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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teaching and learning Shakespeare through song Mikulin, Michael 2006

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T E A C H I N G A N D L E A R N I N G S H A K E S P E A R E T H R O U G H S O N G by M I C H A E L MIKUL IN B.Mus. , The University of British Co lumb ia 1996 B. E d . , T h e University of British Co lumb ia 1997 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S ( L A N G U A G E A N D L I T E R A C Y E D U C A T I O N ) T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRIT ISH C O L U M B I A - Apr i l , 2006 © Michae l S tephen Mikul in, 2006 ABSTRACT Shakespeare's plays are filled with music. Over 70 songs can be found in the Shakespeare canon, and no less than 32 of the plays make reference to music or musical matters in the text itself (Naylor, 1965, p. 3). In addition to songs that advance the action, known as mimetic music, performances of Shakespearean drama often make use of non-mimetic music - that is, the incidental music used at the start and end of the plays to entertain the audience (Duffin, 2004, p.11). While much innovative research has resulted in new and exciting ways to teach Shakespeare (i.e., O'Brien, 1993; Davis & Salomone, 1993; Gibson, 1998), the possibility of exploring musical settings in the context of teaching Shakespeare is often overlooked, possibly due to a lack of accessible information and resources. This thesis explores how understanding of Shakespearean drama might be enriched through attention to the song texts. It is comprised of three main sections: 1) an examination of the history of song in Shakespearean text; 2) a presentation of the author's original arrangements for five song texts accompanied by discussion of how the composition process required sophisticated engagement with the text; and 3) a reflection on the author's experiences inviting Grade 10 English students to compose original settings for Shakespearean songs employing a computer-based music making application. The print manuscript is accompanied by a hypermedia compilation for classroom use that features musical settings (both historical and original), song texts, and practical resources for teachers. Additional materials, including streamed music files of the author's original song settings, are available at www.shakesonqs.com. iii Tab le of Contents A B S T R A C T ii L IST O F F I G U R E S v A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S vi C H A P T E R 1. I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 Pre face 1 Context and Purpose 2 C H A P T E R 2. H I S T O R Y O F S O N G IN S H A K E S P E A R E 5 El izabethan Societa l Att i tudes Towards Mus i c 5 Shakespea re ' s Performing V e n u e s and Mus ica l R e s o u r c e s 8 Unusua l Per formance Pract ices 12 Shakespea re ' s Mus ica l E thos 12 Col laborat ion 12 U s e of Popular Mus ic as Source Material 13 Mus i c Moveab le and Interchangeable 15 Shakespea rean S o n g C o m p o s e r s and Extant Sett ings 16 T h o m a s Morley: Contemporary S h a k e s p e a r e Col laborator? 17 Robert Johnson : Shakespea re ' s C o m p o s e r 19 G e n r e s of S o n g - Ba l lads, Tavern S o n g s , and Ay res 21 Tavern S o n g s 23 Ay res 24 Brief Mus ica l History - A M idsummer Night 's Dream 25 A Word About Textual Var iance , Authority and Authenticity 29 C H A P T E R 3. W R I T I N G T H E S O N G S 34 Clarif ication of Important Mus ica l Te rms 35 The First S o n g - Under The Greenwood Tree 40 Folk V e r s u s Courtly 41 Cons ider ing Key, Meter and Other Sett ings 45 Context and Dramat ic Funct ion 47 A Word About Ducdame (Ducdame) 50 Mus ica l Form and Repetit ion of Text 51 Rev iewing the Earl iest Sett ings and Compar ing 51 The S e c o n d S o n g - Blow, B low Thou Winter Wind 53 Interpreting and Respond ing to the Mood of the Lyr ics 54 Choos ing a Key to Ref lect Mood and Tone 55 Choos ing a Meter to Ref lect Mood and Tone 57 S e e n and U n s e e n : Dramat ic Context 59 Ophe l ia 's S o n g 60 Reviewing Historical Sett ings 61 Interpretation, Context, and Dramat ic Funct ion 63 Textual Var iance in Ophel ia 's S o n g 66 iv Mus ica l Form and Repeti t ion of Text 67 Per formance Dec is ions 69 Desdemona ' s S o n g : Wi l low Wi l low 70 Reviewing Historical Sett ings 70 Interpreting the S o n g Text 73 Key, Meter and Mus ica l Form 74 The Canak in Cl ink Pub S o n g 77 Drinking S o n g a s G e n r e 77 Text and Origins of Canak in Cl ink 78 Dramat ic Funct ion 80 Per formance and Instrumentation: Tone and Mood 82 Conc lud ing Thoughts on Compos ing S o n g Sett ings 83 C H A P T E R 4. T E A C H I N G S H A K E S P E A R E T H R O U G H S O N G 84 Developing an Instructional Methodology: Genera l G o a l s 85 G o a l s for Evaluat ion 87 Learning Object ives and Ou tcomes 88 Designing Activit ies: G a r a g e Band S h a k e s o n g s 89 G a r a g e Band S h a k e s o n g s 91 C l a s s r o o m Highlights 92 Effect of Instrumentation on Mood and Tone 92 Logopoe ia , Phanopoe ia , and Me lopoe ia 96 Key, Rhythm, Tempo , and Text Under lay: Mood and T o n e 98 Singing Shakespea re : Mus i c and Memory 103 Writing The S h a k e s o n g s 105 Multiple Interpretations: Alternate Ve rs ions and Textual Va r i ances 106 Fi lm and Telev is ion: Re-cogn iz ing S h a k e s p e a r e 108 C H A P T E R 5. M O M E N T S O F P R O C E S S 110 Mus i c and Memory 110 Dramat ic Funct ion, Context, and Synthes is 113 Imagery 118 Multimodality 118 Tone and Mood 122 Key: Illuminating Tone and Mood 126 F INAL T H O U G H T S 129 R E F E R E N C E S ,.. 