UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effects of reading-while-listening and the cloze procedure on the reading ability and grammatical… Tennant, Susan Mary 1988

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•THE EFFECTS OF READING-WHILE-LISTENING AND THE CLOZE PROCEDURE ON THE READING ABILITY AND GRAMMATICAL PROFICIENCY OF ESL STUDENTS by SUSAN MARY TENNANT B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Language E d u c a t i o n Department We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1988 e Susan Mary Tennant, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) i i A b s t r a c t T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of repeated r e a d i n g -w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n with c l o z e e x e r c i s e s on the reading a b i l i t y and grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y of 14 secondary l e v e l E n g l i s h as a Second Language students. The experimental group completed 17 c l o z e e x e r c i s e s at the r a t e of one per week. The method of p r e s e n t a t i o n had three s t e p s : the viewing of a f i l m s t r i p w h i l e l i s t e n i n g to the accompanying commercially-produced tape, an attempt to complete a short w r i t t e n c l o z e e x e r c i s e (every 10th word deleted) on a passage t r a n s c r i b e d from the tape, and four attempts to complete the c l o z e e x e r c i s e while s i m u l t a n e o u s l y l i s t e n i n g to the taped, unmutilated v e r s i o n . The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test, L e v e l E, and the S t r u c t u r e T e s t — E n g l i s h Language, Advanced L e v e l were adm i n i s t e r e d both b e f o r e and a f t e r the treatment p e r i o d . A t e a c h e r - c o n s t r u c t e d r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e p o s t t e s t and an a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were administered a f t e r the treatment. Separate analyses of c o v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , F (1,26) = 6.997, P <.014, but no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the groups on the S t r u c t u r e T e s t - E n g l i s h Language, F (1,26) = 1.306, P < .265. An independent samples t - t e s t i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p on t h e t e a c h e r - c o n s t r u c t e d r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e , t ( 2 5 ) = 3.67, P <. S t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s t o t h e a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y r e g a r d e d t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s a s h e l p f u l . I t i s recommended t h a t t h e t y p e o f c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y be u s e d a s s u p p l e m e n t a r y e x e r c i s e s f o r ESL s t u d e n t s . I t i s n o t e d t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be done on t h e e f f e c t s o f c h o o s i n g p a s s a g e s f o r t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p o i n t s w h i c h t h e y c o n t a i n and t h e e f f e c t s o f r e p e a t i n g v o c a b u l a r y a n d / o r c o n t e n t i n t h e p a s s a g e s . i v Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v i Acknowledgement v i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 1. Statement of the Problem 1 2. Background of the Problem 1 3. Need f o r the Study 5 4. Research Hypotheses 6 4.1 Reading a b i l i t y 6 4.2 Grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y 6 4.3 R e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e s 6 5. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 5.1 Cloze procedure 7 5.2 R e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g 7 5.3 R e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e 7 6. Assumptions 8 7. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 8 Chapter I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE 9 1. The Cloze Procedure 10 1.1 F i r s t language res e a r c h 14 1.2 Second language res e a r c h 28 2. Repeated R e a d i n g - W h i l e - L i s t e n i n g 31 2.1 F i r s t language res e a r c h 35 2.2 Second language research 40 3. Summary and C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the Present Study 41 Chapter I I I DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 46 1. Su b j e c t s 46 2. The Experimental M a t e r i a l s 48 V 3. The Measuring Instruments 51 3.1 G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test 51 3.2 S t r u c t u r e Test — E n g l i s h Language (STEL) 52 3.3 Researcher-designed r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e 52 3.4 Resarcher-designed a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e 53 4. The Experimental Procedure 53 4.1 The experimental treatment 53 4.2 The c o n t r o l treatment 56 Chapter IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 57 1. Reading A b i l i t y 57 2. Grammatical P r o f i c i e n c y 58 3. R e a d i n g / L i s t e n i n g Cloze 59 4. A t t i t u d e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 59 Chapter V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 61 1. E f f e c t s on Reading A b i l i t y 61 2. E f f e c t s on Grammatical P r o f i c i e n c y 65 3. Other E f f e c t s 69 4. Summary and Conclus i o n s 70 5. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Further Research 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY 74 APPENDIX A - Cloze E x e r c i s e s 83 APPENDIX B - Cloze Answer Sheet 109 APPENDIX C - Bar Graph of Scores 111 APPENDIX D - A t t i t u d e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 112 v i L i s t o f T a b l e s 1. R e a d a b i l i t y L e v e l o f R e a d i n g / L i s t e n i n g C l o z e P a s s a g e s 50 2. P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Means - R e a d i n g and Grammar 58 T e s t s 3. R e a d i n g / L i s t e n i n g C l o z e Means 59 v i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t My t h a n k s a r e due t o My a d v i s o r , M a r i o n C r o w h u r s t , f o r h e r s u p p o r t and i n v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e . The members o f my e x a m i n i n g c o m m i t t e e — L e e G u n d e r s o n and Ken S l a d e — f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e . My s t u d e n t s a t B r i t a n n i a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . 1 I. INTRODUCTION 1. Statement of the Problem The present study examines the e f f e c t s of c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n with repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g on the re a d i n g a b i l i t y and grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y of secondary l e v e l E n g l i s h as a Second Language (ESL) s t u d e n t s . 2. Background of the Problem The nature of the reading process has been the s u b j e c t of d i s c u s s i o n and r e s e a r c h f o r many y e a r s . Some s c h o l a r s have p o s t u l a t e d a bottom-up model (Gough, 1972; LaBerge & Samuels, 1974), while others have p o s t u l a t e d a top-down model (Goodman, 1967; Smith, 1973). More r e c e n t l y , i n t e r a c t i v e models have been suggested by Rumelhart (1977) and S t a n o v i c h (1980). Stanovich's reading model i s n e i t h e r bottom-up nor top-down; i t i s both i n t e r a c t i v e and compensatory. The model i s i n t e r a c t i v e because i t assumes t h a t the reader s y n t h e s i z e s from p r i o r knowledge i n h i s head as w e l l as i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from the p r i n t e d page. The model i s compensatory because "a d e f i c i t i n any knowledge source r e s u l t s i n a h e a v i e r r e l i a n c e on other knowledge sources, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r l e v e l i n the p r o c e s s i n g h i e r a r c h y " (p.63). The combination of repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g and the c l o z e procedure should be an e f f e c t i v e way of t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g . The c l o z e procedure r e q u i r e s the use of higher l e v e l c o g n i t i v e processes as the reader samples, forms hypotheses 2 u s i n g s y n t a c t i c and semantic cues, p r e d i c t s , and then confirms or r e j e c t s h i s hypotheses as he completes the c l o z e e x e r c i s e . I f students subsequently have the o p p o r t u n i t y to l i s t e n r e p e a t e d l y to a tape c o n t a i n i n g the unmutilated v e r s i o n of the t e x t , they w i l l be a b l e to confirm or r e j e c t these hypotheses immediately. Repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g a l l o w s the student t o access the p r i n t e d word v i a two m o d a l i t i e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I f word a t t a c k s k i l l s are weak, the student can r e l y on the spoken word. On the other hand, i f l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s are weak, the student can r e l y upon the p r i n t e d word. A student i s ab l e to compensate f o r weakness by he a v i e r r e l i a n c e upon the other m o d a l i t y . Many r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the c l o z e procedure s i n c e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n by T a y l o r i n 1953 as a means of measuring t e x t r e a d a b i l i t y . Moreover, r e s e a r c h e r s have c o n s i d e r e d the e f f i c a c y of using the c l o z e procedure f o r rea d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n because i t r e q u i r e s i n t e l l i g e n t guessing based on c o n t e x t u a l and semantic cues. Jongsma (1971; 1980) summed up the r e s e a r c h on the c l o z e procedure as a t e a c h i n g technique i n the f i r s t language classroom and concluded t h a t the c l o z e procedure can be as e f f e c t i v e an i n s t r u c t i o n a l technique as many of the c o n v e n t i o n a l methods. He a l s o concluded t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h was needed t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between types of students, types of c l o z e s , s c o r i n g procedures, and the kinds and amounts of s k i l l s l e a r n e d . Research has been done with primary, secondary, and 3 c o l l e g e students using the c l o z e procedure i n the f i r s t language classroom. Some re s e a r c h e r s have concluded t h a t remedial and poorer students b e n e f i t t e d from c l o z e e x e r c i s e s (BToomer r 1962; C a r r , Dewitz & Patberg, 1983; Kennedy & Weener, 1973; McGee, 1981). Others have concluded t h a t the c l o z e procedure was a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e technique f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g (Peters, 1983; Rogers, 1982; Wilson, 1977). In the f o r e i g n and second language classroom, the c l o z e procedure i s most commonly used as a t e s t of language p r o f i c i e n c y ( O i l e r , 1973). Although some p r a c t i t i o n e r s (Bensoussan, 1983; Brown, 1986; Eskey, 1973; Greenewald, 1981; P l a i s t e r ( i n C a r l ) , 1983; Woytak, 1984) have recommended using the c l o z e procedure f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g i n the second language classroom, r e s e a r c h on the use of c l o z e e x e r c i s e s f o r t h i s purpose has been l i m i t e d and i n c o n c l u s i v e . R e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g and repeated reading methods have been used to teach reading i n a f i r s t language s i n c e the advent of w r i t i n g . A c h i l d has s a t upon a parent's l a p l i s t e n i n g a gain and again to a s t o r y being read aloud and students have l e a r n e d to read i n many c o u n t r i e s by l i s t e n i n g t o o t h e r s , teacher or f e l l o w students, reading aloud i n c l a s s . Some tea c h e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s have suggested u s i n g v a r i o u s r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g and repeated reading methods f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g (Chomsky, 1978; Heckelman, 1969; Hoskisson, 1975; Samuels, 1979). R e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g techniques are b e l i e v e d to develop r e a d i n g f l u e n c y through a u t o m a t i c i t y of decoding. Samuels 4 (1979) t h e o r i z e s t h a t t h e amount o f a t t e n t i o n w h i c h a r e a d e r c a n b r i n g t o t h e c o m p l e x t a s k o f r e a d i n g i s l i m i t e d ; i f d e c o d i n g r e q u i r e s a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n , t h e n c o m p r e h e n s i o n w i l l s u f f e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , b e c a u s e r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g s u p p l i e s p r o s o d i c m a r k e r s w h i c h a r e a b s e n t i n t h e p r i n t e d t e x t , s t u d e n t s c a n l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e s y n t a c t i c p h r a s e s ( S c h r e i b e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . S y n t a c t i c c o m p e t e n c y c a n a l s o be e x p e c t e d t o d e v e l o p t h r o u g h l i s t e n i n g r e p e a t e d l y t o t h e same m a t e r i a l ( K a n n , 1 9 8 3 ) . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i u o n o f one s t u d y , r e s e a r c h i n r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g m e t h o d s has been l i m i t e d t o f i r s t l a n g u a g e s i t u a t i o n s and t o s m a l l g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s who a r e e i t h e r b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r s o r p o o r r e a d e r s . The r e s u l t s h ave b e e n m i x e d . S a m u e l s ( 1 9 7 9 ; 1976) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n and s p e e d ; L a f f e y , K e l l y & P e r r y (1980) f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n b e t w e e n a c o n t r o l and an e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ; and L a f f e y and K e l l e y (1981) f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s . R e i t s m a (1988) f o u n d r e a d i n g -w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g t o be a l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l method t h a n e i t h e r g u i d e d r e a d i n g o r i n d e p e n d e n t r e a d i n g w i t h c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d s p e e c h f e e d b a c k . R e g a r d l e s s o f r e s u l t s , most r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d i m p r o v e d m o t i v a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d r e a d i n g ( C a r b o , 1 9 7 8 ; Chomsky, 1 9 7 8 ; R a s h o t t e & T o r g e s o n , 1 9 8 5 ; R e i t s m a , 1 9 8 8 ) . The p r e s e n t s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e e f f e c t o f c o m b i n i n g t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e w i t h r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g t o ESL s t u d e n t s . The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e was u s e d t o e n c o u r a g e h i g h e r o r d e r p r o c e s s i n g and t h e r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g -5 w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g was u s e d t o f a c i l i t a t e l o w e r o r d e r p r o c e s s i n g . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S t a n o v i c h ' s m o d e l o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , t h e t e c h n i q u e i s b o t h i n t e r a c t i v e and c o m p e n s a t o r y . 3. Need f o r t h e S t u d y The number o f p e o p l e l e a r n i n g f o r e i g n and s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s g r ows e a c h y e a r . T h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d E n g l i s h i s r e g a r d e d a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e t o l e a r n and i s t a u g h t i n most c o u n t r i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e number o f i m m i g r a n t s t o C a n ada who need t o l e a r n E n g l i s h as a s e c o n d o r a d d i t i o n a l l a n g u a g e grows e a c h y e a r . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s p e a k E n g l i s h as a s e c o n d o r a d d i t i o n a l l a n g u a g e . P r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e c o n t i n u a l l y s e e k e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h b u t f r e q u e n t l y f i n d t h e r e i s no r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e t o i n f o r m t h e i r c h o i c e s . T h e r e i s a n i n a d e q u a t e amount o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d o f E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e b e c a u s e i t i s a new and d e v e l o p i n g f i e l d . The c l o z e m e thod u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i s o f t e n u s e d by ESL t e a c h e r s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m b u t t h e r e a r e no s t u d i e s on i t s e f f i c a c y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e be s y s t e m i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h i s a f t e r t h e f a c t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f what i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g p r a c t i s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i s t h e way t h a t a p p l i e d l i n g u i s t i c s r e s e a r c h has b e e n c o n d u c t e d h i s t o r i c a l l y i n b o t h N o r t h A m e r i c a and t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d ( G a i e s , 1 9 8 7 ) . 6 4. Research Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g three n u l l hypotheses were made concerning the e f f e c t upon secondary l e v e l ESL students of the c l o z e procedure i n c o n j u n c t i o n with repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g on (a) reading a b i l i t y , (b) grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y , and (c) the a b i l i t y to complete a r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e . 4.1 Reading a b i l i t y A f t e r a semester of experimental treatment, t h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group i n reading a b i l i t y as measured by a s t a n d a r d i z e d reading t e s t . 4.2 Grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y A f t e r a semester of experimental treatment there w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group on grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y as measured by a s t a n d a r d i z e d grammar t e s t . 4.3 R e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e s A f t e r a semester of experimental treatment, there w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group i n the a b i l i t y to complete a r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e as measured by a researcher-developed r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e . 7 5. D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a p p l y t o t e r m s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 5.1 C l o z e p r o c e d u r e A p r o c e d u r e i n w h i c h w o r d s a r e d e l e t e d f r o m p a s s a g e s o f c o n n e c t e d t e x t and t h e r e a d e r i s r e q u i r e d t o r e p l a c e t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s c o r r e c t l y . I n t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t e v e r y t e n t h w o r d was d e l e t e d e x c e p t when t h e t e n t h w o r d was a p r o p e r noun. 5.2 R e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g S u b j e c t s a r e g i v e n a p r i n t e d t e x t t o r e a d w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t h e t e x t o f t h e p a s s a g e i s r e a d a l o u d . 5.3 R e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e o r c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i n  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g S u b j e c t s f i r s t l i s t e n t o a p a s s a g e w i t h no p r i n t e d t e x t p r o v i d e d . F o l l o w i n g t h a t , s u b j e c t s a r e g i v e n t h e p r i n t e d t e x t i n c l o z e f o r m w i t h e v e r y t e n t h w o r d d e l e t e d . S u b j e c t s a t t e m p t t o c o m p l e t e t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e . F o l l o w i n g t h a t , s u b j e c t s l i s t e n f o u r t i m e s t o t h e c o m p l e t e , u n m u t i l a t e d t e x t and a t t e m p t t o f i l l i n t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s on t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e . F o r e a s e o f w r i t i n g , t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s r e f e r r e d t o a s a r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e . 8 6. Assumptions Three assumptions have been made i n t h i s study. F i r s t , t h a t the s t a n d a r d i z e d reading t e s t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t of reading a b i l i t y f o r ESL students. Second, t h a t the s t a n d a r d i z e d grammer t e s t measures grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y . T h i r d , t h at the r e a d a b i l i t y measures used to assess the experimental t e x t s measure the degree of d i f f i c u l t y of the t e x t s . 7. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The study was conducted with a l i m i t e d sample of a p o p u l a t i o n of ESL students from one secondary school i n Vancouver. There was no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r random s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s as the computer-generated t i m e t a b l e w i t h i n the school determined the experimental and c o n t r o l groups. The students i n the sample came from v a r i o u s e t h n i c and e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds. Thus, care should be taken i f the r e s u l t s are to be g e n e r a l i z e d to other p o p u l a t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y those of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c and e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds. The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t which was used to t e s t r eading comprehension was designed and intended f o r n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers. At the time of the experiment, there was no ESL reading t e s t with p a r a l l e l forms. For t h a t reason, i t was necessary to use a f i r s t language reading t e s t which may not be an a p p r o p r i a t e measure of reading a b i l i t y f o r non-native speakers. 9 I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE Two major bodies of l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o the present study w i l l be reviewed: f i r s t , l i t e r a t u r e on the use of the c l o z e procedure f o r reading i n s t r u c t i o n and secondly, l i t e r a t u r e on the use of repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g techniques f o r te a c h i n g reading. Both f i r s t language and second language s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . Reading i s a m u l t i - f a c e t e d , complex, i n t e r a c t i v e process i n v o l v i n g many s u b s k i l l s and many types of reader and t e x t v a r i a b l e s . Viewed i n the past as e i t h e r a c o n c e p t u a l l y d r i v e n (top-down) (Goodman, 1967; Smith, 1973) or data d r i v e n (bottom-up) (Gough, 1972; LaBerge & Samuels, 1974) process, reading i s now commonly regarded as a simultaneous i n t e r a c t i o n between numerous v a r i a b l e s rather than a s e q u e n t i a l process (Rumelhart, 1977). Top-down models view the f l u e n t reader as one who i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n hy p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g as he proceeds through a t e x t . On the other hand, bottom-up models d e p i c t i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g as a s e r i e s of d i s c r e t e stages with the sequence of p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s proceeding from the incoming data to the h i g h e r - l e v e l encodings. Stanovich (1980) p o s t u l a t e s a reading model which i s both i n t e r a c t i v e and compensatory. The model i s i n t e r a c t i v e because i t i s based on the simultaneous i n t e r a c t i o n between c o g n i t i o n and data and i t i s compensatory because "a d e f i c i t i n any knowledge source r e s u l t s i n a heavier r e l i a n c e on other knowledge sources, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r l e v e l i n the p r o c e s s i n g h i e r a r c h y " (p.63). 10 E a r l y work i n ESL r e a d i n g , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e m o d e l o f f i r s t l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g , assumed a r a t h e r p a s s i v e , b o t t o m - u p v i e w o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g . R e a d i n g was v i e w e d p r i m a r i l y as a d e c o d i n g p r o c e s s : a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n d e d m e a n i n g by r e c o g n i z i n g t h e l e t t e r s and w o r d s and b u i l d i n g up t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e t e x t . A b o u t t e n y e a r s a g o , t h e p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c v i e w o f r e a d i n g b e g a n t o h a v e an i m p a c t upon v i e w s r e g a r d i n g r e a d i n g i n a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . R e c e n t l y , h o w e v e r , i t h a s been s t a t e d t h a t e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g r e q u i r e s b o t h top-down and b o t t o m - u p s t r a t e g i e s o p e r a t i n g i n t e r a c t i v e l y ( D e v i n e , C a r r e l l & E s k e y , 1 9 8 7 ) . B e c a u s e t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e r e q u i r e s t h e use o f h i g h e r l e v e l c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s a s t h e r e a d e r s a m p l e s , f o r m s h y p o t h e s e s , and t h e n c o n f i r m s o r r e j e c t s h i s h y p o t h e s e s and b e c a u s e r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g a l l o w s t h e s t u d e n t t o a c c e s s t h e p r i n t e d w o r d v i a two m o d a l i t i e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f c l o z e p r o c e d u r e w i t h r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g s h o u l d be an e f f e c t i v e method o f t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g . I t i s a method w h i c h i s b o t h i n t e r a c t i v e and c o m p e n s a t o r y . 