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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A psycholinguistic investigation of the cloze responses of grade eight students Fraser, Janet Mary 1981

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A PSYGHOLINGUISTIG INVESTIGATION OF THE CLOZE RESPONSES OF GRADE EIGHT STUDENTS ty JANET MARY FRASER B.A. Hons., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Language E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1981 © J a n e t Mary F r a s e r , 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y , a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram (I98O), i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e f u n c t i o n o f e x a c t and no n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n the a s s e s s m e n t o f r e a d i n g comprehension. Two modes o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , were examined. S u b j e c t s were p r o f i c i e n t and l e s s p r o f i c i e n t g r ade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . Key t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s g u i d i n g t h e r e s e a r c h stemmed from p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s ; t h a t r e a d i n g i n v o l v e s r e s p o n s e s t o the g r a p h o -phonemic, s y n t a c t i c , and s e m a n t i c cue systems o f language (Goodman, 1976a); and fro m d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s t h e o r y ; t h a t a 'schema' o r c o g n i t i v e map d i r e c t s t h e r e a d e r i n t h e s e a r c h f o r d i s c o u r s e cues (Winograd, 1977). S u b j e c t s were c o m p l e t i n g grade e i g h t (N = 6l) i n a s m a l l j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n S u r r e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O n l y s u b j e c t s whose p r i m a r y l a n g u a g e was E n g l i s h , q u a l i f i e d . Good (N = 19) and p o o r (N = 19) r e a d e r s were i d e n t i f i e d f r o m t h e sum o f s c o r e s on t h e compre-h e n s i o n and v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s o f th e NeHison R e a d i n g S k i l l s T e s t (1977). E x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s (E.R.'s) o f 61 s u b j e c t s were examined. Non-exact r e p l a c e m e n t s (N.E.R.'s) o f good (N = 19) a n d p o o r (N = 19) r e a d e r s were a l s o a n a l y s e d . E a c h s u b j e c t c o m p l e t e d two c l o z e t a s k s : a n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and a n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  R e a d i n g Assessment 1977. Grade 8. Responses were examined f o r e x a c t match t o t h e a u t h o r ' s word (Bormuth, 1976). An a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e Cram R e a d i n g Assessment Method was u s e d t o e v a l u a t e N.E.R.'s. S t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e d c o r r e l a t i o n , i n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t s and two way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . i i C o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d measure and e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the n a r r a t i v e mode. F o r b o t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s , e x a c t n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n e x a c t e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s . P o o r r e a d e r s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m good r e a d e r s . S c o r e s f o r b o t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s on g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n t h a n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . P o o r r e a d e r s o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n when compared t o e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e o n s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y . D a t a b a s e d c o n c l u s i o n s were ( l ) c l o z e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s d i f f e r e d f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a nd e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e modes o f d i s c o u r s e , and (2) e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i " C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 2 R e s e a r c h V a r i a b l e s 7 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s and Hypoth e s e s . . 7 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 8 D e f i n i t i o n s 9 Summary 10 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y . . . . . . 10 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 12 E v a l u a t i o n s i n t h e P r o b l e m A r e a 12 P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c T h e o r y 14 The C l o z e P r o c e d u r e 16 D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s 18 T h e o r i e s o f D i s c o u r s e 19 Summary 21 I I I METHODOLOGY 22 R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 22 The P o p u l a t i o n Sample 23 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 24 P r o c e d u r e s . . 24 D a t a P r o c e s s i n g 25 Hypotheses 27 Summary 29 I V RESULTS... 30 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s 30 Summary 39 i v V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS . . -+0 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e F i n d i n g s 41 C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s . 43 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 44 REFERENCES 45 APPENDIX A 52 APPENDIX B 60 v L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e 3.1 S o u r c e s o f V a r i a n c e and Degrees o f Freedom f o r a 2 x 2 F a c t o r i a l Randomized D e s i g n , F i x e d E f f e c t s M o d e l 25 4.1 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among S e l e c t e d I n d e x e s f o r Grade E i g h t R e a d e r s 32 44.?2 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among S e l e c t e d I n d e x e s f o r Good and P o o r R e a d e r s i n Grade E i g h t 34 4.3 C o m p a r i s o n "between Means o f E x a c t C l o z e N a r r a t i v e and E x a c t C l o z e E x p o s i t o r y f o r Good and P o o r R e a d e r s i n Grade E i g h t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.4 Comp a r i s o n between Means o f Non-Exact Replacements o f C l o z e Responses on Modes o f D i s c o u r s e by P r o f i c i e n c y L e v e l i n Grade E i g h t 36 4.5 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f E x a c t C l o z e S c o r e s o f N a r r a t i v e a n d E x p o s i t o r y Modes by Good and P o o r R e a d e r s i n Grade E i g h t 38 v i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Many s t u d e n t s i n t o d a y ' s c l a s s r o o m s c a n n o t f u n c t i o n "because t h e y c a n ' t seem t o l e a r n f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l s t h e t e a c h e r s a s s i g n . . . These s t u d e n t s may know t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f r e a d i n g , b u t c a n ' t a p p l y t h e i r r e a d i n g t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e i r c l a s s r o o m t e x t s . ( S i n g e r & D o u l a n , 1 9 8 0 , p . l ) The v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s d e s e r v e s c a r e f u l s t u d y . U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e and degree o f such v a r i a b i l i t y h as d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s ( S t a n s e l l , H a r s t e , De S a n t i , 1 9 7 8 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h e r s t h a t r e s e a r c h be c o n d u c t e d t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d by the p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g demands o f v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s . The m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s a p p e a r s t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e fo r m s o f lang u a g e . The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i s a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c t e c h n i q u e w h i c h i s p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l t o s t u d y the r o l e o f language i n r e a d i n g . I n t r o d u c e d by W i l s o n T a y l o r i n 1 9 5 3 . "the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e has been w i d e l y u s e d t o a n a l y s e s i l e n t r e a d i n g r e s p o n s e s t o a s y s t e m a t i c d e l e t i o n o f words i n a passage. " C l o z e " i s d e r i v e d f r o m " c l o s u r e " , a term from g e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e human t e n d e n c y o f m e n t a l l y c o m p l e t i n g gaps t o p r o j e c t the whole. To make c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n language the r e a d e r must have a g r a s p o f the language s t r u c t u r e s ( s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s ) and a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s u b s t a n c e and tone ( s e m a n t i c s ) o f the pas s a g e . F o r example, " p i g s o i n k b u t cows " e f f e c t s t h e answer "moo" b a s e d on c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s w i t h i n t h e s e n t e n c e . To complete t h i s s e n t e n c e r e q u i r e s a knowledge o f t h e p a t t e r n o f l e t t e r s i n each o f f i v e words, 1. 2 t h e p a t t e r n o f symbol-meaning, t h e meanings a t t r i b u t e d t o c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e words, and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e demands a term p a r a l l e l t o " o i n k " b u t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h cows i n s t e a d o f p i g s . The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e t a k e s a measure o f t h e l i k e n e s s between t h e p a t t e r n s the r e a d e r i s a n t i c i p a t i n g w h i l e he/she i s r e a d i n g and t h e p a t t e r n s a w r i t e r has u s e d . A g r e e i n g w i t h t h e v a l u e o f c l o z e , Simons (1971) s t a t e d : P r o c e s s o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h i s m o t i v a t e d by t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e i s i n p a r t dependent on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h o s e t e c h n i q u e s c a p i t a l i z e on t h e a c t u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h s t u d e n t s u t i l i z e i n l e a r n i n g , ( p . 3^0) The s t u d y o f r e a d i n g p r o c e s s e s a s w e l l a s the d i a g n o s i s o f r e a d e r s ' s t r e n g t h s a n d weaknesses i s an i m p o r t a n t method f o r u l t i m a t e l y i m p r o v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m L i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done on t h e r e s p o n s e o f s t u d e n t s t o cues i n d i f f e r i n g modes o f d i s c o u r s e . Cram ( 1 9 8 0 ) made a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e s t o c l o z e t a s k s between modes o f l a n g u a g e : n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . I n a n e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y , Cram i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r o l e o f e x a c t and n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f r e a d i n g comprehension. E x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s were words t h a t were t h e same as u s e d by the a u t h o r i n the o r i g i n a l t e x t . Non-exact r e p l a c e m e n t s were words t h a t were d i f f e r e n t . K e y t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s g u i d i n g t h e r e s e a r c h stemmed from p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i e s , m i s c u e a n a l y s i s , and d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s t h e o r y . The use o f o r a l m i s c u e s was i n t r o d u c e d by K e n n e t h Goodman i n the m i d 1960's. L e d by Weber's ( I 9 6 8 ) d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f e x i s t i n g schemes f o r s t u d y i n g r e s p o n s e s i n t e r m s o f e r r o r s o n l y , Goodman (1970) p r o p o s e d t h a t the s t u d y o f o r a l r e a d i n g e r r o r s c a n be u s e d as a 'window' t o t h e s i l e n t r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . Goodman ( I 9 6 5 ) f o u n d 3 t h a t r e a d e r s i n g r a d e s one t o t h r e e made a l m o s t a l l t h e i r r e p e t i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o c o r r e c t a n e r r o r . These m i s c u e s were n o t random b u t were c u e d by a la n g u a g e t h o u g h t - i n t e r a c t i o n . K. Goodman (1^69, 1976a, 1976c) summarized h i s a n a l y s i s i n two ma i n i n s t r u m e n t s : The Goodman Taxonomy  o f R e a d i n g M i s c u e s and t h e R e a d i n g M i s c u e I n v e n t o r y (RMl) i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Y e t t a Goodman and C a r o l y n Burke (1972a, 1972b). Goodman (1976b) recommended t h e use o f i n - d e p t h s t u d i e s w i t h s m a l l samples. He emphasized: " R e a l p e o p l e u s i n g r e a l language i n v a r i o u s r e a l s i t u a t i o n s must be th e o b j e c t s o f r e s e a r c h i f we a r e t o u n d e r s t a n d r e a d i n g a s i t r e a l l y i s " ( p . 98). T h i s i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e " n a t u r a l i s t i c " r e s e a r c h method e x p l o r e d b y Cambourne (1976). I n miscue' a n a l y s i s t h e d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e e x a c t r e s p o n s e s o f p r i n t e d t e x t a r e e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e degree t o w h i c h meaning i s d i s r u p t e d . The. taxonomy and i n v e n t o r y a r e based o n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f m i s c u e s i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n the q u a n t i t y . S t r e n g t h s , n o t weaknesses, a r e i n d i c a t e d by some m i s c u e s . I n d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s a "schema" o r c o g n i t i v e map d i r e c t s t h e r e a d e r i n t h e s e a r c h f o r d i s c o u r s e c u e s (Winograd, 1977). Cram s t u d i e d s t u d e n t s from V a n c o u v e r , Canada who were e n t e r i n g grade 9 (N = 107) and 12 (N = 100). O n l y s u b j e c t s whose f i r s t language was E n g l i s h were u s e d t o examine c l o z e r e p l a c e m e n t s and a t t i t u d e s t o r e a d i n g . A random sample a t each g r a d e l e v e l o f Good (N = 20) and P o o r (N = 20) r e a d e r s p r o v i d e d d a t a . P r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l was d e t e r m i n e d f r o m s c o r e s on t h e comprehension s u b t e s t o f t h e Iowa S i l e n t R e a d i n g  T e s t (1973)- Good r e a d e r s were i d e n t i f i e d f rom t h o s e s t u d e n t s whose s c o r e s r a n k e d between t h e 65th and 95th p e r c e n t i l e . P o o r r e a d e r s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h o s e s t u d e n t s whose s c o r e s r a n k e d between t h e 5th and 33 r (i p e r c e n t i l e . Cram a d a p t e d t h e Cambourne R e a d i n g Assessment P r o c e d u r e (1978), -+ based on t h e Goodman Taxonomy o f R e a d i n g M i s c u e s (19^9) t o e v a l u a t e n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s . A 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n ( n a r r a t i v e x e x p o s i t o r y ; good x p o o r ) was u s e d . S t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e d c o r r e l a t i o n , i n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t s , and two way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . A synonym r e p l a c e m e n t f o r t h e e x a c t r e s p o n s e was a c c e p t a b l e i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : s y n t a x , s e m a n t i c s and d i s c o u r s e . To v e r i f y how l i n g u i s t i c c u e s t r i g g e r e d r e s p o n s e s , r e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s were t a p e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . S u b j e c t s were randomly drawn from e a c h p r o f i c i e n c y group. F r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e was a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c q u a l i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n . R e s u l t s o f Gram's s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d between good and p o o r r e a d e r s t o t h e same e x t e n t a s t h e Iowa t e s t . E x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s exceeded e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e s c o r e s (p < . 