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A psycholinguistic investigation of the cloze responses of grade eight students Fraser, Janet Mary 1981

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A PSYGHOLINGUISTIG I N V E S T I G A T I O N OF THE  CLOZE  RESPONSES OF GRADE E I G H T STUDENTS  ty JANET MARY FRASER B.A. H o n s . , Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 B . E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1973  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED  I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Language E d u c a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s to  conforming  the r e q u i r e d standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA July ©  1981  J a n e t Mary F r a s e r , 1981  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her understood t h a t  granted by  representatives.  s h a l l not  be  It i s  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  (2/79)  my  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  DE-6  the head o f  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  This study, a p a r t i a l  r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram  (I98O), i n v e s t i g a t e d  the  f u n c t i o n o f exact andnon-exact replacements o f cloze responses i n  the  assessment  o f r e a d i n g comprehension.  Two m o d e s o f d i s c o u r s e ,  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , were e x a m i n e d .  Subjects  were p r o f i c i e n t and l e s s p r o f i c i e n t grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . K e y t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s g u i d i n g t h e r e s e a r c h stemmed f r o m psycholinguistics;  t h a t r e a d i n g i n v o l v e s responses t o the  phonemic, s y n t a c t i c , a n d semantic cue systems o f language  grapho(Goodman,  1976a); a n d f r o m d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s t h e o r y ; t h a t a 'schema' o r c o g n i t i v e map  d i r e c t s the r e a d e r i n the s e a r c h f o r d i s c o u r s e cues (Winograd, S u b j e c t s w e r e c o m p l e t i n g g r a d e e i g h t (N = 6l) i n a s m a l l  secondary school i n Surrey, B r i t i s h  Columbia.  p r i m a r y l a n g u a g e was E n g l i s h , q u a l i f i e d .  1977).  junior  O n l y s u b j e c t s whose  G o o d ( N = 19) a n d p o o r  (N = 19) r e a d e r s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d f r o m t h e sum o f s c o r e s o n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s o f t h e NeHison R e a d i n g S k i l l s (1977). Non-exact  E x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s ( E . R . ' s ) o f 61 s u b j e c t s w e r e  examined.  r e p l a c e m e n t s ( N . E . R . ' s ) o f g o o d ( N = 19) a n d p o o r  r e a d e r s were a l s o a n a l y s e d .  Test  ( N = 19)  E a c h s u b j e c t c o m p l e t e d two c l o z e  a n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and a n e x p o s i t o r y prose, from the B r i t i s h Reading Assessment Responses (Bormuth, was  Columbia  1977. G r a d e 8.  were e x a m i n e d  1976).  tasks:  f o r e x a c t match t o the a u t h o r ' s word  A n a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e Cram R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t  u s e d t o e v a l u a t e N.E.R.'s.  S t a t i s t i c a l procedures included  i n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t s a n d t w o way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . i i  Method correlation,  C o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d measure and e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e n a r r a t i v e mode.  b o t h good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s , e x a c t n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s were greater than exact e x p o s i t o r y scores. from  good r e a d e r s .  function,  semantic  P o o r r e a d e r s were  For  significantly differentiated  Scores f o r both good and poor r e a d e r s on a c c e p t a b i l i t y and discourse a c c e p t a b i l i t y  grammatical were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater f o r narrative f i c t i o n than expository prose. P o o r r e a d e r s o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean o n n a r r a t i v e  fiction  when c o m p a r e d t o e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e o n s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y .  Data  b a s e d c o n c l u s i o n s were  ( l ) c l o z e comprehension scores d i f f e r e d f o r  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e modes o f d i s c o u r s e , a n d (2) e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y  i i i  levels.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i  i  L I S T OF TABLES  vi"  Chapter I  INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Statement o f the Problem Research V a r i a b l e s Research Questions and Hypotheses L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study Definitions Summary Organization o f the Study  II  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  METHODOLOGY  . . . . . .  12 14 16 18 19 21 22  Research Design The P o p u l a t i o n S a m p l e Instrumentation Procedures. . Data P r o c e s s i n g Hypotheses Summary IV  . .  2 7 7 8 9 10 10 12  E v a l u a t i o n s i n the Problem Area P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Theory The C l o z e P r o c e d u r e Discourse Analysis Theories o f Discourse Summary III  1  22 23 24 24 25 27 29  RESULTS...  30  S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses Summary  30 39  iv  V  SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND I M P L I C A T I O N S . . Discussion o f the Findings Conclusions and I m p l i c a t i o n s . Suggestions f o r Further Research  -+0 41 43 44  REFERENCES  45  APPENDIX A  52  APPENDIX B  60  v  L I S T OF T A B L E S  Table 3.1 S o u r c e s o f V a r i a n c e a n d Degrees o f Freedom f o r a 2 x 2 F a c t o r i a l Randomized Design, F i x e d E f f e c t s Model 4.1 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among S e l e c t e d I n d e x e s f o r Grade E i g h t Readers 44.?2 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among S e l e c t e d I n d e x e s f o r G o o d and P o o r R e a d e r s i n Grade E i g h t 4.3 C o m p a r i s o n "between M e a n s o f E x a c t C l o z e N a r r a t i v e a n d E x a c t C l o z e E x p o s i t o r y f o r Good a n d P o o r Readers i n Grade E i g h t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 C o m p a r i s o n between Means o f N o n - E x a c t R e p l a c e m e n t s o f C l o z e R e s p o n s e s o n Modes o f D i s c o u r s e b y P r o f i c i e n c y L e v e l i n Grade E i g h t 4.5 A n a l y s i s o f Variance o f Exact Cloze Scores o f N a r r a t i v e a n d E x p o s i t o r y Modes by Good a n d P o o r Readers i n Grade E i g h t  vi  25 32 34  36  36  38  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  Many s t u d e n t s i n t o d a y ' s c l a s s r o o m s c a n n o t f u n c t i o n "because t h e y c a n ' t seem t o l e a r n f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l s t h e t e a c h e r s a s s i g n . . . T h e s e s t u d e n t s may know t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f r e a d i n g , b u t c a n ' t apply t h e i r r e a d i n g t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e i r classroom t e x t s . ( S i n g e r & Doulan, 1980, p . l )  The  v a r i a b i l i t y o f the reading process across d i f f e r e n t types o f  materials deserves c a r e f u l study.  U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e nature and degree  o f such v a r i a b i l i t y has d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s ( S t a n s e l l , H a r s t e , De S a n t i ,  1978).  I t i s important to teachers that  r e s e a r c h be c o n d u c t e d t o g a i n a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m s b y t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g demands o f v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s . d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a d i n g problems  appears  The  created  major  t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r m s o f  language. The  cloze procedure i s a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c  technique which i s  p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l t o s t u d y the r o l e o f language by W i l s o n T a y l o r i n 1953.  i n reading.  Introduced  "the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e h a s b e e n w i d e l y u s e d t o  a n a l y s e s i l e n t r e a d i n g responses t o a s y s t e m a t i c d e l e t i o n o f words i n a passage.  "Cloze" i s d e r i v e d from  " c l o s u r e " , a term from  gestalt  p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e human t e n d e n c y o f m e n t a l l y c o m p l e t i n g gaps t o p r o j e c t t h e whole.  To make c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n l a n g u a g e t h e  r e a d e r must have a g r a s p o f t h e language  structures  and a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e substance and tone F o r example,  " p i g s o i n k b u t cows  (syntactic  structures)  (semantics) o f the passage.  " e f f e c t s t h e a n s w e r "moo" b a s e d o n  contextual clues w i t h i n the sentence.  To c o m p l e t e  this  sentence  r e q u i r e s a knowledge o f t h e p a t t e r n o f l e t t e r s i n each o f f i v e 1.  words,  2 the p a t t e r n o f  symbol-meaning, the meanings a t t r i b u t e d to  o f the words, and to "oink"  but  the f a c t t h a t the  s t r u c t u r e demands a t e r m  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h cows i n s t e a d o f p i g s .  t a k e s a measure o f the  The  l i k e n e s s between the p a t t e r n s  a n t i c i p a t i n g w h i l e he/she i s r e a d i n g A g r e e i n g w i t h the value  combinations  and  parallel  cloze  procedure  the r e a d e r  is  the p a t t e r n s a w r i t e r has  o f c l o z e , Simons  (1971)  used.  stated:  P r o c e s s o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h i s m o t i v a t e d by the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an i n s t r u c t i o n a l technique i s i n p a r t dependent on the e x t e n t to w h i c h t h o s e t e c h n i q u e s c a p i t a l i z e on the a c t u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s which students u t i l i z e i n l e a r n i n g , (p. 3^0) The  study  o f r e a d i n g p r o c e s s e s as w e l l as the  strengths  and  weaknesses i s an i m p o r t a n t  improving  instruction.  Statement of the Little  research  has  b e e n done o n  diagnosis of  method f o r u l t i m a t e l y  Problem the  response of students  d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e s t o c l o z e t a s k s b e t w e e n modes o f  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  expository prose.  r o l e of exact  and  I n an e x p l o r a t o r y study,  comprehension.  same a s u s e d by  m i s c u e a n a l y s i s , and The mid  use  1960's.  the r e s e a r c h discourse  the a u t h o r i n the  Led  Key  replacements  original text. theoretical  theory.  introduced  by K e n n e t h Goodman i n  by W e b e r ' s ( I 9 6 8 ) d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e  used as a  'window' t o t h e  study  of oral reading  silent reading  process.  the  inadequacy  o f e x i s t i n g schemes f o r s t u d y i n g r e s p o n s e s i n t e r m s o f e r r o r s Goodman (1970) p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e  Cram  stemmed f r o m p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i e s ,  analysis  o f o r a l m i s c u e s was  the  cloze  Exact  Non-exact r e p l a c e m e n t s were words t h a t were d i f f e r e n t . assumptions guiding  cues  language:  non-exact replacements of  responses i n the assessment o f r e a d i n g were words t h a t were the  to  Cram ( 1 9 8 0 ) made a c o m p a r i s o n o f  i n d i f f e r i n g modes o f d i s c o u r s e .  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and  readers'  only,  e r r o r s can  Goodman ( I 9 6 5 )  be found  3 t h a t r e a d e r s i n g r a d e s o n e t o t h r e e made a l m o s t a l l i n order to correct an error.  their  repetitions  T h e s e m i s c u e s w e r e n o t random b u t w e r e  cued by a language t h o u g h t - i n t e r a c t i o n .  K. Goodman (1^69, 1976a, 1976c)  s u m m a r i z e d h i s a n a l y s i s i n t w o m a i n i n s t r u m e n t s : T h e Goodman  Taxonomy  o f Reading M i s c u e s a n d t h e Reading M i s c u e I n v e n t o r y (RMl) i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Y e t t a Goodman a n d C a r o l y n B u r k e Goodman (1976b) recommended samples.  He e m p h a s i z e d :  (1972a, 1972b).  the use o f in-depth studies with  small  " R e a l people u s i n g r e a l language i n v a r i o u s  r e a l s i t u a t i o n s m u s t b e t h e o b j e c t s o f r e s e a r c h i f we a r e t o u n d e r s t a n d reading as i tr e a l l y i s "  ( p . 98).  T h i s i s analogous t o the " n a t u r a l i s t i c "  r e s e a r c h m e t h o d e x p l o r e d b y Cambourne  (1976).  I n miscue' a n a l y s i s t h e  d e v i a t i o n s from the e x a c t responses o f p r i n t e d t e x t a r e e v a l u a t e d f o r the degree t o which meaning i s d i s r u p t e d .  The. t a x o n o m y a n d i n v e n t o r y  a r e b a s e d o n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f m i s c u e s i s more i m p o r t a n t than the q u a n t i t y .  S t r e n g t h s , n o t w e a k n e s s e s , a r e i n d i c a t e d b y some  miscues. I n d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s a " s c h e m a " o r c o g n i t i v e map d i r e c t s t h e r e a d e r i n t h e s e a r c h f o r d i s c o u r s e c u e s ( W i n o g r a d , 1977). Cram s t u d i e d s t u d e n t s f r o m V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a who were g r a d e 9 ( N = 107) a n d 12 ( N = 100).  entering  O n l y s u b j e c t s whose f i r s t  language  was E n g l i s h w e r e u s e d t o e x a m i n e c l o z e r e p l a c e m e n t s a n d a t t i t u d e s t o reading.  A r a n d o m s a m p l e a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l o f G o o d (N = 20) a n d P o o r  (N = 20) r e a d e r s p r o v i d e d d a t a .  P r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l was d e t e r m i n e d  from s c o r e s o n the comprehension s u b t e s t o f the Iowa S i l e n t T e s t (1973)-  Reading  G o o d r e a d e r s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d f r o m t h o s e s t u d e n t s whose  s c o r e s r a n k e d b e t w e e n t h e 65th a n d 95th p e r c e n t i l e .  P o o r r e a d e r s were  s e l e c t e d f r o m t h o s e s t u d e n t s whose s c o r e s r a n k e d b e t w e e n t h e 5th a n d 33 i r(  percentile.  Cram a d a p t e d t h e Cambourne R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t  P r o c e d u r e (1978),  -+  b a s e d o n t h e Goodman T a x o n o m y o f R e a d i n g M i s c u e s non-exact replacements. g o o d x p o o r ) was  used.  S t a t i s t i c a l procedures  t - t e s t s , and  replacement  f o r the e x a c t response  responses,  two  way  included correlation,  analysis of variance.  discourse.  was To  was  A  synonym  acceptable i n three categories:  v e r i f y how  linguistic  r e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s were t a p e d and  S u b j e c t s were randomly drawn from response  evaluate  A 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l design (narrative x expository;  independent  syntax, semantics and  (19^9) t o  triggered  transcribed.  each p r o f i c i e n c y group.  analysed u s i n g the chi-square s t a t i s t i c  cues  Frequency  of  qualitative  description. R e s u l t s o f Gram's s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s  differ-  e n t i a t e d b e t w e e n g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s t o t h e same e x t e n t a s t h e I o w a test.  E x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s exceeded e x p o s i t o r y prose  (p < . 0 0 1 ) .  Good r e a d e r s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m  poor readers  P r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s were a l s o d i s c r i m i n a t e d by t h e n o n - e x a c t score,  Surprisingly, attitude  w i t h the c l o z e s c o r e s .  f i c t i o n s c o r e s exceeded e x p o s i t o r y prose  The  (p <  .001)  (p <  .001).  replacement  t o r e a d i n g h a d a g e n e r a l l y weak  F o r grade n i n e r e a d e r s , e x a c t c l o z e  t w e l v e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were not  scores  correlation  narrative  but f o r grade  significant.  