1. The C l o z e P r o c e d u r e The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d by T a y l o r i n 1953 as a t o o l f o r m e a s u r i n g r e a d a b i l i t y . S i n c e t h a t t i m e i t h a s b e e n u s e d a s a m e a s u r e m e n t , e v a l u a t i o n , d i a g n o s t i c , and i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e . F o r many who r e g a r d r e a d i n g a s a " c o m p l e x p r o c e s s by w h i c h a r e a d e r r e c o n s t r u c t s , t o some 11 degree, a message encoded by a w r i t e r i n graphic language" (Goodman, 1970, p.5), the c l o z e procedure seems w e l l s u i t e d f o r the purpose of te a c h i n g reading because i t r e q u i r e s the student to sample, p r e d i c t , and guess i n order to f i l l i n d e l e t e d words i n a t e x t and thus i s r e l a t e d t o the way i n which language i s processed i n reading (Blachowicz, 1977; B o r t n i c k & Lopardo, 1973; Kaminsky, 1979) . The reader must be a c t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e (Kennedy & Weener, 1973; P a r a d i s & Bayne, 1977; Thomas, 1978) he must use grapho-phonic, s y n t a c t i c and semantic cues s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as he decodes p r i n t e d symbols surrounding the m i s s i n g words, a t t a c h e s meaning and p e r c e i v e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r e c a l l s p r i o r knowledge, and p r e d i c t s the language u n i t which has been d e l e t e d (Marino, 1981; Thomas, 1978) . The u n d e r l y i n g assumption i n a c l o z e procedure e x e r c i s e i s t h a t i f the reader can r e c o n s t r u c t the author's words, he has understood the author's meaning (Richardson, 1980). During a c l o z e procedure e x e r c i s e the reader must pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to the author's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of meaning (Bloomer, 1962; Culhane, 1970; Marino, 1981; Thomas, 1978). Readers can be expected to l e a r n to grasp the main idea (Bloomer, 1962), t o make i n f e r e n c e s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s (Bloomer, 1962; Gomberg, 1976), and to sense r e l a t i o n s h i p s and make comparisons (Gomberg, 1976). They l e a r n to f o c u s , not on s i n g l e words, but on r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n context (Gomberg, 1976; Kennedy, 1974) . Many who recommend the use of the c l o z e procedure f o r reading i n s t r u c t i o n mention i t s importance f o r i n s t r u c t i n g l e a r n e r s i n the e f f e c t i v e use of c o n t e x t u a l cues 12 ( B u l l o c k , 1975; G r a n t , 1978; Kennedy & Weener, 1973). In f i r s t language i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e has been recommended a t a l l l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n from Grade 1 (Kennedy & Weener, 1973) t h r o u g h c o l l e g e (Bloomer, 1962), f o r d i s a b l e d r e a d e r s (Gomberg, 1976; Kennedy, 1974; Lopardo, 1975; R o b i n s o n , 1972), and f o r t e a c h i n g p o e t r y ( B l a n c , 1977; D a v i e s & Greene, 1981). The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i s recommended i n p a r t because of i t s p r a c t i c a l i t y : i t i s i n e x p e n s i v e , v e r s a t i l e and e a s i l y c o n s t r u c t e d and s c o r e d ( P i k u l s k i , 1976). F u r t h e r m o r e , i t can use m a t e r i a l s t a k e n from s t u d e n t s * r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs ( B o r t n i c k & Lopardo, 1973; P i k u l s k i , 1976). Some who recommend i t p o i n t out t h a t the s t u d e n t s enjoy d o i n g t h e e x e r c i s e s and are h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d (Bloomer, 1962); they do not become overburdened or d i s c o u r a g e d ( B l a c h o w i c z , 1977). In second language s i t u a t i o n s , t h e c l o z e t e s t i s commonly used as an i n t e g r a t i v e t e s t of language p r o f i c i e n c y . O i l e r (1973), i n d i s c u s s i n g c l o z e t e s t s , p o i n t s out the importance of a grammar of expectancy which he b e l i e v e s t o be the c h i e f mechanism u n d e r l y i n g the s k i l l s of t h i n k i n g , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , s p e a k i n g , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . I t i s t h e l e a r n e r ' s grammar of e x p e c t a n c y which i s measured by t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e ; t h e i n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e c l o z e passage a l l o w s the s t u d e n t t o a n a l y z e , t h e n s y n t h e s i z e , t o use both p r o d u c t i v e and r e c e p t i v e s k i l l s . The l e a r n e r f o r m u l a t e s hypotheses or e x p e c t a t i o n s about what w i l l f o l l o w , t h e n e i t h e r c o n f i r m s or d i s c o n f i r m s h i s p r e d i c t i o n s by s a m p l i n g subsequent s e n t e n c e s . 13 O i l e r f e e l s t h a t memory c o n s t r a i n t s are an aspect of u n d e r l y i n g competence f o r second language l e a r n e r s . Because i n a c l o z e passage there are u s u a l l y s e v e r a l items i n sequence which are interdependent, the a b i l i t y t o complete the c l o z e i s r e l a t e d to the l e n g t h of memory i n the second language l e a r n e r . As he says, " I f ... language competence i s best c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a grammar of expectancy, then memory c o n s t r a i n t s are c l e a r l y an aspect of competence. I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t t h i s i s the s o r t of competence measured by c l o z e t e s t s " ( O i l e r , 1973, p.116). A number of p r a c t i t i o n e r s have recommended the use of c l o z e e x e r c i s e s f o r second language t e a c h i n g . Woytak (1984), H a r r i s o n & Dolan (1976), Sherwood (1975), Larson (1979), Brown (1986) and P l a i s t e r ( i n C a r l , 1983) recommend using the c l o z e procedure f o r t e a c h i n g reading to ESL students. Brown (1986) recommends immediate feedback and suggests the use of computer software to accomplish t h i s . Greenewald (1981) recommends using the c l o z e procedure i n the French-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom to h e l p word-by-word readers a c q u i r e more mature reading s t r a t e g i e s . Bensoussan (1983) recommends using c l o z e e x e r c i s e s with English-as-a-Foreign-Language students because the student must deal d i r e c t l y with the t e x t . D i s c u s s i o n of c l o z e responses s t i m u l a t e s students to c o n s i d e r the t e x t as a whole and the l e x i c a l , grammatical, l o g i c a l , c o nceptual cues i n the t e x t which l e d them to choose a p a r t i c u l a r word. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n uncovers assumptions and misconceptions b e t t e r than more c o n v e n t i o n a l e x e r c i s e s and q u e s t i o n s . 14 Eskey (1973) s t r o n g l y recommends c l o z e e x e r c i s e s f o r t e a c h i n g reading i n the ESL classroom because the c l o z e procedure draws on four c r i t i c a l s k i l l s : the a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t E n g l i s h syntax, the a b i l i t y to understand E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y , the a b i l i t y to access the w r i t e r ' s u n d e r l y i n g assumptions about the s u b j e c t and the world, the a b i l i t y to understand r h e t o r i c a l s i g n a l s of purpose, a t t i t u d e and l o g i c . " I t f o r c e s the h e s i t a n t student to t h i n k , to a t t a c k h i s reading problems a c t i v e l y by drawing on h i s s e v e r a l kinds of knowledge about E n g l i s h . There i s a l s o the important pedagogical v i r t u e of i t s game-like appeal: c l o z e procedure generates a s e r i e s of p u z z l e s which the r e s t l e s s student mind f i n d s i t hard to r e s i s t " (Eskey, 1973, p.182). 1.1 F i r s t language r e s e a r c h Although the c l o z e procedure has been recommended f o r t e a c h i n g reading i n both the f i r s t and second language classroom, res e a r c h on the use of the procedure has been l i m i t e d and i n c o n c l u s i v e . Jongsma, reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on the use of the c l o z e procedure as a t e a c h i n g technique i n the f i r s t language classroom i n 1971, concluded on the b a s i s of the r e s e a r c h evidence at t h a t time t h a t "...the c l o z e procedure, used e i t h e r as a supplement to or i n l i e u of ' r e g u l a r ' reading i n s t r u c t i o n , does not produce s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved r e s u l t s i n reading p r o f i c i e n c y " (Jongsma, 1971, p.18). Because of the problems with the reviewed r e s e a r c h , Jongsma suggested t h a t t h e r e were many resea r c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s s t i l l to be e x p l o r e d . 15 In p a r t i c u l a r , he c a l l e d f o r rese a r c h i n t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , longer and more in t e n s e p e r i o d s of i n s t r u c t i o n , more s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by r e s e a r c h e r s of the type of improvement they expected a f t e r treatment, randomization i n s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s and t h e i r assignment to treatment, and r e s e a r c h i n t o the e f f e c t s of v a r i o u s types of c l o z e procedures (e.g., d i f f e r e n t d e l e t i o n techniques, s c o r i n g procedures, methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n ) r a t h e r than comparing +cloze experimental groups with - c l o z e c o n t r o l groups. In 1980 Jongsma again examined rese a r c h i n the use of the c l o z e procedure as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l technique and found t h a t i n 17 of 27 s t u d i e s there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between c l o z e and other methods. In three s t u d i e s there was some d i f f e r e n c e f a v o u r i n g c l o z e and i n seven, t h e r e was a strong d i f f e r e n c e i n favour of c l o z e , Jongsma concluded t h a t the c l o z e procedure can be an e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l technique but that i t i s not more or l e s s e f f e c t i v e than many of the c o n v e n t i o n a l methods widely used. He concluded t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n students and i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and s c o r i n g of c l o z e e x e r c i s e s r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n the kind and amount of s k i l l s l e a r n e d . Researchers must f i n d out which v a r i a t i o n s serve which purposes f o r which students. Grant (1978), s u r v e y i n g the rese a r c h on the c l o z e procedure as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l method i n the f i r s t language classroom, concluded t h a t the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s produced p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s : working a c t i v e l y with students, synonym s c o r i n g , and a d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n other than a random one. 16 The f o l l o w i n g s t u d i e s , some c i t e d by Jongsma and/or Grant and some conducted s i n c e t h e i r reviews, show the c l o z e procedure to have had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . Bloomer (1962), i n one of the f i r s t c l o z e procedure s t u d i e s , i n v e s t i g a t e d the use of the c l o z e procedure as a remedial-reading t e a c h i n g technique f o r c o l l e g e students. The experimental group of 44 remedial students completed ten l e v e l s of c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . There were f i v e e x e r c i s e s per l e v e l ; i f the student had not achieved the r e q u i r e d l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y at the end of f i v e e x e r c i s e s , he moved a u t o m a t i c a l l y to the next l e v e l . The f a s t e s t student r e q u i r e d 12 s e s s i o n s and the slowest r e q u i r e d 50, extending through two semesters. There were two c o n t r o l groups. The f i r s t c o n t r o l group worked i n d i v i d u a l l y through a s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e x t i n r e a d i n g . The second c o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d no reading i n s t r u c t i o n a t a l l but wrote the p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s . No comparison was p o s s i b l e between the experimental group and the f i r s t c o n t r o l group because only two students completed the t e x t , but comparisons were made with the second c o n t r o l group. A s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e was found i n comprehension between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s of the experimental group. Although the p r e t e s t scores showed the c o n t r o l group to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r to the experimental group (as was to be expected as the experimental group had v o l u n t e e r e d f o r remedial reading i n s t r u c t i o n whereas the c o n t r o l group was randomly s e l e c t e d ) , f o r the p o s t t e s t , the experimental group made s u p e r i o r though not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s cores from the 17 c o n t r o l group. The r a t e of reading was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d and no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the r a t e on the i n i t i a l t e s t and the r a t e on the f i n a l t e s t f o r e i t h e r the experimental or c o n t r o l group. T h i s was not unexpected because the c l o z e procedure f o s t e r s c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l rather than speed. Bloomer wondered whether work on speed reading employed at the same time as the c l o z e procedure would produce g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and c a l l e d f o r f u r t h e r e xperimentation i n t h i s a r e a . Kennedy and Weener (1973) concluded t h a t t r a i n i n g i n the c l o z e procedure warrants s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a remedial program f o r below average readers. They t e s t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t r a i n i n g with the c l o z e procedure to improve reading and l i s t e n i n g comprehension by t r a i n i n g poor readers to attend a u d i t o r i a l l y or v i s u a l l y to the c o n t e x t u a l cues i n a sentence. The study used four groups of 20 Grade 3 students who were below average i n re a d i n g . Two experimental groups were t r a i n e d i n the c l o z e procedure using reading and l i s t e n i n g modes r e s p e c t i v e l y . One c o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d o r a l reading program and the other c o n t r o l group remained i n the r e g u l a r classroom. The t r a i n i n g p e r i o d was a t o t a l of 1 hour and 40 minutes. When the e f f e c t s of the t r a i n i n g were measured with read i n g and l i s t e n i n g comprehension t e s t s , i t was found t h a t the v i s u a l - t r a i n i n g experimental group d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than any of the other three groups on the reading comprehension 18 t e s t . Although the experimental reading group d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on the l i s t e n i n g comprehension t e s t than d i d the c o n t r o l c l a s s group which remained i n the classroom and r e c e i v e d no treatment, i t d i d not score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the c o n t r o l reading group which spent t h e i r time p r a c t i s i n g o r a l reading. The l i s t e n i n g group, which had l i s t e n e d to shor t s t o r i e s from which words had been d e l e t e d and r e p l a c e d by the sound of a b e l l , d i d not do s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the experimental reading group on the l i s t e n i n g comprehension t e s t . In a d d i t i o n , the experimental l i s t e n i n g group d i d no b e t t e r on the reading comprehension t e s t than the two c o n t r o l groups, i n d i c a t i n g no s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s f e r from a u d i t o r y t r a i n i n g to the reading comprehension t e s t . However, although the r e s u l t s on the t e s t s were not always s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the d i f f e r e n c e s were always i n the d i r e c t i o n of improvement. Wardrop and Essex (1973) c r i t i c i z e d the res e a r c h of Kennedy and Weener on f i v e grounds: the r a t i o n a l e f o r the hypotheses was inadequate, the c o n t r o l groups f a i l e d to c o n t r o l f o r c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s , s u b j e c t s could not j u s t i f i a b l y be c a l l e d u nderachievers, the design and a n a l y s i s were mismatched, and the repeated measures a n a l y s i s was i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Kennedy and Weener wrote a lengthy _ e p l y (1973) i n which they s t a t e d t h a t the standards which Wardrop and Essex sought to apply were not the standards which are coi_monly a p p l i e d by other r e s e a r c h e r s and methodologists and t h a t t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s were based on o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d p r i n c i p l e s which do not take i n t o 19 a c c o u n t t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e i s s u e s . Sampson (1979) e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l c l o z e i n i m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , s t r e n g t h e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and e n c o u r a g i n g d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e 3. The t r e a t m e n t f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p o f 46 s t u d e n t s c o n s i s t e d o f t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a c l o z e i n s t r u c t i o n a l c e n t r e f o r v a r i o u s r e a d i n g c e n t r e s d u r i n g t h e 15 weeks o f t h e s t u d y . The 27 c l o z e l e s s o n s e m p h a s i z e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f l a n g u a g e and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c r e a t i v e a n s w e r s w h i c h met c o n t e x t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . B e c a u s e an e v e r y - f i f t h - w o r d d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n u s e d i n a p i l o t s t u d y p r o v e d t o be t o o d i f f i c u l t and f r u s t r a t i n g f o r t h e s t u d e n t s , an e v e r y - t e n t h - w o r d d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n was u s e d . D i s c u s s i o n i n s m a l l g r o u p s f o c u s s e d on t h e many p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d i n e a c h b l a n k . The c o n t r o l g r o u p o f 46 s t u d e n t s d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p o n l y i n t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t ; t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t e d o f r e g u l a r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e t e a c h e r . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p o n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s i n v o c a b u l a r y d e v e l o p m e n t . The m e a s u r e m e n t i n s t r u m e n t f o r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n was t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t , Form C. Sampson c o n c l u d e d t h a t c l o z e i s a n e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e i n t h e a r e a o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . 20 P e t e r s (1983) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e on th e r e a d i n g comprehension of Grade 10 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g c l a s s e s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group of 16 s t u d e n t s had 27 c l o z e l e s s o n s over 14 weeks and t h e c o n t r o l group of 17 s t u d e n t s had no c l o z e l e s s o n s . A p a r t from t h a t , i n s t r u c t i o n by the t e a c h e r / r e s e a r c h e r was t h e same f o r both groups. On t h e p o s t t e s t i n r e a d i n g comprehension ( G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ) a s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n i n r e a d i n g comprehension was found f o r s t u d e n t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group. Green (1982) randomly a s s i g n e d a group of 96 Grade 6 s t u d e n t s t o one of t h r e e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y groups: c l o z e t r a i n i n g — p r o d u c t a p p r o a c h — i n which o n l y t h e e x a c t word was a c c e p t e d ; c l o z e t r a i n i n g — p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h - - i n which synonyms were a c c e p t e d ; and t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . S t u d e n t s r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s method showed s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n r e a d i n g comprehension and d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . These i n c r e a s e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than t h e i n c r e a s e s f o r those i n t h e p r o d u c t group or t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n group. F u r t h e r m o r e , i n a l l i n s t a n c e s , t h e e x a c t word group a c h i e v e d h i g h e r , though not s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r , mean s c o r e s t h a n t h e group i n s t r u c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l l y . Green c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i s a v i a b l e and e f f i c i e n t method of i n s t r u c t i o n . McGee (1981) l o o k e d a t the e f f e c t of the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e on good and poor r e a d e r s ' comprehension. The s u b j e c t s were 20 Grade 3 good r e a d e r s and 20 Grade 5 poor r e a d e r s ; t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e st u d y were chosen so t h a t t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s were 21 s i m i l a r . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f i f t h grade poor r e a d e r s remembered more from r e a d i n g an easy c l o z e passage than from r e a d i n g a normal passage i n immediate r e c a l l . T h i r d grade good r e a d e r s showed no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l i n g easy c l o z e or normal passages. N e i t h e r group r e c a l l e d easy c l o z e passages b e t t e r t h a n normal passages i n d e l a y e d r e c a l l . McGee c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e o l d e r poor r e a d e r s b e n e f i t t e d from r e a d i n g easy c l o z e passages and t h a t the c l o z e t e c h n i q u e may be e s p e c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l f o r poor r e a d e r s . H a r d i n g (1977) e v a l u a t e d d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l o z e p r o c e d u r e w i t h n i n t h grade s t u d e n t s . N i n e t y - t w o e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s had d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n f o r 9 weeks u s i n g a s e r i e s of graded c l o z e e x e r c i s e s w h i l e the 105 s t u d e n t s i n the c o n t r o l group had an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d r e a d i n g program. S i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r g a i n s were a c h i e v e d by the e x p e r i m e n t a l group on the Comprehensive T e s t s of B a s i c S k i l l s (CTBS) w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e g a i n s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. B l a c k and S p a n i s h s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e d g r e a t e r g a i n s t h a n o t h e r s t u d e n t s . H a r d i n g c o n c l u d e d t h a t as d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l o z e caused s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n r e a d i n g w i t h t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of change e f f e c t s a t t h e 0.01 l e v e l , t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e was an i m p o r t a n t supplementary measure f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . C a r r , D e w i t z , and P a t b e r g (1983) used t h r e e p r o c e d u r e s t o h e l p Grade 6 s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e t h e i r i n f e r e n t i a l r e a d i n g comprehension w i t h e x p o s i t o r y t e x t : a s t r u c t u r e d o v e r v i e w t o a c t i v a t e background knowledge, th e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e t o d e v e l o p an i n f e r e n t i a l t h i n k i n g s t r a t e g y , and a s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g c h e c k l i s t t o t r a i n t h e s u b j e c t s t o use t h e s t r a t e g y i n d e p e n d e n t l y . T h e r e w e r e two e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s : one u s e d t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e t o i n t e g r a t e t e x t and b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e and t h e c h e c k l i s t t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t r a t e g y ; t h e o t h e r u s e d b o t h t h e s t r u c t u r e d o v e r v i e w and t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e w i t h t h e c h e c k l i s t . The c o n t r o l g r o u p r e a d t h e same m a t e r i a l s a s t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s , b u t was n o t t r a i n e d i n any s t r a t e g y . R e s u l t s o f p o s t t e s t s m e a s u r i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o i n f e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s i n b o t h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r i n f e r e n t i a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l s a s m e a s u r e d on b o t h i m m e d i a t e and d e l a y e d t r a n s f e r t e s t s . R e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t b e l o w a v e r a g e r e a d e r s b e n e f i t t e d most f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t i o n . C a r r e t a l . c o n c l u d e d t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h was n e e d e d t o c l a r i f y t h e e f f e c t o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . They a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e g r o w t h i n i n f e r e n t i a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n was n o t i m m e d i a t e b u t o c c u r r e d o n l y a f t e r f o u r weeks o f i n s t r u c t i o n , s t u d e n t s need t i m e t o l e a r n , p r a c t i s e and p o s s i b l y i n t e r n a l i z e t h e s e s k i l l s . P h a n d i n h (1986) s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c l o z e e x e r c i s e s g i v e n b e f o r e and a f t e r r e a d i n g an i n t a c t p a s s a g e a s a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l method f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f G r a d e 9 s t u d e n t s . T h e r e w ere two e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s o f 14 s t u d e n t s : t h e f i r s t g r o u p d i d a c l o z e e x e r c i s e b e f o r e r e a d i n g a n i n t a c t p a s s a g e and t h e n f o l l o w e d t h e r e a d i n g by a c l o z e e x e r c i s e and t h e s e c o n d g r o u p r e a d t h e p a s s a g e and t h e n d i d a c l o z e e x e r c i s e . There was one c o n t r o l group of 14 s t u d e n t s which had t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t * s t u d e n t s u s i n g t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e g e n e r a l l y s c o r e d h i g h e r on r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t s . W h i l e the experiment d i d not s t a t i s t i c a l l y i d e n t i f y a b e s t method* i t d i d demonstrate t h e tendency f o r p r e and p o s t c l o z e methods t o be s u p e r i o r . R a n k i n , Haase* S t e w a r t and Howard (1980) examined t h e e f f e c t of u s i n g sequence s t r a t e g i e s on t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g comprehension w i t h the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . By "sequence s t r a t e g i e s , " t h e r e s e a r c h e r s meant " t e a c h i n g p l a n s u s e f u l i n a t t a i n i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l by o r g a n i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n a g i v e n o r d e r of s u c c e s s i o n " (p. 195). The sequence which the sequence s t r a t e g y e x p e r i m e n t a l group f o l l o w e d was as f o l l o w s : an a u r a l c l o z e t r e a t m e n t d u r i n g the f i r s t 2 weeks i n which the s t u d e n t s l i s t e n e d t o t h e t e a c h e r read t h e s e l e c t i o n , s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e word " b l a n k " f o r each d e l e t i o n , b oth p r i o r t o the c l o z e passage and d u r i n g t h e c l o z e passage i t s e l f ; an a u r a l - v i s u a l t r e a t m e n t f o r 2 weeks i n which the t e a c h e r read t h e e n t i r e s e l e c t i o n down t o the b e g i n n i n g of the c l o z e passage and t h e n passed out the c l o z e passage f o r the s t u d e n t s t o read s i l e n t l y b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g w h i l e the t e a c h e r read t h e c l o z e passage o r a l l y ; and a v i s u a l c l o z e t r e a t m e n t f o r 2 weeks i n which t h e s t u d e n t s read the i n t a c t passage down t o the c l o z e passage and the n completed t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e w i t h o u t any s i m u l t a n e o u s o r a l r e a d i n g by t h e t e a c h e r . The 86 Grade 7 s t u d e n t s , w i t h an average grade e q u i v a l e n t r e a d i n g s c o r e of 24 7.4, were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups: the sequence s t r a t e g y experimental group, a v i s u a l c l o z e group, and a c o n t r o l group. The r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t the use of a t h r e e - s t e p sequence s t r a t e g y proceeding through the a u r a l c l o z e , the a u r a l - v i s u a l c l o z e , and the v i s u a l c l o z e produced s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s on c l o z e t e s t performance and recommended t h i s sequence be used when using the c l o z e procedure f o r t e a c h i n g reading comprehension. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study i s the f a c t t h a t , of the t o t a l group of students, o n l y 49 spoke E n g l i s h at home. Some c l o z e s t u d i e s have not shown such p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . Schneyer (1965), i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of the c l o z e procedure on the reading comprehension of s i x t h grade students. The experimental group c o n s i s t e d of 32 students and the c o n t r o l group, which d i d not use c l o z e e x e r c i s e s , c o n s i s t e d of 34 students. Two types of c l o z e e x e r c i s e s were used: a tenth word d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n and a nouns/verbs only d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n . There were 19 e x e r c i s e s i n a l l and the students were giv e n one per day. When the f i n a l comprehension t e s t scores were analyzed by a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e with c o n t r o l of i n i t i a l s c o r e s , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the two groups was not s i g n i f i c a n t ; the p u p i l s who had completed the c l o z e e x e r c i s e s d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r improvement i n reading comprehension. However, d e s p i t e the l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the sc o r e s , Schneyer s t a t e s , " . . . i t would seem t h a t the s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n determining the p r e c i s e word r e q u i r e d f o r each blank i n the c l o z e e x e r c i s e ... should r e s u l t i n such (reading comprehension) improvement" (p. 178) 25 and p o s t u l a t e s t h a t the c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n v o l v e d i n improving comprehension a b i l i t y through c l o z e e x e r c i s e s may be the reader's awareness of the reasons f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of p a r t i c u l a r words f o r each blank i n the passage. Pa r a d i s and Bayne (1977) examined the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of syst e m a t i c c l o z e task i n s t r u c t i o n on primary grade reading success. F i r s t and second grade students from a u n i v e r s i t y l a b s c h o o l , none of whom was e x p e r i e n c i n g severe d i f f i c u l t y i n l e a r n i n g to read, were d i v i d e d randomly i n t o an experimental (n = 16) and a c o n t r o l group (n = 13). The experimental treatment c o n s i s t e d of c l o z e tasks developed from b a s a l reader m a t e r i a l s ; the c o n t r o l treatment c o n s i s t e d of motivated s e l f - s e l e c t e d reading coupled with phonic reinforcement a c t i v i t i e s . Over an 8 week p e r i o d , s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d 4 hours of treatment i n s t r u c t i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n reading achievement using the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t . In t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s , P a r a d i s and Bayne f e l t t h a t the r e s u l t s might have been a f f e c t e d by the f a c t t h a t the s u b j e c t s were not d i s a b l e d readers. D i s a b l e d readers f o r whom reading may be a s e r i e s of separate s k i l l s may b e n e f i t more from c l o z e i n s t r u c t i o n than a b l e readers f o r whom reading may be a u n i t a r y p r o c e s s . Duke (1977) with 90 Grade 3 s u b j e c t s i n New Hampshire examined the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a m o d i f i e d c l o z e procedure using context c l u e s i n improving reading comprehension. Both the experimental and the c o n t r o l group used the Ginn 360 b a s a l reading s e r i e s but the experimental group a l s o d i d 36 c l o z e 26 l e s s o n s . Lessons were done three times a week f o r 15 minutes each time. Duke found t h a t the m o d i f i e d c l o z e procedure was as e f f e c t i v e as the c o n v e n t i o n a l method i n producing s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n word knowledge, reading comprehension, and t o t a l reading achievement; however, i t was not more e f f e c t i v e . Rogers (1982) attempted t o improve the reading comprehension of 159 low-comprehending community c o l l e g e students through 18 hours of c l o z e i n s t r u c t i o n . There were fou r treatment groups: c l o z e only, c l o z e with d i s c u s s i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l method, t r a d i t i o n a l method wi t h d i s c u s s i o n . A l l groups improved t h e i r scores i n reading comprehension and Rogers concluded t h a t c l o z e i s as e f f e c t i v e as more t r a d i t i o n a l programs and, t h e r e f o r e , a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e although the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c l o z e procedure may vary among t e a c h e r s . Y e l l i n (1978) compared two c l o z e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s using 104 f i f t h graders as s u b j e c t s : a product approach where the r e was only one c o r r e c t answer and a process approach where synonyms were a c c e p t a b l e . With the process approach students engaged i n small group d i s c u s s i o n . Y e l l i n found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups i n reading comprehension performance. The p o s t t e s t c l o z e measures d i d not r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher c l o z e scores f o r those students i n small group d i s c u s s i o n s compared wi t h students who worked i n d i v i d u a l l y and s i l e n t l y . W ilson (1977) s t u d i e d the use of the c l o z e procedure with f o u r d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of elementary school s t u d e n t s : two c l a s s e s of Grade 4 students and two c l a s s e s of Grade 6 27 s t u d e n t s . One c l a s s i n each grade formed the experimental group and the other c l a s s formed the c o n t r o l group. The c l o z e treatment c o n s i s t e d of a p r e t e s t , nine c l o z e l e s s o n s , a p o s t t e s t , nine more c l o z e l e s s o n s , and a second p o s t t e s t . He found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the groups i n doing grammatical e x e r c i s e s , but a l l groups d i d improve s l i g h t l y i n reading a b i l i t y . For that reason, he recommended using c l o z e as one method of i n s t r u c t i o n b e l i e v i n g i t to be as e f f e c t i v e as t r a d i t i o n a l methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . McNamara (1977) used three i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s with Grade 12 students i n an American government course: c l o z e procedure, SQ3R, and l e c t u r e / d i s c u s s i o n . A l l three methods were found to be e f f e c t i v e as t e a c h i n g techniques s i n c e each promoted s i g n i f i c a n t growth i n content knowledge. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between any of the methods of i n s t r u c t i o n except i n the second semester when the l e c t u r e / d i s c u s s i o n group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the c l o z e group. Shoop (1982) a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of three i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s on i n f e r e n t i a l comprehension of textbook m a t e r i a l : c l o z e , study guide, and combination method of c l o z e and study guide. One hundred and f o r t y - f o u r Grade 8 s tudents were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments. Those i n the c l o z e treatment group completed passages from s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks d e l e t e d i n a r e g u l a r p a t t e r n . The study guide treatment group answered i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s over the same i n t a c t passages. The combination group a l t e r n a t e d 28 these treatments. Data from a p o s t t e s t of i n f e r e n t i a l comprehension r e v e a l e d t h a t the combination of c l o z e and study guide was a s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment than c l o z e i n s t r u c t i o n alone r e g a r d l e s s of teacher or achievement l e v e l . 1.2 Second language res e a r c h There has been very l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h i n the use of the c l o z e procedure f o r te a c h i n g reading i n a second language. In 1972 O i l e r , d i s c u s s i n g the use of the c l o z e procedure as a tea c h i n g technique, c a l l e d f o r re s e a r c h i n t o the e f f e c t of repeated p r a c t i c e i n the t a k i n g of c l o z e t e s t s to determine whether the a b i l i t y to do c l o z e t e s t s i s a s s o c i a t e d with improved reading comprehension. D e s p i t e t h i s c a l l , t h e r e has been l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on the c l o z e procedure as a teaching technique i n the second language classroom although there has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of research i n the use of the c l o z e procedure f o r t e s t i n g language p r o f i c i e n c y . Friedman (1964) s t u d i e d the use of the c l o z e procedure f o r improving the reading comprehension of f o r e i g n students a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l . She found s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n reading comprehension with a group of students who d i d 20 c l o z e e x e r c i s e s from the McColl-Crabbes Standard T e s t Lessons i n Reading. Although the experimental group f a i l e d t o show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e from a c o n t r o l group which d i d h a l f as many c l o z e e x e r c i s e s , both groups d i d show s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n reading comprehension. She concluded t h a t c l o z e e x e r c i s e s are 29 u s e f u l f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n t o n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s . G r e e n e w a l d (1974) s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g i n c l o z e and c o n t e x t u a l c l u e e x e r c i s e s upon h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e c o n t e x t . Two h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s i n t h i r d y e a r F r e n c h w e r e a s s i g n e d a t random t o one o f f i v e g r o u p s , e a c h g r o u p u s i n g s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s : t r a i n i n g i n E n g l i s h c o n t e x t u a l c l u e e x e r c i s e s , t r a i n i n g i n F r e n c h c o n t e x t u a l c l u e e x e r c i s e s , t r a i n i n g i n E n g l i s h c l o z e e x e r c i s e s , t r a i n i n g i n F r e n c h c l o z e e x e r c i s e s , and a c o n t r o l t r e a t m e n t o f v o c a b u l a r y e x e r c i s e s i n F r e n c h . A t t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d s t u d e n t s w e r e t e s t e d w i t h a r e s e a r c h e r - m a d e c l o z e t e s t i n F r e n c h and a c o n t e x t t e s t i n F r e n c h . The g r o u p t r a i n i n g i n c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i n E n g l i s h showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e c l o z e t e s t and t h e g r o u p t r a i n i n g i n c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i n F r e n c h showed a g a i n c l o s e l y a p p r o a c h i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . However, no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p - a g a i n s t - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d t o e x i s t b e t w e e n p r e t o p o s t g a i n s o f t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t s on e i t h e r o f t h e two t e s t s . G r e e n e w a l d a t t r i b u t e d h e r l a c k o f c l e a r c u t r e s u l t s t o f o u r p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s : t h e h i g h d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l o f t h e t e s t i n s t r u m e n t s ; t h e p o s s i b l e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e t r a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s ; t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d ; o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n may n o t h a v e a t t a i n e d t h e l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t demanded by t h e t a s k . D e s p i t e t h e s e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , G r e e n e w a l d (1981) recommended t h e use o f c l o z e m a t e r i a l s t o t e a c h r e a d i n g . 30 Whitmer (1971) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c l o z e and i n f e r e n t i a l techniques upon French reading comprehension at the i n t e r m e d i a t e c o l l e g e l e v e l . There were a t o t a l of 52 s u b j e c t s i n two c l a s s e s of i n t e r m e d i a t e c o l l e g e French. The experimental group had f o u r phases of treatment: cognates and f a l s e cognates; a f f i x e s , r o o t s and word f a m i l i e s ; l o c a t i n g main elements, key words, and c e n t r a l i d e a s ; i n f e r e n t i a l techniques and c l o z e . The c o n t r o l group had e x t r a o r a l d r i l l s and i n f o r m a l c h a t s . Whitmer observed t h a t students i n the experimental group p a i d c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n to c o n t e x t u a l and s t r u c t u r a l c l u e s a f t e r being exposed to c l o z e u n i t s i n French. Although the experimental group d i d b e t t e r i n French reading comprehension f o l l o w i n g treatment, the r e s u l t s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, the e f f e c t of the c l o z e treatment was confounded by the other treatments which the experimental group a l s o underwent. Beck (1985) examined the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of using c l o z e procedure f o r t e a c h i n g reading and w r i t i n g of i n t e r m e d i a t e German. Two i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, the c l o z e method and t e a c h e r - l e d d i s c u s s i o n , were used with high school students e n r o l l e d i n t h i r d year German. The c l o z e group of 20 students s i l e n t l y read and r e s t o r e d a c l o z e passage taken from an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l German reader f o r 20 minutes then spent 10 minutes c o r r e c t i n g t h e i r work a f t e r being given the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . The other group read the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n s i l e n t l y f o r 10 minutes then d i s c u s s e d i t under the guidance of the teacher f o r 20 minutes. The treatment occurred once a week f o r 10 weeks. The d i s c u s s i o n group outperformed the c l o z e group on the weekly t e s t s by g e n e r a t i n g more words i n the extended summaries which they wrote. The d i s c u s s i o n group a l s o found the t e s t s e a s i e r . No d i r e c t t e s t i n g of reading comprehension was done. 2. Repeated R e a d i n g - W h i l e - L i s t e n i n g There are a number of r e l a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g methods. One of the f i r s t t o be d e s c r i b e d was the n e u r o l o g i c a l - i m p r e s s method of remedial-reading i n s t r u c t i o n (Heckelman, 1969) i n which the student and teacher read aloud s i m u l t a n e o u s l y at a r a p i d r a t e while the i n s t r u c t o r s l i d e s h i s f i n g e r along the words being spoken. The teacher's v o i c e i s d i r e c t e d i n t o the student's ear so t h a t the student can read and l i s t e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . New m a t e r i a l i s read at each reading s e s s i o n . A s s i s t e d reading (Hoskisson, 1975) i s a method f o r parents and t e a c h e r s i n which an a d u l t reads to the c h i l d and has the c h i l d repeat the words, phrases or sentences a f t e r h earing them. In t h i s way c h i l d r e n "begin to l e a r n to read by reading, much as they l e a r n e d to t a l k by t a l k i n g . " In a school s e t t i n g , Hoskisson and Krohm (1974) used a tape r e c o r d e r and l i s t e n i n g posts i n order to provide more p r a c t i c e i n r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g . Repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) i s a method i n which a short, meaningful passage of 50-200 words i s reread s e v e r a l times u n t i l a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of f l u e n c y i s reached. Repeated readings can be done with or without audio support; i f audio support i s given, the student 32 reads the passage s i l e n t l y while l i s t e n i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y to the tape-recorded n a r r a t i o n . Chomsky (1978) used a method of r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g with nonreading Grade 3 students. She had each c h i l d memorize s t o r y books by reading and r e r e a d i n g w h i l e l i s t e n i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y to the commercial tapes which accompanied the books. The student a l s o read o r a l l y with the tape or alone a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to the tape. When the student could read the book independently, he read i t to the teacher and to h i s classmates, parents, or younger c h i l d r e n . T h i s method combined Heckelman's r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g w i t h Samuel's repeated readings. A l l four of these methods have the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : the presence of a reading "model" e i t h e r i n person or on audio tape, the t r a c k i n g of the l i n e of p r i n t by the student, and the reading aloud, by the student, of the same m a t e r i a l to which he l i s t e n s (Janiak, 1983). An important reason given f o r advocating the v a r i o u s r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g techniques i s the development of reading f l u e n c y , "that l e v e l of reading competence at which n o n t e c h n i c a l t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s can be e f f o r t l e s s l y , smoothly, and a u t o m a t i c a l l y understood" ( S c h r e i b e r , 1980). Learning to compensate f o r the absence of p r o s o d i c cues i s an important task of readers ( F r i e s , 1963). Because a w r i t t e n t e x t does not s i g n a l i n t o n a t i o n , s t r e s s , or pauses, a f l u e n t reader must l e a r n to supply the m i s s i n g s i g n a l s r a p i d l y and a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n order to make semantic sense of the t e x t . S c h r e i b e r * s r a t i o n a l e f o r using the method of repeated readings combined with o r a l reading by a teacher or other competent reader i s based upon F r i e s * comments. Because w r i t t e n E n g l i s h o f t e n does not s i g n a l s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e by means of p u n c t u a t i o n cues, p a r s i n g a w r i t t e n sentence i s a d i f f i c u l t task f o r a beginning reader. Take, f o r example, the sentence which S c h r e i b e r g i v e s : "Our dog's bark sometimes f r i g h t e n s people" (p. 180). Based upon experimental evidence, S c h r e i b e r concludes t h a t beginning readers have d i f f i c u l t y reading t h i s sentence because they do not know how to "put together i n t o m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d phrases words which they can decode and which they c o u l d of course comprehend i n the form of a sentence spoken or read aloud t o them" (p. 180). T h i s i s because "punctuation does not d i v i d e w r i t t e n sentences i n t o phrases as c l e a r l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y as prosody does f o r spoken sentences" (p. 180) . T r a n s f e r r i n g knowledge from an a u r a l / o r a l system where phrases are c l e a r l y marked to a w r i t t e n system where they are not i n d i c a t e d i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a beginning reader. Samuels' r a t i o n a l e f o r the method of repeated readings d i f f e r s from S c h r e i b e r ' s and stems from h i s n o t i o n of a u t o m a t i c i t y . He s t a t e s (1979) t h a t " a t t e n t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n order to d e r i v e meaning from t e x t and t h a t the amount of a t t e n t i o n a l resource which any i n d i v i d u a l possesses i s l i m i t e d " (1984, p. 197). Both t a s k s , t h a t of decoding and t h a t of comprehension, r e q u i r e a t t e n t i o n . The amount of a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e d by each task d i f f e r s from reader to reader and from t e x t to t e x t . Beginning readers must pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to decoding and, hence, have l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n l e f t f o r 34 comprehension. S k i l l e d r e a d e r s d e v e l o p a u t o m a t i c i t y i n d e c o d i n g w h i c h f r e e s a t t e n t i o n f o r the t a s k of comprehending. In Samuels' o p i n i o n , t h e method of r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g s enhances comprehension because the d e c o d i n g b a r r i e r i s g r a d u a l l y overcome. The analogy which he draws i s between th e development of r e a d i n g s k i l l s and t h e development of s i m i l a r l y complex m u s i c a l or a t h l e t i c s k i l l s . At b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s , both music and a t h l e t i c s r e q u i r e r e p e a t e d p r a c t i c e of s m a l l u n i t s f o r a u t o m a t i c i t y t o d e v e l o p and so, he argues, does r e a d i n g . Kann (1983), c i t i n g and a g r e e i n g w i t h S c h r e i b e r , b e l i e v e s t h a t the method of r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r l e a r n i n g - d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n because " i t promotes the development of s y n t a c t i c competency.... S y n t a c t i c competency i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o comprehension of the t e x t " (p. 9 1 ) . By h e a r i n g a p p r o p r i a t e p h r a s i n g of a passage and r e p e a t i n g t h e passage w i t h c o r r e c t p h r a s i n g , t h e reader w i l l have l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i mposing such p h r a s i n g h i m s e l f and w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become a more f l u e n t r e a d e r . S i n c e 1969, t h e v a r i o u s methods of r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g and/or r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g have been recommended by many t e a c h e r s , s p e c i a l i s t s , and r e s e a r c h e r s f o r both r e m e d i a l and r e g u l a r f i r s t language s t u d e n t s . The method i s recommended f o r c h i l d r e n (Chomsky, 1978; J a n i a k , 1983; Samuels, 1979), f o r o l d e r s t u d e n t s (Carbo, 1978), f o r s t u d e n t s who a r e weak i n r e a d i n g (Johns, 1986), f o r l e a r n i n g - d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n (Kann, 1983) , and f o r a d u l t s w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (Moyer, 1982). Repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g f o r second language l e a r n e r s 35 i s not d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e but Chomsky, Samuels (1979), and Heckelman a l l p o i n t out t h a t repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e -l i s t e n i n g i s a t r a d i t i o n a l method of teaching reading s t i l l used i n sc h o o l s i n other p a r t s of the world. 