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An evaluation of a communication course offered as part of an elementary teacher training program Bawa, Nirmal K 1990

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AN EVALUATION OF A COMMUNICATION COURSE OFFERED AS PART OF AN ELEMENTARY TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM by Nirmal K. Bawa B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ART in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f i r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1990 Nirmal Kaur Bawa, 1990. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to determine i f elementary student teachers a p p l i e d the t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d i n a communication course on a t h i r t e e n week practicum, and i f so, what s p e c i f i c a l l y was a p p l i e d or t r a n s f e r r e d . The practicum took p l a c e a year a f t e r the communication course; t h i s study was undertaken nineteen months a f t e r the completion of the communication course. The p a r t i c i p a n t s had obtained a b a c h e l o r ' s degree p r i o r to e n r o l l i n g f o r a two year teacher t r a i n i n g program. The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique and a s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n i n g technique were used r e s p e c t i v e l y i n an i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g process. The f i n d i n g s r e v e a l that the t r a n s f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d i n terms of a t t i t u d e , knowledge, and s k i l l s from the experience of the communication course to the p r a c t i c a l experience of the t h i r t e e n week practicum. These f a c t o r s were h e l p f u l i n c r e a t i n g a focussed and m o t i v a t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t y l e , v e r b a l l y and n o n v e r b a l l y , and i n reducing s t r e s s and c o n f l i c t i n i n t e r a c t i o n s with students, parents and c o l l e g u e s . Student teachers were adamant i n s t a t i n g that the success of t h e i r l e a r n i n g was due to the p o s i t i v e atmosphere of the communication course, the c a r i n g , e n t h u s i a s t i c and m o t i v a t i n g nature of the i n s t r u c t o r s , and the bonding which occurred between the p a r t i c i p a n t s as a r e s u l t of t h i s c a r i n g . These f a c t o r s provided the b a s i c human needs of a f f e c t i o n and community. TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i Table of Contents i i L i s t of Tables i v L i s t of Appendices » v Acknowledgements v i Chapter I - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Statement of Problem and Purpose of Study...7 Chapter I I - Review of L i t e r a t u r e 9 E d u c a t i o n a l Trends 9 R e l a t i v e Communication Models 14 Review of Humanistic Education 16 Background L i t e r a t u r e Related to the Components of the Communication Course 22 1. Confirming Communication 22 2. L i s t e n i n g 24 3. Oral I n t e r p r e t a t i o n : Reading to Chi l d r e n 26 4. Nonverbal Communication 28 5. Body Movements..... 29 6. P a r a l i n g u i s t i c s 31 7. Eye Contact 32 8. Proxemics 32 C o n c l u s i o n 33 Chapter I I I - Methodology 35 S e l e c t i o n of P a r t i c i p a n t s .35 Methodological Approach 37 Interview Procedure and Questions 39 Data A n a l y s i s 41 V a l i d i t y Check 42 R e l i a b i l i t y 42 Chapter IV- R e s u l t s 44 F a c i l i t a t i n g I n c i d e n t s 47 1. Developing Confidence 47 2. Developing S e l f Awareness 49 3. Bonding.... 50 4. Improving Se l f - C o n c e p t .....52 5. Improving Nonverbal Communication.... 54 i i i 6. Improving Vocal P r e s e n t a t i o n 56 7. Enhancing Oral I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 57 8. Confirming Communication..... 58 9. Developing R e l a x a t i o n Techniques 60 10. Improving Empathy 61 11. A c t i v e L i s t e n i n g 63 12. Impacting on L i f e ..64 13.Increasing Awareness of the Teacher as Communicator 66 14. Model 1 i n g 67 15. P r a c t i c a l i t y of the Course 69 16. Using the "I Statement' 70 17. Encouraging Rather than P r a i s i n g 71 18. Journal W r i t i n g 72 19. Improving Eye Contact 73 2 0 . S e t t i n g up P h y s i c a l Space 74 Summary 75 Hi n d e r i n g I n c i d e n t s 76 S t r u c t u r e d Q u e s t i o n i n g 77 Question #1 77 Question #2 78 Question #3 79 Cone 1 us i o n 80 Chapter V - Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 81 Summary 81 F i n d i n g s 82 Cone 1 u s i o n 86 L i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s Study 86 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Future Study 87 References. . 88 Appendices 97 i v LIST OF TABLES Time Line R e l a t i o n s h i p of the Communication Course, The T h i r t e e n Week Practicum and Study Data Col l e c t i o n 36 D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a c i l i t a t i n g I n c i d e n t s 45-46 V LIST OF APPENDICES O u t l i n e f o r the Communication S k i l l s i n Teaching Course . 98 Manual f o r Afternoon Communication S k i l l s i n Teaching Seminars 105 O r i g i n a l D i v i s i o n s of F a c i l i t a t i n g Incidents.132 Bar-graph P r e s e n t a t i o n of the D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a c i l i t a t i n g I n c i d e n t s 134 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The process of c r e a t i n g t h i s t h e s i s was a challenge which could not have been met without the love and caringness of my g e n t l e and f i n e husband, Snub, and our most wonderous c h i l d r e n , R a n j i t , Meera, Amrit and Bina. Added to t h i s was the understanding and support given by Dr. Ronald Jobe, Dr. Norman Amundson and Dr. Kenneth Slade, who ap p r e c i a t e d the importance of t h i s p r o j e c t to me. Many thanks to Carmen Cayer, a f a m i l y member, and Ca r o l Loski who a s s i s t e d i n the e d i t i n g and ty p i n g , and to the many f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s who chose to be a part of t h i s e xperience. And f i n a l l y , a posthumous 'thank you' to my d e a r l y beloved mother and f a t h e r , Mr. Kehar Singh G i l l and Mrs. R a n j i t Kaur G i l l , who were, and always w i l l be, i n s p i r a t i o n s to me, and c e r t a i n l y were very much i n my thoughts d u r i n g the undertaking of t h i s study. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Recent changes i n the s o c i e t a l and economic fabric of the Canadian society have had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on educational philosophy and practice i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As a re s u l t , the University of B r i t i s h Columbia's Faculty of Education undertook an investigation into the most recent research concerning teaching, learning and the preparation of teachers for contemporary schools (CUPR, 1983). Based on the findings, the elementary teacher t r a i n i n g program of the faculty was dramatically revised in 1987. Included in t h i s r e v i s i o n was the introduction of a new course e n t i t l e d (EDUC 316) "Communication S k i l l s in Teaching", consisting of the presentation of communication s k i l l s necessary for the teacher to be an e f f e c t i v e communicator i n the school environment. The purpose of t h i s study was to determine the s p e c i f i c impact of t h i s course on student teachers i n terms of their teaching on a thirteen week practicum. The necessity for a course in communication s k i l l s for the elementary school teacher i s evident upon an examination of the changing Canadian society, and the d i r e c t i o n that 2 e d u c a t i o n i s t a k i n g i n the 1990's as a r e s u l t of these changes. S e v e r a l major i s s u e s are reshaping Canadian s o c i e t y : s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s and changes i n the immigrant p o p u l a t i o n , c u l t u r a l and language i s s u e s , a breakdown of the f a m i l y u n i t , r e s u l t i n g i n more s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s and higher l e v e l s of poverty. In the 1960's, 85% of the immigrants to Canada were from Europe or North America. C u l t u r a l l y t h i s group was not n o t i c e a b l y d i s s i m i l a r to the Canadian c u l t u r e i t was j o i n i n g . The remaining 15% of the immigrants were c a t e g o r i z e d as "Other". In 1989, 42% of the immigrants were i n the 'European/North American' category, and 58% i n "Other' ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada,1989). These changes i n the c u l t u r a l make-up of Canada were recogn i z e d i n 1988 by the passing of B i l l C-93, 'An Act f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n and enhancement of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Canada'. T h i s Act o f f i c i a l l y acknowledged the i n e v i t a b l e change i n the Canadian e t h n i c composition which was t a k i n g p l a c e . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s Act was created to 'preserve and enhance the use of languages other than French and E n g l i s h , w h i l e s t r e n g t h e n i n g the s t a t u s and use of the o f f i c i a l languages i n Canada' ( B i l l C-93,CiD). In 1988, 32% of the t o t a l immigration f o r that year (160,789) were l i s t e d under the category of "Family C l a s s " , and of these, 51% could speak n e i t h e r of the o f f i c i a l 3 languages (Immigration, Canada,1988). The c i t y of Vancouver, B.C., where 11% of those i n t h i s category s e t t l e d i n 1988, would appear to be the prototype of what could be expected i n other school d i s t r i c t s i n the near f u t u r e . A survey of Vancouver elementary enrollment f o r 1988 revealed that 48.9% of the t o t a l elementary enrollment were ESL ( E n g l i s h as a Second Language) students (Student Assessment And Research Branch of the Vancouver School Board,1988.) In a d d i t i o n to these c h i l d r e n , who are c u l t u r a l l y and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s o r i e n t e d i n the classroom, are the i n c r e a s i n g number of c h i l d r e n from s i n g l e parent homes (F r a s e r , 1990). An i n c r e a s e i n poverty r e l a t e s to both of these groups. One c h i l d i n s i x under the age of s i x t e e n i s a f f e c t e d by poverty (CTF Report, 1989). T h i s s t a t u s may r e s u l t i n " . . . l e s s m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n . . . d e l a y e d c o g n i t i v e development... lower achievement . . . d i f f e r e n t types of s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n ... i n t e r r u p t e d school attendance and an i n c r e a s e d r i s k of i l l i t e r a c y " (Children,. Schools_and_Poverty i. CTF, 1989) . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these s o c i e t a l and economic changes f o r the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n have been recognized and addressed by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education, the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n and the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The M i n i s t r y of Education, i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the above i s s u e s i n s t i t u t e d the S u l l i v a n Royal Commission on Education 4 (August,1988). A review of the recommendations of t h i s r e p o r t r e s u l t e d i n r a d i c a l and fundamental changes to the p r o v i n c i a l school c u r r i c u l u m . These changes are e x t e n s i v e l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n the document Year 2000 :^A Framework For Learning (1990). The mandate f o r the school system reads: "The purpose of the B r i t i s h Columbia school system i s to enable l e a r n e r s to develop t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p o t e n t i a l and to a c q u i r e the knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s needed to c o n t r i b u t e to a healthy s o c i e t y and a prosperous and s u s t a i n e d economy" (p. 3). The e f f e c t of the changes on the r o l e and f u n c t i o n i n g of the teacher i n t h i s new framework i s d i s c e r n i b l e upon examination of the f o l l o w i n g statements: "1. L e a r n i n g r e q u i r e s the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the l e a r n e r ; 2. People l e a r n i n a v a r i e t y of ways and at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s ; 3. L e a r n i n g i s both an i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l p rocess;" (Year_2000, 1990, p 7-8). The term " l e a r n e r - f o c u s e d " i s used throughout t h i s document. The B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n (BCTF) commissioned an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the needs of a p r o f i c i e n t teacher, r e l a t i v e to what was i n that teacher's t r a i n i n g . (Flanders,1980). There was an agreement among p r a c t i s i n g t e a c h e r s that an e f f e c t i v e way to develop a teacher was to p r o v i d e a s h o r t p e r i o d of i n t e n s i v e s k i l l t r a i n i n g , b a s i c a l l y on how to handle o n e s e l f e f f e c t i v e l y i n the classroom. T h i s would ensure that b a s i c s k i l l s are acquired 5 before e n t e r i n g the classroom. Many teachers reported that under the current system they a c q u i r e d these s k i l l s haphazardly, and too l a t e , i f ever. F u r t h e r BCTF documentation of teachers' needs were s t a t e d a year l a t e r : " I t was our f e e l i n g that there must be i n c l u d e d i n a teacher e d u c a t i o n program some p r o v i s i o n f o r the student's personal growth, which w i l l be of help i n s u s t a i n -i n g him or her throughout t h e i r t e a c h i n g career. S p e c i f i c a l l y we see lack of a t t e n t i o n to the f o l l o w i n g areas: (1) A s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g (.2) S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n (3) Development of personal philosophy (.4) I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s (5'.> B a s i c communication s k i l l s (.&') Coping with s t r e s s and l e a r n i n g how to s e t l i m i t s " <Ihe_Ihirty._11 l s _ o f _Jeacher_Education J LBCTF, 1981) In the same document, under the t i t l e of 'Classroom Management Techniques' r e f e r e n c e i s made to the need f o r c o n f e r e n c i n g s t r a t e g i e s with p u p i l s , parents and teaching c o l l e a g u e s or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The F a c u l t y of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1987, i n accordance with the changes which t r a i n i n g teachers would encounter i n the classroom, r e v i s e d i t s elementary teacher t r a i n i n g program. A s i g n i f i c a n t part of t h i s program was a new course e n t i t l e d Communication S k i l l s i n Teaching (EDUC 316) . T h i s i n t e n s i v e two-week course was o f f e r e d and s t a f f e d by the Department of Language Educat i o n i n c o - o p e r a t i o n with the Department of C o u n s e l l i n g 6 Psychology. Two and one-half hour morning l e c t u r e s f o r the f u l l student body (230 student teachers i n 1988) were fol l o w e d by three-hour seminars i n the a f t e r n o o n . L e c t u r e s were presented i n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e team-tea c h i n g f a s h i o n . Two i n s t r u c t o r s , one from each r e s p e c t i v e department, were a s s i s t e d by seminar l e a d e r s , a l s o from both departments, i n r o l e - p l a y i n g , l e c t u r i n g and o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Teachers and e r s t w h i l e student teachers, when a p p r o p r i a t e , were i n c l u d e d as guest speakers. The use of video tapes, music and overhead p r o j e c t o r s was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p r e s e n t a t i o n s . A course o u t l i n e i s to be found i n the Appendix < Appendix A). The t o p i c s addressed i n the l e c t u r e s i n t h i s two-week pe r i o d i n c l u d e d : The Communication Process S e l f - c o n c e p t i n the Communication Process Speech Communication Nonverbal Communication modes L i s t e n i n g S k i l l s Communication S k i l l s Interview S k i l l s B a r r i e r s to e f f e c t i v e communication Understanding group behavior Review of Communication - The Teacher i ? t udent_Handbgok JL_E l d u c a t i g n _ 0 f f i c e , . UBC, p. 26). Seminars, c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r t e e n student teachers and a seminar leader, f e a t u r e d p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the concepts presented i n the morning l e c t u r e s . A manual c o n s i s t i n g of the a c t i v i t i e s to be undertaken created a l e v e l of c o n s i s t e n c y amongst the groups 7 (Appendix B). An e s s e n t i a l aspect of the seminar experience was the e x t e n s i v e v i d e o t a p i n g of p r e s e n t a t i o n s . These feedback e x p e r i e n c e s created the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the student teacher to develop speaking and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s and the a b i l i t y to provide c o n s t r u c t i v e feedback. The o v e r a l l i n t e n t of the course was to present student teachers with knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s which would d i r e c t l y a i d them i n becoming e f f e c t i v e communicators i n the school environment. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OF STUDY The i n c l u s i o n of (EDUC 316) the Communication S k i l l s i n Teaching course i n two r e v i s i o n s of the elementary teacher t r a i n i n g program, i n 1987 and again i n the 1990 program r e v i s i o n , i s p e r t i n e n t . The components of the course p a r a l l e l those of the new c u r r i c u l u m f o r educa t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia as presented i n the Year_2000 document. The need f o r a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t , f o r acceptance of d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g s t y l e s , f o r the a p p r e c i a t i o n of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and f o r the n e c e s s i t y of each i n d i v i d u a l being a c a r i n g , a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n s o c i e t y , represented by the classroom as a macrocosm are ev i d e n t i n both. The components of the communication course a l s o comply with the BCTF's f e e l i n g s as to what should be taught i n teacher e d u c a t i o n programs (1980;1981). 8 The above r e p o r t s make a s t r o n g case f o r the relevance and n e c e s s i t y of i n c l u d i n g the communication s k i l l s course i n a teacher t r a i n i n g program. The purpose of t h i s study was to determine the impact of the course on student teachers d u r i n g the undertaking of a t h i r t e e n week practicum i n which the students would use the t r a i n i n g provided i n t h i s course. The research q u e s t i o n s f o r t h i s study are: 1. Do student teachers use the knowledge, s k i l l s and techniques i n t r o d u c e d i n the Communication S k i l l s i n Teaching course which i s part of t h e i r teacher t r a i n i n g at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia on t h e i r p r a c t i c a placements? 2 . If so, what s p e c i f i c a l l y are the ways that the course has had an impact on the student teachers'? 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE When examining the r e l e v a n c e of a communication course f o r the teacher of today, i t i s necessary to r e f l e c t upon changes which have taken p l a c e i n e d u c a t i o n over the l a s t t h i r t y years. The student teacher of today i s , i n many cases, a product of a p h i l o s o p h i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l outlook which was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the contemporary e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy. As i t i s important to " s t a r t where a person i s a t " (Rogers, 1980), an overview of the major e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s of the l a s t t h i r t y years i s presented i n t h i s chapter. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a review of communication models r e l e v a n t to the p h i l o s o p h i c a l changes i n education. As w e l l , documentation of the r e s e a r c h on the components comprising e f f e c t i v e classroom communication i s reviewed. EDUCATIONAL TRENDS In the l a t e 1950's e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy and p r a c t i c e r e f l e c t e d the r e a c t i o n of s o c i e t y to the launching of Sputnik I (Bruner: 1960; Silberman: 1966; Plowden Report; 10 1967). There was concern that e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were not p r e p a r i n g students to take part i n a growing t e c h n o l o g i c a l environment. The f e a r was r e l a t e d to power; Russia had moved i n t o space before the United S t a t e s . North America reacted immediately. The Woods Hole Conference, a g a t h e r i n g of s c i e n t i s t s , mathematicians and p s y c h o l o g i s t s , under the chairmanship of Jerome Bruner, was d i r e c t e d by the United S t a t e s government to determine how t h i s c hallenge to i t s world power would be met. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the conference was designed to examine the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r improving e d u c a t i o n i n s c i e n c e i n the elementary and secondary s c h o o l s . The d e c i s i o n of t h i s group was presented i n The Pt2£gSS_2i Educ a t i o n (I960), a document w r i t t e n by Bruner, which c l e a r l y s t a t e d the d i r e c t i o n e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy and p r a c t i c e might take. The emphasis was on the f o r m u l a t i o n of a r a t i o n a l e that has been termed "the s t r u c t u r e - o f - a - d i s c i p l i n e p r i n c i p l e " (Tanner 8< Tanner, 1975, p. 404). The focus was on content, not on the l e a r n e r . T h i s emphasis was f u r t h e r d e f i n e d as a t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , c l a r i f y i n g the need to t r a i n people to f a c i l i t a t e growth i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l development of the s o c i e t y . Educators of the time s t r o n g l y supported such an o r i e n t a t i o n (Phenix, 1962; Schwab, 1962). However, due to s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l changes, these same advocates r a d i c a l l y changed t h e i r p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n o n l y a decade (Bruner, 1971; Phenix, 1969; Schwab, 1970; Silberman, 1970). Two weaknesses of such a narrow focus as the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d approach to e d u c a t i o n were recognized. F i r s t l y , knowledge i n one d i s c i p l i n e was not being examined i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to other areas of knowledge i n the school curriculum, or i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the problems of s o c i e t y . Secondly, the focus on the a c a d e m i c a l l y t a l e n t e d , with p r i o r i t y being given to s c i e n c e and math i n the curriculum, r e s u l t e d i n a neglect of the m a j o r i t y of the school p o p u l a t i o n . One of the most p e r s u a s i v e c r i t i c s of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l emphasis was John H o l t (1964) who b e l i e v e d that the f e a r of f a i l u r e experienced by many of the c h i l d r e n i n h i b i t e d r a t h e r than f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r l e a r n i n g . G l a s s e r (1969) a l s o suggested that f a i l u r e experience could have a damaging e f f e c t on the s e l f - c o n c e p t of c h i l d r e n and as a r e s u l t they would begin to regard themselves as worthless f a i l u r e s , e v e n t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c i n g severe emotional problems or becoming d e l i n q u e n t . A c c o r d i n g to P a t t e r s o n (1973), the t e c h n o l o g i c a l approach may be the most e f f i c i e n t way to teach the b a s i c s k i l l s (the three R's), but i t "cannot produce a f r e e , reasoning, r e s p o n s i b l e i n d i v i d u a l " (p.16). P i a g e t ' s (1950) e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l approach s u c c i n c t l y summarizes the reason f o r the f a i l u r e of t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n . He s t a t e d that the c h i l d i s t r e a t e d " as a s m a l l a d u l t , as a being who reasons and f e e l s j u s t as we <adults> do, merely l a c k i n g our knowledge and experience". 12 Dewey (1933) had very e a r l y recognized the d e f i c i e n c y of such a school experience i n p r e p a r i n g c h i l d r e n f o r a meaningful r o l e i n s o c i e t y and l i f e . He s t a t e d : there are b u i l t up detached and independent systems of school knowledge that i n e r t l y o v e r l a y the o r d i n a r y systems of experience i n s t e a d of r e a c t i n g to e n l a r g e and r e f i n e them. P u p i l s are taught to l i v e i n two separate worlds, one the world of o u t - o f -school experience, the other the world of books and l e s s o n s . Then we s t u p i d l y wonder why what i s s t u d i e d i n school counts l i t t l e o u t s i d e (p. 259). E d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1980's r e f l e c t e d the dichotomy d e s c r i b e d by Dewey, and was recognized as doing so by the M i n i s t r y of Education. In 1987, The. S u l l i v a n Report r e s u l t e d from an exhausting examination of the school system. It "document<ed> and confirm<ed> the dramatic s o c i a l and economic changes that have taken p l a c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia...changes that have placed new demands upon, and created new e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r our s c h o o l s " ( M i n i s t r y of Education, Year 2000, p. 5). T h i s document was the b a s i s f o r the new B r i t i s h Columbia e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m : Y.^L-.ZQQQl6-EL^f5^V9Lh^l°L-kM^LD.kD9 (1990). The r a p i d developments i n communication and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s are acknowledged. The r a p i d changes and subsequent d i v e r s i t y i n the school p o p u l a t i o n i n the l a s t twenty years s o c i a l l y , economically and demographically i s taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g statement of mandate f o r the school system was 13 a r t i c u l a t e d to c l a r i f y the i n t e n t i o n s of the new c u r r i c u l u m . The Mandate presents a d e s c r i p t i o n of the "educated c i t i z e n " , one who i s : - t h o u g h t f u l , a b l e to l e a r n and to think c r i t i c a l l y , and who can communicate i n f o r m a t i o n from a broad knowledge base; - c r e a t i v e , f l e x i b l e , s e l f - m o t i v a t e d and who has a p o s t i v e s e l f image; - capable of making independent d e c i s i o n s ; - s k i l l e d and who can c o n t r i b u t e to s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d i n g the world of work; - p r o d u c t i v e , who gains s a t i s f a c t i o n through achievement and who s t r i v e s f o r p h y s i c a l well being; c o o p e r a t i v e , p r i n c i p l e d and r e s p e c t f u l of o t h e r s r e g a r d l e s s of d i f f e r e n c e s ; - aware of the r i g h t s and prepared to e x e r c i s e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the f a m i l y , the community, Canada, and the world.(p. 3-4) Thus, with the new B r i t i s h Columbia education c u r r i c u l u m we are s e e i n g , at l e a s t i n terms of i n t e n t , e d u c a t i o n a n t i c i p a t i n g the f u t u r e - a n e c e s s i t y a r t i c u l a t e d by l e a d i n g t h e o r i s t s (Postman and Weingartner, 1969; Rogers, 1969; T o f f l e r , 1970). These changes have r e s u l t e d i n r a d i c a l adjustments i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between teacher and student, r e q u i r i n g t e a c h e r s to r e t h i n k t h e i r r o l e and f u n c t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n a l environment. The changes r e q u i r e d are more c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d through an examination 14 of the communication models a s s o c i a t e d with the d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s . RELATIVE COMMUNICATION MODELS A communication model a p p l i c a b l e to the t e c h n o l o g i c a l era as o u t l i n e d by Bruner i n h i s P r o c e s s _ o f ^ E d u c a t i o n was the t r a n s m i s s i o n model. In t h i s model the communication i s on l y u n i - d i r e c t i o n a l . The teacher was the "imparter of knowledge" (McNeil, 1985, p. 43), and the student "an empty v e s s e l to be f i l l e d " . The r e l a t i o n s h i p d i d not i n v i t e any t r a n s a c t i o n between the teacher and the student. Understandably, the teacher was o f t e n not aware, nor was r e q u i r e d to be, of the backgrounds of the i n d i v i d u a l student. T h i s model d i d not s u i t the changes which took p l a c e i n s o c i e t y and, consequently, i n s c h o o l s , i n the 1970's. The focus moved from content to the l e a r n e r . Meeting the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l were now perce i v e d as the focus of educ a t i o n . Thus the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the teacher and the student a l t e r e d . The teacher became a " f a c i l i t a t o r " of l e a r n i n g ( G l a s s e r , 1986; Rogers, 1983; Worell & S t i l l w e l l , 1981) and the student was to accept h i s / h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as an equal partner i n communication (Shor, 1987; Wright, 1987). Communication i n the classroom was viewed as a t r a n s a c t i o n , r e q u i r i n g understanding and acceptance of the r e a l i t y of o t h e r s ( B a r r e t t , 1987; S e i l e r , Scheulke & L i e b - B r . i l h a r t , 1984), and the r e a l i s a t i o n that t h i s r e a l i t y was i n a constant s t a t e of change. Communication i n the classroom was now viewed as a t r a n s a c t i o n and with t h i s change the t r a n s a c t i o n a l model of communication was created. The d e f i n i t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s model emphasizes that the communicators si m u l t a n e o u s l y send and r e c e i v e messages. Each p a r t i c i p a n t attempts to d i s c o v e r the meaning of what i s being shared, based on the knowledge, b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s and values of each person. Therefore, two major changes occu r r e d . F i r s t l y , t here was now a two-way exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n , and secondly, r e c o g n i t i o n was being given to the s u b j e c t i v e n e s s of r e a l i t y , and i t s e f f e c t on one's i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s . A recent a d d i t i o n to t h i s model i s the i n c l u s i o n of ' c u l t u r e ' as an element shaping p e r c e p t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s are a l s o r e s e a r c h i n g and w r i t i n g on c u l t u r e p e r c e p t i o n (Landis & B r i s l i n , 1983; T r i a n d i s ?< Lambert, et a l , 1980). The changes i n s o c i e t y , i n the f u n c t i o n of education, and i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the teacher and student have been e v i d e n t f o r at l e a s t the l a s t ten years. The e f f e c t s of these changes i n the classroom are c l e a r . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l change from t e c h n o l o g i c a l to humanistic e d u c a t i o n i s most s i g n i f i c a n t . A l l other changes r e f l e c t t h i s new outlook. An overview of humanistic e d u c a t i o n i s 16 v a l u a b l e f o r an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y of the components of the communication course. REVIEW OF HUMANISTIC EDUCATION The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s c l a r i f y the b a s i c i n t e n t of an humanistic e d u c a t i o n . In the f i e l d of psychology-humanism i s d e f i n e d as the study of man as a whole person; someone who has the goal of a c h i e v i n g a happy, f u l f i l l i n g and c r e a t i v e e x i s t e n c e ( E l l i s , 1973). In the area of cu r r i c u l u m planning, humanists s t a t e that the goal of ed u c a t i o n i s to crea t e "dynamic personal processes r e l a t e d to the i d e a l s of personal growth, i n t e g r i t y and autonomy CMcNei1,1985, p. 5). T h i s personal growth i s e n v i s i o n e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to l i v i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e l y with o t h e r s (Gazda: 1973; McNeil: 1985). The humanistic theory supports the n o t i o n that the u l t i m a t e m o t i v a t i o n of a l l human beings i s the a c t u a l i z a t i o n or f u l f i l l m e n t of one's p o t e n t i a l . T h i s " s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n " i s the highest achievement i n Maslow's " h i e r a r c h y of needs" (Adler & Towne, 1990). T h i s h i e r a r c h y i s based on the b e l i e f that the i n d i v i d u a l wishes to s a t i s f y p h y s i c a l , s a f e t y , s o c i a l and s e l f - r e s p e c t needs i n order to d i s c o v e r the u l t i m a t e p o t e n t i a l of o n e s e l f . The concept of the " f u l l y f u n c t i o n i n g person" was developed by Rogers (1961) as a d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s u l t of t h i s achievement. 17 Another aspect of humanistic theory r e l a t e s to p e r c e p t i o n . The view i s held that behavior i s a f u n c t i o n of the p e r c e p t i o n s e x i s t i n g f o r any i n d i v i d u a l at the moment of h i s / h e r behaving, p a r t i c u l a r l y those he/she has of h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f and of the world i n which he/she i s f u n c t i o n i n g (Combs & Snygg, 1959). We do not r e l a t e to r e a l i t y but to our p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y : "What i s p e r c e i v e d i s not what e x i s t s , but what one b e l i e v e s e x i s t s , . . . and we have learned to p e r c e i v e as a r e s u l t of our past o p p o r t u n i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s " (Combs & Snygg, 1959, p. 84-85). Related to t h i s s t r u c t u r i n g of behavior i s our s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n or s e l f - c o n c e p t . Healy (1982) l i s t s s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s which can be used to expand a student's s e l f -awareness: 1. Self-awareness i n c r e a s e s when one i s d i r e c t e d and encouraged to experience a range of a c t i v i t i e s and then to r e f l e c t on them. 2. Self-awareness and confidence f l o u r i s h when one l e a r n s how to succeed and then pauses to enjoy success. 3. Self-awareness and confidence expand by e x p l o r i n g o n e s e l f i n p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which enable i n i t i a t i v e and i n c l u d e the e x p e c t a t i o n that one i s competent. 4. Self-awareness and confidence improve by g a t h e r i n g and o r g a n i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about o n e s e l f i n order to teach o t h e r s about o n e s e l f . 5. Self-awareness and confidence grow by o b t a i n i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g feedback from those q u a l i f i e d to observe one. (p. 11) 18 Rogers (1959) suggests that we must change p e r c e p t i o n s i f we are to change behavior. However, he a l s o acknowledges that t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t , as the tendency i s f o r one to m a i n tain the s e l f - c o n c e p t . If there i s a t h r e a t or a c h a l l e n g e to s e l f - c o n c e p t the tendency i s to defend o n e s e l f as that i s a l l one knows, and t h e r e f o r e that i s " r e a l i t y " . T h i s r e a c t i o n may r e s u l t i n experiences being denied or d i s t o r t e d i n order to preserve the " s e l f - c o n c e p t " . Rogers (1959:> d e s c r i b e s t h i s r e a c t i o n as one of "incongruence" between the s e l f and the experience. In c o n t r a s t , a s t a t e of "congruence" between s e l f and experience e x i s t s when " s e l f - e x p e r i e n c e s are a c c u r a t e l y symbolized and are i n c l u d e d i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t i n t h i s a c c u r a t e l y symbolized form" (p. 206). He goes on to p o s t u l a t e s i x c o n d i t i o n s which would enable the process of p e r c e p t u a l change to occur. These are: 1. Two people are i n contact. 2. The f i r s t person, the t r a i n e e (or i n the case of t h i s Study, the student t e a c h e r ) , i s i n a s t a t e of incongruence being v u l n e r a b l e or anxious 3. The second person, the t r a i n e r (or i n the case of t h i s study, the seminar l e a d e r ) , i s congruent i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p ( t h a t i s , he i s open and genuine i n the e x p r e s s i o n of h i s f e e l i n g s and non-defensive). 4. The t r a i n e r e xperiences u n c o n d i t i o n a l p o s i t i v e regard toward the t r a i n e e (that i s , the t r a i n e e i s valued, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the values placed by the t r a i n e r on the t r a i n e e ' s b e h a v i o r ) . 5. The t r a i n e r e x p e r i e n c e s an emphatic understanding of the t r a i n e e ' s frame of r e f e r e n c e (that i s , the t r a i n e r i s a b l e to l i s t e n to the t r a i n e e , demonstrating that he or she understands how the person f e e l s ) . 6. The t r a i n e e p e r c e i v e s , at l e a s t to a minimal degree, c o n d i t i o n s 4 and 5. Meeting the above c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w s the t r a i n e e to change i n s e v e r a l ways. Experiences become more a c c u r a t e l y symbolized and f e e l i n g s are expressed i n ways which have r e f e r e n c e to s e l f . The t r a i n e e i s comfortable acknowledging h i s / h e r f e e l i n g s , even i f they are not of a p o s i t i v e nature. The s e l f - c o n c e p t becomes reorganized, a s s i m i l a t i n g those e x p e r i e n c e s p r e v i o u s l y denied or d i s t o r t e d i n awareness. As a consequence d e f e n s i v e n e s s i s reduced. The t r a i n e e (student teacher) begins to see h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f as the source of choice and e v a l u a t i o n . Value i s attached to e x p e r i e n c e s which enhance the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g tendency. The i n d i v i d u a l begins to value t h i s process i n h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f and i n o t h e r s . An openness, a w i l l i n g n e s s to l e a r n ways of f a c i l i t a t i n g t h i s process occurs. The t r a i n e e f e e l s c o n f i d e n t i n changing h i s / h e r behavior. Carkhuff (1971) suggested three other f a c t o r s which, i n a d d i t i o n to those suggested by Rogers, c o n t r i b u t e to an e f f e c t i v e h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e s e are: 1. Q o n f r o n t a t i o n . C o n f r o n t a t i o n i s t e l l i n g the other person you p e r c e i v e d i s c r e p a n c i e s between what i s done and what one says he or she i s doing. T h i s r e l a t e s to p e r c e p t i o n . 20 2. Immediacy. Immediacy i s the a b i l i t y of the t r a i n e r to understand d i f f e r e n t f e e l i n g s and experiences that are going on between himself and the other person at the time of the i n t e r a c t i o n . 3. Q o u r s e _ g f _ a c t i o n . The t r a i n e r f a c i l i t a t e s the other person's d e v e l o p i n g a course of a c t i o n to handle problems, and to pursue p e r s o n a l l y chosen goaIs. Carkhuff (1969) p r o v i d e s s u b s t a n t i a l evidence that i n t e r a c t i o n based on the c o n d i t i o n s expressed above by Rogers and himself f a c i l i t a t e changes i n human development. Aspy (1969, 1972), Aspy and Had lock (1967), Gazda (1973) and S t o f f e r (1970) add f u r t h e r evidence through t h e i r own resear c h and examination of research of o t h e r s . They concur that l e v e l s of empathy, warmth and genuineness on the part of the teacher a f f e c t the growth of the p u p i l both a c a d e m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y . Zimmerman and Zimmerman (1976) f u r t h e r suggest that the communication s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g or therapy are the same as those i n v o l v e d i n e f f e c t i v e t eaching, and that " s e l f awareness and communication s k i l l s make p o s s i b l e a r i c h e r and more v i t a l e d u c a t i o n a l process which has been h e r e t o f o r e a v a i l a b l e o n l y to a few st u d e n t s " (p. 397). 21 Carkhuff (1969) f u r t h e r suggests that " a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g " , a s s o c i a t e d with empathy, and the a b i l i t y to use the "I-Message", a s s o c i a t e d with the demonstration of genuineness, would f u r t h e r enhance e f f e c t i v e communication between teacher-student. Empathetic l i s t e n i n g encompasses a l l the s u p p o r t i v e behaviors: d e s c r i p t i o n , problem o r i e n t a t i o n , e q u a l i t y , p r o v i s i o n a l ism, s p o n t a n e i t y and empathy (Bibb, 1961). Empathetic l i s t e n i n g i n v o l v e s the l i s t e n e r f o c u s s i n g on the other person prepared to respond to h i s or her p e r c e p t i o n s . In order to avoid miscommunication and the c r e a t i o n of d i s t o r t i o n i t i s necessary to check your p e r c e p t i o n s of the o t h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n s , f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s (Wallen, 1972). The l i s t e n e r attends p h y s i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y to the messages of the speaker. Response i s made to both f e e l i n g s and content i n order to help the speaker e x p l o r e h i s or her concerns (Egan, 1982). "The major b a r r i e r to mutual i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication i s our very n a t u r a l tendency to judge, to e v a l u a t e , to approve or disapprove the statement of the other person or the group" (Rogers, 1961, p. 330). Aspy (1972) and Gazda (1973) i d e n t i f y communication s k i l l s which, through r e s e a r c h , they have i d e n t i f i e d as e s s e n t i a l to q u a l i t y teacher-student r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These are the a b i l i t y to l i s t e n to a c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s or to d i r e c t l y express t h e i r own f e e l i n g s i n a s i t u a t i o n . Brophy and Good (1974) noted t h a t , d e s p i t e a l l that i s known about the s p e c i f i c s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n working with c h i l d r e n , few teacher e d u c a t i o n programs i n the United S t a t e s help teachers develop an understanding of c h i l d r e n ' s behavior and e f f e c t i v e ways of responding to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n . In Canada, the s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r . BACKGROUND LITERATURE RELATED TO THE COMPONENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION COURSE 1• QQNEiRMING_COMMUN Teachers must be aware of t h e i r impact on, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to, students i n today's classrooms. In the past the d i s t a n c i n g a s s o c i a t e d with the academic -t e c h n o l o g i c a l approach to s c h o o l i n g , made no demands on the 'humane' aspects of communication. The s a f e t y which was provided through r e g i m e n t a t i o n i n terms of having a l l stud e n t s perform the same task at the same time i s no longer a part of the s t r u c t u r e of p r o g r e s s i v e educators. The view of ' s e l f as a 'process' (Pearson & Nelson, 198S; Rogers, 1961) i s an accepted concept.The process c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s ; the i n t r a p e r s o n a l and the i n t e r p e r s o n a l . The former i s i n many ways dependent on the l a t t e r . The 'process' of d e f i n i n g s e l f r e l a t e s to the nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s one experiences i n communication. George Mead (1977) s t a t e s that "the c h i l d , through verbal and nonverbal symbols, l e a r n s to accept r o l e s i n response to 23 the e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s " (p. 138). During t h i s process of d e v e l o p i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t , Maslow (1970), Schutz (1971) and T o f f l e r (1980) s t a t e that every i n d i v i d u a l has b a s i c needs which are c o n s t a n t l y r e q u i r i n g f u l f i l l m e n t . A l l three agree that an i n d i v i d u a l must f e e l s a f e , respected and f e e l he or she i s part of a community. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these needs f o r the classroom are c l e a r . The teacher has the task of p r o v i d i n g a s a f e environment f o r each student. S t u d i e s by Combs (1982), O r l i c h et a l (1985) and O r n s t e i n , (1985) v e r i f y the importance of meeting these needs. Combs concluded that i t i s not the act of h e l p i n g that makes a d i f f e r e n c e i n a h e l p i n g s i t u a t i o n but r a t h e r the a t t i t u d e and b e l i e f s of the teacher d u r i n g the process. Good and Brophy (1987) suggest that e f f e c t i v e management begins with m o t i v a t i o n ; c r e a t i n g a d e s i r e w i t h i n the c h i l d to succeed which a l l o w s f o r s e l f -d i r e c t i o n and development of s e l f esteem. Cooper (1986) and Faust (1970) r e c o g n i z e the need of the teacher to "understand t h e i r own f e e l i n g s and how people p e r c e i v e them" (Cooper, 1986) i n order to impact i n a p o s i t i v e f a s h i o n on the students i n t h e i r c l a s s . Faust d i s c u s s e s W i l l i a m Burnham's works of the 1920's and 1930's, i n d i c a t i n g how Burnham t r a n s l a t e d h i s p r i n c i p l e s of p e r s o n a l i t y development s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the teacher. He quotes Burnham as f o l l o w s : "Thus the teacher who i s a mental hygenist comes to know more about h i m s e l f , h i s own 24 mental a t t i t u d e s , h i s own emotional p i t f a l l s , h i s own defense mechanisms and the l i k e " (p. 85). Deutsch (1973) and Gibb (1961) conducted s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g to the emotional impact i n d i v i d u a l s have on each other i n communication. Deutsch concluded that the b u i l d i n g of a f e e l i n g of t r u s t w i l l allow the confidence needed to take r i s k s . Research by Gibb (1961) enabled him to i s o l a t e s i x types of behaviors which arouse d e f e n s i v e n e s s . The c a t e g o r i e s he has created f o r these behaviors are r e f e r r e d to o f t e n i n teacher t r a i n i n g . Educators concur with r e s e a r c h e r s that the most important f a c t o r i n school environment today i s the c r e a t i o n of a p o s i t i v e , f a c i l i t a t i v e environment (Borgen & Radner, 1981; Faber & M a z l i s h , 1987). T h i s environment allows the student the o p p o r t u n i t y to r e f l e c t and q u e s t i o n without f e a r . F r i e r e (1976) suggests that e d u c a t i o n should be 'an e d u c a t i o n of "I wonder", i n s t e a d of merely "I do".' He e l o q u e n t l y suggests, "Education i s an act of love, and thus an a c t of courage. It cannot f e a r the a n a l y s i s of r e a l i t y , or under pain of r e v e a l i n g i t s e l f as a f a r c e , a v o i d c r e a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n " ( p . 36). 2. LISTENING Sara Lundsteen (1979) d e f i n e d l i s t e n i n g as "the process by which spoken language i s converted i n t o meaning i n the mind". Researchers have suggested that people l i s t e n f o r s e v e r a l reasons: f o r comprehension, a p p r e c i a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , empathy and therapy (Wolvin & Coakley, 1982; Wolff et a l , 1983). The expansion i n the d e f i n i t i o n and uses of l i s t e n i n g r e f l e c t the changes i n the d e f i n i t i o n of communication. In the o n e - d i r e c t i o n a l model of communication the l i s t e n e r was considered to be p a s s i v e . The t r a n s a c t i o n a l model c o n s i s t s of many v a r i a b l e s , the most p e r t i n e n t one being the nature of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . The l i s t e n e r i s now perc e i v e d as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t (Barker, 1971). In an i n f o r m a t i o n a l s e t t i n g he/she has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to not only e v a l u a t e the i n t e n t and value of the message, but to attend to the comfort of the speaker by p r o v i d i n g encouraging and s u p p o r t i v e eye contact. John Wallen (1972) has created a l i s t of s k i l l s necessary f o r the l i s t e n e r i n a s i t u a t i o n i n which he/she must pr o v i d e empathy or therapy f o r the speaker. The most well known of these s k i l l s are those of paraphrasing, c l a r i f y i n g and the 'I message'. Gibb (1961) r e f e r s to e v a l u a t i v e language as "you" language as they g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n an accusatory tone or usage of words. He supports Wallen's r e s e a r c h i n s u g g e s t i n g that i n order to be e f f e c t i v e i n communication there i s a need f o r educators to develop the technigues of ' a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g ' . 26 3. QRAL_ I NIERPREJ.AI I ON L READ I NG _TO_CH I L DREN Research has shown that reading aloud to c h i l d r e n has many b e n e f i t s , e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t to the humanistic approach to e d u c a t i o n which i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The m o d e l l i n g of E n g l i s h syntax i s c l e a r l y of value to the i n c r e a s i n g number of non-English speaking c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l s . Based on the r e s e a r c h , teachers have a v i a b l e method of c r e a t i n g empathy and understanding between c h i l d r e n of many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . There has been a c o n s i s t e n t c o r r e l a t i o n between being read to, and r e a d i n g and r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . Reading aloud to young c h i l d r e n h e lps them i n beginning reading (Durkin, 1966). C h i l d r e n are motivated to read more and b e t t e r books as a r e s u l t of being read to ( B a r t l e t t , 1980; B l a t t , 1981; Mendoza, 1985). The m o d e l l i n g of the teacher i s an important f a c t o r . The teacher's enthusiasm and enjoyment of r e a d i n g impacted on the c h i l d r e n . N i n e t y - t h r e e percent of the primary c h i l d r e n and s i x t y - n i n e percent of the i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s i n the Medoza study (1985) wanted to read themselves a f t e r the s t o r y was read. A s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t was r e p o r t e d by one of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . She a l s o suggested that t h i s i n t e r e s t o c c u r r e d because of her m o d e l l i n g . 27 Being read aloud to has produced p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between vocabulary development and the a b i l i t y to reproduce standard E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e s (Chomskey, 1972; Cohen, 1968; N i n i o and Bruner, 1978). Peck (1989:> found that w r i t t e n work improved as a r e s u l t of l i s t e n i n g to s t o r i e s . He a l s o d i s c o v e r e d that c h i l d r e n were f a m i l i a r with the l i t e r a r y p a t t e r n s and would reproduce them i n t h e i r w r i t i n g . Harste et a l (1984) s t a t e that o r a l language i s a s t r o n g f a c t o r i n the development of l i t e r a c y . Broodt (1984), Cohen (1968), and Lundsteen (1979) pro v i d e documentation on improvement i n c h i l d r e n ' s l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . The c h i l d must be an a c t i v e l i s t e n e r i n order to comprehend the s t o r y . The s o c i a l b e n e f i t s of t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e towards the nature of l i s t e n i n g have a l s o been e v a l u a t e d . A p o s i t i v e atmosphere of which warmth, t r u s t , and s h a r i n g are c l e a r l y important i s created (Smith, 1986). Sh a r i n g s t o r i e s o r a l l y a l l o w s the teacher to "nurture compassion i n c h i l d r e n , to help them l e a r n about emotions and a s p i r a t i o n s of o t h e r s i n d i s t r e s s " (Smith, 1986 p. 47). Research i n d i c a t e s that r e a d i n g aloud i s h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e i n prompting c h i l d r e n to empathize, producing compassionate f e e l i n g s ( S t o t l a n d & Matthews, 1978) and a sense of g e n e r o s i t y (Howard & Barnett, 1981). A study by Berg-Cross (1978) a l s o attempted to d i s c o v e r the degree of a t t i t u d e change r e s u l t i n g from having a s t o r y read aloud that expressed values. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that the change i n a t t i t u d e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t . Regardless of the research on the value of reading aloud to c h i l d r e n , i t i s not commonly used i n the s c h o o l s . (Rosen, 1986; Staab, 1987). Under 3% of the t o t a l t e a c h i n g time of t w e n t y - f i v e teachers i n v o l v e d i n the Staab study was spent reading aloud to c h i l d r e n . The g r e a t e s t amount of time was 9.3%. The lowest was no time at a l l . Researchers have determined s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s l ack. C i a n c i o l o (1987) and Swasord (1979) d i s c o v e r e d the that t e a c h e r s f e l t r e a d i n g aloud was too e n j o y a b l e to be e d u c a t i o n a l . Teachers i n another study ( F r i c k , 1986), thought that students were too s o p h i s t i c a t e d to enjoy being read to. 4- NONVERBAL_COMMUNI Nonverbal communcation c o n s i s t s of many f a c t o r s . Body movements, f a c i a l movements, use of space, touching, tone of v o i c e and c l o t h i n g are elements c o n t r i b u t i n g to the message sent by the ' p h y s i c a l ' s e l f . Research shows that when we are exposed to v e r b a l and non-verbal messages, the non-v e r b a l are more powerful (Burgoon, 1985) In a d d i t i o n , the m a j o r i t y of a message i s conveyed through non-verbal communication. Mehrabian and Wiener (1967) claim that n i n e t y - t h r e e percent of the emotional impact of communication comes from non-verbal sources while a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Ray B i r d w h i s t e l 1 (1970) puts i n a more modest claim of s i x t y - f i v e percent. Mehrabian and F e r r i s (1967) conducted a study to determine the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication s k i l l s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s study they estimated that f i f t y - f i v e percent of the message i s determined by accompanying non-verbal s k i l l s . •*a. B0DY_M0VEMENTS Ex t e n s i v e research has been done on the e f f e c t s of b o d i l y movement and stance (Ekman and F r i e s e n , 1969; Mehrabian, 1981). Mehrabian concluded that there are g e n e r a l i t i e s i n stance which i n d i c a t e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s commitment d u r i n g communication (1971). He presents three v a r i a b l e s : l i k i n g , power or s t a t u s , v i t a l i t y or r e sponsiveness f o r which he i d e n t i f i e s s p e c i f i c mannerisms. I n v e s t i g a t i n g the communication of s t a t u s f u r t h e r , Mehrabian (1972; 1981) c a r r i e d out a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s to examine the conveying of s t a t u s through the nonverbal. He suggests that those of higher s t a t u s are g e n e r a l l y more r e l a x e d while the o p p o s i t e i s t r u e of those of lower s t a t u s . Ekman and F r i e s e n (1969) i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h , based t h e i r c a t e g o r i e s of nonverbal movement on the f u n c t i o n s , o r i g i n s or meaning of the behavior. The c a t e g o r i e s created by these r e s e a r c h e r s are f r e q u e n t l y used by communication s c h o l a r s . Emblems are o f t e n s u b s t i t u t e d f o r words; i l l u s t r a t o r s 30 accompany or r e i n f o r c e the v e r b a l ; r e g u l a t o r s are used to c o n t r o l the communication of o t h e r s ; a f f e c t d i s p l a y s are f a c i a l or b o d i l y movements which express emotional meaning; and adagtors_ are a c t i o n s performed only i n p r i v a t e . Research supports the use of body movements, i n the manner of cues, prompts or s i g n a l s to remind students to e i t h e r behave, or a l t e r n a t e l y r e f r a i n from behaving i n a c e r t a i n manner (Krumboltz & Krumboltz, 1972; Weber and Roff, 1983). K l i n g z i n g and Jackson (1987) and Jones (1979) i n d i c a t e i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h that i n a d d i t i o n to the above, nonverbal communication s e r v e s other f u n c t i o n s . The teacher has a means of i n d i c a t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s . They concur with Ekman and F r i e s e n (1969) on the value of the nonverbal to promote student understanding of verbal m a t e r i a l through the a d d i t i o n of the nonverbal. Another dimension r e l a t i n g to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the teacher and the student has been presented by M i l l e r (1988). As a r e s u l t of examining s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t research f i n d i n g s , M i l l e r concludes that there must be an open process of non-verbal communication i n the classroom, i n which both the teacher and the student possess the a b i l i t y to send and r e c e i v e messages a c c u r a t e l y . These c o n c l u s i o n s are p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t to today's classroom, which i s a p o i n t that M i l l e r a l s o makes. Although the f i n d i n g s of the above r e s e a r c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Mehrabian, Ekman and F r i e s e n , have guided 31 educators i n p r e p a r i n g teachers to be e f f e c t i v e i n the classroom, two comments w i l l conclude t h i s s e c t i o n . F i r s t , w hile the research may help teachers to present themselves more e f f e c t i v e l y , at the same time i t should help i n t h e i r 'reading' of student nonverbal behavior. A student, knowingly or unknowingly, may communicate to the teacher higher s t a t u s , a c c o r d i n g to Mehrabian, by h i s / h e r relaxed posture and a c t i o n s . The teacher, however, must remember the other v a r i a b l e s i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e which may a l s o c r e a t e t h i s same behavior. Secondly, t e a c h e r s must keep i n mind s t u d i e s which document c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s which are r e f l e c t e d i n the nonverbal i n t e r a c t i o n of people (Watson & Graves 1966). Using Mehrabian's s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s , Watson and Graves found that Arab students were more 'immediate' than American s t u d e n t s . They tend to face each other more d i r e c t l y and stand c l o s e r . Other s t u d i e s present the nonverbal mannerisms of other c u l t u r e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the e x p e c t a t i o n s of North Americans. 4b. PARALINGUISTICS The message of the nonverbal i s o f t e n what the l i s t e n e r responds to (Mehrabian & F e r r i s , 1967; Mehrabian & Wiener, 1967). Researchers found that t h i r t y - e i g h t percent of a message i s conveyed by vocal o v e r l a y s of p i t c h , s t r e s s , and 32 j u n c t u r e (Mehrabian ?< F e r r i s , 1967. In experiments which e l e c t r o n i c a l l y manipulate speech, so as to make words u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , s u b j e c t s are s t i l l a b l e to recognize the emotion being expressed (Starkweather, 1961). These f i n d i n g s suggests that i n a d d i t i o n to having c l a r i t y i n terms of the wording of a message, the teacher must attend to the tone to i n s u r e that both verbal and nonverbal message are c o n s i s t e n t (Kounin, 1977). ^c^EYE.CQNIAQI A student can a c q u i r e high s t a t u s by i n t e n t i o n a l l y a v o i d i n g eye contact with the teacher ( A r g y l e & Cook, 1976; E x l i n e , 1972). Research i n t o the p o s i t i v e use of eye contact shows that speakers who look at t h e i r audience are judged to be more c r e d i b l e than those who do not (Goffman, 1967). The technique of d i v i d i n g the classroom i n t o s e c t o r s and a t t e n d i n g to one student i n each a l l o w s the teacher to remain focussed on the students and s t i l l a b le to concentrate on the i n f o r m a t i o n to be shared (Goffman, 1967; Mar land, 1975). 4d. PROXEMICS At t e n d i n g to the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and comfort of the environment has been assessed as impacting s u b s t a n t i a l l y on the people i n that space. Lemlech (1979) suggests that the p h y s i c a l environment can determine the nature and extent of the i n t e r a c t i o n which w i l l take p l a c e . H i s research i n v o l v e d the s e t t i n g of classrooms. He concluded that i f the i n d i v i d u a l s are comfortable and ab l e to make eye contact, communication w i l l improve. A study by Maslow and Mints (1956) e s t a b l i s h e d the a f f e c t that the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s can have on an i n d i v i d u a l . They concluded that people work b e t t e r and f e e l b e t t e r i n an environment that they f i n d p l e a s i n g . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t Edward H a l l (1969) has d e f i n e d four d i s t a n c e s that d e f i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p or f e e l i n g s between two people. The teacher must reco g n i z e that these, however, are based on a North American c u l t u r e and may not, i n f a c t , apply to the new students i n the classroom. CONCLUSION There i s a need f o r a s a f e and f r i e n d l y environment which a l l o w s each student to develop at h i s or her own r a t e , t a k i n g the r i s k s that are necessary f o r such an endeavor. T h i s i s evident when r e a l i z i n g the d i v e r s i t y i n the background of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n one classroom. The e r o s i o n of the f a m i l y u n i t and the negative impact on c h i l d r e n i s documented, r e s u l t i n g i n two extremes; the o v e r l y a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d or the shy i n d i v i d u a l . Teachers must develop a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s which w i l l allow them to understand r a t h e r than judge these c h i l d r e n too q u i c k l y . 34 S t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e the l a r g e number of non-English speaking students i n the s c h o o l s s i n c e the l a t e 1980's. Teachers must re c o g n i s e the value of reading aloud to these c h i l d r e n . Research v e r i f i e s that r e a d i n g aloud f a c i l i t a t e s the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h , both w r i t t e n and spoken, while p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l c h i l d r e n to develop compassion and empathy f o r d i f f e r e n c e s . As E n g l i s h i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e as a means of communicating with these c h i l d r e n , teachers must be aware of the impact of nonverbal communications and proxemics, how these can be used to enhance communication while r e c o g n i z i n g c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n these areas. In a d d i t i o n to reading, research i n d i c a t e s that tone of the teacher's v o i c e , the modulation and overtones of enthusiasm act as m o t i v a t o r s and serve as models f o r the c h i l d r e n i n enhancing t h e i r own v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . The n e c e s s i t y of a t t e n d i n g to the impact of a d d i t i o n a l nonverbal communication i n terms of body movements, eye contact, and proxemics i s c l e a r y a r t i c u l a t e d . The elements l i s t e d above are d i r e c t l y addressed i n the communication course. The research confirms the n e c e s s i t y of i n c l u d i n g these f a c t o r s i n a teacher t r a i n i n g program. 