i n t e r v i e w s s h o w e d t h a t t h e t h r e e cue  f r e q u e n t l y were: s y n t a x , semantics,  systems used most  and d i s c o u r s e .  l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d were g r a m m a t i c a l  f u n c t i o n and  The life  two  cue  systems  experience.  B e t w e e n modes o f d i s c o u r s e a n d p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were  found. U s i n g c o m b i n e d e x a c t s c o r e s p l u s s y n o n y m s , Gram f o u n d i n g r a d e  nine, n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n scores exceeded prose, but i n grade twelve reverse occured. prose.  the  Good r e a d e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r w i t h e x p o s i t o r y  5 Cram s t a t e d s i x c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  6.  a t t i t u d e i s not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e i t h e r p r o f i c i e n c y or comprehension c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s d i f f e r e d a c r o s s modes o f d i s c o u r s e : n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y prose e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s n o n - e x a c t s c o r e s r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e use o f cue s y s t e m s by a b i l i t y g r o u p s a l l r e a d e r s u s e d t h e same c u e s y s t e m s : s y n t a x , s e m a n t i c s , d i s c o u r s e , t o g a i n meaning; b u t c o n t r o l o f t h e s e t o f cue systems, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h e x p o s i t o r y prose, d i s t i n g u i s h e d the good r e a d e r t h e a d d i t i o n o f synonym s c o r e s t o e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e t w e e n p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s , modes o f d i s c o u r s e and m a t u r i t y l e v e l s . ( C r a m , p.  E x p o s i t o r y p r o s e was  IV)  l e s s e a s i l y processed than narrative  fiction.  E s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e l e s s p r o f i c i e n t a n d m a t u r e r e a d e r , a " s t o r y grammar" (Rumelhart,  1975)> o r t h e t h e m a t i z e d e l e m e n t s  understanding.  The  expository prose m a t e r i a l s eased  than the grade 8 r e a d e r s .  Experience with  the c l o z e procedure  convenient diagnosis of reading  Cram, 1980).  levels.  semantic  and  value  Cram's (I98O) r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s  i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t both grade l e v e l s ,  w e r e more e f f i c i e n t t h a n p o o r r e a d e r s i n t h e u s e discourse cues.  the advantages o f miscue a n a l y s i s and The  provides  group s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e , e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s have  non-exact replacements  syntactic,  content  student.  a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e and  1978;  the  t h e e f f e c t o n c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s o f mode o f d i s c o u r s e  Cram s u g g e s t s , a s a p r a c t i c a l t o o l ,  (Hittleman,  facilitated  g r a d e 12 r e a d e r s h a d g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r  f o r the grade twelve  As an i n i t i a l  ( C r a m , 1980)  good  of grammatical  readers function,  T h i s taxonomy a p p e a r s t o i n t e g r a t e  cloze  procedure.  t a x o n o m y u s e d b y Cram f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y  s y n o n y m s e v a l u a t e s d i s c o u r s e a w a r e n e s s (Cram, 1980). demonstrated  on  The  of  findings  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f u s i n g synonyms i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f  6 r e a d i n g by c l o z e t e s t s 1979)t  The  1977;  (Vaughan, T i e r n e y and A l p o r t s ,  a d d i t i o n o f the complete  the exact c l o z e score appeared  discourse a c c e p t a b i l i t y score to  to a f f e c t the c r i t e r i o n  e s t a b l i s h e d by Bormuth ( I 9 6 8 ) .  Cambourne,  levels  T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f e x a c t s c o r e and  the  number o f a c c e p t a b l e s y n o n y m s i n d i c a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l s i n modes of discourse. Cram h a s made a n u m b e r o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . are important to f u t u r e r e s e a r c h as w e l l as secondary The  These  school instruction.  d i f f e r e n c e i n the a b i l i t y o f good and poor r e a d e r s t o g a i n meaning  from e x p o s i t o r y o r n a r r a t i v e passages of combining  cloze procedure  d e s e r v e s more s t u d y .  and miscue a n a l y s i s has  The  been  demonstrated.  Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s is  needed ( E k w a l l ,  1976,  p.290).  combination  Cram recommends t h e c l o z e t e s t a s  i n s t r u c t i o n a l and r e s e a r c h d e v i c e .  C r a m ' s t a x o n o m y may  be a  t o o l t o f i n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l s i n modes o f d i s c o u r s e . the e l i m i n a t i o n o f the grammatical  value  useful  She  function classification.  an  suggests The e v a l u a t i o n  o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f synonyms f o r s y n t a x , s e m a n t i c s , and d i s c o u r s e c o u l d be "yes" o r  s i m p l i f i e d from  "yes", " p a r t i a l "  categories,  "no"  either  "no".  A r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram's s t u d y i s w o r t h w h i l e . b e g i n n i n g has  b e e n made t o b a s e l i n e  A  significant  research using cloze  m i s c u e a n a l y s i s , r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a n d mode o f d i s c o u r s e . r e p l i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r samples i s needed t o determine t h e f i n d i n g s c a n be g e n e r a l i z e d .  t h i s r e s e a r c h may The  prove  The  She  suggests not  R e p l i c a t i o n can help determine  the  Findings i n  v i t a l to t e a c h i n g and d i a g n o s i s i n the  p r e s e n t s t u d y was  (1980) r e s e a r c h .  procedure,  whether o r  v a l i d i t y o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme o f t h e t a x o n o m y .  school.  to  designed to p a r t i a l l y r e p l i c a t e  taxonomy i s m o d i f i e d a s she  suggested.  secondary Cram's  7 S i m i l a r t o t h e Cram s t u d y , t h i s r e s e a r c h was  to:  I n v e s t i g a t e the responses i n r e a d i n g o f secondary s c h o o l students t o e s t a b l i s h a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e on the comprehension p r o c e s s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e was t o e x a m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f r e s p o n s e s t o c l o z e t a s k s v a r i e s w i t h two modes o f d i s c o u r s e : n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e .  (P.3) Research  Variables  The  independent v a r i a b l e s  1.  mode o f d i s c o u r s e - n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y  2.  l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y - good and  The  dependent v a r i a b l e s were:  1.  the exact replacement cloze  2.  the non-exact (a) (b) (c^ (d)  3.  were: prose  poor.  scores  replacement cloze scores i n f o u r  categories:  grammatical f u n c t i o n syntactic acceptability semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y discourse acceptability  complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s  R e s p o n s e s were a c c e p t a b l e i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : (a) (b) (c)  syntactic acceptability semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y discourse acceptability  R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s and  Hypotheses  S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram (1980), t h e d e c i s i o n was  made t o u s e t h e same r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a n d  h y p o t h e s e s a s she d i d . Research Question  They a r e the f o l l o w i n g  (pp.  similar  22-23):  1.  " A r e t h e r e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l e c t e d i n d e c e s o f r e a d i n g comprehension"...for secondary s t u d e n t s i n grade e i g h t ? Hypothesis  1.1  T h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among ( l ) s c o r e s o n a r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n m e a s u r e , (2) t h e n u m b e r  8 of exact replacements o f cloze responses i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , mode o f d i s c o u r s e , a n d (3) t h e n u m b e r o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode o f d i s c o u r s e . Research  Question  2.  "Does t h e s u b j e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n v a r y w i t h mode o f d i s c o u r s e ? " Hypothesis  2.1  There i sa s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g comprehension b e t w e e n t h e n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n mode o f d i s c o u r s e a n d t h e e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode o f d i s c o u r s e , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f ( l ) e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s a n d (2) n o n - e x a c t replacements of c l o z e responses over g i v e n l e v e l s o f . . . p r o f i c i e n c y . Research  in  Q u e s t i o n 3.  "Do s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , comprehension?" Hypothesis  good and poor  vary  3.1  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g comprehesnion between g o o d r e a d e r s a n d p o o r r e a d e r s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number of exact replacements o f c l o z e responses over g i v e n r e a d i n g selections.... Research  Question  4.  " I s t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n mode o f d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l ? " Hypothesis  4.1  T h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s modes o f d i s c o u r s e (narrative f i c t i o n and expository prose) and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s ( g o o d a n d p o o r ) . . . i n t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e responses.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 1.  T h e f i n d i n g s w e r e l i m i t e d t o t h e two t y p e s o f d i s c o u r s e useds n a r r a t i v e a n d e x p o s i t o r y .  2.  T h e f i n d i n g s w e r e l i m i t e d t o t h e one p a s s a g e  used.  3.  S u b j e c t s w e r e o n l y t h o s e who w e r e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h .  4.  S i n c e they had t o complete  a c l o z e t a s k , s u b j e c t s were  to  an a r t i f i c i a l reading situation.  to  t h e p r o c e s s a n i n d i v i d u a l may h a v e i n i n d e p e n d e n t  exposed  T h i s may n o t be s i m i l a r reading.  9 Definitions ( p p . 25-26):  The  f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s were u s e d  1.  Comprehension r e f e r s t o t h e responses o f the r e a d e r t o w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e d e l e t i o n s a n d b y t h e number o f n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s of cloze d e l e t i o n s i n four categories: grammatical function, s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and discourse acceptability.  2.  A response i s a purposeful, rule-based procedure f o r the comprehension o f a w r i t t e n language.  3.  Grammatical f u n c t i o n r e f e r s t o the p a r t o f speech o f the c l o z e r e s p o n s e : t h a t i s , noun, pronoun, v e r b , a d j e c t i v e , a d v e r b , preposition, coordinate conjunction, subordinate conjunction, a r t i c l e , i n t e r j e c t i o n , as e v a l u a t e d on a s c a l e o f :  1. 2. -4-.  The s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s means t h a t t h e c l o z e r e s p o n s e a c c o r d s w i t h t h e l i n g u i s t i c judgement o f n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , a s e v a l u a t e d on a s c a l e o f : 1. 2.  5.  Y Yes, t h e complete T - u n i t i s a c c e p t a b l e N No, s y n t a c t i c a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e  The s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t i s a n e v a l u a t i o n o f the congruency o f meaning o f t h e c l o z e response w i t h t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e sentence, as measured on a scale of: 1. 2.  6.  Y Yes N No  Y Yes, a t t h e whole sentence l e v e l N No, u n a c c e p t a b l e s e m a n t i c a l l y  D i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f the non-exact replacement i s an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e congruency o f the meaning o f the c l o z e response w i t h the c o n t e x t o f the complete passage, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e mode o f d i s c o u r s e , a s m e a s u r e d b y a s c a l e o f : 1. 2.  Y Y e s . The m e a n i n g i s i n t a c t a t t h e w h o l e d i s c o u r s e l e v e l . N No. T o t a l l y i n c o n g r u o u s t o t h e d i s c o u r s e .  7.  A T - u n i t i s d e s c r i b e d a s "one m a i n c l a u s e p l u s a n y s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e o r n o n c l a u s a l s t r u c t u r e i m b e d d e d i n i t " ( H u n t , 1970, p.4).  8.  D i s c o u r s e r e f e r s t o a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d sequence o f c o n n e c t e d sentences t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s e i t h e r a complete s t o r y ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n ) o r a coherent explanation o f a p a r t i c u l a r topic (expository prose).  10 9.  N a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n r e f e r s to the c o n v e n t i o n o f a sequence of connected sentences which t e l l a story. A simple p l o t may i n v o l v e a problem f a c i n g a main c h a r a c t e r , a sequence o f a t t e m p t s by t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r t o s o l v e the p r o b l e m , and an e v e n t u a l r e s o l u t i o n .  10.  E x p o s i t o r y prose r e f e r s to the c o n v e n t i o n o f a sequence of connected sentences which i s an e x p l a n a t i o n o r d e s c r i p t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s such as " t h e r e f o r e " , t h a t convey p a t t e r n s of r e a s o n i n g .  11.  D i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s r e f e r s t o a method f o r e x p l i c a t i o n o f a t e x t and the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s o f language u s e r s ( W i n o g r a d , 1977) a c c o r d i n g to a schema.  12.  A schema i s a body o f r e l a t e d knowledge t o  13.  M i s c u e s are  14.  E x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s ( E . R . ' s ) a r e the e x a c t match to the word w h i c h has been d e l e t e d i n a c l o z e t e s t .  15.  N o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s (N.E.R.'s) are d i f f e r from the e x a c t word d e l e t e d .  deviations  from the  be u s e d i n  printed text i n oral  the  reasoning. reading. author's  replacements which  Summary R e s e a r c h on and  p r a c t i c a l importance  a progressively The  the p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g from t e x t i s of  greater  c l o z e p r o c e d u r e and  problem. 9 and  (Pearson,  1978).  Secondary s t u d e n t s must  amount o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g f r o m t e x t m i s c u e a n a l y s i s may  be  Gram's (I98O) i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e  g r a d e 12  t h i s area. significant  theoretical  readers a l s o i n d i c a t e d the  T h i s s t u d y was  therefore  materials.  useful i n studying  cloze  do  responses of  this grade  essence f o r f u r t h e r study i n  designed to continue t h i s  vitally  research.  Organization The  report  of  the  1.  Chapter I I contains  2.  Chapter I I I contains c o l l e c t i o n and  of  the  Study  study i s structured  the  as  a r e v i e w o f the  follows. related  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the procedures.  literature.  design,  the  data  11 3.  Chapter IV c o n t a i n s a statement o f the q u a n t i t a t i v e  analysis  o f the f i n d i n g s o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 4,  C h a p t e r V c o n t a i n s a summary o f t h e s t u d y , d i s c u s s i o n  of  the f i n d i n g s , c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g further  research.  and  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF  THE  LITERATURE  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e a t h o r o u g h r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g the comprehension p r o c e s s by the q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f responses to w r i t t e n language.  