0 0 1 ) . Good r e a d e r s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from p o o r r e a d e r s (p < . 0 0 1 ) . P r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s were a l s o d i s c r i m i n a t e d by t h e n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s c o r e , S u r p r i s i n g l y , a t t i t u d e t o r e a d i n g had a g e n e r a l l y weak c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e c l o z e s c o r e s . F o r grade n i n e r e a d e r s , e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n s c o r e s exceeded e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e (p < . 0 0 1 ) b u t f o r grade t w e l v e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The i n t e r v i e w s showed t h a t t h e t h r e e cue systems u s e d most f r e q u e n t l y were: s y n t a x , s e m a n t i c s , and d i s c o u r s e . The two cue systems l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d were g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n and l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . Between modes o f d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d . U s i n g combined e x a c t s c o r e s p l u s synonyms, Gram f o u n d i n grade n i n e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n s c o r e s e x c e e d e d p r o s e , b u t i n grade t w e l v e t h e r e v e r s e o c c u r e d . Good r e a d e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r w i t h e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . 5 Cram s t a t e d s i x c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. a t t i t u d e i s n o t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e i t h e r p r o f i c i e n c y o r c o m p rehension 2. c o mprehension s c o r e s d i f f e r e d a c r o s s modes o f d i s c o u r s e : n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e 3. e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s 4. n o n - e x a c t s c o r e s r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e use o f cue s ystems by a b i l i t y g roups 5. a l l r e a d e r s u s e d t h e same cue systems: s y n t a x , s e m a n t i c s , d i s c o u r s e , t o g a i n meaning; b u t c o n t r o l o f t h e s e t o f cue s y s t e m s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , d i s t i n g u i s h e d the good r e a d e r 6. t h e a d d i t i o n o f synonym s c o r e s t o e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s , modes o f d i s c o u r s e and m a t u r i t y l e v e l s . (Cram, p. I V ) E x p o s i t o r y p r o s e was l e s s e a s i l y p r o c e s s e d t h a n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n . E s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e l e s s p r o f i c i e n t and mature r e a d e r , a " s t o r y grammar" (R u m e l h a r t , 1975)> o r t h e t h e m a t i z e d e l e m e n t s (Cram, 1980) f a c i l i t a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The g rade 12 r e a d e r s had g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e t h a n t h e grade 8 r e a d e r s . E x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s e a s e d t h e e f f e c t on c o m prehension s c o r e s o f mode o f d i s c o u r s e f o r the g rade t w e l v e s t u d e n t . Cram s u g g e s t s , as a p r a c t i c a l t o o l , t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e p r o v i d e s a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e and c o n v e n i e n t d i a g n o s i s o f r e a d i n g l e v e l s . As an i n i t i a l group s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e , e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s have v a l u e ( H i t t l e m a n , 1978; Cram, 1980). Cram's ( I98O) r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s on n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t b o t h g rade l e v e l s , good r e a d e r s were more e f f i c i e n t t h a n p o o r r e a d e r s i n t h e use o f g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c , s e m a n t i c and d i s c o u r s e c u e s . T h i s taxonomy a p p e a r s t o i n t e g r a t e t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f m i s c u e a n a l y s i s and c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . The taxonomy u s e d by Cram f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f synonyms e v a l u a t e s d i s c o u r s e awareness (Cram, 1980). The f i n d i n g s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f u s i n g synonyms i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f 6 r e a d i n g by c l o z e t e s t s (Vaughan, T i e r n e y and A l p o r t s , 1977; Cambourne, 1 9 7 9 ) t The a d d i t i o n o f t h e complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e t o t h e e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e a p p e a r e d t o a f f e c t t h e c r i t e r i o n l e v e l s e s t a b l i s h e d by Bormuth ( I 9 6 8 ) . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f e x a c t s c o r e and t h e number o f a c c e p t a b l e synonyms i n d i c a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l s i n modes o f d i s c o u r s e . Cram has made a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t recommendations. These a r e i m p o r t a n t t o f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a s w e l l a s s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a b i l i t y o f good and p o o r r e a d e r s t o g a i n meaning f r o m e x p o s i t o r y o r n a r r a t i v e p a s s a g e s d e s e r v e s more s t u d y . The v a l u e o f c o m b i n i n g c l o z e p r o c e d u r e and m i s c u e a n a l y s i s has been d e m o n s t r a t e d . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n i s needed ( E k w a l l , 1 9 7 6 , p . 2 9 0 ) . Cram recommends the c l o z e t e s t a s an i n s t r u c t i o n a l and r e s e a r c h d e v i c e . Cram's taxonomy may be a u s e f u l t o o l t o f i n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l s i n modes o f d i s c o u r s e . She s u g g e s t s t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The e v a l u a t i o n o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f synonyms f o r s y n t a x , s e m a n t i c s , and d i s c o u r s e c o u l d be s i m p l i f i e d f r o m " y e s " , " p a r t i a l " c a t e g o r i e s , "no" t o e i t h e r " y e s " o r "no". A r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram's s t u d y i s w o r t h w h i l e . A s i g n i f i c a n t b e g i n n i n g has been made t o base l i n e r e s e a r c h u s i n g c l o z e p r o c e d u r e , m i s c u e a n a l y s i s , r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a n d mode o f d i s c o u r s e . She s u g g e s t s r e p l i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r samples i s needed t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e f i n d i n g s c a n be g e n e r a l i z e d . R e p l i c a t i o n c a n h e l p d e t e r m i n e the v a l i d i t y o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme o f t h e taxonomy. F i n d i n g s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h may p r o v e v i t a l t o t e a c h i n g a n d d i a g n o s i s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o p a r t i a l l y r e p l i c a t e Cram's ( 1 9 8 0 ) r e s e a r c h . The taxonomy i s m o d i f i e d a s she s u g g e s t e d . 7 S i m i l a r t o t h e Cram s t u d y , t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o : I n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e s p o n s e s i n r e a d i n g o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t o e s t a b l i s h a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e on the c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r o c e s s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p r i m a r y p u rpose was t o examine whether o r n o t t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f r e s p o n s e s t o c l o z e t a s k s v a r i e s w i t h two modes o f d i s c o u r s e : n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . (P.3) R e s e a r c h V a r i a b l e s The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were: 1. mode o f d i s c o u r s e - n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e 2. l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y - good and p o o r . The dependent v a r i a b l e s were: 1. t h e e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t c l o z e s c o r e s 2. t h e n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t c l o z e s c o r e s i n f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : (a) g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n ( b) s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y ( c ^ s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y ( d) d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y 3. c o m p l e t e d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s Responses were a c c e p t a b l e i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : ( a ) s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y (b) s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y ( c ) d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s and H y p o t h e s e s S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram (1980), t h e d e c i s i o n was made t o use t h e same r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and s i m i l a r h y p o t h e s e s a s she d i d . They a r e the f o l l o w i n g (pp. 22-23): R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1. "Are t h e r e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l e c t e d i n d e c e s o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n " . . . f o r s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s i n grade e i g h t ? H y p o t h e s i s 1.1 There a r e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among ( l ) s c o r e s on a r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n measure, (2) t h e number 8 o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , mode o f d i s c o u r s e , and (3) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode o f d i s c o u r s e . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2. "Does t h e s u b j e c t c o m prehension v a r y w i t h mode o f d i s c o u r s e ? " H y p o t h e s i s 2.1 There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g c o m prehension between t h e n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n mode o f d i s c o u r s e and the e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode o f d i s c o u r s e , a s measured by the number o f ( l ) e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s and (2) n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o v e r g i v e n l e v e l s o f . . . p r o f i c i e n c y . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 3. "Do s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , good and p o o r v a r y i n c omprehension?" H y p o t h e s i s 3.1 There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e s n i o n between good r e a d e r s and p o o r r e a d e r s a s measured by t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o v e r g i v e n r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n s . . . . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4. " I s t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between mode o f d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l ? " H y p o t h e s i s 4.1 There a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s modes o f d i s c o u r s e ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a nd e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ) and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s (good and p o o r ) . . . i n t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 1. The f i n d i n g s were l i m i t e d t o the two t y p e s o f d i s c o u r s e useds n a r r a t i v e a n d e x p o s i t o r y . 2. The f i n d i n g s were l i m i t e d t o t h e one pas s a g e us e d . 3. S u b j e c t s were o n l y t h o s e who were n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h . 4. S i n c e t h e y had t o complete a c l o z e t a s k , s u b j e c t s were exposed t o a n a r t i f i c i a l r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n . T h i s may n o t be s i m i l a r t o t h e p r o c e s s a n i n d i v i d u a l may have i n i n d e p e n d e n t r e a d i n g . 9 D e f i n i t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s were u s e d (pp. 25-26): 1. Comprehension r e f e r s t o t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e r e a d e r t o w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , a s measured by t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e d e l e t i o n s and by t h e number o f n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e d e l e t i o n s i n f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y . 2. A r e s p o n s e i s a p u r p o s e f u l , r u l e - b a s e d p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e com p r e h e n s i o n o f a w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . 3. G r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n r e f e r s t o the p a r t o f speech o f t h e c l o z e r e s p o n s e : t h a t i s , noun, pronoun, v e r b , a d j e c t i v e , a d v e r b , p r e p o s i t i o n , c o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n , s u b o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n , a r t i c l e , i n t e r j e c t i o n , a s e v a l u a t e d on a s c a l e o f : 1. Y Yes 2. N No -4-. The s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s means t h a t t h e c l o z e r e s p o n s e a c c o r d s w i t h t h e l i n g u i s t i c judgement o f n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , a s e v a l u a t e d on a s c a l e o f : 1. Y Yes, t h e complete T - u n i t i s a c c e p t a b l e 2. N No, s y n t a c t i c a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e 5. The s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t i s a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c o n g r u e n c y o f meaning o f t h e c l o z e r e s p o n s e w i t h t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s e n t e n c e , a s measured on a s c a l e o f : 1. Y Yes, a t the whole s e n t e n c e l e v e l 2. N No, u n a c c e p t a b l e s e m a n t i c a l l y 6. D i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t i s a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c o n g r u e n c y o f t h e meaning o f t h e c l o z e r e s p o n s e w i t h t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e complete passage, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e mode o f d i s c o u r s e , a s measured by a s c a l e o f : 1. Y Yes. The meaning i s i n t a c t a t t h e whole d i s c o u r s e l e v e l . 2. N No. T o t a l l y i n c o n g r u o u s t o t h e d i s c o u r s e . 7. A T - u n i t i s d e s c r i b e d a s "one m a i n c l a u s e p l u s a ny s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e o r non c l a u s a l s t r u c t u r e imbedded i n i t " (Hunt, 1970, p.4). 8. D i s c o u r s e r e f e r s t o a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d sequence o f c o n n e c t e d s e n t e n c e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s e i t h e r a c o m p l e t e s t o r y ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n ) o r a c o h e r e n t e x p l a n a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c ( e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ) . 