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The importance of activating student prior knowledge : elementary teachers' spontaneous and cued identifications… Tonski, Jean 1988

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THE  IMPORTANCE  ELEMENTARY  OF  ACTIVATING  STUDENT  TEACHERS' SPONTANEOUS OF  KEY  CONCEPTS  AND  PRIOR CUED  IN N A R R A T I V E  KNOWLEDGE:  IDENTIFICATIONS  PROSE  by  JEAN  MARIE  TONSKI  B.A., University of Western Ontario, 1972  A  THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F THE  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR OF  THE DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE  F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE (Department of Language  We  STUDIES  Education)  accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE  UNIVERSITY  O F BRITISH  COLUMBIA  April, 1988  © JEAN  MARIE TONSKI, 1988  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or  her  for  purposes  gain  of  1/)AJSUA&£  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1Y3 Date  DE-6H/81i  APRIL  21,  lift  £t>u c#r/O*J Columbia  requirements  be  It  is  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  the  I agree  I further  permission.  Department  of  not  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT Elementary  teachers' spontaneous  concepts  in  exposure  to research and  their cued degree  narrative  identifications  to which  combined  examined.  cued  Measures  the importance  were investigated. Data teachers identified  identifications of  of key  the  influences  of  of prior  knowledge  on  were analyzed to determine cued  key  concepts  and  the  primary  were compared to those of intermediate teachers. Separate  measures  were compared  were  attitudes toward  elementary  teachers' identifications and  prose  (unaided) and  of teachers' exposure  to their  cued  key  concept  content analysis of the spontaneous  key  to reading research and  identifications. A  attitudes  post hoc exploratory  concept identifications  was  undertaken to  discover possible patterns or phenomena in the data. Results of the analyses of cued concept identifications indicated: a) teachers were were  unable no  to  successfully  significant  identifications; importance  and  and  identify  differences  c) exposure  use  of  prior  key  concepts  between to  reading  knowledge  in narrative  prose;  primarj^  and  intermediate  research  and  attitudes  and  concept  b) there teachers'  towards  development  the  influenced  teachers' ability to identify key concepts. An  examination  a) there was  spontaneous  key  a lack of teacher consensus  b) teachers were their own  of  unable  to identify  concept  identifications  as to definition of a key  passage-relevant key  resources.  ii  concepts  showed  that:  concept; when  and  left to  T A B L E  LIST O F  OF  CONTENTS  TABLES  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vi  Chapter I. I N T R O D U C T I O N A. B. C. D. E. F.  1  Statement of the Problem Rationale for the Study Purpose of the Study Significance of the Study Limitations of the Study Definitions  1 1 6 6 7 7  Chapter II. R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E A. Prior Knowledge Influences Reading Comprehension B. Prior Knowledge Studies C. Prior Knowledge and Concepts D. Summary  9 9 19 41 53  Chapter III. M E T H O D O L O G Y A. Subjects B. Materials 1. Selection of Passages C. Instruments 1. Elementary Teacher Questionnaire 2. Story Booklet D. Procedures E. Scoring 1. Elementary Teacher Questionnaire 2. Story Booklet F. Design and Data Analysis 1. Design 2. Questions and Hypotheses 3. Data Analysis Chapter IV. R E S U L T S A. Basic Teacher Information B. Elementary Teachers' Cued Key Concept Identifications C. Exposure to Reading Research D. Attitudes E. Combined Exposure to Research and Attitude F. Spontaneous (Unaided) Concept Identifications  55 55 56 56 57 57 59 61 63 63 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 ..... 68 70 72 72 75  Chapter V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, IMPLICATIONS .... A. Summary B. Conclusions 1. Cued Key Concept Identifications 2. Spontaneous (Unaided) Key Concept Identifications .... C. Limitations D. Implications  iii  81 81 83 83 92 94 94  REFERENCES APPENDIX  96  A: INITIAL E L E M E N T A R Y  TEACHER  A P P E N D I X B: P A R T QUESTIONNAIRE  ONE: F I N A L E L E M E N T A R Y  APPENDIX  TWO:  C: P A R T  QUESTIONNAIRE  104  TEACHER 109  STORY  BOOKLET  iv  115  LIST Table  OF  TABLES  1: Summary: Prior Knowledge Influences Reading Comprehension  17  Table 2: Summary: Prior Knowledge Studies  38  Table 3: Summary: Prior Knowledge and Concepts  50  Table 4: Narrative Passage-Specific Concept Categories and Their Characteristics Based on Degrees of Generality  61  Table 5: Story Titles and Passage-Specific Concept Classification for Cued Key Concept Response Sheet No. 2  62  Table 6: Years of Teaching Experience and Education Qualifications of the Sample and B.C. Teachers  68  Table 7: Frequency Distribution and Measures of Central Tendency for Elementary Teachers' Cued Key Concept Identifications  69  Table 8: Number of Teachers, Means, Standard Deviations and T-test for the Primary and Intermediate Cued Key Concept Identification Groups  ..70  Table 9: Percentages of Teachers Classified in Each of the Three Exposure to Reading Research Categories by Degree of Exposure  70  Table  10: Teacher Responses to the Attitude Measure  73  Table  11: Concept Categories and Their Characteristics Spontaneous Key Concept Identification Scoring  Table  Table  • Used  for Post Hoc 76  12: Teacher's Spontaneous (Unaided) "Key" Concept Identifications Classified (Post Hoc) According to the Six Concept Categories  77  13: Frequency Distribution and Measures of Central Tendency for Elementary Teachers' Spontaneous Key Concept Identifications  78  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The  word  education  is derived  to lead and guide. I extend my  from  educare which means  sincere thanks to the following people who have  led me  to new discoveries in reading  process  of learning: Dr. F.T. Pieronek,  sharing  a vision  and helping  the Latin term  me  education  and who have guided me  advisor  to build  and teacher  bridges  between  in my  extraordinaire, for the new  and the  known; Dr. J. Shapiro and Dr. H. Polowy, for their support, encouragement, and suggestions; sharing  the faculty  their  knowledge  Okanagan  School  contribute  to educational  patience,  and staff  of the Language  and expertise;  District  for taking research;  and humour; to Ying  my  Kwan  Education  the elementary time  teachers  out of their  family  Department for  and friends  busy  in the Central schedules to  for their  and Bruce McGillivray for their  computer and typing assistance.  vi  kindness, valuable  CHAPTER  A.  STATEMENT  OF  THE  It is suggested  I.  INTRODUCTION  PROBLEM  that prior conceptual knowledge plays an  the interactive reading process. There appears to  aid  students  Teachers  in activating  have  long  reading lessons and be  able  reader  to  used  key  were  teachers' attitudes  basal  understanding  reader  a basis for urging teachers  passage-relevant  manuals  role in  as  sources  key  concepts.  of suggestions for  concepts. It is not known a) whether or not teachers would  identify  manuals  and  to be  important  concepts  used;  and  towards the  on  their  own  if resources  b) if contact with importance  and  use  other  current reading  than  basal  research  or  of activating prior knowledge  influences their identifications.  B.  RATIONALE It has  FOR  taps  Kant  STUDY  been suggested  reservoir of world he  THE  this  further  (Kant  knowledge and  resource  1781)  that all humans possess  experiences. As  of previous  experience  states that understanding  it to past experiences, implying an  and  the learner thinks and relates  it to new  one's present experience  ongoing  in memory a  interaction  reasons,  knowledge.  requires relating  between the  learner and  novel information. This  notion  of a  dynamic  interaction  reading where interaction is proposed text  (Adams  (1979), share  a a  &  text field  Collins, can of  1977;  never implied  be  knowledge.  been  applied to  the  field  to take place between the reader and  Rumelhart, entirely  has  1977). According  explicit They  1  and  authors  propose  that  to Tierney  &  often assume the  text  acts  of the  Spiro readers as  a  2 blueprint,  guiding  the  critical  inferencing, elaborating and  reader  as  he  gleans  meaning  filling in pieces of missing  text without  prior  knowledge  would  be  interpreting,  (implied) information  knowledge from previous experiences. In fact, Adams and interpreting  by  with  Bruce (1980) state that  a  difficult  and  meaningless  that  existing  prior  undertaking. Numerous  reading  authorities have  knowledge influences learning and major  determinant  of reading  1963;  Betts, 1959;  Durkin,  Harris, &  1961;  Johnson,  Tierney p. 24)  &  1978;  comprehension Durrell &  Wilson,  (Adams  Bruce,  Kerf'oot, 1916;  Schank, 1982; 1983;  &  Chambers, 1958;  Huey, 1908;  Russell, 1956;  Spiro, 1979;  conceptual  have said that prior conceptual knowledge is a  1981;  Hildreth, 1963;  agreed  1982;  Gray, 1931,  Obah,  Strange,  1980;  1983;  1947;  Pearson  Thorndike,  Wolfe, 1968). Pearson and  1917  Johnson (1978,  explain reading comprehension as "building bridges between the new"  message on the page) "and Studies knowledge  investigating  influences  their  Kapinus, b) may  1985;  Hilliard  facilitate  recognition  &  how  the  ability  to  Troxell,  understanding  and  recall  (Callahan &  1982);  c) may  account  (Johnston,  1984;  Rowe &  information, causing Johnston, ambiguous  1984;  quality  and  quantity  learn, understand  of  and  students'  remember  material  1937;  by  enhancing  Drum, for  Rayford,  Piekarz,  1984;  major  1956; and  Taft  &  Mathews, 1982;  variance  1987); d) may  in  Davey  Leslie,  increasing  1982;  Nicholson  comprehensible  &  (Anderson  et  al.,  1981); 1977;  text  Pearson et  reading  &  1985);  readers'  al.,  performance  compete for priority  Imlach,  prior  suggest  with text  problems if it is inaccurate or inappropriate (Johnson,  Lipson,  (the  the known" (the reader's prior conceptual knowledge).  prior knowledge: a) is a critical factor influencing reading (Chall, 1947;  1979,  Ausubel,  1982;  e) can  make  Bartlett  1932;  3 Bransford 1971;  &  Johnson, 1972;  Pichert  &  Pearson,  &  1977);  f) is  Anderson,  elaborations, allowing the &  Bransford  1980;  reader to read  Lipson,  practical  application  strategies  to  in  activate  McCarrell, 1974;  1982;  the  and  to  between and  Micholson  classroom  build  believed  &  student  employ  beyond  Imlach,  through  Dooling  experiences  Lachman,  inferences  the lines  1982)  teacher  &  and  use  (Langer,  and  (Hansen  g) can  of  have  instructional  1984;  Stahl  and  Vancil, 1986). If  one  accepts  comprehension, an to  the  teacher  housed  the  that  prior  knowledge  understanding of concepts and  because  in concepts  (e.g., Bransford,  view  our  which  1979;  prior  knowledge  1988;  central  to  reading  their relations becomes important experiences  link current perceptions and  Idol,  is  Lapp, Flood  &  are  purported  to  be  ideas to past experiences  Gleckman,  1982;  Pearson  &  (e.g.,  Bruner  &  Johnson, 1978). Building Anglin,  1973;  (1965,  p.  on  105)  on  definitions  et  Bruner  al.,  explained  inferences" which based  the  was  previous  to be  generalizations) subordinate)  concept  and,  cognitive  Vygotsky, as  discriminated and  experiences  housed  system  1956;  a  levels of thinking rather than believed  of  in a as  of  or  and  that these  1962), reading concrete  or  inferences and  an  educator  abstract  word  such,  which was  represented part  based  of on  a  a  acquired  "network  through  of  of  event higher  a concept  generalization  hierarchical  degrees  Stauffer  object, idea or  drill or rote memory. In language,  was  (or set of  (superordinate,  generality.  In  other  that our prior experiences are housed in concepts which  in turn are housed in vocabulary (Johnson 1978)  f  categorized as  other  relationships  words, it is hypothesized  a  ps3 chologists  "networks  &  Pearson,  of inferences" are  1984; clustered  Pearson  &  Johnson,  and systematically  4 interrelated. Furthermore it is postulated a learner's considerations of the relations of a concept provide hooks or anchors (Ausubel, 1965) for incoming information. When new  information matches  the reader's pre-existing knowledge,  to occur; accomodation results alteration  (Bransford,  1979;  if the novel information  Nelson-Herber &  assimilation  is said  undergoes modification or  Herber, 1984;  Pearson &  Johnson,  1978; Piaget, 1952). Numerous and  their  1982;  reading  development  Ausubel, 1965,  educators have  in relation 1968;  addressed the  to reading  Bransford,  1979;  importance  comprehension Braun,  1963;  of concepts  (Adams Durrell  &  Bruce,  &  Murphy,  1963; Marcum, 1944; Pieronek, 1979; Sims, 1938; Strang, 1968; Waters, 1934).  the  Others  investigated  the importance and  classroom  (Chambers,  1904;  McCullough,  1959;  McKee,  benefits  of concept instruction in  Cunningham,  1987;  Holmes, 1934;  Martorella,  1971,  1977;  1948;  Serra,  Horn, 1953;  1954; Stauffer, 1965), suggesting teachers need to be aware that prior influences  concept  development  comprehension. It would  appear  and  that  direct  concept  that  "concept development  a  Smith,  knowledge  instruction merits  1937;  enhances first  order  rating in the teaching of reading as a thinking process" (Stauffer, 1965, p. 101). This  instructional  aspect  concept relationships, has 1970,  1980;  Ekwall  &  texts  have  development inclusion  in  revealed to a  a  recent  instruction  s  appeared in reading  Shanker,  McKee, 1948; Pearson &  of developing  1985;  Gray,  prior  knowledge,  methodology  and  (Aulls,  1948; Harris,  specifically  1982;  Durkin,  1961; Karlin,  1980;  Johnson, 1978; Stauffer, 1969). In addition, methodology shift  from  stress (Durkin,  incidental  mention  of concepts and  of the importance of prior 1970,  1980;  Karlin,  1971,  knowledge 1980;  concept and its  Spache  &  5 Spache,  1973, 1986). It would  appear  that current emphasis on the interactive  aspects of reading comprehension led to stronger suggestions for teaching cognitive associations concepts further  and  concept  apparently suggested  go  relations beyond  (Pearson  &  in lessons.  a  singular  Johnson,  According  vocabulary  1978; Beck,  reminded that there is a difference between merely  to  Stauffer  definition,  and  (1969), it was  1984) teachers  need to be  defining a word  and owning  a word in its fullest sense. There appears  to be a modest empirical basis for urging teachers to a) be  aware  of the connection  their  relationship  understanding for  a  and  concept  reader  between  concepts  terminology;  and prior  and  b) aid  knowledge  students  in  relations in reading. According to Pearson  to comprehend  an  entire  passage  and  with  respect to  activating  and  (1985), in order  understand  relationships  among words and ideas, he must have knowledge of its key concepts. Teachers for  reading  have long used  lesson  basal reader guidebooks as sources of suggestions  vocabularj', concepts  and  Mason, 1983). However, we do not know to  identify key concepts  on their own  their  development  (Durkin,  1984;  whether or not teachers would be able  if resources other than basals were  used.  This aspect in instruction needs to be further explored. This  study  able  to identify  with  current  endeavors  to determine  key concepts  reading  research  a) whether  in six narrative and  their  stories;  attitudes  elementary  teachers are  and b) whether  towards  contact  the significance of  students' prior knowledge influences their ability to identify those key concepts.  6 C. PURPOSE OF T H E STUDY It teachers b) their  was  the  could cued  purpose  identify  of  unaided  this or  study  cued  to  key  identifications were influenced  research and  examine  concepts  by  their  their attitudes towards the importance  whether  a) elementary  in narrative  exposure  prose;  and  to current reading  of prior knowledge.  Specifically, the questions were: 1.  Would elementary  teachers be  able to identify key  concepts in six narrative  prose passages unassisted? 2.  Would elementary passages  and  primary and 3.  teachers identify cued  would  a) their  in-service); prior  any  concepts in six narrative prose  differences between the identifications of  intermediate teachers?  Would elementary by  there be  key  teachers' identifications of cued key  exposure  b) their  knowledge;  to  current  attitudes  c) a  reading  towards  combination  of  the  concepts be influenced  research  importance  exposure  to  of  (courses,  journals,  activating  reading  student  research  and  attitudes? To  answer these questions, four null hypotheses  were formulated and  are located  in Chapter III.  D. SIGNIFICANCE OF T H E STUDY The  study  educators and  was  considered  to  potentially  important  for  students,  publishers. Comprehension for narrative prose could be improved if  teachers were aware of the importance pre-reading  be  activities  and  if  appropriate, passage-relevant key  they  of activating were  students' prior knowledge in  consistently  able  to  identify  concepts necessary for that activation. The  the study  7 would  also  provide  unassisted key  E.  insight into  the  choices  behind  elementary  teachers'  initial,  concept identifications.  L I M I T A T I O N S  O F  T H E  S T U D Y  Several limitations were anticipated: 1.  2.  The  narrative passages were  short  and  might not  reflect the  typical of a full-length story used in regular classroom  lessons.  The  had  spontaneous  therefore  would  (unaided) key require  an  concept  exploratory  identifications content  analysis  no to  concept load  control  and  discover  any  patterns or phenomena. 3.  The  population  was  limited to one  school district and  findings  might not  be  generalized beyond the conditions of the study.  F.  D E F I N I T I O N S  concept: "A network of inferences that are discriminated and categorized as belonging to the same object or event (class or kind), which provides the bases for inferences about other categories, and is usually represented by word(s) or other symbol. Concepts may be defined on a subordinate and superordinate basis and classified as a part of a system. In addition, they may be classified as perceptual (concrete) or conceptual (abstract) depending on the source of the attributes being used." (Stauffer, 1965, p. 105)  cued identifications: supplied groups of passage-relevant concepts of which considered to be central to understanding the story  three  are  key concept: the superordinate, generalization or expectation which subsumes and incorporates subordinate concepts and is considered to be central to understanding the story  8 prior knowledge: a  learner's  referred  to  experiences as  which  conceptual  are  housed  in  concepts;  also  knowledge  prior knowledge activation: to  actively  (concepts)  engage in  dynamically referred  to  the  the  interact as  appropriate,  mind's  store  with  concept  the  relevant  of  prior  new  network experiences  incoming  of  inferences which  information;  will also  development  spontaneous key concept identifications: the  unaided,  central  unassisted  concepts  they  teacher  would  suggestions  develop  for  passage-relevant  CHAPTER The  review  Knowledge  In evident  the  apparent The  A.  process  the  of prior  importance  (1980, p. 270)  related  conceptual  LITERATURE  Prior  Knowledge  a topic of concern and  have  for the  influence of prior  INFLUENCES  authorities  is not  new  suggested  whose  interest  was  a  new  knowledge  is viewed  that over  a period of time, they  text is considered to be secondary  that since reading is an  In claimed  interactive  experience influence  beyond. directed  to  the  psychological  would  assist in meaningful  and  experiences  reading, for a  to the learner's thought.  Kerfoot (1916, p. 20) in How We read what we read with we have the ideas  by  COMPREHENSION  pedagogical aspects of reading, said students should acquire their own and  one. Its  wine in old bottles".  READING  reading comprehension at the literal level and (1908),  Prior  1980s is interesting.  learning process, a reader's prior knowledge and  Huey  Studies;  literature, it became increasingly  knowledge  as a case of "finer and  PRIOR K N O W L E D G E  thinking and  THE  Summary.  of reviewing  notion  of the  Numerous  OF  Comprehension;  strong re-emergence as  rebirth  Strange  Reading  Concepts;  that the  REVIEW  of the literature is disussed under the following headings: Prior  Influences  Knowledge and  II.  to Read, proposed:  then quite literally, with our own experience. We read with have seen and heard and smelled and tasted and felt. We emotions we have had ... We read with the observations made and the deductions we have drawn from them; with we have developed and the ideals we have built into them.  his classic  study  that reading was  of mistakes not  in paragraph  "mechanical"  process of organizing, elaborating, and  or  actively 9  reading, Thorndike  (1917)  "passive" (p. 434), but rather a making connections between ideas.  10 This, he  said, involved higher levels of thinking. He  reading  may  misguided  be  due  to  the  over-potency  or  suggested  that problems in  under-potency  of  elements  or  connections in meaning.  Understanding a paragraph ... consists in selecting the right elements of the situation and putting them together in the right relations ... The mind ... must select, repress, soften, emphasize, correlate and organize (p. 431).  In  other  incorporating organization their  words,  the  reasoning in the  connotations  mind matches new According  and  proper  and  reading the  relations  the rejection  process  weighing to one  is  considered  of  appropriate  another,  the  to  experiences.  process on  may  mental  ideas may  be and  Moreover,  the application  believed the of meaning  central neural activity. The  also depend on  to connect to the new William  he  S. Gray  into speed  that the  studies in the psychology  most  critical  the  of  understand.  reading, the meaning of a word is the result of its recurrence and past  "their  of certain  It appears  information to old in order to reason and summarized  interactive,  elements,  selection  of others ..." (p. 425).  to Starch (1919), who  be  step  incoming  with which  of  connection to  in the  reading  impressions  based  a reader produces  the store of vicarious or real experiences s/he  is able  material. (a 1937,b 1941)  stated (b,p. 27),  the chief resource of the reader is his background of related experience. Only in so far as the reader's experiences relate in some form or other to the concepts or situations to which the author refers can the reader comprehend what is read... As meanings are aroused or discovered, they are so fused or related in the mind of the reader that the general meaning of the passage is understood.  Therefore, a experience  reader's  would  seem  need  for rich  critical  vocabulary  and  to comprehension. He  background  of related  continued, stating that  11 problems  result  when  classroom  materials  presume  children  possess the  necessary common, broad backgrounds of related experiences needed for the thinking processes in comprehension. Durrell & in  thinking  Chambers (1958) focused on the need for further  as it relates to reading. They  stated  that  thinking  research  employs a  variety of mental tasks and suggested it can be specifically taught, adding that  association  and elaboration  may  be  comprehension because of their possible  key factors  elaboration  may  also  increase  reading  transfer value and their function in  relating previous knowledge to new content. They in  influencing  retention  suggested that instruction  and afford  easier  retrieval of  prior knowledge in novel situations. Russell  (1958)  supported  the  view  that  among  factors  which  determine understanding of print is the role and active participation of the reader.  