132 Append ix A - Ministry Learning Object ives and Ou tcomes 140 Append ix B - Unit P lan Outl ine 143 Append ix C - Evaluat ion Rubr i cs /Sca les 147 Note: Addit ional materials may be found online at www.shakesongs .com. V LIST O F FIGURES Figure 1. It W a s a Lover and His L a s s - by T h o m a s Mor ley 18 Figure 2. Full Fa thom Five - by Robert Johnson 20 Figure 3. Under the Greenwood Tree - Tradit ional Melody 42 Figure 4. Nuptial Hymn: W e l c o m e B lack Night - by John Dowland 44 Figure 5. Under the Greenwood Tree (Verse) - by Michae l Mikul in 46 Figure 6. Under the Greenwood Tree (Bridge) - by Michae l Mikul in 49 Figure 7. Under the Greenwood Tree - S i r Eg lamore Tune 52 Figure 8. B low B low Thou Winter W ind - G o d d e s s e s Tune 55 Figure 9. B low Blow Thou Winter W ind - Long's Reconstruct ion 58 Figure 10. B low Blow Thou Winter W ind (Chorus) - by Michae l Mikul in 59 Figure 11. Ophel ia 's S o n g - Wa ls ingham Melody 61 Figure 12. Ophel ia 's S o n g - Drury Lane Tune 63 Figure 13. Wi l low Wi l low - Lodge Lute Book Melody 71 Figure 14. The Canak in Cl ink - Soldier 's Life Me lody 80 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank the following individuals. First, my thanks to Jennie Emery, for lending your remarkable voice to several original Shakesong recordings, especially the chorus of fairies. Second, much appreciation to Mr. Angus Macdonald, for lending your vocal talents to the "Canakin Clink." Third, I wish to thank Ashley Macdonald, for supplying your wonderfully sweet voice to two distressed female leads (Ophelia and Desdemona), even though you were incredibly busy performing The Secret Garden at the time. To Scott and Gerina Heath, thank you for assistance in all matters technical and computer related - your advice proved invaluable throughout and I am deeply in your debt. Lastly, a thank you to my parents, for innumerable piano lessons, guitar lessons, and your support throughout the years. In addition, I would like to offer a very special thanks to my professors, Dr. Carl Leggo, Dr. Scott Goble, and Dr. Teresa Dobson, for bringing their own areas of expertise to this document. I especially wish to thank my advisor, Dr. Teresa Dobson, who made this entire project possible and oversaw it from start to finish. Your help, support, dedication, and gently guiding hand kept me going through some difficult times, and your scope and breadth of knowledge of the subject matter kept me constantly striving to do better. I hope the end product has exceeded your expectations. You are a truly gifted teacher and advisor. Many, many Thanks. I couldn't have done it without you. 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Preface Shakespeare's plays are filled with music. Over 70 songs are in the Shakespeare canon, and no less than 32 of the plays make reference to music or musical matters in the text itself (Naylor, 1931, p. 3). In addition to the songs that advance the action, known as mimetic music, the non-mimetic music - incidental music - is used at the start and end of the plays to entertain the audience (Duffin, 2004, p. 11). Following the rise of the printing press, printed ballads and songs infiltrated almost every aspect of Elizabethan life, including drama. The age of Shakespeare was a golden age of song. Elizabethan dramatists borrowed much of their music from a common body of folk song, so it is unlikely that Shakespeare wrote his own music, but perhaps no playwright understood the power of music to move an audience better than Shakespeare. The songs in his plays are not merely entertaining diversions; rather, they are used to reinforce thematic ideas, advance plot, foreshadow action, delineate character, localize setting, cover exits and entrances, and depict the passage of time. In Shakespeare's drama, then, music is almost always used for a specific purpose. The Elizabethan audience had a voracious appetite for new productions: it is estimated Shakespeare's acting company performed 5 to 6 plays per week and 20 new plays over the course of a season (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 188). As a result of the intense demand for new material, and in keeping with the theatrical traditions of the times, music was often moved, changed, or re-used in different plays (Duffin, 2004, p. 13). Judging from the songs appropriated for use in the plays, Shakespeare clearly understood and appreciated music's significance for all social classes, and offered songs in numerous popular genres, from ayres and ballads to bawdy tavern songs. 2 Context and Purpose Many students find early modern English difficult to understand and interpret; consequently, the study of Shakespearean drama presents a challenge to both teachers and students alike. In provinces like British Columbia, with a high population of new immigrants without English as a first language, this problem is compounded because many students are struggling with contemporary English grammatical structures and are doubly challenged by the complexities of early modern English. What methods might teachers use to help students come to appreciate and enjoy early modern texts? While much innovative research has resulted in new and exciting ways to teach Shakespeare (i.e. O'Brien, 1993; Davis & Salomone, 1993; Gibson, 1998), the possibility of exploring musical settings is often overlooked by school teachers, possibly due to a lack of accessible information and resources. As Duffin (2004) points out, the songs are often neglected in student productions: I attended a student performance of Twelfth Night. The production was spirited and there were many talented players, but as I heard song reference after song reference go by, with either no melody at all or what seemed to me a terrible hodgepodge of arbitrarily chosen tunes, I wondered " Do they know that some of these things are songs rather than just verses?" (p. 40) It is worth considering how the understanding of drama can be enriched by the inclusion of song. This thesis consists of a historical and theoretical discussion of song in Shakespearean drama followed by my personal reflections as a musician and teacher. To consider the possibilities for composing music in the English classroom, I designed a unit in which students considered variant musical settings for particular song texts and then composed settings themselves using Garage Band, a multi-track recording program. The aim of the thesis is threefold: 1) to examine the history of song 3 in Shakespearean text; 2) to discuss how my own