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The boat people : descriptive analysis of a program for teaching English as a foreign language Bardal, Nancy J. 1981

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THE BOAT PEOPLE: DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR TEACHING FOREIGN  ENGLISH AS A  LANGUAGE by  NANCY J . BARDAL B.A.,  University  of B r i t i s h  A THESIS SUBMITTED  Columbia,  1971  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION) We  accept to  this  thesis  the required  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October  1981  © Nancy J . B a r d a l ,  1981  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis  British  it  freely available  for  f u l f i l m e n t of the  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  agree that  in partial  Columbia,  I agree that f o r reference  permission  scholarly  the Library  shall  and study.  I  f o rextensive  for  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  of this  ^-^^/^U^s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  DE-6  (2/79)  QCTOGBX?  /<5~>  It is thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Date  thesis  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  that  Department o f  further  copying of t h i s  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood  make  / 9 S7  &!>L>C&TSO/>J Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  The  p u r p o s e of  E.F.L.  Program  appeared  to  gather  in  needed  the  descriptive of  83  was  to  basic  to h e l p E.F.L.  classroom.  progress  study  i n McCauley School  provide  experiences regular  this  More data  the  interviews,  use  of  materials  i n f o r m a l measures, t h i s  students  to  and  of  study  and  the  attempted  of  learning the  sought  monitoring people,  June,  student  use  and  study  by  to the  enrolled  1981.  questionnaires  curriculum  and  innovative  integrate into  this  program  1980  teacher  examination  instructional  skills  V i e t n a m e s e boat  t h e p r o g r a m between September, Through  reading  the  mainly  an  i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a , w h i c h  specifically,  about  students,  describe  schedules various  t o answer  and  formal  the  and  and  following  questions: 1. Who are  their  are  the  students  e d u c a t i o n a l and  2. Who  are  the  i n v o l v e d i n the  language  teachers  p r o g r a m and  what  backgrounds?  i n the  p r o g r a m and  what  are  their  q u a l i f i c a t ions? 3.  How  are  v a r i o u s program 4. What 5. in  How  terms  the  selected  and  assigned  to  the  levels?  i s the i s the  of  students  c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z a t i o n of reading  component  instructional  of  time,  the  program?  the c u r r i c u l u m  content,  organized  resources  and  methodology?  gains  6.  How  i s the  7.  Is  the  program  evaluated?  program e f f e c t i v e ,  in students'  reading  ability?  i . e . , are  there  demonstrable  The McCauley need made  findings  of  the  program . i n  for special about  a  an  programs year's  study  seem  effective i n E.F.L.  growth  in  to  model  indicate  f o r responding  Students appeared reading  nature  program,  specific  conclusions  is at  contributing difficult study  difficult to  most  which to  to g e n e r a l i z e  to other  the  to i s o l a t e components program's  the f i n d i n g s  of  of  the  success.  have  skills. McCauley  features  the  the  t o the  to  and. s p e l l i n g  However, b e c a u s e of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l it  that  t o draw  program  are  It i s equally  of t h e p r e s e n t  descriptive  populations.  THESIS  SUPERVISOR  Table List  of Tables  List  of F i g u r e s  of C o n t e n t s iv . ...v  CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM A.  1  Introduction  B. R a t i o n a l e  f o r the Study  ....1  t o the Study  ..2  C. B a c k g r o u n d D. P u r p o s e  of the Study  E. D e f i n i t i o n F. A s s u m p t i o n s G. T h e s i s  .1  ....3  o f Terms  ...5  and L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y  Outline  CHAPTER TWO:  6  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  A . Overview B. E x i s t i n g  6  ..8 8  Studies  8  C. Summary  18  CHAPTER THREE: PROCEDURES  19  A. O v e r v i e w  19  B. R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y  19  C. C o l l e c t i o n D. D i s p l a y  and R e c o r d i n g  and T r e a t m e n t  E . Summary  of Data  19 22 24  CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS  25  A.  25  E . F . L . Program O r g a n i z a t i o n  iv""  1 . Overview  25  2. S t a f f  .25  B. D e m o g r a p h i c s  31  1. Staff  . .31  2. S t u d e n t s  ...31  C. The R e a d i n g  Program  1. R e a d i n g  Time  2. R e a d i n g  Approaches  3. R e a d i n g  Skills  ..33 33 ..34 ......36  4. M a t e r i a l s  38  5. E v a l u a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s 6. Program  ..39  Results  40  CHAPTER F I V E : CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  ...44  A. O v e r v i e w  44  B. C o n c l u s i o n s C. Summary and Recommendations  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ..44 f o r Further  Study  51  53  List Table  1: E. F. L.  Table  2: S t u d e n t  Table  3: L e n g t h  Table  4: S t u d e n t  Table  5:  in  Table  o f Time S t u d e n t  7:  .  Program  ......28  i s Program  Time A l l o c a t i o n s of Core S u b j e c t  .29  f o r Subjects  ...30  Time and H o u r s p e r Week Spent  of Reading  35 Instruction  Time S p e n t  Being  by V a r i o u s A p p r o a c h e s Percent  of Reading  Taught ...35  Instruction  Skills Table  ..........27  Instruction  6: P e r c e n t  Reading  Assignments  Movement D u r i n g  Percent  Reading  Table  Teacher  of T a b l e s  Time D e v o t e d  t o Reading 37  8: P r e - t e s t  and P o s t - t e s t  Results  41  Figure  1: M c C a u l e y E . F . L . Program  Organization  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Appreciation advisor,  assistance  Labercane  and  i n the completion  faculty  cooperation  $SIGNOFF  expressed  for h i s continual  D r s . George  the  is  and  this  staff  study  to  advice Cliff of t h i s  of  Dr. Robert and  Pennock study.  McCauley  Chester,  my  support,  and  for their  generous  My t h a n k s  also  School,  without  c o u l d n o t have been c a r r i e d o u t .  to  to  whose  1  CHAPTER ONE: THE  A.  PROBLEM  Introduction The  initial  this  study.  the  need  Foreign  Beginning for  and  The  is  This  of  inquiry  chapter  into.  to  by  this  E.F.L.  the  research,  ( E n g l i s h as a  lack  of  i n the p o p u l a t i o n  is  presented  then  E.F.L. programs.  investigation  are defined.  investigated in  changes  problem  of the q u e s t i o n s  study  the problem  the r a t i o n a l e behind  attested  current  purpose of t h i s statement  with  by h i s t o r i c a l  such programs. background  presents  additional  Language)  research  the  chapter  In  i t s goal  is  previous served  against  the  explaining  the  defined,  t o be a n s w e r e d by i t .  with  with  a  Terms u s e d i n  L i m i t a t i o n s and a s s u m p t i o n s a r e  concludes  by  listed.  an o u t l i n e o f t h e r e m a i n d e r  of the  thesis.  B. R a t i o n a l e The E.F.L. Peck on  F o r The S t u d y  need  is  for  further  well-documented.  (1977) and Summers teaching  reading  Reading programs students As  As  (1979),  to students  specifically  are c l e a r l y Ebel  research  required  1940's  predominantly children  from  pointed little who  the  information  speak  (Ashworth,  little for  a d u l t s with a  wide  upper variety  has  of  available  1980).  i n s t r u c t i o n has  forty  years.  changed  socio-economic  (1978),  o r no E n g l i s h .  1979; E b e l ,  the past  E.F.L. p o p u l a t i o n  is  of  refugee/immigrant  (1980) a l s o n o t e d , E . F . L . r e a d i n g  the  teaching  o u t by Gradman  designed  undergone s e v e r a l c h a n g e s d u r i n g the  into  from  Since being  backgrounds  backgrounds.  Thus,  to  adult  2  learning  strategies  applicable. from b e i n g and  Additionally, purely  writing  introduction are  few,  with only  1961  and  (Morrisroe,  articles  for  E.F.L.  further  research  C. B a c k g r o u n d Research particular the  been these  programs  introducing shortly  adequate of  reading  after  materials  information.  E.F.L.  articles  learning  published that  i s wide  open  research  notes, at t h i s  of the  E.F.L.  1% of volumes the  of  were  0.5%  concerned  (1977)  could  on E . F . L .  t o 1963), o n l y  a mere  is  i n the J o u r n a l  no a r t i c l e s  t o 1971)  the  and  15 t o  20  research  time; the  need  E.F.L. students  has  Study  of  a  into  development  currently  in large Canada  since,  during  numbers  of  about  of Canada,  the past  1980).  the  1979).  decade,  in underdeveloped  immigrant  (Miles-Herman,  Canadians  (Government  are continuing  for  number of g o v e r n m e n t s  e x p r e s s e d by n a t i v e refugees  shifted  i s obvious.  resulted  accepted  Peck  reading  significance  has  have  17 E . F . L . a r t i c l e s  of  (1964  as  i n t o program  instability  countries being  To The  longer  i n f o r m a t and a p p r o a c h t o  constituted  Thus,  i n E.F.L.  only  t o 7 (1957  8 t o 14  no  Teacher t r a i n i n g  field  showed t h a t 1  methods  or  presenting  survey  volumes  t o 1977).  situation  A  are  s u r v e y of 20 p e r i o d i c a l s  yielded  t o 1977)  i n volumes on  A  as s c i e n t i f i c  in  articles (1972  1968  1972).  (1957  published  with  language.  books  limited.  past  t o programs  i n t h e more g e n e r a l  be c a t e g o r i z e d  Reading  four  the  instuctional  audiolingual  of a u r a l / o r a l  severely  between  in  simultaneously  Research also  employed  refugees  Concern  has  assimilation  of  English  t o be d e v e l o p e d t o a i d t h e  language  acculturation  3  p r o c e s s of Canada the  i m m i g r a n t s of a l l a g e s  Employment  proportion  Immigration  figures  of n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g  nineteen  years  speaking  children  Herman,  and  (Government  has  1980).  risen,  while  has d e c l i n e d  T h i s g r o u p of  dilemma  unique  in  entirely  on A m e r i c a n  up t o 1980  children  the  over  of Canada,  the  past  history  experience  for  and  one  its  that  four of  decade  i m m i g r a n t s p r e s e n t s an  Canadian  show  aged  proportion  1979).  to  English (Miles-  educational  which c a n n o t  solution  rely  (Ashworth,  1979). The a  Canada Employment  newsletter  was  the  second  W o r l d War  II.  special  The  the  development  will  that have  has been  An  P u r p o s e Of The  program  study  the  b o a r d s began  to  supply refugees  Research  written  decade  procedures  stated  in that  operating.  the t e a c h i n g  of E . F . L .  on a much more s y s t e m a t i c (Uljin,  Institute  i n 1980  of E . F . L . programs  has  basis  been of that  province It  is  reading than  it  1980).  Study was  i n McCauley  provide  report  routine  this  placed  t h e end of  t o meet C a n a d i a n needs  Educational  execution  i n the past  This  to  of programs  within  been  movement  f o r many of t h e s e a r r i v i n g  (E.R.I.B.C.)  and  t h e I n d o c h i n e s e Refugee  1979).  1979).  Columbia  stated in  movement of r e f u g e e s s i n c e  training  h a p h a z a r d , w i t h no  hoped  that  I m m i g r a t i o n Commission  same y e a r , s c h o o l  of Canada,  planning  was  D.  