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Hearing books read in the first language : its association with reading achievement in the second language Walters, Ken 1984

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HEARING BOOKS READ IN THE FIRST LANGUAGE: ITS ASSOCIATION WITH READING ACHIEVEMENT IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE by KEN WALTERS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1984 © Ken W a l t e r s , 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of o(a-^\y^a^c^t &~QS<L. ^a^c^-c The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ^ t x ^ - r% ' f f . DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was t o answer the q u e s t i o n , "Does r e a d i n g b o o k s t o E.S.L. s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r f i r s t language have a g r e a t e r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h g a i n s i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t than r e a d i n g books t o E.S.L. students i n t h e i r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ? " A n o t h e r p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o determine whether r e a d i n g s t o r i e s to c h i l d r e n i n Chinese i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i r s t l a n g u a g e b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s , a n d w h e t h e r a t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d F i r s t L a n g u a g e C o l l e c t i o n s i n f l u e n c e s c h i l d r e n ' s b o r r o w i n g o f f i r s t language books. A r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was developed t h a t c o n s i s t e d of one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e and two de p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , h e a r i n g s t o r i e s read, c o n s i s t e d of Treatment 1, h e a r i n g s t o r i e s read i n Chinese; T r e a t m e n t 2, h e a r i n g s t o r i e s r e a d i n E n g l i s h , and Treatment 3, h e a r i n g no s t o r i e s read ( c o n t r o l group) . The de p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e : 1) r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t as measured by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t L e v e l A, forms 1 and 2, C a n a d i a n e d i t i o n , 1980; and 2) the number of Chinese books borrowed by s t u d e n t s . i i The s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t with 39 s t u d e n t s , ages 9 to 12, a t a s c h o o l l o c a t e d i n the core of Vancouver's C h i n e s e community. The t r e a t m e n t took p l a c e d u r i n g two 40 minute p e r i o d s a week f o r a d u r a t i o n of t h r e e months. Two o n e - t a i l e d £ _ t e s t s were a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a , f i r s t l y t o t e s t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t between t h e means of t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , and secondly t o t e s t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means w i t h i n each group. ANOVAS were a p p l i e d t o t e s t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t h r e e g r o u p s i n b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s , and t o t e s t f o r a d i f f e r e n c e i n borrowing h a b i t s between the two c l a s s e s . A l l t h r e e g r o u p s — t h e g r o u p h e a r i n g Chinese s t o r i e s , the group h e a r i n g E n g l i s h s t o r i e s and the c o n t r o l g r o u p made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n r e a d i n g achievement (p < .05) . The g r o u p h e a r i n g C h i n e s e s t o r i e s d i d n o t make g r e a t e r g a i n s i n r e a d i n g achievement than the group h e a r i n g E n g l i s h s t o r i e s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e g a i n s i n any of the three groups. T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s of the t h r e e groups. There was, however, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .05) between the number of i i i books borrowed by c l a s s . Because one teacher h e l d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s f i r s t l a n g u a g e b o o k s , t h i s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t a t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e toward f i r s t language books has a profound e f f e c t on the f i r s t language borrowing h a b i t s of s t u d e n t s . T h i s s t u d y adds important i n f o r m a t i o n to the debate on how s c h o o l s s h o u l d respond to the c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The students h e a r i n g Chinese s t o r i e s l e a r n e d E n g l i s h e q u a l l y as w e l l as t h o s e h e a r i n g E n g l i s h s t o r i e s , and had t h e added a d v a n t a g e of b e i n g exposed, i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g , t o t h e i r own c u l t u r e . i v HEARING BOOKS READ IN THE FIRST LANGUAGE: ITS ASSOCIATION WITH READING ACHIEVEMENT IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 Need For The Study 1 Purpose of the Study 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 H i s t o r y 10 The E f f e c t s of B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n on Academic Achievement i n the Second Language 13 Theory 40 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 47 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS 51 Methodology 51 P r e s e n t a t i o n of F i n d i n g s 56 CHAPTER 4: DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 60 CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 72 APPENDIX I : Chinese L i t e r a t u r e - E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (Rating) 86 APPENDIX I I : Data 88 REFERENCES 8 9 v LIST OF TABLES Table I. E n g l i s h Reading T e s t s 36 Table I I . Research Design 52 Table I I I . Summary of Data: Table of Means 56 T a b l e IV. £ Test Between Groups 57 Table V. i T e s t W i t h i n Groups 58 Table V I . Chinese Books Borrowed by Groups 59 T a b l e V I I . Chinese Books Borrowed by C l a s s 59 v i 1. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Need For The Study In r e c e n t y e a r s t h e E n g l i s h - a s - a - s e c o n d l a n g u a g e (E.S.L.) p o p u l a t i o n of s c h o o l s i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . A c c o r d i n g to Cummins (1981a) more t h a n 50% of t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n Metro T o r o n t o S c h o o l Systems do not have E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. In 1982 the E v a l u a t i o n and Research S e r v i c e s of t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d p r e s e n t e d a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d , 1982 Survey of P u p i l s i n Vancouver Schools f o r Whom E n g l i s h Is a Second Language. There were 24,524 E.S.L. s t u d e n t s , o r 46.5% o f t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ' s t o t a l e n r o l m e n t i d e n t i f i e d as E.S.L. s t u d e n t s (as compared t o 22.1% i n 1974). Cummins (1981a) r e p o r t s s i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c s f o r Los A n g e l e s where i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t the H i s p a n i c p o p u l a t i o n w i l l comprise over 50% of the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n by 1985. The r i s e i n i m m i g r a n t s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i s not l i m i t e d t o N o r t h A m e r i c a . Cummins (1981a) n o t e s t h a t i f c u r r e n t trends c o n t i n u e i n Europe, i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t by the year 2000, one t h i r d of the European s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be immigrant. The i n c r e a s e i n E.S.L. s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n N o r t h 2. A m e r i c a n and European s c h o o l s has g i v e n r i s e to i n c r e a s e d debate on how s c h o o l s s h o u l d r e s p o n d t o t h e c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Masemann (1978-79) a n a l y z e d p u b l i c response to the Toronto Board D r a f t R e p o r t w h i c h recommended m a i n t e n a n c e and d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e c h i l d ' s o r i g i n a l language and c u l t u r e . Among the c o n c e r n s i d e n t i f i e d i s the f o l l o w i n g : Language m a i n t e n a n c e or development programs i n the s c h o o l s , other than French or E n g l i s h , w i l l r e t a r d t h e E n g l i s h language development of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n , and t h e y w i l l i m p ede E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y community themselves, (p. 39) In h e r a r t i c l e , " F i r s t L a n g u a g e M a t e r i a l s i n S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s " , J'Anne Greenwood (1983) r e p o r t s W h i l e t h e d a y s o f p u n i s h i n g c h i l d r e n f o r speaking i n t h e i r own language have o f f i c i a l l y passed and educators seek to supplement r a t h e r than s u p p l a n t the student's c u l t u r e , t h e r e i s n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e l i n g e r i n g f e e l i n g t h a t encouraging the use of the mother tongue w i l l 3. i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g o f E n g l i s h . (P. 15) A news s t o r y with the heading "Panel Asks S t r e s s on E n g l i s h S t u d i e s " by S. Daley appeared i n the New York Times. May 6, 1983. I t s t a t e s i n p a r t : A g r o u p o f e d u c a t o r s s a i d y e s t e r d a y t h a t F e d e r a l money now going to b i l i n g u a l programs s h o u l d be u s e d t o p r o m o t e p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h , not to teach other academic s u b j e c t s i n a f o r e i g n language.... The educators s a i d the F e d e r a l Government sh o u l d support programs t h a t t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o speak, read and w r i t e E n g l i s h as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e by 'immersing' them i n the language. (p. 1) The c o n t i n u i n g b e l i e f t h a t use of the f i r s t language i n E.S.L. c l a s s e s i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h i s n o t c o n f i r m e d by r e s e a r c h (McLaughlin, 1978). Indeed, on the b a s i s of what has been l e a r n e d about second language a c q u i s i t i o n d u r i n g t h e p a s t 15 y e a r s , Ovando (1983) a f f i r m s , " I t w o u l d be p e d a g o g i c a l l y u n s o u n d a n d s o c i o p o l i t i c a l l y i m p rudent t o r e t u r n to the sink-or-swim 4. methods o f t h e p a s t . " (p. 567). N e v e r t h e l e s s , the debate ove r t h e e f f i c a c y o f f i r s t l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n a n d m a t e r i a l s c o n t i n u e s . In 1983, as p a r t o f a M u l t i c u l t u r a l Program, th e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t p u r c h a s e d a F i r s t L a n g u a g e C o l l e c t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y of f i c t i o n books. T h i s c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e s b o o k s w r i t t e n i n C h i n e s e , G r e e k , H i n d i / P u n j a b i , I t a l i a n , J a p a n e s e , P o r t u g u e s e , and Vietnamese. These books form a d i s t r i c t c o l l e c t i o n and are a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s on r e q u e s t . A l a r g e p o r t i o n of the Chinese c o l l e c t i o n was used a t L o r d S t r a t h c o n a E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , whose Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i s about 85% of the t o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , or about 700 s t u d e n t s . The w r i t e r of t h i s t h e s i s i s a t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n a t Lord S t r a t h c o n a E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l . The a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f most s t a f f (some of whom were E.S.L. t e a c h e r s ) toward the F i r s t Language c o l l e c t i o n was, "What do we need t h e s e f o r ? A r e n ' t we s u p p o s e d t o be t e a c h i n g t h e k i d s E n g l i s h ? " The books r a n g e d i n r e a d i n g l e v e l f rom p r i m a r y t h r o u g h t o upper i n t e r m e d i a t e . No t e a c h e r s , however, made use of the b o o k s . To promote the use of t h e b o o k s t h e t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n c o n t a c t e d a Chinese speaking parent who q u i c k l y became e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t r e a d i n g t o g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n i n C h i n e s e . A number of t e a c h e r s i n v i t e d t h e 5. p a r e n t i n t o the classroom, and the response on the p a r t of those t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g was e n t h u s i a s t i c , d e s c r i b i n g t h e s t o r y t i m e i n t h e s t u d e n t ' s f i r s t l a n g u a g e as a "wonderful e x p e r i e n c e f o r the c h i l d r e n " . Not o n l y t h a t , s t u d e n t s e a g e r l y came t o t h e l i b r a r y a s k i n g f o r Chinese books. Because of t h e e x p e r i e n c e of the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e p a r e n t , t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s i n t h i s " S t o r y time i n F i r s t Language Program", a c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f : would E.S.L. s t u d e n t s who hear s t o r i e s i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e make g r e a t e r g a i n s i n r e a d i n g achievement i n t h e i r second language t h a n E.S.L. s t u d e n t s who hear s t o r i e s read i n t h e i r second language? I t i s the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s study t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . R e s e a r c h i n b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d t oward two b r o a d i s s u e s : 1) What i s the e f f e c t of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on c o g n i t i o n ? 2) What i s the e f f e c t of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ? The use of f i r s t language l i t e r a t u r e and i t s e f f e c t on r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t has r e c e i v e d almost no a t t e n t i o n by i n v e s t i g a t o r s . I s a b e l Schon (1981a, 1981b) appears to be the o n l y i n v e s t i g a t o r t o e x p l o r e t h i s a r e a . The purpose of her two s t u d i e s was to d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f s i l e n t r e a d i n g t i m e i n f i r s t 6. l a n g u a g e upon s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . The p r e s e n t study i s unique i n t h a t i t appears to be the o n l y s t u d y t o d a t e w h i c h c o n c e r n s i t s e l f s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between h e a r i n g l i t e r a t u r e r e a d i n t h e f i r s t language and r e a d i n g achievement i n the second language. Purpose of the Study The p u r p o s e of t h e s t u d y was t o answer the q u e s t i o n , "Does r e a d i n g books t o E.S.L. s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e have a g r e a t e r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h g a i n s i n r e a d i n g achievement than r e a d i n g books to E.S.L. s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ? " To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s was f o r m u l a t e d : Hearing stories read in Chinese i s associated with greater gains i n reading achievement i n the second language among Chinese intermediate E.S.L. students than hearing s t o r i e s read i n English. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be r e j e c t e d i f p r o b a b i l i t y i s equal to or l e s s than .05. The s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o i n t e r m e d i a t e E.S.L. s t u d e n t s (ages 9 to 12) a t Lord S t r a t h c o n a E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l w h i c h 7. i s l o c a t e d i n the Chinese community of the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . One purpose of the study was to f i n d evidence t h a t w i l l d i s p r o v e t h e commonly h e l d b e l i e f t h a t the use of f i r s t language m a t e r i a l s i n E.S.L. classrooms i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n of E n g l i s h . P r e s e n t l y i t i s v i e w e d as common sense by many E.S.L. t e a c h e r s n o t t o use f i r s t language m a t e r i a l s . However, Wertheimer (1980, p. 347) r e p o r t s t h a t , "The argument f o r the p r o v i s i o n of books f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r mother tongue i s overwhelming." Once e s t a b l i s h e d , c o n c e p t s t e n d t o remain f i x e d i n human c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y may p l a y a u s e f u l p a r t i n d i s l o d g i n g m i s c o n c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g use of f i r s t language m a t e r i a l s i n E.S.L. classrooms. A n o t h e r p u r p o s e of t h i s study i s to determine whether r e a d i n g s t o r i e s t o c h i l d r e n i n C h i n e s e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i r s t l a n g u a g e b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s , and whether a t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e toward F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s i n f l u e n c e s c h i l d r e n ' s borrowing of f i r s t language books. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms — E n a l i s h - a s - a - s e c o n d - l a n a u a a e (E.S.L.) students are defined as students whose f i r s t or home language (LI) i s 8 . d i f f e r e n t from the language of the wider community and i t s s c h o o l s (L2). B i l i n g u a l i s m i s d e f i n e d i n a b r o a d sense as "the p r o d u c t i o n and/or c o m p r e h e n s i o n of two l a n g u a g e s by t h e same person" (Cummins, 1981, P r e f a c e ) . — B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n r e f e r s t o a t e a c h i n g model i n which t h e E . S . L . s t u d e n t i s t a u g h t ( a t l e a s t i n p a r t ) i n h i s f i r s t l a n g u a g e . In t h i s s t u d y the term r e f e r s t o b o t h " t r a n s i t i o n a l b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n " ( f i r s t language i s used u n t i l the c h i l d can p a r t i c i p a t e i n E n g l i s h o n l y c l a s s e s ) and " m a i n t e n a n c e b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n " ( f i r s t language i s c o n t i n u e d even a f t e r a c h i l d i s c a p a b l e of f u n c t i o n i n g i n an E n g l i s h o n l y c l a s s r o o m ) . — R e a d i n g Achievement i s d e f i n e d as the measure o b t a i n e d on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t s , L e v e l A, C a n a d i a n E d i t i o n , 1980. g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s S i n c e the sample was drawn from Chinese c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n a Chinese community, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w i l l be l i m i t e d t o t h a t p o p u l a t i o n . 9. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n which are p e r t i n e n t t o the pr e s e n t study w i l l be p r e s e n t e d and a n a l y z e d : 1) What i s t h e e f f e c t of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on academic achievement i n the second language? 