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A part of something much bigger : a case study of the Kwak'wala teacher training project 1988

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A PART OF SOMETHING MUCH BIGGER: A CASE STUDY OF THE KWAK 'WALA TEACHER TRAINING PROJECT by JOY WILD B.A.,University of British Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1988 © Joy Wild, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British''Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada Department of V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) A B S T R A C T The issues and factors which affected the p l a n n i n g , development and implementation of the Kwak'wala Teacher T r a i n i n g Project, a program for t r a i n i n g Kwakwa_ka'wakw people to teach in the Native language programs of their communities, are described and discussed. The study focusses on the five courses oriented toward teaching methods and the development of teaching materials for the local Native language programs. The o v e r - a l l purpose of the study is to gain understandings of the factors and issues in Native language teacher education. The speci f i c goals are: 1. To gain an understanding of the factors and influences which affected the p l a n n i n g , development and implementation of the- Kwak'wala Teacher T r a i n i n g Project, from the perspectives of the students and the inst r u c t o r s . 2. To describe the "planned instructional program" designed for the Kwak'wala Teacher T r a i n i n g Project, and to describe the changes that occurred in the process of developing and implementing the planned courses. Included in this is an exploration of the un d e r l y i n g assumptions made by the instructors in p l a n n i n g the program. 3. To provide a description of the process by which the KTTP program developed, and to map the parameters of the program. 4. To gain insights into: a) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Native students and their learning needs, b) the concerns and issues facin g Native people involved in lear n i n g to become better teachers of the Kwak'wala language, c) the concerns and issues professionals working in language teachers. facing the KTTP with non-Nat i ve Native i i i Data for the study was collected from a number of different sources. These included observations and fieldnotes recorded during the period the program operated, a variety of documents pertaining to the program, and interviews conducted with a representative number of students from the program.. A two-part curriculum-design model, proposed by Jarvis (1982), was used as a checklist for exploring various elements of both the planned instructional program and the broader context, as well as the relationship between them, and to help focus the study which showed a wide range of factors and influences affecting the program from both the broader social context in which it occurred, and from within the program itself. This included insights gained by the instructors, regarding the students perception of teaching and learning in a school setting and their orientation toward learning and teaching. Changes occurred in the program, the students, and the instructors understandings as KTTP progressed. A number of cultural value orientations held by the students, which influenced the development of the instructional program, and appear to have significance for future teacher training programs were identified and described. The findings of this study suggest that instructors and others involved in the setting up and teaching of Native language teachers can facilitate the process of Native language teacher education by: 1. working with Native teachers to explore their underlying assumptions about what constitutes teaching and learning in a school setting, 2. designing Native teacher training education programs which facilitate Native social interaction patterns, recognize the learning preferences of Native students, and seek to discover the students' cultural value orientations, 3. emphasizing the relationship of language and culture, and the importance of recognizing that language and culture are interrelated, 4. recognizing and valuing the knowledge and experiences of Native people, and 'the need for them to be involved in the decision-making process by sharing in the processes of planning and assessing the program as it progresses. The approach taken in KTTP to Native language teaching emphasized the interrelatedness of language and culture. It was not expository in nature or verbalistic in its orientation, but was activity-based and experiential. The use of social and cultural activities actually occurring in the community provided the basis for developing materials for the Native language program, and for teaching-learning activities. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS C H A P T E R 1: I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1.1 Background to the Study 1 1.2 The Nature and Purpose of the Study 8 1.2.1 Goals of the Study 10 1.3 Benefits of the Study 12 1.4 Limitations of the Study 13 1.5 General izabi I ity 15 C H A P T E R 2: H I S T O R I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E 16 2.1 Introduction 16 2.2 Language Suppression 27 2.3 Language Retention 29 C H A P T E R 3: R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E 33 3.1 General Discussion of Native as a Second Language (NASL) Programs 33 3.1.1 A Generalized View of Native as a Second Language (NASL) in British Columbia 36 3.1.2 Issues Related to School-Based Programs 40 3.1.3 Difficulties Facing NASL Programs in the School 49 3.1.4 Needs for Planning 51 3.1.5 Research on the Languages 53 3.2 Native Language Teachers 56 3.3 What is Available on the Training of Native Language Teachers 60 i i v v i i i ix v i 3 . 3 . 1 I s s u e s a n d N e e d s a s P r e s e n t e d b y P r o f e s s i o n a l s 61 3 . 3 . 2 I s s u e s a n d N e e d s a s P r e s e n t e d i n C o n f e r e n c e 6 7 3 . 3 . 3 N a t i v e T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m 7 5 3 . 3 . 4 C o n t i n u i n g C a l l s f o r T r a i n i n g 7 8 3 . 4 B r o a d e r P e r s p e c t i v e s 81 3 . 4 . 1 N e e d s f o r I n f o r m a t i o n A b o u t A c t u a l T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m s 8 3 3 . 4 . 2 S u m m a r y o f t h e F a c t o r s R e l a t i n g t o t h e L a c k o f I n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e T r a i n i n g o f N a t i v e L a n g u a g e T e a c h e r s 8 6 3 . 5 S u m m a r y 93 C H A P T E R 4: M E T H O D O L O G Y 9 6 4 . 1 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e o n Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s e a r c h I n E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n 9 6 4 . 1 . 1 I l l u m i n a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n 100 4 . 1 . 2 E t h n o g r a p h y 102 4 . 2 B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e R e s e a r c h D e s i g n o f t h e S t u d y 103 4 . 2 . 1 A C o m p a r i s o n o f I l l u m i n a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n a n d E t h n o g r a p h i c E v a l u a t i o n 1 0 4 4 . 2 . 2 M o d e l f o r C u r r i c u l u m D e s i g n 110 4 . 3 D e s i g n o f t h e S t u d y 1 1 8 4 . 3 . 1 T h e o r e t i c a l A s s u m p t i o n s 118 4 . 3 . 2 T r e a t m e n t o f D a t a 122: 4 . 3 . 3 S o u r c e o f D a t a 1 2 4 C H A P T E R 5 : T H E K W A K ' W A K A T E A C H E R T R A I N I N G P R O J E C T 129 5 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 129 5 . 1 . 1 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e S t u d y 132 5 . 2 B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n o n K T T P 133 5 . 2 . 1 T h e U ' m i s t a C u l t u r a l C e n t r e 133 5 . 2 . 2 T h e S t u d e n t s 1 3 4 5 . 2 . 3 T h e I n s t r u c t o r s 1 3 9 v i i 5.3 The Broader Context in Which KTTP was Planned, Developed and Implemented 141 5.3.1. Sociological Factors 141 5.3.2 Philosophical Factors 193 5.3.3 Social Policy Factors 246 5.3.4 Perceived Demands/Needs 253 5.3.5 Psychological Factors 266 5.3.6 Resources 279 5.3.7 Advertised Programs 287 5.3.8 Actual Demand 296 5.3.9 Actual Curriculum 298 5.3.10 Evaluation 299 C H A P T E R 6: T H E A C T U A L C U R R I C U L U M O F K T T P A L I A S T H E L E A R N I N G / T E A C H I N G P R O C E S S 304 6.1 The Four Components in the Learning/Teaching Process 304 6.1.1 Aims and. Objectives 304 6.1.2 Organization and Methods 312 6.1.3 Subject Matter 345 6.1.4 Evaluation 359 C H A P T E R 7: U N D E R S T A N D I N G A N D I M P L I C A T I O N S 368 7.1 Factors and. Influences Affecting KTTP 368 7.1.1 Cell 1:: Language Teaching Theory 368 7.1.2 Cell 2: The Language Teaching Situation 373 7.1.3 Cell 3: Teacher Characteristics 380 7.1.4 Cell 4: Language Teacher Education 383 7.2 Conclusion 387 7.2.1 Implications for Teaching a Native Language 388 7.2.2 Implications for Further Research 394 BIBLIOGRAPHY 395 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Stern's Model of Initial Training and Inservice Training Stern's Model of Factors in Language Teacher Education A Comparison of Illuminative Evaluation and Ethnographic Evaluation A Curriculum Planning Model for the Education of Adults A Learning and Teaching Process Model For the Education of Adults A Learning and Teaching Process Model For the Education of Adults (Repeated) Stern's Model of Factors in Language Teacher Education (Repeated) i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people have helped me along the way in this study; many more than I could individually thank- There are a number, however, whom I would like to especially thank: The members of my thesis committee - to Mary Ashworth for her faith in me, her wisdom, and her patience; to Bernard Mohan for his clear insights and willingness to help. My husband, Reg, and: my daughters, Jennifer, Erin and Kate who kept loving me even when I was buried in studies. Gloria Cranmer Webster and the students of the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Program for introducing me to the culture of the Kwakwa_ka' wakw, their friendship and wi 11 ingness to trust me. - My friends and colleagues, Vickie Jensen and Jay Powell who have shared themselves so willingly. My Mother and Father, my sisters, Anne and Valerie, and my large extended family who were always there to help with my young family and words of encouragement. - Denise and Bill Cranmer and their sons, Tyler and Eli, who shared their home and hospitality with Vickie and me whenever we were in The Bay. My friend, Jean, who has kept me on track during the past months and for being who she is. And last, but by no means least, Nadia Wakefield whose nimble fingers and incredible energy and patience helped to make this possible. The section on the social history of the Kwakwaka' wakw draws heavily on Dara Culhane Speck's book, An Error in Judgement: The Politics of Medical Care in an I ndiarT/Whi te Community (1987) .. I have used two models to facilitate the description of the study:. H.H. Stern's (1983) of Language Teacher Education and of Factors in Language Teacher Education and also Jarvis' (1982) Two Part Curriculum Design Model. X To the- U'mista Cultural Centre and to the Kwakw aka 1 wakw who are- striving to maintain their own unique way of being in the world 1 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 .1 B A C K G R O U N D T O T H E S T U D Y Since the early years of the 1970's Native language programs in B.C. have developed through a number of stages. The initial years were characterized by a sense of excitement of great possibilities. Programs began; conferences were held; materials were developed; teachers were recruited. In some communities the programs have steadily grown; in some they have started, then closed down, started, then closed down again; in yet others, they have started and then stopped. There are also communities that are just now beginning to consider setting up Native language programs. The growing awareness amongst Native people that their tradi- tional languages are in the process of dying has motivated an increasing number of communities to initiate Native language pro- grams. Another impetus, in setting up the programs is the knowledge that Native language maintenance and revival is an important factor in establishing Aboriginal Title to lands, and in settling Native land claims. At the same time there is an increasing acknowledgement in many of the communities which have been running Native language programs, and amongst the non-Native professionals working with them, that the programs are not succeeding, in teaching Native children to speak their ancestral languages, thereby ensuring that the languages do not die. This is causing many to take a second look at the programs being run, and to ask why they are not succeedi ng. A number of issues have been identified as being important to the success of Native language programs; however, the one that has received a great deal of attention recently is that Native language teachers generally have had little, or no, systematic training in 2 second language teaching, methods and techniques, and in classroom management s k i l l s . It is believed that t r a i n i n g could improve the teaching of Native languages in schools, and could help Native language teachers to better cope with the classroom s i t u a t i o n . There have been many c a l l s from a va r i e t y of sources for the t r a i n i n g of Native language teachers (Burnaby, 1980; C l a r k e and MacKenzie, 1981 ; Gal loway, 1977; Hebert, 1984; Indian Control of Indian Education, 1972; Kirkness, 1980; Leap, 1984; P a c i f i c Regional Conference on Native Languages, 1984, 1986; TESOL-Canada, 1982).. These come amidst c a l l s in a broader context for evaluation research to be conducted on educational programs,, g e n e r a l l y , and on programs for the t r a i n i n g of second, language teachers in p a r t i c u l a r . . References for the former include (Cazden, 1981; Fetterman, 1982; Kleinfeld,. 1983; Wolcott, 1976), and for the latter (Ashworth, 1983; Brown, 1983; Brumfit,. 1983; Fanes low, 1983; Stern, 1983). A- small number of programs for t r a i n i n g Native language tea- chers in second . language teaching techniques, the development of teaching materials and classroom management s k i l l s have been offered through the three u n i v e r s i t i e s , and there have also been numerous short workshops in which a non-Native professional t r a v e l s to a Native community, works with the teacher, then leaves.. Very l i t t l e information is a v a i l a b l e on these t r a i n i n g sessions and programs with the. exception of Toohey and Hansen's 1985 a r t i c l e . What is a v a i l a b l e are r e g u l a r u n i v e r s i t y course descriptions and student evaluation questionnaires. Burnaby (1980, 1982),. Hebert (1984) and Kirkness (1980) are amongst a growing number of professionals who are acknowledging that much needs to be learned about the factors affecting the t r a i n i n g of Native language and culture teachers if programs are to be developed which adequately prepare them to teach in their Native language and culture programs, and to be advocates of those programs in their communities.. There are many different influences and forces, brought to bear on the development of any program, programs for t r a i n i n g Native language teachers being no exception. To date l i t t l e concrete research has been conducted to discover the factors and influences affecting r e g u l a r teacher t r a i n i n g programs much less those being offered, in Native communities. At this point, teacher t r a i n i n g programs are- often determined, by the instructor's "common sense notion" of what should be included, rather than being based on concrete researched evidence (Faneslow, 1983). H.H.. Stern (1983) identifies a number of important issues in the t r a i n i n g of second language teachers i n c l u d i n g the s p a r s i t y of research, the unique nature of t r a i n i n g for second language teachers and a typology of different kinds of second language teachers. He also describes two models by which to conceptualize the process and factors affecting a Language Teacher Education (LTE) program. The models include- a simple input-process-output model of i n i t i a l or inservice t r a i n i n g (Figure 1a, 1b) and, a model showing the factors in language teacher education (Figure 2). Both models are presented in general terms in order to encompass the many different k i n d s of second language teachers and teaching situations that e x i s t . Stern's model showing the factors in language teacher education will be described here since it serves to delineate the broad areas of investigation in a program for t r a i n i n g Native language teachers, and will be used to summarize the understandings and conclusions at the end. The model suggests that prospective second language teachers bring, to the t r a i n i n g program "certain q u a l i t i e s , and a background of experience, which are needed in a language teacher, but that they lack other q u a l i t i e s which are also needed." The t r a i n i n g program is intended to strengthen the q u a l i t i e s potential teachers already have and to develop those they lack. Stern states that the answers to two basic questions offer a basis for the curriculum of a t r a i n i n g program for second language teachers: gure 1. STERN'S MODEL OF INITIAL TRAINING AND OF INSERVICE TRAINING a) Initial Training IN Prospective student teachers PROCESS Language teacher education OUT Trained teachers b) Inservice Training. Practitioners Inservice- programs Post-lnservice practitioners gure 2.. STERN'S MODEL. OF FACTORS IN LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION 3.Prospective student teacher char acted sties Educational Social context context 4. Language 2. Language teacher teaching education situation 5 r 1. Which of the needed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a language teacher are already present before t r a i n i n g and. therefore need not be s p e c i f i c a l l y developed through t r a i n i n g ? 