In t h a t  (Ashworth,  British  1979)  largest  language  (Government  slow  (July,  and  designed to describe  an  innovative  S c h o o l i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a ,  basic  reading  skills  and  which  E.F.L. appears  learning experiences  4  needed t o h e l p E . F . L . s t u d e n t s classroom. Research  Summary  progress  E . F . L . have  language  reading s k i l l s  appears  reports  that  made  through  with  the f u n c t i o n a l  into a regular school  Specifically,  this  p r o g r a m by m o n i t o r i n g program  their  homeland and a r e s e t t l i n g  students students  are  they  children  of  either  their  experience Through  interviews,  may f u r t h e r  the  instructional  materials  i n f o r m a l measures,  this  people  various  who  vary  program.  i t s purpose i n necessary  of  and  of the  or  no  language.  shock  that  e d u c a t i o n a l problems. q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  curriculum use  fled  These  scant  culture  in  Most o f  groups.  or the E n g l i s h  their  attempts  1981.  have  and s t u d e n t  the  enrolled  The r e m a i n d e r  and t h e  compound  and  that  recently  ethnic  new c o u n t r y  study  in  students  i n Canada.  use o f t e a c h e r  examination  in their English  1980 and J u n e ,  i n Canada  educational experiences  students  t o d e s c r i b e t h e McCauley  o f 83  boat  from  are recent a r r i v a l s  knowledge Their  Vietnamese  and  program.  September,  students  Planning  reading s k i l l s  attempts  these  gains  regular  that  i s accomplishing  the p r o g r e s s  between are  study  the  the  shown  participation  program  for  entry  have  the  students  into  for  significant  equipping  the  integrate  Branch of A l b e r t a E d u c a t i o n  studying  It  to  of  schedules various  t o answer  the  and  f o r m a l and following  questions: 1. are  their 2.  Who  are the students  i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o g r a m and what  e d u c a t i o n a l and l a n g u a g e Who  are the teachers  backgrounds?  i n t h e p r o g r a m and what a r e  their  qualifications? 3.  How  are  the  students  selected  and a s s i g n e d  to the  5  v a r i o u s program 4.  What  5.  How  organized  levels?  i s the c u r r i c u l u m is  the  organization  reading  component  i n t e r m s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l  of t h e of  program?  the  curriculum  time, content, resources  and  methodology? 6.  How  7. gains  i s t h e program e v a l u a t e d ?  I s t h e program  in students'  E. D e f i n i t i o n 1.  Of  E.F.L.  encompass  reading  (English  E.S.O.L.  and E.S.L.  (English  taught  Immersion  knowledge 4. adequate distinct 5. English 6.  as a  Foreign  program  refers  to  are  of t h e l a n g u a g e  t o cope  in a regular  allow  entry  from an E . F . L . Basic  classes  Languages)  in  program  which and  are  in English.  skills  to  to  Languages),  one  school  Minimal English  reading  used  Language).  a r e s e g r e g a t e d from t h e r e g u l a r  Functional  is  t o S p e a k e r s of O t h e r  as a Second E.F.L.  Language)  t o S p e a k e r s of O t h e r  of E n g l i s h  as a g r o u p e x c l u s i v e l y  3.  demonstrable  ability?  (English,  (Teaching  students  i . e . , are there  Terms  T.E.S.O.L.  2.  effective,  skills into  defined  as  school  means r e a d i n g a  regular  insufficient program.  skills  school  that  program  are as  program. refer  t o s t u d e n t s d i a g n o s e d as h a v i n g  no  skills. Transitional  classes  having minimal E n g l i s h  skills.  refer  to  s t u d e n t s d i a g n o s e d as  6  F.  A s s u m p t i o n s And L i m i t a t i o n s Of The S t u d y Interpretation  with  a  study  must be  made  in  conjunction  the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : 1.  This  model  that  i s a b a s e l i n e d e s c r i p t i v e study. can  circumstances. cannot  be  2.  be  adapted  However,  surmized  between t h e p r o g r a m  the  of t h i s  It  is  to  I t may s e r v e a s  similar  educational  a s no c o n t r o l g r o u p was a v a i l a b l e ,  that  a  cause-effect  instruction  assumed t h a t  program d i d not i n v a l i d a t e  relationship  and the a c q u i s i t i o n the researcher's data  i t  exists  of E n g l i s h .  participation in  gathered  in  the  teacher  interviews. 3. normed be  The  standardized  f o r a very  exercised  different  tests  employed  population.  i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  i n t h e program  Therefore, results.  were  caution  must  Unfortunately,  more a p p r o p r i a t e l y normed t e s t s were n o t a v a i l a b l e . 4.  The  questions Since  assumption  asked  in  the  is  made  interviews  i n t e r p r e t e r s were employed,  language b a r r i e r 5.  G. T h e s i s  expertise  chapters  program.  literature to a t t a i n  answered  understood accurately.  i t i s f u r t h e r assumed t h a t t h e  investigation accurately  process.  assumes and  that  teachers  utilized  i n responding  to interview  of t h i s  present  their  questions.  Outline  Ensuing E.F.L.  this  questionnaires  professional  and  students  d i d n o t s e r i o u s l y hamper t h i s  Finally,  answered  that  Chapter  i n the f i e l d . pertinent  Two  study  provides  a  In C h a p t e r T h r e e ,  information  are  the McCauley review  of  School current  the procedures  explained.  The  used  fourth  7  chapter and Five  describes  presenting concludes  investigation.  the program  pre- post-test the study  with  itself, program  detailing test  i t s components  results.  recommendations  derived  Chapter from t h e  8  CHAPTER TWO:  A.  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  Overview The  literature  journals,  government  documents p r o c u r e d Centre  reviewed  pertaining  to  derived  publications,  through  (E.R.I.C.).  is  general  begins  The goal  language 1970).  This  i s discussed,  followed  by  culture  (Smith,  limitations procedure  some e v i d e n c e  should  in  there  (Gradman,  t o immigrant  be  no  districts.  Factors  an  the  humanistic too  many  f o r any one  best  1978), t h e r e  exists  o f an i n t e g r a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l and p e d a g o g i c a l - l i n g u i s t i c  culturally,  students  E.F.L.  age  and  reading interest  (McGee, 1978; S t o d d a r d ,  1968;  1979).  In d i s c u s s i n g e l e m e n t a r y E . F . L . p r o g r a m s , that  of  1978; T h o n i s ,  are  l e a r n i n g ( K a l a n t z i s , 1972).  therefore  emphasized  student  Savage,  t o make a c a s e  socio-psychological  T y a c k e and S a u n d e r s ,  1975;  Although  E.F.L.  proposes that the  by t h e  successfully  research  teaching  of l a n g u a g e  appropriate  most  of the s u p e r i o r i t y  model c o m b i n i n g  programs  (Ashworth,  1975).  in current for  programs.  E.F.L. theory  i s acquisition  transpires  atmosphere  aspects  concerning  teaching  and  studies  .  literature  of E.F.L.  existing  on  E.F.L. r e a d i n g  Studies •  Information  research  literature  B. E x i s t i n g  with  and  Next,  evaluation  specific  reports  Resources  E.F.L. theory.  E . F . L . p r o g r a m s and t h e i r about  textbooks,  E.R.I.B.C.  the E d u c a t i o n a l  This chapter  from  one  program  t h a t must  be  is  Ashworth  suitable  considered  (1979)  f o r a l l school  when  choosing  a  .9  program  are  and  the  the  number  administrative  program o b j e c t i v e s . of  schooling, students  E.F.L.  the in  quality one  of  local  school,  the  and  funding.  population  The  from  foreign  standard  English.  program  objective  put  into  them  assist  the  t o be  in  may  be  their  These  Thonis with  On  areas  preferred  students,  Thonis  practices  an  and  Evaluation  who  to  observation,  reviews  questioning  and  are  of  casual  the  applicable  literacy in  their  to  the  E.F.L.  the  1979).  E.F.L. c u r r i c u l u m experiences,  i n the v e r n a c u l a r , and  language  oral  achievement  in  s t r e n g t h s and  the  students.  program be  in  to  tailor  of  E.F.L. programs  that materials, techniques,  should  be  and  E.F.L.  expanded  English  the  The  elementary  (Karkia,  were  i t may  can non-  English  as w e l l as  should  needs  and  program.  hand,  to the  evaluation  suggested  pupils  other  a r e as  individual  the  trained  speak  children  adjustment  These  literacy  r e w a r d s of  of  of  E.F.L. program  experimental  l e a r n i n g m o d a l i t i e s of regard  an  natives  the  students'  through  With  by  to teach  they  of n a t i v e l a n g u a g e ,  proficiency,  subject  to  educators  dimensions.  improvement  served  factors  (1970) p r o p o s e d  six  English  meet  previous  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t  cultural  E.F.L.  program to c l o s e l y  range,  availability  simply  s c h o o l E . F . L . p r o g r a m as Thus,  age  to  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to c o n s o l i d a t e  students  the mainstream.  them  program.  of  their  Each group r e q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t  language a c q u i s i t i o n . high  nature  born  served  Administrative constraints refer  students,  E.F.L. teachers  vary  c o n s t r a i n t s , the p o p u l a t i o n  an  be  assessed  conversation  should  be  methods,  objectively.  ongoing p r o c e s s .  the p u p i l ' s s c h o o l h i s t o r y ,  and  Informal  interviews,  used.  Teacher-  10  made t e s t s s h o u l d  be c o n s t r u c t e d  This  procedure  and  evaluative objectives  (Streiff,  not  models  f o r E.F.L. programs  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , who made t h e p o i n t m e a s u r e s of a c h i e v e m e n t  t h e y a r e n o t normed norms m o d e l . developed  This  f o r that  consuming  of  Bauldauf  related tests  task  relevant  to  reading  cloze  other  t e s t s of E.F.L. p r o f i c i e n c y Several  literature. emphasize  i s b o r n o u t by  schemes Karkia  speaking,  than  implicit  Wilson  produced E n g l i s h  involvement  using  language developed  play  activities at a new  a  difficult  suggested tests  high  (Hisama,  and  home  and  He at  local  locally  and  time-  which  can  be  The v a l i d i t y o f correlation  were the  reading  found  with  The p l a n  i n the  E.F.L.  skills  (1969) p r e s e n t e d  program  as w e l l as  a program  which  advocated  total  experience,  thinking  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e work and  concluded school  was  that the  total best  language  formula f o r  language.  A study d i r e c t e d a t i d e n t i f y i n g s a l i e n t adult  since  1978).  that  two y e a r s .  are  the development  achievement. their  by s t u d e n t  of peers.  tests  samples o f t h e r e l e v a n t  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  and  examined by  of c o m p a r i s o n  cloze  (1979) recommended listening  were  He recommended a  f o r E.F.L. programs  grammar and v o c a b u l a r y . claimed  is  (1978) a l s o  using  four  the goals  f o r many E . F . L . s t u d e n t s  population.  this  culturally  specifically  learning  that  standardized  would use a s a s t a n d a r d  Because one,  use  immersion  that  norms b a s e d on r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  population.  he  rather  development.  1970).  valid  and  skill  r e s t s on t h e p r e m i s e  of the program a r e e x p l i c i t  Evaluation Bauldauf  t o measure  E . F . L . programs  provided  characteristics  greater  detail  of  about  11  important the  p r o g r a m components  programs  into  the  was  American  listening,  milieu.  