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Dialogue journal writing : meaningful written interaction in language and culturally diverse classrooms Hegedus, Katalin 1990

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DIALOGUE JOURNAL WRITING: MEANINGFUL WRITTEN INTERACTION IN LANGUAGE AND CULTURALLY DIVERSE CLASSROOMS By K a t a l i n Hegedus .A., J o z s e f A t t i l a U n i v e r s i t y  o f Szeged, Hungary, 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Language E d u c a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1990 © K a t a l i n Hegedus, 1990  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  LANGUAGE EDUCATION  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ii  Abstract  The  s t u d y o f t h e Back and F o r t h book o f an e l e v e n y e a r s  o l d E.S.L. s t u d e n t i n t r o d u c e s a type o f p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g w h i c h i s argued t o f a c i l i t a t e m e a n i n g f u l , w r i t t e n communication i n t h e second The  language.  p r e s e n t s t u d y extends  the f i n d i n g s o f d i a l o g u e  j o u r n a l s t u d i e s o f S t a t o n et al. i n two d i r e c t i o n s . 1. The case study o f t h e Back and F o r t h book a c t i v i t y p r e s e n t s a "communication t r i a n g l e " which i n v o l v e s p a r e n t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and thus s e r v e s as a b r i d g e between s c h o o l and home. The r e p o r t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s f o c u s on the p o t e n t i a l s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Back and F o r t h book t a s k i n comparison t o other journal w r i t i n g  practices.  2. The a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e l e c t e d 45 j o u r n a l e n t r i e s p r o v i d e s some e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e weak r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t a s k . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f Mohan's Knowledge Framework as a means of a n a l y z i n g s t u d e n t w r i t i n g p r o v i d e s a c p i c t u r e o f the language and c o n t e n t . The Knowledge framework p r e s e n t s g u i d e l i n e f o r m o n i t o r i n g t h e development o f language and t h e development o f d i s c o u r s e and c o n t e n t . The  i n c o n s i s t e n c y of the task j u s t i f i e s the present  s t u d y : t h e m u l t i - p u r p o s e t a s k o f t h e Back and F o r t h book produces u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w r i t i n g , the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i s o f d e t e r m i n i n g i t s r e a s o n and p r o v i d e a g u i d e l i n e t o m o n i t o r the t a s k i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n  more s a t i s f a c t o r y  product.  i :i. i  T a b l e o f Contents Abstract  • ii  T a b l e o f Contents  i i i  L i s t of Tables  .v  CHAPTER ONE I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e problem  1  A. Background  1  o f t h e Problem  B. Assumptions  2  C. Focus of t h e Study and Research Q u e s t i o n  3  D. Scope and O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e Study  4  E. L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study  5  F. D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms  6  CHAPTER TWO I . Review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e  8  A. I n t r o d u c t i o n  8  B. B r i e f H i s t o r y o f D i a l o g u e J o u r n a l  9  C. J o u r n a l W r i t i n g : S t u d e n t - C e n t e r e d C u r r i c u l u m  11  D. Use o f J o u r n a l W r i t i n g i n t h e Classroom  18  E. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r L e a r n i n g R e l a t e d t o Classroom W r i t i n g i n t h e Classroom  Journal 24  CHAPTER THREE Case Study  26  I. I n t r o d u c t i o n  27  A. The Q u e s t i o n o f Language Use  27  B. L e a r n i n g i n a Second Language  30  C. S c h o o l i n g  i n a Second Language  ...31  I I . The  task  A. J o u r n a l W r i t i n g i n a Second Language: P o t e n t i a l s  35  B. The Back and F o r t h book: L i m i t a t i o n s  38  I I I . The p r o d u c t  43  CHAPTER FOUR Analysis  52  A. I n t r o d u c t i o n  52  B. Model  53  C. Assumptions  56  CHAPTER FIVE Results A. T h i n k i n g  58 S k i l l s and Language Items  B. Frequency Count  58 58  CHAPTER SIX I. D i s c u s s i o n  63  I I . Conclusion  71  I I I . Implementation  73  A. Use o f t h e Knowledge Framework  73  B. I n t e r v e n t i o n  75  IV. S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study  76  Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research  78  C l o s i n g Remarks  79  BIBLIOGRAPHY  81  APPENDIX  85  Appendix A  85  Appendix B  .131  Appendix C  191  V  Appendix D  197  Appendix E  199  vi  L i s t of T a b l e s Table 1  3 0  Table 2  59  Table 3  6 0  Table 4  6 1  Table 5  6 2  Table 6  297  Table 7  ig  Q  1  CHAPTER ONE I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Problem  A. B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e p r o b l e m : Current r e s e a r c h i n the process of second  language  a c q u i s i t i o n suggests that the best environment  for  learning  a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e i s one i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a w i d e r a n g e o f opportunities  f o r contextually r i c h , meaningful  communication  i n the target  in which a f i r s t  l a n g u a g e , much l i k e t h e c o n t e x t  language i s a c q u i r e d .  "Communicative competence", "meaningful i n t e r a c t i o n " , and "real  l a n g u a g e " h a v e become f u n d a m e n t a l  issues  i n second  language r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y . I n v e s t i g a t o r s o f t h e w r i t t e n p r o c e s s as w e l l the  a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s  related to the written  argue  that  language  p r o c e e d i n much t h e same way a s d o e s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e spoken  language, and t h a t w r i t t e n  language s k i l l s  are also  best acquired i n the process of meaningful, w r i t t e n interaction. W i t h i n e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , t h e i s s u e o f w r i t i n g demands p l a c e d o n t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e been d i s c u s s e d writing  l e a r n e r s has  i n s t u d i e s of a continuum from personal  (such as l e t t e r s ,  diaries,  s t o r i e s ) t o academic w r i t i n g non-personal,academic t o p i c s )  j o u r n a l s and p e r s o n a l  ( e x p o s i t o r y c o m p o s i t i o n s about (Hudelson 1988).  Researchers t a s k s and  argue the u s e f u l n e s s of d i f f e r e n t  c l a i m t h a t t h e n o n - a c a d e m i c t a s k s may  i n t h e k i n d s and  l e v e l s of w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s  foster. Personal w r i t i n g l e s s d e m a n d i n g , and  some s t u d i e s e v e n  be  that  i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d as  writing limited they  cognitively  question i t s  u s e f u l n e s s . Yet, r e c e n t s t u d i e s of S t a t o n e l  al.(1988)  indicate that dialogue  least  journal writing  i s at  e q u i v a l e n t t o a s s i g n e d w r i t i n g on m e a s u r e o f linguistic cases  complexity, topic  f o c u s and  cohesiveness.  t h i s t y p e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g c a n be  researchers often find  a u t h e n t i c communication i n the  little  evidence  language classroom.  a c t i v i t i e s more o f t e n f o c u s on b a s i c s k i l l s e x p r e s s i o n o f a r e a l message t o a r e a l thinking s k i l l s  necessary  o f t e n have t e a c h e r s h e a r d writing"  to express  t h e end  w r i t i n g has  n e e d t o w o r k o n . . . " . We  f o r promoting  personal w r i t i n g  interest  the  hate  more o f t e n h a v e t e a c h e r s w r i t t e n "Interesting a l l recognize  become an o b l i g a t o r y c l a s s r o o m  initial  and  t h a t m e s s a g e . More  that  e x e r c i s e which  l e a r n i n g and  improvement of s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s My  Writing  than the w r i t t e n  audience  of t h e i r students' assignments:  only limited value  of  t h e i r students' angry c r y : "I  ( M o r r i s 1 9 8 6 ) . And  w r i t i n g , but you  has  1988).  Assumptions: Classroom  at  I n many  considered  superior to assigned w r i t i n g tasks.(Hude1son  B.  quality,  the  ( M o r r i s 1986).  in journal writing,  as a t y p e  of  i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n o r i g i n a t e s  from t h e assumption t h a t t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k can provide  one s o l u t i o n f o r t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  writing  i n a n E.S.L.  classroom.  C. F o c u s o f t h e s t u d y The  and t h e r e s e a r c h  focus of the present  meaningful,  of teaching  study  question:  i s the progress  w r i t t e n , i n t e r a c t i v e t a s k . The s t u d y  a three years  of a  i s b a s e d on  l o n g o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e B&F book a c t i v i t y .  The  e m p h a s i s i s on t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s t a s k a n d i t i s a r g u e d that without  proper  p l a n n i n g and m o n i t o r i n g  the task  itself  can n o t produce language development. The  o b j e c t i v e o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f 45 j o u r n a l e n t r i e s i s  t o e x a m i n e some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s  f o r t h e weak  r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t a s k . I t i s a r g u e d t h a t Mohan's k n o w l e d g e framework i s a s u i t a b l e approach f o r m o n i t o r i n g in  language and i n c o n t e n t . T h i s  a n a l y s i s i n comparison t o  other approaches provides a b e t t e r i n s i g h t r e a l i z a t i o n of the task,  the growth  into the  i t g i v e s an i n t e g r a t e d  p i c t u r e of  the g r o w t h i n language and d i s c o u r s e . Research  questions:  What a r e t h e p o t e n t i a l s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e a u t h e n t i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e B a c k a n d F o r t h book How c a n t h e L a n g u a g e a n d C o n t e n t a p p r o a c h a c c e s s the growth o f language and d i s c o u r s e the case of t h i s classroom  activity?  task? and  monitor  i n a n i n t e g r a t e d way i n  4  D. The Scope and O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e  Study:  T h i s s t u d y i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f one j o u r n a l . T h i s i s t h e j o u r n a l o f an e l e v e n y e a r s o l d g i r l who has been w r i t i n g i t i n h e r L2 my o l d e s t daughter.  f o r t h r e e s c h o o l years.The s t u d e n t i s  S i n c e t h e a n a l y z e d j o u r n a l i s a unique  type o f j o u r n a l , c a l l e d Back and F o r t h Book , which i s based on t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p a r e n t ( s ) , my p a r e n t a l involvement The  has been a complementary f a c t o r i n t h e r e s e a r c h .  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k i s v e r y s i m p l e and r e g u l a r : a t  a d e s i g n a t e d time o f each s c h o o l day t h e s t u d e n t s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h i r t y minutes t o w r i t e i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s which i s t a k e n home, r e a d t o o r w i t h t h e p a r e n t ( s ) . T h e p a r e n t ( s ) a r e r e q u e s t e d t o s i g n i t and make some w r i t t e n comments.I have been o b s e r v i n g t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g for  process  t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s b o t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g and  at home. In t h e r e v i e w of t h e most r e c e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l publications  I will  look a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a p o s s i b l e  a l t e r n a t i v e t o o b l i g a t o r y classroom e x e r c i s e i n w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n . My o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d as a case s t u d y o f my daughter's  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . The emphasis w i l l be on t h e  p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e ESL l e a r n e r and t h e p a r e n t a l involvement.  The p o t e n t i a l s and l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e t a s k w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d i n comparison t o o t h e r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g s t u d i e s , such as t h e i n t e r a c t i v e j o u r n a l s used by t h e r e s e a r c h group  5 of K r e e f t Peyton Christie  (1989) and t h e g e n r e - b a s e d  approach  (1986).  Among t h e e n t r i e s p r o d u c e d y e a r s 45 w e r e s e l e c t e d  i n the l a s t three school  from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t  s c h o o l y e a r s ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . One s c h o o l days  p a r t s of the  week/five consecutive  i n e a c h month o f O c t o b e r , F e b r u a r y and J u n e  c h o s e n f r o m t h e s c h o o l y e a r s o f 1987/88, 1988/89 1989/90. The original  sampled  a n a l y s i s of these e n t r i e s  i n t h e B&F  book. The  and  s e n t e n c e s are not i s f o c u s i n g on t h e language  L a n g u a g e and  i s a r g u e d t o o f f e r an i n t e g r a t e d way  t h e g r o w t h o f l a n g u a g e and  were  e n t r i e s are r e t y p e d i n the  p a t t e r n o f t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s and  structures approach  journal  form, m i s t a k e s or ungrammatical  c o r r e c t e d . The overall  of  Content of m o n i t o r i n g  discourse.  E. L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y : The  chief  l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y i s t h e use o f  one  j o u r n a l . T h e n a t u r e of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  B&F  book i n p a r t i c u l a r d o e s n o t a l l o w  i n g e n e r a l and  comparison of a  o r a c l a s s r o o m o f s t u d e n t s . To e l i m i n a t e B&F  only the  group  i t the task of the  book i s c o m p a r e d t o two o t h e r t y p e s o f p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g  p u b l i s h e d by t h e r e s e a r c h g r o u p o f C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d Linguistics  ( S t a t o n 1984,  K r e e f t P e y t o n 1989)  S t u d y G u i d e t o W r i t i n g by F r a n c e C h r i s t i e  and  (1986).  i n the  F.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms: The  and  f o l l o w i n g terms are f r e q u e n t l y used i n the  d e f i n e d as  study  follows:  E n g l i s h as a Second language s t u d e n t  refers to a  s t u d e n t whose m o t h e r t o n g u e i s n o t E n g l i s h and h a s y e t minimal  command o f E n g l i s h .  Journal writing: 'jour'  a  j o u r n a l i s d e r i v e d from the  French  f o r 'day', t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s t h e s e n s e o f  journal  the  as a d a i l y o r a t l e a s t r e g u l a r , w r i t i n g r e c o r d  by t h e j o u r n a l i s t . o f t i m e and  J o u r n a l s are c h r o n o l o g i c a l , kept  are dated.  generic t i t l e  journal writing  b e t w e e n t e a c h e r and Dialogue  t h e y w i s h . The B a c k and  writing.  student. book i n w h i c h  a s much a s t h e y w i s h and  about  students  anything  teacher responds t o each student  entry.  f o r t h book i s a u n i q u e v e r s i o n o f a d i a l o g u e  j o u r n a l where the p a r e n t participant.  non-  is a written interaction  j o u r n a l i s a bound note  write regularly,  i n order  ' J o u r n a l ' c a n be c o n s i d e r e d as a  f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of a person's  Dialogue  kept  Student  i s i n v o l v e d as t h e  w r i t e s i n h i s or her  third  j o u r n a l every  day,  t e a c h e r s i g n s i t and makes some comments. P a r e n t s r e a d i t and make comments e v e r y  day.  Multi-aged or family-grouping class students working  f r o m two w i t h one  i s a group of  o r t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e g r a d e s who teacher. A c t i v i t i e s are based  are  not o n l y  on  g r a d e - l e v e l and age but on c h i l d ' s a b i l i t i e s and  interests  as we 11. Open a r e a i s a c l a s s r o o m where the m u l t i - a g e d c l a s s i s w o r k i n g w i t h a team of t e a c h e r s . T h e average number of s t u d e n t s i s around In the  fifty.  s t u d y some of the most f r e q u e n t l y used terms  w i l l be a b b r e v i a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  way:  ESL: E n g l i s h as a Second Language SLA: Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n LI:  first  language/mother  L2.-  second language  tongue  B&F book: Back and F o r t h book  8  CHAPTER  TWO Review of t h e L i t e r a t u r e  A. INTRODUCTION Writing either  i s a d e m a n d i n g t a s k f o r most o f t h e s t u d e n t s  in first  o r second language s e t t i n g ,  majority of school for  literacy activities  though t h e  lack the potential  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o s t u d e n t s ' w r i t t e n language development.  Edelsky  (1986) e x a m i n i n g t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e s e  activities  emphases s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s s u c h a s d i s t i n c t i o n s purposeless,  unproductive  between a s s i g n e d  and u s e f u l , p r o d u c t i v e  and u n a s s i g n e d ,  spontaneous  between i n - s c h o o l and o u t - o f - s c h o o l w r i t i n g ; real  t h i n g " and t h e a r t i f i c i a l  between  writing;  writing; between " t h e  s i m u l a t i o n s o f w r i t i n g ; and  between b e i n g engaged i n language p r a c t i c e and r e a l discourse. Edelsky  proposes the idea of a u t h e n t i c  versus  s i m u l a t e d r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g and c l a i m s t h a t t h e b a s i s f o r making t h e d i s t i n c t i o n  i s t h a t "only meaning -making-  written-language-text-creating-activity writing"  (Edelsky  Researchers  i s r e a d i n g and  1986). and p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s  are searching f o r  a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h may f a c i l i t a t e more a u t h e n t i c w r i t i n g i n our s c h o o l s . S e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s  appear i n recent p r o f e s s i o n a l  p u b l i c a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c o n c e p t s r e l e v a n t ones f o r t h e d i a l o g u e  a r e t h e most  journal writing  activity.  " M e a n i n g m a k i n g " : t o be a b l e t o p r o d u c e a u t h e n t i c w r i t i n g s t u d e n t s have t o t r y t o c r e a t e meaning. I f s t u d e n t s  9 a r e a b l e t o w o r k t h e i r way i n t e r e s t and  real  intent,  opportunity for c r i t i c a l "The 'being  real  i t and  through  real  question with  then tasks w i l l  provide  thinking (Fulwiler  1987).  t h i n g " i s t o become a w r i t e r : doing  relevant connection  i t beats  the n o t i o n  studying i t ' helps  b e t w e e n t e a c h i n g and  real  of  c r e a t e more  l e a r n i n g (McGonegal  1987). "Yes  p l a c e s " : u n i n h i b i t e d language use:  relaxed a c t i v i t i e s language use  enjoyable  t h a t encourage students' u n i n h i b i t e d  to explore t h e i r w r i t i n g a b i l i t y  s u r p r i s i n g progress  and  in their  can  language development  bring (Sandler  1987).  B.  B R I E F HISTORY OF The  DIALOGUE JOURNAL  s t o r y of d i a l o g u e  "a t e a c h e r ' s  c r a f t and  j o u r n a l use  i n classrooms  a r t , woven t o g e t h e r w i t h  is  recent  r e s e a r c h methods of d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s w i t h i n the constructivist  framework f o r v i e w i n g  t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and  of  l a n g u a g e a s a means o f t h i n k i n g and  in  the w o r l d " The  (Staton  g e t t i n g t h i n g s done  1988).  p r a c t i c e of i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t t e n c o n v e r s a t i o n  back t o the b e g i n n i n g However, t h e  first  use  o f t e a c h i n g and w r i t i n g  comprehensive s t u d i e s of  w r i t t e n communication used i n a classroom A n g e l e s t e a c h e r , L e s l e e Reed i n the  late  was  goes  itself.  interactive done by a  Los  1970s.  L e s l e e Reed s t a r t e d t h i s p r a c t i c e i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s w i t h her s i x t h grade students  i n L I , her b a s i c o b j e c t i v e  was  10 t o c a r r y on a d a i l y w r i t t e n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h e a c h o f h e r s t u d e n t s . T h i s p r a c t i c e became t h e s u b j e c t o f a r e s e a r c h study w i t h Jana Staton  i n a second language s e t t i n g  i n the  s c h o o l y e a r o f 1979/80. The f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y was t h e development o f f u n c t i o n a l natural and  communication competence i n  language and mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g  each i n d i v i d u a l  classroom  by-product.  p r a c t i c e of i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t i n g  journal  format  was b o r n  writing  f u n c t i o n a l l y and t o encourage g r e a t e r  autonomy. S t a t o n It  teacher  s t u d e n t . The i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t e n c e i n  w r i t i n g was c o n s i d e r e d a s a The  between  in a  a s a means t o h e l p s t u d e n t s u s e personal  (1983) s u m m a r i z e s i t s v a l u e s a s f o l l o w s .  i s b a s e d upon t h e agreement between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s  t o w r i t e back and f o r t h  i n a b o u n d c o m p o s i t i o n book a b o u t  t o p i c s o f i n t e r e s t t o e a c h o f them. The t e a c h e r  i s no  longer  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i n k i n g up t h e t o p i c s f o r w r i t i n g , t h e dialogue  j o u r n a l h a s o p e n e d up a w i d e r a n g e o f  academic,interpersonal The  and p e r s o n a l  concerns.  p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e f r e e t o use t h e f u l l  functions c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of face-to face i n c l u d i n g questions, complaints, promises,  range o f language communications d e n i a l s and  a p o l o g i e s , e t c . The u s e o f i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t t e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e s a n a t u r a l way t o engage s t u d e n t s  i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g w h i c h does n o t  r e q u i r e commercial m a t e r i a l s , d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s o r previous teacher t r a i n i n g . T h i s p r a c t i c e works e q u a l l y w e l l L2 s e t t i n g . The j o u r n a l e n s u r e s  a completely  i n L I and  individualized  11 approach f o r students  from K i n d e r g a r t e n t o a d u l t  with t o p i c s of p a r t i c u l a r The  i n t e r e s t o f each  participant.  b r i e f h i s t o r y and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s  p r a c t i c e show t h a t t h e u s e o f d i a l o g u e blown' c l a s s r o o m  event  education  classroom  j o u r n a l was a  ""full-  w h i c h emerged p r i o r t o e x p l i c i t  a n a l y s i s and t h e o r i e s o f r e s e a r c h e r s . I t i s n o t a r e s e a r c h i n i t i a t e d but a teacher-developed Journal writing roots as  process.  i s an e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h h a s i t s  i n 'practical  i t i s addressed  t h e o r y ' . The i s s u e o f p r a c t i c a l by M o r r i s  i n t e r e s t t o a l l educators  theory,  (1986), r e p r e s e n t s a s p e c i a l  since i tcaptures the  importance  o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n w h i c h i s "aimed a t t h e e f f e c t i v e action  i n the classroom,  (Morris The will  b a s e d on u s e f u l ,  theory"  1986). r e v i e w o f most r e c e n t a n d r e l e v a n t p u b l i c a t i o n s  concentrate  around three aspects of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g :  i t s r e l a t i o n t o curriculum theory, its  coherent  implementation  i t s c l a s s r o o m uses and  f o r learning.  C. JOURNAL WRITING: STUDENT-CENTERED CURRICULUM The  use o f d i a l o g u e  j o u r n a l grows o u t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l  p r a c t i c e t h a t i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e b e s t approach f o r i n t r o d u c i n g young c h i l d r e n o r second  language  l e a r n e r s t o w r i t t e n language use i s a process which t h e same model i n w h i c h i n f a n t s t h e i r n a t i v e language through adults or other children  provides  l e a r n t o speak  (or sign)  interaction with  competent  ( S t a t o n 1984).  12 J e r o m e S. dialogue  Bruner i n h i s forward  j o u r n a l ( S t a t o n e t a l . 1988)  fundamental pedagogical p r a c t i c e . He writing  i s the  cited  the  1988  ). I n t h e  journal  a  students"  focus of  teaching  t h e r e are the development of the  individual's  intellectual  and  emotional  main o b j e c t i v e i s t h a t the s t u d e n t s and  the  : "learning is a  b e t w e e n a t e a c h e r and  i n Staton  d e l i g h t w i t h t h e i r own  mind,  evolution.  Vygotsky's p r o p o s i t i o n , i s  f o r m i n t h e s h a p e o f an  dialogue,...thought  i s i n t e r n a l i z e d dialogue, thoughts  first  and  differentiated  cited  setting for  thought"  thoughts  (Bruner  dialogue  then elaborated i n Staton  journal writing  in  into  1988).Based classroom  t o more e f f e c t i v e l y d i g e s t t h e m a t e r i a l s  knowledge t h a t they are becoming a c q u a i n t e d i s necessary  educational of teaching?  p r a c t i c e be Meath-Land  can  this  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the resent (1990) i n h e r  aid and  with.  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n of  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t o c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y . How  dialogue  and  i s u s e d t o e n c o u r a g e l e a r n i n g , a n d v i e w e d as an  students  It  internal  a c q u i r e d by someone e x t e r n a l l y t h r o u g h  d i a l o g u e , becomes i n t e r n a l i z e d ,  on t h e s e  over  fundamental  "that thought takes  ideas are  The  are to g a i n c o n t r o l  thought processes.The  assumption, w h i c h f o l l o w s Lev  on  education  core of d i a l o g u e  f o l l o w i n g premise  language s k i l l s  addresses  p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s  c l a i m s t h a t the  c o l l a b o r a t i v e venture (Bruner  t o a r e c e n t book  chapter  j o u r n a l : r e c o n c e i v i n g c u r r i c u l u m and  of  dialogue existing methods "The  teaching"  13 discusses  dialogue  journal i n the context of  reconceptualist curriculum theory.This theory "the r i g o r o u s examination'  i s rooted i n  o f 1970s o f how t e a c h e r s come t o  know t h e i r s t u d e n t s a n d f e l l o w t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h  alternative  m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h a n d c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t . The movement i s c a l l e d  "the r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n " i n c u r r i c u l u m  t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e and has been t h e e x a m i n a t i o n r e f l e c t i o n on p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l ,  and p o l i t i c a l  o f and  experience.  Meath-Land d e f i n e s t h e r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t c u r r i c u l u m "curriculum beginning with the individual  as  i n h i s or her  w o r l d . That i s , t h e l i v e s and s t o r i e s o f t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s a r e examined through discussion"  e x t e n s i v e w r i t i n g and  (Meath-Lang 1990). R e c o n c e p t u a l i s t  educators  argue t h a t such experiences h e i g h t e n  consciousness  as m o t i v a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s a n d t h e s e  s t o r i e s and d i s c u s s i o n s  can p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n f o r m and r e f o r m e d u c a t i o n a l The  t o o l s f o r such  c u r r i c u l a r examination  the use of ethnography, c r i t i c a l narrative  language.  as w e l l  practice.  h a v e f o c u s e d on  inquiry, biography,  and  The e m p h a s i s i s on a t t e n t i v e n e s s t o  i n d i v i d u a l i t y , v o i c e , and e x p r e s s i o n . Dialogue  journal writing  p r a c t i c i n g these  i s an i d e a l medium f o r  classroom reforms.  I t has been used  f o r r e f l e c t i o n and f e e d back and as a t o o l f l u e n c y and communicative c o n s c i o u s n e s s reshaping  language  Calkins devotes  both  t o promote  and as a source f o r  curricula.  (1986) i n t h e book o f "The A r t o f  Teaching"  a w h o l e s e c t i o n on "How c h i l d r e n c h a n g e a s w r i t e r s  14 and  how  we  can h e l p extend  t h a t g r o w t h " . The  author  explores  a major issue of c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s which i s i n c l o s e relation with journal writing.  She  two  t e a c h i n g and  f o r c e s mesh: t h e t e a c h e r ' s  l e a r n i n g . The students  students' support  our  the  p o i n t o f c o n t a c t comes when we  t o t e a c h us how  transforms  claims that i n  teaching  they  learn. This  i n t o a course  education  student's  allow  our  knowledge  of study,  and  our  l e a r n i n g i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h a t course.  t h i s theory C a l k i n s r e f e r s to the  p a t t e r n b e t w e e n t h e m o t h e r and  communication  the newborn c h i l d . T h i s  k i n d o f t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n where i t i s h a r d f o l l o w who and  i s i n i t i a t i n g and who  learning process  r a t h e r than  piece. Staton  (1984) r e f e r s  a v a i l a b l e f o r human l e a r n i n g .  in literacy  able to create  s i m p l y t e a c h " and  has  i n t h e i r own  s m a l l - s c a l e d research study.  The  book i n t r o d u c e s some  classrooms  (See  classroom and  o b s e r v a t i o n was  t h e p u b l i c a t i o n on  focus of the two-year long,  the  teachers  conducted  " d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h on w r i t i n g by N e w k i r k 1 9 8 8 ) . The  extend  t o have a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d  r e s u l t s of a w r i t i n g p r o j e c t where t h i r t y became r e s e a r c h e r s  similar  l e a r n i n g " t h e t e a c h e r must  approach toward t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g .  Atwell  to  as t h e most n a t u r a l and most s u c c e s s f u l  C a l k i n s c l a i m s t h a t t o be circumstances  is a  i s f o l l o w i n g ; the a c t i o n  t h e r e s p o n s e seem a l l o f one  t o t h e same p r o c e s s  To  the  and  day-to-day  changes i n the development of w r i t t e n  language of s i x t e e n s c h o o l  children.  a  15 Discussing the r e s u l t s of the observations  i n Grade 3  and 4 w r i t i n g c l a s s e s C a l k i n s p o i n t s o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e  of  p r o v i d i n g an " e x t e r n a l e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n " . I t i s c l a i m e d that the extension of student's  ability  h a p p e n by g i v i n g h i m o r h e r r e s p o n s e s  as w r i t e r does n o t  on t h e w o r k - i n -  p r o c e s s , b u t s i m p l y by p r o v i d i n g h i m o r h e r w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a d t h e emerging t e x t t o an way t h e y and  can d i s l o d g e themselves  audience.This  from e n d l e s s l y adding  on  t h e y b e g i n t o r e - r e a d , r e f l e c t on, and r e c o n s i d e r . T h i s  s i t u a t i o n enables own w r i t i n g .  t h e s t u d e n t s t o become r e a d e r s  In higher grades these  concrete  of t h e i r  operations  become i n t e r n a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h make w r i t i n g a means for  t h i n k i n g and r e - t h i n k i n g . A s k i l l e d  and  s i x w i l l be a b l e t o w o r k n o t o n l y w i t h w o r d a t h a n d b u t  w i t h p o t e n t i a l word as w e l l ;  writer  i n grade  five  t h e y c a n zoom a h e a d i n t h e i r  minds and t h e n r e t u r n t o o r g a n i z e and a r r a n g e . In  t h e case  of dialogue j o u r n a l w r i t i n g the task  naturally provides t h i s writer and  " e x t e r n a l e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n " . The  i s r e - t h i n k i n g a n d r e f l e c t i n g on e v e n t s  of i n t e r e s t  i s a b l e t o r e - r e a d t h e w r i t i n g t o an a u d i e n c e  genuinely  i n t e r e s t e d . The n e x t  who i s  s c h o o l day p r o v i d e s t h e  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o r r e c t i o n o r r e a l i z a t i o n o f new i d e a s a n d techniques. M c G o n e g a l ( 1 9 8 7 ) s p e c u l a t e s on t h e same i s s u e o f c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t : how t o p r e p a r e  more c r e a t i v e a n d  r e l e v a n t c o n n e c t i o n between t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . Her t o o l in achieving a child-centered writing curriculum i s  "informal  journal writing";  she  argues  that this  a c t i v i t y seems t o a i d h e r s t u d e n t s r e a l i z e : The  writing  t h e y c a n be i t .  n o t i o n i n McGonegal's p r o j e c t i s well-known t o  educators: d o i n g and Social  being i t beats studying i t .  Some s u b j e c t s s u c h  S t u d i e s make t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s  L a n g u a g e A r t s t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s and o u t and  understand  new  t h e o r i e s and  as  idea easier,  p a r e n t s need t o practices.  in  find  McGonegal  c o n c e n t r a t e s on one m a i n i s s u e : s t u d e n t s h a v e t o know w h a t it  i s t o be w r i t e r s . The  teacher's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  s t u d e n t s how  t o become s u c c e s s f u l w r i t e r s by  t h i n k i n g and  t h e n w r i t i n g down what t h e y  I n t h e T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h p u b l i s h e d by ERIC C l e a r i n g h o u s e presents is  fits and  a s i m i l a r argument: w r i t i n g  i n t e n d e d t o be r e a d , i n t h e new  around,  think. series  E i l e e n Tway  (1985)  i s r e a d i n g , as  writing  i f o n l y by t h e w r i t e r . T h i s t h e o r y  approaches i n w r i t t e n  shows t h e s h i f t  looking  into Practice i n 1985  i s t o show  language  acquisition  of emphasis, a f t e r y e a r s of f o c u s i n g  o n l y on r e a d i n g and  i g n o r i n g the w r i t i n g s i d e of the  r e s e a r c h e r s are e x p l o r i n g a g a i n the c o n n e c t i o n  between  r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . Tway p o i n t s o u t t h a t r e a d i n g w r i t i n g go on a l m o s t  process  and  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n the classroom,  as  c h i l d r e n seem t o e n j o y r e a d i n g what t h e y h a v e w r i t t e n . r e a d t o r e g a i n new thought, Reading  ideas, read to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r t r a i n  read to e d i t , i s a way  They of  and r e a d t o s h a r e w i t h o t h e r s .  to reconnect w i t h t h e i r w r i t i n g .  and w r i t i n g s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o g e t h e r , t h e s e two  Reading activities  17 s h o u l d n o t be s e p a r a t e d  i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . Tway s u g g e s t s  w a y s , s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e 26 l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t  26  t o make  the c o n n e c t i o n between w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g . Under t h e l e t t e r J she suggests  'journal'  r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g "Journal  as a c l a s s r o o m  p r a c t i c e t o develop  skills.  i s the w r i t e r ' s friend,  f e e l i n g s , t o record events,  a place to explore  t o j o t down i d e a s , t o make  notes  about r e a d i n g d i s c o v e r i e s and t o w r i t e . J o u r n a l i s a g i f t for oneself" The  (Tway 1 9 8 5 ) .  use o f such a ' g i f t '  where t h e c u l t u r a l  i n second language  classroom  and l i n g u i s t i c background o f s t u d e n t s a r e  d i v e r s e , can f a c i l i t a t e meaningful  w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e u s e more  t h a n any o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l m a t e r i a l s . Staton  (1983) s u m m a r i z e s t h e n e c e s s a r y  conditions f o r  d e v e l o p i n g w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g competence s u c c e s s f u l l y as follows: - a n a t u r a l way t o engage s t u d e n t s  i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g ,  s i m i l a r to the conditions i n oral  language  -no  acquisition;  c o m m e r c i a l m a t e r i a l s a n d d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w h i c h may be  culturally  biased  -the teaching process  s h o u l d be s u i t a b l e  f o rstudents  Kindergarten to adult education, completely with t o p i c s of p a r t i c u l a r -it  i n t e r e s t t o each  individualized student  s h o u l d work e q u a l l y w e l l w i t h L I and L2. She  claims that dialogue  conditions,  i tfacilitates  journal provides  functional  from  these  interactive  18 communication between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t generated  about  self-  topics.  D. USE OF JOURNAL WRITING I N THE CLASSROOM The  value of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  i s i n i t s open-ended  p r a c t i c e . Teachers can adapt i t f o r a wide range of situations  i n t h e i r classrooms.This  e m e r g i n g new r o l e  practice  i s l i n k e d t o an  i n educational research, i n which the  e m p h a s i s i s on t e a c h e r s who a r e a c t i n g a s o b s e r v e r s , l e a r n e r s a n d t e a c h e r s a t t h e same t i m e The  e d i t o r s of  "Understanding  L e a r n i n g and Teaching that there  i n their  classrooms.  W r i t i n g : Ways o f O b s e r v i n g ,  K-8" ( N e w k i r k a n d A t w e l l 1988) c l a i m  i s a need t o d e m y s t i f y r e s e a r c h i n w r i t i n g and  p r o p o s e t h a t w r i t i n g s h o u l d be s t u d i e d a s i t o c c u r s i n natural  setting.  The  c h a p t e r by S i n c l a i r - D u r s t  (1988) r e p o r t s a y e a r  l o n g w r i t i n g p r o j e c t i n Grade 1 where t h e t e a c h e r to provide a natural s e t t i n g language.  attempts  f o rthe a c q u i s i t i o n of w r i t t e n  The m a i n e d u c a t i o n a l a i m i s t o b u i l d a  link  between t h e young c h i l d r e n ' s i n - s c h o o l l i v e s and o u t - s c h o o l l i v e s , h e n c e t o c r e a t e a r e l e v a n t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . The t a s k i s " t o h e l p " an abandoned s t u f f e d t e d d y journal.  Each day a s t u d e n t  t a k e s t h e b e a r and h i s j o u r n a l  home a n d w r i t e s a b o u t t h e a d v e n t u r e s will  be r e a d n e x t d a y i n c l a s s .  enjoyable  experience  approach w r i t i n g  bear w r i t e h i s  of the sleep-over  which  I t i s a n a t u r a l , r e l a x e d and  f o r t h e s i x - y e a r o l d s . The s t u d e n t s c a n  i n a n y way t h e y w i s h , e . g . : d r a w i n g a n d  19 w r i t i n g , d i c t a t i n g t o parents.The project  i s t o help students  main purpose o f t h e  f i n d t h e i r own v o i c e a n d e n j o y  w r i t i n g and meaning making.As a by-product  the teacher i s  a b l e t o p r o v i d e a l i n k b e t w e e n s c h o o l a n d home, t o e x t e n d w r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s home a n d c u l t u r e a n d t o i n v o l v e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s and a t l a s t b u t not a t l e a s t t o b u i l d a b r i d g e between t a l k , Another p r o j e c t about unassessed r e p o r t e d by Nancy M a r t i n  (1983).  p l a y and w r i t e .  journal writing i s  I n h e r book o f " M o s t l y  A b o u t W r i t i n g " s h e e x a m i n e s new d i r e c t i o n s  for writing  based  on two f u n d a m e n t a l a s p e c t s : one i s t h e c o n t e x t o f w r i t i n g , the other i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s e l f - d i r e c t e d w r i t i n g i n the development of g e n e r a l w r i t i n g a b i l i t y .  Her  assumption,  s i m i l a r t o the other c i t e d researchers', i s that school w r i t i n g g e n e r a l l y g i v e s few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s t o r e f l e c t u p o n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g , t o t h i n k a b o u t t h i n k i n g , a n d t o l e a r n about themselves. and  I n v e s t i g a t i n g models, c o n t e x t s ,  i n t e n t i o n s i n w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n s h e came  across a p r o j e c t i n a Western A u s t r a l i a n high-school aimed t o develop learning  which  t a l k a n d p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g a s a means o f  i n a l l s u b j e c t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s :  t e a c h e r s and  students b e l i e v e d that learners should understand participate  i n the accomplishment of the school's  educational  a i m s . To be a b l e t o a c h i e v e  the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t  and  t h i s students  need  o r a l l y a n d i n w r i t i n g on t h e i r  own l e a r n i n g . One o f t h e f o r m s o f w r i t i n g w h i c h o f f e r s most scope f o r r e f l e c t i o n  i s j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . With  t h e use o f  20 unassessed  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t h e t e a c h e r s were a b l e t o c r e a t e  an e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h r e a d i n g and of i d e a s of equal  i n t e r e s t t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s became  p a r t o f t h e t e a c h i n g and Martin's study  learning process.  daughter's  B a c k and  t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n age  and  F o r t h book  numbers,  A u s t r a l i a n p r o j e c t seems t o be more p l a n n e d although  i t misses  the  i n t r o d u c e s a p r o j e c t w i t h o b j e c t i v e s and  a i m s v e r y s i m i l a r t o my p r o j e c t . Due  w r i t i n g and d i s c u s s i o n  and  the  coordinated,  t h e u n i q u e component o f p a r e n t a l  involvement. The setting The  broadest  i s provided  J o u r n a l Book  s i t u a t i o n and mostly  r e v i e w of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n Toby F u l w i l e r ' s  (1987).Journals  from every  thinking"  p l a c e s where s t u d e n t s  through  real  are seen i n every  the reader  out t h a t j o u r n a l k e e p i n g  ( F u l w i l e r 1 9 8 7 ) . The  in c r i t i c a l  book:  a n g l e as the c o n t r i b u t i n g a u t h o r s ,  p r a c t i c i n g teachers t e l l  they have found  in educational  "how  and  could set  when students  reported j o u r n a l s are  'yes'  l e a r n t o t h i n k n o t by d o i n g e x e r c i s e s  t h i n k i n g t e x t b o o k s , b u t by w o r k i n g questions, with real  i n t e r e s t . F u l w i l e r c a l l s the  intent,  and  j o u r n a l "mind and  their  way  real feeling  o p e n e r " w h i c h i s v e r y much n e e d e d i n s c h o o l s w h e r e , i n h i s w o r d s , " m i n d s and people  bodies  a r e t o be  c o n t r o l l e d , where young  are not o n l y s a f e from p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e but  s w e e t v i o l e n c e o f t h i n k i n g " . The J o u r n a l Book  ( F u l w i l e r 1987)  collected articles  d e m o n s t r a t e how  from in  students  the  The may  21 l e a r n t o w r i t e and thinking  i n a productive  Karen Wiles Journal  for  " w r i t i n g as  She  i s addressing  talk"  of the  the  a well-known dilemma of  of  published  c o n t r i b u t o r s of classroom  language  teachers:  " L e t t i n g them w r i t e when t h e y c a n ' t  i n Fulwiler's Journal  Book. F i r s t  f r e e f l o w of c o n v e r s a t i o n  apart your question, chunks, p u t t i n g the  are decoding again.  separating  even  she  s i l e n c e every f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r  that your students  processing  one  discovery".  "which i n t e r r u p t s the you  (1987),  Book u s e s j o u r n a l s i n f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e  chapter  describes  l e a r n i n ways t h a t c o n s t i t u t e  sense.  Sandler  The  i n her  write to  dreads  and  They are  tells taking  them i n t o t r a n s l a t a b l e  chunks i n t o t h e i r mother tongue,  the meaning  ( i f there  i s any  l e f t ) , a n d then  t r a n s l a t i n g t h e i r a n s w e r b a c k i n t o f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e by same m e t h o d . And spontaneity rules,  fizzles  and  f e e l i n g and  Sandler l e t s her  conversation  i s frozen,  t h o u g h t i s c o n s t r i c t e d by  fear, conservatism,  miserable  she  a l l the w h i l e ,  self-consciousness.  grammar  It is a  (Sandlers  1987).  advocates w r i t i n g to bypass the decoding  phase:  students  i t happens too o f t e n "  the  w r i t e when t h e y c a n ' t e v e n t a l k .  She  uses non-graded, c r e a t i v e , e x p l o r a t o r y w r i t i n g e x e r c i s e s free her  students  as a k e y  or a t o o l  from t h e i r  fears, to  for discovery.  She  l e a r n t o use claims  to  language  t h a t even at  t h e most e l e m e n t a r y  l e v e l s t h i s type of w r i t i n g ( j o u r n a l s ,  free compositions),  t h a t encourage students'  l a n g u a g e use  to explore  t h e i r t h o u g h t , can  uninhibited  bring surprising  progress  i n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . The e m p h a s i s i s on  encouragement, t h e t e a c h e r h e l p s s t u d e n t s t o overcome t h e psychological  b a r r i e r s which  h i n d e r free f l o w communication  i n t h e language classroom. Ungraded, activities practices  self-expressive  u s e d a s an a l t e r n a t e mode t o e v e r y d a y  drill  and  o f f e r a k i n d o f encouragement needed t o i n s p i r e  s t u d e n t s t o p l a y w i t h t h e new l a n g u a g e i n a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g situation. Sandler of  l o o k s a t "one o f t h e m o s t d e l i g h t f u l  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g : mistake-making".  mistakes  are i n e v i t a b l e by-products  students are stretching t h e i r limit,  elements  She p o i n t s o u t t h a t of t h i s w r i t i n g : a s  linguistic  abilities  to the  t h e r e i s h o r r e n d o u s damage t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e  language under study. But w i t h t h e t e a c h e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s and w i t h t h e s t u d e n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n an a p p r o p r i a t e way t o c o m m u n i c a t e a n d e x p r e s s thought,  an  important  s t u d e n t s become t o d e p e n d on t h e l a n g u a g e f o r s e l f -  expression. Journal w r i t i n g  i n foreign  language classrooms  the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r meaning making. Students f u l l e r sense of adventure approach see  w i t h language,  provides  can develop  a  a more c o n f i d e n t  t o s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and u l t i m a t e l y a w i l l i n g n e s s t o  language as a c r i t i c a l  tool  t o o r d e r i n g and managing t h e  s t u d e n t ' s w o r l d , the w o r l d o f the second  language and  culture. S a r a h H u d e l s o n d r a w s a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n i n h e r 1984 TESOL a r t i c l e :  "ESL l e a r n e r s c a n ( a n d s h o u l d ) w r i t e b e f o r e  t h e y have complete c o n t r o l of t h e language. reflect As  their  over the o r a l  Second language a c q u i r e r s ' w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s  language development a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n time.  l e a r n e r s g a i n more c o n t r o l  writing will  and w r i t t e n systems  reflect  over t h e language  t h i s development"  their  (Hudelson  1984).  As a c l o s i n g r e m a r k o n t h e u s e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n the classroom  one g u i d e  book f o r L I l e a r n e r s i s t o be  m e n t i o n e d . The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n a l  Educational  P o r t l a n d , Oregon i s s u e d t h i s Student's o f f e r s some p r a c t i c a l on how t o s t a r t to  suggestions  journal writing  Guide(1977) which  t o t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s  i n the classroom.The aim i s  provide a general guideline i n planning,  and  accomplishing  e v a l u a t i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . T h e book e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h e  journal should r e f l e c t life  Laboratory,  t h o s e moments i n s c h o o l - a n d home-  t h a t a r e p e r s o n a l and/or have s p e c i a l meaning f o r t h e  writer,  those  understanding  experiences  f r o m w h i c h t h e w r i t e r d r a w s some  about h i m / h e r s e l f and h i s / h e r w o r l d . A j o u r n a l  s h o u l d be a p l a c e t o e x p r e s s does, f e e l s and t h i n k s . T h e  and r e f l e c t  on what t h e s t u d e n t  a c t u a l w r i t i n g process  s h o u l d be  r e l a x e d a n d e n j o y a b l e , s t u d e n t s do n o t need t o w o r r y  about  s t y l e o r c o r r e c t n e s s . The e s s e n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f j o u r n a l writing  i s not t o l i s t  d a i l y events  or activities,  but t o  p u t them i n c o n t e x t o f t h i n k i n g a n d f e e l i n g a n d t o e v a l u a t e them. As a r e s u l t o f s u c h a r e g u l a r w r i t i n g educators  expect  ability will their ability  the following:  activity  the students'  writing  improve s i m p l y because o f t h e r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e ; t o understand  t h e w o r l d and t h e i r  experiences  24 will  a l s o deepen from the r e g u l a r a c t of r e f l e c t i n g  w r i t i n g a b o u t what i s h a p p e n i n g t o them. The  authors  student-guide  a  claim that there  i s one  s h o u l d r e a l l y n e e d t o know w e l l The will  person  in of  student  i n t h i s world:  him/herself.  j o u r n a l c a n be t h e m o s t e x c i t i n g t e a c h e r a  ever encounter.  this  W r i t i n g a b o u t o n e s e l f i s one  student  way  to  g r o w i n k n o w i n g o n e s e l f , t o become more aware o f o n e ' s l e a r n i n g , g o a l s , and An  important  needs.  aspect  t h e w r i t e r c a n g e t . The  correspondent  w r i t i n g experience, w i l l main goal are  respond  understand  student the  guide  but  i n an ESL  and  E.  and  and who  i s written for regular  i s s u e s of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s ,  s e t t i n g . The  IMPLICATIONS FOR  and  The who  t r y to well.  classroom  self-esteem  and  students are a l s o  opportunity for "sharing'  ideas are e s p e c i a l l y  culturally diverse  in this  partners  t h e o t h e r as  open c o m m u n i c a t i o n between e d u c a t o r s  thoughts  share  response  and h e l p c o m m u n i c a t e .  i n each o t h e r ' s thoughts  not o n l y themselves  s e t t i n g but  valid  will  i s the  i s t o c r e a t e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n two  interested  The  of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  important  for a  language  classroom.  LEARNING RELATED TO  CLASSROOM JOURNAL  WRITING J a n a S t a t o n , one discovered dialogue  of the f i r s t  journal writing  f o r ESL  researchers  who  students, claims that  j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e a most e x t r a o r d i n a r y p i c t u r e o f  t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . T h e r e i s no o t h e r way  available  for  r e s e a r c h e r s and t e a c h e r s w h i c h would enable "the h e a r t o f e d u c a t i o n : between t e a c h e r This recorded personal, day.  the real  and s t u d e n t "  1988). an i n s i g h t  into the  i n t e r a c t i o n which i s e s s e n t i a l  l e a r n i n g . She d r a w s o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e u n i q u e  possibility teacher  (Staton,  occurs  i n t e r a c t i o n s w h i c h compose a s c h o o l  Staton emphasizes s o c i a l  f o r human  dialogue which  communication provides  intentional  them t o l o o k a t  of journal w r i t i n g t o consider  as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f " p e r s o n a l  unknown r e s e r v o i r s o f e x p e r i e n c e ,  l e a r n e r and universes,  ideas, feeling,and  b e l i e f s . . . w a i t i n g t o be known a n d t o know  through  c o m m u n i c a t i o n " . T h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o s h a r e makes j o u r n a l w r i t i n g an i m p o r t a n t  tool  for establishing  communication i n a language and c u l t u r a l l y classroom.  dialogue  diverse  S t a t o n c l a i m s t h a t " t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d l e a r n i n g we  v a l u e a s u n i q u e l y human a r e a c q u i r e d o n l y a s t h e c h i l d enters  into social  of the c u l t u r e " important  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h more e x p e r i e n c e d  ( S t a t o n 1988). T h i s  interaction  i s e v e n more  f o r a n ESL c h i l d who d o e s n o t o n l y n e e d t h e i n p u t  of a competent n a t i v e speaker but i s i n desperate non-threatening,  partner  journal writing  i n the communication.  i s a t o o l w h i c h makes  more p e r s o n a l i z e d a n d i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . f e e l i n g s and concerns o f t h e t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n we w i l l process.  need f o r  f a c i l i t a t i v e ways o f l a n g u a g e u s e w h e r e he  o r she i s an equal Dialogue  members  gain a broader  Studying  education the thoughts,  and t h e l e a r n e r s i n  knowledge of t h e l e a r n i n g  26 Dialogue child's  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g puts  t h e emphasis on t h e  l e a r n i n g and i t i s argued t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g  i s t h e most n e e d e d c o n t e x t  process  f o r teaching.  CHAPTER THREE Case The  study  case study  reported  into three parts. In the f i r s t is  i n t h i s chapter  i s divided  part the subject of the study  i n t r o d u c e d . The e m p h a s i s i s o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l  i n the l e a r n i n g process  differences  and t h e i s s u e o f s c h o o l i n g i n a  s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . The s e c o n d p a r t d e a l s w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l s and  l i m i t a t i o n s of a classroom  e x e r c i s e ; the task of the  B a c k a n d F o r t h book i s i n t r o d u c e d . argument o f t h e t h e s i s i s p r e s e n t e d :  In the last part the the m u l t i - p o t e n t i a l ,  a u t h e n t i c t a s k o f t h e B&F book d o e s n o t p r o d u c e student  w r i t i n g . To f i n d some e x p l a n a t i o n  satisfactory  f o r the  i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e t a s k , t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e examined. Looking  a t t h e l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t two a p p r o a c h e s t o  teaching w r i t i n g are discussed  in a pilot  s t u d y , a n d some  p o s s i b l e ways o f a n a l y z i n g t h e c o l l e c t e d d a t a a r e highlighted.  I.  INTRODUCTION  A. THE QUESTION OF LANGUAGE USE The  s u b j e c t o f t h e c a s e s t u d y i s an 1 1 - y e a r o l d g i r l ,  named J a n k a . She i s my o l d e s t d a u g h t e r , s h e h a s two y o u n g e r siblings,  a s i s t e r a n d a b r o t h e r . Our f a m i l y a r r i v e d a t  Vancouver  i n November 1986. The p u r p o s e o f o u r s t a y h a s b e e n  p o s t - g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n ; my h u s b a n d am a h i g h - s c h o o l  t e a c h e r , b o t h o f us a r e e n r o l l e d a t t h e  University of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  P r i o r t o our a r r i v a l any s e c o n d  i s a medical doctor, I  none o f t h e c h i l d r e n h a d r e c e i v e d  language e d u c a t i o n , t h e i r mother  t o n g u e was  Hungarian. Examining t h e i s s u e o f language use i n t h e f a m i l y it  i s c o n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e t o l o o k a t t h e most  frequently  u s e d t e r m s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h SLA. Stern  (1983) c l a s s i f i e s  t h e t e r m s u n d e r two m a i n g r o u p s : L I  and L 2 , o n t h e b a s e s o f s u b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n  a  l a n g u a g e a n d a n i n d i v i d u a l . The t e r m L I i n d i c a t e s t h a t a p e r s o n a c q u i r e d t h e language i n i n f a n c y and e a r l y (first  and n a t i v e  c o n c e p t o f L2  childhood  l a n g u a g e ) g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . The  has a dual f u n c t i o n :  i t indicates that  L2 i s  a c q u i r e d a f t e r t h e p e r s o n has a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d a L I and t h a t t h e L2 i s a c q u i r e d on a l o w e r l e v e l  of proficiency i n  c o m p a r i s o n t o L I ( L2 i s t h e w e a k e r , Consequently, native  the second language).  