2.1 F i r s t language research Many r e s e a r c h e r s have reported gains of v a r i o u s kinds through the use of r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g techniques. Heckelman (1969) r e p o r t e d on a study of the n e u r o l o g i c a l - i m p r e s s method with 24 students from Grades 7 t o 10, a l l of whom were reading at l e a s t 3 years below grade l e v e l but had an I.Q. score of 90 or above. The mean ga i n i n reading comprehension a f t e r only 7 1/4 hours of i n s t r u c t i o n was 1.9 grade l e v e l s and the top gain was 5.9 grade l e v e l s . The ga i n s were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.001 l e v e l . Samuels (1979) r e p o r t e d on a study of repeated readings done by Dahl and Samuels (1976) with elementary students who were poor readers but of normal i n t e l l i g e n c e . Students who r e c e i v e d supplementary work i n repeated reading made s i g n i f i c a n t g ains i n both comprehension and speed compared t o the c o n t r o l group. Carbo (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t a f t e r using t a l k i n g books with c h i l d r e n with severe l e a r n i n g handicaps, a l l of the students made s u b s t a n t i a l g a i n s i n reading comprehension, word r e c o g n i t i o n and word meaning. E i g h t l e a r n i n g - d i s a b l e d students of average i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n Grades 2 t o 6, who had memory 36 problems, a t t e n t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s , and a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n d e f i c i e n c i e s were taught with the t a l k i n g books reading method. At the end of 3 months of l i s t e n i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l tape r e c o r d i n g s e s p e c i a l l y made f o r each student, i t was found that the average g a i n i n word r e c o g n i t i o n was 8 months. Carbo does not gi v e f i g u r e s f o r the gains i n reading comprehension or word meaning. Chomsky (1978) used taped books f o r 4 months with f i v e Grade 3 readers who were reading below grade l e v e l . P r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t scores on s e v e r a l reading d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s showed encouraging g a i n s . On the Wide Range Achievement Test reading s u b t e s t , the students averaged a gain of 5 months. The D u r r e l l A n a l y s i s of Reading D i f f i c u l t y showed gains i n o r a l speed of s e v e r a l months to one year. The G a t e s - M c K i l l o p s u b t e s t , Phrases: F l a s h P r e s e n t a t i o n , showed gains of 0.9 i n grade score f o r two c h i l d r e n and 1.1 f o r a t h i r d c h i l d . Gonzales and E l i j a h (1975), u s i n g two o r a l readings of sho r t passages but no taped model, found a r e d u c t i o n i n the number of e r r o r s made by the 26 Grade 3 developmental readers at both the i n s t r u c t i o n a l and f r u s t r a t i o n l e v e l s . "Since the number of e r r o r s are i n d i c a t i o n s of the d i f f i c u l t y of the m a t e r i a l read, t h i s r e d u c t i o n then r e f l e c t s a decrease i n d i f f i c u l t y encountered by the reader upon r e r e a d i n g the m a t e r i a l " (p. 651). Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the present study was the f a c t t h a t Gonzales and E l i j a h found t h a t s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of t e x t improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y from f i r s t to second r e a d i n g . T h i s occurred at both the i n s t r u c t i o n a l and 37 f r u s t r a t i o n reading l e v e l s . T h i s suggests t h a t repeated r e a d i n g may h e l p improve grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y . Moyer (1982), using m u l t i p l e o r a l readings but no taped model, rep o r t e d an i n c r e a s e i n reading r a t e with both an a d u l t reader and a small number of elementary and secondary school students. The a d u l t , who had s u f f e r e d a severe l o s s i n the a b i l i t y to read as the r e s u l t of c e r e b r a l trauma f o l l o w i n g surgery, achieved a g a i n i n reading r a t e of 40-50% over a 12 week p e r i o d . With elementary and secondary d y s l e x i c students, Moyer found t h a t d a i l y p r a c t i c e with m u l t i p l e o r a l r e r e a d i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n the r a t e of reading new m a t e r i a l . (No f i g u r e s given.) A number of the r e s e a r c h e r s have repo r t e d improvement i n a t t i t u d e and m o t i v a t i o n through the use of the r e a d i n g - w h i l e -l i s t e n i n g methods. Carbo (1978) s t a t e s "the success which youngsters experience with the t a l k i n g book method b u i l d s t h e i r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and makes them more w i l l i n g to i n v e s t f u r t h e r e f f o r t i n l e a r n i n g to read" (p. 268). Samuels (1979) g i v e s anecdotal evidence of students who now enjoy reading and who are motivated to improve t h e i r reading speed. Chomsky (1978) mentions the i n c r e a s e i n c o n f i d e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n which the c h i l d r e n showed a f t e r 4 months of r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g . L a f f e y and K e l l y (1981) found t h a t nine poor readers who took p a r t i n repeated reading made grea t e r g a i n s i n comprehension and reading achievement i n the year of the treatment than i n the year p r i o r to the treatment. In a d i f f e r e n t study, L a f f e y , K e l l y , and Perry (1980) found t h a t 38 t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g comprehension between a c o n t r o l group and an e x p e r i m e n t a l group of c u l t u r a l l y -d i f f e r e n t ( r u r a l V i r g i n i a ) s t u d e n t s i n Grades 5 and 6 who l i s t e n e d two t o t h r e e t i m e s t o taped l i t e r a t u r e then read a l o n g o r a l l y u n t i l f l u e n c y was a c h i e v e d . The t r e a t m e n t l a s t e d 13 weeks and was 15 minutes d a i l y . A l t h o u g h t h e comprehension, v o c a b u l a r y and a c c u r a c y s c o r e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, o n l y the r e a d i n g comprehension s c o r e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The a u t h o r s contended, however, t h a t a l l s c o r e s were e d u c a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t because of the e x t r e m e l y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward r e a d i n g on t h e p a r t of the s t u d e n t s a f t e r the program. Skouge (1984) compared t h e e f f e c t s of t h r e e p r e v i e w i n g p r o c e d u r e s on t h e o r a l d e c o d i n g p r o f i c i e n c i e s of f i v e d y s f l u e n t r e a d e r s a t the j u n i o r h i g h l e v e l . The t h r e e p r e v i e w i n g p r o c e d u r e s were r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g , r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g w i t h word s u p p l y , and unre h e a r s e d p r a c t i c e w i t h word s u p p l y . Skouge l o o k e d a t the number of t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s needed f o r s t u d e n t s t o a t t a i n an o r a l d e c o d i n g r a t e of 100 or more words c o r r e c t per minute w i t h f i v e or fewer words i n c o r r e c t per minute and c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e s of r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g and r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g w i t h word s u p p l y were s i m i l a r l y p o w e r f u l f o r r e a c h i n g c r i t e r i o n l e v e l . R a s h o t t e and Torgesen (1985) examined t h e p r o c e s s of r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g i t s e l f and found w i t h 12 n o n f l u e n t , l e a r n i n g -d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s i n Grades 2 th r o u g h 5 t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n r e a d i n g speed w i t h the r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g method depended on t h e number o f s h a r e d w o r d s among t h e s t o r i e s . I f t h e s t o r i e s had f e w s h a r e d w o r d s , r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g was n o t more e f f e c t i v e f o r i m p r o v i n g s p e e d t h a n an e q u i v a l e n t amount o f n o n r e p e t i t i v e r e a d i n g . No o r a l model was p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . R a s h o t t e and T o r g e s e n r e p o r t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s l i k e d t h e r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g m e thod r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d e g r e e o f i m p r o v e m e n t a t t a i n e d . A t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y , a f t e r d a i l y r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e f o r a m onth, h a l f o f t h e s t u d e n t s a s k e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e s t o r y r e a d i n g s e s s i o n s . R a s h o t t e and T o r g e s e n commented, "... one p o i n t o f u s e f u l n e s s f o r t h i s t e c h n i q u e may be t h a t i t e n c o u r a g e s s t u d e n t s t o r e a d more, o r a t l e a s t , t o h a v e a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d r e a d i n g , b e c a u s e w i t h e a c h r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e same s t o r y t h e s t u d e n t u s u a l l y a c h i e v e s s p e e d i m p r o v e m e n t " (p. 1 8 8 ) . C a r v e r and H o f f m a n (1981) c o n s i d e r e d t h e e f f e c t o f p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g on g a i n i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y u s i n g a c o m p u t e r - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s y s t e m . H i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s who r e a d p o o r l y were g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d r e a d i n g t r a i n i n g o v e r a p e r i o d o f 50 t o 70 h o u r s u s i n g a new c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m o f p r o s e p a s s a g e s . S t u d e n t s had t o make a c h o i c e b e t w e e n two p o s s i b l e w o r d s t o f i l l b l a n k s o c c u r r i n g e v e r y f i f t h w o r d (a c l o z e e x e r c i s e , a l t h o u g h n o t c a l l e d t h a t by C a r v e r and H o f f m a n ) b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e r e a d i n g . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s g a i n e d f l u e n c y on t h e s p e c i f i c t a s k b u t g a i n i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y was n o t so c l e a r l y e v i d e n t . One m e a s u r e showed a t h r e e g r a d e r e a d i n g g a i n b u t a s e c o n d m e a s u r e showed l i t t l e o r no e v i d e n c e o f g a i n . 40 Reitsma (1988) had c l e a r l y negative r e s u l t s when he compared t h r e e ways of p r a c t i c i n g reading f o r beginners: quided re a d i n g , r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g , or independent reading with computer-generated feedback a v a i l a b l e f o r students to use when they wished. He found t h a t both guided reading and independent reading with s e l f - s e l e c t e d speech feedback were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e than the r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g c o n d i t i o n or the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . However, s u b j e c t s i n the r e a d i n g -w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g group read each s t o r y only once; no attempt was made to p r o v i d e repeated readings of the s t o r y . I t i s noteworthy t h a t Reitsma comments t h a t the s u b j e c t s i n the study were e n t h u s i a s t i c about the reading-along method; they were motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e and i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e to continue with reading e x e r c i s e s of t h i s kind. 2.2 Second language research There i s o n l y one p i e c e of research on e i t h e r repeated reading or r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n a second language. Layton (1984) examined the e f f e c t s of repeated and s e r i a l r e ading i n o r a l and s i l e n t modes on the reading r a t e , accuracy and comprehension of ESL a d u l t s . The s u b j e c t s , 71 Spanish-speaking c o l l e g e students who were l e a r n i n g t o read i n E n g l i s h as a Second Language, were randomly assigned to one of four groups: o r a l repeated readings (the students d i d the o r a l r e a d i n g ) ; o r a l s e r i a l readings (a d i f f e r e n t passage each time); s i l e n t repeated r e a d i n g s ; and s i l e n t s e r i a l readings. The 41 s t u d e n t s p r a c t i s e d reading f o r a t o t a l of 16 p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s . Layton found t h a t the students who had p r a c t i s e d reading o r a l l y read s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r o r a l l y , but t h a t they read s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s a c c u r a t e l y than those who had p r a c t i s e d s i l e n t l y . She concluded t h a t , based on the r e s u l t s and p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , s i l e n t s e r i a l reading i s the p r e f e r r e d p r a c t i c e technique f o r ESL students. 3. Summary and C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the Present Study The r e s e a r c h on the use of the c l o z e procedure as a te a c h i n g technique seems to suggest t h a t the c l o z e procedure may be more e f f e c t i v e with poor readers than with s k i l l e d ones. The s t u d i e s of McGee (1981) and Harding (1977) are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o the present study. McGee compared good and poor readers and concluded t h a t the c l o z e technique may be e s p e c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l f o r poor readers. Harding found t h a t black and Spanish students, who d i d not speak standard E n g l i s h , achieved g r e a t e r gains than the other students i n the experimental group. That which i s e f f e c t i v e f o r poor f i r s t - l a n g u a g e readers should be e f f e c t i v e f o r ESL readers as ESL readers are normally poor readers. In f a c t , C l a r k e (1979), who compared good and poor f i r s t - l a n g u a g e readers, found t h a t good f i r s t - l a n g u a g e readers, when reading i n the second language, used the same reading s t r a t e g i e s as the poor readers. D i f f e r e n c e s between good and poor readers were g r e a t l y reduced when reading i n the second language. I t appears t h a t an a u r a l component may help students complete a c l o z e e x e r c i s e . Rankin e t a l . (1980), who organized c l o z e i n s t r u c t i o n s e q u e n t i a l l y i n an attempt to make i t a more e f f e c t i v e method of reading i n s t r u c t i o n , found t h a t the i n c l u s i o n of a spoken component was h e l p f u l f o r students. (Of the 86 students i n t h e i r study, 38 had a language other than E n g l i s h f o r t h e i r mother tongue.) Rye (1982) a l s o commented t h a t students, i n t h i s case f i r s t - l a n g u a g e students, o f t e n read the content aloud to themselves when they found c l o z e passages d i f f i c u l t . The a u d i t o r y s i g n a l appeared to a i d understanding and subsequent p r o d u c t i o n of the m i s s i n g words. The r e s e a r c h on repeated r e a d i n g and r e a d i n g - w h i l e -l i s t e n i n g has focussed on readers who are n o n - f l u e n t readers e i t h e r because they are beginning readers or because of l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . I t appears from the r e s e a r c h evidence t h a t the l i s t e n i n g component may be important i n repeated reading as Heckelman (1969), Chomsky (1978), L a f f e y et a l . (1980) , and Carbo (1979) a l l reported i n c r e a s e s i n reading comprehension with r e a d i n g - w h i l - e - l i s t e n i n g methods. On the other hand, Carver and Hoffman's study of repeated reading (1981) , u s i n g a computer-based reading system with no a u r a l component, found t h a t students' g e n e r a l reading a b i l i t y d i d not i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The ESL students whom Layton (1984) s t u d i e d had no o p p o r t u n i t y to l i s t e n t o the t e x t ; t h i s might account f o r the l a c k of success of the repeated reading method. In the Reitsma study (1988) of r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g , students l i s t e n e d t o the t e x t only one time; t h i s l a c k of repeated a u r a l input may have been the cause of the 43 i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the method. Bloomer (1961) s u g g e s t e d combining th e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g r e a d i n g speed t o see what the e f f e c t of the c o m b i n a t i o n would be. The c o m b i n a t i o n of r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g and t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e appears t o e x e m p l i f y the type of i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e which Bloomer e n v i s i o n e d . The c o m b i n a t i o n of r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g and t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a l s o s e r v e s t o c i r c u m v e n t a problem which Reitsma (1988) commented on w i t h r e g a r d t o the customary r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g methods: There i s no g u arantee t h a t a r e ader i s a t t e n d i n g t o t h e p r i n t e d t e x t w h i l e the words a r e b e i n g spoken. However, i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s between the p r i n t e d and spoken words, i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the s t u d e n t l o o k a t the word as i t i s spoken. A c l o z e e x e r c i s e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g compels s t u d e n t s t o read t h e t e x t a t the same speed as t h e tape r e c o r d i n g . S t u d e n t s a r e f o r c e d t o t a k e an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s i f they are t o complete th e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s u c c e s s f u l l y . K rashen (1982) b e l i e v e s t h a t second language l e a r n e r s a c q u i r e s y n t a c t i c a l competency i n t h e same manner as n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , t h r o u g h n a t u r a l a c q u i s i t i o n r a t h e r than through t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g of r u l e s . What i s i m p o r t a n t i n the second language c l a s s r o o m , a c c o r d i n g t o Krashen, i s s u f f i c i e n t , u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , i n t e r e s t i n g i n p u t . Repeated r e a d i n g of a t e x t w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y l i s t e n i n g t o i t s h o u l d e n a b l e ESL l e a r n e r s t o hear and a c q u i r e c o r r e c t s y n t a c t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s as w e l l 44 as t o l e a r n t o read more f l u e n t l y . G o n z a l e s and E l i j a h (1975) found t h a t s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y between a f i r s t and second r e a d i n g . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g may be e f f e c t i v e f o r i m p r o v i n g g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y . The speed of the taped r e a d i n g i n r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g has v a r i e d from study t o s t u d y . Chomsky (1978) used commercial r e c o r d i n g s but o t h e r s (Carbo, 1978; R e i t s m a , 1988) have r e c o r d e d passages a t s l o w e r speeds. Reitsma used a speed of 55 words per minute i n h i s study of Grade 1 s t u d e n t s ; Carbo v a r i e d t h e speed of the r e c o r d i n g a c c o r d i n g t o the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . McMahon (1983) found t h a t f i r s t grade r e a d e r s c o u l d not combine r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g w e l l when the m a t e r i a l was p r e s e n t e d a t r a t e s t y p i c a l of p u b l i s h e d r e a d - a l o n g tape r e c o r d i n g s (about 112 words per m i n u t e ) . N o n e t h e l e s s , i n t h e p r e s e n t study i t was d e c i d e d t o use commercial r e c o r d i n g s w i t h speeds a v e r a g i n g 150 words per minute because secondary ESL s t u d e n t s must cope w i t h l e c t u r e and a u d i o - v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n t h e i r r e g u l a r (non-ESL) c l a s s e s . The p r e s e n t study was u n d e r t a k e n t o examine th e e f f e c t s of t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e -l i s t e n i n g f o r many rea s o n s . The i n t e r a c t i v e model of r e a d i n g p r o v i d e s t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r j o i n i n g t h e two t e c h n i q u e s . The r e s e a r c h on t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e and r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t both t e c h n i q u e s may be s u c c e s s f u l i n i n c r e a s i n g ESL s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . 45 K r a s h e n 1 s b e l i e f t h a t language i s a c q u i r e d through optimal i n p u t , not l e a r n e d , suggests that repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e -l i s t e n i n g w i l l i n c r e a s e the grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y of ESL s t u d e n t s . F i n a l l y , many classroom teachers p r e s e n t l y use r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s with ESL students although t h e i r use has never been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by r e s e a r c h . 46 I I I . DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The present study was designed and conducted to examine the e f f e c t s of c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n with repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g on the reading a b i l i t y and grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y of secondary l e v e l ESL students. 