns (1985) comments, regarding the interrelatedness of education and the socio-cul tural context within which it occurs, are directed toward the teacher. Again,, they also apply to planners of programs, both language programs and teacher training programs: Understanding the dynamics of culture in a community or classroom context is as important as knowing how to plan curricula for a village classroom. Too often, teachers teach and plan curricula as if the village classroom existed without the village: they teach and plan in a vacuum. (p. 175). The perspective that programs are strongly influenced by the various broader contexts within which they occur underlies many evaluation studies based on qualitative research methods such as Illuminative Evaluation and Ethnographic Evaluation. 3.3.2 ISSUES AND NEEDS AS PRESENTED IN CONFERENCES Since the mid 1970's conferences and meetings have been held in British Columbia bringing together Native people and non-Native professionals to discuss and share common concerns, successes and agonies regarding the teaching of Native languages. This has also happened in other communities and institutions across Canada. 68 While it is the conferences that will be discussed in this section, it must be commented that much of the important work on Native languages teaching in the early 1970's went on in the kitchens and livingrooms of people's homes, in Band offices and in local school staffrooms. Research on a number of the languages which would prove essential to the program was conducted by linguists and graduate students in linguistics. The University of Victoria set up a two year program for training Native language instructors which focussed on training them to be para-professional linguists. Native people themselves began acting on the values and. recommendations that had been expressed in Indian Control of Indian  Education. A number of Bands assumed control of their local band schools; several Native Indian Cultural Education Centres for adults were established; negotiations began for the return of the Kwakwaka1 wakw Potlatch Collection; Cultural Centres were built; .two Native Indian Teacher Education Programs (NITEP) were established in the universities; the first. Native controlled Provincial school district was established; and numerous. Land Claims were initiated... One of the earliest regional conferences bringing together Native people with actively interested non-Native professionals was the Longhouse held in 1974 in Williams Lake. For the four days speakers of Shuswap, Carrier and Chilcotin met with linguists and language teaching specialists to wrestle with questions about what was happening to their languages, listen to speakers, watch demonstration lessons, work on language projects, and finally host a day long conference for local classroom teachers. It was a working conference, in which both Native people and the "specialists" alike shared concerns, asked questions and swapped experiences. The three language groups present, Shuswap, Chilcotin and Central Carrier, typified the language program situation in other parts of the Province. Only two of the sizeable number of communi ties within the three language groups at the conference were actually running Native language programs. In the others linguistic 69 research, in the form of descriptive grammars was being conducted and orthographies were being developed; language programs were being considered. A number of important questions were addressed at the Longhouse Conference,, questions that are relevant to any group involved in maintaining, or attempting to revive their language and culture: How can learning our Indian languages help us to revive our Indian cultures? What is culture? What do you mean by learning a language? Why should our kids learn Indian when we were beaten for it? Won't learning. Indian hurt their English? - Why write our languages now when they were never written in the first place? How can we get our kids to want to talk Indian? These types of questions have been asked by many Native communities in the early stages of considering and planning their language programs-Si nee the Longhouse Conference there have been conferences held each year in B.C. to discuss the issues and factors of concern to those involved in Native language programs, and to share information. Rather than describing the proceedings and concerns voiced year by year, four representative conferences, two from the 1970's and two from the 1980's, will be examined with the intent of showing whether or not there have been changes in the issues discussed and what progress has been made. The earlier conferences were More Than One Language held in Richmond, B.C. in February 1977 and Wawa Kunamokst Nesika held in Richmond, B.C. in March 1979. The later conferences were Successes 70 in Indian Education - A Sharing held in February, 1983 in Vancouver, and the Pacific Region Native Language Conference held in April, 1984 in Vancouver. To a certain extent, the conferences discussed here are random choices in that the availability of past conference reports dictated which would be used.. There are some striking similarities between the conferences of the 1970's and 1980's, and several differences. An examination of the scope of the conferences shows that two of them, one from 1977 and one from 1983, have a broad perspective, with sessions and speakers addressing issues relating to a broad range of language teaching, and which place the teaching of Native languages in the broader Canadian educational context. The other two, from 1977 and 1984, have a more focussed perspective and concentrate specifically on the issues and concerns directly relating to Native language and culture teaching.. The availability of these four particular conference reports is fortuitous since they serve to illustrate that while Native language programs carry rich traditions and insights unique to Native cultures, they are also part of the broader context of Canadian society with its Federal multicultural and multilingual Federal policies. What follows is a. highlight and summary of the important issues and concerns regarding. Native language programs which were identified at the conferences. More Than One Language: February, 1977 (A general focus on second language teaching) Issues specifically relating to Native languages and language development of Native children were discussed in one of the five small group sessions. Nothing was directly said in the address of the guest speaker or in the large group sessions about Native languages, although many issues did apply to them as well. The 71 issues included in small group session were: problems facing the Native language programs need for the development of Native language teaching materials need for greater technical resources (linguists, university course work) to be delivered on site to communities wishing to develop programs - the- integration of language instruction with other parts of the curriculum (social studies, science, etc.). need for a heavy emphasis to be placed, on community-based language activities which provide the opportunity for development of oral fluency as well as on school-based ones which focus on literacy need for joint Federal funding (DIA) and Provincial funding (Ministry of Education) so as to make possible the implementation of the above. It is to be noted that no mention is made regarding the training of Native language teachers. "Wawa Kunamokst Nesika": British Columbia Native  Language Instructors' Conference: March 1979. This conference was specifically aimed at the teaching of Native languages, and at Native lanugauge instructors. The stated purpose of the conference was: 1. To take stock of Native languages being taught in British Columbia schools - who, where, what, how. 2. To provide in-service to native language instructors on methods, materials development and evaluation through demonstration workshops., 3.. To develop various training models for the preparation of native language instructors. The major issues, concerns and recommendations arising out of 72 the conference include: the lack of training for Native language teachers, and the need for i t the need for planning, and setting goals for Native language programs the need for the development