35 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY SELECTION OF PARTICIPANTS The problem under i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of two contingent research q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t l y , d i d the student teacher use the knowledge, s k i l l s and techniques learned i n the Communication S k i l l s i n Teaching course (EDUC 316) on t h e i r t h i r t e e n week p r a c t i c a placements i n v o l v i n g r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Secondly, i f so, what were the ways that the course had had an impact on the student t e a c h e r s . Twenty-one student teachers, e n r o l l e d i n the two-year elementary teacher t r a i n i n g program i n UBC's F a c u l t y of Education d u r i n g the 1988-90 term p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study. A bac h e l o r ' s degree, g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r i n g four to f i v e years of u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , i s the p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r acceptance i n t o t h i s teacher t r a i n i n g program. These students w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . The design used (a c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e ) , d i d not r e q u i r e random sampling. P a r t i c i p a n t s were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of a v a i l a b i l i t y and program r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Equal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from both primary and i n t e r m e d i a t e programs TABLE 1. TIME LINE RELATIONSHIP OF THE COMMUNICATION COURSE, THE THIRTEEN WEEK PRACTICUM AND STUDY DATA COLLECTION 1988 1989 1990 1 - C O M M U N I C A T I O N ! C O U R S E O C T O B E R 1 7 - 2 8 , 1 9 8 8 2 - T H I R T E E N W E E K P R A C T I C U M S E P T E M B E R 5 - D E C E M B E R 2 2 . 1 9 8 0 3 - S T U D Y D A T A C O L L E C T I O N J U N E 8 - 2 3 . 1990 37 was sought, thus e l e v e n p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s were i n the primary program and ten i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e program. The male-female r a t i o i n terms of the t o t a l elementary enrollment was a l s o considered and d u p l i c a t e d i n t h i s study; subsequently, f i f t e e n females and s i x males were in t e r v i e w e d . Although these f a c t o r s of program and gender were not i s s u e s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, i t was c l e a r that having these r a t i o s may be of value f o r f u r t h e r study. P a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s were contacted by telephone and the i n t e n t of the contact e x p l a i n e d . They were informed that an i n t e r v i e w was to be undertaken to c o l l e c t data and that i t would r e q u i r e t h r e e - q u a r t e r s to one hour to complete. An i n v i t a t i o n was then extended to the i n d i v i d u a l to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH T h i s study was undertaken nineteen months a f t e r the completion of the communications s k i l l s course and f i v e months a f t e r the completion of the t h i r t e e n week practicum (Table I ) . The i n t e r v i e w format used i n t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of two d i s t i n c t p a r t s . An important i n t e n t of the f i r s t part of the i n t e r v i e w was to c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n i n which s p e c i f i c components of the course would not be mentioned by the i n t e r v i e w e r . The s p e c i f i c t o p i c s to be d i s c u s s e d i n the i n t e r v i e w were generated by the 38 p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r based on h i s or her personal experiences, remembrances and e v a l u a t i o n s . A q u a l i t a t i v e method of i n q u i r y , the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique, based on a respect f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , was used to c o l l e c t and analyze the data f o r the f i r s t part of the i n t e r v i e w . . T h i s technique has been used "to c o l l e c t d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s of human behavior i n such a way as to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s i n s o l v i n g p r a c t i c a l problems and dev e l o p i n g broad p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s " (Flanagan, 1954, p. 327). Woolsey's (1986) o b s e r v a t i o n c l a r i f i e s the intended outcome of t h i s study: " C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s s t u d i e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l because they generate both e x p l o r a t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n and theory and model b u i l d i n g " ( p . 252). The i n d u c t i v e approach, which i s the method of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique, i s d e s c r i b e d by Pattern (1980): A q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y i s i n d u c t i v e i n that the research attempts to make sense of the s i t u a t i o n without imposing p r e e x i s t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s on the r e -search s e t t i n g . Q u a l i t a t i v e designs begin with s p e c i -f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s and b u i l d toward general p a t t e r n s . C a t e g o r i e s or dimensions of a n a l y s i s emerge from open-ended o b s e r v a t i o n s as the researcher comes to under-stand o r g a n i z i n g p a t t e r n s that e x i s t i n the e m p i r i c a l world under study. The s t r a t e g y . . . i s to al l o w the important dimensions to emerge from a n a l y s i s of cases under study without presupposing i n advance what those dimensions w i l l be. (pp. 40-41) The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique was followed by a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i n g technique. Three s p e c i f i c questions were a r t i c u l a t e d to the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s and then 39 responses sought f o r each. Paraphrasing, c l a r i f y i n g and summarizing were used e x t e n s i v e l y d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w process. INTERVIEW PROCEDURE AND QUESTIONS In the i n i t i a l telephone c a l l , the p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r s were asked i f they would have time to r e f l e c t on the e x p e r i e n c e s of the communication course and the t h i r t e e n week practicum. The nature of the ques t i o n s to be asked were a r t i c u l a t e d . Again, i n the a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n an overview of the t i m e - l i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the communication course and the t h i r t e e n week practicum was a r t i c u l a t e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r , and the f a c t r e - e s t a b l i s h e d that the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n both. The f o l l o w i n g three q u e s t i o n s were asked s i n g u l a r l y , with the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r answering to whatever degree he or she wished: 1. "While you were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n your t h i r t e e n week practicum, do you remember u t i l i z i n g any components of the communication s k i l l s 316 course ? These may r e l a t e to the content or the process or p r e s e n t a t i o n of the course." 40 2. "Do you r e c a l l a s p e c t s of the communication course which now, a f t e r having taught f o r t h i s extended p e r i o d of time, you would suggest are i r r e l e v a n t to your needs?" 3. " Now, on r e f l e c t i o n , are there needs which you f e l t should have been met i n the communication course?" The next set of q u e s t i o n s were f i r s t a r t i c u l a t e d to the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r and then the f i r s t one returned to f o r an answer: 1. "Did the course a f f e c t your s e l f - c o n c e p t ? " 2. "Did the course a f f e c t your concept of the teacher r o l e , i n terms of a t t i t u d e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or philosophy?" 3. "Did the course a f f e c t your idea of the teacher-student r e l a t i o n s h i p ? " A l l of the i n t e r v i e w s were conducted and t r a n s c r i b e d by the author of t h i s study. The procedure of having the same i n t e r v i e w e r made the i n t e r v i e w as c o n s i s t e n t as p o s s i b l e . DATA ANALYSIS The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s were e x t r a c t e d from the i n t e r v i e w s and d i v i d e d . The d i v i s i o n s c o n t a i n i n g the i n c i d e n t s were created d i r e c t l y fromn the words of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . For example, the d i v i s i o n s " a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g " and "course as v a l u a b l e " were created as a r e s u l t of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r u s i n g these words i n the i n t e r v i e w (Appendix D). The next task i n v o l v e d i n d u c i n g a s e t of c a t e g o r i e s from the i n c i d e n t s which were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a d i s t i n c t and w e l l - d e f i n e d experience, event or r e f l e c t i o n . Some d i v i s i o n s were maintained as c a t e g o r i e s , some were r e d e f i n e d , some c o l l a p s e d forming one category and o t h e r s were d i v i d e d to form new c a t e g o r i e s . These c a t e g o r i e s were f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by f o r m u l a t i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c a t e g o r i e s ' f e a t u r e s . D e s c r i p t i o n s by two or more p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s of experiences which were s i m i l a r r e v e a l e d a c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v i t y . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were determined f o r each. A p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i s an i n d i c a t o r of the v a l i d i t y of the category. Twenty c a t e g o r i e s were generated from the two hundred and se v e n t y - t h r e e f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s . The twenty-three h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s were n e g l i g i b l e i n r e l a t i o n to the f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s . 42 The responses to the three s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n the second part of the i n t e r v i e w were i n i t i a l l y examined and analyzed; they were subsequently grouped with the data from the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique i n r e s p e c t i v e areas of r e f l e c t i o n . VALIDITY CHECK A t o t a l of ten p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s were chosen to be contacted f o r a f o l l o w up to the i n t e r v i e w process. T h i s v a l i d a t i o n was undertaken two weeks a f t e r the completion of the i n t e r v i e w process.The data a n a l y s i s procedure was again b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d . Each p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r was informed of s p e c i f i c components which had been e x t r a c t e d from h i s / h e r r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w to v a l i d a t e the f i n d i n g s . There was t o t a l concordance. RELIABILITY The r e l i a b i l i t y of the c a t e g o r i e s which were induced from the data was t e s t e d . Two t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n t s were provided with 125 f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s and i n s t r u c t e d to c a t e g o r i z e these data. One a s s i s t a n t c o r r e c t l y c a t e g o r i z e d 115 out of the 125 i n c i d e n t s , thereby o b t a i n i n g 92% agreement with the category system. The other a s s i s t a n t c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d 111 out of the 125 i n c i d e n t s , o b t a i n i n g 89% agreement. An 80% agreement r a t e or b e t t e r was 43 e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r to doing t h i s a n a l y s i s . T h i s standard has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n s i m i l a r s t u d i e s ( K l e i n , 1988). These r e s u l t s c o n s t i t u t e a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the category system. 44 CHAPTER IV RESULTS The i n t e n t of t h i s study was two-fold: f i r s t l y , to determine i f the p o s i t i v e response of student teachers to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a communication s k i l l s course i n t h e i r elementary teacher t r a i n i n g program was maintained a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h i r t e e n week practicum i n which these s k i l l s would have been used; secondly, i f the p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n was maintained, i n what s p e c i f i c ways d i d the course experience impact on the t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s . The i n t e r v i e w i n g of the twenty-one p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r s r e s u l t e d i n two hundred and seventy-three f a c i l i t a t i n g and twenty-three h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s r e l a t e d to the communication s k i l l s course and i t s impact on these i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an average of twelve f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s and one h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t per p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r . The highest r a t e of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s recorded per p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r was t h i r t y and the lowest f i v e . It should be noted that these do not i n c l u d e responses to the s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n i n g s e c t i o n i n the l a t t e r part of the i n t e r v i e w which w i l l be considered s e p a r a t e l y at the end of t h i s chapter. The f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s were used to induce a system of twenty c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i n g the e xperiences, events, and a c t i v i t i e s which f a c i l i t a t e d the l e a r n i n g f o r the TABLE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF FACILITATING INCIDENTS 45 Overal1 Ranking Incident # of P a r t i c i p a n t s # of Inci d e n t s 1. DEVELOPING 15 71 22 CONFIDENCE 2. DEVELOPING SELF 12 57 16 AWARENESS 3. BONDING 12 57 14 4. IMPROVING SELF 11 52 13 CONCEPT 5. IMPROVING NONVERBAL 11 52 13 COMMUNICATION 6. IMPROVING VOCAL 10 48 25 PRESENTATION 7. ENHANCING ORAL 10 48 14 INTERPRETATION 8. CONFIRMING 10 48 12 COMMUNICATION 9. DEVELOPING RELAXATION 9 43 12 TECHNIQUES 10. IMPROVING EMPATHY 9 43 11 11. ACTIVE LISTENING 7 33 12 12. IMPACTING ON 7 33 10 LIFE 13. INCREASING AWARENESS 7 33 10 OF TEACHER AS COMMUNICATOR 14. MODELLING 6 29 17 15. PRACTICALITY OF 6 29 11 THE COURSE 16. USING THE ' I ' STATEMENT 17. ENCOURAGING RATHER PRAISING 18. JOURNAL WRITING 19. IMPROVING EYE CONTACT 20. SETTING UP PHYSICAL SPACE 47 p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s d u r i n g the experience of the communication course, and impacted on t h e i r t e a c h i n g on a t h i r t e e n week practicum. Each category i s t i t l e d and d e f i n e d . These c a t e g o r i e s are l i s t e d i n Table 2 and w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . I. FACILITATING INCIDENTS The order of the twenty f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s i s based on p a r t i c i p a n t frequency r a t e s ; the highest presented as the f i r s t category. Each category l i s t e d below c o n s i s t s of a d e s c r i p t i o n of the category, the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n c i d e n t s comprising the category, a s y n t h e s i s of the contents of the i n c i d e n t s i n the category and s p e c i f i c quotes from p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . The number assigned to each g u o t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the i n t e r v i e w coding as well as the gender of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r CM - male; F-female). 1. DEVELOPING CONFIDENCE Confidence i s d e f i n e d as having b e l i e f i n one's a b i l i t y ; the f a c t of being or f e e l i n g c e r t a i n ; assurance (Webster's New World D i c t i o n a r y , 1 9 8 4 ) . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 15 - 71% I n c i d e n t s - 22 48 The comments of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s r e l a t e d to an awareness of changes i n f e e l i n g s and s k i l l s (15). The support, encouragement and p o s i t i v e feedback: from seminar l e a d e r s and peers was recognized as c o n t r i b u t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y to the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h i s f e e l i n g of confidence (15). Comments confirmed that confidence developed as a r e s u l t of a c q u i r i n g s p e c i f i c s k i l l s which allowed c o n t r o l of p r e s e n t a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n s (7). These were s p e c i f i c i a l l y about "the fear that was so powerful" when s t a n d i n g i n f r o n t of an audience, d i m i n i s h i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y , or t o t a l l y (3). F u r t h e r statements i n d i c a t e d that confidence developed due to a f e e l i n g of competence (4) . "I think I'm not as a f r a i d . I guess i n terms of confidence, i t b r i n g s i t back to confidence, the c h i l d r e n w i l l f e e l i t because the c h i l d r e n are a r e f l e c t i o n of you. I mean, i n the beginning I could see they were q u i t e tense because I am tense, but once I'm r e l a x e d and n a t u r a l and e v e r y t h i n g flows... the c h i l d r e n w i l l r e f l e c t that, from your a c t i o n s . " (4-F) " I t gave me confidence i n communicating because I had these s k i l l s and t o o l s that I could draw upon when I was i n a s t i c k y s i t u a t i o n . " (2F) 49 "I think i t made me more c o n f i c e n t and more aware of my s t r e n g t h s as a teacher; i n how to deal with people. It a l s o made me aware of my weaknesses." (19M) 2- DEVELOP I NG_.SELF_ AWARENESS Ex t e n s i v e viewing of video tapes of one's own p r e s e n t a t i o n s as part of the course r e s u l t s i n an awareness of one's s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n ve r b a l and nonverbal p r e s e n t a t i o n . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 12 - 57% In c i d e n t s - 16 P a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s c l e a r l y r e c a l l e d the exp e r i e n c e s of being videotaped as one of the major components of the communication course (12). I n i t i a l statements r e l a t e d to the fe a r and apprehension f e l t at having to be f i l m e d . Words l i k e 'hated i t ' and ' f e l t uncomfortable' were used to express these f e e l i n g s (4). However, these were c o n s i s t e n t l y followed by r e c o g n i t i o n of the l e s s e n i n g or disappearance of the s t r o n g d e b i l i t a t i n g f e e l i n g s . Being a b l e to make one's own assessment of p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than simply r e l y i n g on the e v a l u a t i o n of ot h e r s was acknowledged as empowering (9). Changes i n vocal p i t c h , pacing, eye contact, and p h y s i c a l stance took p l a c e due to s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n (10). A f t e r s e v e r a l seminar t a p i n g s r e v e a l e d an i n e f f e c t i v e , "wooden" s t y l e , i t r e s u l t e d i n adjustments being made (1). The experience of the v i d e o t a p i n g was r e c a l l e d and used as a model to deal with "25 p a i r s of eyes s t a r i n g at me" d u r i n g the practicum. "...As much as I hated them (video t a p i n g s e s s i o n s ) at the time, they worked tremendously. I found d u r i n g my practicum I would even be t h i n k i n g about...they j u s t made you so much more aware of your whole body language and the way you present y o u r s e l f . " (5-F) "...maybe i t humbled me to get up i n f r o n t of a video camera and see e x a c t l y what I had done; and you know, that was probably one of the best t h i n g s that s t a r t e d on the f i r s t day." (3M) "The use of the video I think was important. I mean, i t f e l t super uncomfortable at f i r s t , but I can't imagine how you could have done otherwise.... i t made you aware of what you looked l i k e to somebody e l s e , you know, how you present y o u r s e l f . " (18F) 3- BONDING The philosophy, s t r u c t u r i n g and management of the communication course created an environment which allowed the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s to i n t e r a c t with each other i n s u p p o r t i v e and meaningful ways. Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 12 - 57% I n c i d e n t s - 14 The experience of the two-week communication course had a s t r o n g bonding e f f e c t on the p a r t i c i p a n t s (12). T h i s bonding was o b v i o u s l y u n a n t i c i p a t e d but very meaningful and important to the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . A sense of belonging, commonality, and oneness was c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the comments. Comments c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d that the course s t r u c t u r e created an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s to i n t e r a c t with each other (5). In one i n s t a n c e , i t was s t a t e d that d i s c u s s i o n s o u t s i d e of c l a s s became more i n t e r e s t i n g and more focussed on ed u c a t i o n as a r e s u l t of t h i s sense of belonging and comfort with each other. One p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r summed up the experience i n t h i s way: "We became very much of a community". "I think that i t brought us as a group, i n terms of elementary e d u c a t i o n people, together.... some kind of group cohesiveness." (13F) "...the communication course gave the students the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet other students, your f u t u r e c o l l e a g u e s , I mean I think i t brought us, i n the f a c u l t y together, ...and a l s o w i t h i n my own group." (10F) "As a r e s u l t of the camaraderie we developed d u r i n g the two weeks, I f e l t more comfortable and more a part of UBC. Th i s i s a powerful outcome of the course, the extent of which was probably not imaginable by anyone d u r i n g the pla n n i n g process of 316". (21-Ii) 4. IMPRQyiNG_SELF-CQNCEP The r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e set of p e r c e p t i o n s each i n d i v i d u a l holds of himself or h e r s e l f . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 11 - 52% In c i d e n t s - 13 It should be noted that the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s l i s t e d under t h i s heading c o n s i s t of comments made before the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s were s p e c i f i c a l l y asked to consider s e l f - c o n c e p t at the end of the i n t e r v i e w process. Dramatic statements were made by the p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r s concerning changes which took p l a c e i n t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t s . The words 'tr a n s f o r m a t i o n ' and " f e e l i n g l i k e n othing' used i n two statements i n d i c a t e s the depth of change (2). Change i n s e l f p e r c e p t i o n was perceived as a r e s u l t of feedback from the video t a p i n g s e s s i o n s and the p o s i t i v e feedback r e c e i v e d from o t h e r s (2). In the l a t t e r i n s t a n c e s the i n d i v i d u a l s r e c e i v e d c o n f i r m a t i o n of a 53 p o s i t i v e image they p r o j e c t e d taut of which they were unaware (.2) . Changes a l s o r e l a t e d to a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge (2). The comments r e f e r r e d to the sense of c o n t r o l experienced as a consequence of being a b l e to e v a l u a t e shortcomings and then to make adjustments as a r e s u l t of knowing how to do so. The s u p p o r t i v e environment allowed the i n d i v i d u a l s an o p p o r t u n i t y to a p p r e c i a t e p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s they a l r e a d y possessed and develop those they b e l i e v e d would enhance t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t . Further comments w i l l be found concerning s e l f - c o n c e p t i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d 'Structured Q u e s t i o n i n g ' . "What I found was powerful about the course was that I got an image of what I would l i k e to be as a teacher.... From the communication course I got an idea, a concept of myself as a teacher who i s a b l e to open c h i l d r e n up. Who i s a b l e to not d i c t a t e m a t e r i a l to them but to have them d i s c o v e r i t . So I wanted...that's the kind of teacher I wanted to be." (17-F5) "I was a b l e to see myself i n both a good l i g h t and a bad l i g h t . But e s p e c i a l l y to see myself i n a good l i g h t and how much I wanted to avo i d that other t h i n g . " (11-M) "From the communication course I got an ide a , a concept of myself as a teacher who i s a b l e to open the 54 c h i l d r e n up. " (17-F!> 5- IMPRQyiNG„NQNVERB A high percentage of communication i s through nonverbal communication; gesture, posture, movement, e t c . Ranges P a r t i c i p a n t s - 11 - 52% In c i d e n t s - 13 Comments of p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s r e f l e c t e d that they were e i t h e r not aware or minimally aware of the communication value of body language p r i o r to the experience of the communications course (.2). Other comments r e f l e c t e d an awareness of the e f f e c t posture and a c t i o n s on the students d u r i n g the practicum <4). E x t e n s i v e comments were made concerning proxemics (4). These ranged from r e - a r r a n g i n g the p h y s i c a l classroom, to moving e f f e c t i v e l y about the classroom, to using a g e n t l e touch to send a message to a student. " I t was b e t t e r to move around. You could get more e x p r e s s i o n through your movements, and get the ideas a c r o s s . . . t h e y helped. If you had t r o u b l e , you s o r t of used your arms, and that helped. And .just l i t t l e hand s i g n a l s here and there, and nonverbal, moving myself around the 55 classroom and l o o k i n g . If I was moving around the classroom, h e l p i n g them, j u s t l o o k i n g up and c a t c h i n g someone's eye, to l e t them know that I know that they are not doing what they are supposed to be doing, and j u s t to turn around. I found that very e f f e c t i v e . " C10-F) "Body language, that was important. I remember being q u i t e aware of i t . I was never c o n s c i o u s l y aware of i t b e f o r e . . . . I became aware o f . . . r e a l l y aware of people and hands crossed i n f r o n t of t h e i r body and I thought ' t h a t ' s t r u e . " C2-F) "I wasn't as aware of the e f f e c t of posture, gestures, eye contact, t h i n g s l i k e that when I was speaking before I took the course. I could put more emphasis on the t h i n g s I wanted to with my body language." C19-M) 6. IMPROVING The main t r a i n i n g i n speech i s to develop s k i l l s and techniques to c r e a t e good tone, adequate p r o j e c t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n . These, combined with changes i n emphasis, i n f l e c t i o n , phrasing, pausing, pacing and tempo/rhythm were p r a c t i s e d to develop a m o t i v a t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g v o i c e . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 10 - 48% I n c i d e n t s - 25 The comments of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s were s u r p r i s i n g l y s p e c i f i c and p r e c i s e . S e v e r a l i n d i c a t e d that 56 e x e r c i s e s were used to improve vocal technique dur i n g the practicum (.3). Statements r e f e r r e d to the c o n t r o l achieved through v a r i a t i o n s i n p r o j e c t i o n (2), the establishment of a pleasant atmosphere through vocal tone C 1) , and the c r e a t i o n of focus through the use of emphasis C2) . Comments a l s o revealed an understanding of the need to use modulation to enhance meaning <3!>. A f e e l i n g of s a t i s f a c t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n having a c q u i r e d these s k i l l s was evident CIO). S i t u a t i o n s i n which school a d v i s o r s were asked to a s s i s t i n a d j u s t i n g s p e c i f i c vocal aspects of p r e s e n t a t i o n were mentioned C3). In another i n s t a n c e a d e s c r i p t i o n was given of how the elements of speech p r o d u c t i o n were shared with the c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s to improve t h e i r o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . "The course gave me more focus, r e a l i z i n g the importance of v o i c e because the p r o f e s s o r s were up there and were g i v i n g examples of how v o i c e i n f l e c t i o n s can a f f e c t your messages, so I could d e f i n i t e l y see the examples. So when I d i d go back Cto the classroom) I could s o r t of experiment and see what i s comfortable f o r me, what was more e f f e c t i v e , how to get the p o i n t s a c r o s s , where I was comfortable and the k i d s got what I was t r y i n g to get a c r o s s . " C19-M) "And you know, i n terms of g i v i n g e f f e c t s I would lower my v o i c e or s o f t e n my v o i c e a l i t t l e b i t and they would 57 r e a l l y l i s t e n . It was b e t t e r than j u s t a monotone or r e a l l y loud a l l the time." (4-F) " . . . w e l l , i f you're t r y i n g to y e l l at them to t r y to get t h e i r a t t e n t i o n , that doesn't work as e f f e c t i v e l y as i f you b r i n g i t down to a slower pace, and a r e a l s e r i o u s tone. That has more of an e f f e c t than g e t t i n g mad at them." (7-F) 7- ..ENHANCING_ORAL_INIER^RETAT ION The reader must e s t a b l i s h the intended o v e r a l l impact of a w r i t t e n p i e c e and how t h i s i s to be r e f l e c t e d i n o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 10 - 48% I n c i d e n t s - 14 The value of m o d e l l i n g of o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by i n s t r u c t o r s i n the communication course was r e c a l l e d by p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s <!3). Comments i n d i c a t e d that the technique of s c o r i n g the s c r i p t f o r an e f f e c t i v e reading was not r e q u i r e d a f t e r a s h o r t p e r i o d (.2). T h i s was due to the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the a b i l i t y to v o c a l l y shape the s t o r y . One p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r provided e x t e n s i v e d e t a i l s of r e a d i n g i n v o l v i n g the c r e a t i o n of s p e c i f i c v o i c e s f o r 58 c h a r a c t e r s i n a s t o r y . The comments re v e a l e d that the n e c e s s i t y of p l a c i n g emphasis on the s c r i p t and not; on the reader was understood. "What I learned a l s o was...that a s t o r y i s something on a page but the reader i s who b r i n g s i t a l i v e . . . . I see i t i n my own classroom. Even i f you put a b i t of 'oomph' i n i t , i t encourages them ( c h i l d r e n ) to read....You know, you're kinda l i k e a one-man show reading s t o r i e s . " (10-F) "That's a f a n t a s t i c easy opener f o r a p u b l i c speaking p r o g r e s s i o n ; j u s t r e a d i n g and then g e t t i n g i n t o some i n c r e d i b l y dramatic reading. ...I f e e l l i k e now I can pick up an a r t i c l e or a book and read i t i n t e l 1 i g e n t l y . . . " <.11 -Ii) "One component of the communication course was the o r a l reading; that was something I d i d n ' t know before t a k i n g that course...previewing, rea d i n g i t through, and g e t t i n g a f e e l f o r the l i t e r a t u r e , f o r the t e x t . " (15-li) S- CgMFIRMING_Cg^ S u b j e c t i v i t y of r e a l i t y i s the b a s i s f o r t h i s category. The seminar l e a d e r s i n the communication course were i n s t r u c t e d to serve as models f o r the student teachers. 59 S p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s and p r a c t i c e i n g i v i n g p o s i t i v e feedback was provided f o r the student teacher throughout the d u r a t i o n of the course. Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 10 - 48% I n c i d e n t s - 12 P a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s r e f e r r e d to the p o s i t i v e environment created by the i n s t r u c t o r s i n the communication course and commented on the e f f e c t of being part of t h i s environment (10). I n d i v i d u a l s r e c a l l e d that the emphasis of the course was on the p o s i t i v e (8). Comments contained r e f l e c t i o n s of i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e i r encouraging a t t i t u d e s and manners (2). The humour of the i n s t r u c t o r s r e i n f o r c e d the p o s i t i v e atmosphere by p r o v i d i n g a r e l e a s e i n such an i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g program. An example was given whereby a p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r emulated a p o s i t i v e environment i n her classroom as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of r e c a l l i n g her experience i n the communication course. "...One t h i n g we put emphasis on i n the course was the p o s i t i v e . I think that would be an a b s o l u t e . Y o u ' l l never hear another negative word from me and that c e r t a i n l y came from the communication course because i t was something I had never thought of, d e f i n i t e l y never b e f o r e . " (18-F) 60 "I l i k e d the course. I was very e x c i t e d about i t . It was very p o s i t i v e . " <11-M!> "For the f i r s t few days a l l we gave was p o s i t i v e reinforcement. T h i s r e a l l y helped everyone see the good aspects of him or h e r s e l f , because we have been s o c i a l i z e d to be too c r i t i c a l of o u r s e l v e s . A f t e r h e a r i n g the p o s i t i v e t h i n g s over and over again I a c t u a l l y began b e l i e v i n g that I possessed a s t r o n g presence i n f r o n t of an audience, something which I never thought I had." C20-F) '3 • DIV^kQPIb!(i_.RIk AX AT. I QN_TECHN IQLJ ES Techniques such as diaphragmatic b r e a t h i n g , c e n t e r i n g of o n e s e l f , r e l i e v i n g p h y s i c a l t e n s i o n and thereby p r o v i d i n g o n e s e l f with the focus, energy, and comfort to present e f f e c t i v e l y were i n t r o d u c e d . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 9 - 437. I n c i d e n t s - 12 P a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s commented that they used the technigue of diaphragmatic b r e a t h i n g to s e t t l e themselves before beginning to teach (3). The words 'breathing' and 'relaxed' were used as r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . Comments a l s o r e f e r r e d to the 'breathing' and p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s as important technigues as presented i n the course (2). They provided a change, a ' l i g h t e r ' t h i n g . 61 B r e a t h i n g was mentioned as a method of f o c u s s i n g energy. A s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t was c i t e d i n which the p a r t i c i p a n t reseacher d i d not use the technique, was aware of t h i s lack, and concluded that she would have been more e f f e c t i v e i f she had i n f a c t , taken a moment to s e t t l e h e r s e l f . "The t h i n g s that I used d i r e c t l y were b r e a t h i n g techniques f o r r e l a x a t i o n because I found that there were times when the s t r e s s was g e t t i n g to me and there I was usi n g them. I'd c l i c k back i n t o the b r e a t h i n g . A l s o being conscious about how to speak, b r e a t h i n g and speaking and that s o r t of s t u f f . " C19-M> "...and you know I s t i l l do i t , and I f i n d now i t s almost a b i t of a h a b i t when I'm, say I'm c a l l e d i n t o s u b s t i t u t e and I ' l l get up i n the morning and I ' l l have my cup of tea and have a shower, and you know I ' l l j u s t move my neck around, i t j u s t , i t j u s t makes me f e e l so much b e t t e r . " <11-M) 1 0 . IMPRQVING_EMPATHY Empathy i s the a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e another person's view of the world as though the view were our own. It r e l a t e s to r e c o g n i z i n g the ot h e r ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g s . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 9 - 43% I n c i d e n t s - 11 P a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s , r e c a l l e d that the i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n to using an empathetic statement was that i t " f e l t s i l l y ' <3). However, having the o p p o r t u n i t y i n the seminars to p r a c t i s e t h i s s k i l l r e s u l t e d i n a p o s i t i v e change i n t h i s f e e l i n g . F u r t h e r statements r e f e r r e d to s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h i s technique was used d u r i n g practicum (2). One d e s c r i b e d a p o s i t i v e one-on-one r e l a t i o n s h i p and lack of d e f e n s i v e n e s s on the part of a c h i l d , and another mentioned using empathy i n a parent-teacher i n t e r v i e w , i n which the teacher's view and the parent's view of the student were not s i m i l a r . " Empathy...it p r o t e c t e d me a l o t of times. When I would think '.I can help t h i s person i f I don't r e a l l y l e t i t get i n s i d e of me'; that I'm of b e t t e r use to that person i f I remain impersonal or b u s i n e s s l i k e . " (16-F) "Empathy was probably the main one, j u s t knowing how to communicate with the students and with some of the parents." (14-Mi) "I think what I found the biggest emphasis on i n the course was the empathy and the t a l k i n g one-on-one; and I think the t h i n g that impacted on me the most was g e t t i n g i n 63 there when you're t a l k i n g to the student and t r y i n g to understand where they're coming from." (1S-F) 11• AQIiV! LISTENING The evidence of a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g i s a r e c e i v e r ' s paraphrase of the speaker's message. The paraphrase may i n v o l v e the content of what has been s a i d ; the f e e l i n g the l i s t e n e r b e l i e v e s i s being sent; or both. Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 7 - 33% I n c i d e n t s - 12 Three i n t e r v i e w s f o r t h i s study began with r e f e r e n c e s to these i n c i d e n t s , i n d i c a t i n g the importance of t h i s s k i l l to the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . Three d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h i s s k i l l was h e l p f u l were i n d i c a t e d . F i r s t l y , i t was used e x t e n s i v e l y i n parent-teacher i n t e r v i e w s . Secondly, u s i n g t h i s s k i l l allowed f o r understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s p o i n t of view. Dne s p e c i f i c comment o u t l i n e d the f e e l i n g s of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r w h i l e l i s t e n i n g to a c h i l d recount the e x p e r i e n c e of l e a v i n g V i e t Nam and coming to Canada. She concluded with the statement that without t h i s s k i l l the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r would not have known how to respond to t h i s c h i l d . T h i r d l y , comments r e f e r r e d to job i n t e r v i e w s . In one i n s t a n c e , the comment was made that the job i n t e r v i e w e r was s u r p r i s e d and 64 pleased that t h i s s k i l l was being taught as part of a teacher t r a i n i n g program. "Something that I thought was a key part of the course...was the a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g . P a r t i c u l a r l y working with k i d s on a one to one. I found that r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e and that was part of the communication course. I mean, I d i d n ' t l e a r n those s k i l l s i n i s o l a t i o n . " (15-M) "To r e a l l y and t r u l y be a b l e to i d e n t i f y what that person's f e e l i n g , you r e a l l y need a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g , and do a l o t l e s s t a l k i n g and um, that I d i d . I d i d that with the c h i l d r e n , I made that e f f o r t ; and because they came from such d i f f e r e n t backgrounds from mine I r e a l l y needed to make that e f f o r t , to s i t down and a c t i v e l y l i s t e n to t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . " (2-F> 12. IMPAQIING_ON_LIFE The r e f l e c t i o n on and changes i n s e l f - c o n c e p t ; the de v e l o p i n g of f r i e n d s h i p s , the i n t r o d u c t i o n and p r a c t i s i n g of l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s and the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n 65 the experience of the communication course impacted on the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s beyond the classroom experience of the t h i r t e e n week practicum. Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s : - 7 - 33% I n c i d e n t s - 10 P a r t i c i p a n t s - r e s e a r c h e r s r e f e r r e d to being more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with f a m i l y members as a r e s u l t of having new s k i l l s (2 ) . Understanding another's viewpoint and c o n f 1 i c t - r e s o l u t i o n were two of the main t o p i c s mentioned i n these i n s t a n c e s . S p e c i f i c comments i n c l u d e d r e f e r e n c e s to improvements i n m a r i t a l and f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (2 ) . One comment e x t e n s i v e l y o u t l i n e s unpleasant e x p e r i e n c e s from the past which had impacted i n a negative f a s h i o n and were now re-examined and r e s o l v e d as a r e s u l t of having a s a f e environment i n which to r e f l e c t , and of knowing that one need not accept a negative s e l f - i m a g e ; i t could be changed as i t was based on p e r c e p t i o n s which are s u b j e c t i v e not a b s o l u t e . P a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s d i s c u s s e d the impact i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n job i n t e r v i e w s <2). One comment ended with the statement that he was immediately h i r e d , which he a c c r e d i t e d to the confidence he d i s p l a y e d v e r b a l l y and no n v e r b a l l y i n the i n t e r v i e w . 