2 What i s t h e e f f e c t of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on r e a d i n g achievement i n the second language? As an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the r e s e a r c h on the above i s s u e s , a b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f b i l i n g u a l i s m a n d m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n i s g i v e n . T h i s h e l p s p l a c e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n a more m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e x t . T h e o r y w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o i n t e r p r e t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n terms of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e r e v i e w . The p u r p o s e f o r p r e s e n t i n g t h i s theory i s t o p r o v i d e a s o u n d t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s . The summary a t the end of the chapter b r i n g s f o c u s to the r e s e a r c h and theory p r e s e n t e d i n the review of the l i t e r a t u r e . 10. H i s t o r y E a r l y r e s e a r c h on b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n was concerned w i t h c o g n i t i o n . From t h e 1920's t h r o u g h t o the e a r l y 1960's r e s e a r c h e r s , a l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , h e l d the view t h a t b i l i n g u a l i s m had f a r more n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s t h a n p o s i t i v e . I n deed, Lambert (1975) c l a i m s t h a t only two s t u d i e s p r i o r t o t h e 1960's s u g g e s t e d t h a t b i l i n g u a l i s m m i g h t h a v e f a v o u r a b l e consequences on c o g n i t i o n . In 1922 the i n f l u e n t i a l l i n g u i s t Otto J e s p e r s o n wrote: I t i s , of c o u r s e , an advantage f o r a c h i l d t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h two l a n g u a g e s : b u t w i t h o u t doubt t h e advantage may be, and g e n e r a l l y i s , purchased too dear. F i r s t of a l l the c h i l d i n q u e s t i o n h a r d l y l e a r n s e i t h e r o f t h e two languages as p e r f e c t l y as he would have done i f he had l i m i t e d h i m s e l f to one... Secondly, t h e b r a i n e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r two l a n g u a g e s i n s t e a d of one c e r t a i n l y d i m i n i s h e s t h e c h i l d ' s power o f l e a r n i n g o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h m i g h t a n d o u g h t t o be l e a r n t . ( J e s p e r s o n , 1922, p. 148 c i t e d i n G r o s j e a n , 1982, p. 220) 11. J e s p e r s o n ' s view was accepted as f a c t , and r e s e a r c h e r s i n the e a r l y p e r i o d expected to f i n d a l l s o r t s of problems, and t h e y u s u a l l y d i d . They found r e s t r i c t e d v o c a b u l a r i e s , l i m i t e d grammatical s t r u c t u r e s , unusual word o r d e r , e r r o r s i n m o r p h o l o g y , h e s i t a t i o n s , e t c . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t b i l i n g u a l i s m was a h a n d i c a p , n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e and c o g n i t i v e development. The major problem w i t h e a r l y s t u d i e s was t h a t a d e q u a t e c o n t r o l s were l a c k i n g . For example, ,socioeconomic s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , poor h e a l t h and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s were n o t t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . A n o t h e r f a c t o r , as Cummins (1981a, 1983) p o i n t s out, was the attempt of s c h o o l systems t o e r a d i c a t e b i l i n g u a l i s m i n m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n , c a u s i n g s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . As w e l l , Cummins (1981a) c l a i m s t h a t the n e g a t i v e r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s of e a r l y s t u d i e s "should be a t t r i b u t e d not to b i l i n g u a l i s m i t s e l f , b u t r a t h e r t o t h e l a c k o f f u l l b i l i n g u a l i s m " (p. 22) . A t u r n i n g p o i n t came i n 1962. In t h a t year E l i z a b e t h A n i s f e l d and W a l l a c e Lambert c o m p l e t e d a s t u d y i n w h i c h F r e n c h - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ahead of c a r e f u l l y matched monolinguals both on v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e (Lambert, 1975) . The r e s u l t s were c o n f i r m e d i n a s e c o n d s t u d y by A n i s f e l d i n 12. 1964. Lambert (1975) c i t e s s i x s t u d i e s between 1970 and 1973 from around the w o r l d w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n , r e l a t i v e t o m o n o l i n g u a l c o n t r o l s , "show a d e f i n i t e advantage on measures of ' c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y ' , ' c r e a t i v i t y ' , or d i v e r g e n t t h o u g h t ' " (p. 6 5 ) . W h i l e r e s e a r c h on c o g n i t i o n has c o n t i n u e d , r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e 1970's through to the presen t began to t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to a number of s p e c i f i c areas of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , among them b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n a n d i t s e f f e c t s on a c a d e m i c achievement i n t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . J i m Cummins of the O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , an a r d e n t spokesman f o r b i l i n g u a l i s m , d e s c r i b e s b i l i n g u a l i s m as "a p o s i t i v e f o r c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l and e d u c a t i o n a l development" (Cummins, 1981a, p. 22). T h i s view may not be h e l d by a l l r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , but Cummins' stance i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g among most r e s e a r c h e r s . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h e r e has been a d r a m a t i c change i n r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s s i n c e 1962, t h e r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s p r i o r t o 1 9 6 2 s t i l l h a v e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f b o t h g e n e r a l p u b l i c and e d u c a t o r s . J u s t r e c e n t l y a comment was made to the w r i t e r of t h i s t h e s i s , " B u t i s n ' t i t c o n f u s i n g f o r c h i l d r e n who a r e l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h t o be p r e s e n t e d w i t h m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r m o t h e r tongue?" The E f f e c t s o f B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n on Academic Achievement in the s e c o n d L a n g u a g e In t h e New Y o r k T i m e s a r t i c l e of May 6, 1983, the edu c a t o r s who recommend immersing students i n the language, s t a t e d , "We a r e not c r i t i c i z i n g b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n per se... There i s a l l k i n d s of c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e a b o u t whether or not i t works." (p. 1) The q u e s t i o n r e a l l y i s does i t work? Does b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n h e l p c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o read, s o l v e math problems and speak i n E n g l i s h ? I t s h o u l d be n o t e d a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t t h e r e a r e two major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n answering these q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , many s t u d i e s have c r i t i c a l weaknesses i n r e s e a r c h d e s i g n (Dulay e t a l . , 1979; M a c L a u g h l i n , 1982; T r o i k e , 1978; Zap p e r t & C r u z , 1 977). B e c a u s e any one of s e v e r a l weaknesses i n r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , such as no b a s e l i n e comparison or c o n t r o l group, i n v a l i d a t e r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s , t h e f i n d i n g s from many s t u d i e s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on stu d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . But such s t u d i e s have been quoted t o support p o s i t i o n s f o r or a g a i n s t b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . S e c o n d , t h e r e i s no a g r e e d upon c r i t e r i a of what c o n s t i t u t e s a b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n program. In one program f i r s t language 14. may be used 100% as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l language, while i n another program i t may be used f a r l e s s . In some cases, a c c o r d i n g to MacLaughlin (1982) f i r s t language i s almost never used. I t i s easy to u n d e r s t a n d why t h e r e i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e about whether or not b i l i n g u a l education works. What kind of r e s u l t s would we f i n d i f we l o o k e d only a t the s t u d i e s which do not have c r i t i c a l weaknesses i n research design? That i s exactly what Dulay et a l . (1979) , Zappert and Cruz (1977) and Troike (1978) did. Dulay (1979) and oth e r s reviewed 38 research projects and 175 project evaluations f i r s t to determine whether they met minimum research design standards, then to examine t h e i r f i n d i n g s . S t u d i e s showing any of the f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c a l weaknesses i n research design were excluded: 1) No control for subjects' socioeconomic status 2) No control for i n i t i a l language p r o f i c i e n c y or dominance 3) No baseline comparison or control group 4) Inadequate sample size 5) Excessive a t t r i t i o n rate 6) S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n teacher q u a l i f i c a t i o n for control and experiment groups 7) I n s u f f i c i e n t data and/or s t a t i s t i c s reported [improper s t a t i s t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s ] . O n l y n i n e of t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s and t h r e e b i l i n g u a l d emonstration p r o j e c t s s u r v i v e d the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . A l l of t h e s e s t u d i e s took p l a c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s between 1967 a n d 1 9 7 3 . They i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e v a r i a b l e s : f i r s t language r e a d i n g and language a r t s , s e c o n d l a n g u a g e o r a l p r o f i c i e n c y , s e c o n d l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g a n d l a n g u a g e a r t s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s a c h i e v e m e n t (measured i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ) , s c i e n c e / m a t h a c h i e v e m e n t (measured i n second language), c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n (measured i n f i r s t l a n g u a g e ) , c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n ( m e a s u r e d n o n - v e r b a l l y ) , c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n measured i n the second language, a t t i t u d e toward s e l f and own c u l t u r e , and s c h o o l attendance. Out of a t o t a l of 59 f i n d i n g s , 34 (58%) were p o s i t i v e ; 24 (41%) were n e u t r a l and o n l y 1 (1%) was n e g a t i v e . The l a r g e s t number of f i n d i n g s was i n second language r e a d i n g and language a r t s (where of 14 f i n d i n g s 6 were p o s i t i v e and 7 n e u t r a l and 1 n e g a t i v e ) , and s c i e n c e / m a t h achievement measured i n second language (where o f 14 f i n d i n g s 10 were p o s i t i v e and 4 n e u t r a l ) . The s t u d i e s reviewed were i n e f f e c t d u r i n g the f i r s t 10 y e a r s of t h e experimental o p e r a t i o n of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n programs i n U n i t e d S t a t e s p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Dulay and o t h e r s 16. (1979) conclude, D e s p i t e t h e r e c e n t n e s s o f t h i s c o m p l e x i n n o v a t i o n , more t h a n h a l f o f the f i n d i n g s s h o w t h a t b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n w o r k e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than monolingual programs f o r LES/NES [ l i m i t e d E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g / n o n E n g l i s h speaking] s t u d e n t s , (p. 2) U s i n g e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same c r i t e r i a , Zappert and Cruz (1977) c o n d u c t e d a n o t h e r s u r v e y of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . O n l y 3 of 108 p r o j e c t e v a l u a t i o n s and 9 of 76 r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s met t h e c r i t e r i a . Of t h e 66 f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d , 38 (58%) were p o s i t i v e , 27 (41%) n e u t r a l and 1 (1%) n e g a t i v e . In c o n s i d e r i n g the " n e u t r a l " f i n d i n g s , Zappert and Cruz (1977) p o i n t out, A n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i s n o t a n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . A n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t , t h a t s t u d e n t s i n b i l i n g u a l c l a s s e s a r e l e a r n i n g a t t h e same r a t e a s s t u d e n t s i n m o n o l i n g u a l c l a s s e s , d e m o n s t r a t e s the f a c t t h a t l e a r n i n g i n two l a n g u a g e s does not i n t e r f e r e with a student's 17. a c a d e m i c and c o g n i t i v e performance. Students i n b i l i n g u a l c l a s s r o o m s h a v e t h e a d d e d a d v a n t a g e of l e a r n i n g a s e c o n d language and c u l t u r e w i t h o u t i m p e d i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a non- s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , (p. 39) They conclude, C o n t r a r y t o w i d e s p r e a d b e l i e f , t h e r e s e a r c h conducted t o d a t e i s n o t c o n t r a d i c t o r y w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e e f f e c t s o f b i l i n g u a l i s m and b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . The r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d ... s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s the use of the c h i l d ' s n a t i v e l a n g u a g e as a m e d i u m o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n U.S. s c h o o l s . " (p. 40) T r o i k e (1978) i d e n t i f i e d t w e l v e " q u a l i t y " b i l i n g u a l programs and concluded 18. enough evidence has now accumulated to make i t p o s s i b l e to say with c o n f i d e n c e t h a t q u a l i t y b i l i n g u a l p r o g r a m s c a n meet t h e g o a l o f p r o v i d i n g e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s f r o m n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g backgrounds. (p. 4) T r o i k e t h e n c i t e s t h e t w e l v e s t u d i e s , o f w h i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g two are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e examples: P h i l a d e l p h i a , PA (Spanish) In a t h i r d y e a r - p r o g r a m b o t h A n g l o a n d S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n students i n the b i l i n g u a l program exceeded the c i t y - w i d e mean and a c o n t r o l s c h o o l group on the P h i l a d e l p h i a Readiness T e s t (a c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d t e s t ) , and attendance r e c o r d s were b e t t e r than i n the c o n t r o l group. (p. 5) L a f a y e t t e P a r i s h , LA (French) Students i n grades K-3 i n t h e F r e n c h - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l p r o g r a m p e r f o r m e d as w e l l as or s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n a c o n t r o l g r o u p of s t u d e n t s i n t h e r e g u l a r program i n a l l areas 19. t e s t e d , i n c l u d i n g r e a d i n g a n d r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s , l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s , w r i t i n g , math concepts and s o c i a l s c i e n c e . Instruments used i n c l u d e d the P r i m a r y A b i l i t i e s T e s t t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t , and a c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d t e s t f o r French. (p. 6) The work of D u l a y e t a l . , Z a p p e r t and C r u z , and T r o i k e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t , once s t u d i e s n o t m e e t i n g minimum s t a n d a r d s o f d e s i g n c r i t e r i a a r e e l i m i n a t e d , t h e r e i s agreement i n r e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . I t s h o u l d be noted, however, t h a t the l a c k of c l a r i t y r e g a r d i n g the e x t e n t o f f i r s t l a n g u a g e used i n a b i l i n g u a l program c o u l d be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the two s t u d i e s (Dulay e t a l . , 1977; Z a p p e r t & C r u z , 1978) w h i c h r e p o r t e d n e g a t i v e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g . As w e l l , i t c o u l d a l s o be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n e x p l a i n i n g why some b i l i n g u a l p rograms (58%) show p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s w h i l e the remainder (41%) show no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t — t h a t i s , b i l i n g u a l g r o u p s d i d n o t s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n c o n t r o l g r o u p s . In t h e s t u d i e s where t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o remember t h a t w h i l e the b i l i n g u a l groups d i d not ac h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , n e i t h e r d i d they a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y 20. l o w e r , and t h e y h a d t h e a d d e d a d v a n t a g e ( t o whatever extent) of l e a r n i n g or m a i n t a i n i n g a second language. One s t u d y w i t h n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s deserves mention. In 1978 the American I n s t i t u t e f o r Research (AIR) c a r r i e d o u t a l a r g e s c a l e e v a l u a t i o n of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n under the d i r e c t i o n of M a l c o l m D a n o f f (1978). I t e n c o m p a s s e d 38 p r o j e c t s and over 11,500 c h i l d r e n i n 10 s t a t e s . The study r e p o r t s t h a t s t u d e n t s i n f e d e r a l l y f u n d e d S p a n i s h / E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l programs p e r f o r m e d a t a lower l e v e l i n E n g l i s h language a r t s than students not i n the program. The study, w h i l e i m p r e s s i v e i n s i z e , was n o t i m p r e s s i v e i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s . The c o n c l u s i o n s appear t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e use of a s t u d e n t ' s dominant language f o r i n s t r u c t i o n does not make a d i f f e r e n c e and may be d e t r i m e n t a l t o the a c q u i s i t i o n of E n g l i s h . Dulay e t a l . (197 9) emphasize t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s do not r e f e r to Spanish dominant l i m i t e d E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g / n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s (LES/NES), but t o a h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p of s t u d e n t s who were l a r g e l y E n g l i s h d o m i n a n t or E n g l i s h m o n o l i n g u a l (65 t o 81% depending on grade l e v e l ) ... I f one w i s h e s t o