of teaching materials the lack of funding for programs, the development of materials and training the lack of recognition of Native languages by the Provincial government the lack of recognition and accreditation of Native language instructors in the Ministry of Education, Universities and Colleges and B.C. Teachers' Federation the need for a mechanism or organization for sharing ideas and for gaining access, to information on the teaching of Native languages.. Successes In Indian Education: A Sharing: February, 1983 This was a general conference covering all aspects of Native Education. Several small group sessions were set up to enable practising Native language teachers to share their- experiences and teaching-materials with other teachers. In addition there was a small group session run by a- committee of non-Native professionals and several Native teachers that sought to gain input from other conference participants for a series of "how to" resource books which were to be developed for "beginner" untrained Native language teachers and communities which were just starting, up. their programs. This is noteworthy since it acknowledges that the lack of training is a problem; however, no session addressed this issue, and there was no formal call for the training, of Native language teachers. 73 Funding to write and publish the resource books was sought later from the Ministry of Education and was unofficially approved; however, this was not forthcoming due to Provincial spending cutbacks in education, and a personnel change in the Director of the Indian Education office. Pacific Region Native Language Conference: April, 1984 This was a large, highly organized conference with Native representation from many Bands in British Columbia and the Yukon; the focus was on various issues pertaining to Native language pro grams. The number of Native people attending outnumbered non-Native professionals who had been invited to participate. Emphasis was placed on the sharing of experiences amongst those attending. The conference was organzied around nine major issues: Program Planning Curriculum Development Process Instructors I: Given task of planning- a. resource book for 1st time new Native language teachers on "How to Survive". (This was a continuation of the resource books from the 1983 Conference Successes in Indian Education: A Sharing). Instructors II: Focus was on participants sharing their successes and experiences-Student assessment Evaluation of Native Language Programs — Community Involvement in Language Programs — Teacher Education Policies and Contexts The concerns and recommendations from this conference were unnervingly similar to those voiced in the conferences of the 1970's: however, there was a strong undertone to the conference that had not appeared in earlier ones. That was the affirmation of the principle of Native ownership of language traditions and cultures, and local 74 Native control of programs including funding. SUMMARY With the exception of Successes in Indian Education, which lacked a final report and recommendations, the issues and concerns stated in the conferences either in the major issues to be explored or in the Formal Recommendations include: the need for the development of teaching materials the need to provide help to communities in planning and developing language programs the need for funding, for the programs, for research and the development of materials, and for the training of Native language teachers. The 1979 Conference and the 1984 Conference which were specifi cally focussed on Native language teaching both called for: the recognition and accreditation of Native language teachers by the' government, the establishment of an association of Native language teachers, and some mechanism by which Bands could share information, ideas and materials, - the training of Native language teachers.. It could be assumed that the 1983 conference also recognized the need for training teachers, since an attempt was made to address the problem by creating: a resource book for beginner untrained teachers. Although, as was stated earlier, the problems, concerns, resolutions and recommendations coming out of the 1984 Conference are similar to those of 1977 and 1979, there is an important shift evident in the conference reports. The earlier conferences were planned, organized and run by non-Native professionals involved in Native language programs, while the 1983 and 1984 conferences had a very strong Native input; in fact, the Pacific Region Conference was 75 chaired by Native persons, and, with the exception of the Panel on Funding Sources for Language Programs, the major speakers were Native. Other noticeable differences are the strong themes regarding the importance, in fact, the necessity of every Native group's ownership of their language, traditions and culture, the principle of community involvement in programs, and the strong stance that Native "Old People" (Elders) are crucial to planning and decision-making processes. The importance of Native Old People and community involvement in programs was voiced in the 1977 and 1979 conferences too, but not to the same degree as in the eighties.. As one of the teachers attending the U.B.C. summer course in Native language teaching said, "It's as if we are giving ourselves permission to own our own languages and. programs!" Although there has been a shift toward Native people planning and running their own conferences and programs,: an important question to consider is whether there has also been a shift in the "power brokers",, those who have ultimate control of funding and decision making over programs.. Barman, Hebert and McCaskill suggest although there has been a 'shift', its significance as far as Native self-determination and decision making is limited. Through its continued refusal to allow funding, the Federal Department of Indian Affairs is perceived as preventing the development of full responsibility and accountability for Indian education by Indians them selves. The boundaries of decision-making authority remain limited (1985:16) 3.3.3 NATIVE TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS Many hoped that the Native Teacher Education programs offered in various universities across Canada would produce fully certified Native teachers qualified to teach the Native languages as 76 well as the regular curriculum. This has not turned out to be the case. Clarke and MacKenzie (1980), in a Canada-wide survey of Native teacher-training programs, found that few directly prepare their students to teach content via the Native language or to teach the Native language as a second language. The teacher-training programs singled out as having seriously addressed the question of the role of the Native language in the school include those sponsored by the University of Quebec, and the University of Victoria. Both of these programs had a strong linguis tic orientation incorporated into their Native language teaching component; however, they did at least include one course in the principles of second language teaching. Unfortunately, since the survey was conducted, the University of Victoria stopped offering its on-campus Native Language Teacher Diploma course and has only offered is off-campus, course once in two locations, Prince Rupert and Hazelton. The program was initially funded jointly with the University of Victoria, and the Secretary of State Department each paying half. In 1983 the Secretary of State withdrew its funding (due to Federal cutbacks).. The University of Victoria- continued, the program for another two years to allow completion of courses by the students in Prince Rupert and Hazelton. Up to the present time a description of the Native Language Diploma Program has appeared in the academic calendar; however, there is currently a proposal from the university to delete all descriptions of Indian programs from the calendar since it is "essentially misleading to communities to have the description when no funding is available". Field-based programs are estimated to cost $150,000.00 per year to run (Robert Anthony, 1986; Personal Communication). Although the Simon Fraser University Faculty of Education 77 offered one of the early Native teacher training programs at Mt. Currie, beginning in 1974, it