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Dialogue journal writing : meaningful written interaction in language and culturally diverse classrooms Hegedus, Katalin 1990

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DIALOGUE JOURNAL WRITING: MEANINGFUL WRITTEN INTERACTION IN LANGUAGE AND CULTURALLY DIVERSE CLASSROOMS By K a t a l i n Hegedus .A., Jozsef A t t i l a U n i v e r s i t y of Szeged, Hungary, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1990 © K a t a l i n Hegedus, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of LANGUAGE EDUCATION The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i Abstract The study of the Back and Forth book of an eleven years o l d E.S.L. student introduces a type of personal w r i t i n g which i s argued to f a c i l i t a t e meaningful, w r i t t e n communication i n the second language. The present study extends the f i n d i n g s of dialogue j o u r n a l s t u d i e s of Staton et al. i n two d i r e c t i o n s . 1. The case study of the Back and Forth book a c t i v i t y presents a "communication t r i a n g l e " which i n v o l v e s parental p a r t i c i p a t i o n and thus serves as a bridge between school and home. The reported observations focus on the p o t e n t i a l s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the Back and F o r t h book task i n comparison to other j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e s . 2. The a n a l y s i s of the s e l e c t e d 45 j o u r n a l e n t r i e s provides some ex p l a n a t i o n f o r the weak r e a l i z a t i o n of the task. The a p p l i c a t i o n of Mohan's Knowledge Framework as a means of ana l y z i n g student w r i t i n g provides a c p i c t u r e of the language and content. The Knowledge framework presents g u i d e l i n e f o r monitoring the development of language and the development of discourse and content. The i n c o n s i s t e n c y of the task j u s t i f i e s the present study: the multi-purpose task of the Back and Forth book produces u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w r i t i n g , the research question i s of determining i t s reason and provide a g u i d e l i n e to monitor the task i n order to o b t a i n more s a t i s f a c t o r y product. i :i. i Table of Contents Abstract • i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables .v CHAPTER ONE I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problem 1 A. Background of the Problem 1 B. Assumptions 2 C. Focus of the Study and Research Question 3 D. Scope and Organization of the Study 4 E. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 5 F. D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 6 CHAPTER TWO I. Review of the l i t e r a t u r e 8 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 8 B. B r i e f H i s t o r y of Dialogue Journal 9 C. Journal W r i t i n g : Student-Centered Curriculum 11 D. Use of Journal W r i t i n g i n the Classroom 18 E. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Learning Related to Classroom Journal W r i t i n g i n the Classroom 24 CHAPTER THREE Case Study 26 I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 27 A. The Question of Language Use 27 B. Learning i n a Second Language 30 C. Schooling i n a Second Language ...31 I I . The task A. Journal W r i t i n g i n a Second Language: P o t e n t i a l s 35 B. The Back and Forth book: L i m i t a t i o n s 38 I I I . The product 43 CHAPTER FOUR An a l y s i s 52 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 52 B. Model 53 C. Assumptions 56 CHAPTER FIVE Results 58 A. Thinking S k i l l s and Language Items 58 B. Frequency Count 58 CHAPTER SIX I. D i s c u s s i o n 63 I I . Conclusion 71 I I I . Implementation 73 A. Use of the Knowledge Framework 73 B. I n t e r v e n t i o n 75 IV. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 76 Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research 78 C l o s i n g Remarks 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY 81 APPENDIX 85 Appendix A 85 Appendix B .131 Appendix C 191 V Appendix D 197 Appendix E 199 vi L i s t of Tables Table 1 3 0 Table 2 59 Table 3 6 0 Table 4 6 1 Table 5 6 2 Table 6 297 Table 7 i g Q 1 CHAPTER ONE I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Problem A. Background of the problem: C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n the p r o c e s s of second language a c q u i s i t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e b e s t environment f o r l e a r n i n g a second language i s one i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a wide range of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t e x t u a l l y r i c h , m e a n i n g f u l communication i n the t a r g e t language, much l i k e t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h a f i r s t language i s a c q u i r e d . "Communicative competence", "meaningful i n t e r a c t i o n " , and " r e a l language" have become fundamental i s s u e s i n second language r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y . I n v e s t i g a t o r s of the w r i t t e n p r o c e s s as w e l l argue t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o t h e w r i t t e n language proceed i n much the same way as does the a c q u i s i t i o n of the spoken language, and t h a t w r i t t e n language s k i l l s a r e a l s o b e s t a c q u i r e d i n the p r o c e s s of m e a n i n g f u l , w r i t t e n i n t e r a c t i o n . W i t h i n e l e m e n t a r y and secondary e d u c a t i o n , the i s s u e of w r i t i n g demands p l a c e d on the second language l e a r n e r s has been d i s c u s s e d i n s t u d i e s of a continuum from p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g (such as l e t t e r s , d i a r i e s , j o u r n a l s and p e r s o n a l s t o r i e s ) t o academic w r i t i n g ( e x p o s i t o r y c o m p o s i t i o n s about non-personal,academic t o p i c s ) (Hudelson 1988). R e s e a r c h e r s argue the u s e f u l n e s s of d i f f e r e n t w r i t i n g t a s k s and c l a i m t h a t the non-academic t a s k s may be l i m i t e d i n the k i n d s and l e v e l s of w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s t h a t they f o s t e r . P e r s o n a l w r i t i n g i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d as c o g n i t i v e l y l e s s demanding, and some s t u d i e s even q u e s t i o n i t s u s e f u l n e s s . Y e t , r e c e n t s t u d i e s of S t a t o n e l a l . ( 1 9 8 8 ) i n d i c a t e t h a t d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s a t l e a s t e q u i v a l e n t t o a s s i g n e d w r i t i n g on measure of q u a l i t y , l i n g u i s t i c c o m p l e x i t y , t o p i c f o c u s and c o h e s i v e n e s s . In many cases t h i s t y pe of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d s u p e r i o r t o a s s i g n e d w r i t i n g t a s k s .(Hude1son 1988). B. Assumptions: C l a s s r o o m r e s e a r c h e r s o f t e n f i n d l i t t l e e v i d e n c e of a u t h e n t i c communication i n the language c l a s s r o o m . W r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s more o f t e n f o c u s on b a s i c s k i l l s t h a n t h e w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n of a r e a l message t o a r e a l audience and the t h i n k i n g s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o e x p r e s s t h a t message. More o f t e n have t e a c h e r s h e a r d t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' angry c r y : " I h a t e w r i t i n g " ( M o r r i s 1986). And more o f t e n have t e a c h e r s w r i t t e n a t the end o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' assignments: " I n t e r e s t i n g w r i t i n g , but you need t o work on...". We a l l r e c o g n i z e t h a t w r i t i n g has become an o b l i g a t o r y c l a s s r o o m e x e r c i s e which has o n l y l i m i t e d v a l u e f o r p r o m o t i n g l e a r n i n g and the improvement of s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s ( M o r r i s 1986). My i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t i n j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , as a t y p e of p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n o r i g i n a t e s from the assumption t h a t the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k can p r o v i d e one s o l u t i o n f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g i n an E.S.L. c l a s s r o o m . C. Focus of the s t u d y and t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n : The f o c u s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s the p r o g r e s s of a m e a n i n g f u l , w r i t t e n , i n t e r a c t i v e t a s k . The s t u d y i s based on a t h r e e y e a r s l o n g o b s e r v a t i o n of the B&F book a c t i v i t y . The emphasis i s on the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s t a s k and i t i s argued t h a t w i t h o u t p r o p e r p l a n n i n g and m o n i t o r i n g the t a s k i t s e l f can not produce language development. The o b j e c t i v e of the a n a l y s i s of 45 j o u r n a l e n t r i e s i s t o examine some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the weak r e a l i z a t i o n o f the t a s k . I t i s argued t h a t Mohan's knowledge framework i s a s u i t a b l e approach f o r m o n i t o r i n g the growth i n language and i n c o n t e n t . T h i s a n a l y s i s i n comparison t o o t h e r approaches p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r i n s i g h t i n t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of the t a s k , i t g i v e s an i n t e g r a t e d p i c t u r e of the growth i n language and d i s c o u r s e . R e search q u e s t i o n s : What are the p o t e n t i a l s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the a u t h e n t i c communication p r o v i d e d by the Back and F o r t h book t a s k ? How can the Language and Content approach a c c e s s and m o n i t o r the growth of language and d i s c o u r s e i n an i n t e g r a t e d way i n the case of t h i s c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y ? 4 D. The Scope and Organization of the Study: This study i s confined to the a n a l y s i s of one j o u r n a l . This i s the j o u r n a l of an eleven years o l d g i r l who has been w r i t i n g i t i n her L2 f o r three school years.The student i s my ol d e s t daughter. Since the analyzed j o u r n a l i s a unique type of j o u r n a l , c a l l e d Back and Forth Book , which i s based on the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p a r e n t ( s ) , my parental involvement has been a complementary f a c t o r i n the research. The j o u r n a l w r i t i n g task i s very simple and r e g u l a r : at a designated time of each school day the students are provided w i t h t h i r t y minutes to w r i t e i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s which i s taken home, read to or w i t h the parent(s).The parent(s) are requested to s i g n i t and make some w r i t t e n comments.I have been observing the jo u r n a l w r i t i n g process f o r the l a s t three years both i n the classroom s e t t i n g and at home. In the review of the most recent p r o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s I w i l l look at jo u r n a l w r i t i n g as a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to o b l i g a t o r y classroom e x e r c i s e i n w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n . My observations w i l l be presented as a case study of my daughter's j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . The emphasis w i l l be on the perspectives of the ESL learner and the parental involvement. The p o t e n t i a l s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the task w i l l be discussed i n comparison to other j o u r n a l w r i t i n g s t u d i e s , such as the i n t e r a c t i v e j o u r n a l s used by the research group 5 of K r e e f t P e y t o n (1989) and the genre-based approach o f C h r i s t i e (1986). Among the e n t r i e s produced i n the l a s t t h r e e s c h o o l y e a r s 45 were s e l e c t e d from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the s c h o o l y e a r s (see Appendix A ) . One w e e k / f i v e c o n s e c u t i v e s c h o o l days i n each month of October, F e b r u a r y and June were chosen from t h e s c h o o l y e a r s of 1987/88, 1988/89 and 1989/90. The sampled j o u r n a l e n t r i e s are r e t y p e d i n the o r i g i n a l form, m i s t a k e s o r ungrammatical s e n t e n c e s are not c o r r e c t e d . The a n a l y s i s of t h e s e e n t r i e s i s f o c u s i n g on the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s and language s t r u c t u r e s i n the B&F book. The Language and Content approach i s argued t o o f f e r an i n t e g r a t e d way of m o n i t o r i n g t h e growth of language and d i s c o u r s e . E. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study: The c h i e f l i m i t a t i o n of the s t u d y i s t h e use of o n l y one j o u r n a l . T h e n a t u r e of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n g e n e r a l and the B&F book i n p a r t i c u l a r does not a l l o w comparison o f a group o r a c l a s s r o o m of s t u d e n t s . To e l i m i n a t e i t t h e t a s k of t h e B&F book i s compared t o two o t h e r t y p e s of p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g p u b l i s h e d by the r e s e a r c h group of C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s ( S t a t o n 1984, K r e e f t P eyton 1989) and i n the Study Guide t o W r i t i n g by France C h r i s t i e (1986). F. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms: The f o l l o w i n g terms a r e f r e q u e n t l y used i n t h e s t u d y and d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : E n g l i s h as a Second language s t u d e n t r e f e r s t o a s t u d e n t whose mother tongue i s not E n g l i s h and has y e t a m i n i m a l command of E n g l i s h . J o u r n a l w r i t i n g : j o u r n a l i s d e r i v e d from the F r e n c h ' j o u r ' f o r 'day', t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s the sense of t h e j o u r n a l as a d a i l y o r a t l e a s t r e g u l a r , w r i t i n g r e c o r d k e p t by t h e j o u r n a l i s t . J o u r n a l s a r e c h r o n o l o g i c a l , k e p t i n o r d e r of time and a r e d a t e d . ' J o u r n a l ' can be c o n s i d e r e d as a non-g e n e r i c t i t l e f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of a person's w r i t i n g . D i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s a w r i t t e n i n t e r a c t i o n between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t . D i a l o g u e j o u r n a l i s a bound note book i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s w r i t e r e g u l a r l y , as much as t h e y w i s h and about a n y t h i n g t h e y w i s h . The t e a c h e r responds t o each s t u d e n t e n t r y . Back and f o r t h book i s a unique v e r s i o n of a d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l where the p a r e n t i s i n v o l v e d as the t h i r d p a r t i c i p a n t . Student w r i t e s i n h i s o r h e r j o u r n a l e v e r y day, t e a c h e r s i g n s i t and makes some comments. P a r e n t s r e a d i t and make comments e v e r y day. M u l t i - a g e d o r f a m i l y - g r o u p i n g c l a s s i s a group of s t u d e n t s from two o r t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e grades who are w o r k i n g w i t h one t e a c h e r . A c t i v i t i e s a r e based not o n l y on g r a d e - l e v e l and age but on c h i l d ' s a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s as we 11. Open area i s a classroom where the multi-aged c l a s s i s working w i t h a team of teachers.The average number of students i s around f i f t y . In the study some of the most f r e q u e n t l y used terms w i l l be abbreviated i n the f o l l o w i n g way: ESL: E n g l i s h as a Second Language SLA: Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n L I : f i r s t language/mother tongue L2.- second language B&F book: Back and Forth book 8 CHAPTER TWO Review of t h e L i t e r a t u r e A. INTRODUCTION W r i t i n g i s a demanding t a s k f o r most of the s t u d e n t s e i t h e r i n f i r s t o r second language s e t t i n g , though the m a j o r i t y of s c h o o l l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s l a c k the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o s t u d e n t s ' w r i t t e n language development. E d e l s k y (1986) examining the problems w i t h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s emphases s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s such as d i s t i n c t i o n s between p u r p o s e l e s s , u n p r o d u c t i v e and u s e f u l , p r o d u c t i v e w r i t i n g ; between a s s i g n e d and u n a s s i g n e d , spontaneous w r i t i n g ; between i n - s c h o o l and o u t - o f - s c h o o l w r i t i n g ; between "the r e a l t h i n g " and the a r t i f i c i a l s i m u l a t i o n s of w r i t i n g ; and between b e i n g engaged i n language p r a c t i c e and r e a l d i s c o u r s e . E d e l s k y proposes the i d e a of a u t h e n t i c v e r s u s s i m u l a t e d r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g and c l a i m s t h a t the b a s i s f o r making the d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t " o n l y meaning -making-w r i t t e n - l a n g u a g e - t e x t - c r e a t i n g - a c t i v i t y i s r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g " ( E d e l s k y 1986). R e s e a r c h e r s and p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s a re s e a r c h i n g f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h may f a c i l i t a t e more a u t h e n t i c w r i t i n g i n our s c h o o l s . S e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s appear i n r e c e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c o n c e p t s a r e the most r e l e v a n t ones f o r t h e d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y . "Meaning making": t o be a b l e t o produce a u t h e n t i c w r i t i n g s t u d e n t s have t o t r y t o c r e a t e meaning. I f s t u d e n t s 9 are a b l e t o work t h e i r way t h r o u g h r e a l q u e s t i o n w i t h r e a l i n t e r e s t and r e a l i n t e n t , t h e n t a s k s w i l l p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ( F u l w i l e r 1987). "The r e a l t h i n g " i s t o become a w r i t e r : the n o t i o n of 'being i t and d o i n g i t b e a t s s t u d y i n g i t ' h e l p s c r e a t e more r e l e v a n t c o n n e c t i o n between t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g (McGonegal 1987). "Yes p l a c e s " : u n i n h i b i t e d language use: e n j o y a b l e and r e l a x e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t encourage s t u d e n t s ' u n i n h i b i t e d language use t o e x p l o r e t h e i r w r i t i n g a b i l i t y can b r i n g s u r p r i s i n g p r o g r e s s i n t h e i r language development ( S a n d l e r 1987). B. BRIEF HISTORY OF DIALOGUE JOURNAL The s t o r y of d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l use i n c l a s s r o o m s i s "a t e a c h e r ' s c r a f t and a r t , woven t o g e t h e r w i t h r e c e n t r e s e a r c h methods of d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s w i t h i n the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t framework f o r v i e w i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n and use of language as a means of t h i n k i n g and g e t t i n g t h i n g s done i n the w o r l d " ( S t a t o n 1988). The p r a c t i c e of i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t t e n c o n v e r s a t i o n goes back t o the b e g i n n i n g of t e a c h i n g and w r i t i n g i t s e l f . However, the f i r s t comprehensive s t u d i e s o f i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t t e n communication used i n a c l a s s r o o m was done by a Los A ngeles t e a c h e r , L e s l e e Reed i n the l a t e 1970s. L e s l e e Reed s t a r t e d t h i s p r a c t i c e i n the mid-1960's w i t h h e r s i x t h grade s t u d e n t s i n L I , h e r b a s i c o b j e c t i v e was 10 t o c a r r y on a d a i l y w r i t t e n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h each of h e r s t u d e n t s . T h i s p r a c t i c e became the s u b j e c t of a r e s e a r c h s t u d y w i t h Jana S t a t o n i n a second language s e t t i n g i n the s c h o o l y e a r of 1979/80. The f o c u s of the s t u d y was the development o f f u n c t i o n a l communication competence i n n a t u r a l language and mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t e a c h e r and each i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . The i n c r e a s e d competence i n w r i t i n g was c o n s i d e r e d as a b y - p r o d u c t . The c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e of i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t i n g i n a j o u r n a l format was born as a means t o h e l p s t u d e n t s use w r i t i n g f u n c t i o n a l l y and t o encourage g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l autonomy. S t a t o n (1983) summarizes i t s v a l u e s as f o l l o w s . I t i s based upon the agreement between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s t o w r i t e back and f o r t h i n a bound c o m p o s i t i o n book about t o p i c s of i n t e r e s t t o each of them. The t e a c h e r i s no l o n g e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i n k i n g up the t o p i c s f o r w r i t i n g , the d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l has opened up a wide range of a c a d e m i c , i n t e r p e r s o n a l and p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e f r e e t o use the f u l l range of language f u n c t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f a c e - t o f a c e communications i n c l u d i n g q u e s t i o n s , c o m p l a i n t s , p r o m i s e s , d e n i a l s and a p o l o g i e s , e t c . The use of i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t t e n communication between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e s a n a t u r a l way t o engage s t u d e n t s i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g w hich does not r e q u i r e commercial m a t e r i a l s , d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s o r p r e v i o u s t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g . T h i s p r a c t i c e works e q u a l l y w e l l i n L I and L2 s e t t i n g . The j o u r n a l ensures a c o m p l e t e l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d 11 approach f o r s t u d e n t s from K i n d e r g a r t e n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h t o p i c s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t of each p a r t i c i p a n t . The b r i e f h i s t o r y and d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e show t h a t t h e use of d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l was a " " f u l l -blown' c l a s s r o o m event which emerged p r i o r t o e x p l i c i t a n a l y s i s and t h e o r i e s of r e s e a r c h e r s . I t i s not a r e s e a r c h -i n i t i a t e d but a t e a c h e r - d e v e l o p e d p r o c e s s . J o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s an e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h has i t s r o o t s i n ' p r a c t i c a l t h e o r y ' . The i s s u e of p r a c t i c a l t h e o r y , as i t i s a d d r e s s e d by M o r r i s (1986), r e p r e s e n t s a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o a l l e d u c a t o r s s i n c e i t c a p t u r e s t h e importance of the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n w h i c h i s "aimed a t the e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , based on u s e f u l , c o h e r e n t t h e o r y " ( M o r r i s 1986). The r e v i e w of most r e c e n t and r e l e v a n t p u b l i c a t i o n s w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e around t h r e e a s p e c t s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g : i t s r e l a t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y , i t s c l a s s r o o m uses and i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . C. JOURNAL WRITING: STUDENT-CENTERED CURRICULUM The use of d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l grows out of an e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e t h a t i s based on the assumption t h a t the b e s t approach f o r i n t r o d u c i n g young c h i l d r e n o r second language l e a r n e r s t o w r i t t e n language use i s a p r o c e s s w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e same model i n which i n f a n t s l e a r n t o speak ( o r s i g n ) t h e i r n a t i v e language t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h competent a d u l t s o r o t h e r c h i l d r e n ( S t a t o n 1984). 12 Jerome S. B runer i n h i s f o r w a r d t o a r e c e n t book on d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l ( S t a t o n e t a l . 1988) a d d r e s s e s the fundamental p e d a g o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . He c l a i m s t h a t the c o r e of d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s the f o l l o w i n g premise : " l e a r n i n g i s a c o l l a b o r a t i v e v e n t u r e between a t e a c h e r and a s t u d e n t s " (Bruner c i t e d i n S t a t o n 1988 ). I n the f o c u s of t e a c h i n g language s k i l l s t h e r e are the development of the mind, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l e v o l u t i o n . The main o b j e c t i v e i s t h a t the s t u d e n t s a r e t o g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r and d e l i g h t w i t h t h e i r own thought processes.The fundamental a s s u m p t i o n , w h i c h f o l l o w s Lev V y g o t s k y ' s p r o p o s i t i o n , i s " t h a t thought t a k e s form i n the shape of an i n t e r n a l d i a l o g u e , . . . t h o u g h t i s i n t e r n a l i z e d d i a l o g u e , t h o u g h t s and i d e a s are f i r s t a c q u i r e d by someone e x t e r n a l l y t h r o u g h d i a l o g u e , becomes i n t e r n a l i z e d , and t h e n e l a b o r a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h o u ght" (Bruner c i t e d i n S t a t o n 1988).Based on t h e s e t h o u g h t s d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g i s used t o encourage l e a r n i n g , a n d viewed as an a i d f o r s t u d e n t s t o more e f f e c t i v e l y d i g e s t the m a t e r i a l s and knowledge t h a t t h e y are becoming a c q u a i n t e d w i t h . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n of d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t o c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y . How can t h i s e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the r e s e n t methods of t e a c h i n g ? Meath-Land (1990) i n h e r c h a p t e r of "The d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l : r e c o n c e i v i n g c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h i n g " 13 d i s c u s s e s d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l i n the c o n t e x t of r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y . T h i s t h e o r y i s r o o t e d i n "the r i g o r o u s e x a m i n a t i o n ' o f 1970s of how t e a c h e r s come t o know t h e i r s t u d e n t s and f e l l o w t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h a l t e r n a t i v e methods of t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h and c u r r i c u l u m development. The movement i s c a l l e d "the r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n " i n c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e and has been the e x a m i n a t i o n of and r e f l e c t i o n on p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . Meath-Land d e f i n e s the r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t c u r r i c u l u m as " c u r r i c u l u m b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s o r h e r w o r l d . That i s , the l i v e s and s t o r i e s of t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s a re examined t h r o u g h e x t e n s i v e w r i t i n g and d i s c u s s i o n " (Meath-Lang 1990). R e c o n c e p t u a l i s t e d u c a t o r s argue t h a t such e x p e r i e n c e s h e i g h t e n c o n s c i o u s n e s s as w e l l as m o t i v a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s and t h e s e s t o r i e s and d i s c u s s i o n s can p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n f o r m and r e f o r m e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . The t o o l s f o r such c u r r i c u l a r e x a m i n a t i o n have f o c u s e d on the use of ethnography, c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y , b i o g r a p h y , and n a r r a t i v e language. The emphasis i s on a t t e n t i v e n e s s t o i n d i v i d u a l i t y , v o i c e , and e x p r e s s i o n . D i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s an i d e a l medium f o r p r a c t i c i n g t h e s e c l a s s r o o m r e f o r m s . I t has been used b o t h f o r r e f l e c t i o n and f e e d back and as a t o o l t o promote f l u e n c y and communicative c o n s c i o u s n e s s and as a s o u r c e f o r r e s h a p i n g language c u r r i c u l a . C a l k i n s (1986) i n the book of "The A r t of T e a c h i n g " d e v o t e s a whole s e c t i o n on "How c h i l d r e n change as w r i t e r s 14 and how we can h e l p e x t e n d t h a t growth". The a u t h o r e x p l o r e s a major i s s u e o f c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s w h i c h i s i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . She c l a i m s t h a t i n e d u c a t i o n two f o r c e s mesh: the t e a c h e r ' s t e a c h i n g and t h e s t u d e n t ' s l e a r n i n g . The p o i n t of c o n t a c t comes when we a l l o w our s t u d e n t s t o t e a c h us how t h e y l e a r n . T h i s knowledge t r a n s f o r m s our t e a c h i n g i n t o a c o u r s e of s t u d y , and our s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g i n t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h a t c o u r s e . To s u p p o r t t h i s t h e o r y C a l k i n s r e f e r s t o the communication p a t t e r n between th e mother and the newborn c h i l d . T h i s i s a k i n d of t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n where i t i s h a r d t o f o l l o w who i s i n i t i a t i n g and who i s f o l l o w i n g ; the a c t i o n and the response seem a l l of one p i e c e . S t a t o n (1984) r e f e r s t o the same p r o c e s s as the most n a t u r a l and most s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s a v a i l a b l e f o r human l e a r n i n g . C a l k i n s c l a i m s t h a t t o be a b l e t o c r e a t e s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g "the t e a c h e r must extend r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y t e a c h " and has t o have a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d approach toward t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g . The book i n t r o d u c e s some r e s u l t s of a w r i t i n g p r o j e c t where t h i r t y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s became r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e i r own c l a s s r o o m s and conducted a s m a l l - s c a l e d r e s e a r c h s t u d y . (See t h e p u b l i c a t i o n on t h e " d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n of r e s e a r c h on w r i t i n g by Newkirk and A t w e l l 1988). The f o c u s of the two-year l o n g , day-to-day o b s e r v a t i o n was the changes i n the development of w r i t t e n language of s i x t e e n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . 15 D i s c u s s i n g the r e s u l t s of the o b s e r v a t i o n s i n Grade 3 and 4 w r i t i n g c l a s s e s C a l k i n s p o i n t s out the importance of p r o v i d i n g an " e x t e r n a l e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n " . I t i s c l a i m e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n o f s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y as w r i t e r does not happen by g i v i n g him o r h e r r e s p o n s e s on the w o r k - i n -p r o c e s s , but s i m p l y by p r o v i d i n g him o r her w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a d the emerging t e x t t o an a u d i e n c e . T h i s way t h e y can d i s l o d g e themselves from e n d l e s s l y a d d i n g on and t h e y b e g i n t o r e - r e a d , r e f l e c t on, and r e c o n s i d e r . T h i s s i t u a t i o n e n a b l e s t h e s t u d e n t s t o become r e a d e r s of t h e i r own w r i t i n g . I n h i g h e r grades t h e s e c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s become i n t e r n a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h make w r i t i n g a means f o r t h i n k i n g and r e - t h i n k i n g . A s k i l l e d w r i t e r i n grade f i v e and s i x w i l l be a b l e t o work not o n l y w i t h word a t hand but w i t h p o t e n t i a l word as w e l l ; t hey can zoom ahead i n t h e i r minds and t h e n r e t u r n t o o r g a n i z e and a r r a n g e . In the case of d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g the t a s k n a t u r a l l y p r o v i d e s t h i s " e x t e r n a l e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n " . The w r i t e r i s r e - t h i n k i n g and r e f l e c t i n g on e v e n t s of i n t e r e s t and i s a b l e t o r e - r e a d the w r i t i n g t o an audience who i s g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d . The next s c h o o l day p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o r r e c t i o n o r r e a l i z a t i o n of new i d e a s and t e c h n i q u e s . McGonegal(1987) s p e c u l a t e s on the same i s s u e of c u r r i c u l u m development: how t o pr e p a r e more c r e a t i v e and r e l e v a n t c o n n e c t i o n between t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . Her t o o l i n a c h i e v i n g a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d w r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m i s " i n f o r m a l j o u r n a l w r i t i n g " ; she argues t h a t t h i s w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y seems t o a i d h e r s t u d e n t s r e a l i z e : t h e y can be i t . The n o t i o n i n McGonegal's p r o j e c t i s well-known t o e d u c a t o r s : d o i n g and b e i n g i t b e a t s s t u d y i n g i t . Some s u b j e c t s such as S o c i a l S t u d i e s make the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s i d e a e a s i e r , i n Language A r t s t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s need t o f i n d out and u n d e r s t a n d new t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s . McGonegal c o n c e n t r a t e s on one main i s s u e : s t u d e n t s have t o know what i t i s t o be w r i t e r s . The t e a c h e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o show s t u d e n t s how t o become s u c c e s s f u l w r i t e r s by l o o k i n g around, t h i n k i n g and t h e n w r i t i n g down what they t h i n k . I n the Theory and R e s e a r c h i n t o P r a c t i c e s e r i e s p u b l i s h e d by ERIC C l e a r i n g h o u s e i n 1985 E i l e e n Tway (1985) p r e s e n t s a s i m i l a r argument: w r i t i n g i s r e a d i n g , as w r i t i n g i s i n t e n d e d t o be r e a d , i f o n l y by the w r i t e r . T h i s t h e o r y f i t s i n the new approaches i n w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n and shows the s h i f t of emphasis, a f t e r y e a r s of f o c u s i n g o n l y on r e a d i n g and i g n o r i n g the w r i t i n g s i d e of t h e p r o c e s s r e s e a r c h e r s are e x p l o r i n g a g a i n the c o n n e c t i o n between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . Tway p o i n t s out t h a t r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g go on almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n the c l a s s r o o m , as c h i l d r e n seem t o e n j o y r e a d i n g what t h e y have w r i t t e n . They r e a d t o r e g a i n new i d e a s , r e a d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r t r a i n o f t h o u g h t , r e a d t o e d i t , and r e a d t o share w i t h o t h e r s . Reading i s a way t o r e c o n n e c t w i t h t h e i r w r i t i n g . Reading and w r i t i n g s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o g e t h e r , t h e s e two a c t i v i t i e s 17 s h o u l d not be s e p a r a t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Tway s u g g e s t s 26 ways, s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e 26 l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t t o make the c o n n e c t i o n between w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g . Under the l e t t e r J she s u g g e s t s ' j o u r n a l ' as a c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e t o d e v e l o p r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . " J o u r n a l i s t h e w r i t e r ' s f r i e n d , a p l a c e t o e x p l o r e f e e l i n g s , t o r e c o r d e v e n t s , t o j o t down i d e a s , t o make notes about r e a d i n g d i s c o v e r i e s and t o w r i t e . J o u r n a l i s a g i f t f o r o n e s e l f " (Tway 1985). The use o f such a ' g i f t ' i n second language c l a s s r o o m where the c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c background of s t u d e n t s are d i v e r s e , can f a c i l i t a t e m e a n i n g f u l w r i t t e n language use more than any o t h e r commercial m a t e r i a l s . S t a t o n (1983) summarizes the n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p i n g w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g competence s u c c e s s f u l l y as f o l l o w s : -a n a t u r a l way t o engage s t u d e n t s i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , s i m i l a r t o the c o n d i t i o n s i n o r a l language a c q u i s i t i o n ; -no commercial m a t e r i a l s and d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w hich may be c u l t u r a l l y b i a s e d - t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be s u i t a b l e f o r s t u d e n t s from K i n d e r g a r t e n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , c o m p l e t e l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d w i t h t o p i c s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o each s t u d e n t - i t s h o u l d work e q u a l l y w e l l w i t h L I and L2. She c l a i m s t h a t d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l p r o v i d e s t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , i t f a c i l i t a t e s f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i v e 18 communication between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t about s e l f -g e n e r a t e d t o p i c s . D. USE OF JOURNAL WRITING IN THE CLASSROOM The v a l u e of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s i n i t s open-ended p r a c t i c e . Teachers can adapt i t f o r a wide range of s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . T h i s p r a c t i c e i s l i n k e d t o an emerging new r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , i n wh i c h t h e emphasis i s on t e a c h e r s who are a c t i n g as o b s e r v e r s , l e a r n e r s and t e a c h e r s a t the same time i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . The e d i t o r s of " U n d e r s t a n d i n g W r i t i n g : Ways of O b s e r v i n g , L e a r n i n g and T e a c h i n g K-8" ( Newkirk and A t w e l l 1988) c l a i m t h a t t h e r e i s a need t o d e m y s t i f y r e s e a r c h i n w r i t i n g and propose t h a t w r i t i n g s h o u l d be s t u d i e d as i t o c c u r s i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . The c h a p t e r by S i n c l a i r - D u r s t (1988) r e p o r t s a y e a r l o n g w r i t i n g p r o j e c t i n Grade 1 where the t e a c h e r a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of w r i t t e n language. The main e d u c a t i o n a l aim i s t o b u i l d a l i n k between the young c h i l d r e n ' s i n - s c h o o l l i v e s and o u t - s c h o o l l i v e s , hence t o c r e a t e a r e l e v a n t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . The t a s k i s " t o h e l p " an abandoned s t u f f e d teddy bear w r i t e h i s j o u r n a l . Each day a s t u d e n t t a k e s the be a r and h i s j o u r n a l home and w r i t e s about t h e a d v e n t u r e s of the s l e e p - o v e r w h i c h w i l l be r e a d next day i n c l a s s . I t i s a n a t u r a l , r e l a x e d and e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e f o r the s i x - y e a r o l d s . The s t u d e n t s can approach w r i t i n g i n any way th e y w i s h , e.g.: dra w i n g and 19 w r i t i n g , d i c t a t i n g t o parents.The main purpose of the p r o j e c t i s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s f i n d t h e i r own v o i c e and e n j o y w r i t i n g and meaning making.As a by- p r o d u c t the t e a c h e r i s a b l e t o p r o v i d e a l i n k between s c h o o l and home, t o e x t e n d w r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s home and c u l t u r e and t o i n v o l v e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p a r e n t s and a t l a s t but not a t l e a s t t o b u i l d a b r i d g e between t a l k , p l a y and w r i t e . A nother p r o j e c t about u n a s s e s s e d j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s r e p o r t e d by Nancy M a r t i n (1983). I n h e r book of " M o s t l y About W r i t i n g " she examines new d i r e c t i o n s f o r w r i t i n g based on two fundamental a s p e c t s : one i s the c o n t e x t of w r i t i n g , t h e o t h e r i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s e l f - d i r e c t e d w r i t i n g i n the development of g e n e r a l w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . Her assumption, s i m i l a r t o the o t h e r c i t e d r e s e a r c h e r s ' , i s t h a t s c h o o l w r i t i n g g e n e r a l l y g i v e s few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s t o r e f l e c t upon t h e i r own l e a r n i n g , t o t h i n k about t h i n k i n g , a n d t o l e a r n about t h e m s e l v e s . I n v e s t i g a t i n g models, c o n t e x t s , and i n t e n t i o n s i n w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n she came a c r o s s a p r o j e c t i n a Western A u s t r a l i a n h i g h - s c h o o l w h i c h aimed t o d e v e l o p t a l k and p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g as a means of l e a r n i n g i n a l l s u b j e c t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s : t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t l e a r n e r s s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the accomplishment of the s c h o o l ' s e d u c a t i o n a l aims. To be a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h i s s t u d e n t s need the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t o r a l l y and i n w r i t i n g on t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . One o f t h e forms of w r i t i n g w hich o f f e r s most scope f o r r e f l e c t i o n i s j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . W i t h the use o f 20 u n a s s e s s e d j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t h e t e a c h e r s were a b l e t o c r e a t e an environment i n w h i c h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g and d i s c u s s i o n of i d e a s of equal i n t e r e s t t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s became the p a r t of the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . M a r t i n ' s s t u d y i n t r o d u c e s a p r o j e c t w i t h o b j e c t i v e s and aims v e r y s i m i l a r t o my d a u g h t e r ' s Back and F o r t h book p r o j e c t . Due t o the d i f f e r e n c e i n age and numbers, the A u s t r a l i a n p r o j e c t seems t o be more plann e d and c o o r d i n a t e d , a l t h o u g h i t m i s s e s the unique component of p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t . The b r o a d e s t r e v i e w of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s p r o v i d e d i n Toby F u l w i l e r ' s book: The J o u r n a l Book ( 1 9 8 7 ) . J o u r n a l s are seen i n e v e r y s i t u a t i o n and from e v e r y a n g l e as the c o n t r i b u t i n g a u t h o r s , m o s t l y p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s t e l l the r e a d e r "how and when the y have found out t h a t j o u r n a l k e e p i n g c o u l d s e t s t u d e n t s t h i n k i n g " ( F u l w i l e r 1987). The r e p o r t e d j o u r n a l s a r e 'yes' p l a c e s where s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o t h i n k not by d o i n g e x e r c i s e s i n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t e x t b o o k s , but by w o r k i n g t h e i r way t h r o u g h r e a l q u e s t i o n s , w i t h r e a l i n t e n t , and r e a l i n t e r e s t . F u l w i l e r c a l l s the j o u r n a l "mind and f e e l i n g opener" w h i c h i s v e r y much needed i n s c h o o l s where, i n h i s words,"minds and b o d i e s are t o be c o n t r o l l e d , where young people a r e not o n l y s a f e from p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e but from the sweet v i o l e n c e of t h i n k i n g " . The c o l l e c t e d a r t i c l e s i n The J o u r n a l Book ( F u l w i l e r 1987) demonstrate how s t u d e n t s may 21 l e a r n t o w r i t e and w r i t e t o l e a r n i n ways t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h i n k i n g i n a p r o d u c t i v e sense. Karen W i l e s S a n d l e r (1987), one of the c o n t r i b u t o r s of The J o u r n a l Book uses j o u r n a l s i n f o r e i g n language c l a s s r o o m f o r " w r i t i n g as d i s c o v e r y " . She i s a d d r e s s i n g a well-known dilemma of language t e a c h e r s : i n h e r c h a p t e r of " L e t t i n g them w r i t e when th e y c a n ' t even t a l k " p u b l i s h e d i n F u l w i l e r ' s J o u r n a l Book. F i r s t she d e s c r i b e s the s i l e n c e e v e r y f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r dreads "which i n t e r r u p t s the f r e e f l o w of c o n v e r s a t i o n and t e l l s you t h a t y o u r s t u d e n t s are d e c o d i n g a g a i n . They are t a k i n g a p a r t y o u r q u e s t i o n , s e p a r a t i n g them i n t o t r a n s l a t a b l e chunks, p u t t i n g t h e chunks i n t o t h e i r mother tongue, p r o c e s s i n g the meaning ( i f t h e r e i s any l e f t ) , a n d t h e n t r a n s l a t i n g t h e i r answer back i n t o f o r e i g n language by the same method. And a l l the w h i l e , c o n v e r s a t i o n i s f r o z e n , s p o n t a n e i t y f i z z l e s and thought i s c o n s t r i c t e d by grammar r u l e s , f e a r , c o n s e r v a t i s m , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t i s a m i s e r a b l e f e e l i n g and i t happens to o o f t e n " ( S a n d l e r s 1987). S a n d l e r a d v o c a t e s w r i t i n g t o bypass th e d e c o d i n g phase: she l e t s h e r s t u d e n t s w r i t e when th e y c a n ' t even t a l k . She uses non-graded, c r e a t i v e , e x p l o r a t o r y w r i t i n g e x e r c i s e s t o f r e e h e r s t u d e n t s from t h e i r f e a r s , t o l e a r n t o use language as a key o r a t o o l f o r d i s c o v e r y . She c l a i m s t h a t even a t the most e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l s t h i s t y pe of w r i t i n g ( j o u r n a l s , f r e e c o m p o s i t i o n s ) , t h a t encourage s t u d e n t s ' u n i n h i b i t e d language use t o e x p l o r e t h e i r t h o u g h t , can b r i n g s u r p r i s i n g p r o g r e s s i n language l e a r n i n g . The emphasis i s on encouragement, the t e a c h e r h e l p s s t u d e n t s t o overcome t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s w h i c h h i n d e r f r e e f l o w communication i n the language c l a s s r o o m . Ungraded, s e l f - e x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s used as an a l t e r n a t e mode t o everyday d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s o f f e r a k i n d of encouragement needed t o i n s p i r e s t u d e n t s t o p l a y w i t h the new language i n a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n . S a n d l e r l o o k s a t "one of the most d e l i g h t f u l elements of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g : mistake-making". She p o i n t s out t h a t m i s t a k e s a r e i n e v i t a b l e b y - p r o d u c t s of t h i s w r i t i n g : a s s t u d e n t s a r e s t r e t c h i n g t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s t o the l i m i t , t h e r e i s horrendous damage t o the s t r u c t u r e of the language under s t u d y . But w i t h the t e a c h e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s and w i t h the s t u d e n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n an a p p r o p r i a t e way t o communicate and e x p r e s s an i m p o r t a n t t h o u g h t , s t u d e n t s become t o depend on the language f o r s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n . J o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n f o r e i g n language c l a s s r o o m s p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r meaning making. S t u d e n t s can d e v e l o p a f u l l e r sense of adventure w i t h language, a more c o n f i d e n t approach t o s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and u l t i m a t e l y a w i l l i n g n e s s t o see language as a c r i t i c a l t o o l t o o r d e r i n g and managing the s t u d e n t ' s w o r l d , the w o r l d o f the second language and c u l t u r e . Sarah Hudelson draws a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n i n h e r 1984 TESOL a r t i c l e : "ESL l e a r n e r s can (and s h o u l d ) w r i t e b e f o r e t h e y have complete c o n t r o l o v e r the o r a l and w r i t t e n systems of t h e language. Second language a c q u i r e r s ' w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s r e f l e c t t h e i r language development a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n t i m e . As l e a r n e r s g a i n more c o n t r o l o v e r the language t h e i r w r i t i n g w i l l r e f l e c t t h i s development" (Hudelson 1984). As a c l o s i n g remark on the use of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m one g u i d e book f o r L I l e a r n e r s i s t o be mentioned. The Northwest R e g i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l L a b o r a t o r y , P o r t l a n d , Oregon i s s u e d t h i s S t u d e n t ' s Guide(1977) which o f f e r s some p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s t o t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s on how t o s t a r t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n the classroom.The aim i s t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e i n p l a n n i n g , a c c o m p l i s h i n g and e v a l u a t i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . T h e book emphasizes t h a t the j o u r n a l s h o u l d r e f l e c t those moments i n s c h o o l - and home-l i f e t h a t a re p e r s o n a l and/or have s p e c i a l meaning f o r the w r i t e r , t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s from w h i c h the w r i t e r draws some u n d e r s t a n d i n g about h i m / h e r s e l f and h i s / h e r w o r l d . A j o u r n a l s h o u l d be a p l a c e t o e x p r e s s and r e f l e c t on what the s t u d e n t does, f e e l s and t h i n k s . T h e a c t u a l w r i t i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be r e l a x e d and e n j o y a b l e , s t u d e n t s do not need t o worry about s t y l e o r c o r r e c t n e s s . The essence of t h i s t y pe of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s not t o l i s t d a i l y e v e n t s o r a c t i v i t i e s , but t o put them i n c o n t e x t of t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g and t o e v a l u a t e them. As a r e s u l t of such a r e g u l a r w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y e d u c a t o r s expect the f o l l o w i n g : the s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g a b i l i t y w i l l improve s i m p l y because of the r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e ; t h e i r a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d the w o r l d and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s 24 w i l l a l s o deepen from the r e g u l a r a c t of r e f l e c t i n g i n w r i t i n g about what i s happening t o them. The a u t h o r s of t h i s s t u d e n t - g u i d e c l a i m t h a t t h e r e i s one p e r s o n a s t u d e n t s h o u l d r e a l l y need t o know w e l l i n t h i s w o r l d : h i m / h e r s e l f . The j o u r n a l can be the most e x c i t i n g t e a c h e r a s t u d e n t w i l l e v e r e n c o u n t e r . W r i t i n g about o n e s e l f i s one way t o grow i n knowing o n e s e l f , t o become more aware of one's l e a r n i n g , g o a l s , and needs. An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s the response the w r i t e r can g e t . The c o r r e s p o n d e n t w i l l s h a r e i n t h i s w r i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e , w i l l r e s p ond and h e l p communicate. The main g o a l i s t o c r e a t e i n t e r a c t i o n between two p a r t n e r s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n each o t h e r ' s t h o u g h t s and who t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d not o n l y t h e m s e l v e s but the o t h e r as w e l l . The s t u d e n t g u i d e i s w r i t t e n f o r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g but the i s s u e s of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , s e l f - e s t e e m and open communication between e d u c a t o r s and s t u d e n t s are a l s o v a l i d i n an ESL s e t t i n g . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r " s h a r i n g ' t h o u g h t s and i d e a s are e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r a language and c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e c l a s s r o o m . E. IMPLICATIONS FOR LEARNING RELATED TO CLASSROOM JOURNAL WRITING Jana S t a t o n , one of the f i r s t r e s e a r c h e r s who d i s c o v e r e d j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f o r ESL s t u d e n t s , c l a i m s t h a t d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e a most e x t r a o r d i n a r y p i c t u r e of the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . There i s no o t h e r way a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h e r s and t e a c h e r s which would e n a b l e them t o lo o k a t "the h e a r t of e d u c a t i o n : the r e a l d i a l o g u e which o c c u r s between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t " ( S t a t o n , 1988). T h i s r e c o r d e d communication p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t i n t o the p e r s o n a l , i n t e n t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s which compose a s c h o o l day. S t a t o n emphasizes s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l f o r human l e a r n i n g . She draws our a t t e n t i o n t o the unique p o s s i b i l i t y of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t o c o n s i d e r l e a r n e r and t e a c h e r as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f " p e r s o n a l u n i v e r s e s , unknown r e s e r v o i r s of e x p e r i e n c e , i d e a s , f e e l i n g , a n d b e l i e f s . . . w a i t i n g t o be known and t o know t h r o u g h communication". T h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o share makes d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g an i m p o r t a n t t o o l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g communication i n a language and c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e c l a s s r o o m . S t a t o n c l a i m s t h a t "the knowledge and l e a r n i n g we v a l u e as u n i q u e l y human are a c q u i r e d o n l y as the c h i l d e n t e r s i n t o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h more e x p e r i e n c e d members of the c u l t u r e " ( S t a t o n 1988). T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s even more im p o r t a n t f o r an ESL c h i l d who does not o n l y need the i n p u t of a competent n a t i v e s p e a k e r but i s i n d e s p e r a t e need f o r n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g , f a c i l i t a t i v e ways of language use where he o r she i s an equal p a r t n e r i n the communication. D i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s a t o o l w h i c h makes e d u c a t i o n more p e r s o n a l i z e d and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . S t u d y i n g the t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s and concerns of the t e a c h e r and the l e a r n e r s i n i n t e r a c t i o n we w i l l g a i n a b r o a d e r knowledge of the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . 26 D i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p u t s the emphasis on the c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g and i t i s argued t h a t the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i s t he most needed c o n t e x t f o r t e a c h i n g . CHAPTER THREE Case s t u d y The case s t u d y r e p o r t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s . I n the f i r s t p a r t the s u b j e c t of the s t u d y i s i n t r o d u c e d . The emphasis i s on the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s and the i s s u e of s c h o o l i n g i n a second language. The second p a r t d e a l s w i t h the p o t e n t i a l s and l i m i t a t i o n s of a c l a s s r o o m e x e r c i s e ; the t a s k of the Back and F o r t h book i s i n t r o d u c e d . I n the l a s t p a r t the argument of the t h e s i s i s p r e s e n t e d : the m u l t i - p o t e n t i a l , a u t h e n t i c t a s k of t h e B&F book does not produce s a t i s f a c t o r y s t u d e n t w r i t i n g . To f i n d some e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n c y of t h e t a s k , the c o n d i t i o n s a re examined. L o o k i n g a t t h e language development two approaches t o t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d i n a p i l o t s t u d y , a n d some p o s s i b l e ways of a n a l y z i n g the c o l l e c t e d d a t a a re h i g h l i g h t e d . I . INTRODUCTION A. THE QUESTION OF LANGUAGE USE The s u b j e c t of the case s t u d y i s an 11-year o l d g i r l , named Janka. She i s my o l d e s t d a u g h t e r , she has two younger s i b l i n g s , a s i s t e r and a b r o t h e r . Our f a m i l y a r r i v e d a t Vancouver i n November 1986. The purpose of our s t a y has been p o s t - g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n ; my husband i s a m e d i c a l d o c t o r , I am a h i g h - s c h o o l t e a c h e r , b o t h of us a r e e n r o l l e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. P r i o r t o our a r r i v a l none o f t h e c h i l d r e n had r e c e i v e d any second language e d u c a t i o n , t h e i r mother tongue was Hu n g a r i a n . E x a m i n i n g t h e i s s u e of language use i n the f a m i l y i t i s c o n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e t o loo k a t the most f r e q u e n t l y used terms i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h SLA. S t e r n (1983) c l a s s i f i e s t he terms under two main groups: L I and L2, on the bases of s u b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a language and an i n d i v i d u a l . The term L I i n d i c a t e s t h a t a pe r s o n a c q u i r e d the language i n i n f a n c y and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d ( f i r s t and n a t i v e language) g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n the f a m i l y . The concept of L2 has a d u a l f u n c t i o n : i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t L2 i s a c q u i r e d a f t e r the pers o n has a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d a L I and t h a t t h e L2 i s a c q u i r e d on a lower l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y i n comparison t o L I ( L2 i s the weaker, the second language). C o n s e q u e n t l y , n a t i v e language i s used f o r t h e language of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d a c q u i s i t i o n , whereas p r i m a r y language i n d i c a t e s the language of dominant o r p r e f e r r e d use. 28 Comparing L I and L2 the p r i n c i p a l i s s u e s are p e r s o n a l l y f e l t l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y and the manner of a c q u i s i t i o n ; t h e s e two n o r m a l l y c o i n c i d e but i t i s not always the norm, as the use of languages i n d i c a t e s i t i n our f a m i l y . F o r the f i r s t h a l f a y e a r f o l l o w i n g our a r r i v a l H u n g a r i a n was our c h i l d r e n ' s L I and t h e p r i m a r y language used f o r e v e r y day communication a t home. There were some t e n t a t i v e a t t e m p t s t o use E n g l i s h as the p r i m a r y language but t h e c h i l d r e n showed s t r o n g d i s l i k e and r e s i s t a n c e t o use a f o r e i g n language a t home. As the months passed and t h e y g a i n e d more and more c o n f i d e n c e i n u s i n g E n g l i s h , H u n g a r i a n became the p a r e n t s ' language and the c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d t o use E n g l i s h a t home. F o l l o w i n g S t e r n ' s arguments H u n g a r i a n remained t h e i r n a t i v e language, but E n g l i s h became the p r i m a r y language. There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g phenomenon i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n : the c h o i c e of language. How d i d our young c h i l d r e n d e c i d e w h i c h language t o choose? S i n c e b o t h p a r e n t s are b i l i n g u a l i t has been always o p t i o n a l how t o a d d r e s s us; e i t h e r i n E n g l i s h o r H u n g a r i a n the communication has been f r e e - f l o w . O b v i o u s l y , a t the b e g i n n i n g i t was the c h i l d r e n ' s E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l w hich d e t e r m i n e d the language t h e y were g o i n g t o use, but w i t h t h e i r development of b a s i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication s k i l l s (BICS Cummins 1984) the c h o i c e was based on d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a . S t e r n , r e g a r d i n g the q u e s t i o n of b i 1 i n g u a l i s m , c l a i m s t h a t "equal command i n two languages i s e x t r e m e l y r a r e . . . t h e command i s not b a l a n c e d . . . i t d i s p l a y s a c e r t a i n dominance of 29 c o n f i g u r a t i o n depending on such f a c t o r s as p r e f e r e n c e i n one o r t h e o t h e r language f o r r e c e p t i v e o r p r o d u c t i v e use, w r i t t e n o r spoken form, d i f f e r e n t degrees of f o r m a l i t y and f o r p a r t i c u l a r domains of v e r b a l use". He c o n c l u d e s h i s argument s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s no way t o draw a d e m a r c a t i o n l i n e between knowing two languages and b e i n g b i 1 i n g u a l . My a s s u m p t i o n based on l o n g term o b s e r v a t i o n s i s c o n c u r r e n t w i t h S t e r n ' s argument. The c h o i c e of language t o u s e , ( L I o r L 2 ) , always depends on the a c t u a l c o n t e x t of t h e s i t u a t i o n and d e t e r m i n e d by the above mentioned f a c t o r s . Here i s an example: the e a r l i e s t s u c c e s s f u l use of E n g l i s h a t home was always r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l i n g ; as soon as paper and p e n c i l were i n v o l v e d , E n g l i s h became the language of communication s i n c e the language of s c h o o l i n g was t h e s t r o n g e s t domain a t the e a r l y s t a g e of my c h i l d r e n ' s SLA.. Those c o n v e r s a t i o n s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o emotions and f e e l i n g s have been conducted i n Hungarian and I assume our c h i l d r e n w i l l always use t h e i r mother tongue f o r e x p r e s s i n g " r e a l f e e l i n g s " . B. LEARNING IN A SECOND LANGUAGE The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (Table A) i s t o p r o v i d e some b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n on the p r o c e s s of second language a c q u i s i t i o n of the s u b j e c t . T a b l e 1 I n f o r m a t i o n on the S u b j e c t ' s P r o c e s s o f Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n CHRONO- AGE LENGTH LOGICAL AT OF EXPOSED SCHOOLING LEARNER AGE ARRIVAL RESIDENCY TO IN IN CANADA ENGLISH L I L2 Janka 11 y e a r s 7 y e a r s 3 y e a r s 3 y e a r s 3 y r s (female) 3 month 8 months 8 months p r e -s c h o o l Grade 1 1985/8 Grade 2 1986/87 Grade 3 1987/88 Grade 4 1988/89 Grade5 1989/90 When Janka s t a r t e d t o a t t e n d s c h o o l i n Canada she was not l a b e l l e d as an ESL s t u d e n t . She was younger t h a n n i n e t h e r e f o r e she was e n r o l l e d i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . I t was up t o the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r and the p r i n c i p a l how t o d e a l w i t h h e r language problems. The s o l u t i o n was t o put h e r i n t o a lower grade, she had t o a t t e n d Grade 1 once more, t h i s time 31 i n L2 and was g i v e n the chance t o work h e r s e l f up t o h e r pe e r s ' grade l e v e l by the S p r i n g break. T h i s p o l i c y , w h i c h was q u i t e w i d e - s p r e a d a t t h a t t i m e , c r e a t e d a vacuum s i t u a t i o n f o r the young s t u d e n t . The c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s i n the lower grade were not c h a l l e n g i n g enough even i f the i n s t r u c t i o n was i n a f o r e i g n language. The peer p r e s s u r e i n the c l a s s r o o m was not s t r o n g enough e i t h e r t o m o t i v a t e the l e a r n e r . The l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n was " s h e l t e r e d " but r e s u l t e d i n i s o l a t i o n . T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g and h e r l e a r n i n g s t y l e ( o r i g i n a t e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d s c h o o l system i n Hungary) r e s u l t e d i n an c h a r a c t e r i s t i c approach t o second language l e a r n i n g . She c o n s i d e r e d E n g l i s h as an o t h e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r which had t o be l e a r n e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e h i g h e r academic s k i l l s and good gr a d e s . At the e a r l i e s t s t a g e of h e r SLA t h i s approach t o language l e a r n i n g and l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l r e s u l t e d i n a much weaker a b i l i t y t o communicate i n L2 and a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o g n i t i v e / a c a d e m i c p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l . C. SCHOOLING IN A SECOND LANGUAGE R e s e a r c h e r s and c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a re b o t h aware of the many d i f f i c u l t i e s second language l e a r n e r s have t o f a c e e n t e r i n g t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s e v e r y day. The s u b j e c t of t h i s s t u d y , one of the 48% of s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l board (Ashworth 1989), e v e r y morning has t o s w i t c h from home language t o s c h o o l language w h i c h i n v o l v e s a g r e a t amount of changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y . S chool systems, v a l u e s and judgments r e g a r d i n g academic achievement v a r y from one c o u n t r y t o the o t h e r . The a s p e c t s of e v e r y day human r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be so d i f f e r e n t from the s t u d e n t ' s home c o u n t r y t h a t most of the new-comer c h i l d r e n f e e l overwhelmed by the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n t o absor b . The s t u d i e s and books of Mary Ashworth r e p r e s e n t the wide range of p e r s p e c t i v e s from "The F o r c e s Which Shaped Them" (1979) t o the " B l e s s e d W i t h B i l i n g u a l B r a i n " (1988) and i l l u s t r a t e t h e numerous a n g l e s w h i c h the problems o f ESL s t u d e n t s can been and have t o be examined from. As a f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r , a second language s p e a k e r , and a mother of t h r e e second language l e a r n e r s I f e e l p r i v i l e g e d t o be a b l e t o f o l l o w t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . One of the main o b j e c t i v e s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o sh a r e my i n s i g h t s i n t o t h i s p r o c e s s and h e l p u n d e r s t a n d i t s many c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . When our f a m i l y as New Canadians a r r i v e d a t our new c o u n t r y the s c h o o l was the f i r s t and most apparent b r i d g e t o the new language, s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o our e x p e r i e n c e i t i s the s c h o o l and the t e a c h e r who are a b l e t o s t a r t t o b u i l d b r i d g e s o v e r the gap between t h e mother c o u n t r y and the new c o u n t r y . Through our c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l i n g e x p e r i e n c e the f a m i l y has been l e a r n i n g t o g e t h e r how t o become eq u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s of the new s o c i e t y . E d u c a t i o n i n second language must be c o n s i d e r e d the most s u c c e s s f u l language l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Y e t , r e s e a r c h has shown some c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s , and my l o n g - t e r m o b s e r v a t i o n s of my t h r e e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l -aged ESL c h i l d r e n a l s o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e s e r e s u l t s . F i r s t of a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n u n m o d i f i e d c o n t e n t a r e a c l a s s e s does not mean a u t o m a t i c s u c c e s s i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n . As r e s e a r c h shows " . . . t h e r e remain some unsound p r a c t i c e s i n p a r t s o f our e d u c a t i o n a l system w h i c h f a i l t o p r o v i d e Immigrant c h i l d r e n w i t h e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y , l e t a l o n e e q u a l i t y of outcome" (Ashworth 1988). The l a r g e - s c a l e s t u d i e s of James Cummins i n d i c a t e t h a t , w h i l e f l u e n c y i n s o c i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n i s an important, achievement i n second language l e a r n i n g , i t i s academic language use which i s c r i t i c a l f o r b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g . I n the r e - a n a l y s i s of the T o r o n t o Survey Cummins (1984) s t a t e s t h a t : "immigrant s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e , on the average, 5-7 y e a r s t o approach grade norms i n L2 academic s k i l l s , y e t show p e e r - a p p r o p r i a t e L2 c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s k i l l s w i t h i n about two y e a r s of a r r i v a l " . T h e f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t " c o n v e r s a t i o n a l and academic a s p e c t s of language p r o f i c i e n c y need t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d " . A c c o r d i n g t o my o b s e r v a t i o n s t h e s e two language s k i l l s , i . e . : BICS and CALP, a t the b e g i n n i n g phase of SLA may even "work" a g a i n s t each o t h e r . As the b a s i c communication s k i l l s of my c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d t o improve t h e i r t e a c h e r s tended t o f o r g e t about the s t u d e n t s ' ESL background and l e f t them a l o n e " t o s t r u g g l e w i t h the r i g o r s of academic 34 m a t e r i a l and the d i f f i c u l t y of l e a r n i n g t o comprehend t e x t i n E n g l i s h " (Gunderson 1985). My o b s e r v a t i o n s c oncur w i t h the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s of M a r g a r e t E a r l y (1990), i n h e r r e c e n t a r t i c l e she p o i n t s out t h a t s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n needs t o be g i v e n t o the c o n f l i c t between the r e s e a r c h e r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of ESL s t u d e n t s ' needs and the t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s of most c o n t e n t t e a c h e r s . The Vancouver S c h o o l Board h a v i n g r e c o g n i z e d the need of ESL s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p t h e i r language p r o f i c i e n c y and i n c r e a s e t h e i r academic achievement has i n i t i a t e d a l a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t based on Mohan's (1986) i n t e g r a t i v e language and c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g a c r o s s the c u r r i c u l u m approach. The major o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the means by w h i c h c o n t e n t t e a c h i n g and language t e a c h i n g can be c o o r d i n a t e d , and ESL s t u d e n t s can i n c r e a s e b o t h t h e i r language p r o f i c i e n c y and academic achievement. The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s based on Mohan's knowledge framework and the " I n t e g r a t i n g Language and Content I n s t r u c t i o n K-12: An E.S.L. Resource book ( E a r l y e t a l . 1986). T h i s approach i s used i n the a n a l y s i s of the t h r e e -y e a r lo n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r o j e c t which i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a pter Four. A s h o r t n a r r a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n the next s e c t i o n t o c a p t u r e the c o n t e x t of t h i s unique e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e from the p e r s p e c t i v e s of an ESL s t u d e n t and h e r f a m i l y . 35 I I . THE TASK A. JOURNAL WRITING IN L2: THE POTENTIALS Janka s t a r t e d t o w r i t e h e r d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l i n Grade 3, a t the age of n i n e , i n h e r second s c h o o l y e a r i n Canada. T h i s type of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d as a unique e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and i s c a l l e d Back and F o r t h book. The main o b j e c t i v e of the a c t i v i t y was t o c r e a t e an open communication channel between home and s c h o o l w i t h the h e l p of a note-book w h i c h goes back and f o r t h e v e r y day. The s u c c e s s of t h i s a c t i v i t y depended on the c o o p e r a t i o n of t e a c h e r , s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s and was based on the assumptions t h a t 1) i t would f a c i l i t a t e genuine communication f o r b o t h L I and L2 l e a r n e r s i n a w r i t t e n form and 2) i t would h e l p t e a c h e r and p a r e n t s m o n i t o r t h e adjustment of c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l l i f e i n g e n e r a l and 3) i t would g i v e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i n a more c r e a t i v e form. I t was c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y f o r t h e second language l e a r n e r s . My i n t e r e s t i n t h i s a c t i v i t y o r i g i n a t e d from t h e assumption t h a t the book would p r o v i d e i n s i g h t f o r the s t u d e n t , the t e a c h e r and p a r e n t s about s c h o o l i n g i n a second language: what the l e a r n e r i s a b l e t o a c q u i r e , how he o r she i s f e e l i n g about the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , b o t h c o n t e n t m a t t e r s and the second language, and how he o r she i s a b l e t o communicate about i t i n the second language. The e x i s t i n g t r i a n g l e of the p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e s a genuine communication where, b e s i d e t h e r o u t i n e r e c o u n t of e v e n t s , i . e . : t h e s t u d e n t ' s s c h o o l day, t h e r e i s i n t e r e s t and i n t e n t t o share f e e l i n g and d i s c u s s a t t i t u d e toward , s c h o o l i n g . T h i s type of d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f a c i l i t a t e s not o n l y open f a c e - t o - f a c e communication ( S t a t o n 1983) on the t a r g e t / s e c o n d language i n a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g n a t u r a l atmosphere, but goes beyond language use and f o s t e r s more complex l e a r n i n g : l e a r n i n g about o n e s e l f , about th e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s and about s c h o o l i n g i n g e n e r a l . In the B&F book the s t u d e n t i s not o n l y encouraged t o w r i t e about the s c h o o l day (Sequence), s i n c e two of the p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e t h r o u g h the e v e n t s ( i . e . : s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r ) but i s supposed t o r e f l e c t on the e v e n t s ( E v a l u a t i o n ) as w e l l . The fundamental purpose of the j o u r n a l as a "yes p l a c e " ( S a n d l e r 1987) i s , b e s i d e g i v i n g the s t u d e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h i n k o v e r the e v e n t s ( Reed 1988 and F u l w i l e r 1987), t o e v a l u a t e and r e f l e c t upon t h e s e e v e n t s . The t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r e s t i s t o f i n d out the l e a r n e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s of the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . The s t u d e n t ' s o b j e c t i v e i s t o t h i n k t h r o u g h the e v e n t s and t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s o r h e r p l a c e i n them. The p a r e n t ' s o b j e c t i v e i s t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about th e s c h o o l e v e n t s and about the ways how the c h i l d i s d e a l i n g w i t h and f e e l s about them. T h i s complex communication t r i a n g l e p r o v i d e s an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n f o r the second language l e a r n e r - c h i l d and f o r the 37 second language l e a r n e r - p a r e n t . I t o c c u r s i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , p a r t i c i p a n t s are communicating on t h e i r own language l e v e l , a re g i v e n the i n p u t s of a n a t i v e s p e a k e r and may address any t o p i c of common i n t e r e s t . The most v a l u a b l e component of the B&F book a c t i v i t y i s t h a t language l e a r n i n g t a k e s p l a c e t h r o u g h language s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The ESL s t u d e n t , l i k e the young L I l e a r n e r , t a k e s p a r t i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n as a " n o v i c e of e x p e c t e d ways of t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , and a c t i n g . " " . . . c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e a w o r l d v i e w as t h e y a c q u i r e a language" (Ochs 1986). G i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s s c h o o l w i t h the t e a c h e r and p a r e n t i n second language t h e l e a r n e r i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n language s o c i a l i z a t i o n . He o r she i s " l e a r n i n g about and e x p r e s s i n g what one must say, know, v a l u e and do i n o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s o c i o c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s of the s o c i e t y " (Ochs 1986). I t i s beyond q u e s t i o n t h a t f o r an ESL l e a r n e r the s c h o o l i s the most i m p o r t a n t , and sometimes the o n l y p l a c e where i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h n a t i v e s p e a k e r s are p r o v i d e d r e g u l a r l y . C o n t r a s t i n g language l e a r n i n g and language s o c i a l i z a t i o n i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t whereas language l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s the l e a r n i n g of r u l e s and the use of the language, language s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s l e a r n i n g the language and the c u l t u r e . Language s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s communication (use of language) i n a c o n t e x t of an e x p e r i e n c e o r a c t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c u l t u r a l knowledge. The B&F book i s communication i n the c o n t e x t of e v e r y day s c h o o l e v e n t s 38 t h r o u g h w h i c h the ESL s t u d e n t i s l e a r n i n g the language and the c u l t u r e i n an i n t e g r a t e d form. Summarizing the above s t a t e d I argue t h a t the Back and F o r t h book w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y i s an a u t h e n t i c w r i t i n g t a s k . I t has the p o t e n t i a l t o f o s t e r n a t u r a l f l o w of communication among t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s who are g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the communication and are p r o v i d e d w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y t o add r e s s any t o p i c of i n t e r e s t a t any g i v e n l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y . B. JANKA'S BACK AND FORTH BOOK: THE LIMITATIONS T h i s p a r t of the case s t u d y i s f o c u s i n g on the s t u d e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s and on the a c t u a l p r o c e s s of how the B&F book t a s k was r e a l i z e d . The i n c o n s i s t e n c y of the t a s k j u s t i f i e s my s t u d y : the above p r e s e n t e d i n t r o d u c t i o n of the B&F book c l a i m s t h a t the t a s k i s a p o t e n t i a l l y a u t h e n t i c w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y . And y e t my t h r e e - y e a r l o n g o b s e r v a t i o n of t h i s a c t i v i t y s u g g e s t s t h a t the p r o d u c t of the t a s k i s l e s s t h a n s a t i s f a c t o r y . My q u e s t i o n i s : "What went wrong i n the case of Janka's B&F book?" I n o r d e r t o g a i n some e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the weak r e a l i z a t i o n of the t a s k I examine the B&F book a c t i v i t y from the f o l l o w i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s . 1. G o a l s : The B&F book a c t i v i t y was i n t r o d u c e d a t Janka's s c h o o l w i t h the purpose of i m p r o v i n g communication between s c h o o l and home. Teachers and p a r e n t s agreed upon the 39 n e c e s s i t y of an on-going message system w h i c h would h e l p i n f o r m p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g e v e r y day a c t i v i t i e s a t s c h o o l and a t home. The e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e of f a m i l y g r o u p i n g , m u l t i - a g e d c l a s s r o o m s , and s p l i t grades were new t o most o f the s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s , and due t o the f l u c t u a t i o n of s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n each September the s t a f f c o n s i d e r e d i t n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t a l t e r n a t i v e means of communication. Four c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s d e c i d e d t o use a type of a j o u r n a l w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y . The j o u r n a l s were t a k e n home e v e r y day t o p r o v i d e a communication channel between s c h o o l and home; "Back and F o r t h book": the name of t h i s bound copy book speaks f o r the a c t i v i t y . The i n t e n t i o n of the i n v o l v e d t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s was t o sh a r e i d e a s and concerns w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h the s t u d e n t s d a i l y . 2. R o l e of the p a r t i c i p a n t s : the s u c c e s s of the a c t i v i t y was v e r y much dependent on the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of bo t h t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s . The s t u d e n t s " s p i r i t e d " p a r t i c i p a t i o n was g u a r a n t e e d by the g i v e n n a t u r e of the a c t i v i t y : t he l a s t t h i r t y minutes l o n g s e s s i o n of each s c h o o l day, s u p e r v i s e d by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r was a s s i g n e d t o B&F book w r i t i n g . I t was a r e g u l a r , s c h e d u l e d s c h o o l t a s k , w h i c h had t o be completed w i t h i n a c e r t a i n t i m e , i n an agreed way. S t u d e n t s were e x p e c t e d t o n a r r a t e and comment on any s c h o o l e v e n t ; t h e y were encouraged t o address i s s u e s w h i c h concerned them . The r o l e of the two a d u l t - p a r t i c i p a n t s was l e s s s t r u c t u r e d and d e f i n i t e . At the b e g i n n i n g s t a g e of t h i s c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e t e a c h e r s t r i e d t o devote as much time t o an s w e r i n g o r commenting on each j o u r n a l e n t r y as p o s s i b l e . But soon i t t u r n e d out t o be an u n f e a s i b l e t a s k . They had t o r e a d and comment on about t h i r t y h a l f - a - p a g e l o n g j o u r n a l e n t r i e s e v e r y s c h o o l day. By mid-November of 1987, the f i r s t s c h o o l y e a r of the B&F book a c t i v i t y , the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e narrowed down t o a q u i c k check mark and a s i g n a t u r e a t the end of each e n t r y . They r e a d the s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g w h i l e the s t u d e n t s were s t i l l w o r k i n g on i t . Most of the i n v o l v e d p a r e n t s f o l l o w e d t h i s a c t i v i t y w i t h g r e a t i n t e r e s t but v e r y few o f them took a c t u a l time t o s i t down and w r i t e i n the B&F book; c o n v e r s a t i o n about s c h o o l tended t o be l e s s s t r u c t u r e d . The p a r e n t s t o o k up t h e same h a b i t of s i g n i n g the e n t r i e s r e j e c t i n g any l e n g t h y w r i t t e n comment. 3. A c t i v i t y : t he a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y was p o t e n t i a l l y a v a l u a b l e p a r t of the s c h o o l day. The importance of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was a l r e a d y a l l u d e d t o i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . E xamining the weakness of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r B&F book a c t i v i t y , I argue t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g on the t e a c h e r ' s s i d e were not s a t i s f a c t o r y . 41 T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e needs a l o n g term commitment, p u b l i c a t i o n s i n t h e d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l s t u d i e s by L e s l e e Reed and Jana S t a t o n (1984, 1988) and K r e e f t P e y t o n (1989) i n d i c a t e t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o w r i t t e n language development i f the l e a r n e r and the t e a c h e r are e q u a l l y committed. C o n t i n u i t y , awareness of i n d i v i d u a l needs and i n t e n t i o n o f c o n d u c t i n g genuine communication are e s s e n t i a l i n t h e s u c c e s s of t h e B&F book. In the case of Janka's B&F book the a c t i v i t y was the r e s u l t of a good i n t e n t i o n but l a c k e d the n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g and commitment; soon the B&F book became a n o t h e r o b l i g a t o r y c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y w hich was seen as j u s t a n o t h e r p i e c e of paper t o f i l l i n and a n o t h e r t h i r t y minutes t o spend. The t a s k was s e t up but t h e t e a c h e r s never f e l t t h e need t o m o n i t o r the a c t u a l w r i t i n g . O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e were some at t e m p t s t o make the w r i t i n g a b i t more c o l o r f u l but the i n s t r u c t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o grammar problems and c h o i c e of word. 4. I n p u t : h a v i n g examined the t a s k from the above s t a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e s i t i s assumed t h a t none of the p a r t i c i p a n t s used the B&F book t o i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . The t e a c h e r s l a c k e d the n e c e s s a r y t h e o r e t i c a l background f o r p l a n n i n g the a c t i v i t y . Due t o t h e amount of time and energy the t a s k would have t a k e n t h e y soon narrowed down t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o s u p e r v i s i o n and o c c a s i o n a l c h e c k i n g . Doing so t h e y s o l d t h e i r s t u d e n t s s h o r t : t h e y d e p r i v e d them from t h e i n p u t of a n a t i v e speaker,and the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n ( C h r i s t i e 1986)) The p a r e n t s a l s o c a r r y a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n n e g l e c t i n g t h e B&F book. " C r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h shows t h a t , on the average, the home has about t w i c e as much impact as the s c h o o l on s t u d e n t s ' academic, s o c i a l , and p e r s o n a l growth" (Beery 1982). I n the p r a c t i c e o f the B&F books p a r e n t s were p r o v i d e d w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o m o n i t o r and t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e v e r y s c h o o l l i f e . My o b s e r v a t i o n s show t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the p a r e n t s d i d not t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y and r e f u s e d t h e o f f e r e d p a r t n e r s h i p i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . Summarizing the c o n t e x t of Janka's B&F book w r i t i n g I argue t h a t the a u t h e n t i c t a s k o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was -assumed t o f u n c t i o n on i t s own and t o produce a u t o m a t i c development i n language and d i s c o u r s e . The t a s k was not s e t up i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y way, t h e r e f o r e t h e p r o d u c t was not s a t i s f a c t o r y e i t h e r . The s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d the r o u t i n e of the t a s k and r e a l i z e d i t on t h e minimum l e v e l of e x p e c t a t i o n : t h e y r e p o r t e d some ev e n t s of the s c h o o l day, but never c h a l l e n g e d t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y wrote i n a s i m p l e s t y l e and format w h i c h was the e a s i e s t f o r them t o r e a l i z e . 