L i m i t a t i o n s of the  model and measurement i n r e a d i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d . the  area v i t a l  to the study: p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c  skills  An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  theory i s next.  of  Studies  concerned w i t h responses as miscues and as c l o z e responses f o l l o w . R e s e a r c h t h a t compares s i l e n t r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f good and r e a d e r s i s summarized. are  S i g n i f i c a n t developments  poor  i n discourse  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the purpose o f d i s c l o s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y  examining responses i n terms o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the whole  E v a l u a t i o n s i n the Problem The  Skills  P a l m e r , 1979)  comprehension process.  of  the term 1. 2. 3. 4.  Area  Johnson & Pearson,  t o d e s c r i b e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e  (Shafer,  1975; skills-  reading  However t h i s r e s e a r c h has been p r o b l e m a t i c .  One m a j o r p r o b l e m i s t h e l a c k o f a g r e e m e n t terms  passage.  consider the enumeration o f l i s t s o f comprehension  s k i l l s m o d e l t h e b e s t way  of  of  Model  M a n y r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h e r s ( S i m o n s , 1971»  or  analysis  1978; Emans, 1979).  with regard to the  Stern  definition  (1973) f o u n d f o u r k e y u s e s  "comprehension":  'comprehension' i s used meaning o f the p r i n t e d 'comprehension' i s used w h i c h c a n be m e a s u r e d ; 'comprehension' i s used linguistic units; 'comprehension* i s used or understanding, (p.  as degrees o r l e v e l s of grasping the page; as a s e t o f s k i l l s and abilities a s g r a s p i n g the meaning  of various  as a process e q u i v a l e n t to 256)  12  thinking  13 T h i s a m b i g u i t y i n the term comprehension i s o b v i o u s l y c r i t i c a l . it  i s n o t c l e a r what comprehension i s ,  the l i s t s o f s k i l l s  r e q u i r e d f o r c o m p r e h e n s i o n m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y be  the s k i l l s i n t o  taxonomies (Palmer,  1979).  i n the  Simons,  t h a t " t h e a d v a n t a g e o f s y s t e m a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . . , , may than r e a l . "  (p.  3^3)'  Johnson and P e a r s o n  l o g i c a l progression of s k i l l s ignores the d i f f i c u l t y of  that are  vague.  Another l i m i t a t i o n o f the s k i l l s model l i e s of  If  organization  (1971)i  stated  be more i m a g i n e d  (1975) s u g g e s t a n o r d e r l y  i s a "pedagogical convenience" that  o f the m a t e r i a l i n comprehension and the  the purpose i n reading.  T h e s e h i e r a r c h i c a l c o m p o n e n t s may  role  suggest  g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n t h a n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system r e a l l y p o s s e s s e s .  (1971) f u r t h e r a r g u e d :  Simons  . . . t h a t t h e s e t t i n g up o f c a t e g o r i e s o f s k i l l s has n o t a i d e d u s g r e a t l y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e a d i n g comprehension p r o c e s s because of a b a s i c c o n f u s i o n o v e r the p r e c i s e behaviour and c o g n i t i v e domain o f t h e s e s k i l l s . T h i s had l e d t o t h e naming o f s k i l l s w h i c h are g l o b a l a n d vague i n n a t u r e and w h i c h have f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n : ( l ) r e a d i n g a n d t h i n k i n g : (2) t h e o b j e c t s a n d p r o c e s s e s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n : (3) t h e u s e o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e procedures f o r t e a c h i n g comprehension, and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes i n v o l v e d i n comprehension, (p. 3^6) The p r o g r a m s fulfulling  b a s e d o n t a x o n o m i c m o d e l s d o . . . " n o t seem t o be  their mission"  ( S h a f e r , 1978,  inability  t o d e f i n e c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s due  framework  ( S i m o n s , p. 3^0).  Language  p. 310).  Perhaps  to the lack of a  this theoretical  i s the m i s s i n g element.  The  i n c l u s i o n o f language extends the understanding o f reading to a process w h i c h i s c e n t r e d on meaning. how  The  s k i l l s models f a i l " . . . t o  deal  with  l a n g u a g e i s s t r u c t u r e d w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t modes o f d i s c o u r s e "  ( P a l m e r , 1979,  p.  9).  Measurement A s t r o n g p l e a h a s b e e n made t o m e a s u r e m e a n i n g f u l l e a r n i n g i n written text  (Anderson,  1971.  Simons  1971;  B l e a k l e y & Johnson,  1978).  14 T h i s t a s k i s so c o m p l e x a v a r i e t y o f a s s e s s m e n t d e v i c e s h a v e b e e n suggested.  The  process  been through  has  ( S i m o n s , 1971,  most p o p u l a r method of measuring the norm-referenced standardized  p.346) b u t  l a c k c o n t e n t and  comprehension tests  these, w h i l e s a t i s f a c t o r y as  construct v a l i d i t y of s p e c i f i c  skills  screening  tools,  (Goodman,  I968;  G u z a k , 1970). I n f o r m a l m e a s u r e s t h a t j u d g e r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o v e r a number o f d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s may Recently,  r e s e a r c h has  be m o r e r e l i a b l e a n d  l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new  methods o f  reading comprehension u s i n g miscue a n a l y s i s , c l o z e procedure, (1978),  Gambourne R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t P r o c e d u r e the  two  procedures.  These a r e  a method which  search f o r understanding  and  models (Smith, Shafer  (1978)  1971;  the  combines  Theory  o f the  comprehension process  l e d to an i n t e r e s t i n the p a r a l l e l s between r e a d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n language a c q u i s i t i o n .  measuring  based i n p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c theory.  Psycholinguistic The  I969).  v a l i d measures ( F a r r ,  has and  T h i s l e d to the development o f p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Y.  Goodman & B u r k e , 1982;  K.  Goodman, 1973).  concluded:  S t a t e d s i m p l y , i n the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c model, the reader i s a c o n t i n u a l seeker a f t e r meaning. The b r a i n i s c o n s t a n t l y g o i n g through a d e c i s i o n making process to decide what's out there i n terms o f i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i o r e x p e c t a t i o n s , c o n s t a n t l y a t t e m p t i n g t o reduce u n c e r t a i n t y by a p p l y i n g what i s a l r e a d y k n o w n f r o m p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t o e a c h i n c o m i n g m e s s a g e . (p,310) Goodman ( I 9 6 8 )  s t a t e d t h a t r e a d i n g i s an i n t e g r a t e d response  t o t h r e e k i n d s o f cue  systems.  First,  t h e g r a p h o - p h o n i c c u e s come  from the v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n of the p r i n t e d symbols. makes o n l y m i n i m a l  use  of these  cues and  The  fluent  goes d i r e c t l y to meaning.  For t h i s meaning the reader uses h i s " n o n - v i s u a l storehouse o f language and  experience  reader  w i t h the conventions  o f knowledge  o f t h e p r i n t e d page w h i c h  15 a r e s t o r e d i n ' c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s ' i n t h e b r a i n " (Cram, I98O, p.33)« The  second cueing  system i s thus t h e s y n t a c t i c .  patterns and consistencies o f print are called ( S h a f e r , p,312). semantic. by  Cues r e f l e c t i n g t h e "redundancies"  The t h i r d c u e i n g s y s t e m , a l s o n o n - v i s u a l , i s t h e  Cues a r e p r o v i d e d b y t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e e n t i r e  sentence and  t h e mode o f d i s c o u r s e , o r t h e p a t t e r n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e w h o l e  passage.  T h i s p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y h a s formed t h e framework o f  numerous s t u d i e s . Content Area Studies using Miscue A n a l y s i s A n u m b e r o f r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e u s e d t h e R.M.I, t o e x p l o r e t h e e f f e c t of content on o r a l reading patterns. reading process  C a r l s o n (1970), s t u d y i n g t h e  o f three boys and three g i r l s i n grade f o u r  reading  science, s o c i a l studies and basal readers, found a s h i f t t o greater concentration onnsyntaetic  cues w i t h content area m a t e r i a l s .  Brazee,  (1976) s u p p o r t e d C a r l s o n ' s r e s u l t s i n h i s q u a l i t a t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f grade e i g h t students  reading i n narrative f i c t i o n and  expository prose.  that h i s readers attained a higher  Brazee concluded  c o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l a n d u s e d more e f f e c t i v e r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e n a r r a t i v e mode. Kolczynski  (1973) u s e d t h e R.M.I, t o a n a l y s e m i s c u e s o f r e a d e r s  encountering  t h e language p a t t e r n s found i n s c i e n c e , mathematics and  literature.  K o l c z y n s k i f o u n d t h a t 20 a v e r a g e o r a b o v e a v e r a g e  e n t e r i n g g r a d e s i x made s i m i l a r u s e o f s y n t a c t i c a n d s e m a n t i c T h i s data does n o t support Stansell's  B r a z e e (1976) o r C a r l s o n  readers cues.  (1970)..Similarily,  (1977) s i x n i n t h g r a d e r s t e n d e d t o b e u n a w a r e o f t h e  b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between e x p o s i t o r y a n d n a r r a t i v e passages.  16 L i m i t a t i o n s of Miscue A n a l y s i s Although  m i s c u e a n a l y s i s c a n g i v e r e s e a r c h e r s much i n f o r m a t i o n  about the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s ,  l i m i t a t i o n s i n i t s v a l u e do  exist.  Oral  r e a d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e o n l y s u r f a c e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the  reading  process,  g i v i n g only a glimpse  1976),  Blustein  (1977) f o u n d a n i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n o r a l a n d  r e a d i n g and  o f what i s g o i n g on  (Page,  silent  i n d i c a t e d the importance o f c o n s i d e r i n g the s t r a t e g i e s  f o r each s e p a r a t e l y . Gambourne ( 1 9 7 7 ) ,  therefore suggested  c o u l d be u s e d t o o b t a i n i n s i g h t i n t o  The Simons  (1971) s u g g e s t e d  Cloze  t h a t the c l o z e procedure  silent reading  Procedure  the c l o z e t e s t i s a b e t t e r measure  reading comprehension t h a n a t r a d i t i o n a lt e s t s . Rankin  process.  More  of  specifically,  (1978) d e s c r i b e d f i v e p o i n t s t o s u p p o r t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n .  F i r s t , c l o z e t e s t s are i n t r i n s i c measures o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f communication by s a m p l i n g the degree o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between a m e s s a g e s o u r c e a n d a r e c e i v e r . S u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e same r e s u l t s a r e o b t a i n e d w h e t h e r t h e s c o r i n g i s done b y e x a c t w o r d m e t h o d o r b y t h e synonym m e t h o d , ( p . 151) Second, c l o z e t e s t s measure comprehension i n p r o c e s s , a f t e r the event. g u i s t i c process  not as a  product  T h i r d , c l o z e responses are based upon the p s y c h o l i n o f i n f e r e n c e , fundamental to a l l communication.  F o u r t h , c l o z e t e s t s randomly sample the c h o i c e p o i n t s f o r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y w i t h i n a message. The  Fifth,  c l o z e t e s t s c a n be r e p l i c a t e d  c l o z e t e s t s h a v e b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d t o be  reading passage d i f f i c u l t y , (Taylor Bormuth,  (1953; B o r m u t h , 1967;  reading a b i l i t y , Bormuth,  I963; B o r m u t h , 1969).  1968;  and  precisely.  a v a l i d measure reading  R a n k i n and  of  comprehension Culhane,  I969;  17 Reading The  Ability use o f cloze procedure  f o r s t u d y i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f good and  p o o r r e a d e r s has been demonstrated.  Cambourne  (1977) p r o d u c e d a  s i l e n t r e a d i n g v e r s i o n o f t h e R.M.I. (Goodman & B u r k e , s t u d y o f 39 g r a d e t h r e e a n d f o u r c h i l d r e n . a b i l i t y readers  P r o f i c i e n t readers  s y n t a c t i c a l l y and semantically acceptable  scanned b o t h f o r w a r d a n d back t o c o n t r o l  meaning a t t h e whole s t o r y l e v e l . s m a l l e r u n i t o f meaning.  Poorer readers contained focus to a  G u t h r i e ' s (1973), r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h e  pattern o f e r r o r s (use o f syntactic age  o f 9.99  c u e s ) o f j6 s u b j e c t s w i t h a mean  y e a r s d i d n o t d i f f e r between good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s  t h e g o o d r e a d e r s made m o r e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s N e v i l l e a n d Pugh The  authors  He d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i g h  scored higher than poorer readers on c l o z e passages  with respect to grammatically, errors.  1972a) i n h i s  than d i dthe poor  readers.  (1976) s t u d i e d e r r o r s o f a s a m p l e o f 130 c h i l d r e n .  showed t h a t l o w a b i l i t y r e a d e r s p e r f o r m e d s i m i l a r i l y o n  a Reading C l o z e Task, L i s t e n i n g C l o z e Task and a R e s t r i c t e d C l o z e Task.  although  Reading  W i t h h i g h a b i l i t y r e a d e r s , t h e s c o r e s were h i g h e r o n t h e  R e a d i n g C l o z e Task.  T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the good r e a d e r s have  developed  s u p e r i o r r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s a n d a r e more f l e x i b l e i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r meaning i n a passage.  Weaver  (1978) i n v e s t i g a t e d s i l e n t r e a d i n g e r r o r s  o f grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n and found  t h a t p o o r r e a d e r s made m o r e e r r o r s  a n d more i n c o r r e c t f o r m c l a s s e r r o r s t h a n g o o d r e a d e r s . procedure  h a s i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s '  L i m i t a t i o n s o f Cloze Rankin to  strategies.  Procedure  (1978) s t a t e d t h a t c l o z e t e s t s s r m a y n o t e a s i l y b e a p p l i e d  t h e measurement o f s p e c i f i c a l l y  processes.  The c l o z e  Similarly, Hittleman  d e f i n e d language  comprehension  (1978) f o u n d t h a t c l o z e t e s t s m e a s u r e  " g l o b a l " a s p e c t s o f comprehension.  F u r t h e r , a s t u d y by Smith-Burke,  18  G i n g r i c h and E a g l e e y e difficult f o r 53  (1978) r e v e a l e d t h a t l e x i c a l i t e m s w e r e m o r e  to r e p l a c e i n n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l than i n e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l  grade e l e v e n and  suggested  40  grade twelve  readers.  The  t h a t d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n s .based o n a l i n g u i s t i c m o d e l may  measure c o n t e x t u a l b u i l d - u p i n connected d i s c o u r s e . l i m i t a t i o n s there i s strong evidence u s e f u l t o o l f o r r e s e a r c h and p r o p o s e d a m e t h o d be semantic  researchers  cue  Despite  better  these  t h a t the c l o z e procedure i s a  objective testing.  (1973)  Theubald  e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a n a l y z i n g the  s y n t a c t i c and  systems by c o m b i n i n g the R e a d i n g M i s c u e I n v e n t o r y and  T h i s r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h from miscue a n a l y s i s and t h a t these methods are worthwhile  c l o z e has  demonstrated  t o o l s to i n v e s t i g a t e study  responses  to the word and  sentence l e v e l .  a n a l y s i s extend  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o the whole l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e .  Recent developments i n d i s c o u r s e  Discourse This s e c t i o n reviews  cloze.  Analysis  l i t e r a t u r e i n discourse a n a l y s i s t o complete  t h e o r e t i c a l background of t h i s study:  t h a t examines comprehension i n  modes o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d  expository  the  two  prose.  