was not included in and MacKenzie survey because it did not offer a specific language teaching component.. Since the survey was conducted, however, both Simon Fraser University and the University of British Columbia have offered courses focussing on the teaching of Native languages. The Simon Fraser course was offered to Native students enrolled in its off-campus Native Teacher Education programs in Prince Rupert, as an experimental course given by the Faculty of Education in the Fall of 1983. Students developed curriculum materials, considered some of the basic foundations of language teaching and practised language teaching techniques (Toohey & Hansen, 1984). The course at the University of British Columbia is a six week summer institute course- offered through the Native: Indian Teacher Education program (NITEP). It also focuses on the methods and techniques of teaching: Native as a Second Language (NASL) and the development of teaching materials for NASL classes. Some participants are enrolled in the regular NITEP teacher education program; however,, many are. practising Native language instructors currently working in community schools. The latter are not required to be enrolled in the regular NITEP program. The U.B.C. summer program is the first of its type to be' offered in a British Columbia university. It was initially offered in the summer of 1985 with 21 Native language instructors enrolled from around the Province (one left before the course ended for family reasons), and has again been offered in the summer of 1986 with 26 instructors enrolled (none left). Dr.. Robert Anthony, the program designer and instructor has indicated delighted, surprise at the response, and feels that the large enrollments are an indication of the tremendous need for training and of the dedication of these teachers, particularly when the summer months are especially busy on reserve the Clarke Nat i ve 78 with other family and cultural, food gathering activities (Anthony , Personal Commun icat ion ). 3.3.4 CONTINUING CALLS FOR TRAINING Other calls for training, for funding, for recognition of language and for research can be found in Native conference proceedings, presentations and papers from across Canada and in other fields of study. Verna Kirkness (1980) addressing the Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers says: A major problem is continuing to confront Indian people as they attempt to have Indian languages taught in schools. It is realized that ability to speak a language does not imply the ability to explain a language. Therefore, training for Indians as language teachers must be conducted (p. 9).. Later in October 1980 at the Native- Language Instructor's Conference, "Preserving Our Language" in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Kirkness in the keynote address called on Native people to lobby for training,: Teaching a language is a highly specialized area.. You are teachers plus. So if Native languages are to be a respected part of the school curriculum, we are going to have to lobby for appropriate training programs. (p. 19, Conference Report) She went on to say that to her knowledge there was no program of methodology on teaching Indian languages offered at any of the Manitoba universities (p.. 6). Csapo and Clark (1982 ) conducted a province-wide survey of Native language instruction in B.C. at both the school district and the Band operated agency level . They state that two of the major 79 problems reported in language teaching were the lack of training and the method of selection of the language teacher: The lack of training is a serious concern.. There are not many certified Native-speaking teachers, and few of these have been trained to teach a Native language or to use it as a medium of instruction (Burnaby, Elson, Appelt & Holt, 1982; Clarke and MacKenzie, 1980; Moore, 1981). Awareness of the needs of Native language and culture programs is also growing in other jurisdictions on a national level . TESL - Canada1 organized a symposium entitled "Language Development in Native Education" held in Winnipeg, Manitoba in March of 1982.. Participants represented the wide spectrum of people working with Native children in various areas of language development; some were English speaking teachers of Native children involved in teaching regular language arts, English as a Second Language, Standard English as a Second Dialect, others were teachers of Native languages. All were concerned- with improving the teaching of language to Native children (Toohey and Hansen, 1985).. Solution to some of the problems caused by the lack of training for Native teachers, lack of centralized information, the lack of teaching materials, and lack of funding was sought by many of the recommendations. The Second Pacific Region Native Language Conference held in Kamloops, B.C. in October 1986, like the first in 1984, was sponsored 1 TESL - Canada: This stands for TEACHERS OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE' and is the national organization for teachers of English as a Second Language* 80 by the Department of the Secretary of State. While many of the same concerns and issues surrounding the teaching of Native languages were discussed at the conference the formal resolutions endorsed by conference participants focussed on the issues of funding, training for Native language teachers and para-professional linguists, and the further growth of Native language programs aimed at retention of the languages. These, recommendations are little changed from the earlier conferences. Like the 1984 conference it strongly endorsed Native ownership and control of community programs. It was also noted that British Columbia and the Yukon have the majority of Native language groups from across Canada, yet only 10% of funds are allocated to the region. Attempts to increase the awareness of the value of Native languages and the need; for a. more organized approach to provide support for language programs and teachers periodically surfaces in the. British Columbia provincial political arena- Member's Bill M210, An Act to Establish an Institute of Native Indian Languages for British Columbia, was introduced in the Fourth Session, Thirty-third Parliament 35 Elizabeth II,. 1986 Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, by Mr. Hanson of the New Democratic Party of B.C. The objectives stated in the Bill are as follows: Objects The institute1 shall have- as its primary object, the main tenance and revital ization of the Native languages of British Columbia, an object which will be pursued through: 1. a) classroom oriented studies of Native Languages, b) the development, based on those studies, of literacy materials,, including written alphabets, programmed language lessons, dictionaries and bodies of text for reading, c) the development and dissemination of British Columbia Native literature written in Native languages, and d) assisting, in training of British Columbia Native language speakers to work as teachers and aids in bilingual classrooms. 2. The institute will also engage in other linguistic work for the benefit of Native communities in British Columbia, such as the translation of important documents. 