language i s used f o r t h e language o f  e a r l y c h i l d h o o d a c q u i s i t i o n , whereas i n d i c a t e s t h e language o f dominant  p r i m a r y language  or preferred use.  28 C o m p a r i n g L I and L2 t h e p r i n c i p a l i s s u e s felt  level  are  personally  o f p r o f i c i e n c y and t h e manner o f a c q u i s i t i o n ;  t h e s e two n o r m a l l y c o i n c i d e  b u t i t i s n o t a l w a y s t h e norm,  as t h e u s e o f l a n g u a g e s i n d i c a t e s i t i n o u r f a m i l y . first  h a l f a y e a r f o l l o w i n g our a r r i v a l  For the  H u n g a r i a n was  our  c h i l d r e n ' s L I and t h e p r i m a r y l a n g u a g e u s e d f o r e v e r y d a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n a t home. T h e r e w e r e some t e n t a t i v e a t t e m p t s t o u s e E n g l i s h as t h e p r i m a r y l a n g u a g e b u t t h e c h i l d r e n showed strong d i s l i k e  and r e s i s t a n c e  t o use a f o r e i g n  language a t  home. As t h e m o n t h s p a s s e d and t h e y g a i n e d more and more confidence  i n u s i n g E n g l i s h , H u n g a r i a n became t h e p a r e n t s '  l a n g u a g e and t h e c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d t o u s e E n g l i s h a t home. Following  S t e r n ' s arguments Hungarian remained t h e i r  native  l a n g u a g e , b u t E n g l i s h became t h e p r i m a r y l a n g u a g e . There the  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g phenomenon i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n :  c h o i c e o f l a n g u a g e . How  d i d our young c h i l d r e n d e c i d e  which language t o choose? S i n c e both p a r e n t s are b i l i n g u a l i t h a s b e e n a l w a y s o p t i o n a l how  t o address us; e i t h e r i n  E n g l i s h o r H u n g a r i a n the communication has been O b v i o u s l y , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g i t was proficiency  l e v e l which  going t o use, but w i t h interpersonal c h o i c e was Stern,  the c h i l d r e n ' s  English  d e t e r m i n e d t h e language t h e y were t h e i r development  communication s k i l l s  b a s e d on d i f f e r e n t  of  basic  ( B I C S Cummins 1984)  the  criteria.  r e g a r d i n g the q u e s t i o n of b i 1 i n g u a l i s m ,  " e q u a l command i n two  free-flow.  claims  languages i s extremely r a r e . . .  command i s n o t b a l a n c e d . . . i t d i s p l a y s  that the  a c e r t a i n dominance of  29 c o n f i g u r a t i o n d e p e n d i n g on s u c h f a c t o r s as p r e f e r e n c e or the other  i n one  language f o r r e c e p t i v e o r p r o d u c t i v e use,  w r i t t e n o r spoken form, d i f f e r e n t degrees of f o r m a l i t y f o r p a r t i c u l a r d o m a i n s o f v e r b a l u s e " . He argument s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e l i n e between My  k n o w i n g two  a s s u m p t i o n b a s e d on  w i t h S t e r n ' s argument.  i s no way  concludes h i s  t o draw a d e m a r c a t i o n  l a n g u a g e s and b e i n g  bi1ingual.  long term observations The  i s concurrent  c h o i c e of language t o u s e , ( L I  L 2 ) , a l w a y s d e p e n d s on t h e a c t u a l c o n t e x t o f t h e and d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d Here  i s an e x a m p l e :  a t home was  and  the e a r l i e s t  or  situation  factors.  s u c c e s s f u l use of E n g l i s h  a l w a y s r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l i n g ; a s s o o n as  paper  and p e n c i l w e r e i n v o l v e d , E n g l i s h became t h e l a n g u a g e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n c e t h e l a n g u a g e o f s c h o o l i n g was s t r o n g e s t d o m a i n a t t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f my  the  c h i l d r e n ' s SLA..  Those c o n v e r s a t i o n s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o emotions  and  f e e l i n g s h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d i n H u n g a r i a n and I assume o u r children w i l l "real  a l w a y s use t h e i r mother  feelings".  tongue  for expressing  B. The  LEARNING I N A SECOND LANGUAGE following table  ( T a b l e A)  i s t o p r o v i d e some b a s i c  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r o c e s s o f s e c o n d  language  acquisition  of  the s u b j e c t .  Table  1  I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e S u b j e c t ' s P r o c e s s o f S e c o n d L a n g u a g e Acquisition  LEARNER  CHRONOLOGICAL AGE  AGE AT ARRIVAL  LENGTH OF EXPOSED RESIDENCY TO I N CANADA ENGLISH  Janka 11 y e a r s 7 y e a r s (female) 3 month  3 years 8 months  3 years 8 months  SCHOOLING IN LI L2 3yrs preschool Grade 1 1985/8 Grade 2 1986/87 Grade 3 1987/88 Grade 4 1988/89 Grade5 1989/90  When J a n k a not  s t a r t e d t o a t t e n d s c h o o l i n Canada s h e  l a b e l l e d a s an ESL  t h e r e f o r e s h e was  s t u d e n t . She was  enrolled  i n a r e g u l a r classroom.  t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r and her  language  lower grade,  problems. she h a d  The  younger than  the p r i n c i p a l  s o l u t i o n was  how  was  nine  I t was  up  to deal with  t o put h e r i n t o  t o a t t e n d G r a d e 1 o n c e more, t h i s  a time  31 i n L2 a n d was g i v e n t h e c h a n c e t o w o r k h e r s e l f up t o h e r peers' was  grade  by t h e S p r i n g break.  q u i t e wide-spread  situation the  level  a t that time,  This policy,  which  c r e a t e d a vacuum  f o r t h e y o u n g s t u d e n t . The c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s i n  lower g r a d e were n o t c h a l l e n g i n g enough even i f t h e  i n s t r u c t i o n was i n a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e .  The p e e r p r e s s u r e i n  t h e c l a s s r o o m was n o t s t r o n g enough e i t h e r t o m o t i v a t e t h e l e a r n e r . The l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n was " s h e l t e r e d " b u t r e s u l t e d in  i s o l a t i o n . T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g and h e r l e a r n i n g  style  (originated  i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y structured school  system i n Hungary) r e s u l t e d  i n an c h a r a c t e r i s t i c approach t o  s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . She c o n s i d e r e d E n g l i s h a s a n o t h e r subject matter  w h i c h h a d t o be l e a r n e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e  h i g h e r academic s k i l l s  and good g r a d e s .  At the e a r l i e s t  s t a g e o f h e r SLA t h i s a p p r o a c h t o l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g a n d learning  i n general  resulted  i n a much w e a k e r a b i l i t y t o  c o m m u n i c a t e i n L2 a n d a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h proficiency  cognitive/academic  level.  C. SCHOOLING I N A SECOND LANGUAGE Researchers  and c l a s s r o o m  t h e many d i f f i c u l t i e s  second  e n t e r i n g t h e i r classrooms The  t e a c h e r s a r e b o t h aware o f  language l e a r n e r s have t o f a c e  every day.  subject of t h i s study,  one o f t h e 48% o f  p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e Vancouver School  board  (Ashworth  student 1989),  e v e r y m o r n i n g h a s t o s w i t c h f r o m home l a n g u a g e t o s c h o o l l a n g u a g e w h i c h i n v o l v e s a g r e a t amount o f c h a n g e s i n  personality.  School  systems, v a l u e s and judgments r e g a r d i n g  a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t v a r y f r o m one c o u n t r y t o t h e o t h e r . The a s p e c t s o f e v e r y d a y human r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be s o d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s t u d e n t ' s home c o u n t r y t h a t m o s t o f t h e new-comer children feel absorb.  o v e r w h e l m e d by t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o  The s t u d i e s a n d b o o k s o f M a r y A s h w o r t h r e p r e s e n t t h e  w i d e r a n g e o f p e r s p e c t i v e s f r o m "The F o r c e s W h i c h S h a p e d Them" (1979) t o t h e " B l e s s e d W i t h and  illustrate  Bilingual  Brain"  (1988)  t h e numerous a n g l e s w h i c h t h e p r o b l e m s o f E S L  s t u d e n t s c a n b e e n a n d h a v e t o be e x a m i n e d f r o m . language t e a c h e r ,  a second  language speaker,  of t h r e e second language l e a r n e r s I f e e l able t o f o l l o w t h i s  interesting  main o b j e c t i v e s of the present into t h i s process  As a f o r e i g n  and a mother  p r i v i l e g e d t o be  l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . One o f t h e study  i s t o s h a r e my  and h e l p understand  insights  i t s many  contradictions. When o u r  f a m i l y as  New C a n a d i a n s a r r i v e d a t o u r new  c o u n t r y t h e s c h o o l was t h e f i r s t t h e new l a n g u a g e , experience start  a n d most a p p a r e n t  s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e .  bridge to  According t o our  i t i s t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e t e a c h e r who a r e a b l e t o  to build  b r i d g e s o v e r t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e m o t h e r  c o u n t r y a n d t h e new c o u n t r y . T h r o u g h o u r c h i l d r e n ' s schooling experience  t h e f a m i l y has been l e a r n i n g t o g e t h e r  how t o become e q u a l  p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e new s o c i e t y .  Education  l a n g u a g e must be c o n s i d e r e d t h e most  successful  i n second  language l e a r n i n g process.  Yet, and  my  research  has  shown some c o n t r a d i c t o r y  long-term observations  a g e d ESL  o f my  three  c h i l d r e n also correspond with  of a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g  findings,  elementary  these  school-  results.First  i n unmodified content area classes  does  not  mean a u t o m a t i c s u c c e s s i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n .  As  research  in  parts  shows " . . . t h e r e  of our  educational  Immigrant c h i l d r e n w i t h e q u a l i t y of outcome" The  fluency  system which f a i l  in social  school  In the  conversation  a v e r a g e , 5-7  i s an  A c c o r d i n g t o my  may  them a l o n e  L2  on  L2  findings of  distinguished". t h e s e two  each other.  o f my  Survey  conversational  academic a s p e c t s  CALP, a t t h e  teachers tended to forget left  and  observations  e v e n "work" a g a i n s t  in  "immigrant s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e ,  n e e d t o be  i . e . : B I C S and  communication s k i l l s  and  for being successful  y e a r s of a r r i v a l " . T h e  "conversational  language p r o f i c i e n c y  skills,  i t i s academic  show p e e r - a p p r o p r i a t e  s k i l l s w i t h i n a b o u t two  that,  important,  y e a r s t o a p p r o a c h g r a d e norms i n  academic s k i l l s , yet  suggest that  l e t alone  r e - a n a l y s i s of the Toronto  Cummins (1984) s t a t e s t h a t : the  provide  o f James Cummins i n d i c a t e  which i s c r i t i c a l  setting.  practices  1988).  achievement i n second language l e a r n i n g , l a n g u a g e use  to  e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y ,  (Ashworth  large-scale studies  while  r e m a i n some u n s o u n d  language  b e g i n n i n g phase of As  the  basic  children started to about the  students'  "to s t r u g g l e w i t h  the  SLA  improve ESL  their  background  r i g o r s of  academic  34 material  and  the  in English" My  (Gunderson  observations  that serious  n e e d s and The  the  (1990), i n her  consideration researchers'  the  teaching  l e a r n i n g t o comprehend  research  recent  findings  a r t i c l e she  n e e d s t o be  given  of points  to the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f ESL  students to develop t h e i r  the  initiated a  conflict  teachers. need of  l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y and  a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t has  l e a r n i n g a c r o s s the  objective  of t h i s p r o j e c t  which content teaching coordinated,  and  ESL  large-scale and  a p p r o a c h . The  major  i n v e s t i g a t e t h e means  language t e a c h i n g  s t u d e n t s can academic  increase  can  both  by  be their  achievement.  p r e s e n t s t u d y i s b a s e d on Mohan's k n o w l e d g e  f r a m e w o r k and  the  I n s t r u c t i o n K-12: 1986). T h i s year  i s to  and  l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y and The  curriculum  ESL  increase  p r o j e c t b a s e d on Mohan's (1986) i n t e g r a t i v e l a n g u a g e content  out  students'  p r a c t i c e s o f most c o n t e n t  Vancouver School Board h a v i n g recognized  their  text  1985).  concur with  Margaret E a r l y  between the  d i f f i c u l t y of  long  " I n t e g r a t i n g L a n g u a g e and An  E.S.L. R e s o u r c e book  approach i s used i n the  Content ( E a r l y et a l .  a n a l y s i s of the  journal w r i t i n g p r o j e c t which i s presented  threein  Chapter Four. A short the  narration  i s provided  i n the  next s e c t i o n to  c o n t e x t of t h i s unique e d u c a t i o n a l  perspectives  o f an ESL  s t u d e n t and  her  p r a c t i c e from family.  capture the  35 II.  THE TASK  A. JOURNAL WRITING I N L 2 : THE POTENTIALS Janka s t a r t e d t o w r i t e h e r d i a l o g u e journal  i n G r a d e 3,  a t t h e age o f n i n e , i n h e r s e c o n d s c h o o l y e a r i n C a n a d a . T h i s t y p e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s a u n i q u e educational  p r a c t i c e a n d i s c a l l e d B a c k a n d F o r t h book. The  m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f t h e a c t i v i t y was t o c r e a t e an o p e n communication  c h a n n e l b e t w e e n home a n d s c h o o l w i t h t h e h e l p  of a note-book The  w h i c h goes back and f o r t h e v e r y day.  s u c c e s s o f t h i s a c t i v i t y d e p e n d e d on t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f  t e a c h e r , s t u d e n t s a n d p a r e n t s a n d was b a s e d on t h e assumptions  that  1) i t w o u l d  facilitate  and L 2 l e a r n e r s  genuine communication  i n a written  f o r both LI  form and  2) i t w o u l d h e l p t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t s m o n i t o r t h e adjustment of c h i l d r e n t o school 3)  life  i n g e n e r a l and  i t would g i v e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n  creative  form. I t was c o n s i d e r e d a n i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y  second  language  originated insight  i n a more  l e a r n e r s . My i n t e r e s t  in this  from the assumption t h a t the  f o r the  activity  book w o u l d p r o v i d e  f o r t h e s t u d e n t , t h e t e a c h e r and p a r e n t s about  schooling  i n a second  l a n g u a g e : what t h e l e a r n e r i s a b l e t o  a c q u i r e , how he o r s h e i s f e e l i n g a b o u t t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , b o t h c o n t e n t m a t t e r s and t h e second how he o r s h e i s a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e a b o u t language.  language, and i t i n the second  The  e x i s t i n g t r i a n g l e of the p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e s  genuine communication where, b e s i d e events, and  i.e.:the student's  i n t e n t to share  the r o u t i n e recount  s c h o o l day,  f e e l i n g and  there  a of  is interest  d i s c u s s a t t i t u d e toward  ,  schooling. T h i s type  of d i a l o g u e  journal writing  o n l y open f a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n target/second  facilitates  ( S t a t o n 1983)  language i n a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g  a t m o s p h e r e , b u t g o e s b e y o n d l a n g u a g e use  I n t h e B&F  and  and  f o s t e r s more  book t h e s t u d e n t  through  i s not  only encouraged  ( S e q u e n c e ) , s i n c e two  participants  live  teacher)  i s s u p p o s e d t o r e f l e c t on t h e  ( E v a l u a t i o n ) as w e l l . The as a "yes student  the events  ( S a n d l e r 1987)  i s , beside  1 9 8 7 ) , t o e v a l u a t e and  teacher's  interest  p e r s p e c t i v e s of the objective  student  and  i n them. The  i s d e a l i n g w i t h and  g i v i n g the ( Reed 1988  r e f l e c t upon t h e s e  l e a r n i n g process.  i n f o r m a t i o n about the s c h o o l the c h i l d  the  events  the events  i s t o f i n d out the  i s to t h i n k through  h i s or her place  (i.e.:  of  The  the events parent's events  and  and  events.  learner's student's and  to  understand  o b j e c t i v e i s to a b o u t t h e ways  gain how  f e e l s a b o u t them.  T h i s c o m p l e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n t r i a n g l e p r o v i d e s an situation  to  fundamental purpose of the j o u r n a l  o p p o r t u n i t y to t h i n k over  Fulwiler The  place"  the  about s c h o o l i n g i n g e n e r a l .  w r i t e a b o u t t h e s c h o o l day  but  the  natural  complex l e a r n i n g : l e a r n i n g about o n e s e l f , about l e a r n i n g process  on  not  f o r t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r - c h i l d and  ideal f o r the  37 second  language  learner-parent.  I t occurs i n a  natural  setting,  p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e c o m m u n i c a t i n g on t h e i r  language  level,  may  a r e g i v e n t h e i n p u t s o f a n a t i v e s p e a k e r and  a d d r e s s a n y t o p i c o f common  interest.  The most v a l u a b l e component o f t h e B&F that  language  learning takes place through  socialization. takes part thinking,  own  The  book a c t i v i t y i s language  ESL s t u d e n t , l i k e t h e y o u n g  LI  learner,  i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n as a " n o v i c e o f e x p e c t e d ways o f feeling,  and a c t i n g . "  "...children acquire a world  v i e w as t h e y a c q u i r e a language"  (Ochs 1 9 8 6 ) . G i v e n t h e  o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s s c h o o l w i t h t h e t e a c h e r and p a r e n t i n second language the l e a r n e r i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g socialization.  He o r s h e  i s " l e a r n i n g a b o u t and  w h a t one must s a y , know, v a l u e and do participate (Ochs It  i n language  i n the s o c i o c u l t u r a l  expressing  i n order to  s i t u a t i o n s of the  1986).  i s beyond  q u e s t i o n t h a t f o r an ESL  t h e most i m p o r t a n t , and s o m e t i m e s  learner the school i s  t h e o n l y p l a c e where  i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h native speakers are provided Contrasting socialization  language  l e a r n i n g and  i t indicates that  whereas  regularly.  language language  i n v o l v e s t h e l e a r n i n g o f r u l e s and t h e u s e o f t h e language s o c i a l i z a t i o n  language)  language, the  i n v o l v e s communication  i n a c o n t e x t o f an e x p e r i e n c e o r a c t i o n  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c u l t u r a l communication  learning  i s l e a r n i n g t h e l a n g u a g e and  c u l t u r e . Language s o c i a l i z a t i o n of  society"  knowledge.  The B&F  and  book i s  i n t h e c o n t e x t o f e v e r y day s c h o o l  (use  events  38 t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e ESL s t u d e n t the  i s l e a r n i n g t h e language and  c u l t u r e i n an i n t e g r a t e d f o r m . Summarizing t h e above s t a t e d I argue t h a t t h e Back and  F o r t h book w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y has  i s an a u t h e n t i c w r i t i n g t a s k . I t  the p o t e n t i a l t o f o s t e r n a t u r a l flow of communication  among t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s who a r e g e n u i n e l y  interested i n the  c o m m u n i c a t i o n and a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o a d d r e s s any t o p i c o f i n t e r e s t a t any g i v e n  level  of language  proficiency.  B. JANKA'S BACK AND FORTH BOOK: THE This student's  p a r t of the case study  LIMITATIONS  i s f o c u s i n g on t h e  p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d on t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s  o f how t h e  B&F book t a s k was r e a l i z e d . The i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e t a s k j u s t i f i e s my s t u d y : t h e above p r e s e n t e d task  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e B&F book c l a i m s t h a t t h e  i s a potentially authentic w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y .  three-year  long observation of t h i s a c t i v i t y  suggests  that  the product  of the task  My q u e s t i o n  i s : "What went w r o n g i n t h e c a s e o f J a n k a ' s B&F  book?" I n o r d e r  i s less than  And y e t my  satisfactory.  t o g a i n some e x p l a n a t i o n  f o r t h e weak  r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t a s k I e x a m i n e t h e B&F book a c t i v i t y the  from  following perspectives.  1. G o a l s :  The B&F book a c t i v i t y was i n t r o d u c e d  school w i t h the purpose of improving school  a n d home. T e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s  a t Janka's  communication between a g r e e d upon t h e  39 n e c e s s i t y o f an on-going inform parents  message s y s t e m w h i c h w o u l d  help  and t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g every day a c t i v i t i e s  a t s c h o o l a n d a t home. The  educational practice of family grouping,  classrooms,  and s p l i t  multi-aged  g r a d e s w e r e new t o m o s t o f t h e  s t u d e n t s a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s , a n d due t o t h e f l u c t u a t i o n o f student  p o p u l a t i o n i n each September t h e s t a f f  necessary  t o l o o k a t a l t e r n a t i v e means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  Four classroom  teachers decided  journal writing a c t i v i t y . day  considered i t  t o use a type o f a  The j o u r n a l s w e r e t a k e n home  t o provide a communication channel  every  between s c h o o l and  home; "Back a n d F o r t h b o o k " : t h e name o f t h i s b o u n d c o p y book s p e a k s f o r t h e a c t i v i t y .  The i n t e n t i o n o f t h e i n v o l v e d  t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s was t o s h a r e each o t h e r and w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s  2. R o l e  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s :  i d e a s and concerns  with  daily.  the success  o f t h e a c t i v i t y was  v e r y much d e p e n d e n t on t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f b o t h t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s . The  students  "spirited"  by t h e g i v e n n a t u r e  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  of the a c t i v i t y :  guaranteed  the last t h i r t y  minutes  l o n g s e s s i o n o f each s c h o o l day, s u p e r v i s e d by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r was a s s i g n e d t o B&F book w r i t i n g . scheduled  I t was a r e g u l a r ,  s c h o o l t a s k , w h i c h h a d t o be c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n a  c e r t a i n time,  i n an a g r e e d  way.  S t u d e n t s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o n a r r a t e a n d comment o n a n y s c h o o l event;  t h e y were encouraged t o a d d r e s s i s s u e s w h i c h  c o n c e r n e d them . The r o l e o f t h e two a d u l t - p a r t i c i p a n t s was l e s s s t r u c t u r e d and d e f i n i t e . classroom  At the beginning  p r a c t i c e teachers  stage  of t h i s  t r i e d t o d e v o t e a s much t i m e t o  a n s w e r i n g o r c o m m e n t i n g on e a c h j o u r n a l e n t r y a s p o s s i b l e . But read  soon i t turned  a n d comment on a b o u t t h i r t y  e n t r i e s every school year  school  d a y . By mid-November  to a quick  were s t i l l  sit  o f 1987, t h e f i r s t  the teacher's  the students'  w r i t i n g while the  i n t e r e s t but very  followed this  activity  f e w o f them t o o k a c t u a l t i m e t o  down a n d w r i t e i n t h e B&F book; c o n v e r s a t i o n  school  role  w o r k i n g on i t .  Most o f t h e i n v o l v e d p a r e n t s with great  long j o u r n a l  c h e c k mark a n d a s i g n a t u r e a t t h e  o f each e n t r y . They r e a d  students  half-a-page  o f t h e B&F book a c t i v i t y ,  n a r r o w e d down end  o u t t o be a n u n f e a s i b l e t a s k . T h e y h a d t o  t e n d e d t o be l e s s s t r u c t u r e d . The p a r e n t s  same h a b i t o f s i g n i n g t h e e n t r i e s r e j e c t i n g a n y  about t o o k up t h e lengthy  w r i t t e n comment.  3. A c t i v i t y :  the actual classroom  valuable part of the school  a c t i v i t y was p o t e n t i a l l y a  d a y . The i m p o r t a n c e o f j o u r n a l  w r i t i n g was a l r e a d y a l l u d e d t o i n t h e f i r s t chapter.  s e c t i o n of t h i s  E x a m i n i n g t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r B&F book  activity,  I argue t h a t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g  teacher's  s i d e were n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y .  on t h e  41 This educational publications  p r a c t i c e needs  i n the dialogue journal  and J a n a S t a t o n (1984, 1988) indicate that  e q u a l l y committed.  s t u d i e s by L e s l e e  and K r e e f t P e y t o n  journal writing w i l l  language development  and  a l o n g t e r m commitment,  (1989)  contribute to written  i f t h e l e a r n e r and t h e t e a c h e r a r e  C o n t i n u i t y , awareness  of i n d i v i d u a l  i n t e n t i o n of c o n d u c t i n g genuine communication  essential In  i n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e B&F  t h e c a s e o f J a n k a ' s B&F  r e s u l t of a good  Reed  needs  are  book.  book t h e a c t i v i t y was  the  i n t e n t i o n but lacked the necessary p l a n n i n g  and commitment; s o o n t h e B&F  book became a n o t h e r o b l i g a t o r y  c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y w h i c h was  s e e n as j u s t a n o t h e r p i e c e  paper t o f i l l t a s k was  i n and a n o t h e r t h i r t y m i n u t e s t o s p e n d .  s e t up b u t t h e t e a c h e r s n e v e r f e l t  monitor the a c t u a l w r i t i n g .  choice of  4.  t h e B&F  t h e t a s k from t h e above  i t i s assumed t h a t none o f t h e book t o i t s f u l l  and  Due  stated  participants  potential.  teachers lacked the necessary t h e o r e t i c a l  planning the a c t i v i t y . the  colorful  word.  perspectives  The  to  r e s t r i c t e d t o grammar p r o b l e m s  I n p u t : h a v i n g examined  used  The  O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e w e r e some  a t t e m p t s t o make t h e w r i t i n g a b i t more b u t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n was  t h e need  of  background f o r  t o t h e amount o f t i m e and  energy  t a s k w o u l d h a v e t a k e n t h e y s o o n n a r r o w e d down t h e i r  p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o s u p e r v i s i o n and o c c a s i o n a l c h e c k i n g .  Doing so they s o l d t h e i r students  s h o r t : they deprived  them  from the input of a n a t i v e speaker,and the p o s s i b i l i t y of interaction  (Christie  The p a r e n t s  1986))  a l s o c a r r y a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n  n e g l e c t i n g t h e B&F book. " C r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h  shows  t h a t , on t h e a v e r a g e , t h e home h a s a b o u t t w i c e a s much impact as t h e s c h o o l personal  growth"  on s t u d e n t s '  (Beery  academic, s o c i a l ,  and  1 9 8 2 ) . I n t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e B&F  books p a r e n t s were p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o and  t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s every  observations  school  show t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r e n t s  monitor life.  My  d i d not  t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y and r e f u s e d t h e o f f e r e d p a r t n e r s h i p i n t h e i r children's education. Summarizing the context  o f J a n k a ' s B&F book w r i t i n g I  argue t h a t the a u t h e n t i c t a s k o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g a s s u m e d t o f u n c t i o n on i t s own a n d t o p r o d u c e d e v e l o p m e n t i n l a n g u a g e and d i s c o u r s e .  automatic  The t a s k was n o t s e t  up i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y way, t h e r e f o r e t h e p r o d u c t satisfactory  f o l l o w e d t h e r o u t i n e o f t h e t a s k and  i t on t h e minimum  r e p o r t e d some e v e n t s themselves,  was n o t  either.  The s t u d e n t s realized  was -  level  of e x p e c t a t i o n :  of t h e s c h o o l day, but never  they wrote i n a simple  they challenged  s t y l e and format w h i c h  was t h e e a s i e s t f o r them t o r e a l i z e .  43  C.  THE  PRODUCT:  The  three years  involvement provide authentic  long observation  l a n g u a g e and  argument I c o n d u c t e d a p i l o t ways o f a n a l y z i n g t h e selected  i n order  product  I was  support  the  this  t o e x a m i n e some p o s s i b l e  c o l l e c t e d d a t a . Three a p p r o a c h e s were product  long journal w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y .  