l e a r n , t h e r e f o r e , whether LES/NES st u d e n t s b e n e f i t from b a s i c s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h 21. t h e i r f i r s t primary language, one cannot look to the AIR study f o r answers. (p. 1) The t i t l e of D a n o f f ' s s t u d y , " E v a l u a t i o n of the Impact of ESEA T i t l e V I I S p a n i s h / E n g l i s h B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n Program" i s a misnomer. In a t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n between Dulay and Danoff (Dulay e t a l . , 1979), Danoff acknowledges t h a t t h e numbers of s u c h s t u d e n t s [LES/NES] were t o o s m a l l t o a l l o w c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f e d e r a l l y f u n d e d program ( T i t l e V I I ) and n o n - T i t l e V I I programs w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r i m p a c t on t h e s e s t u d e n t s , (p. 1) F u r t h e r m o r e , M c L a u g h l i n (1982) r a i s e s s e v e r a l " s e r i o u s problems" w i t h the study, among them elementary f a c t o r s i n d e s i g n : t h e i n i t i a l c o m p a r a b i l i t y of b i l i n g u a l and non b i l i n g u a l groups was not c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n g u a g e d o m i n a n c e , s i n c e t h e b i l i n g u a l c l a s s r o o m s c o n t a i n e d 74% n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g or b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n , w h e r e a s t h e c o n t r o l c l a s s r o o m s c o n t a i n e d o n l y 17% n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g o r b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n . A l s o M c L a u g h l i n (1982) d r a w s a t t e n t i o n t o w e a k n e s s e s i n 22. D a n o f f s s t a t i s t i c a l procedures, e s p e c i a l l y h i s use of g a i n s c o r e s . A s t u d y by A m e r i c a n i n v e s t i g a t o r s which has r e c e i v e d w o r l d wide a t t e n t i o n i s the Rock P o i n t Navajo study (Rosier & F a r e l l a , 1976; R o s i e r & Holm, 1980). T h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y c o n d u c t e d f r o m 1975 t o 1977 met T r o i k e ' s (1978) c r i t e r i a f o r "a q u a l i t y b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n program". E v a l u a t i o n of i t i s i n c l u d e d i n T r o i k e ' s r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e f o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s a r e d r a m a t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e AIR e v a l u a t i o n o f b i l i n g u a l p r o g r a m s . The p r i m a r y f o c u s of the Rock P o i n t e v a l u a t i o n by R o s i e r and Holm (1980) and R o s i e r and F a r e l l a (1976) i s on achievement i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y how i n t r o d u c i n g Navajo students t o r e a d i n g i n t h e N a v a j o l a n g u a g e a f f e c t e d t h e i r l a t e r a b i l i t y t o r e a d i n E n g l i s h (Rosier & Holm, 1980, p. 1). The a u t h o r s do not p u r p o r t t h e i r s t u d i e s to be a s c i e n t i f i c experiment; "they a r e s t u d i e s o f ' t h i n g s as t h e y a r e ' or ' w e r e ' " ( R o s i e r & Holm, 1980, p. 1 ) . The S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t was t h e p r i n c i p a l i n s t r u m e n t u s e d . The M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t was a l s o used i n 1976. 23. S t u d e n t s were t e s t e d i n grades two through s i x , except i n 1975 when o n l y s e c o n d t h r o u g h f i f t h g r a d e s c o r e s w ere r e p o r t e d . Mean s c o r e s f o r t o t a l r e a d i n g a n d i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s u b t e s t s were compared w i t h the matched c o n t r o l group. Data pr e s e n t e d suggests t h a t , t h e e f f e c t s o f ( c o n t i n u o u s ) b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n may be c u m u l a t i v e : t h a t w h i l e N a v a j o s t u d e n t s who have r e c e n t l y ( i n 2nd grade) added r e a d i n g i n E n g l i s h t o r e a d i n g i n N a v a j o may do no b e t t e r on s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s t h a n N avajo s t u d e n t s who b e g a n r e a d i n g i n E n g l i s h , t h e y do a c h i e v e b e t t e r t e s t s c o r e s each year t h e r e a f t e r . Nor does t h e d i f f e r e n c e seem to remain the same. The s t u d e n t s who l e a r n e d t o r e a d i n N a v a j o appear t o o b t a i n s c o r e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y higher than those who d i d not. In e f f e c t , t h e i r r a t e of growth h e l p s them to a c h i e v e p r o g r e s s i v e l y c l o s e r t o the ' n a t i o n a l norms' i n each g r a d e t h i r d t h r o u g h s i x t h , i n s t e a d of m a i n t a i n i n g a continuous ' e d u c a t i o n a l l y r e t a r d e d ' l e v e l of a c h i e v e m e n t . ( R o s i e r & F a r e l l a , 1976, pp. 387-388) 24. Ro s i e r and Holm (1980) make the simple o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the " a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h (as a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ) i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s i m p l e f u n c t i o n of the l e n g t h or amount of i n - s c h o o l exposure to E n g l i s h " (p. 28). They conclude One c a n n o t p r o v e t h a t t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n of N a v a j o l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o t h e Rock P o i n t program c a u s e d t h e s e r e s u l t s . We must a d m i t t h a t the use of N a v a j o l a n g u a g e a s a means of academic i n s t r u c t i o n i s p a r t of a mix t h a t i n c l u d e s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , i n c r e a s e d c o m m u n i t y c o n t r o l , i n c r e a s e d p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t , i n t e n s i v e E F L [ E n g l i s h a s a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e ] a c t i v i t i e s , o n - g o i n g e v a l u a t i o n , and e x t e n s i v e NLT [Navajo Language T e a c h i n g ] and ELT [ E n g l i s h Language Teaching] t r a i n i n g . (pp. 28-29) Whatever t h e c a u s e , t h e f a c t i s t h a t the c h i l d r e n a t Rock P o i n t were two y e a r s behind norms i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g by the end o f Grade s i x p r i o r t o the i n i t i a t i o n of the b i l i n g u a l program. S t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e p r o g r a m i n K t h r o u g h g r a d e s i x (and r e c e i v i n g 25 t o 50% o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n i n Navajo) were performing s l i g h t l y above U.S. 25. g r a d e s i x norms i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g , d e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e x p o s u r e t o E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n t h a n p r e v i o u s l y (Cummins, 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s c a u se J i m Cummins t o wonder a b o u t th e e f f e c t s o f s i m i l a r w e l l i m p l e m e n t e d programs upon Canadian N a t i v e c h i l d r e n . The Rock P o i n t N a v a j o s t u d y i s s u p p o r t e d by s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s w i t h A b o r i g i n a l c h i l d r e n i n A u s t r a l i a by i n v e s t i g a t o r s Gale, McClay, C h r i s t i e and H a r r i s (1981) . A b i l i n g u a l program i n E n g l i s h and Gupapuyngu was s t a r t e d i n M i l i n g i m b i School i n the Northern T e r r i t o r y of A u s t r a l i a i n 1973 . For f o u r y e a r s c h i l d r e n from both E n g l i s h - o n l y and b i l i n g u a l c l a s s e s were t e s t e d f o r a c h i e v e m e n t i n a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s . The f i n d i n g s of the study are summarized by Gale e t a l . (1981): S i n c e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n a t M i l i n g i m b i , t h e c h i l d r e n a r e n o t o n l y l e a r n i n g t o r e a d a n d w r i t e i n t h e i r own language and f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r knowledge w i t h r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r own c u l t u r e , but they are a l s o a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r academic r e s u l t s i n o r a l E n g l i s h , r e a d i n g , E n g l i s h c o m p o s i t i o n and mathematics t h a n t h e y were under t h e f o r m e r E n g l i s h m o n o l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , (p. 309) 26. B i l i n g u a l t e s t s c o r e means i n g r a d e s 5, 6 and 7 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than E n g l i s h - o n l y means i n grades 5, 6 an d 7 a t p = .05 or l e s s i n m a t h e m a t i c s t e s t s , W r i t t e n E n g l i s h Composition T e s t s ( F e r d i n a n d & B u l l ) , D o l c h S i g h t Words, S c h o n e l l Reading Age T e s t s and C l o z e T e s t s . A l s o , R o s i e r and Holm's (1980) o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a b i l i t y i n L2 i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s i m p l e f u n c t i o n of time spent w i t h E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n , i s confirmed by Hebert's study of g r a d e 3, 6 and 9 f r a n c o p h o n e s t u d e n t s i n M a n i t o b a (see Cummins, 1979-80, p. 83). In r e v i e w i n g the Manitoba study, Cummins emphasizes t h a t the f i n d i n g show t h a t t h e r e i s no s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t i o n through t h e medium of a l a n g u a g e and a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h a t l a n g u a g e . At a l l grade l e v e l s t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between percentage of i n s t r u c t i o n i n French (PIF) and French achievement b ut no r e l a t i o n s h i p n e t w e e n P I F a n d E n g l i s h a c h i e v e m e n t . In o t h e r w o r d s , f r a n c o p h o n e s t u d e n t s r e c e i v i n g 80% i n s t r u c t i o n i n French and 20% i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h d i d j u s t a s w e l l i n E n g l i s h as s t u d e n t s r e c e i v i n g 80% i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h and 20% i n F r e n c h , (p. 83) 27. T h e r e s e a r c h e r s T o v e S k u t n a b b - K a n g a s and P e r t t i Toukomaa c a r r i e d o u t r e s e a r c h on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t i n b o t h L I and L2 o f a l m o s t 700 F i n n i s h c h i l d r e n i n b i l i n g u a l and monolingual programs i n Sweden i n g r a d e s 1 t o 9. T h e i r f i n d i n g s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e Rock P o i n t Navajo study. They found t h a t the longer the F i n n i s h c h i l d r e n w e r e e d u c a t e d i n F i n n i s h , t h e b e t t e r t h e i r academic achievement was i n courses taught i n Swedish. But p e r h a p s S k u t n a b b - K a n g a s a n d T o u k o m a a ' s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the d e b a t e of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n v e r s u s " i m m e r s i o n " f o r E . S . L . s t u d e n t s i s t h e i r c o n c e p t of " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m " . They found t h a t F i n n i s h c h i l d r e n , g i v e n no i n s t r u c t i o n i n F i n n i s h g r a d u a l l y l o s t competence i n F i n n i s h , without g a i n i n g f u l l n a t i v e - l e v e l competence i n S w e d i s h , p r o d u c i n g " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m " i n b o t h F i n n i s h and Swedish. Even a f t e r seven y e a r s they [ F i n n i s h c h i l d r e n i n Swedish o n l y i n s t r u c t i o n c l a s s e s ] had not r e a c h e d t h e a v e r a g e competence of Swedish c h i l d r e n i n the Swedish language. At the same t i m e t h e y had f o r g o t t e n t h e i r mother tongue f a s t e r t h a n t h e y h a d l e a r n e d S w e d i s h . P r o b a b l y b o t h t h e i r Swedish and e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r F i n n i s h w i l l a l w a y s remain much poorer t h a n t h e S w e d i s h o r F i n n i s h a v e r a g e . (Skutnabb-Kangas, 1979, p. 10) Skutnabb-Kangas c o n t i n u e s : O n l y 58% o f [ F i n n i s h ] i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n , compared t o a l m o s t 90% o f Swedish c h i l d r e n , e n t e r t h e S w e d i s h g y m n a s i u m ( t e r m i n a l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ) a f t e r t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c h o o l , and v e r y few o f them c h o o s e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l t r a c k w h i c h p r e p a r e s f o r u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . (p. 13) She c o n c l u d e s : S e m i l i n g u a l i s m i s then, a c c o r d i n g t o my view, produced i n a s i t u a t i o n when many d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s c o i n c i d e : m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n from working c l a s s homes are f o r c e d to accept i n s t r u c t i o n i n the foreign, majority middle c l a s s language, and their own language has a low prestige, b o t h i n t h e s o c i e t y and i n the s c h o o l ... I f a c o m p l e t e l o s t g e n e r a t i o n of 29. s e m i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n i s not to emerge, we do not have time t o w a i t f o r the f i n d i n g s of new r e s e a r c h and experiments. I t i s p e d a g o g i c a l l y w i s e t o g i v e m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n a n d o t h e r m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n as much t e a c h i n g of and i n t h e i r m o t h e r t o n g u e as p o s s i b l e ... S u c h t e a c h i n g w i l l c e r t a i n l y do no harm, but not g i v i n g i t may prove f a t a l . (pp. 17-20) S k u t n a b b - K a n g a s and Toukomaa's " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m " i s s i m i l a r t o the phenomena of " s u b t r a c t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m " as d e s c r i b e d by Wallace Lambert (1975) . When LI i s g r a d u a l l y being r e p l a c e d by the more dominant and p r e s t i g i o u s L2, the r e s u l t i n g form of b i l i n g u a l i s m i s " s u b t r a c t i v e " . Lambert ( 1 9 7 5 ) c o m m e n t s on " a d d i t i v e " a n d " s u b t r a c t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m " : Thus t o know A f r i k a a n s and E n g l i s h i n South A f r i c a , Hebrew and E n g l i s h i n New Y o r k a n d I s r a e l , o r F r e n c h and E n g l i s h i n M o n t r e a l would i n each case be to add a second s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t l a n g u a g e t o o n e ' s r e p e r t o i r e of s k i l l s . In no case would the l e a r n i n g of t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e p o r t e n d t h e d r o p p i n g or the 30. r e p l a c e m e n t of the o t h e r ; the development of h i g h - l e v e l s k i l l s i n E n g l i s h among F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s or Spanish-Americans does not imply a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l o s s of French or Spanish. We m i g h t r e f e r t o t h e s e as examples of an a d d i t i v e f o r m of b i l i n g u a l i s m and c o n t r a s t t h a t w i t h a more subtract!ve form e x p e r i e n c e d by many e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups... (p. 67) C o n s i d e r i n g t h e phenomena of " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m " and " s u b t r a c t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m " , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n i n many of the e a r l y " n e g a t i v e " s t u d i e s were l i k e l y t o have a c h i e v e d l e s s than average e d u c a t i o n a l attainment i n both LI and L2. F r e n c h i m m e r s i o n p r o g r a m s i n C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s a r e sometimes c i t e d by e d u c a t o r s as p r o o f t h a t " i m m e r s i o n w o r k s " and s h o u l d be used w i t h E.S.L. s t u d e n t s . But both languages of Canadian s t u d e n t s i n im m e r s i o n programs have s o c i a l v a l u e : "a s e c o n d s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t l a n g u a g e i s added t o one's r e p e r t o i r e of s k i l l s " . I t does n o t f o l l o w t h a t i m m e r s i o n p r o g r a m s w o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l when t h e c h i l d ' s LI i s a m i n o r i t y language. F i n d i n g s from s t u d i e s i n b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n demonstrate t h a t immersion programs 31. fo r m i n o r i t y language st u d e n t s "do not work" as compared to b i l i n g u a l programs. Cummins and Mulcahy (1978) and Cummins (1981a) r e p o r t on the Edmonton U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h B i l i n g u a l Program. In t h i s program 50% of t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i s g i v e n i n U k r a i n i a n a t the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l . E v a l u a t i o n s of the program show no d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s E n g l i s h or other academic s k i l l s . In f a c t , by g r a d e 5, s t u d e n t s i n t h e program a c h i e v e d h i g h e r s c o r e s than the comparison group i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g s k i l l s . Cummins and Mulcahy (1978) desi g n e d a study to compare b i l i n g u a l and u n i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n i n grades 1 and 3 on t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : 1) c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o a n a l y z e l i n g u i s t i c i n p u t , s p e c i f i c a l l y , l e x i c a l , s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e , and u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e a m b i g u i t i e s , and 2) t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e o f w o r d - r e f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Two g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g t h e U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h B i l i n g u a l Program were compared w i t h matched u n i l i n g u a l c o n t r o l groups. Two x t h r e e a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e were c a r r i e d out on the dependent v a r i a b l e s . The a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who were r e l a t i v e l y f l u e n t i n U k r a i n i a n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a b l e t o d e t e c t a m b i g u i t i e s i n E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e t h a n e i t h e r e q u i v a l e n t u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n n o t i n t h e 32. p r o g r a m o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r o g r a m who came f r o m predominantly E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g homes. A r e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o secondary s t u d e n t s ? Only one study a t the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l was l o c a t e d i n t h e s e a r c h of the l i t e r a t u r e . In order to examine the e f f e c t t h a t the language of i n s t r u c t i o n has on E n g l i s h r e a d i n g achievement of secondary E.S.L. s t u d e n t s i n f i v e s e l e c t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n C a l i f o r n i a , H e l e n d e z (1981) d e s i g n e d a s t u d y t h a t c o n s i s t e d of one independent v a r i a b l e and two de p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment, c o n s i s t e d of Treatment 1, E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n (N = 94 s t u d e n t s i n grades 7 - 10) , T r e a t m e n t 2, b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n (N = 51 s t u d e n t s i n grades 7 - 10), and Treatment 3, S p a n i s h i n s t r u c t i o n (N = 95 s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e s 7 - 1 0 ) . The dependent v a r i a b l e s were E n g l i s h and S p a n i s h r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s w h i c h were used t o as s e s s r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i n the E n g l i s h language and the Spanish language. The ANCOVA and t h e p o s t - h o c m u l t i p l e comparison t e s t , S c h e f f e , were used i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t . The ANCOVA was t e s t e d a t the .10 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e and the S c h e f f e was t e s t e d a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Melendez c o n c l u d e s : 33. T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t s t u d e n t s who were t a u g h t r e a d i n g i n t h e i r mother tongue d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on the E n g l i s h r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s taught r e a d i n g i n E n g l i s h only or a b i l i n g u a l mode. S u b m e r g i n g t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e l a n g u a g e of the host c u l t u r e d i d not seem to improve t h e i r E n g l i s h r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . The s a l i e n t p o i n t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e m o t h e r t o n g u e o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t s t u d e n t s a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d p r o g r e s s i n t h e t o t a l s p e c t r u m of t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . T h e e f f e c t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h r e a d i n g s k i l l s , a b a s i c g o a l o f b i l i n g u a l b i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n , i s r e a d i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d when a s t r o n g f o u n d a t i o n i n t h e mother tongue has been l a i d . (pp. 109-110) Two s t u d i e s by I s a b e l Schon (1981a, 1981b) f o c u s e d on the use o f f i r s t l a n g u a g e l i t e r a t u r e and i t s e f f e c t s on r e a d i n g achievement and a t t i t u d e s toward r e a d i n g . 