2. Which q u a l i t i e s should be developed through t r a i n i n g ? On the surface these are seemingly simple questions; however, the answers are not r e a d i l y forthcoming, and require a considerable amount of background knowledge and research. Stern's model showing the factors in Language Teacher Education presents the planner's theory of language teaching as the base of the model and points to the need for a n a l y z i n g the language teaching situation (Cell 2), for d e f i n i n g the teachers' entrance q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (Cell 3), and. for determining the actual design of the t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l u m or program (Cell 4). Because it is the only model of second language teacher education this researcher has found, it will be described in the following section. Later it will be used to help summarize the study. Cell 1: Language Teaching Theory Stern places Language Teaching Theory at the base of the model a r g u i n g that "theory is b a s i c for a l l decisions and judgements to be made in LTE (Language Teacher Education)". He states: Language teaching theory is to be understood as a compre- hensive construct which comprises the more or less syste- matic body of knowledge, bel i e f s , and interpretations that enter into making decisions and judgements about language teaching. Language teaching theory, as I have tri e d to show elsewhere (Stern, 1983), implies a view of the nature of language, a concept of language l e a r n i n g , an awareness of social context, an interpretation of teaching in general, and a view of language pedagogy. Theory is not to be understood as fixed or f i n a l , but as a constantly e v o l v i n g body of thought, concept, bel i e f s , values and knowledge. (Stern, 1983:349). Thus, Stern maintains that programs for t r a i n i n g second language teachers, are strongly influenced by the program planner's knowledge, bel i e f s , and interpretations of the nature of language, of how language is learned, and of how teaching influences l e a r n i n g . It is also affected by the planner's values.. Cell 2: A n a l y z i n g the Language Teaching Situation Stern states that it is important to very deliberately relate the t r a i n i n g programs of language teachers to the educational system and social context in which teachers will work, otherwise teachers may not be prepared for the demands of their teaching s i t u a t i o n . In a n a l y z i n g the language teaching situation program designers may: 1.. Take the situation as it exists; ie: maintain the status quo, and t r a i n people to work within that situation.. or 2.. Base the t r a i n i n g program on an interpretation of what language teaching should be. The latter p e rtains to situations where e x i s t i n g practices have been c r i t i c i z e d and c a l l s made for change. He refers to the lack of spe c i f i c information and concrete recommendations in the t r a i n i n g of second language teachers: The l i t e r a t u r e on LTE (Language Teacher Education) tends to be rather ambiguous in this respect. Recommendations for LTE are frequently couched in unive r s a l terms without d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g what is a sp e c i f i c response to a given situation at a p a r t i c u l a r moment in the history of language teaching in a p a r t i c u l a r system, eg. the United States, or Canada or Europe in 1983, and what can be regarded as un i v e r s a l desiderata of LTE ( I b i d . , 350). Cell 3: Prospective Student Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Stern identifies four factors p e r t a i n i n g to student characteristics which are likely to have an effect on training programs: 1. Students' command of the second language. 2. Students' linguistic knowledge of the second language. 3. Students' knowledge of the target culture. 4. The extent to which students are familiar with the socio- cultural setting and system of education within which they are expected to operate. Stern's model appears to assume a learning/teaching style cul- turally compatible with the professionals teaching the training program. Cell 4: Defining the Process of Language Teacher Education (LTE) According to Stern, the design of Language Teacher Education curriculum is the core- of this model: The rationale of the model is that the specifics of the LTE process depend on an interpretation of the foregoing three cells in the model: the language teaching theory, the language teaching situation (the educational and socio- cultural milieu) and the qualities of trainees before entry. ((1983:351). This rationale points to the need for research to be conducted and information obtained on actual Native communities, the health and status of the Native language, sociol inguistic patterns of language use, functions of language, community, expectations and goals, for profiles to be drawn up of Native language teachers and the professionals training, them.. 8 The writings of many people involved in educational pursuits, both Native and mainstream, are pointing to the need for programs to be documented and described, and for evaluations to be conducted which provide information and insights into the interrelatedness of instructional program plans and the contexts within which the program occurs. Because of the many unknown factors involved in a cross-cultural teacher training program there is also a need for studies which seek the perspectives of both Native participants and non-Native instructors, and which are flexible enough to allow for and- incorporate unanticipated results. Barnhardt (1986) writing about the unique opportunities for learning available to both students and instructors in field-based programs for training Alaskan Native teachers states that non-Native university instructors and their Native students "are in a position to create a new kind of order, to formulate new paradigms or explanatory frameworks that help us establish a greater equilibrium and congruence between our literate view of the world and the reality we encounter when we step outside the walls of the- Ivory Tower" (p. 139). 1.2 THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The thesis is to take the form of a case-study, and will employ qualitative research strategies and techniques within the social anthropology research paradigm. In a general sense, the study will begin to seek understandings of the factors and issues in Native language teacher education by investigating the context, nature and structure of an actual program, the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project. The study will include describing the process by which the program evolved, and will seek to discover program participants' perceptions of the program. In an ethnographic sense these percep- tions will be the "meanings" participants attribute to being involved in the program. The Kwak'wala Teacher T r a i n i n g Project, KTTP, as it came to be known l o c a l l y , was a community-based, teacher t r a i n i n g program which u t i l i z e d a workshop format. It was open to Kwakwaka'wakw^ people from any of the bands interested and/or involved in the teaching of Kwak' wala, the language of the Kwakwaka'wakw of Northern Vancouver Island. The progam was held at the U'mista C u l t u r a l Centre in Alert Bay,. B.C., and ran for two and a half years from January 1984 to May 1986. While those attending the course were a l l of Kwakwaka'wakw descent, they came from a wide va r i e t y of work and academic backgrounds, and a range of age groups. Course p a r t i c i p a n t s included Native language teachers, Kwakwaka'wakw cult u r e teachers of t r a d i t i o n a l art and dance, Native teacher aides, and other interested community members. Several Old People attended and also contributed as resource people. The o v e r a l l aims of the program were to enable Kwakwaka'wakw people to develop teaching techniques su i t a b l e for working in Native as a Second Language (NASL) classes in the community and in schools, and to plan and develop curriculum materials to supplement and enhance e x i s t i n g Kwak'wala teaching materials, and to learn more about Kwak'wala, e s p e c i a l l y how to read and write i t . Although some of the people in KTTP had attended workshops on language teaching and Kwak'wala li t e r a c y in the past, and many had received help and support from r e g u l a r classroom teachers who worked in the same school, none had previously been involved in a Kwakwaka'wakw is the preferred term used by the Native people of the Northwest coast c u l t u r a l group which stretches from Cape Mudge in the south to Rivers Inlet in the north. It means' Kwak'wala speaking people. The E n g l i s h term is Kwakiutl. If a shortened term is to be used, the people prefer Kwagul over Kwak i utI. long-term systematically planned program. The program was comprised of eight separate, but related courses: five were oriented toward second language teaching methods and techniques, and the development of teaching materials; three were oriented toward developing reading and writing skills in Kwak'wala. This, study will focus on the five courses oriented toward teaching, methods and the development of materials. The reason for this being that the researcher was not directly involved in teaching the three courses on Kwak'wala literacy. References to the literacy courses- made by KTTP participants in the data will be included. 1.2.1 GOALS OF THE STUDY While the over-all purpose of the study is to gain understand- ings of the factors and issues in Native language- teacher education, the specific goals are: 1. To gain an understanding of the factors and influences which affected the planning, development and implementation of the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project from the perspectives of the participants: the Native language and culture teachers, the Native teacher aides, and the non-Native professionals teaching the course. 2. To describe the planned instructional program designed for the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project, and to describe the changes that occurred in the process of developing and implementing the planned course. Included in this is an exploration of the underlying assumptions made by the instructors in planning the program.. 3. To provide a description of the process by which the KTTP program developed, and to map the parameters of the program. 11 4. To gain insights into: a) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Native students and their l e a r n i n g needs. b) the concerns and issues f a c i n g Native people involved in le a r n i n g to become better teachers of the Kwak'wala language. c) the- concerns and issues f a c i n g non-Native professionals working in the KTTP program Native language teachers. It is felt by the researcher that a f u l l - s c a l e , ethnography of the Kwak'wala Teacher T r a i n i n g Project- would be beyond the scope of this thesis. Such a study would require that the research be con- ducted simultaneously with the p l a n n i n g , development and implemen- tation of the program, and would require that the researcher have some; previous experience in ethnographic research. However, a strong; case can be made for conducting a. q u a l i t a t i v e study of a more limited nature since research into the factors in Native language teacher education is in its e a r l y stages. Such research could help to provide an understanding of important issues and point the direction for further, more directed research.. To date there have not been many programs offered for t r a i n i n g Native language and culture teachers to work in classrooms. Those that have been offered are c r o s s - c u l t u r a l in nature: the instructors and the students are from different c u l t u r a l backgrounds; the programs are often run in a Native community in which the c u l t u r a l and social dynamics are u n f a m i l i a r to the instructor; and, what is more,, the teaching situation in which Native language teachers work, as well as the Native content of the teaching materials they use, encompass many c u l t u r a l factors and influences which are also unknown to the non-Native instructor of the teacher t r a i n i n g program. Because of the c u l t u r a l differences and "unknowns", it is necessary that the perceptions and understandings of the Native p a r t i c i p a n t s in a teacher t r a i n i n g program become an important part of any study seeking to describe or understand the program. 12 This study is perceived by the researcher as being a beginning to understanding the various factors and issues involved in develop- ing training programs for Native people to teach their ancestral language to their children in a school setting. It will not attempt to complete a definitive study of the training of Native language and culture teachers, but rather to begin mapping the parameters of Language Teacher Education for Native language teachers. 1.3 BENEFITS OF THE STUDY The proposed study would* be beneficial to a number of differ- ent groups.. a. Native communities have asserted the principle of ownership of their own programs and have stated the desire to maintain control of the development process of programs and materials.. This requires that Native- people be knowledgeable about such processes. Back- ground; knowledge of the factors and influences affecting the planning,, development and. implementation would be a useful indicator of areas that need: to receive- attention, and would facilitate- future planning. b. . Often people closely involved with a program are not aware of the over-all process by which a program is planned,, developed and. implemented. They are too close to it, and their perceptions are shaped by the role they played in the program, ie. student, administrator, instructor, resource person. A descriptive study which seeks to portray the participants' viewpoint provides an opportunity for people to reflect on what has occurred, and by doing so to gain clearer understandings and insights. As in the case of a. above, such information could, lead to improved programs in the. future, and could also be useful to other Native communities seeking training programs for Native language and culture teachers. c. Non-native school administrators and teachers would gain 13 insights into the factors and influences affecting educational programs within the Native community. Native community schools both federal and provincial suffer from a high teacher turn-over rate. Often it is difficult for teachers to obtain information or gain an understanding of the. dynamics within Native communities unless they live in a community for a length of time, and then, only if they actively involve themselves in community events. In many cases there is a tendency for teachers not to become involved — perhaps from fear of the unknown, differences in life style or differences in communication style. Whatever the reason, if teachers want to have valid insights into the learning of their Native students they need to become familiar with their cultural and community backgrounds, and sensitive to possible areas of cultural conflict. Knowledge is the precursor of understanding. d. This study would contribute to the broader field of Native language teacher education by providing detailed information, insights- and understandings, of a particular program. 