written  tests  utilized  These  standard  method  classes  and by  observed,  peer-mediation,  activity,  paced  aural/oral  skills,  and  which  of  the  minimal  teacher  teacher-prepared  materials  problem  activities,  specific  with  an  culturally  i n f o r m a l i t y , high  self-esteem  and  small c l a s s  size.  testing, teachers peer data  teacher-made and  the  tests,  these  administrators  A  form  programs. and  They  faculty,  Similarly,  were  of  and  teacher  talks  on  correction, self-directed idioms, for  focused  but  to  with with  on  informal  reassessment  used  an  student  observations  interviews  informal  solving  emphasis  regard  regular  the  predominant  initial  of methods was  included  In  problem  c o n t i n u a l program  variety  teacher's  Program e v a l u a t i o n  administrators, regular  observations. on  took  and  eclectic  the  relevant  purposeful  It  an  textbooks,  of  goals.  language  task.  modelling  r a t h e r than  designs account  endorsed.  atmosphere  explicit  on  following  tasks  of  and  teacher-selected  student-centred  varied  oral  into  instead,  was  American  program o b j e c t i v e .  only  planning  teach  Program  aspects  dependent  by  took  s t r e s s e d the  to  i n an  assessed  prescribed:  however,  was  interviews.  to approach a  features:  solving  were  of  a d u l t s to a s s i m i l a t e  means of a v a r i e t y  classroom  major g o a l  writing skills  psychomotor  activities  The  objective  instruction  best  of  and  personal  encouraged,  a b o u t how  The  needs  m e t h o d o l o g y was was  decision one  group  acquisition  approach  no  by  affective  activities. No  and  1978).  foreign-born  reading,  Student  small  cognitive,  enable  culture.  speaking,  cultural  cultural  to  (Savage,  by and  collect program  students,  12  classroom and  o b s e r v a t i o n s and  of  program  literature  materials. The  apparent  supported  by  education  more  a number of  enrolled  quickly migrants Rock  Navajo  Indian  for  use  took  arts  concepts  to  be  of  (E.S.E.A.,  1965)  which  were  students  an in  dialogue,  presentation  program  f o r E.F.L.  Despite  the  an  a  guidelines  1966).  The and  for  author  design  w o r k s h e e t s and critical  thus  the of  non  teaching  skill the  process. Act  concluded the  An  program lessons speaking  that  the  inclusion  condition  components  and  encouraging  English  the  basic  audiolingual  plus the  areas.  needs of  Education  examined  improve  linking  lifelong  particularly  were  to  the  involvement  environment  as  at  of c o n t e n t  student  than  Demonstration  a variety  in decision-making,  Sacramento  p i c t u r e s and  undertook  specific  implement  created  content  Arizona,  in a variety  flexibility,  learning  developed  of  to  English  sooner  curriculum  t o : meet t h e  migrant  speak  (Rough Rock  Elementary/Secondary  (Delavan,  specificity  group  They  to  In  is  revealed that  thinking; state e x p l i c i t l y  program  regard  evaluation  levels  a  activities  teachers  skills  of  1972)  learned  compiled  l e a r n e d ; and  practice  to  they  critical  stimuli.  students  (Blahkett,  School,  school  methods e m p h a s i z i n g  and  so,  E.F.L. programs  evaluation  of p r o g r a m s .  were d e s i g n e d  develop  An  in classroom  language  do  all  students;  mastery  part  types  and  To  These c u r r i c u l a  visual  studies.  Demonstration  at  specific  i n E.F.L. c l a s s e s  and  1969).  of  in C a l i f o r n i a  in other  Rough  School,  success  program  children  did  examinations  of  of  small  in a successful  students.  e x i s t e n c e of v i a b l e  E.F.L. programs,  there  are  inherent  problems.  E . F . L . programs 1973-74). master a  in a  The  regular  g o a l of  this  class  program by  oral  E.F.L. students  staff  Literacy literacy  Skills was  in  d e f i n e d as  acquired  R e a d i n g and  developmental. (Tyacke  and  game.  Therefore,  taught.  language aspects  experience  t o be as  one  into hour  i n the  disabilities  among  regular  teachers  and  and  Adults"  provides a c t i v i t i e s  chooses  and  of  is a  choosing are  are  in  of  which  the  applying s k i l l s  1976), language  i s that  skills  literacy  are  guessing  game  linguistic skills  choosing  t h a t need  applications and  recommends these student  t o the  writing  that  phonographic  accomplishing  "Developing  r e a d i n g and  practical  (1976)  reading  (Payne,  is a linguistic  syntactical,  of  In  interaction  practice  Rigg  E.F.L.  bases.  are complementary  writing  strategy  and  theoretical  reading  taught.  practices  t o move  interest  l a c k of  u n d e r l y i n g assumption  guessing  way  students  about  concerning  1979), s p e a k i n g  lexical,  Schools,  expressed  t o meet w i t h  the meaningful  R e a d i n g and  need  of  as  their  students.  writing  Saunders,  and  time  motivated  Just  was  learning  literature  The  through  of E n g l i s h and  size,  Adolescents  i t s w r i t t e n form.  skills.  be  and  p l a n programs f o r E.F.L. the  Public  to h e l p E.F.L.  concern  members,  programs r e v e a l s a v a r i e t y  is  met,  l a c k of  of  (Hartford  evaluated  C l a s s e s were h e l d f o r o n l y one  g o a l was  and  Examination  in  aspects  scheduling  other  Schools  t h e p r o g r a m was  s c h o o l program.  While  funding,  Hartford Public  1973-1974 s t u d y  t h e w r i t t e n and  daily.  to  The  to of  semantic language  ends.  This  guesses  t a s k s of  ,  reading  writing. The  developmental  r e a d i n g program  f o r E.F.L. s t u d e n t s  also  has  i t s proponents  the  beginning  material  will  can  will  (fiction  the  choice  The  impact  ignored.  of  Wilson  patterns  in  reading  in  has  another  The  not of  knowledge of in  on  universal should  are  the  different  Since  general  syntax  are  the  taught  linguistic  also  cannot of  the  1972).  The  a c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the  be  teaching  and  few  writing  i s i t known  structural using  is a  and  sentence  problem-solving  useful. reader's  Specific syntactical  transform  grammatical  be  grammar  there are  nor  Lexical,  the  similar  ational  u s e f u l i n teaching, reading,  some of  (Pqlitzer,  a  that  reading  is  author  interests.  because  reading  helps  The  teaching  i n the p a s t ,  principles  extensive  teaching  emphasized  be  Those  I t should and  direct  universal.  Some p a r t s of  be  age  is difficult  prose.  a slow p r o c e d u r e and  a  with  student.  language  She  grammar p a t t e r n s  describing  program  they  pre-reading  practice.  student's  c o m p r e h e n s i o n must  formal  E.F.L.  1978).  require  d i f f e r e n c e between  reading  activity,  comprehension.  the  been a c k n o w l e d g e d  from  exercise  to the  language  patterns  not  of  linguistics  reading  is  reading  to that  cultural  model  a  E.F.L. r e a d i n g .  which a s p e c t s  instruction  reading  the  s p e e d a t which  l a n g u a g e t h a t has  (1973) e s p o u s e d  known t e c h n i q u e s . skills  in a  In  master  1968).  (McGee,  will  1968).  i n t e n s i v e ( c o m p r e h e n s i o n ) and  of  is appropriate  t o the  skills  non-fiction)  background  that  according  literate  should  (Stoddard,  vernacular  r e q u i r e both  recommended  one  Those  students  it  reading  the  and  cultural  reading  grouped  in  B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n ,  program,  acquire  instruction. script  before be  probably  illiterate  York C i t y  reading  orally  students  (New  but i t  categories  starting  p o i n t of  f o r e i g n language.  are any Good  15  teaching  m a t e r i a l s should  of  native  the  differences language  are  be  language noted.  learning  and  as  concluded  that  the d i r e c t  method, a d v o c a t e d  avoided  and  cautioned, isolation  best  linguistic  however, i s no  The  t o use  native  literacy  speaking  student  is  English.  Not  faced  spoken Another first, to  is  p r o v i d i n g him  illustration  Milwaukee B i l i n g u a l  taught that  oral to  skills  read  to read After  in English.  this  p r o g r a m was  The  research  type  He in  skills  non-English to  (Weber, the  read  (Stoddard,  t h a t can  be  speak  he  1970).  student  in his native  teacher  always  (1977).  used.  reading process,  i s to teach  reading  Program  English.  The  itself  to read  this  be  totally  in learning  the  student  of  p r o g r a m were t a u g h t  learning  earlier,  i s not  be  i s by  acquisition.  the w r i t t e n language  with  which  tasks  language  T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t the  language,  An  the  then  t o t e a c h the  English.  native  described  l a n g u a g e and  two  the  structures  1976).  need t o l e a r n  a l s o must a c q u i r e the E n g l i s h  i s not  to t e a c h i n g reading  (Ching, with  sequencing  of  (1972),who  language  language  that  language  grammatical  foreign  alternative  approach,  and  so  component  Politzer  native  approach  o n l y does he  essential  about a language  learning of  comparison  language  to teach a f o r e i g n  that  represents another  One  i s an  structure  assurance  grammatical  a language.  way  that  a  foreign  learning  same s k i l l  the  on  the  Practice  because  learning  based  the  1968). language  transferred  the  student's  possible. of p r o g r a m The  children  in their  mastering  i s found  enrolled  n a t i v e languages  oral  Standardized  i n the  English,  test  scores  they  in  while were  indicated  successful.  concerning  the  teaching  of  reading  to  16  E.F.L. s t u d e n t s instruction 1976).  As  1966;  as  Another  point  s h o u l d be Weber,  1970).  easier  on  in  the was  native t h a t the  simultaneously as  the  find  have a w r i t t e n c l u e .  their  early  minds  compromise mastery unless  solution.  was the  student  delay  was  with  functional  allowed  was  In  the  early  illiterate  reading  concurred  reading  student  instruction  has  sufficient  viable.  as  language 1976;  of E n g l i s h f i n d s i t as  heard,  to  oral  (1968) of  so  listening,  language  Students  felt  reading,  writing  must be  lexical  were,  no  as  Kaplan  i n t r o d u c e d as  control  to  oral  a  make  long  equipped  as p o s s s i b l e .  long.  a  However,  t h a t s t u d e n t s may too  in  presented  attempted.  soon  withheld  T h e r e was  1972).  Lado,  interrupted education  i t was  t h a t r e a d i n g and  in that  i n h i s n a t i v e language,  skills  was  language.  written  1969;  stages  inadvisable.  Furthermore, if  that  that  (Moss,  as w e l l  r e a d i n g was  them t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r  discouraged  and  Stoddard  before  Education,  speaking  between w r i t t e n and  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  as p o s s i b l e .  and  (Kaplan,  reading  t o comprehend a u r a l m a t e r i a l i f  1976).  attained  learning  oral  master  assumption  T h i s g i v e s them a g u i d e  connection (Lado,  the  of  this Lado,  should  Board  n a t i v e speaker  i t easier  1970;  taught  language  t o r e c o g n i z e a name i f i t i s seen  making an  the  based  listening  Just  E.F.L. s t u d e n t s they  is  being  York C i t y  follow  view  presented  New  i s p a r t of  does of  before  t o when  Weber,  that students  language  should it  suggests  1972;  This  of o p i n i o n s as  1969-70;  meaning  Moss,  foreign  it  language,  and  1972).  