3. It is however emphasized that the institute's primary objectives as stated above take priority over all other goals, including- academically oriented research. It' would be hoped that the fact that the Bill was introduced by the NDP would not automatically spell its doom in a government with a strong Social Credit majority since its acceptance could be very significant to the survival of Native language in B.C. 3.4 BROADER PERSPECTIVES On a much broader scale, the call for research into the training, of second language teachers, generally, (of many different languages) is being made1 at an international level. In 1983, the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics hosted its thirty-fourth annual international conference which had as its focus the preparation and training of second language teachers: The purpose7 of GURT '83 was an attempt to make a practical and truly academic contribution to the solution of one- of the most pressing social problems of the day, the problem of teacher preparation and through this, to the pursuit of excellence in educations (p. vii). The papers presented and discussed at. the Georgetown University Round Table were published as GURT '83, and contain many interesting and valuable insights pertaining to second language teaching and the training of second language teachers generally, not only to those teaching English as a second language. Several of the papers raise questions and describe issues which are particularly pertinent to the considerations being, examined in this study. Mary Ashworth (1983) discussing the training of teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL teachers) identified a number of forces in the socio-political context which "affect favourably or adversely the training, hiring, and. utilization of ESL: teachers:" social, national, political, economic, professional, institutional and pedagogical (p. 26). Like those described by Hebert earlier they focus on the broader contexts within which the programs occur, and which influence the planning, development and implementation of the programs. H. H. Stern identifies a number of important issues in the training of second language teachers, offers a typology of four different types of second language teachers, and describes a model by which to conceptualize- the process and factors of a Language Teacher Education program. This is one of the few articles that presents an overview of the major factors to be considered in a second language teacher training program. He acknowledges the enormous variety of teaching situations, and of types of training for second language teachers around the world, and laments the lack of research and lack of serious writing and information on the essential issues. If we look at the research literature on LTE (Language Teacher Education) and study expressions of theory, policy statements, or- polemical writings, we soon recognize that the scale of available documentation is vastly different from what we find on other topics in applied linguistics, say, on language acquisition, interlanguage, or pedagogy. There is no established theory or even a clearly defined debate on what the essential issues are. Research is sparse.2 We are very much at the beginning (p.343). z Our- hope is that this exchange of ideas (GURT '83) will lead us to a theoretically more powerful and more insightful interpretation, to. a research agenda, and to a more practically useful understanding of language teacher training than, I believe, we have at our disposal at the present time. 83 3.4.1 NEED FOR INFORMATION ABOUT ACTUAL TEACHER TRAINING  PROGRAMS Faneslow's article in GURT '83, "Over and over and over again", provides some very important insights into the lack of evaluative studies in language teacher training programs, and makes a strong, if not urgent call for more to be done. In an unofficial survey he conducted with university instructors involved in language teacher training he found that over a fifteen year period their perceptions of the central components to the preparation of language- teachers had not changed very much, and that it was based on "common sense notions of what is necessary". Faneslow points out that "common sense notions' often change when examined closely. He comments that "until we evaluate the effects of our common sense notions.. ..we can hardly hope to learn if what we do is worthwhile, let alone improve what we do" (p. 170).. Peck and Tucker (1973) are cited as saying that little evaluation research had been done in the United States until the 1960's, and then lack of funding in the 1970' s stopped the momentum just as it was gathering speed.. Lomac (1972) is also cited as saying that although the National Council of Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) in England has for many years had a requrement devoted to program education, Katz (1981) revealed few follow-up evaluations, and fewer still of quality (p.170). Many of the other articles in GURT '83, also call for research into the training of second language teachers at the same time as pointing to the need for balancing practise and theory in the training programs (Altman, Brown, Brumfit, Celce-Murcia, Stern). As this review of the literature on Native language programs and on the training of Native language- teachers to date shows, there is very little information available in Canada on either of these 84 topics. Much more can be found research into Native languages, descriptive, structural linguistic, the languages and also historical in terms of academic linguistic This includes research into historical linguistics,, grammars of I inguistics. With an increasing number of communities expressing interest in establishing a local Native language program and many current Native- language teachers requesting training in teaching techniques,' it is imperative that information be gathered and that research be done on the training of Native language teachers, both on content and on teaching methods and activities used in training programs. It is of interest that calls for the training of Native language teachers in second language techniques and classroom management are coming from a number of different sources in the United States and. Canada. This is noteworthy since millions of Federal dollars have been spent on Native language programs in the United States. Evaluative research has been done in the United States, on programs since one of the conditions of receiving funding (Title VI I ;Bi I ingual Programs) from the American Federal government is the requirement that; 25% of it be spent on evaluation by an outside evaluator. At the- 1985 nation-wide conference of Native American Language Issues (NALI) held in Billings Montana, a number of the speakers acknowledged the need for Native language teachers to receive training in language teaching methods and techniques. Like British Columbia, the predominant view has been that the development of materials and. the training of Native language teachers in the techniques and skills of linguistic analysis has been the greatest need of Native language programs, and very little, if any, attention has been paid to pedagogical considerations such as second language teaching methods and techniques, classroom management, motivation for learning, and the actual involvement of the whole community in the planning and development of programs. 85 Lawrence Stenhouse (1977) has suggested the possibility of using a new curriculum as an "experimental probe".- An evaluation would aim to gain understandings and insights into what works and does not work, and why. Research into new programs and the curriculum used, guided by this perspective of evaluation, would be a very valuable means of gaining insights into programs which train Native language teachers.. In a paper entitled "Doing Research on Effective Cross-Cul tural Teaching" (1983) Kleinfeld, McDiarmid, Gubris and Parrett explore the problem of "how to do research on cross-cultural teaching" and also "how to do useful inquiry in education". They discuss the importance of teachers gaining insights about the act of effective teaching through hearing or reading about actual experiences of other teachers and reflecting upon these experiences. These teacher stories are called "teacher tales", and have been found to be very effective heuristic devices. Rather than presenting teachers with "rules" for how good teachers behave, rules that invariably fail to encompass the relevant features of particular circumstances, this ap proach presents- the teachers with experience and the opportunity to learn from critical reflection on that experience. The teacher tale develops more than know ledge about cause and effect relationships, the goal of scientific research.. The teacher tale also develops skills in analyzing complex, ambiguous situations — the typical situations in cross-cultural teaching — and more varied strategies for handling them (p. 87-88)., In developing a rationale for the use of the "teacher tale" in educational inquiry, the authors point out that researchers in education are "increasingly questioning the dominance of the scientific paradigm with its search for lawful general relationships in educational research" )p. 101). They cite Eisner (1979 as saying that "scientific assumptions and procedures do not exhaust the forms of knowledge and methods of inquiry that humans use to give shape to the world," and they offer 'the story' as an alternative model for doing inquiry in education. Stories are one of the oldest forms through which humans try to understand and give shape to their experience. The story focuses, as teachers focus, on concrete and complicated particulars. The story can encompass ambiguity and inconsistency. And complexity and ambi guity and inconsistency, not simple generalizations, are. the stuff of human life and especially of cross-cultural teaching (p. 102). Kleinfeld et al state that stories may be useful in other types of educational research as well as in cross-cultural situations. In their experience, it was the "concrete cases describing particular teaching problems, not the generalizations about teacher characteristics, that teachers find interesting, that lead them to reflect critically" (p.