1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. A common statement running throughout many articles pertaining to ethnography is that one of the major criteria for conducting ethnographic research is that the researcher be an experienced ethnographer. The fact that this researcher has not previously been involved in ethnographic research could be considered a limitation. 2. The program to be studied, KTTP, ended in May 1986, and it is no longer possible to conduct participant observations, which is a valuable source of data. In addition, the cost of flying to Alert Bay will reduce the amount of time available for data collection and cross-checking with participants that could have been done had the program still be operating. 3. Alert Bay and its neighbouring Kwakwaka'wakw communities are 14 small communities in which people know each other very well. P a r t i c i p a n t s in KTTP could e a s i l y be ide n t i f i e d in a v a r i e t y of ways by outside readers. Thus,, the question of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y will have to be very c a r e f u l l y handled, and in some cases data may have to be omitted. 4. As a. result of community and school p o l i t i c s at. work d u r i n g the period of time the program was run n i n g , KTTP, like a l l local programs was perceived by the program p a r t i c i p a n t s and community members to be involved in the p o l i t i c a l arena, even though members of the var i o u s groups were p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the program. As a result of this , some v a l u a b l e sources of data are not a v a i l a b l e . 5. Q u a l i t a t i v e research and e s p e c i a l l y ethnographic research is cha r a c t e r i z e d by its "loose- structure" and lack of predetermined hypotheses.. This study could be subject to some c r i t i c i s m because a cur r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g and te a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g model proposed by J a r v i s (1982) will be> used to help focus the research. It may be felt that the model forces an organization into data collection,, and thereby interferes with the natural generation of topics.. It could be argued,, however, that the categories are only being used as guides, and that they function in the same way as understandings or " i n s i g h t s " from the literature by f a c i l i t a t i n g the research. Another possible limitation r e g a r d i n g the model is that it has only been used to study a range of programs in one educational institute- in England ( J a r v i s , 1982), and is presently in the process of being used in a M.A.. research study on the Native Adult Basic L i t e r a c y / L i f e s k i I Is Curriculum. As Susan Morgan, who is conducting the research, points out, "It is d i f f i c u l t to discern whether the model will be effective in studying one program in a small Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n " (Proposal, 1986:37). It is also d i f f i c u l t to determine how effective it will be in i n v e s t i g a t i n g a small, community-based teacher t r a i n i n g program! 1 .5. GENERAL IZABILI TY A frequently stated concern regarding the use of inductive methods to study a particular program is that the findings will not be general izable to other situations.. A number of researchers, among them Kleinfeld, et.al. (1983), Parlett and Hamilton (1977), Wblcott (1975), maintain that although the specifics of programs and individual communities differ, many of the underlying factors and influences affecting the programs and students are similar in nature. In this researcher's previous experiences over the past thirteen years in conducting workshops- and working with Native- language teachers- in a number of different communities, there are many similarities regarding the characteristics of Native language teachers,, the conditions under which Native language programs are set up and taught, and the over-all status of the Native languages in the communities. Thus, while the findings of this study will be specific to one program, the Kwak'wala Teacher Training Project (KTTP), the understandings arrived at regarding the factors affecting Native language teacher education may serve to provide signposts and indicators of important considerations in the training of other Native language teachers.. 16 CHAPTER 2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 2.1 INTRODUCTION B r i t i s h Columbia is a region of l i n g u i s t i c richness without equal anywhere in the world in terms of the number of indigenous cultures and language families represented in the region, and the v a r i e t y of languages spoken (Levine and Cooper, 1976). Before the a r r i v a l . o f Europeans, six di s t i n c t language famili e s , as well as a number of language isolates, and the Chinook trade jargon were spoken. Mul ti I ingual ism was a common occurrence as many Native people spoke more than one language (Hebert, 1984). At the present time, however, not a si n g l e Native language continues to f l o u r i s h in al l domains of d a i l y life (Levine, 1976; Hebert, 1984). Levine and Cooper (1976) in addressing the question "How many languages are spoken in the Province?" point out the ambiguity of the question: on the one hand if the question refers to the number of a b o r i g i n a l languages spoken by at least one Native person in B r i t i s h Columbia in- 1976 the f i g u r e was 28 d i s t i n c t i v e languages. Each of these 28 different languages contains v a r i a n t forms te c h n i c a l l y known as d i a l e c t s , in the same way that E n g l i s h or French or any other major world language encompasses d i a l e c t s . In describing, the d i v e r s i t y Levine- and Cooper write: The total number of dialects for a l l the languages i n d i - genous to B r i t i s h Columbia is unknown and may never be known... The 28 languages themselves belong to six di s t i n c t superstocks, among which no h i s t o r i c a l resemblance can be demonstrated. Thus, Coast Tsimshian, T l i n g i t , Heiltsuk, and B e l l a Coola, adjacent to each other on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast, are no more closely related to each other than are E n g l i s h , Hebrew, Vietnamese, and Demara Hottentot. To appreciate this s i t u a t i o n , it should be borne in mind that these six h i s t o r i c a l l y unrelated superstocks were represented, on the eve of contact, by probably not more than 80,000 people occupying a territory one fortieth the size of modern Europe.. On the other hand, if the question is interpreted to mean how many Native languages are used as everyday means of communication in Native communities, by a l l generations of people from young to old, there are very few. Levine and Cooper cite f i g u r e s from a survey conducted by the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum in the ea r l y 1970's showing the- r e l a t i v e health of five' coastal languages according to the number of speakers and the age-spread of these speakers. Language Sechelt Lumni (a dialect of Straits Salish) Skidegate (dialect of Haida) C h i l l i w a c k (dialect of Halkomelem) Haisl a Number of Speakers a few dozen four or f i v e 40 to 60 20 Age-Spread Of Speakers middle-aged and ol der al l over 70 al I but one or two over 65 al l over 60 between 200 and 400 a l l over 25 A number of l i n g u i s t s working in Native languages have pointed out that a c r i t i c a l factor, in fact the key factor in determining; a language's v i a b i l i t y and thus its s u r v i v a l , is the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of those who speak i t , thi s , more so than the number of speakers (Bauman, 1980; Levine and Cooper, 1976). "A language spoken by every member of a group numbering 100 is healthy; a language spoken by 5,000 people a l l of whom are over 25,. is almost c e r t a i n l y bound to be extinct within a hundred years" (Levine and Cooper, 1976:46). The r e a l i z a t i o n in Native communities that v i r t u a l l y no c h i l d r e n are l e a r n i n g their Native language has motivated an i n c r e a s i n g number of Native people and organizations to seek solutions. In 1974, P h y l l i s Chelsea, a Shuswap speaker from A l k a l i Lake, wrote the following as part of a report on the Williams Lake Longhouse Conference. I think we s h o u l d preserve our language (Shuswap) because within the last few years it has been f a d i n g away.. By keeping the language a l i v e , we are teaching the c h i l d r e n the old way of life of our ancestors. Also, we are g i v i n g them reason to be proud of their heritage. Even though our generation of people understand the language- and can speak i t , I do not think we will ever be- able to pass it down as we understand i t . Some of our deep understanding of our old way of li f e and language is something which comes along with h a v i n g l i v e d the old way of l i f e . This was before the invasion of the white people (fo r e i g n e r s ) . Only, the very old people of the reserve now understand, use and speak this deep understanding of what I c a l l the real Indian language. (Write-On, 1974:39) This was one of the- e a r l i e s t conferences in B.C. in which Native people and non-Native professionals met to explore issues related to maintain and r e v i v e Native languages.. At that point of time, there were s t i l l s u b s tantial numbers of people* in B.C.'s Native communities who had a deep understanding of the language. In fact, the languages were s t i l l used within many of the more isolated Interior communities for everyday communication by both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . Of the people attending the conference, the Ch i l c o t i n and C a r r i e r languages were healthy; in those communities the c h i l d r e n learned to speak C h i l c o t i n and C a r r i e r as their f i r s t language. Shuswap, however, was used only by the older adults, and although the c h i l d r e n had a "small Shuswap v o c a b u l a r y " they d i d not understand the language- when it was spoken. Their "native" language had become a local dialect of E n g l i s h (Wr i te-On , 1975: v ) .. The- forces u n d e r l y i n g the decline of the Native languages and cultures are rooted in the p o l i t i c a l , social and economic processes of colonialism and have been very evident in educational p o l i c i e s . These forces can be seen at work in many countries around the 19 world. The decline has been accelerated in the past, quarter century by the increased a c c e s s i b i l i t y of radio, television and newspapers to Indian communities, and by improved roads which accommodate greater ease of movement between Native and non-Native communities. In the 1980's the accelerated decline in the use of Native languages and in the number of speakers is a l a r m i n g . While p r e v i - ously it had been evident to many professionals, e s p e c i a l l y in the f i e l d s of l i n g u i s t i c s and anthropology, and to some Native people, that the Native languages were in danger, it is only r e l a t i v e l y recently that this awareness is reaching. Native people at large. It is becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r to many Native people in B r i t i s h Columbia that their languages are very s e r i o u s l y threatened with extinction in the near future. (Toohey and'. Hansen, 1985). A QUESTION AND A STORY W h y a r e N a t i v e p e o p l e w o r k i n g to. r e t a i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n g u a g e s a n d c u l t u r e ? The answer to this question has been offered by a number of people, and contains within it the r a t i o n a l e for the m u l t i c u l t u r a l policy of Canada. First,, and foremost, is that the Native people of Canada do not want their languages and cultures to die. Axu, a Kwakwaka'wakw Old P e r s o n 1 , from Alert Bay, t a l k i n g at the 1982 101 d Person is a term of respect by the Kwakwaka'wakw to acknowledge the value and importance placed on the knowledge and experience of the older generation. Other terms include Old People, Old Lady, Old Man. Some Native groups use the term E l d e r . F i r s t Educational Conference of the Kwakwaka'wakw s a i d : First Educational Conference of the. Kwakwaka'wakw said: ...our language and culture was given to us by God, and it would not be good to lose it (p.7). The languages and traditional cultures are a link to the past: peoples.' history and heritage; their roots and understandings of where they have come from, of who they are today; their unique ways of seeing- and. being in the world. (Ashworth, 1979; Haig-Brown; 1981, Hebert, 1982; Kirkness, 1980; Levine, 1976; Manuel and Poslum, 1974; Sterling, 1982). Just as important is the conviction that a knowledge of their Native language and culture will aid Native children in developing pride in their Native heritage and: in themselves as Native people. The National Indian Brotherhood in its historical paper Indian Control of Indian Education (1972) stated: Language- is the outward expression of an accumulation of learning;, and, experience shared by a group of people over centuries- of development. It is not simply a vocal symbol ; it is a dynamic force which shapes the way a man looks at the world, his thinking about the world, and his philosophy of life. Knowing his maternal language helps a man- to know himself; being proud of his language helps a man to be proud of himself. The Indian people are expressing growing concerns that the5 native languages are being lost; that the younger generation can no longer speak or understand their mother tongue.. If the Indian identity is to be preserved, steps must be taken to reverse this trend. While much can be done by parents in the home and by the community on the reserve to foster facility in speaking and understanding, there is a great need for formal instruction in the language. There are two aspects of this language instruction: (1) teaching in the native language, and (2) teaching the native language (p. 14-15). Another statement reads: Unless a child learns about the forces which shape him: the history of his people, their values and customs, their 21 language, he will never r e a l l y know himself or his potential as a human being (p. 17). Writing about integration in Canadian schools, Chief Dan George s a i d : Indian c h i l d r e n will continue to be strangers in Canadian classrooms until the curriculum recognizes Indian customs and values, Indian languages, and the c o n t r i b u - tions which the Indian people have made to Canadian h i s t o r y . The success of integration is not the r e s p o n s i b i l i - ty of Indians alone. Non-Indians must be ready to recog- nize the value of another way of l i f e ; to learn about Indian history, customs, and language; and to modify, if necessary, some of their ideas and practices (1970:44). In an informal evening discussion at the Williams Lake Long House Conference in October, 1974 the following exchange occurred: STATEMENT The old, days are- gone; why try to b r i n g them back? E n g l i s h is the language of communication now. Even the Indian languages s t i l l spoken use E n g l i s h words to talk about the modern worlds; they're dy ing. RESPONSE We're not t r y i n g to b r i n g back the old days, we're just t r y i n g to remember- them. Everyone else has their h i s tory. We want ours too! Lots of E n g l i s h words come from other languages. Does that mean that E n g l i s h is dying too? There are some things you can't translate into E n g l i s h . They can only be understood in Shuswap ( C a r r i e r , C h i l c o t i n , e t c . ) . Our stories need to be taught, read, expressed in our language. B r i n g i n g back our languages into the schools would b r i n g Indians and whites together. This would help improve the school s i t u a t i o n . Our kids could come home and use both E n g l i s h and Chi l c o t i n (Shuswap, C a r r i e r , etc.) and the white kids could do the same. In 1974 Marjorie Mi t c h e l l , then Co-ordinator- of the B.C..