Readers l e a r n from t e x t by u s i n g t h e i r g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e i r ' knowledge o f sequences o f e v e n t s , t h e i r semantic and c o n c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r r e a s o n i n g c a p a c i t i e s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d f r o m t h e t e x t . ( S i n g e r & D o n l a n , 1980, p.39) This statement r e f l e c t s the recent observations, not into  theory,  of Winograd  yet  formulated  (1972), R u m e l h a r t (1976) a n d A n d e r s o n (1977).  From t h e f i e l d s o f l i n g u i s t i c s ,  c o g n i t i v e psychology  and  artificial  i n t e l l i g e n c e h a v e come r e s e a r c h i n ' n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e ' t h a t p r o v i d e beginning The  a  framework f o r s t u d y i n g d i s c o u r s e . term " d i s c o u r s e " has  r e l a t e d problems.  Winograd  been u s e d t o r e f e r t o numerous l o o s e l y  (1977) f o u n d o v e r 60 t e c h n i c a l t e r m s i n  19 a scan of the l i t e r a t u r e  such as t e x t ,  c o m m u n i c a t i v e dynamism, e p i s o d e , There are  two  c o n t e x t , b a c k g r o u n d , t e x t grammar,  relevance  (p.6k).  approaches to the study of d i s c o u r s e h e l p f u l i n the  study of comprehension.  One,  emphasizing  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s ,  f o c u s e s on the c o g n i t i v e o r p r o c e s s i n g s t r u c t u r e o f the language The  other, stressing l i n g u i s t i c  form o f the d i s c o u r s e  structure,  The  Discourse  Approach p r o b l e m o f s t u d y i n g d i s c o u r s e c a n be  the c o g n i t i v e processes (Anderson,  1977;  he o r s h e w i l l (Anderson,  s e e n a s one  o f language p r o d u c t i o n and  1977;  Rumelhart,  "knowledge a p e r s o n  already possesses  has  In this  a potent i n f l u e n c e on  of "pattern recognition."  p r e d i c t and  Goodman's  To  reasoning patterns.  confirm a passage content.  " t o p - d o w n " ( K i n t s c h , 1977)  what  These schemata  are  comprehend i s t o To  comprehend i s  Reading i s e s s e n t i a l l y  or "conceptually driven" process  (1976) " p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c g u e s s i n g game".  knowledge o f the p a t t e r n o f d i s c o u r s e , the e a s i e r the  The  a  similar greater  the  comprehension.  Discourse  R h e t o r i c a l schemas. and  view,  1977» P.67). K n o w l e d g e i s s t o r e d i n a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r e s  i d e n t i f y known d i s c o u r s e and  Patterns of  understanding  l e a r n and remember f r o m e x p o s u r e t o d i s c o u r s e "  guides i n a process  to  of  comprehension  1977).  Winograd,  c a l l e d schemata each h a v i n g a s l o t f o r each f a c t .  to  structural  itself.  Theories of Cognitive  concentrates on.the  user.  D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h comprehension o f  o t h e r s c h o o l l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s may  ( O l s o n , 1977a).  be  textbooks  lodged i n the t e x t alone  Patterns of reasoning, often contained i n textbooks,  a r e c a l l e d r h e t o r i c a l s c h e m a s ( W i n o g r a d , 1977,  p.  8 2 ) .  Language  provides  a number o f d e v i c e s  t o communicate t h e s e schemas.  d i r e c t l y by w o r d s i n d i c a t i n g c a u s a l i t y s u c h a s ,  "because";  "therefore";  sequence, " f i r s t "  "although".  Others, a t a l a r g e scale l e v e l , are  e x p o s i t i o n and effect,  arguments.  r i g i d order,  "second"; and  These c o n v e n t i o n a l  schemas.  (Robinson, "Within  any  summation,  change o f for  ideas,  organizing  schemas, s u c h as  comparison, problem-solution,  in different disciplines Narrative  and  Some a r e s i g n a l l e d  may  be  cause-  used  differently  1975). l a n g u a g e and  c u l t u r e there  s e t o f schemas f o r r e l a t i n g n a r r a t i v e s o f e v e n t s , e i t h e r f r o m memory o f t h e  1977,  s p e a k e r o r a s a s t o r y a b o u t someone e l s e "  s t r u c t u r e of the  Winograd (1977) and the  plans  story.  t h a t he  Grimes  Rumelhart  for story telling,  named p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  explanation  I n a d d i t i o n , some s c h e m a s s u c h a s  P r o b l e m s i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n go  the  (Winograd,  p.84),  conventions  flashbacks  schemas f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a u t h o r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t  text to  contained  the  i n the  conventions o f the form of d i s c o u r s e . I t appears that the  area.  level  Schemas  language u s e r or  E f f i c i e n t use greater  of  familiarity  r e a d e r s have w i t h n a r r a t i v e schemas r e s u l t s i n f a c i l i t a t i o n comprehension i n t h i s  are  beyond the word o r sentence  c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f the  or  1978).  complete o r g a n i z a t i o n of the passage.  a i d s comprehension.  episodes,  episodes.  of c a u s a l i t y or  h i g h l y c u l t u r a l l y dependent ( K i n t s c h & Greene,  o f the  (1975) d i v i d e d t h e  product of "several i n t e r a c t i n g structures"  standard  action  (1975) s p e c u l a t e d t h a t a n y n a r r a t i v e t e x t  some d e a l i n g w i t h t i m e f l o w ,  be  (Winograd,  s t o r y ( o r " s t o r y grammer") i n t o a sequence o f  s t a t e s , e v e n t s and  is  the  Pi83), f o r e x a m p l e : t i m e s e q u e n c e , p l a n s , c a u s a l i t y a n d  form the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  is a  may  in  schemas most of  21  1  Summary The  review  o f the l i t e r a t u r e provides  a t h e o r e t i c a l "base f o r  r e s e a r c h i n t h e s t u d y o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o v e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e . D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e s k i l l s m o d e l a n d t h e u s e o f a l i m i t e d number of measuring techniques was p r e s e n t e d  were d i s c u s s e d .  a s a r a t i o n a l e t o overcome r e s e a r c h problems.  responses i n a n a t u r a l reading c l o z e procedure prove v a l u a b l e . to  P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c theory, Analysis of  s i t u a t i o n u s i n g miscue a n a l y s i s and Discourse  theory  extends the a n a l y s i s  t h e whole o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the passage f a c i l i t a t i n g a comparison  o f the comprehension process  b e t w e e n modes o f d i s c o u r s e .  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY The d e s i g n o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d  study r e f l e c t e d  purpose o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e a d i n g comprehension process the responses  by  ( l ) t h e exact replacements of cloze  This study  o f c l o z e responses,  considered  a n d (2) t h e n o n - e x a c t  responses.  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e s e a r c h procedures  examining  o f g r a d e e i g h t r e a d e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o two f a c t o r s :  l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y a n d mode o f d i s c o u r s e .  replacements  the main  design,  f o r s e l e c t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n sample, i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n  of experimental data and treatment  o f thedata.  Hypotheses t e s t e d a r e  included.  Research  Design  C o n g r u e n t w i t h Cram (1980), t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n w a s a 2 x 2 factorial  design.  F a c t o r A:  2 modes o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y  F a c t o r B:  prose. Fixed Effect. 2 l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , good a n d poor. F i x e d E f f e c t , (p.59)  Cram s c h e m a t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e d e s i g n a s f o l l o w s : Mode o f d i s c o u r s e ( F a c t o r A)  1  2  Narrative  Expository  1. G o o d Readers Proficiency ( F a c t o r B) 2. P o o r Readers  22  23 The  P o p u l a t i o n Sample  To r e p l i c a t e a s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y b y Gram (1980), a s a m p l e o f g r a d e e i g h t s t u d e n t s was t e s t e d i n l a t e May, t h i s sample would c o r r e s p o n d (p.ii).  I98O.  I t was a s s u m e d t h a t  t o Gram's s t u d e n t s " e n t e r i n g g r a d e n i n e "  Since the study i san in-depth i n v e s t i g a t i o n , only subjects  from one s c h o o l were s e l e c t e d .  The s u b j e c t s a t t e n d e d Newton J u n i o r  S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , S u r r e y , B. C.  F r o m t h i s p o p u l a t i o n two s a m p l e s  were drawn. S e l e c t i o n o f Sample 1 F o l l o w i n g Gram's p r o c e d u r e ,  t o investigate exact cloze  t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f g r a d e 8 ( N = 74) was t e s t e d . p o s s i b l e second  replacements,  To e l i m i n a t e  language i n t e r f e r e n c e , o n l y N a t i v e E n g l i s h language  s t u d e n t s remained i n t h e sample. e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s was r e d u c e d  The f i n a l  sample f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g  t o N = 61.  S e l e c t i o n o f Sample 2 To i n v e s t i g a t e  t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s o f  p r o f i c i e n c y a f u r t h e r s a m p l e was n e c e s s a r y . To of  study both exact and non-exact replacements  of cloze deletions  g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s a s a m p l e o f N = 38 ( g o o d N = 19, p o o r N = 19)  was  selected.  The i n s t r u m e n t u s e d t o g r o u p r e a d e r s i n t o  l e v e l s was t h e N e l s o n R e a d i n g was June  Skills  proficiency  T e s t , F o r m 3G ( N R S T ) .  a d m i n i s t e r e d on a s c h o o l wide b a s i s as a S c h o o l Board  12, I98O. I t was s c o r e d b y c o m p u t e r s e r v i c e s .  This  test  procedure  A t o t a l raw score  was  c a l c u l a t e d by adding  the comprehension score and vocabulary score.  The  g o o d r e a d e r s o b t a i n e d a s c o r e o f 61 o r g r e a t e r w h e r e a s t h e p o o r  r e a d e r s h a d a s c o r e o f 50 o r l e s s . was  With these  selection criteria  there  enough d i f f e r e n c e between good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e  reading  ability.  Instrumentation The m a t e r i a l s a n d c l o z e t e s t s w e r e t h e same a s w e r e u s e d b y Gram  (1980) f o r h e r g r a d e 9's. Materials The  r e s e a r c h p a s s a g e s were r e p r o d u c e d f r o m t e s t s u s e d f o r t h e  B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Assessment,  Grade  8.  The " p a s s a g e s h a v e a  r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y g r a d e 8 ( R e p o r t 1: T e s t R e s u l t s ) e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e F r y R e a d a b i l i t y F o r m u l a and were w r i t t e n by C a n a d i a n a u t h o r s " ( p . 62).  Cloze  The p a s s a g e s  were:  a;)  "A K i n d o f C o u r a g e " — N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n  b)  " A u s t r a l i a n C i t i e s " — E x p o s i t o r y Prose  Passages The  c l o z e p a s s a g e s were d e v e l o p e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  way:  The t e s t p a s s a g e s w e r e t y p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m a t w i t h f i f t h w o r d d e l e t i o n s ( B o r m u t h , I976, pp.68-69). The 50 d e l e t i o n s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e 250 w o r d s i n t h e f i n a l p o r t i o n of each s e l e c t i o n a t a p o i n t judged s u i t a b l e by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r . ( C r a m , p.63)  Procedures The first  c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a was c o n d u c t e d i n two s t a g e s .  I n the  stage b o t h r e s e a r c h passages, n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y  p r o s e , were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h r e e g r a d e 8 c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h e i r teaching block o f t h a t day (Appendix A ) .  To o v e r c o m e o r d e r e f f e c t h a l f t h e  t e s t s began w i t h t h e n a r r a t i v e passage and h a l f the  e x p o s i t o r y passage.  science  t h e t e s t s began w i t h  This researcher explained clear written  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e two t e a c h e r s i n o n e h a l f h o u r The  s t u d e n t s were t o complete the sample  test,  session,  read the completed  p a r a g r a p h s a n d complete t h e c l o z e passages by g u e s s i n g what word l e f t o u t o f e a c h space a n d w r i t i n g t h a t word i n t h a t space. a n d c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t e s t i n g t o o k one h o u r .  test  was  Instructions  25 Data Processing The s t a t i s t i c a l procedures used i n the a n a l y s i s of the data from exact replacements of cloze and non-exact replacements of cloze responses were the same as were used by Gram (1980). Exact Cloze Scores 1.  Correlation. Exact cloze scores on narrative f i c t i o n and  on expository prose were correlated with scores on the Nelson Reading S k i l l s Test using the Step-Wise regression, N = 61. 2.  Comparison of means.  Means and standard deviations were  computed f o r N = 61 f o r exact cloze scores on each mode of discourse. For each p a i r of means, t values were calculated. 3.  Analysis o f variance.  Means of exact cloze scores of the  good and poor readers, N = 38, were examined by the analysis o f variance (Table 3-1) based on the 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l design, f i x e d e f f e c t s model. TABLE 3.1 SOURCES OF VARIANCE AND DEGREES OF FREEDOM FOR A 2 x 2 FACTORIAL RANDOMIZED DESIGN, FIXED EFFECTS MODEL Source  df  Modes of Discourse  (A^A )  (p-l)  = 1  Levels of P r o f i c i e n c y  ( i 2)  il' )  =  Interaction  2  B  B  (A.B)  Within C e l l s  1  (p-l)(q-l) = 1 N-pq.  Total  1  = N-4 N-1  26 Non-Exact C l o z e  Replacements  E a c h n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t was a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o a m o d i f i e d Cram r e a d i n g a s s e s s m e n t m e t h o d ( p p .  171-172) w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e f o u r  categories o f grammatical function,  syntactic acceptability,  semantic  a c c e p t a b i l i t y , a n d d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o n e a c h mode o f d i s c o u r s e : narrative f i c t i o n and expository prose.  An a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e system  o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w a s made t o r e f l e c t a s u g g e s t i o n b y Cram: o f t h e taxonomy s i m p l i f i e d t o " y e s " a n d "no" c o d i n g o n l y  categories  (Appendix B ) .  Cram s t a t e d t h a t "The e x t r a i n f o r m a t i o n d i d n o t w a r r a n t t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n scoring..."  (p.  124).  The mean a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n w e r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y . S i n c e Cram u s e d p a r t i a l e v a l u a t i o n s s h e f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a w e i g h t i n g system.  Cram r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e p a r t i a l n o t be u s e d ,  h e r w e i g h t i n g s y s t e m was n o t r e q u i r e d i n t h i s  study.  thus  However a m o d i f i e d  w e i g h t i n g s y s t e m was d e v e l o p e d f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y a s f o l l o w s :  1 x T o t a l 'Yes' 1 x NER's S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 1.  C o m p a r i s o n o f means.  To d e t e r m i n e t h e e x i s t a n c e o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ' s , t v a l u e s w e r e c o m p u t e d b e t w e e n means o f n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o n modes o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , f o rgood and poor 2.  Analysis o f variance.  of the exact cloze 2 x 2  To e x a m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e among means  s c o r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was u s e d , b a s e d o n t h e  f a c t o r i a l design.  was p <  readers.  .05 ( p . 66).  F o r the n u l l hypotheses the l e v e l o f r e j e c t i o n  27 Non-Exact replacement To of  ensure  scoring  Reliability.  