1. Subje c t s The s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were 27 ESL students e n r o l l e d i n the E n g l i s h Language Centre of an urban Vancouver secondary s c h o o l . The E n g l i s h Language Centre at B r i t a n n i a Secondary School i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t was chosen f o r t h i s study because the researc h e r taught there and the p r i n c i p a l was w i l l i n g t o have the study conducted. Enrollment i n the E n g l i s h Language Centre g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the student's E n g l i s h i s co n s i d e r e d p r o f i c i e n t enough f o r the student to be sim u l t a n e o u s l y e n r o l l e d i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s at the s c h o o l . However, some students are placed i n the E n g l i s h Language Centre only because they have been i n Canada f o r a long p e r i o d of time (5 to 7 years) and because i t i s c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e to continue r e s t r i c t i n g them to beginner and in t e r m e d i a t e ESL c l a s s e s . The students i n t h i s study had attended s c h o o l i n Canada f o r between 1 and 7 ye a r s . The s e l f - r e p o r t e d number of years of s c h o o l i n g before coming to Canada ranged from zero to ten y e a r s . The students ranged i n age from 13 t o 20. However, i t must be noted t h a t i t i s not unusual f o r refugees to lower a c h i l d ' s age on o f f i c i a l documents i n order to expedite e n t r y 47 i n t o C a nada and t o e n s u r e e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . I t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h a t one o r two o f t h e s t u d e n t s may have b e e n o v e r 20 y e a r s o f a g e . The s t u d e n t s w e r e r e g i s t e r e d i n g r a d e s e i g h t t o t w e l v e . However, t h e g r a d e l e v e l s o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r e o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e a s g r a d e l e v e l s a r e a s s i g n e d r a t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y b a s e d on age and a b i l i t y . The c o u n t r i e s o f o r i g i n w e r e V i e t n a m , C h i n a , Hong Kong , I r a n , t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , J a p a n and C a m b o d i a . The l a n g u a g e s s p o k e n a t home were V i e t n a m e s e , C a n t o n e s e , P e r s i a n , I l o c a n o , J a p a n e s e , a n d C a m b o d i a n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o comment on t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t g r e a t e r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r w h i c h t h e y l i v e d i n t h e i r c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n . A t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y , a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d h a v e been c l a s s i f i e d a s b e i n g o f l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s b u t some had p a r e n t s who had b e e n p r o f e s s i o n a l s b e f o r e t h e c h i l d r e n came t o C a n a d a . A number o f t h e s t u d e n t s had no p a r e n t s i n C a n a d a and l i v e d w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s o r a u n t s a n d u n c l e s . B e c a u s e o f t i m e t a b l i n g c o n s t r a i n t s , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t s t u d e n t s r a n d o m l y f o r t r e a t m e n t . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n B l o c k s C a n d D o f t h e E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e C e n t r e a n d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f t h e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n B l o c k s B and E. ( B l o c k A was a s p a r e f o r t h e t e a c h e r . ) The a s s i g n m e n t t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n t r o l g r o u p was done r a n d o m l y by t h e t i m e t a b l i n g p r o g r a m o f t h e 48 Vancouver School Board computer. There were 14 students i n the experimental group and 13 students i n the c o n t r o l group. I n t u i t i v e l y , i t appeared t h a t the two groups were w e l l matched. In the experimental group there were e i g h t females and s i x males. The mean number of years of s c h o o l i n g i n Canada was 4. The mean number of years of s c h o o l i n g before coming to Canada was 4.9. The mean age of the s u b j e c t s was 15.57 although t h i s may be i n c o r r e c t because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n a c c u r a t e s e l f - r e p o r t i n g . In the c o n t r o l group t h e r e were ten males and th r e e females. The mean number of years of s c h o o l i n g i n Canada was 4.07. The mean number of years of s c h o o l i n g b e f o r e coming to Canada was 4.23. The mean age of the s u b j e c t s was 15.92, but, again, t h i s may be i n a c c u r a t e . In the experimental group there were ten Chinese speakers, three Vietnamese speakers, one P e r s i a n speaker and one Ilocano speaker. (One student r e p o r t e d speaking both Vietnamese and Chinese.) In the c o n t r o l group, there were ten Chinese speakers, two Vietnamese speakers, one P e r s i a n speaker, one Japanese speaker, and one Cambodian speaker. (One student r e p o r t e d speaking Cambodian, Chinese and Vietnamese.) 2. The Experimental M a t e r i a l s Seventeen r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s were prepared f o r use d u r i n g the study. Commercially prepared f i l m s t r i p s with accompanying c a s s e t t e tapes were the source of the r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . There were f i v e types of f i l m s t r i p s : 49 a. s t o r i e s w e l l - k n o w n i n w e s t e r n c u l t u r e , b u t n o t known t o t h e s t u d e n t s ; e . g . , Tom S a w y e r , F r a n k e n s t e i n , A r e t e , S h a n e ; b. t o p i c s i n s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y ; e . g . , l o g g i n g , m a g n e t i s m , g l a s s m a n u f a c t u r e , o i l r e c o v e r y ; c . h i s t o r y ; e . g . , p i o n e e r l i f e ; d. l i f e s k i l l s ; e . g . , how t o f i n d a j o b , how t o s t u d y e f f e c t i v e l y ; e. grammar; one f i l m s t r i p was on grammar. Th e s e s u b j e c t s w e r e c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t was f e l t t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f i l m s t r i p s w o u l d be o f b e n e f i t t o t h e s t u d e n t s . The c l o z e e x e r c i s e s w e r e p r e p a r e d by t r a n s c r i b i n g a s h o r t p a s s a g e n e a r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h t a p e and t h e n d e l e t i n g e v e r y t e n t h w o r d , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e t e n t h word was n o t a p r o p e r noun. I f t h e t e n t h w o r d was a p r o p e r noun, t h e n t h e n e x t word w h i c h was n o t a p r o p e r noun was d e l e t e d . The l e n g t h o f t h e p a s s a g e s r a n g e d f r o m 190 w o rds (Shane) t o 344 w o r d s ( P i o n e e r F a r m i n g ) b u t most were b e t w e e n 250 and 325 w o r d s . As i s c u s t o m a r y , t h e f i r s t a n d l a s t s e n t e n c e s o f e a c h p a s s a g e w ere l e f t i n t a c t . (See A p p e n d i x A f o r c o p i e s o f t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . ) The c h o s e n p a s s a g e was a l s o r e - r e c o r d e d f o u r t i m e s on a s e p a r a t e t a p e so t h a t i t c o u l d be p l a y e d e a s i l y w h i l e s t u d e n t s w e r e c h e c k i n g o r c o m p l e t i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e . The c l o z e p a s s a g e s w ere t e s t e d f o r r e a d a b i l i t y u s i n g t h e R e a d a b i l i t y I n d e x p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e A p p l e c o m p u t e r by I r v i n g and A r n o l d (1979) . The c l o z e p a s s a g e s were t h e n r a n k e d 50 i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f r e a d a b i l i t y a s f o l l o w s : T a b l e 1 R e a d a b i l i t y L e v e l o f R e a d i n g / L i s t e n i n g C l o z e P a s s a g e s T i t l e No. Words Raw N o . a G r a d e 1. Tom Sawyer 272 43 2.4 2. F r a n k e n s t e i n 260 48 3.2 3. J o b H u n t i n g — P r o b l e m 339 48 3.2 4. G r a m m a r — S e n t e n c e s 257 51 4.28 5. Shane 190 53.9 4.7 6. Steel 250 54.2 5-6 7. M a g n e t s 286 54.9 5-6 8. C l o t h e s 318 55.2 5-6 9. A r e t e 325 55.2 5-6 10. D a i r y F o o d s 290 55.3 5-6 11 . O i l 278 55.6 5-6 12. G l a s s M a k i n g 258 55.6 5-6 13. P i o n e e r F a r m i n g 344 55.8 5-6 14. Homework 292 56.3 5-6 15. P i o n e e r V i l l a g e 318 57.2 5-6 16. L o g g i n g 274 57.7 5-6 17. N o b l e H e r c u l e s 302 60.3 7-8 The raw number g i v e n by t h e R e a d a b i l i t y I n d e x p r o g r a m a l l o w s a f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l o f t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s t h a n d o e s t h e g r a d e l e v e l number and i s i n c l u d e d f o r t h a t r e a s o n . 51 M a t e r i a l s with reading l e v e l s between Grades 2 and 8 were chosen because p r e v i o u s experience i n the E n g l i s h Language Centre had i n d i c a t e d t h a t students i n the Centre u s u a l l y read at a l e v e l between Grades 3 and 6. Students of any age who read at a seventh grade l e v e l , whether they be Grade 7 or Grade 12 stu d e n t s , are u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d ready to leave the E n g l i s h Language Centre and to take a f u l l program of r e g u l a r courses. Each c l o z e passage was typed i n two d i f f e r e n t ways: f i r s t , with each d e l e t i o n c o n s e c u t i v e l y numbered and a l i n e drawn so t h a t students c o u l d w r i t e i n the m i s s i n g word (Appendix A) and secondly, with no words d e l e t e d . T h i s second, u n m u t i l i a t e d v e r s i o n was typed on the back of the answer sheet which c o n s i s t e d of a numbered l i s t of the m i s s i n g words. (See Appendix B f o r an example of an answer sheet.) The i n d i v i d u a l c l o z e passages were then compiled i n a b o o k l e t , one f o r each student i n the experimental group. At the end of the b o o k l e t a bar c h a r t was p r o v i d e d where the student's s c o r e s , c a l c u l a t e d as p e r c e n t s , were recorded. (See Appendix C f o r an example.) The seventeenth c l o z e passage, Noble Hercules, was used f o r the c l o z e passage p o s t t e s t . 3. The Measuring Instruments The f o u r measuring instruments used i n the study are l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d below: 3.1 G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test The s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t used to i d e n t i f y reading a b i l i t y was 52 t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t , L e v e l E . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y , b e c a u s e t h e r e was no r e a d i n g t e s t f o r ESL l e a r n e r s w h i c h h a d p a r a l l e l f o r m s , t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t e s t was u s e d a l t h o u g h i t i s a t e s t d e v e l o p e d f o r and normed on n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . B e f o r e t h e t r e a t m e n t , s t u d e n t s w e r e g i v e n Form 1 and a f t e r t h e t r e a t m e n t , s t u d e n t s w e re g i v e n Form 2. 3.2 S t r u c t u r e T e s t — E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e (STEL) The S t r u c t u r e T e s t — E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e ( S T E L ) , A d v a n c e d L e v e l , was t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e STEL t e s t was d e v e l o p e d by ESL t e a c h e r s J e a n e t t e B e s t and Donna I l y i n and normed on ESL s t u d e n t s i n C a l i f o r n i a . B e f o r e t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , s t u d e n t s w e re g i v e n Form 2 o f t h e t e s t and a f t e r t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , s t u d e n t s were g i v e n Form 1. 3.3 R e s e a r c h e r - d e s i g n e d r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e A t t h e end o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , s t u d e n t s i n b o t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p w e r e shown a f i l m s t r i p on t h e s t o r y o f H e r c u l e s and them c o m p l e t e d a r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e i n t h e same manner a s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p had b e e n d o i n g d u r i n g t h e s e m e s t e r - A s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1, t h i s 3 0 2 - w o r d c l o z e p a s s a g e h a d a r e a d a b i l i t y o f G r a d e 7-8. An e v e r y — t e n t h — w o r d d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n was f o l l o w e d -53 3.4 Researcher-designed a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e A f t e r the treatment p e r i o d , students were given a 13-item a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e to complete i n order to determine student a t t i t u d e towards doing the r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . (See Appendix D f o r a copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ) 4. The Experimental Procedure In t h i s study the experimental group of 14 students r e c e i v e d the experimental treatment of r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s and the c o n t r o l group of 13 students r e c e i v e d the c o n t r o l treatment. 4.1 The experimental treatment For a p e r i o d of 17 weeks d u r i n g the f i r s t semester of the academic year 1986-87, r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s were ad m i n i s t e r e d once a week to the experimental group. F i r s t , the f i l m s t r i p was shown i n i t s e n t i r e t y with the tape being heard s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ; i n other words, the students watched the f i l m s t r i p i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l manner. Often the showing of the f i l m s t r i p was preceded by a t e a c h e r - l e d d i s c u s s i o n intended to s t i m u l a t e student i n t e r e s t i n the f i l m s t r i p which was about to be shown. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n a l s o attempted to a c t i v a t e the background knowledge which students could b r i n g to bear upon the s u b j e c t . Viewing the f i l m s t r i p s was intended to e s t a b l i s h schemata i n the students' minds so t h a t they c o u l d understand what they were reading d u r i n g the completion of the c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . A f t e r t h e f i l m s t r i p was shown, t h e c l o z e b o o k l e t s were d i s t r i b u t e d . F i r s t , t h e s t u d e n t s w e re g i v e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 m i n u t e s t o r e a d t h r o u g h t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i l e n t l y , f i l l i n g i n w i t h p e n c i l any o f t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s t h a t t h e y knew. When most h a d f i n i s h e d d o i n g t h i s , s t u d e n t s l i s t e n e d t o t h e c l o z e t a p e 4 t i m e s w i t h a p a u s e a f t e r e a c h p l a y i n g t o p r o v i d e t i m e t o w r i t e t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s o r t o c o r r e c t t h e w o r d s t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y w r i t t e n . W h i l e s t u d e n t s w e re c o m p l e t i n g t h e c l o z e p a s s a g e s , t h e t e a c h e r moved a b o u t t h e c l a s s g i v i n g h i n t s s u c h a s "You've l e f t o f f one ' s ' somewhere."; "Don't f o r g e t t o l o o k f o r p a s t t e n s e s . " ; "You've g o t a s p e l l i n g m i s t a k e . " ; "No one h a s number 11 c o r r e c t . " S t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d t o work i n d e p e n d e n t l y d u r i n g t h i s t i m e ; a l t h o u g h t h e y were p e r m i t t e d t o c o n s u l t w i t h n e i g h b o u r s , few s t u d e n t s e v e r d i d s o . They a p p e a r e d t o r e g a r d t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e a s a p u z z l e a nd t r i e d v e r y h a r d t o a c h i e v e a p e r f e c t s c o r e w o r k i n g on t h e i r own. S t u d e n t s o f t e n p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d t h e i r d e s k s f r o m t h o s e o f t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s d u r i n g t h i s p a r t o f t h e e x e r c i s e . F o l l o w i n g t h e f o u r t h p l a y i n g o f t h e t a p e , s t u d e n t s were g i v e n a l i t t l e a d d i t i o n a l t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e . T h i s was a p e r i o d o f m o u n t i n g e x c i t e m e n t w i t h f r e q u e n t q u e s t i o n s t o t h e t e a c h e r : "Do I h a v e any m i s t a k e s now?" The t e a c h e r w o u l d g l a n c e a t t h e p a p e r and a n s w e r w i t h comments s u c h a s " I c a n s e e t h r e e m i s t a k e s , b u t t h e r e may be more." A t no t i m e d i d t h e t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e e x a c t l y where t h e e r r o r s w e r e . The c l o z e b o o k l e t s w e re t h e n c o l l e c t e d f o r l a t e r m a r k i n g by t h e t e a c h e r and t h e s t u d e n t s w e re e a c h g i v e n a c o p y o f t h e a n s w e r s h e e t w i t h t h e l i s t o f t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s on t h e b a c k . S t u d e n t s g r e e t e d t h e a n s w e r s h e e t w i t h s t r o n g e m o t i o n . They i m m e d i a t e l y t u r n e d t o t h e w o r d l i s t and c a l c u l a t e d t h e number o f w o r d s w h i c h t h e y had w r o n g . G r o a n s o r c r i e s o f d e l i g h t were h e a r d : "Oh, no, I f o r g o t an ' s * . n ; " I a d d e d t h e *ed' and I was r i g h t . " S t u d e n t s w e r e v e r y e x c i t e d d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . S t u d e n t s t h e n l i s t e n e d t o t h e t a p e one more t i m e w h i l e f o l l o w i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e c o m p l e t e , u n m u t i l a t e d t e x t . T h i s a l l o w e d them t o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e a d and h e a r t h e p a s s a g e c o r r e c t l y . F o l l o w i n g t h a t , s t u d e n t s w e re a s k e d e i t h e r t o r e a d t h e p a s s a g e a s a c l a s s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e t a p e o r t o r e a d t h e p a s s a g e i n d i v i d u a l l y " r o u n d r o b i n " s t y l e . The w h o l e p r o c e s s t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 t o 45 m i n u t e s d e p e n d i n g upon t h e l e n g t h o f t h e f i l m s t r i p , l e n g t h o f t h e s e l e c t e d p a s s a g e , and d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e i t s e l f . The c l o z e e x e r c i s e s w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y m a r k e d by t h e t e a c h e r . O n l y e x a c t - w o r d and e x a c t - s p e l l i n g a n s w e r s w e r e a c c e p t e d . T h i s method was u s e d b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s had had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e a r t h e w o r d and b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h w o r d s a r e a c c e p t a b l e i f one i s r e q u i r e d t o make j u d g e m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , i f a n a t i v e s p e a k e r w e re t o l e a v e o f f t h e p l u r a l m a r k e r , ' s 1 , one m i g h t assume t h a t i t was a c a r e l e s s e r r o r . I f an ESL l e a r n e r l e a v e s o f f an * s ' , i t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f p r o b a b l e w e a k n e s s i n E n g l i s h . 4.2 The control treatment The 13 students in the control group did no cloze exercises during the f i r s t semester. They followed a regular English Language Centre program which i s based upon student needs and attempts to provide reading, writing, speaking and l i s t e n i n g practice so that students can improve i n a l l four s k i l l s and function better in t h e i r regular classes. 57 IV. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the e f f e c t s of repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the c l o z e procedure on the reading a b i l i t y and grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y of secondary s c h o o l ESL students. Three s e t s of dependent v a r i a b l e s were ana l y z e d : r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as measured by p o s t t e s t scores on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s , grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y as measured by p o s t t e s t scores on the S t r u c t u r e T e s t — E n g l i s h Language (STEL), and the score on a r e s e a r c h e r - d e s i g n e d r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e . The dependent v a r i a b l e s of reading a b i l i t y and grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y were analyzed i n separate analyses of c o v a r i a n c e (ANCOVA) u s i n g the pre-treatment scores i n each as c o v a r i a t e s . The percentage scores of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups on the p o s t t e s t r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e t e s t were compared using an independent samples t - t e s t . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward doing the r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s were measured by a r e s e a r c h e r - d e s i g n e d a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The responses to the a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were counted and c a t e g o r i z e d . 1. Reading A b i l i t y The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e on means from the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group, F (1,26) = 6.977, p < 0.014. The experimental group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the c o n t r o l group at the time 58 of the p o s t t e s t ; t h e r e f o r e , the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t there w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between the r e a d i n g a b i l i t y of the experimental and c o n t r o l group a f t e r a semester of experimental treatment, i s r e j e c t e d . P r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means are presented i n Table 2. Table 2 P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Means - Reading and Grammar T e s t s Reading Scores Grammar Scores P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Exp. Group (n = 14) 38 43.07 29.93 32.79 Con. Group (n = 13) 35 36.23 27.08 27.69 T o t a l Group 36.56 39.80 28.56 30.33 2. Grammatical P r o f i c i e n c y The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e on means from the S t r u c t u r e T e s t — E n g l i s h Language grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y t e s t i n d i c a t e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group, F (1,26) = 1.306, p < 0.265. Th e r e f o r e , the second hypothesis, t h a t there w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between the grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y of the experimental and c o n t r o l group a f t e r a semester of experimental treatment, cannot be r e j e c t e d . P r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means are presented i n Table 2. 59 3. R e a d i n g / L i s t e n i n g Cloze The percentage scores of the experimental and c o n t r o l group on the p o s t t e s t l i s t e n i n g c l o z e t e s t (Table 3) were compared u s i n g an independent samples t - t e s t . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group, t (25) = 3.67, p < 0.01. T h e r e f o r e , the t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t there w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to complete a r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e , i s r e j e c t e d . Table 3 R e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g Cloze Means P o s t t e s t Exp. Group (n = 14) 87.71 Con. Group (n = 13) 80.73 4. A t t i t u d e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The students b e l i e v e d the c l o z e e x e r c i s e s to have been b e n e f i c i a l to them. Students were asked whether they thought t h a t doing the c l o z e e x e r c i s e s had helped to improve t h e i r grammar, l i s t e n i n g , r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g and/or p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The l a r g e s t number of students (11) r e p l i e d t h a t doing the c l o z e e x e r c i s e s had helped them with t h e i r l i s t e n i n g ; seven r e p l i e d t h a t t h e i r s p e l l i n g had been helped; 60 t h e same number s a i d t h a t t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n h a d b e e n h e l p e d ; f i v e s a i d t h a t t h e i r grammar had b e e n h e l p e d ; t h r e e s a i d t h a t t h e i r w r i t i n g h a d b e e n h e l p e d ; a nd two s a i d t h e i r r e a d i n g h a d b e e n h e l p e d . The s t u d e n t s e n j o y e d t r y i n g t o f i l l i n t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s w h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o t h e t a p e s e v e r y t i m e ( f o u r ) , most o f t h e t i m e ( f o u r ) , some o f t h e t i m e ( s e v e n ) a n d n e v e r ( o n e ) . They t h o u g h t t h a t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s was i n t e r e s t i n g a l l o f t h e t i m e ( t w o ) , most o f t h e t i m e ( f i v e ) , some o f t h e t i m e ( s i x ) and h a r d l y e v e r ( o n e ) . Of t h e 11 o p e n - e n d e d r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "What I want t o s a y a b o u t d o i n g t h e c l o z e s i s . . . " , o n l y two were n e g a t i v e ( " b o r i n g " a n d "have more i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c s f o r t h e f i l m s t r i p s t h a t a r e u s e d " ) ; t h e o t h e r r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s w e r e h e l p f u l . The a t t i t u d e o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o w a r d r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s was g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e a n d t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s a p p e a r e d t o h a v e an e d u c a t i o n a l l e g i t i m a c y i n t h e e y e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . 61 V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r IV a r e d i s c u s s e d a n d e v a l u a t e d a n d p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e a r e p r e s e n t e d . C o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n f r o m t h e s t u d y a r e r e p o r t e d a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e p r o p o s e d . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o a n s w e r t h r e e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e f o r s e c o n d a r y l e v e l ESL s t u d e n t s . The q u e s t i o n s w e r e t h e s e : 1. Does r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i m p r o v e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ? 2. Does r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i m p r o v e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y ? 3. Does r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o do r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s ? A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n e d s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o u g h t t h e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n : 4. Do s t u d e n t s f i n d t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s e n j o y a b l e and w o r t h w h i l e ? 1. E f f e c t s on R e a d i n g A b i l i t y T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e p o s t t e s t b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and t h e c o n t r o l group as measured by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t . The mean of the experimental group rose from 38 t o 43.07 whereas the mean of the c o n t r o l group remained approximately the same from p r e t e s t t o p o s t t e s t . There was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental and the c o n t r o l group i n the a b i l i t y to do a r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e as measured by the teacher-designed c l o z e p o s t t e s t although t h i s r e s u l t must be i n t e r p r e t e d c a u t i o u s l y because of the lack of a p r e t e s t comparison. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t p r a c t i c e i n doing c l o z e e x e r c i s e s together with repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g can be a b e n e f i c i a l supplementary t e a c h i n g method f o r ESL students at the secondary l e v e l . The students' i n d i v i d u a l s cores were a l s o examined i n an attempt to d i s c e r n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between improvement i n reading a b i l i t y and general academic achievement, age, sex, years i n Canada, languages spoken, or amount of s c h o o l i n g . The experimental students were a d i v e r s e group with r e s p e c t to a l l of these a t t r i b u t e s and i t was hoped t h a t some p a t t e r n s might emerge i n order t h a t c o n c l u s i o n s could be drawn as to which type of ESL student would most b e n e f i t from doing c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n with repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g . No such p a t t e r n s emerged. The small s i z e of the experimental group makes i t d i f f i c u l t , of course, to d i s c e r n such r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The r e s u l t s of the present study r e p l i c a t e the f i n d i n g s of the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of repeated r e a d i n g and r e a d i n g - w h i l e -l i s t e n i n g by Heckelman (1969), Moyer (1982), L a f f e y et a l . (1980), Chomsky (1978), Samuels (1979), and Carbo (1978). They a l s o c o r r o b o r a t e the c l o z e r e s e a r c h of Kennedy and Weener (1973), McGee (1981), Sampson (1979) Carr et a l . (1983), Rankin et a l , (1980), Bloomer (1962) and Harding (1977), a l l of whom found the c l o z e procedure to improve reading a b i l i t y . In an e a r l i e r study, Carver and Hoffman (1981) suggested t h a t repeated reading methods produce g a i n i n reading a b i l i t y f o r students o n l y when t h e i r l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y i s higher than t h e i r reading a b i l i t y . As the students i n the present study d i d not have t h e i r l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y t e s t e d and as t h e r e i s no t e s t which attempts to compare read i n g and l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y f o r ESL students, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to comment on t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . However, judged s u b j e c t i v e l y , i t appears t h a t two experimental s u b j e c t s whose reading s c o r e s rose, had l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y lower than r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and three s u b j e c t s whose readin g comprehension scores f e l l , had l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y higher than reading a b i l i t y . On the b a s i s of t h i s s u b j e c t i v e evidence, i t appears t h a t Carver and Hoffman's sug g e s t i o n i s u n l i k e l y to h o l d t r u e f o r ESL s t u d e n t s . However, m o t i v a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l students p l a y s a c r u c i a l r o l e i n determining reading improvement and the small s i z e of the sample makes i t i m p o s s i b l e to say with c e r t a i n t y t h a t Carver and Hoffman are i n c o r r e c t . Because s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s have been r e p o r t e d f o r many years between c l o z e t e s t s and t e s t s of g e n e r a l reading achievement, a number of r e s e a r c h e r s (Greenewald, 1974; Harding, 1977; Kennedy & Weener, 1973; P a r a d i s & Bayne, 1977; 64 Rankin et a l . , 1980; Sampson, 1979) used c l o z e p o s t t e s t s to determine the e f f e c t of the c l o z e procedure. One research team (Rankin et a l . , 1980) argued t h a t a c l o z e p o s t t e s t should be used because i t c o n s t i t u t e s a more s e n s i t i v e t e s t f o r short term treatment e f f e c t s i n reading comprehension than s t a n d a r d i z e d reading t e s t s . A l l of these r e s e a r c h e r s , as i n the present study, have found s i g n i f i c a n t improvement on the c l o z e p o s t t e s t . In f a c t , i t would have been s u r p r i s i n g had t h i s not been the case because the experimental students i n each study r e c e i v e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p r a c t i c e doing c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e that an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program would have improved reading a b i l i t y even more. One d i f f e r e n c e between the repeated reading and r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g r e s e a r c h reviewed i n Chapter II and the present study i s t h a t the present study used a whole c l a s s method of p r e s e n t a t i o n whereas the s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e used i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programs. T h i s choice was d e l i b e r a t e . In order to be p r a c t i c a l and g e n e r a l i z a b l e i n a l a r g e r context, ESL methodology s t u d i e s should be done i n classroom s e t t i n g s because, i n much of the world, E n g l i s h i s taught as a f o r e i g n language to c l a s s e s of f i f t y or more stude n t s . To speak of an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program i n A s i a , A f r i c a , or South America i s to s i g n a l immediately the i r r e l e v a n c e of the r e s e a r c h . However, i f the procedure works with a c l a s s , might i t not work even b e t t e r with i n d i v i d u a l students? A student could then choose m a t e r i a l s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , proceed at h i s 65 own p a c e , and c h e c k h i s own work when c o m p l e t e d . The e q u i p m e n t n e e d e d i s m i n i m a l : a t a p e r e c o r d e r , t a p e , and c l o z e e x e r c i s e s h e e t . I n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y may be s u c h t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o h a v e c o m p u t e r s w h i c h c a n p r e s e n t r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l w i t h d i g i t i z e d v o i c e a c c o m p a n i m e n t . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e r e i s e x p e n s i v e c o m p u t e r e q u i p m e n t c a p a b l e o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l o r a l l y f o r t h e b l i n d ; a c o m p u t e r s u c h a s t h a t c o u l d be u s e d by ESL s t u d e n t s d o i n g r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e -l i s t e n i n g . S t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s had i m p r o v e d t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a l o t ( 1 ) , somewhat ( 5 ) , a l i t t l e ( 8 ) , and h a r d l y a t a l l ( 2 ) . I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r / t e a c h e r , t h e o r a l r e a d i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t s i m p r o v e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s and r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g . P h r a s i n g , e x p r e s s i o n , f l u e n c y a l l a p p e a r e d t o i m p r o v e a l t h o u g h no q u a n t i t a t i v e o r q u a l i t a t i v e m e a s u r e s were made. 2. E f f e c t s on G r a m m a t i c a l P r o f i c i e n c y No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w i t h r e g a r d t o g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y . A l t h o u g h t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y s c o r e s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t , t h i s i n c r e a s e was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o g i v e a d e f i n i t i v e r e a s o n f o r t h i s f i n d i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . I n a d d i t i o n t o i t s s m a l l s i z e , t h e s a m p l e a l s o was e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d i n i t s c o m p o s i t i o n . The v a r i e t y o f a g e , b a c k g r o u n d , and a b i l i t y may hav e a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o s t t e s t i s p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s ; t h e grammar t r e a t m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f r e p e a t e d a u r a l e x p o s u r e t o g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e s w h e r e a s t h e p o s t t e s t was o f a w r i t t e n n a t u r e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s c h o o l , i n w h i c h 8 5 % o f t h e s t u d e n t body h a v e E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d o r a d d i t i o n a l l a n g u a g e , do n o t h e a r c o r r e c t l y s p o k e n E n g l i s h f r o m t h e i r p e e r s . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , i n c o r r e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n s become p a r t o f t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l k n o w l e d g e and t h e s h o r t t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d was i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r c h a n g i n g t h e s e p a t t e r n s . However, t h e r e s u l t s a g r e e d w i t h t h o s e o f W i l s o n (1977) who f o u n d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e d i d n o t i m p r o v e g r a m m a t i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 4 and 6. The b e s t method o f t e a c h i n g grammar i n ESL c l a s s r o o m s h a s b e e n a t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n f o r many y e a r s and t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s h a v e v a r i e d f r o m t h e g r a m m a r - t r a n s l a t i o n m e t h o d , t h e d i r e c t m e t h o d , t h e a u d i o - l i n g u a l m e thod, t h e s i l e n t way, co m m u n i t y l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , s u g g e s t o p e d i a , t o t a l p h y s i c a l r e s p o n s e , t o t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h . Some o f t h e s e m e t h o d s c a l l f o r c o n s c i o u s a t t e n t i o n t o grammar, w h i l e o t h e r s c a l l f o r i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g o f grammar. I f c o n s c i o u s a t t e n t i o n t o grammar i s t h e b e s t way t o t e a c h grammar, t h e n t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e s h o u l d p r o m o t e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e b e s t way t o t e a c h 67 grammar i s through subconscious a c q u i s i t i o n , then repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g should a i d i n t h i s p rocess. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i t would appear t h a t the combination of repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g with the c l o z e procedure should f a c i l i t a t e grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y . Subconscious a c q u i s i t i o n of grammar i s undoubtedly the source of f i r s t language grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y ; Krashen (1982) argues t h a t second language grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y i s a c q u i r e d i n a s i m i l a r manner through input which i s comprehensible, i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y , i n t e r e s t i n g and/or r e l e v a n t , and not grammatically sequenced. Kann (1983), l o o k i n g at the method of repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g , contends, although there i s no r e s e a r c h to back h i s c o n t e n t i o n , t h a t i t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e method f o r overcoming s y n t a c t i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t e n found i n l e a r n i n g - d i s a b l e d f i r s t language c h i l d r e n . S i m i l a r l y , ESL students f r e q u e n t l y have language p a t t e r n s which bear l i t t l e resemblance to those of n a t i v e speakers. The r e s u l t s of Gonzales and E l i j a h (1975), who found t h a t s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y between a f i r s t and second reading, suggest t h a t repeated r e a d i n g - w h i l e -l i s t e n i n g may be e f f e c t i v e f o r improving grammatical prof i c i e n c y . The passages i n the present study were not grammatically sequenced, were i n t e r e s t i n g i n the sense t h a t students were motivated to att e n d t o them c l o s e l y , and were comprehensible because v i s u a l c l u e s were provided and the language l e v e l kept low. However, the experimental group l i s t e n e d to the tape 68 r e c o r d i n g s f o r a maximum t o t a l t i m e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e h o u r s . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s was an i n s u f f i c i e n t amount o f i n p u t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e e f f e c t s t o o c c u r . I f t h e s t u d e n t s had h a d more t i m e t o l i s t e n t o r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g s , p e r h a p s t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y w o u l d h a v e i n c r e a s e d more. I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y no a t t e m p t was made t o s e l e c t r e a d i n g p a s s a g e s w h i c h c o v e r e d c e r t a i n grammar p o i n t s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , no a t t e m p t was made t o m a t c h r e a d i n g p a s s a g e s t o t h e 50 g r a m m a t i c a l i t e m s t e s t e d on t h e S t r u c t u r e T e s t — E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e . I f t h e p a s s a g e s h a d b e e n c h o s e n w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f i m p r o v i n g g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y i n a r e a s t e s t e d by t h e STEL r a t h e r t h a n i m p r o v i n g o v e r a l l g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y , p e r h a p s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w o u l d h a v e made g r e a t e r i m p r o v e m e n t . S e l e c t i n g p a s s a g e s t o i l l u s t r a t e p a r t i c u l a r grammar p o i n t s and h a v i n g s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s m i g h t be a method t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t e a c h i n g grammar. The grammar t e s t w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s w r o t e was a p e n c i l and p a p e r t e s t . As s u c h , i t t e s t e d t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a s w e l l a s t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l a b i l i t y and was a l s o u n r e l a t e d t o t h e t r a i n i n g m e t h o d . An o r a l grammar t e s t m i g h t be a more a p p r o p r i a t e method o f t e s t i n g a n d w o u l d c e r t a i n l y be an i n t e r e s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e f i e l d o f E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e . S t u d e n t s c o u l d , f o r e x a m p l e , h e a r a l i s t o f 50 s e n t e n c e s a n d be a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r e a c h was w e l l - f o r m e d o r n o t . A t p r e s e n t , t h e r e i s no s u c h t e s t . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e treatment t o produce s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n grammatical p r o f i c i e n c y i s t h a t the language on the tapes may have been spoken too q u i c k l y . However, f o r each c l o z e e x e r c i s e there were always one or two students who managed t o achieve a p e r f e c t or n e a r - p e r f e c t s c o r e . Furthermore, f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n occurs even though much of the i n t a k e i s spoken at normal speed by a d u l t s whom the c h i l d overhears. As the students worked through the c l o z e e x e r c i s e s , they appeared t o be f o c u s s i n g c l o s e l y on grammatical f e a t u r e s such as the p l u r a l " s " and the past tense marker "ed". The students g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d the c l o z e e x e r c i s e s t o be h e l p f u l f o r t h e i r grammar and enjoyed them. One student completed the open-ended sentence, "What I want to say about doing the c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i s by w r i t i n g "good f o r my grammer [ s i c ] I thi n k doing i t . " Twelve students r e p o r t e d t h a t doing the c l o z e e x e r c i s e s had improved t h e i r grammar a l o t (1), somewhat (6), or a l i t t l e (5). One student r e p l i e d "hardly at a l l " and one r e p l i e d "not a t a l l " . In the o p i n i o n of the students, the e x e r c i s e s were i n t e r e s t i n g a l l of the time (2), most of the time (5), or some of the time (6). 3. Other E f f e c t s The a t t i t u d e of the students toward the repeated r e a d i n g -w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n with c l o z e e x e r c i s e s was, as expected, p o s i t i v e . When asked how o f t e n e x e r c i s e s such as these should be done by ESL students, 13 r e p l i e d "once a week". (The f o u r t e e n t h student r e p l i e d "once a semester".) When 70 a s k e d w h e t h e r d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s was u s e f u l , t h r e e s t u d e n t s r e p l i e d " a l l o f t h e t i m e " , s e v e n s t u d e n t s r e p l i e d "most o f t h e t i m e " , a n d f o u r s t u d e n t s r e p l i e d "some o f t h e t i m e " . The r e s p o n s e s t o t h e o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n , "What I want t o s a y a b o u t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . . . . " e l i c i t e d e i g h t r e s p o n s e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h e work h e l p f u l . Two o f t h e o p e n - e n d e d r e s p o n s e s m e n t i o n e d i m p r o v e m e n t i n l i s t e n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , i n a n s w e r t o a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n , s i x s t u d e n t s s a i d t h a t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s had i m p r o v e d t h e i r l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y a l o t and e i g h t s a i d t h a t d o i n g t h e e x e r c i s e s h a d i m p r o v e d t h e i r l i s t e n i n g somewhat. I t a p p e a r s t h a t s t u d e n t s f e l t t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t had t h e g r e a t e s t e f f e c t upon t h e i r l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y . 4. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s The u s e o f r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e w i t h s e c o n d a r y l e v e l ESL s t u d e n t s was e f f e c t i v e i n i m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n b u t n o t e f f e c t i v e i n i m p r o v i n g g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y . The method a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t o be a u s e f u l m e t hod; i t i s n o t s u g g e s t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t i t be u s e d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r m e t h o d s . The f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h e method t o be u s e f u l f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t i t s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d . 5. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h A l t h o u g h t h e u s e o f r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e d i d n o t b r i n g a b o u t 71 s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t i n g r a m m a t i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y , t h e r e was g r e a t e r g a i n f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . I t i s n o t known what t h e e f f e c t w o u l d be o f a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t r e a t m e n t ; i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e t o t a l l i s t e n i n g t i m e was o n l y t h r e e h o u r s . I t i s a l s o n o t known what t h e e f f e c t w o u l d be o f c h o o s i n g t a p e d p a s s a g e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e grammar p o i n t s w h i c h t h e y i l l u s t r a t e d . W o uld s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e t h e grammar p o i n t s w h i c h t h e y had h e a r d ? A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n s t h e r a t e o f r e a d i n g on t h e t a p e s : I s t h e r e an optimum s p e e d f o r l a n g u a g e and grammar a c q u i s i t i o n a nd f o r i m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n ? The p r e s e n t s t u d y u s e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t w i t h a w h o l e c l a s s o f d i v e r s e s t u d e n t s . I t w o u l d be v a l u a b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s when t h e t r e a t m e n t was u s e d i n a n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r o g r a m where s t u d e n t s c o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own r a t e s o f p r o g r e s s . S u c h an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r o g r a m c o u l d e v e n be done a t home f o r homework. I t w o u l d a l s o be v a l u a b l e t o d e v e l o p a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g v o i c e d r e a d i n g a n d c l o z e e x e r c i s e s and t h e n i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g w i t h s u c h a p r o g r a m . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n s t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g p a s s a g e s . R a s h o t t e and T o r g e s e n (1985) f o u n d t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h v o c a b u l a r y was r e p e a t e d f r o m one p a s s a g e t o a n o t h e r l e d t o i n c r e a s e d r e a d i n g f l u e n c y i n l e a r n i n g - d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n on new m a t e r i a l , b u t t h a t i f p a s s a g e s d i d n o t h a v e s h a r e d w o r d s , r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g was no more e f f e c t i v e t h a t an e q u i v a l e n t 72 amount o f n o n - r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g . S i m i l a r l y , K r a s h e n (1981) recommends " n a r r o w r e a d i n g " ; t h a t i s , r e a d i n g c o n f i n e d t o a s i n g l e t o p i c o r t h e t e x t s o f a s i n g l e a u t h o r . The p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o g r o u p t h e r e a d i n g s by c o n t e n t o r v o c a b u l a r y . By c o n f i n i n g t h e p a s s a g e s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e ESL s t u d e n t t o t e x t s a b o u t one t o p i c , t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y o f t h a t t o p i c . T h i s , i f R a s h o t t e a n d T o r g e s s e n ' s r e s e a r c h i s a p p l i c a b l e t o s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s , w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e i n c r e a s e d f l u e n c y . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e when a l l p a s s a g e s r e l a t e t o a s i n g l e t o p i c . I f t h e v o c a b u l a r y a n d / o r c o n t e n t were r e p e a t e d , w o u l d t h e r e be g r e a t e r g a i n s ? F i n a l l y , l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n was n o t i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n t u i t i v e l y , i t seems t h a t d o i n g r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d i m p r o v e l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p f e l t t h a t t h e i r l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y had i m p r o v e d . The o n l y c l o z e s t u d y t o c o n s i d e r l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n was t h a t done by K e n nedy and Weener (1973) who u s e d an a u d i t o r y c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i n w h i c h t h e s o u n d o f a b e l l r e p l a c e d t h e m i s s i n g w o r d . They f o u n d t h a t t r a i n i n g i n a u d i t o r y c l o z e had a t r a n s f e r e f f e c t t o l i s t e n i n g t e s t s b u t t h a t s t u d e n t s t r a i n e d i n a u d i t o r y c l o z e d i d n o t s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on a s t a n d a r d i z e d l i s t e n i n g t e s t t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s t r a i n e d i n v i s u a l c l o z e . The e f f e c t o f r e a d i n g / l i s t e n i n g c l o z e s on t h e l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f ESL s t u d e n t s n e e d s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . A t t h t i m e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r e was no a p p r o p r i a t e l i s t e n i n g t e s t a v a i l a b l e . I n t h e p a s t , l i s t e n i n g t e s t s f o r s t u d e n t s o f E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d o r F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e h a v e b e e n d i s c r e t e p o i n t t e s t s w h i c h a r e n o t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a s t u d y s u c h a s t h i s b e c a u s e t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i s an i n t e g r a t i v e t r e a t m e n t . The o n l y l i s t e n i n g t e s t w h i c h m i g h t h a v e b e e n s u i t a b l e (SLEP — S e c o n d a r y L e v e l E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y ) d i d n o t t h e n h a v e p a r a l l e l f o r m s . B e c a u s e i t now h a s p a r a l l e l f o r m s , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o u l d be d o n e . F i n a l l y , t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y was done w i t h a s m a l l g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be done w i t h a l a r g e r s a m p l e , i f p o s s i b l e , and w i t h more t h a n one t e a c h e r so a s t o l e s s e n t h e t e a c h e r e f f e c t . 74 BIBLIOGRAPHY Al d e r s o n , J.C. (1979). The c l o z e procedure and p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h as a F o r e i g n Language. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 13, 219-227. Anderson, B. (1981). The m i s s i n g i n g r e d i e n t : F l u e n t o r a l r e a d i n g . Elementary School J o u r n a l , 81, 173-77. Ashby-Davis, C. (1984). L e v e l s of c e r t i t u d e f o r educated guessing i n s t r i c t c l o z e passages. J o u r n a l of Reading, 27, 318-23. Beck, S.J. (1985). The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of using c l o z e procedure f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g of i n t e r m e d i a t e German: A comparative study ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Temple U n i v e r s i t y ) . 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M a t t i n g l y ( E d s . ) , Language by ear and by eye: The  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between speech and r e a d i n g . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P r e s s . Grant, P.L. (1978). U s i n g t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e as an  i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e : What the l i t e r a t u r e s a y s . TlRIC ED 155 673) Green, D.C. (1982). The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e f o r i m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g comprehension and enhancing d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of San F r a n c i s c o ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 44, 2341A Greenewald, M.J. (1974). The e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n c l o z e and c o n t e x t u a l c l u e e x e r c i s e s upon t h i r d - y e a r F r e n c h s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e c o n t e x t . 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( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of San F r a n c i s c o ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 47, 2010A P i k u l s k i , J . J . (1976). U s i n g t h e c l o z e t e c h n i q u e . Language  A r t s , 53, 317-18, 328. Q u a t t r i n i , J . (1980). I n s t r u c t i o n a l use of the c l o z e : Theory  i n t o p r a c t i c e . (ERIC ED 201 961) Q u i g l e y , M.R. (1981). C r e a t i v e c l o z e : From word c l u s t e r t o summary. E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y , 14, 25-32. R a d i c e , F.R. (1978). U s i n g t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e as a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e . E n g l i s h Language T e a c h i n g J o u r n a l , 32, 201-04. Ramanauskas, S. (1972). The r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of c l o z e r e a d a b i l i t y measures t o l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a b l e s o p e r a t i n g over segments of t e x t l o n g e r than a s e n t e n c e . Reading R e s e a r c h  Q u a r t e r l y , 8, 72-91. 80 R a n k i n , E.F., Haase, A.M., S t e w a r t , A.S., & Howard, E. (1980). The e f f e c t of a sequence s t r a t e g y on t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g comprehension w i t h the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . In M.L. K a m i l & J.M. A l s d e n ( E d s . ) , P e r s p e c t i v e s on r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h and  i n s t r u c t i o n . T w e n t y - n i n t h yearbook of the Reading C o n f e r e n c e . Washington, D.C.: The N a t i o n a l Reading C o n f e r e n c e . R a s h o t t e , C. & Torgesen, J . (1985). Repeated r e a d i n g and r e a d i n g f l u e n c y i n l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . Reading  Research Q u a r t e r l y , 20, 180-88. Re i t s m a , P. (1988). Reading p r a c t i c e f o r b e g i n n e r s : E f f e c t s of g u i d e d r e a d i n g , r e a d i n g - w h i l e - l i s t e n i n g , and independent r e a d i n g w i t h computer-based f e e d b a c k . 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C l o z e p r o c e d u r e and t h e t e a c h i n g of r e a d i n g . London: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books. Sampson, M.R. (1979). U t i l i z a t i o n of the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e as a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of A r i z o n a ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 40, 3107A Samuels, S.J. (1979). The method of r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g s . Reading Teacher, 32, 403-08. Samuels, S . J . & K a m i l , H.L. (1984). Models of t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . In P.D. Pearson ( E d . ) , Handbook of r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h . Longman: New York. Schneyer, J.W. (1965). Use of t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e f o r i m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g comprehension. Reading Teacher, 19, 174-79. S c h o e n f e l d , F.G. (1980). I n s t r u c t i o n a l uses of t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . Reading Teacher, 34, 147-51. 81 S c h r e i b e r , P. (1980). On the a c q u i s i t i o n of reading f l u e n c y . J o u r n a l of Reading Behaviour, 12, 177-86. Schulz, R.A. (1984). Second language reading r e s e a r c h : From theory to p r a c t i c e . F o r e i g n Language Annals, 17, 309-12. Sherwood, W. (1975). Cloze procedure: A technique f o r  weaning advanced ESL students from e x c e s s i v e use of the  d i c t i o n a r y . (ERIC ED 126 703) Shoop, M. (1982). Improving i n f e r e n t i a l comprehension of content by combining i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. Reading  Improvement, 19, 268-73. Skouge, J . (1984). A comparison of e f f e c t s of three previewing procedures on the o r a l decoding p r o f i c i e n c i e s of d y s f l u e n t readers i n c l u d i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a l i d a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 45, 3116A Smith, F. (1973). P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s and re a d i n g . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston. Soudek, M. & Soudek, L . I . (1983). Cloze a f t e r t h i r t y y e a r s : New uses i n language t e a c h i n g . ELT J o u r n a l , 37, 335-40. Stanovich, K. (1980). Toward an i n t e r a c t i v e - c o m p e n s a t o r y model of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the development of reading f l u e n c y . Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 16, 32-71. Stanovich, K. (1982). I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o g n i t i v e processes of r e a d i n g : 1. Word decoding. J o u r n a l of L e a r n i n g  D i s a b i l i t i e s , 15, 485-91. T a y l o r , W.L. (1953). "Cloze procedure": A new t o o l f o r measuring r e a d a b i l i t y . J o u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y , 30, 415-33. Thomas, K.J. (1978). I n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the c l o z e technique. Reading World, 18, 1-12. Wardrop, J . & Essex, D.L. (1973). 'Vexing problems' r e v i s i t e d : P i t f a l l s f o r the unwary r e s e a r c h e r . (A r e a c t i o n to Kennedy and Weener). Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 8, 542-57. Whitmer, R.L. (1971). An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c l o z e and i n f e r e n t i a l techniques upon French reading comprehension a t the i n t e r m e d i a t e c o l l e g e l e v e l . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 36, 3465A Wilson, G.R. (1977). An a n a l y s i s of the c l o z e procedure as a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y f o r improving reading s k i l l s . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Pennsylvania S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 38, 5902A 82 Woytak, L. (1984). Reading p r o f i c i e n c y and a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c approach to second language r e a d i n g . F o r e i g n Language Annals, 17, 509-17. Y e l l i n , D. (1978) . Two i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r reading comprehension employing the c l o z e procedure. ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , A r i z o n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 39, 2056A 83 APPENDIX A: CLOZE EXERCISES Cloze 1: Tom Sawyer NARRATOR: Tom dashed down the s t r e e t . Then he saw her — (1) ' l o v e l y l i t t l e blue-eyed g i r l he'd never seen b e f o r e . He (2) a few handsprings to get her a t t e n t i o n . But she (3) seem to n o t i c e . But Tom was i n l o v e I He (4) f u l l of v i s i o n s . On (5) home with h i s poor head s c h o o l . He (6) morning Tom took h i s time g e t t i n g to to shoot the breeze with son of the town Huckleberry F i n n . Huck was (7) drunk. TOM: What you got t h e r e , Huck? HUCK: (8) g o t t a dead c a t . I t ' s gonna cure my warts. You g o t t a (9) at midnight. Hey, wanna (10) t o n i g h t ? TOM: Yeah, sure t h i n g . NARRATOR: Huckleberry came (11) own f r e e w i l l . He d i d not (12) or church. He could go (13) a dead cat to a graveyard out with me went of h i s to go to school . or swimming when-ever he chose. Nobody t o l d him not (14) f i g h t . He never had t o wash or put on (15) In a word, he had e v e r y t h i n g t h a t goes (16) l i f e p r e c i o u s . But poor Tom Sawyer, a s l a v e (17) c l o t h e s . make h i s (19) c l e a n l i n e s s and c i v i l i z a t i o n , had to go to s c h o o l . As (18) , he was punished f o r being l a t e . He took l i k e a man. g i r l s ' s i d e of he'd gotten Becky He had to go s i t on (20) the c l a s s ! W e l l , i n h a l f an (21) to know the new g i r l . Her name (22) Thatcher. Tom passed Becky a note t h a t s a i d , (23) love you." She seemed p l e a s e d . 84 Becky wasn't so pleased (24) Tom t r i e d to s t e a l a k i s s . TOM: Ow! NARRATOR: Becky had (25) him down! W e l l , he'd show her. Tonight, a f t e r he (26) o f f with Huck Fi n n , he j u s t wouldn't come back. Then she'd be s o r r y . 85 Cloze 2: F r a n k e n s t e i n My name i s Robert Walton, and the f a n t a s t i c t a l e I t e l l begins i n the f a r northern p a r t of Rus s i a , north of the A r c t i c C i r c l e . I am a man with a dream. And l i k e (1) other dreamers, I am a l o n e l y man, without without a (2) to share my hopes and f e a r s . For many yea r s , (3) see, I have been t r y i n g to f i n d the North Pole. (4) long ago I h i r e d a s h i p and a crew (5) s a i l o r s to undertake the dangerous voyage. We s a i l e d f o r (6) weeks. Then one day t h i c k f o g f o r c e d us to (7) t o . When the fog c l e a r e d , we d i s c o v e r e d t h a t we (8) surrounded on a l l s i d e s . Vast p l a i n s of i c e s t r e t c h d (9) every d i r e c t i o n . The i c e seemed to have no end. (10) , th e r e appeared a very strange s i g h t . About a h a l f - m i l e (11) a dogsled raced a c r o s s the i c e . The s l e d was (12) n o r t h . Guiding the dogs was a c r e a t u r e t h a t — t h a t (13) the shape of a man, but was a g i a n t (14) s i z e . We thought we were hundreds of mil e s from (15) . Where could that g i a n t c r e a t u r e have come from? The (16) day, another strange t h i n g happened. The i c e broke i n t o (17) chunks. On one of the chunks was another dogsled, (18) a very d i f f e r e n t s t a t e . Only one dog remained a l i v e . (19) man with t h i s s l e d was of normal s i z e , but (20) was n e a r l y f r o z e n . You have never seen anyone so (21) I When the s a i l o r s brought him onto the s h i p , he (22) to be dead. Suddenly there was a spark of (23) . The man demanded to see the c a p t a i n . 86 Cl o z e 3: Job Hunting - F a c i n g the Problem DON: Can you b e l i e v e i t , C h e r y l ? We're graduates! World get ready! What are you p l a n n i n g (1) do? CHERYL: S l e e p f o r a week! Then I guess I ' l l (2) • to s t a r t t h i n k i n g about a job. DON: You haven't even (3) about a job? What are you going to look (4) ? CHERYL: How do I know? You've got your food s e r v i c e (5) so i t ' s easy f o r you. A l l I have i s ( 6> diploma, a t y p i n g course, and a couple of b u s i n e s s (7) . what can you do with t h a t ? DON: I know I've (8) some t r a i n i n g but i t ' s s t i l l hard to know where (9) s t a r t . And s c a r y , too, t h i n k i n g about phone c a l l s and (10) and a l l t h a t . I keep t e l l i n g myself — g e t o r g a n i z e d — ( 1 1 ) a f a c t sheet, check the want ads, go on (12) , the whole b i t . W e l l , I'm going to get s t a r t e d (13) and e a r l y Monday morning. CHERYL: I don't want to hear (14) i t . You make g e t t i n g a job sound l i k e a (15) . NARRATOR: A f t e r g r aduation, C h e r y l d i d what a l o t of job (16) d o — s h e p r o c r a s t i n a t e d . She d i d look at the want (17) every day, but t h a t mostly made her f e e l confused. (18) were so many! Sometimes she saw an ad t h a t (19) her. But she u s u s a l l y found excuses not to c a l l — (2) was too f a r away; they probably wanted someone with (21) ; the pay was too low. Some days she d i d (22) a c a l l or two. But i f the l i n e was (23) , or the person wasn't i n she would f i n d an (24) not to f o l l o w up on i t . As the days (25) by, she found h e r s e l f s l e e p i n g l a t e r , watching the 87 soaps, (26) . I t wasn't that she was l a z y . She j u s t d i d n ' t (27) how to proceed. And deep down C h e r y l was a f r a i d (28) d i d n ' t have much to o f f e r an employer. Without r e a l i z i n g (29) , she was t e l i n g h e r s e l f t h a t i t was no use (30) look f o r a j o b — n o one would want to (31) her anyway. So she l e t the days s l i p b y — a n d each day that she d i d n ' t do anything r e i n f o r c e d her f e a r that there was no pl a c e f o r her out ther e i n the working world. 88 Cloze 4: Grammar: Sentences BROTHER: SISTER: BROTHER: SISTER: SISTER: I don't get t h i s homework assignment! Shhh. I'm t r y i n g (1) watch t h i s cooking show. But I need h e l p ! A l l (2) , l e t me see what your book says. One. Decide (3) the f o l l o w i n g groups of words are sentences. Two. In (4) BROTHER: CHEF: sentences, i d e n t i f y the complete s u b j e c t and the complete p r e d i c a t e . (5) don't f o r g e t number th r e e . I d e n t i f y any compound s u b j e c t s , compound (6) , or compound sentences. I might be able to do (7) homework myself i f I knew what a sentence i s ! (8) , I've always thought that sentences were a l o t l i k e r e c i p e s . BROTHER AND SISTER: (9) s a i d t h a t ? Yeah, who s a i d t h a t ? Me, the TV (10) ! CHEF: SISTER: CHEF: BROTHER: CHEF: What do you mean—sentences are a l o t l i k e (11) ? I mean that sentences, l i k e r e c i p e s , are made up (12) l o t s of d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . What kinds of t h i n g s ? C a p i t a l (13) , f o r example. You see, a sentence i s simply a (14) of words which expresses a complete thought. And a l l (15) begin with c a p i t a l l e t t e r s . A l l sentences a l s o end with (16) marks. A sentence which s t a t e s a f a c t ends with (17) p e r i o d . A sentence which g i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n s a l s o ends with (18) p e r i o d . A sentence which expresses strong f e e l i n g s ends with (19) exclamation 89 p o i n t . A sentence which asks a q u e s t i o n ends (20) a q u e s t i o n mark. BROTHER: But t h i s homework assignment i s t r i c k y . (21) are no c a p i t a l l e t t e r s or pu n c t u a t i o n marks i n these (22) of words. CHEF: That's because your teacher wants you to (23) out which groups of words should get them. As i n a r e c i p e , you need to pay a t t e n t i o n t o the order i n which the i n g r e d i e n t s are put to g e t h e r . 90 C l o z e 5: Shane Young Bob S t a r r e t w a t c h e d t h e man r i d e i n t o t h e v a l l e y — n o t a b i g man, s l e n d e r r e a l l y , b u t s l e n d e r l i k e a s t e e l b l a d e — g r a c e f u l , y e t w i t h a d e a d l y l o o k a b o u t h i m . ( I ) was d r e s s e d d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m t h e men Bob knew, (2) a k i n d o f e l e g a n c e t h a t was e v i d e n t d e s p i t e (3) d u s t f r o m t h e r o a d . He and h i s h o r s e w e re (4) . T h a t was o b v i o u s l o n g b e f o r e he a s k e d J o e S t a r r e t t , Bob's (5) , i f he c o u l d u se t h e pump. What f a s c i n a t e d Bob (6) t h e way t h e s t r a n g e r c a r e f u l l y washed h i s f a c e and (7) and b r u s h e d t h e d u s t o f f h i s c l o t h e s . He e v e n (8) ' h i s h a i r . I t seemed s t r a n g e t o Bob t h a t somebody (9) t a k e s u c h c a r e a b o u t how he l o o k e d o u t h e r e (10) t h e r a n g e . T h e n, a s t h e man s t a r t e d t o l e a v e , Bob's ( I I ) d i d an u n e x p e c t e d t h i n g . He a s k e d t h e s t r a n g e r t o (12) f o r d i n n e r and bed down f o r t h e n i g h t . The (13) was a p p r e c i a t i v e and B o b ' s f a t h e r i n t r o d u c e d h i m s e l f and h i s (14) . The s t r a n g e r a l s o i n t r o d u c e d h i m s e l f . " C a l l me S h a n e , " he (15) . 'Shane' — i t was a name t h a t p e o p l e a r o u n d h e r e w o u l d n o t f o r g e t f o r a w h i l e — n o t f o r a l o n g , l o n g w h i l e . 91 Cloze 6: S t e e l Next time you see a g i a n t skyscraper b e i n g b u i l t , look f o r the tons of s t e e l i n i t s frame. S t e e l makes modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n work- I t ' s used i n b u i l d i n g (1) t r a i n s and pla n e s as v e i l as t i e engines t h a t (2) them. D i f f e r e n t kinds of s t e e l do d i f f e r e n t joibs. A (3) s t e e l c a b l e at fcihe top of a toridge can (4) a road t h a t ' s w s i twelve hundred metres long. S t e e l (5) mairay ©ither uses _©o. Without i t , modern farming would (65 d i f f i c u l t . I t ' s used t o make equipment r a n g i n g frirssan t r a c t o r s O)) make milk p a i l s . But where does s t e e l come fr©ra? The (8) of s t e e l s t a r t s with i r o n . Some think that our (9D loo'k a t i r o n might have come long ago from llfl)) which f e l l to e a r t h . T h i s c l o s e - u p view of a ?11>) s u r f a c e shows hunks of rocks r i c h i n iirojEu Or,, (12;) thousands of years a p , a hot f i r ® i__rned over (13) area r i c h i n i r o n r e v e a l i n g rrJae i r o n t h a t was (14) below the <gr©_nd. Eveimtuaally, people l e a r n e d t h a t the ea r t h ((15) has a l o t of i r o n i n the form of (16) i__>_n ore. An ©ire i s any mineral from which t i l ) metal cam ibe taken. Today we know t h a t about ftl<B.) p e r c e n t of the e a r t h ' s c r u s t i s composed ©f i r o n (19) i r o n - b e a r i n g m i n e r a l s . America has vast d e p o s i t s o f i r o n - b e a r i n g (20) i n Minnesota, W i s c o n s i n , and M i c h i g a n — a r e a s near Lake S u p e r i o r . (21) way t© remove i r o n ore from the ground i s (22) p i t mining. I t rega-ires s k i l l e d people, g i g a n t i c machinery and roads iEor a l l the equipment. 92 Cloze 7: Magnets A g i r l p i c k s up paper c l i p s , t a c k s , and p i n s with a horseshoe magnet. Magnets are made i n many s i z e s , shapes and s t r e n g t h s . (1) and paper c l i p s c l i n g t o a lode s t o n e . Thousands of (2) ago, people i n China made an important d i s c o v e r y . When (3) small lodestone was hung from a thread, one end (4) always t u r n toward the north. E a r l y compasses were made (5) lode s t o n e s . Modern compasses l i k e the one t h i s boy holds (6) made with magnets shaped l i k e needles. The needle always (7) north and south. For many hundreds of years, people (8) compasses without understanding why they worked. But by 1600, (9) had d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a compass works because the ea r t h (10) i s a magnet. I t s magnetic f o r c e a f f e c t s the needle (11) a compass. A l l magnets, i n c l u d i n g the e a r t h , are a l i k e (12) s e v e r a l ways. T h i s p i c t u r e shows some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (13) magnets. Thin yellow paper has been placed over a (14) magnet, and i r o n f i l i n g s have been s p r i n k l e d on the (15) . The f i l i n g s are drawn t o the magnet, which shows (16) the paper. The dark f i l i n g s form a p a t t e r n of (17) t h a t curve between the ends, or p o l e s , of the (18) . The l i n e s , c a l l e d l i n e s of f o r c e , i n d i c a t e the area (19) the magnet's p u l l i s f e l t . T h i s area i s known (20) the magnetic f i e l d . Think of the earth as i f (21) had a bar magnet b u r i e d i n s i d e . In t h i s drawing, (22) yell o w l i n e s represent the l i n e s of f o r c e . The earth's (23) f i e l d reaches thousands of mi l e s i n t o space. I t i s (24) at the north magnetic pole 93 and a t t h e s o u t h (25) p o l e , w h i c h a r e on t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . H e r e , a (26) l i n e p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e b a r magnet, t h e m a g n e t i c p o l e s , (27) i n t o s p a c e . L i k e t h e e a r t h , e v e r y magnet h a s a n o r t h p o l e and a s o u t h p o l e . 94 Cloze 8: C l o t h e s You may buy your c l o t h e s i n a s t o r e but have you ever wondered where department s t o r e s get the c l o t h e s they s e l l ? C l o t h i s made i n a t e x t i l e m i l l l i k e t h i s (1) . But how does the t e x t i l e m i l l make the c l o t h and (2) does the c l o t h come from? Some c l o t h , l i k e c o t t o n , (3) from p l a n t s . Linen comes from the f l a x p l a n t . Some (5) comes from a n i m a l s — w o o l from sheep and s i l k from (6) . In some c o u n t r i e s c l o t h i s s t i l l made by hand (7) way i t was c e n t u r i e s ago. But the modern t e x t i l e (8) makes c l o t h f a s t e r . Automatic looms do much of the (9) Other machines are used i n the t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y f o r (10) , k n i t t i n g , and s p i n n i n g . S p e c i a l dyeing machines can dye long (11) of m a t e r i a l i n t o any co l o u r of the rainbow. Not (12) f i b r e s come from nature l i k e wool, s i l k , c o t t o n and (13) . Some f a b r i c s come from chemical p r o c e s s i n g and are developed (14) a l a b o r a t o r y . They are c a l l e d s y n t h e t i c s . Some s y n t h e t i c s l i k e (15) rayon pyjamas come from wood pulp t h a t i s d i s s o l v e d (16) chemicals and then spun by machines i n t o long t h i n (17) which can be woven i n t o f a b r i c . Nylon f a b r i c s l i k e (18) socks and t h i s blouse come from petroleum products which (19) c h e m i c a l l y t r e a t e d and spun i n t o f i l a m e n t s j u s t as rayon (20) . P o l y e s t e r s are made t h i s way too. So you see, (21) are l o t s of d i f f e r e n t f i b r e s to choose from, n a t u r a l (22) w e l l as s y n t h e t i c s , and no end to a choice (23) c o l o u r s . The f i r s t s t e p i n making c l o t h i n g i s a (24) or drawing. The de s i g n e r ' s job i s to c r e a t e new (25) f o r c l o t h i n g . Many hours of thought may be spent (26) one p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l of the s t y l e . 95 The d e s i g n e r h a s (27) t h i n k a b o u t how c l o t h e s w i l l l o o k on p e o p l e a s (28) a s what t y p e o f f a b r i c t o u s e . C o l o u r , f o r m and t e x t u r e a r e a l l i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s o f good f a b r i c d e s i g n . 