- Inter- C u l t u r a l Curriculum Project at the University of V i c t o r i a , gave a 22 very thought provoking presentation on Language and Culture at the Long House Conference. In i t , she addressed the question: How c a n l e a r n i n g o u r I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s h e l p us to r e v i v e o u r I n d i a n c u l t u r e s ? She f i r s t defined culture and language: Culture refers to a l l learned, patterned behaviour that is shared by members of a society and that is passed down from generation to generation. It is a total system of l i v i n g and behaving meaningfully. A new born baby has to learn the culture of his parents. He isn't born knowing it... Culture includes a l l the patterns for behaving and a l l the rules for behaving. The way you make your l i v i n g , , the s k i l l s and techniques you have, your family o r g a n i z a t i o n , the way you r a i s e c h i l d r e n , your r e l i g i o n , your values, and attitudes are a l l part of c u l t u r a l behaviour. Language is part of culture too. Language is learned, and shared behaviour. It is a very special k i n d of behaviour. It is symbolic behaviour. Language is a shared system of symbolic, verbal and non-verbal b e h a v i o u r by which we communicate the rules and patterns for l i v i n g in a c u l t u r e . Language is a, way of expressing culture — it is the best way. Language is like a tool for l e a r n i n g about how to behave in our culture and for s h a r i n g what we learn with others. I am quite- safe in s a y i n g that without language of some ki n d , you can't have c u l t u r e . Without c u l t u r e , you can't have, language. No matter how much of the language of your ancestors is r e v i v e d and re-learned by native Indian people today, it will not b r i n g back the old cultures, the t r a d i t i o n a l ways of l i f e . You cannot go back and pick up where you were 500 years ago, as if nothing had happened in between. I don't r e a l l y think you thought you could. But it is important to recognize that if you learn your o r i g i n a l language, you will not learn the culture that went with i t , in the sense of l e a r n i n g a l l of the rules and then being able to behave according to those r u l e s . You cannot learn the old culture the way a baby learned i t , as he grew up to be an adult 500 years ago. But, the more of 23 the old language you learn the more you can learn about the old t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . And it is worth doing. The things of value in the old cult u r e are s t i l l worthwhile today. B a s i c a l l y I am making a dis t i n c t i o n between le a r n i n g the culture of your ancestors — something you cannot do — and le a r n i n g about that culture — something you can do (p. 6 and 7).. The story she then told was of a discussion she had had with a young Native student which provides v a l u a b l e and important insights into the question of "How can the teaching of t r a d i t i o n a l languages help to r e v i v e Native c u l t u r e and benefit Native people?", and offers the opportunity to reflect upon the answers: I was di s c u s s i n g the problem of language and. cultu r e with a young native student at the University of Victoria.. He expressed considerable bitterness that he d i d not know the language of his ancestors and remarked that he felt he was a stranger in his home community. He s a i d that he had gone home for the summer and t r i e d , with some, d i f f i c u l t y , to learn G i t k'san. When he attended a feast in his home community, he felt very out of place because, although he knew everyone there and was able to imitate; their behaviour, he could, not understand any of the speeches and, what was more important, he could not understand the meaning of the feast. He s a i d , "I didn't know my place, because I didn't know my language." For him, the meaning of the feast d i d not lie in any E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n provided him, but in the total social s i t u a t i o n , in the behaviour he observed at the feast. He wanted to be a f u l l , a c tive p a r t i c i p a n t in what was happening so that he could understand and contribute as a. member of his society- Instead, he remained on the fr i n g e , able only to imitate without comprehending.. He asked me if I thought his people could r e v i v e their c u l t u r e and I kept s a y i n g — not as it was. And he kept s a y i n g — but that feast was part of the old c u l t u r e . Can't we- b r i n g back other parts? And then the answer occurred to both of us at the same time. I ' l l give you my version and then his, because his is much more effective, in summing up. I s a i d : The old culture belongs to the past; this is here and now and we can't change that- But Indian people have always had their history and they have taken that history and recognized it and learned about it and it was part of their culture. History is just culture in the past tense. We can't erase what has happened in the last 200 or so years;" we are stuck with the present — with all that has happened up to. this time. Indian people never denied their history in the old days. They accepted it, learned from it, and put it in its place, as part of the total shared experience of living. Surely, Indian people can look on the recent past, on contact with the white man, as part of their history, part of their culture, just as they looked on contact with other Indian cultures that way. Not all of it, in fact very little of it, has been pleasant or satisfying. But Indian people have learned from it and are continuing to learn, to share, to grow. And then the student said: Perhaps the goal of Native language learning programmes and the idea of reviving them ought to be looked at far in the future. Maybe, we should start to re-learn our languages so that 200 years from now, my descendants, my grandchildren's grandchildren, can describe what happened, to our people in the last 200 years and what, is happening right now in 1974, in their own native language. Two hundred years from now, or even 100 years from now, my descendants can talk about not only the dim distant past but also about 1974 in the Gitk'san language.. (Write-On, 1974: 10, 11). The scars left on the Native peoples and their cultures from two centuries of policies aimed at language suppression and cultural assimilation are unfathomable to the non-Native population of Canada. One can only try to imagine, to empathize, to understand. The process by which Europeans, bit by bit, asserted their control over Native lands and lives is an area of British Columbian history that has not been well documented, and certainly does not appear in the school history books. Levine and Cooper (1976) com- mented in an article entitled "The Suppression of B.C. Languages: Filling in the Gaps in the Documentary Record" that linguistic sup- pression has generally been a neglected area of investigation. The search for documents, and the process of pouring over church and 25 government letters, records and reports, d i a r i e s and personal letters of non-Native people working in government positions and in rel i g i o u s communities sheds light on part of what happened. However, there are few f i r s t hand, accounts which portray the perspectives and feelings of the Native people as their life styles and community structures underwent d r a s t i c changes. Changes occurred in t h e i r economic systems brought on f i r s t by the f u r trade, then later farming and primary industries; their families and communities died of European diseases; their young c h i l d r e n were taken away to become " c i v i l i z e d " in schools, and then returned home — unable to speak their Native language, u n s k i l l e d in the ways of Native l i v i n g and rejecting the old ways and t r a d i t i o n s . Ann Cameron, a white woman who has been given permission by the Nootkan women of Ahousat to tell their stories, p ortrays the confusion and pain in Daughters of Copperwoman (1981 :61 , 62, 6 3 ) . And then the world turned upside- down. Strange men a r r i v e d in dugouts with s a i l s that smelled t e r r i b l e and were infested with sharp-faced,, bright eyed creatures the like of which had never been on the i s l a n d . These men wanted water and food, they wanted trees for masts, they wanted: women, for it seemed as if they had none of their own. Their teeth were pitted and black, their breath smelled, their bodies were h a i r y , they never p u r i f i e d themselves with sweating and swimming, and they talked in loud voices. They wanted otter and seal skin and were w i l l i n g to pay with things such as the people had never even dreamed. And then the- world turned upside down. People got sick and died in ways they had never known. C h i l d r e n coughed until they bled from the lungs and died. C h i l d r e n choked on things that grew from the sickness in t h e i r throats. C h i l d r e n were covered with running sores and died vomiting black blood.. Nobody was safe, not the slave s , not the commoners, not the n o b i l i t y , not the r o y a l t y . E n t i r e v i l l a g e s died of sickness or k i l l e d each other in the madness that came from d r i n k i n g the strange l i q u i d the foreigners gave for seal and otter s k i n s . And then new men a r r i v e d . Men who never talked to women, never ate with women, never slept with women, never laughed with women. Men who frowned on s i n g i n g and dancing, on laughter and love. 26 In less than a generation the world turned upside down and a l l reason and truth flowed out and was nearly lost. The priests.... .saw the f i g h t i n g and drunkness where once there was love and respect. They saw men beating their wives and c h i l d r e n and even abandoning them. They saw g i r l s who should have been c l a n mothers become prostitutes in the c i t i e s the invaders b u i l t . Much was. lost.. Much will never be regained. We have only the shredded fragments of what was once a beautiful dance cape of l e a r n i n g . The number of accounts, both Native and non-Native, t e l l i n g of the pain and struggle and the anger of people caught in the web of an o f f i c i a l government goal of a s s i m i l a t i o n aimed at e r a d i c a t i n g Native cultures is growing. Mary Ashworth (1979), writing: about the history of the education of Native c h i l d r e n in B r i t i s h Columbia, documents the steps by which f i r s t the missionaries, and later federal and p r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c i a l s , brought about the suppression of Native languages.. She offers insights into the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Native people, and the federal and p r o v i n c i a l educational p o l i c i e s which sought to assimilate Native c h i l d r e n into the broader Canadian society by separating them from their homes and communities through the i n s t i t u t i o n of the school. Missionaries were not the f i r s t white contact that the Native people of B r i t i s h Columbia had. A hundred years e a r l i e r sea explor- ers, land explorers, fur traders and. merchants had come to B.C. b r i n g i n g with them a new economic system which soon brought havoc to the t r a d i t i o n a l Native economic systems, and European diseases which N a t i v e people had never before encountered. The conditions of those tribes which had had contact with white people was, in many aspects, deplorable. It had not always been that way:-the old Indian societies were organized and integrated, each had a strong value system, each had come to terms with its environment. But 27 d u r i n g the one hundred years preceding Duncan's a r r i v a l , Indian contact with whites had accelerated s t e a d i l y . F i r s t came the maritime explorers: Bering, Cook, Hernandez, Meares, and Vancouver; then the land explorers: MacKenzie,. Fraser, and Thompson. They were followed by the traders who brought goods to barter for f u r s , but who also brought measles, smallpox,, tuberculosis, s y p h i l i s and alcohol.. The old way of life was destroyed not only by disease and alcohol, but also by the changing pattern of life brought on by the new. economic system based f i r s t on the fur trade but expanding into lumbering, farming and mining industries which required land — Indian l a n d . Many of the coastal tribes were q u i c k l y decimated and degraded by the new developments against which they had no defence. This adverse influence of the white man was acknowledged in 1862 by R i c h a r d Charles Mayne who wrote, "The Indians of the interior are, both p h y s i c a l l y and morally, v a s t l y superior to the tribes of the coast. This is no doubt owing, in great part to their comparatively s l i g h t intercourse with white men, as the northern and least known coast tribes of both the i s l a n d and mainland are- much finer men than those found in the neighbourhood of the settlements." (Ashworth, 1979:5) Thus, the Native people and: practises- observed by the e a r l y missionaries and settlers were not representative of the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s . Yet, these perceptions and understandings of what. Native cultures were, viewed through the eyes of Europeans convinced of the s u p e r i o r i t y of their c i v i l i z a t i o n , its values and l i f e s t y l e s , became the b a s i s upon which the Federal Government of Canada formulated its p o l i c i e s , s o c i a l , educational and p o l i t i c a l , which d r a s t i c a l l y affected Native peoples' l i v e s , languages and cultures. The p o l i c i e s e ventually found form in the system of large r e s i - dential schools located away from reserves and operated by various r e l i g i o u s denominations, in small day schools operated on reserve, and in the o f f i c i a l policy of language suppression embodied in the " E n g l i s h o n l y " r u l e in the schools. 2.2 LANGUAGE SUPPRESSION The suppression of Native languages was a conscious and 28 deliberate action i n i t i a t e d by the e a r l y missionaries, and later by government o f f i c i a l s , in the belief that in order to C h r i s t i a n i z e the Indians it was necessary to also " c i v i l i z e " them. To be c i v i l i z e d was to adhere to the values, and the style of l i v i n g of the B r i t i s h and to speak the E n g l i s h language (Ashworth, 1979; Levine, 1976). The policy of language suppression was given o f f i c i a l sanction by the Superintendent of Indian A f f a i r s in 1895. To a certain stage in an Indian's advancement there exists but l i t t l e doubt that he should be kept in commu- nit i e s ; but as soon as that stage is reached, and it should be at an e a r l y period, he should be brought to compete- with his fellow whites; but in order that this may be done effectually he must be taught the E n g l i s h language. So long as he keeps his native tongue, so long will he remain a community a p a r t . (DIA., Annual Report, 1983: x v i i i , cited by Mary Ashworth, 1979:26,27). Language suppression continued into the 1960's, and in a per- erse way has found its way into present day schools in the form of attitudes of many educators toward the- non-standard dialects of E n g l i s h known as Indian E n g l i s h spoken in many Native communities. Many Native people, even in the e a r l y years of schooling in B r i t i s h Columbia,, viewed "school" as a means of e n a b l i n g their c h i l d r e n to gain access to the s k i l l s of the whiteman, s k i l l s which would enable them to p a r t i c i p a t e in the broader Canadian society. But they d i d not foresee this happening at the expense of the Native c u l t u r e . They d i d not envision the alie n a t i o n of their c h i l d r e n from their own families and communities, and the death of their languages and c u l t u r e s . Alan Haig-Brown writing of the al i e n a t i o n caused by schools says: The a l i e n a t i o n is a result of the school system s u p p l a n t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s home culture rather than supplementing the home cult u r e . In most cases the social system has, by 29 plan or neglect, encouraged the replacement of the Indian languages with E n g l i s h . The schools have taken no res- p o n s i b i l i t y for the damage that results to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s language, c u l t u r e and self i d e n t i t y . An often heard classroom teacher's statement is "We have nothing against the Indian language but we're here to teach E n g l i s h . " One cannot overlook the s i m i l a r i t y between this and the statement of the logging company that had been charged with s p o i l i n g the salmon stream; "We have nothing against salmon but we had to get the logs out." We have l e g i s - lated against the attitude of the logging company, but we continue to ignore s i m i l a r attitudes in the school system. (Haig-Brown 1979:2). 