- 102). It is proposed by the researcher that a descriptive evaluation of KTTP could function in this manner. The perspectives of researchers such as Faneslbw, Stenhouse, Kleinfeld < . point to methods of inquiry in studying programs for the training of Native language teachers that would be fruitful and useful to Native communities, Native language teachers and non-Native professionals alike.. 3.4.2 SUMMARY OF THE FACTORS RELATING TO THE LACK OF INFORMATION ON THE TRAINING OF NATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHERS Much of the information for this proposal was obtained by contacting, people working in various contexts in Native languages, especially those involved in training Native language teachers, asking them about papers or- references, requesting permission to go through their filing cabinets, and shelves, and picking their brains! There are a number of factors which could explain the lack of information regarding Native language programs generally, and programs for training Native language teachers, specifically. 1. View of Teaching Materials The most obvious explanation for the lack of information on 87 training is that there have been relatively few programs to train Native people in language teaching methods and techniques. Teaching has been perceived as materials rather than as techniques (Anthony, personal communication), and it has been assumed by those involved in setting up Native language programs that a Native speaker automatically has the ability to teach (Stern, 1983). Training for Native language teachers has been focussed on teaching them the techniques of linguistic analysis, and on the development of materials; the latter has been seen as the greatest need of the program.. Materials have included a descriptive grammar of the language, an orthography and alphabet sheet, literary materials such as basic primers and. simple stories, lessons and student workbooks based on vocabulary and sentence structures, and audio-visual aids such as flash cards and identification board games- In a few cases, more extensive materials have- been developed, and also a teacher's manual. Hebert (1984) writes; "Finally, most language projects are 'obsessed' with the production of curriculum materials,, such as lessons, units,, alphabet, charts, picture books, dictionaries or collections of stories"' (p.. 127). This emphasis on the development of materials has also become a criterion for receiving funding for a program by both government and private funding agencies. Thus, a program focussing primarily on training teachers in teaching techniques, an intangible commodity, would either- not qualify for grants or would be obliged to also produce materials. Teaching methods and techniques have not been viewed as a high priority. 2.. Funding Throughout this study there have been references to funding as one of the major difficulties facing the development of a Native language program. The funding issue breaks down into a number of different categories: a) Cultural politics and the status of Native languages. 88 Ultimately the amount of money allotted to a particular ethnic language program by either a Provincial or Federal government department reflects the value or status awarded to the language* Burnaby (1980) refers to this as "Cultural Politics" and discusses it in relation to School Policies. This topic was also addressed at the Second Pacific Region Native Language Conference held in Kamloops, October 1986. Under the Official Language Act of 1972 sizeable amounts of money were authorized by the Federal government to establish French Immersion programs across Canada, the goal of which was to maintain and enhance the French language in Canada. In the first year alone $438 million dollars were allocated by the Federal Treasury Board in 1985-86 for the teaching of Heritage Languages in Canada. These are programs to ensure that the mother tongue of various immigrant groups such as Ukrainian, German, Punjabi,. Mandarin, Cantonese,. Portuguese, Spanish, Greek, etc.. are learned by the children of immigrant parents. In the same year of 1985/86 $1 million dollars was allotted, to the teaching of Native languages across Canada: one quarter of that given to Heritage Language programs (Second Pacific Region Native Language Conference, Kamloops, October 1986, personal communication). b) Sources of funding for different aspects of the Native Language Program Although in school-based Native language programs funding for the actual operational costs - the teacher's salary,, cost of classroom (electricity, janitor, etc.) - has been available through allotments from the Special Programs Division (Indian Programs), Ministry of Education, money 89 for the planning and development of materials and the training of Native language teachers has not. Thus, funding for the latter has had to be sought through other sources such as the First Citizen's Fund, the Secretary of State Department, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, churches, or a variety of private foundations and institutions. Community based language programs, outside of the public schools, must also seek funding from the above sources. It must be mentioned here- that many school districts and regular classroom teachers have been supportive of the Native language programs in their schools. Ultimately, however the approval of these programs goes through a three-step process: the Native community makes a request to the school district for a language program; the school district submits plan for such a program to the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry approves/rejects the program based on guidelines and available funding (Pacific Region Native Language Conference Report, p. 55). The process of obtaining funds through writing grant proposals is both time consuming and unreliable. Often it is difficult, if not impossible, to obtain. At the 1983 Pacific Region Native Language Conference, Gloria. Cranmer, Director of the U'mista Cultural Centre at Alert Bay, B.C. commented that 60% of her time was spent writing proposals in order to secure funding-Funding for the development of local materials, and for the training: of teachers is scarce, and the cost of hiring and bringing in an outside professional, such as a linguist, second language specialist, or curriculum developer, even for periodic workshops, is high. In addition, at the present time, there is a scarcity of professionals with knowledge of Native language programs and/or of the 90 particular Native language who are willing and/or able to travel to the communities for short periods of time, never mind extended periods. c) Linguistic diversity and number of Native languages British Columbia is noted for the lingistic diversity of its. Native people.. Of Canada's fifty-three distinct indigenous languages, more than half are spoken in British Columbia (Foster, 1982). Many language programs occur in geogra phically isolated areas of the province, and involve relatively small numbers of students and teachers. This increases the funding required. Even though "B.C. has the majority of language groups from across Canada, only 10% of Federal funds are allocated to this province" (Pacific Region Native Language Conference Report, p. 63). d) Cost of programs The cost of running university-based programs for training Native language teachers, both on-campus and off-campus, is high.. Both the cost of transportation and accommodation as well as the salary of instructors and operating: costs of programs is expensive. As was mentioned, earlier, the University of Victoria has cancelled both its on-campus Native Language Teaching Diplomas. The Simon Fraser experimental off-campus course in Native second language teaching offered to students enrolled in university degree programs is also costly, and as a result, has only been offered once. Another important issue related to university-based programs is that many Native language teachers are not interested in receiving training so that they can become more effective teachers in their local language. 