10 9. N a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n o f a sequence o f c o n n e c t e d s e n t e n c e s w h i c h t e l l a s t o r y . A s i m p l e p l o t may i n v o l v e a p r o b l e m f a c i n g a m a i n c h a r a c t e r , a sequence o f a t t e m p t s by t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m , a n d an e v e n t u a l r e s o l u t i o n . 10. E x p o s i t o r y p r o s e r e f e r s t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n o f a sequence o f c o n n e c t e d s e n t e n c e s w h i c h i s a n e x p l a n a t i o n o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s s u c h a s " t h e r e f o r e " , t h a t c o n v e y p a t t e r n s o f r e a s o n i n g . 11. D i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s r e f e r s t o a method f o r e x p l i c a t i o n o f a t e x t and t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s o f language u s e r s (Winograd, 1977) a c c o r d i n g to a schema. 12. A schema i s a body o f r e l a t e d knowledge t o be u s e d i n r e a s o n i n g . 13. M i s c u e s a r e d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e p r i n t e d t e x t i n o r a l r e a d i n g . 14. E x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s ( E . R . ' s ) a r e the e x a c t match t o t h e a u t h o r ' s word w h i c h has been d e l e t e d i n a c l o z e t e s t . 15. N o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s (N.E.R.'s) a r e t h e r e p l a c e m e n t s w h i c h d i f f e r from t h e e x a c t word d e l e t e d . Summary R e s e a r c h on t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g from t e x t i s o f t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e ( P e a r s o n , 1978). S e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s must do a p r o g r e s s i v e l y g r e a t e r amount o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g f r o m t e x t m a t e r i a l s . The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e and m i s c u e a n a l y s i s may be u s e f u l i n s t u d y i n g t h i s p r o b l e m . Gram's (I98O) i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o f grade 9 and grade 12 r e a d e r s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e e s s e n c e f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y i n t h i s a r e a . T h i s s t u d y was t h e r e f o r e d e s i g n e d t o c o n t i n u e t h i s v i t a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s e a r c h . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y The r e p o r t o f the s t u d y i s s t r u c t u r e d a s f o l l o w s . 1. C h a p t e r I I c o n t a i n s a r e v i e w o f t h e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . 2. C h a p t e r I I I c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e s i g n , t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and t h e p r o c e d u r e s . 11 3. C h a p t e r I V c o n t a i n s a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 4, C h a p t e r V c o n t a i n s a summary o f t h e s t u d y , d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s , c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e a t h o r o u g h r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r o c e s s by t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f r e s p o n s e s t o w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s k i l l s model and measurement i n r e a d i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d . An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a r e a v i t a l t o t h e s t u d y : p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y i s n e x t . S t u d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e s p o n s e s a s m i s c u e s and as c l o z e r e s p o n s e s f o l l o w . R e s e a r c h t h a t compares s i l e n t r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f good and p o o r r e a d e r s i s summarized. S i g n i f i c a n t d evelopments i n d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f d i s c l o s i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x a m i n i n g r e s p o n s e s i n t e r m s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the whole p a s s a g e . E v a l u a t i o n s i n t h e P r o b l e m A r e a The S k i l l s M o d e l Many r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h e r s (Simons, 1971» J o h n s o n & P e a r s o n , 1975; P a l m e r , 1979) c o n s i d e r t h e e n u m e r a t i o n o f l i s t s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l s -o r s k i l l s m odel t h e b e s t way t o d e s c r i b e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a d i n g c o m p rehension p r o c e s s . However t h i s r e s e a r c h has been p r o b l e m a t i c . One m a j o r p r o b l e m i s t h e l a c k o f agreement w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f terms ( S h a f e r , 1978; Emans, 1979). S t e r n (1973) f o u n d f o u r k e y u s e s o f t h e term "comprehension": 1. 'comprehension' i s u s e d a s d e g r e e s o r l e v e l s o f g r a s p i n g t h e meaning o f t h e p r i n t e d page; 2. 'comprehension' i s u s e d a s a s e t o f s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s w h i c h c a n be measured; 3. 'comprehension' i s u s e d a s g r a s p i n g t h e meaning o f v a r i o u s l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s ; 4. 'comprehension* i s u s e d a s a p r o c e s s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h i n k i n g o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , ( p . 256) 12 13 T h i s a m b i g u i t y i n t h e term c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s o b v i o u s l y c r i t i c a l . I f i t i s n o t c l e a r what c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s , t h e l i s t s o f s k i l l s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d f o r c o m p r e h e n s i o n must n e c e s s a r i l y be vague. A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s k i l l s m o d e l l i e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s k i l l s i n t o t a x o n o m i e s ( P a l m e r , 1979). Simons, (1971)i s t a t e d t h a t " t h e advantage o f s y s t e m a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . . , , may be more i m a g i n e d t h a n r e a l . " ( p . 3^3)' J o h n s o n and P e a r s o n (1975) s u g g e s t a n o r d e r l y l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f s k i l l s i s a " p e d a g o g i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e " t h a t i g n o r e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n c omprehension a n d t h e r o l e o f t h e p u r p o s e i n r e a d i n g . These h i e r a r c h i c a l components may s u g g e s t g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n t h a n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system r e a l l y p o s s e s s e s . Simons (1971) f u r t h e r a r g u e d : . . . t h a t t h e s e t t i n g up o f c a t e g o r i e s o f s k i l l s has n o t a i d e d u s g r e a t l y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r o c e s s because o f a b a s i c c o n f u s i o n o v e r t h e p r e c i s e b e h a v i o u r and c o g n i t i v e domain o f t h e s e s k i l l s . T h i s had l e d t o t h e naming o f s k i l l s w h i c h a r e g l o b a l and vague i n n a t u r e and w h i c h have f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h between: ( l ) r e a d i n g and t h i n k i n g : (2) t h e o b j e c t s and p r o c e s s e s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n : (3) t h e use o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r t e a c h i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n , (p. 3^ 6) The programs b a s e d on t a x o n o m i c models do..."not seem t o be f u l f u l l i n g t h e i r m i s s i o n " ( S h a f e r , 1978, p. 310). P e r h a p s t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o d e f i n e c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s due t o t h e l a c k o f a t h e o r e t i c a l framework (Simons, p. 3^0). Language i s t h e m i s s i n g element. The i n c l u s i o n o f l a n g u a g e e x t e n d s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e a d i n g t o a p r o c e s s w h i c h i s c e n t r e d on meaning. The s k i l l s models f a i l " . . . t o d e a l w i t h how language i s s t r u c t u r e d w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t modes o f d i s c o u r s e " ( P a l m e r , 1979, p. 9). Measurement A s t r o n g p l e a has been made t o measure m e a n i n g f u l l e a r n i n g i n w r i t t e n t e x t ( A n d e r s o n , 1971. Simons 1971; B l e a k l e y & Johnson, 1978). 14 T h i s t a s k i s so complex a v a r i e t y o f a s s e s s m e n t d e v i c e s have been s u g g e s t e d . The most p o p u l a r method o f m e a s u r i n g t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r o c e s s has been t h r o u g h n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s (Simons, 1971, p.346) but t h e s e , w h i l e s a t i s f a c t o r y a s s c r e e n i n g t o o l s , l a c k c o n t e n t and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f s p e c i f i c s k i l l s (Goodman, I968; Guzak, 1970). I n f o r m a l measures t h a t judge r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o v e r a number o f d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s may be more r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measures ( F a r r , I 9 6 9 ) . R e c e n t l y , r e s e a r c h has l e d t o t h e development o f new methods o f m e a s u r i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n u s i n g m i s c u e a n a l y s i s , c l o z e p r o c e d u r e , and t h e Gambourne R e a d i n g Assessment P r o c e d u r e ( 1 9 7 8 ) , a method w h i c h combines t h e two p r o c e d u r e s . These a r e based i n p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y . P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c T h e o r y The s e a r c h f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o m prehension p r o c e s s has l e d t o a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e p a r a l l e l s between r e a d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n and l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s l e d t o t h e development o f p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c m odels ( S m i t h , 1971; Y. Goodman & B u r k e , 1982; K. Goodman, 1973). S h a f e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) c o n c l u d e d : S t a t e d s i m p l y , i n t h e p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c model, t h e r e a d e r i s a c o n t i n u a l s e e k e r a f t e r meaning. The b r a i n i s c o n s t a n t l y g o i n g t h r o u g h a d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s t o d e c i d e what's o u t t h e r e i n t e rms o f i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i o r e x p e c t a t i o n s , c o n s t a n t l y a t t e m p t i n g t o r e d u c e u n c e r t a i n t y by a p p l y i n g what i s a l r e a d y known from p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t o e a c h i n c o m i n g message. (p,310) Goodman ( I 9 6 8 ) s t a t e d t h a t r e a d i n g i s an i n t e g r a t e d r e s p o n s e t o t h r e e k i n d s o f cue s y s t e m s . F i r s t , t h e g r a p h o - p h o n i c cues come from t h e v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p r i n t e d symbols. The f l u e n t r e a d e r makes o n l y m i n i m a l use o f t h e s e cues a n d goes d i r e c t l y t o meaning. F o r t h i s meaning t h e r e a d e r u s e s h i s " n o n - v i s u a l s t o r e h o u s e o f knowledge o f language and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e p r i n t e d page w h i c h 15 a r e s t o r e d i n ' c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s ' i n t h e b r a i n " (Cram, I98O, p.33)« The second c u e i n g system i s t h u s t h e s y n t a c t i c . Cues r e f l e c t i n g t he p a t t e r n s a nd c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f p r i n t a r e c a l l e d " r e d u n d a n c i e s " ( S h a f e r , p,312). The t h i r d c u e i n g s ystem, a l s o n o n - v i s u a l , i s the se m a n t i c . Cues a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e e n t i r e s e n t e n c e and by t h e mode o f d i s c o u r s e , o r t h e p a t t e r n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e whole pa s s a g e . T h i s p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y has formed t h e framework o f numerous s t u d i e s . C o n t e n t A r e a S t u d i e s u s i n g M i s c u e A n a l y s i s A number o f r e s e a r c h e r s have u s e d t h e R.M.I, t o e x p l o r e t h e e f f e c t o f c o n t e n t o n o r a l r e a d i n g p a t t e r n s . C a r l s o n (1970), s t u d y i n g t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s o f t h r e e boys and t h r e e g i r l s i n grade f o u r r e a d i n g s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s a nd b a s a l r e a d e r s , f o u n d a s h i f t t o g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n n s y n t a e t i c c u es w i t h c o n t e n t a r e a m a t e r i a l s . B r a z e e , (1976) s u p p o r t e d C a r l s o n ' s r e s u l t s i n h i s q u a l i t a t i v e a nd q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s r e a d i n g i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . B r a z e e c o n c l u d e d t h a t h i s r e a d e r s a t t a i n e d a h i g h e r c omprehension l e v e l a nd u s e d more e f f e c t i v e r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n the n a r r a t i v e mode. K o l c z y n s k i (1973) u s e d t h e R.M.I, t o a n a l y s e m i s c u e s o f r e a d e r s e n c o u n t e r i n g t h e language p a t t e r n s f o u n d i n s c i e n c e , m a t h e m a t i c s and l i t e r a t u r e . K o l c z y n s k i f o u n d t h a t 20 average o r above a v e r a g e r e a d e r s e n t e r i n g g r ade s i x made s i m i l a r use o f s y n t a c t i c a nd se m a n t i c c u e s . T h i s d a t a does n o t s u p p o r t B r a z e e (1976) o r C a r l s o n (1970)..Similarily, S t a n s e l l ' s (1977) s i x n i n t h g r a d e r s t e n d e d t o be unaware o f t h e b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between e x p o s i t o r y a nd n a r r a t i v e p a s s a g e s . 16 L i m i t a t i o n s o f M i s c u e A n a l y s i s A l t h o u g h miscue a n a l y s i s can g i v e r e s e a r c h e r s much i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , l i m i t a t i o n s i n i t s v a l u e do e x i s t . O r a l r e a d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e o n l y s u r f a c e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , g i v i n g o n l y a g l i m p s e o f what i s g o i n g on (Page, 1976), B l u s t e i n (1977) f o u n d an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e between o r a l a n d s i l e n t r e a d i n g and i n d i c a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s t r a t e g i e s f o r e ach s e p a r a t e l y . Gambourne ( 1 9 7 7 ) , t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t e d t h a t the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e c o u l d be u s e d t o o b t a i n i n s i g h t i n t o s i l e n t r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . The C l o z e P r o c e d u r e Simons (1971) s u g g e s t e d t h e c l o z e t e s t i s a b e t t e r measure o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n t h a n a t r a d i t i o n a l t e s t s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , R a n k i n (1978) d e s c r i b e d f i v e p o i n t s t o s u p p o r t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . F i r s t , c l o z e t e s t s a r e i n t r i n s i c measures o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n by s a m p l i n g t h e degree o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between a message s o u r c e and a r e c e i v e r . S u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e same r e s u l t s a r e o b t a i n e d w h e t h e r t h e s c o r i n g i s done b y e x a c t word method o r by t h e synonym method, ( p . 