He  called  for further  research  concerning  the apparent  process  between text and reader, citing studies dealing with effects of both adequate and  misleading prior knowledge and how  attitude affects critical judgements,  inferencing and the acquisition of new factual material. Proposing (1959)  made  mechanical  that a  word  children  distinction  can be instructed between  manipulation)  provided  suggestions  students,  warning  influences  their ability  about  teachers  and  tactics that  to solve  (1961)  was  critically  and  (a thinking  strategies  the quality  to think,  "false  Betts  security" in  about  to prepare  of students' prior  ideas. and  He guide  experience  problems, make conceptual abstractions and  generalizations, to evaluate and draw Harris  verbalism  in how  concerned  conclusions. with  increasing  reading  ability  and  12 postulated  that  complicated vocabulary  stages  (intermediate  grades)  material, ideas that are beyond and a more complex language.  in reading  may  incorporate  students' experience, unfamiliar  Harris pointed out that a reader  must therefore improve his vocabulary, build and expand concepts and ideas, and  discriminate between  story  and information material in order to cope.  Further, he said, a reader relates the new  information to prior experiences  in order to make comparisons and detect ambiguities. Hildreth meaning promotion  (1963)  addressed  and comprehension of active  perception  and  postulated  that  student  child  experiences, that allows  of reading  incorporating principles participation  the importance a  the goal  possesses  quick  meaningful  a  a  search for  of associative  in the reading  of students'  who  as  process,  experiential relevant  association  learning, roles of  background.  rich  She  background  and word  of  recall, will  learn to read with greater understanding. Reading  comprehension, according to Pearson  "building bridges between the new concepts  and  prior  experiences,  their  a distinction between word  meaning,  seeking  definition. Adhering  (1978) is  and the known" and involves functioning  suggested  full  and Johnson  "ownership"  assimilation  and  accomodation.  recognition and primacy of a  word  in lieu  They  of vocabulary  of a  superficial  to the belief that experience is the basis for inferences,  for reading "between" and "beyond" the lines on a page, they proceeded to adopt  Schank's  (1973) term  "take-for-granted situations. Pearson knowledge  about  knowledge"  "scripts" readers  to represent  the dynamic  possess  interpret  to  everyday  events  and  (1985, p. 729) later emphatically stated that "A reader's a topic, particularly  key vocabulary, is a better predictor  13 of  comprehension  of a  text  than  is any  measure  of reading  ability or  achievement". Tierney relationship "blueprint" entirely  and Spiro, 1979 believed in a contractual triad (shared-field)  between  author,  text  and  reader.  Text  guiding a construction of understanding,  explicit.  They  further  stated  that  since a text  the extent  experiences, purposes, skills and attitudes will determine the  author's  cognizant  message  will  be  understood.  They  "that the old is required to understand  influencing  and  interpreting  are keys  is likened  to  to  a  is never  of the reader's  the extent to which  warned  teachers  the new"  understanding  to be  (p. 16), that  and  procedural  flexibility is necessary during instruction. Michael Strange reading  where  knowledge between an  (1980) discussed the interactive conceptual theory of  (p. 269, 270) "We  and that  what we  in terms  of existing  at the point  of contact  and what is new... it assists a reader  in making  this  know  comprehend  knowledge  is changed  inference." However, he believed these  earlier  current ideas were presented in  research and that teachers are already aware of the need to build  childrens' prior  knowledge  however simply  a case of old wine in new  in  and  old bottles  importance and  print  little  of activating  emphasizing  though  new  they  wine,  students' prior  vocabulary  and  may  require reminding.  "It is  not,  bottles, but rather, finer wines  too" (p. 269). He knowledge  conceptual  stressed the  in prereading  relationships  in  activities, classroom  instruction. Durkin interest  (1981)  in reading  addressed  comprehension  the value undertaken  of the recent  resurgence  in interdisciplinary  of  research.  14 She  adopted  a  communication (1980),  response  among  that  the  of  cautious  educators notion  and  that  and  called  for increased  researchers. She  agreed  with  Strange  experiences  affects  a  optimism  reader's  prior  comprehension is not a novel idea but rather, has terminology.  For  and  relevant concepts,  review  many  years, she  said  teachers  vocabulary  and  been labeled were  instructed  will  comprehend  what  s/he  reads.  that teachers spend little classroom Successful according from  to  communication  Adams  Unfortunately, Durkin  the  reader  Tierney  and  Spiro  between  the  expected  by  actual  and  (1979)  (1982),  text  the  use  for a  of  conceptual  person  material. They  when  knowledge  the author  his less than  the  a  (1979)  found  time in actual pre-reading instruction.  involves  Bruce  before  a topic, the better  they  reader  warned has  and  were  to irrelevant or inappropriate concept  a good match  in agreement  with  of  possible discrepencies  the  presumed  to evoke favourable influences and  totally explicit text. Mismatches and  knowledge  constructs meaning  prior experiences. They pointed out that there must be  between  do  and  new  to build  childrens' experiences  reading a story, because the more a reader understands he  under  experiences  interpretations of  short-circuits may  occur  instantiation, incorrect property or  characteristic association, or insufficient prior knowledge. Again, from 61) proposed  the standpoint of artificial intelligence, Shank  (1982, p.  a  child must have a well developed sense of the world around him in order to understand stories about the world ... it is world knowledge, and the processes that utilize that knowledge, that constitute the key issues in reading comprehension.  In other words, if children lack the appropriate, relevant background  experiences,  15 they  cannot be expected  to comprehend. Readers, he said, use inferences to fill  in gaps in a text and the knowledge of common, day to day situations (which is organized  in "scripts") is an important  insisted, helped  source  cultural  A  Third  dilemma  experiences  than  World  perspective  that  many  Third  those  encountered  identified  a conceptual  meaning  if the learner is unable  performance  inferences. Scripts, he  to define the context of a story and to "track" the characters'  plans and goals in order to gain insightful From  of those  will  and cultural  suffer.  understanding. on  reading,  Obah  (1983)  posed the  World  students  possess  different  in our  Western  reading  materials. She  gap, stating to relate  Insufficient  that  a message  the new  prior  knowledge  will  prior  have no  to the old and reading she  believed  inhibited  prediction and hypothesizing and slowed the reading rate. According reading  as a  interactive  to Wilson process  aspects  techniques  between  model, the learner's prior core, emphasizing  (1983),  it appears although  the reader's knowledge  the need  that  recent  knowledge  teachers  research  has focused  the new  on the  and text. In her interactive  and inferencing skills  to connect  are not practising  were  placed  at the  (text) information to background  knowledge already in the reader's head. She asserted that connection may be one of  the most  suggestions  crucial  factors  for instruction  determining which  comprehension  include  the  and  activation  proceeded of  to offer  students'  prior  knowledge before reading as well as building concepts. To of Strange the  notion  summarize, the review (1980) and Durkin that  a  reader's  of the literature lends support  to the opinions  (1981) that the reader-text aspect of reading and prior  knowledge  influences comprehension  are not  entirely new concepts in reading education. Recent literature illustrates the current  16 resurgence in  their  they  of their importance in reading  models  appear  involving  stressed  knowledge reading  to agree  interactions,  words, they and  or views about how  have the  that  reading  research. Though  prior  knowledge  is actively  selection, construction,  highlighted significance  the reader's and  active  influence  and their viewpoints  reading comprehension.  role  meaning  and  may  differ  in memory, from  prediction.  print  In other  in reading comprehension  of the reader's  at the literal level and beyond. Table  authorities  is organized  seeking  inferences  theorists  1 provides  on the influence  prior  conceptual  a summary  of the  of prior knowledge on  17  Table  1: Summary: Prior Knowledge Influences Reading Comprehension  Authority  Date  Huey  1908  Viewpoint Students  should acquire &  make reading a natural &  develop experiences that will meaningful  process.  Kerfoot  1916  We  read with our own experience.  Thorndike  1917  Understanding a paragraph consists of selecting right elements in right relations.  Gray  1937, The chief resource of the reader is his background 1941 experiences. If these relate to new information, comprehension results. Need to build rich vocabulary concepts.  &  Durrell & Chambers  1958  Elaborative and associational thinking may be key factors in reading because they relate new content to prior knowledge.  Russell  1958  A reader has an active role in the reading process which determines the impact of print.  Betts  1959  Students' prior experiences affect their ability to think critical^.  Harris  1961  A mature reader relates his prior knowledge and experience with the present material.  Hildreth  1963  A child who possesses a relevant, rich background of experience will learn to read with greater understanding.  Pearson & Johnson  1978  "Comprehension is building bridges between the new and the known."  Tierney &  Spiro 1979  Strange  1980  Text is like a blueprint, never totally explicit and guides construction of meaning. The old is required to understand the new. Print is comprehended at point of contact between what we know and what is new. Process requires inferencing. Need to build prior knowledge in pre-reading activities.  18 Table  1 continued  Authority  Date  Viewpoint  Durkin  1981  Idea that a reader's prior knowledge affects reading comprehension is not a novel one. Little instruction time occurs in classrooms, however.  Adams, Bruce  1982  "Without prior knowledge, a complex object, such as a text, is not just difficult to interpret, it, strictly speaking, is meaningless".  Schank  1982  Stories about the world cannot be understood unless a child has a well developed sense of the world. World knowledge & its processes are key issues.  Obah  1983  Third world students suffer in reading comprehension to cultural & conceptual gaps between their prior knowledge & western educational materials.  Wilson  1983  Reading as a process is not reflected in classroom practice. Relationship between what a reader already knows and what is on the page is one of the most critical factors that determines comprehension.  due  19  B. PRIOR KNOWLEDGE STUDIES A  number  expressed  about  of  studies  the  important  comprehension, learning and Bartlett "schemata"  (1932,  in memory  to  unfamiliar  added  role and  empirical  evidence  to  the  influence of prior knowledge  opinions  in  reading  remembering.  1958)  some distortions in the culturally  have  suggested guide  and  we  use  reconstruct  recall of prose may  legend  (The  preexisting knowledge  War  incoming  result. He  of the  stored  information  asked  adults  Ghosts) in order  to  but  as that  to retell  discover  a how  errors occur in the reconstruction of details. He  identified three systematic  they  were  such  as  accurate]}'  remembering.  proper names were not  evident  in  the  shorter  version' of the  knowledge and  retellings.  Flattening  story  occurred  when  remembered. Elaborations  Rationalization according  resulted  to their  as  unfamiliar details  and  sharpening  subjects  cultural  rather, remember the  general  as  our  reconstructed  expectations,  conform  to  do  not  merely retrieve stored  due  to  word  idea or gist of a story and  idiosyncratic beliefs  counts) and  the  absence  not show how In factor  in  information  a  their prior  about  the  constructions,  reconstruct content.  study appears to lack the quantitative, objective methods of judging simple  were  concepts.  Bartlett proposed that we  they  distortions in recall, though subjects felt that  1937,  replications of the  of experimental  distortions is not  manipulation  but  the details  However,  the  data (he used  considered  of variables. As  possible  well, he  did  "schemata" aid in the retention of prose. Hilliard  reading  and  readiness  of kindergarten  Troxell studied and  progress.  children continued  prior informational Investigations  of  background the  through to grade two  as  a  background to determine  20 how  possession  or  lack  of  a  rich  experiential  background  influenced  reading  readiness tests. Background parents,  Smith  progress  was  knowledge  Vocabulary  decided  by  was  and  measured Healy  results  Pictorial  the Gates Primary  the group of children who  by  had  a wealth  Chall  (1947)  of  a  Completion  questionnaire  tests,  while  to  reading  Reading Test. Results indicated that  of prior knowledge were well ahead of  the "meager" group. Ten  years  knowledge  on  subject of a  later,  reading  passage, s/he  hundred  subjects  consisted  of fifteen  Four  multiple  (grades  and  believing that  will be 6  to  8)  questions  details  and  if a  the  influence  reader  to read  read  Paragraph  a  (different  for each  make  Health  for each  passage  of  already  better equipped  health passages  choice  generalize, recall HPT  abililty,  investigated  and  previous  knows  the  understand.  One  Test  (HPT)  which  grade) about, tuberculosis.  tested  the  readers'  ability  inferences. Correlation measures between  Stanford Reading Test provided  a reliable coefficient for the H P T  to the  as  a  reading test. To test was students the HPT.  determine  prior  administered who  scored  Students  their  scores  27%  of  on  the  before high on  the  TB  Stanford  Reading  the  factor Test  about the  tuberculosis, an  HPT  eight-item  paragraphs. It was  prior knowledge test would the basis of their H P T  true/false  believed that  also score high  were and  as  a  grade  computed  for  both  on  criterion scores, with  information test beside. Means for the upper and  distribution  intelligence  reading  were ranked on  differences at the p<.01 the  knowledge  tests  showing  lower  significant  p<.05 levels. However, Chall could not control for major  determiner  equivalent  scores  of  high  to rank  scores, pupils and  so  she to  used  compare  21 "tuberculosis" scores. Though knowledge was knew  about  comprehend  it was  identified as a  not  found  significant from  factor in understanding,  tuberculosis concepts  prior  the Health Paragraph  to  high  level  and  meaning from who  were  who  one  low  level  text. They  were  considered  interpretations  reader, based  investigation  equal  of text  on  content.  on  from  a  of the  The  group  elementary  their  ability  had  able to the  students, one  to derive accurate  group of bright interpretive  standarized  was  grades.  studies of two  were selected  involved in an  better he  Chall therefore emphasized  need to build students' experiences in the elementary Piekarz (1956) compared the case  t-test, prior  since the more a subject  reading, the  test about TB.  the  22  6th  reading  test  scores  read  an  but  process  not  emotive  graders and  in  their  passage  about  parent-child relationships silently, reread it orally in shorter units typed on cards, verbalized their thoughts passage.  The  distributed  and  questions  among  nine  orally answered 30  measured  experimental questions about the  understanding  interpretation  of  the  areas  (eg. details,  correctly  answered  selection main  and  were  ideas, inference,  definition of terms). The  high  and  verbalized  52  answers. He  passage. The areas  (53%  activated  level  93  (male) reader  responses was  personal  of the  26%  30  questions  (classified in all nine areas) compared to the  able to identify details to get at the broad  (female) low literal,  23  level reader  had  broad,  evaluative),  experience  21%  and  deriving  high  level  verbal responses  biased  meaning of the  in six of the  contributing  narrow,  groups'  more  and  nine  details  less  of  accurate  meanings. Results  suggested  that  readers  remain  objective, incorporating  0  their  background  knowledge  to  enhance  meanings  or  to  prove  a  point,  and  22 restrict answers to ideas expressed in the selection. Low be  unable  to  distinguish  between  personal  opinions  level readers seemed to  and  those  of  the  author,  frequently allowing their prior knowledge to override the message. To  demonstrate  remembering processing,  linguistic Branford  manipulated followed by  of  materials  and  and  Johnson  prior  knowledge  its necessary (1972)  knowledge. A  male  communication  to  and  female  hear  a  tape  was  four  comprehension  recorded  comprehending  relevant  and  activation  during  experiments  which  seven-point rating  scale  used.  high school students were  during a serenade. The  information  in  undertook  a seven minute recall measure was  in each,  contextual  role  subjects' prior  Fifty ten  the  passage  divided  about  into  possible  5  groups,  breakdowns in  prior knowledge needed to understand  presented  in  the  form  of  two  pictures  the  labeled  appropriate context and partial-context. They were not considered to be a part of the subjects' prior knowledge before the experiment. In Experiment rating  and  listening; appropriate which  recall; Context  I, The  Context After  No  Before  Subjects  picture; the Partial  objects and  their  listened to the passage Results  showed  Context (1) group only heard the passage before Subjects heard  the  Context group  relations  were  important  ratings  other groups  for  appropriate picture  passage, saw  then  were  better  before  shown  the  the partial context picture in the  No  Context  twice to assess repetition effects in absence of comprehensibility to be (p<.005) and  (2)  group  of context.  higher for the  Context  they recalled more ideas  reflected some increased ratings but not as much  the Context Before group. It was is  the  rearranged;  Before subjects than the other four groups (p<.005). The  saw  concluded that focusing on  understanding,  especial^'  when  as  prerequisite material  it provides  meaningful  23 stimulus sentence connection Experiments "Making  and  and  an  II, III, and  Flying  a  no  information; the  listening  and  before  rating  utilized  No  Topic or  materials  considered  a topic cue  context. In Experiment II, the received  IV  Kite")  pre-experiment knowledge and  organization for prior knowledge.  Topic  to  be  ("Washing  Clothes"  part  the  to assist in the  of  and  subjects'  activation of relevant  group (17Ss) listened to a passage  After group  recall; the  (17Ss) were told  Topic  Before  the topic prior to the passage. Experiments III and  IV  group  the  but  topic after  (18Ss) were  given  used various combinations  of the condition groups. Comprehension ratings were highest for the Topic Before and  recall was  II and No  better (p<.005) than  III. Topic  Before  rating  the  scores  other  two  groups in both  were higher  in Experiment  Topic Scores (p<.05) as well as recall of the Topic Before Bransford  facilitate  current  important context  and  prior  Topics  appear  comprehension. Further,  to effect memory  Bartlett's  inferences and  suggested  understanding.  for passage  seems  (versus  Johnson  and  reconstructive)  knowledge to the  be  than  or may  the  activated  contexts  reflected  process  meanings are constructed. These may  IV  which  of appropriate  work  comprehension  Experiments  Ss (p<.05).  must  prepare lack  recall. Their  subjects (p<.005)  where  to are  semantic  a constructive remembered  not differ from  the  message. The illustrate information Bransford  Bransford the are and  belief also  and that  Johnson (1972) findings focused connections  important  McCarrell  pictures of incomprehensible  (cited  between  in the in  comprehension  Bradsford,  objects. The  prior  1979)  subjects could  on linguistic inputs. To knowledge  and  current  of physical, visual presented see  the  inputs,  subjects  with  objects but  were  24 unable  to understand  them  until another  visual presentation provided contexts for  the objects. Bransford and  McCarrell then presented  scissors. Subjects recognized understand  their  importance  scissor structure and These  them  as  until  illustrations  various types of scissors but  a  function was  chart  knowledge  to  support  evidence  and  et  Anderson  ability  to  explaining  the  did not  relationship  fully  between  provided.  that activates appropriate knowledge affects According  a picture of five different pairs of  al.  analyse  that  presenting  relevant information  understanding.  (1977),  context  an  individual's  influences  the  previous  world  comprehension  of  a  communication. They investigated whether people from different backgrounds would perceive passages in respectively different ways. Thirty  female  participated in two were  education  groups of 15. Two  written. The  wrestling  music  first  could  perspective while  the  be  and  thirty  male  passages of approximately interpreted from  second  passage  vocabulary  vocabulary  test and  and  free  each) on the two Results background the  recall,  and  completed  indicated  a  significant  (wrestling or music) and  than  music  Card/Music  they  be the  read the  450  a  words each  prison  perceived first  students  break  from  a  or  card  passage, completed  second, again  two  multiple choice  (p<.01)  interaction  worked  tests  (10  on  items  passages.  Prison/Wrestling test, t(58)=  answers the  free recall. Then  either  could  playing or music rehearsal standpoint. Subjects read a  weightlifting  test,  5.60  students. Music t(58)  =  passage. The provided  physical education  Each  subjects'  students  on  more correct wrestling-perspective  students' answers  6.53.  between  passage  were  music-consistent  was  given  one  on  distinct  25 interpretation recalled  or the other.  in the Card/Music  A  mean  proportion  of .36 of total  idea  units were  passage and .31 of the units in the Prison/Wrestling  break, showing a main effect for passage. Prompted the  authors  by  found  Bartlett's (1932) identification theme-revealing  passage idea units) occurred  intrusions  of intrusions  (phrases  and distortions,  or sentences  unrelated to  in .26 of the recall protocols, while disambiguations  (paraphrases) appeared in .69 recalls. Both were found to be significantly related (p<.01) to subjects' prior knowledge. Analysis  of autobiographical  knowledge influenced  the passage  information  supported  interpretations. Further,  the view only  that  prior  2 3 % were  aware  of the possibility of an alternate interpretation for passages. Pichert and of  how  undergraduate  in two  passage  could  students  narrative  be interpreted  person standpoint. perspective  across  study  in the area  participated in rating  passages  while the "Island" story  each  (1977) continued  of perspective  it determines significant text elements. In Experiment I, 63 University  Illinois  units  and Anderson  read  from  could  from  different perspectives.  a burglar's  be seen  the importance  from  or prospective  The  of idea "House"  homebuyer's  view,  an eccentric florist or shipwrecked  On the basis of mean rating, idea units were rank ordered in with  the mean  coefficient  .11, showing  that  idea  units  varied  perspectives. In  the second experiment  then randomly assigned working  on  a  113 subjects in intact groups (3-25persons) were  to conditions. The procedure included reading  vocabulary  test, completing  a  free  recall  test  the passage,  and a debriefing  questionnaire. A  free  recall  was  repeated  one week  later.  