2.3 LANGUAGE RETENTION As was stated e a r l i e r , the active policy of language suppres- sion was in place in both the- Federal and P r o v i n c i a l government schools until the late 1960's, and, then, within r e l a t i v e l y short time it; changed, and the value of the Native languages acknowledged, at least in p r i n c i p l e . The social attitudes toward the Native language on the part of many Native people as well as non-Native people, unfortunately, do not change as q u i c k l y , and the language use patterns cannot be reversed. The change was brought about by occurrences which affected two di s t i n c t though related groups in Canadian society — Native people and immigrants. The issues ultimately converged around the question of language and its r e l a t i o n s h i p to c u l t u r a l retention, more: s p e c i f i c a l l y to the status of the French language in Canadian society. The former will be b r i e f l y treated at this point and expanded upon later. Changes in the predominant society' s' attitudes toward Native cult u r e , combined with community development programs designed to make Native people more s e l f - r e l i a n t , and the appearance of Native political, o r g a nizations gave impetus to Native self-determination and had long term consequences for Native education. Much questioning and introspection occurred after the Second World War r e g a r d i n g the status and treatment of Native people. This 30 combined with large scale immigration and the unrest and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n in Quebec r e g a r d i n g the French language and culture exerted pressure on the Federal government to assess its former position on language and c u l t u r e . The change in 1969 to a L i b e r a l Government with a new v i s i o n for society led to the Royal Commission on B i l i n g u a l i s m and Bicu I tura I i snr (1970) which was mandated, to deal with F r e n c h - E n g l i s h relations in Canada and led to new p o l i c i e s for a l l ethnic groups. In the end the Commission felt c a l l e d upon to devote an entire volume — Book IV — to the contribution made by other ethnic groups to the c u l t u r a l enrichment of Canada and the measures that should be taken to safeguard that contribution (RCBB, 1, p. x x i ) . Inevitably, however, the Commission approached the subject of the 'other' Canadian ethnic groups in the context of its o v e r a l l mandate, that i s , in r e l a t i o n to the basic problems of b i l i n g u a l i s m and b i c u l t u r a l i s m and: in the context of the coexistence of francophone and anglophone communities. As a result, Book IV was not an exhaustive study of the non-British and non-French ethnic groups in Canada, but rather, 'an examination of the way they have taken their place within the two societies that provided Canada's social structures and institutions (RCBB, IV: p3). (Minister Responsible for Mu11icuI tural ism , Non-Official Languages, 1976:1) Two basic questions were posed by the Commission (RCBB, IV: 1.1)': To what degree have Canadians whose o r i g i n is neither French nor B r i t i s h integrated with anglophone or francophone society? To what degree have they remained attached to their o r i g i n a l cultures and languages? The lack of a systematic body of data on Canadian ethnic relations was e x p l i c i t l y stated in the Commission Report, and in response to this "the Federal Government proposed the Culture Development Program. This program emphasized research on Ianguage, the desire for language retention, and, to an extent,, the 31 rela t i o n between language and c u l t u r a l retention". (Non-Official Languages, 1976:1). The control of Native Education from the time of Confederation until the e a r l y 1970's was e x c l u s i v e l y in the hands of the Department of Indian Affairs.. However-, beginning in the e a r l y 1950's a number of hearings, studies, and reports were i n i t i a t e d and/or presented to the Federal Government. These eventually led to major changes in the orientations taken toward Native education. The following information is taken from Mary Ashworth's The Forces Which Shaped Them (1979:35-40). 1958 - A study of the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia by Dr. Harry B. Hawthorne, Dr.. C y r i l Belshaw and. Dr.. Stuart Jamieson of the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia entitled The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. This was commissioned by the Department of Ci t i z e n s h i p and. Immigration in 1954. A range of topics were covered from the c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l background of the people, to their role in industry, their l i v i n g conditions and educat ion.. 1960 — The Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons on Indian A f f a i r s heard briefs from Indian bands across Canada. 1967 - A second report by Dr. Hawthorne, A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada. This was a comprehensive, wide r a n g i n g survey which outlined many differences between Native and middle cla s s white children.. It emphasized "a v a r i e t y of educational needs of the Native c h i l d and endorsed the trend toward the integration of Native c h i l d r e n into P r o v i n i c a l schools. (Barman, Hebert and McCaskill state "The Federal government sought to placate the growing criticism, (from people and groups supporting them) by i n i t i a t i n g the Hawthorne survey of Indian conditions." (1985:14) This writer's addition.) 1967 - The Minister of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development out-lined the Federal Government's seven point policy on Indian education in Canada.. 1969 - A new L i b e r a l Government led by Pierre Trudeau came to power with a promise of a "just society", and the new government spelled out its approach to Native people in a White Paper of June, 1969 (p. 35-40). According to Barman et.. a l . (1984) the approach 32 "was premised on the achievement of i n d i v i d u a l Indian e q u a l i t y at the expense of c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l . All l e g i s l a t i v e and constitutional bases of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were to be removed- Indians would receive the same services, i n c l u d i n g education, a v a i l a b l e to members of the dominant society. The Department of Indian A f f a i r s would be abolished and the reserve system dismantled. Indians as i n d i v i d u a l s would, become equal p a r t i c i p a n t s in the just society" (1985:15). Native people's reaction to the White Paper was strongly negative. Native groups, i n c l u d i n g the newly formed National Indian Brotherhood (1968), worked together to oppose the White Paper which was viewed as a "mechanism for the Federal government to escape from its h i s t o r i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for Indian a f f a i r s , i n c l u d i n g the obl i g a t i o n to rig h t past injustices in such areas as land claims and treaties" (Barman, et.. al.., 1985:15).. In 1972, the National Indian Brotherhood issued its own position paper entitled. Indian Control of Indian Education which had at its base two basic educational p r i n c i p l e s : parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and local control of education. The paper reaffirmed the Federal Governments commitment to provide schooling, but asserted that "only Indian people can develop a s u i t a b l e philosophy of education based on Indian values adapted to modern l i v i n g . " 33 CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 3.1 GENERAL DISCUSSION OF NATIVE AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (NASL) PROGRAMS The responses made by Native people and communities d u r i n g the past decade to the decline of their languages have v a r i e d . Some bands have not yet acknowledged that their t r a d i t i o n a l language is in imminent danger of becoming extinct, while others are a c t i v e l y attempting, to stem the flow of language decline. Some bands have contracted with l i n g u i s t s to develop orthographies for previously unwritten languages, and/or to develop d i c t i o n a r i e s for those languages which d i d not have them. Bands have also worked to i n i t i a t e or strengthen programs for teaching Native languages to school students and cu r r e n t l y there are persons working in B r i t i s h Columbia schools who teach Native languages. (Toohey &• Hansen, 1985:14) Indian Control of Indian Education (1972) strongly supported the formal teaching of Native language and culture within the context of the school. The two ov e r - a l l goals presented for teaching the ancestral language were: 1. The enhancement of the Native c h i l d ' s sense of identity and c u l t u r a l pride.. 2. The maintenance and r e v i v a l of the Native languages. Burnaby (1980) stresses the complexity of di s c u s s i n g the issues and factors surrounding the lear n i n g and teaching of a Native language. A va r i e t y of differences exist from one community to another with regard to language and culture; differences i n : the languages themselves the language use patterns 34 the numbers and age d i s t r i b u t i o n of speakers the contexts in which the language is used the status of the Native language ie. the attitudes which people have toward the language and toward E n g l i s h . There are* c h i l d r e n whose mother tongue is a Native language; those whose mother tongue is E n g l i s h or French; and. those who speak v a r y i n g degrees of both their Native language and the o f f i c i a l languages. A wide var i e t y of programs are possible depending upon the language of the c h i l d r e n , the language use patterns of the community, the attitude held toward the Native language and the goals set for the Native language program. However, a complicating factor in p l a n n i n g and designing Native language programs is the lack of h a r d data on language use patterns in communities, on the attitudes of people toward teaching c h i l d r e n their ancestral language, and on the effect of programs which, are or have been, in existence (Burnaby,. 1980).. The type of program which will be considered in this discussion is one in which the Native language is taught to E n g l i s h speaking Native c h i l d r e n . These- are known as Native as a Second Lanugage or NASL programs. Programs for Native speaking c h i l d r e n or N a t i v e - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l speakers will not be discussed. Three types of programs could be used to teach the Native language to E n g l i s h speaking c h i l d r e n : 1. Native as a Second Language (NASL): The Native language is taught as a subject in the school, program. There is a wide v a r i e t y of possible objectives for NASL programs, r a n g i n g from f a m i l i a r i t y with the language ( l e a r n i n g the alphabet, names of colours, animals, body parts, clo t h i n g , etc. and common greetings) to various degrees of fluency i n c l u d i n g f u l l fluency and literacy.. 35 2. Expanded Use: As well as being taught in a NASL program, the Native language is used as the medium of instruction for one or two subjects. Generally the goal of this type of program is to achieve at least a limited degree of fluency. 3. Native Immersion: The Native language is used as the medium of instruction for a l l , or the majority of subjects. The goal is to teach fluency.. Burnaby points out that for a community in which the Native language is no longer the everyday language of communication, and in which the c h i l d r e n are le a r n i n g E n g l i s h as their f i r s t language, the easiest type of program to set up is a. NASL program aimed at hav i n g c h i l d r e n become f a m i l i a r with the language. It is also the one r e q u i r i n g the fewest: resources. Such a program is aimed at teaching the Native alphabet, i d e n t i f y i n g common objects, teaching common social greetings and teaching about the history of the language. It does not lead to fluency,, and c h i l d r e n do not learn to communicate in the language. Several researchers involved in Native languages have empha- sized that a program aimed at fluency is both demanding and complex, i n v o l v i n g issues r e g a r d i n g the- current status and use of the language in the community (Anthony, 1986; Bauman, 1982; Burnaby, 1980; Levine, 1976). For a second language learner, to acquire from a school language- program any level of the language that could be minimally cal led: f Iuency requires a great deal of motivation as well as a good program. At this point the argument becomes c i r c u l a r . If the c h i l d r e n d i d not learn the Native language at home, then it is not demanding enough in their environment to motivate them to learn i t . If it is taught in the school to develop t h e i r sense of Native identity, the school will have to use rather abstract arguments to motivate them, for example that their ancestors spoke it or that some other Native groups 36 stilt speak i t . In other words, the school will have to use their sense of Native identity to encourage them to do something d i f f i c u l t to develop their sense of Native i denti ty. (Burnaby, 1980:179) In Burnaby's opinion, a well taught NASL program aimed at f a m i l i a r i t y with the language could achieve the desired goal of enhancing Native c h i l d r e n ' s sense of identity and c u l t u r a l p r i d e . A poorly taught program, on the other hand, would do the opposite. However, a NASL program aimed at f a m i l i a r i t y with the language would not achieve the second goal of maintaining or r e v i v i n g the Native languages. The most effective type of program for this would be a f u l l Native language immersion program. The resources required, i n c l u d i n g c u r r i c u l u m , materials, trained teachers, community support and involvement, would be extensive and very costly. Another consideration in determining the type of language program to be set up is that Native parents have c l e a r l y stated that they want their c h i l d r e n to be able to speak E n g l i s h / F r e n c h and to learn the s k i l l s necessary to be successful in the modern world, in addition to l e a r n i n g their Native language and c u l t u r e . 3.1.1 A GENERALIZED VIEW OF NATIVE AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (NASL) IN BRITISH COLUMBIA High expectations and great hopes have been held for Native language programs. Many Native people see them as the last hope for the s u r v i v a l of the Native languages and cultures. While the potential exists for any number of different kinds of language programs to be set up in Native communities, to date the majority of communities in B r i t i s h Columbia, as in other parts of Canada, have chosen to e s t a b l i s h NASL programs within the school setting. Native language programs began appearing in B.C. schools in the e a r l y 1970's at about the same time as E n g l i s h as a Second Language (ESL) classes were being i n i t i a t e d in the larger population centers, and p r i o r to the large scale French immersion programs that 37 were implemented in the latter half of the 1970's. I n i t i a l l y Native resource people came into the schools to talk about the language and cu l t u r e . These were commonly known as "Indian Days". In some communities Indian Days have g r a d u a l l y grown into f u l l - f l e d g e d language and cul t u r e classes which are now taught as part of the school program. While French Immersion programs have had the f u l l b a c k i n g of the Federal Government with massive amounts of Federal money poured into them in the form of research, materials and c u r r i c u l u m development, and ESL programs have had the grudg i n g support of the Pr o v i n c i a l Ministry of Education, Native language programs until recently have been barely acknowledged, if at a l l . They have been looked on as supplemental l e a r n i n g , and are frequently the f i r s t to be dropped when cutbacks occur. Funding is often on a y e a r l y basis.. The schools which Native c h i l d r e n attend f a l l under three different categories and j u r i s d i c t i o n s : some schools are controlled and operated by the local band, some are controlled and operated by the Federal Department of Indian A f f a i r s , some are p r o v i n c i a l schools controlled and operated: by the P r o v i n c i a l Ministry of Education. In each case the channels by which Native language programs are authorized and funded d i f f e r from r e g u l a r school programming. B r i t i s h Columbia as yet does not have an o f f i c i a l government act recognizing the Native languages and cul t u r e s . Up to the F a l l of 1979, Native language and cul t u r e programs were offered in the pu b l i c p r o v i n c i a l schools mainly at the discretion of the school p r i n c i p a l . If community members could persuade a local school board or the school p r i n c i p a l of the benefits of such programs, then time, space and some funding would u s u a l l y be found. However, in October 1979 a policy statement r e g a r d i n g Native languages and cultures was issued by the Special Programs D i v i s i o n : Director of Indian Programs in the Ministry of Education, thereby g i v i n g o f f i c i a l 38 sanction for such programs. This was not an active policy for the promotion of programs by p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l f u nding and resources, but rather one that acknowledged p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Among other items, this policy e x p l a i n e d : 1. The goal of p a r i t y for native Indian c h i l d r e n is a p r i o r i t y concern. P a r i t y means that through r e g u l a r and special needs education programs, Indian c h i l d r e n will in time reach their f u l l potential; and their culture, history and contemporary life will be reflected adequately in the ov e r a l l c u r r i culum of the p u b l i c schools. 