43 C. THE PRODUCT: The t h r e e y e a r s l o n g o b s e r v a t i o n and my p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t o argue t h a t the p o t e n t i a l l y a u t h e n t i c communication i n the B&F book d i d not r e s u l t the development of language and d i s c o u r s e . To s u p p o r t t h i s argument I conducted a p i l o t s t u d y t o examine some p o s s i b l e ways of a n a l y z i n g the c o l l e c t e d d a t a . Three approaches were s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e problem w i t h t h e p r o d u c t of t h e t h r e e y e a r s l o n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y . F i r s t I was l o o k i n g a t the B&F book e n t r i e s as a p r o d u c t of a c e r t a i n genre and f o l l o w e d the a n a l y s i s of F r a n c i s C h r i s t i e (1986). T h i s a n a l y s i s i s p u b l i s h e d by an A u s t r a l i a n r e s e a r c h group, w o r k i n g w i t h the genre-based approach t o t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g . The a ssumption of t h i s approach i s t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s "... how t o behave i n language... t o become s u c c e s s f u l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the c o n t e x t of c u l t u r e . S u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c u l t u r e i s dependent upon l e a r n i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ways of w o r k i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h e x p e r i e n c e o r of meaning making." I t i s c l a i m e d t h a t genres are o r d e r e d ways of u n d e r t a k i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h e x p e r i e n c e o r of meaning making ( C h r i s t i e 1986). A p p l y i n g t h i s approach t o t h e Back and F o r t h book a c t i v i t y the O b s e r v a t i o n genre appears t o be the most s u i t a b l e one; t h i s genre i s used the most f r e q u e n t l y where people a r e t a l k i n g about and d e a l i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t o f f e r s the r e a d e r some s i m p l e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the e x p e r i e n c e , and i n i t s complete, mature form i t a l s o o f f e r s some sense of the w r i t e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e e x p e r i e n c e . The a n a l y s i s of a t e x t , w h i c h i s assumed t o be an example of a genre, l o o k s a t the s c h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e , and some p r i n c i p a l l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s , such as the r e g i s t e r ( F i e l d , Mode, and T e n o r ) , and the t r a n s i t i v i t y ( c h o i c e of v e r b ) . U s i n g the Study Guide of C h r i s t i e et a i . ( 1 9 8 6 ) my o b j e c t i v e was t o measure and e v a l u a t e development of genre w r i t i n g w i t h i n the ob s e r v e d p e r i o d . Three e n t r i e s from the t h r e e s c h o o l y e a r s were randomly s e l e c t e d and a n a l y z e d . The a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix C - I . , I I . a n d I I I . My assumption was t h a t the comparison of the t h r e e e n t r i e s would show s t r o n g d i f f e r e n c e i n the use of the O r i e n t a t i o n genre. I t would show development i n language, m a t u r a t i o n i n the use of a c e r t a i n genre. My f i n d i n g s : comparing t h e t h r e e t e x t s the most r e c o g n i z a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i s i n t h e i r s c h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o C h r i s t i e the complete and mature O b s e r v a t i o n genre i n v o l v e s not o n l y Event and Comment elements, but D e s c r i p t i o n and O r i e n t a t i o n elements as w e l l . From t h i s p o i n t of v i e w the t h r e e t e x t s r ank from a l e s s mature t o a f u l l , complete genre. A l t h o u g h a l l of t h e t h r e e t e x t s have the r e q u i r e d elements of the O b s e r v a t i o n genre, the Comment 45 element i s always the i m p o r t a n t p a r t , f o r i t i s t h r o u g h t h i s t h a t the w r i t e r i n d i c a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the m a t t e r s . Text 1.2.5. i n v o l v e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e v e n t s , but o n l y one O r i e n t a t i o n and one Comment. The s i m p l i c i t y of the comment may a l s o s uggest a l e s s mature form. Text 2.2.1. has a unique s t r u c t u r e : t h e r e are e i g h t E vents i n v o l v e d but o n l y t h r e e of t h e s e are w r i t t e n up as E v e n t s , t h e o t h e r f i v e a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e O r i e n t a t i o n p a r t s w h i c h are i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by the Comments. The r e a d e r has a sense of t h e w r i t e r r u s h i n g t h r o u g h the s c h o o l day w i t h o u t s p e n d i n g t o o much time on n a r r a t i n g each event; the s t r u c t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of e v e n t s are c o n s i d e r e d more i m p o r t a n t t h a n commenting them. Te x t 3.2.5. shows a more mature s t r u c t u r e , fewer Events a r e i n t r o d u c e d and more time i s spent on commenting. L o o k i n g a t t h e p r i n c i p a l l i n g u i s t i c elements i n w h i c h the v a r i o u s p a t t e r s of O b s e r v a t i o n genre are r e a l i z e d we can s e t up a s i m i l a r r a n k i n g : from a l e s s mature r e a l i z a t i o n toward a more complete one. O r i e n t a t i o n i s c o r r e c t l y c r e a t e d t h r o u g h the use of items t h a t p l a c e the r e a d e r i n some sense of time o r p l a c e . The development i s n o t i c e a b l e i n the use of t h e s e i t e m s : Text 1.2.5. uses "today" and "then" t o i n d i c a t e t i m e . Text 2.2.1. i s more s p e c i f i c i n i n d i c a t i n g the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s . Text 3.2.5. goes back t o use "today", but i n the second O r i e n t a t i o n i t g i v e s a D e s c r i p t i o n t o c l a r i f y time and p l a c e . 46 E v e n t s a re r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h m a t e r i a l p r o c e s s e s , among the t e x t s Text 2.2.1. produces the most m a t e r i a l p r o c e s s e s , t h i s e n t r y i s f a r more d e t a i l e d t h a n the o t h e r two. The mature form of Comment i s r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h r e l a t i o n a l and mental p r o c e s s e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h items t h a t b u i l d e x p r e s s i o n o f e v a l u a t i o n . However, t h e a n a l y z e d t e x t s use the r e q u i r e d p r o c e s s e s , t h e y suggest a l e s s complete form of e v a l u a t i o n . D e s c r i p t i o n i s i n v o l v e d i n a fewer number, but i s c o r r e c t l y r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h r e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . The R e g i s t e r i n O b s e r v a t i o n genre: the f i e l d of t h i s genre i s always some a s p e c t s of the w r i t e r ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , i n the case of t h e s e l e c t e d t e x t s i t i s some i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s of the s c h o o l day about w h i c h the w r i t e r wants t o sh a r e some i n f o r m a t i o n . The t e n o r i s p e r s o n a l and f r i e n d l y , the w r i t e r adopts a r e l a t i o n s h i p of e q u a l i t y w i t h the a u d i e n c e . T h i s i s a l s o a c c e p t a b l e i n the case of B&F book, the s t u d e n t s a r e w r i t i n g f o r t h e i r p a r e n t s . The mode of O b s e r v a t i o n genre i s c o n s t i t u t i v e of the a c t i v i t y : t he t e x t s from the B&F book were w r i t t e n a t the end of each s c h o o l day t o r e f l e c t on the e v e n t s . We can summarize t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h u s : from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s of the genre-based approach t o t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g the a n a l y z e d t e x t s from the B&F book are a c c e p t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the O b s e r v a t i o n genre. The sc h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e s and t h e c h o i c e of l i n g u i s t i c items a re s u f f i c i e n t , t h r o u g h them the genre i s r e a l i z e d i n a 47 s a t i s f a c t o r y form. The comparison of the t h r e e t e x t s s u g g e s t s some m a t u r a t i o n i n the use o f the genre. The second approach was used by a r e s e a r c h group of the C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , Washington D.C. and was p u b l i s h e d i n a paper by K r e e f t P eyton and Seyoum (1989). T h i s paper examines the e f f e c t of t e a c h e r s t r a t e g i e s on s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t i n g . The a u t h o r s c l a i m t h a t d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g promotes the w r i t i n g of development of l i m i t e d E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n t s t u d e n t s . I t i s a k i n d of " w r i t t e n i n t e r a c t i o n between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t w h i c h g i v e s s t u d e n t s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o w r i t e about t o p i c s of t h e i r c h o i c e , t o f o c u s p r i m a r i l y on meaning... r a t h e r t h a n form, and t o w r i t e t o an audience who i s known and who responds t o t h e i r i d e a s , r a t h e r t h a n e v a l u a t i n g what t h e y have s a i d o r how t h e y have s a i d i t . " ( K r e e f t P e y t o n and Seyoum 1989). Comparing th e o b j e c t i v e s of the B&F book and the above i n t r o d u c e d d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g I argue t h a t the two t a s k s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r , the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r s i n the q u e s t i o n o f d i a l o g u e . However, the i n i t i a l purpose of the B&F book was t o f o s t e r t h i s t y p e of w r i t t e n communication, the c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , d i d not make i t f e a s i b l e . I n my p i l o t s t u d y I d e c i d e d t o a p p l y t h i s approach t o measure the development of the s u b j e c t ' s E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l w i t h i n the examined p e r i o d . T h i s approach examined the amount the s t u d e n t s w r o t e , as measured by the number of words, and the s e n t e n c e - l e v e l c o m p l e x i t y o f the w r i t i n g as measured by the number of T-u n i t as an i n d e x of growth i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g . The a u t h o r s c l a i m t h a t t h i s method p r o v i d e s a c o n v e n t i o n a l measure w i d e l y used i n L I and L2 a c q u i s i t i o n and has been shown t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h l i n g u i s t i c and m a t u r a t i o n a l development. Examining t h i s approach from the p e r s p e c t i v e s of the B&F book my a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t the method would show e v i d e n c e of l i n g u i s t i c and m a t u r a t i o n a l development, i n o t h e r words e x a m i n i n g the amount and the c o m p l e x i t y of w r i t i n g i n the case of the B&F book would prove growth i n language. The c o a u t h o r s of the a r t i c l e c l a i m t h a t the s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y of the s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the s t u d e n t s ' l e v e l of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . As the d a t a have been c o l l e c t e d i n a t h r e e y e a r s l o n g p e r i o d my a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t the p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l of the s u b j e c t w i l l v a r y from one y e a r t o the o t h e r , t h e r e f o r e t h i s measure w i l l h i g h l i g h t a tendency of development.The o t h e r p a r t of the argument i s t h a t p r e s e n t i n g t h i s approach t h e r e w i l l be no e v i d e n c e of the l i m i t a t i o n of the t a s k i t s e l f , s i n c e i t measures the w r i t i n g i n sentence l e v e l and does not p r o v i d e any o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . My f i n d i n g s are p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix D-I. and I I . The numbers show the s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y of the s t u d e n t ' s w r i t i n g . F o l l o w i n g the argument p u b l i s h e d i n the K r e e f t P e y t o n a r t i c l e Janka b e l o n g s t o the m i d - p r o f i c i e n c y group by t h i s measure (a mean of 8.3 words per T - u n i t , e q u i v a l e n t t o 49 what Hunt ( c i t e d i n K r e e f t 1989) found f o r f o u r t h grade s t u d e n t s ) . Comparing the r e s u l t s from the t h r e e s c h o o l y e a r s (Table 6) t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t language growth. The numbers suggest t h a t h e r language development was more o r l e s s s t a g n a n t w i t h i n the examined p e r i o d . However, my o b s e r v a t i o n s and the t e a c h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s and r e p o r t c a r d s d i s a g r e e w i t h t h i s tendency and i n d i c a t e a more d r a m a t i c development i n h e r language. My assumption was t h a t the d e s p i t e of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the t a s k h e r w r i t i n g would r e f l e c t a h i g h e r l e v e l of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . L o o k i n g a t the more d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s of T a b l e 6 t h e r e i s a tendency w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y of the s t u d e n t ' s w r i t i n g seem t o v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t o p i c s r a t h e r t h a n h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e . Whenever the w r i t e r i s more concerned about the t o p i c ( i . e . : t h e r e are fewer t o p i c s mentioned i n one e n t r y ) , the w r i t i n g seems more complex ( i . e . : h i g h e r mean words per T - u n i t ) . T h i s f i n d i n g h i g h l i g h t s the major l i m i t a t i o n of t h e t a s k , w i t h o u t r e a l i n t e r a c t i o n the s t u d e n t s are l e f t a l o n e , l o c k e d i n t o a r o u t i n e , dependent upon t h e i r onw judgment. Summarizing the p i l o t s t u d y I s t a t e t h a t my f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a c e r t a i n degree of development: the genre-based approach t o t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g showed a development i n the use of the O b s e r v a t i o n genre. The approach w h i c h examined the amount and the s e n t e n c e - l e v e l c o m p l e x i t y s u g g e s t e d t h a t l i n g u i s t i c and m a t u r a t i o n a l development was not r e f l e c t e d i n 50 the B&F book, the c o m p l e x i t y of the w r i t i n g v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the t o p i c . My argument i s t h a t b o t h approaches l o o k a t the p r o d u c t of the w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y as the r e a l i z a t i o n i n l i n g u i s t i c system, t h e r e f o r e t h e s e approaches can not p r o v i d e b a s i s f o r my a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s a i m i n g a t a more complex and br o a d e r p i c t u r e . My o b j e c t i v e i s t o f i n d an approach w h i c h a s c e r t a i n s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o examine the p r o d u c t of the t a s k i n an i n t e g r a t e d way f o r m o n i t o r i n g the growth i n language and i n c o n t e n t . Chapter Four p r e s e n t s the d a t a a n a l y s i s based on the Language and Content approach. To j u s t i f y my s e l e c t i o n of a n a l y s i s the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s have t o be h i g h l i g h t e d . The Language and Content (Mohan 1986) approach l o o k s a t the s t u d e n t w r i t i n g of the Back and F o r t h book as the outcome of a d i s c o u r s e t a s k . Each s c h o o l day, the w r i t e r i s w r i t i n g about i n the book i s a c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e , an A c t i v i t y w h i c h c o n t a i n s A c t i o n S i t u a t i o n and Background Knowledge. When the w r i t e r w r i t e s about h e r e x p e r i e n c e she p r i m a r i l y r e t e l l s t he A c t i o n , d e s c r i b i n g i t , p u t t i n g the e v e n t s i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , and m e n t i o n i n g c e r t a i n c h o i c e s w h i c h may a l t e r the e v e n t s . I n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , e x p r e s s r u l e s , and make comments, and j u s t i f y c h o i c e s , the w r i t e r r e l i e s on h e r t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge. A p p l y i n g the Knowledge Framework I c o n c e n t r a t e on the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s e x p r e s s e d by g i v e n language s t r u c t u r e s i n the w r i t i n g , i n d o i n g so my o b j e c t i v e i s t o e s t a b l i s h the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s of the B&F book. O b t a i n i n g the p a t t e r n of the t a s k I w i l l be a b l e t o e v a l u a t e not o n l y the w r i t i n g , ( i . e . : the use of language s t r u c t u r e s ) but i n an i n t e g r a t e d way I can examine the development of the c o n t e n t , ( i . e . : t h e development of t h e d i s c o u r s e t a s k ) . 52 CHAPTER FOUR A n a l y s i s A. INTRODUCTION The f o c u s and the main o b j e c t i v e of the a n a l y s i s a re s t a t e d below. 1. ) Which t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s do o c c u r the most f r e q u e n t l y i n t he a n a l y z e d data? 2. ) What i s the pe r c e n t a g e of t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i n the a n a l y z e d t h r e e p e r i o d s of each y e a r , and i n the t h r e e examined y e a r s ? The a n a l y s i s was completed i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h the most f r e q u e n t l y used t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s i n each p e r i o d , and t o e s t a b l i s h t h e o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n of the Back and F o r t h book a c t i v i t y . The r e s u l t s of t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w i l l p r o v i d e b a s i s f o r the argument of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y : the a p p l i c a t i o n of Mohan's knowledge s t r u c t u r e s can p r o v i d e a s y s t e m a t i c and i n t e g r a t e d way of a n a l y z i n g , e v a l u a t i n g and m o n i t o r i n g s t u d e n t t a s k s i n w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s approach w i l l not o n l y s t a t e the degree of development i n language but w i l l g i v e a b r o a d e r p i c t u r e of the growth i n c o n t e n t . The f o r t y f i v e j o u r n a l e n t r i e s were w r i t t e n over a p e r i o d of t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e s c h o o l y e a r s . I n each y e a r t h r e e one-week l o n g p e r i o d s were chosen from the b e g i n n i n g ( O c t o b e r ) , the m i d d l e ( J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y ) , and the end (May) of t h e s c h o o l y e a r ; the d a t a i s c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t a wide o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the y e a r - l o n g a c t i v i t y . I n the a n a l y s i s , based on Mohan's approach each e n t r y was c o n s i d e r e d as t h e outcome of a d i s c o u r s e t a s k : s t u d e n t i s w r i t i n g i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n f o r a g i v e n a u d i e n c e about some g i v e n e v e n t s . The B&F book p r o v i d e s a unique d i s c o u r s e t a s k . P r i m a r i l y i t i s s t u d e n t s w r i t i n g about e v e n t s w h i c h are c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y connected. S e c o n d l y t h e y a re r e f l e c t i n g on t h e s e events.As " b y - p r o d u c t s " o c c a s i o n a l r e a s o n i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , and problem s o l v i n g may appear i n the j o u r n a l s . The d i s c o u r s e t a s k of B&F book w r i t i n g i s examined as an A c t i v i t y w h i c h i s composed of A c t i o n S i t u a t i o n and Background Knowledge. The main s t r u c t u r e s of knowledge i n the A c t i o n S i t u a t i o n a re D e s c r i p t i o n , Sequence, and C h o i c e . The s t r u c t u r e s o f Background Knowledge are C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , P r i n c i p l e s , and E v a l u a t i o n . B. THE MODEL In the a n a l y s i s my two major s o u r c e s were Mohan's Language and Content (1986) and the 1986. ESL Resource book ( E a r l y e t al.1986).The f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t s need t o be h i g h l i g h t e d b e f o r e the a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d . To e x p l o r e the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s i n any a n a l y z e d m a t e r i a l Mohan s u g g e s t s the f o l l o w i n g s e t of q u e s t i o n s and c l a i m s t h a t " e s s e n t i a l l y , the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of a t o p i c 54 i s r e f l e c t e d i n the q u e s t i o n s people ask about i t " (Mohan 1986). S p e c i f i c , p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s : D e s c r i p t i o n : who, what, where? What p e r s o n s , m a t e r i a l s equipment, i t e m s , s e t t i n g ? Sequence: what happens? What happens nex t ? What i s the p l o t ? What a r e the p r o c e s s e s , the p r o c e d u r e s , o r the r o u t i n e s ? C h o i c e : what a r e the c h o i c e s , c o n f l i c t s , a l t e r n a t i v e s , dilemmas, d e c i s i o n s ? G e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s : C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : what c o n c e p t s a p p l y ? How are th e y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r ? P r i n c i p l e s : what p r i n c i p l e s a re t h e r e ? ( C a u s e - e f f e c t , means-end, methods, and t e c h n i q u e s , r u l e s , norms, s t r a t e g i e s ) . E v a l u a t i o n : what v a l u e s and s t a n d a r d s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e ? what counts as good o r bad? what are the t y p i c a l r e a s o n s f o r c h o o s i n g one o b j e c t o r cour s e of a c t i o n o v e r a n o t h e r ? what are u s u a l aims and g o a l s ? I n the " I n t e g r a t i n g Language and Content I n s t r u c t i o n K-12: An E.S.L. Resource Book" a t a b l e i s p r e s e n t e d which shows the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s of each knowledge s t r u c t u r e . These t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s a re matched w i t h s p e c i f i c language s t r u c t u r e s . T h e b a s i c assumption of t h i s approach i s t h a t the second language l e a r n e r l e a r n i n g new c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l and 55 the language t o u n d e r s t a n d and e x p r e s s t h e s e m a t e r i a l s needs t o connect meanings w i t h e x p r e s s i o n . The approach h e l p s t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t " t o model the r e q u i r e d l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n a c o n t e x t where the c o n n e c t i o n s between meanings and e x p r e s s i o n s a r e c l e a r " ( E a r l y 1986). The i n t e g r a t i o n of c o n t e n t and language t e a c h i n g i s a i m i n g at t e a c h i n g t h i n k i n g s k i l l s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e language s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a re t h e n t r a n s f e r a b l e t o o t h e r a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g . The Resource book p r o v i d e s g u i d e l i n e f o r p l a n n i n g c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s f o r E.S.L l e a r n e r s i n an way whi c h i n t e g r a t e s s u b j e c t m a t t e r knowledge, t h i n k i n g and language s k i l l s . The aim of the d e s i g n e d a c t i v i t i e s i s not j u s t t o p r o v i d e communicative p r a c t i c e f o r the s t u d e n t s , o r m e r e l y t o do c o n t e n t a r e a a c t i v i t i e s ; "the aim i s much more f a r -r e a c h i n g . ...( i t ) i s t o d e v e l o p the s t u d e n t s ' c o g n i t i v e language so t h a t t h e y can use E n g l i s h f o r l e a r n i n g a c r o s s the c u r r i c u l u m " ( E a r l y e t a l . 1986). The p r e s e n t s t u d y extends the p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s approach. The p r e s e n t e d a n a l y s i s i s t o p r o v i d e an example f o r p r a c t i s i n g c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s how t o use Mohan's framework i n a n a l y z i n g s t u d e n t w r i t i n g . The o b j e c t i v e i s t o show how the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s m a n i f e s t i n an ESL s t u d e n t w r i t i n g and t o suggest some ways of implementing the framework i n the p l a n n i n g s t a g e , the t e a c h i n g and e v a l u a t i o n of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Each e n t r y was a n a l y z e d on the bases of Mohan's i n t e g r a t e d approach, w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n of the above c i t e d q u e s t i o n s t o e x p l o r e the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of the w r i t i n g and w i t h T a b l e VI from the Resource Book t o match up the language s t r u c t u r e s w i t h the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . The t a b l e i t s e l f and a d r a f t v e r s i o n o f i t a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix E. C. ASSUMPTIONS : The B&F book a c t i v i t y i s t o f o s t e r n a r r a t i o n , r e p o r t and c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y o r d e r i n g of s c h o o l e v e n t s . The p r i m a r y knowledge s t r u c t u r e of the a c t i v i t y i s Sequence. The most f r e q u e n t l y used t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s a re Re p o r t , N a r r a t i n g , N o t i n g a P r o c e s s . C o n s i d e r i n g the n a t u r e of B&F book, ( i . e . : " c o m m u n i c a t i o n t r i a n g l e " : d a i l y feedback from t e a c h e r and presumed p a r e n t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) i t i s assumed t h a t the w r i t e r w i l l r e f l e c t on the r e c o r d e d e v e n t s , t h e r e f o r e the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of E v a l u a t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t , however, i n a s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e . The r o u t i n e - l i k e p r a c t i c e of B&K book a l s o p r o v i d e s the w r i t e r w i t h the p o s s i b l y o f "zooming ahead i n t i m e " ( C a l k i n 1986), i t i s assumed t h a t o c c a s i o n a l p r e d i c t i o n s w i l l be made. Based on the f i n d i n g s of Staab (1986) who argues t h a t the language f u n c t i o n of R e a s o n i n g / F o r e c a s t i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n of the s u b j e c t ' s age-group and i s emphasized w i t h i n the el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , t h e knowledge s t r u c t u r e of P r i n c i p l e s w i l l be e x p r e s s e d i n s e v e r a l j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . 57 L o o k i n g a t the d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e o f the w r i t e r some d e s c r i p t i v e p a r t s are a l s o assumed t o be p r e s e n t i n the j o u r n a l , w h i c h may r e f l e c t the w r i t e r ' s awareness of the r e a d i n g a u d i e n c e (McCutchen 1988). CHAPTER FIVE R e s u l t s A. THINKING SKILLS AND LANGUAGE ITEMS See the Appendix B f o r the d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s B. FREQUENCY COUNT The f o l l o w i n g T a b l e s 2,3,and 4 c o n t a i n the r e s u l t s of f r e q u e n c y count of each knowledge s t r u c t u r e . Counts were conducted i n each 5-day l o n g p e r i o d of each three-week l o n g p e r i o d of each y e a r . T e x t s a r e named a f t e r the number o f the y e a r , the week, and the day of w r i t i n g , e.g: t h e t e x t from y e a r 1 week 1 day 1 i s Text 1.1.1.. The c o l l e c t e d d a t a (Appendix A) c o n t a i n s 45 e n t r i e s l a b e l l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way: Year 1 Week 1 Day 1. A f t e r each three-week l o n g p e r i o d ( c o n t a i n i n g 15 e n t r i e s ) t h e r e i s a summary which shows the average number of o c c u r r e n c e of each knowledge s t r u c t u r e i n t h a t y e a r t a k i n g the f u l l amount of s t a t e m e n t s as 100% . F i n a l l y T a b l e IV p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s of the count i n t h r e e years.The t o t a l amount of s t a t e m e n t s made i n each y e a r , the number of knowledge s t r u c t u r e s each y e a r and t h e p e r c e n t a g e s are showed. 59 T a b l e 2 Frequency count of Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s i n 15 J o u r n a l E n t r i e s w r i t t e n i n Year 1 Text & Knowledge Amount of S t r u c t u r e s : Statements D e s c r i p t i o n Sequence C h o i c e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r i n c i p l e s E v a l u a t i o n 1.1.1-5. 32 0 0 27 2 1 2 100% 0% 0% 84.3% 6.24% 3.12% 6.24% 1.2.1-5. 34 0 0 27 0 0 7 100% 0% 0% 79.4% 0% 0% 20.6% 1.3.1-5. 26 0 0 20 2 0 4 100% 0% 0% 76.9% 7.92% 0% 15.3% Year 1 92 0 0 74 4 1 13 100% 0% 0% 80.4% 4.34% 1.08% 14.1% 60 T a b l e 3 Frequency Count of Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s i n 15 J o u r n a l E n t r i e s W r i t t e n i n Year 2 Text & Knowledge Amount of S t r u c t u r e s : Statements D e s c r i p t i o n Sequence C h o i c e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r i n c i p l e s E v a l u a t i o n 2.1.1-5. 