knowledge of Shakespeare was expanded in the context of composing original settings for some of the song texts; and 3) to explore the potential for integrating music in the teaching of Shakespeare and outline the learning outcomes that might be achieved with this method. The reflective portions of the thesis draw on narrative research as defined by Connelly and Clandinin (1988). The thesis might be characterized as an arts-based method, in that it emphasizes modes of expression other than the verbal (cf Rapport, Wainwright, & Elwyn, 2005). Ultimately, I hope to provide a media-rich resource for practicing teachers that will promote interdisciplinary instructional approaches that integrate English and Music. The questions with which I began my exploration, and which guided me throughout the writing of my thesis, were these: • What is the history of Shakespeare and song? • What issues arise when one engages in the process of considering possible settings for Shakespeare's song texts? . What are the affordances of teaching Shakespeare to adolescents focusing on an activity of composing settings to the song texts? • How does my own understanding of Shakespearean drama change as a result of engaging in this activity and reflection? I focused my examination on songs from two plays: As You Like It and A Midsummer Night's Dream. Both are widely taught in Grades 9 and 10, and contain some of Shakespeare's most memorable song texts. As well, I have composed musical settings for some songs from Romeo & Juliet, Othello, and Hamlet, which shed light on different issues raised by Shakespeare's song texts, this thesis is comprised of two components: 1) a print manuscript, and 2) a hypermedia compilation for classroom use that features musical settings (both historical and original), song texts, and practical resources for teachers. In addition to these elements, I have developed a Web site, 4 www.shakesongs .com, that provides addit ional materials, including descr ipt ions and pictures of period instruments, b iographies o f important Shakespea rean song composers , and s t reamed music fi les of my original song sett ings. 5 CHAPTER 2. HISTORY OF SONG IN SHAKESPEARE The true concord of well-tuned sounds. -Shakespeare, Sonnet 8 (8.5) To put the songs in context, I provide in this chapter a general overview of Elizabethan societal attitudes towards music, the musical traditions and sources that Shakespeare may have absorbed, the instrumental resources and performance venues available to him, and his musical ethos as evidenced in the plays. In addition, I profile two composers who were contemporaries of Shakespeare and who may have collaborated with him during his lifetime. (For biographies of other relevant Shakespearean song composers and descriptions of Elizabethan instruments, see the additional materials on the accompanying disc.,) To provide an example of the rich musical history of Shakespeare's dramas, the chapter concludes with a brief musical history of one of the most commonly taught plays, A Midsummer Night's Dream. Elizabethan Societal Attitudes Towards Music The society into which Shakespeare entered as a young playwright in the 1590's was stratified by class, occupation, and family lineage. As an irony of Shakespeare's profession, he wrote about the lives of Kings and Queens, and no doubt impersonated the upper class as an actor on stage, yet he himself occupied a tenuous social position at best. As an actor, Shakespeare could be detained as a vagrant without cause and subjected to severe punishment (such as whipping, being branded, or being put in the stocks), if he were not sponsored by a noble family or by the monarchy itself (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 74). A similar attitude was evinced toward musicians; however, composers of music, who, if accomplished, were often held in high esteem. Elizabethan society at the time was a harsh world in which individuals had to show deference to their 6 social betters or risk imprisonment and torture. The monarchy required absolute loyalty of its subjects, and this loyalty included regular observance of the official state religion, Protestant Christianity. Any deviation from the norm could result in accusations of treason, which was punishable by torture, imprisonment, and death. For commoners, one of the few officially sanctioned outlets in this stern social hierarchy was music. Shakespeare's hometown of Stratford-Upon-Avon abounded with all types of folk music, including songs, ballads (story songs), catches or "rounds" and simple part singing. Certainly, Shakespeare must have absorbed the folk music tradition of his home town, for he frequently alluded to ballads and other popular music forms in his plays, and many lyrics from the popular musical literature form the basis of his jokes and puns. At the same time that music served as release from the authoritarian nature of English society, music reinforced the existing social order; indeed, knowledge of music was considered a sign of a proper education as well as an indication of good moral character. A practical acquaintance with music was an essential part of the education of nobility, the higher middle class, and clergy (Naylor, 1931, p. 13). Shakespeare reflects the perceived relationship between music and character in the following passage spoken by Lorenzo to Jessica in Merchant of Venice: Here we will sit and let the sounds of music Creep in our ears... There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st But in his motion like an angel sings, Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubins . . . The man that hath no music in himself, Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils, The motions of his spirit are dull as night, And his affections dark as Erebus: Let no such man be trusted. (Merchant 5.1.83-88) 7 The reference to the "orb" in the night sky, to which "like an angel sings" alludes, is the Elizabethan concept (drawn from Ptolemaic astronomy) that the harmonious movement of planetary bodies produces a heavenly music inaudible to human ears -the "music of the spheres." Similarly, the ensuing lines about "treasons, stratagems, and spoils" and "affections dark as Erebus" rely on the Elizabethan concept of the humors or affections - the four fluids of the body thought to determine temperament. It was customary in Elizabethan drama to include at least one song in every play. Even the most profound tragedies included music, usually in the form of military trumpets and drums (Springfels, 2004, p. 1), though Shakespeare broke with this tradition of sparse martial music in Othello and Hamlet. Of the 37 canonical plays of Shakespeare, no less than 32 had interesting references to music and musical matters. As Naylor explains in Shakespeare and Music, there are . . . over three hundred stage directions which are musical in their nature . . . . The musical references in the text are most commonly found in the comedies . . . while the musical stage directions belong chiefly to the tragedies, and are mostly of a military nature. (Naylor, 1931, pp. 3-4) Music was an integral part of every performance, and Elizabethan actors were all expected to have some knowledge of it. One of Shakespeare's fellow actors, Augustine Phillips, left a will indicating the range of musical skill Elizabethan actors had to possess: "I give to Samuel Gilborne . . . my purple cloak, sword and dagger, and . . . my bass-viol. I give to James Sands . . . a cittern, a bandore, and a lute . . . " (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 73). Clearly, actors were expected to have a strong knowledge of music and 8 the ability to play a diverse range of instruments, in addition to some knowledge of fighting and swordplay. As actors, they were required to impersonate the nobles and gentry, and a sufficient knowledge of music was part of making a convincing impression. No concrete proof exists as to whether or not Shakespeare was a musician, but the ample musical references in his plays suggest he had a working knowledge and appreciation of music. For example, he mentions the fingering of the recorder in Hamlet (3.2.352-380), and the solfeggio syllables (fa.sol, la, mi, or F G A B) in King Lear (1.2. 141-145). In sonnet 128, he also refers to the keys of the virginal, Queen Elizabeth's favorite instrument (Naylor, 1931, p. 52). Shakespeare's Performing Venues and Musical Resources The musical resources available to Shakespeare would have varied greatly, depending on his performing situation. Essentially, three types of theatre venues existed in his day - public or "commercial theatres," private theatres, and court productions. Nine public playhouses were built in and around London between 1576 and 1642. The three most important - the Globe, the Fortune, and The Swan, were all outside the city limits, and, consequently, outside the jurisdiction of civic authorities (Trumbull, 2002, p. 2). These theatres were all "outdoor" style theatres with an open yard for the lower classes or "groundlings." As Greenblatt (2004) explains, One penny would get you into the yard where you could stand for two or three hours with the crowd . . . Another penny would get you out of the rain and onto a seat in one of the covered galleries that ringed the playhouse; a third penny would get you a cushioned seat in one of the 'gentlemen's rooms' on the lower level of the galleries . . . where one not only sees everything well but can also be seen. (p. 185) Some of these theatres had a music room located over the stage, where musicians could be hidden. Nevertheless, without an orchestra pit (indeed, the concept 9 of an "orchestra" had not yet been invented), most musicians would have appeared on stage as part of the dramatic action. The musical resources of a public playhouse would have been limited by budget constraints, probably to a small ensemble of musicians and a couple of boy singers. The ensembles of Shakespeare's time were known as "consorts," as depicted in the following witty pun from Romeo and Juliet Tybalt: Mercutio, thou consort'st with Romeo. Mercutio: Consort! what, does thou make us minstrels? An thou make minstrels of us, look to hear nothing but discords: Here's my fiddlestick; here's that shall make you dance. Zounds, consort!" (3.1.46-50) Shakespeare puns on both meanings of "consort," while also providing some phallic imagery that ties in with the swordplay in the ensuing fight scene. A reference is also made to the low caste of the musician at this time. The consorts of Shakespeare's age were generally composed of one family of instruments. Viols were the favored instrument in these consorts, and were sold to music lovers in sets, so that a "chest of viols" usually consisted of six pieces: two treble viols, two tenors, and two basses. The violin, as we know it, was not popular in the Elizabethan period. The golden age of violin making did not begin until nearly 50 years after Shakespeare's death; indeed, it was regarded as a vulgar instrument by the Elizabethans (Elson, 1901, p. 13). If another type of instrument came into the consort, it was called a "broken" consort. The classic consort for theatre music was a broken consort (consort of mixed instruments) comprising lute, pandora or cittern (guitars), treble and bass viols, and flute or recorder (Stevens, 1966, pp. 223-24). Two main classes of musicians were used on stage: royal consorts (musicians employed by nobility) and city consorts or "waits" (musicians employed by the city). As time 10 progressed, the public and private theatres employed singer-actors more heavily (Stevens, p. 25). The beauty of the broken consort was that it was small enough to accompany a solo voice without drowning it out, but large enough to play music of six parts and be sung and danced to by a group of actors (as in the fairy scenes in A Midsummer Night's Dream). The other type of theatre in Shakespeare's time was the private theatre, which was distinguished from the public by being fully enclosed (i.e., indoors). Typically, these theatres were smaller (one-half to one-quarter the seating capacity of the public theatres) and roofed (Trumbull, 2002, p. 1). The