in a  such,  (Raz,  p o i n t of view  Paine,  reading  a variety  begin  language  (Derrick, 1968;  should  One  the o r a l  provides  This  quickly become (1969) soon  as  reading  c o n s e n s u s among l i n g u i s t s  as  .•  to the Board  best of  read  time to begin  Education,  The to  English. the and  Bouchard,  1974).  assured  able  (Fries,  reading  to reproduce  a  Sutton,  skills,  must  ignorance  understanding  of  Thus  reading  the  readers  He  does  must  not  and  the  (Motta,  specific  inferences  level,  requires  word  (Bouchard,  First,  structures, denotative  to understand  requiring  level.  Problems  context  the  to  pick them.  accomplished Total  reader  reading  must  must  a  A p p l i c a t i o n of fourth  sequence,  be  six  know.  structures,  the  restate  of  reading  t o have m a s t e r e d  Second,  identification  that  scant  reject  by  1974).  i s the  the  ability  or  used  and  of  the  of  restricted  signals  meaning, and  Analyzing  these  1977) .  sentence  and  language  possesses  a  be  student  strategies  E.F.L. student  1974).  E.F.L.  include  procedure  1962;  and  This hinders  draw c o n c l u s i o n s .  meaning  skills  cultural  information.  able  student  to a c c u r a t e l y confirm  function  punctuation,  comprehend, be  third  and  1975).  c u e s and  know  functions,  the  (Kerr,  of meaning  recall  social  The  the  must  meaningful  structural  hypothesis-testing  comprehension levels  the  of  o v e r t l y (Sutton,  of  the  i t (Bernardoni,  1974).  student  to  f e a t u r e s of  tracking s k i l l s  Once t h e  different  reading  vocabulary,  correct  City  in learning  accustomed  distinct  some of  visual  1977).  taught  the  itself  the  representation  the  be  confront  material  must become  Community C o l l e g e , as  1972;  pre-reading  he  Left-to-right  print  York  f a c e s a number of p r o b l e m s  Initially,  be  (New  1968).  (Bristol  see  instruction  E n g l i s h language, hear  language  will  reading  E.F.L. student  sound of  must  17  word  able  to  reader  must  message,  make  information  is  comprehension main  ideas,  18  connotative The  fifth  the  level,  sixth  judging as  fact  level,  or of  figurative  synthesizing,  information  quality  C.  meanings,  looks  relationships.  a t c r e a t i n g new  ideas  while  involves  self-appraising biases,  as  invalid,  evaluating  valid  or  assessing  written  p r o p a g a n d a and  information  evaluating  the  programs  is  word.  Summary The  body  of  research  about  It  methods combine  s e v e r a l approaches..  strategies provide  appropriate  a  should  be  supportive taught  materials  Finally, skills will  appears  to  the  most  They s e l e c t  individual  emotional  successful  atmosphere.  can  students  be  corrected  require  i n s t r u c t i o n (Thonis, a l l of  and  1970).  these  A  aspects.  needs.  be  skills  characterized the  reading  successful  and They  Reading  d i r e c t e d by  s p e c i a l i z e d content  teaching  materials  student  s e q u e n t i a l l y , p r a c t i c e should  that  incorporate  that  E.F.L. reading  inconclusive.  by  and  evaluating,  opinion,  the  language  student. and  E.F.L.  study  program  19  CHAPTER THREE:  PROCEDURES  A. O v e r v i e w Chapter  Three  descriptive  data  generally chapter,  and  of  development  the  the  McCauley  reading  subjects of  and  pilot  B. R e s e a r c h  data  These,  display  method was a d o p t e d .  Additionally,  of E . F . L . c o r e and  Teacher  Student  data  Schedule  and t r e a t m e n t  nature  School  this  with  the  i n the  are  then  application. and r e c o r d i n g  are explained.  of t h i s  study,  enrolled  program  through  for  a l l or  from  piloted  as  the s i x teachers The  Teacher  Schedules  in  an  and t h e  Elementary  However, b e c a u s e no p a r a l l e l  exists  i n Edmonton, t h e T e a c h e r  junior  and A i d e  c o u l d n o t be p i l o t e d e x t e n s i v e l y .  And R e c o r d i n g  Demographic  the survey  E . F . L . p r o g r a m were used  was g a t h e r e d  were  i n Edmonton.  Schedules  C. C o l l e c t i o n  obtained  the c o l l e c t i o n  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and I n t e r v i e w  Interview  school  Interview  in their  s u b j e c t s and t h e two p r o g r a m a i d e s .  Aide  E.F.L. program high  used  In  undertaken  instruments  A l l of the s t u d e n t s  o f t h e 1980-81 M c C a u l e y  subjects.  along  program  Methodology  Because of the d e s c r i p t i v e  part  specifically.  studies  procedures  to obtain  E.F.L.  i s presented  i s provided concerning  Finally,  utilized  School  program  instruments.  as a r e t h e f i e l d  Information of d a t a .  about  the r e s e a r c h methodology  selection  detailed,  d e s c r i b e s the procedures  Of D a t a  information concerning questionnaires.  the program's s t a f f  The T e a c h e r  Questionnaire  was was  20  designed  to  experience, other  English.  in  Aide  Student  schooling  (including  studied.  Teacher  Teacher  taught,  years and  Interview  Interview  sought  in  and  languages  concerned  of  of  solicited  aides'  time  languages  program  data.  about  for evaluation.  about  to  previous  and  inquiries  procedures  knowledge  employed  spoken, y e a r s  Interviews  with  l e n g t h of  E.F.L. programs)  information  and  were  native country,  consisted  m a t e r i a l s used  knowledge of  work e x p e r i e n c e  languages  Aide  teaching  Interviews  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g sex, other  and  education,  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  education,  languages.  Canada, n a t i v e and  The  secondary  affiliations  The  q u e s t i o n s about  foreign  gather  post  professional  than  similar of  determine  skills The  duties  and  Aide time  allocations. At  the  with  the  other  the  principal  explained  beginning  and  five of  Upon e n r o l m e n t  (to provide the  by  McCauley  this  The  i n t h e program,  students  researcher.  E . F . L . program) and  The  the was  used,  researcher  E.F.L. a i d e s  p u r p o s e of  enlisted.  the  the  two  c o o p e r a t i o n was  were t r a i n e d  the  were  purpose  of  s c h o o l and  study  and was  interviewed the  questions  for a  explained.  met  study  Five  where n e c e s s a r y ,  of  student  to  assist  A  teacher  procedure.  Students  were t h e n  a i d e was  trained  tests.  Included  (C.E.L.T.) w i t h the  school year,  school.  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r both  interpreters in  the  E.F.L. t e a c h e r s , the the  their  individually  of  Diagnostic  by  the were  given  t o a b a t t e r y of  Project  Director  administer  all  t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e E n g l i s h Language T e s t  Structure, Listening Test  to  tests.  and  Vocabulary  of E n g l i s h as a Second Language  components, (a  locally  21  developed 1).  t e s t ) and  the  majority  of  students  late  entrance  The  However, b e c a u s e of wrote  them  individually.  individually tests  were  the  Schonell  forms of  Second same.  the  Language An  (number  4)  was the  Culture  Fair  enrolled  i n the  information and  program  C.E.L.T.,  Diagnostic  and  the  1;  the  I.Q.  Schonell  some  group.  students  administered for  program  was  l e a v i n g the of  all  Edmonton  Spelling  Reading  Test  Ability  given  Form  to  questionnaires, report  school  records.  The  procedures  P o l i c y on  student  i s also detailed there.  the  perceived  and  difficulties  organizational  students 1).  The  students  and  testing,  cards,  a program  used  marks i n E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t  design,  Test  those  interviews  from  provided  the  in June.  obtained  Four.  a  student  (Basic  E,  as  remained  program, e a c h  Level  also  program.  English  G r a d e d Word L i s t  Upon l e a v i n g the  by  the  Summary P r o g r e s s  Education  the  Test  P r o j e c t s Funded by  the  a  Scores  Test  T r a n s i t i o n a l students  were p r o v i d e d  The  List.  was  card  Chapter  results  (number  t e s t s as  researcher  to a l l students  In a d d i t i o n t o the  the  the  Word  Test  program,  were g i v e n  Gates-MacGinitie  Form  in  to the  Graded  employed.  L e v e l A,  report  wrote these  Finally,  a l t e r n a t e form of  completed  report  Spelling Ability  recorded.  Post-tests The  Edmonton  the  school  Report  information results  of  encountered  strategy  of  the  on the  determine  are  described  and  and  out  vision  of  test  nurse.  f o r the  Planning  to  promotions w i t h i n Hearing  summary  and  1980-81  School  Year  Research Branch,  Alberta  the.program o b j e c t i v e s , program,  in conducting program  its the  for  the  significance program.  i s diagrammed  in a  The flow  22  chart  (presented  time  allocations.  D.  i n Chapter  D a t a D i s p l a y And Data  is  in  organization  provides  operates.  students  - are  itself  reading  program a r e  the  the  program a r e  chapter  student  of  program  the the  reading staff  reading  a n a l y s i s of  five  reading  skills,  Finally,  and  program  components: teaching  results  of  the  This  content  between  information  spent  area  Basic  from  in  the  movement w i t h i n  were teacher  in  the  aides,  and  are  displayed  Transitional  the  program, allocation  i n E . F . L . l e a r n i n g and  study  by upon  upon e x i t  i s expanded  student  d u t i e s of  followed  undertaken  p r o g r a m and  students  time  route  Procedures  about  time  the  in  in t a b l e s .  classes  are  in text.  Teacher Similarities  and are  student aligned  backgrounds.  placement  program.  amount of  Language A r t s v e r s u s  student  -  The  through  E.F.L.  which  study  describes  assignments,  time,  highlighted  the  program, w i t h i n t h e  length  Discrepancies  the  and  total  within  approaches,  Information  E.F.L. teacher of  of  through  outlined.  text.  program, t h e  The  framework  .organization  to  furnished  presented.  e n r o l l e d i n the  entrance  Four.  evaluation procedures.  Program  timetables  figures  described demographically.  time,  students  tables,  Subjects  detailed  m a t e r i a l s and E. F.L.  the  i s then  reading  in  Chapter  program  School  Treatment  displayed  explication,  Three).  demographics to generate  Students  are  to r e v e a l commonalities  profiles  grouped and  are  summarized. of  by  disparities  teaching  initial between  and  class Basic  23  and  Transitional  class  Demographic  data  students reveal  who  in  r e l e v a n t t o the  r e a d i n g program  core  subjects,  materials reading made.  and time  in  techniques  (Braun  and  are  drawn as  1977).  and  and  content  important and  skills  and  Transitional  classes  discussed  in  by  teachers  post-test table.  the are  results  content  Statistical  area  f o r the  their  considered.  provided  checklist  general  reading  subject  program are  answers t o  the  group,  for  areas,  are  of  Evaluation  They  study  regarding  whole,  Finally,  are  approaches.  frequency  Four.  described.  analyses  subjects  skills  Observations  time  between  comprehension,  in  to  techniques,  Comparisons  and  t e x t of C h a p t e r  are  reading  from a r e a d i n g  techniques  T y p e s of m a t e r i a l and  reading  t o t h e most p o p u l a r  reading.  and  situation.  A t a b l e d i s p l a y s the  area  staff  i s presented  i n terms of  procedures. Arts  the  This data  approaches,  were o b t a i n e d  Froese,  of  instructional  included.  