91 3. Status of Native Language Programs In a number of instances, a professional, such as a linguist or curriculum developer has been hired by a Band on a full-time basis to work with the language program.. In other cases, linguists or graduate, students in linguistics have contributed to the language programs while also doing linguistic field research. Sometimes this has been for short periods and sometimes for relatively extended periods of time. These linguists have played a significant and important role in working to maintain and revive Native languages through setting up programs- On the whole, however, the academic world of linguistics and. university departments appears to have awarded a low status to work other than "pure" linguistic research- This lack of value extends to programs for teaching Native languages, to the develop ment of teaching materials and to Native language teacher training programs. Little, if any encouragement or recognition has been awarded the more day-to-day business of setting up programs, helping teachers and developing actual teaching materials. Rivers (1983:327) refers to the low status of teacher training within graduate programs of liberal arts departments at universities. This also appears to hold true for the teaching component of Native languages. In terms of their academic careers and professional reputations, it has been necessary for linguists to produce academically 'acceptable' research focused on linguistic aspects of the language, at the same time as working on the language programs- Academic research, contrary to applied educational research, is very highly rated (it is interesting to speculate about the status of various academic fields)! Barnhardt (1986) writing of the advantages of field-based teacher training programs for Alaskan Native teachers has called for adjustments in attitude and in resources to be made by the universities, so that faculty working in 92 fieldbased programs receive equal recognition and support for their work as their more academically inclined university based col leagues. This situation of the low status of teaching combined with the difficulty of obtaining funding for programs generally,, with busy professional schedules, and. with language programs and teachers desperate for ideas of what to do and for materials has resulted in very little written information about the programs whether the Native language programs themselves, or programs for training teachers. There seems to; be too much to do, too few people to do it, and too little reward for, writing reports and evaluations on programs. 4. Lack of Continuity and Lack of Contact Another factor contributing to the lack of information on Native programs and the training of teachers has been that frequently pro fessionals are hired as short-term consultants to do brief, isolated workshops for the teachers in the program. Often, different consul tants from different fields of study (e.g. linguistics, education, curriculum development) come at different times to work with the teachers. They are unaware of who or what has been offered before. The result is a lack of co-ordination and continuity. 5. Lack of Evaluation Unfortunately, systematic evaluations or even detailed descrip tions of small educational programs are not common (Burnaby, 1980). A general but persistent attitude amongst many professionals working in the Native language programs, educators as well as linguists, is reflected in the statement, "Who would read an evaluation or description of the program anyway?!" 6. Split Jurisdictions of Authority Although in any one language project there are usually only a few people directly involved at any given time, if one were to add up the variety of groups and individuals which ultimately are involved in one capacity or another, it is quite overwhelming! Native language programs in Provincially operated schools must, go through the B.C. Ministry of Education, District School Boards and individual school principals, and then rely on members of the local community and on the research conducted by linguists for their resources. Those programs operating in Band controlled schools or in a community setting outside of the school must go through Band Councils, Education Committees, school administrators and' perhaps an Elders Group, and then like the former rely on community members or cultural and the work of linguists. Thus a wide variety of groups, government departments and individuals are involved without the unifying influence of a co-ordinating body or mechanism. The result is fragmentation at all levels of decision-making in the programs. This is compounded by a general lack of knowledge or information of second language teaching. Added to this is the difficulty of having no long term funding for programs. The consequence has been that the money obtained for programs has gone to what has been perceived as the most pressing need, of Native language programs, the development of materials. It is only recently that the training of teachers in teaching methods and' techniques has been recognized as an extremely important factor in the success of programs. 3.5 SUMMARY Over the years there have been comments made regarding the need for teachers to receive training. Bauman (1980) in A Guide to  Issues in Indian Language Retention identified the recruitment and training of teachers as one of the five necessary aspects to be considered in planning for Native language programs. Professionals 94 working in B.C. Native language programs have talked of the necessity of teacher training (Galloway, 1977; Hebert, 1984; Levine, 1976; Toohey and Hansen, 1985; Wyatt, 1974). On a broader level calls for training have also been heard (Burnaby, 1980; Kirkness, 1981; TESOL - Canada, 1982; The National Indian Brotherhood, 1972). Many of the papers in the Georgetown University Roundtable Discussions of '83 called for research to be conducted on the training of second language teachers generally. As was mentioned earlier, the training that Native language teachers have received has been mainly in linguistic analysis and in the development of materials; little if anything was done to develop teaching techniques and classroom management skills. Barbara Burnaby (1980), in her book, Languages and Their Roles in  Educating Native Children states the case nicely.: .......the: best designed programs and the best curriculum and materials can be completely compromised if the teachers are- not well enough trained, suitably prepared or carefu11y selected to meet the challenge (p.6). At provincial meetings and conferences over the last few years, discussions among Native language teachers have often focused on the need; for learning more about how to teach (methods and techniques), and. how to handle children in the classroom (classroom management). Strong recommendations regarding the training of Native teachers in second language teaching methods and; techniques, and the funding necessary to accomplish this were among those made by the TESL - Canada symposium entitled "Language Development" (March, 1982), by the "Wawa Kunamokst Nesika": British Columbia Native Language Instructors' Conference held in 1979; by the Pacific Region Native Language Conference held in February, 1984; and by the Second Pacific Region Native Language Conference held in October, 1986. 