actors could perform in the private theatres during the winter months, when it was too cold to perform outdoors. Many of these theatres, such as the famous Blackfriars, were located in precincts known as liberties. These liberties were the locations of former Catholic monasteries that had enjoyed exemptions from city codes. After the Reformation, the nuns and monks were expelled, but the legal exemptions remained, allowing the actors to flout any attempts by the civic leaders to stop the performance of plays, which the London authorities often viewed as scandalous or dangerous to public decency (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 165). Often, incidental music was played for a whole hour before the play began in such private playhouses, as indicated in the Diary of the Duke of Stettin-Pomerania in 1602: For a whole hour preceding the play one listens to a delightful entertainment on the organs, lutes, pandorins, mandolins, viols, and flutes, as on the present occasion, indeed, when a boy cum voce tremula sang . . . charmingly to the accompaniment of a bass-viol. (qtd. in Hartnoll, 1966, p. 11) In addition to the music that prefaced every drama, non-mimetic music was played at the play's conclusion, called a jig. Such jigs were essentially music and dance entertainments, and not directly related to the plot of the play, even if it was a tragedy. 11 Therefore, it would not be uncommon for the audience to watch Hamlet, King Lear, or Romeo and Juliet, which end in suffering and death, only to have the actors rise and perform a lively dance (Duffin, 2004, p. 12). While these mini-masques may seem to break the theatrical illusion for the audience, I would argue that the song and dance acted as a segue back into reality, much as the concluding song of a film does today. The audience rises, stretches, and contemplates what they have just seen, even as they continue to be entertained. As well, the music, even if it does not directly relate to the plot of the play, comments on the drama by virtue of the catharsis it induces. In the public and private theatres, the instrumental forces available to Shakespeare would have been fairly sparse. Nevertheless, in the two plays produced at court, Twelfth Night and The Tempest, Shakespeare probably had access to court musicians and singers (Springfels, 2004, p. 3). The first recorded production of The Tempest was at the royal residence of Whitehall in 1611, and the second was for the wedding festivities of Princess Elizabeth (daughter of James I) in 1613. Similarly, Twelfth Night was performed at Whitehall in 1601 as part of a royal celebration of the twelfth day of Christmas, January 6 (Springfels, 2004, p. 3). Both of these plays contain three times the amount of music present in other plays, indicating that Shakespeare had access to more than the usual resources for these productions. Of course, Shakespeare may also have recognized the inherently musical nature of these two plays, and sought to have them performed in venues where he had the resources to realize them adequately. Both A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Tempest deal with the dualities of the everyday world and the world of magic, and music plays an important part in establishing this contrast. Many of the instruments had symbolic significance for Elizabethan listeners, so that when a particular instrument was heard, it immediately 12 conjured a mood for the audience. For example, the oboe was frequently utilized to foreshadow doom or disaster, such as the vision of the eight murdered kings in Macbeth. Here, as the witches enter and present Macbeth with a vision, he cries "what noise is this?" (4.1.145) and the stage direction calls for "hautboys" (from the French haut-bois or "high wood"), which was the medieval word for the predecessor of the medium oboe, with a tone that was harsher. It is also sometimes spelled "hoboy." In contrast to the malevolent sounds of the hautboy, the lute and the viol were regarded as benevolent, harmonious instruments that eased melancholy (Springfels, pp. 3-4). Unusual Performance Practices One of the most bizarre practices of the Elizabethan period was to cut a door in the back of a violone (contrabass) and have a small boy stand inside the instrument. At the concert, the contrabass player would render the bass part on his instrument and sing the middle part, while the invisible boy would add a treble/soprano harmony. In effect, audiences heard a trio, but with only one performer in sight (Elson, 1901, p. 27). Shakespeare's Musical Ethos Collaboration Discussing Shakespeare's musical ethos can be difficult, since we do not know that he actually composed any music himself. Much of the music in his plays was drawn from the popular music of the day - ballads and street songs - or provided by composer collaborators such as Morley and Johnson, whose genres I will discuss later. Collaboration, then as now, was not uncommon. As the chief writer-in-residence for the King's Men after 1603, Shakespeare was responsible for bringing on new playwrights, such as Thomas Middleton, and overseeing other scripts besides his own plays (Wood, 13 2003, pp. 291-292). A third of all shows in the period were joint efforts, and we know that, as Shakespeare got older, he collaborated more frequently, perhaps because of his other business responsibilities, or simply because he did not wish to work as hard. It is not unreasonable to assume, then, that when it came to songs, Shakespeare served in many cases as an overseer rather than writer. Therefore, in discussing Shakespeare's musical "ethos," I can base conclusions only on the evidence in the plays. Use of Popular Music as Source Material From the music contained in the plays, we can ascertain that Shakespeare was a writer of the people. Nothing in his plays indicates that he was interested in the art music of the period, such as the church polyphony of William Byrd or the madrigals of Thomas Weelkes. The complexity of such music was inappropriate for the resources at his disposal and above the understanding of