Perspective X Learning  and  26 Perspective X particular  Idea  Unit  perspective  Importance  determines  were  the  significant  importance  be  learned. This lends support  to schema theory  a  passage  subsuming  by  matching  and  (p<.01),  of ideas  reflecting  and  whether  that  they  which proposes readers  (Ausubel,  1965)  new  a  will  interpret  information  into  pre-existing high-level schema (perspective) in the head. Idea units had  a significant effect on  memory in that the more  ideas were better recalled. Dated importance proportion  of  the  more  immediately  had  recalled  a more powerful idea  units  important  effect on  (p<.05)  than  the those  remembered a week later. Pearson, Hansen and on  information.  Subjects  Minnesota classrooms who (8  pretest  schema) and difference  lowest  in means  One  about  spiders  six  responses were recorded Results  group. A  showed  implicit  Scheffe  tests  determine  a  and  students  an the  inference, from  oral prior knowledge 10  highest  (strong  used in the experiment. was  four  significant  The  (p<.001) but  reading ability. read  six  a grade-level passage on  explicit  interspersed  spiders  questions. A l l  scored.  significantly better overall within-subjects  (inferential) questions  reflected  implicit questions  implicit  and  indicated a  schema  administered  of correct responses and  implicit (requiring grade  (weak schema) scores to be  numbers  answered  second  to  week later subjects individually  orally  strong  25  were individually  questions)  10  were  subjects were similar in measured I.Q.  and  the effect of prior knowledge  the comprehension of explicit (directly stated) and  synthesis)  test  Gordon (1979) assessed  more  (p<.025). The  main  were  pronounced use  of a  effect  more prior simple  performance  (p<.01) by  for question  difficult  than  knowledge  type  (p<.01)  explicit. As  effect  for  passage in lieu of a  the  well,  inferred, population  27 passage  and the possibility  acknowledged  prior  question  type  effect  was  due to chance  were  limitations of the study.  Pearson et al. facilitates  that  suggest these data support the belief that prior knowledge  comprehension,  knowledge  especially  (organized  inferential  comprehension.  in a conceptual framework),  The  stronger the  the more likely concepts  will be classified or remembered and retrieved to fill in gaps in the text. Hansen  and Pearson  (1980,  1982) later  tested  a training  strategy  using  24  second grade students of average or slightly above average reading level and  20  good, 20 poor 4th graders. They  information increased  and prior  children's  knowledge  ability  found that making connections between text  and practice  to draw  in answering  inferences. Instruction  inferential  appeared  questions,  to especially  assist poor readers who outperformed the control group. The strategy  appears to  be  of children  successful. It may  and  adults  may  be  be that explained  differences between by  their  the performances  differences  in prior  knowledge  as  determined by their ability to draw infererences and make make connections.  make  Prior  knowledge is presumed  when  answering  to influence the kinds of inferences children  questions about  narrative  stories.  Nicholson and Imlach  (1981) demonstrated  that text data and prior knowledge compete during question  answering.  Experiment  imbedded on  Though  I  inconsistencies, Experiment  the premise that children  dealt  with  2 added  were inclined  the alteration  a causal  of text  through  "preference" factor  to use certain  based  types of inferences in  narratives, overlooking explicit statements in favor of their own  inferences about  why events happen. Forty-four children  from  (22 boys, 22 girls) eight year old, average  two schools read four  narrative  (two familiar  and above average and two unfamiliar)  28 texts. Predictable and the causal preference Results  for events and  may  familiarity  (1982) depend  or  causal  type.  Children  explanations  instead.  postulated more  upon  features while comprehending and information,  or  inaccuracies  experience and  were created  for each story, varying  significant effect for causal preference  impose their own  Johnson  versions  (internal, external) factor within each version.  indicated a  effects for story  readers  unpredictable  of  that  English  their  prior knowledge  may text.  as  may  not recover She  a  (p<.01) with  overlook  Second than  text reasons  Language on  (ESL)  linguistic  text  from incorrect integrations  studied  the  effects of  exposure to difficult vocabulary words on  a reading  no  cultural  and prior  comprehension  passage about Hallowe'en. Seventy nationalities unfamiliar  two  University  participated. The section  and  advanced-level Hallowe'en  low-frequency  passage  words.  sentence recognition task, were then assigned asked  to  recall  administered  understanding was  information  was  of  of  significantly also  background  difficulty and  in  written  students consisted  Subjects to one  form.  representing  of  a  23  familiar  completed  a  and  true/false  of four test conditions  Two  weeks  later  they  and were  the passage.  indicated real, direct cultural prior experience affected (p<.05)  information  Effects  passage  a cloze test on  Results students'  the  ESL  the  Hallowe'en  better  recognized knowledge  custom.  (p<.01) than  more were  unfamiliar  accurately more  Written  than  clear  the  than  recall  ESL  of  familiar  information.  Familiar  unfamiliar  (p<.01).  effects  of  vocabulary  Johnson proposed that written recall language problems may  be  the  (1982) investigated the relationship between prior knowledge and  28  result of a lack of prior knowledge about the topic. Lipson  29 (14  average and 14 below average) third graders' comprehension  passages assessed  from  primary  science  and  social  studies  prior knowledge of the topics. Pupils  read  texts.  of 8 expository  A  pre-test  session  the passages a week  later,  completed an intervention task, and chose the best answer for each of six paired sentences. A  main  effect  for question  significantly  (p<.01) identified  and  inferences  causal  inferences  (p<.01).  (p<.01) for subjects precondition  was  more  appeared  Prior  type explicit  to be  knowledge  from  one  considered  than  more  of the  passage  to be  (p<.005)  a  was  inferential  difficult topics  and  and  subjects  information.  than  was  to another  source  found  attribute  or  significantly prior  of variance  Event goal  different  knowledge  as a  (p<.001) in post-test  performances. Lipson answers  and  information answer.  that  was  Even  knowledge, resorted  found  suggested  a  when  text  that  only  In information  an  effort  more  at pretest  their when  prior  to  predicted get an  if they  scored  conflicted  experience  knowledge  understand  item a  post-test  correct  pretest  the  to answer  was  new  with  correct  when  incorrect  reader's  prior  questions.  They  unavailable.  She  incoming information  further when no  "clutters" and confuses their schema.  to determine  accessibility  than  previous  answers  likely  information  groups could  wrong prior information  pre-test  was  the text used  both  correct  child  unknown  subjects  to  that  and  the influence  availability,  Mathews  of prior (1982)  knowledge compared  on 34  prose fourth  graders' free and probed recall (tested 24 hours later) of a target passage after listening to a related knowledge passage or one that was unrelated. information  constituted  the correct  number  of micropropositions  "Accessible"  freely  recalled,  30 while  answers  to  eight  probed  questions  provided  information  "available"  in  memory. There reflecting  were no  no  recalls  with  group  and  significant differences in free recall for the two  information respect  to  suggested  information. A  accessibility hierarchical  the  differences. However, text  qualitative  greater availability  an  structure favored  impact  of  prior  of information was  conditions  analysis of free  the  prior  knowledge  shown by  knowledge  on  the  accessing  significantly  higher scores of the prior knowledge group on probed recall. Callahan knowledge before  and  Dunn  reading  reading  average  and  three  ability  on  investigated  the  passages, twenty  (n-10) reading  vocabulary  (1984)  ability  were  test, which incorporated  understanding fifth  and  administered 12  key  passages represented  topic sentence, read  and  effects  six graders a  of  level  of written prose.  twenty  words from  level of prior knowledge were obtained based on The  the  of high  Ten  days  (n-10) and  the passages. Scores for  three conditions: a) intact, b) the  each of the passages in one  prior  word free-association  the meaning of the  c) the deletion of the topic and  of  responses.  absence of the  concluding sentences.  Subjects  of the conditions. Recalls (oral) were matched  against the structural analysis of the passages. Subjects were requested  to insert  cloze  five-point  sentences  for the  missing  information  which  were  scored  on  a  scale based on their relevance. Prior  knowledge a  best  indicated  by  added by  every predictor).  Johnston from  reading  step-wise  predicted  regression  (1984) found  comprehension  recall,  inference, and  analysis (which  cloze  demonstrates  insertions, the  as  increment  "' that prior tests. Eighth  knowledge grade  may  (207)  bias information rural  and  urban  gained students  completed  an  18-question  reading  word expository texts. The 6  comprehension  test was  comprised  background  demonstrate  knowledge)  the  qualitative  content-related vocabulary administered  the  IPAT  central and  and  based  nonverbal  peripheral  tested by  reasoning  three  650-750  6 script implicit (demanding questions  quantitative effects of prior  knowledge was  on  of 6 text explicit (directly stated),  text implicit (use of inferences, synthesis) and  of  test  test  33  which  use  would  knowledge. Subjects'  items. As  (Culture Fair  well, they were Intelligence  Test  scale 2) to estimate general reading ability (M=103). Four  between-subject  questions. Group availability questions imposed  1 was  experimental  least dependent on  for reference; Group immediately;  conditions  Group  2  3  could  had  task between reading and  were  long-term not  no  refer  text  established to  memory to  the  availability  as they text and and  without  reading the  had  text  answered  completed  answering questions; Group 4 was  group, required to answer questions  answer  an  the control  text in order  to show  prior knowledge effects on reading. Results  suggested  prior  knowledge, independent  subject variables, influences reading comprehension tests  seem  to be  biased  Test bias may  be  content-specific  vocabulary  toward  readers  who  of IQ  (answered  by  possess  a  other  between-  (p<.001). Standardized a  reading  greater general  lessened if a reader's prior knowledge can test  or  be  within-subjects  ability.  estimated by design)  and  a if  passage questions reflect information centrality. It seems the best way to are  ask  central  questions, but  recommended.  explicit:M=45%)  to  Question difficult  to evaluate students' understanding to assess type (script  their  contrasts  of a passage is  prior knowledge, scriptal (p<.001)  implicit:M= 29%)  reflected  progression.  an  questions  easy  There  (text was  a  32 significant  contrast  (p<.01) between  significant  interaction  (p<.005)  Group  between  one  prior  and  the  other  knowledge,  groups  centrality  and  a  and  text  knowledge  and  availability. Langer,  (1984)  comprehending  focused  expository  the relationship  passages,  measure for teachers, and (PReP) designed  on  the  between  usefulness  of  the effects on comprehension  to elicit  and  elaborate  prior  a  background  of a pre-reading  students' existing  prior  reading  achievement  (ITBS, M = 5.8; IQ, M=112) were  activity  knowledge.  Long Island sixth-grade students, categorized as above, on, or below in  knowledge  161  reading level  randomly  assigned to  within-class small groups and treatment conditions. In for  the first session students  two  grade  six social  studies  unrelated distractor activity. One they engaged  of  intervention. a  passages  (World  War  measures  I, Stonehenge)  or  an  week later during the second and third sessions,  in one of the pre-reading conditions: (a) PReP-association, reflection,  reformulation  finished  completed free association response  key  They  twenty  concepts,  repeated  a  (b) motivational  free  general  association task,  wh-question criterion comprehension  discussion,  read  the  (c) no  passages  and  test (equally divided into 2  groups of superordinate and subordinate, textually explicit and implicit questions). Results system  indicated  which  text-related  estimates  key  comprehension  (p<.05).  groups  condition  achievement  greatest  on  gains  free  the  concepts  condition  with  the  quality  before  The  association background  PReP  of  reading, group  a  reader's  is  a  for  interaction  performed  the  on-level  reflected reading  prior  significant  passage-specific comprehension level  knowledge  an  better  measure,  knowledge predictor  about  of  total  the  two  other  questions  (P<.05).  The  PReP  overall  significance  group  and  than  a  no  effect  (p<.005) on  the  33 below-level students'  group. The quality  results suggest  of prior  knowledge  a  positive value  and  in turn  for the  delayed  effects of prior knowledge and  recall  of unfamiliar information  (1985). Effects high and  pretest  followed by  scores  a familiar  and  Group  California question  information orderings on immediate were  reading  randomly  (F) information  unfamiliar (U) order, both  the  and  Embedded Achievement  knowledge  and  Kapinus  were covariates. Ninety-six  assigned  to  either  passage order, or a  Test;  test. Subjects  reading were  recall  subjects  scores  scored  were  ability  asked  better  on  higher the  Immediate recall scores were higher with  A  Davey  and  an  unfamiliar  familiar  was  an  (U)  (F) followed measured  determined  to complete  prior  by  the  immediate  another  by  form  20 of  week later.  Immediate  main  ability  by  multiple choice test of the unfamiliar information, then  the test one  difference  examined  about computers. Cognitive style was  Figures  but  concepts.  average 8th grade readers were grouped according to high or low  knowledge  by  of cognitive style  in raising  aiding in comprehension,  puts the onus on the teacher to choose the relevant key The  PReP  was  noted  for delayed  covariate contributor with  significant  prior  deleted. All results  knowledge were  at  recalls.  than  delayed  unfamiliar, familiar  the  were significant for test time and  effect  p<.05  High  prior  information  order.  the unfamiliar, familiar ordering but Reading  ability  a significant combined main  scores.  was level  found  was  identified  effect with when  as  no the  cognitive style.  reading  ability  was  of significance. Interaction effects  passage order as well as prior knowledge  and  passage order.  while  Results  suggested  reading  familiar  a  possible over-reliance on  material. Initial,  novel  prior  encounters  knowledge by with  students  unfamiliar text  34 appear  to result  in greater immediate  recall  but  over  time  the  ordering effect  does not seem to hold. Perhaps students need to first engage in a more active, integrative, attentive process with familiar information to enhance delayed recall. According made  fewer  miscues.  Average  chains. To  food  and  comprehension  depending on  concept  to Taft  third  free  level  (scored by Next,  then  (n = 50)  or had  of prior  with  high  similar  were  prior  divided  into  not finished a unit on  on  the  the  281-word  passage orally  reading  two  groups  the topic of food a  expository and  knowledge  (p<.01) oral  knowledge, subjects completed  based read  children  graphically  students  had  association task  relationships. They  (1985),  (p<.05) and  grade  whether they  determine  Leslie  seven  passage  were asked  key about  to retell  the number of recalled propositions) as much as they could remember.  their  miscues  were  scored  according  to  their  relevance,  correctness  and  similarity to text criteria. As who  oral reading accuracy  scored  answer  below  comprehension  explicit, textually was  90%  affected by  was  recorded at 90-94%, or 95-99%, ten subjects  were excluded questions  implicit and  on  from the  scriptally  the  analysis. Subjects  passages.  The  were then  number  of  to  textually  implicit comprehension questions answered  subjects' level of prior knowledge (p<.05). The  effect on  probed  recall supports Mathews' (1982) suggestion that high level prior knowledge affords greater availability of information. Semantic knowledge  and  mapping concepts.  has Stahl  been and  a  popular  Vancil  strategy  (1986)  used  summarized  studies which point to the beneficial significant effects of semantic through  discussion, visual  three components with  45  display or both. 6th  They  grade students  studied  from  the  to a  build  prior  number  of  maps presented  importance  of the  three classes in two  Illinois  35 schools. Subjects were initially given the Gates-MacGinitie Form  1 and a vocabulary  checklist of 12 content  Reading Test, Level D,  target words and distractors  about weather chosen from two grade level passages on clouds and precipitation. Subjects  were  randomly  assigned  group received the visual map  treatment  conditions: a) the Full  display and extensive discussion; b) the Discussion  Only  group  talked about  the concepts  Only  group  were  by  guided  to 3  a  map  and their  relationships  display and were  and c) The  required to study  Map word  meanings with no discussion. Six words from  a clouds passage were presented to  all  treatment.  subjects during the first week using Full  target  words  assigned  about precipitation  were  introduced  to students  Favorable  results  for cloze,  of the  p<.05  Anomalous sentences Discussion where  discussion  factor  for multiple  choice)  as  a  treatment than  key  pre-existing  appears to actively engage fully  understanding  a  word  students goes  the Map  (74) from  research  to three edition  Only  subjects.  in a deeper comprehension  beyond  and  for teachers  to  assist  misinterpretations or ambiguities before students read  Rowe and Rayford  map  produced no significant differences.  information  Subjects  semantic  groups scored higher  a  definition. As well, it provides ample opportunity for students  responses  particular,  anamoly tests.  component emerged. The Full and Discussion Only  process  in their  conditions, followed by three post test measures which included multiple  choice cloze and sentence  (p<.01  In the second week six  grades  level  purpose  questions,  of the Metropolitan Achievement  worksheet  to bridge new and the  clarification  of  independently.  one, six and ten participated  (1987) to describe the content high  in  simple  in a  study  and organization of their appropriate  to level,  Tests. Students  were  by first  from  a  asked to  36 predict  the  related  passage  individual interview responses  content  corresponding  were transcribed and  to  each  analyzed  question.  to determine whether  a relationship existed between the content of purpose questions and and  whether there was Using  a  that including provide  knowledge  and  construction,  and  appeared  serve  evoke  to  between  a  cross-grade In influence beyond. material  related  to  guided  for data prior  facilitating of  may  differ  the  number  responses,  determine  the  task  and  a  real  may  of  readers'  prior  their  as  value  of  their  content  cues.  story slots in  response  information  the  test  implied  on  concepts  elaborations. Limitations of the  interview  passages  Depending  familiar  indicate  test  activation  concepts,  content  results  passages. in  of  analysis,  to reading  the  the  to purpose question  Also,  more  study  the  and  purpose and  included differences  situation,  and  the tentative  comparisons. summary,  of prior The can  comprehension;  the  literature  knowledge  activation enhance  research suggests  of  on  provides  reading  relevant  understanding.  evidence  b) facilitates  at  the the  importance literal  knowledge  before  encountering  Though  many  of  understanding  recall; c) accounts  about  comprehension  that prior knowledge: a) is a  text recognition and d) may  questions  task.  questions  questions  understanding  purpose  interview  purpose  method  motivation,  the  Subjects' responses the  comparative  order  perspective  the  evidence of schema elaboration.  constant high  Their  by  the  reading  studies  overlap,  critical factor influencing enhancing  and  comprehensible;  f) employs  or  reading  increasing readers'  for major variance in reading performance;  inappropriate; e) can  inferences  and  the  compete for prioritj' with text information, causing distorted  if it is inaccurate, conflicting  level  and  and  make  elaborations  to  understanding  ambiguous material read  between  and  beyond  the lines; and g) can be  activated and built as a beneficial  instructional  component in regular classroom settings. Researchers key  concepts  have focused on the teacher's responsibility  necessary  to understand  not perceived a need to determine  the gist of a  yet apparently  whether teachers, left to their own  in fact are able to identify those key concepts. Table prior knowledge studies.  story  to choose relevant have  resources,  2 provides a summary of  38  Table  2: Summary: Prior Knowledge Studies  Researcher  Population  Bartlett, 1932, 1958  Adults  Inaccuracies & rationalization in recall. Ss reconstructed story according to P K N cultural expectations.  Hilliard & Troxell, 1937  K children through to grade 2  Children who had rich experiential background made better progress.  Chalk' 1947  100 Ss, grades 6 &  Piekarz, 1956  Case studies of 1-high level PKN, 1-low level P K N readers (from bright 6th graders)  HL-PKN reader performed better in verbalization & comprehension tasks. L L - P K N imposed P K N bias onto reading.  Bransford & Johnson, 1972  50 male & female high school students  Activation of P K N before reading provides context and improves comprehension, memory.  Bransford & McCarrell, 1974  high school students  Activation of relevant visual improves comprehension  Anderson et 1977  30 female music & 30 male wrestling college students  P K N about a passage topic strongly influenced interpretation of passage.  al.,  Pichert & a) 63 undergraduate Anderson, 1977 students b) 113 undergraduate students  Results  8  P K N is a factor influencing reading. The more P K N about a topic, the better the comprehension.  PKN  P K N perspective determines significance of idea in comprehension & recall.  Note: P K N = Prior Knowledge; Ss = Subjects; H L = High Level; L L = Low Level E S L = English as a Second language  39  Table 2 continued  Researcher  Population  Pearson, Hansen & Gordon, 1979  25 grade 2 students from 4 classrooms  Strong schema (PKN) group performed better overall. P K N strongly influences inferencing. Implicit questions require inferencing and are more difficult than explicit questions  Hansen & Pearson, 1980, 1982  a) 24 average/above average second grade readers b) 20 good & 20 poor fourth graders  Activating students' P K N and instructional practice with inferential questions increased children's ability to draw inferences, especially for poor readers.  Nicholson & Imlach, 1981  22 boys, 22 girls (8 years old)- average/ above average readers from 2 schools  PKN influences kinds of inference. Children may overlook text reasons for events & impose their own explanations instead.  Johnson,  72 university advanced-level E S L students representing 23 nationalities  Direct cultural P K N strongly influences reading comprehension of E S L students more than vocabulary.  28-(14 average, 14 below average) 3rd graders.  PKN competes with text. Clarification of conflicting P K N - T E X T connections is crucial before reading. P K N employs various kinds of inferences.  