96 C l o z e 9: Arete NARRATOR: Arete r e f u s e d to get out of bed and would not speak to anyone. She s a i d she was i l l , and by no means (1) (1) she compete i n the poetry c o n t e s t t h a t day. A r e t e 1 s (2) was w o r r i e d . Arete had been p r a c t i s i n g the songs she (3) composed f o r the c o n t e s t e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y u n t i l j u s t t h a t morning. (4) her l y r e l a y s i l e n t beside her bed. So her (5) had sent f o r Theano, the h e a l e r . Ageless Theano was (6) her way through the s t r e e t s of Athens. No one (7) j u s t how o l d Theano was, or how many p l a c e s (8) had seen i n her long career as a midwife (9) nurse. In one hand she held her walking s t a f f ; (10) i n the other, her medicine bag woven with i n t r i c a t e (11) and many b r i g h t c o l o u r s . People s a i d , t h a t i n v i s i b l y woven (12) the threads of her bag, she kept a thousand (13) , f o r she was a famous t e l l e r of t a l e s . Around (14) , the s t r e e t s of Athens b u s t l e d with excitement. A l r e a d y , banners (15) f l y i n g and more d e c o r a t i o n s appeared each minute. The g r e a t e s t (16) of the year was about to b e g i n — t h e Pan Athenaic Games—(17) a l l of Athens would honour i t s patron goddess, Athena, (18) c o m p e t i t i o n s of every s o r t . From her bed, Arete heard Theano (19) , and her mother's v o i c e welcoming the famous nurse. Arete (20) not l i k e the look on Theano's f a c e . I t was (21) though the o l d woman could read her every thought. (22) a few minutes passed as Theano made her d i a g n o s i s . (23) she c a l l e d the g i r l ' s mother i n . 97 THEANO: Arete knows there (24) nothing wrong with h e r — e x c e p t a bad case of (25) caused by her p r i d e . The j u n i o r c o m p e t i t i o n has become (26) whole world to her. She has always won f i r s t (27) because of her t a l e n t . But she f e a r s her world (28) end i f she l o s e s . A rete, much of the world (29) l i t t l e , even f o r the most b e a u t i f u l song. Beauty should (30) i t s own reward. Learn to l i v e without the p r a i s e of o t h e r s and you w i l l be f r e e . 98 Cloze 10: D a i r y Foods If you t a s t e d a l l the d i f f e r e n t kinds of milk, you'd probably l i k e the milk from the brown J e r s e y cows the best. I t has a r i c h t a s t e because of a l l the (1) i t c o n t a i n s . But the black and white H o l s t e i n cow (2) the most milk. Average milk p r o d u c t i o n f o r cows i s (3) 10 l i t r e s a cow each day. Cows u s u a l l y graze (4) p a s t u r e l a n d d u r i n g the summer. In the winter they eat (5) and corn s i l a g e . Corn s i l a g e i s f i e l d corn that (6) been processed so i t won't s p o i l . M i l k i n g i s done (7) by machine. With one of these e l e c t r i c m i l k e r s , about (8) cows can be milked i n an hour. And, i f (9) farmer has more than one machine, he can milk (10) cows at once. E v e r y t h i n g i n t h i s m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i s (11) . Machines milk the cows, then the milk flows through (12) p i p e s d i r e c t l y i n t o tanks t h a t hold about 2,300 l i t r e s . (13) the tanks the milk i s r e f r i g e r a t e d u n t i l i t ' s t r a n s p o r t e d (14) the milk p r o c e s s o r . A f t e r every m i l k i n g the equipment i s (15) and s t e r i l i z e d and the cows are checked r e g u l a r l y by (16) v e t e r i n a r i a n to be sure they are h e a l t h y . Although some (17) are p r e t t y s m a l l , the t r e n d today i s toward l a r g e r (18) , e s p e c i a l l y i n the b i g d a i r y s t a t e s l i k e Wisconsin, New York, (19) Minnesota. Milk p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s get d e l i v e r i e s every day from (20) a l l over the country. The milk a r r i v e s by r e f r i g e r a t e d (21) . I t i s the foreman's job to check every tank (22) f l a v o u r , temperature, and odour. The milk i s then sent (23) a s p i n n i n g machine c a l l e d a c l a r i f i e r . I t c l e a n s the (24) of any t i n y d i r t or dust t h a t may have (25) i n i t . Then the milk i s homogenized. During homogenization milk i s pumped through small openings under great p r e s s u r e . 99 C l o z e 11: O i l The energy you need f o r an a u t o m o b i l e t r i p i s p o s s i b l e because of a p r o c e s s t h a t s t a r t e d underground m i l l i o n s of y e a r s ago. What i s pe t r o l e u m ? How was i t formed? How do (1) g e t i t ? The name 'petroleum' comes from two d i f f e r e n t L a t i n (2) . ' P e t r o ' means r o c k . "Oleum' means o i l . When d r i l l e r s s t r i k e (3) , th e y h i t a l a y e r of rock t h a t i s t r a p p i n g (4) o i l . Most s c i e n t i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t p e t r o l e u m p r o b a b l y comes from (5) remains of a n c i e n t sea l i f e t h a t sank t o t h e (6) of p r e h i s t o r i c oceans. E v e n t u a l l y , t h e s e remains were b u r i e d by (7) b i t s of sand and mud c a l l e d sediment. T h i s p r o c e s s (8) f o r m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . As sediments p i l e d up, t h e i r (9) w eight e v e n t u a l l y p r e s s s e d them i n t o l a y e r s of rock (10) s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k . At the same t i m e , heat and p r e s s u r e (11) two of t h e f o r c e s t h a t changed the remains i n t o (12) d r o p l e t s . These d r o p l e t s seeped i n t o t i n y openings i n t h e (13) e v e n t u a l l y made t h e i r way i n t o l a r g e r t r a p s or (14) . Meanwhile, t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e changed many t i m e s . I t s c r u s t (15) and the n shrank. Mountain ranges appeared. Oceans d i s a p p e a r e d . In (16) p r o c e s s , l a y e r s of dense rock c o v e r e d t h e p e t r o l e u m d e p o s i t s . (17) accumulated underground and under water . I t remained t h e r e u n t i l (18) d i s c o v e r e d how t o f i n d i t . The j o b of the g e o l o g i s t (19) t o e x p l o r e f o r o i l . Once they t h i n k t h e y ' v e (20) an o i l f i e l d , t h e y need t o t e s t t h e s u r f a c e (21) . Sandstone, l i m e s t o n e and s h a l e a r e the k i n d s of r o c k s (22) suggest o i l i s i n t h e a r e a . They may t a k e (23) by d r i l l i n g h o l e s i n t h e ground. Sometimes t h e y d r i l l t h r o u g h l a y e r s of i c e or s k i n - d i v e t o examine the ocean f l o o r f o r o f f - s h o r e d r i l l i n g s i t e s . 100 Cloze 12: G l a s s Making Making and shaping g l a s s i s a very o l d a r t . Becoming a master g l a s s blower* or g a f f e r , i s n ' t any (1) now than i t was hundreds of years ago. There (2) probably no b e t t e r way to c r e a t e f i n e g l a s s then (3) hand cra f t s m a n s h i p . But modern needs f o r g l a s s products are (4) g r e a t t h a t only a few glassmakers can take the (5) t o make g l a s s t h i s way. Most g l a s s i s produced (6) machinery t h a t t u r n s out many, many items i n the (7) i t takes a glassblower to make j u s t one. But (8) i t ' s made by hand or by machine, the main (9) i n g l a s s i s s i l i c a , or sand. Clean, white (10) i s the best source of s i l i c a . Most sands c o n t a i n (11) i r o n and other i m p u r i t i e s . Darker g l a s s made from iron-heavy (12) i s green because of the way the i m p u r i t i e s r e a c t (13) the m e l t i n g . Besides sand, the glassmaker adds two chemical (14) — s o d i u m carbonate, c a l l e d soda, and lime which help the (15) melt. T h i s mixture of raw m a t e r i a l s i s c a l l e d a (16) . Fragments of o l d g l a s s c a l l e d c u l l e t s are mixed with the (17) and chemicals. Glassmakers add these scraps to h e l p (18) sand melt. In a modern g l a s s p l a n t , batches of (19) m a t e r i a l s are c a r e f u l l y measured on b i g s c a l e s . Then (20) kept i n s t e e l v a ts l i k e these u n t i l they're (21) f o r the f u r n a c e . The heart of the furnace i s (22) c r u c i b l e or m e l t i n g chamber which can withstand i n t e n s e (23) I t gets so hot t h a t the mixture of raw (24) melts. When melted, the s o f t , hot g l a s s pours e a s i l y , l i k e honey. 101 Cloze 13: Pioneer Farming Most p i o n e e r s of the 1800's, such as the Cunninghams, were b a s i c a l l y farmers. Instead of horses, pioneer farmers used oxen f o r f i e l d (1) . Oxen are b i g and powerful b e a s t s , but Bert Cunningham (2) been taught to c o n t r o l them at a very e a r l y (3) . Mr. Cunningham keeps the oxen s t i l l w hile Bert hooks (4) the plow. The wooden frame by which the oxen (5) j o i n e d together i s c a l l e d the yoke. T h i s i s why (6) job i s c a l l e d yoking the oxen to the plow. (7) Cunningham's main crop i s wheat. I t w i l l supply the (8) with much of i t s food f o r the year ahead. (9) f a t h e r guides the plow, Bert s t e e r s the oxen i n (10) r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . The p a r t of the plow t h a t a c t u a l l y (11) i n t o the s o i l and tu r n s i t over i s c a l l e d (12) plowshare. The rows of plowed s o i l are c a l l e d furrows. (13) l o t of work goes i n t o c r e a t i n g these long, neat (14) . The f i r s t s tep i s p r e p a r i n g the ground f o r p l a n t i n g the (15) year. Before the whole f i e l d i s f i n i s h e d , Bert and Mr. Cunningham (16) back and f o r t h many, many times from one end (17) the f i e l d to the other. The job of plowing (18) f i n a l l y completed, and B e r t hooks up the harrow. T h i s (19) an implement t h a t i s used t o break up the (20) clumps of e a r t h l e f t a f t e r plowing. The farm implements (21) p i o n e e r s such as the Cunnninghams used weren't made i n (22) as they would be today. The farmer made most (23) h i s t o o l s h i m s e l f , but sometimes p a r t s were made by (24) people i n the nearby v i l l a g e . For i n s t a n c e , Mr. Cunningham (25) the frame f o r t h i s harrow, but the s p i k e s from (26) Bert i s p u l l i n g the weeds were f o r g e d by the (27) . 102 The c l u m p s o f e a r t h b r e a k e a s i l y a s t h e h a r r o w ' s (28) a r e p u l l e d t h r o u g h them b e c a u s e t h e s o i l i s v e r y (29) . T h i s r i c h s o i l on Mr. C u n n ingham's p r o p e r t y d o e s n ' t need (30) f e r t i l i z e r s o f t h e t y p e we use t o d a y t o e n r i c h (31) . The s o i l was r i c h b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h c o n t e n t o f h u m u s — t h e n a t u r a l d e c a y i n g v e g e t a b l e and a n i m a l m a t t e r i n t h e s o i l . 103 C l o z e 14: Homework: A t t i t u d e s and S k i l l s SANDY: I h o n e s t l y hate homework. I can't stand doing i t . NARRATOR: (1) was Sandy S l a v i n ten weeks ago... and t h i s i s Sandy (2) . SANDY: There i s some homework t h a t I l i k e to do. (3) the homework w i l l do something f o r me, I don't (4) doing i t . DON: I've never l i k e d homework. And I don't (5) I ever w i l l . I t j u s t gets i n the way (6) t h i n g s I want to do. NARRATOR: That was Don H a r r i s o n (7) weeks ago...and t h i s i s Don H a r r i s o n today. DON: W e l l , (8) haven't changed my mind that much, except i t ' s j u s t (9) worse. I can t o l e r a t e i t now. NARRATOR: Ten weeks ago Sandy (10) • Don were l i k e you p o s s i b l y are; they thought homework (11) j u s t about as a p p e a l i n g as the black plague. And (12) we chose them f o r an experiment. We gave them (13) s e t of g u i d e l i n e s and asked t h a t they f o l l o w i t (14) doing t h e i r homework. The g u i d e l i n e s , developed by a group (15) e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s and c o n s u l t a n t s , were designed to h e l p students (16) t h e i r homework assignments. We s a i d we'd be back to (17) the r e s u l t s at the end of one grading p e r i o d . (18) we returned, t h i s i s what we found: Sandy's grades, (19) i n y e l l o w , went up...her pr e v i o u s term's grades are (20) i n red. Don's grades went up t o o — i n some (21) s i g n i f i c a n t l y . C l e a r l y , the g u i d e l i n e s were h e l p f u l . Whether they c o u l d (22) h e l p f u l to other s t u d e n t s — i n c l u d i n g y o u — i s , of course, (23) open q u e s t i o n because a l l students d i f f e r , as do t h e i r (24) , and the approaches t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s take when t e a c h i n g . 104 S t i l l , (25) you're not happy with your grades—or if you (26) know you can do better, but don't know how, (27) probably want to consider the information Sandy and Don (28) to improve their grades. Basically, the guidelines take these factors into consideration: planning, concentration, and physical surroundings. 105 Cloze 15: Pioneer V i l l a g e s T h i s was an e x c i t i n g day f o r B i l l y B a r k l e y . He was going t o the v i l l a g e with h i s parents. The B a r k l e y s were pioneers who l i v e d on a farm (1) the e a r l y 1800's. They d i d n ' t make a t r i p to (2) v i l l a g e very o f t e n . When the f a m i l y d i d go to (3) v i l l a g e , i t was u s u a l l y f o r s u p p l i e s or to have (4) made to farm implements t h a t Mr. Barkley c o u l d n ' t f i x (5) home. Mrs. Barkley was a l s o t a k i n g some eggs t o (6) traded f o r other goods at the general s t o r e . The B a r k l e y s ' (7) horses were used to p u l l the wagon. One of (8) horses, Murray, would have to be shod at the (9) b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g home. When they a r r i v e d at the v i l l a g e , Mr. Barkley (10) drove up to the general s t o r e where he l e t (11) wife o f f b e f o r e r i d i n g on to a t t e n d to h i s (12) b u s i n e s s . B i l l y was going with h i s f a t h e r . Mrs. Barkley (13) t o exchange the eggs f o r some imported s p i c e s . Inside (14) g e n e r a l s t o r e Mrs. Barkely f e l t q u i t e at home because (15) was rather l i k e a community meeting p l a c e . I t gave (16) a chance to v i s i t and exchange b i t s of news (17) to the amusement of Mr. H a r r i s o n , the p r o p r i e t o r . His (18) , however, sometimes disappeared when i t came to b u s i n e s s s . L i k e (19) pioneer s t o r e -keeprs, H a r r i s o n ' s business with the farmers was (20) done by b a r t e r i n g which meant to trade or exchange (21) without using money. Meanwhile, Mr. Barkley and B i l l y were a r r i v i n g (22) the blacksmith's to get a new shoe made f o r (23) horse. The blacksmith's was u s u a l l y one of the f i r s t (24) to be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the v i l l a g e 106 as i t provided (25) important services supplying and repairing many metal implements and (26) and shoeing the horses and oxen. Mr. Doyle, the (27) , was inside hammering a piece of metal on the (28) . He was a very busy man because he made most of the metal tools that the community used. 107 Cloze 16: Logging Loggers help transform t r e e s i n t o paper, houses, b a s e b a l l bats, and thousands of other products. The t r e e s come from great f o r e s t s a l l over the United S t a t e s . (1) Oregon, Washington, and C a l i f o r n i a , f o r e s t s of Douglas f i r , hemlock, (2) , and other t r e e s s t r e t c h over the rugged mountains. Ash, (3) , and v a r i e t i e s of oak t r e e s grow i n the area (4) the s o u r t h e r n f o r e s t . I t covers the r e g i o n between the A t l a n t i c (5) Gulf Coasts, from New Jersey to E a s t e r n Texas. The (6) s t e p i n h a r v e s t i n g a f o r e s t i s a l o g g i n g p l a n (7) out by f o r e s t e r s and f o r e s t e n g i n e e r s . F o r e s t e r s are concerned (8) ecology and the growth of f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s . One way (9) h a r v e s t timber and at the same time ensure a (10) supply f o r the f u t u r e i s to block c u t — t h a t (11) , to cut only c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of the f o r e s t at (12) time. Young t r e e s are grown i n the cut-out (13) i n one of two ways. Winds can blow seeds (14) the uncut t r e e s i n t o the cut-out area, promoting new (15) . T h i s method i s c a l l e d n a t u r a l r e f o r e s t a t i o n . But a r t i f i c i a l r e f o r e s t a t i o n (16) more common today s i n c e i t i s f a s t e r and surer (17) n a t u r a l r e f o r e s t a t i o n . S e e d l i n g s are grown i n n u r s e r i e s and then (18) i n the cut-out areas. F o r e s t engineers design roads f o r (19) l o g g i n g t r u c k s t h a t b r i n g people and equipment to the (20) s i t e and c a r r y cut l o g s to the sawmills. And (21) s e t up emergency pl a n s and f i r e f i g h t i n g gear, i n c l u d i n g (22) i n case of f i r e . I t used to be t h a t (23) axes and c r o s s - c u t hand saws were used f o r f e l l i n g (24) . But now most t r e e f e l l i n g i s done with a (25) power-driven c h a i n saw. I t ' s q u i c k e r but n o i s i e r . 108 Cloze 17: Noble Hercules The lands of an c i e n t Greece were r u l e d by powerful gods who l i v e d on the summit of Mount Olympus. The s t r o n g e s t of these gods was Zeus, the supreme (1) of the heavens and the e a r t h . Zeus was the (2) of many famous heroes, both mortal and immortal; y e t , (3) n i g h t , many c e n t u r i e s ago, he was watching the events (4) e a r t h very c l o s e l y , f o r soon the g r e a t e s t of a l l (5) c h i l d r e n was to be born. As Zeus watched the (6) of h i s kingdom, h i s w i f e , Hera, was doing the (7) . Jealous of a l l of Zeus* earth-born c h i l d r e n , she had (8) vowed t o destr o y the newborn c h i l d . Meanwhile, i n the (9) s t a t e of Thebes, Alcmene, wife of e x i l e d King Amphitryon, (10) b i r t h to a boy. The parents, not knowing t h a t (11) c h i l d ' s t r u e f a t h e r was the great Zeus, named him Hercules (12) meant 'to the g l o r y of Hera'. Only a few (13) l a t e r , a twin brother was born. He was given (14) name I p h i c l e s . Both Hercules and h i s brother I p h i c l e s were (15) str o n g and healthy but Hercules soon showed t h a t he (16) much stronger and l a r g e r than h i s b r o t h e r . One n i g h t , (17) long a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t b i r t h d a y , Hercules was to prove (18) how strong he was. The goddess Hera, see i n g t h a t (19) husband Zeus was busy elsewhere, sent two enormous serpents (20) the palace of King Amphitryon to k i l l young Hercules (21) he s l e p t . The huge serpents s i l e n t l y entered the room (22) the twins s l e p t on a huge s h i e l d but I p h i c l e s (23) awoke and, seeing the monsters above him, screamed i n (24) . Immediately, the king grabbed h i s sword and rushed towards (25) bedroom. But he was very s u r p r i s e d when he reached the bedroom, f o r Hercules, unaware of h i s own s t r e n g t h , had p l a y f u l l y grabbed the two serpents by the neck and s t r a n g l e d them, one i n each hand. 109 APPENDIX B Cloze Answer Sheet Page 1 NOBLE HERCULES ANSWERS 1. r u l e r 2. f a t h e r 3. t h i s 4. on 5. h i s 6. events 7. same 8. alr e a d y 9. c i t y 10. gave 11. the 12. which 13. seconds 14. the 15. very 16. was 17. not 18. j u s t 19. her 20. to 21. while 22. where 23. suddenly 24. t e r r o r 25. the PERCENT SCORES 25 100% 24 96% 23 92% 22 88% 21 84% 20 80% 19 76% 18 72% 17 68% 16 64% 15 60% 14 56% 13 52% 12 48% 110 C l o z e A nswer S h e e t Page 2  NOBLE HERCULES The l a n d s o f a n c i e n t G r e e c e were r u l e d by p o w e r f u l gods who l i v e d on t h e summit o f Mount O l y m p u s . The s t r o n g e s t o f t h e s e gods was Z e u s , t h e supreme r u l e r o f t h e h e a v e n s and t h e e a r t h . Zeus was t h e f a t h e r o f many famous h e r o e s , b o t h m o r t a l and i m m o r t a l ; y e t , t h i s n i g h t , many c e n t u r i e s a g o , he was w a t c h i n g t h e e v e n t s on e a r t h v e r y c l o s e l y , f o r s o o n t h e g r e a t e s t o f a l l h i s c h i l d r e n was t o be b o r n . As Z e u s w a t c h e d t h e e v e n t s o f h i s k i n g d o m , h i s w i f e , H e r a , was d o i n g t h e same. J e a l o u s o f a l l o f Z e u s ' e a r t h - b o r n c h i l d r e n , s h e had a l r e a d y vowed t o d e s t r o y t h e n e wborn c h i l d . M e a n w h i l e , i n t h e c i t y s t a t e o f T h e b e s , A l c m e n e , w i f e o f e x i l e d K i n g A m p h i t r y o n , g a v e b i r t h t o a b o y . The p a r e n t s , n o t k n o w i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s t r u e f a t h e r was t h e g r e a t Z e u s , named h i m H e r c u l e s w h i c h meant ' t o t h e g l o r y o f H e r a ' . O n l y a f e w s e c o n d s l a t e r , a t w i n b r o t h e r was b o r n . He was g i v e n t h e name I p h i c l e s . B o t h H e r c u l e s and h i s b r o t h e r I p h i c l e s w e r e v e r y s t r o n g and h e a l t h y b u t H e r c u l e s s o o n showed t h a t he was much s t r o n g e r and l a r g e r t h a n h i s b r o t h e r . One n i g h t , n o t l o n g a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t b i r t h d a y , H e r c u l e s was t o p r o v e j u s t how s t r o n g he was. The g o d d e s s H e r a , s e e i n g t h a t h e r h u s b a n d Z e u s was b u s y e l s e w h e r e , s e n t two e normous s e r p e n t s t o t h e p a l a c e o f K i n g A m p h i t r y o n t o k i l l y o u n g H e r c u l e s w h i l e he s l e p t . The huge s e r p e n t s s i l e n t l y e n t e r e d t h e room w h e r e t h e t w i n s s l e p t on a huge s h i e l d b u t I p h i c l e s s u d d e n l y awoke a n d , s e e i n g t h e m o n s t e r s a b o v e h i m , s c r e a m e d i n t e r r o r . I m m e d i a t e l y , t h e k i n g g r a b b e d h i s s w o r d a n d r u s h e d t o w a r d s t h e bedroom. B u t he was v e r y s u r p r i s e d when he r e a c h e d t h e b e d room, f o r H e r c u l e s , u n a w a r e o f h i s own s t r e n g t h , had p l a y f u l l y g r a b b e d t h e two s e r p e n t s by t h e n e c k and s t r a n g l e d them, one i n e a c h h a n d . Close Exercises 1. Tom Sawyer 2. Frankenstein 3- Jobs-Probl ens 1• Grammar 5. Shane 6. Steel 7. Magnets 8. Clothes 9. Arete 10. Dairy Poods 11. Oil 12. Glass • 13. Farming 11. Homework 15. Villages 16. Logging 17. Hercules 09 to o T ta X3 3* O to o o 1 a ca Percentage Scores 50 52 51 56 58 60 62 61 66 68 70 72 71 76 80 82 8U 86 88 90 92 91 96 98 100 112 APPENDIX D A t t i t u d e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D u r i n g t h i s s e m e s t e r y o u have been d o i n g a l i s t e n i n g e x e r c i s e o n c e a week. You h a v e w a t c h e d a f i l m s t r i p w h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o a t a p e and t h e n y o u ha v e l i s t e n e d t o t h e t a p e f o u r t i m e s w h i l e t r y i n g t o c o m p l e t e a w r i t t e n c l o z e e x e r c i s e . (A c l o z e e x e r c i s e i s a p a s s a g e w i t h some o f t h e w o r d s t a k e n o u t ) . P l e a s e a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s . Use a c h e c k mark. 1. I e n j o y e d w a t c h i n g t h e f i l m s t r i p s E v e r y t i m e M o st o f t h e t i m e Some o f t h e t i m e H a r d l y e v e r N e v e r 2. I l e a r n e d some i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m w a t c h i n g t h e f i l m s t r i p s E v e r y t i m e M o st o f t h e t i m e Some o f t h e t i m e H a r d l y e v e r N e v e r 3. I e n j o y e d t r y i n g t o f i l l i n t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s w h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o t h e t a p e s E v e r y t i m e M o st o f t h e t i m e Some o f t h e t i m e H a r d l y e v e r N e v e r 4. I t r i e d h a r d t o h e a r t h e c o r r e c t w o r d when I was f i l l i n g i n t h e m i s s i n g w o r d s E v e r y t i m e M o s t o f t h e t i m e Some o f t h e t i m e H a r d l y e v e r N e v e r I t h i n k t h a t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e my ( c h e c k ONE OR MORE o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ) Grammar L i s t e n i n g R e a d i n g W r i t i n g S p e l l i n g P r o n u n c i a t i o n I t h i n k t h a t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i m p r o v e d my grammar A l o t Somewhat A l i t t l e H a r d l y a t a l l Not a t a l l I t h i n k t h a t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i m p r o v e d my l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y A l o t Somewhat A l i t t l e H a r d l y a t a l l N o t a t a l l I t h i n k t h a t , d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i m p r o v e d my r e a d i n g a b i l i t y A l o t Somewhat A l i t t l e H a r d l y a t a l l N o t a t a l l I t h i n k t h a t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i m p r o v e d my p r o n u n c i a t i o n A l o t Somewhat A l i t t l e H a r d l y a t a l l N o t a t a l l I t h i n k t h a t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s was u s e f u l A l l o f t h e t i m e M o s t o f t h e t i m e Some o f t h e t i m e H a r d l y e v e r N e v e r 114 1 1 . I t h i n k t h a t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s was i n t e r e s t i n g A l l o f t h e t i m e M o s t o f t h e t i m e Some o f t h e t i m e H a r d l y e v e r N e v e r 1 2 . I t h i n k t h a t c l o z e e x e r c i s e s l i k e t h e s e s h o u l d be done by ESL/ELC s t u d e n t s E v e r y day Once a week Once e v e r y two weeks Once a month Once a s e m e s t e r N e v e r 13. What I w o u l d l i k e t o s a y a b o u t d o i n g t h e c l o z e e x e r c i s e s i s 

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