66 "I think those (experiences i n the communication course) w i l l be l i f e t i m e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s f o r me as something t h a t ' s good, and something t h a t ' s important and something that I experienced. The experience of i t . " (11-Ii) "...and being a b l e to understand people, t h a t ' s one of the best t h i n g s I got. We had to check on p e r s p e c t i v e s ( p e r c e p t i o n s ) I'm more t o l e r a n t of people simply because I now know. I„kngw." (4-F) "I r e a l l y think my communications improved, my i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication." (2-F) 13. INCREASING_AWAREN D i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s made to the development of t h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the teacher as communicator. Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 7 - 33% I n c i d e n t s - 10 Comments by p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s were s t r a i g h t -forward statements of r e c o g n i t i o n of 'myself as communicator' and how one's communication a f f e c t s o t h e r s ( 2 ) . Comments f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of determining how one communicates and i t s e f f e c t on c h i l d r e n (3). •ne i n t e r v i e w e e provided two p e r c e p t i v e and i n s i g h t f u l comments: a p p r e c i a t i o n of the impact of the teacher on the student and awareness of the demanding requirements of the 67 t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . The other comment r e l a t e d to a r e a l i z a t i o n of the change i n the teacher r o l e , from one who dispenses i n f o r m a t i o n to one who f a c i l i t a t e s l e a r n i n g . "The process made me more aware of myself as a communicator. Now I can see myself as being i n e f f e c t i v e . If people don't hear me i t ' s not because they are not l i s t e n i n g . It could be what message I'm sending, my nonverbal might not communicate what I'm say i n g , my face, that s o r t of t h i n g , I mean i n my words. And that i s the awareness that I've r e c e i v e d . " C7-F) "I think that most of us who have chosen to go i n t o e d u c a t i o n have the c a p a c i t y to communicate, but what i t d i d was to make us more aware of how we're doing i t . . . . " (18-F) 14. MODELLING The encouragement, p o s i t i v e n e s s , humour and r o l e m o d e l l i n g provided by l e c t u r e and seminar l e a d e r s impacted on the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s : - 6 - 29% I n c i d e n t s : - 17 The comments by p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s covered a wide range of i n f l u e n c i n g i n c i d e n t s . The number of comments made 68 i n t h i s category i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s - r e s e a r c h e r s ; the r a t i o being more than 2 to 1. Consequently, i t must be assumed that the impact of the l e a d e r s was p e r t i n e n t to these p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s - The enthusiasm, c a r i n g and 'humanness' of the l e a d e r s were three f a c t o r s r e p e a t e d l y mentioned <.&'). The e f f e c t of these q u a l i t i e s was to enable the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s to take r i s k s without fear of r i d i c u l e . A sense of s h a r i n g , of t r y i n g to help the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r d i s c o v e r h i s or her p o t e n t i a l was a l s o a r t i c u l a t e d (6). "...and the i n s t r u c t o r was very, very p o s i t i v e with us. Always, a l l the time, b u i l d i n g us up, encouraging us, p r a i s i n g us, b r i n g i n g us along. A c t u a l l y to j u s t go through the experience...She was shaping us p o s i t i v e l y and I think I'm going to remember t h a t . " (11-M) " . . . i t had an impact on me simply because the teachers cared. For one t h i n g i t helps, and I was motivated because the teacher cared." (4-F) "Watching the profs...watching the way they always came up; I mean, i t was business. It was l i g h t and i t was funny. They were approachable, but i t was always business. They were r e a l l y w ell prepared. Everyone was on task." <19-M) 69 15- PRAQIIQAkIIY.„QF„IHE_CgyRSE A combination of t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l components c o n s t i t u t e d the format f o r the communication course. Concepts and s k i l l s presented i n morning l e c t u r e s were d i s c u s s e d and p r a c t i c e d i n af t e r n o o n seminars. Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s : - 6 - 29% I n c i d e n t s - 11 A p p r e c i a t i o n was expressed by the p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r s f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i s e the s k i l l s presented i n the communication course. The comments r e f e r r e d to the n e c e s s i t y of having t h i s combination of theory and p r a c t i c e (5). D e s c r i p t i o n s were given of the e x e r c i s e s undertaken i n the communication course, and how they impacted s p e c i f i c a l l y on the practicum. S p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s were recounted, connecting an experience i n the communication course with one on practicum. "To me, i t was the on l y course that r e a l l y t i e d the theory from the books, and put i t i n t o p r a c t i c e where we were a c t u a l l y u s i n g i t r i g h t there and i t became very c l e a r to us how these t h i n g s would a f f e c t our t e a c h i n g . " C19-li) 70 " I t was the onl y course that I could apply, you know, that I could apply a p o r t i o n of i t i n t o my everyday t e a c h i n g . " C5-F) " I t was key, I mean, i t doesn't matter how important a concept i s , you are not going to get i t a c r o s s to a group of students i f you don't use e f f e c t i v e communication techniques." <!15-M) 16. LJBI NG_IbE__I I _SIATEMENT'.. T h i s technique i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f y i n g the personal e f f e c t of another person's a c t i o n s on the speaker, without e v a l u a t i n g the a c t i o n s of the other. The comment i s s t a t e d i n terms of e x p r e s s i n g a speaker's f e e l i n g s about an a c t i o n , not a .judgment of the a c t i o n using the word ' I ' . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s & - 29% In c i d e n t s - 11 T h i s technique was o f t e n used by p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r s i n parent-teacher i n t e r v i e w s . In one i n s t a n c e , the comment r e f e r r e d to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of using t h i s s k i l l to deal with problem students as i t allowed f o r c l e a r communication without p l a c i n g blame. Another comment recaptured an i n c i d e n t with a student which was not handled e f f e c t i v e l y . However, the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r immediately r e a l i z e d that she could 71 have, i n f a c t , used the 'I statement', thereby c r e a t i n g b e t t e r communication between h e r s e l f and the student. "I d i d have to use i t ('I message') on my practicum with s o r t of problem students...so that was something that was brought to my a t t e n t i o n through communications and I thought about i t a l o t , 'Oh yeah, I learned that i n communications.' " (5-F) " . . . e s p e c i a l l y the ' I ' messages that one d e f i n i t e l y was a r e s u l t . I can d e f i n i t e l y put that one back to communication." <7-F) 17. ENC0yRAGIN6_RA The i n t e n t of t h i s technigue i s to teach c h i l d r e n to a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r achievements without needing a f f i r m a t i o n from someone of a u t h o r i t y . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 5 - 24% In c i d e n t s - 5 The p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s f e l t t h i s was an important s k i l l which they used e x t e n s i v e l y (5). It allowed a means to ' i d e n t i f y with what the c h i l d had done'. One comment r e f e r r e d to l o o k i n g at the handouts on t h i s t o p i c d u r i n g the practi. cum. "I think the t h i n g that had the b i g g e s t impact on me was the s e c t i o n on encouragement versus p r a i s e . That I was r e a l l y conscious of on the practicum and even now...It gave me a way of i d e n t i f y i n g with what the c h i l d had done and being more encouraging. " C2-F.) 18.._ JOURNAL ..WRIT..1 NG The t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s i n the course were given an o u t l i n e to use i n order to r e f l e c t on the a c t i v i t i e s of the day. They were asked to r e f l e c t on t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the day's work i n terms of t h e i r own work and the achievements of t h e i r c o l l e g u e s . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 5 - 24% I n c i d e n t s - 6 The p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s recognized the value of having a s p e c i f i c p l a c e to record t h e i r development. The j o u r n a l e n t r i e s r e q u i r e d r e f l e c t i o n on not only the i n d i v i d u a l ' s growth but that of o t h e r s i n the course. In t h i s way i t provided an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to develop s k i l l s of r e f l e c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n (3). L i s t i n g shortcomings allowed f o r a sense of freedom i n that these were being recognized without f e a r , and conseguently 73 improved upon. An a s t u t e comment r e f e r r e d to the value of w r i t i n g i n order to 'put t h i n g s i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e i n mind'. T h i s was seen as a way to gain s e l f - c o n t r o l . "We d i d the j o u r n a l s and that was worthwhi1e...we got comments back on what we'd written...and we weren't being evaluated on what we wrote, and t h a t ' s e s s e n t i a l i n a j o u r n a l . " (6-F) "...now that I look back at i t I think I have learned a l o t and i t was good to keep a record of the t h i n g s I was having problems with....The j o u r n a l helped me r e a l i z e through the p e r i o d the s k i l l s I had to work on." <3-M;> 19. IMPRQyiNB_.EYE_CONIACI Eye-contact p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to i n v o l v e the l i s t e n e r i n the message. It helps to ensure that the l i s t e n e r i s a c c e p t i n g h i s or her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the i n t e r a c t i o n . It i s a v a l u a b l e technique f o r c l a s s management. Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 5 - 24% I n c i d e n t s - 8 P a r t i c i p a n t s - r e s e a r c h e r s mentioned becoming aware of the value of eye contact as a c o n t r o l l i n g and monitoring 74 technique (3). It was a l s o mentioned i n as an aspect of communication that had not been considered before but was not considered to be c r u c i a l (4). "Eye contact i s e s s e n t i a l i n communicating to a classroom and can be a s u b t l e way of i n v o l v i n g people i n what you are doing." (21-M) "I wasn't as aware of the e f f e c t of eye contact before I took the course...eye contact with everyone, watching my mannerisms. .. I r e a l l y found i t q u i t e u s e f u l . " (19-li) 20. SETIING_yP_PHYS The n e c e s s i t y of a r r a n g i n g the classroom to allow f o r maximum comfort, eye contact with students, and m o v e a b i l i t y . Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s - 3 - 14% In c i d e n t s - 3 The need to attend to the p h y s i c a l environment to ensure maximum comfort and communication was noted by p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s (3). T h i s allowed them a shared sense of ownership i n the room and a l s o contact with more students i n an e f f e c t i v e and comfortable f a s h i o n . 75 "I was t o l d that you move the p h y s i c a l around you u n t i l you're comfortable. That i s one s k i l l I took away because the minute I walked i n t o the classroom I s t a r t e d to change t h i n g s a l i t t l e and when I took over the classroom completely I rearranged the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g to meet my needs and the stu d e n t s ' needs. Things l i k e what i s o u t s i d e the p e r i p h e r a l v i s i o n of the overheads, or the depth of f i e l d ; you know, how deep you want the rows to go or what makes you comfortable or how much pacing room you need i n f r o n t of the classroom. There's proof i n the j o u r n a l that I walked too much at one time, so that i s a s k i l l we picked up i n the course." (3-M) SUMMARY The f o r e g o i n g twenty c a t e g o r i e s have d e s c r i b e d the aspe c t s of the communication course which impacted on the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . Elements of the p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t y l e of t h i s course allowed the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s to f e e l c o n f i d e n t and s a f e i n t a k i n g r i s k s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a p o s i t i v e change i n s e l f - c o n c e p t and i n the development of e f f e c t i v e communication s k i l l s , both p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l . The s k i l l s were s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n terms of a p p l i c a t i o n on the t h i r t e e n week practicum. Thus, by t h e i r own admission, the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s view themselves as being more e f f e c t i v e speakers and l i s t e n e r s than they were before p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the communication course. B. HINDERING INCIDENTS Hi n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s are those components considered not h e l p f u l i n a l l o w i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s to a c q u i r e the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t s from the a c t i v i t i e s undertaken d u r i n g the communication course. Such i n c i d e n t s were c o l l e c t e d from the data (23). The main h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t was the exhaustiveness which o f t e n accompanies such an i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g program (5). Observations concerning the lack of ' c r i s p n e s s ' i n some a s p e c t s of the l e c t u r e were mentioned (4). The textbook was seen as not being r e q u i r e d and considered a waste of time as the contents were presented w e l l i n the l e c t u r e s and seminars (4). Journal w r i t i n g was a l s o considered an a c t i v i t y which d i d not enhance l e a r n i n g (3). Statements s u g g e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d were made, yet, i t was c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n these i n s t a n c e s that the o v e r l o a d i n g d i d not r e l a t e to the two-week time frame of the course as the i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g was considered to be e f f e c t i v e ( 3 ) . The nervousness experienced i n the v i d e o t a p i n g components of the course were viewed as d e b i l i t a t i n g (2). The f i n a l comments r e f e r r e d to the assignment of t r a n s c r i b i n g and e v a l u a t i n g an i n t e r v i e w as not being u s e f u l (2). The r e l a t i v e lack of h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n d i c a t e s that they were n e g l i g i b l e compared to the the much l a r g e r number of f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s . 77 C. STRUCTURED QUESTIONING The responses to the three q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s part of the i n t e r v i e w were a r t i c u l a t e and s p e c i f i c . The p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r s d i d not h e s i t a t e to pr o v i d e answers. The e v a l u a t i o n of the responses to each q u e s t i o n are provided i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . QUESTION # 1: "Did the communication course have an e f f e c t on your s e l f - c o n c e p t ? " Although t h i s f i r s t q u e s t i o n had o f t e n been addressed i n the open-ended s e c t i o n at the beginning of the i n t e r v i e w , the responses i n the s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n i n g p o r t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w were as dramatic and emphatic. One p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r c r e d i t s the communication course with h e l p i n g her s t a y i n the ed u c a t i o n program: "I f e e l a l o t b e t t e r about myself. I d i d n ' t have that confidence when I f i r s t went i n t o e d u c a t i o n . " In another i n s t a n c e , the comment r e l a t e d to the d i f f i c u l t y of being an Anglophone and having to communicate i n French. Knowing how to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y allowed f o r a l e v e l of c o n t r o l i n t h i s d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e a sense of w e l l - b e i n g . The p o s i t i v e , s u p p o r t i v e nature of the course allowed one p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r to "develop a sense of humour towards myself". T h i s comment was a l s o made d u r i n g the open-ended q u e s t i o n i n g by two other p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . The f i n a l comments i n t h i s s e c t i o n , as i n the open-ended q u e s t i o n i n g , s t i p u l a t e d that 78 the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s were comfortable examining and improving weaknesses as they f e l t s a f e and co n f i d e n t because they were given s p e c i f i c s k i l l s with which to make changes. QUESTION # 2: "Did the course a f f e c t your concept of the teacher r o l e , i n terms of a t t i t u d e , respon-s i b i l i t e s , or philosophy?" The d i v e r s i t y of the classroom teacher's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were as p e c t s not r e a l i z e d by some of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s . The need f o r c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s was c l a r i f i e d f o r them. One p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s t a t e d that the experience of the communication course provided a new model f o r him. He r e f l e c t e d on h i s experience as a c h i l d i n school and r e a l i z e d that he had modelled himself on those remembrances. These had led him to consider h i s r o l e i n the classroom i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n o r i e n t a t i o n ; i n f o r m a t i o n to be dispensed. He now p e r c e i v e s himself as a f a c i l i t a t o r i n the classroom, with the need to use d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of p r e s e n t a t i o n . One comment e x p l a i n e d that " i f t h e r e ' s a d e f i n i t i o n of f l e x i b l e , i t ' s the teacher, and you l e a r n that from communication course." 79 QUESTION # 3: "Did the course a f f e c t your i d e a of the teacher-student r e l a t i o n s h i p ? " The responses to t h i s question confirmed t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s b e l i e f that some teachers i n t r a i n i n g today hold b e l i e f s about the teacher-student r e l a t i o n s h i p a s s o c i a t e d with the a c a d e m i c - t e c h n o l o g i c a l e r a i n which they were educated. The words ' a u t h o r i t y ' , 'boss', and 'know a l l ' were the words used to i d e n t i f y understanding of the teacher's s t a t u s r e l a t i v e to the student. The change which took p l a c e as a r e s u l t of the communication course, was expressed with the words 'we l e a r n together', ' i t ' s more of an exchange' and 'you're b u i l d i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p with them'. T h i s i n v o l v e d r e c o g n i t i o n of students as a c t i u e , not p a s s i v e l i s t e n e r s . Two comments, i n d i c a t i n g t h i s awareness, r e f e r r e d to g i v i n g the st u d e n t s 'a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ' , i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , and 'sharing t a l k with them', i n the second i n s t a n c e . A g r e a t e r understanding developed f o r the f e e l i n g s and backgrounds of the students. The need f o r the teacher to remember that problems o u t s i d e of the realm of the classroom a f f e c t the c h i l d r e n and t h e r e f o r e o f t e n r e q u i r e a t t e n t i o n , was reconfirmed. A p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r expressed the need to 'empathize, put y o u r s e l f i n t h e i r shoes', something he had not thought of doing before. His f o l l o w i n g statement was: "I think t h a t ' s the most important t h i n g of the course. 80 That's taught me to come down to that l e v e l , whatever l e v e l that might be". CONCLUSION The use of the s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n i n g technique at the end of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique presented the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s to r e f l e c t on these a s p e c t s of the course i f they had not a l r e a d y done so. The data c o l l e c t e d with t h i s technique r e f l e c t e d the f i n d i n g s of the data from the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique concerning these t o p i c s . 