Matthews, 1982  34  PKN directly enhances information availability & qualitatively effects information accessibility  Callahan & Drum, 1984  10 high, 10 average readers from 5th & 6th grade.  Johnston,  207-8th grade rural urban students  Lipson,  1982  1982  1984  Results  fourth graders  PKN is a strong predictor of inferences, cloze insertions & recall. Wealth of P K N predicts better comprehension. &  PKN competes with text. PKN, independent of IQ, influences comprehension. Test bias may be lessened if P K N is estimated via content-specific vocabulary test or centrality questions.  40  Table 2 continued  Researcher  Population  Langer, 1984  161-6th graders above/on/below-level readers  P K N strongly influences comprehension. Pre-reading (PReP) instructional strategy improves comprehension especially for on-level readers. Teachers must choose key concepts.  Davey & Kapinus, 1985  96 average/high average 8th grade readers  High P K N Ss scored better on unfamiliar-familiar information ordering. P K N was significant main effect when reading ability deleted.  Taft 1985  50 average 3rd graders  Children with high P K N oral reading miscues.  Stahl & Vancil, 1986  45-6th graders from 3 classes  Semantic mapping (via discussion & visual display) P K N strategy enhances Ss full understanding of vocabulary & clarifies P K N misinterpretations before reading.  Rowe & Rayford, 1987  74 Ss from grades 1, 6, 10  Including high level purpose questions before reading a test passage facilitates the activation of P K N and inferencing. Number of familiar concepts in purpose question serves to evoke more elaborations in responses.  & Leslie,  Results  made fewer  41  C. PRIOR K N O W L E D G E AND The in  literature suggests that prior knowledge and  developing  there  is a  the  reading/thinking  relationship between  established term concepts. Our housed which that  in concepts are  expectations  transfer  literature  aspects  of concepts  in  preoperational  (active trial  error, reversibility) and  in  concept  and  the  section concept  operational  are  a  learner's  structure was Horn's postulate  that  cognitive  modified (1937)  structure, it was  material,  reader to formulate them  of  rather out  of personal  Johnson, on  the  the  1978)  premise and  process  cognitive  as  and  it relates to  process.  process:  and the  operational  proposed  the  (internalized trial  and  of hypothetical given  to  be  more  if the  experience. The  reading ideas, reading  central  of to  information fit  information  conveying  to engage  the construction  assimilated. Further,  through  propositions).  information,  considered  related,  four  sensory-motor,  believed that if new  actually  the  generalizations  on  children  communication  than  by  focus  or altered, accomodation of new analysis  &  is based  learning  abstraction. Piaget  learning than making simple associations. He into  will  beyond  elements  and  information.  (operation  learner to go  where  Pearson  theory  formation  been suggested that  experiences are believed to be  1977;  observed  important  prior knowledge  is organized  error), concrete  formal  operations,  term  the reading/thinking  levels of thinking and and  the  experiences are  it has  related to novel  this  and  the  latter stage requires  Abelson,  memory  systematically  stages  concepts  and  and  knowledge and (1926)  recent  in vocabulary. The  reviewed  developmental  higher  more  which are associated and  Piaget  in  the  Further,  prior knowledge and  is conceptual  prior conceptual  The  processes.  (e.g., Schank  in turn, housed  language  The  CONCEPTS  cognitive  took place. led  him  stimulates task  to the  is easy,  42 he  added,  if the  associated. He  learner  presented  already  possesses  the example  the  necessary  of a person  who  had  experiences  to  lost his way  be  in a  blizzard. The blizzard information might have little meaning for an individual  who  resided in Florida. Paul meanings printed be  McKee  (1948)  for words  are built  page. Concepts,  expanded  important  by  we  read  the mind  or modified. He  further  grades,  abstract concepts  added  intermediate  so the need  with  our  experiences  of the reader,  he believed, are recalled  in primary  unfamiliar,  suggested  based  on experiences  that, although reading  tasks  to clarify,  not found  concept  usually  organize  where on the  and  may  teaching is  contain  more  relate  those  and  concepts to meanings the older students possess is critical. Serra  (1953)  functional concept  believed  and  possessing  simply  encountering  factual words  knowledge  without  owning  a  in print does not presume the  acquisition of concepts. Nila  Banton Smith  influence and importance She in  explained concepts filling  concepts  empty may  (1954) proposed  not be sensitive to the  of experiences as bases for meaning (p. 161) as "crystallized  shells of word be  teachers may  more  symbols with  difficult  to  experience  in critical reading.  which we  kernels of meaning"  understand  than  draw  and  vocabulary.  upon  suggested  Teachers  are  urged to carefully develop concepts in lieu of presenting specific word definitions. In  agreement  with  research literature from She  reported  numerous  that  Serra  1938  concepts  facets, and may  (1953),  to 1959 deal  or may  with  McCullough  (1959)  reviewed  and discussed their classroom objects, qualities  and  concept  implications.  relationships,  not be qualitatively grasped  reader's readiness or associations with prior experience. Concepts,  have  depending on the she added,  may  43 be  simple or complex, developmental, require  generalization. experiences, problems,  Teachers  are  clarification  warned  of  developmental  multiple  age  to  et  al.  (1956)  asserted  observing  its attributes, identifying it as  inferences  and  key  factors  perceptual  cognitive  attributes) development. As  concepts: conjunctive,  a  acquisition,  concept  belonging  concepts and  between  observable  is  to  attributes)  laboratory  experiments  in which  items  a  were undertaken two  distinct  groups,  according to attributes, and  to identify the  to state the rule, therefore  the concept was  Vygotsky integral  parts  Generalization points  to  (1962) focussed on of  an  is said  the  generalizations. For  hierarchical  to involve  existence  the  of  and  of  class, to  an  object,  formulating  Generalizations make  or  are  a distinction  conceptual  group  sign-  (abstract,  three classes  sorting and  classification,  testing of attributes. Twenty subjects  each  defined  were by  asked a  to  rule  divide  (concept)  classification rule. Subjects were  able  attained.  system  forming  a  of  relationships  of  concepts  and  different  interchange "flower" as  "flower"  and  becomes more  are  generality.  superordinate concept which  subordinate  is subordinated  of  couple attributes  process of association where concepts  example, a learner may  through experience, "rose"  a  and  relational which  search and  into  direct  intelligence  perceiving  authors proposed  whereas concept attainment calls for the  board  for  "network  authors  in different ways. Concept formation, they said, involves  on  a  generalizations.)  well, the  disjunctive, and  need  culturally deficient concept  in concept learning. The  (concrete,  the  apparently progresses from  assumptions (new  be  concept  that  inferences".  to  learner  of  and  concept load factors.  significate  believed  A  aware  meanings,  of  individual differences among readers and Bruner  be  word  aspects  active discrimination, abstraction  in  turn  levels "rose"  of  until,  generalized,  44 leading to a systemization. He (conceptual  meaning) system  further differentiated  and pseudo  concepts  between the above scientific which  dealt  with  situational  meaning. A  study  by  Braun  (1963)  suggested  concept  intelligence was a main factor related to achievement under  and over  achieving boys of normal  were  deficient  in concept  intelligence  formation  rather  than  in reading. She tested 139 in grades  seven, for their concept formation abilities. She found intelligence  formation  under  ability  three, five and  achievers of normal  leading  her to postulate  growth in reading depended on an increased ability in concept formation.  With  Durrell  and  respect  to reading  suggested  early  Murphy  readiness  readers  a) discrepancies may readers;  b) positive  reading  achievement;  children  in relation  (1963) reviewed and  needed  occur  and  years they  appear  to exist  of reading research.  presented  enrichment.  childrens' background  c) the need  to concepts  concepts,  experiential  between  correlations  thirty  between  to evaluate  studies  They  suggested  and concepts prior  conceptual  that  in basal  experiences and backgrounds of  in basal reading series. A l l studies  indicated  a  need to build concepts. The inductive 1968)  acquisition of concepts and propositions is thought to be the result of processing  rather  than  of empirical  rote learning. He  concepts  or propositions  structure  which  Teachers,  he  problem  are related  solving  postulated that and  merged  experiences new  meanings  within  a  incorporates first-order concrete and abstract  warns,  must  be  aware  that  students  rely  concepts.  result  learner's  1965, when  cognitive  high-order concepts.  on rote  often use apparently appropriate abstract terms in responses possess a true understanding of the fundamental  (Ausubel,  learning and  when they may not  45 There  exist at least two types of learning phenomena according to Gagne  (1965). He stated concept learning is the acquisition of a common  response to a  class of objects and principle learning incorporates a combination of concepts into ideas or rules (requiring generalizations). He  postulated  that people use concepts  in combinations and that Piagetian operations were more dependent on cumulative learning  than  developmental  maturation. He  continued to explain  that  a learner  must be able to "generalize the concept to a variety of specific instances of the class that have not been used merely  in learning. Otherwise, it is not a concept, but  a collection of specific chains" (p.  136).  According to Stauffer (1965), concept development has been important since the time of Aristotle & reading.  He  identifies  Socrates and deserves a top priority position in teaching concepts  as integrative  cognitive  structures  developed  by  thinking, not acquired by drill or rote memory. Varying definitions of a concept appear  to agree  innovative  on the importance  Directed  of attributes, inferences  Reading-Thinking  Activity  (DRTA)  and categories. His  strategy  for instruction  begins with the building of students' relevant conceptual background. Strang competency  (1968) suggested  a positive relation between conceptual ability and  in reading, postulating  that  difficulties  encountered  by intermediate  grade students may be the result of deficient conceptual ability. Wolfe findings  (1968) proposed  classroom  in reading comprehension.  instructional  High  level  practices based  on research  thinking, he believed, incorporates  the acquisition, organization and utilization of experiences. He suggested that if a reader  understands  potential encouraged  exists  concepts  for new  teachers  before and  to begin  reading,  broader  lessons  word  concept  with  recognition development.  is easier Therefore,  and he  students' experiences, building and  46 expanding them. Martorella structuring Among  (1971,  1977) summarized  concept development  them  systematic methods,  in teaching,  were the use of examplars  and sequential and  a  research  various  and discovered  models for  some  commonalities.  and non-examplars, the employment of  instruction, emphasis  sensitivity  and  on  to the importance  "hands-on"  discovery/practice  of students'  prior  knowledge.  However, he noted that between 1960 and 1981 few concept development studies were  undertaken  concept  learning  in classrooms. in real  strategies.  For example,  experiential  assimilation  teacher  then  presentation  must  He  teaching if a or  guide  strongly  recommended  situations  learner  holds  accomodation,  in concept  rigid  that  concepts  of generic  situations.  They  concurred  equivalent  objects  are defined, inferences  go  beyond  the given  as  information.  may  on  oriented  not allow occur.  The  through  required to modify the concept.  learning, its cognitive economy that,  do  of the overgeneralization  Another study by Bruner in association with Anglin importance  research  and in-service  overgeneralizations  in the qualification  of new, objective information  further  properties may  They  (1973), addressed the  and transfer value  of a  category  be made, allowing  argue  that  there  to new  of functionally the learner to  is "no  sequence of events" in a learner's development and call for educational  clockwork activities  which will challenge children. Cermak transfer.  He  memorization principles,  (1976) emphasized experimented and  the  is believed  with  process  the need  lists  to organize  of information  of remembering.  to be the key to retention  though strategies that learners apply  may  differ.  information  to facilitate  to distinguish between Categorization, and retrieval  according  rote to  of information  47 Klausmeier's four  levels  their  and  of concept  functions.  children  (1976) model  He  use  two,  of four  supported  attainment  conducted  in grades  problem  solving  and  longitudinal and  (equilateral  according to  level concepts were used  learning  and  triange, cutting  the  four  environment and From  understanding  transfer  suggested  reading  in concept  able to remember understand  new  Citing identification, abstract  identification dominance  master  view  level;  studies  reported  difficult  proposed  testing  identification; of  hypotheses.  found  that:  a) concrete  higher  provision of  developmental  stages  parameters of fixed capacity.  addressed  that  although  proper  ones;  more  complex  concepts  c) stimuli a  f) identification  However,  he  the  learning  a  importance reader  of acquisition, he  factors  characteristics  salient  and  and  materials in a  noted  are  may  concept  rule,  of  may. may  facilitate  easier color)  vary the  to  be not  the  provide  according more  active  traditional  concept  learn  than easier  to  difficult  the reader determine  involves that  that  (e.g.  solution; e) idiosyncratic strategies are engaged by concept  He  examples of the concept.  concerning  b) conspicuous  d) the  tool, noun, tree). Results  that  information introduced at the time  less  levels  concept functioning.  perspective, Bransford  numerous  than  300  be the result of a deficiency of concepts.  development. He  concepts;  with  attainment  successive levels.  previous  materials or identify new  he  formal), and  studies  principles. Labeling concepts  the  can  difficulties may  his  proposed  in hierarchical supraordinate-subordinate relationships, in  (1979) supported  learners, he  classificatory,  cross-sectional  are not set, adding learners are also not bound by Slow  development  eleven to assess their  their attributes aided in concept attainment and Bransford  and  (concrete, identity,  five, eight  concepts  attainment  of concept  the  speed of  formulation  research  their  used  and only  48 arbitrary  concepts. Bransford believed learners may  meaningful  approach  the identification of  concepts with different strategies.  Bransford's summary  of concept formation studies pointed again to transfer  aspects and to Piaget's notions of assimilation and accomodation. It is postulated that  the activation  with  experience  of relevant knowledge  with  "reciprocal  interplay"  understood  if they  conflicting  research  specific  instantiations  of clarification  are related related  (which  or  to what  constrains inferences) together  develops  new  concepts  modification. Words is known. As  to the effects  are more  the  easily  well, Bransford discussed  of practice  recommending that further research be undertaken  through  in concept  development  in this area.  There is a possibility mismatches will occur in the reader-text relationship according possess may  to Adams  and  the necessary  Bruce  concepts  (1982) who to understand  believed  authors  a story. They  presume  suggested  readers confusion  result due to the author's use of esoteric vocabulary, focus on a particular  intensional  word  meaning  to the exclusion  of other  aspects,  or the reader's  inappropriate instantiation due to a lack of experience or cultural gap. Cunningham concepts) proposed  and  (1987) distinguished between "lunules" (novel names for known  "lupulins"  (unknown  concepts  as  well  as  unknown  words).  She  that teaching vocabulary belonging to the latter group is a difficult task  requiring  time  and  strategies  involving  frequent  real,  visual  and  analogous  experiences. In and  prior  attributes  summary, a concept knowledge. and  Though  categories  is considered definitions  (Stauffer  1965).  to be a condensation may  vary,  Concepts  of experience  all involve inferences,  are believed  to represent  simple, concrete objects, events or high level abstractions and ideas which can be  49 classified, generalized, assimilated system  of knowledge. Concepts  transfer  value  Teachers  are  lessons.  to  new  encouraged  or  apparently  situations to  accomodated  teach,  and  within  an  influence reading incorporate  develop  and  higher activate  hierarchical dynamic comprehension, levels concepts  of in  have  thinking. reading  50  Table  3: Summary: Prior Knowledge and  Concepts  Authority  Date  Viewpoint  Chambers  1904  Children, like adults, sort new information into old pigeon holes. Meaning is the result of experience.  Piaget  1926  Concept construction is central to learning. Proposed developmental stages of assimilation, accomodation.  Holmes  1934  Direct instruction in meaning and children to read more efficiently.  Waters  1934  Analyzed concepts in reading (primer) materials. Found most students were deficient in corresponding concepts.  Horn  1937  A text stimulates the reader to formulate ideas from his personal experience.  Sims  1938  Association of concepts with print gives meaning to reading. Teachers need to build concepts.  Marcum  1944  Concepts are retained understandings based on experience & influence reading comprehension. Concept load problems must be addressed.  McKee  1948  We read not only with our eyes, but with our experiences. Meaning is recalled and built by the mind of the reader.  Serra  1953  It is possible to possess factual knowledge without a functional concept.  Smith  1954  We draw upon experience to fill in empty shells of words with meaning. It is more important to develop life time concepts than to present singular vocabulary word definitions.  1956  A concept is a network of inferences. They distinguish between concrete, abstract concepts and concept identification, concept formation. Lab experiments used only arbitrary concept tasks.  Bruner  et  al.  use of words enable  51 Table 3 continued  Authority  Date  McCullough  1959  Reviewed research (1938-1959). Prior knowledge influences concept development. Teachers need to be aware of importance of concepts in classroom practice.  Vygotsky  1962  Concepts are integral part of a hierarchical system of relationships of generality. Scientific and pseudoconcepts.  Braun  1963  Concept formation is major factor in reading achievement.  Durrell & Murphy  1963  Research indicates correlation between prior experience and reading readiness.  Ausubel  1965  Concept acquisition is result of inductive process, not mere rote learning; subsumption theory.  Gagne  1965  Concept and  Stauffer  1965  Concept development deserves top priority in lessons.  Strang  1968  Positive relation between conceptual ability and reading competency. Intermediate students have heavy concept load.  Wolfe  1968  Teachers should begin with students' background & build experiences to the material to be read. Reading involves higher levels of comprehension.  Martorella  1971, 1977  Noted few studies in real classrooms, concerned concepts in social studies  Bruner Anglin  1973  Learning is generic. Transfer value is important. Inferences go beyond information given. Intellectual growth is not set.  Cermak  1976  Need to actively organize information, categorization of concepts is necessary  Klausmeier  1976  Labeling concepts and providing attributes aids concept attainment. Higher-level concepts used in problem solving.  &  Viewpoint  principle learning, generalizations are key  with  5 2  Table 3 continued  Authority  Date  Bransford  1979  Stressed transfer value of concepts. Assimilation accomodation involve reader's prior knowledge.  1982  Conceptual mismatches may be due to author's presumption the reader has relevant, appropriate concepts.  1987  Teaching vocabulary is very difficult if students lack both the word and concept. Real, visual, analogous experiences aid concept development.  Adams &  Bruce  Cunningham  Viewpoint and  53  D. SUMMARY The  review  of  the  literature  influence of prior knowledge on and  addressed  three  suggests  research  related  of  research:  the  reading comprehension; studies in prior knowledge;  the relationship between prior knowledge and The  areas  to  the  influence  several points. First, reading  concepts. of  is viewed  prior  as  an  knowledge  on  reading  interactive process  where  prior knowledge is a critical factor in reading comprehension. The  text  acts as  filled from  a blueprint and  missing inferred  organized  store  of  Secondly,  prior  knowledge  comprehension. understanding  A  prior  wealth  while  experiences is  inadequate  or  elaboration, selection,  predictions, and between and Prior learning,  inferences  is a  a  reading  a  about  inappropriate  the  reader's  critical  factor  topic  seemingly  a  prior  that actively  experiences  seeking  head.  influencing increases  may  meaning  hinder  from  print  reconstruction of ideas, inferences,  of thinking. Stated  studies and  critical  and  elaborations  and  the  in another  accounts  enhancing  to  make  e) can in  provide for  text  way,  be  a  of  prior  evidence  major  it is reading  may  between  experiences that:  variance  recognition and  connections  the text information and  especially  influence  Studies  by  or inappropriate; and lesson,  addressed  reading.  factor  comprehension  compete with  inaccurate  be  in  the  beyond the lines. knowledge  b) facilitates  to  construction or  levels  remembering  knowledge  d) may  higher  information  knowledge  comprehension. Thirdly, it is suggested involves  and  purported  of prior  slots of information are  supposedly  the  new  a) prior  in  recall;  on  reading; c) utilizes  and  known;  hinder understanding  if it is  a beneficial instructional component in  prereading  conceptual knowledge before meeting the text.  activities  which  activate  relevant  54 The  third  between concepts  section  of the literature  review  focused  on  the relationship  and prior knowledge. Our prior experiences are suggested  housed in concepts  to be  which are, in turn, housed in vocabulary. It is proposed  language is conceptual and that readers  (as learners) possess  that  an organized store  of dynamic generalizations and expectations which are related and associated with new  incoming  information.  Concepts  are  hypothesized  to  be  parts  of an  interrelated hierarchical (supraordinate, superordinate, and subordinate) system and involve networks of inferences that discriminate and categorize objects or events. It would expectations and  follow that activating the appropriate, relevant generalizations or  associated with  novel  text  information would  enhance  comprehension  provide bridges for connecting the known to the new. These generalizations  (superordinate experiences  level  concepts)  are termed  key  concepts.  and inferences and activating the key concept  Building  on  about a story  students' enables  the teacher to assess how much students know and need to know before reading and  provides  a  forum  connections. Researchers key  concepts  perceiving concepts.  