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f a n a l y s i s o f non-exact  cloze responses,  replacements  c o p i e s o f Gram's a n a l y s i s s h e e t s f o r e a c h  student  a n d e a c h mode w e r e o b t a i n e d a n d u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r j u d g e m e n t s . Thus t h e a n a l y s i s r e s e m b l e d  t h a t o f Cram.  Hypotheses A n a l o g o u s t o Cram n u l l hypotheses Research  (I98O), f o r t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n .the f o l l o w i n g  were f o r m u l a t e d (pp.  68-72).  Question 1  " A r e t h e r e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l e c t e d i n d i c e s of r e a d i n g comprehension...for secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s " . . . i n grade eight? Hypotheses  1.1  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c o r e s on a r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n measure a n d ( l ) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n o r (2) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . . . . i)  Hypothesis  1.11.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c o r e s o n t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e (NRST) a n d t h e e x a c t cloze narrative scores ( E C N ) . . . . ii)  Hypothesis  1.12.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c o r e s o n t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e (NRST) a n d t h e e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y scores (ECE).... Hypothesis  1.2  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n ( l ) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d (2) t h e n u m b e r o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n expository prose.... Hypothesis  1.3  T h e r e a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among ( l ) s c o r e s o n a c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e , (2) t h e n u m b e r o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d (3), t h e number o f e x a c t replacements o f cloze responses i n e x p o s i t o r y prose,...over given proficiency.,.levels.  28 i)  Hypothesis  1.31.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c o r e s o n t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e (NRST) a n d e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e (EGN) f o r g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s . ii)  Hypothesis  1.32.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c o r e s o n t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e (NRST) a n d e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s (EGE) f o r good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s . iii)  Hypothesis  1.33.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s (EGN) a n d t h e e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s (EGE) f o r g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s . Research Question 2 "Does s u b j e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n v a r y w i t h mode o f d i s c o u r s e ? " Hypothesis  2.1  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n m ode o f d i s c o u r s e a n d t h e e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode, a s m e a s u r e d b y ( l ) e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s a n d (2) n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s , o v e r g i v e n l e v e l s of p r o f i c i e n c y . i)  Hypothesis  2.11.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n mean s c o r e s o v e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s f o r s u b j e c t s a t good o r p o o r l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y . . . . ii)  Hypothesis  2.12.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n . . . mean s c o r e s o v e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number o f n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s ( N . E . R . ) o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o n e a c h o f f o u r v a r i a b l e s : (1) g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , (2) s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , (3) s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , a n d (4) d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , f o r s u b j e c t s a t g o o d o r poor l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y . Research  in  Question 3  "Do s t u d e n t s a t t w o l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , g o o d a n d p o o r , comprehension?" Hypothesis  vary  3.1  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g comprehension between good and poor r e a d e r s , a s measured by t h e numberjof exact replacements o f c l o z e responses....  29 i)  Hypothesis  3.11.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t due t o p r o f i c i e n c y , good a n d poor r e a d e r s , a s measured by t h e number o f e x a c t c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . . . . ii)  Hypothesis  3.12.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t due t o mode o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number o f e x a c t c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . . . . Research  Question 4  "Is level?"  t h e r e a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n mode o f d i s c o u r s e a n d p r o f i c i e n c y  Hypothesis  4.1  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n modes of d i s c o u r s e ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y prose) and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s ( g o o d a n d p o o r ) . . . , b a s e d o n t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s of c l o z e responses.  Summary T h i s s t u d y , a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram to  investigate  cloze responses  t o passages  e x p o s i t o r y prose and n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n ,  (I980), was d e s i g n e d  i n t w o modes o f d i s c o u r s e :  over good and poor  proficiency  levels. C o r r e l a t i o n a n d p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s were u s e d data from  exact and non-exact  replacements  to analyse the  o f the cloze passages i n  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y prose f o r good and poor r e a d e r s i n grade  eight.  CHAPTER I V  RESULTS  This chapter contains a report of the r e s M t s cloze responses grade  f o r the purpose  eight students.  o f examining  the comprehension process o f  I n terms o f n u l l hypotheses  was i n v e s t i g a t e d u s i n g s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . were used t o a n a l y s e e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s 1 (N = 6 l ) .  o f the a n a l y s i s o f  each r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n  Correlational  techniques  o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o f sample  F u r t h e r , t - t e s t s a n d a n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e were u s e d t o  study exact and non-exact  replacements  o f cloze responses  o f sample  2 (N = 19 g o o d r e a d e r s a n d N = 19 p o o r r e a d e r s ) . Statistical Research Are  Analyses  Question 1 t h e r e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l e c t e d i n d e c e s o f  reading comprehension f o r secondary  students i n grade  eight?  C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a n d a s t e p - w i s e r e g r e s s i o n were among t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : Reading and  S k i l l s Test  computed  the c r i t e r i o n measure, the N e l s o n  (NRST), t h e c l o z e  scores on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n  on the c l o z e scores on e x p o s i t o r y prose  (ECE).  (ECN)  The f o l l o w i n g  s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s a r e p o r t on t h e r e s u l t s i n terms o f t h e sample o f grade  eight readers  Hypotheses  tested.  1.1  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c o r e s o n a r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n m e a s u r e a n d ( l ) t h e number o f e x a c t replacements of  o f cloze responses i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n  exact replacements  o f cloze responses  30  o r (2) t h e number  i n e x p o s i t o r y prose.  31 T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r s a m p l e 1 (N = 61). are given i n Table i)  Hypothesis  1.11  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  (NRST) a n d e x a c t c l o z e  correlation  narrative  (ECN) f o r g r a d e e i g h t r e a d e r s .  A moderate p o s i t i v e significant  (p  ii)  <.0l).  Hypothesis  correlation  correlation  ( r = .49)  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was 1.12  A low p o s i t i v e <.«05)«  statistically  rejected.  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  correlation  (NRST) a n d t h e e x a c t  ( r = .30)  was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  rejected.  significant correlation  t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s  o f cloze responses  a n d (2) t h e n u m b e r o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s  between  (1)  i n narrative  fiction  o f cloze responses i n  prose.  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r s a m p l e 1 ( N = 61). p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.1 statistically  Hypothesis  indicate,  As t h e r e s u l t s  t h e r e was a m o d e r a t e p o s i t i v e  s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  level of significance  (r =  correlation,  .43).  rejected.  1.3  T h e r e a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s c o r e s on a c r i t e r i o n measure, cloze responses  proficiency  significant  1.2  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  replacements  significant  (ECE) f o r grade e i g h t r e a d e r s .  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  Hypothesis  expository  was  between s c o r e s o n t h e c r i t e r i o n measure  cloze e x p o s i t o r y score  (p  results  4.1.  between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure scores  Complete  i n narrative  among  (1)  (2) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s  fiction,  o f cloze responses levels.  significant correlations  a n d (3) t h e number o f e x a c t  i n e x p o s i t o r y prose, over  given  of  32  TABLE  4.1  INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG SELECTED I N D E X E S FOR GRADE EIGHT READERS (N = 6 i )  Exact Cloze Narrative  Measure  Nelson Reading S k i l l s Exact Cloze Narrative  *P  <.05  **p  < : 01  Test  .49**  Exact Cloze Expository  .30* .43**  33 T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r s a m p l e 2 (N = 19 f o r g o o d a n d N = 19 f o r p o o r r e a d e r s ) . i)  Hypothesis  correlation  1.31  The r e s u l t s  a r e l i s t e d i n Table  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  between s c o r e s o n t h e c r i t e r i o n measure  cloze narrative  4.2.  significant  (NRST) a n d e x a c t  (EGN) f o r g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s .  For a l ls u b j e c t s , a moderated p o s i t i v e ( r = .66,  readers  correlation  g o o d ; r = .67, p o o r ) s h o w e d s t a t i s t i c a l  .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  significance  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w a s r e j e c t e d  at a  f o r both  good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s . ii)  Hypothesis  correlation  1.32  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  between s c o r e s o n t h e c r i t e r i o n measure  significant  (NRST) a n d e x a c t  c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y (EGE) f o r g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s . F o r good r e a d e r s therewwas a moderate p o s i t i v e at  t h e .05 l e v e l ©f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  correlation of  correlation  F o r p o o r r e a d e r s a moderate  ( r = .52) was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05  significance.  T h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d  (r=  .50)  positive level  f o r both good and  poor readers. iii)  Hypothesis  correlation  1.33  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  between t h e e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e  significant  s c o r e s (EGN) a n d t h e  e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s (EGE) f o r good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s . The m o d e r a t e p o s i t i v e  correlation  ( r = .67, p  s u b j e c t s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . rejected;  i t was a c c e p t e d  Research Question  <.0l)  f o r good  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w a s  f o r poor readers.  2  D o e s s u b j e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n v a r y w i t h mode o f d i s c o u r s e ? Hypothesis  2.1  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e comprehension s c o r e s between t h e n a r r a t i v e  i n mean r e a d i n g  f i c t i o n mode o f d i s c o u r s e a n d  34  TABLE 4.2 INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG SELECTED INDEXES FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS I N GRADE E I G H T (N = 19) 3,  Measure  Nelson Reading S k i l l s  Nelson  Test  E x a c t C l o z e N a r r a t i v e (ECN)  .67**  E x a c t C l o z e E x p o s i t o r y (ECE)  .52*  ECN  ECE  .66**  .50* .67**  .34  ^Upper r i g h t s i d e o f m a t r i x l i s t s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f good r e a d e r s a n d t h e lower s i d e o f poor r e a d e r s . *p  <.05  **p  <.01  35  the  e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode a s m e a s u r e d b y ( 1 ) e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f  c l o z e responses and (2) non-exact replacements, over g i v e n l e v e l s o f proficiency. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r (N = 1 9 ) g o o d a n d (N = 1 9 )  poor  Complete r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Tables 4 . 3 and 4 . 4 .  readers. i)  Hypothesis 2.11  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  difference  b e t w e e n mean s c o r e s o v e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number of  e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e responses f o r s u b j e c t s a t good o r poor  levels of proficiency. F o r g o o d r e a d e r s (N = 19)> t h e mean was 48.75 o n t h e n a r r a t i v e mode w h e r e a s o n t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode t h e mean was 2 7 . 7 4 ( T a b l e 4 . 3 ) . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = 11,87; P  <.00l).  F o r p o o r r e a d e r s (N = 1 9 ) , t h e mean w a s 36.84 o n t h e n a r r a t i v e mode a n d 2 0 . 1 1 o n t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode. significant ii)  ( t = 5«20; p  A g a i n t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  £.001).  Hypothesis 2.12  T h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d .  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n mean s c o r e s o v e r m o d e s o f d i s c o u r s e a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number o f n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s ( N . E . R . ) o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o n e a c h o f four variables:  (3)  semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , a n d (4) d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r s u b j e c t s  at  ( l ) grammatical function,  (2) syntactic  the  acceptability,  good o r p o o r l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y . To s p e c i f y how r e a d e r s a t d i f f e r e n t p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s v a r i e d w i t h  mode o f d i s c o u r s e , t - t e s t s w e r e p e r f o r m e d o n t h e s c o r e s f o r e a c h variable. all  G o o d r e a d e r s h a d g r e a t e r m e a n s o n t h e n a r r a t i v e mode f o r  four variables.  F o r example, these r e a d e r s , o n d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y  s c o r e d a mean o f 7 7 . 7 8 o n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d 4 7 . 9 6 o n e x p o s i t o r y prose ( t = 10.19,  P  <.00l).  On g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n ,  a c c e p t a b i l i t y anddiscourse acceptability,  semantic  t h e d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t  3.6  TABLE  4.3  COMPARISON BETWEEN MEANS OF EXACT CLOZE NARRATIVE ( E C N ) AND EXACT CLOZE EXPOSITORY ( E C E ) FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS I N GRADE EIGHT (N = 19)  Proficiences  Variables  Means  S.D.  