95 The increasing number of calls for training in teaching methods and curriculum preparation by both Native people and non-Native people involved in the maintenance and revival of Native languages attests to the fact that the ability to speak a Native language is not enough.. In a paper entitled Native Languages:  Confusion and Uncertainty Kirkness (1980) states: The confusion arises when children appear dissatisfied in having to learn their native languages. Often parents do not realize that the objection is not to the language but to the delivery. I firmly believe we owe it to the Native language teachers to provide the necessary training they require to do their jobs more adequately. Burnaby raises a similar point and emphasizes that if Native language programs are not well taught they may have the opposite effect of what is desired. Native children may decide they do not want, to learn their ancestral language. The calls and requests for training for Native language instructors are not new, and come from many different, sources and locations across Canada. They are often accompanied by the recognition of other needs and concerns: for increased funding to be spent on Native language and culture programs, for the recognition of Native language instructors by provincial Ministers of Education, teacher federations, local school boards and school administrators for research into effective training programs for Native language instructors.. With more- and more communities expressing interest in establishing Native language programs, and. many practising Native language teachers requesting training in teaching techniques, it is important that information be gathered, and that research be done on the training of Native language teachers. This is important so that a body of knowledge is accumulated which could provide insight and understanding upon which to build effective programs for Native language teachers. 96 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY The form of the study and the method of research evolved as the review of the literature progressed, and draws from a number of different, though related areas: educational evaluation, the social sciences in educational studies,. studies in cross-cultural settings, ethnography, adult education, and second language teaching. This section will provide a historical perspective on the use of qualitative research designs in educational evaluation, background information which influenced the research design of this study, and finally, the design of the study,, the form, the procedures to be used, and the treatment of data. 4.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION The use of qualitative studies, often in the form of case studies,, is well established in a variety of academic and professional fields including anthropology, sociology, psychology, medicine, law, and engineering (Walker; 1981), however, until recently, qualitative research methods have not been well received within the field of education. Education has traditionally been very closely aligned with the behaviourist tradition in psychology and its strongly psychometric, experimental orientation to research. This has been the case in both Britain and in North America, although more so in the latter. Over the past fifteen years, however, qualitative' methods of research have been gradually gaining acceptance in educational research in Britain and in North America and are now being widely used alongside quantitative studies. There have been many discussions regarding the pros and cons of using both qualitative and quantitative research in educational research, particularly in the evaluation of programs. These discussions have ranged over the limitations created by the 97 nature of each of the methods in adequately portraying educational endeavours, the benefits of one mode over the other, the misuses and abuses of qualitative methods, and precautions regarding the use of qualitative methods. They will be touched on briefly in this discussion. According to a number of writers (Fetterman, 1984; Hamilton and Parlett, 1977; LeCompte and Goetz, 1984), the major impetus for interest in qualitative research methods was the realization that quantitative methods failed to adequately contend with the many issues, influences, and dynamics that are a part of, and that shape an educational endeavour. This failure is attributed to the very nature of the experimental design, the cornerstone of quantitative studies.. Such studies are based on deductive modes of inquiry which are characteristically tightly structured and controlled, and are based- upon predetermined hypotheses established by the reasearcher. It is contended by proponents of qualitative research methods that this very narrow focus, established prior to the actual research beginning, runs the strong risk of prematurely limiting the focus, thereby ignoring significant data which causes changes in the educational situation, of not acknowledging the many perspectives of those involved, and of not addressing; their concerns and questions. On the other hand, advocates of quantitative research methods question the reliability, and generalizability of qualitative research methods. They maintain that its subjective nature is problematic and that it: is too loosely structured, both in data collection and data analysis. Concern is expressed over the seeming lack of direction in the early stages of the research due to the lack of predetermined hypotheses and of controls over variables. Issues and concerns relating to the quality of qualitative methods of research have also been raised and discussed by experi enced researchers who are themselves strong advocates of qualitative research (Erickson, 1983; Fetterman, 1984; Parlett and Hamilton, 98 1977; Spindler, 1981; Wolcott, 1975). This concern has been sparked by an array of qualitative studies in the evaluation of educational programs, particularly observational studies and ethnographic studies which were conducted by researchers who do not have a solid understanding of the methodology underlying their research. Frequently qualitative techniques have been employed to gather data, while the assumptions and constraints underlying the methodology have not been adhered to, especially in the analysis and interpretation of data. A result of the misuse of qualitative methods of research has been that a number of its advocates have put forth strong recommen dations and precautions regarding its use (Fetterman, 1984; Firestone and Herriott, 1984; Spindler,. 1981; Spradley, 1979; Wilcox, 1981; Wolcott,, 1974). While many of the- early papers advocating the use- of qualitative research methods in education contain a defensive tone regarding its value and use in educational evaluation, the later ones do not.. Instead, they reflect the knowledge that qualitative studies have a valuable and important role to play in educational evaluation. In discussing the history of multisite qualitative policy research, Firestone and Herriott write: In recent years qualitative researchers have moved beyond the need to defend the legitimacy of their craft in the policy arena (Rist, 1977; Smith, 1978; Stake, 1978). More over, quantitative researchers are beginning to acknow ledge a role for qualitative research in policy and evalua tion studies (Cronbach, 1982; Hoaglin,, 1982) and to consider the proper balance of qualitative and quantitative techniques (Cook and Reichardt, 1979;. Smith and Louis, 1982). (Cited- by Firestone and Herriott, 1984:64) A number of papers reflect this call for the use of both qualiative and quantitative research designs (Fetterman, 1984; Firestone and Herriott, 1984; Greenbaum and Greenbaum, 1984; 99 Gumperz, 1981; Lutz, 1981; Parlett and Hamilton, 1977; Sevigny, 1977; Stake, 1975; Stenhouse, 1975) stating that well conducted studies can provide different kinds of insights and information, both of which are needed for a fuller understanding of the contents and processes of education. Qualitative studies can be used initially to explore a program and to provide a more complete picture of the context and issues involved. This information can then be used as an indicator of areas requiring quantitative research. Gumprez in discussing what happens in classrooms acknowledges the complex processes that characterize education, and calls first for qualitative studies to identify the processes that have meaning for those involved in the teaching activity, and then quantitative designs deriving out of those insights: Classroom