for students  have apparently expected  that are important  the need  to increase their  whether  networks and  teachers to choose the relevant  to understanding  to investigate  conceptual  the gist  teachers  of a  are able  story  without  to identify key  C H A P T E R III. METHODOLOGY The  purpose  spontaneous  of the study  and cued  importance  to  investigate  elementary  teachers'  identifications of key concepts in narrative prose. As well,  it examined their exposure the  was  to recent reading research and their attitudes towards  of activating  student prior  knowledge  and concepts  as influences  on those identifications. This  chapter  b) materials;  will  describe  c) instruments;  the a) selection  d) procedures;  and nature  e) scoring;  of the sample;  and f) design  and data  analysis.  A. S U B J E C T S Approximately schools  in the Central  provided three  four  elementary  Okanagan  (Kelowna  materials and invited  completed  a) every  hundred  the tasks. The elementary  elementary  b) depending  to participate  teacher  and  from  area)  to  level  be  a  urban  School  in the study. school  is considered  on district need, an elementary  teachers  One  was  and rural  District hundred  chosen  teacher  were and  because:  of reading;  teacher may be assigned to teach a  primary grade one year and an intermediate grade the next; c) a limited number of  prior  knowledge  studies  d) most studies addressed little  attention  focus  on elementary  classrooms  and teachers; and  key concepts in content areas or expository text with  to narratives  which  are predominant,  grades.  55  especially  in the primary  56  B.  MATERIALS  1. Selection of Passages Initially,  four,  full-length  Expressways,  an  (Robin  Run,  1980, grade  1980,  grade  grade  6:  intermediate  5d: My  Along  the  134-137). Stories  series, What  4:  Mother Snake  narrative  Fence  were chosen  published Color  Said  passages  is  Those Way,  by  were  Gage  Danger?,  Words, pp.  25-28;  Company  188-193;  Pokologan,  Lobstick,  194-200; and  for interest, concept load  from  Publishing  pp.  pp.  selected  A  Hard  1981,  Winter,  and their  pp.  similarity to  actual classroom full-length reading assignments. The average F r y readability was at the grade six level. These  were  intermediate) within  distributed  to eight  elementary  one school to determine  teachers (four  passage  primary, four  acceptability. The teachers  stated that although passages were interesting and typical of student assignments, they were too long and tiring for use in a study. Based passages  were  intermediate Row,  and  Shark!,  and  recommendations,  selected  series  D,  p. 50; Level  p. 32; and Take shorter  length  from  published  Inc., (Level  and  Home,  on their  two  ReadAbility  by J.B. Lippincott  1980: The F,  the following  Train  1979; In  a Chance,  the  Dark  texts  (Levels  narrative D  Co. and distributed p. 10; Holding of  the  Night,  &  prose  F),  an  by Harper  Pattern,  p. 36;  p. 12; The  Ride  p. 78). Stories were chosen for their interest  and had an average  level. A l l titles were omitted.  Rescue,  six short  F r y readability  at the grade  six/seven  57  C. INSTRUMENTS  1. Elementary Teacher Questionnaire As  a group, the eight teachers who  acceptability, were administered  were involved in determining  the initial teacher  passage  questionnaire (see Appendix  A)  for the purposes of checking timing, testing instructions and refining materials. Based  on  instrument,  such  their  responses,  a  number  of changes  as the reorganization of three  were  sections into  measure,  importance  and  and a shift use  in focus  from  a  general  of concept  development  (prior  of the final  questionnaire  was  teachers'  exposure  to the  two, combining of  sub-items for grade level, the use of a consistent five-point Likert attitude  made  reading  knowledge)  scale for the lesson  to the  in pre-reading  activities. The  intent  information; attitudes  and  towards  b) measure  both  the importance  and  use  to a) obtain to reading  of prior  knowledge  basic  teacher  research and  and  concept  development in a reading lesson. The cover  final instrument  sheet  and  provided  was  divided  which  introduced  (see Appendix the study  B) was  comprised  to teachers, invited  of: a) an attached them  to participate  general precedural instructions; and b) a 16-item questionnaire which into  two  sections: Section  A  Section B - The Reading Lesson (7 items).  - Basic  Information  (9 items) and  58 a. Section A Section Basic  A  addressed  information  experience, reading  (items  educational  research  basic information  1, 2, 3, 4, 9) included  qualifications  (items  and exposure  and reading  5, 6, 7, 8) focused  grade  to reading level,  approach  on reading  journals (or others) frequently read and recently attended  sex, teaching  used.  courses  research.  Exposure to taken,  reading  in-service workshops on  reading topics.  b. Section B Section  B  (items  10-16) focused  lesson. It was hoped that responses considered to  the activation  be important  of student  and if they  felt  on teacher  would  attitudes toward  provide insight into  prior knowledge through teachers  actually  a reading  whether  teachers  concept  development  use concept  development  experiences and strategies to that end. A  five-point  disagree,  strongly  Likert disagree)  sub-items).  Information  Educational  Reasearch  counterbalance  response  response  scale  (strongly  was established for each  on attitude suggested  measures  agree,  agree,  undecided,  of the seven  items (45  (p. 181) in the Encyclopedia of  the use of positive  bias. Statements covered  and negative  statements to  attitudes towards the importance  -of reading lesson components, use of guidebooks in planning, the importance and teacher  use  of pre-reading  activities,  concept  development  experiences  and  activities  were  strategies. The adapted  list  from  Aulls, 1982;  of reading  those  suggested  Pieronek,  lesson  components  and pre-reading  by various reading  educators  and programs (e.g.,  1979). Concept development experiences were provided from  59 Dale's (1969) Cone  of Experiences,  while strategies were pooled from  research and  classroom practice. Hence,  the questionnaire  was  intended  to  supply:  a) basic  teacher  information; b) data on their exposure to reading research; and c) their attitudes towards prior knowledge and pre-reading concept development.  2. S t o r y  Booklet  The  story booklet (see Appendix  b) six short response No.  a.  narrative  passages  C) consisted of a) procedural instructions;  described  in the materials section;  and c) two  sheets: Spontaneous (unaided) Key Concept Identification Response  Sheet  1 and Cued Key Concept Identification Response Sheet No. 2.  Spontaneous  (unaided)  Spontaneous three spaces they  Response  Response  Sheet No.  Sheet  1  No. 1 listed  the six passages  for each so that teachers might suggest  considered  to be central  to understanding  and provided  (unaided) the key concepts  the story  and that they  would  develop.  6. Cued  Response  Sheet No.  2  i) Identification of Concepts To  determine  the key and other  sheet, the following procedures practicing elementary teaching experience One  teacher  were  teachers from at varied  had secondary  concepts  used  followed. First,  for the cued  the investigator  response chose two  different schools who had at least ten years  grade levels  and an interest in reading education.  and elementary  experience  and was  pursuing  a  60 master's degree  in curriculum  at the elementary  and  level and holds  the teachers independently  read  administration. The a B.A.  other had taught  (4 yr.) degree  mainly  in education. Second,  the six narratives and were asked  to list a) the  three story-relevant concepts (ideas) they considered to be central to understanding and  that  relevant  they  would  concepts  develop  considered  in pre-reading  important  activities;  but less  crucial  and  b) other  passage-  than  the key, central  choices. The and  majority (87%) of key and passage-relevant concepts were agreed upon  differences  resolved by  broad, scriptal concept related  subordinate  specific  enough  discussion. The  resulting  key  concepts  generalizations and expectations which would  or less  to activate  were  subsume the  relevant contextual information and yet be students' appropriate conceptual  those  networks  content-  of relevant  inferences in their store of prior knowledge. Next, chosen passage-relevant concepts relationships, similarities result by  and differences with  (adapted  by  and  the two  the investigator  from  1962) on the basis of degrees characteristics  (90%)  are presented  Supraordinate  were  then  independently  assisting  teachers  Ausubel,  1963; Langer,  of generality  in Table  category  key) were explored for  respect to the key concepts. As a  of distinct patterns that emerged, they  the investigator  general  (other than  concept categories,  1984; and  Vygotsky,  of passage-specific knowledge. Their  4. These categories range  to the Very  of classifications of the passage  to four  assigned  from  the more  Content-Specific level. The majority  relevant concepts  were  agreed  upon and  differences again resolved by discussion. Table 5 presents the six story titles and their respective categorized concepts.  61  Table 4: Narrative Passage-Specific Concept Categories and Based on Degrees of Generality  Their Characteristics  Degree  Category  Concept Characteristics  General  Supraordinate  genre, story type  Superordinate  key concept, generalization or expectation central to understanding the story  Subordinate  concept subsumed by and an integral part of the superordinate key concept  Very Content-Specific  particular single vocabulary definitions, details - least crucial to understanding story  V Very Specific  Cued  Response  choose three key each  story  Sheet  concepts  that they  from  would  Passage Four which had  D.  No. 2  listed  the  passages  and  groups of passage-relevant  develop.  Each  story  listed  required teachers to concepts  twelve  supplied for  concepts,  except  eleven.  P R O C E D U R E S  All completion  materials and  sheet; b) Teacher through  were  collection.  color  and  Individual  Questionnaire; and  number teacher  coded  packages,  to  facilitate  containing  distribution, the  c) Story Booklet, were distributed  a) cover to schools  the central district mail system. Group leaders at each school assisted in  the distribution and Teachers  collection of completed  worked  package together in one  at  their  sitting  leisure  packages over a three week period. but  were  encouraged  if possible and to refrain from  to  complete  the  discussion during  62  Table  5: Story Titles and Passage-Specific Concept Response Sheet No. 2  Story  Titles Supraordinate (P4)  Holding Pattern  Concept Classifications for Cued Key  Concept Categories Superordinate Subordinate (P3)  (P2)  Very ContentSpecific (PI)  space exploration, "world" peace, abandoned  flagship, radio signals, outer limits, holding pattern, orbit, ground control  inspection, maximized, receiver  ritual, miser, robbery  old woman, hoard  peculiar, disgusted, ramshackle, cowardice, carding, abruptly  Shark!  sea creatures, night diving, marine biology  shark, research, current, meters, oxygen, lobsters  enormous, prehistoric, ebony  The Ride Home  adapting, family changes, personal relationships .  circumstances, perspective  feign, probed, exotic, hestitated, upsetting, pattern  The Train Rescue  bridges, courage, trains  collapse, morality, storms, engineer  discern, rickety, treacherous, hostile, lantern  time travel, carnival, self-awareness  populace, barkers, sideshows  buffeted, ancient, gnarled, haunting, quavered  In the Dark of the Night  Take a Chance  folk tale  mystery  63 the study. The general procedure  involved the following steps:  1.  to  Teachers  were  requested  complete  Part  Questionnaire and place it in the large brown 2.  Then, they decide  were asked  (unaided)  understanding 3.  After they  to read  One:  Elementary  envelope.  carefully each of the six passages and to  which three key concepts  they  considered  to be central to  the story, printing the concepts on Response Sheet No. 1.  sealing Response Sheet No.  1 in the small white envelope  were instructed to open the small brown envelope  Sheet No.  Teacher  2 and check  (/) the three  key concepts  provided,  containing Response  central  to each story  from the lists presented. 4.  Finally, all materials were placed in the large brown package envelope  and  returned to the group leader. Completed teacher packages were forwarded to office for collection.  the board  E. SCORING  1. Elementary Teacher Section A value  focused on basic information. A l l items  and were entered  example, a) 0-5,  there  were  b) 6-10,  Questionnaire  either as a  four  c) 11-15  category and  1 or 0 value choices  d) more  were considered of equal  into respective columns. For  for years  than  15.  of teaching  The  computer  experience: data  entry  program provides a column for each of the four categories. Therefore, a teacher with  8 years  experience  would  be entered  as 0-1-0-0 to identify  placement in  category b) 6-10. A  composite  score  for reading  courses,  journals  read  and  in-service  64 attended a  (items 5, 6, 7, and 8) was computed. A  possible  17 was considered  to reflect  score of 13 or greater out of  a high  level  of exposure  to reading  research. Section  B  (items  10  to 16) was  comprised  of positive  and negative  statements which incorporated a five-point Likert scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree) for code responses. values:  strongly  disagree — -2. -2,  agree  Positive statements were then  agree=-t-2;  Negative  agree= + l ;  undecided = 0;  statements reversed the values  -1, and so on. Positive  or negative  importance of prior knowledge and concept  assigned  the following  disagree = -1;  strongly  so that strongly agree was attitude  scores  towards the  development were computed.  2. Story Booklet  a.  Spontaneous  In  Responses  a post  hoc examination  all spontaneous  (unaided) key concept  choices  were listed, and patterns explored.  b.  Cued  Responses  First, all checked  concepts  were classified  one  of the four passage-specific concept  No.  2 (Table  Subordinate  5). They  score  as an incidence in  categories used for Cued  included: Supraordinate  Response Sheet  (P4); Superordinate  or Key (P3);  (P2); and Very Content-Specific (PI).  Second, teachers' Superordinate out  and scored  of a possible of 13  18 (expressed  or above  was  (P3) key concept  as PT), three  considered  identifications were scored  for each  to indicate  a  of the six stories. A successful  key  concept  65 identification.  F. D E S I G N  AND  DATA  ANALYSIS  1. Design The and  data  design of the  study  was  was  from  the  independent (unaided,  collected  variables  cued),  were  exposure  to  descriptive, same  elementary reading  group  exposure  study employed to  reading  research  teachers' unaided key  three measures:  research  and  of  teachers'  (positive, negative) towards the importance of prior The  comparative  attitude  concept identifications;  a) a  teacher  key  (high,  responses.  concept  low)  and  correlational, The  identifications their  attitude  knowledge. 16-item questionnaire to reflect  scores; and  and  c)  b) a  a cued  response response  sheet for sheet to  provide a score for key concepts chosen from lists supplied.  2. Questions and Two  Hypotheses  questions and  four hypotheses were formulated:  Qu T :  Are elementary teachers able to identify the cued key narrative stories?  Ho  There will be no significant differences between primary and intermediate teachers in their mean scores on the cued identification of key concepts measure.  1•  concepts in six  Ho :  There will be no relationship between measures of teachers' exposure to research and their cued key concept identifications.  Ho :  There will be no relationship between measures of teachers' attitudes towards the importance of prior knowledge and their cued key concept identifications.  Ho,:  There will be no relationship between the combined measures of exposure to research and attitudes toward the importance of prior  2  3  66 knowledge and their identifications of cued key concepts. Qu :  Are elementary teachers able to spontaneously key concepts in six narrative stories?  2  (unaided) identify the  3. Data Analysis Scores  from  the  data  relevant  to  the  first  question  were  descriptively to determine measures of central tendency, variability  analyzed  and frequencj'  distribution. A  two-tailed t-test of significance for independent means was used to  test  hypothesis. The  the  first  Spearman was  applied  combined The  rho analysis to  test  exposure  second  discovering displayed  to determine hypothesis  to research  question patterns  second  and third  relationships. A  four  to  were  tested  multiple regression  determine  the  relationship  using  analysis between  and attitudes and cued key concept identifications.  required  exploratory  and providing  insights  data into  frequency distributions of Spontaneous  scores. The level  hypotheses  of significance  for testing  analysis  as  the response Concept  a data.  Identification  all statistical  method for Histograms ( S i to S6)  analyses was  set at  a = .05. The  above analyses of the data employed  Social Sciences - Extended Version  (SPSS-X).  the Statistical Package for the  CHAPTER This categories: reading  chapter 1) basic  approach);  including  will  a  present  teacher  of  RESULTS  descriptive  information  2) elementary  comparison  IV.  and  (grade,  teacher's cued  statistical  sex, key  primary/intermediate  results  teaching  concept  identifications  teachers'  cued  key  and  cued  key  its relationship  to  attitude measures and 6) elementary two  concept cued  identifications  key  concepts  (Ho );  questions  and  four  key  measure  exposure  and  concept identifications (Ho,,);  concept  hypotheses  (Qu,) concept  attitudes  5) combined  3  (unaided)  4) the  2  their relationship to cued  teachers' spontaneous  research  (Ho );  and  its test of  1  to  six  experience  identifications (Ho ) ; 3) the exposure to reading research measure and relationship  in  will  identifications be  restated  (Qu ).  The  followed  by  2  presentation of relevant results.  A.  BASIC T E A C H E R Of the  7  103  INFORMATION  participants, 47  taught combinations  males.  The  experience, 24  had  of teachers  (n = 64)  with  sample  smaller Doctorate  elementary  were intermediate,  teacher did not designate a level of expertise.  reflected  of  72%  instructors  of had  the  103  more  six to ten years, eight had  majority  (n = 17) and  one  teachers  majority  teachers, 48  of primary/intermediate, learning assistance or kindergarten  through high school, and Female  were primary  held  a  Bachelor  numbers (n=l)  reflecting  levels. Table  teacher group  years of teaching experience  of Arts  and  and  participants  than  British  or  Bachelor  presents a Columbia  28% of  were  teaching  five years.  of Education  (n=19),  Master's  The  degree degree  comparison between the teachers  education qualifications. The  67  years  taught less than  Certificate 6  eleven  and  with  sample  respect to appears  to  68 be representative of British Columbia teachers.  Table 6: Years of Teaching Experience and Education Qualifications for the Sample and B.C. Teachers 1  Sample(%) Years  of Teaching 0-5 6-10 11 +  8 24 68  14 23 63  19 64 18  11 69 20  Source: B.C. Ministry of Education, Annual Report  With language,  Teachers  (%)  Experience  Education Qualifications Certificate B.A./B.Ed. 4&5 Post Graduate 1  B.C.  respect to reading approach,  4 3 % used  2 % language experience, 3 0 % employed  with whole language,  1985/86.  a basal series,  combinations  2 5 % whole  of a basal series  novel studies or language experience.  B. E L E M E N T A R Y  TEACHERS' CUED  Cued  teacher  key concept  KEY  CONCEPT  scores, out of a  IDENTIFICATIONS  possible  18, were  analyzed  descriptively to reflect teachers' general ability to identify key (P3) concepts. Qu i :  Are elementary teachers able to identify the cued narrative stories? Elementary  concepts above  teachers  in six narrative  passages  did not successfully  to 14. Eighteen  percent  identify  (x = 10.15, sd=1.89) when  was considered a "successful"  distribution for elementary 3  (n = 98)  (75%) score. Table  teachers' cued of scores  key concept  were  below  key concepts  the cued  key  a score of 13 or  7 provides a  frequency  scores. Scores ranged  pass  in six  (9) level;  from  12% were at  69 pass level. The remaining  Table  6%  majority of the sample (n = 6) had  (63%, n = 62) scored from  scored either 13 or  10  to 12; the  14.  7: Frequency Distribution and Measures of Central Tendency for Elementary Teachers' Cued Key Concept Identifications  Teachers  (n = 98)  Score (maximum = 18)  1 0 1 1 5 10 12 20 27 15 3 3  3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00  * * * ***** ********** ************ ******************** *************************** *************** *** ***  Mean: 10.15 Std. Dev.: 1.89  Of in the PI  all the  1  1  1  1  0  10  20  30  Median: 10.00 Minimum: 3.00  checked  concepts  Mode: 11.00 Maximum: 14.00  (n=1736, key  very content-specific category, 2 5 %  superordinate-key  Ho!:  Histogram  and  8%  were P4  and  were P2  other  choices), 10%  subordinate, 5 7 %  were  were  P3  supraordinate.  There will be no significant differences between primary and intermediate teachers in their mean scores on the cued identification of key concepts measure. Table  8 presents A  the numbers of teachers in each group, the means  standard  deviations.  two-tailed  difference  (0.423, a = 0.05)  between  t-test  of  primary  significance and  yielded  intermediate  no  and  significant  teachers' cued  key  70 concept identifications. The  null hypothesis was  accepted.  Table 8: Number of Teachers, Means, Standard Deviations and t-test for the Primary and Intermediate Cued Key Concept Identification Groups  Group  n  Mean  SD  Primary  45  10.04  2.28  Intermediate  46  10.37  1.48  Not  0.423  1  significant at a = 0.05  C. E X P O S U R E T O The  READING  RESEARCH  exposure to reading research measure included reading courses  journals frequently read the  Two-tailed t-test  percentages  and  recent reading in-service  of teachers for each  of the  attended. Table  taken,  9 provides  three exposure to reading research  categories by degree of exposure.  Table 9: Percentages of Teachers Classified in Each of the Three Exposure to Reading Research Categories by Degree of Exposure  Category  Degree of Exposure 2 3 >3  0  1  61  23  8  2  6  15  10  20  16  39  In-Service Workshops in last 3 years (n=100)  21  21  11  14  33  Journals frequently read (n = 102)  70  20  7  1  2  Reading Courses 1982-1987 (n=101) before 1982  (n=100)  71  Results indicate 6 1 % of the teachers have not completed during the last five years  and 3 9 % had taken  more than  a reading  three reading  course courses  prior to 1982. Seventy percent of teachers do not read reading journals regularly. Of reading journals frequently reviewed (38%)  by Language  followed  Journal  of  Instructor Journal  Reading  and of  Counselors,  (6%).  Learning  Learning B.C.  Arts  (21%), Reading  Other  journals  magazines, Prime Disabilities,  Counselor  and Whole  Research  or  Areas,  Reading  years, 3 3 % of the teachers attended 21%  (n = 47), The Reading  Language  Quarterly  references Education  Canada  Lecture,  Newsletters.  more than  Teacher  ranked  first  (9%) and the  (26%)  read  included  Today,  Grade  Teacher,  Canada During  Journal  the past  for three  three workshops on reading with  undertaking none. The  sd = 3.17,  cumulative range=l-16,  exposure  to reading  mode = 6.00)  were  research  obtained  scores  from  (n=102,  the three  x = 5.75, categories:  courses, journals, and in-service. Ninety-six percent of the sample scored below 13 out of a possible  17. Therefore, scores for most teachers reflect a low level of  exposure to reading research.  Ho :  There will be no relationship between measures of teachers' exposure to research and their cued key concept identifications.  2  A  Spearman  rank  p = 0.03)  negative  research  and elementary  (rho)  correlation  hypothesis was rejected.  