2. The Ministry supports the preservation of Native languages through the use of the p u b l i c schools in teaching these languages and, where a native language is the language of dominance for a s i g n i f i c a n t group of native c h i l d r e n in a school or school d i s t r i c t , the Ministry supports the development and implementation of b i l i n g u a l - b i c u l t u r a l programs, thereby allowing a student to become proficient in two languages and two cultures.. ( E n g l i s h as a Second Language/ Dialect Resource Book K-12, 1981:36) While h a v i n g a policy statement is a large and important step forward, in many ways it did not change the r e a l i t i e s of the programs. The amount, of funding a v a i l a b l e , the Native language speakers a v a i l a b l e - to work as teachers, the lack of research on the languages, the lack of materials and cu r r i c u l u m guidelines to work with, and the basic social attitudes towards the Native languages on the part of the larger society, and even within many members of the Native communities remained the same. On the surface school-based Native language and cul t u r e pro- grams offer a seemingly s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d solution to the problem of language and culture decline, and to the enhancement of the c u l t u r a l identity and self-esteen of Native c h i l d r e n . Underlying such programs, however, are many complex and emotion laden issues for Native communities and their people. Among them are past government pol i c i e s and educational practises which prohibited previous generations of Native c h i l d r e n from speaking their Native 39 language in school, the societal forces behind language decline, and the ongoing processes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and a s s i m i l a t i o n . (Ashworth, 1979; Burnaby, 1980; C a r d i n a l , 1969; DINA, 1971; Hawthorne Report, 1967;. Hebert, 1985; Indian Control, 1972; Levine, 1976; Manuel and Poslums, 1974). Although many Native people and local school personnel recognize the importance of Native c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t h e i r ancestral language and culture,, few appear to have an awareness of the enormity of the task of setting up and running a second language program, the resources r e q u i r e d , or the complexity of lea r n i n g a second language. This is not s u r p r i s i n g considering the f i e l d of second language education is r e l a t i v e l y new, and has undergone many changes since the e a r l y 1970's. Native language and cul t u r e programs are a unique type of program in schools in that they are the shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of both the school administration and the local community. The school makes a v a i l a b l e time in the r e g u l a r program for the teaching of the Native language and culture,, it provides space and supplies, and u s u a l l y pays the Native language teacher's s a l a r y . The community provides the c r u c i a l resources: speakers of the language who become the teachers, and the l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l base from which the program draws its substance. The Native language/culture program dif f e r s from other programs in the school in three major aspects. a) Teachers: The only s u i t a b l e teachers are members of Native communities fluent in the Native language. Very few have had teacher training., b) Funding: Funding for teaching programs is generally obtained outside of the usual channels for r e g u l a r programs (ie. from the Special Programs, Division of the Ministry of Education or the Department of Indian A f f a i r s ) . . c) Resources: Other school programs draw materials and knowledge from the broader base of mainstream Canadian and world society and c u l t u r e . Native language/culture programs have a much smaller base to draw from, ie. the local community or tri b e . They rely on locally produced materials, the raw materials of which are derived from the a c t i v i t i e s , values, attitudes, social interaction patterns and discourse systems, in short the language and cul t u r e , of the Native community. 40 The development of the "raw" l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l materials into teaching materials for the Native language and culture programs has involved a t h i r d group comprised of " s p e c i a l i s t s " . These include l i n g u i s t s , anthropologists, curriculum developers and second language s p e c i a l i s t s , who often work independently of the school, and are hired as consultants by the Band. Ideally, they would work in co-operation with the school and community; however, this is not always the case. The o v e r - a l l needs of Native communities are many; housing, health care, social welfare, local work projects, land claims, food preservation, general education issues, to name a few.. The resources, both f i n a n c i a l and human, are f i n i t e and must be shared. Often it is the people a c t i v e l y working on the broader community needs who are most aware that the language and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e are d e c l i n i n g . The l i n g u i s t who has i n i t i a t e d l i n g u i s t i c research on the language, and has p l a y e d an important role in helping to start up the language program and provide some basic materials must attend to his/her academic research or u n i v e r s i t y position. School administrators and r e g u l a r classroom teachers, too, are very busy with the o v e r - a l l operations of the r e g u l a r school program. Frequently, after the i n i t i a l setting up of the language program, the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for running it has f a l l e n to the Native language teacher. 3.1.2. ISSUES RELATED TO SCHOOL-BASED PROGRAMS A number of issues related to teaching of a Native language in a school context have been r a i s e d by people c u r r e n t l y working in the f i e l d . Amongst them are Bauman (1980), Burnaby (1980), Hebert (1984), Kirkness (1981). Others are r a i s e d by the researcher. Burnaby in Languages and T h e i r Roles In Educating Native Chi Idren (1980) provides a very thorough description and discussion of the v a r i o u s types of programs, their goals, their advantages, and 41 disadvantages. She raises questions r e g a r d i n g the e x i s t i n g language use patterns of the Native community, and their r e l a t i o n s h i p to the goals which have been set for the programs. She also points to the need for involvement in the programs by community members and rai s e s the issue of what type of teaching and l e a r n i n g are best suited to Native language programs. Hebert (1984) raises many of the same questions, and also discusses the soc i o p o l i t i c a l context in which the programs occur. Like Burnaby, she refers to the goals of the programs and who is involved in determining them. She also discusses the roles of s p e c i a l i s t s in the program, and the involvement of the community. Wyatt (1974) who has been involved in the Simon Fraser Native Teacher Education Program r a i s e s the question of the Native community's reaction to different types of programs or teaching approaches being used in the school. The following are some of the important issues which have been r a i s e d . 1'- Types of Goals and the Question of Results The question of whether the types of goals which have been set for the programs can be achieved in a school setting has been r a i s e d by Burnaby. A number of reasons have been given for i n c l u d i n g NASL programs in school.. Burnaby (1980:313) describes these as: - "to r e v i v e or maintain the use of these languages in the Native community". - "to prepare the Native c h i l d to make a reasonable and informed choice in his life between the Native approach and the majority culture approach to doing things." - "to help the c h i l d adjust to school and achieve more in r e g u l a r school work." Burnaby elaborates on the last reason by s a y i n g "Native as a Second Language programs are u s u a l l y introduced into Native schools on the hypothesis that the recognition of the ancestrol language in school 42 may improve the c h i l d ' s ethnic self-image, and that such improvement will be reflected in their success in their r e g u l a r school work" ( I b i d . , 314). She later points out that to date no hard data has been collected to substantiate such a claim. This also appears to be. the case for the other goals, although there is a report on the teaching of Native languages awaiting release by the Department of the Secretary of State (personal communication, Staff member of the P a c i f i c Region Office)., 2. Advantages and Disadvantages of School-Based Programs. There appear to be both advantages and disadvantages to h a v i n g Native language programs within the context of the school: Advantages a) Burnaby (1980), like the authors of Indian Control of Indian Education (1972), points to the importance of the school recognizing the value of Native languages and cultures by in c o r p o r a t i n g such programs into the r e g u l a r school program. This form of v a l i d a t i o n is considered important for the Native community, adults and c h i l d r e n , as well as for the non-Native population. b) Many of the costs of the programs are assumed by education departments. c) In areas where non-Native teachers are supportive and interested, they can be of great assistance to Native language teachers in helping them to develop classroom management s k i l l s and teaching materials. d) The programs create jobs for Native peoples in the community. e) Native language programs provide a way for Native adults to 43 gain access to the school, and become f a m i l i a r with its workings. f) The school can increase the need for the use of the Native language, e s p e c i a l l y if a subject is taught using a Native immersion format, eg. an Expanded Use program. Disadvantages There is an in c r e a s i n g tendency throughout a l l of society to view schools as h a v i n g the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for educating c h i l d r e n . In the case-of Native language and culture programs, which rely almost e x c l u s i v e l y on the local Native community for resources (teachers, content in form of language and cult u r e , a c t i v i t i e s and ma t e r i a l s ) , such r e l i a n c e could be disastrous to the ov e r - a l l maintenance of the Native language. This position is based on the premise that language is a system of communication, and a social tool used by a group in meaningful interactions. The school by itself does not have the c a p a c i t y , nor the resources necessary to counteract the powerful societal influences which promote the use of E n g l i s h as the language of everyday communication in Native communities, and which push the Native languages toward e x t i n c t i o n . The question of whether or not a school-based program is adequate to maintain or rev i v e a Native language is addressed by Fishman. C a n t h e S c h o o l " G o It A l o n e " f o r B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n ? Definitely not, not even when there is a c l e a r man- date to do so. One of the major conclusions to be derived from the International Study of Secondary B i l i n g u a l Education is that not only is community consensus needed if b i l i n g u a l education is to succeed, but that the help of the unmarked language community is needed every bit as much as, if not more than that of the marked language community. The main trouble with foreign-language l e a r n i n g thus f a r has been that it was entirely a school- dependent a f f a i r with no out-of-school contextual s i g n i f i - cance whatsoever. B i l i n g u a l education that is left to the 44 schools alone will have the same sad fate. The school can provide instr u c t i o n a l power for b i l i n g u a l education but not functional power for i t . The latter must be provided by the community itself in terms of either d i g n i f y i n g its own d i v e r s i t y or the d i v e r s i t y of the international community. (Fishman, 1976:111; quoted by Burnaby, 1980:236) From the perspective of the researcher of this study the idea that l e a r n i n g the Native language is important so that it will not die is a. very adult concept, and does not make much sense to ch i l d r e n — e s p e c i a l l y if the language is not being used to any extent by adults around them. C h i l d r e n have a wonderful a b i l i t y to detect inconsistencies in ad u l t s : if the Native language is not valued enough by the adults that they use i t , then why should c h i l d r e n exert themselves in school on such a d i f f i c u l t task? 3. The Importance of Community Support and Invovlement An important issue r a i s e d by Hebert (1984), as well as Burnaby (1980) and Bauman (1980) is the necessity of community support and. involvement in the language programs if they are to help c h i l d r e n to learn to communicate in the Native language. Even more important is the issue of whether or not the Native community wants to have a Native language program for its c h i l d r e n . Given that the community does want a program, there is a need to consider the health of the language and the community's language use patterns, in setting the goals for it.. 4. Tight Schedules and. Core Curriculum There are many s k i l l s to be taught and areas of knowledge in the various subject areas taught within the school program. Native parents have made it very c l e a r that in addition to wanting their c h i l d r e n to develop a strong Native identity and their c u l t u r a l knowledge, they also want them to receive "the t r a i n i n g necessary for making a good l i v i n g in modern society". This position, f i r s t stated in Indian Control of Indian Education (1972), was restated in 45 the results of a follow-up survey conducted in 1986 by the Association of F i r s t Nations (personal communication, Joanne Morris, National Director Education Secretariat, Association of F i r s t Nations at the Second P a c i f i c Region Language Conference, Kamloops, B.C., October 1986). L e a r n i n g a second language requires a great deal of time, effort and motivation. While there is evidence to suggest that the most efficient way to teach a second language would be to run a fu l l immersion program, this is not f e a s i b l e in the majority of communities because of the- lack of resources, nor do Native parents appear to desire a f u l l immersion Native language program. The question then a r i s e s r e g a r d i n g which subjects will be cut or not taught in order to f a c i l i t a t e the Native language program. Native language programs have to compete for time with "core c u r r i c u l u m " subjects which receive p r i o r i t y in terms of time allottment. Consequently, programs are often taught in 15 to 20 minute periods anywhere from once a week to 5 times a week, in some cases once a week classes run for a longer period of time. Burnaby maintains that given the d i f f i c u l t task of l e a r n i n g a second language it is impossible to teach a n y t h i n g more than "symbolic language" - the alphabet, naming animals, a r t i c l e s of cl o t h i n g and other objects, and common forms of greetings - in 20 minute periods. 