34. The p u r p o s e o f S c h o n ' s f i r s t s t u d y (1981a) was t o determine whether p r o v i d i n g a g r e a t v a r i e t y of books i n S p a n i s h and s i x t y m i n u t e s a week o f f r e e r e a d i n g t i m e a f f e c t s t h e r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s o f H i s p a n i c s t u d e n t s i n grades 2, 3 and 4. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a p o s i t i v e improvement i n the s t u d e n t s ' S p a n i s h and E n g l i s h r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s and i n t h e i r r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s would r e s u l t a f t e r the students are exposed t o books i n S p a n i s h w h i c h h i g h l i g h t t h e l i f e s t y l e , f o l k l o r e , f i c t i o n , p o e t r y , and h i s t o r y of H i s p a n i c people. Comparable groups from f o u r s c h o o l s were i d e n t i f i e d and 114 H i s p a n i c c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n e i t h e r the c o n t r o l (C) or e x p e r i m e n t a l (E) g r o u p . The f i v e t e a c h e r s i n t h e E group were i n s t r u c t e d t o p r o v i d e " a t l e a s t 60 m i n u t e s a week of f r e e r e a d i n g t i m e and to do e v e r y t h i n g they c o u l d to h e l p t h e i r s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d r e a d i n g . " The f i v e t e a c h e r s i n the C group were i n s t r u c t e d to t e a c h r e a d i n g t h e way t h e y n o r m a l l y do. Most of t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e C g r o u p r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y e m p h a s i z e d r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h , even though as b i l i n g u a l t e a c h e r s , they were supposed t o teach r e a d i n g i n Spanish t o those c h i l d r e n who were Spanish dominant. The d u r a t i o n o f the treatment was e i g h t months. The s t a t i s t i c a l procedure used t o a n a l y z e the d a t a was 35. a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e . No s i g n i f i c a n t E - C d i f f e r e n c e s (p < .05) r e s u l t e d a t any of the grade l e v e l s on any of the t h r e e E n g l i s h r e a d i n g measures (comprehension, v o c a b u l a r y and speed). The r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s of the E group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < .05). Spanish r e a d i n g f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t E group i n grades 3 and 4 s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceeded the C group i n a l l t h r e e Spanish r e a d i n g t e s t s . In grade 2, the E g r o u p p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r i n S p a n i s h v o c a b u l a r y and speed, but not comprehension. The a u t h o r s note t h a t w h i l e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between E and C on E n g l i s h r e a d i n g t e s t s i n grade 2, s t u d e n t s i n E g r o u p had n e v e r r e c e i v e d , e i t h e r p r i o r t o o r d u r i n g t h e s t u d y , formal E n g l i s h r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , y e t c o n s i d e r a b l e g a i n s w e r e made i n t h e E n g l i s h r e a d i n g s c o r e s between p r e and p o s t - t e s t s . (See Tabl e I.) T h i s was s i m i l a r f o r the c o n t r o l group. In other words, i f a c h i l d l e a r n s t o read i n one language ( i n t h i s case Spanish) t h e r e appears to be a t r a n s f e r e n c e of a b i l i t y t o r e a d i n the second language t h a t i s known o r a l l y by the c h i l d . A t t h e g r a d e 3-4 l e v e l , the E p u p i l s r e c e i v e d Spanish r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y u n t i l February [the au t h o r s do not t e l l us when the study began, so t h i s date i s r a t h e r m e a n i n g l e s s , b u t t h e a u t h o r s go on t o t e l l us ...] " y e t Table I* E n g l i s h Reading T e s t s Grade 2 Pre Post Gain Reading Comprehension E 4.13 13.10 +9.0 C 3.81 13.69 +9.9 Reading V o c a b u l a r y E 9.08 18.17 +9.1 C 11.06 18.25 +7.2 * adapted from Schon (1981a), p. 6. 37. t h e y i m p r o v e d i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g as much as the C p u p i l s who d e v o t e d much more t i m e t o f o r m a l E n g l i s h r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n " (p. 1 0 ) . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e , " I f the s t u d e n t s are a b l e to read Spanish w e l l , t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o r e a d i n g E n g l i s h w i l l p r e s e n t no major d i f f i c u l t y i f the E n g l i s h words are i n t h e i r E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y . " (pp. 10-11) T h i s s t u d y has a number of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a s p e c t s : the groups a r e s a i d t o be matched s o c i o e c o n o m i c a l l y , b u t no m e n t i o n i s made o f l a n g u a g e d o m i n a n c e or t e a c h e r performance. In the f i v e c l a s s e s which formed t h e E g r o u p ( c o n s i s t i n g o f 49 H i s p a n i c s t u d e n t s a f t e r a t t r i t i o n ) f r e e r e a d i n g time i n S p a n i s h v a r i e d f r o m 50 t o 80 m i n u t e s per week. One t e a c h e r h a d her H i s p a n i c p u p i l s w r i t e book r e p o r t s , m ost o f w h i c h w r o t e a t l e a s t 25. In t h e E c l a s s r o o m s a l l H i s p a n i c s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n S p a n i s h . In t h e f i v e c l a s s r o o m s w h i c h formed t h e C group ( c o n s i s t i n g o f a t o t a l of 44 H i s p a n i c s t u d e n t s a f t e r a t t r i t i o n ) two g r o u p s h a d E n g l i s h o n l y r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , two g r o u p s had Spanish only r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and one group had E n g l i s h and S p a n i s h r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . One t e a c h e r i n the c o n t r o l group encouraged H i s p a n i c s t u d e n t s to check o u t books f r o m t h e l i b r a r y i n Spanish. In e f f e c t , because of the a c t i v i t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n the 38. C g r o u p , t h e r e was no t r u e c o n t r o l g r o u p . G i v e n t h i s weakness we may c o n c l u d e , as o b s e r v e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s ( D u l a y e t a l . , 1976; T r o i k e , 1978; Zappert & Cruz, 1977), t h a t w h i l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p d i d n o t a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r , n e i t h e r d i d i t a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the c o n t r o l g r o u p . I t d i d , i n f a c t , have t h e a d d e d c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t o f e x p o s u r e t o f i r s t l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l s w i t h o u t impeding second language a c q u i s i t i o n , and i t e n j o y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s whereas the c o n t r o l group d i d not. The purpose of Schon's second study was the same as the f i r s t , but was c a r r i e d o u t w i t h an e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 H i s p a n i c s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e s 7 and 8. These s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t 45 minutes a week o f f r e e r e a d i n g t i m e i n S p a n i s h . A t t h e g r a d e 7 l e v e l t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e between E and C g r o u p s a c h i e v e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e on o n l y one o f e i g h t m e a s u r e s : E n g l i s h r e a d i n g comprehension which f a v o u r e d the c o n t r o l group. At the g r a d e 8 l e v e l t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . I n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n Spanish r e a d i n g speed and comprehension. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o r e f u t e or c o n f i r m these f i n d i n g s . I t would appear t h a t a number of f a c t o r s i n t h i s 39. s t u d y have not been a d e q u a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d by n o t i n g t h a t w i t h i n t h e E g r o u p , g a i n s i n E n g l i s h and S p a n i s h r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s a r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , but no i n d i c a t i o n of the amount of c o r r e l a t i o n i s g i v e n . One s t u d y n o t i n v o l v i n g b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n or LI m a t e r i a l s , b u t r a t h e r i n v o l v i n g E.S.L. s t u d e n t s and L2 r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i s p e r t i n e n t . E l l e y and Mangubhai (1983) i d e n t i f i e d f i v e c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between f i r s t a nd s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g and h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the e f f e c t of these d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d by means of a r e a d i n g program based on. the use of an abundance of h i g h - i n t e r e s t , i l l u s t r a t e d s t o r y b o o k s . The d e s i g n of the study i n v o l v e d a random assignment of 380 C l a s s 4 and 5 s t u d e n t s (ages 9 t o 11) f r o m e i g h t r u r a l F i j i a n s c h o o l s t o one of t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s : A Shared Book E x p e r i e n c e i n E n g l i s h ("Book F l o o d " g r o u p s i n c e t h e s e s t u d e n t s were p r o v i d e d w i t h 250 h i g h - i n t e r e s t b o o k s ) , a S u s t a i n e d S i l e n t R e a d i n g E x p e r i e n c e i n E n g l i s h , o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w h i c h e m p l o y e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h S y l l a b u s . Each of the t h r e e g r o u p s c o n t a i n e d 43% t o 51% F i j i a n s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t speak E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. P o s t t e s t r e s u l t s a f t e r e i g h t months showed t h a t p u p i l s i n t h e Shared Book Experience p r o g r e s s e d i n r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g a t twice the normal r a t e , and c o n f i r m e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t h i g h - i n t e r e s t r e a d i n g i n L2 has an important r o l e to p l a y i n second language l e a r n i n g . A f t e r 20 months t h e g a i n s had i n c r e a s e d f u r t h e r and s p r e a d t o r e l a t e d language s k i l l s . The authors conclude, One f o r m u l a f o r r a i s i n g l i t e r a c y standards i n L2 s i t u a t i o n s such as those p r e v a i l i n g i n the South P a c i f i c i s t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h a r a n g e o f s u i t a b l e , we 1 1 - i 1 1 u s t r a t e d , h i g h - i n t e r e s t s t o r y books, and t o s e t a s i d e time i n the s c h o o l program t o ensure t h a t they a r e w i d e l y r e a d . " (p. 67) Theory W a l l a c e L a m b e r t ' s (1962) and E l i z a b e t h A n i s f e l d ' s (1964) "breakthrough" s t u d i e s meant t h a t the Balance E f f e c t T h e o r y no l o n g e r p r o v i d e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n of language p r o f i c i e n c y . The Balance E f f e c t Theory (which was i m p l i c i t i n J e s p e r s o n ' s t h i n k i n g when he made h i s statement quoted on page 10 of t h i s t h e s i s ) assumed t h a t t h e r e was a s p e c i f i e d c a p a c i t y a v a i l a b l e f o r l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y . S h a r i n g t h i s c a p a c i t y between two l a n g u a g e s w o u l d l e a d t o 41. lower l e v e l s of p r o f i c i e n c y i n each, compared to u n i l i n g u a l s peakers. The theory had a second a s s u m p t i o n : l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s i n LI and L2 are i n separate "compartments". Use of one of the c o m p a r t m e n t s w o u l d mean t h a t t h e o t h e r compartment would d e c l i n e i n r e l a t i o n to language a b i l i t y . T h u s t h e t h e o r y w o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t t e a c h i n g m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n through the medium of LI would r e s u l t i n l o w e r l e v e l s o f L2 s k i l l s a s c o m p a r e d t o m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n taught through the medium of L2 (Cummins, 1981a). From our b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the h i s t o r y of r e s e a r c h i n b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , i t i s seen t h a t the B a l a n c e E f f e c t T h e o r y n i c e l y p l a c e d t h e e a r l y f i n d i n g s i n t o a meaningful framework. However, as n o t e d , t h e s e e a r l y f i n d i n g s were n o t c o n s e q u e n t upon t h e a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e b i l i n g u a l ' s two languages, but r a t h e r were c o n s e q u e n t upon p o o r l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s and s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems e x p e r i e n c e d by c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l s a t t e m p t i n g t o e r a d i c a t e t h e i r f i r s t language and " a s s i m i l a t e them". U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e t h i n k i n g o f many e d u c a t o r s s t i l l a p p e a r s t o be m o t i v a t e d by i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e B a l a n c e E f f e c t Theory. As a r e s u l t o f L a m b e r t ' s ( 1 9 6 7 , 1975) work and f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s w hich c o n f i r m e d h i s f i n d i n g s , a new 42. framework f o r understanding b i l i n g u a l language p r o f i c i e n c y was needed. The t h e o r y would a l s o need t o e x p l a i n t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e r e s u l t s of more r e c e n t " p o s i t i v e " and " n e g a t i v e " s t u d i e s . Cummins (1978, 1978-79, 1979) proposed the T h r e s h o l d Hypothesis to meet these needs. The T h r e s h o l d H y p o t h e s i s p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e r e a r e two t h r e s h o l d l e v e l s o f b i l i n g u a l l i n g u i s t i c . c o m p e t e n c e . In order to d e f i n e the lower t h r e s h o l d l e v e l , Cummins (1978, 1979) b o r r o w s Skutnabb-Kangas and Toukomaa's c o n c e p t of " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m " . I f a c h i l d has a low l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e competence i n h i s f i r s t or second language ( i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s o n l y ) , h i s " i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h r o u g h t h a t language, both i n terms of i n p u t and output, i s l i k e l y t o be i m p o v e r i s h e d " (Cummins, 1979, pp. 229-230) . Such a c h i l d has n o t a t t a i n e d t h e l o w e r l e v e l of competence i n h i s f i r s t (or second) l a n g u a g e . B i l i n g u a l i s m i n such cases r e s u l t s i n " s e m i l i n g u a l i s m " . The a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e l o w e r t h r e s h o l d l e v e l o f b i l i n g u a l c o m p e t e n c e would be s u f f i c i e n t t o a v o i d any n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n , but "the a t t a i n m e n t of a s e c o n d , higher l e v e l of competence might be necessary to l e a d t o a c c e l e r a t e d c o g n i t i v e growth" (Cummins, 1979, p. 2 3 0 ) . Once t h i s h i g h e r t h r e s h o l d l e v e l of b i l i n g u a l competence has been r e a c h e d , t h e phenomena of " a d d i t i v e 43 . b i l i n g u a l i s m " as d e s c r i b e d by Lambert (1975) o c c u r s . Cummings and Mulcahy (1978) c a r r i e d out t h e i r s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l program i n Edmonton t o i n v e s t i g a t e the T h r e s h o l d H y p o t h e s i s , and e s p e c i a l l y the c o n c e p t of t h e " h i g h e r t h r e s h o l d l e v e l of b i l i n g u a l competence". As n o t e d above, t h e s t u d e n t s who w e r e r e l a t i v e l y f l u e n t i n U k r a i n i a n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a b l e t o d e t e c t a m b i g u i t i e s i n E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e t h a n e i t h e r e q u i v a l e n t u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n not i n the program or c h i l d r e n i n t h e program who came from p r e d o m i n a n t l y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g homes. These f i n d i n g s w e r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h w h a t was p r e d i c t e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e T h r e s h o l d H y p o t h e s i s , and e s p e c i a l l y the concept of t h e " h i g h e r t h r e s h o l d l e v e l of b i l i n g u a l c o m p e t e n c e " . The U k r a i n i a n c h i l d r e n a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s , e x p e r i e n c i n g " a d d i t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m " w i t h i t s p o s i t i v e c o g n i t i v e e f f e c t s . The T h r e s h o l d Hypothesis p r o v i d e s a framework i n w h i c h t h e a c a d e m i c and c o g n i t i v e e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t forms of b i l i n g u a l i s m ( s e m i l i n g u a l i s m — or s u b t r a c t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m — and a d d i t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m ) may be p r e d i c t e d . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r e x p l a i n i n g a p p a r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n " p o s i t i v e " and " n e g a t i v e " r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . B u t t h e h y p o t h e s i s d o e s n o t t e l l u s how s e m i l i n g u a l i s m and addi t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m develop, nor does i t t e l l the type of school programs which are l i k e l y to promote additive and subtractive forms of bi l i n g u a l i s m . To answer these questions, Cummins (1978, 1979, 1981b) p o s i t s the Developmental Interdependence Hypothesis. The developmental interdependence hypothesis proposes that the l e v e l of L2 competence which a b i l i n g u a l c h i l d a t t a i n s i s p a r t i a l l y a function of the type of competence the c h i l d has developed i n LI at the time when intensive exposure to L2 b e g i n s . When the usage of c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s o f l a n g u a g e and t h e development of LI vocabulary and concepts are s t r o n g l y promoted by the c h i l d ' s l i n g u i s t i c environment outside the school, as i s the case of most m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n i n immersion programs, then i n t e n s i v e exposure t o L2 i s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n h i g h l e v e l s of L2 competence a t no c o s t t o LI c o m p e t e n c e . (Cummins, 1979, p. 233) T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s s t r o n g l y supported by the Rock P o i n t Navajo study, the M i l i n g i m b i s t u d y , the s t u d y of F i n n i s h c h i l d r e n i n Sweden, th e s t u d y of francophone s t u d e n t s i n Manitoba, and the study of the U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h B i l i n g u a l P r o g r a m . R e s e a r c h has shown t h a t i n b o t h m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h e r e i s no s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t i m e s p e n t t h r o u g h t h e medium of a language, and achievement i n t h a t language. Research shows t h a t c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c t e d i n LI perform as w e l l as or b e t t e r than c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c t e d i n L2 on measures of L2 s k i l l s . T h e r e i s , i n e f f e c t , developmental interdependence or t r a n s f e r e n c e from one language to the o t h e r , p r o v i d e d t h a t the h igher t h r e s h o l d l e v e l of b i l i n g u a l competence has been a t t a i n e d . The Developmental H y p o t h e s i s and t h e T h r e s h o l d H y p o t h e s i s t o g e t h e r form a t h e o r e t i c a l framework i n which p a r a d o x i c a l r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s may be i n t e r p r e t e d . F o r example, t h e two hypotheses together e x p l a i n why immersion "works" f o r m a j o r i t y language c h i l d r e n , and why i t doesn't "work" f o r m i n o r i t y language c h i l d r e n . In a more r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n , Cummins (1981a) p o s i t s t h e T h i n k Tank Model which p r o v i d e s a s i n g l e framework i n which r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s may be i n t e r p r e t e d . The "Think T a n k " r e p r e s e n t s t h e c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e f a c i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g l a n g u a g e . The model makes t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e assumptions: 46. 1. T h e r e i s o n l y one T h i n k Tank w h i c h f o r m u l a t e s thoughts t h a t are e x p r e s s e d i n b o t h t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d l a n g u a g e as w e l l as comprehends o t h e r p e o p l e ' s thoughts t h a t are expressed i n both the f i r s t and second language. 2. A l l i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t o r e d i n the same Think Tank, and t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o t e n t i a l l y h a s a c c e s s t o a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n so s t o r e d . 3. The i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l a n g u a g e i s extremely important f o r the o p e r a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e T h i n k Tank. Thus, u n d e r s t a n d i n g , speaking, r e a d i n g , and w r i t i n g e i t h e r language c o n t r i b u t e s t o the d e v e l o p m e n t of the t o t a l Think Tank. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e T h i n k Tank Model Cummins (1981a) makes the p o i n t t h a t C o n t r a r y t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f many p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s , m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e i s n o t deter m i n e d o n l y by e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ; i n s t e a d , i t i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e e n t i r e s t o r e o f l i n g u i s t i c a n d c o n c e p t u a l knowledge i n t h e T h i n k Tank which i s d e r i v e d from the t o t a l i t y of the c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n both languages. (p. 31) 47 . The T h i n k Tank M o d e l i s a u s e f u l a n a l o g y p o r t r a y i n g c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . However, of and by i t s e l f , t h e model does n o t answer c l e a r l y some of the c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . The Think Tank Model t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e T h r e s h o l d H y p o t h e s i s a n d t h e D e v e l o p m e n t a l I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e H y p o t h e s i s p r o v i d e s a s u b s t a n t i a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n a nd i t s e f f e c t s on c o g n i t i v e development and academic achievement. Summary and Conclusions T h e b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f r e s e a r c h on b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n e m p h a s i z e d t h e d r a m a t i c change i n r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s a f t e r W a llace Lambert's and E l i z a b e t h A n i s f e l d ' s s t u d y i n 1962. P o o r l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s and s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s account f o r the almost c o n s i s t e n t n e g a t i v e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g p r i o r to 1962. A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been a f u n d a m e n t a l s h i f t i n t h e p o s i t i o n taken by most i n v e s t i g a t o r s on the q u e s t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n , t h e r e c o n t i n u e s t o be d e b a t e among e d u c a t o r s , many c l a i m i n g t h e r e i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e about i t s e f f i c a c y . In order to determine what the r e s e a r c h a c t u a l l y 48. s a y s a b o u t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n , Dulay e t a l . , (1979), Z a p p e r t and C r u z , (1977) and T r o i k e (1978) c a r r i e d o u t c r i t i c a l s u r v e y s of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . By e x c l u d i n g r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s f r o m p o o r l y d e s i g n e d s t u d i e s , i t was found t h a t t h e r e i s g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t . In f a c t , b o t h D u l a y a n d Z a p p e r t d i s c o v e r e d t h a t 58% of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s were p o s i t i v e , 41% n e u t r a l and 1% n e g a t i v e . As a r e s u l t o f T r o i k e ' s r e v i e w of twelve " q u a l i t y " b i l i n g u a l programs, he c o n f i d e n t l y s t a t e s , "Quality b i l i n g u a l programs can meet t h e g o a l of p r o v i d i n g e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s from n o n - E n g l i s h background" (p. 4). T h e c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e s t u d e n t s a r i s e s f r o m s e v e r a l l o c i : 1) n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s o f e a r l y r e s e a r c h ; 2) p o o r l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s i n more r e c e n t y e a r s ( t h e AIR s t u d y which r e c e i v e d wide a t t e n t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s a p r ime e x a m p l e ) ; 3) p e r v a d i n g "common s e n s e " c o n c e p t s w h i c h a r e myths; 4) t h e l a c k of agreed upon c r i t e r i a f o r b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e c o n s e q u e n t wide range of the use of LI i n such programs — from 0% t o 100%. (Programs not m e e t i n g a g r e e d upon c r i t e r i a s h o u l d n o t be c a l l e d " b i l i n g u a l programs"); 5) p o s i t i v e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g f r o m i m m e r s i o n s t u d i e s on majority-language 49. c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g a second socially relevant language. D e s p i t e the c o n f u s i o n , p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n the second language a r e i r r e f u t a b l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s f r o m a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . Not o n l y do t h e s e s t u d i e s show t h a t m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n ' s L I p r o f i c i e n c y can be promoted a t no c o s t t o p r o f i c i e n c y i n L 2 , b u t a l s o t h e y show t h a t p r o f i c i e n c y i n LI i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n academic achievement i n L2. G i v e n t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e use of f i r s t l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n i n E.S.L. programs i s more t h a n s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i b l e ; i t i s p e d a g o g i c a l l y sound. The e f f i c a c y o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . B i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , h a s b e e n l o o k e d u p o n a s a n u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d w h o l e , and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t e n d t o r e l a t e t o t h a t " u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d w h o l e " . V a r i o u s program components and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t performance have not been i n v e s t i g a t e d . One such component i s t h e use of L I l i t e r a t u r e . I s a b e l Schon has i n i t i a t e d r e s e a r c h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o m p o n e n t p a r t , b u t t h e l i t e r a t u r e on b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n c o n t a i n s no r e f e r e n c e t o " s t o r y t i m e i n f i r s t l a n g u a g e " and i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r e a d i n g achievement i n •3 50. L2 . The e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e and t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e p r e s e n t e d suggests t h a t " s t o r y time i n f i r s t language" w i l l a t l e a s t have no d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on s e c o n d language a c q u i s i t i o n and w i l l p o s s i b l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a i n s i n L2 p r o f i c i e n c y . T h e r e f o r e the p r e s e n t study was designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e " s t o r y t i m e i n f i r s t l a n g u a g e " a n d i t s a s s o c i a t i o n with g a i n s i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g achievement. 51. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY AND PRESENTATION OP FINDINGS T h i s study was designed t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n , "Does r e a d i n g books i n E.S.L. s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r f i r s t language h a v e a g r e a t e r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h g a i n s i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e i r second language than r e a d i n g books t o E.S.L. st u d e n t s i n t h e i r second language?" In o r d e r t o determine whether h e a r i n g s t o r i e s i n LI i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r g a i n s i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n L2 th a n h e a r i n g s t o r i e s i n L2, a q u a s i experimental r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was d e v e l o p e d t h a t c o n s i s t e d of one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e and two dependent v a r i a b l e s . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , h e a r i n g s t o r i e s read, c o n s i s t e d o f T r e a t m e n t 1, h e a r i n g s t o r i e s r e a d i n C h i n e s e ; T r e a t m e n t 2, h e a r i n g s t o r i e s r e a d i n E n g l i s h , a n d T r e a t m e n t 3, h e a r i n g no s t o r i e s r e a d ( c o n t r o l g r o u p ) . The dependent v a r i a b l e s were: 1) r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t as measured by t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t L e v e l A, forms 1 and 2, Canadian e d i t i o n , 1980; and 2) the number of Chinese books borrowed by s t u d e n t s . Research Hypothesis Hi; mu 1 > mu 2 Nu l l Hypothesis H f j : mu 1 = mu 2 52. where mu 1 i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the mean of the experimental group E l (Chinese s t o r i e s ) and mu 2 i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e mean of the experimental group E2 ( E n g l i s h s t o r i e s ) . A g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i s p r o v i d e d i n Tab l e I I . Table I I Research Design Group Treatment Dependent V a r i a b l e s E l Chinese s t o r i e s p o s t t e s t number of LI books borrowed E2 E n g l i s h S t o r i e s p o s t t e s t number of LI books borrowed C no s t o r i e s p o s t t e s t number of LI books borrowed The study was c a r r i e d out with s t u d e n t s , ages 9 to 12, from two i n t e r m e d i a t e E.S.L. c l a s s r o o m s a t L o r d S t r a t h c o n a E l e m e n t a r y School i n Vancouver. One c l a s s c o n s i s t e d of 20 s t u d e n t s , and t h e o t h e r 19, making a t o t a l sample o f 39 s t u d e n t s . Of t h e s e , 36 s p o k e C h i n e s e as t h e i r f i r s t language and 3 spoke Vietnamese. One Chinese student moved f r o m t h e s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , l e a v i n g a sample of 38. A l l s u b j e c t s l i v e d i n the Chinese community i n which the sc h o o l i s l o c a t e d . 53. The 39 s t u d e n t s i n t h e two E.S.L. c l a s s r o o m s were randomly a s s i g n e d to one of three groups. Once the g r o u p s were c o m p r i s e d , each group was randomly a s s i g n e d t o one of three t r e a t m e n t s : C h i n e s e s t o r i e s ( E l ) , E n g l i s h s t o r i e s (E2) or no s t o r i e s (C). By chance the 13 st u d e n t s who made up E l a l l spoke C h i n e s e a s t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e . E2 c o n t a i n e d 3 V i e t n a m e s e s t u d e n t s a n d C c o n t a i n e d no Vietnamese s t u d e n t s . The treatment took p l a c e d u r i n g two 40 minute p e r i o d s a week f o r a d u r a t i o n o f t h r e e months. Each s e s s i o n i n E l and E2 i n c l u d e d a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s t o r i e s l i s t e n e d t o . E l d i s c u s s i o n was i n LI and E2 d i s c u s s i o n was i n L2. The C o n t r o l Group (C) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n "catch-up time" w i t h t h e i r r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r . No f o r m a l t e a c h i n g t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A f t e r s t u d e n t s h ad completed u n f i n i s h e d work, they p l a y e d v a r i o u s games t h a t were i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s . These i n c l u d e d math and E n g l i s h games. S e l e c t i o n of Books T h e C h i n e s e b o o k s w e r e r a t e d by t h e two C h i n e s e s p e a k i n g r e a d e r s u s i n g t h e f o r m " C h i n e s e L i t e r a t u r e - E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e : R a t i n g " (see Appendix I ) . The Chinese rea d e r s c o n s u l t e d t o g e t h e r u s i n g t h i s form to s e l e c t books to read from a t o t a l s e l e c t i o n of some 700 books. The same form was used as a guide i n s e l e c t i n g E n g l i s h books by t h e two E n g l i s h reader v o l u n t e e r s . Books were s e l e c t e d i f both r e a d e r s agreed on the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . Chinese and E n g l i s h Readers T h e r e were two C h i n e s e v o l u n t e e r r e a d e r s and two E n g l i s h v o l u n t e e r r e a d e r s , e a c h o f whom r e a d o r t o l d s t o r i e s one p e r i o d a week. The f o u r v o l u n t e e r s were a l l competent and e x p r e s s i v e r e a d e r s . In an a u d i t i o n a l l f o u r r e a d e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d good d i c t i o n , e n u n c i a t i o n , p h r a s i n g , tempo, and a b i l i t y to convey dramatic c o n t e n t . As w e l l the rea d e r s had an a b i l i t y t o form a warm r a p p o r t with c h i l d r e n as observed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The f o u r v o l u n t e e r s a l l had t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s . One Chi n e s e r e a d e r had p r e v i o u s l y t a u g h t a t the s c h o o l i n w h i c h t h e study took p l a c e . The other Chinese r e a d e r — w h o had a r i c h background i n C h i n e s e F o l k T a l e s , and sometimes t o l d s t o r i e s , was a r e c e n t l y r e t i r e d p r i n c i p a l of the Chinese School s i t u a t e d n e ar L o r d S t r a t h c o n a E l e m e n t a r y . One of t h e E n g l i s h r e a d e r s was a p r i m a r y E.S.L. t e a c h e r a t L o r d S t r a t h c o n a E l e m e n t a r y . A r r a n g e m e n t s w e r e made t o f r e e h e r f r o m h e r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m d u t i e s t o t a k e p a r t i n the s t u d y . The s e c o n d 55. E n g l i s h v o l u n t e e r r e a d e r was an e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r o f C a n a d i a n n a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . When t h e s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d she v o l u n t e e r e d t o continue to read one p e r i o d a week to the c o n t r o l group. Chinese L i b r a r y Books A s e t of 50-60 Chinese l i b r a r y books was ma i n t a i n e d i n each o f the two i n t e r m e d i a t e c l a s s r o o m s , a nd c h a n g e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y every two weeks. The c l a s s s e t of books was exchanged between t h e two c l a s s e s , so e a c h c l a s s was e x p o s e d t o t h e same books. A l l t h e books s e l e c t e d had i l l u s t r a t i o n s , many i n c o l o u r and a l l books were j u d g e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , a t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n who h a s h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e E.S.L. s t u d e n t s , t o be books w h i c h would be of i n t e r e s t t o i n t e r m e d i a t e E.S.L. s t u d e n t s . The m a j o r i t y o f the books were C h i n e s e f o l k t a l e s , and o t h e r s were mainly E n g l i s h f o l k t a l e s t o l d i n Chinese. The Chinese books were a v a i l a b l e to a l l s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. A s i g n - o u t system was arranged i n each c l a s s r o o m and monitored by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . T h e b o o k s w e r e b o r r o w e d b y s t u d e n t s d u r i n g n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e s ( b e f o r e s c h o o l , a t r e c e s s , l u n c h hour and a f t e r s c h o o l ) . Each t e a c h e r i n s i s t e d t h a t the books be read d u r i n g n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l times. A r e c o r d was kept of the number of books each student borrowed. P r e s e n t a t i o n of F i n d i n g s The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t L e v e l A, form 1, was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l s u b j e c t s . I n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n i n b o t h E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e . At the c o n c l u s i o n of the three month p e r i o d form 2 of the same t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d . The mean score r e s u l t s of the t e s t i n g a r e shown i n T a b l e I I I . T a b l e I I I Summary of Data: Table of Means P r e t e s t S.D P o s t t e s t S.D. D i f f e r e n c e E l Chinese 65.23 13.30 72.23 5.81 7.00 E2 E n g l i s h 58.77 15.76 64.72 16.84 5.85 C C o n t r o l 58.91 15.64 71.91 8.35 13.00 Two i _ t e s t s w ere a p p l i e d , f i r s t l y t o t e s t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , and s e c o n d l y t o t e s t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means w i t h i n each g r o u p . The r e s u l t s are summarized i n T a b l e s I I I through V I I . 