69 0 0 58 4 0 7 100% 0% 0% 84.0% 5.79% 0% 10.14% 2.2.1-5. *44 1 0 32 3 0 8 100% 2.7% 0% 72.7% 6.8% 0% 18.2% 2.3.1-5. 40 0 0 38 1 0 100% 0% 0% 95% 2.5% 0 Year 2 153 1 0 128 8 0 16 100% 0.65% 0 83.7% 5.2% 0% 10.45% 61 T a b l e 4 Frequency Count of Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s i n 15 J o u r n a l E n t r i e s w r i t t e n i n Year I I I Text & Knowledge Amount of S t r u c t u r e s : Statement D e s c r i p t i o n Sequence C h o i c e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r i n c i p l e s E v a l u a t i o n 3.1.1-5. 49 0 0 42 1 0 6 100% 0% 0% 85.7% 2.04% 0 12.2% 3.2.1-5. 28 0 1 18 5 1 3 100% 0% 3.5% 64.3% 17.9% 3.5% 10.7% 3.3.1-5. 25 0 0 21 1 0 3 100% 0% 0% 84% 4% 0% 12% Year 3 102 0 1 81 7 1 12 100% 0% 0.89% 79.41% 6.86% 0.89% 11.7% 62 T a b l e 5 Frequency Count of Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s i n 45 J o u r n a l E n t r i e s W r i t t e n i n Year 1,2, and 3 Text & Amount of Statement Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s : D e s c r i p t i o n Sequence Choice C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r i n c i p l e s E v a l u a t i o n Y ear 1 92 0 0 74 4 1 13 100% 0% 0% 80.4% 4.34% 1.08% 14.1% Year 2 153 1 0 128 8 0 16 100% 0 .65% 0 83.7% 5.2% 0% 10.45% Year 3 102 0 1 81 7 i 12 100% 0% 0.89% 79.41% 6.86% 0.89% 11.7% 63 CHAPTER SIX I. DISCUSSION To r e f r e s h the r e a d e r ' s memory, the assumptions made p r i o r t o the a n a l y s i s a r e r e s t a t e d below. 1. I n a j o u r n a l - t y p e w r i t i n g the most f r e q u e n t l y m a n i f e s t e d knowledge s t r u c t u r e i s Sequence. 2. As the w r i t e r r e f l e c t s on t h e d a i l y e v e n t s E v a l u a t i o n w i l l be the second most f r e q u e n t knowledge s t r u c t u r e . 3. The r o u t i n e - l i k e a c t i v i t y of the B&F book w i l l f a c i l i t a t e p r e d i c t i o n s , " P r i n c i p l e s " s t r u c t u r e i s w i l l be e x p r e s s e d f r e q u e n t l y . 4. The l o n g - t e r m use of t h i s j o u r n a l w i l l produce some " D e s c r i p t i o n " . T a b l e 2 shows the r e s u l t s of t h e a n a l y s i s of f i r s t y e a r d a t a . The s u b j e c t was i n Grade 3, she was 9 y e a r s o l d and was a t t e n d i n g h e r second s c h o o l y e a r i n Canada. She had a l r e a d y mastered the b a s i c communicative s k i l l s i n L2.. She d i d not f a c e any d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o n t e n t c l a s s e s . Due t o t h e s p e c i a l m u l t i a g e g r o u p i n g of h e r c l a s s , h e r language and academic development took p l a c e i n a s u p p o r t i v e , non-t h r e a t e n i n g atmosphere. The B&F book a c t i v i t y s t a r t e d i n September, a new p r a c t i c e t o t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s as w e l l . The f r e q u e n c y count of the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s shows the d i s t i n c t dominance of Sequence. Assumption 1 seems t o be proven: 79.4 % of the 92 s t a t e m e n t s w r i t t e n i n Year 1 were e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e p t s of R e p o r t , N a r r a t i n g , O r d e r i n g , N o t i n g a 64 p r o c e s s . I t i s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n t h a t the e n t r i e s from the f i r s t examined week (Text s 1.1.1-5) a r e d o m i n a n t l y concerned w i t h r e p o r t i n g the ev e n t s i n t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . L o o k i n g a t t h e language s t r u c t u r e s of Sequence the f o l l o w i n g items a re used: v e r b : t o s t a r t , t o come; p r e p o s i t i o n s and p r e p o s i t i o n a l p hrases of t i m e : today; sentence time r e l a t e r s : f i r s t , n e x t , t h e n . The s c h o o l s u b j e c t s , such as Outputs ( f i r s t t h i r t y m i n u t es of f r e e a c t i v i t y ) , S.S. ( S o c i a l S t u d i e s ) , L.A.(Language A r t s ) and the c o n j u n c t i v e "and" are a l s o used t o e x p r e s s the sequence of e v e n t s . The o t h e r two s t r u c t u r e s , ( i . e : P r i n c i p l e s and E v a l u a t i o n ) a re u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d . One p r e d i c t i o n was made r e g a r d i n g the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t on t h e s c h e d u l e ; and o n l y one r e a s o n i n g i s found; i t i s cause e f f e c t r e l a t i o n - : she d i d not n o t i c e the t a s k on the board, so she was not a b l e t o complete i t . I n two o c c a s i o n s she e v a l u a t e d the s c h o o l day: "math was good", "today was f u n " . A s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the use of s t r u c t u r e s o c c u r s i n the second week, 20.6% of 34 s t a t e m e n t s E v a l u a t i o n . These e n t r i e s ( T e x t s 1.2.1-5.) were w r i t t e n a t the b e g i n n i n g of the second term, t h e B&F book had been used f o r f i v e months. A l t h o u g h t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s a re r a t h e r s h o r t , t h e y p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o the s t u d e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s about s c h o o l e v e n t s . "Today was good", " i t was good"; i t ' s t o o bad", "some e x c i t i n g moments...", "he was a good p a l " a r e a l l e x p r e s s i n g h e r p e r s o n a l j u d g m e n t s , f e e l i n g s , p r e f e r e n c e s . The same tendency c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t h i r d week w i t h a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e (15.38%) of E v a l u a t i o n . We can a l s o r e a d two st a t e m e n t s e x p r e s s i n g cause and e f f e c t . The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of t h e 15 e n t r i e s w r i t t e n i n Year 1 i s i n agreement w i t h the assumptions 1. and 2.. A n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e r e i s not a s i n g l e d e s c r i p t i o n . Summarizing my o b s e r v a t i o n s I argue t h a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g does not r e f l e c t the w r i t e r ' s awareness of the a u d i e n c e . McCutchen (1988) d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e , when the w r i t e r s t i l l has a s t r o n g "knowledge t e l l i n g " s t r a t e g y , t h e emphasis i s on g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and "how" and "why" are not c o n s i d e r e d as s e r i o u s g o a l s . Her argument about the " r e t r i e v e - a n d - w r i t e p r o c e d u r e " i n w r i t t e n language development r e i n f o r c e s my o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e B&F book a c t i v i t y . T a b l e 3 shows the r e s u l t s from y e a r 2. The s u b j e c t i s i n grade 4, w i t h the same two t e a c h e r s and i n the same open a r e a / m u l t i a g e d group of 54 c h i l d r e n . Her E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l had d e v e l o p e d t o such a degree t h a t the t e a c h e r s r e f u s e d t o t r e a t o r even l a b e l h e r as an ESL s t u d e n t . Her academic achievement i s about grade l e v e l average, h e r s k i l l s i n Mathematics and Reading were o u t s t a n d i n g . 66 The B&F book a c t i v i t y (however, s t i l l an e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ) s t a r t e d r i g h t away i n September w i t h much e n t h u s i a s m on the p a r t of t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . The f r e q u e n c y count of the s i x knowledge s t r u c t u r e s d i d not r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Year 1 and Year 2, a l t h o u g h b o t h the number of s t a t e m e n t s and the o c c u r r e n c e o f Sequence, P r i n c i p l e , and E v a l u a t i o n are h i g h e r . The s t a t e m e n t s d o u b l e d , and the language items used t o e x p r e s s Cause and e f f e c t were found i n a g r e a t e r number. The t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s are v e r y much the same as seen i n Year 1 and the language of t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s are not showing any v a r i e t y . N o t i n g p r o c e s s i s e x p r e s s e d i n the v e r y same way: "today", " a f t e r . . . " , "at o u t p u t s " . One may argue t h a t the language items are somehow l i m i t e d t o e x p r e s s a p r o c e s s , however, the l o n g p r a c t i c e of B&F book c e r t a i n l y does p r o v i d e some p o s s i b i l i t y t o t r y out a w i d e r range of items e x p r e s s i n g process.The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r o c c u r r e n c e of E v a l u a t i o n p o i n t s i n t o t h i s d i r e c t i o n . W i t h w r i t i n g down h e r p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e or judgment the j o u r n a l i s t i s a b l e t o i n f o r m and r e f l e c t a t the same t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , even w i t h a l e s s d e v e l o p e d w r i t i n g s t r a t e g y she manages t o use more than " r e t r i e v e - a n d - w r i t e " . Examples from the language s t r u c t u r e of E v a l u a t i o n : " I t was f u n and I d i d p r e t t y much", "the words are p r e t t y h a r d l i k e neighborhood" and " I was happy about t h a t " An o b v i o u s change i n t h e t o t a l of s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h peaked i n the f i r s t p e r i o d must be e x p l a i n e d w i t h the g r o w i n g competence of the j o u r n a l w r i t e r and w i t h the a t t e n t i o n of b o t h p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s . Year 2 i s t o be r e g a r d e d the most s u c c e s s f u l y e a r i n the B&F book. And y e t t h i s i s the y e a r when fundamental changes took p l a c e around t h i s a c t i v i t y . The mis-match t a s k of t h i r d p e r i o d (Texts 2.3.1-5..- one s e n t e n c e about the s c h o o l day, the r e s t of the page s h o u l d be f i l l e d w i t h c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g ) i s one r e s u l t of the compromise between t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs p r o v i d e some i n f o r m a t i o n on the c r u c i a l p e r i o d of Year 2 (Text 2.3.1-5.). As I have a l r e a d y s t a t e d i t e a r l i e r the B&F book w r i t i n g i s not i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m , i t i s a t e a c h e r -i n i t i a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h i s not based on r e s e a r c h o r backed up w i t h l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g . The t e a c h e r s a p p l i e d t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n i n t h e i r c l a s s e s w i t h the b e s t i n t e n t i o n but l a c k e d the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s t o implement i t t o t h e i r t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . The s u c c e s s of the a c t i v i t y s t r o n g l y depended on p a r e n t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h d u r i n g my t h r e e y e a r s l o n g o b s e r v a t i o n s may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d w i t h the motto o f : " h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s and low s u p p o r t " . The s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e i s v e r y t y p i c a l : i f i t i s p o s s i b l e , t h e y go f o r the e a s i e r , r o u t i n e - l i k e t a s k s , the m a j o r i t y of them i s not w i l l i n g t o c h a l l e n g e themselves u n l e s s the t e a c h e r s e t s up t h e t a s k on a more demanding l e v e l . C h r i s t i e (1986) c l a i m s the same phenomenon a f f e c t s t h e c h o i c e of 68 g e n r e s , c h i l d r e n use whatever t h e y f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h and assume t o be s u c c e s s f u l . Why was t h e n the B&F book w r i t i n g i n c l u d e d i n t o the e v e r y day s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h r e e s c h o o l y e a r s i n s e v e r a l c l a s s e s ? As a p a r e n t v o l u n t e e r I was a b l e t o g a i n some i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n of how t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s saw t h i s p r o j e c t . My a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t due t o a communication b r e a k -down e v e r y p a r t i c i p a n t ended up l o o k i n g a t the B&F book from • a d i f f e r e n t a n g l e and w i t h d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s . The i r o n y o f t h i s case i s t h a t the a c t u a l t a s k of B&F book was supposed t o h e l p communication between s c h o o l and home. My d a u g h t e r ' s s o l u t i o n was unique and, so t o say, t y p i c a l of h e r . She was g i v e n the t a s k of c r e a t i v e s t o r y t e l l i n g , but s i n c e i t was a s c h o o l - t a s k , she f e l t o b l i g e d t o s t a y w i t h i n s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l . She s t a r t e d t o w r i t e "The Adventures of U. H i l l " , a s t o r y t o l d by the o l d s c h o o l b u i l d i n g (a type of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ) . T h i s way she was a b l e t o f u l f i l t he t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s , ( i . e . : c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g ) and s t i l l s t a y w i t h h e r o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s ( i . e . : r e f l e c t on and i n f o r m about th e s c h o o l d a y s ) . T h i s type of s t o r y t e l l i n g w i l l a l s o f a c i l i t a t e the use o f s e q u e n c i n g , n a r r a t i n g and o c c a s i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n . L o o k i n g a t the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s i n T a b l e 2 t h i s a s sumption i s seemed t o be proven : out of 40 s t a t e m e n t s i n the f i v e e n t r i e s (Texts 2.3.1-5.), 38 (95%) were t o e x p r e s s the concept of Sequence. 69 E x a m i n i n g the language items we do not see p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s i n a g r e a t number. The emphasis i s on n a r r a t i n g s c h o o l e v e n t s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the o l d b u i l d i n g , e v e n t s are r e t o l d and n a r r a t e d . Year I I I brought an o t h e r change i n h e r B&F book. She a t t e n d e d a new c l a s s , t h i s time s p l i t grades 4/5. I t was the f i r s t y e a r of u s i n g B&F book f o r the t e a c h e r , whereas most of the c h i l d r e n had w r i t t e n B&F books b e f o r e . G e n e r a l l y i t was an o l d p r a c t i c e i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g and the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e shows a c e r t a i n d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n q u a n t i t y . T a b l e 4 shows a s i g n i f i c a n t drop i n numbers, i n T e x t s 1.1.1-5. 49 s t a t e m e n t s were counted, i n the o t h e r two p e r i o d s t h e r e are o n l y 28 and 25 ones. The p e r c e n t a g e of the s t r u c t u r e s of P r i n c i p l e s and E v a l u a t i o n show a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n r e f l e c t i n g , s e a r c h i n g f o r "why's" and e x p r e s s i n g p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . Examples of Cause and e f f e c t : " i t was fun and c o n f u s i n g so i t got n o i s y and we c o u l d not s t a y i n s i d e " , "we might not go a g a i n because we l i n e d up n o i s i l y " . E v a l u a t i o n i s r e a l i z e d i n f a i r l y s i m i l a r ways, a l t h o u g h the c o m b i n a t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n and r e f e r e n c e shows some development, e.g.: " Math: we had l o t s (3) s h e e t s t o do, t h e y were not t o o easy not t o o h a r d " , " i t was a l l w o r t h i t " , " i t was f u n , the o t h e r team won, s o ? " . The B&F book a c t i v i t y was s l o w l y g o i n g on w i t h some e f f o r t s on the t e a c h e r ' s s i d e t o make i t a more c o n t e n t m a t t e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y . He o f t e n asked the c h i l d r e n t o w r i t e about one s p e c i f i c problem of the day, such as "what have you l e a r n e d about l o g g i n g i n B.C."; "what do you t h i n g about the e n d i n g of the s t o r y " ; what does b l o o d c o n s i s t o f ? " . Once a g a i n B&F book became j u s t an o t h e r p i e c e of paper, w h i c h can be f i l l e d i n many d i f f e r e n t ways and the ways are d e c i d e d a c c i d e n t l y , almost on the s p u r of the moment. The f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5 h e l p s the w r i t e r summarize the r e s u l t s and make some comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g . I t i s o b v i o u s , t h a t the most f r e q u e n t l y used knowledge s t r u c t u r e i s the Sequence ( 80.4%, 83.7% and 79.41% of t h e s t a t e m e n t s ) . T h e f i g u r e s s u p p o r t t h e assumption: the main f u n c t i o n of t h i s w r i t i n g i s t o r e p o r t and n a r r a t e the s c h o o l e v e n t s . The s t r u c t u r e e x p r e s s e d the second most f r e q u e n t l y i s E v a l u a t i o n . The s t u d e n t made at t e m p t s t o e x p r e s s h e r f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and p r e f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g the mentioned s c h o o l e v e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e p e r c e n t a g e of the use of t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s s u r p r i s i n g l y low, i t a l s o c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h my assumption. E v a l u a t i n g and r e f l e c t i n g were p r i o r g o a l s of the w r i t e r . The assumption r e g a r d i n g the use of P r i n c i p l e s s t r u c t u r e was not proven t o be c o r r e c t . The f r e q u e n c y count showed a v e r y low p e r c e n t a g e (4.34%,5.2% and 6.86%). The most f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s was R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t : t h e s e were the "because s e n t e n c e s " . An o t h e r r e s u l t c o n t r a d i c t s t o the assumption: t h e r e i s a g a i n o n l y one d e s c r i p t i o n : (we l e a r n e d a new v o l l e y b a l l 71 move,) i t i s c a l l e d bumper". My assumption was t h a t a s t u d e n t - w r i t e r i n i n t e r m e d i a t e grades w i l l be much more aware of the r e a d e r , and w i l l spend more time on d e s c r i b i n g e v e n t s and a c t i o n s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o m ention a g a i n t h a t i n t h i s a c t i v i t y the r o u t i n e ensures the w r i t e r t h a t not one but two r e a d e r s w i l l be g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h e r w r i t i n g . From t h i s p o i n t of v i e w i t was a d i s a p p o i n t m e n t not t o see any D e s c r i p t i o n , the r e a d e r never found an o c c a s i o n a l " you know..." o r " t h i s i s t h e . . . " ; an o v e r - a l l i m p r e s s i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t the w r i t e r was never a b l e t o o r w i l l i n g t o t a k e the a u d i e n c e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n h e r w r i t i n g . On the o t h e r hand t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the w r i t e r d i d n e g l e c t the r e a d e r on purpose. The whole s e t - u p of the t a s k , the n a t u r e of the B&F book p r e d o m i n a n t l y s u g g e s t s a c o n n e c t i o n between r e a d e r and w r i t e r which does not need any f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i n g on t h e w r i t e r ' s s i d e . I I . CONCLUSION The s t u d y of the B&F book o r i g i n a t e d from my p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n a unique t e a c h e i — i n i t i a t e d c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y . I n v e s t i g a t i n g the B&F book w r i t i n g t a s k from the p e r s p e c t i v e s of second language a c q u i s i t i o n I assumed t h a t t h i s m e a n i n g f u l t a s k would p r o v i d e a u t h e n t i c communication and t h u s produce language development. The c o l l e c t e d d a t a and the o b s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s of the t a s k d i d not f o s t e r a u t h e n t i c communication and t h e r e f o r e r e s t r a i n e d the growth of language. The B&F book a c t i v i t y d i d not p r o v i d e i n t e r a c t i o n ; the p a r t i c i p a n t s f a i l e d t o e n c o u n t e r the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s . The i n v o l v e d t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s m i s s e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h the s t u d e n t s , t h e y d e n i e d the s t u d e n t w r i t e r s h e l p i n a t a s k w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y s e t up t o f o s t e r i n t e r a c t i v e communication. C h r i s t i e (1986) p o i n t s out the importance o f i n t e r a c t i o n : " C h i l d r e n l e a r n language i n i n t e r a c t i o n - p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h a d u l t s . . . - t h e y r e l y v e r y h e a v i l y upon the k i n d s of l i n g u i s t i c models made a v a i l a b l e t o them i n such i n t e r a c t i o n , even where, as i s o f t e n t r u e , t h e s e are b u i l t up l a r g e l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y . . . . c h i l d r e n would not l e a r n language a t a l l i f i t were not f o r the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e y a re g i v e n i n i n t e r a c t i o n , and t h r o u g h the i n t e r v e n t i o n of o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y a d u l t s . " The B&F book c o u l d have p r o v i d e d t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i n a n a t u r a l way but the l i m i t a t i o n s of the t a s k d i d not make i t p o s s i b l e . The a c t u a l s e t - u p of the t a s k i s the r e a s o n of the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w r i t i n g p r o d u c t . The s t u d e n t s were l o c k e d i n t o a p r a c t i c e w h i c h was not m o n i t o r e d and s u p e r v i s e d , the t a s k was supposed t o ta k e c a r e of i t s e l f and produce language development a u t o m a t i c a l l y . E s t a b l i s h i n g the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s e x p r e s s e d i n the j o u r n a l I s t a t e t h a t the accomplishment of the d i s c o u r s e t a s k was s u c c e s s f u l : t h e p a t t e r of a r e g u l a r j o u r n a l was n o t i c e a b l e . The w r i t e r was u s i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e language s t r u c t u r e s i n s e q u e n c i n g , o r d e r i n g and n a r r a t i n g e v e n t s . Her e v a l u a t i o n was p r o p e r l y b u i l t up t h r o u g h v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a l u e s and judgment. Her c h o i c e of language items was always a p p r o p r i a t e . She f u l f i l l e d the r e q u i r e m e n t s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . However, the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of Janka's w r i t i n g a l s o showed the major l i m i t a t i o n of the t a s k . Her w r i t i n g was not more t h a n the n a r r a t i o n of s c h o o l e v e n t s , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n , the e x p r e s s i o n of the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . W i t h o u t the i n t e r v e n t i o n of the r e a d e r she was l e f t a l o n e and d i d what most s c h o o l c h i l d r e n would do: f o l l o w the r o u t i n e of t h e t a s k and r e a l i z e i t on the minimum l e v e l of e x p e c t a t i o n . The w r i t i n g was r e g a r d e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , but the p a r t i c i p a n t s were not aware of the f a c t t h a t the r e a s o n f o r t h i s weak r e a l i z a t i o n was the t a s k i t s e l f . I I I . IMPLEMENTATION A. Use of Knowledge Framework The p r e s e n t e d a n a l y s i s e n a b l e d me t o l o o k a t the s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g from a b r o a d e r and more complex p e r s p e c t i v e . The use of the knowledge s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e s an i n t e g r a t e d way of a n a l y s i s . T eachers can now l o o k a t the w r i t i n g and choose any s u i t a b l e p e r s p e c t i v e , such as c l a s s r o o m , l i n g u i s t i c , s o c i a l o r c o g n i t i v e views.The c h o i c e of the v i e w p o i n t w i l l not depend on the a n a l y s i s but on the a c t u a l t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . 74 F o r example, the t e a c h e r may d e c i d e t o f o c u s on the use of c e r t a i n g r a m m a t i c a l p o i n t s and d e c l a r e a week of B&F w r i t i n g as "Grammar week" and c o n c e n t r a t e on the p r o p e r use of language items e x p r e s s i n g Sequence. An ESL t e a c h e r needs a c c e s s i b l e and w o r k a b l e methods f o r c l a s s r o o m management i n a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e c l a s s r o o m . The numerous e x p r e s s i o n s of p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e i n my d a t a p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t i n t o the v a l u e system and judgment of a s t u d e n t from an o t h e r c o u n t r y and d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l system. Language items can be e a s i l y p r a c t i s e d matched up w i t h s u i t a b l e t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . The B&F book f a c i l i t a t e s a l o n g - t e r m use of P r e d i c t i o n , F o r e c a s t i n g . Foe example The t e a c h e r can ask the s t u d e n t s not t o comment on pa s t events b u t , by l o o k i n g ahead t h e y can p r e d i c t the next day s c h e d u l e o r t a s k s i n c e r t a i n c o n t e n t a r e a s . They l e a r n the language s t r u c t u r e of p r e d i c t i n g and r e a s o n i n g w h i c h w i l l be t r a n s m i t t e d t o o t h e r w r i t t e n t a s k s of o t h e r s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . W i t h t h e use of Mohan's framework and the t a b l e s p r o v i d e d i n the ESL r e s o u r c e book ( E a r l y 1986) bo t h ESL and c o n t e n t m a t t e r t e a c h e r s can p l a n t h i s a c t i v i t y ahead . A u n i t c r e a t e d w i t h the above su g g e s t e d approach the B&F book w i l l f a c i l i t a t e w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n , open communication, n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g language use and a way of language l e a r n i n g when the c o n t e n t i s n a t u r a l l y p r o v i d e d and a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s a re i n v o l v e d and i n t e r e s t e d . The language l e v e l of each B&F book i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . The f o c u s of the w r i t e r w i l l be d i r e c t e d w i t h the t e a c h e r but the freedom of t o p i c , s t y l e , l e n g t h , d e g r e e of f o r m a l i t y w i l l be g i v e n t o the s t u d e n t . The s t r u c t u r e s w i l l a l s o h e l p t h e s t u d e n t s o r g a n i z e t h e i r t h o u g h t s , the language and c o n t e n t approach w i l l t e a c h the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s and language s t r u c t u r e c o n c u r r e n t l y , and the l e a r n e d s k i l l s , b o t h t h i n k i n g s k i l l and language s k i l l s w i l l be t r a n s f e r a b l e t o o t h e r s u b j e c t s . B. I n t e r v e n t i o n D u r i n g the t h r e e y e a r s l o n g p e r i o d of B&F book w r i t i n g I made some at t e m p t s t o i n f l u e n c e my d a u g h t e r ' s j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . The purpose of t h e s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s was t o f o s t e r the e x p r e s s i o n of d i f f e r e n t t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s i n the B&F book. F o l l o w i n g Mohan's argument t h a t of " e s s e n t i a l l y , the knowledge s t r u c t u r e of a t o p i c i s r e f l e c t e d i n the q u e s t i o n s people ask about i t " (Mohan 1986) my s t r a t e g y was a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s i n advance of w r i t i n g . In o t h e r words each a f t e r n o o n r e a d i n g t h e B&F book I asked s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h might l e a d the w r i t e r i n t o the r e q u i r e d d i r e c t i o n . T h i s q u e s t i o n i n g p e r i o d r e p l a c e d the w r i t t e n i n t e r a c t i o n of d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l p r a c t i c e , and was r e a l i z e d i n the form of q u e s t i o n words w h i c h were put on t h e top of the next page. An i n t e r e s t i n g outcome of t h i s type of i n t e r a c t i o n was the i n c r e a s e d number of r e a s o n i n g . T y p i c a l l y I asked t h o s e t y p e s of q u e s t i o n s which f o r c e d the w r i t e r " t o l o o k b e h i n d " the e v e n t s . I would say: " p l e a s e , do not o n l y t e l l me what has happened, l o o k b e h i n d the e v e n t s and c o n c e n t r a t e on HOW? and 76 WHY?". One j o u r n a l e n t r y was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n r e a c t i n g t o t h i s t y pe of q u e s t i o n i n g . The e n t r y s t a r t e d w i t h the u s u a l n a r r a t i o n : " w e had a sub today. She wanted t o t e a c h us a song. Nobody was p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o h e r " . Then , as i f ans w e r i n g my q u e s t i o n she w r o t e : "Can you imagine, she d i d not know how t o p l a y the g u i t a r " . The i n t e r v e n t i o n l a s t e d about a month, each day Janka s t a r t e d t o w r i t e i n h e r B&F book w i t h d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n words w r i t t e n on the top of the page.The w r i t i n g of t h a t p e r i o d , u n f o r t u n a t e l y not i n c l u d e d i n the randomly s e l e c t e d d a t a , was more s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a n the a n a l y z e d j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . The s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n a l s o proved the n e c e s s i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n . However, the p r a c t i c e d i d not l a s t l o n g , my d a u g h t e r d i d not want t o have a B&F book w h i c h was " d i f f e r e n t " from the books of h e r c l a s s m a t e s . IV. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The importance of the emerging new approach i n w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n was a l l u d e d t o i n the e a r l y p a r t of the s t u d y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g i n L I and L2 s e t t i n g i s a w e l l r e s e a r c h e d a r e a of w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n . In the s e c t i o n of the case s t u d y w h i c h d e a l t w i t h the p o t e n t i a l s and l i m i t a t i o n s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n ESL c l a s s r o o m s I s t a t e d t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t on the p a r t of the t e a c h e r , the s t u d e n t s and the p a r e n t s . T h i s e f f o r t i s rewarded w i t h an open b r i d g e 77 between s c h o o l and home, the B&F books f a c i l i t a t e communication between t e a c h e r , s t u d e n t and p a r e n t s w h i c h i s v e r y much needed i n ESL s e t t i n g . Even a t the e a r l i e s t s t a g e of second language a c q u i s i t i o n s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t language p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l and d i f f e r e n t background of s c h o o l i n g can get a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t he e v e r y day s c h o o l l i f e and can i n f o r m t h e i r p a r e n t s of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r new c l a s s r o o m s . The use of a j o u r n a l e n a b l e s t h e t e a c h e r t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n i n language and c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e c l a s s r o o m s . The s t u d e n t s a re p r o v i d e d w i t h a t a s k w h i c h engages them i n a u t h e n t i c , m e a n i n g f u l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a competent a d u l t who p r e s e n t s the n e c e s s a r y language i n p u t . The in v o l v e m e n t of p a r e n t s of ESL s t u d e n t s must be c o n s i d e r e d as one of t h e major s i g n i f i c a n c e s . I t i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y h a r d f o r a pa r e n t who i s new t o the c o u n t r y and has some language problems t o get i n t o u c h w i t h s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l and t o be up-dated about the s c h o o l e v e n t s . As a second language s p e a k e r , a New Canadian and a mother of t h r e e ESL s t u d e n t s I want t o emphasize enough the importance of t h e s e B&F books f o r a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d . I t i s an e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e which can not o n l y t e a c h the t e a c h e r what t o t e a c h , t e a c h the s t u d e n t s how t o l e a r n but a l s o t e a c h the p a r e n t s how t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e of the p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o i n t r o d u c e a t a s k w h i c h has the p o t e n t i a l s t o p r o v i d e a u t h e n t i c communication between s c h o o l and home and y e t due t o some e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , and g e n e r a l p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e was never a b l e t o f u n c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p o t e n t i a l s . W i t h i n weeks the B&F book became v e r y s i m i l a r t o the a s s i g n e d , o b l i g a t o r y c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e which are r e g a r d e d as " a r t i f i c i a l s i m u l a t i o n of w r i t i n g " ( E d e l s k y 1986) and unable t o c o n t r i b u t e t o s t u d e n t ' s w r i t t e n language development. V. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The m a j o r i t y of the p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the r e v i e w e d l i t e r a t u r e d e a l s w i t h those e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g w h i c h are prime concerns t o the t e a c h e r . My s t u d y has a d d r e s s e d a new s i d e of t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e : the a s p e c t of p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t (Beery 1982).The presence of a b o o k l e t w h i c h goes home ev e r y day can p r o v i d e t h a t open communication b r i d g e whose importance does not need t o be emphasize i n an ESL s e t t i n g . The p o s s i b l e forms of an extended c u r r i c u l u m where p a r e n t s are l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e i n the second language t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n are a c h a l l e n g i n g and most needed a r e a f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The Language and Content approach has g a i n e d more and more s u p p o r t e r s i n the Vancouver S c h o o l Board. Both i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n the c l a s s r o o m s people are r e a l i z i n g the need f o r t e a c h i n g approaches, e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , and m a t e r i a l s t h a t p r o v i d e e q u a l e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes f o r the E.S.L.student p o p u l a t i o n . 79 A f u t u r e g o a l and a f u r t h e r d i r e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d e s i g n m a t e r i a l s , u n i t s and l e s s o n p l a n s f o r the Back and F o r t h a c t i v i t y based on the Language and Content approach and w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n of the knowledge framework. V I . CLOSING REMARKS The t o p i c of p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g i n w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n has become a much more d i s c u s s e d and q u e s t i o n e d a r e a of ESL. The r e v i e w e d l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s a wide range of p e r s p e c t i v e s . R e s e a r c h e r s and c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s can examine t h i s a c t i v i t y from many d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s and may choose an approach which i s the most s u i t a b l e one f o r t h e i r t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . I n the p r o c e s s of t h i s l o n g - t e r m p r o j e c t I have come a c r o s s many i d e a s and arguments r e g a r d i n g the c l a s s r o o m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . Teachers and s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s have commonly s u f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e unknown t r a i l s of the Back and F o r t h books i n the l a s t t h r e e s c h o o l y e a r s . The a n a l y s i s and the case s t u d y suggest f a i l u r e . The B&F book never managed t o be s u c c e s s f u l , f u l f i l l i n g everybody's e x p e c t a t i o n s . And y e t , as I am c l o s i n g the r e p o r t t h e r e i s one more c i t a t i o n w h i c h may c o n v i n c e the r e a d e r t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e development of ESL s t u d e n t s . " I n t e g r a t i n g Language and Content I n s t r u c t i o n K-12: E.S.L. Resource book ( E a r l y e t a l . 1986) argues t h a t : " . . . i n l e a r n i n g the language of s c h o o l l e s s o n s , the second language s t u d e n t has the f o r m i d a b l e j o b of u n d e r s t a n d i n g the so new i d e a s , and f i g u r i n g out and remembering the language t o e x p r e s s t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The s t u d e n t needs t o connect meanings w i t h e x p r e s s i o n , t o connect thought w i t h language. The t e a c h e r needs t o model the r e q u i r e d l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n a c o n t e x t where the c o n n e c t i o n s between meaning and e x p r e s s i o n s are c l e a r " . The Back and F o r t h book has a l l the n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s t o become a r e g u l a r , r e l e v a n t and n a t u r a l t a s k w h i c h e n a b l e s the t e a c h e r t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e the language use, t o model the l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s and be a b l e t o p r o v i d e m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e x t f o r a u t h e n t i c communication. The v a l u e of t h e p r e s e n t e d case- s t u d y i s the i n s i g h t i t can o f f e r the r e a d e r i n t o t h e p r o c e s s of " l e a r n i n g the language of s c h o o l l e s s o n s " , the language of l e a r n i n g . B i b l i o g r a p h y Ashworth,M. (1975) Immigrant C h i l d r e n and Canadian S c h o o l s M c C l e i l e n d & S t e w a r t L t d . Ashworth, M. (1979) Jh_e J^grjces Which Shaped Them New S t a r Books Ashworth, M. (1988) B l.essed Wi t h J B i l i n g u a 1„ B r a i n P a c i f i c E d u c a t i o n a l P r e s s Beery, K.E. (1982) R e v i s e d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Scpr;ing and T e a c h i n g Manual f o r the Developmental T e s t of V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n T o r o n t o : Modern C u r r i c u l u m P r e s s C a l k i n s , L.M. (1986) The A r t of T e a c h i n g W r i t i n g P o r tsmouth, NH. : Heinemann C h r i s t i e , F.(1986) W r i t i n g i n S c h o o l s : Study Guide Deakin U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s V i c t o r i a Geelong, A u s t r a l i a Cummins, J . (1984) B i l i n g u a l ism and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n : I.s.sue.s_....in Assessment and Pedagogy cievedon,Avon: M u l t i l i n g u a l M a t t e r s E a r l y , M. (1990) U s i n g key v i s u a l s t o a i d ESL s t u d e n t s ' comprehension of c o n t e n t c l a s s r o o m t e x t i n Reading-Canada-Lecture V o l . 7 Number 4 E a r l y , M . , C. Thew and P. W a k e f i e l d (1986) Xn.t.e.gr_a.t.mg. Language. and C.o.n.t.fi.nt.„.J.ns±xuc.t.i.Q..n.....K-1.2..;.. An E.S.L. Resource Book, Vo1ume 1 V i c t o r i a , B.C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n Modern Languages S e r v i c e s Branch E d e l s k y , C. (1986) W r i t i n g i n a B i l i n g u a l Program: H a b i a Una Vez Norwod,N.J.: A b l e x P u b l i s h i n g Corp E l l i s , R. (1986) U n d e r s t a n d i n g Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 82 Fu1wi1er, T.(ed.)(1987) The J o u r n a l Book Boyton/Cook P u b l i s h e r s Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books I n c . Portsmouth,NH H a l l i d a y , M.A.K.Q985) An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o F u n c t i o n a l G.r..§.ffl!B.§.r. London: Edward A r n o l d Hooper,H. (1988) Computers and Content Based Language L e a r n i n g U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s Hudelson, S.(1984) Kan Yu r e t an Rayt en I n g l e s : C h i l d r e n Become L i t e r a t e i n E n g l i s h as a Second language i n TESOL..Quarterly. Vol.18.No.2, June 1984 Hudelson, S.(1989) W r i t i n g i n a second language i n Annual Review of A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s V o l . 9 1988 Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s K r e e f t P e y t o n , J . and Seyoum, M. (1989) : The e f f e c t of t e a c h e r s t r a t e g i e s on s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r a c t i v e w r i t i n g : t h e case s t u d y of d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l s i n Re s e a r c h i n the Teaching. of ...English.,,.. V o l . 2 3 , No. 3, October 1989 M a r t i n , N. (1983) M o s t l y About W r i t i n g : S e l e c t e d Essays of M.§ni^^§.r.t.in Upper M o n t c l a i r , N.J. : Boyton/Cook P u b l i s h e r s McCutchen, D. (1988) " F u n c t i o n a l A u t o m a t i c i t y i n c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g . A problem of m e t a c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l W r i t t e n Communication J u l y 1988 McGonegal, P. (1987) The f i f t h grade j o u r n a l s : R e s u l t s and s u r p r i s e s i n T. F u l w i l e r (ed.) The J o u r n a l Book Boyton/Cook P u b l i s h e r s Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books I n c . Portsmouth, NH Meath-Lang, B. (1990) The d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l : r e c o n c e i v i n g c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h i n g i n J . K r e e f t P e y t o n (ed.) St u d e n t s and Teachers W r i t i n g T o g e t h e r : ...Pexsp.^ j o u r n a l w r i t i n g TESOL World C o m p o s i t i o n S e r v i c e s S t e r l i n g , VA Mohan, B. (1986) Language and Content Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Company Mohan, B. (1987) The s t r u c t u r e i n s i t u a t i o n s and the a n a l y s i s of t e x t i n Language T o p i c s John Benjamins P u b l i s h i n g Co. A m s t e r d a m / P h i l a d e l p h i a M o r r i s , D. (1986) The j o u r n a l as e x p l o r a t i o n i n F. C h r i s t i e a t e l (ed.) Wr.i_t..i.Qg i n S.chQ.Ql...s..;. Study Guide D e a k i n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s V i c t o r i a Geelong, A u s t r a l i a Newkirk,T. and N. A t w e l l (ed.) (1988) U n d e x s t a n d i n g W r i t i n g : Ways of O b s e r v i n g f L e a r n i n g , and Teaching. Heinemann Portsmouth,NH Northwest R e g i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l L a b o r a t o r y Student Guide t o Write, a J o u r n a l P o r t 1 and, Or. The L a b o r a t o r y Ochs,E. & B. S c h i e f f e l i n (ed.)(1986) Langjaage S o c i a l i s a t i o n A c r o s s C u l t u r e s Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s S a n d l e r , K.W.(1987) L e t t i n g them w r i t e when th e y can't even speak? W r i t i n g as d i s c o v e r y i n the f o r e i g n language c l a s s r o o m i n T . F u l w i l e r (ed.) The..„.J.o.urnal. Book Boyton/Cook P u b l i s h e r s Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books I n c . Portsmouth, NH S i n c l a i r - D u s t , S. (1988) Oscar's j o u r n a l i n T. Newkirk and N. A t w e l l (ed.) U n d e r s t a n d i n g W r i t i n g : Ways of O b s e r v i n g , L e a r n i n g and T e a c h i n g K-8 Heinemann Portsmouth,NH Staab , C. (1986) E l i c i t i n g t h e language f u n c t i o n of f o r e c a s t i n g / r e a s o n i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s The A l b e r t a J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 1986 : XXX'lI : 2:June S t a t o n , J . (1980) W r i t i n g and c o u n s e l i n g : u s i n g a d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l Language A r t s 5 7 ( 5 ) , 514-518 84 S t a t o n , J . (1983) D i a l o g u e J o u r n a l s : A New T o o l f o r T e a c h i n g Communication ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No.: ED 227 701 S t a t o n , J . (1984) D i a l o g u e J o u r n a l as a means of e n a b l i n g w r i t t e n language a c q u i s i t i o n i n J . K r e e f t e t a l (ed.) D i a l o g u e J o u r n a l A n a l y s i s of S t u d e n t - T e a c h e r I n t e r a c t i v e W r i t i n g i n the L e a r n i n g of, E n g l i s h as a Second Language C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s Washington,D.C. S t a t o n , J . e t a l . (1988) D i a l o g u e , J o u r n a l Communication: C l a s s r o o m , L i n g u i s t i c , S o c i a l and C o g n i t i v e Views Norwood, N.J. : A b l e x Pub. Corp. S t e r n , H.H. (1983) Fundamental Concepts of Language T e a c h i n g O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s Tannen, D. (1983) C r o s s - c u l t u r a l communication CATESOL O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r s ; Number 10:1-16 Fa 1 f1984.' " Tway, E. (1985) W r i t i n g i s Reading : 26 ways t o connect Urbaba, 111. : E r i c C l e a r i n g h o u s e on Reading and Communication Wiersma, W. (1986) Research Methods, i n E d u c a t i o n : An I n t r o d u c t i o n A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . 85 Appendix A T e x t s 1-45 86 Year 1 Week 1 Day 1 Monday October 5, '87 We s t a r t e d o ur day w i t h our s p e l l i n g t e s t . At h a n d w r i t i n g from now on I can't p r i n t , Anyway I h a t e t o p r i n t . Today D a v i d had t o choose a n o t h e r book because we f i n i s h e d our o l d one. Then S i l e n t R eading, Math, Key wo r d i n g and T.U. R 7 Year 1 Week 1 Day 2 Tuesday October 6, '87 L.A. was f i r s t t o d a y . Key w o r d i n g and A r t came. A f i r e d r i l l came up when f i r e f i t e r s came. S i l e n t Reading came. Math: I d i d not see the a d d i n g was on the o t h e r s i d e of the page so I d i d i t wrong. Then we d i d t h i s book. 33 Year 1 Week 1 Day 3 Wedsday October 7,'87 Output was f i r s t , t oday I l e a r n e d a new game. J o u r n a l s was next I made up a new s t o r y . Pe games was n e x t . S t o r y math, math was good today. Then we d i d our B+F book. I t h i n k c l a s s m e e t i n g w i l l be ne x t . I t was a s h o r t day today. 99 Year 1 Week 1 Day 4 Thusrsday October 8, '87 Mu s i c was f i r s t . H a n d w r i t i n g was n e x t . I had t o w r i t e a poem i t does not have t o be done t i l l next t h u r s d a y . Key w o r d i n g was ne x t . I t was good. S i l e n t r e a d i n g was ne x t . Math came next i t was a s p e c i a l math time e x t r a h e l p s came we had math problems l i k e I had i n Grade 1. We had qe s t e n s l i k e " t h e r e was 9 j e l l y b e a n s 3 were e a t e n by my b r o t h e r how many l e f t . " And f o r t h i s one I don't even know the answer "a man was r u n n i n g home and when he was c l o s e t o home he met a masked man and he r a n back where he corned from." 90 Year 1 Week 1 Day 5 F r i d a y October 9, '87 Today a f i r e f i t e r came t o our c l a s s he t o l d us today a f i r e a l a r m w i l l go on and we have t o go out t o p r e c t i c e i t . He t o l d us t h a t a t 6 - o ' c l o c k i t w i l l go on i f we have the t v o r the r a d i o on i t w i l l go o f . And a t s c h o o l w i l l g e t a s p e c i e l paper t o descaus on. And we have t o descaus i t b e f o r e 6 o ' c l o c k . 91 Year 1 Week 2 Day 1 Tuesday F e b r u a r y 2, 1988. Today was f u n . Everybody showed t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t s . Somebody made a p i a n o ! Jenny made a drum. Most of the peopl e had drums o r b o t t l e s . Some people had k i n d of a g u i t a r but noone had a harp g u i t a r . Year 1 Week 2 Day Thursday F e b r u a r y 4, 1988. Today we had t o imagine. Something most people choosed t h a t t h e y were l i v i n g i n a c a s t l e , me t o o . I wanted t o draw the k i n g and t h e Queen but i t was drown a l r e a d y . I was d i s a p o i n t e d . Y e a r 1 Week 2 Day 3 F r i d a y F e b r u a r y 5. 1988. Today was s h a r i n g I brought Brumi!!! He was a good p a l . He d i d s p e l l i n g w i t h me. He a l s o wanted t o r u n but a t the end we ended up me c a r i n g him. He a l s o was p a t i e n t when I put him i n my cubby f o r mapping. 94 Year 1 Week 2 Day 4 Monday, F e b r u a r y 8, 1988. Today V i was h e r e . She gave D a v i d a day o f f , because once he gave h e r a day o f f , P e t e r t o l d us i n aunatsmant. A f t e r aunatsments we had u s a l Pre t e s t s p e l l i n g , f i n a l l y Nancy Duncan. I t ' s t o o bad she s t o l e h a l f of my hand w r i t i n g . F i n a l l y a b r e a k ! ! i R e c e s s ! Then s t o r y a f t e r r e c e s s i t was k i n d a break t o o ! But Geometry was not a break. A c t u a l l y I l e a r n e d something from i t . At S i l e n t Reading I s t a r t e d a new book c a l l e d J u s t e n Morgan had a h o r s e . W e l l a f t e r we had eye a g a i n . I t was good. W e l l we have some home work i t i s i n the pocket of my B&F book. B&F book time gave me a break. Year 1 Week 2 Day Tuesday F e b r u a r y 9,1988. Today t h e r e were some e x c i t i n g t h i n g s l i k e we went t o a r t w i t h D i a n . F i r s t we had t o do some a n i m a l s . I d i d a h o r s e of c o u r s . Then we had t o do some thumb s p o t s . Then we had math I was i n the M.D. group. I t ' s f u n I am b e s i d e Keren. Year 1 Week 3 Day 1 Monday May 30,1988. Today a t s p e l l i n g everybody seemed a t l e a s t t o have 9 o r more wronged. Today I d i d not l i k e s t o r y v e r y much ( I h a t e d i t ! ) A f t e r s t o r y math problems were p l e a s e n t . We d i d t h i s : ... t r i a n g l e s . At gym ( a f t e r math p.) we d i d t r a m p u l i n e . S i l e n t Reading was a s i l e n t time f o r me. S.S. I t was next t h a t hour was most f u n . Year 1 Week 3 Day 2 Tuesday May 31, 1988. Today I o n l y had 5 minutes because I loaded the computers w i t h some o t h e r s . Then we had a r t we d i d book marks, a l l hour. At the end of the day I went t o the computers. T h a t ' s why I'm w r i t i n g f a s t . 98 Year 1 Week 3 Day 3 Today i s Wedsnday, June 1, 1988. Today a t Outputs I gave Jenny my t r a d p a r t i e n o t i e c e (Speech) A f t e r t h a t P e t e r showed us a new way of A r t , me Jenny, Keren and Grant s t a r t e d i t . Then we had r e a d i n g , I k i n d of had t o do n o t h i n g . At s t o r y we r e a d something d i f f e r e n t . And a t Math we had a d i f f e r e n t s k i l l . A f t e r l u n c h we had s q u a r t . V9 Year 1 Week 3 Day 4 Today i s Thur. June 2, 1988. Today i n Gym we d i d I n u i t e games. We needed 1 p a r t n e r f o r each game but one. At r e a d i n g we went t o the computers and wrote 6 s e n t e n c e s and t h e n r e c e s s . Then we went t o t h e l i b r a r y . We had S.S. and found out Jenny l o s t our s h e e t s . Lunch. A f t e r Si.Re we had Math. 100 Year 1 Week 3 Day 5 F r i d a y June 2, 1988. Today was f u n . We had puppets t h e y are f i n i s h e d ! Then computers and s p e l l i n g . A f t e r P e t e r e x p l a i n e d Div.9 something, we had math. 101 Year 2 Week 1 Day 1 Monday October 17,'88 Today i n gym, b e f o r e we went t o the gym, t h e r e were some people t a l k i n g . We got t o l i n e up w h i l e P e t e r spoke t o the people on the c a r p e t . Then t h e y came a f t e r us i n the gym. They s a t on the benches. We p l a y e d C a p t a i n ' s coming, soon they j o i n e d us. I n S p e l l i n g I got them a l l r i g h t ! The words weren't h a r d and anyway i t i s a p r e t e s t . I n F i e l d T r i p t a l k I found out what we are g o i n g t o s t u d i e i n grade f o u r . N a t i v e s . I don't r e a l y have any q u e s t i o n s f o r the v e t what she might know, because n a t i v e people d i d not keep c a t s f o r p e t s ! Year 2 Week 1 Day 2 Tuesday October 18, '88 Today i n Outputs I c h a l l e n g e d Jasmine t o a game of c h e c k e r s I won.I got t o move up on the Game Ladder I was a t the bottom, now I am two up from the bottom, Jasmine has a p a r t n e r she says h e r p a r t n e r i s not gonna be happy. I n A r t we d i d an o t h e r H a i k u poem we had t o w r i t e about o u r s e l f e s as a pumpkin, on Halloween! I t was fun I f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g on t h e good c o p i e . A f t e r r e c e s s I had gym. We l e a r n e d a new V o l l e y b a l l move. I t ' s c a l l e d bumper, we a l s o p r a c t i c e d . A f t e r l u n c h we had music.We p l a y e d the i n s t r u m e n t s . I t was l o t s of f u n . I got a l i t t l e t a m b o r i n e , i t was k i n d of s m a l l but i t was O.K. At s i l e n t r e a d i n g i t was e x c i t i n g but I had t o do t o some messengar work! 103 Year 2 Week 1 Day 3 Wednesday October 19, 1988. Today i n Outputs I d i d r e c e r c h r e p o r t ( I had t o ) . W e l l a t l e a s t I got i t f i n i s h e d . I was s u r p r i s e d we had r e a d i n g . T h i s y e a r I got i n t o D avids group. At s t o r y I almost t o l d everybody what w i l l happen.Peter hushed me j u s t i n t i m e . W h i l e the grade2/3 had S.S. we had an I n d i a n t a l k t o us.She had a b u t t e n e d j a c k e t . At B'n'F Lucas brought us Halloween c o o k i e s . Year 2 Week 1 Day 4 Thusthday October 20, 1988. Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d r e c h e r c h and r e p o r t . I am d o i n g i t on beavers i t ' s f u n . I am l e a r n i n g how th e y make houses. A f t e r o u t p u t s we d i d keywording I f i n i s h e d mine so I d i d my Ha i k u poem. I drawn a pumpkin on a p o r c h . A f t e r r e c e s s we had music. We c l a p p e d some c l a p p i n g p a t t e r n s and l i s t e n e d t o Jeremy was a b u l l f r o g on ta p e . A f t e r i t came gym.We had t o get i n t o our teams My team i s made from Cory Jasmine and me, our number i s 6. Then D a v i d r e a d us a s t o r y . I r e a d i t l a s t y e a r so I know what's gonna happen. But i t ' s s t i l l i n t e r e s t i n g ! D a v i d s a i d he r e a d i t t o o ! W e l l a t s i l e n t r e a d i n g I s t a r t e d a new book! At math we got d i v i d e d up i n t o our groups what we are gonna s t a y f o r 3 o r 4 weeks! We p l a y e d a game! 105 Year 2 Week 1 Day 5 F r i d a y O c t o b e r 21,1988. Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d my b o o k l e t . I s t a p l e d t o g e t h e r . I t was a s h o r t p e r i o d of time because i t was s p e l l i n g n e xt. We d i d a po s t t e s t . I got none wrong. When Diane came we d i d our H a i k u poems I f i n i s h e d i t . At l i b r a r y t ime I r e a d because I s i g n e d out my book j u s t y e s t e r d a y ! And a f t e r came s t o r y . We v o t e d about i t i f we c o n t i n u e i t o r s t o p r e a d i n g i t and choose a n o t h e r book. We a l s o d i d ke y w o r d i n g i t was the l a s t day of w o r k i n g on i t . I am g l a d because I f i n i s h e d i t on the f i r s t day. Oh w e l l . S i l e n t r e a d i n g was okay. But I had t o h e l p someone f i n d a bag. A f t e r we d i d a l i t t l e q u i z e on a n i m a l s , and c o l o u r i n some t h i n g s . Year 2 Week 2 Day 1 Monday F e b r u a r y 6, 1989. Today at o u t p u t s I d i d a r t . I t was f u n and I d i d p r e t t y munch. The t r i a n g l e s gave me a head-ache. At s p e l l i n g I got them a l r i g h t ! I f e l t good a f t e r . At grammar I f i n i s h e d e v e r y t h i n g , but they are g o i n g t o check J a n e ' s . At s t o r y P r i n c e C a s p i a n d e c i d e d t o blow the horn.He a l s o had an army and found the stone t a b l e . We a l s o wrote l e t t e r s t o the M i n i s t e r t o s t o p the wolves from b e i n g k i l l e d . At p.e. we had fun but o n l y got t o p l a y two games. At math we had our l a s t s u b t r u c t i o n q u e s t i o n s . Year 2 Week 2 Day 2 Tuesday, F e b r u a r y 7, 1989. Today we d i d not have o u t p u t s because we have new t a b l e groups.Our ( S a d i e , P e t e r , D a n i e l and me) name i s H i b e r n a t i n g H e l i c o p t e r s , i t ' s r e a l y funny. At h a n d w r i t i n g I f i n i s h e d a poem and s t a r t e d one. The one I s t a r t e d i s about k i t t e n s . At p.e. we p l a y e d 'wolves and c a r i b o u ' a n d 'Doctor Dodge b a l l ' . They were b o t h f u n and t i r i n g . At music P e t e r t a l k e d more t h a n we s a n g . I t was e x c i t i n g and he t a u g h t us a f r e n c h word. At s t o r y Lucas handed out c o o k i e s and P e t e r stopped a t the most e x c i t i n g p a r t . At a r t I f i n i s h e d j u s t a t the n i c k of t i m e . I was happy. 108 Year 2 Week 2 Day 3 Wednesday F e b r u a r y 8,1989. Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d o u t p u t s . I d i d t a b l e names, i t was f u n ! I a l s o f i n i s h e d so S a d i e i s the o n l y one l e f t , so i t i s r e l e w i n g . At r e a d i n g we f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g our r a d i o p l a y , I am i n charge of the sound a f f e c t s . I n s t o r y Susan won t h e bow match a g a i n s t the dwarf. At math we f i n i s h e d our papers and c o r r e c t e d them. We were supposed t o p l a y b i n g o a f t e r , but I f i n i s h e d i n the m i d d l e of a game so I c o u l d n ' t p l a y . 109 Year 2 Week 2 Day 4 Thursday F e b r u a r y 9, 1989. Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d our r a d i o p l a y . We s t a y e d i n the o f f i c e u n t i l r e c e s s because r e a d i n g came a f t e r and t h a t ' s what we are d o i n g . At s t o r y Lucy was t r y i n g t o wake up the t r e e s , but d i d not succeed. At r u n we r a n around the s c h o o l once. I n S.S. we saw a f i l m about s h e l t e r and d i d a t i t l e page f o r i t . At math we p l a y e d bingo.Jumoke and M e l l i s s a were c a l l e r s . n o Year 2 Week 2 Day 5 Monday F e b r u a r y 13, 1989. Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d s c i e n c e . I c o u l d n ' t f i n d a l i g h t b u l b and when I f i n a l l y d i d i t d i d not l i g h t . At s p e l l i n g I got 4 wrong, the words are p r e t t y h a r d . L i k e neighbourhood. We a l s o made envo l o p e s f o r V a l e n t i n e s . l t was h a r d d r a w i n g over g l u e , and I was r e v e i l e d when I was f i n i s h e d . At s t o r y they met A s i a n . I n S.S.I c o u l d not f i n d a n y t h i n g on I n u i t , modern s h e l t e r but H a i d a and Squamish are easy. At math I d i d two and t h r e e q u a r t e r s of a page. I was v e r y happy about t h a t . i i 1 Year 2 Week 3 Day 1 Monday, May 29, 1989 Today at p.e. I d i d not get a p a r t n e r because we had an even number of people so P e t e r and me d e m o n s t r a i t e d . The Advanture of U . H i l l Chap. 21. "O.K. One...two.. " I h e a r d a v o i c e Oh, h i d e . . . " F a s t e r Zohar" I h e a r d Bess She o n l y changed a t i n i s i n c e y e s t e r d a y . Zohar came o v e r t o t h e f r o n t s t e p s and s a i d o r w h i s p e r e d : "Thanks s c h o o l ! I w i s h you c o u l d t a l k . Bess i s not a b e a s t anymore! " 112 Year 2 Week 3 Day 2 Tuesday, May 30, 1989 Today a t a t r me and Jasmine f i n i s h e d the pet s t o r e we got two more windows t o do. Advantures of U . H i l l Chap. 21. The bees were b u z z i n g , the b i r d s were s i n g i n g . Suddenly Cathy a s e a g u l landed on a p i n e t r e e she c a l l e d h e r l a n d i n g p l a c e . " L o o k what I found" she s a i d showing of h e r l e g . "Ring?' asked Cow l o o k i n g c l o s e l y . "Where d i d you f i n d i t ? ' a s k e d Nan a r o b i n . " I n the d r i v e way.' answered the proud b i r d . "Fake' d e c l a r e d Dan who h e l d i t now i n h i s wing. "Shh' I s a i d . "10:25!!' Suddenly Canny, a l i t t l e g i r l c r i e i n g "My r i n g ! ' she sobbed' I l o s t i t . ' At t h a t moment Dan dropped the r i n g . " I found i t " she s a i d h a p p i l y . 