5. The Nature of the Native Language Program and Methods of Teaching and Learn i n g There is a need for compromises to be made by both the school and the Native community in developing Native c u l t u r a l materials and programs. Burnaby r a i s e s an important is/sue r e g a r d i n g the nature of programs offered within the school context: the methods of teaching and l e a r n i n g , forms of teacher-student interaction, types of materials and a c t i v i t i e s — and the reaction of students to programs that are different from what they are accustomed to and expect. Native cultures are e s s e n t i a l l y strangers to the formal education context and Canadian formal education is not used to recognizing c e r t a i n Native c u l t u r a l patterns. But if one or the other is forced to do a l l the compromising, then it will be so changed that it will be no longer repre- sentative of the real c u l t u r e outside the school. At this point the c u l t u r a l program is in danger of doing more harm than good. The c h i l d r e n are always well aware of the basic parameters of their society. If the school repre- sents a Native culture as something that has nothing to do with Nativeness as the c h i l d r e n know i t , they are c e r t a i n to have a neutral or negative reaction. Also, if the school transforms itself into something that does not resemble what school should be in the c h i l d r e n ' s eyes, then they will probably not be able to take it seriously (Burnaby , 1980:174). Wyatt (1977) makes a s i m i l a r point with regard to the- reaction of Mt. C u r r i e adults to programs that d i f f e r from the norm that are offered within the school, even Band-operated schools. Such observations are not s u r p r i s i n g in light of the f i n d i n g s of sociol i n g u i s t i c research which points to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of context in r e l a t i o n s h i p to social norms of behaviour and i n t e r a c t i o n . "School" as a social context has evolved expected norms of behaviour and types of social interaction for c h i l d r e n and adults (parents, teachers and community members) as well as for school personnel, whether in the Native or non-Native society. There is evidence to indicate that people, any people, tend to teach in the way they themselves were taught, unless they are trained otherwise (Burnaby, 1980; Rivers, 1983). Thus, Native language teachers who themselves were students in p u b l i c and r e s i d e n t i a l schools may have i n t e r n a l i z e d those models of teaching and l e a r n i n g common to their own school experience, even though they may conflict with t r a d i t i o n a l Native t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g styles used in the informal education contexts of Native homes and communities. Within the school context Native language teachers, like other members of the community, many have set notions of how school teaching and le a r n i n g should be, and they are uncomfortable with deviations from this (Wyatt, 1974). 6.. A Lack of Data on the Programs With r e g a r d to the actual impact of NASL programs, Burnaby comments on the lack of actual data st a t i n g that a gain she must f a l back on her own observations:: It seems as if language has become a r a l l y i n g point around which mainly E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Native communities have gathered to affirm their s o l i d a r i t y in their Nativeness. The bulk of the Native language impact in the school programs is in the le a r n i n g of symbolic vestiges of the language, the numbers, the names of animals and some t r a d i t i o n a l objects, some greetings and social formulae and so on. L i t t l e or no s k i l l in manipulating the phonological and syntactic patterns of the language is gained. (This observation does not include- the Native immersion program. This writer does not have any direct observation about the language impact of that program). Outside the school the language i s used more by the remaining speakers, its functions are extended to literate ones such as records of meetings and newspapers, Native speakers have become literate in the Native language, and classes are given for teenagers and adults to learn the language.. All this is an indirect consequence of the interest in the Native language brought out by the i n i t i a - tion of Native language programs in the local schools. But the actual patterns of language maintenance are not b a s i c a l l y changed. E v e r y t h i n g new done in the Native language is translated, into E n g l i s h . Nothing in the language environment is demanding enough to motivate c h i l d or adult to spend the time and effort to a c t u a l l y learn to use the language as a medium of communication. The language is being treated as a treasured a r t i f a c t that can be admired, cherished and ide n t i f i e d with, but not used for any p r a c t i c a l purpose any more (1982:183-84). Burnaby's conclusion r e g a r d i n g the effect of current Native a Second Language programs is that while the objective of r e i n f o r c i n g Native identity of c h i l d r e n is being met, the de f i n i t i o n given to "language" in this context has narrow, r i g i d boundaries, and that "people are w i l l i n g to spend the kind of time and effort l e a r n i n g it that one would spend l e a r n i n g some hi s t o r i c a l information" (p.185). The resul ti ng' lesson for educators is to gear the content of the second language programs to symbolic language l e a r n i n g which is not as expensive or d i f f i c u l t to run as a program aiming at even a minimal degree of f l u e n c y . It is believed by the writer that another interpretation could be made of why NASL programs concentrate on numbers, names of animals, etc. The teaching of any language as a second language is a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d , and d i f f e r s in many ways from r e g u l a r classroom teaching. As it was stated in 5 it is well known that people tend to teach in the way they themselves were taught unless they have had special t r a i n i n g . In the case of Native language teachers, the majority have had l i t t l e or no systematic t r a i n i n g . They are unaware of the differences between teaching Language Arts and teaching a second language (as are many r e g u l a r classroom teachers!), and; thus teach in the way they themselves were taught -— numbers, names of things, etc. — often through writing words on the- b l a c k b o a r d , and h a v i n g c h i l d r e n read them. While non-Native educators may think that a l l Native communities want is symbolic language l e a r n i n g , few Native people would concur with that. One thing the position ignores is the second major objective for teaching Native languages: the maintenance/revival of the languages. 7... The Relationship Between Language and Culture A f i n a l issue r a i s e d by the researcher which pertains to Native language programs, but is not necessarily tied to the school context, is the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and c u l t u r e . This r e l a t i o n s h i p is continuing to be investigated by researchers from a number of different d i s c i p l i n e s , amongst them sociol i n g u i s t i c s , social psychology, social and c u l t u r a l anthropology, 49 and education. The concept of 'communicative competence' presented by Hymes in the e a r l y 1970's, and the work in sociol i n g u i s t i c s by Labov in the late 1960's has been very s i g n i f i c a n t to the f i e l d of language education in general, and to second language teaching in p a r t i c u l a r . It provides insights into the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and culture which had e a r l i e r been ignored. P r e v i o u s l y , the majority of studies of c h i l d a c q u i s i t i o n and lea r n i n g were based on the concept of language as an ideal l i n g u i s t i c system, separate and dis t i n c t from cul t u r e . This concept is s t i l l at the base of some programs and materials being designed. What it ignores is the perception of language as a social tool used by a group of people. It f a i l s to address the s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l aspect of how language is a c t u a l l y used in various social contexts, its functions, and the rules governing social interaction. The latter has been e s t a b l i s h e d as essential to the processes of communication, and to an extent has found form in the communicative approach to second language le a r n i n g which is g a i n i n g momentum in the f i e l d of E n g l i s h as a Second: Language (ESL). Another area in which the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and culture is being explored is that of Language Across the Curriculum. Dr., Bernard Mohan in Language and Culture (1986) explores the re l a t i o n s h i p between teaching language, either a f i r s t or a second language, and the teaching of other subjects in the content areas through the use of a knowledge. 3.1.3 DIFFICULTIES FACING NASL PROGRAMS IN THE SCHOOL Perhaps it is the interdependence upon school, community and professional resource people which accounts for the "fuzziness" of Native language programs; perhaps it is that the f i e l d of second language teaching is quite s p e c i a l i z e d , and few people have know- ledge and experience in second language teaching/learning issues; perhaps it is that the teaching of Native languages has unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , hitherfore not encountered, and r e q u i r i n g a different orientation toward teaching and learning,and developing materials. 50 Whatever the reasons, on the whole, there is a di s t i n c t lack of an o v e r - a l l perspective on the teaching of a Native language as a second language. Program goals are loosely a r t i c u l a t e d , and are frequently based on an i d e a l i s t i c notion of b r i n g i n g back the language by ensuring that Native c h i l d r e n learn to speak i t . The main goal of the majority of Native language programs in B.C. is fluency,, despite the health of the languages, the languages use patterns of communities or the a v a i l a b i l i t y of resources. L i t t l e information is a v a i l a b l e on these. Programs based on u n r e a l i s t i c goals and i n a p p r o p r i a t e teaching methods and techniques have l i t t l e chance of success. The effects of such programs can be d i s c o u r a g i n g if not disastrous in terms of promoting the use of the Native language, for c h i l d r e n in such programs soon develop the attitude that Native language classes are "boring", and behaviour problems begin to appear in c l a s s . (Bauman, 1980; Burnaby, 1980). In the e a r l y years the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered on a local level were, lar g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the newness of the programs, to d i f f i c u l t working conditions, to lack of s u i t a b l e materials and sometimes to the poor selection of the teachers (Burnaby, 1980; Hebert, 1984). On the' p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , d i f f i c u l t i e s were attributed to lack of government recognition of the languages and cultures and the r e s u l t i n g lack of funding, lack of recognition of language programs and accreditation of teachers, and to lack of a structure for disseminating and for s h a r i n g information. As time moves on, and the e a r l y language programs have had a chance to e s t a b l i s h themselves, sometimes several times over, there is a growing awareness in Native communities and amongst the professionals working with the communities that the programs are not succeeding — no Native c h i l d r e n are beginning to speak their ancestral language as a result of attending Native language cla s s e s . A number of d i f f i c u l t i e s which impede the ongoing development 51 of Native language programs were id e n t i f i e d in the More Than One Language Report (1977:46): 1. The d i v e r s i t y of native languages in B.C. (materials, d i c t i o n a r i e s and grammars developed in one area cannot necessa r i l y be used in another). 2. The reticence of native communities to support i n s t r u c - tion in a language o r d i n a r i l y considered dysfunctional in the schools. 3. The decreasing use of native languages on a day-to- day b a s i s . 4.. The sc a r c i t y of models of teaching appropriate to the material and the community setting. 5. The shortage of fu n d i n g . 3.1.4 NEED FOR PLANNING All of the above do contribute to the poor success record of Native languages in teaching c h i l d r e n to speak the languages, and yet another broader issue needs to be addressed: that of o v e r - a l l , co-ordinated p l a n n i n g . Amongst each band there are leaders and community members who "know" the value of their language and do not want it to die. L i n g u i s t s and anthropologists see how the languages- are d e c l i n i n g and attempt to describe, record and preserve as much as they can by working with the communities. Many educators understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e of positive c u l t u r a l identity and high self-esteem for c h i l d r e n . Native Old People see the language s l i p p i n g away and attempt to encourage its use. However, each of these groups see only a small part of the larger picture from the vantage point of their own perspectives and positions. There is a need for co-ordinated assessment and long term r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g for programs, and for community involvement in the process. If programs are to have a chance of being successful they need to be based on a s o l i d foundation of r e a l i s t i c goals a r i s i n g out of community needs and solid pedagogical p r a c t i c e s . The good intentions, dedication and s p i r i t that motivate them (communities) are c e r t a i n l y the most essential part of a language r e v i t a l i z a t i o n program, but they must be embedded in a program with r e a l i s t i c goals, and then reinforced with effective procedures. (Bauman, 1980:vii) According to Bauman, there are f i v e necessary and in t e r l o c k i n g aspects of p l a n n i n g a Native language retention program. All must be considered and worked on if the program is to have a chance of being, s u c c e s s f u l . a) The health and status of the Native language in the community - What are the number and ages of speakers; the domains in which the language is used; the importance of the language to community members? b) Community needs — What are the needs and how does the language- fi t in with those needs? Who determines the needs? c) The setting of r e a l i s t i c goals and objectives for the program based on a) and b) above. d) The recruitment and t r a i n i n g of teachers. e) The development of materials and assessment of resources. Who does this and how? Burnaby, in d i s c u s s i n g the innumerable v a r i a b l e s that could influence the effectiveness of any program in any p a r t i c u l a r community cites six main areas outside of d i r e c t l y pedagogical concerns suggested by Bernard Spolsky and his colleagues "which must be taken into account before and while action is taken. These are I i n g u i s t i c , psychological , s o c i o l o g i c a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and rel i g i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s " (1980:247). 53 To groups such as Band Education Authorities, Band Councils or local school personnel such considerations are u n f a m i l i a r and d i f f i c u l t to c a r r y out, p a r t i c u l a r l y so in view of the other demands of developing communities i n c l u d i n g the ongoing negotiations for p o l i t i c a l control between the Bands and external agencies, and the s c a r c i t y of funding and resources for Native language programs. Questions a r i s e as to what assessment tools to use, who would c a r r y out the assessment, how should teachers be trained and materials developed, what are r e a l i s t i c goals for a program, who will pay for al l of this? In examining Bauman's f i v e aspects of p l a n n i n g it appears that the one that has received the greatest attention in B.C. Native language programs is the development of materials. This is understandable in that materials are a concrete r e a l i t y that teachers can hold in their hands and give to students. But materials alone are not enough.. 