81 CHAPTER V SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS SUMMARY The study was undertaken to determine i f and how the knowledge, s k i l l s and technigues presented i n a Communication S k i l l s i n Teaching course had c a r r i e d over i n t o a t h i r t e e n week p r a c t i c a undertaken by elementary student teachers i n t r a i n i n g . Twenty-one student teachers consented to take part i n t h i s study. There was r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the primary and in t e r m e d i a t e d i v i s i o n s of the Elementary Teacher Education Program. The numbers of men and women were r e l a t i v e to the r a t i o of men and women i n the program as a whole. These i n d i v i d u a l s had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the two week CEDUC 316) Communication S k i l l s f o r the Classroom course i n the f a l l of 1988 and i n a t h i r t e e n week practicum a year l a t e r . T h i s study, undertaken i n the s p r i n g of 1990, took p l a c e nineteen months a f t e r the experience of the communication course. Flanagan's c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique (1954) and a s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n i n g technique were used to c o l l e c t the data f o r t h i s study. The i n t e r v i e w format focussed on c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s and s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n i n g . 82 Two hundred and seventy-three f a c i l i t a t i n g and twenty-three h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s were obtained using the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique p l u s responses to the s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n i n g . Twenty c a t e g o r i e s were induced from the f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s . The four highest ranking c a t e g o r i e s were 'Developing Confidence, (71"/.') ; 'Developing S e l f Awareness,(57%); 'Bonding',(57%); and 'Improving S e l f Concept',(52%). Very few h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s were reported. FINDINGS The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that the student teachers d i d use the knowledge, s k i l l s and techniques learned i n the Communication S k i l l s i n Teaching course on t h e i r t h i r t e e n week p r a c t i c a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the f i n d i n g s are as f o l l o w s : 1. The s t r o n g presence of a dominant p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e as part of the p r e s e n t a t i o n a l make-up of the communication course had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r s . D i r e c t r e f e r e n c e was made by p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s to the "emphasis on the p o s i t i v e " as the o v e r a l l philosophy of the communication course. P a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s were very c l e a r i n r e c a l l i n g t h i s aspect of the p r e s e n t a t i o n . They r e l a t e d i t to the a t t i t u d e of the i n s t r u c t o r s , d e s c r i b e d as being " e n t h u s i a s t i c " , " c a r i n g " , and "warm"; terms which are 83 a part of the language of a humanistic approach to e d u c a t i o n . 2. A second f i n d i n g of the study i s the powerful bonding which occurred amongst the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s , and the impact t h i s had on the i n d i v i d u a l s . The p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s , themselves, seemed q u i t e i n c r e d u l o u s that t h i s bonding had not only occurred, but was maintained beyond the time frame of the course. Strong statements were made sug g e s t i n g that t h i s bonding formed a base f o r the teacher t r a i n i n g program and brought a f e e l i n g of 'humartness' and ' cohesiveness' to the whole program. "A f e e l i n g of community' was another d e s c r i p t i o n used to denote the e f f e c t s of t h i s mutual s h a r i n g . The f o l l o w i n g quote from one of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s may best a r t i c u l a t e t h i s common r e a c t i o n : "I found the communication course to be i n v a l u a b l e . It was one of the most memorable two weeks I had while s t u d y i n g . . . I t helped us a l l get to know f e l l o w members of our f a c u l t y . Through the camaraderie we developed d u r i n g the two weeks, I f e l t more c o n f i d e n t . . . T h i s was a powerful outcome of the course, the extent of which was probably not imaginable by anyone d u r i n g the pla n n i n g process of 316." The importance of t h i s f i n d i n g cannot be o v e r s t a t e d : bonding must be considered to be one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s of the communication course. 84 3. The t h i r d f i n d i n g i s that the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e d that the development of confidence and a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t enabled them to take r i s k s . The p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e d that t h i s was achieved because they were given an o p p o r t u n i t y to be r e f l e c t i v e , and the time to act on these r e f l e c t i o n s . Numerous r e f e r e n c e s were made about the powerful s t r a t e g y of repeated video t a p i n g of p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n a r e i n f o r c i n g environment. The o p p o r t u n i t y to see o n e s e l f from the viewpoint of the l i s t e n e r , make necessary adjustments and see the e f f e c t s , provided f o r a sense of accomplishment and s a t i s f a c t i o n . P o s i t i v e feedback from c o l l e g u e s and seminar lea d e r s f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t e d to the e v o l v i n g of a s t r o n g sense of s e l f . It was noted that t h i s empowering of s e l f enabled the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s to f e e l c o n f i d e n t i n a s k i n g f o r a s s i s t a n c e from school a d v i s o r s d u r i n g t h e i r practicum. In a d d i t i o n , i t was s t a t e d that i t provided the b a s i s f o r improved i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication. 4. The f o u r t h major f i n d i n g i s the impact of the p r o f e s s i o n a l m o d e l l i n g of the course i n s t r u c t o r s . P a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s commented e x t e n s i v e l y on the d i v e r s e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t y l e of the l e c t u r e r s i n the l a r g e group s e s s i o n and the i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s of the seminar l e a d e r s . Further student comments i n d i c a t e d the p a r t i c i p a n t -85 r e s e a r c h e r s r e p l i c a t e d t h i s m o d e l l i n g behavior d u r i n g the practicum, r e a l i z i n g the importance f o r teachers to be models f o r c h i l d r e n i n the classroom. 5. The f i f t h major f i n d i n g of the study i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that the more e f f e c t i v e the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s ' communication s k i l l s the more e f f e c t i v e t h e i r t e a c h i n g performance. Students were s u r p r i s i n g l y unaware of the impact of t h e i r nonverbal behavior, p a r t i c u l a r l y on c h i l d r e n . A f t e r completing the course they r e f e r r e d to the importance of making eye contact, of having a s t r o n g p h y s i c a l presence, and of u s ing space e f f e c t i v e l y . The impact of proxemics r e s u l t e d i n p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s making gre a t e r use of the classroom space f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . The need f o r a modulated v o i c e to p r o v i d e m o t i v a t i o n and m a i n tain i n t e r e s t was recognized by the p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r s . C h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t , maintained d u r i n g o r a l r eading, was a t t r i b u t e d to the s k i l l s of o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; tempo, rhythm, emphasis, pacing and pausing. The use of the v o i c e as a c o n t r o l l i n g d e v i c e was u t i l i z e d as a r e s u l t of t h i s awareness, i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e r a t h e r than i n an a u t h o r i t a t i v e manner. P a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o i n d i c a t e d a f e e l i n g of s a t i s f a c t i o n as a consequence of being a b l e to f e e l good about t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t y l e . 86 CONCLUSION In an examination of the f i n d i n g s , i t i s c l e a r that the communication course provided change and development i n a t t i t u d e , s k i l l s and techniques which impacted on the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s on two l e v e l s . F i r s t l y , changes took p l a c e on a personal l e v e l as the students, provided with a s a f e and c a r i n g environment, proceeded to develop t h e i r p o t e n t i a l as human beings and recognized the importance of a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e and environment f o r these changes to occur. Secondly, the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and self-awareness which r e s u l t e d from the e v a l u a t i o n of s e l f , allowed f o r i n t r o s p e c t i v e f o c u s s i n g on the s k i l l s and techniques r e q u i s i t e f o r the teacher to be an e f f e c t i v e communicator i n the classroom. That a l l these r e s u l t s e p i t o m i z e the demands upon teachers i n the l a s t decade of the 20th century i s a given. LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY T h i s study i s based on a r e t r o s p e c t i v e view of a course e x p e r i e n c e by a l i m i t e d number of course p a r t i c i p a n t s . In making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s to s i m i l a r e x p e r iences, i t must be recognized that t h i s study r e p r e s e n t s the f i n d i n g s of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s at a p a r t i c u l a r time. 87 IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Sev e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r study r e s u l t from the f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study. The f i r s t i n v o l v e s the a s s e s s i n g of the p a r t c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r performance d u r i n g the practicum experience from other p e r s p e c t i v e s . F i r s t l y , an examination of the school a d v i s o r s ' anecdotal r e p o r t s of the p a r t i c i p a n t - r e s e a r c h e r s ' performance on practicum r e l a t i v e to the assessment of the p a r t i c i p a n t -r e s e a r c h e r s would be of value. T h i s would be supplemented with an i n t e r v i e w with the school a d v i s o r s . Secondly, i t w i l l be important to r e p l i c a t e the study with other groups of students, i e . from the 1989 and 1990 groups, to a s c e r t a i n the co n s i s t e n c y of the r e s u l t s . The i n t e r v i e w data could a l s o be supplemented with s t a n d a r d i s e d measures of s e l f esteem, a t t r i b u t i o n , e t c . Another p o s s i b i l i t y would be to have a t i g h t e r c o n t r o l l e d study. I n d i v i d u a l s could be i d e n t i f i e d at the beginning of the course and fo l l o w e d through the experience of i t using j o u r n a l e n t r i e s , i n t e r v i e w i n g and g u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 88 REFERENCES Adl e r , R. B. 8< Towne, N. (1990). Looking_gut/Looking_ J.n S i x t h E d i t i o n . H o l t , Rinehart and Winston,Inc. Andersson, B. & N i l s s o n , S. (1964). 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New York: McGraw-Hill Company. Wright, T. (1987). Roles_for_Teachers_and Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press. Y_ar_2000i_A_Framewor_____gr_Learni_g_ (1990). M i n i s t r y of Education, P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. Zimmerman, J. & Zimmerman, E. H. (1976). Towards Humanising Educa t i o n : Behavior Management R e v i s i t e d . Ihe__Psy chol g -aica^Record._ (26) . p . 387 - 397. APPENDICES 98 APPENDIX A OUTLINE FOR THE COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN TEACHING COURSE EDUC: 316 COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN TEACHING This course is designed to provide pre-service teachers with an understanding of the principles of effective communication in a variety of contexts. Its seminar component of three hours per day will allow them to practice skills which will enhance their interpersonal effectiveness. GOALS: Specifically, as a consequence of their experience in the course students will be expected: 1. To understand the principles of effective communication; 2. To develop the skills necessary to communicate effectively with children, parents, teachers, school personnel, community resource people and media. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: To enable students to explain a model of effective communication. To enable students to understand the importance of the self-concept in the communication process. To enable students to understand how their communication affects the self-concept of others. To enable students to look at themselves realistically. To enable students to develop the flexible use of their voice. To enable students to develop an effective style of oral presentation of information. To enable students to understand how perception can be changed by different physiological and psychological barriers. To enable students to develop the realization that there are many variables to consider in the perception of other people. To enable students to improve their ability to observe and understand non-verbal behavior. To enable students to learn active listening and interviewing skills through a laboratory training model. To enable students to identify reasons for poor listening effectiveness. To enable students to discover ways each individual deals with conflict and to learn several non-confrontational strategies for conflict resolution. To enable students to learn how to give and receive feedback. To enable students to use the communication skills learned in the course in both a personal and professional context. Text: Adler, Ronald B. and Neil Towne. Looking Out/Looking In: Interpersonal Communication. Fifth Edition. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1987. COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN TEACHING 1 G O 1. The Communication Process: i I 1.1 The definitions of communication 1.2 The elements and levels of communication 1.3 The central role of language in communication 1.4 The implication of global communication in our 'information society' 1.5 Relevant models of communication 1.6 Communication patterns in the school and classroom reflecting current changes in B.C. 1.7 Implications for classroom instruction 2. Self-Concept in the Communication Process: 2.1 Self-concept and self-esteem 2.2 Roles and expectations: effects on communication 2.3 The power of fir s t impressions: projecting credibility 2.4 Models of self-awareness: self-disclosure and feedback 2.5 Understanding the individual: personal expectation levels and learning styles 3. Speech Communication: 3.1 Components of effective speech: breathing, volume, rate, articulation, expression, pitch 3.2 Effective use of the voice by the teacher 3.3 Speech barriers to communication 3.4 Introduction to public speaking 4. Nonverbal Communication: 4.1 Characteristics, functions and categories of nonverbal communication 4.2 Cross-cultural nonverbal communication 3.3 Nonverbal barriers to communication 5. Listening Skills: 5.1 Components of listening 5.2 Review of questioning strategies 5.3 Perceptions and roadblocks to good listening 5.4 Learning styles and listening 6. Communication Skills: 6.1 Responding with specificity and concreteness 6.2 Responding with reaction, interaction and action skills 7. Interview Skills: 7.1 Interviews: types, formats and structures 7.2 Interviews with children, colleagues, administrators and parents 7.3 Interviews with special needs and handicapped children and their parents 7.4 Planning an interview 8. Barriers to Effective Communication: 8.1 Language-related barriers 8.2 Cross-cultural barriers 8.3 Psychological barriers-resistance to effective communication (students, staff, parents, special needs and handicapped) 9. Understanding Group Behaviour: 9.1 Building group unity in the classroom 9.2 Types, components, characteristics of groups 9.3 Stages of group development 9.4 Interaction skills 10. Review of Communication: The Teacher: 10.1 Review of roles, functions, influence and power 10.2 Review of teaching functions 10.3 Review of delivery techniques COURSE EVALUATION Journals: 5 daily (2-4 pages) 10 Chapter Presentations 10 Oral Interpretation (Final Wednesday) 10 Interview (Due Final Thursday) 25 Formal Presentation (Final Friday) 20 75 ASSIGNMENTS: (A) COMMUNICATION JOURNAL: "Notes to myself and my seminar prof!" WRITING IS COMMUNICATING! Each student will keep a regular communication journal as a record of course-related content, activities, reactions and reflections. The purpose is to make the students more aware of their own communication habits and the successful changes in them. By becoming aware of modes of communication around them and of the techniques of those who communicate well, students can begin to improve their own sk i l l s . The journal should Include the following introspective comments: a. Personal reflections and/or reactions to participation in course activities. b. Reaction to course content. c. Listing of successful teaching/communication techniques in the large-session lectures and the seminars. d. Observation of the communication process outside of the seminars. e. Personal awareness and growth in communication ski l l s . (B) CHAPTER PRESENTATION Small groups will present to their seminar topics from selected chapters of the text. Each person will be evaluated on his/her contribution to the presentation. (C) ORAL INTERPRETATION A three-minute oral interpretation of the student's choice of a poem, short story, novel, etc. will be presented and videotaped in the seminar. Evaluation will be the professor's responsibility with seminar providing verbal critiques. ORAL INTERPRETATION MARKING GUIDE 1. Appropriateness of selection 1 mark Introduction 2. Understanding of the text 1 mark Empathy, feeling, mood 3. Interpretations skills 4 marks a. Verbal: emphasis, pausing, phrasing b. Non-verbal: gestures, eye contact 4. Vocal Skills 4 marks Volume, rate, pacing, tempo, rhythm, Articulation, pronunciation Inflection, pitch (Time: 3 minutes) 10 marks/total (D) INTERVIEW The purpose of this interview is to demonstrate the effective and appropriate use of communication skills learned in this course. Required 1. A 15-20 minute interview is to be audiotaped/videotaped. The interview must be spontaneous and non-stop. You may interview a member of the class or a friend. Remember: The purpose is to demonstrate communication s k i l l s . To ensure that you have the opportunity to demonstrate a broad range of skills i t is helpful to focus the discussion on a particular problem or situation (role playing is acceptable). 2. Write out everything that is said on your tape until you have recorded ten consecutive interviewer responses. Use a dialogue format, that i s : start a new line for every change of speaker. This transcript is for your own use in the analysis and to help the instructor understand the context in which your analysis is conducted. 3. Using the analysis form, analyze every response you make as follows: A) SCRIPT: In this column, write'the statement of the person being interviewed or the non-verbal behaviour to which you responded. Write your response B) INTERVIEWER SKILLS: In this column, indicate which skills you used, e.g., paraphrasing, confronting, etc. C) RATE THE RESPONSE: On a 5-point scale, rate your response as follows. (The better your response, the higher the score). Rating scale: 1 2 3 4 5 Very Poor Poor Marginal Good Very Good Do not draw the scale, just write in a figure from 1 to 5 to indicate how you rate yourself. D) ALTERNATE RESPONSE: In this column, write in another response you might have made. If you think your original response was very poor, write in one you think would have been better. If you think your response was good, do a l i t t l e polishing, re-phrase the response, or perhaps try a completely new remark. Indicate the skill(s) used at the end of your alternate response. E) COMMENTS: Indicate your purpose in changing your response, eg. "I thought i t would be possible. . ."or, "I thought i t would be just as good. . ." You are not obliged to use any set formula so long as we know your purpose in using the skill(s) you suggest. You may add any other comment you wish. PLEASE NOTE: There are no perfect or absolutely correct responses any more than there are absolutely wrong ones. What we are trying to measure here is your ability to understand what is happening and to perceive a better or alternate action you might have taken. Both your capacity to assess your responses and to think of a good alternative are important. If you rate your original response as "Very Poor" (see scale), that is not an occasion for anxiety, simply indicate how you might have done better. If you rate the response as "Very Good", indicate what might have been equally effective. Please make as many copies of the Analysis Form (Appendix 1) as needed. (F) INFORMATION SPEECH: INFORMATION MARKING GUIDE Each student will make a formal presentation on a topic of information directly related to practicum (4-5 minutes) «n.school observation experience. 1. Content 6 marks 2. Organization 8 marks I. Format: a. Introduction (motivation) Why? b. Body of information c. Conclusion/Review II. Language a. Style: Accuracy, simplicity, coherence, appropriateness. b. Strategy: Definition, restatement, imagery. 