correlation  between  teachers'  test  yielded  the measures  cued  key concept  a  significant  of exposure identifications.  (rho = -.19, to reading The null  72 D.  ATTITUDES Teacher  responses to the  presented in Table 10. The Results indicated to  (n=101)  seven  statements in the  initial range was  of  the  cumulative  a mainly positive (range of +1  90) teacher attitude toward  concept development  -90 to  the importance  in reading  measure  on  the  attitude  out of a possible  and  are  +90.  scores  to +81  attitude  range of 0  inclusion of prior  lessons (x = 35.19, sd= 16.544).  measure  knowledge/  Scores were  also  used as data in the testing of hypothesis three.  Ho :  There will be no relationship between measures of teachers' attitudes towards the importance of prior knowledge and their cued key concept identifications.  3  A  Spearman  p = 0.12)  relationship  measures. The  E.  between  the  EXPOSURE  test  attitude  indicated and  cued  no  significant  (rho = .13,  key  concept identification  accepted.  TO R E S E A R C H  AND  ATTITUDE  There will be no relationship between the combined measures of exposure to research and attitudes toward the importance of prior knowledge and their identification of cued key concepts. Results  research (F  correlation  null hypothesis was  COMBINED  Ho„:  (rho)  of the multiple  and  attitude  =0.4509, p = 0.04)  regression  independent related  variable was  rejected.  interaction  to the dependent  variable. Individually the exposure and null hypothesis with respect  analysis  indicate  variable cued  attitude variables  to the exposure  that  key  the exposure to was  significantly  concept identification  were not significant. The  to research  and  attitude interaction  73  Table  10: Teacher Responses to the Attitude Measure  Statement  Q10. It is important teachers a) reading courses b) reading journals c) in-service in reading  Attitudes (%, n=101) Strongly Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Disagree Agree undertake: 12.1 36.0 6.1  44.4 36.0 48.5  36.4 15.0 34.8  Q l l . These components are important to a reading lesson: a) background information (concept development) 0.0 0.0 2.0 b) new vocabulary 1.0 2.0 1.0 c) guided silent reading 2.0 4.0 6.9 d) oral re-reading 15.2 2.0 15.2 e) follow-up activities 1.0 2.0 0.0 f) enrichment 5.0 1.0 2.0  40.6 41.6 51.5 44.4 49.0 49.0  57.4 54.5 35.6 23.2 48.0 43.0  0.0 2.0 1.0  7.1 11.0 6.1  Q12. Teachers use manuals/guidebooks for planning and instruction of reading components: a) background information (concept 15.2 development) 26.3 1.0 4.0 53.5 b) new vocabulary 7.1 16.2 26.3 1.0 49.5 c) guided silent reading 14.1 16.2 19.2 2.0 48.5 d) oral re-reading 23.2 31.3 7.1 32.3 6.1 e) follow-up activities 1.0 10.0 19.0 57.0 13.0 f) enrichment 3.0 20.0 10.0 21.0 46.0 Q13. Pre-reading activities important a) new vocabulary (phonics, decoding) b) new vocabulary (definitions, meanings) c) provision of synopsis, summary d) concept development e) provision of purpose questions f) student predictions  to reading lesson: 3.0  13.0  9.0  28.0  47.0  1.0  11.0  8.0  33.0  47.0  2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0  16.8 1.0 2.0 3.0  14.9 8.9 7.9 12.9  41.6 40.6 56.4 47.5  24.8 48.5 32.7 36.6  74 Table  Statement  10  continued  Attitudes (%, Strongly Disagree Undecided Disagree  Q14. Concept development experiences are crucial a) direct, concrete experience 1.0 b) dramatization 5.0 c) teacher demonstration 1.0 d) field trips, excursions 8.0 e) exhibitions, displays 2.0 f) audio/visual presentations 2.0 g) graphs, diagrams, charts 2.0 h) verbal discussions 1.0  n = 101) Agree Strongly Agree  in pre-reading activities: 19.8 16.8 38.6 27.7 24.8 35.6 18.0 28.0 43.0 40.0 24.0 21.0 18.4 29.6 40.8 29.7 16.8 40.6 26.0 14.0 47.0 5.9 4.0 36.6  Q15. Teachers use these concept development experiences: a) direct, concrete experience 1.0 9.0 15.0 b) dramatization 24.0 32.0 3.0 c) teacher demonstration 21.4 1.0 8.2 d) field trips, excursions 14.0 24.0 40.0 7.9 e) exhibitions, displays 28.7 13.9 f) audio/visual presentations 3.0 20.0 15.0 g) graphs, diagrams, charts 4.0 16.0 19.0 h) verbal discussions 3.0 1.0 1.0  23.8 6.9 10.0 7.0 9.2 10.9 11.0 52.5  51.0 34.0 58.2 21.0 43.6 53.0 53.0 31.7  24.0 7.0 11.2 1.0 5.9 9.0 8.0 63.4  Q16. Concept development strategies are frequently used in lessons: a) categorization 1.0 9.9 12.9 56.4 b) word mapping 2.0 11.9 23.8 40.6 c) brainstorming 0.0 3.0 4.0 47.0 d) direct, concrete experiences 1.0 6.9 16.8 50.5 60.4 e) inference training 0.0 4.0 16.8 f) verbal class discussions 0.0 0.0 1.0 34.7 11.9 g) script implicit questioning 0.0 5.0 49.5 58.2 h) Langer's Pre-Reading Activity 3.1 12.2 20.4  19.8 21.8 46.0 24.8 18.8 64.4 33.7 6.1  75  F. SPONTANEOUS (UNAIDED) C O N C E P T IDENTIFICATIONS Teachers they  had  been requested  considered to be central  stories. A l l teacher-suggested and  combinations  the  concepts  specific  provided  concepts  degrees  The  were  concepts  were  the same  (see Table  would develop  were  5)  listed; patterns, concept  as, similar  used  (see Table  expressed  as  in the  4) also S4  key  for each  or related  cued  used  concepts  of the six relationships  revealed that many of to those  response  sheet  according to the Passage-Specific Concept  of generality  categories  and that they  (unassisted) three  were explored. The post hoc examination  therefore be classified on  to identify  to  and  could  Categories based  for the cued  (Superordinate)  passage-  response  Si  sheet.  (Very  Content  Specific). Two  more  categories were  later  designed  based  that emerged. One  category (S5) accounted  for elements  the other category  (S6) contained elements  such  components used  and  teaching techniques. Table  for spontaneous,  unaided  teacher  11  the response  pattern  of story grammar  as comprehension presents  key concept  their assigned concepts were later reviewed  on  the  while  levels, lesson  final  scoring  guide  identifications. Categories and  and discussed by the investigator and  thesis advisor. Table each  12 presents the frequencies of concepts, expressed as percentages, in  of the six categories although teachers had identified  them  all as key (S3  Superordinate) concepts.  Qu : 2  Are elementary teachers able to spontaneously key concepts in six narrative stories? Elementary  teachers' key concept  suggestions  content-specific vocabulary definitions to elements  (unaided)  (n=1767) ranged  of story grammar,  identify the  from  very  comprehension  76  Table  11: Concept Categories and Their Characteristics Used for Post Hoc Spontaneous Key Concept Identification Scoring  Passage Category Specific (Degree)  Very Specific  V General  Concept  Characteristics  Very ContentSpecific  (SI) particular single vocabulary definitions or details  Subordinate  (S2) concept subsumed by and an integral part of the superordinate key concept  Superordinate  (S3) key concept, generalization or expectation central to understanding the story  Supraordinate  (S4) genre, type  Story Grammar  (S5) setting, mood, character analysis, plot, problem, sequence of events, climax, solution, conclusion, theme  Other  (S6) a) Comprehension Objectives: literal and inferential comprehension, main idea, cause and effect, point of view, recall of details, drawing conclusions, etc. b) Elements: humour, suspense, coincidence, irony, foreshadowing, supernatural phenomena, etc. c) Lesson Components: providing background, purpose questions, silent and oral reading, enrichment activities, etc. d) Teaching techniques for activating prior knowledge and concept development  77  Table  12: Teacher's Spontaneous (Unaided) "Key" Concept Identifications Classified (Post Hoc) According to the Six Concept Categories  Categories  Instances  SI —  Very  Content  Specific  S2  —  Subordinate  S3  —  Superordinate  S4  —  Supraordinate  S5  —  Story Grammar  S6  -  Other  (key)  Total 1  A U instances (n=1767) had concepts.  and  teaching techniques. Only  superordinate (P3).  been suggested  (S3)  concepts  29%  by  221  12  453  26  515  29  65  4  131  7  382 1767  22 100  teachers (n = 98) to be key  of their suggestions  compared  to  57%  Percentages  1  identified  were categorized as in the  cued  Descriptive statistics are provided for each spontaneous ( S i to S6)  in Table  13.  (S3)  key  responses category  78 Table  13: Frequency Distribution and Measures of Central Tendency for Elementary Teachers' Spontaneous Key Concept Identifications  S i : Very Content Specific Teachers (n = 98)  Score (maximum = 18)  26 17 18 12 10 6 4 3 1 1  0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00  Histogram  ************************** ***************** ****************** ************ ********** ****** **** *** * *  1  1  0 Mean: 2.25 Std. Dev.: 2.14  1  10  Median: 2.00 Minimum: 0.00  20  1  30  Mode: 0.00 Maximum: 9.00  S2: Subordinate Teachers (n = 98)  Score (maximum = 18)  8 5 5 12 18 12 18 11 3 3 1 0 2  0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00  Histogram  ******** ***** ***** ************ ****************** ************ ****************** *********** *** *** * ** 1  0 Mean: 4.62 Std. Dev.: 2.56  Median: 5.00 Minimum: 0.00  I 10  1  20  Mode: 4.00 Maximum: 12.00  I 30  79 Table 13 continued  S3: Superordinate - Key Teachers (n = 98)  Score (maximum =18)  8 7 3 10 8 16 11 11 12 4 4 3 1  0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00  Histogram  I  ******** ******* *** ********** ******** **************** *********** *********** ************ **** **** *** *  0 Mean: 5.25 Std. Dev.: 2.98  I  .....I  I  10  20  30  Median: 5.00 Minimum: 0.00  Mode: 5.00 Maximum: 12.00  S4: Supraordinate Teachers (n = 98)  Score (maximum = 18)  56 23 15 4 1  0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 12.00  Histogram  **************************** ************ ******** ** * 1  0 Mean: 0.66 Std. Dev.: 0.88  Median: 0.00 Minimum: 0.00  1  20  1  40 Mode: 0.00 Maximum: 3.00  1  60  80 Table 13 continued S5: Story  Grammar  Teachers (n = 98)  Score (maximum =18)  46 21 14 6 2 4 2 .1 1 1  0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00  Histogram  *********************** *********** ******* *** * ** * * * *  • I  4C Mean: 1.33 Std. Dev.: 1.91  Median: 1.00 Minimum: 0.00  Mode: 0.00 Maximum: 9.00  S6: Other Teachers (n = 98)  Score (maximum =18)  20 21 15 6 5 10 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 0 0 2 1 1  0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00  Histogram  ******************** ********************* *************** ****** ***** ********** * *** * ** ** *** * ** ** ** * * I 0  Mean: 3.89 Std. Dev.: 4.64  Median: 2.00 Minimum: 0.00  I 10  I 20 Mode: 1.00 Maximum: 19.00  I 30  C H A P T E R V . SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, IMPLICATIONS This results,  chapter  limitations  presents and  a  summary  implications. The  purpose, design, materials and data under  two  headings:  (unaided) key concept  1) cued  key  of the study,  conclusions  summary  review  analyses  will  used. Conclusions  concept  identifications;  cued  will be discussed  and  2) spontaneous  identifications. The first section will address  descriptive and  conditions (Qu j ) ; b) primary  and intermediate  of  identifications (Ho );  concept  knowledge/concept identifications  and their cued key  d) teachers' attitudes toward the importance and use  2  prior  identifications  teachers' identifications  (Ho!); c) teachers' contact with exposure to reading research concept  on  the rationale,  statistical results in relation to: a) elementary teachers' key concept under  based  development  (Ho );  in reading  e) combined  3  lessons  and  to  reading  exposure  their  cued key  research  and  attitudes and key concept identifications (Ho„). The second section will discuss the descriptive  results  of a  (unassisted)  key  concept  Implications  with  post  hoc analysis of elementary  identifications  respect  to  (Qu ).  Limitations  2  practical  teachers'  application  and  will  spontaneous  be  suggestions  reviewed. for future  research will be presented.  A.  SUMMARY Reading  reader the  is considered  and the text. Since  reader  uses  to be  to fill  Apparently,  the more  in pieces prior  ongoing  a text can never  information  experiences  an  from  be entirely  his mental  of missing knowledge  interactive  store  information  (housed  process  explicit, it is believed  of prior and  between the  knowledge  to make  in concepts) a  reader  and  inferences. possesses  about a text's central topics (key concepts), the better s/he is able to fill in the  81  82 missing  bits  of  appropriate,  information.  text-relevant  It  is  conceptual  further prior  suggested knowledge  that in  the  activation  pre-reading  activities  enhances comprehension, as bridges are built between what the reader knows the new  responsibility  central to understanding study  concepts and  was  choosing  the  text-relevant key  a text or story rests with  to determine: a) whether  b) if their  exposure  and  use  Subjects  recent  concepts  the teacher. The  elementary  concept  design was  consisted . of was  reading  teachers  could  considered purpose of identify  key  teachers  development  from  a  questionnaire  basic  teacher  teachers' exposure to recent reading research and  The  story booklet contained six narrative passages and on  post hoc  examination  teachers' cued key  using  were analyzed analysis was  a  concept  of spontaneous key one  two-tailed t-test  using the Spearman  concepts  was  lesson  Central Okanagan  correlational. Teacher  and  story  to  The  measure  two  in a  reading  lesson.  response sheets which information for a  identifications.  analyzed  descriptively. Hypothesis  of significance. Hypotheses  (rho) test of correlation. A four. A  booklet.  and  identifications and  concept  was  employed to test hypothesis  spontaneous key  and  knowledge/concept development  Data collected for question tested  reading  the  attitudes toward the importance  use  data  in a  information  and  provided  attitudes toward  schools in the  descriptive, comparative  to gather  (inclusion) of prior  and  identifications.  instructions,  intended  research  knowledge/concept  were elementary  school district. The  questionnaire  to  of prior  influenced their cued key  packages  for  in six narrative passages under cued or spontaneous (unaided) conditions;  importance  was  and  textual information.  The  this  of  two  and  one three  multiple regression  descriptive post hoc  conducted for the second question.  analysis of  83  B. CONCLUSIONS  1. Cued Key Concept Identifications  a.  Elementary  The  Teachers'  first  Cued  question  Key  Concept  addressed  Identification  whether  (Qu^)  elementary  identify key concepts in six narrative passages.  teachers  were  able to  Thirty-one percent (n = 30) of the  teachers (n = 98) scored at the pass level (a score of 9 out of a possible 18) or below, while the majority (63%, n = 62) Only  6% (n = 6)  identified key concepts  obtained  passing scores from  10 to 12.  at the set success level (75%, a score of  13). Researchers 1982; and  Pearson,  (e.g.,  Beck  1985; Pearson,  et  Hansen  1981; Bruner  &  and Gordon,  Anglin,  1973; Lipson,  1979) have  long  expected  directed teachers to choose passage-relevant key concepts. The results of the  present study show that elementary key  al.,  concepts  information experience education  from  on how  a  list  to choose  (11+ years qualifications  of  teachers are only marginally able to identify passage-relevant  central  concepts  for the majority)  concepts  gleaned  and teacher  from  provided. years  training  Perhaps  of teaching  associated  (B.A. or B.Ed, for most) was a factor  with  contributing to  successful identifications. The from  fact that teachers were not highly successful in choosing key concepts  lists supplied, leads one to question their ability to select key concepts  vocabulary  lists  the  reader  basal  provided in guidebooks, approach  (alone  since most of the sample  or in combination)  teachers  as the main  from used  vehicle for  teaching reading. In addition, several other basal reader-related factors may affect  84 teachers' identifications of key  concepts.  First, some manuals offer only brief, inadequate and  concept  1981;  development or pre-story background  Visser  a) combining  and  Pelzek,  of phonic  concept  development  analysis;  (Durkin,  recommended focus  on  by  lesson 1978,  specific  provided  key  definitions  (Durkin,  1984).  semantic  manuals  and  b) making  segments  may  often  distinctions  1983;  Pearson,  do  not  provide evidence  teachers  vocabulary  isolated  for singular to  more  choose  key  meaningful  words  and  follow manual  instruction  that proper  transferable if guidebooks  recommendations  (Blachowicz,  1987;  Durkin,  development of selection-related  relationships, is often lacking.  passage-relevant  identified  57%  (n = 995)  concepts,  from  cued  supports  Beck's  difficult and  key  concepts  key and  25%  provided  (1981) assertion  not entirely  concepts.  that  The  fact  that  (n = 439)  related,  (n=1736),  is at  selection  of  passage-relevant  1979)."  key  subsumed least  appropriate  absolute. Possibly, teachers need to be  concepts  play  in  instruction  guidance  elemental  teachers  subordinate  encouraging key  and  concepts  is  reminded of the  interactive reading process, the prior knowledge/concept connection and role  which  prior knowledge, which would lead students to a rich network of  connections and  selecting  and  definitions  Results indicate that teachers in this sample need assistance and in  by  vocabulary  word  1985). Fourth, even  always  of reading  between  perpetuates  teachers  than  confuse  for meaning with those chosen for  which  direct  rather  teachers  Examinations  Mason, 1983)  vocabulary  (Mason,  concepts,  and  knowledge preparation (Durkin,  1979). Third, suggestions  guidebooks,  passage-level concepts  1984;  Second,  words which are to be developed  purposes  instruction  1984).  suggestions for vocabulary  (e.g., Tierney  the critical &  Spiro,  85 b. Primary  and  The  Intermediate  first  Teachers  hypothesis  difference between  generated  primary  from  and intermediate  question  one predicted no significant  teachers' identifications of cued key  concepts. The hypothesis was accepted. One possible explanation for this result is that primary  and intermediate teachers share commonalities  with respect to years  of teaching experience, qualifications, reading approach, and district in-service. As well, elementary  teachers  or  level  intermediate  are regularly  and  assigned  are therefore  expected  expertise and transfer skills to adapt to their to be cognizant of the importance the shift from a primary on  reading  to learn  to teach  either  at the primary  to possess  the  necessary  situation. However, teachers  of key concepts  and concept  need  load demands in  stress on learning to read to an intermediate emphasis  (Harris,  1961; McCullough,  1959; McKee,  1948; Strang,  1968).  c. Exposure  to Reading  Scores  Research  (n=102) on the exposure  to reading  research  measure  (courses,  journals, in-service) were low. The majority of teachers (83%, n=85) scored below the mid point and 9 6 % (n = 98) below the success level set at a score of 13 out of a possible 17. Teachers'  scores therefore reflected a low level of exposure to  research. Though elementary  they  felt  courses  were  important,  teachers (the majority of which had over  61%  (n = 62)  of the 101  11 years of experience) had  O not  undertaken  a reading course  reported  they  had completed  duration  of the reading  during  the past  two or more  courses  five  courses  years  before  while  7 3 % (n = 75)  1982. The type or  was not known, nor did teachers  indicate how  86 long  ago  the  reflect the  courses  had  current focus  development  on  terms. Perhaps  been  completed.  prior  knowledge, while  time  constraints, job  factors and  distance from the Lower Mainland  attendance.  Elementary  areas  and  Presumably,  they  may  . focus  on  earlier  and  curriculum  to be  courses,  courses  would  used  concept  courses  demands, cost  universities prevented  teachers are often expected  therefore  recent  recent course  specialists in all subject  other  than  reading,  which  (n=102) did not regularly  review  address their interests or perceived weaknesses. Seventy  percent  (n = 71) of the teachers  reading journals. Some others  (36%)  remained  overburdened  by  required  teach.  to  considered journal reading undecided.  reading  material  Journal  Teachers in  memberships  availability in individual schools may read  journals, most  publications suggests which 1977  which  that  can  teachers  be  study  easily  (Cogan  The  reviewed were  be  seeking  adapted and  may  variety are  feel of  Teacher,  efficient,  or  areas  and  Language subject  are  Anderson) concerning  the  they  are  journal  (n = 31) who Arts,  area  needs. The  already  current  successful, practical  classroom  (51%), while  they  subject  expensive  specialist  to their  important  a problem. Of the 3 0 %  Reading  instruction,  are  the  to be  and  did other  oriented.  This  teaching  ideas  findings support  professional reading  a  habits of  teachers. In-service in reading was majority of teachers (79%) last  three  would  years  expect  in-service  teachers' needs funding  have  though  but  the  maj  attended  topic  to be  this  effected  had  considered to be important  and  at least one  (84%  not  in-service  be  duration of workshops is unknown.  the  offerings.  case.  Recent  Teachers  The  workshop in reading in the  regular, relevant, current and r  agreement).  are  appropriate  cut-backs inundated  in  One  to the  education with  new  87 curriculum implementation review, attend has  plan  and  learn. Many  in-service  not  been  theory may  reading a  to  unexpected this  two  stated research  significant  negative  teacher  be  their  cued  correlation  expect  money to  If reading in-service  current  has  no  was  been  prior  relationship key  knowledge-text  between  concept  found. A  teachers'  identifications.  An  possible explanation for  building for the  teacher  current reading research  postulations and  and  details and  improve  to  find  a  prior knowledge or key  inservice  as  scholar  (theory  and  concepts  textbooks  of  theoretical  and  in research journals and  texts. However, Durkin were "flooded" with  a  (1986)  theoretical  lacked direct, explanatory instructions or strategies on  comprehension.  Methods  preponderance  methodology in course  methods preservice and  suggestions.  and  would  1985), contact with  would  skilful blend of theory  to  application of  and  have a somewhat negative effect.  technical studies on  how  there  awareness  Manning,  methodology) may  found  practical  reading  1986;  A  give of their free time  workshops outside of school hours.  priority,  is that, although  (Chall,  educators  be lacking.  Hypothesis exposure  demands yet are provided little time or opportunity to  texts,  Teachers  like  are  basal  in  need  manuals,  of  practical,  mislabeled  effective  comprehension  assessment as comprehension instruction, fueling teachers' false security that they were teaching reading and Durkin  believes the  recent  did not need to pursue courses over-emphasis  explained the reader-text interactive process 1977;  Tierney  procedures  and  and  prior  knowledge  (Adams and  well,  in texts has  Bruce, 1982;  not  Rumelhart,  Spiro, 1979), or outlined appropriate models (e.g., Idol, 1988),  prior  result, teachers may  on  or research. As  knowledge  strategies (e.g., Langer,  1984)  carefully.  As  a  overemphasize prior knowledge in the reader-text relationship  88 (Durkin, 1986). If course or in-service instructors neglect to provide either balance theory  and  practice  or  supplement  text  with  ideas  for  practical  between classroom  application, teachers will gain little from recent reading research literature.  d. Attitudes Elementary  teachers'  (n=101) attitudes toward  the  importance  (inclusion) of prior knowledge/concept development were mainly Teachers important  considered  component  enrichment  activities.  concept  in  a  reading  Responses  manuals for the planning and and  follow-up  activities.  