151) Second, c l o z e t e s t s measure c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n p r o c e s s , n o t a s a p r o d u c t a f t e r t h e e v e n t . T h i r d , c l o z e r e s p o n s e s a r e b a s e d upon t h e p s y c h o l i n -g u i s t i c p r o c e s s o f i n f e r e n c e , f u n d a m e n t a l t o a l l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F o u r t h , c l o z e t e s t s r a n d o m l y sample t h e c h o i c e p o i n t s f o r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y w i t h i n a message. F i f t h , c l o z e t e s t s c a n be r e p l i c a t e d p r e c i s e l y . The c l o z e t e s t s have been d e m o n s t r a t e d t o be a v a l i d measure o f r e a d i n g p a s s a g e d i f f i c u l t y , r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , a n d r e a d i n g c o m prehension ( T a y l o r (1953; Bormuth, 1967; Bormuth, 1968; R a n k i n and C u l h a n e , I969; Bormuth, I963; Bormuth, 1969). 17 R e a d i n g A b i l i t y The u s e o f c l o z e p r o c e d u r e f o r s t u d y i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f good and p o o r r e a d e r s has been d e m o n s t r a t e d . Cambourne (1977) p r o d u c e d a s i l e n t r e a d i n g v e r s i o n o f t h e R.M.I. (Goodman & B u r k e , 1972a) i n h i s s t u d y o f 39 g r a d e t h r e e and f o u r c h i l d r e n . He d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i g h a b i l i t y r e a d e r s s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n p o o r e r r e a d e r s on c l o z e p a s s a g e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o g r a m m a t i c a l l y , s y n t a c t i c a l l y a nd s e m a n t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e e r r o r s . P r o f i c i e n t r e a d e r s scanned b o t h f o r w a r d and back t o c o n t r o l meaning a t t h e whole s t o r y l e v e l . P o o r e r r e a d e r s c o n t a i n e d f o c u s t o a s m a l l e r u n i t o f meaning. G u t h r i e ' s (1973), r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h e p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s ( u s e o f s y n t a c t i c c u e s ) o f j6 s u b j e c t s w i t h a mean age o f 9.99 y e a r s d i d n o t d i f f e r between good and p o o r r e a d e r s a l t h o u g h t h e good r e a d e r s made more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n d i d t h e p o o r r e a d e r s . N e v i l l e and Pugh (1976) s t u d i e d e r r o r s o f a sample o f 130 c h i l d r e n . The a u t h o r s showed t h a t l o w a b i l i t y r e a d e r s p e r f o r m e d s i m i l a r i l y on a R e a d i n g C l o z e Task, L i s t e n i n g C l o z e Task and a R e s t r i c t e d R e a d i n g C l o z e Task. W i t h h i g h a b i l i t y r e a d e r s , t h e s c o r e s were h i g h e r on t h e R e a d i n g C l o z e Task. T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the good r e a d e r s have d e v e l o p e d s u p e r i o r r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s and a r e more f l e x i b l e i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r meaning i n a pas s a g e . Weaver (1978) i n v e s t i g a t e d s i l e n t r e a d i n g e r r o r s o f grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n and f o u n d t h a t p o o r r e a d e r s made more e r r o r s and more i n c o r r e c t form c l a s s e r r o r s t h a n good r e a d e r s . The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e has i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n good and p o o r r e a d e r s ' s t r a t e g i e s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f C l o z e P r o c e d u r e R a n k i n (1978) s t a t e d t h a t c l o z e testssrmay n o t e a s i l y be a p p l i e d t o t h e measurement o f s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d l a n g u a g e comprehension p r o c e s s e s . S i m i l a r l y , H i t t l e m a n (1978) f o u n d t h a t c l o z e t e s t s measure " g l o b a l " a s p e c t s o f comprehension. F u r t h e r , a s t u d y by S m i t h - B u r k e , 18 G i n g r i c h and E a g l e e y e (1978) r e v e a l e d t h a t l e x i c a l i t e m s were more d i f f i c u l t t o r e p l a c e i n n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l t h a n i n e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l f o r 53 grade e l e v e n and 40 g r a d e t w e l v e r e a d e r s . The r e s e a r c h e r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n s .based on a l i n g u i s t i c model may b e t t e r measure c o n t e x t u a l b u i l d - u p i n c o n n e c t e d d i s c o u r s e . D e s p i t e t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s t h e r e i s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e i s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r r e s e a r c h a n d o b j e c t i v e t e s t i n g . T h e u b a l d (1973) p r o p o s e d a method be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a n a l y z i n g the s y n t a c t i c and s e m a n t i c cue s ystems by c o m b i n i n g t h e R e a d i n g M i s c u e I n v e n t o r y and c l o z e . T h i s r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h f r o m m i s c u e a n a l y s i s and c l o z e has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e s e methods a r e w o r t h w h i l e t o o l s t o i n v e s t i g a t e s t u d y r e s p o n s e s t o t h e word and s e n t e n c e l e v e l . R e c e n t developments i n d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s e x t e n d t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o t h e whole l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e . D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s T h i s s e c t i o n r e v i e w s l i t e r a t u r e i n d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s t o c o m p l e t e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h i s s t u d y : t h a t examines c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n two modes o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . R e aders l e a r n from t e x t by u s i n g t h e i r g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e i r ' knowledge o f sequences o f e v e n t s , t h e i r s e m a n t i c and c o n c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r r e a s o n i n g c a p a c i t i e s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d f r o m t h e t e x t . ( S i n g e r & D o n l a n , 1980, p.39) T h i s s t a t e m e n t r e f l e c t s t h e r e c e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s , n o t y e t f o r m u l a t e d i n t o t h e o r y , o f Winograd (1972), R u m e l h a r t (1976) and A n d e r s o n (1977). From t h e f i e l d s o f l i n g u i s t i c s , c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y and a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e have come r e s e a r c h i n ' n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e ' t h a t p r o v i d e a b e g i n n i n g framework f o r s t u d y i n g d i s c o u r s e . The term " d i s c o u r s e " has been u s e d t o r e f e r t o numerous l o o s e l y r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . Winograd (1977) f o u n d o v e r 60 t e c h n i c a l t erms i n 19 a s c a n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u c h a s t e x t , c o n t e x t , b a c k g r o u n d , t e x t grammar, communicative dynamism, e p i s o d e , r e l e v a n c e (p.6k). There a r e two a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y o f d i s c o u r s e h e l p f u l i n t h e s t u d y o f c o mprehension. One, e m p h a s i z i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , f o c u s e s on t h e c o g n i t i v e o r p r o c e s s i n g s t r u c t u r e o f t h e l a n g u a g e u s e r . The o t h e r , s t r e s s i n g l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , c o n c e n t r a t e s on.the s t r u c t u r a l f orm o f t h e d i s c o u r s e i t s e l f . T h e o r i e s o f D i s c o u r s e C o g n i t i v e A p p r o a c h The p r o b l e m o f s t u d y i n g d i s c o u r s e c a n be seen a s one o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f l a n g u a g e p r o d u c t i o n and c o m p r e h e n s i o n ( A n d e r s o n , 1977; R u m e l h a r t , 1977; Winograd, 1977). I n t h i s v i e w , "knowledge a p e r s o n a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e s has a p o t e n t i n f l u e n c e o n what he o r she w i l l l e a r n and remember from e x p o s u r e t o d i s c o u r s e " ( A n d e r s o n , 1977» P.67). Knowledge i s s t o r e d i n a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r e s c a l l e d schemata e a c h h a v i n g a s l o t f o r e a c h f a c t . These schemata a r e g u i d e s i n a p r o c e s s o f " p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n . " To comprehend i s t o i d e n t i f y known d i s c o u r s e and r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s . To comprehend i s t o p r e d i c t and c o n f i r m a p a s s a g e c o n t e n t . R e a d i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a "top-down" ( K i n t s c h , 1977) o r " c o n c e p t u a l l y d r i v e n " p r o c e s s s i m i l a r t o Goodman's (1976) " p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c g u e s s i n g game". The g r e a t e r t h e knowledge o f t h e p a t t e r n o f d i s c o u r s e , t h e e a s i e r t h e c o mprehension. P a t t e r n s o f D i s c o u r s e R h e t o r i c a l schemas. D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t e x t b o o k s and o t h e r s c h o o l l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s may be l o d g e d i n t h e t e x t a l o n e ( O l s o n , 1977a). P a t t e r n s o f r e a s o n i n g , o f t e n c o n t a i n e d i n t e x t b o o k s , a r e c a l l e d r h e t o r i c a l schemas (Winograd, 1977, p. 8 2 ) . Language p r o v i d e s a number o f d e v i c e s t o communicate t h e s e schemas. Some a r e s i g n a l l e d d i r e c t l y by words i n d i c a t i n g c a u s a l i t y s u c h a s , "because"; summation, " t h e r e f o r e " ; sequence, " f i r s t " and " s e c o n d " ; and change o f i d e a s , " a l t h o u g h " . O t h e r s , a t a l a r g e s c a l e l e v e l , a r e f o r o r g a n i z i n g e x p o s i t i o n and arguments. These c o n v e n t i o n a l schemas, s u c h a s c a u s e -e f f e c t , r i g i d o r d e r , c o m p a r i s o n , p r o b l e m - s o l u t i o n , may be u s e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s ( R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . N a r r a t i v e schemas. " W i t h i n any l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e t h e r e i s a s e t o f schemas f o r r e l a t i n g n a r r a t i v e s o f e v e n t s , e i t h e r from t h e memory o f t h e s p e a k e r o r a s a s t o r y a b o u t someone e l s e " (Winograd, 1977, Pi83), f o r example: t i m e sequence, p l a n s , c a u s a l i t y and a c t i o n f orm t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t o r y . R u m e l h a r t (1975) d i v i d e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s t o r y ( o r " s t o r y grammer") i n t o a sequence o f e p i s o d e s , s t a t e s , e v e n t s and p l a n s t h a t he named p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g e p i s o d e s . W i n o g r a d ( 1 9 7 7 ) and Grimes (1975) s p e c u l a t e d t h a t any n a r r a t i v e t e x t i s t h e p r o d u c t o f " s e v e r a l i n t e r a c t i n g s t r u c t u r e s " (Winograd, p . 8 4 ) , some d e a l i n g w i t h t i m e f l o w , e x p l a n a t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y o r c o n v e n t i o n s f o r s t o r y t e l l i n g , I n a d d i t i o n , some schemas s u c h a s f l a s h b a c k s o r s t a n d a r d schemas f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a u t h o r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t a r e h i g h l y c u l t u r a l l y dependent ( K i n t s c h & Greene, 1978). P r o b l e m s i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n go beyond t h e word o r s e n t e n c e l e v e l o f t h e t e x t t o t h e c o m p lete o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p a s s a g e . Schemas may be c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e l a n g u a g e u s e r o r i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e form o f d i s c o u r s e . E f f i c i e n t u s e o f schemas a i d s c o mprehension. I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y most r e a d e r s have w i t h n a r r a t i v e schemas r e s u l t s i n f a c i l i t a t i o n o f c o m p r ehension i n t h i s a r e a . 1 21 Summary The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l "base f o r r e s e a r c h i n t h e s t u d y o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o v e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e . D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e s k i l l s model and t h e use o f a l i m i t e d number o f m e a s u r i n g t e c h n i q u e s were d i s c u s s e d . P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y , was p r e s e n t e d a s a r a t i o n a l e t o overcome r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s . A n a l y s i s o f r e s p o n s e s i n a n a t u r a l r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n u s i n g m i s c u e a n a l y s i s and c l o z e p r o c e d u r e p r o v e v a l u a b l e . D i s c o u r s e t h e o r y e x t e n d s t h e a n a l y s i s t o t h e whole o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e passage f a c i l i t a t i n g a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r o c e s s between modes o f d i s c o u r s e . CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY The d e s i g n o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d s t u d y r e f l e c t e d t h e m a i n purpose o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r o c e s s by e x a m i n i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s o f grade e i g h t r e a d e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o two f a c t o r s : l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y a nd mode o f d i s c o u r s e . T h i s s t u d y c o n s i d e r e d ( l ) t h e e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , and (2) t h e no n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , p r o c e d u r e s f o r s e l e c t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n sample, i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a and t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a . H y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d a r e i n c l u d e d . R e s e a r c h D e s i g n C o ngruent w i t h Cram (1980), t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was a 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n . F a c t o r A: 2 modes o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . F i x e d E f f e c t . F a c t o r B: 2 l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , good and p o o r . F i x e d E f f e c t , (p.59) Cram s c h e m a t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e d e s i g n a s f o l l o w s : Mode o f d i s c o u r s e ( F a c t o r A) 1 2 N a r r a t i v e E x p o s i t o r y 1. Good Readers P r o f i c i e n c y ( F a c t o r B) 2. P o o r Readers 22 23 The P o p u l a t i o n Sample To r e p l i c a t e a