used  profile  of word r e c o g n i t i o n , word a n a l y s i s ,  skills  Basic  reading  Language  Reading  most  a  is described  evaluation  Conclusions  skills  creates  c o n s t i t u t e the program.  factors  The  populations.  use  are  procedures pre-  and  summarized  in a  the  following  questions: 1.  Did  more time  i n the p r o g r a m make a d i f f e r e n c e i n g a i n  scores? 2.  Was  there a c o r r e l a t i o n  3.  Was  t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e between T r a n s i t i o n a l  students 4.  in gain Was  spoke C h i n e s e  between  sex  and  gain  scores? and  Basic  scores?  there  a d i f f e r e n c e between s c o r e s  as a n a t i v e l a n g u a g e and  scores  of  of  students students  who who  24  did  n o t speak C h i n e s e a s a n a t i v e 5.  and  Was t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t  C.E.L.T. 6.  and  score  Was t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t  Was  MacGinitie  correlation  between I.Q. s c o r e s  correlation  between  gains?  Gates-MacGinitie 7.  language?  there  post-test a  I.Q. s c o r e s  scores?  significant  correlation  p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s and C.E.L.T.  between  Vocabulary  Gates-  post-test  scores? 8. Spelling test  Ability  Was  a  significant  correlation  between  Edmonton  p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s and C.E.L.T. V o c a b u l a r y  there a s i g n i f i c a n t  of E n g l i s h  C.E.L.T.  E.  there  post-  scores? 9.  Test  Was  as  a  Second  Structure post-test  correlation  Language  between D i a g n o s t i c  post-test  scores  and  scores?  Summary Information  was  program and a b o u t  gathered  about  the  participants  t h e p r o g r a m ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n .  components o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m were i s o l a t e d . were  examined  have made g a i n s  i n the  Test  t o d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t s t u d e n t s in their  E n g l i s h Language  ability.  The  results  appeared t o  25  CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS  A.  E . F . L . Program  1.  Overview The  high  M c C a u l e y Program e x i s t e d w i t h i n  school  speaking As  and  designed  Basic  age,  classes or  students).  TB  they  (BA  t o one  oldest,  elementary  t o accommodate  of  the  for  junior  non-English  program s t u d e n t s  (having  (having  were then older  no  next  assigned  the  TC  indicated  B a s i c g r o u p were  few in  to  students,  oldest,  analysis  or  some s k i l l  three T r a n s i t i o n a l  the  g r o u p and  to the  Basic  for  Statistical  Transitional  as  or T r a n s i t i o n a l  to t h e i r  students)  English  English).  one  BB  were  of  the  f o r younger  classes  (TA  for  youngest  the  the ages  for  in  the  comparable.  Staff As  of  was  designated  skills)  According  2.  and  1 shows, upon e n t r y  Figure  language  the  (K-9)  an  students.  screened  two  Organization  stated  i n Chapter  six teachers  indicates  time  teaching. E.F.L. Four  of  the  other  two  two  s u b j e c t s and of  the  of  of  taught taught  and  assignments  the  other  program's  teaching  non-E.F.L. the  is required.  Transitional  only T r a n s i t i o n a l  Table 1  within  clarification  both  consisted  students.  f o r E.F.L.  further  the  program's s t a f f  T h e r e were 83  variety  o n l y Language A r t s and Only  the  to teachers  however,-  six teachers The  subjects.  One  aides.  allocated  program,  teaching  two  B e c a u s e of t h e  classes.  content  and  Three,  and  Basic  students, only  teachers  one  content  taught  both  spent  the  Language A r t s .  program a i d e s  was  full-time.  She  Figure 1 McCauley E.F.L. Program  Screening  (standardized  Assessment o f E n g l i s h Language  tests')  Minimal E n g l i s h S k i 1 l s  Diagnosis  E.F.L. c l a s s placement and movement w i t h i n program (based on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , ^ achievement g r a d e s and t e a c h e r judgment) ( i n d i c a t e d by broken l i n e s )  Placement upon l e a v i n g program (based on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , 3 achievement grades and t e a c h e r judgment) ( s o l i d l i n e s )  Organization  Trans. A Age 14-6 16-10  L  i  High School  1 - CELT, Edmonton S p e l l i n g , S c h o n e l l , D i a g n o s t i c 2 - as per s c r e e n i n g p l u s Gates M a c G i n i t i e 3 -all  Trans. B Age 13-6 I  No E n g l i s h S k i 1 l s  Trans. C Age 12-1 I'M I  Skills  Basic A  Basic B  1 3 - 9 ( 4 - Age 12-0  Age  \k-6  16-1  I !—  -  J  1  -f  A  i i Regular Grade 9  Regular Grade 8  Regular Grade 7  E.F.L.  27  majority with  of her time  lesser  testing. spent in  i n p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  amounts of  time  The h a l f - t i m e  some time  allocated  aide  to  was u t i l i z e d  i n p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z i n g  record-keeping  activites  Table 1  Teacher  1  Teacher  Time  1  hrs  % 2  hrs  % 3  hrs  % 4  hrs  % 5  hrs  % 6  hrs  % Total  hrs  Assignments  Assignment E.F.L. Non-E.F.L. .  18 74  4 1 7  22 89  1 6  16 66  6 26  23 94  0 0  1 6 66  7 29  7 29  16 66  1 02  34  17 70  6 24  % Averac je  hrs  % 1  p e r week, 24.3 h r s = 1 week  and  m a i n l y as a t u t o r but  testing.  E.F.L.  activities,  as w e l l  as  28  Upon assigned first  enrolment  class 14  moved from the  for it. and  youngest  a l l of  in the  T h e r e was  3.  Transitional  by  Basic  the  the  in  2 shows.  to  A  the  spent  significant difference completed  classes.  At  the  program,  of  from  i n the  than  full  their  and  2  one. program  is  enrolled  s i x months  i n number between the  the  Basic  classes,  s t u d e n t s were  less  classes  within  oldest  students  were  third  moved  the  students  fact  Transitional  T w o - t h i r d s of  Table  in  Basic  program.  2  S t u d e n t Movement D u r i n g  Program  I  Transferred To  Class Transitional  Basic  %  #  %  #  Basic Transitional Regular EFL e l s e w h e r e  2 17 1 0  2 14 1 0  0 0 8 5  0 0 7 4  Total  20  17  13  1  one s t u d e n t t r a n s f e r r e d from B a s i c (She i s not i n c l u d e d e l s e w h e r e on t h e 1  to  because  to  class  spent  s t u d e n t s who  of  2 students  program; o n e - f i f t h no  53%  c o u r s e of  Basic  Basic  i n time  Table  Table  Thus,  from  47%  misleading  the  placement.  variation  depicted  be  during  moved  program,  classes,  b a l a n c e d , as  moved,  classes,  The  t h i s may  equally  students initial  the  to T r a n s i t i o n a l  glance  were not  in  1 1  to T r a n s i t i o n a l table)  to  regular  29  Table 3 Length  of Time S t u d e n t s  Time i n Months  #  %  #  9.0-10.0  31  26  34  28  65  54  5.0-  8.9  1 1  9  7  6  18  1 5  2.0-  4.9  5  4  1 2  1 0  1 7  1 4  47  39  53  44  Table  information, an for  average Basic Of  spent  #  100  83  t i m e t a b l e s a r e summarized.  i t c a n be d e d u c e d time  E.F.L.  Arts,  time,  that  Transitional  i n E.F.L.  Transitional  whereas B a s i c c l a s s e s  i n " o t h e r " s u b j e c t s (24%)  spent  %  From  this  students  spent  st.udy compared  t o 86%  Students.  Transitional who  4, s t u d e n t  o f 76% o f t h e i r  their  Language  Number o f S t u d e n t s Bas i c Transitional Total  %  Total  In  i n Program  students.  36% o f t h e i r  than  students  spent in  50%.  content  spent  i n content  learning.  in  More t i m e  was  subjects  by  The r e v e r s e was t r u e f o r B a s i c time  32%  Students,  Table  4  S t u d e n t Time A l l o c a t i o n s f o r S u b j e c t s  Content Class  L.A.  S.S.  Sc.  %  hrs  %  B.A.  42.9  10.5  14.3  B.B.  57.2  14.0  0  %  Math hrs  3.5  14.3  3.5  0.0  14.3  hrs  Total E.F.L.  %  hrs  14.4  3.5 85.8  21 .0  3.5  14.3  3.5 85.8  21 .0  %  hrs  T.A.&T.B 31.4  7.5 14.4  3.5 14.3  3.5  14.4  3.5 74.4  18.0  T.C.  34. 3  8.5 17.3  4.0  14.3  3.5  14.1  3.5 80.0  19.5  Average  39.4  9.5  3.0  14.3  3.5  14.3  3.5- 80. 1  19.5  Class  Art  2  12.0  Home Ec .  I  P.E.  Total Non-E.F.L % hrs  2  %  1 2 3  1  hrs  %  hrs  3 %  hrs  B.A.  5.8  1 .5  0  0.0  8.5  2.0  14.3  3.5  B.B.  5.7  1 .5  0  0.0  8.5  2.0  14.2  3.5  T.A.&T.B  5.6  1 .5  8.5  2.0  11.5  3.0  25.7  6.0  T . C.  8.6  2.0  0  0.0  11.5  3.0  20. 1  5.0  Average  6.3  1 .5  3.4  1 .0 10.3  2.5  20.0  5.0  24.3 h r s . i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e p e r week = t a u g h t by t e a c h e r o f r e g u l a r p r o g r a m i n t e g r a t e d i n t o r e g u l a r program  1 00%  31  B. D e m o g r a p h i c s  1.  Staff Teachers  had  the  i n t h e p r o g r a m had a v a r i e t y  equivalent  additional  of  Bachelors  Bachelors  of  Arts  in  and  of backgrounds. A l l  Education,  one had a M a s t e r s  T h r e e had s p e c i a l i z e d  in English,  in  No one had s p e c i a l i z e d  Science  and Math.  d e g r e e work. taken in  Three  courses  E.F.L.  related  areas  Two t e a c h e r s had t a k e n foreign  one i n S o c i a l  t e a c h e r s had t a k e n  i n E.F.L.  such  courses  being  11 y e a r s .  experience years.  from  year.  audio-visual program experience  f o u r had  1  had to  program  previous  Fluency  Neither  15  years  aides  skills.  year.  Teaching the average  E.F.L.  teaching  w i t h an a v e r a g e in  the  had t a k e n Each  Prior  in a  language  program.  previous  courses  Linguistics.  2 1/2 y e a r s and 21 y e a r s ,  a i d s and o f f i c e  the  i n the  t e a c h e r s had t a u g h t  The  and  by two t e a c h e r s .  Five teachers  The same f i v e  previous  2.  between  ranging  in his  reading courses,  i n a l l three areas.  was a n a t i v e l a n g u a g e o f any s t u d e n t ranged  S c i e n c e s and two  i n E.F.L.  as Anthropology  had  of A r t s .  m e t h o d o l o g y and f o u r had t a k e n  l a n g u a g e was c l a i m e d  experience  four  had  to  of 7  program  the  courses  i n both  worked  i n the  that,  neither  had  a s an a i d e .  Students The  83 s t u d e n t s  and  40  females  five  classes.  i n t h e p r o g r a m c o n s i s t e d o f 43 males  (48%).  Student the  age  Those  between  class,  67% o f t h e BA c l a s s  They were d i s t r i b u t e d ranged  a g e s ' of  between  evenly  12  and  15 and 17 c o m p r i s e d  and 20% o f t h e  TB  (52%)  among t h e 17  years.  a l l o f t h e TA  class.  Students  32  between class, was  12 95%  done  and  14  of  t h e BB  and  no  Transitional  and  other  other and  America  percent  p a r t s of  remaining  both  of  of  t h e TB  age  the  Indo C h i n a  6%  from  f o r a l l of  class.  difference  An  the  TC  analysis  between  the  found. students  (Laos,  Europe  came from  China,  (Lebanon, M a l a y s i a ,  percent  language. Chinese  Chinese. 8%  80%  accounted  Vietnam,  Korea),  10%  Borneo, P a k i s t a n ,  25% from  India)  ( P o r t u g a l ) , t h e USSR and  Latin  (Argentina).  Fifty-eight native  and  age  significant  p a r t s of A s i a the  class  of  B a s i c g r o u p s was  Fifty-nine from  years  Of  and the  of  Vietnamese  remaining  claimed  a  as  15%  remaining questioning  and  65%  second  of  spoke  19%  an  revealed that only  13%  as  a  speaking  speaking  only  Vietnamese,  languages. student  language,  with  40%  spoke o n l y  language.  of  Chinese  the. p o p u l a t i o n  another  the  of  those  of  spoke o t h e r  A variety  7%  18%  students,  non-native a  Thai.  students  Vietnamese  interviewed,  knowledge  the  This represents  spoke L a o t i a n and When  of  However,  6%  other  p o p u l a t i o n had 18%  claimed  claimed Chinese  languages  no  and  constituted  4% the  additional  language.  