most of his audience. In many of the plays, Shakespeare (or his composer collaborators) used the popular folk tunes of his childhood referentially. For example, in Hamlet, Ophelia's madness is depicted through her singing song fragments of popular ballads at an inappropriate moment in an audience with the King and Queen. The text of "How Should I Your True Love Know?" stems from the ballad "Walsingham": As you came from Walsingham from that holy land, Met you not with my true love by the way as you came? How should I your true love know, that hath met many a one . . . (Duffin, 200, p. 422) 14 Clearly, the text of "Walsingham" has some similarities to Ophelia's song, as seen in the excerpt below: How should I your true love know From another one? By his cockle hat and staff And his sandal shoon... (Hamlet, 4.5.23-26) To begin with, the reference to the Holy Land and the idea of a pilgrimage is mirrored in the text of "How Should I Your True Love Know" in the line "by his cockle hat and his staff/And his sandal shoon" (Hamlet 4.5.25-26). Next, an obvious reference is made of the title itself (Duffin, 2004, p. 422). "Walsingham" also seems to have provided some source material for the Palmer's Sonnet in Romeo and Juliet: As I went to Walsingham to the shrine with speed Met I a jolly Palmer In a Pilgrim's weed. Now God save you jolly Palmer Welcome, Lady gay, Oft have I sued to thee for love. Oft have I said you nay. (Duffin, 2004, p. 422) The banter between the suitor and his lady, as well as the repetition of key words such as "pilgrim," "palmer," and "shrine" indicate that Shakespeare may have been inspired by this material. Additionally, "Walsingham" was sung and performed as part of a stage jig, so Shakespeare may have performed it as part of the opening or closing to one of his plays (Duffin, p. 423). 15 Another example of how popular music was appropriated is the famous ballad "Willow, Willow." Although "Willow, Willow" appears in almost every collection of Shakespeare songs, it is not, strictly speaking, an original Shakespeare song at all, but rather a famous folk ballad of the day. In Othello, Desdemona sings "Willow, Willow" as a precursor to her murder at Othello's hands. A portion of the text is reprinted below: Sing all a green willow must be my garland Let nobody blame him; his scorn I approve, I call'd my love false love, but what said he then? If I court moe [more] women, you'll couch with moe men. (4.3) Here, the lyric integrity of the original song is destroyed intentionally, to show the feeling of reproach that Desdemona feels after Othello's accusations of infidelity. The "Willow, Willow" love lyric has nothing to do with murder, but its melancholy tone takes on new meaning in the dramatic context Shakespeare has constructed. Music Moveable and Interchangeable Another important indicator of how Shakespeare and his Elizabethan contemporary playwrights regarded music is that the songs in his plays are moveable and interchangeable (within certain limits). A new song setting could be inserted whenever a play was revived, so that the music would sound fresh and contemporary (Duffin, 2004, p. 13). Furthermore, songs could "migrate" from play to play. For example, the clown Feste sings a song in Act 5.1 of Twelfth Night, entitled "When that I was and a little tiny boy," which reappears in King Lear during Act 3.2, at the moment Lear raves madly during a storm accompanied by the Fool. Although the tragic Fool sings a different stanza, the key line of the song, "For the rain it raineth every day," appears in both plays. In the case of "When that I was and a little tiny boy," the song's 16 bitter lyric, describing the life of an alcoholic, seems to dismiss the resolution of Twelfth Night's romantic plot; in King Lear, the line "the rain it raineth every day" takes on a more tragic tone in light of the dramatic situation. The question remains as to whether Shakespeare viewed music as something purely interchangeable, or whether re-using music served as a kind of literary allusion, connecting the audience to a previous dramatic situation. For instance, what would be the effect on the Lear audience of hearing a song previously sung in a romantic comedy? What is clear is that the recycling of music was a common practice; the tune usually came first, and words were composed (or recomposed) to fit the music as needed. Shakespearean Song Composers and Extant Settings Composers have long recognized and appreciated the quality of Shakespeare's song texts, and many musical luminaries of subsequent periods considered doing a musical setting of Shakespeare a test of their abilities. Some of the notables to tackle Shakespearean music, or to be influenced by his plays, include: Thomas Arne (sometimes called the "father" of bard song), Thomas Linley, William Boyce, Matthew Locke, Maurice Greene, Henry Purcell (the most famous English composer of all time), William Byrde, Felix Mendelssohn, and Ludwig van Beethoven. Distinguished modern composers who have contributed to the Shakespeare musical cannon include Benjamin Britten, Ralph Vaughan-Williams, Roger Quilter, Peter Warlock, and William Walton. Again, I emphasize that very little of the surviving music from Shakespeare's plays is of the period; those few musical settings that are contemporary with his lifetime may or may not have actually been used in the original productions of the plays. In terms of the songs, only about half a dozen exist in contemporary Elizabethan settings. 