57. Table TV £ T e s t Between Groups N P r e t e s t / P o s t t e s t Mean D i f f e r e n c e S.D. t V a l u e (Pooled Var.) D.F. Chinese C o n t r o l 13 12 +7.00 +13.00 9.28 10.43 1.52 23 E n g l i s h C o n t r o l 13 12 +5.85 +13.00 8.39 10.43 1.90* 23 Chinese E n g l i s h 13 13 +7.00 +5.85 9.28 8 .39 .33 24 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 The mean score d i f f e r e n c e between each group was t e s t e d by a o n e - t a i l e d £ t e s t . As shown i n T a b l e IV, p > .05 i n the C h i n e s e - C o n t r o l group and C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h group. Hi: mu 1 > mu 2 fc24 = .33, p > .05 The N u l l H y p o t h e s i s i s n o t r e j e c t e d . The e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t o f h e a r i n g s t o r i e s r e a d i n C h i n e s e was n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r g a i n s i n r e a d i n g a chievement among C h i n e s e i n t e r m e d i a t e E.S.L. st u d e n t s than h e a r i n g s t o r i e s read i n E n g l i s h . There were, however, s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s (p < .05) i n t h e r e a d i n g s c o r e s of a l l t h r e e groups, as 58. shown i n Table V. Table V i T e s t W i t h i n Groups P r e t e s t / P o s t t e s t N Mean S * D * t V a l u e D i f f e r e n c e 13.30 E l Chinese 13 +7.00 2.72 12 .01 5.81 15.71 E2 E n g l i s h 13 +5.85 2.51 12 .02 16.84 15.64 C C o n t r o l 12 +13.00 4.32 11 .0005 8.35 D.F. 1 T a i l e d A n o t h e r purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether r e a d i n g s t o r i e s to c h i l d r e n i n C h i n e s e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i r s t l a n g u a g e b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s . As shown i n T a b l e VI t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean number of books borrowed by g r o u p s , t h a t i s t r e a t m e n t E l and E2 had no a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h number of books bo r r o w e d (AN OVA F(2,35) = .010, F prob. = .99) . Because one teacher (Teacher A) had a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward L l books, the number of books borrowed was a n a l y s e d by c l a s s , and the r e s u l t s a re shown i n Table V I I . Table VI Chinese Books Borrowed by Group Group N Mean S.D. S.E. Min. Max. F Chinese 13 14.54 17.2 4.77 1 56 E n g l i s h 13 13 .85 17.2 4.77 0 54 .99 C o n t r o l 12 13.75 8.61 2.49 4 31 Table V I I Chinese Books Borrowed by C l a s s Group N Mean S.D. S.E. Min. Max. F Teacher A 18 8.78 8.83 2.08 0 31 .02 Teacher B 20 19.70 16.83 3.76 0 56 The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (ANOVA F ( l , 3 5 ) = 6.066 F prob. = .02) i n mean number of books borrowed by c l a s s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . 60. CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS T h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y was t h a t i n t e r m e d i a t e E.S.L. s t u d e n t s who h e a r d s t o r i e s r e a d In LI w o u l d make s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r g a i n s i n r e a d i n g achievement t h a n i n t e r m e d i a t e E.S.L. s t u d e n t s who h e a r d s t o r i e s i n L2. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was f o r m u l a t e d on the b a s i s of 1) s t u d i e s t h a t show b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n among m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n has a s i g n i f i c a n t and p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on r e a d i n g achievement i n L2 and g e n e r a l academic a c h i e v e m e n t ( L a m b e r t , 1975; Z a p p e r t and C r u z , 1977; T r o i k e , 1978; Cummins and Mulcahy, 1978; D u l a y e t a l . , 1979; S k u t n a b b - Kangus, 1979; R o s i e r and Holm, 1980; G a l e e t a l . , 1981; Melendez, 1981); and 2) t h e o r i e s w h i c h i n t e r p r e t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n t e r m s o f c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n ; n a m e l y th e " T h r e s h o l d H y p o t h e s i s : (Cummins, 1978; 1978-1979; 1979; and Cummins and Mulcahy, 1978); The Development Interdependence H y p o t h e s i s (Cummins, 1978, 1979; 1981b); and t h e " T h i n k Tank H y p o t h e s i s " (Cummins, 1981a). Even though the s t u d e n t s h e a r i n g C h i n e s e s t o r i e s d i d n o t make g r e a t e r g a i n s i n L2 r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t h a n s t u d e n t s h e a r i n g E n g l i s h s t o r i e s or s t u d e n t s h e a r i n g no s t o r i e s t h i s study adds important i n f o r m a t i o n to the debate on how s c h o o l s s h o u l d r e s p o n d t o t h e c u l t u r a l a n d 61. l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . A l l t h r e e groups i n t h i s s t u d y — t h e group h e a r i n g s t o r i e s r e a d i n C h i n e s e , t h e g r o u p h e a r i n g s t o r i e s read i n E n g l i s h and the c o n t r o l g r o u p h a d s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s (p < .05) i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l time of 80 minutes a week over a t h r e e month p e r i o d t o r e a d to s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e h a d no d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on r e a d i n g achievement i n E n g l i s h . As emphasized by R o s i e r and Holm (1980) and Cummins (1979-1980), t h e r e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c q u i r i n g a second language and l e n g t h or amount of i n - s c h o o l e x p o s u r e to t h a t language. C o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s must be taken i n t o a c c o u n t . As Cummins (1981a) s t a t e s , " i t [performance i n the second language] i s determined by the e n t i r e s t o r e of l i n g u i s t i c and c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e i n t h e T h i n k Tank w h i c h i s d e r i v e d f r o m the t o t a l i t y of the c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n b o t h l a n g u a g e s " (p. 31) . As w e l l , a n o t h e r a r e n a must be a d d r e s s e d b e s i d e s academic and c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s . Achievement i n L2 r e a d i n g can n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t h e only important development i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e . C u l t u r a l r e a l i t i e s must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t and a d d r e s s e d i n t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g . The use of f i r s t language c o l l e c t i o n s i s one way of doing t h i s . The d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e use of LI i n s t r u c t i o n and m a t e r i a l s w i t h E.S.L. s t u d e n t s i s not f o c u s e d on whether LI 62. m a t e r i a l s assist s t u d e n t s i n l e a r n i n g t h e i r second language or n o t . The d e b a t e i s f o c u s e d on whether LI m a t e r i a l s impede1 s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n or n o t . T h i s s t u d y g i v e s a very c l e a r answer t o those who a r e c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e use of f i r s t l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l s , s p e c i f i c a l l y f i r s t language books, impede second language a c q u i s i t i o n . F i r s t l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l s used i n t h i s s t u d y had absolutely no detrimental e f f e c t s on s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . F u r t h e r , n o t o n l y d i d t h e s t u d e n t s who h e a r d C h i n e s e s t o r i e s r e a d E n g l i s h equally as well as t h o s e who h e a r d E n g l i s h s t o r i e s , but these s t u d e n t s had the added advantage of b e i n g e x p o s e d , i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g , t o t h e i r own c u l t u r e . In our m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y t h e r e i s a growing awareness t h a t i t i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n a n d a c c e p t a n c e o f d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s t h a t b r i n g s s t r e n g t h and r i c h n e s s t o the C a n a d i a n m o s a i c . I n d e e d , as t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u r c h a s i n g t h e F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n f o r the Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d e x p r e s s e d , "Even i f f i r s t l a n g u a g e books d i d n o t have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , t h e s e m a t e r i a l s meet a c u l t u r a l need i n o u r s o c i e t y . " The f a c t i s f i r s t l a n g u a g e books a s s i s t i n m e e t i n g c u l t u r a l n e e d s a n d do not impede r e a d i n g achievement i n E n g l i s h . The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study are one more p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r 63. Wertheimer (1980) to s t a t e , "The argument f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f b o o k s f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r m o t h e r t o n g u e i s overwhelming" (p. 347). As shown i n T a b l e IV t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means E2 and C (p < .05). I t c a n n o t be c o n c l u d e d , however, t h a t t h e "no s t o r y " treatment i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a i n s i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n L2 as compared to the " E n g l i s h s t o r y " treatment. Such a c o n c l u s i o n can o n l y be t e n t a t i v e . I t i s , o f c o u r s e , p o s s i b l e t h a t r e a d i n g L2 l i t e r a t u r e to c h i l d r e n with low L2 p r o f i c i e n c y has a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s t e n d s t o be s u p p o r t e d by t h e unchanged s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of the p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t s c o r e s of E2 as compared t o E l and C. ( S e e T a b l e I I I ) . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d to determine what i s , i n f a c t , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the lower gains among the lower a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s i n E2. The g a i n i n the c o n t r o l g r o u p , as c o m p a r e d t o t h e E n g l i s h or C h i n e s e g r o u p s , was an anomaly u n t i l i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t of seven s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e d d a i l y h e l p i n E n g l i s h from an E n g l i s h Language A s s i s t a n t d u r i n g the d u r a t i o n of the s t u d y (as p a r t of t h e i r r e g u l a r E . S . L . p r o g r a m ) , f o u r were from th e c o n t r o l group, two from the Chinese g r o u p and one f r o m the E n g l i s h g r o u p . The mean i n c r e a s e o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I ) was 64. c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r on the p o s t t e s t than the mean average i n c r e a s e of s t u d e n t s not r e c e i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l a s s i s t a n c e : 19.57 as compared to 5.97. A p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o u n c o v e r any f a c t o r s which might i n f l u e n c e borrowing f i r s t l a n g u a g e books. I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the group h e a r i n g s t o r i e s r e a d i n C h i n e s e would borrow more C h i n e s e books than t h o s e n o t h e a r i n g s t o r i e s r e a d i n Chinese. There was no d i f f e r e n c e between the three groups, consequently i t appears t h a t a l l t h r e e g r o u p s were e q u a l l y motivated to read Chinese books. T h i s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e r e i s , i n d e e d , a c u l t u r a l need p r e s e n t and t h a t h a v i n g f i r s t language books i n the c l a s s r o o m h e l p s t o meet t h i s need. M o r e o v e r , as d e m o n s t r a t e d i n Schon's (1981a) s t u d y , the r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s o f H i s p a n i c s t u d e n t s i m p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < .05) a f t e r s i l e n t r e a d i n g i n Spanish. Thus i t may be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e a d i n g o f C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e by s t u d e n t s w o u l d have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t upon t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the unchanged standa r d d e v i a t i o n i n p r e t e s t / p o s t t e s t s c o r e s i n E2 ( E n g l i s h s t o r i e s ) as compared to E l and C (see Table I I I ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of lower s c o r i n g s t u d e n t s i n E2 d i d n o t improve and may have become l e s s p o s i t i v e t h a n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of the study. ( 65. In other words s u b j e c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o L2 s t o r i e s which they probably do not comprehend may impede L2 a c q u i s i t i o n , o r even cause a l o s s o f p r e v i o u s g a i n s , as suggested by the p o s t t e s t s c o r e of s u b j e c t 26 (see A p p e n d i x I I ) . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o understand how readi n g L2 l i t e r a t u r e t o s t u d e n t s e f f e c t s L2 a c q u i s i t i o n when t h e y do n o t adequately comprehend what i s being read. In t h i s study, one of t h e t e a c h e r s ( T e a c h e r A) had a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward L I c o l l e c t i o n s . The students i n Teacher A's c l a s s borrowed s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s books t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s i n Teacher B's room (p = .02). T h i s s t r o n g l y suggests the t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e toward LI l i t e r a t u r e has a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t upon s t u d e n t b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s o f L l l i t e r a t u r e . Teacher A i n i t i a l l y was w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . S h o r t l y a f t e r the study commenced, however, Teacher A wanted t o withdraw from the study. "A" s t a t e d t o the i n v e s t i g a t o r , "You know how I f e e l about Chinese books. I f y o u were an E.S . L . t e a c h e r y o u w o u l d n ' t w a n t them e i t h e r . " I t was o n l y b e c a u s e of t h e i n s i s t e n c e of t h e p r i n c i p a l t h a t Teacher A's c l a s s remained i n the study. T e a c h e r B d i d n o t have a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n ; n e i t h e r d i d T e a c h e r B have a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e . The teacher was simply w i l l i n g to have the c l a s s borrow books and d i d n ' t f e e l i t would do 66. any p a r t i c u l a r harm. Teacher B f l i k e Teacher A, f e l t the books should be read o n l y d u r i n g n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l time. B e c a u s e of t h e p o w e r f u l e f f e c t a t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d L I l i t e r a t u r e h a s on s t u d e n t b o r r o w i n g o f L I l i t e r a t u r e , a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t survey of t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s r e l a t i v e t o t h e u s e o f F i r s t L a n g u a g e C o l l e c t i o n s s h o u l d be u s e f u l as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r an i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n on F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s . Some I m p l i c a t i o n s For F u r t h e r Study A s e r i e s of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o f i r s t l a n g u a g e c o l l e c t i o n s a n d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n p r e s e n t themselves, none of which appear to have been a d d r e s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s or B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n : 1. W ould t h e use of F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s by s t u d e n t s have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon student s e l f - e s t e e m and p o s i t i v e r e g a r d f o r t h e i r own c u l t u r e ? 2. Would F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s r e s o l v e or l e s s e n c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and l a n g u a g e as d e s c r i b e d by Lambert (1967)? In o t h e r words, w i l l F i r s t L a n g u a g e C o l l e c t i o n s a s s i s t s t u d e n t s i n a c h i e v i n g a c o m f o r t a b l e b i c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s p r o f i t from language o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n LI and L2? 67. 3. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n the present study are l i m i t e d to the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n a Chinese community. The C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r make up a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15% of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and a r e g e n e r a l l y r e s p e c t e d by t h e l a r g e r community i n which they l i v e . The a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of most t e a c h e r s toward Chinese students seems to be " C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s a r e h a r d w o r k e r s and do w e l l " , and consequently t e a c h e r s tend t o expect Chinese students to do w e l l . Would r e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n of m i n o r i t y g r o u p s i n LI when t h e a t t i t u d e of "expecting to do w e l l " does n o t e x i s t , have a g r e a t e r impact on second language a c q u i s i t i o n than r e a d i n g to Chinese s t u d e n t s ? 4. Would p a r e n t s r e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n i n LI i n the home s e t t i n g be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a i n s i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n L2? 5. Would p a r e n t s l i s t e n i n g t o c h i l d r e n read i n LI i n the home s e t t i n g be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a i n s i n r e a d i n g achievement i n L2? 6. Would p a r e n t s l i s t e n i n g t o c h i l d r e n read i n L2 i n the home s e t t i n g be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a i n s i n r e a d i n g achievement i n L2, and would L l be maintained? 7. Is r e a d i n g L2 l i t e r a t u r e t o c h i l d r e n who have low L2 s k i l l s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y can not adequately comprehend what i s being read, d e t r i m e n t a l t o L2 a c q u i s i t i o n ? 68. Research i n a l l of these areas i s needed t o r e a l i z e the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f f i r s t l a n g u a g e c o l l e c t i o n s i n s c h o o l r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . E l l e y and Mangubhai's Study: Some F u r t h e r I m p l i c a t i o n s E l l e y a nd Mangubhai's (1983) s t u d y i n w h i c h i t was shown t h a t the Shared Book E x p e r i e n c e w i t h h i g h - i n t e r e s t s t o r y b o o k s i n t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e p r o d u c e d " r a p i d L2 l e a r n i n g " , i s w o r t h f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was undertaken a f t e r the main study with the three groups had been completed. C l a s s 6 p u p i l s who were i n t h e Shared Book Experience group were compared wi t h other C l a s s 6 s t u d e n t s i n F i j i a n s c h o o l s on t h e F i j i a n I n t e r m e d i a t e E x a m i n a t i o n t e s t r e s u l t s . The S h a r e d Book E x p e r i e n c e g r o u p s p e r f o r m e d w e l l above the t y p i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f r u r a l s c h o o l s i n E n g l i s h (p < .001) G e n e r a l S t u d i e s [S c i e n c e and S o c i a l S t u d i e s ] (p < .001) and M a t h e m a t i c s (p < .001) . There was a s i m i l a r , but l e s s marked tendency i n the F i j i a n Language E x a m i n a t i o n (p < . 1 0 ) . The o t h e r c o n t r a s t s between S h a r e d Book and S i l e n t R e a d i n g groups proved s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y i n the case of E n g l i s h (p < .05). A s p e c i a l e f f o r t was made i n the Shared Book ex p e r i e n c e to make r e a d i n g as meaningful as p o s s i b l e t o the c h i l d , o r, as t h e a u t h o r s put i t , "to reduce the c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s 69. between t y p i c a l LI and L2 l e a r n i n g " . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s appear to have been most s u c c e s s f u l . What t h i s emphasizes, i n terms of t h i s p r e s e n t study i s t h a t a component part of an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m can have a p o w e r f u l impact on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t o t a l e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . The c r i t i c a l f a c t o r was n o t the s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s t o r i e s by t h e m s e l v e s (as p r o v e n by r e s u l t s f r o m the S i l e n t Reading g r o u p ) , b u t r a t h e r t h e meaningful communication w h i c h occurred during the story time. Thus t h e d i m e n s i o n of "meaningful communication" must be added t o t h e o r y w h i c h attempts t o e x p l a i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n . The term " m e e t i n g c u l t u r a l n e e d s " was u s e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o d e s c r i b e one of t h e p o s i t i v e outcomes of u s i n g F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s . In view of E l l e y ' s and M a n g u b h a i ' s (1983) s t u d y , i t must be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e r e may be needs w h i c h a r e more f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e c o g n i t i v e , s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e c h i l d than c u l t u r a l needs. One s u c h need i s t h e a p p a r e n t need f o r t h e c h i l d t o communicate about those t h i n g s which are meaningful to the c h i l d . When t h i s need i s a d d r e s s e d — as i t a p p e a r s t o h a v e been i n E l l e y ' s and Mangubhai's (1983) s t u d y — t h e r e i s a p r o f o u n d i m p a c t on the c h i l d ' s t o t a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s fundamental need f o r the c h i l d t o "communicate m e a n i n g f u l l y " i s n o t r e l a t e d t o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s a n d may be f u l f i l l e d , or p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l e d by u s i n g either LI or L2 l i t e r a t u r e . The key f a c t o r i s t h e m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p and communication between the c h i l d and o t h e r s which seems to be f a c i l i t a t e d m o s t e a s i l y by t h e use o f l i t e r a t u r e and s h a r e d book e x p e r i e n c e s . Is i t p o s s i b l e t h a t i f t h i s more f u n d a m e n t a l need t o "communicate m e a n i n g f u l l y " i s met, the c h i l d would move through the e s s e n t i a l language d e v e l o p m e n t p h a s e s i n L2 regardless of his level of functioning in LI? T h i s may be what o c c u r r e d i n E l l e y and Mangubhai's (1983) s t u d y , a l t h o u g h we do not know what l e v e l of L l f u n c t i o n i n g was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e " S h a r e d Book E x p e r i e n c e " g r o u p . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h needs t o be u n d e r t a k e n t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s . I f s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y were "dominant b i l i n g u a l s " — " n a t i v e - l i k e l e v e l i n one of the languages", then a c c o r d i n g to the theory p r e s e n t e d by Skutnabb-Kangus and Cummins (1978), ( t h a t s t u d e n t s must a t t a i n a l e v e l of b i l i n g u a l competence termed " a d d i t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m " , w h i c h i s above th e l e v e l of "dominant b i l i n g u a l i s m " b e f o r e t h e r e can be p o s i t i v e c o g n i t i v e e f f e c t s ) , t h e r e should be n e i t h e r p o s i t i v e nor n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of one or the other language on c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . But E l l e y and Mangubhai (1983) f o u n d t h e r e was. Does t h i s mean t h a t E l l e y and Mangubhai h a v e p u t t h e i r f i n g e r on a v e r y s i m p l e f o r m u l a f o r improving E n g l i s h language s k i l l s among i n t e r m e d i a t e E.S.L. s t u d e n t s ? Is i t p o s s i b l e t h a t L2 a c q u i s i t i o n c o u l d be a much e a s i e r , more n a t u r a l , e n j o y a b l e and e f f i c i e n t p r o c e s s s i m p l y by p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y t o communicate a t l e v e l s which are meaningful to them through the medium of L2 l i t e r a t u r e and "Shared Book E x p e r i e n c e s " , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r l e v e l of language development i n t h e i r f i r s t language? F u r t h e r study i s o b v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d . 1 R e a d i n g C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e t o c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study was not the "shared book e x p e r i e n c e " d e s c r i b e d by E l l e y and Mangubhai ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Would such a shared book e x p e r i e n c e i n L l y i e l d f i n d i n g s w i t h C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s s i m i l a r t o E l l e y and Mangubhai's f i n d i n g s w i t h F i j i a n s t u d e n t s ? I t s hould be noted t h a t i n a r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n by Cummins (1983a) he e l a b o r a t e s on the "Interdependence H y p o t h e s i s " and E l l e y and Mangubhai's (1983) f i n d i n g s may be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n i t s framework: " M i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s ' academic achievement i n L2 i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o how w e l l t h e i r common u n d e r l y i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i s developed. However, those who argue t h a t L l i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l impede L2 (e.g. E n g l i s h ) a c q u i s i t i o n f a i l t o r e a l i z e t h a t e x p e r i e n c e or i n s t r u c t i o n i n e i t h e r language can promote development of the p r o f i c i e n c y u n d e r l y i n g both languages, g i v e n adequate m o t i v a t i o n and exposure to both i n e i t h e r s c h o o l or the wider environment" (Cummins, 1983a, p. 43). The q u e s t i o n s t i l l must be asked, however, "How w e l l was the 'common u n d e r l y i n g p r o f i c i e n c y ' i n the Shared Book Experience group developed?" I f i t was not w e l l developed, some other f a c t o r s , such as c o n s i d e r e d above must be taken i n t o account. 72. CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The r e c e n t i n c r e a s e i n e t h n i c m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n of s c h o o l s i n Canada, U n i t e d S t a t e s and Europe has g i v e n r i s e t o i n c r e a s e d d e b a t e on how s c h o o l s s h o u l d respond to the c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . In a n a l y z i n g p u b l i c response to m u l t i c u l t u r a l programs i n T o r o n t o s c h o o l s , Masemann ( 1 9 7 8 - 1 9 7 9 ) f o u n d t h e p u b l i c b e l i e v e s t h a t use of f i r s t language m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h E.S.L. s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s impedes E n g l i s h language development. In her a r t i c l e , " F i r s t Language M a t e r i a l s i n S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s " , J'Anne Greenwood (1983) r e p o r t s t h a t w h i l e c h i l d r e n a r e no l o n g e r p u n i s h e d f o r s p e a k i n g t h e i r own language, t h e r e i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , "the l i n g e r i n g f e e l i n g t h a t e n c o u r a g i n g t h e use o f t h e m o t h e r t o n g u e w i l l i n t e r f e r e w i t h the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h " . (p. 15) A news s t o r y w i t h the h e a d i n g " P a n e l Asks S t r e s s on E n g l i s h S t u d i e s " by S. D a l e y , a p p e a r e d i n t h e New Y o r k Times. May 6, 1983. I t s t a t e s i n p a r t : 73. The e d u c a t o r s s a i d t h e F e d e r a l Government should support programs t h a t teach c h i l d r e n t o speak, r e a d and w r i t e E n g l i s h as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e by 'immersing 1 them i n the language. . . . 'We a r e n o t c r i t i c i z i n g b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n p e r s e . [one o f t h e e d u c a t o r s s t a t e d ] T h e r e i s a l l k i n d s o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e a b o u t w h e t h e r or n o t i t w o r k s . ' (P. 1) The q u e s t i o n r e a l l y i s does i t work? Does b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n — t h e u s e o f f i r s t l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g some p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l d a y — h e l p c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o r e a d , s o l v e math p r o b l e m s and speak i n E n g l i s h ? A major d i f f i c u l t y i n answering these q u e s t i o n s i s t h a t many s t u d i e s have c r i t i c a l w e aknesses i n r e s e a r c h d e s i g n (Dulay e t a l . , 1979; M a c L a u g h l i n , 1982; T r o i k e , 1978; Zappert and Cruz, 1977). Because any one of s e v e r a l w e a k n e s s e s i n r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , s u c h as no b a s e l i n e comparison or c o n t r o l group, i n v a l i d a t e r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s , t h e f i n d i n g s from many s t u d i e s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on stu d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . But such s t u d i e s have been quoted to support p o s i t i o n s f o r or a g a i n s t b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . I t i s easy 74. to u n d e r s t a n d why t h e r e i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e about whether or n o t b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n works. What k i n d of r e s u l t s would we f i n d i f we l o o k e d o n l y a t the s t u d i e s which do not have c r i t i c a l weaknesses i n r e s e a r c h d e s i g n ? T h i s i s e x a c t l y what Dulay e t a l . (1979), Zappert and Cruz (1977) and T r o i k e (1978) d i d . D u l a y e t a l . (1979) c o n c l u d e d t h a t b i l i n g u a l programs worked s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n m o n o l i n g u a l p r o g r a m s . Z a p p e r t and Cruz (1977) c o n c l u d e t h a t f i n d i n g s a r e not c o n t r a d i c t o r y , but r a t h e r " s t r o n g l y support the use of the c h i l d ' s n a t i v e language as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n ..." At the c o n c l u s i o n of h i s r e v i e w , T r o i k e (1978) s t a t e s t h a t " q u a l i t y b i l i n g u a l programs can meet the goal of p r o v i d i n g equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r students from n o n - E n g l i s h speaking backgrounds" (p. 4 ) . S i n c e the c o m p l e t i o n o f D u l a y ' s (1979), Z a p p e r t and C r u z (1977) and T r o i k e ' s (1978) c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , f u r t h e r f i n d i n g s support t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s . S k u t n a b b - K a n g a s ( 1 9 7 9 ) , a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g a s t u d y o f a l m o s t 700 F i n n i s h c h i l d r e n i n b i l i n g u a l and monolingual programs i n Sweden i n grades 1 to 9, f o u n d t h a t the longer F i n n i s h c h i l d r e n were educated i n F i n n i s h , the b e t t e r t h e i r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t was i n courses taught i n Swedish. 75. A f t e r an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y w i t h N avajo c h i l d r e n R o s i e r and Holm (1980) found t h a t by the end of grade 6, c h i l d r e n i n t h e b i l i n g u a l program were performing a t U n i t e d S t a t e s grade norms or s l i g h t l y above i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g , whereas b e f o r e the b i l i n g u a l program Navajo c h i l d r e n a t Rock P o i n t were about two y e a r s behind norms i n E n g l i s h r e a d i n g by the end of Grade 6. The a u t h o r makes the simple o b s e r v a t i o n : " a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h ( a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ) i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s i m p l e f u n c t i o n of t h e l e n g t h or amount of i n - s c h o o l exposure to E n g l i s h " (p. 28). G a l e ' s e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) f i n d i n g s f r o m a f o u r y e a r b i l i n g u a l p rogram w i t h a b o r i g i n a l c h i l d r e n i n A u s t r a l i a show t h a t s t u d e n t s i n the b i l i n g u a l program achieved b e t t e r a c a d e m i c r e s u l t s i n o r a l E n g l i s h , E n g l i s h r e a d i n g a n d composition, and mathematics than they had under the former E n g l i s h monolingual system. I s a b e l S c h o n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 a , 1981b) c o n d u c t e d two s t u d i e s w i t h L l l i t e r a t u r e and H i s p a n i c s t u d e n t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t was found t h a t the r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l group (students who had s i l e n t r e a d i n g i n S p a n i s h ) i m p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < .05). F u r t h e r , the authors note t h a t w i t h i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , g a i n s i n E n g l i s h and S p a n i s h r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d . 76. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p l a c e the above e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on r e a d i n g achievement and g e n e r a l academic achievement i n a t h e o r e t i - c a l framework. What i s t a k i n g p l a c e a t a c o g n i t i v e l e v e l to e x p l a i n the f i n d i n g s ? J i m Cummins o f the O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n Edu c a t i o n d e s c r i b e s b i l i n g u a l i s m as "a p o s i t i v e f o r c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l and e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t " (Cummins, 1981a, p. 2 2 ) , and p o s i t s the I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e H y p o t h e s i s t o p l a c e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l t h e o r e t i c a l framework. Cummins' (1983) r a t i o n a l e f o r h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s b a s e d i n t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t there i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e amount of i n s t r u c t i o n m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e i n L2 and a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h a t language, which suggests t h a t L l and L2 s k i l l s a r e i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t , or " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f a common u n d e r l y i n g p r o f i c i e n c y " . He f o r m a l l y s t a t e s the h y p o t h e s i s as f o l l o w s : To t h e e x t e n t t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n Lx i s e f f e c t i v e i n promoting the p r o f i c i e n c y i n Lx, t r a n s f e r of t h i s p r o f i c i e n c y to Ly w i l l occur p r o v i d e d t h e r e i s a d e q u a t e e x p o s u r e t o Ly ( e i t h e r i n s c h o o l or environment) and adequate 77. m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n Ly. (Cummins, 1983a, p. 41) Cummins g i v e s a c o n c r e t e example: In a Ukr a i n i a n - E n g l i sh b i l i n g u a l program, i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t d e v e l o p s U k r a i n i a n r e a d i n g s k i l l s i s n o t j u s t d e v e l o p i n g U k r a i n i a n s k i l l s , i t i s a l s o d e v e l o p i n g a d e e p e r c o n c e p t u a l and l i n g u i s t i c p r o f i c i e n c y which i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the development of English l i t e r a c y a n d g e n e r a l a c a d e m i c s k i l l s . (Cummins, 1983a, pp. 41-42) I n s u m m a r y , d e s p i t e t h e d e b a t e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n , p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n on academic achievement i n the second language are i r r e f u t a b l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s from around the world. Not o n l y do t h e s e s t u d i e s show t h a t m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n ' s f i r s t l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y can be promoted a t no c o s t to p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e i r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , but a l s o t h e y show t h a t use of f i r s t language m a t e r i a l s can be a s s o c i a t e d with 78. s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n aca d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e second language. The e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e a nd t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e p r e s e n t e d s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h a t " s t o r y t i m e i n f i r s t l a n g u a g e " w i l l a t l e a s t have no d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on second language a c q u i s i t i o n and w i l l p o s s i b l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a i n s i n s e c o n d language p r o f i c i e n c y . T h e r e f o r e , i n order to t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t hearing stories read in Chinese i s associated with greater gains i n reading achievement i n the second language among Chinese intermediate E.S.L. students than hearing s t o r i e s read i n English a r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was d e v e l o p e d t h a t c o n s i s t e d o f one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e and two d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , h e a r i n g s t o r i e s read, c o n s i s t e d of Treatment 1, h e a r i n g s t o r i e s read i n Chinese; T r e a t m e n t 2, h e a r i n g s t o r i e s r e a d i n E n g l i s h , and Treatment 3, h e a r i n g no s t o r i e s read ( c o n t r o l group). The de p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e : 1) r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t ' s measured by t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t L e v e l A, forms 1 and 2, C a n a d i a n e d i t i o n , 1980; and 2) the number of Chinese books borrowed by s t u d e n t s . Another purpose of the study was to determine w h e t h e r r e a d i n g s t o r i e s t o c h i l d r e n i n C h i n e s e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i r s t l a n g u a g e b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s , and 79. w h e t h e r t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d F i r s t L a n g u a g e C o l l e c t i o n s i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s b o r r o w i n g o f f i r s t language books. The s t u d y was c a r r i e d out wit h s t u d e n t s , ages 9 to 12, from two i n t e r m e d i a t e E.S.L. classrooms a t Lo r d S t r a t h c o n a E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l i n t h e c o r e o f V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n e s e community. One c l a s s c o n s i s t e d o f 20 s t u d e n t s , and the o t h e r 19, making a t o t a l sample of 39 s t u d e n t s . The 39 stud e n t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o one of t h r e e g r o u p s . Once the g r o u p s were c o m p r i s e d , each g r o u p was randomly a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s : C h i n e s e s t o r i e s , E n g l i s h s t o r i e s , or the c o n t r o l group. A d i f f e r e n t s e t of 50-60 C h i n e s e l i b r a r y b o o k s was m a i n t a i n e d i n e a c h c l a s s r o o m a n d e x c h a n g e d b e t w e e n t h e two c l a s s e s approximately every two weeks. T h e r e were two C h i n e s e v o l u n t e e r r e a d e r s and two E n g l i s h v o l u n t e e r r e a d e r s , e a c h o f whom r e a d o r t o l d s t o r i e s one p e r i o d a week. The f o u r v o l u n t e e r s a l l had t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and were competent, e x p r e s s i v e r e a d e r s w i t h an a b i l i t y t o fo r m a warm r a p p o r t w i t h c h i l d r e n as observed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The treatment took p l a c e d u r i n g two 40 minute p e r i o d s a week f o r a d u r a t i o n o f t h r e e months. The c o n t r o l g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t e d i n " c a t c h - u p t i m e " w i t h t h e i r r e g u l a r 80. c l assroom t e a c h e r . No formal t e a c h i n g took p l a c e . Two o n e - t a i l e d £. t e s t s w e r e a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a , f i r s t l y t o t e s t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t between t h e means of the t h r e e g r o u p s , and s e c o n d l y t o t e s t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means w i t h i n each group. The between t h e groups £_test r e v e a l e d one s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g : the sc o r e s of the c o n t r o l group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the s c o r e s of the group which heard s t o r i e s i n E n g l i s h (p < .05). I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s due to the e x t r a a s s i s t a n c e which a number of low a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s i n the c o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d d u r i n g the d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . Of s e v e n s t u d e n t s r e c e i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l a s s i s t a n c e as p a r t o f t h e i r r e g u l a r E.S.L. program, f o u r were f r o m t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , two from t h e C h i n e s e s t o r y group, and one from t h e E n g l i s h s t o r y g r o u p . I t i s , o f c o u r s e , p o s s i b l e t h a t r e a d i n g L2 l i t e r a t u r e t o c h i l d r e n w i t h low L2 p r o f i c i e n c y has a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o determine what i s , i n f a c t , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the lower g a i n s among the l o w e r a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s i n E2 ( E n g l i s h s t o r i e s ) as compared t o t h e lower a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s i n E l ( C h i n e s e s t o r i e s ) and the c o n t r o l group. The w i t h i n the groups i t e s t r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t gains 81. i n a l l three groups (p < .05) . Two ANOVAS w e r e a p p l i e d , f i r s t l y t o t e s t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e g r o u p s i n b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s , and secondly to t e s t f o r a d i f f e r e n c e i n borrowing h a b i t s between the two c l a s s e s . There was f o u n d t o be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the three groups, t h a t i s , h e a r i n g s t o r i e s i n Chinese and h e a r i n g s t o r i e s i n E n g l i s h was n o t a s s o c i a t e d with number of books borrowed. The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .05) i n mean number o f books borrowed by c l a s s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . Even though t h e s t u d e n t s h e a r i n g C h i n e s e s t o r i e s d i d n o t make g r e a t e r g a i n s i n L2 r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t h a n s t u d e n t s h e a r i n g E n g l i s h s t o r i e s or s t u d e n t s h e a r i n g no s t o r i e s t h i s study adds important i n f o r m a t i o n to the debate on how s c h o o l s s h o u l d r e s p o n d t o t h e c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . A l l t h r e e g r o u p s i n t h i s s t u d y — the g r o u p h e a r i n g s t o r i e s read i n Chinese, the group h e a r i n g s t o r i e s read i n E n g l i s h , and t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s (p < .05) i n r e a d i n g achievement. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l time o f 80 m i n u t e s a week o v e r a t h r e e month p e r i o d t o r e a d t o s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e had no d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n E n g l i s h . As emphasized by Ro s i e r and Holm 82. (1980) and Cummins (1979-1980), there i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c q u i r i n g a second language and l e n g t h or amount of i n - s c h o o l e x p o s u r e to t h a t language. C o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s must be taken i n t o account. The t o t a l i t y o f a c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n both L I and L2 c o g n i t i v e l y a f f e c t s the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to express i n L2. M o r e o v e r , t h e d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e use o f L I i n s t r u c t i o n and m a t e r i a l s w i t h E . S . L . s t u d e n t s i s n o t f o c u s e d on whether LI m a t e r i a l s assist s t u d e n t s i n l e a r n i n g t h e i r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e or n o t . The d e b a t e i s f o c u s e d on whether L l m a t e r i a l s impede second language a c q u i s i t i o n or not. T h i s study g i v e s a very c l e a r answer to those who are c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e use o f f i r s t l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l s , s p e c i f i c a l l y f i r s t language books, impede s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . F i r s t l anguage m a t e r i a l s used i n t h i s study had absolutely no detrimental e f f e c t s on s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . F u r t h e r , not o n l y d i d the students who heard Chinese s t o r i e s l e a r n E n g l i s h equally as well as t h o s e who h e a r d E n g l i s h s t o r i e s , b u t t h e s e s t u d e n t s had t h e added advantage of being exposed, i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g , t o t h e i r own c u l t u r e . In o u r m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y t h e r e i s a growing awareness t h a t i t i s the e x p r e s s i o n and a c c e p t a n c e of d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s t h a t b r i n g s s t r e n g t h and r i c h n e s s t o the C a n a d i a n m o s a i c . I n d e e d , as the p e r s o n 83 . r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u r c h a s i n g t h e F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n f o r the Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d e x p r e s s e d , '"Even i f f i r s t l a n g u a g e books d i d n o t have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , t h e s e m a t e r i a l s meet a c u l t u r a l n e e d i n o u r s o c i e t y . " The f a c t i s f i r s t l a n g u a g e books a s s i s t i n m e e t i n g c u l t u r a l n e e d s a n d do n o t i m p e d e r e a d i n g achievement i n E n g l i s h . The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study are one more p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r Wertheimer (1980) t o s t a t e , "The argument f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f b o o k s f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r m o t h e r t o n g u e i s overwhelming." (p. 347). One p u r p o s e of t h i s study was to determine any f a c t o r s t h a t m i ght be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o r r o w i n g f i r s t l a n g u a g e books. There was no d i f f e r e n c e between the t h r e e groups i n borrowing h a b i t s . However, i n the c l a s s where the t e a c h e r had a s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward Chinese books i n the E.S.L. c l a s s r o o m ^ , t h e r e were fewer books b o r r o w e d (p =.02). T h i s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h e t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e toward L l l i t e r a t u r e has a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t upon s t u d e n t borrowing h a b i t s of L l l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t w h i l e most t e a c h e r s do not have a s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward L l l i t e r a t u r e , many are The teacher d i d not want to have Chinese books i n the cl a s s r o o m s t a t i n g to the i n v e s t i g a t o r , "You know how I f e e l about Chinese books", and o n l y d i d so on the i n s i s t e n c e of the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l . 84. c o n c e r n e d t h a t F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s may or w i l l impede L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . I n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s a t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l are needed to a s s i s t t e a c h e r s to become aware t h a t 1) b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n or the use of f i r s t language m a t e r i a l s such as F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s w i t h E.S.L. stu d e n t s does not impede the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h 2) use o f f i r s t l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n a n d f i r s t l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l s such as F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s can be (but n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a r e ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a i n s i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d g e n e r a l a c a d e m i c achievement. 3) use of F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s tends to improve r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s among E.S.L. st u d e n t s 4) a t t i t u d e s h e l d by t e a c h e r s toward F i r s t Language C o l l e c t i o n s a f f e c t s t u d e n t b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s o f f i r s t language books 5) r e a d i n g s t o r i e s i n E n g l i s h to E.S.L. s t u d e n t s who have low E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y c a n n o t a d e q u a t e l y c o m p r e h e n d what i s b e i n g r e a d , may h a v e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on the a c q u i s i t i o n of E n g l i s h . 6) t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of i n s t r u c t i o n r e c e i v e d i n L2 and a c h i e v e m e n t i n L2, w h i c h 85. s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t L l and L2 academic s k i l l s a r e in t e r d e p e n d e n t ( t h a t i s , academic s k i l l s are m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of a "common u n d e r l y i n g p r o f i c i e n c y " ) , and t h e r e f o r e L2 r e a d i n g s k i l l s may be promoted by u s i n g e i t h e r L2 or L l l i t e r a t u r e . 7) t r a n s f e r e n c e of p r o f i c i e n c y g a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t language to a second language w i l l occur p r o v i d e d t h e r e i s a d e q u a t e exposure to the second language and m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n i t . The e f f i c a c y o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . E v e n w h e r e b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n programs per se f o r E.S.L. c h i l d r e n do not e x i s t , the p r i n c i p l e of "interdependence" which Cummins ( 1 9 8 3 a ) i d e n t i f i e d - - t h a t t h e r e i s t r a n s f e r e n c e o f l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s f rom one l a n g u a g e t o a n o t h e r — m a y be a p p l i e d t o e x i s t i n g E.S.L. programs w i t h l i t t l e c o s t . F i r s t L a n g u a g e C o l l e c t i o n s may a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t ' s development of c o n c e p t u a l and l i n g u i s t i c p r o f i c i e n c y i n h i s f i r s t l a n g u a g e w h i c h w i l l c e r t a i n l y n o t impede E n g l i s h a c q u i s i t i o n and w i l l expose the c h i l d t o h i s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . Moreover, i n r e a d i n g L l l i t e r a t u r e t o m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e s t u d e n t s , l e a d e r s i n e t h n i c communities may share t h e i r s p e c i a l s k i l l s i n the c l a s s s e t t i n g . 86. APPENDIX I CHINESE LITERATURE — ENGLISH LITERATURE (Rating) T i t l e Author Book Number PART A A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e book, p l e a s e p l a c e an x on the a p p r o p r i a t e blank to i n d i c a t e your response to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. T h i s book w i l l p r o b a b l y be i n t e r e s t i n g and p l e a s u r a b l e to c h i l d r e n of ages 9 t o 12: yes maybe no 2. T h i s book c o n t a i n s events, concepts and r e l a t i o n s h i p s which w i l l be understandable to c h i l d r e n of ages 9 t o 12. yes maybe no T h i s book has a main c h a r a c t e r with whom c h i l d r e n of ages 9 t o 12 can e a s i l y i d e n t i f y . yes maybe no 4. T h e s t o r y i s w r i t t e n i n a l a n g u a g e w h i c h f l o w s n a t u r a l l y . Sentence l e n g t h and co m p l e x i t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e theme and c h a r a c t e r of t h e s t o r y , but not of such l e n g t h and complexity t h a t a young c h i l d o f ages 9 t o 12 c a n n o t f o l l o w the development of the thought from the be g i n n i n g to the end of the sentence. yes maybe no 8 7 . APPENDIX I (Continued) PART B GENERAL DIFFICULTY LEVEL ** P l e a s e check one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : F o r most c h i l d r e n ages 9 t o 12 t h i s book would p r o b a b l y be 1. easy 2. easy to average 3. average 4. average to d i f f i c u l t 5. d i f f i c u l t ** O r a l comprehension Appendix I I Data 88 . E l (Chinese) E2 ( E n g l i s h ) ( C o n t r o l ) S u b j e c t Teacher P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t D i f f e r e n c e 1 B 81 78 -3 2 B 77 79 2 3 B 75 78 3 4 B 75 76 1 5 B 74 78 4 6 A 73 70 -3 7 A 70 75 5 8 A 68 68 0 9 A 62 67 5 10 B 58 76 18* 11 B 51 65 14* 12 A 46 64 18 13 B 38 65 27 14 A 79 82 3 25 B 79 82 3 16 A 71 76 5 17 A 70 75 5 18 A 69 69 0 19 A 67 68 1 20 A 61 71 10 21 B 61 68 7 22 A 51 64 13 23 A 44 58 14* 24 B 43 62 19 25 B 35 46 11 26 A 34 19 -15 27 B 83 83 0 28 B 77 78 1 29 B 72 80 8 30 A 68 72 4 31 A 68 77 9 32 B 59 75 16* 33 A 58 63 5 34 B 53 71 18* 35 B 50 73 23* 36 A 50 64 14 37 B 40 74 34* 38 B 29 53 24 39 A 1 moved - * Students who r e c e i v e d i n d i v i d u a l E n g l i s h language a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the d u r a t i o n of the study. 89. REFERENCES Cummins, J . (1983a) . H e r i t a g e language e d u c a t i o n ; A. l i t e r a t u r e review. The M i n i s t r y of Ed u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o . Cummins, J . (1983b). 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