development lesson  indicate  and  but  new  also  teachers  instruction of concept  Concept  development,  vocabulary  believed  to  to  questions  (Blachowicz  1987;  Durkin,  1984;  Mason,  1983)  an and  generally  use  vocabulary and  predictions were the most positively identified pre-reading activities, yet observations  be  follow-up  development, new  purpose  use  positive.  identified  are  and  show  student classroom  that  little  instruction in these areas actually takes place. Attitudes experiences  toward  the  in pre-reading  importance  activities tended  and  use  to be  of  concept  less positive  other items. Verbal discussions were considered very important, concrete  experience,  demonstration. dramatization the  Attitudes and  importance  students  have  (Cunningham,  use  field of  of about  trips  concrete,  diagrams,  graphs  audio-visual  displays,  were negative. Perhaps direct  experiences  conceptualizing and  interpreting  1987;  Stauffer,  Dale,  and  1969;  in  responses  followed by  charts  and  exhibitions and teachers learning  abstract visual  1969;  than  development  Strang,  to  direct, teacher  especially  are  not  aware of  and  the  difficulty  or verbal symbols  1968).  Planning  for  89 these  experiences  Teachers  may  transfer &  also  also  requires  not  time,  realize  the  Pearson,  crucial  resources  aspect  (Beck et  value of "owned" concepts  Anglin, 1973;  available  al.,  and  of concept  1981;  networks  Bransford,  swing  back  to  the  1979;  the  Bruner  more  positive  viewpoint.  Verbal  in lessons reflected  class  discussions  brainstorming were considered the most frequently used, followed by questioning and  or  1985).  Attitudes concerning concept development strategies used a  experimentation.  and  script'^implicit  inference training. Direct, concrete experiences, categorization  word mapping as well, were positive. These attitudes about strategies concur  and with  prior knowledge research. Apparently, teachers frequently use little  preparation  time  involved  and  though  conceptualizing abstract concepts, they and  Vancil  (1986) suggested  graphic display purpose  (word  questions  knowledge and  map)  is  that a was  believed  discussion to develop concepts. There is students  may  encounter  difficulty  are involved in active comprehension. Stahl combination  of verbal discussion and  visual  a more effective strategy. Providing pre-reading to  concepts (Rowe and  facilitate Rayford,  the 1987)  activation  of  students'  prior  but teachers need to be aware  that script implicit questions are considered more difficult than  explicit questions.  Teachers'  is  employment  of  inference  training  as  a  strategy  research findings that prior knowledge involves (Hansen and Lipson, Drum,  1982; 1984;  (Dale, 1969) not be  Pearson,  Nicholson and  Imlach,  Gordon, 1979) 1981)  and  available. Teachers  activity  was  used.  were undecided  Perhaps they  Pearson,  1980,  and  resources which  of her  and  experiences  as to whether Langer's  did not know  by 1982;  influences (Callahan  inferences. Direct concrete  apparently require more preparation time  readily  pre-reading  Hansen, and  supported  may  (1984)  research  and  90 practical  strategy  published mainly  for  activating  prior  knowledge  since  her  work  has  been  in journals or reading specialist texts which they apparently do  not regularly review. Hypothesis toward  three  the importance  predicted  and  Results  were  not  positive  attitudes  about  prior  text-related  Tierney & If  Spiro, they  components  and  concepts  be  that  they  to improve  concept  as  do  not  and  teachers  suggest  know  instruction  development  important  confusion may  1987).  as still  important  may  but  and  follow-up exist  basal programs and  Teachers  time but rather one Flood, and  concepts  attitudes  development in reading  elementary  how  (Pearson  promote  teachers  prior &  feel prior  classroom  vocabulary activities  of quality  use  knowledge  Johnson,  1978;  Gleckman,  1982;  affords better comprehension  Mason,  instruction  lesson  enrichment,  1984).  the  Perhaps  they  their recommendations for instruction knowledge, concept development  scheduling and  (Beck et al.,  and  (Durkin, 1981,  limit proper instruction. However, effective instruction  Lapp,  teachers'  build concepts, they are not successfully identifying key  consider  equally  are  Although  knowledge  or how  over rely on commercial (Blachowicz,  between  1979).  teaching/assessing  vocabulary  significant.  concepts. It may  affects comprehension  relationship  inclusion of knowledge/concept  lessons.  strategies to activate and  no  1981; 1983).  of text and  may  time  constraints  not be  on  Idol,  1988;  text-related  provides students with  semantic network of connections that can be transferred to new  again  a question of  Blachowicz, 1987; Building  and  situations.  a  key rich  91 e.  Combined  Exposure  The  to Reading  interaction  significantly  related  Research  of exposure  to cued  and  Attitudes  to research and attitudes  key concept  identifications.  was found  The finding  to be  may  be  explained in relation to an interaction between "teacher as scholar" (exposure to reading research), "teacher as teacher" (attitudes) and "teacher as manager" (cued key concept identifications). Teachers et al.,  1981; Manning,  teacher  as  maintained, practised 1987; as  have long adopted  manager  1985; Pearson, ensured  a  materials (commercial  by children  the role of manager in a reading lesson (Beck  and tests  1985; Stern  classroom  and Shavelson,  environment  was  and teacher-made) were administered. Classroom  1983). The  established  arranged,  skills  and were  observations (Blachowicz,  Durkin, 1981; 1984; Mason, 1983) provide evidence to support the teacher  manager  syndrome.  lesson sequence, pressures  Manning  employed  1985) invite  suggested  teachers  were  skill overkill tactics, and overemphasized  of accountability.  Pearson,  (1985)  Reading  teachers  educators  to make  a  (Chall,  shift  unaware of  testing due to  1986; Manning, 1985;  from  the narrow  managerial  position to a role as scholar and active educator. Manning  (1985) characterized  possesses  a) an historical,  improves  instruction;  reading  a  scholarly  current knowledge  b) knowledge  about  curriculum; and d) up to date  ensure  situations  research  and  and that  research investigations.  courses  teachers  need  educator  as one who  of reading research studies  language  are relevant  which  and reading; c) knowledge of  knowledge  practical strategies for instruction. He suggested to  reading  of reading methodology and  universities have a responsibility to practical  to collaborate  by  classroom  opening  their  reading doors to  92 Pearson (1985) recognized a need for teachers to be more actively involved in providing instruction, role modeling, and guiding practice. Teachers  and children  were described as partners in a reading process, traveling together, teaching and learning, along a goal-oriented continuum. Teachers  were reminded  of the critical  contribution they make (through assistance) to students' mastery learning. The need  interaction  of the two roles  to involve teachers  relinquish  a perceived  directly  of scholar and educator  illuminate the  in decisions affecting reading education  adversarial  relationship  between  researcher  and to  and classroom  teacher. First, teachers are encouraged to take a more active part in a) research (theory and methodology) related to programs, texts and guidebooks and classroom reading based  instruction curriculum  theory,  teaching  et  (e.g., Beck planning  models  al.,  1981);  b) provincial,  and implementation;  and strategies  district  c) in-service  (e.g., Idol,  and school  based  1988) which  on  proven  recognize the  teacher, student and text variables involved in the reading process. Teachers are advised with  (Stern and Shavelson,  respect to programs  1983) to be aware  and instructional  of their  strategies  decision-making  role  and to adapt goal-oriented  transfer skills to a variety of materials (Durkin, 1981).  2. Spontaneous (Unaided) Key Concept Identifications Teachers' key  concept.  words These  responses  Suggestions  to genre, results  developing  analysis, plot,  (see Table  comprehension  may  specific  revealed a lack of consensus as to a definition  reflect word  levels,  guidebook  meanings,  climax), genre  11) ranged story or  aspects  (e.g., mystery,  from  grammar novel  very  specific  vocabulary  and teaching  techniques.  study  of story fiction),  of a  recommendations for  (e.g.,  setting,  comprehension  character  levels  (e.g.,  93 literal, inferential), and Of  the  choices  (n = 515) to a and  (n= 1767)  suggested  were considered key  57%  (n = 995)  subordinate  teachers  (see  Table  12),  superordinate passage-related concepts  identification  unable  (e.g., enrichment activities, vocabulary).  by  of cued  categories yielded 5 5 %  that teachers are own  lesson components  key  concepts  (n = 968)  29%  in comparison  (n=1736). Combined  of the concept  to successfully identify key  only  concepts  key  choices. It seems when left to their  resources. Since  the  concepts  than words suggested identifications teachers reading  (57%)  in this (whole  by  used  cued  measure  were  more passage-specific  manuals or guidebooks, the results of teachers' marginal  may  study  in the  be  somewhat  reported  that  language, language  inflated.  they  In  light  employed  experience, novel  of the  other  fact  that  approaches  studies, trade  to  teach  books),  either  alone or in conjunction with basal reading series, their ability to consistently successfully identify key would  seem  choosing  that  text-relevant concepts  teachers  passage-related  need key  importantly, in pre-service and  explicit concepts  and  becomes even more questionable. It  models, in  the  procedures  program  and  strategies  guidebooks  in-service methods texts (Blachowicz,  and 1987;  for more  Durkin,  1986). Teachers b) the  appear to need in-service on  importance  and  influence of  prior  a) the interactive process of reading; knowledge  on  reading  comprehension;  c) the prior knowledge-concept-vocabulary connection; d) the selection of text-related key  concepts;  and  concepts to connect  e) the  activation  the known to the  and new.  building  of  students'  prior  knowledge  94 C.  LIMITATIONS Although  teachers  the  in terms  sample  of years  generalizations should be research and and  the  made with  attitude factors may  The  six  concept  responses  had  no  be  experience  and  of  British  education  Columbia  qualifications,  differ among the sample, other school districts have  been  passages  associated control  representative  caution. It is possible that the exposure to  may  narrative  load  to  of teaching  population. Results  experience. tj'pical  seems  with  and  afffected  were  short  stories  in  therefore  by  and  may  basal  could  years  of  not  readers.  only  be  teaching  reflect  the  Spontaneous  content  analyzed  descriptively.  D.  IMPLICATIONS The  results  of  this  investigation  marginally  able to identify key  to identify  key  concepts  on  concepts  their  own;  suggest  under cued and  interactive  enhance  their  strategies methods  reading  on  selection how  texts.  to  Program  process of  in  knowledge  lesson which  through  choose  text-related  guidebooks  in  are  potentially  and  important  to  or  turn  and  influence of prior knowledge in  pre-service and  passage-relevant  direction-setting would  are  conditions, they are not able  results  and  key key  the  provide  in-service  concepts. concepts  manuals  passages in pre-reading segments. Appropriate used  teachers  in-service programs for teachers.  Sensitizing teachers to the importance the  a) while  b) exposure to reading research  attitudes influence their identifications. These the teaching of reading and  that:  could  key  activation scaffolding  Explicit  should  provide  concept of and  training could  be key  models  and  included in concepts  for  choices could then students'  related  connections  for  be  prior new  95 incoming information. Future investigation  research of:  should  1) samples  be  from  conducted more  in  than  this  one  district;  intermediate teachers at each grade level; 3) the in-service sensitizing of key  teachers to identify passage-relevant key  concepts in expository material.  area  including  the  2) primary  and  instructional effects of  concepts; and  4) identification  REFERENCES  Adams,  M. & Bruce, B. (1982). comprehension. In J.A. Langer meets author:  bridging  Background knowledge & M. Trika Smith-Burke  the gap.  Delaware: IRA, pp. 2-26.  Adams, M. & Collins, A. (1977). 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Johnny can't read: Does the fault lie with the book, the teacher, or Johnny?  Johnson,  Remedial  and  Special  D. & Pearson, P.D. (1984). Holt, Rinehart & Winston.  Education  Teaching  (RASE),  reading  9(1),  vocabulary.  8-25,  New  35.  York:  100 Johnson,  P. (1982). Effects Tesol  Johnston,  P.  Quarterly,  (1984).  Reading  Kant,  on comprehension  16(A),  Prior  Research  of building background  knowledge.  503-515.  knowledge Quarterly,  and reading  19(2),  comprehension  I. (1781). Critique of pure reason. London: Macmillan (originally published in 1781, First Edition).  Karlin, R. (1971, 1980). Teaching Jovanovich, Inc.  test  bias.  220-238.  elementary  reading.  and Co., (1963),  New York: Harcourt, Brace,  Kerfoot, J.B. (1916). How To read. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co. Klausmeier, H. J. (1977). Third cross-sectional study of attainment of the concepts 'equilateral triangle; cutting tool; noun; and tree' by children age 7 to  17. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. E D Langer,  J . (1984). Reading  Examining  Research  background  Quarterly,  knowledge  19(4),  154 007).  and text  comprehension.  468-481.  Lapp, D., Flood, J., and Gleckman, G. (1982). Classroom practices can make use of what reseachers learn. The Reading Teacher, 35(5), 578-585. Lipson,  M.  (1982).  knowledge  Learning and  new  reading  information ability.  from  Journal  of  text:  the role  Reading  of prior  Behavior,  15(3),  243-261. McCullough,  C.  (1959).  Reading McKee,  P.  (1948).  Implications  Teacher, The  13(14),  teaching  of research  on  children's  concepts.  The  100-107. of  reading  in  the  elementary  school.  Boston:  Houghton-Mifflin Co. Manning, J.C. (1985). What's needed now in reading instruction: the teacher as scholar and romanticist. The Reading Teacher, 39(2), 132-138. Marcum,  D. (1944). Experiences, concepts, and reading. The Elementary Journal, 44, 410-415.  Martorella, P. (1971). Concept learning Educational Publishers. Mason, J. (1983).  An  examination  grades. The Reading  Mathews,  in the social  studies.  of reading instruction  Teacher,  36(9),  School  Scranton, Pa.: Intext  in third  and fourth  906-913.  II, S. (1982). The impact of prior knowledge, on accessibility and availability of information from prose. In A. Flammer & W. Kintsch (Eds.), Discourse processing. New York: North-Holland Publishing Co., pp. 400-409.  101 Mitzel, H.E., Ed. (1982). Encylopedia New York: Free Press  of educational  research,  Volume 1 (5th ed.).  Nelson-Herber, J . (1985). Anticipation and prediction in reading comprehension. In T. Harris & E. Cooper (Eds.), Reading, thinking and concept development. New York: College Entrance Examinations Board, pp. 89-103. Nelson-Herber, J . & H. Herber (1984). A positive approach to assessment and correction of reading difficulties in middle and secondary schools. In J. Flood (Ed.), Promoting Reading Comprehension. Newark, Del.: IRA, pp. 232-244. Nicholson, T. & Imlach, R. (1981). Where do their answers come from?: a study of the inferences which children make when answering questions about narrative  stories. Journal  Pearson, P.D. (1985). Changing Reading  Pearson,  Teacher,  information. Journal  Behavior,  Anderson,  Journal  of Reading  Behavior,  and thought  11(3),  reading  Psychology,  Piekarz, J. (1956). Getting meaning from 303-309, (MF 00744/3). Pieronek,  New York:  New York: Harcourt &  Translator, M. Cook. New  different  69(4),  201-209.  comprehension.  of the child.  R.C. (1977). Taking  of Educational  instruction. The  Gordon, C. (1979). The effect of background children's comprehension of explicit and implicit  Piaget, J. (1953). The origin of intelligence in children. York: International Universities Press. Pichert, J . &  111-129.  724-738.  Pearson, P.D. & Johnson, D. (1978). Teaching Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Piaget, J. (1926). The language Brace.  13(2),  the face of reading comprehension  38(8),  P.D., Hansen, J . & knowledge on young  of Reading  perspectives on a story.  309-315.  reading. Elementary  School  F.T. (1979). Using basal guidebooks - the ideal lesson plan. The Reading Teacher, 33, 167-172.  Journal,  integrated  56,  reading  Obah, T. (1983). Prior knowledge and the quest for new knowledge: the Third World dilemma. Journal of Reading, 27(2), 129-133. Rowe, D. &  Rayford,  comprehension  L. (1987).  Activating  assessment. Reading  background Research  knowledge  Quarterly,  22(2),  in reading 160-175.  102 Rumelhart,  D. (1976). Toward R. Ruddell  Delaware:  models  and  processes  In H. Singer  of reading  (3rd  & ed.).  IRA, pp. 722-750.  Russell, D. (1956). Children's Schank,  an interactive model of reading.  Theoretical  (Eds.),  thinking.  Boston: Ginn and Co.  R.C. (1973). Identification of conceptualizations underlying natural language. In R. Schank & K. Colby (Eds.), Computer models of thought and language. San Francisco: Freeman.  Schank,  R.C.  (1982). Reading  and  artificial intelligence. Publishers. Schank, R. C. & inquiry  understanding:  Hillsdale,  teaching  from  N.J.: Lawrence  the  perspective  Erlbaum  Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans goals and understanding: into human knowledge structures. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.  School  Journal,  53,  275-285  Sims, R. (1938). Concept analysis of primers and pre-primers. Elementary Review, 15, 302-305, (MF 00858/3). Singer, H. (1978). Active comprehension: Reading  Smith,  an  to develop concepts and their verbal representations. The  Serra, M. (1953). How Elementary  of  Associates,  Teacher,  31(8),  N. (1954). The good 160-169.  from  answering  English  questions. The  to asking  901-907.  reader  thinks  critically.  Spache, G. & Spache, E. (1973, 1986). Reading Allyn and Bacon, Inc.  The Reading  in the elementary  Teacher,  school.  7,  Boston:  Stahl, S. & Vancil, S. (1986). Discussion is what makes semantic maps work in vocabulary instruction. The Reading Teacher, 40(1), 62-67. Stauffer, R. (1965). Concept 100-105.  development  Stauffer, R. (1969). Teaching reading Row, Publishers, Inc. Stern,  P. and Shavelson,  Stevens,  K.  (1980).  The  comprehension  151-154.  as a thinking  R. (1983).  making. The Reading  Teacher,  effect  of ninth  and reading.  Reading  The Reading  process.  judgements,  New  Teacher,  York: Harper  plans,  19,  &  and decision  37(3), 280-286.  of background graders.  Journal  knowledge of  Reading  on  the  reading  Behavior,  12(2),  103 Strang,  R. (1968). IRA,  The reading  Developing  (Ed.),  process  and its ramifications.  comprehension  including  critical  In M.  reading.  Dawson  Delaware:  21-37.  Strange, M. (1980). Instructional implications of a conceptual theory of reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 33, 391-397. Taft, M. & Leslie, L. (1985). The effects of prior knowledge and oral reading accuracy on miscues and comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 17(2), 163-179. Thorndike, E.L. (1917). Reading as reasoning: a study of mistakes in paragraph reading. Reading Research Quarterly 6(4), (1971), 425-434. Originally published in Journal of Educational Psychology, 8(6), (1917), 323-332. Tierney, R. &  Spiro, R. (1979). Some basic notions about reading  implications  Monographs  for teachers.  in  Teaching  comprehension:  and  Learning,  3,  14-17. Indiana: Indiana University School of Education. Trika  Smith-Burke,  M.  (1982).  (Eds.), Reader  Visser,  Ecola.  meets author:  The  S. and Pelzek, J. (1984). knowledge  in  basal  In J . Langer bridging  readers  &  the gap.  effectiveness lessons.  Paper  M.  Trika  Smith-Burke  Delaware: IRA,  of provision  of  presented  at  background the  Spring  International Reading Conference, Atlanta, Georgia. Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought Waters,  D. (1934). 01017/7).  and language.  Pre-Reading  New York: John  experiences.  Education,  Wilson, C R . (1983). Teaching reading comprehension the  Wolfe,  new. The Reading  Teacher,  Wiley.  54,  308-312, (MF  by connecting the known to  36(4), 382-390.  J. (1968). Applying research findings in comprehension to classroom practice (elementary). In J.A. Figuerel (Ed.), Forging ahead in reading, volume  12,  Delaware:  part  1,  Proceedings  IRA, 611-615.  of  the  Twelfth  Annual  Convention.  APPENDIX INITIAL E L E M E N T A R Y  A  TEACHER  104  QUESTIONNAIRE  105 APPENDIX  A  Dear Colleague, The attached I N D E X and B O O K L E T is part of a study I am conducting to help identify what aspects of a reading lesson elementary teachers consider to be important. As a full-time teacher myself, I am aware that your time is at a premium. However, the most valuable classroom resource is you, the educator. Your input will help provide information about classroom reading lessons which can be used in developing reading and in-service programs. Individual responses are coded only to keep track of the survey and will be held in strict confidence. Participation is voluntary. Thank you for you co-operation. J. M. Tonski EXPLANATIONS  O F TERMS  FOR  PART  ONE  - INDEX  The following are various components of a reading lesson model. Explanations are provided as a reference for the questions in Part B of this index. COMPONENTS O F A  READING LESSON  A. B A C K G R O U N D INFORMATION: -concept development -activating students' background knowledge and experience relevant to story content B. V O C A B U L A R Y D E V E L O P M E N T : -presentation of new vocabulary isolation and context -decoding skills -word meanings  and review  of previous words in  C. G U I D E D S I L E N T READING: -fosters word recognition/comprehension skills and strategies through discussion and questioning (literal level and beyond) D. O R A L  REREADING: -includes rereading activities to improve reading fluency -to prove a point, justify interpretations, etc.  E. FOLLOW-UP  ACTIVITIES: -independent student tasks -reinforcement for skills presented (e.g., workbook exercises) -evaluation of word recognition or comprehension skills (e.g., post reading comprehension questions)  F. E N R I C H M E N T : -activities which involve creative uses of language  106 PART ELEMENTARY A.  BASIC  ONE  T E A C H E R INDEX  INFORMATION  Please circle the appropriate response. 1. Grade level you are presently teaching: a) 1  b) 1/2  c) 2  i) 5  j) 5/6  k) 6  2. Sex:  d) 2/3 1) 6/7  e) 3  f) 3/4  g) 4  h) 4/5  m) 7  a) Male  b) Female  3. Years of teaching experience (as of June 1986): a) 0-3  b) 4-7  c) 8-11  d) 12-15  e) more than 15  4. Education Qualifications: a) Certificate  B.  b) B.A./ B.Ed.(4yr)  T H E READING  c) B.A/ B.Ed.(5yr)  d) M.A/ M.Ed.  e) Ph.D/ D.Ed.  LESSON  Please circle the appropriate response. 1. To what degree are the following components  important to a reading lesson?  Important A. B A C K G R O U N D  INFORMATION  B. V O C A B U L A R Y C. G U I D E D S I L E N T D. O R A L  READING  REREADING OF STORY  Not Important  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  E. F O L L O W - U P ACTIVITIES  1  F. E N R I C H M E N T  1  ACTIVITIES  Undecided  2  3 2  3  107 2. Do you use a basal reading manual or guidebook for planning and instruction? yes no 3. How often do you refer to the basal manual or quidebook for the following components? usually sometimes never A. B A C K G R O U N D I N F O R M A T I O N  1  B. V O C A B U L A R Y  1  C. G U I D E D S I L E N T R E A D I N G  1  2  3  D. O R A L  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  REREADING OF STORY  E. FOLLOW-UP  ACTIVITIES  F. E N R I C H M E N T  ACTIVITIES  2 2  4. Please rank (1-6) the components in order of importance 2 = second most important, 3 = next most important, etc.). A. B A C K G R O U N D  3 3  (l = most  important,  INFORMATION  B. V O C A B U L A R Y C. G U I D E D S I L E N T R E A D I N G D. O R A L  REREADING OF  E. FOLLOW-UP  STORY  ACTIVITIES  F. E N R I C H M E N T A C T I V I T I E S 5. Often regular classroom time constaints influence the selection of components that you are able to use in a lesson. Which three of the following steps would you delete if you did not have time to use all steps? (1 = first to be deleted, 2 = 2nd to be deleted, 3 = 3rd deleted) A. B A C K G R O U N D  INFORMATION  B. V O C A B U L A R Y C. G U I D E D S I L E N T R E A D I N G D. O R A L  REREADING OF  E. FOLLOW-UP  STORY  ACTIVITIES  F. E N R I C H M E N T A C T I V I T I E S  C.  