s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y by Gram (1980), a sample o f grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s was t e s t e d i n l a t e May, I98O. I t was assumed t h a t t h i s sample w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o Gram's s t u d e n t s " e n t e r i n g g r a d e n i n e " ( p . i i ) . S i n c e t h e s t u d y i s an i n - d e p t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o n l y s u b j e c t s from one s c h o o l were s e l e c t e d . The s u b j e c t s a t t e n d e d Newton J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , S u r r e y , B. C. From t h i s p o p u l a t i o n two samples were drawn. S e l e c t i o n o f Sample 1 F o l l o w i n g Gram's p r o c e d u r e , t o i n v e s t i g a t e e x a c t c l o z e r e p l a c e m e n t s , t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f grade 8 (N = 74) was t e s t e d . To e l i m i n a t e p o s s i b l e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e i n t e r f e r e n c e , o n l y N a t i v e E n g l i s h language s t u d e n t s r e m a i n e d i n t h e sample. The f i n a l sample f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s was r e d u c e d t o N = 61. S e l e c t i o n o f Sample 2 To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y a f u r t h e r sample was n e c e s s a r y . To s t u d y b o t h e x a c t and n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e d e l e t i o n s o f good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s a sample o f N = 38 (good N = 19, p o o r N = 19) was s e l e c t e d . The i n s t r u m e n t u s e d t o group r e a d e r s i n t o p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s was t h e N e l s o n R e a d i n g S k i l l s T e s t , Form 3G (NRST). T h i s t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d on a s c h o o l wide b a s i s as a S c h o o l B o a r d p r o c e d u r e June 12, I98O. I t was s c o r e d by computer s e r v i c e s . A t o t a l raw s c o r e was c a l c u l a t e d by a d d i n g t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e and v o c a b u l a r y s c o r e . The good r e a d e r s o b t a i n e d a s c o r e o f 61 o r g r e a t e r whereas t h e p o o r r e a d e r s h a d a s c o r e o f 50 o r l e s s . W i t h t h e s e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a t h e r e was enough d i f f e r e n c e between good and p o o r r e a d e r s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n The m a t e r i a l s and c l o z e t e s t s were the same a s were u s e d by Gram (1980) f o r h e r grade 9's. M a t e r i a l s The r e s e a r c h p a s s a g e s were r e p r o d u c e d f r o m t e s t s u s e d f o r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e a d i n g Assessment, Grade 8. The "passages have a r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y grade 8 ( R e p o r t 1: T e s t R e s u l t s ) e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e F r y R e a d a b i l i t y F o r m u l a and were w r i t t e n by C a n a d i a n a u t h o r s " ( p . 62). The p a s s a g e s were: a;) "A K i n d o f C o u r a g e " — N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n b) " A u s t r a l i a n C i t i e s " — E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e C l o z e P a s s a g e s The c l o z e p a s s a g e s were d e v e l o p e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way: The t e s t p a s s a g e s were t y p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m a t w i t h f i f t h word d e l e t i o n s (Bormuth, I976, pp.68-69). The 50 d e l e t i o n s were s e l e c t e d from t h e 250 words i n t h e f i n a l p o r t i o n o f e a c h s e l e c t i o n a t a p o i n t j u d g e d s u i t a b l e by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r . (Cram, p.63) P r o c e d u r e s The c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a was c o n d u c t e d i n two s t a g e s . I n the f i r s t s t a g e b o t h r e s e a r c h p a s s a g e s , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h r e e g r a d e 8 c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h e i r s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g b l o c k o f t h a t day ( A p p e n d i x A ) . To overcome o r d e r e f f e c t h a l f t h e t e s t s began w i t h the n a r r a t i v e passage and h a l f t h e t e s t s began w i t h t h e e x p o s i t o r y p assage. T h i s r e s e a r c h e r e x p l a i n e d c l e a r w r i t t e n t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e two t e a c h e r s i n one h a l f h o u r s e s s i o n , The s t u d e n t s were t o c o m p l e t e the sample t e s t , r e a d t h e c o m p l e t e d p a r a g r a p h s and complete t h e c l o z e p a s s a g e s by g u e s s i n g what word was l e f t o u t o f e a c h space and w r i t i n g t h a t word i n t h a t s pace. I n s t r u c t i o n s and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t e s t i n g took one ho u r . 25 Data Processing The s t a t i s t i c a l procedures used i n the analysis of the data from exact replacements of cloze and non-exact replacements of cloze responses were the same as were used by Gram (1980). Exact Cloze Scores 1. Correlation. Exact cloze scores on narrative f i c t i o n and on expository prose were correlated with scores on the Nelson Reading  S k i l l s Test using the Step-Wise regression, N = 61. 2. Comparison of means. Means and standard deviations were computed for N = 61 for exact cloze scores on each mode of discourse. For each pair of means, t values were calculated. 3. Analysis of variance. Means of exact cloze scores of the good and poor readers, N = 38, were examined by the analysis of variance (Table 3-1) based on the 2 x 2 fa c t o r i a l design, fixed effects model. TABLE 3.1 SOURCES OF VARIANCE AND DEGREES OF FREEDOM FOR A 2 x 2 FACTORIAL RANDOMIZED DESIGN, FIXED EFFECTS MODEL  Source df Modes of Discourse (A^A2) (p-l) = 1 Levels of Proficiency ( B i B 2 ) il'1) = 1 Interaction (A.B) (p-l)(q-l) = 1 Within Cells N-pq. = N-4 Total N-1 26 Non-Exact C l o z e R e p l a c e m e n t s E a c h n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t was a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o a m o d i f i e d Cram r e a d i n g a s s e s s m e n t method (pp. 171-172) w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y on e a c h mode o f d i s c o u r s e : n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . An a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e system o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was made t o r e f l e c t a s u g g e s t i o n by Cram: c a t e g o r i e s o f the taxonomy s i m p l i f i e d t o " y e s " and "no" c o d i n g o n l y ( A p p e n d i x B ) . Cram s t a t e d t h a t "The e x t r a i n f o r m a t i o n d i d n o t w a r r a n t t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n s c o r i n g . . . " ( p . 1 2 4 ) . The mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y . S i n c e Cram u s e d p a r t i a l e v a l u a t i o n s she f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o use a w e i g h t i n g system. Cram recommended t h a t the p a r t i a l n o t be used, t h u s h e r w e i g h t i n g system was n o t r e q u i r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . However a m o d i f i e d w e i g h t i n g system was d e v e l o p e d f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y a s f o l l o w s : 1 x T o t a l 'Yes' 1 x NER's S t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e s 1. Comparison o f means. To d e t e r m i n e t h e e x i s t a n c e o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ' s , t v a l u e s were computed between means o f no n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s on modes o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a nd e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , f o r good and p o o r r e a d e r s . 2. A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . To examine t h e d i f f e r e n c e among means o f the e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was u s e d , b a s e d on t h e 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n . F o r t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s t h e l e v e l o f r e j e c t i o n was p < .05 (p. 66). Non-Exact r e p l a c e m e n t s c o r i n g R e l i a b i l i t y . 27 To e n s u r e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f a n a l y s i s o f n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , c o p i e s o f Gram's a n a l y s i s s h e e t s f o r each s t u d e n t and e a c h mode were o b t a i n e d and u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r judgements. Thus t h e a n a l y s i s r e s e m b l e d t h a t o f Cram. Hypoth e s e s A n a l o g o u s t o Cram (I98O), f o r t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n .the f o l l o w i n g n u l l h y p o t h e s e s were f o r m u l a t e d (pp. 68-72). R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 "Are t h e r e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l e c t e d i n d i c e s o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . . . f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s " . . . i n g r a d e e i g h t ? H y p o t h e s e s 1.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on a r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n measure and ( l ) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n o r (2) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . . . . i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.11. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s o n t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (NRST) a n d t h e e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s ( E C N ) . . . . i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.12. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (NRST) and t h e e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s ( E C E ) . . . . H y p o t h e s i s 1.2 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between ( l ) t he number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and (2) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . . . . H y p o t h e s i s 1.3 There a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among ( l ) s c o r e s on a c r i t e r i o n measure, (2) the number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a nd (3), t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , . . . o v e r g i v e n p r o f i c i e n c y . , . l e v e l s . 28 i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.31. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (NRST) and e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e (EGN) f o r good and p o o r r e a d e r s . i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.32. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (NRST) and e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s (EGE) f o r good and p o o r r e a d e r s . i i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.33. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s (EGN) and the e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s (EGE) f o r good and p o o r r e a d e r s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 "Does s u b j e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n v a r y w i t h mode o f d i s c o u r s e ? " H y p o t h e s i s 2.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s between t h e n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n m ode o f d i s c o u r s e and t h e e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode, a s measured by ( l ) e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s and (2) n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s , o v e r g i v e n l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y . i ) H y p o t h e s i s 2.11. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s o v e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e a s measured by the number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s f o r s u b j e c t s a t good o r p o o r l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y . . . . i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 2.12. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between... mean s c o r e s o v e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e as measured by t h e number o f no n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s (N.E.R.) o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o n each o f f o u r v a r i a b l e s : (1) g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , (2) s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , (3) s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , a nd (4) d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , f o r s u b j e c t s a t good o r p o o r l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 3 "Do s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , good and p o o r , v a r y i n comprehension?" H y p o t h e s i s 3.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g c o m p rehension between good and p o o r r e a d e r s , a s measured by t h e numberjof e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . . . . 29 i ) H y p o t h e s i s 3.11. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m ain e f f e c t due t o p r o f i c i e n c y , good and p o o r r e a d e r s , a s measured by t h e number o f e x a c t c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . . . . i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 3.12. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m ain e f f e c t due t o mode o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , a s measured by t h e number o f e x a c t c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . . . . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4 " I s t h e r e an i n t e r a c t i o n between mode o f d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l ? " H y p o t h e s i s 4.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between modes o f d i s c o u r s e ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ) a n d p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s (good and p o o r ) . . . , b a s e d on t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . Summary T h i s s t u d y , a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram (I980), was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e c l o z e r e s p o n s e s t o p a s s a g e s i n two modes o f d i s c o u r s e : e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e and n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , o v e r good and p o o r p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s . C o r r e l a t i o n and p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s were u s e d t o a n a l y s e the d a t a f r o m e x a c t and n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f t h e c l o z e p a s s a g e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a nd e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e f o r good and p o o r r e a d e r s i n grade e i g h t . CHAPTER I V RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a r e p o r t o f t h e r e s M t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s f o r the pu r p o s e o f e x a m i n i n g the comprehension p r o c e s s o f grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . I n terms o f n u l l h y p o t h e s e s e a c h r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was i n v e s t i g a t e d u s i n g s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . C o r r e l a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s were u s e d t o a n a l y s e e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o f sample 1 (N = 6 l ) . F u r t h e r , t - t e s t s and an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e were u s e d t o s t u d y e x a c t and n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o f sample 2 (N = 19 good r e a d e r s and N = 19 p o o r r e a d e r s ) . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 A r e t h e r e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l e c t e d i n d e c e s o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n f o r s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e e i g h t ? C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and a s t e p - w i s e r e g r e s s i o n were computed among t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : t h e c r i t e r i o n measure, the N e l s o n  R e a d i n g S k i l l s T e s t (NRST), t h e c l o z e s c o r e s on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n (ECN) and on t h e c l o z e s c o r e s on e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e (ECE). The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s a r e p o r t on t h e r e s u l t s i n terms o f t h e sample o f grade e i g h t r e a d e r s t e s t e d . H y p o t h e s e s 1.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on a r e a d i n g c o m prehension measure and ( l ) the number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n o r (2) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . 30 31 T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r sample 1 (N = 61). Complete r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 4.1. i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.11 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (NRST) and e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s (ECN) f o r grade e i g h t r e a d e r s . A moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .49) was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p <.0l). The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.12 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s o n the c r i t e r i o n measure (NRST) and t h e e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e (ECE) f o r grade e i g h t r e a d e r s . A low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .30) was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p <.«05)« The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 1.2 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between (1) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and (2) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r sample 1 (N = 61). As t h e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.1 i n d i c a t e , t h e r e was a moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ( r = .43). The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 1.3 There a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among (1) s c o r e s on a c r i t e r i o n measure, (2) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , and (3) t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , o v e r g i v e n p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s . 32 TABLE 4 . 1 INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG SELECTED INDEXES FOR GRADE EIGHT READERS (N = 6i) Measure E x a c t C l o z e N a r r a t i v e E x a c t C l o z e E x p o s i t o r y N e l s o n R e a d i n g S k i l l s T e s t . 4 9 * * . 3 0 * E x a c t C l o z e N a r r a t i v e . 4 3 * * * P < . 0 5 **p < : 01 33 T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r sample 2 (N = 19 f o r good r e a d e r s and N = 19 f o r p o o r r e a d e r s ) . The r e s u l t s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4.2. i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.31 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s o n t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (NRST) and e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e (EGN) f o r good and p o o r r e a d e r s . F o r a l l s u b j e c t s , a moderated p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .66, good; r = .67, p o o r ) showed s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t a .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o r b o t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s . i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.32 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (NRST) and e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y (EGE) f o r good and p o o r r e a d e r s . F o r good r e a d e r s therewwas a moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .50) a t t h e .05 l e v e l ©f s i g n i f i c a n c e . F o r p o o r r e a d e r s a moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .52) was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o r b o t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s . i i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 1.33 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s (EGN) and t h e e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s (EGE) f o r good and p o o r r e a d e r s . The moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .67, p <.0l) f o r good s u b j e c t s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d ; i t was a c c e p t e d f o r p o o r r e a d e r s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 Does s u b j e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n v a r y w i t h mode o f d i s c o u r s e ? H y p o t h e s i s 2.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean r e a d i n g c o m p rehension s c o r e s between t h e n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n mode o f d i s c o u r s e and 34 TABLE 4.2 INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG SELECTED INDEXES FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS 3 , I N GRADE EIGHT (N = 19) Measure N e l s o n ECN ECE N e l s o n R e a d i n g S k i l l s T e s t E x a c t C l o z e N a r r a t i v e (ECN) E x a c t C l o z e E x p o s i t o r y (ECE) .67** .52* .66** .34 .50* .67** ^Upper r i g h t s i d e o f m a t r i x l i s t s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f good r e a d e r s a n d t h e l o w e r s i d e o f p o o r r e a d e r s . *p <.05 **p <.01 35 t h e e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode a s measured by ( 1 ) e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s and ( 2 ) n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s , o v e r g i v e n l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r (N = 19) good and (N = 19) p o o r r e a d e r s . Complete r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 4 . 3 and 4 . 4 . i ) H y p o t h e s i s 2 . 1 1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s o v e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e a s measured by t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s f o r s u b j e c t s a t good o r p o o r l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y . F o r good r e a d e r s (N = 19)> t h e mean was 48.75 on t h e n a r r a t i v e mode whereas o n t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode t h e mean was 2 7 . 7 4 ( T a b l e 4 . 3 ) . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = 1 1 , 8 7 ; P < . 0 0 l ) . F o r p o o r r e a d e r s (N = 1 9 ) , t h e mean was 36.84 on t h e n a r r a t i v e mode and 2 0 . 1 1 on t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode. A g a i n t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = 5«20; p £ . 0 0 1 ) . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 2 . 1 2 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s o v e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e as measured by t h e number o f n o n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s (N.E.R.) o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o n ea c h o f th e f o u r v a r i a b l e s : ( l ) g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , ( 2 ) s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , ( 3 ) s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and ( 4 ) d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r s u b j e c t s a t good o r p o o r l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y . To s p e c i f y how r e a d e r s a t d i f f e r e n t p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s v a r i e d w i t h mode o f d i s c o u r s e , t - t e s t s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e s c o r e s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e . Good r e a d e r s had g r e a t e r means on t h e n a r r a t i v e mode f o r a l l f o u r v a r i a b l e s . F o r example, t h e s e r e a d e r s , o n d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e d a mean o f 7 7 . 7 8 on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and 4 7 . 9 6 on e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ( t = 1 0 . 1 9 , P < . 0 0 l ) . On g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , t he d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t 3.6 TABLE 4.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN MEANS OF EXACT CLOZE NARRATIVE (ECN) AND EXACT CLOZE EXPOSITORY (ECE) FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS I N GRADE EIGHT (N = 19) P r o f i c i e n c e s V a r i a b l e s Means S.D. t - v a l u e s ECN 48.75 3.99 Good 11.87* ECE 27.74 9.5 ECN 36.84 12.14 P o o r 5.20* ECE 20.11 12.23 *p <.001 TABLE 4.4 COMPARISON BETWEEN MEANS OF NON-EXACT REPLACEMENTS OF CLOZE RESPONSES ON MODES OF DISCOURSE BY PROFICIENCY LEVEL I N GRADE EIGHT (N = 19) Modes o f D i s c o u r s e G r a m m a t i c a l F u n c t i o n S y n t a c t i c A c c e p t a b i l i t y S e m a n t i c A c c e p t a b i l i t y D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y Good R e a d e r s N a r r a t i v e 77.26 83.48 74.45 77.78 E x p o s i t o r y ; 61.37 72.96 47.17 47.96 t V a l u e 3.81* 1.94 8.41* 10.19* P o o r R e a d e r s N a r r a t i v e 65.67 67.68 57.92 61.75 E x p o s i t o r y 36.31 44.18 24.36 24.20 t v a l u e 5.54* 3.80* 6.70* 7.36* *p <.001 37 a t t h e .001 l e v e l . P o o r r e a d e r s p r o d u c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r means on t h e n a r r a t i v e mode f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s when compared w i t h t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode. F o r example, p o o r r e a d e r s s c o r e d means o f 57.92 on t h e n a r r a t i v e mode and 24.36 on t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode f o r d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y ( t = 6.70, p <.001). The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was, t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d on t h r e e v a r i a b l e s : g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y a nd d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r good and p o o r s u b j e c t s . On s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y t he n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o r p o o r r e a d e r s ; i t was a c c e p t e d f o r good r e a d e r s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 3 Do s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , good and p o o r , v a r y i n comprehension? H y p o t h e s i s 3.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g c o m p rehension between good and p o o r r e a d e r s , a s measured by t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . A two way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on e x a c t s c o r e s was u s e d w i t h Sample 2 (N = 19 f o r good r e a d e r s and N = 19 f o r p o o r r e a d e r s ) t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . R e s u l t s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4.5. i ) H y p o t h e s i s 3.11 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m ain e f f e c t due t o p r o f i c i e n c y , good and p o o r r e a d e r s , a s measured by t h e number o f e x a c t c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a i n e f f e c t due t o p r o f i c i e n c y was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 12.16, p <.00l). i i ) H y p o t h e s i s 3.12 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m ain e f f e c t due t o mode o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a nd e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , 38 TABLE 4.5 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF EXACT CLOZE SCORES OF NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS I N GRADE EIGHT Source s s d . f m.s F Between modes 6484.2? 1 6484.27 102.91* Between p r o f i c i e n c i e s 2042.57 1 2042.57 12.16* I n t e r a c t i o n 5 7 . 3 0 1 5 7 . 3 0 . 9 0 W i t h i n g r o u p s 2268.44 36 63.01 ( r e s i d u a l ) T o t a l 10852.58 39 *p <.001 39 a s measured by t h e number o f e x a c t c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . The m a i n e f f e c t due t o mode o f d i s c o u r s e a c h i e v e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The n u l l h y p o t h e s e s were r e j e c t e d f o r p r o f i c i e n c y and mode o f d i s c o u r s e . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4 I s t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between mode o f d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l ? H y p o t h e s i s 4.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between modes o f d i s c o u r s e , ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a nd e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ) and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s (good and p o o r ) ba s e d on t h e number o f e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . R e s u l t s showed t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n ( T a b l e 4 .5 ) between p r o f i c i e n c y and modes o f d i s c o u r s e (F = . 9 0 ) . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d . Summary The t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a f r o m t h e c l o z e r e s p o n s e s o f grade e i g h t s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s t o modes o f d i s c o u r s e ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ) was d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d among t h e c r i t e r i o n measure: the N e l s o n R e a d i n g S k i l l s  T e s t (NRST), e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s o n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e (EGE). The c o m p u t a t i o n o f t - v a l u e s s p e c i f i e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s on modes o f d i s c o u r s e and between n o n - e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s o n modes o f d i s c o u r s e f o r g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t e c h n i q u e s were u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t he s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between means o f t h e m a i n e f f e c t s o f p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l and mode o f d i s c o u r s e f o r e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s . CHAPTER V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS T h i s s t u d y , a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram (1980), was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether o r n o t the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f r e s p o n s e s t o c l o z e t a s k s v a r i e s w i t h two modes o f d i s c o u r s e : n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . Key t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s g u i d i n g t h e r e s e a r c h stemmed from p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s ; t h a t r e a d i n g i n v o l v e s r e s p o n s e s t o jfehe graphophonemic, s y n t a c t i c , a nd s e m a n t i c cue systems o f language (Goodman, 1976a); and from d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s t h e o r y ; t h a t a "schema" o r c o g n i t i v e map d i r e c t s t h e r e a d e r i n t h e s e a r c h f o r d i s c o u r s e c u es (Winograd, 1977). S u b j e c t s were c o m p l e t i n g grade e i g h t (N = 6l) i n a s m a l l j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n S u r r e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O n l y s u b j e c t s whose p r i m a r y language was E n g l i s h , q u a l i f i e d . Good (N = 19) and poor (N = 19) r e a d e r s were i d e n t i f i e d f rom t h e sum o f s c o r e s on the comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s o f t h e N e l s o n R e a d i n g S k i l l s T e s t (1977). E x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s (E.R.'s) o f 61 s u b j e c t s were examined. Non-exact r e p l a c e m e n t s (N.E.R.'s) o f good (N = 19) and p o o r (N = 19) r e a d e r s were a l s o a n a l y s e d . E ach s u b j e c t c o m p l e t e d two c l o z e t a s k s : a n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a nd an e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e a d i n g Assessment 1977, Grade,8. To ensure r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram ( I 9 8 O ) , e v e r y e f f o r t was made t o use s i m i l a r s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a a nd t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s . R esponses were examined f o r e x a c t match t o the a u t h o r ' s word (Bormuth, 1976). C o n s i s t e n t w i t h Cram's ( I98O) s u g g e s t i o n , a n a d a p t i o n o f t h e Cram R e a d i n g Assessment Method was u s e d t o e v a l u a t e N.E.R.'s. To a n a l y s e t h e d a t a , c o r r e l a t i o n , i n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t s and two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e were us e d . The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y was a n a l o g o u s t o Cram ( I 9 8 O ) . 