l o o k i n g a t t h e B&F  o f a c e r t a i n g e n r e and  Francis Christie  book d i d n o t r e s u l t  d i s c o u r s e . To study  potentially  to e s t a b l i s h the problem w i t h the  of the t h r e e y e a r s First  parental  evidence t o argue t h a t the  c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e B&F  development of  and my  (1986).  book e n t r i e s as  f o l l o w e d the  a  a n a l y s i s of  T h i s a n a l y s i s i s p u b l i s h e d by  A u s t r a l i a n r e s e a r c h group, w o r k i n g w i t h the a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g . The approach i s that i t i s necessary  genre-based  assumption of to teach  an  this  students  "...  how  t o b e h a v e i n l a n g u a g e . . . t o become s u c c e s s f u l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the  context  culture  and  participation  in a  i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n l e a r n i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ways o f  w o r k i n g and It  of c u l t u r e . S u c c e s s f u l  dealing with experience  i s claimed  or of meaning making."  t h a t genres are ordered  dealing with experience  ways o f  undertaking  o r of meaning making  (Christie  1986). Applying activity  t h i s a p p r o a c h t o t h e B a c k and  the Observation  s u i t a b l e one;  Forth  g e n r e a p p e a r s t o be  the  book most  t h i s genre i s used the most f r e q u e n t l y where  p e o p l e a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t and  dealing with  personal  experience.  I t o f f e r s t h e r e a d e r some s i m p l e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  of t h e e x p e r i e n c e , and i n i t s c o m p l e t e , mature  form i t a l s o  o f f e r s some s e n s e o f t h e w r i t e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the experience. The  a n a l y s i s of a t e x t , which  example o f a g e n r e , some p r i n c i p a l  i s assumed t o be a n  l o o k s a t t h e s c h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e , and  linguistic  f e a t u r e s , such as t h e r e g i s t e r  ( F i e l d , Mode, a n d T e n o r ) , a n d t h e t r a n s i t i v i t y  (choice of  verb). U s i n g t h e Study Guide o f C h r i s t i e my o b j e c t i v e was genre  t o measure and  et a i . ( 1 9 8 6 )  e v a l u a t e development  w r i t i n g w i t h i n t h e observed p e r i o d . Three  from t h e t h r e e s c h o o l y e a r s were randomly a n a l y z e d . The a n a l y s i s  i s presented i n  of  entries  s e l e c t e d and  Appendix C - I . , I I . a n d  III. My a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t h r e e e n t r i e s w o u l d show s t r o n g d i f f e r e n c e O r i e n t a t i o n genre.  I t w o u l d show d e v e l o p m e n t  m a t u r a t i o n i n t h e use o f a c e r t a i n My f i n d i n g s :  i n the use of the i n language,  genre.  c o m p a r i n g t h e t h r e e t e x t s t h e most  recognizable difference  i s i n t h e i r schematic  structures.  A c c o r d i n g t o C h r i s t i e t h e complete and mature O b s e r v a t i o n genre  i n v o l v e s n o t o n l y E v e n t a n d Comment e l e m e n t s , b u t  D e s c r i p t i o n and O r i e n t a t i o n elements as w e l l .  From  this  p o i n t o f v i e w t h e t h r e e t e x t s r a n k from a l e s s mature full,  to a  complete genre. A l t h o u g h a l l o f t h e t h r e e t e x t s have  t h e r e q u i r e d e l e m e n t s o f t h e O b s e r v a t i o n g e n r e , t h e Comment  45 element  i s always  that the w r i t e r Text one  the important part,  this  i n d i c a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the matters.  1.2.5. i n v o l v e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e v e n t s , b u t o n l y  O r i e n t a t i o n and one  comment may Text  f o r i t i s through  Comment. The  s i m p l i c i t y of  a l s o suggest a l e s s mature  2.2.1. h a s a u n i q u e s t r u c t u r e :  the  form.  there are e i g h t  i n v o l v e d b u t o n l y t h r e e o f t h e s e a r e w r i t t e n up as  Events Events,  the other f i v e are introduced i n the O r i e n t a t i o n p a r t s which a r e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by t h e Comments. The sense  r e a d e r has  o f t h e w r i t e r r u s h i n g t h r o u g h t h e s c h o o l day  s p e n d i n g t o o much t i m e on n a r r a t i n g e a c h e v e n t ;  a  without  the  s t r u c t u r e suggests t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of events  are  c o n s i d e r e d more i m p o r t a n t t h a n c o m m e n t i n g them. T e x t 3.2.5. shows a more m a t u r e s t r u c t u r e , a r e i n t r o d u c e d and more t i m e i s s p e n t on Looking at the p r i n c i p a l  linguistic  the v a r i o u s p a t t e r s of O b s e r v a t i o n genre  one.  Orientation  Events  commenting. elements  i n which  a r e r e a l i z e d we  s e t up a s i m i l a r r a n k i n g : f r o m a l e s s m a t u r e t o w a r d a more c o m p l e t e  fewer  can  realization  i s correctly created  t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f i t e m s t h a t p l a c e t h e r e a d e r i n some  sense  o f t i m e o r p l a c e . The  use  of these items: Text  development i s n o t i c e a b l e 1.2.5. u s e s  " t o d a y " and  i n d i c a t e t i m e . T e x t 2.2.1. i s more s p e c i f i c  i n the  "then" t o in indicating  t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s . T e x t 3.2.5. g o e s b a c k t o "today", but  i n the second  Description to c l a r i f y  Orientation i t gives a  t i m e and p l a c e .  use  46 Events  are r e a l i z e d through m a t e r i a l processes,  the t e x t s Text  among  2.2.1. p r o d u c e s t h e most m a t e r i a l p r o c e s s e s ,  t h i s e n t r y i s f a r more d e t a i l e d t h a n t h e o t h e r t w o . The m a t u r e f o r m o f Comment i s r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h and m e n t a l  relational  processes, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h items t h a t  build  e x p r e s s i o n o f e v a l u a t i o n . However, t h e a n a l y z e d t e x t s u s e the r e q u i r e d processes, they suggest  a l e s s complete  form of  evaluation. Description  i s i n v o l v e d i n a fewer  r e a l i z e d through  relational  number, b u t i s c o r r e c t l y  processes.  The R e g i s t e r i n O b s e r v a t i o n g e n r e : genre i s always experience,  some a s p e c t s o f t h e w r i t e r ' s  wants t o share  o f t h e s c h o o l day about which  i t i s some the w r i t e r  some i n f o r m a t i o n . The t e n o r i s p e r s o n a l a n d  t h e w r i t e r adopts  the audience.  of t h i s  personal  i n t h e case o f t h e s e l e c t e d t e x t s  important events  friendly,  the f i e l d  a r e l a t i o n s h i p of equality  with  T h i s i s a l s o a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e c a s e o f B&F  book, t h e s t u d e n t s a r e w r i t i n g  f o rtheir  parents.  The mode o f O b s e r v a t i o n g e n r e i s c o n s t i t u t i v e o f t h e activity: end  t h e t e x t s f r o m t h e B&F book w e r e w r i t t e n a t t h e  of each s c h o o l day t o r e f l e c t  on t h e e v e n t s .  We c a n s u m m a r i z e t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h u s : from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e genre-based approach  to  t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g t h e a n a l y z e d t e x t s f r o m t h e B&F book a r e a c c e p t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e O b s e r v a t i o n genre. schematic  s t r u c t u r e s and t h e c h o i c e o f l i n g u i s t i c  sufficient,  through  them t h e g e n r e i s r e a l i z e d  The  items a r e  ina  47 satisfactory  f o r m . The  comparison of the t h r e e  s u g g e s t s some m a t u r a t i o n The  i n the use  s e c o n d a p p r o a c h was  of the  texts  genre.  u s e d by a r e s e a r c h  group of  C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , W a s h i n g t o n D.C. published This  i n a p a p e r by K r e e f t P e y t o n and  dialogue of  i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t i n g . The  i n t e r a c t i o n between t e a c h e r  students  the o p p o r t u n i t y  choice,to focus  how  development  It i s a kind student  who  gives  their  p r i m a r i l y on m e a n i n g . . . r a t h e r t h a n i s known and  of  which  t o w r i t e about t o p i c s of  t o w r i t e t o an a u d i e n c e who  their  and  (1989).  claim that  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g promotes the w r i t i n g of  limited English p r o f i c i e n t students.  was  s t r a t e g i e s on  authors  "written  and  Seyoum  paper examines the e f f e c t of t e a c h e r  students'  and  the  form,  responds  to  i d e a s , r a t h e r t h a n e v a l u a t i n g what t h e y h a v e s a i d o r  t h e y have s a i d i t . "  ( K r e e f t P e y t o n and  C o m p a r i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e B&F introduced dialogue  Seyoum 1 9 8 9 ) .  book and  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g I argue t h a t the  tasks are very s i m i l a r ,  the only d i f f e r e n c e occurs  q u e s t i o n o f d i a l o g u e . However, the to f o s t e r t h i s type  initial  book was  the  c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , I n my  p i l o t study  I decided  i n the the  d i d n o t make i t  to apply  this  approach  English  l e v e l w i t h i n the examined p e r i o d .  T h i s approach examined the as m e a s u r e d by complexity  two  of w r i t t e n communication,  t o measure the development of the s u b j e c t ' s proficiency  above  purpose of  B&F  feasible.  the  amount t h e  t h e number o f w o r d s , and  o f t h e w r i t i n g as m e a s u r e d by  the  students  wrote,  sentence-level  t h e number o f  T-  u n i t as an  index  of growth i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y  of  school  c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g . The  authors  provides  m e a s u r e w i d e l y u s e d i n L I and  a conventional  a c q u i s i t i o n and  has  and m a t u r a t i o n a l  c l a i m t h a t t h i s method  b e e n shown t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h  L2  linguistic  development.  Examining t h i s approach from the p e r s p e c t i v e s of B&F  book my  a s s u m p t i o n was  evidence of  linguistic  t h a t t h e m e t h o d w o u l d show  and m a t u r a t i o n a l  o t h e r w o r d s e x a m i n i n g t h e amount and writing  i n the  l a n g u a g e . The syntactic to  the  c a s e o f t h e B&F coauthors  complexity  students'  As  the data  p e r i o d my  development, i n  the  complexity  of  book w o u l d p r o v e g r o w t h i n  of the a r t i c l e  of the s t u d e n t s '  level  claim that  the  w r i t i n g vary  according  of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y .  have been c o l l e c t e d i n a t h r e e y e a r s  assumption i s t h a t the p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l f r o m one  year  t o the o t h e r ,  of  subject w i l l  vary  measure w i l l  h i g h l i g h t a tendency of development.The  be  since  evidence of the  l i m i t a t i o n of the  i t measures the w r i t i n g i n sentence  provide My The  no  any  other  the  task  level  this  other there  itself,  and  does  not  information.  f i n d i n g s are presented  i n A p p e n d i x D-I.  numbers show t h e s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y  writing.  long  therefore  p a r t of the argument i s t h a t p r e s e n t i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h will  the  F o l l o w i n g the  argument p u b l i s h e d  and I I .  of the i n the  student's Kreeft  Peyton a r t i c l e Janka belongs t o the m i d - p r o f i c i e n c y group  by  t h i s measure  to  (a mean o f 8.3  words per T - u n i t ,  equivalent  49 what Hunt  (cited  i n K r e e f t 1989)  f o u n d f o r f o u r t h grade  students). Comparing the r e s u l t s ( T a b l e 6) t h e r e  from the three s c h o o l  i s no e v i d e n c e  of s i g n i f i c a n t  g r o w t h . The  numbers s u g g e s t t h a t h e r  was  less stagnant  more o r  H o w e v e r , my  w i t h i n the examined p e r i o d .  o b s e r v a t i o n s and  the teachers'  development i n her  the d e s p i t e of the reflect  a higher  Looking there  evaluations  l a n g u a g e . My  i n d i c a t e a more  a s s u m p t i o n was  that  l i m i t a t i o n s of the t a s k her w r i t i n g  level  would  of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y .  a t t h e more d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s o f T a b l e  of the student's  w r i t i n g seem t o v a r y  the t o p i c s r a t h e r than her developmental  6  according  stage.  Whenever t h e w r i t e r i s more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e t o p i c there are  f e w e r t o p i c s m e n t i o n e d i n one  seems more c o m p l e x This  and  i s a tendency which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s y n t a c t i c  complexity to  language  language development  r e p o r t c a r d s d i s a g r e e w i t h t h i s t e n d e n c y and dramatic  years  (i.e.:  e n t r y ) , the  real  i n t e r a c t i o n the students  are  i n t o a r o u t i n e , d e p e n d e n t upon t h e i r onw Summarizing the p i l o t  writing  h i g h e r mean w o r d s p e r T - u n i t ) .  f i n d i n g h i g h l i g h t s the major l i m i t a t i o n of the  without  (i.e.:  study  task,  l e f t alone,  locked  judgment.  I s t a t e t h a t my  i n d i c a t e a c e r t a i n degree of development: the  findings  genre-based  a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g showed a d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e of the O b s e r v a t i o n  g e n r e . The  approach which examined  amount and  the s e n t e n c e - l e v e l complexity  suggested  linguistic  and m a t u r a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t was  use  the  that  not r e f l e c t e d  in  50 t h e B&F book, t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e w r i t i n g v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the topic. My a r g u m e n t i s t h a t b o t h a p p r o a c h e s l o o k a t t h e p r o d u c t of the w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y  as t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  system, t h e r e f o r e these  approaches can not provide b a s i s f o r  my a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s a i m i n g  in linguistic  a t a more c o m p l e x a n d b r o a d e r  p i c t u r e . My o b j e c t i v e i s t o f i n d a n a p p r o a c h w h i c h a s c e r t a i n s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o examine t h e p r o d u c t  of the task  i n a n i n t e g r a t e d way f o r m o n i t o r i n g t h e g r o w t h i n l a n g u a g e and  i n content. Chapter  F o u r p r e s e n t s t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s b a s e d on t h e  Language and C o n t e n t To  approach.  j u s t i f y my s e l e c t i o n o f a n a l y s i s t h e f o l l o w i n g  h a v e t o be h i g h l i g h t e d . The L a n g u a g e a n d C o n t e n t 1986)  reasons (Mohan  approach l o o k s a t t h e s t u d e n t w r i t i n g o f t h e Back and  F o r t h book a s t h e outcome o f a d i s c o u r s e t a s k . E a c h s c h o o l day,  the writer  experience,  i s w r i t i n g a b o u t i n t h e book i s a c o n c r e t e  an A c t i v i t y w h i c h c o n t a i n s A c t i o n S i t u a t i o n and  B a c k g r o u n d K n o w l e d g e . When t h e w r i t e r w r i t e s a b o u t h e r experience  she p r i m a r i l y r e t e l l s  p u t t i n g the events  the Action , describing i t ,  i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , and m e n t i o n i n g  c e r t a i n c h o i c e s w h i c h may a l t e r t h e e v e n t s . a b l e t o make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , e x p r e s s comments, a n d j u s t i f y theoretical  rules,  I n o r d e r t o be a n d make  c h o i c e s , t h e w r i t e r r e l i e s on h e r  knowledge.  A p p l y i n g t h e K n o w l e d g e Framework I c o n c e n t r a t e t h i n k i n g processes  expressed  by g i v e n  on t h e  language s t r u c t u r e s i n  the w r i t i n g , overall  i n doing  s o my  objective i s to establish  p a t t e r n o f t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s o f t h e B&F  Obtaining the p a t t e r n of the task I w i l l not  only the w r i t i n g ,  but  i n an i n t e g r a t e d way  the content,  (i.e.:  (i.e.:  the  book.  be a b l e t o e v a l u a t e  the use of language s t r u c t u r e s )  I can examine t h e development o f  the development of the d i s c o u r s e  task).  52  CHAPTER FOUR Analysis A. INTRODUCTION The stated  f o c u s and t h e main o b j e c t i v e o f t h e a n a l y s i s a r e  below.  1. ) W h i c h t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s in  the analyzed  do o c c u r t h e most f r e q u e n t l y  data?  2. ) What i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e  of t h e i r occurrence  a n a l y z e d t h r e e p e r i o d s o f each y e a r , examined The  and i n t h e t h r e e  years? a n a l y s i s was c o m p l e t e d i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e  most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s to and  establish the overall F o r t h book a c t i v i t y .  analysis will study:  i n the  i n each p e r i o d , and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n o f t h e Back The r e s u l t s o f t h e q u a l i t a t i v e  p r o v i d e b a s i s f o r t h e argument o f t h e p r e s e n t  t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f Mohan's k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s c a n  p r o v i d e a s y s t e m a t i c a n d i n t e g r a t e d way o f a n a l y z i n g , e v a l u a t i n g and m o n i t o r i n g s t u d e n t a c q u i s i t i o n . This approach w i l l development i n language but w i l l  t a s k s i n w r i t t e n language  not o n l y s t a t e the degree of give a broader  p i c t u r e of  the growth i n content. The  forty  five  j o u r n a l e n t r i e s were w r i t t e n o v e r a  period of three consecutive school years.  I n each year  three  one-week l o n g p e r i o d s w e r e c h o s e n f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g (October), the middle  (January/February),  a n d t h e e n d (May)  of t h e school year; wide o v e r a l l  the data  i s considered to represent a  p i c t u r e of the year-long  activity.  I n t h e a n a l y s i s , b a s e d on Mohan's a p p r o a c h e a c h e n t r y was c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e outcome o f a d i s c o u r s e t a s k : is writing  i n a given s i t u a t i o n  student  f o r a given audience  about  some g i v e n e v e n t s . The B&F book p r o v i d e s a u n i q u e d i s c o u r s e task. P r i m a r i l y  i t i s s t u d e n t s w r i t i n g about events  are c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y connected. on t h e s e  events.As  predicting, The  Secondly  "by-products"  which  they are r e f l e c t i n g  occasional reasoning,  a n d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g may a p p e a r i n t h e j o u r n a l s .  d i s c o u r s e t a s k o f B&F book w r i t i n g  A c t i v i t y w h i c h i s composed o f  i s examined as an  A c t i o n S i t u a t i o n and  Background Knowledge. The  main s t r u c t u r e s of knowledge i n t h e A c t i o n  S i t u a t i o n a r e D e s c r i p t i o n , Sequence, and C h o i c e .  The  s t r u c t u r e s o f Background Knowledge a r e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Principles,  and  Evaluation.  B. THE MODEL I n t h e a n a l y s i s my two m a j o r s o u r c e s w e r e Mohan's Language and C o n t e n t  (1986) a n d t h e 1986. ESL R e s o u r c e book  ( E a r l y e t al.1986).The f o l l o w i n g concepts  n e e d t o be  h i g h l i g h t e d before the a n a l y s i s i s presented. To e x p l o r e t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s i n a n y a n a l y z e d m a t e r i a l Mohan s u g g e s t s  t h e f o l l o w i n g s e t o f q u e s t i o n s and  claims that "essentially,  t h e knowledge s t r u c t u r e of a t o p i c  54 is reflected  i n t h e q u e s t i o n s people ask about i t "  (Mohan  1986). Specific,  practical  aspects:  D e s c r i p t i o n : who, w h a t , w h e r e ? What p e r s o n s , m a t e r i a l s equipment, items,  setting?  S e q u e n c e : what h a p p e n s ? What h a p p e n s n e x t ? What i s t h e p l o t ? What a r e t h e p r o c e s s e s , t h e p r o c e d u r e s ,  or the  routines? C h o i c e : what a r e t h e c h o i c e s , alternatives, General  dilemmas, d e c i s i o n s ?  theoretical  Classification: r e l a t e d t o each  conflicts,  aspects: what c o n c e p t s a p p l y ? How a r e t h e y  other?  P r i n c i p l e s : what p r i n c i p l e s a r e t h e r e ? ( C a u s e - e f f e c t , means-end, m e t h o d s , a n d t e c h n i q u e s , norms,  rules,  strategies).  E v a l u a t i o n : what v a l u e s a n d s t a n d a r d s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e ? what c o u n t s a s g o o d o r bad? what a r e t h e t y p i c a l  reasons f o r  c h o o s i n g one o b j e c t o r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n o v e r a n o t h e r ?  what  a r e u s u a l aims and g o a l s ?  I n t h e " I n t e g r a t i n g Language and Content 12: An E.S.L. R e s o u r c e  Book" a t a b l e  Instruction  i s presented  shows t h e t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s o f e a c h k n o w l e d g e  which  structure.  These t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e matched w i t h s p e c i f i c structures.The b a s i c assumption second  language  learner  of t h i s approach  K-  language  i s that the  l e a r n i n g new c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l a n d  55 the to  language t o understand connect  " t o model t h e r e q u i r e d  at  (Early  helps  linguistic  i n a c o n t e x t where t h e c o n n e c t i o n s  meanings and e x p r e s s i o n s a r e c l e a r " The  t h e s e m a t e r i a l s needs  m e a n i n g s w i t h e x p r e s s i o n . The a p p r o a c h  t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t structures  and e x p r e s s  between  1986).  i n t e g r a t i o n o f c o n t e n t and language t e a c h i n g i s a i m i n g teaching thinking s k i l l s  s t r u c t u r e s which  t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e language  are then t r a n s f e r a b l e t o other areas of  l e a r n i n g . The R e s o u r c e book p r o v i d e s g u i d e l i n e f o r p l a n n i n g c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s f o r E.S.L l e a r n e r s i n an way  which  i n t e g r a t e s s u b j e c t m a t t e r knowledge, t h i n k i n g and language skills.  The a i m o f t h e d e s i g n e d  activities  i s not j u s t t o  provide communicative p r a c t i c e  f o r the students, o r merely  to  " t h e a i m i s much more f a r -  do c o n t e n t a r e a a c t i v i t i e s ;  r e a c h i n g . ...( i t )  i s to develop  the students'  cognitive  language so t h a t they can use E n g l i s h f o r l e a r n i n g  across  the c u r r i c u l u m " ( E a r l y e t a l . 1986). The  present study extends  t h i s approach.  the p o s s i b l e implications of  The p r e s e n t e d a n a l y s i s  i s t o p r o v i d e an  e x a m p l e f o r p r a c t i s i n g c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s how t o u s e Mohan's f r a m e w o r k i n a n a l y z i n g s t u d e n t w r i t i n g . The o b j e c t i v e i s t o show how t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s m a n i f e s t w r i t i n g and t o suggest  i n an ESL s t u d e n t  some ways o f i m p l e m e n t i n g  the  framework i n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e , t h e t e a c h i n g and e v a l u a t i o n of  journal writing  activities.  E a c h e n t r y was a n a l y z e d on t h e b a s e s o f Mohan's i n t e g r a t e d approach,  w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e above  cited  questions t o explore and  t h e knowledge s t r u c t u r e s  of the w r i t i n g  w i t h T a b l e V I f r o m t h e R e s o u r c e Book t o m a t c h up t h e  language s t r u c t u r e s w i t h The  table  itself  the thinking  processes.  and a d r a f t v e r s i o n  of i tare included i n  A p p e n d i x E.  C. ASSUMPTIONS : The and  B&F book a c t i v i t y  i s to foster narration,  chronologically ordering  of school  report  e v e n t s . The p r i m a r y  knowledge s t r u c t u r e  of the a c t i v i t y  The  used t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e Report,  most f r e q u e n t l y  Narrating,  i s Sequence.  Noting a Process.  Considering  t h e n a t u r e o f B&F book,  (i.e.:"communication t r i a n g l e " : d a i l y feedback from t e a c h e r and  presumed p a r e n t a l  writer will  reflect  p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) i t i s assumed t h a t t h e  on t h e r e c o r d e d e v e n t s , t h e r e f o r e t h e  knowledge s t r u c t u r e o f E v a l u a t i o n in  a  smaller The  will  be p r e s e n t ,  however,  percentage.  r o u t i n e - l i k e p r a c t i c e o f B&K book a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e  writer with  t h e p o s s i b l y o f "zooming ahead i n t i m e "  (Calkin  1 9 8 6 ) , i t i s assumed t h a t o c c a s i o n a l  predictions w i l l  made. B a s e d on t h e f i n d i n g s o f S t a a b  (1986) who a r g u e s  the an  be that  language f u n c t i o n of R e a s o n i n g / F o r e c a s t i n g i s considered important function of the subject's  emphasized w i t h i n the elementary school knowledge s t r u c t u r e o f P r i n c i p l e s w i l l several  journal  entries.  age-group  and i s  curriculum,the be e x p r e s s e d i n  57 L o o k i n g at the developmental descriptive  stage of the w r i t e r  some  p a r t s a r e a l s o assumed t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e  j o u r n a l , w h i c h may reading audience  reflect (McCutchen  the w r i t e r ' s 1988).  awareness of  the  CHAPTER F I V E Results A. THINKING S K I L L S AND LANGUAGE ITEMS See t h e A p p e n d i x B f o r t h e d e t a i l e d  analysis  B. FREQUENCY COUNT The f o l l o w i n g T a b l e s 2,3,and 4 c o n t a i n t h e r e s u l t s o f frequency count o f each knowledge  structure.  C o u n t s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n e a c h 5-day l o n g p e r i o d o f e a c h three-week the  l o n g p e r i o d o f e a c h y e a r . T e x t s a r e named  after  number o f t h e y e a r , t h e week, a n d t h e d a y o f w r i t i n g ,  e.g:  the text  f r o m y e a r 1 week 1 d a y 1 i s T e x t 1.1.1..  The c o l l e c t e d d a t a ( A p p e n d i x A) c o n t a i n s 45 e n t r i e s  labelled  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: Y e a r 1 Week 1 Day 1. A f t e r each three-week there  long p e r i o d  ( c o n t a i n i n g 15 e n t r i e s )  i s a summary w h i c h shows t h e a v e r a g e number o f  o c c u r r e n c e of each knowledge s t r u c t u r e the  full  Finally  i n that year  taking  amount o f s t a t e m e n t s a s 1 0 0 % . T a b l e IV p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o u n t i n t h r e e  years.The t o t a l  amount o f s t a t e m e n t s made i n e a c h y e a r , t h e  number o f k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s e a c h y e a r a n d t h e p e r c e n t a g e s are  showed.  59  Table 2 Frequency count of Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s Entries written Text & Amount o f Statements  Knowledge  in  15  Journal  i n Year 1  Structures:  Description Sequence Choice Classification Principles Evaluation 1.1.1-5. 32  0  0  100%  0%  0%  34  0  0  100%  0%  0%  26  0  0  100%  0%  0%  92  0  0  100%  0%  0%  27 84.3%  2  1  2  6.24%  3.12%  6.24%  0  0  0%  0%  2  0  4  0%  15.3%  1.2.1-5. 27 79.4%  7 20.6%  1.3.1-5. 20 76.9%  7.92%  Year 1 74 80.4%  4 4.34%  1 1.08%  13 14.1%  60 Table 3 F r e q u e n c y Count o f Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s Entries Written Text & Amount o f Statements  Knowledge  i n 15  Journal  i n Year 2  Structures:  Description Sequence Classification  Choice Principles  Evaluation  2.1.1-5. 69 100%  0  0  58  0%  0%  84.0%  1  0  32  2.7%  0%  0  0  38  0%  0%  95%  1  0  0.65%  0  4  0  7  0%  10.14%  3  0  8  6.8%  0%  18.2%  1  0  2.5%  0  128  8  0  83.7%  5.2%  0%  5.79%  2.2.1-5. *44 100%  72.7%  2.3.1-5. 40 100% Year 2 153 100%  16 10.45%  61  Table 4 Frequency Count of Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s Entries written Text & Amount o f Statement  i n 15  Journal  i n Year I I I  Knowledge Structures: Description Sequence Choice Classification Principles Evaluation  3.1.1-5. 49  0  0  100%  0%  0%  0  1  0%  3.5%  0  0  0%  0%  0  1  42 85.7%  1 2.04%  0  6  0  12.2%  3.2.1-5. 28 100%  18 64.3%  5 17.9%  1 3.5%  3 10.7%  3.3.1-5. 25 100%  21 84%  1  0  3  4%  0%  12%  7  1  Year 3 102 100%  0%  0.89%  81 79.41%  6.86%  0.89%  12 11.7%  62  Table 5 Frequency Count o f Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s Entries Written  i n 45  Journal  i n Y e a r 1,2, and 3  Knowledge Structures:  Text & Amount o f Statement  Description Sequence Choice Classification Principles Evaluation Year 1 92  0  0  100%  0%  0%  1  0  128  8  0  0 .65%  0  83.7%  5.2%  0%  7  i  Year 2 153 100% Year 3 102  0  100%  0%  74  1 0.89%  80.4%  81 79.41%  4  13  1  4.34%  6.86%  1.08%  0.89%  14.1%  16 10.45%  12 11.7%  63 CHAPTER S I X I.  