ECN  48.75  3.99  ECE  27.74  9.5  ECN  36.84  12.14  ECE  20.11  12.23  Good  t-values  11.87*  5.20*  Poor  *p  <.001  TABLE  4.4  COMPARISON BETWEEN MEANS OF NON-EXACT REPLACEMENTS OF CLOZE RESPONSES ON MODES OF DISCOURSE BY P R O F I C I E N C Y L E V E L I N GRADE EIGHT (N = 19)  Modes o f Discourse  Grammatical Function  Syntactic Acceptability  Good Narrative Expository t Value  ;  77.26 61.37 3.81*  *p  <.001  65.67 36.31 5.54*  Discourse Acceptability  Readers  83.48 72.96 1.94 Poor  Narrative Expository t value  Semantic Acceptability  74.45 47.17 8.41*  77.78 47.96 10.19*  57.92 24.36 6.70*  61.75 24.20 7.36*  Readers  67.68 44.18 3.80*  37  at  t h e .001  level.  Poor readers produced  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r means  o n t h e n a r r a t i v e mode f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s when c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode.  F o r e x a m p l e , p o o r r e a d e r s s c o r e d means o f  57.92 o n t h e n a r r a t i v e  mode a n d 24.36 o n t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode f o r d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y  ( t = 6.70, p The  <.001).  n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was, t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d o n t h r e e  grammatical f u n c t i o n , for  good and poor  semantic  subjects.  variables:  a c c e p t a b i l i t y and discourse a c c e p t a b i l i t y  On s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y t h e n u l l  h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o r p o o r r e a d e r s ; i t was a c c e p t e d f o r g o o d readers. Research  Question 3  Do s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , g o o d a n d p o o r , in  vary  comprehension? Hypothesis  3.1  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n b e t w e e n g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number of  exact replacements  o f cloze responses.  A two way a n a l y s i s o f  v a r i a n c e o n e x a c t s c o r e s w a s u s e d w i t h S a m p l e 2 (N = 19 f o r g o o d r e a d e r s a n d N = 19 f o r p o o r r e a d e r s ) t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . R e s u l t s a r e l i s t e d i n Table  4.5. i)  H y p o t h e s i s 3.11  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  main  e f f e c t due t o p r o f i c i e n c y , g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number o f e x a c t c l o z e The  responses.  a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m a i n e f f e c t due t o p r o f i c i e n c y  was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ii)  H y p o t h e s i s 3.12  (F =  12.16, p <.00l).  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  main  e f f e c t due t o mode o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ,  38  TABLE 4.5 A N A L Y S I S OF VARIANCE OF EXACT CLOZE SCORES OF NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES B Y GOOD AND POOR READERS I N GRADE EIGHT  Source  ss  d.f  m.s  F  B e t w e e n modes  6484.2?  1  6484.27  102.91*  Between p r o f i c i e n c i e s  2042.57  1  2042.57  12.16*  57.30  1  57.30  Interaction W i t h i n groups (residual) Total  *p < . 0 0 1  2268.44  36  10852.58  39  63.01  .90  39 a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number o f e x a c t c l o z e  responses.  The m a i n e f f e c t d u e t o mode o f d i s c o u r s e  achieved  statistical  significance. The n u l l h y p o t h e s e s w e r e r e j e c t e d  f o r p r o f i c i e n c y a n d mode o f  discourse. Research Question 4 I s t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n mode o f and  proficiency  discourse  level?  4.1  Hypothesis  T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n modes of discourse, levels cloze  (narrative f i c t i o n and expository  prose) and p r o f i c i e n c y  ( g o o d a n d p o o r ) b a s e d o n t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f responses.  Results  showed t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n ( T a b l e (F = .90).  b e t w e e n p r o f i c i e n c y a n d modes o f d i s c o u r s e  4.5)  The n u l l  h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d .  Summary The t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a f r o m t h e c l o z e s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s t o modes o f d i s c o u r s e expository  p r o s e ) was d e s c r i b e d  responses o f grade  (narrative  i n t h i s chapter.  fictionaand  Significant correlations  w e r e c a l c u l a t e d among t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e : t h e N e l s o n R e a d i n g T e s t (NRST), e x a c t c l o z e on expository  prose  (EGE).  significant differences and  scores on narrative  between non-exact c l o z e  function,  s c o r e s o n modes o f d i s c o u r s e  t e c h n i q u e s were u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e  discourse  f o r grammatical  acceptability.  Analysis  the s i g n i f i c a n t difference  b e t w e e n means o f t h e m a i n e f f e c t s o f p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l a n d mode o f discourse  f o rexact cloze  scores.  scores  specified  s c o r e s o n modes o f  semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y and discourse  of variance  Skills  f i c t i o n and exact cloze  The c o m p u t a t i o n o f t - v a l u e s  between e x a c t c l o z e  eight  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY, D I S C U S S I O N ,  CONCLUSIONS, AND I M P L I C A T I O N S  T h i s s t u d y , a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram  (1980), was d e s i g n e d t o  i n v e s t i g a t e whether o r not the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f responses t o c l o z e  tasks  v a r i e s w i t h t w o modes o f d i s c o u r s e : n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y prose.  K e y t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s g u i d i n g t h e r e s e a r c h stemmed  psycholinguistics;  t h a t r e a d i n g i n v o l v e s r e s p o n s e s t o jfehe  s y n t a c t i c , a n d semantic cue systems o f language  from  graphophonemic,  (Goodman, 1976a);  a n d f r o m d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s t h e o r y ; t h a t a " s c h e m a " o r c o g n i t i v e map d i r e c t s the r e a d e r i n t h e s e a r c h f o r d i s c o u r s e cues S u b j e c t s were c o m p l e t i n g g r a d e e i g h t  (N = 6l) i n a s m a l l  secondary s c h o o l i n Surrey, B r i t i s h Columbia. l a n g u a g e was E n g l i s h , q u a l i f i e d .  Good  (Winograd,  1977). junior  O n l y s u b j e c t s whose p r i m a r y  ( N = 19) a n d p o o r ( N = 19)  r e a d e r s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d f r o m t h e sum o f s c o r e s o n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s o f t h e N e l s o n R e a d i n g S k i l l s T e s t (1977).  Exact  r e p l a c e m e n t s ( E . R . ' s ) o f 61 s u b j e c t s w e r e e x a m i n e d .  replacements  ( N . E . R . ' s ) o f g o o d (N = 19) a n d p o o r  Non-exact  (N = 19) r e a d e r s w e r e a l s o a n a l y s e d .  E a c h s u b j e c t c o m p l e t e d two c l o z e t a s k s : a n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d a n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , from the B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Assessment Grade,8.  To e n s u r e r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram  (I98O),  to use s i m i l a r s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a and t e s t i n g  1977,  e v e r y e f f o r t was made  materials.  R e s p o n s e s were e x a m i n e d f o r e x a c t m a t c h t o t h e a u t h o r ' s w o r d (Bormuth,  1976). C o n s i s t e n t w i t h C r a m ' s ( I 9 8 O ) s u g g e s t i o n , a n a d a p t i o n  o f t h e Cram R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t M e t h o d was u s e d t o e v a l u a t e  N.E.R.'s.  To a n a l y s e t h e d a t a , c o r r e l a t i o n , i n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t s a n d two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e were u s e d . t o Cram  The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y was a n a l o g o u s  (I98O).  40  C o r r e l a t i o n s between the s t a n d a r d i z e d measure and  exact cloze scores  w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e n a r r a t i v e mode. and p o o r r e a d e r s , e x a c t n a r r a t i v e exact expository scores. readers. semantic  For both  good  s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r  P o o r r e a d e r s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from  S c o r e s f o r b o t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s on g r a m m a t i c a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y were  greater f o r narrative f i c t i o n than expository prose.  than  good function,  significantly  Poor  readers  o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean o n n a r r a t i v e when c o m p a r e d t o e x p o s i t o r y on s y n t a c t i c a c c e p a b i l i t y .  C o n c l u s i o n s , b a s e d on  results  o b t a i n e d were ( l ) c l o z e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s d i f f e r e d f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and  e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e modes o f d i s c o u r s e , a n d  s c o r e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y  (2)  exact cloze  levels.  D i s c u s s i o n o f the F i n d i n g s S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram (1980), t h e f i n d i n g s are mainly discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the r e s u l t s of her research. S i m i l a r moderate i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n measures were f o u n d b y Cram a n d t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r .  F o r g r a d e n i n e r e a d e r s Cram  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the a r e a d i n g comprehension measure and  .01  l e v e l between the s c o r e s  exact cloze narrative  between e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s .  found  scores  This study obtained  on and  intercorrelations  a t t h e same l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o n t h e s e v a r i a b l e s f o r g r a d e e i g h t readers.  The  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e a d i n g comprehension measure  a n d e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s i n t h e Cram s t u d y was at p  < .01;  w h e r e a s i n t h i s s t u d y was  s i g n i f i c a n t a t p < ,05.  c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may tests.  The  r e s u l t s support  cloze scores suggested w i t h c l o z e t e s t s on  significant  have been the use  the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f  by Rankin and Culhane  (I969).  One of  different  exact  Further research  s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s c o u l d s u b s t a n t i a t e the  findings  42 but i t appears that exact cloze scores a r e v a l u a b l e as an i n i t i a l screening device (Hittleman,  group  1978; Gram, 1980).  When o n l y t h e e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s o f g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d both studies revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n exact cloze narrative good r e a d e r s . at p  between  scores and exact c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y scores f o r  I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h i s i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t  <.01; w h e r e a s i n t h e Gram s t u d y , i t was s i g n i f i c a n t , a t p <.0j5.  B o t h s t u d i e s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n e x a c t c l o z e narrative  scores and exact cloze e x p o s i t o r y scores f o r poor readers.  Whereas t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e d  significant  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e comprehension measure and e x a c t  narrative  scores and e x a c t e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s f o r both good and poor r e a d e r s ; t h e Gram s t u d y d i d n o t .  The u s e o f d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g t e s t s may be a  contributing factor to this  dissimilarity.  C o n c u r r i n g w i t h Cram, t h e f i n d i n g s o n t h e e f f e c t o f mode o f d i s c o u r s e on comprehension i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e thematized elements o f n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a r e more e a s i l y p r o c e s s e d grammar' a s s i s t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g  than e x p o s i t o r y prose.  (Rumelhart,  o f W i n o g r a d (1977).  'story  1975). A l l s u b j e c t s ,  e s p e c i a l l y t h e p o o r r e a d e r s f o u n d i t more d i f f i c u l t r h e t o r i c a l schemas o f t h e e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e .  A  to process the  This supports  On e x a c t c l o z e r e p l a c e m e n t s ,  t h e work  good a n d p o o r  readers  s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r o n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n when c o m p a r e d t o expository prose.  I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a n d Cram's s t u d y t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s  w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e ,001  level.IThe r e s u l t s f o r the non-exact cloze  r e p l a c e m e n t s were s i m i l a r f o r b o t h s t u d i e s . p  <.001  between n a r r a t i v e  Significant differencesa t  scores and e x p o s i t o r y scores f o r both  and p o o r r e a d e r s were o b t a i n e d o n a l l v a r i a b l e s e x c e p t one, acceptability.  good  syntactic  The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s  43  s u p p o r t Cambourne (1978).  The m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t a x o n o m y t o " y e s "  a n d " n o " c a t e g o r i e s , a s s u g g e s t e d b y Cram .(1980) a p p e a r s t o be v a l i d .  Conclusions  The  and Implications  f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t Cram (I98O) a n d l e a d t o s i m i l a r i m p l i c a t i o n s .  I d e n t i f i e d were i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f r e a d i n g teaching  o f content  area  reading  and f o r  materials.  The r e s u l t s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e c l o z e t e s t i s a r e l i a b l e and p r a c t i c a l instrument.  Cloze  i sa valuable  t o o l i n the classroom  a s i t c o m b i n e s a t o t a l g r o u p t e s t w i t h a more s p e c i f i c assessment.  diagnostic  A cloze t e s t i se a s i l y created and scored.  The taxonomy  f o r non-exact .replacements, which r e v e a l s i n f o r m a t i o n about f o u r  parts  o f language and a c t s a s a s i l e n t r e a d i n g miscue a n a l y s i s , o f f e r s p r a c t i c a l a d v a n t a g e s o v e r t h e more t i m e - c o n s u m i n g o r a l m i s c u e a n a l y s i s . The c l o z e c a n be u s e d t o t e s t a w h o l e  c l a s s i f necessary,  o r to obtain  d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n about a s m a l l group o r a n i n d i v i d u a l and i s a useful device Since scores,  i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  students  process.  respond d i f f e r e n t l y , according  to total  cloze  t o n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y passages, c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s  m u s t be made t o o b t a i n a n e s t i m a t e test should  be f i t t e d  o f comprehension.  t o t h e type o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  The t y p e o f c l o z e  F o r example, f o r  a s o c i a l s t u d i e s u n i t , a n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e p a s s a g e w o u l d be t h e most a p p l i c a b l e comprehension measure; whereas, f o r a n E n g l i s h u n i t , a n a r r a t i v e p a s s a g e w o u l d be m o s t s u i t a b l e . o f mode o f d i s c o u r s e  The s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s  on comprehension f o r high  school students  a need f o r t e s t i n g comprehension l e v e l s i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e n t  suggest areas.  44  Suggestions  In addition indicate  f o rFurther  Research  to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications,  the following  suggestions f o rfurther  the f i n d i n g s  investigation.  1.  There i s a need t o r e p l i c a t e  2.  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed u s i n g o t h e r p a s s a g e s i n t h e c o n t e n t area o f t h i s study: s o c i a l  t h i s study a t d i f f e r e n t grade  studies.  3.  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n  4.  The s t u d y n e e d s t o b e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a s a m p l e whose f i r s t i s other than  5.  Replication  levels.  