3.1.5 RESEARCH ON THE LANGUAGES An imbalance seems to exist in terms of the amount of research and "work" that has been done in Native communities by non-Native professionals, most noteably l i n g u i s t s and anthropologists. There is a strong impression that Native cultures and languages have been studied to death; c e r t a i n l y many Native people feel t h i s . For some Native groups in Canada this is true. Many of the languages and cultures, belonging to the Algonkian and Iroquoian language families have been well researched and documented. The coastal cultures of the Pacifc Northwest complex have been studied since the late 1800's; however, the languages themselves have r e a l l y only been r e c e i v i n g focussed attention for the past two decades. Much less has been done on the languages spoken in the Interior and northern parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the Interior S a l i s h a n and Athapaskan language fami l i e s . 54 Levine, in d i s c u s s i n g his attempt to provide an h i s t o r i c a l perspective of educational policy toward Native languages in post- contact B r i t i s h Columbia, points out the v i r t u a l lack of secondary sources, and the lack of information on the "dynamics of l i n g u i s t i c e x t i n c t i o n " which would include the conscious suppression of Native languages by non-Natives. He comments on LaViolette's seeming d i s r e g a r d of language as an integral feature in the "struggle for s u r v i v a l " of the Native cultures he describes (LaViolette, 1961), and maintains that the impression LaViolette conveys is "that the erosion of a b o r i g i n a l languages is a prerequisite for c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l s u r v i v a l " . Levine asserts that LaViol lette 1 s writing ignores the success of a p a r t i a l l y b i l i n g u a l population, such as the Chinese in North America, in o r g a n i z i n g p o l i t i c a l l y at least as a f f e c t i v e l y as a newly monoligual E n g l i s h speaking indigenous society" (Levine, 1976:49). Regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and c u l t u r e Levine writes" ...songs, the dances accompanying them, rhet o r i c a l accompanyments to ceremonies such as the potlatch, and the vast cycles of myth and legendary history are a l l necessarily dependent upon the maintenance of the Native languages". (Levine, 1976:49). Referring to a comment written by Duff in 1964 that "most of the languages are s t i l l spoken and l i t t l e are in immediate danger of being forgotten" Levine states, that: ....The f i r s t part of this statement is true but misleading since, as suggested e a r l i e r , there is an important d i s t i c - tion between languages which are s t i l l spoken, but only by a narrow cross-section of a population, and. those spoken g e n e r a l l y . The second part of Duff's claim is contradicted by the observably terminal condition of many B r i t i s h Columbian languages.. When c h i l d r e n are not l e a r n i n g their parents' language, that language is being forgotten, even though its actual disappearance may not occur for several generations. Standard accounts of the educational history of the Province make absolutely no reference to l i n g u i s t i c suppression at a l l . The omission in such sources of any close examination of the a c c u l t u r a t i v e processes c a r r i e d out in the r e s i d e n t i a l schools is not s u r p r i s i n g , since it was taken for granted for several 55 generations that such a c c u l t u r a t i o n was the proper business of the schools v i s - a - v i s Native peoples (1976:49). L i t t l e money has been a v a i l a b l e for research on the many and v a r i e d languages. Much of the research conducted to date has occurred, as a result of u n i v e r s i t y graduates and academics seeking areas of study. Funding for the research has been minimal, often from short-term grants given by a v a r i e t y of p r i v a t e foundations and by government offices or by foreign countries. In the case of the Interior S a l i s h a n languages, a large portion of the research conducted to date has been funded by the Netherlands Organization for- the Advancement of. Pure Research in Holland with the research being conducted by Dutch graduate students from the University of Leiden working under the guidance of Dr. Aert Kuipers, a Dutch l i n g u i s t . Another example is the research being conducted on the C h i l c o t i n language by Dr. Ed Cook of the University of A l b e r t a in Cal gary.. A search of the l i t e r a t u r e shows that while, there has been a gradual increase in the amount of interest taken and the research being done on many of the Native languages in B r i t i s h Columbia, the primary focus has been on l i n g u i s t i c features and systems. L i t t l e has been done on such topics as the health and status of Native languages in their communities, the sociol i n g u i s t i c patterns of language use in Native communities (an exception to this is work on Nicola by Hebert and St e r l i n g (1979)). Nor has research been conducted on Native language programs: the types and effects of programs, the actual needs of programs, the t r a i n i n g of Native language teachers (Burnaby, 1980:183). More has been written on Native language programs in the United States, la r g e l y because the monies provided by T i t l e VII under the American Federal Government require thai: 25% of each grant be used for e v a l u a t i n g the project; however as in Canada, there is v i r t u a l l y no information on the training, of Native language teachers. What can be found in both countries is academic l i n g u i s t i c research: d e s c r i p t i v e s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s , h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c s . These are necessary to language programs, yet they are only a p a r t . Without people who know how to use l i n g u i s t i c information in producing materials appropriate for use with c h i l d r e n , without Native people knowledgeable in how to use the teaching materials with c h i l d r e n , without communities and families in which the Native language is used, l i n g u i s t i c research alone is not s u f f i c i e n t . 3.2 NATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHERS While many Native language programs have been in operation for a number of years there has been limited attention p a i d to the " t r a i n i n g " of Native language teachers. The assumption seems to be that if Native people speak their language, and e s p e c i a l l y if they read and write i t , they are able to teach i t . Toohey and Hansen point out that although some Native language teachers in B r i t i s h Columbia have received some sys t e m a t i c a l l y - p l a n n e d t r a i n i n g , this is not g e n e r a l l y the case. What is more ty p i c a l is for the community-based Native language teacher to have acted as an informant or as a co-worker with a l i n g u i s t in developing an orthography and/or dicti o n a r y for a language, to have attended teacher t r a i n i n g workshops planned by a v a r i e t y of agencies, and to have had experience working with c h i l d r e n in cl assrooms. (Toohey & Hansen, 1984:12). Native language teachers are caught in the dilemma of being responsible for teaching in and for developing language programs and materials, while having had l i t t l e or no t r a i n i n g , background knowledge or experience in the a r e a . Kirkness (1984) outlines what she c a l l s the "impossible task" that faces the untrained teachers of Canadian Native languages: they are expected to design Native language curriculuni for kindergaten to grade twelve, to prepare their own lesson plans, materials, maintain classroom control and do other related a c t i v i t i e s . Burnaby (1980) discusses s i m i l a r problems of Native language instructors in Ontario. 57 Pauline A l f r e d , a Kwak'wala teacher from Alert Bay, stated the case very s u c c i n c t l y : I s t i l l say that i t ' s r e a l l y u n f a i r when they just grab us and throw us into a classroom. We never had any t r a i n - i n g - We never went to u n i v e r s i t y to be teachers. We don't: know- the f i r s t thing about it.. We can speak our language, but how do we go about teaching it?...that was my fear.....it was so many years since I'd been in school ...when- I f i r s t started it was r e a l l y hard because I didn't have any materials. It a l l had to come out of my mouth and I was just exhausted because I was t a l k i n g a l l day (Toohey & Hansen, 1985:12). There are v a l i d reasons for the lack of t r a i n i n g . Many of the teachers have heavy family and community commitments; they l i v e in r e l a t i v e l y isolated areas of the province and do not want to or cannot afford to leave home for- an extended period of time. Because of distances it is expensive to hire professionals to t r a i n a small number of teachers over a period of time or to travel r e g u l a r l y to a community for workshops.. There are not many professionals who have experience in the f i e l d and/or are a v a i l a b l e to< travel or li v e in the communities. Until recently none of the u n i v e r s i t i e s , with the exception of the University of V i c t o r i a , were w i l l i n g to offer courses to Native people who were not enrolled in a r e g u l a r u n i v e r s i t y program- Many language teachers, though fluent in their Native language, had not completed high school, and were mainly interested in Native, language teaching, not in a c q u i r i n g a u n i v e r s i t y degree. For several years the University of V i c t o r i a d i d offer a two year diploma course in teaching a Native language; however, the emphasis was p r i m a r i l y on developing l i n g u i s t i c research s k i l l s in each student's own Native language, and on litera c y s k i l l s , with a l i t t l e attention given to teaching s k i l l s . The program was p r i m a r i l y campus-based r e q u i r i n g people to move to V i c t o r i a . The l i n g u i s t i c orientation which focuses on t r a i n i n g Native language teachers in l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s and in litera c y s k i l l s is common to other programs in both Canada and the United: States, and will be referred to later in the proposal. Suffice it to say, at this p o i n t , t h a t t o d a t e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p h a v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t i n p u t i n t o N a t i v e l a n g u a g e p r o g r a m s i s t h a t o f l i n g u i s t s . T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e g i v e n t h a t l i n g u i s t s w e r e o n e o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p s i n t e r e s t e d i n , a n d i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e N a t i v e l a n g u a g e s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r n e e d t o d o l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h ; a d d e d t o t h i s i s t h e f a c t t h a t l a n g u a g e i s s e e n t o b e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d o m a i n o f t h e l i n g u i s t . I n m a n y c o m m u n i t i e s t h e . l i n g u i s t d o i n g r e s e a r c h o n t h e l a n g u a g e h a s a l s o b e e n i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g t o d e v e l o p t h e N a t i v e l a n g u a g e p r o g r a m a n d g e t t h e t e a c h e r s t a r t e d . L i n g u i s t s h a v e p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t a n d i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n s e t t i n g u p t h e p r o g r a m s . T h e i r a n a l y s e s a n d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f N a t i v e l a n g u a g e s p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t , a n d n e c e s s a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c s y s t e m s t h e l a n g u a g e s e m p l o y . T h e i r w o r k i n c o m m u n i t i e s h a s o f t e n h e l p e d N a t i v e p e o p l e - t o b e c o m e a w a r e o f w h a t h a s b e e n h a p p e n i n g t o t h e l a n g u a g e s , t h a t i s t h e d e c l i n e , a n d h a s e n c o u r a g e d p r o g r a m s t o b e i n i t i a t e d . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , , h o w e v e r , t h e s t r e n g t h o f l i n g u i s t s l i e s i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f l i n g u i s t i c s , , a n d t h e y a r e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h e m a i n t h r u s t o f t h e i r w o r k i n N a t i v e l a n g u a g e p r o g r a m s , o u t s i d e o f l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h o n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e l a n g u a g e , h a s b e e n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m a t e r i a l s : o r t h o g r a p h i e s , a l p h a b e t s h e e t s , d i c t i o n a r i e s , s t u d e n t w o r k b o o k s , a n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f l i t e r a c y s k i l l s t o N a t i v e l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r s a n d c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s . . T h e s e a r e i m p o r t a n t , a n d n e c e s s a r y , b u t t h e y a r e n o t e n o u g h t o e n s u r e a s u c c e s s f u l l a n g u a g e p r o g r a m , j u s t a s t h e a b i l i t y t o s p e a k a l a n g u a g e d o e s n o t e q u i p a p e r s o n t o t e a c h i t , a l t h o u g h f l u e n c y i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t e a c h i n g . T h e N a t i v e l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r i s s e e n a s p l a y i n g a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n o r g a n i z i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g l o c a l l a n g u a g e p r o g r a m s . . I n t h e " N a t i v e I n d i a n L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t S e m i n a r " o f t h e M o r e T h a n O n e L a n g u a g e C o n f e r e n c e R e p o r t ( 1 9 7 7 : 4 6 ) , i t w a s s t a t e d t h a t : 59 The native Indian language teacher p l a y s a key role in the organization and implementation of these programs. Native language teachers embark on their p reparation with v a r y i n g degrees of fluency in their respective languages and few, if any of the conventional academic or teaching experiences of most language teachers. Their achieve- ments, nevertheless, are outstanding. In consultation with l i n g u i s t s and community resource people they are l e a r n i n g to do l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . As teachers they are developing materials and strategies a p p r o p r i a t e to a v a r i e t y of age l e v e l s - As community members they serve as positive models to students and parents uncertain of the benefits of l e a r n i n g their native language.. In more recent years people are beginning to express the need for Native language teachers to receive systematic t r a i n i n g . The "impossible task" f a c i n g untrained Native language teachers is beginning to be acknowledged and solutions are being sought. A complicating factor- in p l a n n i n g and developing Native language programs and teaching materials, in p l a n n i n g t r a i n i n g programs for Native teachers,, and in conducting research in the f i e l d is the d i f f i c u l t y of locating, and accessing information and materials. In the course of examining the goals for Native language programs in B.C., Hebert (1984) writes: It is d i f f i c u l t to survey the B.C. situation since there is no. organization or i n s t i t u t i o n a l centre which co-ordinates or provides resources and guidance for a l l these language programs... Most of the information presented here comes from project descriptions and news updates published in the Northwest Languages Newsletter (1978 - present, U.B.C.) and from personal contact with language workers (p.122). This- sentiment was repeated d u r i n g the course of a telephone conversation with Hebert in July 1986 in which references and papers p e r t a i n i n g to this research project were being sought. Others in the f i e l d have commented on the same d i f f i c u l t i e s (Robert Anthony, B.C.; Rita Bouviere, Sask.; Mike M a l l i n , N.W.T.; Jay Powell, B.C.; P h y l l i s Chelsea,. (Shuswap), B.C.; Kellen Toohey, B.C.). 60 3.3 W H A T I S A V A I L A B L E ON T H E T R A I N I N G O F N A T I V E L A N G U A G E T E A C H E R S L i t t l e information is a v a i l a b l e from the usual academic l i t e r a r y sources on the t