40 C o r r e l a t i o n s between the s t a n d a r d i z e d measure and e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e n a r r a t i v e mode. F o r b o t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s , e x a c t n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n e x a c t e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s . P o o r r e a d e r s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from good r e a d e r s . S c o r e s f o r b o t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s on g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n t h a n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . P o o r r e a d e r s o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean on n a r r a t i v e when compared t o e x p o s i t o r y on s y n t a c t i c a c c e p a b i l i t y . C o n c l u s i o n s , b a s e d on r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d were ( l ) c l o z e c o m prehension s c o r e s d i f f e r e d f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e modes o f d i s c o u r s e , and (2) e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s . D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e F i n d i n g s S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f Cram (1980), the f i n d i n g s a r e m a i n l y d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e s u l t s o f h e r r e s e a r c h . S i m i l a r moderate i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n measures were f o u n d by Cram and t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r . F o r g rade n i n e r e a d e r s Cram f o u n d i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l between t h e s c o r e s on a r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n measure and e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s and between e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s . T h i s s t u d y o b t a i n e d i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a t t h e same l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e on t h e s e v a r i a b l e s f o r grade e i g h t r e a d e r s . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n measure and e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s i n t h e Cram s t u d y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t p < .01; whereas i n t h i s s t u d y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t p < ,05. One c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may have been t h e use o f d i f f e r e n t t e s t s . The r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s s u g g e s t e d by R a n k i n and Culhane (I969). F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i t h c l o z e t e s t s on s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s c o u l d s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e f i n d i n g s 42 b u t i t a p p e a r s t h a t e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s a r e v a l u a b l e a s an i n i t i a l g r oup s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e ( H i t t l e m a n , 1978; Gram, 1980). When o n l y t h e e x a c t c l o z e s c o r e s o f good and p o o r r e a d e r s were c o r r e l a t e d b o t h s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s and e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s f o r good r e a d e r s . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h i s i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t a t p <.01; whereas i n the Gram s t u d y , i t was s i g n i f i c a n t , a t p <.0j5. B o t h s t u d i e s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between e x a c t c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s and e x a c t c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s f o r p o o r r e a d e r s . Whereas t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e com p r e h e n s i o n measure and e x a c t n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s and e x a c t e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s f o r b o t h good and poo r r e a d e r s ; t h e Gram s t u d y d i d n o t . The use o f d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g t e s t s may be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h i s d i s s i m i l a r i t y . C o n c u r r i n g w i t h Cram, the f i n d i n g s on t h e e f f e c t o f mode o f d i s c o u r s e on c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t h e m a t i z e d e l e m e n t s o f n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a r e more e a s i l y p r o c e s s e d t h a n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . A ' s t o r y grammar' a s s i s t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( R u m e l h a r t , 1975). A l l s u b j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p o o r r e a d e r s f o u n d i t more d i f f i c u l t t o p r o c e s s the r h e t o r i c a l schemas o f t h e e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . T h i s s u p p o r t s the work o f Winograd (1977). On e x a c t c l o z e r e p l a c e m e n t s , good and p o o r r e a d e r s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n when compared t o e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y and Cram's s t u d y t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the ,001 l e v e l . I T h e r e s u l t s f o r the n o n - e x a c t c l o z e r e p l a c e m e n t s were s i m i l a r f o r b o t h s t u d i e s . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t p <.001 between n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s and e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s f o r b o t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s were o b t a i n e d on a l l v a r i a b l e s e x c e p t one, s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f no n - e x a c t r e p l a c e m e n t s 43 s u p p o r t Cambourne (1978). The m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e taxonomy t o " y e s " and "no" c a t e g o r i e s , a s s u g g e s t e d by Cram .(1980) a p p e a r s t o be v a l i d . C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s The f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t Cram (I98O) and l e a d t o s i m i l a r i m p l i c a t i o n s . I d e n t i f i e d were i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f r e a d i n g and f o r t e a c h i n g o f c o n t e n t a r e a r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . The r e s u l t s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t he c l o z e t e s t i s a r e l i a b l e and p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t . C l o z e i s a v a l u a b l e t o o l i n t h e c l a s s r o o m as i t combines a t o t a l group t e s t w i t h a more s p e c i f i c d i a g n o s t i c a s s e s s m e n t . A c l o z e t e s t i s e a s i l y c r e a t e d and s c o r e d . The taxonomy f o r n o n - e x a c t .replacements, w h i c h r e v e a l s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f o u r p a r t s o f language and a c t s a s a s i l e n t r e a d i n g m i s c u e a n a l y s i s , o f f e r s p r a c t i c a l a d v a n t a g e s o v e r t h e more t i m e - c o n s u m i n g o r a l m i s c u e a n a l y s i s . The c l o z e c a n be u s e d t o t e s t a whole c l a s s i f n e c e s s a r y , o r t o o b t a i n d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a s m a l l group o r a n i n d i v i d u a l a nd i s a u s e f u l d e v i c e i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s . S i n c e s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t l y , a c c o r d i n g t o t o t a l c l o z e s c o r e s , t o n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s , c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s must be made t o o b t a i n a n e s t i m a t e o f comprehension. The t y p e o f c l o z e t e s t s h o u l d be f i t t e d t o t h e t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n . F o r example, f o r a s o c i a l s t u d i e s u n i t , a n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e passage would be t h e most a p p l i c a b l e c o m p rehension measure; whereas, f o r an E n g l i s h u n i t , a n a r r a t i v e p assage w o u l d be most s u i t a b l e . The s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o f mode o f d i s c o u r s e o n com p r e h e n s i o n f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s s u g g e s t a need f o r t e s t i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l s i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e n t a r e a s . 44 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 1. There i s a need t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s s t u d y a t d i f f e r e n t g r ade l e v e l s . 2. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed u s i n g o t h e r p a s s a g e s i n t h e c o n t e n t a r e a o f t h i s s t u d y : s o c i a l s t u d i e s . 3 . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d t o o t h e r modes o f d i s c o u r s e . 4 . The s t u d y needs t o be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a sample whose f i r s t l anguage i s o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h . 5. R e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n u s i n g t h e same c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme o f t h e taxonomy i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e the v a l i d i t y . 45 REFERENCES And e r s o n , R.C. S c h e m a - d i r e c t e d p r o c e s s e s i n language c o m p r e h e n s i o n . I n L e s g o l d , A., P e l l e g r i n o , J . , Fokkema, S., & G l a s e r , R. ( E d s . ) C o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y o f i n s t r u c t i o n . New Y o r k : Plenum P r e s s , 1977, 67-82. B l e a k l e y , J . J . , & Johnson, E.P. The comprehension o f p r o s e : P r o b l e m s i n m e a s u r i n g l e a r n i n g outcomes. I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . Hansen ( E d s . ) R e a d i n g : D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e . T w e n t y - s e v e n t h yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , Clemson, S o u t h C a r o l i n a : N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1978, pp. 166-174. B l u s t e i n , E.S. R e a d i n g as a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e s s : A s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o b l e m s o l v i n g and o r a l r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n s i x t h - g r a d e c h i l d r e n ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , 1977). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, _> 1871A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i L m s No. 77-22, 237.) Bormuth, J.R. C l o z e a s a measure o f r e a d a b i l i t y . I n J.A. F i g u r e l (Ed.) R e a d i n g a s a n i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y . 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The c l o z e p r o c e d u r e : L i t e r a c y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n W.D. Page (Ed.) H e l p f o r t h e r e a d i n g t e a c h e r : New d i r e c t i o n s i n r e s e a r c h . Urbana, 111.: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , 1975. B r a z e e , P.E. A q u a l i t a t i v e a nd q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f e i g h t h g r ade s t u d e n t s ' o r a l r e a d i n g i n b o t h n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l s ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h e r n C o l o r a d o , 1976). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, _> P« 2032A. U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i L m s No. 76-23, 166. 46 B r i d g e , G.A., T i e r n e y , R . J . , & C e r a , M.J. I n f e r e n t i a l o p e r a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n d i s c o u r s e p r o c e s s i n g . I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . 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C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a s a r e s e a r c h t o o l i n t h e s t u d y o f l a n g u a g e . I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . Hansen (Eds.) R e a d i n g : D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e . Twenty-s e v e n t h Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . Clemson, S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1978. R a n k i n , E.F. & C u l h a n e , J.W. Comparable c l o z e and m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t s c o r e s . J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , I969, 1^, 193-199. 50 R e a d i n g : Language and l e a r n i n g a c r o s s t h e c u r r i c u l u m , R e p o r t 4. P r o j e c t B u i l d . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , 1978. R o b i n s o n , H.A. T e a c h i n g r e a d i n g and s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s : The c o n t e n t  a r e a s . B o s t o n : A l l y n a nd Bacon, 1975. Rosen, H. The langu a g e o f t e x t - b o o k s . I n A. Gashdan & E. Grugeon (Eds.) Language i n e d u c a t i o n : A s o u r c e book. London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1972. Rousch, P.D., & Gambourne, B.L. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c model o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s a s i t r e l a t e s t o p r o f i c i e n t , a v e r a g e , and l o w  a b i l i t y r e a d e r s . Wagga Wagge, N.S.W.: E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h and Development Committee, 1979. R u m e l h a r t , D.E. U n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u m m a r i z i n g b r i e f s t o r i e s . I n D. Laberge & S . J . Samuels (Eds.) B a s i c p r o c e s s e s i n r e a d i n g : P e r c e p t i o n and comprehension. New J e r s e y : Lawrence E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s , 1977, pp. 265-303. S h a f e r , R.E, W i l l p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s change r e a d i n g i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ? J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , 19?8, 12, 305-316. Simons, H.D, R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n : The need f o r a new p e r s p e c t i v e . R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1970-71, 6, 338-363. S i n g e r , H., & D o n l a n , D. R e a d i n g and l e a r n i n g f r o m t e x t . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown & Co., I98O. S m i t h , F. U n d e r s t a n d i n g r e a d i n g : A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f  r e a d i n g a n d l e a r n i n g t o read"^ (2nd ed.) New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , I978. S m i t h - B u r k e , M., G i n g r i c h , P.S., & E a g l e e y e , D. D i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f p r i o r c o n t e x t , s t y l e a nd d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n on c l o z e c o mprehension. I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . Hansen ( E d s . ) R e a d i n g : D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y  i n p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e . T w e n t y - s e v e n t h Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . Clemson, S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1978. S t a n s e l l , J.C. An e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s and c o n t r o l o f t h a t p r o c e s s i n n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l by s e l e c t e d 9th grade r e a d e r s ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , I n d i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1977). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, __t 3260A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 77-27, 013.) S t a n s e l l , J.C., H a r s t e , J . C , & De S a n t i , R . J . The e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r i n g m a t e r i a l s o n t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . Hansen (Eds.) R e a d i n g : D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e . Twenty-s e v e n t h Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . Clemson, S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1978. 51 S t e r n , H.W. A p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e use o f co m p r e h e n s i o n i n a n e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . R e a d i n g W o r l d , 1973> __> 246-265. T a y l o r , W.L. " C l o z e p r o c e d u r e " : A new t o o l f o r m e a s u r i n g r e a d a b i l i t y . J o u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 5 3 , _lt 415-433. T h e o b a l d , B. A p p l y i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e o f miscue a n a l y s i s t o t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e ( M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1 9 7 3 ) . Vaughan, J . L . , J r . , & M e r e d i t h , K.E. R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e a s a s s e s s m e n t s o f v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e e l e m e n t s . I n P.D. P e a r s o n & J . Hansen (Eds.) R e a d i n g : D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n p r o c e s s and  p r a c t i c e . T w e n t y - s e v e n t h Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . Clemson, S.C.: N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 7 8 . Vaughan, J . L . , J r . , T i e r n e y , R . J . , & A l p e r t , M. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . I n P.D. P e a r s o n (Ed.) R e a d i n g : Theory, r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e . T w e n t y - s i x t h Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1977, PP. 2 0 0 - 2 0 2 . V o r h a u s , R.P. A n a l y s i s and c o m p a r i s o n o f o r a l m i s c u e s g e n e r a t e d by f i r s t g r a d e s t u d e n t s on f o u r d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g t a s k s ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1 9 7 6 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1 9 7 6 , _3_7, I63A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7 6 - 1 5 , 6 0 2 . ) Weaver, P.A. S y n t a c t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n good and p o o r r e a d e r s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , T o r o n t o , 1 9 7 8 . (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 151 7 6 9 . ) Weber, R.M. The s t u d y o f o r a l r e a d i n g e r r o r s : A s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , I 9 6 8 , 6, 96-119. Winograd, T. A framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i s c o u r s e . I n M.A. J u s t ' & P.A. C a r p e n t e r (Eds.) C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n comprehension. H i l l s d a l e , J . J . : Lawrence E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s , 1977 . Z i n c k , R.A. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s e m a n t i c and s y n t a c t i c language cues u t i l i z e d d u r i n g o r a l a nd s i l e n t r e a d i n g ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a , 1 9 7 7 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o r i a l , 1978, 38, 4 6 3 5 A . ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7 7 3 0 5 2 3 . ) TESTS The N e l s o n R e a d i n g S k i l l s T e s t , Form 30» Iowa C i t y , I a . : Houghton M i f f i n Co., 1977. ... 52 -APPENDIX A R e a d i n g T e s t s 53 R e a d i n g Assessment Name B l o c k S t u d e n t No. Grade Boy G i r l _ S c o r e % D i d you u s u a l l y speak a language o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h b e f o r e you s t a r t e d Grade 1? Yes No I s E n g l i s h t h e language u s u a l l y spoken i n y o u r home? Yes No 54 C l o z e T e s t I n s t r u c t i o n s On t h e n e x t page i s a sample o f a new k i n d o f t e s t . E a c h o f t h e s e t e s t s i s made by c o p y i n g a few p a r a g r a p h s from a book. E v e r y f i f t h word was l e f t o u t o f t h e p a r a g r a p h s , and b l a n k s p a c e s were p u t where the words were t a k e n o u t . Your : 3 0 b w i l l be t o guess what word was l e f t o u t o f e a c h space  and t o w r i t e t h a t word i n t h a t s p a c e . I t w i l l h e l p you i n t a k i n g the t e s t i f you remember t h e s e t h i n g s : 1. W r i t e o n l y one word i n e a c h b l a n k . • 2. T r y t o f i l l e v e r y b l a n k . Don't be a f r a i d t o g u e s s . 3. You may s k i p h a r d b l a n k s and come back t o them when you have f i n i s h e d . 4. Wrong s p e l l i n g w i l l n o t c o u n t a g a i n s t you i f we c a n t e l l what word you meant. 5. Most o f t h e b l a n k s c a n be answered w i t h o r d i n a r y words b u t a few w i l l be numbers l i k e 3,427 o r $12 o r 1954 c o n t r a c t i o n s l i k e c a n ' t o r weren't a b b r e v i a t i o n s l i k e M rs. o r U.S.A. p a r t s o f h y p h e n a t e d words l i k e s e l f — i n t h e word s e l f - m a d e (Bormuth, I976, p.70) 55 Sample T e s t Here i s a sample o f one o f t h e s e t e s t s . ' F i l l e a c h b l a n k w i t h the word you t h i n k was t a k e n o u t . You may check y o u r p a p e r when you f i n i s h i t by l o o k i n g a t the answers w h i c h a r e w r i t t e n u p s i d e down a t t h e bottom o f t h e page. W r i t e n e a t l y . The B e a v e r I n d i a n s c a l l b e a v e r s t h e " l i t t l e men o f t h e woods." B u t t h e y r e a l l y so v e r y l i t t l e . b e a v e r s grow t o be o r f o u r f e e t l o n g weigh f r o m 30 t o pounds. These " l i t t l e men t h e woods" a r e busy o f t h e t i m e . T h a t why we sometimes s a y , " busy a s a b e a v e r . " know how t o b u i l d t h a t c a n h o l d w a t e r . use t h e i r two f r o n t t o do some o f work. G u t t i n g down a w i t h t h e i r f o u r s h a r p -t e e t h i s e a s y . A c a n c u t down a f o u r i n c h e s t h i c k i n 15 m i n u t e s . q.noq-6 *6l 'Ql JaA-eeq • £1 paquixod ' o j e a x i >rj jxaqq. ' ^ T swed '£1 A'aqj, 'zi surep • T T sjaA-eag; ' o j sre % S T »g q.sotu • ^  J° "9 Of? Ptre '+7 aa-rqq. •£ q.sow 'z q-.uaxe " T :saewsuy (Bormuth, 1975, p.71) 56 N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n : Grade E i g h t t o t h e uppermost j u t t i n g b o u l d e r a b o u t t h i r t y f e e t above t h e w a t e r . He w o u l d make i t — h e had t o make i t . He had done i t once t h i s m o r n i n g and he c o u l d do i t a g a i n . A crowd g a t h e r e d , and t h e c i t y o n t h e wharf were t o o . Davy t e n s e d h i s , r e a d y f o r t h e d i v e . he h e a r d a g i r l : " D o n ' t — d o n ' t do i t , _!" He l o o k e d down and G i n n y h o l d i n g o u t h e r t o him, b e g g i n g him s t o p . Davy s t a r e d a t "Gome down," she c r i e d . " , Davy, come down!" The i n h e r v o i c e c a u s e d t o h e s i t a t e and t h e n back. B u t when C l i n t o n , "What's the m a t t e r — y o u o u t ? " he c l e n c h e d h i s ) and s t e p p e d i n t o d i v i n g a g a i n . He c o u l d n ' t back now. He d i d n ' t want He Knew he c o u l d t h e d i v e . "Davy..." There f e a r i n G i n n y ' s v o i c e . " , p l e a s e d o n ' t d i v e , " she . He s a t sown t o f r o m d i v i n g , h i s head h i s hands. From below t h e l a u g h t e r o f t h e boys, the s t r i d e n t h o o t C l i n t o n l o u d e r t h a n t h e . Davy's palms were wet he f o u g h t back t h e t o l e a p up and _, no m a t t e r what G i n n y . When he l o o k e d down, crowd was l e a v i n g . O n l y and G i n n y s t o o d w a t c h i n g he came down t h e — s l o w l y f o r he was e x h a u s t e d . They w a l k e d t o w a r d — G i n n y p a l e and c l o s e t o , C l i n t o n s m i l i n g c o n d e s c e n d i n g l y . " l o o k e d l i k e a champ t h a t one," C l i n t o n t a u n t e d . c l e n c h e d h i s f i s t s , b u t l a i d h e r hand on arm and he s l o w l y He w i s h e d he c o u l d h e r how i t w a s — i t was h a r d e r t o l e t C l i n t o n t h i n k he was y e l l o w t h a n i t w o u l d have been t o d i v e . B u t he c o u l d n ' t e x p l a i n i t e x a c t l y , t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f courage i t had t a k e n . Any k i d c o u l d have t a k e n t h e d a r e a n d d i v e d o f f t h e c l i f f , b u t i t t o o k — w e l l — a man t o l e t h i m s e l f be r i d i c u l e d f o r s o m e t h i n g no one w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d . " I wasn't a f r a i d , " Davy s a i d . " I wasn't s c a r e d o f d i v i n g . " " I know," she s a i d , and s l i p p e d h e r arms t h r o u g h h i s . " B u t what you d i d was b r a v e r . " Answers: N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n : Grade E i g h t 1. had 26. keep 2. hoys 27. i n 3. w a t c h i n g 28. came 4. m u s c l e s 29. c i t y 5. t h e n 30. o f 6. c r y 31. r e s t 7. Davy 32. as 8. saw 33. i m p u l s e 9. arms 34. d i v e 10. t o 35/ wanted 11. h e r 36. t h e 12. P l e a s e 37. C l i n t o n 13. a n g u i s h 38. a s 14. him 39. r o c k s 15. s t e p 40. s u d d e n l y 16. s h o u t e d 41. him 17. c h i c k e n 42. t e a r s 18. f i s t s 43. You 19. p o s i t i o n 44. on 20. o u t 45. Davy 21. t o 46. G i n n y 22. make 47. h i s 23. was 48. r e l a x e d 24. Davy 49. t e l l 25. c a l l e d 50. t h a t 58 E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e : Grade E i g h t Much o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h i s u r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e o f A u s t r a l i a . The s e t t l e r s o n s h i p s , and n a t u r a l l y f i r s t a t t h e c h o s e n ) w h i c h soon d e v e l o p e d i n t o and p o r t s . As t h e and p a s t o r a l i s t s * p ushed i n l a n d l o o k e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r s u p p l i e s , and t h e i r p r o d u c e back t o p o r t s t o be s h i p p e d t h e o v e r s e a s m a r k e t s . T h i s ~ e x p a n d i n g t r a d e i n t h e o f f e r e d employment t o new , w h o t e n d e d t o s t a y t h e towns r a t h e r t h a n i n l a n d . L a t e r , t h e r a i l w a y s t h e i r n e t w o r k s o u t from p o r t - c a p i t a l s and a c c e l e r a t e d t h e o f t r a f f i c between town c o u n t r y , w h i l e t h e development m i n i n g , and s u c h new o c c u p a t i o n s as wheat and f a r m i n g , added g r e a t l y t o volume o f goods h a n d l e d t h e c o a s t a l c i t i e s . These J became even more i m p o r t a n t m a n u f a c t u r i n g began t o d e v e l o p t h e A u s t r a l i a n m a r k et. I t l o g i c a l t o b u i l d f a c t o r i e s t h e p l a c e s where t h e r e l a r g e numbers o f w o r k e r s , ) t h e l o c a l m a r k e t s were , and where o t h e r m a r k e t s be most e a s i l y r e a c h e d , by use o f t h e network o r by c o a s t a l . So t h e g r e a t c i t i e s c o n t i n u e d t o grow r a p i d l y , few c o u n t r y towns have t h a n d o u b l e d i n p o p u l a t i o n t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . means t h a t t h e c i t i e s o u t o v e r tremendous a r e a s . f a m i l i e s demand s u f f i c i e n t n o t o n l y t o b u i l d houses b u t a l s o t o v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n s , l a w n s , f l o w e r s , s h r u b s . Hence, Sydney and M e l b o u r n e c o v e r a r e a s w h i c h a r e l i t t l e s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f M e t r o p o l i t a n London a l t h o u g h t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s a r e much l e s s . The o t h e r A u s t r a l i a n c i t i e s a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e , Most A u s t r a l i a n s l i v i n g i n c i t i e s must " t r a v e l s e v e r a l m i l e s t o t h e i r work each m o r n i n g . The t h i n n e s s o f s e t t l e m e n t so o b v i o u s i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n c o u n t r y s i d e i s a l s o t o be s e e n i n t h e c i t i e s , so t h a t t r a n s p o r t and o t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , w a t e r , sewage, and o t h e r s e r v i c e s a r e a l l v e r y e x p e n s i v e t o p r o v i d e and m a i n t a i n . ^ f a r m e r s Answers: E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e : Grade E i g h t 1. f o r 26. t h e 2. l i e s 27. by 3. development 28. c e n t r e s 4. a r r i v e d 29. when 5. s e t t l e d 30. f o r 6. a n c h o r a g e s 31. was 7. t o w n s h i p s 32. i n 8. e x p l o r e r s 33. were 9. t h e y 34. where 10. p o r t s 35. l a r g e s t 11. s e n t 36. c o u l d 12. Ithe 37. e i t h e r 13. t o 38. r a i l 14. s t e a d i l y . 39. s h i p p i n g 15. p o r t s 40. have 16. i m m i g r a n t s 41. w h i l e 17. i n 42. more 18. s h i f t 43. i n 19. s p r e a d 44. T h i s 20. t h e 45. s p r e a d 21. f l o w 46. M o s t 22. and 47. l a n d 23. o f 48. t h e i r 24. r u r a l 49. have 25. d a i r y 50. and - 60 -APPENDIX B 61 MODIFIED GRAM R e a d i n g Assessment Method N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n : Grade 8 : S u b j e c t #14 C l o z e R eplacements Grammar Sy n t a x S e m a n t i c s D i s c o u r s e e x a c t n o n - e x a c t Y N Y N Y N Y N 1 had began y N/ y y y 2 boys f o l k y y y 3 w a t c h i n g 4 , m u s c l e s 5 t h e n = y 6 c r y s a y si y y 7 Davy = 8 saw r y 9 arms hand s/ y 10 t o 11 h e r = 12 P l e a s e = y y 13 A n g u i s h s h a k i n g J y 14 him Davy- s/ y y y 15 s t e p s t a n d y y 16 s h o u t e d s a i d y y y 17 c h i c k e n y 18 f i s t s f i s t sJ y y 19 p o s i t i o n = 20 o u t 21 t o = V y 22 make do y y 23 was - y y 24 Davy don't / y 25 c a l l e d y e l l e d y 26 keep s t o p y J y y/ 27 i n = si sf y 28 came 29 c i t y was town si sJ y y y y y 30 o f t h e n si 31 r e s t = sJ y y y sJ 32 a s and sJ 33 i m p u l s e urge y 34 d i v e 35 wanted s a i d J y y y 36 the 37 C l i n t o n he s/ y y y y y 38 a s and sJ y y 39 r o c k s c l i f f sf y y y 40 s u d d e n l y t o t a l l y V 62 MODIFIED GRAM R e a d i n g Assessment Method ( c o n t . ) C l o z e R e p l a c e m e n t s Grammar S y n t a x S e m a n t i c s D i s c o u r s e e x a c t n o n - e x a c t Y N Y N Y N Y N 41 him home J y y y 42 t e a r s him y \ / y y y 43 you he s/ y 44 on had y y \ / 45 Davy 46 G i n n y 47 h i s — y y 48 r e l a x e d wanted y v/ 49 t e l l = y 50 t h a t now y v/ y Raw t o t a l s 29 24 5 26 3 22 7 23 6 P e r c e n t a g e s " Yes" 48 48 52 44 46 

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