s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d  t o o t h e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e . language  English.  o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n u s i n g t h e same  classification  scheme o f t h e t a x o n o m y i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e  the v a l i d i t y .  45  REFERENCES  A n d e r s o n , R.C. S c h e m a - d i r e c t e d p r o c e s s e s i n l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n . I n L e s g o l d , A., P e l l e g r i n o , J . , F o k k e m a , S., & G l a s e r , R. ( E d s . ) Cognitive psychology o f i n s t r u c t i o n . New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s , 1977, 67-82. B l e a k l e y , J . J . , & J o h n s o n , E . P . The c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f p r o s e : P r o b l e m s i n measuring l e a r n i n g outcomes. I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . H a n s e n (Eds.) Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n process and p r a c t i c e . Twenty-seventh yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, C l e m s o n , S o u t h C a r o l i n a : N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1978,  p p . 166-174.  B l u s t e i n , E.S. R e a d i n g a s a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e s s : A s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between problem s o l v i n g and o r a l r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n sixth-grade c h i l d r e n (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , 1977). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, _> 1871A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i L m s No. 77-22, 237.) Bormuth, J.R. C l o z e a s a measure o f r e a d a b i l i t y . I n J.A. F i g u r e l (Ed.) Reading as an i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e p r o c e e d i n g s , New Y o r k : S c h o l a s t i c M a g a z i n e s ,  1963, 8, 131-134.  B o r m u t h , J.R. C o m p a r a b l e c l o z e a n d m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e c o m p r e h e n s i o n scores. J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , I967, 10, 291-299.  test  B o r m u t h , J.R. C l o z e t e s t r e a d a b i l i t y : C r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e s c o r e s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n M e a s u r e m e n t , I968, 5, 189-196. B o r m u t h , J.R. F a c t o r v a l i d i t y o f c l o z e t e s t s a s m e a s u r e s o f r e a d i n g comprehension a b i l i t y . R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , I969, 4,  358-365. B o r m u t h , J.R. D e v e l o p m e n t o f s t a n d a r d s o f r e a d a b i l i t y : T o w a r d a r a t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n o f p a s s a g e p e r f o r m a n c e , 1971 ( E R I C D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 054 233). B o r m u t h , J.R. The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e : L i t e r a c y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n W.D. P a g e ( E d . ) H e l p f o r t h e r e a d i n g t e a c h e r : New d i r e c t i o n s i n research. U r b a n a , 111.: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h ,  1975. B r a z e e , P.E. A q u a l i t a t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s ' o r a l r e a d i n g i n both n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y materials (Doctoral dissertation, University o f Northern Colorado, 1976). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, _> P« 2032A. U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i L m s No. 76-23, 166.  46 B r i d g e , G.A., T i e r n e y , R . J . , & C e r a , M . J . I n f e r e n t i a l o p e r a t i o n s o f children involved i ndiscourse processing. I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . Hansen (Eds.) Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n p r o c e s s a n d practice. Twenty-seventh yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l Reading C o n f e r e n c e , 1978, C l e m s o n , S o u t h C a r o l i n a : N a t i o n a l Reading C o n f e r e n c e , 1978, 68-72. The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t , 1977, R e p o r t - 1 : T e s t R e s u l t s . A report t o theM i n i s t r y o f Education, Province o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a 1977. ( a ) The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t , 1977, R e p o r t 2: I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s . -A r e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , 1977. (t>) The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t , R e p o r t 3s Summary. A r e p o r t to the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1977. ( c ) B r o d y , D.A. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c c o m p a r i s o n o f o r a l r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r of p r o f i c i e n t and remedial readers (Master's t h e s i s , Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y , 1973). ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED  085 659.)  B r o u d y , H.S. T y p e s o f k n o w l e d g e a n d p u r p o s e s o f e d u c a t i o n . I n R.C. A n d e r s o n , R . J . S p i r o & W.E. M o n t a g u e ( E d s . ) S c h o o l i n g a n d t h e a c q u i s t i o n o f knowledge. New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1977, 1-17. B u r k e , C.L, R e a d i n g m i s c u e r e s e a r c h : A theoretical position. A l l e n & D.J. Watson (Eds.) F i n d i n g s i n r e s e a r c h i n miscue T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , 1976.  I n P.D. analysis:  C a m b o u r n e , B . L . G e t t i n g t o Goodman: A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e Goodman m o d e l o f r e a d i n g w i t h some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i o n . Reading Research  Q u a r t e r l y , 1976077, 12, 607-636. C a m b o u r n e , B . L . Some p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e s i l e n t r e a d i n g p r o c e s s - a p i l o t s t u d y . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t New Z e a l a n d / A u s t r a l i a n R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , M e l b o u r n e , 1977. Cambourne, B . L . T h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t e x t - b o o k p r o s e : A n e x p l o r a t o r y study into the s i l e n t reading behavior o f readers processing text-book prose. Paper presented a t the Fourth A u s t r a l i a n Reading A s s o c i a t i o n ' s A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e , B r i s b a n e , 1978. C a r l s o n , K.L. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f s e l e c t e d f o u r t h children reading a variety of textual material (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1971, J2, 158A-159A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 71-17243.) Chomsky, N.  Syntactic structures.  The H a g u e : M o u t o n ,  1957.  grade  47 Cram, R.V. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the c l o z e responses of secondary school students, (unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1980). . D u p u i s , M.M. The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e : C a n i i t be u s e d w i t h R e a d i n g I m p r o v e m e n t , I976, V_, 199-203. E k w a l l , E.E. Boston:  literature?  D i a g n o s i s and r e m e d i a t i o n o f the d i s a b l e d r e a d e r . A l l y n A n d B a c o n , I n c . , 1976.  E m a n s , R. Reading theory: B r i n g i n g p o i n t s of view together. J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , 1979, 22, 69O-698. F a r r , R, R e a d i n g : What c a n be m e a s u r e d ? Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1969. F r y , E.B. Fry Readability Scale. Publi shers, 1976.  Newark, D e l . :  Providence, R.I.:  International  Jamestown  Goodman, K.S. A l i n g u i s t i c s t u d y o f cue a n d m i s c u e s i n r e a d i n g . E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 19*65, 4 2 , 639-643. Goodman, K.S. The p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . I n K.S. Goodman ( E d . ) The p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h e r e a d i n g process. D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. Goodman, K.S. Analysis of o r a l reading miscues: R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , I969, 5, 9~30.  Applied  psycholinguistics.  Goodman, K.S. B e h i n d the eye: What happens i n r e a d i n g . In K.S. Goodman & O.S. N i l e s ( E d s . ) R e a d i n g : P r o c e s s a n d p r o g r a m . C h a m p a i g n , 111.: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h ,  1970,  3-38.  Goodman, K.S. L i n g u i s t i c a l l y sound r e s e a r c h i n r e a d i n g . I n R. F a r r , S. W e i n t r a u b & B. T o n e ( E d s . ) I m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h . Papers from the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n ' s P r e c o n v e n t i o n I n s t i t u t e o n R e s e a r c h , New O r l e a n s , 1976. (a) Goodman, K.S. R e a d i n g : A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c g u e s s i n g game. I n H. S i n g e r & R.B. R u d d e l l ( E d s . ) T h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s a n d p r o c e s s e s of reading. Newark, D e l . : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1976. ( b ) Goodman, Y., & B u r k e , C.L. Reading miscue i n v e n t o r y manual: Procedures f o r d i a g n o s i s and e v a l u a t i o n . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1972. ( a ) Goodman, Y., & B u r k e , C.L. Reading miscue i n v e n t o r y : Readings f o r t a p i n g . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n Company, 1972. (b) Grimes, J .  The  thread of discourse.  The  Hague: Mouton,  1975.  48 G u t h r i e , J.T. Reading comprehension a n d s y n t a c t i c r e s p o n s e s i n good and poor readers. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , 1973. 6 5 ,  294-299. Guzak, F . J .  Dilemmas i n i n f o r m a l  E n g l i s h , 1970, J50, 271-274.  reading  assessments.  Elementary  H i t t l e m a n , D.R. D e v e l o p m e n t a l r e a d i n g : A psycholinguistic Chicago: R a n d M c N a l l y C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g , 1978.  perspective.  H u n t , K.W. G r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s w r i t t e n a t t h r e e g r a d e l e v e l s . N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h R e s e a r c h R e p o r t No. 3 . Champaign, 111.: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Teachers o f E n g l i s h , I965. J o h n s o n , D.D. & P e a r s o n , P.D. S k i l l s management s y s t e m s : R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 1975, 28, 757-759.  A critique.  K i n t s c h , W. On c o m p r e h e n d i n g s t o r i e s . I n M.A. J u s t & P.A. C a r p e n t e r .(iEds.) C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n . H i l l s d a l e , N.W. : L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s , 1977. K i n t s c h , W. & G r e e n e , E . T h e r o l e o f c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c s c h e m a t a i n the comprehension and r e c a l l o fs t o r i e s . Discourse Processes,  1978, 1, 1-13. K o l c z y n s k i , R.G. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f o r a l r e a d i n g m i s c u e s i n s e l e c t e d passages from science, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , mathematics, and l i t e r a t u r e ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1973). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1973, _3_4, 7IO8A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s N o . 74-10989.) M a c G i n i t i e , W. R e s e a r c h s u g g e s t i o n s f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1975-76, 11, 7 - 3 5 .  search.  M e n o s k y , D.M. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f o r a l r e a d i n g m i s c u e s generated during the reading o f v a r y i n g p o r t i o n s o ft e x t sby s e l e c t e d r e a d e r s from grades two, f o u r , s i x a n d e i g h t : A d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1971). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1972, J32, 6108A. U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i L m s N o . 14600.) M i l l e r , J.W. & I s a k s o n , R . L . The e f f e c t o f s y n t a c t i c a n d s e m a n t i c v i o l a t i o n o f h i g h and l o w r e a d i n g comprehenders. Paper presented a t the S i x t y - f i r s t Annual Meeting o fthe American Research A s s o c i a t i o n , S a n F r a n c i s c o , 1976. ( E R I C D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 123 5 9 1 . ) M y e r s , P.C. T h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e : L a t e s t r e s e a r c h a n d u s e s . Paper presented a t the Twenty-first Annual Meeting o fthe I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , A n a h e i m , 1976. ( E R I C D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e N o . ED 123 5 5 6 . )  49  N e v i l l e , M.H. & P u g h , A.K. C o n t e x t i n r e a d i n g a n d l i s t e n i n g : i n approach t o cloze tasks. Reading Research Quarterly ,  Variations  1976-77,  12, 13-31. O l s h a v s k y , J . E . Comprehension p r o f i l e s o f good a n d poor r e a d e r s across material o f increasing d i f f i c u l t y . I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . Hansen (Eds.) Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n p r o c e s s and practice. T w e n t y - s i x t h Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1978. C l e m s o n , S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1978, 73-76. O l s o n , D.R. From u t t e r a n c e t o t e x t : The b i a s o f l a n g u a g e i n s p e e c h and w r i t i n g . H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 1977, 4?. 257-281. O t t o , J.A. Reading: Cue u t i l i z a t i o n , a c h i e v e m e n t a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n an adolescent population. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1977). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, _3_8, 3429A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 77-27, 010.) P a g e , W.D. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f patterns o f miscues generated by a p r o f i c i e n t r e a d e r i n second grade, andaverage r e a d e r i n f o u r t h grade, and a n average r e a d e r i n s i x t h grade encountering t e n b a s a l r e a d e r s e l e c t i o n s r a n g i n g from p r e - p r i m e r to s i x t h grade. ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1971, _3_2, 164A. P a g e , W.D. Miscue research and diagnosis. I n P.D. A l l e n & D . J . Watson (Eds.) F i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h i nmiscue a n a l y s i s : Classroom i m p l i c a t i o n s . Urbana, 111.: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , I976. P a l m e r , W.S. Defining reading i nproper perspective. I n R.E. S h a f e r (Ed.) A p p l i e d l i n g u i s t i c and r e a d i n g . Newark, D e l . : International Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1979. P e a r s o n , G. T h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e f r o m t e x t . I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . Hansen (Eds.) Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n process and practice. Twenty-seventh Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l Reading Conference. C l e m s o n , S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . 1978,  61-67. P e r f e t t i , C.A. & L e s g o l d , A.M. D i s c o u r s e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d s o u r c e s of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I n M.A. J u s t & P.A. C a r p e n t e r ( E d s . ) C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n comprehension. H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : Lawrence E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e d , 1977. Rankin, E. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c l o z e procedure a s a r e s e a r c h t o o l i n the study o f language. I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . H a n s e n ( E d s . ) Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n process and p r a c t i c e . Twentyseventh Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l Reading Conference. Clemson, S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1978. R a n k i n , E . F . & C u l h a n e , J.W. Comparable c l o z e and m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e comprehension t e s t scores. J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , I969, 1^, 193-199.  50 Reading: L a n g u a g e a n d l e a r n i n g a c r o s s t h e c u r r i c u l u m , R e p o r t 4. Project Build. V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , 1978. R o b i n s o n , H.A. T e a c h i n g r e a d i n g a n d s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s : areas. B o s t o n : A l l y n a n d B a c o n , 1975.  