Further  of  who  another  those  knew  language c o u l d read i t . Upon arrivals had  entrance t o Canada,  been h e r e  t o t h e program, 55%  had  f o r more t h a n  Previous  schooling  students  had  no  previous  percent  had  /refugee  countries  between and  6  spent a  schooling  37%  less  of  the  than  students  a year  here  were  new  and  32%  year.  ranged  and  12%  10 had  considerably. outside years between  Only  Canada.  of  2%  of  the  Sixty-one  schooling in native 1  and  5  years  of  33  schooling. Canada,  30% o f  studied studied  With  one  respect  the  or  had  students  foreign had  more l a n g u a g e s  for 5 to  students  to  10  years.  language  experienced  More  specifically,  n o t s t u d i e d any E n g l i s h p r i o r  had s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r up t o 1 y e a r ,  for  2 t o 10 y e a r s . examination  revealed  of  previous  student  ( t o a maximum o f 3 y e a r s ) .  was l i m i t e d year  and  t o 31% o f t h e s t u d e n t s , 19%  of  whom  22% h a d  51%  of t h e  to reaching  Canada,  schooling  t h a t 27% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n had no p r e v i o u s  year  48% had  a n d 17% h a d s t u d i e d i t  Canada, 48% had between a month a n d a y e a r one  none,  outside  f o r 1 month t o 5 y e a r s ,  32%  An  study  i n Canada schooling in  and 25% had more  Previous E.F.L.  schooling  50% o f whom had l e s s  had more t h a n  a year  than  than  a  t o a maximum o f 3  years. C. The R e a d i n g  Program  1. R e a d i n g Time The  amount  displayed  of  in  instructional received  some  time  Table time  devoted  5.  Students  being  12%  more  to  taught reading  reading spent  instruction  about  half  is  their  reading.  Basic  time  did Transitional  than  students  students. The Arts  m a j o r i t y of r e a d i n g  and  E.F.L.  Social  students'  Studies time  R e a d i n g was t a u g h t  of the S c i e n c e  time  classes.  took  more t h a n  place  Fifty-five  a t s c h o o l was s p e n t  S t u d i e s a n d Language A r t s . 46%  instruction  percent  learning  80% o f t h e t i m e  i n Language  reading.  i n both  By c o n t r a s t , i t was t a u g h t  and f o r o n l y  of the  Social  f o r only  28% o f t h e Math t i m e . •  34  2.  Reading  Approaches 6  Table the  shows the  amount of  (listening, reading  time  speaking,  instruction  relationships and  Basal  equally  about  Words  Individualized  the as  in  reading  e a c h was  utilized.  writing,  reading)  time.  Linguistics,  association  of  (readiness, one-fifth Color,  (variety  approaches u t i l i z e d  of  of  Language was  sound and  Linguistics  Transitional  undertaken  in Basic  was  pre-primer, the  reading  Diacritical m a t e r i a l s and  used  classes. classes.  the  t w i c e as No  time.  marking pupil a  often  half -  symbol)  were The  and  teacher-  small portion in Basic  used  Alphabet  system)  choice,  individualized  the  morpheme  visual  etc.)  and  Experience  used  (grapheme  c o n f e r e n c e s ) a p p r o a c h e s were u s e d o n l y time.  in  - the  Readers  for  (I.T.A.,  pupil  that  various  of  classes  reading  was  35  Table Percent  of Core S u b j e c t  Week Spent Subject Basic hrs  Time and Hours  i n Reading  Class %  5 per  Instruction  Averages  Transitional % hrs  Total hrs  %  hrs  81.6  6.5  16.5  82.9  8.5  Average  L.A.  83.6  S.S.  37.5  1 .5  93.5  3.5  5.0  83.9  2.4  Sc  60.0  2.0  31.7  1 .0  3.0  46. 1  1 .6  Math  32.5  1 .0  23.3  1 .0  2.0  28.2  1 .0  Time  60.5  per  week  Ay.  c o r e 70. 1  10.0  14.5  48.7  12.0  26.5  54.6  13.5  3.5  63.9  3.0  6.6  68.2  3.5  subjects  Table Percent being  of R e a d i n g  taught Reading  Reading Approach  Instruction  Time s p e n t  by V a r i o u s  Class Basic  Language  6  Approaches  Averages  Transitional  All  Students  51  7.5  53  6.5  51  7.0  27  4.0  1 4  2.0  20  3.0  Alphabet  4  0.5  3  0.5  3  0.5  Individualized  0  0.0  6  0.5  3  0.5  1 7  2.5  24  3.0  20  3.0  Experience Linguistics  Basal  Reader  36  An  investigation  approach  and  core  of  the  subject  relationship  revealed  the  Language e x p e r i e n c e was u s e d most  often  in  was  a l l subjects.  appproach  ( b e i n g used  Language A r t s , popular  Linguistics  where  Basal  with  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Language A r t s  approaches  were used  reading that  comprehension  reading  skills the  largest  skills  with  slightly  However,  Basic  s t u d e n t s spent  recognition  skills  spent almost  less  t i m e was s p e n t time  the  Individualized  stated.  content  devoted  area  (22%) and c o n t e n t a r e a  amounts  of  skills.  The l a r g e s t  amount  among  allocated  on  the second  (26-31%).  remaining  t o study  skills. on  word  Transitional  study  skills  and  of  of time  amount  C o m p r e h e n s i o n took  time  of up  S t u d i e s (44%)  was s p e n t  (21%) r e s p e c t i v e l y . spent  prominent i n  largest  (47%) and i n S o c i a l  were  on  students.  the  students.  table  spent  and T r a n s i t i o n a l  r e a d i n g was most  amount  analysis  (10-18%)  was  to  students.  (50%) where  largest  This  t h r e e t i m e s a s many h o u r s  i n Language A r t s  second  time  time  divided  time  on c o m p r e h e n s i o n  time  of  t w i c e a s much t i m e  (44%) and S c i e n c e  where  more  (0-9% of the time)  instruction  area r e a d i n g as d i d B a s i c  most  often  as d i d T r a n s i t i o n a l  Specifically,  the  popular  was s l i g h t l y  as p r e v i o u s l y  f o r both B a s i c  skills,  Math  least  most  i n a l l s u b j e c t s except  Alphabet,  amount  o f t h e t i m e was e q u a l l y  content  second  a r e summarized i n T a b l e * 7.  The r e s t  students  trends.  Skills  The p e r c e n t a g e s o f  indicates  following  t h e B a s a l Reader a p p r o a c h  and  general  the  The  reading  ( 4 1 % t o 78% o f t h e t i m e )  14-23% o f t h e t i m e )  ( u s e d 31% of t h e t i m e ) .  3. R e a d i n g  between  i n word  Comparable  i n a l l s u b j e c t s on s t u d y  spent  on word  analysis  was  37  in to  Language word  (13%)  Arts  (22%).  Almost  t w i c e as much t i m e  r e c o g n i t i o n i n Language A r t s  as i t was  in Science  of R e a d i n g  Devoted Reading  to  Reading  Skill |  21  3.0.  word  17  analysis  comprehension  techniques greatest was  area  and  Comprehension interpretive evaluative, spent  2.5  14  1.5  1 5  2.0  44  6.5  ' 43  5.0  44  6.0  8  1.0  14  1 .5  1 1  1.5  1 1  1 .5  21  2.5  1 5  2.0  by e a c h g e n e r a l  time  spent  reading s k i l l .  time  in  word  on  analysis  by s e m a n t i c s ,  students,  however,  spent  phonic time  aspects  was  allocated  techniques  most  of t a b l e s and g r a p h s or  freely  time  than  ensuing.  and on  students).  to  vocabulary,  techniques  skills  more  the  skills  syntax  did Transitional  with  and i n t e r p r e t i v e study  than  various  Overall,  followed  on l o c a t i o n a l  analysis  relative  structure,  (Basic  structural  | Average 2.0  estimated  to  Transitional  1 5  amount o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l  phonics.  Skills  1.0  subsumed  devoted  Time  7  skills  Teachers  Studies  Class  word recogniton  content  Social  7 Instruction  Basic  study  and  devoted  (8%) and Math ( 5 % ) .  Table Percent  (15%)  was  literal  inferential, More  time  was  on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s ,  skimming/scanning  techniques.  38  In  Mathematics,  e m p h a s i z e d more stressed and  steps  than  understanding  vocabulary  informational Transitional  skills  first,  granted  students  written  No  Studies, time  in  instruction  than  was  were  critical  taught  Studies s k i l l s  in  E v a l u a t i v e and  techniques  were  second,  spent In  reading  on the  i n general  instruction (which  not  taught  analysis  across a l l subjects.  S c i e n c e and S o c i a l Language A r t s .  classes  vocabulary was  were  in only  received).  t e c h n i q u e s were t a u g h t techniques  Science  time  t h e c o n t e x t of s u b j e c t a r e a s , word  reading  problem  e q u a t i o n s and f o r m u l a s .  more and  technical  third.  Social  reading  a  reading for d e t a i l s .  drawings,  area,  was  solving  background  graphs,  content  In  was  reading for d e t a i l s  experiential  final  in  in  in  and  study  Content  area  appropriate subjects with  receiving  some a d d i t i o n a l  interpretative either  time  comprehension  S c i e n c e or Mathematics  classes. Further technqiues Social  analysis  i n v o l v e d more  Studies that  literal  they  skills  ranked  were a l s o  highly  techniques  ranked  semantic time  word  analysis  i n Language A r t s and  d i d i n S c i e n c e and Math. V o c a b u l a r y techniques  in  highly  that  instructional  comprehension  comprehension skills  disclosed  were  a l l subjects.  in  a l l subjects.  in  f o r understanding  a l l subjects  the  most  important  Organizational Locational except  t a b l e s and g r a p h s  and  study  techniques  Math,  where  were deemed  more  important. 4. M a t e r i a l s A variety Taken  as  a  of m a t e r i a l s were u s e d group,  students  in  the  reading  r e c e i v e d some 32% o f t h e i r  program. reading  39  instruction  using  materials, using  21%  games.  used  using (In  Transitional textbooks,  textbooks,  and  distinguishing Basuc  instruction,  in  textbooks  used  instruction, A  times  although  showed  as  classes  often  of c o n t e n t  area Arts  the  small  accompany  with  Transitional  Language  used  texts  However,  did  groups.  four  content  Language  three  Arts  t i m e s more  Games were u s e d  classes.  Arts  In b o t h c a s e s ,  only the  (4% t o 5 % ) .  evaluation  of r e a d i n g  f o r 50%, t e a c h e r  published when  tests  observation  teacher-made t e s t s  f o r 40% and t h e r e m a i n i n g  of s t a n d a r d i z e d  Basic  and  tests  and  Transitional  a distinctly  accounted  for  of T r a n s i t i o n a l students  students'  ability,  tests  that  groupings  were  materials.  separately,  Teacher-made evaluation  f o r both  materials  by  audio-visuals.  small  as  that were  followed  in  classes.  often  in  Procedures  However, considered  noted  than  classes  area  as  used  3%  in T r a n s i t i o n a l  and  materials  and S o c i a l S t u d i e s  10% was made up j o i n t l y  Basic  Basic  t h a n d i d Language A r t s c l a s s e s .  5. E v a l u a t i o n  accounted  whereas  workbooks  as d i d c o n t e n t  of t i m e was  materials  and a u d i o - v i s u a l s  f a c t o r was  Language  workbooks and  prominently,  They a l s o used a u d i o - v i s u a l  Language A r t s  In  most  in  u s e d workbooks t w i c e  frequently  amount  between  instruction,  the time  that  often  classes.  by  more  7% u s i n g  materials  figured  teacher-constructed  i n s t r u c t i o n , i t was  materials,  comparison  materials  reading  Basic  teacher-constructed Games were  using  audio-visuals,  teacher-constructed  equally  27%  evaluation.  Teacher  different the  picture  greatest  (67%) but f o r observation  part only  was  emerged. of the 35%  of  responsible  40  for  most  of  students, Basic  whereas  remaining  evaluation  i t accounted  for  terms of  Language  subjects, teacher  Arts  teacher-made  reading  tests  s u b j e c t s , with  of  evaluation.  