DISCUSSION To r e f r e s h t h e r e a d e r ' s memory, t h e a s s u m p t i o n s  made p r i o r t o t h e a n a l y s i s a r e r e s t a t e d 1.  below.  I n a j o u r n a l - t y p e w r i t i n g t h e most f r e q u e n t l y m a n i f e s t e d  knowledge s t r u c t u r e  i s Sequence.  2. As t h e w r i t e r r e f l e c t s will  on t h e d a i l y e v e n t s E v a l u a t i o n  be t h e s e c o n d most f r e q u e n t k n o w l e d g e  structure.  3. The r o u t i n e - l i k e a c t i v i t y o f t h e B&F book w i l l predictions,"Principles" structure  iswill  facilitate  be e x p r e s s e d  frequently. 4. The l o n g - t e r m u s e o f t h i s  journal w i l l  p r o d u c e some  "Description".  Table  2 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f f i r s t  year  d a t a . The s u b j e c t was i n G r a d e 3, s h e was 9 y e a r s o l d a n d was a t t e n d i n g h e r s e c o n d a l r e a d y mastered did  school year  i n C a n a d a . She h a d  the b a s i c communicative  n o t f a c e any d i f f i c u l t i e s  skills  i n L 2 . . She  i n c o n t e n t c l a s s e s . Due t o t h e  s p e c i a l m u l t i a g e g r o u p i n g o f h e r c l a s s , h e r language  and  academic development took p l a c e i n a s u p p o r t i v e , nont h r e a t e n i n g a t m o s p h e r e . The B&F book a c t i v i t y  started i n  S e p t e m b e r , a new p r a c t i c e t o t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s a s w e l l . The  frequency count  o f t h e knowledge s t r u c t u r e s  the d i s t i n c t dominance o f Sequence. Assumption proven:  79.4 % o f t h e 92 s t a t e m e n t s w r i t t e n  expressing concepts  shows  1 seems t o be  i n Year  1 were  of Report, N a r r a t i n g , Ordering, Noting a  64 process. first  I t i s without  e x a m i n e d week  q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e e n t r i e s from t h e  ( T e x t s 1.1.1-5) a r e d o m i n a n t l y  w i t h r e p o r t i n g the events Looking following  i n t h e i r chronological order.  a t t h e language s t r u c t u r e s o f Sequence t h e  items a r e used: verb:  to start,  p r e p o s i t i o n s and p r e p o s i t i o n a l  phrases  sentence  next,  The  concerned  time r e l a t e r s :  first,  s c h o o l s u b j e c t s , such as Outputs  of f r e e a c t i v i t y ) ,  S.S.  (Social  t o come;  of time:  today;  then. (first  thirty  minutes  S t u d i e s ) , L.A.(Language  A r t s ) a n d t h e c o n j u n c t i v e "and" a r e a l s o u s e d t o e x p r e s s t h e sequence o f events. The  o t h e r two s t r u c t u r e s , ( i . e : P r i n c i p l e s a n d  Evaluation) are underrepresented.  One p r e d i c t i o n was made  r e g a r d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t on t h e s c h e d u l e ; one  reasoning  i s found;  and o n l y  i t i s cause e f f e c t r e l a t i o n - : she d i d  n o t n o t i c e t h e t a s k on t h e b o a r d ,  s o s h e was n o t a b l e t o  c o m p l e t e i t . I n two o c c a s i o n s s h e e v a l u a t e d t h e s c h o o l d a y : "math was g o o d " ,  " t o d a y was f u n " .  A significant  change i n t h e u s e o f s t r u c t u r e s o c c u r s i n  t h e s e c o n d week, 2 0 . 6 % o f 34 s t a t e m e n t s entries  ( T e x t s 1.2.1-5.) w e r e w r i t t e n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f  the second term, Although insight  E v a l u a t i o n . These  these  t h e B&F book h a d b e e n u s e d f o r f i v e m o n t h s .  e v a l u a t i o n s a r e r a t h e r s h o r t , t h e y p r o v i d e an  into the student's  p e r s p e c t i v e s about s c h o o l  events.  "Today was g o o d " , " i t was g o o d " ; i t ' s t o o b a d " , "some  e x c i t i n g moments...", "he was a g o o d p a l " a r e a l l e x p r e s s i n g her personal The  judgments,feelings,  preferences.  same t e n d e n c y c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e t h i r d week w i t h a h i g h  percentage  (15.38%) o f E v a l u a t i o n . We c a n a l s o r e a d two  s t a t e m e n t s e x p r e s s i n g cause and e f f e c t . The is  overall  i n agreement  p i c t u r e o f t h e 15 e n t r i e s w r i t t e n i n Y e a r 1 w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n s 1. a n d 2..  A notable d i f f e r e n c e i s that there  i s not a s i n g l e  description. S u m m a r i z i n g my o b s e r v a t i o n s I a r g u e t h a t s t a g e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g does n o t r e f l e c t awareness  o f t h e a u d i e n c e . McCutchen  this  the w r i t e r ' s  (1988) d i s t i n g u i s h e s  t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e , when t h e w r i t e r s t i l l "knowledge  telling"  early  s t r a t e g y , t h e emphasis  has a s t r o n g  i s on g i v i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n a n d "how" a n d "why" a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d a s s e r i o u s g o a l s . H e r argument  about t h e " r e t r i e v e - a n d - w r i t e  procedure" i n w r i t t e n language development o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e B&F book  r e i n f o r c e s my  activity.  T a b l e 3 shows t h e r e s u l t s  f r o m y e a r 2. The s u b j e c t i s  i n g r a d e 4, w i t h t h e same two t e a c h e r s a n d i n t h e same area/multiaged  open  g r o u p o f 54 c h i l d r e n . H e r E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y  l e v e l had d e v e l o p e d t o such a degree t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s r e f u s e d t o t r e a t o r even  l a b e l h e r a s an E S L s t u d e n t .  Her academic achievement  i s about grade l e v e l  skills  average, h e r  i n M a t h e m a t i c s and R e a d i n g were o u t s t a n d i n g .  66 The  B&F  book a c t i v i t y  curricular activity)  (however,  still  an  extra  s t a r t e d r i g h t away i n S e p t e m b e r w i t h  much e n t h u s i a s m on t h e p a r t o f t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . The  frequency count of the s i x knowledge s t r u c t u r e s d i d  not r e s u l t  i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Year  Y e a r 2, a l t h o u g h b o t h t h e number o f s t a t e m e n t s and o c c u r r e n c e of Sequence, P r i n c i p l e , h i g h e r . The  s t a t e m e n t s d o u b l e d , and  the language  items  t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e v e r y much t h e same as 1 and  showing  any v a r i e t y . N o t i n g p r o c e s s i s e x p r e s s e d  same way: may  the  the language  "today",  argue  of these s t r u c t u r e s are  "after...",  that the  language  used  i n a g r e a t e r number.  i n Year  One  and  and E v a l u a t i o n a r e  t o e x p r e s s C a u s e and e f f e c t w e r e f o u n d The  1  seen  not  i n the very  "at o u t p u t s " . i t e m s a r e somehow l i m i t e d  e x p r e s s a p r o c e s s , h o w e v e r , t h e l o n g p r a c t i c e o f B&F  to  book  c e r t a i n l y d o e s p r o v i d e some p o s s i b i l i t y t o t r y o u t a w i d e r range  of items e x p r e s s i n g process.The  relatively  higher  occurrence of E v a l u a t i o n p o i n t s i n t o t h i s d i r e c t i o n . w r i t i n g down h e r p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e o r j u d g m e n t journalist  i s a b l e t o i n f o r m and r e f l e c t  With  the  a t t h e same t i m e .  T h e r e f o r e , even w i t h a l e s s developed w r i t i n g s t r a t e g y  she  manages t o u s e more t h a n " r e t r i e v e - a n d - w r i t e " . E x a m p l e s the language  s t r u c t u r e of E v a l u a t i o n :  " I t was  p r e t t y much", " t h e w o r d s a r e p r e t t y h a r d l i k e and  " I was  happy about  I did  neighborhood"  that"  An o b v i o u s c h a n g e i n t h e t o t a l peaked i n the f i r s t  f u n and  from  of statements  which  p e r i o d must be e x p l a i n e d w i t h t h e  g r o w i n g competence of the  j o u r n a l w r i t e r and  a t t e n t i o n of both  and  parents  Y e a r 2 i s t o be r e g a r d e d book. And  yet this  place around t h i s The  t h e most s u c c e s s f u l y e a r  i n the  i s t h e y e a r when f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e s  mis-match t a s k of t h i r d p e r i o d  t h e r e s t o f t h e page  and  result  of  writing  p e r i o d of Year 2  (Text  the  parents.  initiated  i n c l u d e d i n the  applied this educational the best  parental  curriculum, i t i s a  i n t e n t i o n but  long-term  success  l a c k e d the necessary  skills  to  s t r o n g l y depended  on  low  The  i s very t y p i c a l :  t h e y go  attitude  long  support". i f i t is possible,  f o r the e a s i e r , r o u t i n e - l i k e t a s k s , the m a j o r i t y of  them i s n o t w i l l i n g teacher  three years  c h a r a c t e r i z e d w i t h the motto o f :  " h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s and students'  teachers  situation.  of the a c t i v i t y  be  on  p l a n n i n g . The  p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h d u r i n g my  o b s e r v a t i o n s may  teacher-  innovation i n their classes with  implement i t t o t h e i r t e a c h i n g The  book  e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h i s not based  r e s e a r c h o r b a c k e d up w i t h  the  2.3.1-5.).  I h a v e a l r e a d y s t a t e d i t e a r l i e r t h e B&F i s not  one  should  f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s p r o v i d e some i n f o r m a t i o n on  As  took  ( T e x t s 2.3.1-5..-  f i l l e d w i t h c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g ) i s one  crucial  B&F  activity.  compromise between t e a c h e r s The  the  teachers.  s e n t e n c e a b o u t t h e s c h o o l day, be  with  s e t s up  to challenge  themselves unless  the  t h e t a s k on a more d e m a n d i n g l e v e l .  (1986) c l a i m s t h e same phenomenon a f f e c t s t h e c h o i c e  Christie of  68 genres,  c h i l d r e n use w h a t e v e r t h e y  w i t h and  was  day  several  comfortable  assume t o be s u c c e s s f u l .  Why every  f e e l more  then  school  t h e B&F  book w r i t i n g  activities  c l a s s e s ? As a p a r e n t  f o r three school years v o l u n t e e r I was  some i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f how p r o j e c t . My down e v e r y  p a r t i c i p a n t e n d e d up angle  able to  l o o k i n g a t t h e B&F  d a u g h t e r ' s s o l u t i o n was of her.  telling,  but  book  She  was  u n i q u e and,  to  (a t y p e  fulfil  a s c h o o l - t a s k , she  w r i t i n g ) and reflect  Hill"  on  still and  expectations,  home. say,  felt  obliged to  s t a r t e d to write  (i.e.:  she was  n a r r a t i n g and  occasional description.  creative  objectives  also facilitate  t h e use  of  (i.e.:  sequencing,  at the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s i n Table  t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s seemed t o be i n the  were t o e x p r e s s  able  i n f o r m about the s c h o o l d a y s ) . T h i s type  will  statements  and  T h i s way  stay w i t h her o r i g i n a l  story t e l l i n g  Looking  was  , a s t o r y t o l d by t h e o l d s c h o o l  of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ) .  the teacher's  irony  g i v e n the t a s k of c r e a t i v e s t o r y  s i n c e i t was  A d v e n t u r e s o f U.  building  this  book f r o m •  so t o  s t a y w i t h i n s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l . She "The  gain  and w i t h d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s . The  supposed t o h e l p communication between s c h o o l  typical  in  to a communication break-  o f t h i s c a s e i s t h a t t h e a c t u a l t a s k o f B&F  My  the  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s saw  a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t due  a different  included into  proven  : out of  40  f i v e e n t r i e s ( T e x t s 2 . 3 . 1 - 5 . ) , 38  the  concept of  Sequence.  2  (95%)  of  69 Examining the  l a n g u a g e i t e m s we  p h r a s e s i n a g r e a t number. The school  events  events  a r e r e t o l d and  do  not  see p r e p o s i t i o n a l  e m p h a s i s i s on n a r r a t i n g  from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the o l d b u i l d i n g , narrated.  Y e a r I I I b r o u g h t an o t h e r change i n h e r B&F attended  a new  f i r s t year of the  class,  o f u s i n g B&F  c h i l d r e n had  G e n e r a l l y i t was the o v e r a l l  w r i t t e n B&F  books  statements  interest  in reflecting,  personal  preference. f u n and  inside",  noisily". although  it",  were c o u n t e d ,  and  c o n f u s i n g so  "we  f o r "why's" and  i t got  m i g h t n o t go  the combination  in fairly  had  The  book a c t i v i t y was  expressing  could lined  not up  shows  (3) s h e e t s  " i t was  to  a l l worth  so?".  s l o w l y g o i n g on w i t h some  s i d e t o make i t a more  r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y . He  greater  reference  lots  too hard",  of  s i m i l a r ways,  o f r e f l e c t i o n and  f u n , t h e o t h e r t e a m won,  e f f o r t s on t h e t e a c h e r ' s  we  a g a i n b e c a u s e we  " M a t h : we  two  effect:  n o i s y and  " i t was  w r i t e a b o u t one  percentage  E v a l u a t i o n show a  searching  t h e y were not t o o easy not  matter  setting  i n the other  25 o n e s . The  Evaluation is realized  B&F  before.  E x a m p l e s o f C a u s e and  some d e v e l o p m e n t , e.g.: do,  the  4 shows a s i g n i f i c a n t d r o p i n numbers, i n  t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f P r i n c i p l e s and  stay  I t was  book f o r t h e t e a c h e r , w h e r e a s most  t h e r e a r e o n l y 28 and  " i t was  g r a d e s 4/5.  an o l d p r a c t i c e i n d i f f e r e n t  1.1.1-5. 49  periods  split  She  p i c t u r e shows a c e r t a i n d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n  quantity. Table Texts  t h i s time  book.  content  o f t e n asked the c h i l d r e n to  s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m of t h e day,  s u c h as  "what  have you  l e a r n e d a b o u t l o g g i n g i n B.C."; "what do y o u  a b o u t t h e e n d i n g o f t h e s t o r y " ; what d o e s b l o o d of?".  Once a g a i n B&F  paper, which  c a n be  thing  consist  book became j u s t an o t h e r p i e c e o f filled  i n many d i f f e r e n t ways and  ways a r e d e c i d e d a c c i d e n t l y ,  almost  on t h e s p u r o f  the  the  moment. The  f i g u r e s presented i n Table 5 helps the  s u m m a r i z e t h e r e s u l t s and make some c o m p a r i n g contrasting.  i s t h e Sequence  79.41% of the statements).The  and  ( 80.4%, 83.7%  f i g u r e s support  the main f u n c t i o n of t h i s w r i t i n g  n a r r a t e the school The  and  I t i s o b v i o u s , t h a t t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d  knowledge s t r u c t u r e  assumption:  writer  the i s to report  events.  s t r u c t u r e expressed the second  E v a l u a t i o n . The  s t u d e n t made a t t e m p t s  most f r e q u e n t l y i s  to express  feelings,  a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and  mentioned  school events. Although the percentage  of t h i s s t r u c t u r e w i t h my  g o a l s of the The  i t also  use  corresponds  E v a l u a t i n g and r e f l e c t i n g w e r e  r e g a r d i n g t h e use  t o be  low p e r c e n t a g e expressed  low,  of the  prior  writer.  assumption  not proven  her  preferences r e g a r d i n g the  is surprisingly  assumption.  and  c o r r e c t . The  (4.34%,5.2%  and  t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s was  t h e s e were t h e An o t h e r r e s u l t a g a i n o n l y one  of P r i n c i p l e s s t r u c t u r e  frequency count 6 . 8 6 % ) . The  : (we  and  effect:  .  c o n t r a d i c t s t o the assumption: description  showed a v e r y  most f r e q u e n t l y  R e l a t i n g cause  "because s e n t e n c e s "  was  l e a r n e d a new  there i s volley  ball  71 move,) i t i s c a l l e d bumper". student-writer  i n intermediate  aware o f t h e r e a d e r , e v e n t s and It  readers  and  will  the will  be  genuinely  Description,  the reader  know..." o r  "this  the  describing  that  in this one  but  two  i n t e r e s t e d i n h e r w r i t i n g . From a d i s a p p o i n t m e n t not  t o see  n e v e r f o u n d an o c c a s i o n a l  i s the...";  an  over-all  "  any you  impression  never able to or w i l l i n g  to  a u d i e n c e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n h e r w r i t i n g . On  o t h e r hand t h e r e neglect  a  be much more  s p e n d more t i m e on  to mention again  s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e w r i t e r was the  grades w i l l  that  r o u t i n e ensures the w r i t e r t h a t not  t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w i t was  take  a s s u m p t i o n was  actions.  i s a l s o important  activity  My  is a possibility  the reader  nature  of the  connection  on B&F  p u r p o s e . The  t h a t the w r i t e r d i d whole s e t - u p of the  book p r e d o m i n a n t l y s u g g e s t s  between r e a d e r  and  the  task,  a  w r i t e r w h i c h does not  need  any  f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i n g on t h e w r i t e r ' s s i d e .  II.  CONCLUSION The  study  involvement activity.  o f t h e B&F  book o r i g i n a t e d f r o m my  i n a unique t e a c h e i — i n i t i a t e d  I n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e B&F  perspectives  parental  classroom  book w r i t i n g t a s k  from  o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n I assumed  t h i s meaningful task would provide  authentic  and  t h u s p r o d u c e l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . The  and  the  observations  suggested t h a t the  the that  communication  c o l l e c t e d data  c o n d i t i o n s of  the  t a s k d i d not f o s t e r a u t h e n t i c communication and t h e r e f o r e r e s t r a i n e d t h e growth of language. The  B&F book a c t i v i t y d i d n o t p r o v i d e  participants The  f a i l e d t o encounter the primary  involved teachers  and p a r e n t s  interact with the students, help  i n t e r a c t i o n ; the  they  objectives.  missed the opportunity t o denied  the student  writers  i n a t a s k w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y s e t up t o f o s t e r  interactive  communication. C h r i s t i e  importance of i n t e r a c t i o n :  (1986) p o i n t s o u t t h e  " C h i l d r e n l e a r n language i n  interact ion-particularly with adults...-they rely  very  h e a v i l y upon t h e k i n d s o f l i n g u i s t i c m o d e l s made a v a i l a b l e t o them i n s u c h i n t e r a c t i o n , these not  even where, as i s o f t e n t r u e ,  a r e b u i l t up l a r g e l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y . . . . c h i l d r e n w o u l d  l e a r n language a t a l l i f i t were n o t f o r t h e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s they  are given  i n interaction,  and t h r o u g h t h e  i n t e r v e n t i o n of others, e s p e c i a l l y a d u l t s . " The  B&F book c o u l d h a v e p r o v i d e d  this  interaction  ina  n a t u r a l way b u t t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e t a s k d i d n o t make i t p o s s i b l e . The a c t u a l s e t - u p  of the task  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w r i t i n g product.  i s the reason of the  The s t u d e n t s  were  locked  i n t o a p r a c t i c e w h i c h was n o t m o n i t o r e d a n d s u p e r v i s e d , t h e t a s k was s u p p o s e d t o t a k e  care  of i t s e l f  and produce  language development a u t o m a t i c a l l y . E s t a b l i s h i n g the general expressed  pattern of t h i n k i n g  processes  i n the j o u r n a l I s t a t e that the accomplishment of  the d i s c o u r s e  t a s k was s u c c e s s f u l : t h e p a t t e r o f a r e g u l a r  j o u r n a l was n o t i c e a b l e . The w r i t e r was u s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e s i n s e q u e n c i n g , o r d e r i n g and events. and  Her  e v a l u a t i o n was  properly b u i l t  adjectives associated with values  choice  of  fulfilled  l a n g u a g e i t e m s was  overall  evaluation,  associated with of the reader  expression  was  c h i l d r e n w o u l d do: realize was  i t on  was  the  III. A.  left  She  w r i t i n g was  with  occasional  t h i n k i n g processes  a l o n e and  intervention  d i d what most  f o l l o w the r o u t i n e of the  t h e minimum l e v e l  not  task  of e x p e c t a t i o n . the  school and  The  writing  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  f a c t t h a t t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s weak  not  realization  itself.  IMPLEMENTATION  Use  The  task  events,  of the  r e g a r d e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , but  aware o f t h e  t a s k . Her  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . Without the  she  Her  p a t t e r n of Janka's w r i t i n g a l s o  n a r r a t i o n of s c h o o l  the  judgment.  journal writing.  showed t h e m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e more t h a n t h e  through verbs  always a p p r o p r i a t e .  the r e q u i r e m e n t s of  However, t h e  and  up  narrating  o f K n o w l e d g e Framework  presented  writing  a n a l y s i s e n a b l e d me  f r o m a b r o a d e r and  of the knowledge s t r u c t u r e  to  look at the  selected  more c o m p l e x p e r s p e c t i v e . The provides  an  i n t e g r a t e d way  use of  analysis. T e a c h e r s can  now  suitable perspective,  l o o k a t t h e w r i t i n g and s u c h as  or c o g n i t i v e views.The choice d e p e n d on  the  a n a l y s i s but  classroom,  choose  linguistic,  of the v i e w p o i n t w i l l  on t h e  actual teaching  any social not  situation.  74 F o r e x a m p l e , t h e t e a c h e r may d e c i d e t o f o c u s on t h e u s e o f c e r t a i n grammatical as  p o i n t s a n d d e c l a r e a week o f B&F w r i t i n g  "Grammar week" a n d c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e p r o p e r u s e o f  language items e x p r e s s i n g Sequence. An E S L t e a c h e r n e e d s a c c e s s i b l e a n d w o r k a b l e f o r c l a s s r o o m management i n a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e The  numerous e x p r e s s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e  p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t student  i n t o the value system  methods classroom.  i n my  data  and judgment o f a  from an o t h e r c o u n t r y and d i f f e r e n t  school  system.  L a n g u a g e i t e m s c a n be e a s i l y p r a c t i s e d m a t c h e d up w i t h s u i t a b l e t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . The B&F book f a c i l i t a t e s  a  l o n g - t e r m u s e o f P r e d i c t i o n , F o r e c a s t i n g . Foe e x a m p l e The t e a c h e r c a n a s k t h e s t u d e n t s n o t t o comment on p a s t  events  b u t , by l o o k i n g ahead t h e y can p r e d i c t t h e next day s c h e d u l e o r t a s k s i n c e r t a i n c o n t e n t a r e a s . They l e a r n t h e language s t r u c t u r e o f p r e d i c t i n g and r e a s o n i n g w h i c h w i l l  be  transmitted t o other w r i t t e n tasks of other school activities. W i t h t h e u s e o f Mohan's f r a m e w o r k and t h e t a b l e s provided  i n t h e ESL r e s o u r c e book  content matter  ( E a r l y 1986) b o t h ESL and  teachers can p l a n t h i s a c t i v i t y  A u n i t c r e a t e d w i t h t h e above s u g g e s t e d book w i l l  facilitate written  approach  open  l a n g u a g e u s e a n d a way o f  l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g when t h e c o n t e n t  i s n a t u r a l l y p r o v i d e d and  p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e i n v o l v e d a n d i n t e r e s t e d . The  level  t h e B&F  language a c q u i s i t i o n ,  communication, non-threatening  all  ahead .  o f e a c h B&F book i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d .  language  The f o c u s o f t h e  writer will  be d i r e c t e d w i t h t h e t e a c h e r b u t  topic, style,  length,degree  t h e s t u d e n t . The  will  the  the  language s k i l l s  and  be  to  students  content  approach  language s t r u c t u r e  learned s k i l l s ,  will  freedom of  be g i v e n  a l s o help the  l a n g u a g e and  teach the t h i n k i n g process  c o n c u r r e n t l y , and and  of f o r m a l i t y w i l l  structures will  organize t h e i r thoughts,  the  both t h i n k i n g  skill  t r a n s f e r a b l e to other subjects.  B. I n t e r v e n t i o n During  the three years  I made some a t t e m p t s w r i t i n g . The  l o n g p e r i o d o f B&F  t o i n f l u e n c e my  purpose of these  the e x p r e s s i o n of d i f f e r e n t  daughter's  b o o k . F o l l o w i n g Mohan's a r g u m e n t t h a t o f  people  i n advance of w r i t i n g .  a f t e r n o o n r e a d i n g t h e B&F which might  my  foster  i n the  i n the  s t r a t e g y was  B&F the  questions asking  In o t h e r words each  book I a s k e d  lead the w r i t e r  to  "essentially,  is reflected  a s k a b o u t i t " (Mohan 1986)  questions  journal  i n t e r v e n t i o n s was  t h i n k i n g processes  knowledge s t r u c t u r e of a t o p i c  book w r i t i n g  several  questions  i n t o the r e q u i r e d d i r e c t i o n .  T h i s q u e s t i o n i n g p e r i o d r e p l a c e d the w r i t t e n i n t e r a c t i o n dialogue  j o u r n a l p r a c t i c e , and was  realized  i n the form of  q u e s t i o n w o r d s w h i c h w e r e p u t on t h e t o p o f t h e n e x t An  page.  i n t e r e s t i n g outcome o f t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r a c t i o n was  i n c r e a s e d number o f r e a s o n i n g . T y p i c a l l y of q u e s t i o n s which f o r c e d the w r i t e r events.  I would say:  happened, look behind  " p l e a s e , do the events  I asked  those  "to look behind"  not o n l y t e l l and  of  me  concentrate  what  the types the has  on HOW? and  76 WHY?". One  j o u r n a l e n t r y was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n  r e a c t i n g t o t h i s type of q u e s t i o n i n g . the us  usual  started  n a r r a t i o n : " w e h a d a s u b t o d a y . She w a n t e d t o  a s o n g . Nobody was p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o h e r " . T h e n  a n s w e r i n g my q u e s t i o n not  The e n t r y  she w r o t e :  with teach  , as i f  "Can y o u i m a g i n e , s h e d i d  know how t o p l a y t h e g u i t a r " . The i n t e r v e n t i o n l a s t e d a b o u t a month, e a c h d a y J a n k a  started to write  i n h e r B&F book w i t h d i f f e r e n t  question  w o r d s w r i t t e n on t h e t o p o f t h e page.The w r i t i n g o f t h a t period, unfortunately data,  not i n c l u d e d  i n the randomly  was more s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a n t h e a n a l y z e d  e n t r i e s . The s u c c e s s f u l necessity  selected  journal  i n t e r v e n t i o n a l s o proved the  o f i n t e r a c t i o n . However, t h e p r a c t i c e d i d n o t  l o n g , my d a u g h t e r d i d n o t want t o h a v e a B&F book w h i c h "different"  IV.  from t h e books of h e r  last was  classmates.  S I G N I F I C A N C E OF THE STUDY The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e m e r g i n g new a p p r o a c h i n w r i t t e n  l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n was a l l u d e d t o i n t h e e a r l y p a r t s t u d y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l setting  of the  w r i t i n g i n L I and L2  i s a w e l l researched area of w r i t t e n  language  acquisition. In the s e c t i o n of the case study which d e a l t w i t h the p o t e n t i a l s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n ESL  classrooms I s t a t e d that t h i s a c t i v i t y considerable and  e f f o r t on t h e p a r t  the parents.This  effort  requires  of the teacher,  the students  i s r e w a r d e d w i t h a n open  bridge  77 b e t w e e n s c h o o l a n d home, t h e B&F b o o k s communication between  t e a c h e r , s t u d e n t and p a r e n t s w h i c h i s  v e r y much n e e d e d i n ESL s e t t i n g . of second  facilitate  Even a t t h e e a r l i e s t  language a c q u i s i t i o n s t u d e n t s from  cultures with different  stage  different  language p r o f i c i e n c y  l e v e l and  d i f f e r e n t background of s c h o o l i n g can get a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e e v e r y day s c h o o l t h e i r experience journal  enables  life  and c a n i n f o r m t h e i r p a r e n t s of  i n t h e i r new c l a s s r o o m s .  The u s e o f a  the teacher to i n d i v i d u a l i z e  language and c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e c l a s s r o o m s . provided w i t h a task which meaningful  The s t u d e n t s a r e  e n g a g e s them i n a u t h e n t i c ,  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a c o m p e t e n t a d u l t who  the necessary ESL  instruction i n  l a n g u a g e i n p u t . The i n v o l v e m e n t  presents  of parents of  s t u d e n t s must be c o n s i d e r e d a s one o f t h e m a j o r  significances.  