experience, whatever its effects,, clearly involves complex and subtle processes and many more factors than can be handled by traditional formal behavioral measures which concentrate on a limited, set of predetermined vari ables. Systematic measurement will ultimately be neces sary,, but before such measures can be devised, we need to begin ethnographic work in order to isolate the processes that are demonstratably meaningful in terms of the parti cipants' perceptions. (Gumperz, 1981 :p 4) Myron Atkin in discussing the need for a. research design which can encompass the complexity of educational activities states: Activity in a classroom is complex and subtle.... .the tradi tional perspective from which investigators have viewed the educational process has been extremely narrow in relation to that process... .the end result has been a view so sim plified or so segmental, as to have little relation to the total educational process (1977:78) Sevigny too, points out the complexity of learning situations and calls, for an understanding of the contexts of learning before attempting to identify variables.. I have found that the search for explain learning outcomes, has to single variables to be less fruitful than a 100 search for related, or clustered variables. Past research has failed to carefully map out the complexity of classroom learning. It has proceeded to data processing before understanding the contexts against which the variables are considered. (Sevigny, 1981:68). Paul and Susan Greenbaum (1984) describe well the need for 'collaborative' as opposed to 'competitive' efforts between qualitative and quantitative researchers. Responding to the Kleinfeld/Cazden dialogue, which appeared in the Anthropology and Education  Quarter I y journals of 1983, they state: The real objective of educational researchers should be to furnish data and insights conducive to improvements in classroom practice and performance. Anthropology provides an excellent basis for framing, hypotheses about cultural variables which other disciplines have tended to opera tional ize inappropriately or to ignore altogether. Psycho logy, in turn, offers powerful techniques for assessing the validity of propositions derived from ethnographic research and can render results succinctly, using terminology that is understood and accepted by a broad spectrum of prac-tioners and policy makers (p.. 173). Of significance to this study are. two forms of qualitative research that are widely utilized in the evaluation of educational programs. These are Illuminative Evaluation and Ethnography. 4.1.1 ILLUMINATIVE EVALUATION In Britain much of the impetus for the use of qualitative studies in education came out of the movement of curriculum development and innovation, and the evaluation of these innovations. The first concerted public call came in 1972 from a small working conference held in Cambridge. It was funded by the Nuffield Foundation. The aim of the conference was "to examine non-traditional modes of curriculum (ie. curriculum and programs) evaluation, and to set out guidelines for future developments in the field." (Hamilton, 1977:vii). 101 The conference, reported in MacDonald and Parlett (1972) and in Walker (1982), produced a 'Manifesto" which advocated the need for a new type of evaluation based on qualitative research methods, and which also proposed the possibility of a political shift in the power relations between evaluators and practioners, opening up the oppor tunity for teachers and administrators to enter into what were often previously considered to be evaluator's (or researcher's) areas of authority.. (Walker, 1982:195). An important alternative form- of evaluation known as Illuminative Evaluation was proposed by a number of researchers involved in the conference. Illuminative Evaluation, described as a "general research strategy rather than a standard methodological package" (Hamilton and Parlett, 1977), is based on inductive modes of inquiry, and belongs within the soci a I-anthropolog ical research paradigm. It seeks to provide a full portrayal of a program by studying the program in its natural setting. Thus, the investigation includes the planned instructional program, the broader socio-cultural context, and the relationship between the planned instructional program and the context within which it occurs. A. number of premises and corresponding strategies underlie this form of evaluation. The program is studied as a whole. Secondly, data is gathered and analyzed using the perspectives of the various participants within the program rather than being based upon the predetermined categories of the researcher. Thirdly, importance is placed on the researcher taking a non-judgemental stance in the treatment of data. Fourthly, data is interpreted in the context of the whole program. A variety of research techniques are used in the investigation. The primary goal of this form of evaluation is "to understand" 102 a program or educational innovation rather than to judge or assess its effectiveness as does a more traditional evaluation which endeavours to objectively measure a program's outcomes against its stated objectives. An important function of Illuminative Evaluation is to contribute to the process of decision-making. This requires that the final report be written in a manner that is intelligible and useful to those in a decision-making role. Because of its significance to this study a more detailed description of Illuminative Evaluation follows in the next section. 4.1.2 ETHNOGRAPHY In North America the field, of Cultural Anthropology with its strong reliance on Ethnography as a method of research, significantly contributed toward the use of qualitative studies. While a- relatively small number of anthropologists in the first half of the twentieth century conducted ethnographic studies of various minority cultures, and of schooling, in general, it was not until the anthropology of schooling movement began in earnest in the late 1960's that anthropological understandings and research in the form of ethnographies began to be heard in educational circles. Ethnography as a method of research is strongly based in the discipline of anthropology, and includes ethnographic theory, specific procedures, research techniques and methods of analysis. It utilizes an inductive mode of inquiry, requiring the researcher to spend extensive time in the field in order to become familiar with the group being studied in their natural setting. The values underlying ethnographic research include holism, phenomenology, a non-judgemental stance and contextual ization. Analysis and interpretation of data are guided by a cultural orientation by which the researcher seeks recurring social and cultural themes or patterns. 103 The benefits or advantages of using ethnographic methods in conducting evaluations of educational settings and programs is that they portray a much fuller, more complete picture of a community or a program from the perspectives of the people involved. This in turn can lead to valuable insights and understandings which in a traditional evaluation would not be available. The goal of ethnographic research is to discover what is, and how things are, rather than to judge how effective a program has been. (Spradley, 1979; Wolcott, 1975). Like Illuminative Evaluation it has influenced this study, and will be described further in the next section. 4.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON THE RESEARCH DESIGN OF THE STUDY The methodology of Ethnography and the general research strategy known as Illuminative Evaluation have provided the underlying: theoretical basis, the* research strategies and research techniques for this study.. They are briefly discussed and a comparison of them,, outlined in chart form, follows.. In addition, a two-part,, adult education curriculum design model developed by British researcher, Jarvis (1982), is to be used to help facilitate the study. The model which is described later in this section will not be used to control the study, but rather to aid in organizing and focussing the data. The reason for using this particular model is twofold Firstly, Jarvis has interpreted the term "curriculum" in its broadest sense, and thus includes both the learning-teaching process, wh