the  ability  Standardized  i n Language A r t s , but  in  subjects.  content The  A r t s and  student content  Language  and  based  their  on  academic  evaluation  appropriate  Transitional  evaluation  of  based  and  t h e a i d of an  were  tested.  test,  and  values  ways. on  of  The  English speaking,  at a  was  the  Language  consensus,  English skills  Promotion  in  all  determined  students  by  within  concensus.  7%  on the  tests  the  percent tests.  hearing  8 presents  2-tail  were a d m i n i s t e r e d  interpreter) in A p r i l . of Of  the  by  Sixty-five  students  t h a t number,  the  students  performed 11%  nurse  below  failed  the  test.  t h e means and  p o s t - t e s t s adminstered and  arrived  of  evaluation  to evaluate  s u b j e c t achievement  teacher  vision  Twenty  levels  Table  on  the  listening,  students'  teachers.  a quarter  different  of  third  Results  (with  vision  with  only a  specifically  areas  contrast,  evaluation in  forming  designed in  By  this  none of  E.F.L. t e a c h e r s  Content  individual  Hearing  accepted  almost  focussed the  experiences  p r o g r a m was Program  in  writing.  areas.  of  t e s t s made up  r e p o r t c a r d was  development  reading  half  subject performances  Arts  Language  pre-  the  evaluation.  teacher-observation  evaluation  6.  of  of  observation constituted half  formed more t h a n  content  the  54%  (24%)  students. In  of  the  standard  i n the  probabilities.  As  deviations for  program, the  along  with  the T  table indicates, a l l  41  were s i g n i f i c a n t t e r m s of For 24.5  the  beyond P > 0.000 s u g g e s t i n g  t e s t s given,  example,  the  the  The  grade  score  mean g a i n program. students level,  score  p o s t - t e s t mean of of  7.8.  of more t h a n Norming  Thus, three  data  2.6  on  Post-test  Pretest M  Unfortunately, the  remaining  since the  pre-  norming data  Diagnostic  only scores  speculate on  Test  the  C.E.L.T.  represents  test,  the  there  course  test  a  is a  of  the  suggest  that  i n t e r m s of  grade  Results  M  Test  T Value  2-Tail Prob.  SD L  24.5  15. 5 40.0 i  25.8  16.  9 35.8  16.7  '-1  0.68 0.000  -  7.88 0.000  9. 5 22.6  7.1  16.8  1 1 .3 26.5  10.6  9. 3 21 .8  14.4 12.2  14. 7 24.5  -11.58 0.000  1 3V7  15.1  -11.89 0.000  8.0 -11.34 0.000 18.0  -  9.59 0.000  to t r a n s l a t e the  into  meaningful  a v a i l a b l e f o r e i t h e r the  of E n g l i s h as  that  both the  SD  post-tests  i s not  this  growth  Post  i t is difficult and  test  grade  8  N=  1. EDMONTON S p e l l i r A b i l i t y Test 74 2. S c h o n e l l G r a d e d Word L i s t s 78 3. C.E.L.T. ) Vocabulary 79 4. C.E.L.T. Structure 80 5. C.E.L.T. Listening 80 6. D i a g n o s t i c T e s t of E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d Language 66  of  months i n  3.6.  Table  Test  same  Schonell  year  in  p r e - t e s t mean of  five  during  the  one  and  or  i n t e r m s of  to grade  Pre-test  4.5  the  years  for  made a p p r o x i m a t e l y  from g r a d e  40  of  least  is successful.  Edmonton S p e l l i n g A b i l i t y  t r a n s l a t e s to a grade  four.  program  t h a t , at  a Second  increase and  the  scores  information, C.E.L.T.  Language.  from p r e Diagnostic  from  One  or can  t o p o s t - t e s t mean Test  of  English  42  as a S e c o n d Language r e f l e c t s IQ  scores,  administered that  as  achieved  achieved  a lower  and s c o r e s  ranged  significant  with  on  from  sex  there '  between  have an e f f e c t  C.E.L.T.  score  and  The mean s c o r e There  scores  (using  were  no  of  was  Basic  equalized  scores  statistically  44% was no and  pretest  Nor d i d t h e l e n g t h o f time  had h i g h e r Test.  was s i g n i f i c a n t  students  i n the  program  scores.  ANOVA w i t h  Vocabulary  significant  o f male and o f f e m a l e  class  groupings  i n program as c o v a r i a t e s proved  w h i c h one c l a s s  25.86  the  indicated  (110-139)  (< 9 0 ) .  of V a r i a n c e  gain  on g a i n  A similiar time  score  Test  an a v e r a g e  57 t o 139 (82 p o i n t s ) . between  IQ  program,  i t achieved  score  Fair  and l e n g t h of t i m e . i n p r o g r a m a s c o - v a r i a t e s  any o f t h e t e s t s .  and  from t h e  superior  average  Analyses  that  differences  a  Culture  students.  Regression  revealed  the  who w r o t e  difference  Transitional  scores)  than  by  upon e x i t  46% o f t h e s t u d e n t s 10%  92  measured  t o students  (90-109),  some l e g i t i m a t e measure o f g r o w t h .  gain  scores  Transitional  by b e t t e r  (Transitional, that the only  than  another  students'  ( p > 0.032) t h a n  Basic) test in  was  the  mean  score of  Basic  students  mean o f 18.89. The native that any  same t y p e language  of r e g r e s s i o n ANOVA w i t h (Chinese  time  i n program  and  and n o n - C h i n e s e ) a s c o v a r i a t e s showed  t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between two g r o u p s  i n gain  s c o r e on  of the t e s t s . The  scores  effect  o f 22  was a s s e s s e d  using post  tests  scores  on  the  C.E.L.T.  subtest  by m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s  as the dependent  variable.  A  gain  of v a r i a n c e  correlation  was  43  found  between  Vocabulary not  the  22  (F - 4 . 4 8 6 )  on t h e S t r u c t u r e  scores  scores  correlation C.E.L.T. The with  were  subtest  Vocabulary Edmonton  t h e C.E.L.T.  strongest Structure  Vocabulary  test  scores  Ability post  both the  subtests  but  resulting  were  in  compared was  a  with 0.58.  post-test scores c o r r e l a t e d  was  scores  (0.6004).  between  and t h e D i a g n o s t i c  a S e c o n d Language p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s  as a p o s t - t e s t .  the c o r r e l a t i o n  test  . discovered  scores  given  scores,  post-test scores,  correlation post  was  IQ  Gates  Spelling  on  (F = 0.598).  with  When  scores  (F = 4.486)  Reading Test  compared  of 0.45.  gain  and L i s t e n i n g  The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e The  and  (0.8200).  Test  the  The  C.E.L.T.  of E n g l i s h as  44  CHAPTER F I V E : CONCLUSIONS AND  A.  Overview The  McCauley  E.F.L. programs population field  in  suggests  In  aides,  a  adolescent  need  It  a  number  serves  students.  and  the  eighty-three educational  influenced  the  model  a  of  specific  Literature  i n the  implementation  explicated,  leading  f e a t u r e s of  each.  were  students  program  P r e - and  E n g l i s h a s measured  to  described  have  been  and  of  t h e two  backgrounds  reading  that  Teaching  instruction  c o n c l u s i o n s about  post-program  were  dominant  standardized  success  in  described.  were h i g h l i g h t e d .  determine  by t h o s e  been  and e x p e r i e n t i a l  t o some g e n e r a l  analyzed  has  i n i t , the s i x teachers,  t e c h n i q u e s , m a t e r i a l s and c o n t e n t  test  i n a c q u i s i t i o n of  tests.  Conclusions The  findings  conclusions. that  an  students  in  learning  immersion can  model  absorb  rates,  program  Karkia's  Chapter  The M c C a u l e y  a p p e a r s t o have a f l u i d  the  of  f o r development,  Those who p a r t i c i p a t e d  have  scores  one  America.  paper, the McCauley  Aspects of t h e i r may  North  is  of such programs.  this  detail.  E.F.L. program  of refugee,  evaluation  B.  RECOMMENDATIONS  program is  English nature,  the  suggest  best  recommendation  adapting  that  number  environment  (Blankett,  classes^  a  of  i s a proponent of the theory  to  1972).  This E.F.L.  in  is  student  promoted consistent  programs  which  The program  individual  w i t h 28% o f t h e s t u d e n t s b e i n g  or t o regular  (1979)  Four  within with  be c l o s e l y  45  adapted able  to  to  student operate  needs.  efficiently  provided  relatively  classes  which  noting, for  few  were  of  seldom  t h e program,  allocations,  assignments, program  may  and  thus  unrealistic  flexible course  Language  The  isolated  knowledge  of  of  they fact the  For  no  t h a t one  English,  language  skill  presence  than  on  of  I t i s worth  were  enrolled  of  with  no  these  those  students  student  teachers  taught  have  students  with  teachers  taught  area  been  whom t o only  s u b j e c t s may  required  have  Additionally, little  or  w i t h g r e a t e r Math  no  ability  and  thus  requiring  full-time  aide  freed  t o expend more e n e r g y F u r t h e r , the  Basic  students  to receive i n t e n s i v e These  substantially  to  lessened  adjustment  the  of  the  less  development.  allowed  instruction.  teacher  view of  e x p e c t a t i o n s may  only content  t h e competent  English skills  of  view  Basic  record-keeping.  a i d e as a t u t o r  variety  the E.F.L. mainstream.  w i t h and  time  group  and  a fragmented  the Mathematics s k i l l s  spend more t i m e  rather  prescriptions  example, two  their  had  them from  a  biased  and  other  in  have been p e r c e i v e d as more a d v a n c e d  The  that  students  teachers  a  students  A r t s and  since certain  English  be  environment  in population. the  to  providing a consistent basis for  levels.  since  compare them.  given  perhaps  only T r a n s i t i o n a l  to  static  resulting  have  progress/achievement  may  m a t e r i a l s or  t e a c h e r s appeared  description.  Time  further  within a  however, t h a t t w o - t h i r d s of  all  program  Furthermore,  the  success  factors of  the  difficulties  use  on  teachers students,  of  the p a r t -  e n t e r i n g the  program  o n e - t o - o n e or  may  have  program of new  small  contributed and  probably  students entering  46  classes  during  The  fact  E.F.L. study more  time  a  of t h e  that T r a n s i t i o n a l than  with  have a i d e d from  the c o u r s e  program. students  did Basic  students  allowed  Canadian  English-speaking  i n the a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s protected  school  life.  The  larger  amount  Language  Arts  would  language  instruction. 12%  of  of  time  spent  seem p r a c t i c a l ; Further,  content  Transitional  students)  added  to  time  and  E.F.L. environment  Canadian  additional  spent  the c o n t e n t  the  the  by  Basic  to  in  spend  This  may  transition  mainstream  of  students  in  r e q u i r e more appear  time  Basic  time  former  to  instruction  less  students.  would  is justified.  acquire  the  in  they  it  10%  intense  that  the  (as compared  Students  knowledge of  may  their  to  need  Canadian  peers. Teachers  i n the  Only  half  taken  the  quality  teachers  had  had  of  lack  of  together similar may  i n E.F.L.  in  training.  to the  The  have h e l p e d the  deleterious  need  to  influenced none of  the  However,  background  of  to o f f s e t  teachers  had  They a p p e a r e d  this  worked to  hold  compatibly.  This  program.  n a t i v e group effects  formed a n a t u r a l g r o u p w h e r e i n reinforced.  the  t o work t o g e t h e r  p r e p o n d e r a n c e of one some  of  and  same p r o g r a m p r e v i o u s l y .  have been b e n e f i c i a l  have  Similarly,  courses  Five  experiences.  i n h i s d e g r e e work.  E . F . L . may  e d u c a t i o n a l v i e w s and  had  T h i s may  instruction.  E.F.L. r e l a t e d  i n the  The have  reading  experience  formal  varied educational  reading courses.  specialized  E.F.L. courses, practical  p r o g r a m had  their  learn  (59% V i e t n a m e s e )  w i t h i n the c u l t u r e and  E n g l i s h and  may  program.  