I t i s unquestionably hard  f o r a p a r e n t who i s  new t o t h e c o u n t r y a n d h a s some l a n g u a g e p r o b l e m s t o g e t i n touch w i t h school personnel s c h o o l e v e n t s . As a s e c o n d and  a n d t o be u p - d a t e d a b o u t t h e language speaker,  a New  Canadian  a m o t h e r o f t h r e e ESL s t u d e n t s I want t o e m p h a s i z e  enough t h e i m p o r t a n c e  o f t h e s e B&F b o o k s f o r a l l t h e  participants involved. It  i s an e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h  can not only  teach  t h e t e a c h e r what t o t e a c h , t e a c h t h e s t u d e n t s how t o l e a r n b u t a l s o t e a c h t h e p a r e n t s how t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e i r children's The  education.  o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o i n t r o d u c e a  task which  has the p o t e n t i a l s t o provide a u t h e n t i c  c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n s c h o o l and educational  practice,  and  home and y e t due  t o some  general parental attitude  was  never able to f u n c t i o n according to i t s p o t e n t i a l s . weeks t h e B&F  book became v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e  obligatory classroom "artificial  assigned,  p r a c t i c e which are regarded  s i m u l a t i o n of w r i t i n g "  Within  as  ( E d e l s k y 1986)  and  unable  to  c o n t r i b u t e t o s t u d e n t ' s w r i t t e n language development.  V.  SUGGESTIONS FOR The  FURTHER RESEARCH  m a j o r i t y of the p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the  l i t e r a t u r e deals w i t h those  e d u c a t i o n a l aspects of  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g which are prime concerns My  s t u d y has  practice: (Beery day  addressed  the aspect  a new  t o the  s i d e of t h i s  of p a r e n t a l  1982).The presence  reviewed the  teacher.  educational  involvement  o f a b o o k l e t w h i c h g o e s home  every  c a n p r o v i d e t h a t open c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r i d g e whose  importance The parents  d o e s n o t n e e d t o be e m p h a s i z e i n an ESL  p o s s i b l e f o r m s o f an e x t e n d e d c u r r i c u l u m where are  l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and  language t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r most n e e d e d a r e a The  setting.  second  c h i l d r e n a r e a c h a l l e n g i n g and  for further research.  L a n g u a g e and  more s u p p o r t e r s  w r i t e i n the  C o n t e n t a p p r o a c h has  i n the Vancouver School  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  i n the classrooms  g a i n e d more  Board.  people  are  Both  and  i n the  realizing  the need f o r t e a c h i n g approaches, e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , m a t e r i a l s that provide equal equal  and  e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes f o r the E . S . L . s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n .  79 A f u t u r e g o a l and  a f u r t h e r d i r e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s  t o d e s i g n m a t e r i a l s , u n i t s and  l e s s o n p l a n s f o r the Back  F o r t h a c t i v i t y b a s e d on t h e L a n g u a g e and and w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e k n o w l e d g e  Content  and  approach  framework.  V I . CLOSING REMARKS The  t o p i c of personal w r i t i n g  a c q u i s i t i o n has a r e a o f ESL.  i n w r i t t e n language  become a much more d i s c u s s e d and  The  reviewed  of p e r s p e c t i v e s .  l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s a wide range  Researchers  examine t h i s a c t i v i t y  questioned  and  classroom  f r o m many d i f f e r e n t  teachers  angles  and  c h o o s e an a p p r o a c h w h i c h i s t h e most s u i t a b l e one teaching situation.  In the process  I h a v e come a c r o s s many i d e a s and classroom  implementation  T e a c h e r s and s u f f e r e d through books i n the case be And  failure.  E.S.L. R e s o u r c e b o o k l e a r n i n g the  language student  has  o f t h e B a c k and  The  B&F  Forth  a n a l y s i s and  the  book n e v e r managed t o  the r e a d e r t h a t t h i s  language of s c h o o l formidable  more activity  students.  Content I n s t r u c t i o n  ( E a r l y e t a l . 1986)  the  the  everybody's e x p e c t a t i o n s .  convince  " I n t e g r a t i n g L a n g u a g e and  project  p a r e n t s h a v e commonly  c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f ESL  "...in  long-term  c l o s i n g t h e r e p o r t t h e r e i s one  c i t a t i o n w h i c h may can  and  l a s t t h r e e s c h o o l y e a r s . The  I am  for their  arguments r e g a r d i n g  t h e unknown t r a i l s  successful, f u l f i l l i n g  may  of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g .  students  study suggest  y e t , as  of t h i s  can  K-12:  argues t h a t :  l e s s o n s , the  second  job of understanding  the  so new  i d e a s , and f i g u r i n g out and remembering t h e language t o  express  t h i s understanding.  The s t u d e n t n e e d s t o  meanings w i t h e x p r e s s i o n , t o connect  thought  The t e a c h e r n e e d s t o model t h e r e q u i r e d structures  connect  with  language.  linguistic  i n a c o n t e x t where t h e c o n n e c t i o n s  between  m e a n i n g and e x p r e s s i o n s a r e c l e a r " . The B a c k and F o r t h book h a s a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y to  requirements  become a r e g u l a r , r e l e v a n t a n d n a t u r a l t a s k w h i c h  enables  t h e t e a c h e r t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e t h e l a n g u a g e u s e , t o model the  linguistic  s t r u c t u r e s and be a b l e t o p r o v i d e  c o n t e x t f o r a u t h e n t i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The of  the presented  reader  case- s t u d y  meaningful  value  i s the i n s i g h t  i t can o f f e r the  i n t o t h e process of " l e a r n i n g the language of s c h o o l  l e s s o n s " , the language of  learning.  Bibliography A s h w o r t h , M . 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(1990) U s i n g k e y v i s u a l s t o a i d E S L s t u d e n t s ' comprehension of content classroom t e x t i n R e a d i n g - C a n a d a - L e c t u r e V o l . 7 Number 4 E a r l y , M . , C. Thew a n d P. W a k e f i e l d (1986) Xn.t.e.gr_a.t.mg. Language. a n d C.o.n.t.fi.nt.„.J.ns±xuc.t.i.Q..n.....K-1.2..;.. An E.S.L. R e s o u r c e Book, Vo1ume 1 V i c t o r i a , B.C.: M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n Modern Languages Services Branch E d e l s k y , C. (1986) H a b i a Una V e z  W r i t i n g i n a B i l i n g u a l Program: Norwod,N.J.: A b l e x P u b l i s h i n g Corp  E l l i s , R. (1986) U n d e r s t a n d i n g S e c o n d L a n g u a g e Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press  Acquisition  82  F u 1 w i 1 e r , T . ( e d . ) ( 1 9 8 7 ) The J o u r n a l Book Boyton/Cook P u b l i s h e r s Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Inc. Portsmouth,NH  Books  H a l l i d a y , M . A . K . Q 9 8 5 ) An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o F u n c t i o n a l G.r..§.ffl!B.§.r. 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S c h i e f f e l i n ( e d . ) ( 1 9 8 6 ) Langjaage S o c i a l i s a t i o n Across Cultures Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s S a n d l e r , K.W.(1987) L e t t i n g them w r i t e when t h e y c a n ' t e v e n speak? W r i t i n g as d i s c o v e r y i n t h e f o r e i g n language c l a s s r o o m i n T . F u l w i l e r ( e d . ) The..„.J.o.urnal. Book B o y t o n / C o o k P u b l i s h e r s Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s I n c . P o r t s m o u t h , NH S i n c l a i r - D u s t , S. (1988) O s c a r ' s j o u r n a l i n T. N e w k i r k and N. A t w e l l ( e d . ) U n d e r s t a n d i n g W r i t i n g : Ways o f O b s e r v i n g , L e a r n i n g a n d T e a c h i n g K-8 Heinemann Portsmouth,NH S t a a b , C. (1986) E l i c i t i n g t h e l a n g u a g e f u n c t i o n o f forecasting/reasoning i n elementary school classrooms The A l b e r t a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 1986 : X X X ' l I 2:June :  S t a t o n , J . (1980) W r i t i n g a n d c o u n s e l i n g : u s i n g journal L a n g u a g e A r t s 5 7 ( 5 ) , 514-518  a  dialogue  84  S t a t o n , J . (1983) D i a l o g u e J o u r n a l s : A New T o o l f o r T e a c h i n g Communication ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No.: ED 227 701 S t a t o n , J . (1984) D i a l o g u e J o u r n a l a s a means o f e n a b l i n g w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n i n J.Kreeft et a l (ed.) D i a l o g u e J o u r n a l A n a l y s i s o f S t u d e n t - T e a c h e r I n t e r a c t i v e W r i t i n g i n t h e L e a r n i n g of, E n g l i s h as a Second Language C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s Washington,D.C. S t a t o n , J . e t a l . (1988) D i a l o g u e , J o u r n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n : C l a s s r o o m , L i n g u i s t i c , S o c i a l and C o g n i t i v e V i e w s Norwood, N . J . : A b l e x Pub. C o r p . S t e r n , H.H. (1983) F u n d a m e n t a l C o n c e p t s o f L a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press T a n n e n , D. (1983) C r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n CATESOL O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r s ; Number 10:1-16 Fa 1 f1984.' " Tway, E. (1985) W r i t i n g i s R e a d i n g : 26 ways t o c o n n e c t U r b a b a , 111. : E r i c C l e a r i n g h o u s e on R e a d i n g and Communication W i e r s m a , W. (1986) R e s e a r c h Methods, i n E d u c a t i o n : An I n t r o d u c t i o n A l l y n and B a c o n , I n c .  85  A p p e n d i x A T e x t s 1-45  86  Y e a r 1 Week 1 Day 1 Monday O c t o b e r 5, '87 We s t a r t e d o u r d a y w i t h o u r s p e l l i n g t e s t . A t h a n d w r i t i n g f r o m now on I c a n ' t p r i n t , Anyway I h a t e t o p r i n t . T o d a y D a v i d h a d t o c h o o s e a n o t h e r book b e c a u s e we our o l d one. T h e n S i l e n t R e a d i n g , M a t h , K e y w o r d i n g a n d T.U.  finished  R 7  Y e a r 1 Week 1 Day 2  T u e s d a y O c t o b e r 6, '87 L.A. was f i r s t t o d a y . K e y w o r d i n g a n d A r t came. A f i r e d r i l l came up when f i r e f i t e r s came. S i l e n t R e a d i n g came. M a t h : I d i d n o t s e e t h e a d d i n g was on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e page s o I d i d i t w r o n g . Then we d i d t h i s book.  33  Year Wedsday O c t o b e r 7,'87 O u t p u t was f i r s t , t o d a y I l e a r n e d a new game. J o u r n a l s was n e x t I made up a new s t o r y . Pe games was n e x t . S t o r y m a t h , math was g o o d t o d a y . Then we d i d o u r B+F book. I t h i n k c l a s s m e e t i n g w i l l be n e x t . I t was a s h o r t d a y t o d a y .  1 Week 1 Day 3  99  Y e a r 1 Week 1 Day 4 T h u s r s d a y O c t o b e r 8, '87 M u s i c was f i r s t . H a n d w r i t i n g was n e x t . I h a d t o w r i t e a poem i t d o e s n o t h a v e t o be done t i l l n e x t t h u r s d a y . Key w o r d i n g was n e x t . I t was g o o d . S i l e n t r e a d i n g was n e x t . M a t h came n e x t i t was a s p e c i a l m a t h t i m e e x t r a h e l p s came we h a d math p r o b l e m s l i k e I h a d i n G r a d e 1. We h a d q e s t e n s l i k e " t h e r e was 9 j e l l y b e a n s 3 w e r e e a t e n by my b r o t h e r how many l e f t . " And f o r t h i s one I d o n ' t e v e n know t h e a n s w e r "a man was r u n n i n g home a n d when he was c l o s e t o home he met a masked man a n d he r a n b a c k w h e r e he corned f r o m . "  90  Y e a r 1 Week 1 Day 5 F r i d a y O c t o b e r 9, '87 T o d a y a f i r e f i t e r came t o o u r c l a s s he t o l d us t o d a y a f i r e a l a r m w i l l go on and we h a v e t o go o u t t o p r e c t i c e i t . He t o l d us t h a t a t 6 - o ' c l o c k i t w i l l go on i f we h a v e t h e t v o r t h e r a d i o on i t w i l l go o f . And a t s c h o o l w i l l g e t a s p e c i e l p a p e r t o d e s c a u s on. And we h a v e t o d e s c a u s i t b e f o r e 6 o ' c l o c k .  91  Y e a r 1 Week 2 Day 1  T u e s d a y F e b r u a r y 2, 1988. T o d a y was f u n . E v e r y b o d y showed t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t s . Somebody made a p i a n o ! J e n n y made a drum. M o s t o f t h e p e o p l e h a d drums o r b o t t l e s . Some p e o p l e h a d k i n d o f a g u i t a r b u t noone h a d a h a r p guitar.  Y e a r 1 Week 2 Day T h u r s d a y F e b r u a r y 4, 1988. T o d a y we h a d t o i m a g i n e . S o m e t h i n g most p e o p l e choosed t h a t t h e y were l i v i n g i n a c a s t l e , me t o o . I w a n t e d t o d r a w t h e k i n g a n d t h e Queen b u t i t was d r o w n already. I was d i s a p o i n t e d .  Y e a r 1 Week 2 Day  3  F r i d a y F e b r u a r y 5. 1988. T o d a y was s h a r i n g I b r o u g h t B r u m i ! ! ! He was a g o o d p a l . He d i d s p e l l i n g w i t h me. He a l s o w a n t e d t o r u n b u t a t t h e e n d we e n d e d up me c a r i n g him. He a l s o was p a t i e n t when I p u t h i m i n my c u b b y f o r m a p p i n g .  94  Year  1 Week 2 Day 4  Monday, F e b r u a r y 8, 1988. T o d a y V i was h e r e . She g a v e D a v i d a d a y o f f , b e c a u s e o n c e he g a v e h e r a d a y o f f , P e t e r t o l d us i n aunatsmant. A f t e r a u n a t s m e n t s we h a d u s a l P r e t e s t s p e l l i n g , f i n a l l y Nancy Duncan. I t ' s t o o b a d s h e s t o l e h a l f o f my h a n d w r i t i n g . F i n a l l y a break!!iRecess! Then s t o r y a f t e r r e c e s s i t was k i n d a b r e a k t o o ! B u t G e o m e t r y was n o t a b r e a k . A c t u a l l y I l e a r n e d something from i t . A t S i l e n t R e a d i n g I s t a r t e d a new book c a l l e d J u s t e n M o r g a n had a h o r s e . W e l l a f t e r we h a d e y e a g a i n . I t was g o o d . W e l l we h a v e some home w o r k i t i s i n t h e p o c k e t o f my B&F book. B&F book t i m e g a v e me a b r e a k .  Y e a r 1 Week 2 Day  T u e s d a y F e b r u a r y 9,1988. T o d a y t h e r e w e r e some e x c i t i n g t h i n g s l i k e we went t o a r t with Dian. F i r s t we h a d t o do some a n i m a l s . I d i d a h o r s e o f c o u r s . T h e n we h a d t o do some thumb s p o t s . T h e n we h a d m a t h I was i n t h e M.D. g r o u p . I t ' s f u n I am b e s i d e K e r e n .  Y e a r 1 Week 3 Day 1 Monday May 3 0 , 1 9 8 8 . T o d a y a t s p e l l i n g e v e r y b o d y seemed a t l e a s t t o h a v e 9 o r more w r o n g e d . T o d a y I d i d n o t l i k e s t o r y v e r y much ( I h a t e d i t ! ) A f t e r s t o r y math p r o b l e m s w e r e p l e a s e n t . We d i d t h i s : ... t r i a n g l e s . At gym ( a f t e r math p.) we d i d t r a m p u l i n e . S i l e n t R e a d i n g was a s i l e n t t i m e f o r me. S.S. I t was n e x t t h a t h o u r was most f u n .  Y e a r 1 Week 3 Day 2 T u e s d a y May 3 1 , 1988. Today I o n l y had 5 m i n u t e s because I l o a d e d t h e w i t h some o t h e r s . T h e n we h a d a r t we d i d book m a r k s , a l l h o u r . A t t h e end o f t h e d a y I went t o t h e c o m p u t e r s . T h a t ' s why I'm w r i t i n g f a s t .  computers  98  Y e a r 1 Week 3 Day T o d a y i s Wedsnday, J u n e 1, 1988. T o d a y a t O u t p u t s I g a v e J e n n y my t r a d p a r t i e n o t i e c e (Speech) A f t e r t h a t P e t e r showed us a new way o f A r t , me J e n n y , and G r a n t s t a r t e d i t . T h e n we h a d r e a d i n g , I k i n d o f h a d t o do n o t h i n g . A t s t o r y we r e a d s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t . And a t M a t h we h a d a d i f f e r e n t s k i l l . A f t e r l u n c h we h a d s q u a r t .  3  Keren  V9  Y e a r 1 Week 3 Day 4 T o d a y i s T h u r . J u n e 2, 1988. T o d a y i n Gym we d i d I n u i t e games. We n e e d e d 1 p a r t n e r f o r e a c h game b u t o n e . At r e a d i n g we went t o t h e c o m p u t e r s a n d w r o t e 6 s e n t e n c e s and t h e n r e c e s s . T h e n we went t o t h e l i b r a r y . We h a d S.S. a n d f o u n d o u t J e n n y l o s t o u r s h e e t s . Lunch. A f t e r S i . R e we h a d M a t h .  100  Y e a r 1 Week 3 Day F r i d a y J u n e 2, 1988. T o d a y was f u n . We h a d p u p p e t s t h e y a r e f i n i s h e d ! Then c o m p u t e r s and s p e l l i n g . A f t e r P e t e r e x p l a i n e d D i v . 9 s o m e t h i n g , we h a d math.  5  101  Y e a r 2 Week 1 Day 1 Monday O c t o b e r 17,'88 T o d a y i n gym, b e f o r e we went t o t h e gym, t h e r e w e r e some p e o p l e t a l k i n g . We g o t t o l i n e up w h i l e P e t e r s p o k e t o t h e p e o p l e on t h e c a r p e t . T h e n t h e y came a f t e r u s i n t h e gym. They s a t o n t h e b e n c h e s . We p l a y e d C a p t a i n ' s c o m i n g , s o o n t h e y j o i n e d u s . I n S p e l l i n g I g o t t h e m a l l r i g h t ! The w o r d s w e r e n ' t h a r d a n d anyway i t i s a p r e t e s t . I n F i e l d T r i p t a l k I f o u n d o u t what we a r e g o i n g t o s t u d i e i n grade four. N a t i v e s . I d o n ' t r e a l y h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e v e t what s h e m i g h t know, b e c a u s e n a t i v e p e o p l e d i d n o t k e e p c a t s f o r p e t s !  Y e a r 2 Week 1 Day  2  T u e s d a y O c t o b e r 18, '88 T o d a y i n O u t p u t s I c h a l l e n g e d J a s m i n e t o a game o f c h e c k e r s I won.I g o t t o move up on t h e Game L a d d e r I was a t t h e b o t t o m , now I am two up f r o m t h e b o t t o m , J a s m i n e h a s a p a r t n e r she s a y s h e r p a r t n e r i s n o t g o n n a be happy. I n A r t we d i d an o t h e r H a i k u poem we h a d t o w r i t e a b o u t o u r s e l f e s as a p u m p k i n , on H a l l o w e e n ! I t was f u n I f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g on t h e g o o d c o p i e . A f t e r r e c e s s I h a d gym. We l e a r n e d a new V o l l e y b a l l move. I t ' s c a l l e d bumper, we a l s o p r a c t i c e d . A f t e r l u n c h we h a d music.We p l a y e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . I t was l o t s o f f u n . I g o t a l i t t l e t a m b o r i n e , i t was k i n d o f s m a l l b u t i t was O.K. A t s i l e n t r e a d i n g i t was e x c i t i n g b u t I h a d t o do t o some messengar work!  103  Y e a r 2 Week 1 Day  3  Wednesday O c t o b e r 19, 1988. Today i n Outputs I d i d r e c e r c h r e p o r t ( I had t o ) . W e l l a t l e a s t I got i t f i n i s h e d . I was s u r p r i s e d we h a d r e a d i n g . T h i s y e a r I g o t i n t o D a v i d s group. A t s t o r y I a l m o s t t o l d e v e r y b o d y what w i l l h a p p e n . P e t e r h u s h e d me j u s t i n t i m e . W h i l e t h e g r a d e 2 / 3 h a d S.S. we h a d an I n d i a n t a l k t o u s . S h e had a b u t t e n e d j a c k e t . A t B'n'F L u c a s b r o u g h t us H a l l o w e e n c o o k i e s .  Year  2 Week 1 Day 4  T h u s t h d a y O c t o b e r 20, 1988. T o d a y a t o u t p u t s I d i d r e c h e r c h a n d r e p o r t . I am d o i n g i t o n b e a v e r s i t ' s f u n . I am l e a r n i n g how t h e y make h o u s e s . A f t e r o u t p u t s we d i d k e y w o r d i n g I f i n i s h e d m i n e s o I d i d my H a i k u poem. I d r a w n a p u m p k i n on a p o r c h . A f t e r r e c e s s we h a d m u s i c . We c l a p p e d some c l a p p i n g p a t t e r n s and l i s t e n e d t o J e r e m y was a b u l l f r o g o n t a p e . A f t e r i t came gym.We h a d t o g e t i n t o o u r teams My t e a m i s made f r o m C o r y J a s m i n e a n d me, o u r number i s 6. T h e n D a v i d r e a d us a s t o r y . I r e a d i t l a s t y e a r s o I know what's gonna happen. B u t i t ' s s t i l l i n t e r e s t i n g ! D a v i d s a i d he r e a d i t t o o ! W e l l a t s i l e n t r e a d i n g I s t a r t e d a new book! A t math we g o t d i v i d e d up i n t o o u r g r o u p s what we a r e gonna s t a y f o r 3 o r 4 w e e k s ! We p l a y e d a game!  105  Y e a r 2 Week 1 Day 5 Friday O c t o b e r 21,1988. T o d a y a t o u t p u t s I d i d my b o o k l e t . I s t a p l e d t o g e t h e r . I t was a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e b e c a u s e i t was s p e l l i n g n e x t . We d i d a p o s t t e s t . I g o t none w r o n g . When D i a n e came we d i d o u r H a i k u poems I f i n i s h e d i t . A t l i b r a r y t i m e I r e a d b e c a u s e I s i g n e d o u t my book j u s t yesterday! And a f t e r came s t o r y . We v o t e d a b o u t i t i f we c o n t i n u e i t o r s t o p r e a d i n g i t a n d c h o o s e a n o t h e r book. We a l s o d i d k e y w o r d i n g i t was t h e l a s t d a y o f w o r k i n g o n i t . I am g l a d b e c a u s e I f i n i s h e d i t on t h e f i r s t d a y . Oh w e l l . S i l e n t r e a d i n g was o k a y . B u t I h a d t o h e l p someone f i n d a bag. A f t e r we d i d a l i t t l e q u i z e on a n i m a l s , a n d c o l o u r i n some things.  Y e a r 2 Week 2 Day  1  Monday F e b r u a r y 6, 1989. Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d a r t . I t was f u n and I d i d p r e t t y munch. The t r i a n g l e s g a v e me a h e a d - a c h e . A t s p e l l i n g I g o t them a l r i g h t ! I f e l t g o o d a f t e r . A t grammar I f i n i s h e d e v e r y t h i n g , b u t t h e y a r e g o i n g t o check Jane's. A t s t o r y P r i n c e C a s p i a n d e c i d e d t o b l o w t h e h o r n . H e a l s o had an army and f o u n d t h e s t o n e t a b l e . We a l s o w r o t e l e t t e r s t o t h e M i n i s t e r t o s t o p t h e w o l v e s from b e i n g k i l l e d . A t p.e. we h a d f u n b u t o n l y g o t t o p l a y two games. A t m a t h we h a d o u r l a s t s u b t r u c t i o n q u e s t i o n s .  Y e a r 2 Week 2 Day 2  T u e s d a y , F e b r u a r y 7, 1989. T o d a y we d i d n o t h a v e o u t p u t s b e c a u s e we h a v e new t a b l e g r o u p s . O u r ( S a d i e , P e t e r , D a n i e l a n d me) name i s H i b e r n a t i n g H e l i c o p t e r s , i t ' s r e a l y funny. A t h a n d w r i t i n g I f i n i s h e d a poem a n d s t a r t e d one. The one I s t a r t e d i s a b o u t k i t t e n s . At p.e. we p l a y e d ' w o l v e s a n d c a r i b o u ' a n d ' D o c t o r Dodge b a l l ' . They w e r e b o t h f u n a n d t i r i n g . At m u s i c P e t e r t a l k e d more t h a n we s a n g . I t was e x c i t i n g a n d he t a u g h t u s a f r e n c h w o r d . At s t o r y L u c a s handed o u t c o o k i e s and P e t e r s t o p p e d a t t h e most e x c i t i n g p a r t . A t a r t I f i n i s h e d j u s t a t t h e n i c k o f t i m e . I was h a p p y .  108  Y e a r 2 Week 2 Day 3 Wednesday F e b r u a r y 8,1989. T o d a y a t o u t p u t s I d i d o u t p u t s . I d i d t a b l e names, i t was fun! I a l s o f i n i s h e d s o S a d i e i s t h e o n l y one l e f t , s o i t i s relewing. A t r e a d i n g we f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g o u r r a d i o p l a y , I am i n charge o f t h e sound a f f e c t s . I n s t o r y S u s a n won t h e bow m a t c h a g a i n s t t h e d w a r f . A t math we f i n i s h e d o u r p a p e r s a n d c o r r e c t e d them. We w e r e s u p p o s e d t o p l a y b i n g o a f t e r , b u t I f i n i s h e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f a game s o I c o u l d n ' t p l a y .  109  Y e a r 2 Week 2 Day 4  T h u r s d a y F e b r u a r y 9, 1989. Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d o u r r a d i o p l a y . We s t a y e d i n t h e o f f i c e u n t i l r e c e s s b e c a u s e r e a d i n g came a f t e r a n d t h a t ' s w h a t we a r e d o i n g . A t s t o r y L u c y was t r y i n g t o wake up t h e t r e e s , b u t d i d n o t succeed. A t r u n we r a n a r o u n d t h e s c h o o l o n c e . I n S.S. we saw a f i l m a b o u t s h e l t e r a n d d i d a t i t l e page f o r it. A t m a t h we p l a y e d b i n g o . J u m o k e a n d M e l l i s s a w e r e c a l l e r s .  n  Y e a r 2 Week 2 Day 5 Monday F e b r u a r y 1 3 , 1989. Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d s c i e n c e . I c o u l d n ' t f i n d a l i g h t b u l b and when I f i n a l l y d i d i t d i d n o t l i g h t . At s p e l l i n g I g o t 4 wrong, t h e words are p r e t t y hard. L i k e neighbourhood. We a l s o made e n v o l o p e s f o r V a l e n t i n e s . l t was h a r d d r a w i n g o v e r g l u e , a n d I was r e v e i l e d when I was f i n i s h e d . A t s t o r y t h e y met A s i a n . I n S . S . I c o u l d n o t f i n d a n y t h i n g on I n u i t , modern s h e l t e r but Haida and Squamish a r e easy. A t m a t h I d i d two a n d t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f a p a g e . I was v e r y happy about t h a t .  o  i i1  Y e a r 2 Week 3 Day  Monday, May 29, 1989 T o d a y a t p.e. I d i d n o t g e t a p a r t n e r b e c a u s e we h a d an e v e n number o f p e o p l e s o P e t e r and me d e m o n s t r a i t e d . The  Advanture  of  U.Hill  Chap. 21. "O.K. One...two.. " I h e a r d a v o i c e Oh, h i d e . . . " F a s t e r Z o h a r " I h e a r d B e s s She o n l y c h a n g e d a t i n i s i n c e y e s t e r d a y . Z o h a r came o v e r t o t h e f r o n t s t e p s and s a i d o r w h i s p e r e d : "Thanks s c h o o l ! I w i s h y o u c o u l d t a l k . B e s s i s not a b e a s t anymore! "  1  112  Y e a r 2 Week 3 Day 2 T u e s d a y , May 3 0 , 1989 T o d a y a t a t r me a n d J a s m i n e f i n i s h e d t h e p e t s t o r e we g o t two more w i n d o w s t o d o . Advantures of U . H i l l Chap. 2 1 . The b e e s w e r e b u z z i n g , t h e b i r d s w e r e s i n g i n g . S u d d e n l y C a t h y a s e a g u l l a n d e d on a p i n e t r e e s h e c a l l e d h e r l a n d i n g p l a c e . " L o o k what I f o u n d " s h e s a i d s h o w i n g o f h e r l e g . " R i n g ? ' a s k e d Cow l o o k i n g c l o s e l y . "Where d i d y o u f i n d i t ? ' a s k e d Nan a r o b i n . " I n t h e d r i v e way.' a n s w e r e d t h e p r o u d b i r d . " F a k e ' d e c l a r e d Dan who h e l d i t now i n h i s w i n g . "Shh' I s a i d . "10:25!!' S u d d e n l y Canny, a l i t t l e g i r l c r i e i n g "My r i n g ! ' s h e s o b b e d ' I l o s t i t . ' A t t h a t moment Dan d r o p p e d t h e r i n g . " I f o u n d i t " she s a i d h a p p i l y .  113  Y e a r 2 Week 3 Day 3 Wednesday, May 3 1 , 1989. T o d a y o u r t a b l e g r o u p f i n i s h e d o u r r e p o r t o n James Cook, p r a c t i c e l y me a n d Z o h a r d i d i t a l l . The A d v a n t u r e o f U . H i l l Chap.23. T o d a y e v e r y t h i n g was g o i n g o.k. f o r Nan a new g i r l i n s c h o o l s i n c e g y m . D a v i d d e c i d e d t o g i v e h e r a t r e a t . "Nan, Ann a n d Mag, y o u c a n be c a p t a i n s ' he s a i d . "What i s a c a p t a i n ? ' a s k e d Nan who was f r o m Germany. E v e r y b o d y e x c e p t Naomie who knew how s h e f e l t r o a r e d w i t h l a u g h t e r . A t p a r t n e r t i m e e v e r y b o d y was g i v e n a p a r t n e r , t h e n t h e y e a c h h a d t o w r i t e s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s . N a n was b o d i e d up w i t h Naomie.Nan w r o t e : I em f r e m Garmeny. When Naomie h a d t o r e a d i t up s h e d i d i t n o r m a l l y . E v e r y b o d y was s u r p r i s e d s h e c o u l d w r i t e t h a t g o o d .  11 4  Y e a r 2 Week 3 Day 4 T h u r s d a y , J u n e 1, 1989. T o d a y some p e o p l e came t o o u r s c h o o l us.  they played  jazz f o r  The A d v a n t u r e s o f U . H i l l Chap.24. "Hey, y o u ! Come b a c k ' s a i d a v o i c e . Dong, d o n g , d o n g . I f y o u know what I mean my m i n d was l i k e t h a t f r o m t h e b a s k e t b a l l match.Now t h i s v o i c e g o t my m i n d o f f t h a t . "Dam! T h a t b i r d ! ' Hmmm. what b i r d ? Maybe Dan o r Nan t h e R o b i n . " P u t t h a t s a n d w i c h b a c k Dan!' "O.K.'answered Dan  Y e a r 2 Week 3 Day F r i d a y , J u n e 6, 1989. T o d a y a t o u t p u t s I h a d t o f i n i s h S.S. our s t o r i e s , w e l l t h e n b i e U . H i l l . The  Advanture of  and we  5  a l s o h a d t o end  U.Hill  Chap.25. W e l l i t s u r e i s good f o r t h e l a s t day of s c h o o l t o a r r i v e . Two w h o l e month. S n o o s e s , t i c - t a c - t o e w i t h Nan and Dan, t e l l i n g s t o r i e s . E v e n t r y i n g t o t e a c h some b i r d s o r a n i m a l s . I t ' s a l s o t i m e t o s a y g o o d b i e t o t h e g r a d e s e v e n s and s t a r t m i s s i n g t h e c h i l d r e n k n o w i n g t h e y won't come b a c k n e x t y e a r o r w o n d e r i n g w h o ' l l come b a c k n e x t y e a r o r w h o ' l l be t h e new t e a c h e r . . . H a - h a - h a ! L o n g l i s s s s t ! Z-Z-Z-Z! Good Summer! Bie!  