113 Year 2 Week 3 Day 3 Wednesday, May 31, 1989. Today our t a b l e group f i n i s h e d our r e p o r t on James Cook, p r a c t i c e l y me and Zohar d i d i t a l l . The Advanture of U . H i l l Chap.23. Today e v e r y t h i n g was g o i n g o.k. f o r Nan a new g i r l i n s c h o o l s i n c e gym.David d e c i d e d t o g i v e h e r a t r e a t . "Nan, Ann and Mag, you can be c a p t a i n s ' he s a i d . "What i s a c a p t a i n ? ' asked Nan who was from Germany. Everybody except Naomie who knew how she f e l t r o a r e d w i t h l a u g h t e r . At p a r t n e r time everybody was g i v e n a p a r t n e r , then t h e y each had t o w r i t e something about themselves.Nan was b o d i e d up w i t h Naomie.Nan w r o t e : I em frem Garmeny. When Naomie had t o r e a d i t up she d i d i t n o r m a l l y . Everybody was s u r p r i s e d she c o u l d w r i t e t h a t good. 1 1 4 Year 2 Week 3 Day 4 Thursday, June 1, 1989. Today some p e o p l e came t o our s c h o o l t h e y p l a y e d j a z z f o r us. The Advantures of U . H i l l Chap.24. "Hey, you! Come back' s a i d a v o i c e . Dong, dong, dong. I f you know what I mean my mind was l i k e t h a t from the b a s k e t b a l l match.Now t h i s v o i c e got my mind o f f t h a t . "Dam! That b i r d ! ' Hmmm. what b i r d ? Maybe Dan o r Nan the Robin."Put t h a t sandwich back Dan!' "O.K.'answered Dan Year 2 Week 3 Day 5 F r i d a y , June 6, 1989. Today a t o u t p u t s I had t o f i n i s h S.S. and we a l s o had t o end our s t o r i e s , w e l l t hen b i e U . H i l l . The Advanture of U . H i l l Chap.25. W e l l i t s u r e i s good f o r the l a s t day of s c h o o l t o a r r i v e . Two whole month. Snooses, t i c - t a c - t o e w i t h Nan and Dan, t e l l i n g s t o r i e s . Even t r y i n g t o t e a c h some b i r d s o r a n i m a l s . I t ' s a l s o t ime t o say goodbie t o the grade sevens and s t a r t m i s s i n g the c h i l d r e n knowing t h e y won't come back next y e a r o r wondering w h o ' l l come back next y e a r o r w h o ' l l be the new teacher...Ha-ha-ha! Long l i s s s s t ! Z-Z-Z-Z! Good Summer! B i e ! Year 3 Week 1 Day 1 F r i d a y O c t o b e r 6,1989 Mom, Today I was a l i b r a r y m o n i t e r ! I t was l o t s of f u n : I got some books ready t o s h e l v e . That was the f u n n e s t p a r t . Then r e c e s s . Then P h i l r e a d us a l i t t l e r e v o l t i n g rihme. Then L i z was here we s o l v e d l o t s of problems. One was t h i s : A man had 29 cows a l l but n i n e d i e d . How many 1ived? That was j u s t a warm up. A f t e r s q u i r t we had a r t . We made board games . Then we chose a book of l a s t month i t ended up t o R e v o l t i n g Rhymes. Year 3 Week 1 Day 2 Tuesday October 10, 1989 Mom, H e l l o ! Today we s t a r t e d o f f w i t h s p e l l i n g . I t was f u n . P h i l was s u r p r i s e d t h a t we knew what t o do w i t h o u t him t e l l i n g . We t o l d him we r e a d the board message, he d i d n ' t . W r i t i n g f o l l o w e d . I o n l y c o u l d w r i t e about t h r e e q u a r t s of a page but i t was f u n . I wrote about a f i e l d w i t h , l i t t l e b l u e f l o w a r s . Then we had f r e n c h . She t o l d us more about t h e p r o j e c t we are supposed t o do by the end of the y e a r . But I am s o r r y t o say no v i d e o . Then we had r e a d i n g . He showed us what our r e a d i n g j o u r n a l s o r what t h e y a r e gonna be t h e n we r e a d . I r e a d G u l l i v a r . We a l s o had math w i t h d e c i m a l p o i n t s I f i n i s h e d so ....no homework. But i t was f u n . We had s q u i r t , a f t e r l u n c h i t was f u n and I r e a d the same t h i n g a g a i n . T h i s s i l e n c e was s h o r t l i v e d s i n c e we had a r t . But i t was w o r t h i t . I drew a b o b t a i l and everyone t o l d me i t l o o k e d l i k e a goat. Year 3 Week 1 Day 3 Wednesday, October 11, 1989. W e l l h i a g a i n . Today we s t a r t e d o f f w i t h w r i t i n g and I wrote about a whole page. They found a t i g e r cub. Then math we had t o do twenty e i g h t q u e s t i o n s and I d i d not f i n i s h , i t was f u n and c o n f u s i n g so i t got n o i s y and we c o u l d not s t a y i n s i d e . A t r e a d i n g he r e a d us the l a s t c h a p t e r of Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes.He a l s o showed us how t o use a r e a d i n g j o u r n a l a g a i n . I t was fun.Now we are g o i n g t o have a C l a s s M e e t i n g . 119 Year 3 Week 1 Day 4 Thursday,October 12, 1989. Mom, F r a n c a i s e : T o d a y i n F r a n c a i s e we watched a video.And we l e a r n e d some names of s p o r t s . Math:We had l o t s (3) s h e e t s t o do t h e y were not t o o h a r d o r too easy. P.E.: D a v i d t a u g h t us and we p l a y e d D o c t o r Dodge b a l l and f r e e z e t a g . Reading: We r e a d a news paper and had some s o r t of a q u e s t i n e r . S p e l l i n g : At s p e l l i n g I got 2 wrong and the r e s t r i g h t ! Now we a r e g o i n g t o woodwork. Year 3 Week 1 Day 5 F r i d a y Oct, 1989. Mom, today we d i d music w i t h David's c l a s s . John's mom ( C a r o l y n ) came and she d i d i t w i t h us. Then a f i r e m a n came and he showed us a v i d e o . I t was s c a r e y . He t o l d us t h a t i n a f i r e i t i s dark. Then we went t o r e c e s s . A f t e r r e c e s s we watched the r e s t of the v i d e o . Then we d i d s p e l l i n g . I got two t o t h r e e words wrong. Then a f t e r l u n c h I d i d s q u i r t and P h i l r e a d us a l i t t l e b i t of the W i t c h e s by R a l f D a h l . Then we d i d M a t i n e e . 121 Year 3 Week 2 Day 1 Monday, F e b r u a r y 5, 1990. Today we had our p r e s e n t a t i o n . I hoped peop l e l i k e d i t but when our t e s t s got back i t was p r e t t y o b v i o u s e we had t o make t h i n k s more c l e a r . I am d o i n g my next r e s e a r c h on b l o o d . Year 3 Week 2 Day 2 Tuesday, F e b r u a r y 6, 1990. Mom, Today I was l i b r a r y m o n i t o r t w i c e !!! Once i n the morning and once i n the a f t e r n o o n . Of c o u r s e I had t o m i s s a r t and t e a c h N i c o l e . I t was a l l w o r t h i t ! A l l t h e grade 1 from d i v . 9 / 1 0 ! 123 Year 3 Week 2 Day 3 Wedn. F e b r u a r y 7, 1990. I watch about 12 hours t v each week. Peop l e say t h a t t v c o u l d be r e a l e d u c a t i o n a l i f you p i c k t h e good shows and you watch i t a t the r i g h t t i m e . L i k e NOT a t 11pm. When I f i r s t came here I l e a r n e d a l o t of new words. So I a d v i s e you t o l e t ESL c h i l d r e n watch t v so t h e y w i l l be m o t i v a t e d . Year 3 Week 2 Day 4 Thursday, F e b r u a r y 8 1990. Mom, today we saw a movie about b l o o d . I t was e d u c a t i o n a l , most people s a i d i t was g r o s s . We a l s o went t o the l i b r a r y t o f i n d some books. I t was f o r a r e s e a c h and I o n l y have one more chance on b o o k s , s i n c e o n l y two of the t h r e e books the c a t a l o g e i n d i c a t e s was t h e r e . Year 3 Week 2 Day-F r i d a y , F e b r u a r y 9, 1990. Today we had music. I t was f u n but we might not go a g a i n because we l i n e d up n o i s i l e y . But I hope we go a g a i n . We a l s o had computers . That's where I'm w r i t i n g from now. Andrew t h i n k s we s p l i t the time u n e q u e l l y . I don't because P h i l s a i d s w i t c h now r i g h t a f t e r we s w i t c h e d . I know from 0-11 t i m e s t a b l e s r e a l l y w e l l . 126 Year 3 Week 3 Day 1 Monday May 7, 1990. At s t o r y we had t o p r e d i c t : I t h i n k t h a t the g i a n t s a re g o i n g t o escape and t r y t o r u n back t o G i a n t c o u n t r y . They managed t o go 3 s t e p s b e f o r e the army took out t h e i r weapons and sho t a l l but one. The r e m a i n i n g g i a n t i s the t e r r o r but they s a f e l y bury the o t h e r s . Year 3 Week 3 Day 2 Tuseday May 8, 1990. Today we went t o the computer room and h e l p e d C a n d i c e ' s c l a s s . I got a boy who s a i d yes t o e v e r y t h i n g ! Year 3 Week 3 Day 3 Wednesday, May 9,1990. Today t h e r e came a l a d y . She t a l k e d of dragon b o a t s , she a l s o showed us a movie. P h i l a l s o showed us a newspaper t h a t the women's F a l s e Creek Team won the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a c e . Today we a l s o p l a y e d C a l i f o r n i a k i c k - b a l l . I t was f u n , and the o t h e r team won...so? I was o u t - f i e l d , t h i r d , and back c a t c h e r , among h i t t i n g . 129 Year 3 Week 3 Day 4 Thursday, May 10,1990. Today we had a sub. I guess he changed h i s mind about b e i n g a t e a c h e r a f t e r h a v i n g us1. I h a t e Simon now he j u s t popped my b a l l o n . You see I was l i b r a r y m o n i t o r i n the morning and M a r j o r y gave i t t o me and he popped i t ! Year 3 Week 3 Day F r i d a y M a y l l , 1 9 9 0 . Today we had math. I t was O.K. When we had pe me and H e i d i and Nathan s t a y e d i n s i d e . I worked but I a l s o had t o h e l p H e i d i . 131 Appendix B 132 Text 1.1.1. T h i n k i ng p r p c e s s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequencing: O r d e r i n g We s t a r t e d our day w i t h the s p e l l i n g t e s t Report At h a n d w r i t i n g from now on I can't p r i n t , anyway I hate p r i n t C h o i ce Making a d e c i s i o n Today D a v i d had t o choose a n o t h e r book because we f i n i s h e d our o l d one. Sequen.cl.Dg O r d e r i n g Then S i l e n t Reading, Math, Key w o r d i n g and T.U. Text 1.1.2. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: R e p o r t / N o t i n g a p r o c e s s L.A. was f i r s t today. Key w o r d i n g and A r t came. A f i r e d r i l l came up when a f i r e f i t e r came. S i l e n t Reading came. P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Math: I d i d not see the a d d i was on the o t h e r s i d e of the page so I d i d i t wrong. S.e.guen.ce.:.. Report Then we d i d t h i s book. Text 1.1.3. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence: Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g .Seque„nce...:.. N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Language s t r u c t u r e s Output was f i r s t t oday I l e a r n e d a new game J o u r n a l s was n e x t , I made a new s t o r y . P.E. was ne x t . S t o r y math: math was good today. Then we d i d our B+F book. P r i n c i p l e s : P r e d i c t i n g I t h i n k c l a s s m e e t i n g w i l l n e x t . Sfigil.gD.Gfi.: R e port I t was a s h o r t day today. 135 T e x t 1.1.4. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence: N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report Language s t r u c t u r e s M u s i c was f i r s t . H a n d w r i t i n g was n e x t . I have t o w r i t e a poem, i t does not have t o be done t i l l next t h u r s d a y . Key w o r d i n g was next I t was good. S i l e n t Reading was n e x t . Math came n e x t . I t was a s p e c i a l math time e x t r a h e l p came. We had math problems l i k e I had i n Grade 1 We had q u e s t i o n s l i k e " t h e r was 9 j e l l y b e a n s 3 were e a t e n by my b r o t h e r how many l e f t " And f o r t h i s one I don't even know the answer: "a man was r u n n i n g home when he was c l o s e t o home he met a masked man and he r a n back where he come 136 from. " 137 Text 1.1.5. Th i nk 1 ng pro. c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s S.e.gy.e..n.c.e:. Report Today a f i r e f i t e r came t o our c l a s s , he t o l d us today a f i r e a l a r m w i l l go on and we have t o go out and p r e c t i c e i t . He t o l d us t h a t a t 6-o ' c l o c k i t w i l l go on i f we have the t v o r r a d i o on i t wi11 go o f . And a t s c h o o l w i l l get a s p e c i e l paper t o descaus on. And we have t o descaus i t b e f o r e 6 o ' c l o c k . 138 Text 1.2.1. T h i n k i n g pro c e s s e s Lang. uage s t r u c t u r e s E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Today was fun Sequence: R e p o r t : Everybody showed t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t s . Somebody made a p i a n o Jenny made a drum. Most of the people had drums o r b o t t l e s . Some people had k i n d of a g u i t a r but noone had a harp g u i t a r . Text 1.2.2. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s La.ngya g e _s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report Today we had t o imagine. Something most people choosed t h a t t h e y were l i v i n g i n a c a s t l e , me t o o I wanted t o draw the k i n g and the queen but i t was drow a l r e a d y E v a l u a t i n g I was d i s a p o i n t e d . 140 Text 1.2.3. Xh.ink.i..Q.9. PX9.. c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence.:. Report Today was s h a r i n g I brought Brumi !! ! E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g He was a good p a l . Sequence.:. He d i d s p e l l i n g w i t h me. He a l s o wanted t o r u n but a t the end we ended up me c a r i n g him. He a l s o was p a t i e n t when I put him i n my cubby f o r mapping. T e x t 1.2.4, . 41 T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report N o t i n g p r o c e s s Ey.a.lu.a.t.i.Qm. E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Language s t r u c t u r e s Today V i was h e r e . She gave D a v i d a day o f f , because once he gave h e r a day o f , P e t e r t o l d us i n anatsmant A f t e r anatsmants we had u s a l . P r e t e s t s p e l 1 i n g , f i n a l l y Nancy Duncan. I t ' s too bad she s t o l e h a l f of my hand w r i t i n g . F i n a l l y a break!!! Recess! Then s t o r y a f t e r r e c e s s , i t was k i n d a break t o . But Geometry was not a break. A c t u a l l y I l e a r n e d something from i t . At S i l e n t Reading I s t a r t e d a new book c a l l e d J u s t e n Morgan had a h o r s e . W e l l a f t e r we had eye a g a i n . I t was good. W e l l we have some home work i s i n the pocket of my B&F book. B&F book time gave me break. 143 Text 1.2.5. T h i n k i n g proce. ss.es Language st.ruc.tur.es Sequence: Report Today t h e r e were some e x c i t i n g t h i n g s l i k e we went t o A r t w i t h D i a n . a n i m a l s . I d i d a h o r s e of c o u r s . Then we had t o do some thumb s p o t s . Then we had math I was i n the M.D. group. N o t i n g p r o c e s s F i r s t we had t o do some E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g I t ' s f u n . Sequence: Report I am b e s i d e Keren. Text 1.3.1. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence: Report E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g : Language s t r u c t u r e s Today a t s p e l l i n g everybody seemed a t l e a s t t o have 9 o r more wronged. Today I d i d not l i k e s t o r y v e r y much (I h a t e d i t ! ) . A f t e r s t o r y math problems were p l e a s e n t . We d i d t h i s :... t r i a n g l e s At gym ( a f t e r math p) we d i d t r a m p u l i n e . S i l e n t Reading was a s i l e n t time f o r me. S.S. I t was next t h a t hour was most f u n . Text 1.3.2. Thiinkin_g_ p r o c e s s e s ^ Language s t r u c t u r e s P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Today I o n l y had 5 minutes because I lo a d e d the computers w i t h some o t h e r s . Sequence: Report Then we had A r t we d i d book marks, a l l hour. At the end of the day I went t o the computers P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t T h a t ' s way I am w r i t i n g f a s t Text 1.3.3. TJxLnki.ng p r o c e s s e s Sequence Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Language s t r u c t u r e s Today a t Outputs I gave Jenny my t r a d n o t i e c e (Speech). A f t e r t h a t P e t e r showed us a new way of A r t , Me, Jenny, Karen and Grant s t a r t e d i t . Then we had r e a d i n g , I k i n d of had t o do n o t h i n g . At s t o r y we r e a d something d i f f e r e n t . And a t Math we had a d i f f e r e n t s k i l l . A f t e r l u n c h we had Squad. Text 1.3.4. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report N o t i n g p r o c e s s Language s t r u c t u r e s Today i n Gym we d i d I n u i t e games. We needed one p a r t n e r f o r each game but one. At r e a d i n g we went t o the computer and wrote 6 s e n t e n c e s and t h e n r e c e s s . Then we went t o the l i b r a r y We had S.S. and found out Jenny l o s t our s h e e t s Lunch A f t e r S i . R e we had Math. 14b Text 1.3.5. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s EydJ.uat.i..on....:.. E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Language s t r u c t u r e s Today was f u n . We had puppets t h e y a r e f i n i s h e d . Then computers and s p e l l i n g . A f t e r P e t e r e x p l a i n e d D i v . 9 something, we had math. 149 Text 2.1.1. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s L a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Rep o r t Pr.inclE.lesj.. R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Today i n Gym, b e f o r e we went t o the gym, t h e r e were some people t a l k i n g . We got t o l i n e up w h i l e P e t e r t a l k e d t o the people on the c a r p e t . Then t h e y came a f t e r us i n the gym. They s a t on the benches. We p l a y e d C a p t a i n ' s coming, soon t h e y j o i n e d us. In S p e l l i n g I got them a l l r i g h t ! The words weren't h a r d and and any way i t ' s o n l y a p r e t e s t . In F i e l d T r i p t a l k I found out what we are g o i n g t o s t u d i e i n Grade 4, N a t i v e s . I don't r e a l y have any q u e s t i o n s f o r the v e t what she 150 might know, because n a t i v e people d i d not keep c a t s f o r p e t s ! 151 Text 2.1.2 T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s Language s t r u c t u r e Seguen.ce.. Report Report Report Eya.Lua.t.io.Q_.:.. E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Report D e s c r i p t i o n : D e s c r i b i n g Sequence: Report Today a t o u t p u t s I c h a l l e n g e d Jasmine t o a game of c h e c k e r s ! I won. I got t o move up on the Game Ladder I was a t the bottom , now I am two up from the bottom. Jasmin has a p a r t n e r she says h e r p a r t n e r i s not gonna be happy. In A r t we d i d an o t h e r H a i k u poem we had t o w r i t e about o u r s e l f e s as a pumkin, on Halloween! I t was fun I f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g on the good c o p i e . A f t e r r e c e s s I had gym. We l e a r n e d a new v o l l e y b a l l move . I t ' s c a l l e d bumper we a l s o p r a c t i s e d . A f t e r l u n c h we had music. We p l a y e d the i n s t r u m e n t s . Eyaiuatjon..:. E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Report E v a l u a t i o n ; E v a l u a t i o n I t was l o t s of f u n . I got a l i t t l e t r a m b o r i n e , i t was k i n d of s m a l l but i t was O.K. At s i l e n t r e a d i n g i t was e x c i t i n g but I had t o do some messengar work! Text 2.1.3, T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence Report E v a l u a t i o n ; E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Rep o r t N o t i n g a p r o c e s s R e p o r t Today i n Outputs I d i d r e c e r c h r e p o r t , (I had t o ) . W e l l a t l e a s t I got i t f i n i s h e d . I was s u r p r i s e d we had r e a d i n g T h i s y e a r I got i n t o David's group. At s t o r y I almost t o l d everybody what wi11 happen. P e t e r hushed me j u s t i n t i m e . W h i l e the grade 2/3 has S.S. an I n d i a n t a l k e d t o us. She had a b u t t e n e d j a c k e t . At B'n'F Lucas brought us Halloween c o o k i e s . Text 2.1.4. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence: Report E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Rep o r t P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Sequence: Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Language s t r u c t u r e Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d r e c h e r c h and r e p o r t . I am d o i n g i t on b e a v e r s . i t ' s f u n I am l e a r n i n g how t h e y make houses. A f t e r o u t p u t s we d i d keywording, I f i n i s h e d mine so I d i d my H a i k u poem. I drawn a pumpkin on a porch A f t e r r e c e s s we had music. We c l a p p e d some c l a p p i n g p a t t e r n s and l i s t e n e d t o Jeremy was b u l l f r o g on tape A f t e r i t came gym. We had t o get i n t o our teams. My team made from Cory, Jasmine and me.Our number i s 6. E v a l u a t i o n : Then D a v i d r e a d us a s t o r y . I r e a d i t l a s t y e a r so I know what's gonna happen. E v a l u a t i n g But i t ' s s t i l l i n t e r e s t i n g . Sequence: Report D a v i d s a i d he r e a d i t t o o ! W e l l a t s i l e n t r e a d i n g I s t a r t e d a new book! At math we got d i v i d e d up i n t o our group what we a r e gonna s t a y f o r 3 or 4 weeks. We p l a y e d a game. Text 2.1.5. • T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence; Report P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Sequence: Report Er.iiic.i.p.l.e.s_i. R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Sequence: N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d my b o o k l e t . I s t a p l e d t o g e t h e r . I t was a s h o r t p e r i o d of time because i t was s p e l l i n g n e x t . We d i d a post t e s t . I got none wrong. When D i a n came we d i d our Ha i k u poems I f i n i s h e d i t . At l i b r a r y time I r e a d because I s i g n e d out my book j u s t y e s t e r d a y ! And a f t e r came s t o r y . We v o t e d about i t i f we c o n t i n u e i t o r s t o p r e a d i n g i t and choose and o t h e r book. We a l s o d i d ke y w o r d i n g , i t was the l a s t day of w o r k i n g on i t . I am g l a d because I f i n i s h e d on the f i r s t day. Oh w e l l . . . Sequence: Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s S i l e n t r e a d i n g was okay. But had t o h e l p somebody f i n d a bag. A f t e r we d i d a l i t t l e q u i z e on a n i m a l s , and c o l o u r i n some t h i n g s . Text 2.2.1. Th1nk i n g p r o c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Report Ev.aluati..Q_n.; E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Report Today at o u t p u t s I d i d a r t . I t was fun and I d i d p r e t t y much. The t r i a n g l e s gave me a head-ache . At s p e l l i n g I got them a l r i g h t ! I f e l t good a f t e r . At grammar I f i n i s h e d e v e r y t h i n g , but they are g o i n g t o check J a n e ' s . At s t o r y P r i n c e C a s p i a n d e c i d e d t o blow the h o r n . He a l s o had an army and found the s t o n e t a b l e . We a l s o wrote l e t t e r s t o the M i n i s t e r t o s t o p the wolves from be i n g k i l l e d . At p.e. we had f u n but o n l y got t o p l a y two games. At math we had our l a s t s u b s t r u c t i o n q u e s t i o n s . 160 Text 2.2.2. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s __ _ Language s t r u c t u r e s P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Today we d i d not have o u t p u t s because we have new t a b l e groups. D e s c r i p t i o n : D e s c r i b i n g Ours ( S a d i e , P e t e r , D a n i e l and me) name i s H i b e r n a t i n g H e l i c o p t e r s . Eya.Iuat.i.Qrii_:,. E v a l u a t i n g I t ' s r e a l y funny. S.e..q.u.e.n.c.e...;. Report At h a n d w r i t i n g I f i n i s h e d a poem and s t a r t e d a one. The one I s t a r t e d i s about k i t t e n s . At p.e. we p l a y e d 'wolves and c a r i b o u ' and 'Doctor Dodge' E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g They were b o t h fun and t i r i n g . Sequence: Report E v a l u a t i o n : At s t o r y Lucas handed out c o o k i e s and P e t e r stopped a t the most e x c i t i n g p a r t At A r t I f i n i s h e d j u s t a t the n i c k of t i m e . E v a l u a t i n g I was happy 162 Text 2.2.3. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence: Report E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence.:.. Report Language stxuctur.es Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d o u t p u t s . I d i d t a b l e names, i t was f u n ! I a l s o f i n i s h e d so S a i d i i s the o n l y one l e f t , s o i t i s r e l e w i n g . At r e a d i n g we f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g our r a d i o p l a y , I am i n charge of the sound a f f e c t s . I n s t o r y Susan won the bow match a g a i n s t t h e dwarf. At math we f i n i s h e d our papers and c o r r e c t e d them. P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t We were supposed t o p l a y b i n g o a f t e r , but I f i n i s h e d i n the m i d d l e of a game, so I c o u l d n ' t p l a y . 16:: Text 2.2.4. Ih..i.nk.i.n.g. px.Q..c.e.£i.s.e..s.„...„..„ Sequence: Report P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t ...Laoguage s.txu.ctures Sequence: Report Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d our r a d i o p l a y . We s t a y e d i n the o f f i c e u n t i l r e c e s s because r e a d i n g came a f t e r and t h a t ' s what we are d o i n g . At s t o r y Lucy was t r y i n g t o wake up the t r e e s , but d i d not succeed. At r u n we r a n around the s c h o o l once. In S.S. we saw a f i l m about s h e l t e r and d i d a t i t l e page f o r i t . At math we p l a y e d b i n g o . Jumoke and M e l i s s a were c a l l e r s . 164 Text 2.2.5. T h i n k i n g processes, Language s t r u c t u r e s S.eguen.ce: Report Ev.al_ua.t i.o.nj E v a l u a t i n g R eport E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sjsgjjejice.., R eport Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d s c i e n c e . I c o u l d n ' t f i n d a l i g h t b u l b and when f i n a l l y d i d i t d i d not l i g h t . At s p e l l i n g I got 4 wrong. The words are p r e t t y h a r d , l i k e neighbourhood. We a l s o made envolopes f o r V a l e n t i n e s . I t was h a r d d r a w i n g over g l u e , and I was r e v e i l e d when I was f i n i s h e d . At s t o r y t h e y met A s i a n . I n S.S. I c o u l d not f i n d a n y t h i n g on I n u i t , o r modern s h e l t e r but Ha i d a and Squamish as easy. At math I d i d two and t h r e e q u a r t e r s of a page. E v a l u a t i o n : 165 E v a l u a t i n g I was v e r y happy about t h a t . 166 Text 2.3.1. T h i n k i n g .processes Language s t r u c t u r e s P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Seguence: N a r r a t i n g Report Today a t p.e.I d i d not get a p a r t n e r because we had an even number of p e o p l e , so P e t e r and me d e m o n s t r a i t e d . "O.K. One...Two..."I h e a r d a v o i c e , oh h i d e . . . " F a s t e r Zohar" I he a r d Bess. She o n l y changed a t i n i s i n c e N a r r a t i n g R eport y e s t e r d a y . Zohar came over t o the f r o n t s t e p s and s a i d o r w h i s p e r e d : "Thanks s c h o o l ! I w i s h I c o u l d t a l k . Bess i s not a bea s t anymore! 167 Text 2.3.2. Thi.njki.ng: p r o c e s s e s . Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report D e s c r i p t i o n : D e s c r i b i n g Se.que.nc..e.:.. Report Today a t a r t me and Jasmine f i n i s h e d the pet s t o r e we got two more windows t o do The bees were b u z z i n g , t h e b i r d s were s i n g i n g . Suddenly Cathy, a s e a g u l landed on a p i n e t r e e she c a l l e d h e r l a n d i n g p l a c e . "Look what I found" she s a i d showing of h e r l e g . "Ring?" asked Cow l o o k i n g c l o s e l y . "Where d i d you f i n d i t ?" asked Nan a r o b i n . " I n the d r i v e way.' answered the proud b i r d . "Fake" d e c l a r e d Dan who h e l d i t now i n h i s wing. "Shh!" I s a i d . "10:25 !!" Suddenly Canny, a l i t t l e g i r l c r i e i n g "My r i n g " she sobbed " I l o s t i t . " 16 8 At t h a t moment Dan dropped the r i n g . " I found i t ! " s h e s a i d h a p p i l y . 169 Text 2.3.3, T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s SegjJej}.cej_ R eport Sequence Report Today our t a b l e group f i n i s h e d our r e p o r t on James Cook, p r a c t i c e l y me and Zohar d i d i t a l l . Today e v e r y t h i n g was g o i n g O.K. f o r Nan a new g i r l i n s c h o o l s i n c e gym. D a v i d d e c i d e d t o g i v e h e r a t r e a t . Report "Nan, Ann and Mag, you can be the c a p t a i n s " he s a i d . "What i s a c a p t a i n ? " asked Nan who was form Germany. Everybody except Naomie who knew how she f e l t r o a r e d w i t h l a u g h t e r . At p a r t n e r time everybody was g i v e n a p a r t n e r , t h e n they each had t o w r i t e something about t h e m s e l v e s . Nan was b o d i e d up w i t h Naomie. Nan wro t e : " I em frem Garmeny" 170 When Naomie had t o r e a d i t she d i d i t n o r m a l l y . Everybody was s u r p r i s e d she c o u l d w r i t e t h a t good. Text 2.3.3. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence Report Sequence Report Language s t r u c t u r e s Today our t a b l e group f i n i s h e d our r e p o r t on James Cook, p r a c t i c e l y me and Zohar d i d i t a l l . Today e v e r y t h i n g was g o i n g O.K. f o r Nan a new g i r l i n s c h o o l s i n c e gym. D a v i d d e c i d e d t o g i v e h e r a t r e a t . Report "Nan, Ann and Mag, you can be the c a p t a i n s " he s a i d . "What i s a c a p t a i n ? " asked Nan who was form Germany. Everybody except Naomie who knew how she f e l t r o a r e d w i t h l a u g h t e r . At p a r t n e r time everybody was 171 g i v e n a p a r t n e r , then they each had t o w r i t e something about t h e m s e l v e s . Nan was b o d i e d up w i t h Naomie. Nan wrote: " I em frem Garmeny" When Naomie had t o r e a d i t she d i d i t n o r m a l l y . Everybody was s u r p r i s e d she c o u l d w r i t e t h a t good. 172 Text 2.3.4. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence: Report Commenting Language s t r u c t u r e s Today some peopl e came t o our s c h o o l t h e y p l a y e d j a z z f o r us. "Hey,you! Come back" s a i d a v o i c e . Dong,Dong,Dong. I f you know what I mean my mind was l i k e t h a t from t h a t b a s k e t b a l l match. Now t h i s v o i c e got my mind o f f t h a t . "Dam t h a t b i r d ! " Hmmm what b i r d ? Maybe Dan o r Nan the Robin. "Put t h a t sandwich back Dan! " "O.K." answered Dan. Text 2.3.5. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence Report E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence:.. Report anima1s. N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Today a t o u t p u t s I had t o f i n i s h S.S. and we a l s o had t o end our s t o r i e s , w e l l t h e n b i e U - H i l l . W e l l i t sure i s good f o r the l a s t s c h o o l day t o a r r i v e . Two whole months. Snooses, t i c - t a c - t o e w i t h Nan and D a n , t e l l i n g s t o r i e s , E v e n t r y i n g t o t e a c h some b i r d s o r I t ' s a l s o time t o say goodbie t o the grade sevens and s t a r t m i s s i n g the c h i l d r e n knowing t h e y won't come back next y e a r o r wondering w h o ' l l come back next y e a r o r w h o ' l l 174 be the new t e a c h e r . . . . Ha-ha-ha l o n g l i s s s s s t ! Z-Z-Z-! Report Good Summer! B i e ! Text 3.1.1 T h i n k i n g PX°..c..§..s..s..§s._ Language s_ t r j j c t i ^ _ e s Sequence: Report E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence..:.. N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report N o t i n g p r o c e s s Today I was a l i b r a r y m o n i t o r ! I t was l o t s of f u n : I got some books ready t o s h e l v e . Then r e c e s s . The P h i l r e a d us a l i t t l e r e v o l v i n g rihme. Then L i z was h e r e , we s o l v e d l o t s of problems. One was l i k e t h i s : A man had 29 cows a l l but n i n e d i e d . How many l i v e d ? That was j u s t a warm up. A f t e r s q u i r t we had a r t . We made board games. Then we chose a book of l a s t month, i t ended up t o R e v o l v i n g Rhymes. Text 3.1.2. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Language stxu_cjt.iyres Sequence: Report EvaJ_uat. ion..:.. E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Rep o r t N o t i n g a p r o c e s s R e p o r t E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g R eport Sequence: N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Report N o t i n g p r o c e s s H e l l o ! Today we s t a r t e d o f f w i t h s p e l l i n g . I t was f u n . P h i l was s u r p r i s e d t h a t we knew what t o do w i t h o u t him t e l l i n g . We t o l d him we r e a d the board message, he d i d n ' t . W r i t i n g f o l l o w e d . I o n l y c o u l d w r i t e about t h r e e q u a r t s of a page, but i t was f u n . I wrote about a f i e l d w i t h l i t t l e b l u f l o w a r s Then we had Fr e n c h She t o l d us more about the p r o j e c t we are supposed t o do by t h e end of the y e a r . But s o r r y t o say no v i d e o . Then we had r e a d i n g . 1 / Report P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Report E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: Rep o r t E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence..:.. Report He showed us what our r e a d i n g j o u r n a l s o r what th e y are gonna be. Then we r e a d . I r e a d G u l l i v a r . We a l s o had math w i t h d e c i m a l p o i n t s I f i n i s h e d so...no home work. But i t was f u n . We had s q u i r t , a f t e r l u n c h i t was f u n and I r e a d the same t h i n g a g a i n . T h i s s i l e n c e was s h o r t l i v e d s i n c e we had a r t . But i t was w o r t h i t . I drew a b o b t a i l and everybody t o l d me i t l o o k e d l i k e a goat. .1. / o Text 3.1.3, T h i n k i n g s k i l l s , Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report Prii]ic...ip...l.e.s.i. R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Sequence Rep o r t E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Sequence: N o t i n g a p r o c e s s W e l l h i a g a i n . Today we s t a r t e d o f f w i t h w r i t i n g and I wrote about a whole page. They found a t i g e r cub. Then math we had t o do twenty e i g h t q u e s t i o n s and I d i d not f i n i s h , i t was fun and c o n f u s i n g so i t got n o i s y and we c o u l d not s t a y i n s i d e . At r e a d i n g he r e a d us the l a s t c h a p t e r of Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes. He a l s o showed us how t o use a r e a d i n g j o u r n a l a g a i n . I t was f u n . Now we are g o i n g t o have a C l a s s M e e t i n g . 179 Text 3.1.4. TJiin k i n g . p r o c e s s e s __ Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Mom, F r a n c h i s e : Today i n F r e n c h we watched a v i d e o . And we l e a r n e d some names of s p o r t s . Math: We had l o t s (3) s h e e t s t o do Evaluation.:.. E v a l u a t i n g t h e y were not t o o h a r d not too easy Sequence: N a r r a t i n g a p r o c e s s P.E.: D a v i d t a u g h t us and we p l a y e d D o c t o r Dodge b a l l and f r e e z e t a g . Reading: we r e a d a newspaper and had some s o r t of a q u e s t i n e r . S p e l l i n g : At s p e l l i n g I got 2 wrong and the r e s t r i g h t ! Now we are g o i n g t o woodwork. T e x t 3.1.5. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence... Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g S3.ms.lXQ3...:,. Report N o t i n g a p r o c e s s Language s t r u c t u r e s today we d i d music w i t h D a vid's c l a s s . John's mom (C a r o l y n ) came and she d i d i t w i t h us. Then a f i r e m a n came and he showed a v i d e o . I t was s c a r e y . He t o l d us t h a t i n a f i r e i t i s dark. Then we went t o r e c e s s . A f t e r r e c e s s we watched the r e s t of the v i d e o . Then we d i d s p e l l i n g . I got two t o t h r e e words wrong. Then, a f t e r l u n c h I d i d s q u i r t and P h i l r e a d us a l i t t l e b i t of the Wi t c h e s by R a l f D a h l . Text 3.2.1. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report P r i n c i p l e s : P r e d i c t i n g Sequence: Re p o r t N a r r a t i n g Today we had our p r e s e n t a t i o n s . I hoped-people l i k e d i t but when our t e s t s got back i t was p r e t t y o b v i o u s e we had t o make t h i n g s more c l e a r . I am d o i n g my next r e s e a r c h on b l o o d . 182 Text 3.2.2. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s  Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report Today I was l i b r a r y m o n i t o r t w i c e ! ! ! Once i n the morning and once i n the a f t e r n o o n . Of cou r s e had t o miss a r t and h e l p N i c o l e . E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g I t was a l l w o r t h i t ! Seque.n._ce..:. Report A l l t he grade 1 from d i v . 9 / 1 0 ! Text 3.2.3 T h i n k i n g s k i l l s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : G e n e r a l i z a t i o n Sequence: Report C h o i c e : P r o p o s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s I watch about 12 hours T.V. each week. Pe o p l e say t h a t i t c o u l d be r e a l e d u c a t i o n a l i f you p i c k the good shows and you watch i t a t the r i g h t time not l i k e 11 p.m. When I f i r s t came here I l e a r n e d a l o t of new words. So I a d v i s e you t o l e t E.S.L. c h i l d r e n watch T.V. so t h e y w i l l be m o t i v a t e d . Text 3.2.4. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sj3_cju_encjL: Report E v a l u a t i o n ; E v a l u a t i n g .Se.gue.Dce.:.. Report Language s t r u c t u r e s Mom, today we saw a movie about b l o o d . I t was e d u c a t i o n a l , most of the people s a i d i t wa g r o s s . We a l s o went t o the l i b r a r y t f i n d some b o o k s . I t was f o r a r e s e a r c h and I o n l y have one more chance on books, s i n c e o n l y two of the t h r e e books the c a t a l o g e i n d i c a t e d was t h e r e . Text 3.2.5. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Sequence: Report Eva.1.uaLi on: Eva 1 ua t i ng P r i n c i p l e s : P r e d i c t i n g R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t P r e d i c t i n g Sequence: Report Commenting P r i n c i p l e s : R e l a t i n g cause and e f f e c t Sequence: Report Language s t r u c t u r e s Today we had music i t was fun but we might not go a g a i n because we l i n e d up n o i s i l e y . I hope we go a g a i n we a l s o had computers, t h a t ' s where I'm w r i t i n g from now. Andrew t h i n k s we s p l i t the time u n e q u e l l y . I don't because P h i l s a i d : " s w i t c h now" r i g h t a f t e r we s w i t c h e d . I know from 0-11 t i m e s t a b l e s r e a l l y w e l 1 . Text 3.3.1 T h i n k i n g s k i l i s Sje„gu.enc.e_L Report P r i n c i p l e s : P r e d i c t i n g Sequence: Report N a r r a t i n g Report Language s t r u c t u r e s At s t o r y we had t o p r e d i c t : I t h i n k t h a t the g i a n t s are g o i n g t o escape and t r y t o r u n back t o g i a n t c o u n t r y . They managed t o go 3 s t e p s b e f o r e the army took out t h e i r weapons and shot a l l but one. The r e m a i n i n g g i a n t i s the t e r r o r but t h e y s a f e l y bury the o t h e r s . Text 3.3.2. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s S.e._qu.e.nj3.e.:_ Report Today we went t o the computer room and h e l p e d C a n d i c e ' s c l a s s . I got a boy who s a i d yes t o e v e r y t h i n g ! • i Q Q Text 3.3.3. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s S.§..9.y..§..0.5J.l Report E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g Segue nee..;.. Report ...Language s t r u c t u r e s Today t h e r e came a l a d y . She t a l k e d of dragon b o a t s , she a l s o showed us a movie. P h i l a l s o showed us a newspaper t h a t the women's F a l s e Creek team won the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Race. Today we a l s o p l a y e d C a l i f o r n i a k i c k - b a l l . I t was f u n , and the o t h e r team won, so? I was o u t - f i e l d , t h i r d , and back c a t c h e r among h i t t i n g . Text 3.3.4. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s _ Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report Today we had a sub. I guess he changed h i s mind about b e i n g a t e a c h e r a f t e r h a v i n g us! E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t e / p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e I hate Simon, he j u s t popped my b a l l o n ! Sequence: Report You see, I was a l i b . m o n i t o r i n the morning and M a r j o r y gave i t t o me and he popped i t ! 190 Text 3.3.5. T h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s Language s t r u c t u r e s Sequence: Report Today we had math. E v a l u a t i o n : E v a l u a t i n g I t was O.K. Sequence..:.. Report When we had pe me and H e i d i and Nathan s t a y e d i n s i d e . I worked but I a l s o had t o h e l p H e i d i . 191 Appendix C-I. Schematic s t r u c t u r e of Text 1.2.5. O b s e r v a t i o n genre O r i e n t a t i o n : Today t h e r e were some e x c i t i n g t h i n g s l i k e we went t o A r t w i t h D i a n Event: f i r s t we had t o do some a n i m a l s D e s c r i p t i o n : I d i d a ho r s e of c o u r s e . Event: Then we had t o do some thumb s p o t s . Event: Then we had math. D e s c r i p t i o n : I was i n the M.D. group. Comment: i t ' s f u n I am b e s i d e Karen. R e g i s t e r : F i e l d : w r i t i n g i n the B&F book about some e x c i t i n g moments of the s c h o o l day. Tenor: p e r s o n a l and e g a l i t a r i a n , as of one f r i e n d t o an o t h e r . Mode: c o n s t i t u t i v e of the a c t i v i t y Trans i t i v i t y : E x i s t e n t i a l p r o c e s s e s : Today t h e r e were some e x c i t i n g moments M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s e s : we went t o A r t w i t h D i a n I d i d a ho r s e we had t o do some thumb p o t s 192 R e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : I was i n the M.D. group i t ' s f u n I am b e s i d e Keren. 4 Appendix C - I I . Schematic s t r u c t u r e of Text 2.2.1. O r i e n t a t i o n : Today a t o u t p u t s I d i d a r t . Comment: I t was f u n and I d i d p r e t t y much. Comment: The t r i a n g l e s gave a head-ache. O r i e n t a t i o n : At s p e l l i n g I got them a l r i g h t ! Comment: I f e l t good a f t e r . O r i e n t a t i o n : At grammar I f i n i s h e d e v e r y t h i n g but they a re g o i n g t o check Jane's O r i e n t a t i o n : At s t o r y P r i n c e Casper d e c i d e d t o blow t h e ho r n Event: He a l s o had an army and found the stone t a b l e . E v e n t : We a l s o wrote l e t t e r s t o the m i n i s t e r t o s t o p the wolves from b e i n g k i l l e d . Comment: At p.e. we had f u n . Event: but o n l y got t o p l a y two games. O r i e n t a t i o n : At math we had our l a s t s u b t r u c t i o n q u e s t i o n s R e g i s t e r : F i e l d : w r i t i n g about some e x c i t i n g e v e n t s of the s c h o o l day Tenor: p e r s o n a l , e g a l i t a r i a n , as of one f r i e n d t o a n o t h e r Mode: c o n s t i t u t i v e of the a c t i v i t y T r a n s i t i v i t y : M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : Today a t output I d i d a r t . R e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : I t was fun M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : I d i d p r e t t y much M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : The t r i a n g l e s gave me a head-ache. M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : At s p e l l i n g I got them a l r i g h t . R e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : M e n t a l p r o c e s s : R e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : R e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : R e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : q u e s t i o n s . I f e l t good a f t e r . At grammar I f i n i s h e d e v e r y t h i n g , but they a re g o i n g t o check Jane's. At s t o r y P r i n c e Casper d e c i d e d t o b l the h o r n . He a l s o had an army and found the sto n e t a b l e . At p.e. we had f u n but got t o p l a y o n l y two games. At math we had our l a s t s u b t r u c t i o n I9z Appendix C - I I I . Schematic s t r u c t u r e of Text 3.2.5. O r i e n t a t i o n : Today we had music. i t was f u n but we might not go a g a i n because we l i n e d up n o i s i l y But I hope we go a g a i n . We a l s o had computer. That ' s where I am w r i t i n g from now. Andrew t h i n k s we s p l i t the time u n e q u e l l y I don't because P h i l s a i d s w i t c h r i g h t a f t e r we s w i t c h e d . Comment: I know from 0-11 t i m e s t a b l e s r e a l l y w e l l . Comment: Event: Event: D e s c r i p t i o n : Event: Comment: R e g i s t e r : F i e l d : w r i t i n g i n t h e B&F book about some e x c i t i n g e v e nts of t h e s c h o o l day Tenor: p e r s o n a l , e g a l i t a r i a n , as of one f r i e n d t o a n o t h e r Mode: c o n s t i t u t i v e of the a c t i v i t y T r a n s i t i v i t y : R e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : Today we had music R e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : i t was fun M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : but we might not go a g a i n , because we l i n e d up n o s i s i l y M e n t a l p r o c e s s : But I hope we go a g a i n R e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : We a l s o had computers M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : That's where I'm w r i t i n g from now. 196 M e n t a l p r o c e s s : Andrew t h i n k s we s p l i t the time uneque1ly I don't M a t e r i a l p r o c e s s : because P h i l s a i d s w i t c h now r i g h t a f t e r we s w i t c h e d . M e n t a l p r o c e s s : I know from 0-11 t i m e s t a b l e r e a l l y w e l l Appendix D-I. T a b l e 6 Length and S y n t a c t i c C o m p l e x i t y of Student W r i t i n g Number of Number of Number of Average of words T o p i c s Words • T - u n i t s per T - u n i t T e x t s from Year 1 1.1.1. 4 46 4 11.5 1.1.2. 5 43 5 8.6 1.1.3. 7 48 9 5.3 1.1.4. 5 105 16 6.5 1.1.5. 1 70 7 10 T e x t s from Year 2 2.2.1. 7 95 15 6.3 2.2.2. 6 94 14 6.7 2.2.3. 4 82 12 6.8 2.2.4. 5 72 9 8. 2.2.5. 5 89 11 8.1 T e x t s from Year 3 3.3.1. 1 63 6 10 . 5 3.3.2. 1 20 3 6.3 3.3.3. 2 58 8 7.2 3.3.4. 1 48 5 9.6 3.3.5. 2 27 4 6.7 198 Appendix D - I I . T a b l e 7 Length and S y n t a c t i c C o m p l e x i t y of Student W r i t i n g Mean number Mean number Mean number Mean words of of of per t o p i c s ( S D ) words(SD) T - u n i t s ( S D ) T - u n i t (SD) Year 1 T e x t s 4.4 (2.1) 62.4 (26.1) 8.2 (4.7) 8.3 (2.5) 1.1.1.-5. Year 2 T e x t s 5.4 (1.1) 86.4 (9.5) 12.2 (2.3) 7.1 (0.8) 2.2.1.-5. T e x t s 3 1.4 (0.5) 43.2 (18.9) 5.2 (1.9) 8.0 (1.8) 3.3.1.-5. 199 Appendix E o I— UJ g 8 8--S M * S C - 2 ^ ? 2 : to 3 •q (tort* u a. « • M C to * 9 to W M to to e u ?, 3 g « s M W W > o c > * to 3 « >. x X *» to — to 4 to • - q v to e s g *2 3 • WW x o o « 4 : 53 2 3 x tj s -£5 . m C C Sua i l -« o •su 7 J5 £ O 4 O M I t - 8 £ J.2 3 , £ — O. i J -* fe.5. • v . -s. to «• • fc ... s • • M V ? > s" i .-s e-•5 "Si". X M * • M • > W ^ to 4 4 U - 4 • • •O to w to « l e a x p. 5 * v . | - « -o • q o e ^ I 115 • ~« M ~* U • 5 4 4 e d —> o &. I > w * 5 • v M « W C k " •q » c « 3 to « M 3 O M II > c u -o to m ] 5 o -x) X X C 4 « > w w « O O 3 c ^- W— c t , -o l— 0 = g4si| 3" 27" • to -q -q > u • * • w * « • m m v t ^  J» • * o « b M U *> O . - • • » • » & . • 3 J> p • v-> M h U «• 3 S> h-9 ^ 2 ! 8 ex. M C c —« -* -o > e i j 2 S M 3-S 1 - i o 1 J! •c -b U • • 3 • • a « • 4 -F* to « * • 111 00 UJ Q-1 — • i l l . _ ° • c «• J* V • * c • c 2 • w * *• M C K • • v c o — a > « — • • o to « - 0 *N» W i & W C M V o c • • » M V —« »^ • w C «" -j c M c * c « 4 *> C • » - 31::; Q . C * w - f l 3 « K o c c • * « s- - 1 3 v i S i s • ; 5 5; i :& i ci 3 S g S 5 1•q — e Q s r . . 1 5 « - 1 o o *i 3 £ c £ « • p « 0 C 9 v w b y v M > * Ok Ch 3 . C : I J ! a I • « m x •* s -S S * -O *. f • -* S v X _ i f sr. J H g - S"S t 2| I J". § X O f 1 g J •as si-it = . „ c u--?£ 5 2 g it ' X -« u aiL^ •» to M * V V » > to > M to O O v * > 3 , O X • V* >>, • V v-. • X * ^ c S i * m 3 § e * • v * Q 3 C fl « V M t. a v c 3 - Jj «C 6 0 . ** • v • ^» 1 !« 8 • • S IS > -I . g.. x g "3 i3 J :^  1 • •* X x y M S.J i t s * n .j -sis s ^8 l U o « - 4 * M to X X O 3 f to a 3 B-S-g-^ i ^ to c V , * M W X 3 "3 ^  1.u 0 8 - K ^ ^ "« 8 5 a 3 » 6 •« V *> M c 3 w M e "2 W M <R Q t V 5 s - c H « • s s fi r J b.:; fx • B o Q w O. O to 5 18" a a: Z\&S5 |3|a •B : o u .8 Is 2. 1 to • • 3 « 3 " • to i 5 w to ** • O »* «• • «• • W C * > • O to *r* to « W x m * • . i §• g g--^ to V 8.g S & |> w « to — -o V to w «* • to — V o S "5 8-O •* to 6|M S3 >* X or O « e U J 15 O X O >. X •» s see 51 « *t * w t - - 5 u a. n « r 4 x v to § U ^ » to ( k , is*?.. VJ O. V « • •» to to c q • • •• » i> ft. * c u * 1 > » w x > — 5. to Vi X ] •* — * M -r « to « < > 5 ^ x C • * g a to. to S i to 5 g O X u to 4 « P . 8 o — C m 6 > to •* w ^  * — w a . \ X w to 1 I I r i 8 U to * M • X • W ' I - I . 3 5 C . T * * tol• m V J S S JE x « o M f to f O * O « * tj &" w V C O O . S V X " < 0 » » C W * X to T» • C C ^ t o p * > - « P - t o u t o w x a , « > « o « S a u O • M X *i3 *< • ^ •* * s J ' o. «  x I. 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J? 1x5 / a c 4 w 4 X • • X M S c -1 m x w • u * .% ' g C O M X M X M V V • g £S S to t t * t — —• O *• • • • e > • • O O to • M — — « « c rt v X V O X J» C n • X « Q > w - q -* X O M to - q V • • - c > * -M « U * m 1 x o e u E 3 rt V to -q b* « C -* « e 4 -• U — ^  U & 4 3 x x x & to to to c « • * o > > > fc t> J * • a ^ rt c hh£ US* •q c -q w5 8* O X 5 to S. « o a • x - q * o g . .t . x to >- a . o fcj to O 3 O * « x, x o -w • • X rt •* C w — -< > 3 to 3 (X, rt C O * u i J I I I a > - 9 « to> q X 4 21 TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES Thinking Process Language Structures UdbtKVING Labell ing This is a planet. They are meteorites. It i s a s a t e l l i t e . They are astero ids . Describing individual things size Planets are very large. Jupiter is immense. shape The moon looks round. The earth i s a sphere. The rocket nose is a cone. function The sun gives l igh t and heat. movement The planets travel in orbits around the sun. sound Rockets blast o f f . location The comet is almost here. structure The sun is made up of gases. density Jupiter is very heavy. texture The moon has craters . state The s a t e l l i t e i s l o s t . Comparing Both Mercury and Venus are near the (dealing with likenesses sun. and s i m i l a r i t i e s ) Mercury i s smal l , and Venus is too. The diameter of Venus and the Earth are similar in s ize . j Common expressions of comparison: similar to as s imi lar ly just as l ike in the same way resemble 3S•••* »dS almost the to have same as in common Contrasting Mercury is small but Jupiter is large. (dealing with differences Mercury is d i f fe rent from Jupiter and d iss im i l a r i t i es ) because Mercury is small and Jupiter is larg< i. Mercury is smaller than Jupi ter . Corcmon expressions of contrast: d i f f e r from on the other hand di f ferent than but although however whi le nevertheless even so in contrast to unlike in opposition to di f ferent from s t i l l The? comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs: Digger the biggest less least more most -45- Continued.. . TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process Language Structures OBSERVING Forming analogies (dealing with resemblance between things of d i f fe rent c lasses: analogies are extended compar i sons) The f l ash l igh t is 1 ike the sun and the tennis bal l is l i k e the earth. The stars resemble diamonds. Common expressions of metaphor are similar to those of comparison. The nature of the things compared are of d i f ferent classes and can be poetic and highly f i g u r a t i v e . Measur ing 1inear weight capaci ty speed amount Canadarm i s 15.2 m long. It weighs 410 kg on earth . The fuel tank "holds 40 l i t r e s . Canadarm travels 6 cm per second. Quant i f iers a l l , some, none, not a l l , many, much, not many, not much, a few, few, a small number, a l i t t l e , l i t t l e , more, most Pronouns everybody, everyth ing, someone, something, anybody, anything, no one, nothing Adverbs of frequency always, of ten, sometime, seldom, never, ever Adverbs of duration always, forever , for some time, for awhile, not for long Adverbs of degree e n t i r e l y , very, somewhat, rather, Quite, a l i t t l e , a b i t , not at a l l -46- Continued. TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process Language Structures OBSERVING Ordering spat ia l ly j|to, a t , away, from, on, o f f , across , over, a long, through, i n , out o f , in front of , by, beside, near, next to , above, on top of , behind, under, beneath, below, underneath, between, among, amid, opposite, towards, in to , past , around, up, down, beyond, forward, e tc . where. to the l e f t , to the r ight adjacent distance midpoi nt diagonal edge 1 imi t p a r a l l e l , para l l e l to perpendicular to opposite v e r t i c a l , horizontal C lass i fy ing (the grouping of items according to their s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences) Planets are a kind of heavenly hody. We can div ide heavenly bodies into types. There are d i f fe rent types of heavenly bodies. Common expressions of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Generic forms l i k e : animal, vegetable, mineral Species nouns l i k e : M n d s , types, par ts , categories, C lass i fy ing verbs l i k e : to be, to place under, to f a l l i n t o , Defining (usually names the term being defined, puts i t in a general c l a s s , points up i t s dist inguishing features from others in the same class) A moon is a kind of s a t e l l i t e (general c lass) which orbi ts a planet (d is t inguishing feature) . De f in i t ion : to define to c lass i fy to explain to paraphrase in de f in i t ion in explanation ?1us species nouns l i k e : <ind, species , c l a s s , type, form category _47_ Continued... TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process Language Structures OBSERVING General iz ing about descriptions Expressions of amount as l i s t e d in the section on Measuring: most, some, lots of , a lo t o f , a few, a l l , not a l l , every, some + general ly , generally speaking on the whole in most cases under most circumstances usually Special omission or use of the def in i te a r t i c l e the and the indef in i te a r t i c l e s a and an: The comet has a starTike centre. Comets have s ta r l i ke centres. A comet has a star l i k e centre. Power is needed at each stage. Fuel is needed. Verb phrases: can i s able to are able to i s associated with i s related to Astronauts can load cargo from their cabin with the robot. Tense of verb: present tense, ind icat ing a continuing state of a f f a i r s or action Comets often have a cloudy t a i l of l i g h t which always points away from the sun. a lso simple past tense -48- Continued. TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES! AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process Language Structures SEQUENCING The booster launches the ship. The booster f a l l s away. Stage two igni tes . The ship is in orbi t . Stage three f a l l s away. The ship is by i t s e l f . Ordering chronological ly Narrating Play-by-play commentary report Here we are at Cape Canaveral, Florida waiting for the blastoff of the space shutt le, Challenger. Aspect: progressive Verb tense: present The space shuttle Challenger took off from F lor ida . It positioned i t se l f in i ts orb i t . The astronauts flew into space without their l i f e l i n e s today. Verb tense: past Following instruct ions The numbered steps as given in a recipe OR a science experiment OR a a "how-to" hook OR an assignment Noting a process When a space ship goes into orbi t , "first there is the booster launch. TJext the booster f a l l s away. Then the 1;econd stage igni tes. Afterwards the third stage ignites and puts the ship In orbi t . Later the third stage f a l l s away and f ina l l y the space ship starts on i ts sol i tary orbi t . Common expressions of noting a process: time words: before, after , following from, leading to, in the end verbs notinq a change of state: to i l melt harden shorten lengthen soften d i s t i l l condense -49- Continued. TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process Language Structures SEQUENCING If a heavenly body blocks a l ight source, then an ec l ipse occurs. Ecl ipses are a resul t of heavenly bodies blocking a l i g h t source. Pluto is the furthest planet from the sun, consequently i t takes longest to o rb i t the sun. Pluto takes the longest time to orbit the sun because i t i s the furthest planet from the sun. Common expressions to relate cause Relat ing cause and ef fect and e f fec t : is due to is the resul t of have an ef fect on consequently verbs l i k e : so thus because therefore accordingly since as a resul t Plus causal melt , b o i l , harden, tmcKen, conaense, f i l l , empty Pred ic t ing It is l i k e l y that there wi l l be stat ions in space in the near future. I predict that space sa te l l i t es orb i t ing the tarth w i l l become a common occurrence. Common expressions of predict ion: to predict that to make a predic t ion about to project in the future the next step probably the probabi l i ty of Hypothesizing (a specia l kind of cause and e f fec t reasoning; hypothesizing i s more general than pred ic t ing) If the sun l o s t some of i t s heat, Then i t might mean the end of l i f e on earth. Common expressions of hypothesis: as for cause and e f f e c t with specia l at tent ion given to modal verbs such as can /cou ld , wi l l /would, may/might, s h a l l / s h o u l d , must and to the tense and aspect forms of the verbs. Continued.. . -50-TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSED AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process SEQUENCING Formulating theories (generalizing about cause and effect relationships) DECISION-MAKING Forming personal opinions language Structures 20.4 _I_f gases mixed in l iquids experience "a zero gravity condit ion, then movement in a l l gases is afTected in many ways.  In my opinion, exploring the planets is money well spent. I think that exploring the planets is not the best use of government money. Common expressions: I think i t seems to me in my opinion I consider J agree that I don't know i f in my view I am posit ive I argue that I suppose I assume Making decisions decided TTFe I have I would I selectedTT.. I choose/chose _ to go see Marc Garneau. th is one. This i s the one I want. Solvi ng probl ems i can _ The way solve this by handle th is is to. to The The One end solution is to answer can be arrived do i t is t o . . . . at by. way to then t o . , and las t ly to Detecting problems The problem is The problems seem to he It looks l i ke is the problem. The issue is The control desk knows what the matter i s . It seems to be a case of -51- Continued.. TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process Language Structures DECISION MAKING I would suggest that the money spent on space research would be better spent on medical research. It would be benef ic ia l to spend more Proposing a l ternat ives money on medical research and less money on space research. Common expressions: I propose that I would urge that I would suggest I would say that that I would demand that I would plan to It would be benef ic ia l to It would be pro f i tab le to It would be expedient to Concluding in conclusion I have a r r ived at the conclusion -52- Continued. TABLE VI CONNECTING THINKING PROCESSES AND LANGUAGE STRUCTURES (Continued) Thinking Process DECISION-MAKING Formulating po l icy .-Language Structures Canadian astronauts wiII1 be  chosen on the basis of these c r i t e r i a . Canada wi l l part ic ipate in the Star Wars plan in a l imited way for these reasons. Space research wfl l now engage in medical and b io logica l research for these reasons. Evaluating I judge the establishment of a space stat ion to be i l l - a d v i s e d . Based on evidence, I bel ieve that the Big Bang theory is least l i k e l y to be correct . Common expressions: Adjectives related good r ight proper suitable relevant B a T wrong improper unsuitable i r re levant to judgement: Verbs related to judgement: judge compare regard vi ew consider should be Terms related to forming personal opinions and evaluations:  Tke prefer value appreciate d i s l i k e disapprove devalue depreciate deprecate Recommending recommend. We It is recommended The following are One suggestion The department is that  recommended. advised to. -113-

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