READING  EDUCATION  Please circle t h e appropriate  INFORMATION response.  1. Reading courses taken prior to a) none  b) one  c) two  1981:  d) three  e ) more than three  2. Reading courses completed during the last 5 years: a) none 3. Do  you  b) one  c) two  d) three  e ) more than three  read journals about reading education?  4. If "yes", please circle the journal(s) that you year: a) The  Reading Teacher  a) yes  read at least three times a  b) Journal of Reading  d) Reading Research Quarterly  b) no  c) Language Arts  e ) Other (please specify)  5. How many local or provincial workshops on reading have you the past three years? a) none  b) one  c) two  d) three  e)  three or  m O r e  attended  during  APPENDIX PART FINAL  ELEMENTARY  B  ONE  TEACHER  109  QUESTIONNAIRE  110 APPENDIX  B  Dear Colleague,  This study is being conducted in the Central Okanagan school district to identify what aspects of a reading lesson (especially prereading activities) elementary teachers consider to be important. As a veteran Okanagan teacher, I am aware that your time is at a premium. However, the most valuable classroom resource is you, the educator. Your input will help to provide information about real classroom lessons which can be used in developing reading and in-service programs in the Central Okanagan. Responses are coded only to keep track of the survey and, of course, will be held in strict confidence. Participation is voluntary and participation or non-participation will not affect job standing in any way. Thank you for your cooperation.  J. M.  INSTRUCTIONS  FOR  THE  Please refrain from discussion during the completion The study order:  P A R T ONE:  is comprised  TEACHER  of two  parts that must  Tonski  STUDY  of the tasks. be completed  in the following  Q U E S T I O N N A I R E (5-10 minutes)  Please complete the yellow Teacher Questionnaire and place it in the large brown envelope.  P A R T TWO:  BOOKLET  (20-30 minutes)  This section requires you to read six short narrative passages and to complete, in order, two brief identification tasks: a) Response Sheet #1 (which is to be sealed in the small white envelope provided after it is finished) and then b) Response Sheet #2 (which is in an enclosed small brown envelope).  PART THREE: R E T U R N  PACKAGES  Upon completion, place all materials in the large return the package to the group leader or principal.  brown  envelope,  seal,  and  Ill  APPENDIX  PART ELEMENTARY A. BASIC INFORMATION: 1.  (K-3)  Sex:  3.  Years of teaching experience  Education  (as of June 1987): c) 11-15  d) more than  15  Qualifications: b) B.A./ B.Ed.(4yr)  c) B.A/ B.Ed.(5yr)  d) M.A/ M.Ed.  e) Ph.D/ D.Ed.  Reading courses you have taken during the last 5 years (1982-1987): a) none  b) one  c) two  Reading courses you have taken a) none  b) one  c) two  d) three  e) more than  three  e) more than  three  prior to 1982: d) three  Which of the following journals do you read at least three times a) The Reading Teacher  b) Journal of Reading  d) Reading Research Quarterly  8.  response.  b) Female  b) 6-10  a) Certificate  7.  QUESTIONNAIRE  b) Intermediate (4-7)  a) Male  a) 0-5  6.  TEACHER  Please circle the appropriate  2.  5.  ONE  Grade level you are presently teaching: a) Primary  4.  B  How  many  attended a) none  local  or provincial  a year?  c) Language Arts  e) other (please specify)  in-service  workshops  on  reading  have you  during the past three years? b) one  c) two  d) three  e) more than  three  112 9.  Which reading approach do you mainly use? a) basal series d) eclectic  B. T H E  READING  b) whole language  c) language experience  e) other (please specify)  LESSON:  Please circle the appropriate response according to: Strongly Agree  Agree  Undecided  Disagree  Strongly Disagree  1  2  3  4  5  10.  11.  It is not important that teachers undertake the following: a) Reading Courses  1  2  3  4  5  b) Reading Current Journals  1  2  3  4  5  c) In-Service in Reading  1  2  3  4  5  a) Background Information (Concept Development)  1  2  3  4  5  b) New Vocabulary (Decoding & Meaning)  1  2  3  4  5  c) Guided Silent Reading (via discussion & questioning)  1  2  3  4  5  d) Oral Re-reading  1  2  3  4  5  e) Follow-up Activities (Reinforcing, independent tasks)  1  2  3  4  5  f) Enrichment Activities (Creative, extension tasks)  1  2  3  4  5  The following components are important to a reading lesson:  113 12.  Teachers do not use the manual/guidebook for the planning or instruction of the following reading lesson components: a) Background/Concept Development  1  2  3  4  5  b) New  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  d) Oral Re-reading  1  2  3  4  5  e) Follow-up  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  Vocabulary  c) Guided  Silent Reading Questions  Activities  f) Enrichment 13.  The  Activities  following pre-reading activities are important to a reading lesson:  a) New Vocabulary (Phonics, decoding  14.  1  2  3  4  5  b) New Vocabulary (Specific definitions, meanings)  1  2  3  4  5  c) Provision of Story Synopsis, Summary  1  2  3  4  5  d) Concept Development (Building student experiences)  1  2  3  4  5  e) Provision of Purpose Questions  1  2  3  4  5  f) Student Predicitons  1  2  3  4  5  skills)  The following concept activities:  development experiences  are not crucial in prereading  a) Direct, concrete experiences  1  2  3  4  5  b) Dramatization  1  2  3  4  5  c) Teacher  1  2  3  4  5  d) Field Trips, Excursions  1  2  3  4  5  e) Exhibitions, displays  1  2  3  4  5  f) Audio/Visual presentations  1  2  3  4  5  g) Graphs, diagrams, charts  1  2  3  4  5  h) Verbal discussions  1  2  3  4  5  Demonstration  114 15.  Teachers  frequently use the following concept development experiences: 1  2  3  4  5  b) Dramatization  1  2  3  4  5  c) Teacher  1  2  3  4  5  d) Field trips, excursions  1  2  3  4  5  e) Exhibitions, displays  1  2  3  4  5  f) Audio/Visual presentations  1  2  3  4  5  g) Graphs, diagrams, charts  1  2  3  4  5  h) Verbal discussions  1  2  3  4  5  a) Direct, Concrete  The  Experiences  demonstrations  following concept development strategies are frequently used  in lessons:  a) Categorization (classification of data)  1  2  3  4  5  b) Word mapping (visual display of word and its various meanings)  1  2  3  4  5  c) Brainstorming  1  2  3  4  5  d) Direct, concrete experiences  1  2  3  4  5  e) Inference training (implied meanings)  1  2  3  4  5  f) Verbal class discussions  1  2  3  4  5  g) Script Implicit Questioning (open ended questions requiring students' experiences)  1  2  3  4  5  h) Langer's Prereading Activity (concept development strategy)  1  2  3  4  5  P L A C E THIS CONTINUE.  QUESTIONNAIRE  IN  THE  LARGE  BROWN  ENVELOPE  AND  APPENDIX PART STORY  C  TWO BOOKLET  1 1 5  116  APPENDIX P A R T TWO  C  - BOOKLET  INSTRUCTIONS  P L E A S E REFRAIN  FROM  DISCUSSION  WHILE COMPLETING  THE  BOOKLET.  1.  Read the six short passages in the booklet.  2.  For each story, choose three key concepts you consider to be important to understanding the passage and print them on R E S P O N S E S H E E T #1.  3.  Upon completion of R E S P O N S E envelope provided.  4.  Open the small brown envelope complete the checking (/) task.  5.  Place all materials in the large brown envelope, to the principal or group leader.  Thank you for your cooperation.  SHEET  #1,  containing  seal  it in the small  RESPONSE  SHEET  #2  white  and  seal or staple, and return  117  PASSAGE  ZR and X J had just finished a regular inspection of Flagship Venus when they heard the radio signal. ZR glanced briefly at the last message. No further signals were due for another two days. ZR clicked on the receiver and waited for the typed message. "It's been almost five years since we left Azid," she said to XJ. "Five years that we've been in space. Just a few more days and we're home." "As she read the message, her hands started to shake. "Flagship Venus, do not finalize orbit entry until you receive an all clear. Problem with the planet Zenith. Will be resolved in a few days." ZR and X J recalled the last war with Zenith. Zenith had wanted to colonize a small planet near Azid, but the rulers of Azid had objected. As a result, half the surface of Azid had been destroyed. Its inhabitants had been forced to live underground for over two hundred years. "But the fact that we survived is what matters," ZR said. "Besides, with our new weapons, we've maximized our strength." "That's the problem," X J said nervously. "They have, too." "Well, the fact that Azid is sending messages is a good sign. There's nothing we can do but wait." 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  ONE  The crew had been looking forward to returning home. They had been exploring a newly discovered galaxy, which had billions of stars in it still to be studied. ZR and X J had also helped colonize a planet on the outer limits of the galaxy. Now Flagship Venus was returning home and would begin its descent in two days. If anything went wrong though, the spaceship's computer would automatically shift the spaceship into a holding pattern. Another message began to come in. "Flagship Venus, our Southern Hemisphere has been lost. Wait for instructions." Quickly, ZR started to focus the giant telescope on Azid. "Well, it's still there," she thought grimly. She reminded herself that she had been through this before, just 200 years ago. Again the radio started to click, then stopped suddenly. Stunned, ZR returned to the telescope. The planet Azid was an orange ball of flame. It glowed for a few more seconds. Then there was total blackness. Azid was gone. Flagship Venus lurched slightly, causing ZR to stumble. The spaceship had shifted into the holding pattern. ZR and X J stared into space. The computer had received its final message from ground control. ZR and X J would hear no more from Azid. 8  9  1 0  1 1  1 2  1 3  118  PASSAGE  Long ago, an elderly woman lived alone in an old log cabin. She had many peculiar habits, and people suspected she was a miser with a hoard of money stored away in her ramshackle old place. The woman had a fancy for dried fish and at all times kept a large one hanging from a peg inside the fireplace. Whenever she wanted a snack, she would eat a piece of the fish. She called every fish that hung there Old One-Eye because she could only see one of its eyes. The old woman maintained a nightly ritual. Every night, she would sit before the fire, preparing wool for spinning. As she began to yawn, she would count each yawn aloud, and after three yawns, she prepared herself for bed. But before retiring the old woman would always get her knife and cut off a piece of the fish. * One night three robbers, having heard the rumor of the old woman's money, sneaked up near her cabin. They planned to slip in after she fell asleep and steal her money. Since the leader of the gang had only one good eye, he sent one of the others to spy on the woman. The first thief tiptoed up to peek through a crack between the fireplace and the log wall. He saw the old woman rocking and carding wool. Suddenly she yawned. "That's one!" she said, looking at her fish. "My knife is dull, but it will do the job!" 2  3  5  TWO  Not knowing about the fish, the robber thought she was looking straight at him, so he turned and ran. When he reached his friend's hiding place, he declared that nothing could ever make him go back to that weird place. When the second robber bravely went to the cabin and peeked through the crack, he saw the woman rocking and combing her wool. Soon the woman yawned again. "That's two," she said, glancing at the fish. "I'll be getting my knife shortly!" "She can see right through the wall!" gasped the' thief, who abruptly turned and fled. Disgusted with the cowardice of the other two, the leader went up to the cabin himself and applied his good eye to the crack. Just then, the old woman yawned again. "That does it," she sighed. "That's the third one tonight." Then looking sternly at the fish, the old woman said, "Old One-Eye, your time has come. I'm going to get my knife." That was too much for the already nervous one-eyed villain! He took off, with the other two rogues close behind. The old woman cut a big piece of fish and ate it hungrily. Then, as usual, she went to bed and slept soundly all night. 6  7  8  9  1 0  1 1  119  PASSAGE  Maria and her partner swam deeper into the black depths of the cold ocean. One light shone from Maria's diving helmet, another from her partner's. The rest was darkness. Although cold and dark, the waters gave Maria a feeling of anticipation. Maria was studying the habits of lobsters. This was her job, and there was nothing she would rather do. Because she studied life in the ocean, she was called a marine biologist. She swam carefully around a large rock formation about ten meters below the surface. As she swam, she beamed her light into the cracks. Sometimes she wished she did not have to dive at night. But there was no choice. Lobsters are nocturnal, moving around and feeding at night. To observe these strange creatures that look so prehistoric, Maria had to work at night. Maria was thinking that someday her research might lead to an important discovery. Suddenly she saw two huge, cat-like eyes beyond the rocks. Maria froze. Could it be? Yes, it was — an enormous shark! Maria wanted to race for the surface. But her training took over, and she stayed perfectly still. The gentle current moved her slightly to and fro. She kept her eye on the shark. 1  2  3  4  5  THREE  Maria knew that any sudden movement would be dangerous. She remembered if she remained calm, the shark's curiosity might be satisfied and it would swim away. She concentrated on keeping her breathing slow and regular. Luckily, she still had plenty of oxygen in the tank she carried on her back. All she had to do was wait — and watch. If the shark attacked, she would have to fight for her life. Her best bet would abe to go for its gills. After what seemed like hours, the shark moved out of view. Minutes passed. The only sound Maria could hear was the sound of her breath bubbling up through the ebony water toward the night sky above. Ever so slowly, Maria began to drift upward. After what seemed like forever, her head broke the surface, just a meter away from the boat. Her partner was already at the surface, calling to her, "There's a shark down there! Did you see it?" Maria nodded excitedly. "That's why I came up," she said. "I watched it and it watched me, and then it swam away. I guess it was just looking, but I didn't like the way it was staring at me." Then Maria smiled. "I wonder if the lobsters we watch feel the same way about us?" 7  8  9  1 0  120  PASSAGE  The weekend was over, and they were headed home again. Miranda felt a lump in her throat. Without meaning to, she sighed wistfully. "What's wrong?" her father questioned, his eyes steady on the busy highway. "I don't know," she answered, trying to feign a smile — both for own and her father's sake. Miranda had never been to the ocean before. Her father had taken her and her brother to the beach for the weekend. She had loved being at the beach, the view so golden at sunset, the surf pounding so rhythmically. Miranda had collected exotic seashells for her aquarium back home. She and her little brother, Lonnie, had built a giant sandcastle, a city really, with underground tunnels. Their first morning there, the three of them had ridden the crashing surf into shore, and they had done it again and again. Last night, they had cooked a delicious dinner on an open fire and had traded funny stories. "Come on, partner," Miranda's father probed, "you can tell me. That sounded like a sad sigh to me, and I know something's upsetting you." "It's just that ..." Miranda hesitated and glanced quickly at her sleeping brother. "It's just that the weekends seem to end so quickly; then you're gone again." Miranda was having difficulty talking. 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  FOUR  Her father put his arm around her and drew her close. "You know, it's difficult for me, too, and I can hardly wait to get through the lonely weeks when I don't see you. Because I don't live with you now doesn't mean that I love you less. It's just that things have changed." "But Dad, couldn't you come home again?" Miranda strained to hold back the tears. She knew the answer and was sorry she had asked. "Adapting to this new pattern of living, the new circumstances, has been difficult for all of us, Miranda. But you know your mother loves you. And, of course, I still love you and Lonnie very much." "You have to try to look at this from a different perspective," continued her father. "Now, you have two families, not one; maybe you'll have twice as many adventures, too," he smiled. "This is not exactly what you want, but you and I — all of us — have to make the best of this sutuation. I know you're a strong person." Miranda looked at her father. It made her feel better to talk about this. There were many things about her new family situation that Miranda was not comfortable with. But, in time, she thought it would become easier. It would never be the way it was before, but it would have to be easier than now. 8  9  1 0  1 1  12  121  PASSAGE  It was raining hard that night in 1881, harder than Kate Shelley had ever seen. While Kate and her family were listening to the rain, there came the sound of a train along the tracks near the house. As the train rolled onto the bridge over Honey Creek, there came a sudden crash! A loud, deafening roar! The rising waters of Honey Creek, combined with the weight of the train, had caused the bridge to collapse. The freight train had fallen into the creek! Kate knew something had to be done. And quickly! Anxiously, she put on her raincoat and hat. She ran through the blinding rain to the creek. With a small lantern, she could barely discern two of the train crew clinging to something in the water. She shouted to them that she would get help. As Kate turned to go, she suddenly remembered. The passenger train! It would soon be heading toward the creek. The passengers and crew needed to be warned of the bridge collapse. Kate knew she had to get to town immediately! ' But the only path to town was across a small footbridge. It was a long, narrow footbridge, difficult to cross even in the daytime. Tonight it would be treacherous, perhaps impossilble. And how it was swaying in the wind! 1  2  3  FIVE  Just as Kate started across, the wind blew out her lantern, leaving her in complete darkness. How could she get across the bridge with no light to guide her? Kate decided that the only way to cross the bridge was to crawl. She was able to see where she was going only when the lightning flashed. Even though Kate's clothes became wet and torn, her hands and knees full of splinters, she knew she had to go on. She had to get to town before that passenger train passed through and raced toward the creek! Kate felt she would never reach the end of that rickety bridge. But she finally made it! Kate rushed into town just in time to stop the train. At first the engineer and the passengers were hostile toward Kate. They were angry because she had halted the train. But when they heard why, they gave a loud cheer! Hurriedly, Kate guided a rescue group to the two men in the flooded waters of Honej' Creek. Overnight, Kate became famous. People all over America heard about her courageous deed. Songs and poems were written about her. And the rest of her life, whenever she wanted to go somewhere, Kate rode the train free. 6  7  8  122  P A S S A G E SIX  No one had seen the carnival arrive. Not until morning, after a violent April storm, did the people of tiny Yorkton discover it. But by sunset, all three big tents and sideshows were packed with what seemed like Yorkton's entire populace. After all, this was the first carnival of the spring of 1898. Clara Worley, a young farm girl, and two other girls from the Sherbrooke F a r m were among the many people who came to participate in the fun. Clara was buffeted by the large, laughing crowd. Before she knew it, she was separated from her friends. The shouts of barkers selling chances at their games filled her already swimming head. Suddenly, she felt as though she were falling through space. "Here, drink this water. You must have passed out," a thin voice said. Clara looked up into a pair of ancient eyes. "I've been waiting for you," the mysterious woman whispered. * "For me?" Clara asked in a voice that quavered. "Yes, old friend, it's your turn to take a chance." With a gnarled finger, the stranger pointed to the banner draped across her dusty tent. The crowds walked past as if her show were invisible. "Enter the Future" the sign dared. Just to escape the old woman's haunting grasp, Clara paid her nickel and entered. 2  3  5  6  Red, blue, violet flashing lights pulsated around her. It was a marvelous hall of mirrors! Her reflection swirled endlessly through glass. Clara laughed, wondering where the future was. Slowly she inched forward, feeling her way through the forest of expanding and shrinking reflections. A t last, she stood before the final mirrors at the exit. Clara stopped abruptly, frightened! In the mirror stood the oldest woman she had ever seen! Suddenly she felt weak and jittery. Horrified, Clara whirled about, facing another mirror. The ancient woman was there, too, copying Clara's every move. Clara shook with fright! The realization of what had occurred struck her so violently she could hardly breathe. She understood! She had taken a chance on entering the future, but she had entered her own future! Somehow, within the maze of mirrors, her whole life had been lost. For some reason, a reason impossible to comprehend, Clara had become an old woman. Her mottled hands shaking with apprehension, Clara opened the exit. Outside, the carnival was gone. The small town she had known had changed to a fast-paced, auto-choked city. Dazed, wandering aimlessly, Clara Worley vanished into a crowd. 8  9  10  123 APPENDIX  C  SPONTANEOUS RESPONSE A.  S H E E T #1  C H O O S E T H R E E K E Y C O N C E P T S (IMPORTANT T O UNDERSTANDING T H E STORY) T H A T Y O U W O U L D D E V E L O P F R O M E A C H O F T H E SIX P A S S A G E S A N D PRINT T H E M IN T H E A P P R O P R I A T E SPACES. 1. P A S S A G E ONE:  2. P A S S A G E  TWO:  3. P A S S A G E  THREE:  4. P A S S A G E  FOUR:  5. P A S S A G E  FIVE:  6. P A S S A G E SIX:  B.  PLACE THIS RESPONSE P R O V I D E D A N D SEAL.  C.  OPEN BROWN S H E E T #2 A N D  ENVELOPE CONTINUE.  SHEET  #1  IN  CONTAINING  THE  WHITE  ENVELOPE  PINK  QUICK  RESPONSE  APPENDIX  C  CUED RESPONSE SHEET  #2  C H E C K (/) T H E T H R E E K E Y C O N C E P T S Y O U E A C H S T O R Y F R O M T H E LISTS P R O V I D E D .  1.  PASSAGE  space  radio  signals  holding  outer  limits  orbit  inspection  old  PASSAGE  DEVELOP  ONE:  flagship  2.  WOULD  exploration pattern  maximized ground  control  receiver  "world"  peace  abandoned  TWO:  woman  ramshackle  carding  peculiar  folk  miser  ritual  cowardice  robbery  disgusted  hoard  abruptly  shark  current  night  research  meters  ebony  enormous  prehistoric  marine  sea  oxygen  lobsters  3. P A S S A G E  creatures  tale  THREE: diving  ...  biology  FOR  125 4. P A S S A G E  FOUR:  feign  family changes  perspective  probed  hesitated  pattern  adapting  circumstances  personal  exotic  upsetting  relationships ..  discern  rickety  storms  collapse  treacherous  engineer  bridges  courage  lantern  morality  hostile  trains  populace  mystery  carnival  buffeted  gnarled  haunting  ancient  time travel  quavered  barkers  sideshows  self-awareness  5. P A S S A G E  —  FIVE:  6. P A S S A G E SIX:  B.  P L A C E A L L M A T E R I A L S IN T H E L A R G E B R O W N E N V E L O P E , A N D R E T U R N T O T H E G R O U P L E A D E R OR PRINCIPAL.  SEAL  


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