17 A s regards to the instrumental/ incidental music, not a single note survives, with the except ion of the Wi tches ' Dance from Macbeth, wh ich w a s c o m p o s e d by another apprent ice author, T h o m a s Middleton (Wood, 2003, p. 291). None of the plays' musica l or voca l sett ings were actually composed by Shakespea re himself, but rather by composers who were hired by or assoc ia ted with Shakespea re ' s company. Many sett ings were composed after Shakespea re ' s death - s o m e for subsequent productions, and others as "stand a lone" sett ings by art mus ic composers . The songs that are often pointed to as being possib le extant musica l sett ings are T h o m a s Mor ley 's "It W a s A Lover A n d His L a s s " (from As You Like it), and Robert Johnson 's "Get Y o u Hence" (The Winter's Tale), "Hark Hark The Lark" {Cymbeline), and his "Ful l Fa thom Five" and "Where the B e e S u c k s " (both from The Tempest). Both Mor ley and Johnson were contemporar ies of Shakespea re , and are d i scussed below. Thomas Morley: Contemporary Shakespeare Collaborator? T h o m a s Mor ley w a s a gent leman of the C h a p e l Roya l to Q u e e n El izabeth I, organist of St. Pau l ' s Cathedra l , and the most famous composer of secu lar mus ic in Eng land during his day. It is general ly bel ieved that Mor ley 's "It W a s A Lover A n d His L a s s " w a s written especia l ly for As You Like It. That s o m e direct col laboration occurred between Mor ley and Shakespea re has long been specula ted, but never proven. The reasons for these assumpt ions are listed by Long (1955, p. 155) as fol lows: • Mor ley 's lyrics, found in his First Book of Airs (1600), are virtually the s a m e as those of Shakespea re . • The publ ishing date of Mor ley 's song is contemporary with the play's date of creation (circa 1600). 18 • S h a k e s p e a r e and Morley were neighbours, living in the s a m e parish neighbourhood of B ishopsgate during the period when the play and Mor ley 's book of songs appeared. Accord ing to Br idge, both Mor ley and Shakespea re were a s s e s s e d by the city for taxes, which they took a long time in paying (Bridge, 1923, p. 19). In spite of the ev idence of a connect ion between the two men , no conclus ive proof shows that Mor ley 's song was composed specif ical ly for Shakespea re ' s play, that it w a s actually used in a production during Shakespea re ' s lifetime, or indeed, that it w a s not simply a popular tune of the day borrowed by both composer and dramatist al ike. Never the less, it remains an excel lent setting of the text and , chronological ly speak ing , the oldest musica l setting of a song used in a S h a k e s p e a r e play. The song survives in both Mor ley 's First Book of Airs in the Folger Library and in a manuscr ipt copy of the voca l part in Edinburgh University known as the Leyden Manuscript (1639). I have reprinted a brief excerpt below (Duffin, 2004, p. 222) (CD Track #1) in modern notation: It Was A Lover And His Lass Thomas Morley -rt-fr ir- P—f It was a lo p p m m ~ : | ' v er and his lass, with a hey, and a ho, and a ~~f m P ? hf P m P • § 1 U J 1 i IS r ir u r J i ° ' hey non - ny no, and a hey non ny non ny no, Figure 1. It W a s a Lover and His L a s s - by T h o m a s Mor ley 19 Robert Johnson: Shakespeare's Composer Another possible extant musical setting is Robert Johnson's version of "Full Fathom Five" from The Tempest. For a number of years some disagreement existed over the date of Johnson's birth, and thus, over his age when he wrote the songs attributed to him. Wilson (1922) asserts that Robert Johnson was born in 1604, and would have been only 12 years old when Shakespeare died in 1616 (p. xi). On the other hand, Wood (2003) maintains that Johnson was 26 when he teamed up with Shakespeare in 1609 (pushing his birth date back to 1583) and that his music may have been utilized in original productions of The Tempest, The Winter's Tale, Cymbeline, Henry VIII, and The Two Noble Kinsmen (p. 315). Robert Johnson was an indentured servant in the household of George Carey, the Lord Chamberlain (as in Lord Chamberlain's Men, Shakespeare's acting company, from 1596 to 1603 [Duffin, 2004, p. 159]), making it possible that he met Shakespeare at that time. Johnson was officially engaged by Shakespeare's company, the King's Men, in 1609, so it is unclear whether his songs were written (as Wood maintains) for original productions of the plays or for revivals of earlier productions done with the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Regardless, Johnson's settings are considered the closest we have to "original" Shakespearean songs (Wilson, p. xi). Although scholars have argued that Johnson was too young to have written the songs ascribed to him, he did come from a considerable musical tradition. His cousin Margaret Johnson married into the famous Italian musical family, the Bassanos. Robert's father, John Johnson, was a famous lutenist, and Robert Johnson himself served as lutenist at court for 30 years, first to King James I and later to Charles I (Macy, 2005, U 1), making it believable that Johnson was a precocious 20 adolescent composer. Johnson belongs to a group of English composers who emerged circa 1609 and developed a declamatory style of song for the stage that was more dramatic (Wood, 2003, p. 315). Johnson stated that he wished to "marry the words and notes well together" (p. 315). To achieve the unity of song and dramatic context he was seeking, he made a habit of working closely alongside the authors of the plays, including Shakespeare. Johnson's music is much different from that of other Elizabethan English composers like John Dowland - the music (Duffin, 2004, p. 157) emphasizes the rhythms and inflections of speech, and Johnson made a real attempt to capture the psychology of the scene in his music (CD Track 2): Full Fathom Five Robert Johnson V J*"l l i J O ' |»=P= — J)» V 0 S Full fa-thorn five thy Fa ther lies, Of his bones are co - ral_raade; Those are g> —f- 9 pearls that were his eyes: No thing of him that doth fade, But doth suf fer a sea change 12 In to some thing rich and strange. Figure 2. Full Fathom Five - by Robert Johnson The setting is somewhat sombre in character, but full of dignity. Although the piece may appear to be in the Key of C at first glance, because of the key signature, or in G major, because it is centered on the tone "G", it is actually written in the G mixolydian mode (on the piano, all the white keys from one G to the next). In particular, 21 Johnson makes a special effort to dramatize the "sea-change" by briefly going to a new key area, or mode, at the end of the first