The c o n t e n t  R o s e n , H. The l a n g u a g e o f t e x t - b o o k s . I n A. G a s h d a n & E . G r u g e o n ( E d s . ) Language i n e d u c a t i o n : A s o u r c e book. London: Routledge & K e g a n P a u l , 1972. R o u s c h , P.D., & Gambourne, B . L . A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c m o d e l o f t h e reading process a s i t r e l a t e s t o p r o f i c i e n t , average, and l o w a b i l i t y r e a d e r s . Wagga Wagge, N.S.W.: E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e , 1979. R u m e l h a r t , D.E. U n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d s u m m a r i z i n g b r i e f s t o r i e s . I n D. L a b e r g e & S . J . S a m u e l s ( E d s . ) B a s i c p r o c e s s e s i n r e a d i n g : P e r c e p t i o n and comprehension. New J e r s e y : L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m  A s s o c i a t e s , 1977, p p . 265-303. S h a f e r , R.E, W i l l p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s c h a n g e r e a d i n g i n s e c o n d a r y schools? J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , 19?8, 12, 305-316. S i m o n s , H.D, R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n : T h e n e e d f o r a new p e r s p e c t i v e . R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1970-71, 6, 338-363. S i n g e r , H., & D o n l a n , D. R e a d i n g a n d l e a r n i n g f r o m t e x t . L i t t l e , B r o w n & C o . , I98O.  Boston:  S m i t h , F. U n d e r s t a n d i n g r e a d i n g : A psycholinguistic analysis of r e a d i n g a n d l e a r n i n g t o read"^ (2nd e d . ) New Y o r k : Holt, R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , I978. S m i t h - B u r k e , M., G i n g r i c h , P . S . , & E a g l e e y e , D. D i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f p r i o r context, s t y l e a n d d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n on c l o z e comprehension. I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . H a n s e n ( E d s . ) R e a d i n g : D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n process andpractice. Twenty-seventh Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l Reading Conference. C l e m s o n , S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e ,  1978. S t a n s e l l , J.C. An e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r e a d i n g process and c o n t r o l o f that process i n narrative and expository m a t e r i a l b y s e l e c t e d 9th grade r e a d e r s ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , I n d i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1977). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, __t 3260A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s N o .  77-27, 013.) S t a n s e l l , J . C . , H a r s t e , J . C , & De S a n t i , R . J . T h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r i n g m a t e r i a l s o n t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . H a n s e n ( E d s . ) Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n process and practice. Twentyseventh Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l Reading Conference. Clemson, S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1978.  51 S t e r n , H.W. A p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the use o f comprehension i n a n e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . R e a d i n g W o r l d , 1973> __> 246-265. T a y l o r , W.L. " C l o z e p r o c e d u r e " : A new t o o l f o r m e a s u r i n g J o u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 5 3 , _lt 415-433.  readability.  T h e o b a l d , B. A p p l y i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e o f m i s c u e a n a l y s i s t o t h e c l o z e procedure (Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1973). Vaughan, J . L . , J r . , & M e r e d i t h , K.E. R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e as assessments o f v a r i o u s language elements. I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . Hansen (Eds.) Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i np r o c e s s and practice. Twenty-seventh Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l Reading Conference. C l e m s o n , S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 7 8 . V a u g h a n , J . L . , J r . , T i e r n e y , R . J . , & A l p e r t , M. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . I n P.D. P e a r s o n ( E d . ) Reading: Theory, r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e . T w e n t y - s i x t h Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1977, P P . 2 0 0 - 2 0 2 . V o r h a u s , R.P. A n a l y s i s a n d c o m p a r i s o n o f o r a l m i s c u e s g e n e r a t e d b y f i r s t grade students on f o u r d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g t a s k s (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvania, 1976). Dissertation A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1 9 7 6 , _3_7, I63A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7 6 - 1 5 , 6 0 2 . ) W e a v e r , P.A. S y n t a c t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s . Paper presented a t the Annual Meeting o f the American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Toronto, 1978. (ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 151 7 6 9 . ) W e b e r , R.M. The s t u d y o f o r a l r e a d i n g e r r o r s : A survey o fthe literature. R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , I 9 6 8 , 6, 96-119. W i n o g r a d , T. A f r a m e w o r k f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i s c o u r s e . I n M.A. J u s t ' & P.A. C a r p e n t e r ( E d s . ) C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n . H i l l s d a l e , J . J . : Lawrence E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s , 1977. Z i n c k , R.A. A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s e m a n t i c a n d s y n t a c t i c l a n g u a g e c u e s u t i l i z e d during o r a l and s i l e n t reading (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Georgia, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts Internatiorial, 1978, 38, 4 6 3 5 A . ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7 7 3 0 5 2 3 . )  TESTS The  N e l s o n R e a d i n g S k i l l s T e s t , F o r m 30» M i f f i n C o . , 1977.  Iowa C i t y , I a . :  Houghton  ... 52 -  APPENDIX A  Reading  Tests  53  Reading  Assessment  Name Block  S t u d e n t No.  Grade Boy Score  Girl_ %  D i d you u s u a l l y speak a language o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h b e f o r e you G r a d e 1? Yes No  Is English  t h e l a n g u a g e u s u a l l y s p o k e n i n y o u r home? Yes  No  started  54  Cloze Test  On  Instructions  t h e n e x t p a g e i s a s a m p l e o f a new  t e s t s i s made b y c o p y i n g a f e w p a r a g r a p h s w o r d was  left  out o f the paragraphs,  kind of test. from a book.  Each of Every  these  fifth  and b l a n k s p a c e s were p u t where  the  words were t a k e n o u t . Y o u r :30b w i l l  be  t o g u e s s w h a t w o r d was  and t o w r i t e t h a t word i n t h a t It will  left  out of each  space  space.  h e l p y o u i n t a k i n g t h e t e s t i f y o u remember t h e s e  1.  W r i t e o n l y one  2.  Try to f i l l  3.  You may  things:  word i n each b l a n k . •  every blank.  D o n ' t be a f r a i d t o  guess.  s k i p h a r d b l a n k s a n d come b a c k t o them when y o u  have  finished. 4.  Wrong s p e l l i n g w i l l  n o t c o u n t a g a i n s t y o u i f we  can t e l l what word  you meant. 5.  M o s t o f t h e b l a n k s c a n be a n s w e r e d w i t h o r d i n a r y w o r d s b u t a will  few  be  numbers  3,427 o r $12 o r 1954  like  contractions abbreviations  like  can ' t o r  like  p a r t s o f hyphenated  Mrs. words  like  weren't  o r U.S.A.  self—in  the word  (Bormuth,  self-made  I976, p.70)  55  Sample  Test  H e r e i s a sample o f one o f t h e s e t e s t s . you  t h i n k was t a k e n o u t .  Y o u may c h e c k  by l o o k i n g a t t h e answers of  t h e page.  Write  ' F i l l each blank w i t h  y o u r p a p e r when y o u f i n i s h i t  w h i c h a r e w r i t t e n u p s i d e down a t t h e b o t t o m  neatly.  The  Beaver  Indians c a l l beavers the " l i t t l e  men o f t h e w o o d s . "  r e a l l y so v e r y l i t t l e . or pounds. of  busy as a  weigh from  men  That  why we s o m e t i m e s s a y , "  beaver."  use  t e e t h i s easy.  t o do some o f  c a n c u t down a 15  four inches  minutes.  q.noq-6 *6l  'Ql  '£1  A'aqj, 'zi Of?  water.  with t h e i r four sharp-  A  thick i n  J ° "9  that can hold  t h e i r two f r o n t  G u t t i n g down a  swed  30 t o  t h e woods" a r e b u s y  k n o w how t o b u i l d  work.  But they  b e a v e r s g r o w t o be  four feet long  These " l i t t l e  the time.  the word  JaA-eeq • £1 surep • T T  Ptre '+7  paquixod sjaA-eag; ' o j  aa-rqq. •£  'oj  sre %  q.sow 'z (Bormuth,  jxaqq. ' ^ T  e a x i >rj  S T »g  q-.uaxe " T 1975,  q.sotu • ^ :saewsuy  p.71)  56  N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n : Grade E i g h t t o t h e uppermost j u t t i n g b o u l d e r a b o u t t h i r t y f e e t above t h e w a t e r . w o u l d make i t — h e h a d t o make i t . He h a d done i t o n c e t h i s m o r n i n g he c o u l d do i t a g a i n . A crowd were  too.  gathered, and the c i t y Davy t e n s e d h i s  he h e a r d a g i r l _!" He l o o k e d down a n d t o him, b e g g i n g him "Gome down," s h e c r i e d . The  on the wharf , ready f o r the dive.  :  "  i n her voice caused back. B u t when C l i n t o n o u t ? " he c l e n c h e d h i s ) again. He c o u l d n ' t b a c k He Knew he c o u l d  "Davy..." There p l e a s e don't d i v e , " she  " D o n ' t — d o n ' t do i t , Ginny holding out her stop. Davy s t a r e d a t , D a v y , come down!" t o h e s i t a t e and t h e n , "What's t h e m a t t e r — y o u and stepped i n t o d i v i n g now. He d i d n ' t w a n t the d i v e .  f e a r i n Ginny's voice. .  He s a t s o w n t o from d i v i n g , h i s head hands. From b e l o w the l a u g h t e r o f the s t r i d e n t hoot C l i n t o n l o u d e r than the palms were wet he f o u g h t b a c k t h e _, no m a t t e r w h a t G i n n y .  "  ,  his boys, the . Davy's t o l e a p up a n d  When he l o o k e d down, c r o w d was l e a v i n g . Only and Ginny s t o o d w a t c h i n g he came down t h e f o r he was exhausted. They walked toward p a l e and c l o s e to , Clinton smiling condescendingly. " taunted.  l o o k e d l i k e a champ  arm  clenched h i s f i s t s , a n d he s l o w l y  He and  t h a t one,"  but  —slowly —Ginny  Clinton  l a i d h e r hand  on  He w i s h e d he c o u l d h e r how i t w a s — i t was h a r d e r t o l e t C l i n t o n t h i n k he was y e l l o w t h a n i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o dive. B u t he c o u l d n ' t e x p l a i n i t e x a c t l y , t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f c o u r a g e i t had t a k e n . Any k i d c o u l d have t a k e n the d a r e and d i v e d o f f t h e c l i f f , b u t i t t o o k — w e l l — a man t o l e t h i m s e l f be r i d i c u l e d f o r s o m e t h i n g no one would understand. " I wasn't a f r a i d , " Davy s a i d .  " I wasn't s c a r e d o f d i v i n g . "  " I know," s h e s a i d , a n d s l i p p e d h e r a r m s t h r o u g h h i s . y o u d i d was b r a v e r . "  " B u t what  Answers:  Narrative  Fiction:  Grade  Eight  1.  had  26.  keep  2.  hoys  27.  in  3.  watching  28.  came  4.  muscles  29.  city  5.  then  30.  of  6.  cry  31.  rest  7.  Davy  32.  as  8.  saw  33.  impulse  9.  arms  34.  dive  10.  to  35/  wanted  11.  her  36.  the  12.  Please  37.  Clinton  13.  anguish  38.  as  14.  him  39.  rocks  15.  step  40.  suddenly  16.  shouted  41.  him  17.  chicken  42.  tears  18.  fists  43.  You  19.  position  44.  on  20.  out  45.  Davy  21.  to  46.  Ginny  22.  make  47.  his  23.  was  48.  relaxed  24.  Davy  49.  tell  25.  called  50.  that  58  Expository Prose:  Grade E i g h t  Much o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h i s urban growth i n the h i s t o r y of the of Australia. The s e t t l e r s on s h i p s , and n a t u r a l l y f i r s t a t the chosen ) which soon developed i n t o and p o r t s . As t h e and p a s t o r a l i s t s * pushed i n l a n d l o o k e d to the e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r s u p p l i e s , and t h e i r produce back t o p o r t s t o be s h i p p e d the overseas markets. This ~ expanding trade i n the o f f e r e d e m p l o y m e n t t o new , ho tended to s t a y the towns r a t h e r t h a n inland. L a t e r , the r a i l w a y s t h e i r networks out from p o r t - c a p i t a l s and a c c e l e r a t e d the of t r a f f i c between town country, w h i l e the development mining, a n d s u c h new o c c u p a t i o n s as wheat and farming, added g r e a t l y to volume o f goods h a n d l e d the coastal cities. These J became e v e n more i m p o r t a n t m a n u f a c t u r i n g began to develop the A u s t r a l i a n market. It l o g i c a l to b u i l d f a c t o r i e s t h e p l a c e s where t h e r e l a r g e numbers o f w o r k e r s , ) t h e l o c a l m a r k e t s were , and where o t h e r m a r k e t s be m o s t e a s i l y r e a c h e d , by use o f the network o r by c o a s t a l . So t h e g r e a t c i t i e s c o n t i n u e d t o grow r a p i d l y , few c o u n t r y towns have than doubled i n p o p u l a t i o n the l a s t t h i r t y years. w  means t h a t t h e c i t i e s out over tremendous areas. f a m i l i e s demand s u f f i c i e n t not o n l y to build houses but a l s o to vegetable gardens, lawns, flowers, shrubs. Hence, Sydney and Melbourne c o v e r a r e a s which are l i t t l e s m a l l e r than t h a t of M e t r o p o l i t a n London a l t h o u g h t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s a r e much l e s s . The o t h e r A u s t r a l i a n c i t i e s a r e proportionately large, Most A u s t r a l i a n s l i v i n g i n c i t i e s must " t r a v e l s e v e r a l m i l e s t o t h e i r work e a c h m o r n i n g . The t h i n n e s s o f s e t t l e m e n t so o b v i o u s i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n c o u n t r y s i d e i s a l s o t o be s e e n i n t h e c i t i e s , so t h a t t r a n s p o r t a n d o t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , w a t e r , s e w a g e , and o t h e r s e r v i c e s are a l l v e r y expensive t o p r o v i d e and m a i n t a i n .  ^farmers  Answers:  Expository Prose:  Grade  Eight  1.  for  26.  the  2.  lies  27.  by  3.  development  28.  centres  4.  arrived  29.  when  5.  settled  30.  for  6.  anchorages  31.  was  7.  townships  32.  in  8.  explorers  33.  were  9.  they  34.  where  10.  ports  35.  largest  11.  sent  36.  could  12.  Ithe  37.  either  13.  to  38.  rail  14.  steadily.  39.  shipping  15.  ports  40.  have  16.  immigrants  41.  while  17.  in  42.  more  18.  shift  43.  in  19.  spread  44.  This  20.  the  45.  spread  21.  flow  46.  Most  22.  and  47.  land  23.  of  48.  their  24.  rural  49.  have  25.  dairy  50.  and  - 60 -  APPENDIX B  61  MODIFIED GRAM R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t M e t h o d Narrative  Cloze exact  1 2 3 4 5  6 7  8 9  10 11 12 13  14 15 16 17 18 19  20 21 22  23 24 25 26  27 28 29  30 31  32  33 34 35  36 37  38 39 40  Replacements non-exact  had boys watching , muscles then cry Davy saw arms to her Please Anguish him step shouted chicken fists position out to make was Davy called keep in came city of rest as impulse dive wanted the Clinton as rocks suddenly  G r a d e 8:  Fiction:  Grammar Y N  began folk  y  y  =  say  Subject  Syntax Y N  Semantics Y N  y  Discourse Y N  y  N/  y  si  #14  y  y  y  y  y  y  y  y y  = r  s/  hand  = =  shaking Davystand said  J s/ y y  y y y y  y y  sJ  y  y  V  y  y  y  y  y y  fist  y y  = =  do  -  /  don't yelled stop  y  = was town then  y  J  y  y/  si  y y  y y  si  sJ y  y y  y sJ  y  y  sJ si  =  sJ  and urge said  J  y  he and cliff totally  s/ sJ sf V  y y y  y  sf  y  y y y y  y  y y  62  MODIFIED GRAM R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t M e t h o d ( c o n t . )  Cloze Replacements exact non-exact  41 42  43 44 45 46  47 48 49 50  him tears you on Davy Ginny his relaxed tell that  Raw t o t a l s P e r c e n t a g e s "Y e s "  Grammar Y N  Syntax Y N  J  home him he had  y s/  Semantics Y N  y  y \/  y  y  y  =  29 48  24 48  5  26 52  y  y  v/  y  now  3  22 44  y y \/  y  v/  y  y  y  y  —  wanted  Discourse Y N  7  23 46  6  

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