Y e a r 3 Week 1 Day 1 F r i d a y O c t o b e r 6,1989 Mom, T o d a y I was a l i b r a r y m o n i t e r ! I t was l o t s o f f u n : I g o t some b o o k s r e a d y t o s h e l v e . T h a t was t h e f u n n e s t p a r t . Then r e c e s s . Then P h i l r e a d us a l i t t l e r e v o l t i n g r i h m e . T h e n L i z was h e r e we s o l v e d l o t s o f p r o b l e m s . One was t h i s : A man h a d 29 cows a l l b u t n i n e d i e d . How many 1 i v e d ? T h a t was j u s t a warm up. A f t e r s q u i r t we h a d a r t . We made b o a r d games . Then we c h o s e a book o f l a s t m o n t h i t e n d e d up t o R e v o l t i n g Rhymes.  Y e a r 3 Week 1 Day 2  T u e s d a y O c t o b e r 10, 1989 Mom, H e l l o ! T o d a y we s t a r t e d o f f w i t h s p e l l i n g . I t was f u n . P h i l was s u r p r i s e d t h a t we knew what t o do w i t h o u t h i m t e l l i n g . We t o l d h i m we r e a d t h e b o a r d m e s s a g e , he d i d n ' t . W r i t i n g f o l l o w e d . I o n l y c o u l d w r i t e about t h r e e q u a r t s of a page b u t i t was f u n . I w r o t e a b o u t a f i e l d w i t h , l i t t l e b l u e flowars. T h e n we h a d f r e n c h . She t o l d us more a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t we a r e s u p p o s e d t o do by t h e end o f t h e y e a r . B u t I am s o r r y t o s a y no v i d e o . T h e n we h a d r e a d i n g . He showed us what o u r r e a d i n g j o u r n a l s o r what t h e y a r e gonna be t h e n we r e a d . I r e a d G u l l i v a r . We a l s o h a d m a t h w i t h d e c i m a l p o i n t s I f i n i s h e d s o ....no homework. B u t i t was f u n . We h a d s q u i r t , a f t e r l u n c h i t was f u n and I r e a d t h e same thing again. T h i s s i l e n c e was s h o r t l i v e d s i n c e we h a d a r t . B u t i t was worth i t . I d r e w a b o b t a i l and e v e r y o n e t o l d me i t l o o k e d l i k e a g o a t .  Y e a r 3 Week 1 Day 3 Wednesday, O c t o b e r 1 1 , 1989. W e l l h i a g a i n . T o d a y we s t a r t e d o f f w i t h w r i t i n g and I w r o t e a b o u t a w h o l e page. T h e y f o u n d a t i g e r c u b . Then math we h a d t o do t w e n t y e i g h t q u e s t i o n s and I d i d n o t f i n i s h , i t was f u n and c o n f u s i n g s o i t g o t n o i s y and we c o u l d n o t s t a y i n s i d e . A t r e a d i n g he r e a d us t h e l a s t c h a p t e r o f S a d a k o and t h e T h o u s a n d P a p e r C r a n e s . H e a l s o showed us how t o u s e a r e a d i n g j o u r n a l a g a i n . I t was fun.Now we a r e g o i n g t o have a C l a s s M e e t i n g .  119  Y e a r 3 Week 1 Day 4 T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 12, 1989. Mom, F r a n c a i s e : T o d a y i n F r a n c a i s e we w a t c h e d a v i d e o . A n d we l e a r n e d some names o f s p o r t s . Math:We h a d l o t s (3) s h e e t s t o do t h e y w e r e n o t t o o h a r d o r too easy. P.E.: D a v i d t a u g h t u s a n d we p l a y e d D o c t o r Dodge b a l l a n d freeze tag. R e a d i n g : We r e a d a news p a p e r a n d h a d some s o r t o f a questiner. S p e l l i n g : A t s p e l l i n g I g o t 2 wrong and t h e r e s t r i g h t ! Now we a r e g o i n g t o woodwork.  Y e a r 3 Week 1 Day 5 Friday O c t , 1989. Mom, t o d a y we d i d m u s i c w i t h D a v i d ' s c l a s s . J o h n ' s mom ( C a r o l y n ) came a n d s h e d i d i t w i t h u s . T h e n a f i r e m a n came a n d he showed u s a v i d e o . I t was s c a r e y . He t o l d u s t h a t i n a f i r e i t i s d a r k . T h e n we went t o r e c e s s . A f t e r r e c e s s we w a t c h e d t h e r e s t o f the video. T h e n we d i d s p e l l i n g . I g o t two t o t h r e e w o r d s w r o n g . Then a f t e r l u n c h I d i d s q u i r t a n d P h i l r e a d u s a l i t t l e b i t o f t h e W i t c h e s by R a l f D a h l . T h e n we d i d M a t i n e e .  121  Y e a r 3 Week 2 Day 1  Monday, F e b r u a r y 5, 1990. T o d a y we h a d o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n . I h o p e d p e o p l e l i k e d i t b u t when o u r t e s t s g o t b a c k i t was p r e t t y o b v i o u s e we h a d t o make t h i n k s more c l e a r . I am d o i n g my n e x t r e s e a r c h o n b l o o d .  Y e a r 3 Week 2 Day T u e s d a y , F e b r u a r y 6, 1990. Mom, T o d a y I was l i b r a r y m o n i t o r t w i c e !!! Once i n t h e m o r n i n g and o n c e i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . Of c o u r s e I h a d t o m i s s a r t and t e a c h N i c o l e . I t was a l l w o r t h i t ! A l l the grade 1 from div.9/10!  2  123  Y e a r 3 Week 2 Day 3  Wedn. F e b r u a r y 7, 1990. I w a t c h a b o u t 12 h o u r s t v e a c h week. P e o p l e s a y t h a t t v c o u l d be r e a l e d u c a t i o n a l i f y o u p i c k t h e g o o d shows a n d y o u w a t c h i t a t t h e r i g h t t i m e . L i k e NOT a t 11pm. When I f i r s t came h e r e I l e a r n e d a l o t o f new w o r d s . So I a d v i s e y o u t o l e t ESL c h i l d r e n w a t c h t v s o t h e y w i l l be m o t i v a t e d .  Y e a r 3 Week 2 Day T h u r s d a y , F e b r u a r y 8 1990. Mom, t o d a y we saw a m o v i e a b o u t b l o o d . I t was e d u c a t i o n a l , most p e o p l e s a i d i t was g r o s s . We a l s o went t o t h e l i b r a r y t o f i n d some b o o k s . I t was f o r a r e s e a c h and I o n l y h a v e one more c h a n c e on b o o k s , s i n c e o n l y two o f t h e t h r e e b o o k s t h e c a t a l o g e i n d i c a t e s was t h e r e .  4  Y e a r 3 Week 2 DayF r i d a y , F e b r u a r y 9, 1990. T o d a y we h a d m u s i c . I t was f u n b u t we m i g h t n o t go a g a i n b e c a u s e we l i n e d up noisiley. B u t I hope we go a g a i n . We a l s o h a d c o m p u t e r s . T h a t ' s w h e r e I'm w r i t i n g f r o m now. Andrew t h i n k s we s p l i t t h e t i m e u n e q u e l l y . I don't b e c a u s e P h i l s a i d s w i t c h now r i g h t a f t e r we switched. I know f r o m 0-11 t i m e s t a b l e s r e a l l y w e l l .  126  Y e a r 3 Week 3 Day 1 Monday May 7, 1990. A t s t o r y we h a d t o p r e d i c t : I t h i n k t h a t t h e g i a n t s a r e g o i n g t o escape and t r y t o r u n back t o G i a n t c o u n t r y . T h e y managed t o go 3 s t e p s b e f o r e t h e army t o o k o u t t h e i r weapons a n d s h o t a l l b u t o n e . The r e m a i n i n g g i a n t i s t h e t e r r o r b u t t h e y s a f e l y b u r y t h e others.  Y e a r 3 Week 3 Day 2  T u s e d a y May 8, 1990. T o d a y we went t o t h e c o m p u t e r room and h e l p e d C a n d i c e ' s c l a s s . I g o t a b o y who s a i d y e s t o e v e r y t h i n g !  Y e a r 3 Week 3 Day 3 Wednesday, May 9,1990. T o d a y t h e r e came a l a d y . She t a l k e d o f d r a g o n b o a t s , s h e a l s o showed us a m o v i e . P h i l a l s o showed u s a n e w s p a p e r t h a t t h e women's F a l s e C r e e k Team won t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a c e . T o d a y we a l s o p l a y e d C a l i f o r n i a kick-ball. I t was f u n , a n d t h e o t h e r t e a m won...so? I was o u t - f i e l d , t h i r d , a n d b a c k c a t c h e r , among h i t t i n g .  129  Y e a r 3 Week 3 Day  T h u r s d a y , May 10,1990. T o d a y we h a d a s u b . I g u e s s he c h a n g e d h i s m i n d a b o u t b e i n g a t e a c h e r a f t e r h a v i n g us . I h a t e Simon now he j u s t popped my b a l l o n . You s e e I was l i b r a r y m o n i t o r i n t h e m o r n i n g and M a r j o r y gave i t t o me and he p o p p e d i t ! 1  4  Y e a r 3 Week 3 Day Friday Mayll,1990. T o d a y we h a d math. I t was O.K. When we h a d pe me a n d H e i d i a n d N a t h a n s t a y e d I worked but I a l s o had t o h e l p H e i d i .  inside.  131  Appendix B  132  Text  1.1.1.  T h i n k i ng p r p c e s s  Language  structures  Sequencing: Ordering  We  started  o u r day w i t h  the s p e l l i n g Report  test  A t h a n d w r i t i n g f r o m now I can't p r i n t ,  on  anyway I h a t e  print Choice Making  a decision  Today D a v i d had t o choose a n o t h e r book b e c a u s e finished  we  o u r o l d one.  Sequen.cl.Dg Ordering  Then S i l e n t  R e a d i n g , M a t h , Key  wording  T.U.  and  Text  1.1.2.  Thinking processes  Language  structures  Sequence: Report/Noting a process  L.A. was f i r s t  today.  Key w o r d i n g a n d A r t came. A fire  drill  when a f i r e  came up fiter  S i l e n t Reading  came.  came.  Principles: R e l a t i n g cause  and e f f e c t  Math: I d i d not see t h e a d d i was on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e page s o I d i d i t w r o n g .  S.e.guen.ce.:.. Report  Then we d i d t h i s  book.  Text Thinking  1.1.3. processes  Language  structures  Sequence: Report  O u t p u t was today  Noting a process  first  I l e a r n e d a new game  J o u r n a l s was n e x t , I made a new s t o r y . P.E. was n e x t .  Evaluation: Evaluating  S t o r y math: math was g o o d today.  .Seque„nce...:.. Noting a process  T h e n we d i d o u r B+F b o o k .  Principles: Predicting  I t h i n k c l a s s meeting  will  next. Sfigil.gD.Gfi.: Report  I t was a s h o r t d a y t o d a y .  135 Text Thinking  1.1.4. processes  Language  structures  Sequence: Noting a process  M u s i c was  first.  H a n d w r i t i n g was Report  I h a v e t o w r i t e a poem, it  d o e s n o t h a v e t o be  till Noting a process  next.  done  next thursday.  Key w o r d i n g was  next  Evaluation: Evaluating  I t was  good.  Noting a process  S i l e n t R e a d i n g was  next.  M a t h came n e x t . Report  I t was  a s p e c i a l math t i m e  e x t r a h e l p came. We  had math problems  I had We  had  like  i n Grade 1 questions  " t h e r was  like  9 jellybeans  w e r e e a t e n by my how  many  And  f o r t h i s one  3  brother  left" I don't  even  know t h e a n s w e r : "a man  was  when he was he met  r u n n i n g home c l o s e t o home  a masked  man  and he r a n b a c k where he  come  136 from. "  137 Text  1.1.5.  Th i nk 1 ng pro.c e s s e s  Language s t r u c t u r e s  S.e.gy.e..n.c.e:. Report  Today a f i r e to  fiter  came  o u r c l a s s , he t o l d  today  a fire  alarm  us  will  go on and we h a v e t o go o u t a n d prectice i t . He t o l d us t h a t a t 6o'clock it will  go on i f we  have  t h e t v o r r a d i o on i t wi11  go o f .  And a t s c h o o l w i l l speciel  get a  paper t o descaus  on. And we h a v e t o d e s c a u s i t before  6o'clock.  138 Text  1.2.1.  T h i n k i n g p r oc e s s e s  Lang.uage  structures  Evaluation: Evaluating  T o d a y was f u n  Sequence: Report:  Everybody  showed  their  instruments. Somebody made a p i a n o J e n n y made a drum. M o s t o f t h e p e o p l e h a d drums or  bottles.  Some p e o p l e h a d k i n d o f a guitar guitar.  b u t noone h a d a h a r p  Text Thinking  1.2.2. processes  La.ngya g e _ s t r u c t u r e s  Sequence: Report  T o d a y we h a d t o i m a g i n e . S o m e t h i n g most p e o p l e  choosed  t h a t t h e y were l i v i n g  in a  c a s t l e , me t o o I w a n t e d t o d r a w t h e k i n g and the  q u e e n b u t i t was  already  Evaluating  I was  disapointed.  drow  140 Text  1.2.3.  Xh.ink.i..Q.9. PX9..c e s s e s  Language  structures  Sequence.:. Report  T o d a y was s h a r i n g  I brought  B r u m i !! !  Evaluation: Evaluating  He was a g o o d p a l .  Sequence.:.  He d i d s p e l l i n g w i t h  me.  He a l s o w a n t e d t o r u n b u t a t t h e end we e n d e d up me c a r i n g him. He a l s o was p a t i e n t when I p u t h i m i n my c u b b y f o r m a p p i n g .  . 41 Text  1.2.4,  Thinkingprocesses  Language  structures  Sequence T o d a y V i was  Report  here.  She g a v e D a v i d a d a y o f f , b e c a u s e o n c e he g a v e h e r a d a y o f , P e t e r t o l d us i n a n a t s m a n t Noting a process  After  a n a t s m a n t s we h a d  Pretest Nancy  spel1ing,finally  Duncan.  I t ' s t o o b a d she s t o l e  Report  usal.  half  o f my h a n d w r i t i n g . Noting a process  F i n a l l y a break!!!  Recess!  Then s t o r y a f t e r r e c e s s , i t was k i n d a b r e a k t o . B u t G e o m e t r y was n o t a b r e a k .  Report  Actually  I learned something  from i t . At S i l e n t Reading  I started  a  new book c a l l e d J u s t e n M o r g a n had Noting  a horse.  process  Ey.a.lu.a.t.i.Qm.  W e l l a f t e r we h a d eye a g a i n .  Evaluating Sequence:  I t was  good.  W e l l we h a v e some home w o r k is B&F  i n t h e p o c k e t o f my book.  B&F book t i m e g a v e me  break.  143 Text  1.2.5.  T h i n k i n g proce.ss.es  L a n g u a g e st.ruc.tur.es  Sequence: T o d a y t h e r e were some e x c i t i n g  Report  things with Noting  process  l i k e we went t o A r t  Dian.  F i r s t we h a d t o do some animals.  I d i d a horse of cours.  Then we h a d t o do some  thumb  spots. T h e n we h a d math I was M.D.  group.  Evaluation: Evaluating  It's fun.  Sequence: Report  I am b e s i d e K e r e n .  i n the  Text Thinking  1.3.1. processes  Language s t r u c t u r e s  Sequence: Report  Today a t s p e l l i n g seemed a t l e a s t  everybody  t o have 9 o r  more w r o n g e d . Today I d i d not l i k e  story  v e r y much ( I h a t e d i t ! ) . After were  s t o r y math pleasent.  We d i d t h i s A t gym did  problems  :...  triangles  ( a f t e r math p) we  trampuline.  Evaluation: Evaluat ing:  Silent  R e a d i n g was a s i l e n t  t i m e f o r me. S . S . I t was n e x t t h a t was most f u n .  hour  Text  1.3.2.  Th inkin_g_ p r o c e s s e s i  ^ Language  structures  Principles: R e l a t i n g c a u s e and e f f e c t  Today I o n l y had 5 m i n u t e s because  I loaded the computers  w i t h some o t h e r s . Sequence: Report  T h e n we h a d A r t we d i d book marks,  a l l hour.  At  t h e e n d o f t h e d a y I went  to  the computers  Principles: R e l a t i n g c a u s e and e f f e c t  T h a t ' s way  I am w r i t i n g  fast  Text TJxLnki.ng  1.3.3. processes  Language s t r u c t u r e s  Sequence Today a t O u t p u t s I gave Jenny  Report  my Noting a  process  trad notiece  (Speech).  A f t e r t h a t P e t e r showed us a new way o f A r t , Me,  J e n n y , K a r e n and  Grant  started i t . Then we h a d r e a d i n g , I k i n d o f had  t o do  nothing.  A t s t o r y we r e a d  something  di fferent. And a t M a t h we h a d a d i f f e r e n t skill. After  l u n c h we h a d Squad.  Text Thinking  1.3.4.  processes  Language  structures  Sequence Report  T o d a y i n Gym  we  did Inuite  games. We  n e e d e d one  e a c h game b u t  partner for one.  A t r e a d i n g we went t o t h e c o m p u t e r and w r o t e  6  sentences Noting a process  and t h e n r e c e s s . Then we We  Report  had  Jenny  went t o t h e S.S.  and  l o s t our  library  found  out  sheets  Lunch Noting  process  A f t e r S i . R e we  had  Math.  14b Text  1.3.5.  Thinking processes  Language s t r u c t u r e s  EydJ.uat.i..on....:.. Evaluating  T o d a y was  fun.  Sequence: Report  We  had puppets t h e y a r e  finished. Noting a process  T h e n c o m p u t e r s and  spelling.  A f t e r Peter explained Div.9 s o m e t h i n g , we  had math.  149 Text Thinking  2.1.1. processes  Languagestructures  Sequence: Report  T o d a y i n Gym, b e f o r e we went t o t h e gym, t h e r e were some people  talking.  We g o t t o l i n e up w h i l e P e t e r t a l k e d t o t h e p e o p l e on t h e carpet. Noting a process  Then t h e y came a f t e r u s i n t h e gym.  Report  T h e y s a t on t h e b e n c h e s . We p l a y e d C a p t a i n ' s c o m i n g ,  Noting a process  soon they j o i n e d us.  Report  In S p e l l i n g  I g o t them a l l  right! Evaluation: Evaluating  The w o r d s w e r e n ' t h a r d a n d and  a n y way i t ' s o n l y a  pretest. Sequence: Report  In F i e l d T r i p t a l k  I found out  what we a r e g o i n g t o s t u d i e i n G r a d e 4, N a t i v e s . Pr.inclE.lesj.. R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t  I d o n ' t r e a l y have any q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e v e t what s h e  150 m i g h t know, because n a t i v e people d i d not keep c a t s f o r p e t s !  151 T e x t 2.1.2 Thinking  process  Language  structure  Seguen.ce.. Report  Today a t o u t p u t s I c h a l l e n g e d Jasmine  t o a game o f c h e c k e r s !  I won. I g o t t o move up on t h e Game L a d d e r bottom the Report  I was a t t h e  , now I am two up f r o m  bottom.  Jasmin has a p a r t n e r she says h e r p a r t n e r i s n o t gonna be happy.  Report  I n A r t we d i d a n o t h e r H a i k u poem  we h a d t o w r i t e  about  o u r s e l f e s as a pumkin, on  Halloween!  Eya.Lua.t.io.Q_.:.. Evaluating  I t was f u n I f i n i s h e d on t h e g o o d  writing  copie.  Sequence: Report  A f t e r r e c e s s I h a d gym. We  Description:  l e a r n e d a new v o l l e y b a l l  move .  Describing Sequence:  It's called  bumper  Report we a l s o  practised.  After We  l u n c h we h a d m u s i c .  played  the  instruments.  Eyaiuatjon..:. Evaluating  I t was  lots  of f u n .  Sequence: Report  I got a l i t t l e  tramborine,  i t was k i n d o f s m a l l but  i t was  O.K.  Evaluation; Evaluation  At s i l e n t  reading  i t was  e x c i t i n g b u t I h a d t o do some m e s s e n g a r w o r k !  Text Thinking  2.1.3, processes  Language s t r u c t u r e s  Sequence Today i n O u t p u t s  Report  report, Well  I did recerch  ( I had t o ) .  at least  I got i t  finished. Evaluation; Evaluating  I was  s u r p r i s e d we  had  reading  Sequence: T h i s y e a r I got i n t o  Report  David's  group. At s t o r y I almost  told  e v e r y b o d y what w i 1 1  Noting  a process  P e t e r h u s h e d me  just  While the grade  2/3  happen. i n time. has  S.S.  an I n d i a n t a l k e d t o u s . She h a d a b u t t e n e d j a c k e t . Report  A t B'n'F Halloween  Lucas brought cookies.  us  Text  Thinking  2.1.4.  processes  Language  structure  Sequence: Report  Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d r e c h e r c h and r e p o r t . I am d o i n g i t o n b e a v e r s .  Evaluation: Evaluating  i t ' s fun  Sequence: Report  I am l e a r n i n g how t h e y make houses. A f t e r o u t p u t s we d i d keywording,  Principles: R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t  I f i n i s h e d m i n e s o I d i d my H a i k u poem.  Sequence: Report  I drawn a pumpkin on a p o r c h  Noting a process  A f t e r r e c e s s we h a d m u s i c . We c l a p p e d some c l a p p i n g p a t t e r n s and l i s t e n e d t o J e r e m y was b u l l After  f r o g on t a p e  i t came gym. We h a d t o  g e t i n t o o u r t e a m s . My team made f r o m C o r y , J a s m i n e and me.Our number i s 6.  Then D a v i d r e a d u s a I read  story.  i t l a s t y e a r s o I know  what's gonna happen. Evaluation: Evaluating  But i t ' s s t i l l  interesting.  Sequence: Report  D a v i d s a i d he r e a d  i t too!  Well at s i l e n t reading I started  a new b o o k !  A t math we g o t d i v i d e d  up  into  o u r g r o u p what we a r e gonna s t a y f o r 3 o r 4 weeks. We p l a y e d a game.  Text Thinking  2.1.5. • processes  Language  structures  Sequence; T o d a y a t o u t p u t s I d i d my  Report  booklet.  I stapled together.  Principles: R e l a t i n g cause  and e f f e c t  I t was a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e b e c a u s e i t was s p e l l i n g  next.  Sequence: We d i d a p o s t t e s t .  Report  I g o t none  wrong. When D i a n came we d i d o u r H a i k u poems I f i n i s h e d i t . Er.iiic.i.p.l.e.s_i. R e l a t i n g cause  and e f f e c t  At  l i b r a r y time I read  b e c a u s e I s i g n e d o u t my book just yesterday! Sequence: Noting a process  And  after  came s t o r y .  Report  We v o t e d a b o u t  i t i f  we c o n t i n u e i t o r s t o p r e a d i n g it  and c h o o s e a n d o t h e r book.  We a l s o d i d k e y w o r d i n g ,  i t was  t h e l a s t day o f w o r k i n g on i t . Principles: R e l a t i n g cause  and e f f e c t  I am g l a d b e c a u s e I  finished  on t h e f i r s t d a y . Oh  well...  Sequence: S i l e n t r e a d i n g was  Report  okay. But  h a d t o h e l p somebody f i n d a bag. Noting a  process  A f t e r we d i d a l i t t l e on a n i m a l s ,  and c o l o u r  i n some t h i n g s .  quize  Text  2.2.1.  Th1nk i n g p r o c e s s e s  Language s t r u c t u r e s  Sequence: Report  Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d a r t .  Evaluation: Evaluating  I t was  f u n and  I did pretty  much. Sequence: Report  The  t r i a n g l e s g a v e me  a  head-  ache . At s p e l l i n g  I g o t them  alright! Ev.aluati..Q_n.; Evaluating  I felt  good  after.  Sequence: Report  A t grammar I f i n i s h e d everything,  but they are  g o i n g t o check  Jane's.  At s t o r y P r i n c e  Caspian  d e c i d e d t o blow the horn. He the We  a l s o h a d an army and  found  stone t a b l e . a l s o wrote  l e t t e r s t o the  M i n i s t e r to stop the  wolves  f r o m be i n g k i l l e d . A t p.e.  we  had  g o t t o p l a y two  fun but o n l y games.  A t m a t h we h a d o u r substruction  last  questions.  160 Text Thinking  2.2.2. processes  __  _  Language  structures  Principles: Relating  c a u s e and e f f e c t  T o d a y we d i d n o t h a v e o u t p u t s b e c a u s e we h a v e new  table  groups. Description: Describing  Ours me)  (Sadie,  Peter,  Daniel  and  name i s H i b e r n a t i n g  Helicopters. Eya.Iuat.i.Qrii_:,. Evaluating  I t ' s realy  funny.  S.e..q.u.e.n.c.e...;. Report  At h a n d w r i t i n g  I finished a  poem a n d s t a r t e d a one. The one I s t a r t e d i s a b o u t kittens. A t p.e. we p l a y e d ' w o l v e s and caribou'  and  ' D o c t o r Dodge'  Evaluation: Evaluating  T h e y were b o t h f u n a n d  tiring.  Sequence: Report  At s t o r y L u c a s handed out cookies  and P e t e r  stopped  a t t h e most e x c i t i n g At A r t I f i n i s h e d the  n i c k of  Evaluation: Evaluating  I was  happy  time.  part  just at  162 Text Thinking  2.2.3. processes  Language  stxuctur.es  Sequence: Report  Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d outputs.I  d i d t a b l e names,  Evaluation: Evaluating  i t was  fun!  Sequence.:.. Report  I a l s o f i n i s h e d so S a i d i i s the  only  one  left,so i t is  relewing. At r e a d i n g  we  finished  o u r r a d i o p l a y , I am of t h e sound  A t math we  i n charge  affects.  I n s t o r y S u s a n won match a g a i n s t  writing  the  the  bow  dwarf.  f i n i s h e d our  and c o r r e c t e d  papers  them.  Principles: R e l a t i n g c a u s e and e f f e c t  We  were supposed  to play  a f t e r , but I f i n i s h e d m i d d l e o f a game, so I c o u l d n ' t  play.  bingo  i n the  16:: Text  2.2.4.  Ih..i.nk.i.n.g. px.Q..c.e.£i.s.e..s.„...„..„  ...Laoguage s.txu.ctures  Sequence: Report  Today a t o u t p u t s radio  I d i d our  play.  Principles: R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t  We s t a y e d  i n the o f f i c e  r e c e s s because  until  r e a d i n g came  a f t e r a n d t h a t ' s what we a r e doing. Sequence: Report  A t s t o r y L u c y was  trying  t o wake up t h e t r e e s , b u t d i d not  succeed.  A t r u n we r a n a r o u n d t h e school once. In  S.S. we saw a f i l m  about  s h e l t e r and d i d a t i t l e for i t . A t math we p l a y e d  bingo.  Jumoke and M e l i s s a w e r e callers.  page  164 Text Thinking  2.2.5. processes,  Language  structures  S.eguen.ce: Report  Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d science.  I couldn't  find a  l i g h t b u l b and when f i n a l l y did  i td i d not l i g h t .  At s p e l l i n g  I g o t 4 wrong.  Ev.al_ua.t i.o.nj Evaluating  The w o r d s a r e p r e t t y h a r d , like  Report  neighbourhood.  We a l s o made e n v o l o p e s f o r Valentines.  Evaluation: Evaluating  I t was h a r d d r a w i n g o v e r and  glue,  I was r e v e i l e d when I was  finished. Sjsgjjejice.., Report  A t s t o r y t h e y met I n S.S. I c o u l d anything  Asian.  not f i n d  on I n u i t ,  o r modern  s h e l t e r b u t H a i d a and Squamish as  easy.  A t math I d i d two a n d t h r e e quarters Evaluation:  o f a page.  165 Evaluating  I was  v e r y happy about  that.  166 Text  2.3.1.  T h i n k i n g .processes  Language  structures  Principles: R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t  Today a t p . e . I d i d n o t g e t a partner because  we h a d an e v e n  number o f p e o p l e , s o P e t e r a n d me d e m o n s t r a i t e d . Seguence: Narrating  "O.K.  One...Two..."I h e a r d a  v o i c e , oh h i d e . . . " F a s t e r Zohar" Report  She  I heard  o n l y changed a t i n i  y e s t e r d a y . Zohar the Narrating  Bess. since  came o v e r t o  frontsteps  and s a i d o r w h i s p e r e d : "Thanks s c h o o l !  Report  I w i s h I c o u l d t a l k . Bess i s n o t a b e a s t anymore!  167 Text  2.3.2. Language  Thi.njki.ng: p r o c e s s e s .  structures  Sequence: Report  T o d a y a t a r t me and  Jasmine  f i n i s h e d the pet store we g o t two more w i n d o w s t o do Description: Describing  The b e e s w e r e the  buzzing,  b i r d s were  singing.  Se.que.nc..e.:.. Report  Suddenly  Cathy, a seagul  l a n d e d on a p i n e t r e e s h e c a l l e d her landing  place.  "Look what I f o u n d " s h e s a i d showing  of her l e g .  " R i n g ? " a s k e d Cow  looking  closely. "Where d i d y o u f i n d  i t ?"  a s k e d Nan a r o b i n . " I n t h e d r i v e way.' the  proud  bird.  "Fake" d e c l a r e d it  answered  Dan who  held  now i n h i s w i n g .  "Shh!" I s a i d . Suddenly  "10:25  Canny, a l i t t l e  crieing  "My r i n g " s h e  "I  it. "  lost  !!" girl  sobbed  16 8 At  t h a t moment Dan  dropped  the  ring. "I found i t ! " s h e s a i d  happily.  169 T e x t 2.3.3, Thinking  processes  Language  structures  SegjJej}.cej_ Report  Today o u r t a b l e group  finished  o u r r e p o r t on James Cook, p r a c t i c e l y me a n d Z o h a r d i d i t all . Sequence Report  T o d a y e v e r y t h i n g was g o i n g O.K.  f o r Nan a new g i r l i n  school since  gym.  David decided t o give her a treat.  Report  "Nan, Ann a n d Mag, y o u c a n be t h e c a p t a i n s " he  said.  "What i s a c a p t a i n ? " a s k e d Nan who was f o r m Germany. Everybody  e x c e p t Naomie who  knew how s h e f e l t  roared with  laughter. At p a r t n e r t i m e everybody  was  given a partner, then they each had t o w r i t e about  something  themselves.  Nan was b o d i e d up w i t h Naomie. Nan w r o t e :  " I em f r e m Garmeny"  170 When Naomie h a d t o r e a d i t she  d i d i t normally.  E v e r y b o d y was s u r p r i s e d s h e c o u l d w r i t e t h a t good.  T e x t 2.3.3. Thinking  processes  Language s t r u c t u r e s  Sequence Report  Today o u r t a b l e group our  finished  r e p o r t on James Cook,  p r a c t i c e l y me a n d Z o h a r d i d i t all . Sequence Report  T o d a y e v e r y t h i n g was O.K.  going  f o r Nan a new g i r l i n  school  since  David decided  gym. to give her a  treat.  Report  "Nan, Ann a n d Mag, y o u c a n be the  c a p t a i n s " he  said.  "What i s a c a p t a i n ? "  a s k e d Nan  who was f o r m Germany. E v e r y b o d y e x c e p t Naomie who knew how s h e f e l t r o a r e d  with  laughter. At p a r t n e r  t i m e e v e r y b o d y was  171 given a partner, then they each had t o w r i t e about  something  themselves.  Nan was b o d i e d up w i t h Naomie. Nan w r o t e :  " I em f r e m Garmeny"  When Naomie h a d t o r e a d i t she d i d i t n o r m a l l y . E v e r y b o d y was s u r p r i s e d s h e c o u l d w r i t e t h a t good.  172 Text Thinking  2.3.4. processes  Language  structures  Sequence: Report  T o d a y some p e o p l e came t o our school  they played  jazz f o r us. Commenting  "Hey,you! Come b a c k " a  said  voice.  Dong,Dong,Dong. I f y o u know what I mean my m i n d was like that basketball  from  that  match.  Now t h i s v o i c e  g o t my  mind o f f t h a t . "Dam t h a t b i r d ! " Hmmm what b i r d ? Maybe Dan o r Nan  the Robin.  "Put t h a t s a n d w i c h  back  Dan! " "O.K." a n s w e r e d Dan.  Text Thinking  2.3.5. processes  Language  structures  Sequence Report  Today a t o u t p u t s I h a d t o f i n i s h S.S. a n d we  also  had t o end o u r s t o r i e s , well  then b i e  U-Hill.  Well  i t s u r e i s good f o r  Evaluation: Evaluating  the l a s t s c h o o l day t o arrive. Sequence:.. Report  Two w h o l e m o n t h s . Snooses, t i c - t a c - t o e w i t h Nan a n d Dan,telling stories,Even trying  t o t e a c h some  birds or anima1s. Noting a process  I t ' s a l s o time t o say goodbie sevens  t o t h e grade and s t a r t  missing the children k n o w i n g t h e y won't come back next  year  or wondering  w h o ' l l come  back next y e a r o r w h o ' l l  174 be  the  new  t e a c h e r . . . . Ha-  ha-ha long Report  lissssst!  Good Summer! Bie!  Z-Z-Z-!  Text  3.1.1  T h i n k i n g PX°....§......§s._ c  s  s  Language s_trjjcti^_es  Sequence: T o d a y I was a l i b r a r y  Report  monitor!  Evaluation: Evaluating  I t was l o t s o f f u n : I g o t some books ready t o s h e l v e .  Sequence..:.. Noting a process  Then r e c e s s . The  Phil  revolving  r e a d us a  little  rihme.  Then L i z was h e r e , we  solved  l o t s of problems. Report  One was l i k e  this:  A man h a d 29 cows a l l b u t n i n e d i e d . How many  lived?  T h a t was j u s t a warm up. Noting a process  A f t e r s q u i r t we h a d a r t .  Report  We made b o a r d games.  Noting  process  T h e n we c h o s e a book o f l a s t month, i t e n d e d up t o R e v o l v i n g Rhymes.  Text  3.1.2.  