3. Speech skills 6 marks a. Verbal: Volume, rate, tempo, emphasis, phrasing, articulation, pitch, inflection. b. Nonverbal: Proteinics, movement and stance, facial expressions, gestures 20 marks/total APPENDIX B MANUAL FOR AFTERNOON COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN TEACHING SEMINARS SEMINAR 1 - THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS IOB OBJECTIVES 1. To get to know each other in order to build a cooperative and trustful learning environment in the seminar. 2. To review course objectives. 3. To introduce students to the VCR equipment. They will be responsible for its operation. 4. To understand the components of the communication model. ACTIVITY 1 TITLEt Introductions (45 minutes) PURPOSE: To get acquainted and learn names of members of class PROCEDURES: 1. Welcome students. 2. Introduce yourself. 3. Explain importance of knowing one another in a communication skills class. 4. Form dyads (groups of two). The instructor uses him/ herself to even out the dyads i f necessary. 5. Each member of a dyad will interview the other. ( 3 minutes per person) Find two unique things to t e l l the group about the person you are interviewing. 6 . Introduce partner to the large group. Use the person's name instead of 'he* or 'she' when presenting information. SEMINAR Sl-1 SEMINAR 1 ~ ACTIVITY 2 TITLE: What is the Communication Course? (30 minutes) PURPOSE: To review course objectives and requirements PROCEDURES: 1. Overview. 2. Elaborate objectives. 3. Explain assignments. 4. Discuss expectations (attendance at main lectures, performance, improvements, etc.). 5. Ask for student input on what they hope to learn based on recent classroom observations (EDUC 315, Tuesday mornings). Elaborate student expectations. 6. Discuss apprehensions they may have. SEMINAR Sl-2 SEMINAR 1 - ACTIVITY 3 102 TITLE: Guidelines for Feedback (15 minutes) PURPOSE: To review the general guidelines for giving feedback and the various types of feedback. PROCEDURES: 1. The guidelines for feedback and the types of feedback will have been introduced in the morning lecture. 2. Check with each member to ensure that s/he is willing to observe the guidelines for giving feedback in the group. 3. There may be additional guidelines which group members would like to add. If so, add them to the l i s t . 4. Briefly discuss the types of feedback which would be most appropriate for this group. General Guidelines for Giving Feedback 1. Establish the focus for feedback 2. Give the person specific suggestions. 3. Focus feedback on behaviour rather than on personal qualities. 4. Describe what is seen, not inferences, or judgements. 5. Deal with one issue at a time. 6. Be tentative in observations, i.e., i t seemed to me ... or from my perspective ... 7. Use encouragement and identify strengths as well as weaknesses. 8. Keep what is said in the group within the group - observe expectations for confidentiality. Types of Feedback 1. Halo (glowing praise). 2. Glossed Over (minimize criticism). 3. Strength Confrontation (encouragement and focus on strength). 4. Alignment (criticisms and compliments are parallel). 5. Force Field Analysis ( l i s t strengths and weaknesses). 6. The Sandwich (first positive, then negative, close with positive). 7. Between the Eyes (direct cri t i c a l feedback). 8. Thunder (rage and general negativity). 81989 N. Amundson SEMINAR Sl-3 SEMINAR 1 - ACTIVITY 4 TITLE: Why I Want To Be a Teacher? (75 minutes) PURPOSE: The students will present an extemporaneous speech which will be videotaped for critiquing with feedback guidelines. PROCEDURES: ' 1. Allow students to sit in pairs and brainstorm about the topic beforehand for 2-3 minutes. ** Prefocus the camera during the discussion and have the VCR ready to go! 2. Videotape students sharing a one minute presentation on the topic of 'Why I Want To Be a Teacher?' Short outline notes are acceptable. ** After 50 seconds a student will indicate the time, and the speaker must draw to a conclusion 3. Immediate playback and feedback. [Prior to the rerun on the video.] Assign two students to give feedback to each speaker. Emphasize the positive strengths of each student. ** Remember to use the fast play button to shorten the amount of time needed for playback 4. Instructors should provide specific feedback. 5. Focus of Feedback: Positive Emphasis! a. Organization of presentation (introduction, conclusion). b. Non-verbal communication (eye contact, posture). c. Verbal communication (rate, volume, expression, enthusiasm). SEMINAR Sl-4 SEMINAR 1 - ACTIVITY 5 TITLE: Evaluation/Closure (15 minutes) PURPOSE: To provide an evaluation and consolidation of learnings. PROCEDURES: 1. Have the group sit in a circle. It is advisable for the instructor to start with a response to one of the statements. Not a l l statements will be used. I learned that I.... I was surprised that I.... I remembered.... I found i t hard to believe that.... I was saddened that I.... I enjoyed.... I never knew.... I plan to change I want to learn.... (This activity may be used in other seminars and as a basis for comments in the journal.) SEMINAR Sl-5 SEMINAR 2 - SELF CONCEPT ACTIVITY 1 TITLE: Group Complimenting (35 minutes) PURPOSE: To experience the impact of complimenting oneself in a group situation. PROCEDURES: 1. Divide the large group into 3 smaller groups with 4-5 members in each subgroup. 2. Each person should share three positive statements about oneself. These needn't feature areas in which s/he is an expert, and does not have to be concerned with momentous feats. On the contrary, it's perfectly acceptable to t e l l some part of self that leaves s/he feeling pleased or proud. a) For instance, you might talk about the fact that instead of procrastinating you completed a school assignment before the last minute, that you spoke up to a friend even though you were afraid of disapproval, that you bake a fantastic chocolate cake, or that you frequently drive hitchhikers to their destinations although it's out of your way. b) If the students are at a loss for compliments, have them ask themselves: - What are some ways in which you've grown in the past year? How are you more s k i l l f u l , wise, or a better person than you previously were? - Why do certain friends or family members care about you? What features do you possess that make them appreciate you? 3. To conclude the activity, ask the students to consider the following: Did you have a hard time thinking of things to comment about? Would i t have been easier to l i s t the things that are wrong with you? If so, is this because you are truly a wretched person or because you are in the habit of stressing your defects and ignoring your strengths? Consider the impact of such a habit on your self-concept, and ask yourself whether i t wouldn't be wiser to strike a better balance distinguishing between your strengths and shortcomings. 4. In the larger group discuss some of the insights that were generated in the sub-groups. SEMINAR S2-1 SEMINAR 2 - ACTIVITY 2 TITLE: Critical School Experiences (45 minutes) PURPOSE: To share ways in which teachers enhance and detract from a student's self concept. PROCEDURES: 1. Ask each student to think about a personal school experience when a teacher enhanced their self concept or detracted from i t . 2. Students divide into pairs (or triads) and discuss their experiences (10 minutes). Also encourage students to share experiences from their School Observation assignment. 3. Discuss in the large group the nature of positive and negative experiences. a) relate the discussion to the guidelines for giving feedback b) ask group members how old they were at the time of their experiences c) how have the experiences impacted them in later life? SEMINAR S2-2 SEMINAR 2 - ACTIVITY 3 TITLE: Personal Styles (60 minutes) PURPOSE: To appreciate how personal style influences the way in which we are perceived and misunderstood by others. PROCEDURES: 1. This activity is based on the Individual Style Survey (ISS) which was introduced in the lecture session. Ask the group members to indicate whether they are more Introspective or Interactive according to the Individual Style Survey. For those who have an equal score, ask them to choose which side seems more comfortable to them. (Note; the division can also be made on People/Task i f this seems more appropriate). 2. Divide the groups into the two sub-groups (Interactive/Introspective) and ask each group to discuss: (15-20 min). a) i n i t i a l reactions to being in this group b) how does this particular orientation influence their behaviour and self concept. c) what are some of the ways in which they are misunderstood. 3. Each group is to then choose a spokesman and address the other group explaining what was discussed in their group (Note: often i t is people with a different style who are the cause of frustration and misunderstanding). 4. Brainstorm ways in which some of the misunderstandings can be minimized. SEMINAR S2-3 SEMINAR 3 - SPEECH SKILLS 114 ACTIVITY 1 TITLE: Breathing Exercises (10 minutes.) PURPOSE: To learn to extend the length of breath for more effective communication. PROCEDURES: 1. Exhale breath. 2. Breathe in to the count of 6 (by seminar leader). 3. Hold for the count of 3. 4. Exhale to the count of 6. 5. Repeat with an 8-4-8 count. ALPHABET DRILL: 1. Exhale breath. 2. Breathe in and then slowly recite the alphabet. 3. Repeat using alphabets from other languages. SEMINAR S3-1 SEMINAR 3 - ACTIVITY 2 TITLE: Tongue Twisters (10 minutes.) PURPOSE: To increase articulation s k i l l s . MATERIALS NEEDED: Tongue Twister Handout PROCEDURES: 1. Encourage student to softly 'try* the tongue twister on their lips. 2. In pairs, students alternate reading the tongue twisters, slowly at f i r s t , then increasing the speed yet emphasizing articulation. 3. With the whole group have the students read the tongue twister in unison, highlighting the principles of interpretation. Focus of FEEDBACK: a) Volume b) Clarity of articulation c) Expression SEMINAR S3-2 SEMINAR 3 - ACTIVITY 3 1 'IS TITLE? One-Sentence Speeches (VCR) (60 minutes.) PURPOSE: To facilitate feeling comfortable with extemporaneous speaking. To focus on nonverbal aspects of speech presentation. PROCEDURES: 1. Each student is to find a sentence in the text which gives a piece of advice to the group. S/he will then walk up to the podium, wait, make eye contact with the group, and present the sentence. 2. Videotape the presentation for sharing and discussion. 3. NOTE: In several cases you may want the students to redo the sentence IMMEDIATELY! - for volume, strength, eye contact, or for direct focus on one student who supposedly was not listening!! A. FOCUS OF FEEDBACK: a. WAIT until the audience is ready! Eye contact! b. Nonverbal - posture, eye contact, firm walk c. Verbal - volume, rate, articulation, expression -emphasis on smooth yet firm delivery SEMINAR S3-3 SEMINAR 3 - ACTIVITY 4 117 TITLE: Effective Reading: Newspaper Article (60 minutes) PURPOSE: To practise speech sk i l l s : emphasizing articulation, rate, emphasis and inflection. PROCEDURES: 1. Discuss with the students their favourite television news broadcaster in terms of their presentation style. What are his/her strengths? How do they show they are credible? Sincere? 2. Divide the students into pairs and, as TV news broadcasters, have them practise reading the first part of an article to each other. 3. Encourage the students to begin their newscast by saying 'Good evening' and then reading the headline f i r s t . This will help their performance. (Video) Focus on camera! 4. FOCUS OF FEEDBACK: Rate, volume, articulation, eye contact and flow of reading. SEMINAR S3-4 SEMINAR 4 - LISTENING SKILLS ACTIVITY 1 TITLE: Breathing (5 minutes) A. Repeat count exercise from Seminar 3. (increase count) Release breath with "S" sound to establish an even exhalation of breath. B. Take in a breath. Count, ("1-2-3-etc") using languages known by group members. SEMINAR S4-1 SEMINAR A - ACTIVITY 2 TITLE: One-Way/Two-Way Communication (30 minutes) PURPOSE: To practise precision in giving directions. To emphasize the importance of word choice. PROCEDURE: 1. Establish four groups. 2. One person is to be seated with his/her back to the group and is given a diagram (series of squares). Refer to the diagrams provided. 3. The student is to instruct the participants in how to draw the diagram. No questions are allowed. (Have one group outside of the room for quiet i f necessary.) A. Repeat with second diagram. Students are allowed to ask questions. 5. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN THE COMMUNICATION? SEMINAR SA-2 gfiHlflAK 4 - ACTIVITY 1 TITLE: One-Way Communication PROCEDURE: Sit with your back to your fellow students. You are to give them precise instructions as to how to draw the following diagram. You may not answer any questions. Good Luck! SEMINAR S4-1 SEMINAR 4 - ACTIVITY 2 1E1 TITLE: Two-Way Communication PROCEDURE: Sit facing the other members of your group. You are to get them to draw the following illustration accurately and precisely. You may answer any questions that they may have. Good Luck! \ SEMINAR S4-2 SEMINAR A - ACTIVITY 3 1 2 2 TITLE: Action Speaks Louder Than Words (20 minutes) PURPOSE: The students w i l l become aware of their s k i l l i n using nonverbal cues to relay messages. PROCEDURE: 1. Send four students out of the room. 2. Then read the following paragraph to a f i f t h , who must try to remember i t and act i t out for the f i r s t student to return, who w i l l i n turn act i t out for the next student, and so on. 3. YOU HAVE JUST RUN OUT OF GAS WHILE DRIVING AND YOU PULL OVER TO THE SIDE OF THE ROAD. YOU ARE UPSET AT THIS BECAUSE YOU ARE LATE SO YOU KICK THE FRONT TIRE OF THE CAR. THEN YOU SEE A BIKE AT THE SIDE OF THE ROAD. YOU GO GET IT, GET ON IT, AND RIDE AWAY. A. Emphasize the nonverbal cues used to keep the message clear. If there was a communication breakdown as a result of a weakness i n the nonverbal cues, discuss how i t could have been avoided by using more specific clues. SEMINAR SA-3 SEMINAR 4 - ACTIVITY 4: ORAL INTERPRETATION PRACTISE TITLE: Oral Interpretation Practise (15 minutes) PURPOSE: To practise changing verbal emphasis for meaning. PROCEDURE: Have the students say the following sentences in as many ways as they can to express different emotions and meaning. A. I wouldn't say that. B. I will walk home now. C. I don't want to go to that store. D. Why don't you answer the phone? E. If I have to go, I w i l l . F. I thought you were dead! SEMINAR S4-4 SEMINAR 4 - ACTIVITY 5: ORAL INTERPRETATION: POETRY 124 TITLE: Oral Interpretation: Poetry (75 minutes) PURPOSE: To present an effective oral interpretation of a poem. PROCEDURE: 1. Each student should mark his/her poem for oral interpretation as demonstrated in the lecture. 2. The students should individually practise their readings aloud. 3. The students should present their poem to a small group (triad) for constructive feedback. 4. Formal presentation to group. 5. Focus of feedback: a) establish the mood b) appropriate expression (refer to principles of interpretation) SEMINAR S4-5 SEMINAR 5 - PERCEPTION 125 ACTIVITY 1 TITLE: Speaking Concretely (30 minutes) PURPOSE: To heighten the students' awareness of the need for increased specificity ie. the clearer the communication the more facilitative i t becomes. Improve your communication by being specific about what you are talking about. Concreteness is essential to operation-alizing the behavioural change goals. a. Which behaviour b. What kind of feeling(s) c. Under what conditions d. Intensity or quantity of behaviour e. Duration f. Why Examples: Vague Statement: I'm sometimes not as efficient as I could be because of my physical condition. Concrete Statement: I get splitting headaches once or twice a week, and then even light bothers me. Sometimes i t makes me throw up! Whenever I am under stress i t happens to me. Vague Statement: I tend to be domineering. Concrete Statement: I try to get others to do what I want to do! I always take the lead in conversations, and I interrupt others in order to make my points. If a friend talks to me and I am not in the mood to listen, I change the subject. Vague Statement: I get bothered in small discussion groups. Concrete Statement: I feel hesitant and embarrassed whenever I want to give feedback to other students, especially i f I am disagreeing. When the comes for me to talk, my palms get sweaty and my heart beats faster. I feel like everyone is staring at me. SEMINAR S5-1 PROCEDURE: 1. Each member thinks of a vague statement. 2. With the assistance of a partner, the vague statements are clarified and made more concrete. The partner assumes the role of interviewer and through paraphrasing and questioning helps to clarify the vague statement (Roles are then reversed) (15 min.) 3. Debrief the activity in the large group by discussing: a. What types of questions worked well in the interviews i.e., open vs. closed questioning? b. Describe the experience of paraphrasing? c. What is the value of making concrete statements? d. How might this procedure be applied with a student i.e., taking care to ensure that s/he doesn't feel that an interrogation is underway. SEMINAR S5-1/2 SEMINAR 5 - ACTIVITY 2 TITLE: Replying with Empathy (30 minutes) 127 PURPOSE: To increase the students' ability to use an appropriate empathic response. Empathizing is detecting and identifying how a person is feeling and then responding in an appropriate manner. To do this requires accurate perception of a person's subjective experience. Empathizing stresses seeing a situation through the other person's eyes hence, empathizing is 'you' oriented rather than 'I* oriented. PROCEDURE: 1. Replying with Empathy There are three elements in recognizing and responding with empathy. 1. identifying the feelings. 2. identifying the situation/content 3. responding to the feelings and situation/content, letting the person know you understand. It is easiest to learn the empathic s k i l l i f you begin with the following formula: 'You feel because .' 'Because . you feel .' 2. The instructor reads out one of the following statements and the students are to write down an emphatic response using the above basic formula or other equivalents. a. Lately, my mother and father have really been fighting a lot. b. My mother has to go into hospital. c. What is the use of studying for this exam anyway? d. I'm really worried about a friend of mine; she seems really down. e. They expect more out of me than I can do. f. I have so much to do right now that I don't know where to begin. g. other. 3. Discuss the responses/reactions to the exercise. SEMINAR S5-2 SEMINAR 5 - ACTIVITY 3 TITLE: Role Play to Practise Empathy (VCR) (90 minutes) PURPOSE: To practise appropriate empathic responses. PROCEDURE: 1. Students, in dyads, will prepare a role play featuring a student concern. For example, one student may be the teacher, while the other is the student. Discuss the impact and importance of the effective use of empathy by the classroom teacher. (If desired, a situation involving teacher/parent, teacher/teacher, or teacher/administrator may be used). Example 1: Lately, a close friend of yours is really down. More and more, she/he talks about suicide. Right now, she/he seems to be joking. However, as the joking continues, you're becoming increasingly worried that she/he will really do i t . You're not sure what to do. Example 2: Your parents have given you a lot of freedom, but lately have hassled you - i.e. they don't like some of your friends, they want to know where you are going and they want to know what you are doing with you time, etc. You really like your parents, would like them off your back and would like to know what is this sudden overt interest in what you are doing. You are not certain what to do about this. 2. Videotape each role play for a maximum of three minutes. 3. Play back video segments and observe for: a. empathic tone b. empathic nature (i.e. facial expression) SEMINAR S5-3 SEMINAR 6 12S The dual focus of this seminar should be to provide time to practice assignment-focused interviews as well as the student's oral interpretation. Start with a warm-up session, and follow i t by interviews which are videoed and later analyzed. SEMINAR S6-1 SEMINAR 7 - ACTIVITY 1 Formal presentation of oral interpretation selections. ACTIVITY 2 The purpose of this activity is to provide time to practice interview situations. SEMINAR S7-1/2 SEMINAR 8 The purpose of this seminar is to provide practice and feedback for the students on their formal presentations. SEMINAR S8 APPENDIX C ORIGINAL DIVISIONS OF FACILITATING INCIDENTS / APPENDIX C ORIGINAL DIVISIONS OF FACILITATING INCIDENTS LISTED ALPHABETICALLY 1. A c t i v e L i s t e n i n g 2. Body Language 3. Textbook as U s e f u l 4. B r e a t h i n g 5. Centred 6. C l a r i t y of Speech 7. Confidence B u i l d i n g 3. C o u n s e l l i n g S k i l l s 9. Course As V a l u a b l e 10. Empathy 11. Encouragement vs P r a i s e 12. Eye Contact 13. Feedback 14. H o l d i n g M a t e r i a l s 15. Interviews-Parent/Teacher 16. 'I Statement' 17. Journal 18. L a n g u a g e - E f f e c t i v e Vocabulary 19. Marking S c r i p t f o r E f f e c t i v e Reading 20. Nonverbal 21. Pausing 22. Personal-Meeting Others;Personal Growth 23. P o s i t i v e - A t m o s p h e r e ; A t t i t u d e 24. P u b l i c Speaking-Becoming Comfortable. 25. Reading 26. R e l a x a t i o n - U s i n g Techniques 27. S e l f Concept-Changing 28. Slowing Down-In Reading/Speaking 29 Speeches-Value of P l a n n i n g 30. S t o r y t e l l i n g 31. S t r a t e g i e s - S e t t i n g Up the Classroom 32. V o i c e 33. V i d e o - t a p i n g / H e l p f u l 134 APPENDIX D BAR-GRAPH PRESENTATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FACILITATING INCIDENTS DISTRIBUTION OF FACILITATING INCIDENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 1920 INCIDENT RAhKNG r " 1 NO- OF PARTICIPANTS VSS7^ NO. OF INCIDENTS 

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