They  language  were  to a s s i m i l a t e  may  47  have t h u s been m o l l i f i e d . group  sometimes  established classes  found  it  the  group.  within  where  Furthermore,  English  difficult  students to  ( T h i s was  outside  infiltrate most  communication  friendships  obvious  skills  this  in  were  Basic  severely  limited.) W h i l e a l l but outside the  Canada,  i n t e n s i t y of  suggested and It in  that  2%  also  notebooks  that  education.  classes  questioning  made s t u d e n t s ' burden to the Since  that  the  in  learning  not  previously  was  required  studied for  English  would  The  by  large  with  (more t h a n  of  quality  corporal  no  were  opinion.  This  students)  punishment. from  experience with  They  those  textbooks,  discouraged  from  b a c k g r o u n d may  schooling  or  students  50  strategies differed  almost  of  students  this  any  these  an  have  additional  However, h a l f I t may  students  to attune  1962;  studied  a  contributed  English.  reasonable  time devoted  are  had  be  Bouchard,  the  foreign  to  their  students  that  more  themselves 1974),  had time  to  the  delaying  its specifics.  seem  these  (70%)  probably  English.  (Bernardoni,  reading  Linguistics)  the  to Canadian  time,  a c q u i s i t i o n of  justified  been  skills.  majority  facility  instructional  judge e i t h e r  schooling  language b a r r i e r .  one  It  had  some  Conversation  teaching  adjustment  at  the  to  claimed  measures  teacher's  language  sound of  way  had  research the  no  liberal  Students or  students  was  implied  Canada.  the  there  a u t o c r a t i c , with was  of  students'  to  reading  lack  approaches  consistent  t o assume t h a t  of  in  English  utilized  the  Basic  extra  classes  language  (Language  w i t h methods recommended  12%  of was  skills. Experience, in  current  48  E.F.L. l i t e r a t u r e major  emphasis  ( K a r k i a , 1979; Savage, on . c o m p r e h e n s i o n  would a p p e a r a p p r o p r i a t e purpose fill  students  the  language.  be  omitted the  gap e v i d e n t  in  Time  concept  reviewed.  of  f o r most  allocations  for  attempt  to  produce  r e a d i n g as r a p i d l y students  some  reached  been d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i r  The  reading  from t h e lower  exposure  to  to high  various,  skills  Most  in at least  skills  could  for instance,  would  have  suggest  been  of  Study  literacy skills  the T r a n s i t i o n a l Canadian  training  level  that  t o word r e c o g n i t i o n s k i l l s  most  level.  skills  left  an  mainly have  apparently  skills.  f r e q u e n t l y s t r e s s e d were drawn  such  Little  as c r i t i c a l  time  reading.  them may have been a d v a n t a g e o u s t o s t u d e n t s T h i s emphasis  (particularly  in  T h i s may  s c h o o l i n g as they  i n those  Basic  and i n d e p e n d e n t  were  end of t h e h i e r a r c h y of s k i l l s .  school.  skills  readiness  print  degree  techniques  on t h e h i g h e r  Wilson  r e p o r t , was t o  E.F.L. programs.  from  as p o s s i b l e .  l a c k e d any p r e v i o u s  The  students.  were h e a v i l y e x p o s e d  basic  students.  One would assume,  meaning  students  on  the  to the funding other  The  c l a s s e s and s u b j e c t s  of  T h u s , many o f t h e r e a d i n g  or merely  established  spent  age  1976).  i n t h e program had some d e g r e e o f l i t e r a c y  one  until  across  o f t h e program, a c c o r d i n g  the content  that  to  1978;.Rigg,  on  specific  was Some  moving  instruction  in  i n grammar) i s , however, s u p p o r t e d  by  (1973).  Although  a  variety  of  texts  classes  and workbooks were used  Social  S t u d i e s and S c i e n c e  own c r e a t i o n .  in  relied  The l i t e r a t u r e  were u s e d Math  i n Language  classes,  teachers  Arts of  h e a v i l y on m a t e r i a l s o f t h e i r  (Savage,  1978) s u g g e s t s  that  this  49  is  beneficial.  available the  for content  language.  students weren't far  should being  taught.  means  to  probably  research  teachers  used  teachers,  required  literature should  be  fine  to  analyze  and  the  skill  relative  relied  more  heavily  t o put  from a l a c k of  consistent 1970; and  to  be  acquiring  skills and  that Science  audio-visuals  i t could  be  that  meaning a c r o s s  of  heavily  of  reading  to  English  on  views 1978)  the  in  growth.  pupil  in  personal  the  evaluation  teacher-made nature  teachers  of  However,  expressed  that  required,  than  t e s t s capable  objective  t e s t s t h a n on  and  acquisition.  , utilizing  Due  rather  ability  reliable  with  informal  subjective  reading  Savage,  growth.  lack  on  assessing  degrees  (Thonis, continual  rely in  resulted  these procedures are  tests of  Math  naturally  observation  in  subject. The  program. deficient the  the  I.Q.  or  that  purports  hearing  and  v i s i o n t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  Consequently,  20%  of  in those areas operated  those under  students that  late  in  the  identified  handicap  for  as  most  year.  The  test  pupils  in S o c i a l Studies  content  were  evaluation  discriminating  of  Since  the  appeared  subjects.  objective  that  some of  learning  materials  adolescent  t h a n d i d Language A r t s  Teachers tended  This  published  i n s t r u c t i o n of  have been  practical  those  few  Hence, p e r h a p s  more o f t e n  more  In.fact,  fact  that  t e s t may  44%  the  i n d i c a t e that  instructions t o be  of  were  "culture  i n s t r u c t i o n s and  free".  each  students the  not  scored  t e s t was  understood.  Interpreters  student  was  below a v e r a g e  culturally  biased  However, the were u s e d  on  test  in giving  i n d i v i d u a l l y asked  by  a  50  teacher  if  left  with  was  normal,  the  he  understood  the question whether  l a c k of t e s t  cause  of  the d i r e c t i o n s .  of whether the t e s t  experience  such  a  large  the  itself  One i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  I.Q. of  this  population  was u n r e l i a b l e  o r whether  on t h e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t s proportion  of students  was  scoring  the below  average. Students word  appear  reading  skill  a mean g r a d e s c o r e comparable their  The appear  Transitional vocabulary  validity  of t h e f a c t  as  Second  correlation Diagnostic they  obtaining  program.  This  is  (mean o f 3.4) a n d t o  by T r a n s i t i o n a l  intense  received  apparently  drill  to  students  instruction. equal  I t may be t h a t B a s i c  of t e s t  make  be  scored  normed invalid  was Test  gain  B a s i c and amounts  students  gains  do n o t  of  require  comparable  to  s c o r e s c o u l d be q u e s t i o n a b l e i n  t h a t so many s t u d e n t s zero  Language).  were n o t  therefore  oral  students.  26 s t u d e n t s  tests  more  vocabulary  (e.g. a  gains  development.  Transitional  light  to  classes  more s p e c i f i c  The  due  scores  in  (4.0).  vocabulary  be  growth  by t h e S c h o n e l l t e s t ) ,  Gates-MacGinitie  scores  higher to  (as e v i n c e d  o f 3.6 by t h e end o f t h e  to their  spelling  t o have made a b o u t a y e a r ' s  z e r o on  on t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t  pretests of E n g l i s h  A further consideration i s that  for  this  (Bauldauf,  between  scored  the  E.F.L.  population  1978).  The h i g h e s t  C.E.L.T. S t r u c t u r e  o f E n g l i s h a s a Second Language,  may be m e a s u r i n g s i m i l a r  skills.  other  test  and  s c o r e a n d some o f t h e  scores  and  indicating  I.Q.  s c o r e c a n be used a s a p r e d i c t o r o f s u c c e s s  may  may  intertest  The c o r r e l a t i o n s  I.Q.  these  the that  between  mean  that  i n t h e program,  51  indicating Test  may  Reading  more r a p i d l y . t h a n t h o s e  scored do  C.  was  Summary And  effective E.F.L.  in  reading  and  some  Gates-MacGinitie  who  have  low  Spelling  appeared  though  to other the  1.  these  One  area  very  of  achievement  are  assessment  that  44%  of  Test,  tests. tests  that  acquire  for special  it  of  programs  a year's  the  i s an  growth  developmental  is difficult  to  isolate  t o w h i c h components  of  program's s u c c e s s .  It  to the  f i n d i n g s of  the  present  populations.  present i t has  listed  study  was  nevertheless  primarily uncovered  future research.  designed a number  Some of  the  to of  more  below.  i s a need instruments the  Study  need  Because  s e r i o u s problem  E.F.L.  Ability  the  t o have made a b o u t  program,  p r o b l e m s which m e r i t of  also  the McCauley program  to g e n e r a l i z e the  baseline data,  important  that  c o n t r i b u t i n g most  study  Test  helping students  Further  to the  skills.  McCauley  equally d i f f i c u l t  serious  in  scores.  skills.  for responding  spelling  I.Q.  r e q u i r e d i n both  value  i t would a p p e a r  program a r e  fact  are  I.Q*  the  f e a t u r e s t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s as  Even  The  Culture Fair  by  Edmonton  skills  reading  the  descriptive  the  of  Students  of  specific  gather  the  the  C.E.L.T. V o c a b u l a r y  Recommendations F o r  model  in  is  on  the  on  c o u l d assume from growth measurement on  In summary,  the  measured  on  similar  language  nature  (as  well well  that  program  English  score high  Test)  suggesting  the  who  to read  to  One  those  learn  Those who seemed  that  facing  education  working  in  for appropriate diagnostic  and  normed f o r A s i a n  population  in  the  populations.  present  study  52  achieved Fair  I.Q.  I.Q.  norms a r e  development further  to  i n the  procedures  and  make  the  not,  there  such  as  75  suggests  t h a t the  i n a p p r o p r i a t e to such  assessment  tools  is  the  of  present  nature  There  materials  any  of  is a  for comparison  and  who  literacy.  r e a d and  those  4.  a  Culture  students.  critical  The  area  for  for  t h e r e was or  procedures  research and  no  in  which  manipulated,  replication.  there  was  no  measurement  t h o u g h one  in their  might  native  of  i n the M c C a u l e y p r o g r a m .  this  those  with  Research  of  speculate  language  t o E n g l i s h more q u i c k l y t h a n  e m p i r i c a l evidence  follow-up  enrolled  effectiveness  associated  techniques  controlled  Even  write  study  will who  do  populations  in this  area, i s  needed. A  5.  the  need be  native  i s no  the  can  transition  definitely  such  than  In t h e M c C a u l e y p r o g r a m ,  students  research  likely  program.  pre-program  students  less  standardize  allowing  3.  that  such  B e c a u s e of  apparatus  thereby  of  of  research.  2.  used  scores  of  this  the  educational  type  of  of E . F . L .  the  obvious  help  on  McCauley.  this  aspect  to  success  determine  of the  program. sociological  the a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s ,  focussing  as_ t h a t a t  of  i n the program would  Because with  study  of  there  implications  is a  t o t a l ' immersion  need  for  programs  53  BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashworth, M. Programs, Politics and W i n t e r / S p r i n g 1979, J_0 (1&2), 16-24.  Progress  TESL T a l k  Ashworth, Mary. Immigrant C h i l d r e n and C a n a d i a n T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L i m i t e d , 1975.  ,  Schools.  Baldauf, Richard B. J r . 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