Thinking processes  Language stxu_cjt.iyres  Sequence: H e l l o ! T o d a y we s t a r t e d o f f  Report  with  spelling.  EvaJ_uat. ion..:.. Evaluating  I t was f u n .  Sequence: P h i l was s u r p r i s e d  Report  t h a t we knew what t o do without him t e l l i n g .  We  told  h i m we r e a d t h e b o a r d m e s s a g e , he d i d n ' t . Noting a process  Writing followed.  Report  I o n l y c o u l d w r i t e about  three  q u a r t s o f a page, Evaluation: Evaluating  b u t i t was f u n .  Report  I wrote little  about  a field  with  b l u flowars  Sequence: Noting a process  T h e n we h a d F r e n c h  Report  She t o l d u s more a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t we a r e s u p p o s e d t o do b y t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r . B u t s o r r y t o s a y no v i d e o .  Noting  process  T h e n we h a d r e a d i n g .  1 /  Report  He showed us what o u r reading  j o u r n a l s o r what  t h e y a r e gonna b e . T h e n we read.I We  read G u l l i v a r .  a l s o h a d math  decimal  with  points  Principles: R e l a t i n g c a u s e and e f f e c t  I f i n i s h e d s o . . . n o home w o r k .  Evaluation: Evaluating  But  i t was f u n .  Sequence: Report  We h a d s q u i r t ,  Evaluation: Evaluating  after  lunch  i t was f u n and I  r e a d t h e same t h i n g  again.  Sequence: Report  This  s i l e n c e was s h o r t  lived  s i n c e we h a d a r t . Evaluation: Evaluating  But  i t was w o r t h i t .  Sequence..:.. Report  I drew a b o b t a i l and everybody t o l d me  i t looked  l i k e a goat.  .1.  T e x t 3.1.3, Thinking  skills,  Language s t r u c t u r e s  Sequence: Report  Well h i  again.  T o d a y we  started off with  w r i t i n g and  I wrote about a  w h o l e page. They f o u n d a t i g e r Then m a t h we  had  cub.  t o do  eight questions  and  twenty  I did  not  finish, Prii]ic...ip...l.e.s.i. R e l a t i n g c a u s e and  effect  i t was so  f u n and  i t got  not s t a y  confusing  n o i s y and we  could  inside.  Sequence A t r e a d i n g he  Report  chapter  r e a d us t h e  o f S a d a k o and  last  the  Thousand Paper Cranes. He  a l s o showed us how  a reading  to  use  journal again.  Evaluation: Evaluating  I t was  fun.  Now  are going  Sequence: Noting a  process  we  Class  Meeting.  t o have a  /o  179 T e x t 3.1.4. TJiinking. processes  __  Language  structures  Sequence: Noting a process  Mom, Franchise:  Today  i n French  we w a t c h e d a v i d e o . learned  Evaluation.:..  we  some names o f s p o r t s .  M a t h : We to  And  had l o t s  (3) s h e e t s  do  Evaluating  they  were  not too h a r d not too  easy  Sequence: Narrating  a process  P.E.:  D a v i d t a u g h t us and  p l a y e d D o c t o r Dodge b a l l  we  and  freeze tag. R e a d i n g : we r e a d a  newspaper  and h a d some s o r t o f a questiner. Spelling:  At s p e l l i n g I got 2  w r o n g and t h e r e s t Now we  right!  a r e g o i n g t o woodwork.  Text Thinking  3.1.5. processes  Language s t r u c t u r e s  Sequence... Report  t o d a y we d i d m u s i c w i t h David's c l a s s .  J o h n ' s mom  ( C a r o l y n ) came a n d s h e did Noting a process  i t with us.  Then a f i r e m a n came a n d he showed a v i d e o .  Evaluation: Evaluating  I t was s c a r e y .  S3.ms.lXQ3...:,.  Report  He t o l d u s t h a t i n a f i r e it  Noting a process  i s dark.  Then we went t o r e c e s s . After  r e c e s s we w a t c h e d  the r e s t  of the video.  Then we d i d s p e l l i n g . I g o t two t o t h r e e words wrong. Then, a f t e r  lunch I d i d  squirt  and P h i l r e a d us a  little  b i t of the Witches  by R a l f  Dahl.  Text Thinking  3.2.1. processes  Language  structures  Sequence: Report  T o d a y we h a d o u r presentations.  Principles: Predicting  I hoped-people l i k e d i t  Sequence: Report  b u t when o u r t e s t s g o t b a c k i t was p r e t t y we h a d t o make more  Narrating  obviouse things  clear.  I am d o i n g my n e x t r e s e a r c h on b l o o d .  182 Text  3.2.2.  Thinking processes  Language  structures  Sequence: Report  T o d a y I was  library  monitor  twice!!! Once i n t h e m o r n i n g  and  once  in the afternoon. Of c o u r s e h a d t o m i s s a r t and h e l p N i c o l e . Evaluation: Evaluating  I t was a l l w o r t h i t !  Seque.n._ce..:. Report  All  the grade  1 from d i v . 9 / 1 0 !  Text Thinking  3.2.3 skills  Language  structures  Sequence: I w a t c h a b o u t 12 h o u r s  Report  T.V.  e a c h week. Classification: Generalization  People say t h a t real the  educational  i t could  be  i f you  pick  g o o d shows and  you watch i t a t the r i g h t not  like  11  time  p.m.  Sequence: When I f i r s t  Report  came h e r e I  l e a r n e d a l o t o f new  words.  Choice: Proposing  alternatives  So I a d v i s e y o u t o l e t E.S.L. c h i l d r e n w a t c h T.V. will  be m o t i v a t e d .  so t h e y  T e x t 3.2.4. Thinking  processes  Language s t r u c t u r e s  Sj3_cju_encjL: Report  Mom, t o d a y we saw a m o v i e a b o u t blood.  Evaluation; Evaluating  I t was  educational,  .Se.gue.Dce.:.. Report  most o f t h e p e o p l e s a i d  i t wa  gross. We  a l s o went t o t h e l i b r a r y  f i n d some b o o k s . I t was  for a  r e s e a r c h and I o n l y have  one  more c h a n c e on b o o k s , s i n c e o n l y two o f t h e t h r e e books t h e c a t a l o g e was  there.  indicated  t  Text  3.2.5. Language  Thinking processes  structures  Sequence: T o d a y we h a d m u s i c  Report  i t was f u n  Eva.1.uaLi on: E v a 1 ua t i ng Principles:  b u t we m i g h t  Predicting  n o t go a g a i n  Relating c a u s e and  because  effect  we  lined  up  noisiley. I hope we go a g a i n  Predicting Sequence: Report  we a l s o h a d  Commenting  t h a t ' s w h e r e I'm from  computers,  now.  Andrew t h i n k s we the  writing  split  time unequelly.  Principles: R e l a t i n g c a u s e and  effect  I don't because  Phil  said: " s w i t c h now" r i g h t  after  we s w i t c h e d . Sequence: Report  I know f r o m 0-11 tables r e a l l y wel1.  times  Text Thinking  3.3.1 ski l i s  Language  structures  Sje„gu.enc.e_L Report  A t s t o r y we  had t o p r e d i c t :  Principles: Predicting  I t h i n k that the g i a n t s  are  g o i n g t o e s c a p e and t r y t o run back t o g i a n t c o u n t r y .  Sequence: Report  Narrating  They managed t o go 3 s t e p s b e f o r e t h e army t o o k o u t  their  weapons and s h o t a l l b u t  one.  The  remaining giant  terror Report  but t h e y s a f e l y bury the  others.  i s the  Text  3.3.2.  Thinking processes  Language s t r u c t u r e s  S.e._qu.e.nj3.e.:_ Report  T o d a y we went t o t h e c o m p u t e r room a n d h e l p e d Candice's  class.  I g o t a boy who s a i d y e s to  everything!  •i Q  Text Thinking  3.3.3. processes  ...Language s t r u c t u r e s  S.§..9.y..§..0.5J.l Report  Today t h e r e  came a l a d y .  She t a l k e d o f d r a g o n she  boats,  a l s o showed u s a m o v i e .  Phil  a l s o showed us a  n e w s p a p e r t h a t t h e women's False  C r e e k team won t h e  International Today we a l s o California  Race. played  kick-ball.  Evaluation: Evaluating  I t was f u n , a n d t h e o t h e r  team  won, s o ? Segue nee..;.. Report  I was o u t - f i e l d , t h i r d , back c a t c h e r  and  among h i t t i n g .  Q  T e x t 3.3.4. Thinking processes _  Language  structures  Sequence: Report  T o d a y we h a d a s u b . I g u e s s he c h a n g e d h i s mind about b e i n g a t e a c h e r a f t e r h a v i n g us!  Evaluation: Evaluate/personal  preference  I h a t e S i m o n , he popped my  just  ballon!  Sequence: Report  You s e e , I was  al i b .  monitor i n t h e m o r n i n g and M a r j o r y g a v e i t t o me popped  i t !  a n d he  190  T e x t 3.3.5. Thinking processes  Language  structures  Sequence: Report  Today we h a d  math.  Evaluation: Evaluating  I t was  O.K.  Sequence..:.. Report  When we h a d pe me  and  Heidi  and Nathan s t a y e d i n s i d e . I worked but I a l s o to help H e i d i .  had  191  Appendix C-I. Schematic  s t r u c t u r e of Text Observation  1.2.5.  genre  O r i e n t a t i o n : T o d a y t h e r e w e r e some e x c i t i n g l i k e we went t o A r t w i t h  things  Dian  Event:  f i r s t we h a d t o do some a n i m a l s  Description:  I d i d a horse of course.  Event:  T h e n we h a d t o do some thumb s p o t s .  Event:  T h e n we h a d m a t h .  Description:  I was i n t h e M.D.  Comment:  i t ' s f u n I am b e s i d e K a r e n .  group.  Register: Field:  writing  i n t h e B&F book  a b o u t some e x c i t i n g moments o f t h e s c h o o l day. Tenor:  p e r s o n a l and e g a l i t a r i a n ,  a s o f one f r i e n d t o  an o t h e r . Mode:  constitutive  of the a c t i v i t y  Trans i t i v i t y : Existential  p r o c e s s e s : T o d a y t h e r e w e r e some  exciting  moments Material  processes:  we went t o A r t w i t h  Dian  I d i d a horse we h a d t o do some thumb p o t s  192 Relational  4  process:  I was  i n t h e M.D.  it's  fun  I am  beside  group  Keren.  Appendix C - I I . Schematic  structure  of Text  2.2.1.  Orientation:  Today a t o u t p u t s  I did art.  Comment:  I t was f u n a n d I d i d p r e t t y much.  Comment:  The t r i a n g l e s g a v e a h e a d - a c h e .  Orientation:  A t s p e l l i n g I g o t them  Comment:  I felt  Orientation:  A t grammar I f i n i s h e d e v e r y t h i n g  alright!  good a f t e r .  but they a r e g o i n g t o check Jane's Orientation:  At s t o r y Prince  Casper decided t o blow t h e horn  Event:  He a l s o h a d a n army a n d f o u n d  Event:  We a l s o w r o t e l e t t e r s t o t h e m i n i s t e r t o s t o p t h e wolves from b e i n g  the stone  table.  killed.  Comment:  A t p . e . we h a d f u n .  Event:  but only got t o play  Orientation:  A t m a t h we h a d o u r l a s t s u b t r u c t i o n  two games. questions  Register: F i e l d : w r i t i n g a b o u t some e x c i t i n g e v e n t s  o f t h e s c h o o l day  T e n o r : p e r s o n a l , e g a l i t a r i a n , a s o f one f r i e n d t o a n o t h e r Mode:  c o n s t i t u t i v e of the a c t i v i t y  Transitivity: Material  process:  Relational  process:  Today a t o u t p u t  I did art.  I t was f u n  Material  process:  I d i d p r e t t y much  Material  process:  The t r i a n g l e s g a v e me a h e a d - a c h e .  Material  process:  A t s p e l l i n g I g o t them  alright.  Relational Material  p r o c e s s : I f e l t good a f t e r .  process:  A t grammar but  Mental  process:  Relational Material  Material  questions.  P r i n c e Casper decided t o b l  horn.  and  found the stone  table.  p r o c e s s : A t p.e. we h a d f u n  process:  Relational  Jane's.  p r o c e s s : He a l s o h a d an army  process:  Relational  they a r e g o i n g t o check  At s t o r y the  I finished everything,  b u t g o t t o p l a y o n l y two games.  p r o c e s s : A t m a t h we h a d o u r l a s t s u b t r u c t i o n  I9z  Appendix  C-III.  Schematic  structure  of Text  3.2.5.  Orientation:  T o d a y we h a d m u s i c .  Comment:  i t was f u n b u t we m i g h t n o t go a g a i n  Event:  b e c a u s e we l i n e d up n o i s i l y But  I hope we go a g a i n .  Event:  We a l s o h a d c o m p u t e r .  Description:  That's  Event:  Andrew t h i n k s  Comment:  I don't because P h i l  w h e r e I am w r i t i n g f r o m we s p l i t  now.  the time  unequelly  said switch  right  after  we s w i t c h e d . Comment:  I know f r o m 0-11 t i m e s t a b l e s  really well.  Register: Field:  writing of  i n t h e B&F book a b o u t some e x c i t i n g  events  t h e s c h o o l day  Tenor:  p e r s o n a l , e g a l i t a r i a n , a s o f one f r i e n d t o a n o t h e r  Mode:  c o n s t i t u t i v e of the a c t i v i t y  Transitivity: Relational  p r o c e s s : T o d a y we h a d m u s i c  Relational  process:  Material  process:  i t was f u n b u t we m i g h t n o t go a g a i n , b e c a u s e we l i n e d up n o s i s i l y  Mental  process:  Relational Material  B u t I hope we go a g a i n  p r o c e s s : We a l s o h a d c o m p u t e r s  process:  T h a t ' s w h e r e I'm w r i t i n g  from  now.  196 Mental  process:  Andrew t h i n k s we  split  the  time  uneque1ly I don't Material  process:  because P h i l  said switch  r i g h t a f t e r we Mental  process:  I know f r o m 0-11  now  switched. times t a b l e r e a l l y  well  A p p e n d i x D-I. Table 6 Length  and S y n t a c t i c C o m p l e x i t y o f S t u d e n t  Number o f Topics  Number o f Words •  Number o f T-units  Writing  Average o f words per T-unit  Texts from Year 1 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.1.5.  4 5 7 5 1  46 43 48 105 70  4 5 9 16 7  11.5 8.6 5.3 6.5 10  Texts from Year 2 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5.  7 6 4 5 5  95 94 82 72 89  15 14 12 9 11  6.3 6.7 6.8 8. 8.1  Texts from Year 3 3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. 3.3.5.  1 1 2 1 2  63 20 58 48 27  6 3 8 5 4  10 . 5 6.3 7.2 9.6 6.7  198 Appendix D - I I . Table 7 L e n g t h and S y n t a c t i c C o m p l e x i t y o f S t u d e n t Mean number of topics(SD)  Mean number of words(SD)  Year 1 Texts 4.4 1.1.1.-5.  (2.1)  62.4  (26.1)  Year 2 Texts 5.4 2.2.1.-5.  (1.1)  86.4  (9.5)  (0.5)  43.2  (18.9)  Texts 1.4 3.3.1.-5. 3  Mean number of T-units(SD)  8.2  (4.7)  12.2 ( 2 . 3 )  5.2  (1.9)  Writing Mean w o r d s per T - u n i t (SD)  8.3  (2.5)  7.1  (0.8)  8.0  (1.8)  199  Appendix E  £  J.2  3 ,£  g 8  8--S  — O.  3 M *S  i  * fe.5.  il -« o  ... s V •s ? > s" 7 J5 i .-s e•X5 M" *S i•" . fc •  u  • WW  ?2:  to  x  o o  «  4  £  3  •q (tort*  O  u a. « M  to * 9  x  It - 8  g  X *» tos — to 4 to • - q v to e  g  *2  > o c >  o  2 S M  > e 3-S  1 - i  «> w  X  tj s £ 5C . C  m  ex.  M C c —« -* -o  w « O O 3 X C 4 • to -q -q > u • * • w * « • m m v t ^ J» • * o « b M U *> O . - • • » • » & . ^- W— c t , -ol— 0  x  3  *to3 «  I—  8  I •> v 3to  to W M to to e u  ij  !  I 115  : 53  ?, 3  ^2  • •  •O to w to « l e a p. 5 * v. | - « -o •q o e ^ • ~« M ~* U •5 4 4 e d —> o &. w * 5 M « W Ck " •q » c « « M 3 O M II > c u -otom ] 5 o -x)  M  2  «s M W W  M  M • > W ^ to 4 4 U - 4  >. x  C  •  O  4  •  -s. «• •  •v. to  C  - 2 ^  -  J  c  •  3  p •  g4si|v-> M h U «• Sua = 3" 27" 3 S> h-9  UJ  J>  o  >  •c -  -I . g.. x  3 . C : J!  .  U  •  3  •  s -S S  C  •  ; 5 5; i :& i ci  X  f  t  c «"* -jc  « -1  00 - 31::; y UJ Q . C *w - f l Q - « s-o -c1 c3 v• i* 1—• 3 «  v  «  •  w  to. to  C  «• •  *  V,  *  M  W X  xm  3  3 "3 ^ 1. 8 - 4 * M to ^ ^ "« 8 5 a 3 X O -  to  K  3  a  g-  »  ^ i  3 w 6 c •« V *> M e "2  •B :  ou .8  M  W  M  Q t V  <R  ^ to c  Is  V*  a  to 4 « P.  8 o 5 — C O *S u a. n « m r 4 x v to tj &" § U ^ »to( k , 6> to is*?.. w ^ * •* « *t * w  |> w « to — -o V to w «* • to — V o  t  S "5 8-  •* to or  O « e  O. V « • •» to to c q • • •• » i> u * 1 > — 5. to Vi X ] •* — * M I. -r « to « < >  ft.*> c» w x  15 O X >. 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O X « o • x -q * .t x to >- a . fcjtoO 3  g.  — ^ U  a o . o O *«  3&toxtoxtox c « • *x,X rtx •o* -wC w•— • -< > 3to (X,rtC O * u  to -q b* « C -* o > > >  «e  c  US*  bto  to .  2  i  X • X M  S  3*2  M  O >  4 •  •tototo M O O *  J8  9  c4 w  S 2* S c -1 >, eto-* w m• ux * 5 .£ I .% ' g .% . . X X  to to ~+ fc ©0 wc *» *r •*•m xo s.w  y to  c  s  c  to.toX  X to J - 0 » W O * * «4 U >  r. IS  Ci. U J W  ** C —to-q—wC —  Q  «  ° "| ? - L r • W 4 V * o •  mm  •« XC —« V o • «  ts  • x o »| 1 •  3 *  M  8 ^ . - s r ^ i * i s - . . : 3.5 >-.  S  M  S — •*  o « •  WJ u <» o 1 « •to«• * • v 5 .to» C * 3 . • o • a 6 M  •« . • c  1:  • 3 -5 **  V >  c  —-  * > C « X } M<* O W X c w ^ . M -q to*^>0 t • u c  c  X  • i ! " -5 i S 5 I  — •— » f « X O.CL "V 0 •> m m m ~* c w • O t > k- w y  to  xlto * x i 5 gi  4 * « *» to « « 3  • «  •* **  . -x C S B u • •»• ^ >w* w6«x : 3 C >« f o• > * x •i vef <-* >  •.-. w •W *•* iis'z — o• *•to  3'  K  1 r /J? a1x5  o «  • **  •q  * x .a.  S J  to  *  0  w • 2 *« W to  3 3  *  a -* x- •  to" 3 * - q o ~« * to w • * **toto •q • *  3?  Ui .a • 5'?  ~*to"S • «  ew •—  5-  «« * X  r. s i 8  e  w o" % K w rt V c  g  3S C  V  x  o  • w4 « m -4 • • « M • 1— X • 4 X *>  « «< «l  AS  C  1=5  i a  * m*  T» •  *i3 *< • ^ •* * s J ' 8.5.  : * : 3  3  to  i  to  S "V  « P - t o « o « S X • »to8 —  r  Si 0  X  2  *w  O  x«o  M ftof X O « * w V C O O .  <0»» CW * — w C Ca . ^ t o p * > utow x a , « > a u O • M o. V U " <J CI— V t>  s  S  S JE  VJ  --  VJ  Z\&S5 |3|a  3 5 C . T * * tol• m  u  c  * m 3 * > 3, § e * • v O X • >>, • V * Q 3 C fl « V M v-. • X * ^ c Q w O. O to t. v c 3  - I .  O X  ^ to V  5 H «s• s s-fir J 5 18" a a: b.:;• Bfx o  I  5g  * •  8.g S &  O  •  X W '  •  to  51  >  . i §• g g--  B-S-  M  Si  »* «•  1  I r i 8 U to *  to  O  u0  « X f  Si  K  ** •  o  lU  ' X -« u aiL^ •» to M * V V » >to>  £ c £ « • p 0 C 9 v w b M > * Ok Ch  5  to  I  >* X  • to  W  v  o o *i  3 " i  w  a  «  • Oto*r* to « W  M to O O  sr..15  3  1  5  1  xy  • •* X M  ^8  •as si-it = . „ c- g J - ? £ 2 g it  3 S— g eS Q5 •q  • •  .j -sis s  IS n  g  to  S.J  • S  S3  1  :^  \X  6|M  2.  8 i t s *  •  u  co— a> i  3  O  1  v • ^»  1 !«  sr. J  H g - S"S  •  « —• • o to « - 0 *N» W & W C M V o c • • » M V —« ^» • M « 4 *> C • »  wc C  •  -*  O *. • v X _  if  c2 • w *  K  * f  S  V •*  c  v  I J". § m x •* Si s •  g "3 i3 J  «C 6 0 . **  2|  ° • c  J*  • *• M  a«  111 ill  _  «•  • «  • 4 -F* to « * •  J!  1  b  ••  I - Jj I  a  3  4 -•  &4  iJIII  a> - 9 « to> q X 4  21  TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES Thinking Process Language Structures  UdbtKVING  Labelling  This i s a p l a n e t . They are meteorites. It i s a s a t e l l i t e . They are a s t e r o i d s .  Describing i n d i v i d u a l size  things  shape  function movement sound location structure density texture state Comparing (dealing with likenesses and s i m i l a r i t i e s )  j  Contrasting (dealing with differences and d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s )  Planets are very l a r g e . J u p i t e r i s immense. The moon looks round. The earth i s a sphere. The rocket nose i s a cone. The sun gives l i g h t and heat. The planets t r a v e l in orbits around the sun. Rockets b l a s t o f f . The comet i s almost here. The sun i s made up of gases. J u p i t e r i s very heavy. The moon has c r a t e r s . The s a t e l l i t e i s l o s t . Both Mercury and Venus are near the sun. Mercury i s s m a l l , and Venus i s t o o . The diameter of Venus and the Earth are s i m i l a r i n s i z e . Common expressions of comparison: s i m i l a r to as j u s t as similarly in the same way like resemble 3S•••* »dS to have almost the in common same as Mercury i s small but J u p i t e r i s l a r g e . Mercury i s d i f f e r e n t from J u p i t e r because Mercury i s small and J u p i t e r i s larg<i. Mercury i s smaller than J u p i t e r . Corcmon expressions of contrast: d i f f e r from on the other hand d i f f e r e n t than although but whi le however nevertheless in contrast to even so in opposition to unlike still d i f f e r e n t from The? comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs: Digger the biggest least less most more -45-  Continued...  TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES T h i n k i n g Process OBSERVING Forming analogies (dealing with resemblance between things of d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s : analogies are extended compar i sons)  Measur ing 1inear weight capacity speed amount  (Continued)  TABLE VI  CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued)  Thinking Process  Language S t r u c t u r e s  The f l a s h l i g h t i s 1 ike the sun and the tennis b a l l i s l i k e the e a r t h .  OBSERVING Ordering s p a t i a l l y  The s t a r s resemble diamonds. Common expressions of metaphor are s i m i l a r to those of comparison. The nature of the things compared are of d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s and can be poetic and highly f i g u r a t i v e .  Quantifiers a l l , some, none, not a l l , many, much, not many, not much, a few, few, a small number, a l i t t l e , l i t t l e , more, most Classifying (the grouping of items according to their s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s )  Adverbs of frequency always, o f t e n , sometime, seldom, never, ever Adverbs of d u r a t i o n always, f o r e v e r , for some time, awhile, not for long  for  Adverbs of degree e n t i r e l y , v e r y , somewhat, r a t h e r , Q u i t e , a l i t t l e , a b i t , not at a l l  -46-  Continued.  j|to, a t , away, from, on, o f f , a c r o s s , o v e r , a l o n g , through, i n , out o f , i n f r o n t o f , by, b e s i d e , near, next t o , above, on top o f , behind, under, beneath, below, underneath, between, among, amid, o p p o s i t e , towards, i n t o , p a s t , around, up, down, beyond, forward, e t c . where.  to the l e f t , to the r i g h t adjacent distance midpoi nt diagonal edge 1 imi t p a r a l l e l , p a r a l l e l to perpendicular to opposite v e r t i c a l , horizontal  Canadarm i s 15.2 m l o n g . It weighs 410 kg on e a r t h . The fuel tank "holds 40 l i t r e s . Canadarm t r a v e l s 6 cm per second.  Pronouns everybody, e v e r y t h i n g , someone, something, anybody, a n y t h i n g , no one, nothing  Language S t r u c t u r e s  Planets are a kind of heavenly hody. We can d i v i d e heavenly bodies i n t o types. There are d i f f e r e n t types of heavenly b o d i e s . Common expressions of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Generic forms l i k e : a n i m a l , v e g e t a b l e , mineral Species nouns l i k e : M n d s , types, parts, categories, C l a s s i f y i n g verbs l i k e : to be, to place under, to f a l l  Defining (usually names the term being d e f i n e d , puts i t in a general c l a s s , points up i t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features from others in the same class)  into,  A moon i s a kind of s a t e l l i t e (general c l a s s ) which o r b i t s a planet (distinguishing feature). Definition: to define to c l a s s i f y to e x p l a i n to paraphrase in definition in explanation ?1us species nouns l i k e : <ind, s p e c i e s , c l a s s , type, form category _47_ Continued...  TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process OBSERVING G e n e r a l i z i n g about descriptions  TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES! AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process  Language Structures Expressions of amount as l i s t e d the section on Measuring: most, some, l o t s o f , a l o t o f , a few, not a l l , every, some  in  SEQUENCING Ordering c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y  all,  + g e n e r a l l y , generally speaking on the whole in most cases under most circumstances usually Special omission or use of the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e the and the i n d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e s a and an: The comet has a s t a r T i k e c e n t r e . Comets have s t a r l i k e c e n t r e s . A comet has a star l i k e c e n t r e .  Narrating Play-by-play commentary  Language Structures  The booster launches the s h i p . The booster f a l l s away. Stage two i g n i t e s . The ship i s in o r b i t . Stage three f a l l s away. The ship is by i t s e l f . Here we are at Cape Canaveral, F l o r i d a waiting for the b l a s t o f f of the space s h u t t l e , Challenger. Aspect: progressive Verb tense: present  report  Power i s needed at each stage.  The space shuttle Challenger took off from F l o r i d a . It positioned i t s e l f in i t s o r b i t . The astronauts flew into space without their l i f e l i n e s today. Verb tense: past  Fuel i s needed. Verb phrases: can i s able to are able to i s a s s o c i a t e d with i s r e l a t e d to Astronauts can load cargo from their cabin with the robot. Tense of verb: present t e n s e , i n d i c a t i n g a continuing state of a f f a i r s or a c t i o n Comets often have a cloudy t a i l of l i g h t which always points away from the sun.  The numbered steps as given in a recipe OR a science experiment OR a a "how-to" hook OR an assignment  Noting a process  When a space ship goes into o r b i t , "first there i s the booster launch. TJext the booster f a l l s away. Then the 1;econd stage i g n i t e s . Afterwards the t h i r d stage ignites and puts the ship In o r b i t . Later the t h i r d stage f a l l s away and f i n a l l y the space ship starts on i t s s o l i t a r y o r b i t . Common expressions of noting a process: time words: before, a f t e r , following from, leading t o , in the end verbs notinq a change of toil melt harden shorten lengthen soften distill condense  a l s o simple past tense  -48-  Following i n s t r u c t i o n s  Continued.  -49-  state:  Continued.  TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process SEQUENCING R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t  Predicting  Hypothesizing (a s p e c i a l kind of cause and e f f e c t reasoning; hypothesizing i s more general than predicting)  Thinking Process  Language Structures If a heavenly body blocks a l i g h t source, then an e c l i p s e occurs. E c l i p s e s are a r e s u l t of heavenly bodies blocking a l i g h t source. Pluto i s the f u r t h e s t planet from the sun, consequently i t takes longest to o r b i t the sun. P l u t o takes the longest time to o r b i t the sun because i t i s the furthest p l a n e t from the sun. Common expressions to r e l a t e cause and e f f e c t : i s due to so i s the r e s u l t of thus have an e f f e c t on because therefore accordingly consequently since as a r e s u l t Plus causal verbs l i k e : m e l t , b o i l , harden, t m c K e n , conaense, f i l l , empty It i s l i k e l y that there w i l l be s t a t i o n s in space i n the near f u t u r e . I p r e d i c t that space s a t e l l i t e s o r b i t i n g the t a r t h w i l l become a common occurrence. Common expressions o f p r e d i c t i o n : t o p r e d i c t that to make a p r e d i c t i o n about to p r o j e c t i n the future the next step probably the p r o b a b i l i t y of If the sun l o s t some of i t s heat, Then i t might mean the end of l i f e on e a r t h . Common expressions o f hypothesis: as f o r cause and e f f e c t with s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n given to modal verbs such as c a n / c o u l d , w i l l / w o u l d , may/might, s h a l l / s h o u l d , must and to the tense and aspect forms of the v e r b s . Continued... -50-  TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSED AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued)  SEQUENCING Formulating theories ( g e n e r a l i z i n g about cause and e f f e c t relationships)  DECISION-MAKING Forming personal opinions  language Structures  20.4  _I_f gases mixed in l i q u i d s experience "a zero gravity c o n d i t i o n , then movement in a l l gases i s afTected in many ways.  In my o p i n i o n , exploring the planets i s money well spent. I think that exploring the planets i s not the best use of government money. Common expressions: I think in my view i t seems to me I am p o s i t i v e in my opinion I argue that I consider I suppose J agree that I assume I don't know i f  Making decisions  I have decided _ to go see Marc I would TTFe t h i s one. I selectedTT.. I choose/chose This i s the one I want.  Solvi ng probl ems  t h i s by i can solve _ The way to handle t h i s is to. The solution i s to The answer can be arrived at by. One way to do i t i s t o . . . . end then t o . , and l a s t l y to  Detecting problems  The problem i s The problems seem to he It looks l i k e i s the problem. The issue i s The control desk knows what the matter is. It seems to be a case of  -51-  Garneau.  Continued..  TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES T h i n k i n g Process DECISION MAKING Proposing a l t e r n a t i v e s  (Continued)  TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES Thinking Process  Language S t r u c t u r e s  I would suggest t h a t the money spent on space research would be better spent on medical research. It would be b e n e f i c i a l to spend more money on medical research and l e s s money on space r e s e a r c h . Common e x p r e s s i o n s : I propose t h a t I would urge that I would suggest I would say that that I would demand that I would plan to It would be b e n e f i c i a l to It would be p r o f i t a b l e to It would be expedient to  DECISION-MAKING Formulating p o l i c y  Evaluating  Concluding in conclusion I have a r r i v e d at the c o n c l u s i o n  (Continued)  .-Language Structures  Canadian astronauts wiII1 be chosen on the basis of these criteria. Canada w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Star Wars plan in a l i m i t e d way f o r these reasons. Space research w f l l now engage in medical and b i o l o g i c a l research f o r these reasons. I judge the establishment of a space s t a t i o n to be i l l - a d v i s e d . Based on evidence, I b e l i e v e that the Big Bang theory i s l e a s t l i k e l y to be correct. Common expressions: Adjectives r e l a t e d to judgement: good BaT right wrong improper proper unsuitable suitable irrelevant relevant Verbs r e l a t e d to judgement: judge compare regard vi ew consider should be Terms r e l a t e d to forming personal opinions and e v a l u a t i o n s : dislike Tke disapprove prefer devalue value depreciate appreciate deprecate  Recommending  -52-  Continued.  We recommend. It i s recommended that The f o l l o w i n g are recommended. One suggestion The department i s advised t o .  -113-  

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