phrase. (This is discussed in the next chapter at greater length.) One of the main points of contention surrounding Johnson's authorship is that several of his songs are attributed to Oxford music professor John Wilson, himself a talented composer of Shakespearean songs. Wilson included Johnson's "Full Fathom Five" in his own collection, entitled Cheerful Ayres or Ballads (1660) with an additional two voices composed by himself. Wilson clearly attributes the original melody to Johnson in his Cheerful Ayres, but subsequent collections attribute the song solely to Wilson. Likely, the attribution of the Tempest songs to Wilson is due to the fact that as an Oxford professor, Wilson's name had more commercial value to publishers than did Johnson's during his lifetime (Seng, 1967, p. 271). One final footnote about Johnson's connection to Shakespeare: in an interesting twist, it seems Johnson's kinswoman Margaret Smith was also the mother of Emilia Lanier. Lanier is alleged to be the mysterious "dark lady" of the sonnets (Wood, 2003, p. 315). Genres of Song - Ballads, Tavern Songs, and Ayres Although he may have occasionally used professional composers, Shakespeare more likely mined the rich tradition of English folk ballad for musical inspiration for his dramas. If the term is used strictly, a ballad is an anonymous folk song that tells a story or tale of events (while a song deals with emotions only, rather like a lyric). Many of the ballads that are still known today have an ancient history - for example, "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" can be traced to the old French tune "Malbrooke" and to yet another melody from the time of the crusades entitled "Mambron" (Elson, 1901, p. 233). More significantly, some English ballads actually present the plots of Shakespeare's plays, 22 lending credence to the question "which came first - the play or the ballad?" (Elson, p. 254). Among the group of "play ballads" are "Gernutus, The Jew of Venice," "King Lear and His Three Daughters," "Pyramus and Thisby," and "Titus Andronicus' Complaint" (Duffin, 2004, p. 21). The dates of composition for these ballads are speculative, making it difficult to prove that they were source materials for Shakespeare's plays. It seems likely that at least some of them existed before Shakespeare wrote his dramas, which means that these ballads may have provided him with partial source materials. The most important aspect about the ballads is their sheer ubiquity. Everyone knew these songs-the slightest reference or allusion to them would have been noted by both nobles and groundlings in the audience. Printed ballads were issued on broadsides (single sheets of paper printed on one side). In most cases, the actual music does not appear on the page; rather, directions to sing the song "to the tune o f (or something similar) were provided (Duffin, p. 17). Some ballads were not anonymous folk creations, but were penned by professional ballad writers whose work was commissioned by printers and publishers. John H. Long distinguishes these professionally penned ballads from folk ballads by calling them "urban street songs" (Long, 1955, p. 2). The subject matter of these street songs was usually topical, describing an execution or the capture and confession of a notorious criminal. Some of the street songs were even used for advertising, such as naming the wares of an itinerant vendor. Musically speaking, most street songs were for unaccompanied solo voice, while the folk ballads were often set in 3-part harmony or sung as catches—a composition similar to a round, in which the same melody started at different times produces harmony. The familiar nursery rhyme "Three Blind Mice" is a catch (Long, 1955, p. 2). Ballads were also occasionally collected and published in volumes, some of which still survive (Duffin, 2004, p. 21). 23 Because most of the ballad lyrics survive without their intended melodies, anthologists search for the tunes in other types of musical collections - usually as arrangements for solo instruments such as lute, cittern, or harpsichord. Often, such arrangements do not contain the lyrics, so scholars must conjecture about which lyrics correspond to a given melody. T a v e r n S o n g s Another form of popular music with which Shakespeare would have been familiar, was the tavern or drinking song. Taverns were the clubs and coffee houses of the time-places where people met and socialized. People could enjoy cakes and ale, gambling, card games, and a meal. The taverns became centers of social interaction as London's churches grew more puritanical. At the Mermaid Tavern, in Bread Street, many poets and dramatists of the day congregated, and possibly, Shakespeare was among them (Elson, 1901, p. 172). The circle of writers gathered there may have included Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Watson, Thomas Lodge, George Peel, and the now-infamous Robert Greene, most notable today for giving Shakespeare his first bad review (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 200). Many taverns and inns were located in Southwark, home of the Globe Theatre. In addition to offering food and drink, some of these taverns offered private rooms (Greenblatt, p. 176). The tavern musicians were regarded as vagabonds and considered to be on a level with professional beggars, as evidenced from the following excerpt from the famous puritan tract Short Apologie for the School of Abuse: London is so full of unprofitable pipers and fiddlers, that a man can no sooner enter a tavern, than two or three cast of them hang at his heels, to give him a dance before he depart. (Gosson, 1587, pp. 62-75) 24 This is not to suggest that their music was of low quality: On the contrary, even a simple catch or ballad was usually sung in 3-part harmony. Often, the third part would contain a bawdy reference that would be difficult for the inexperienced listener to hear. When music was asked for, it was generally played in the best room of the tavern, and the musicians could earn up to 20 shillings for a couple of hours work (Naylor, 1931, p. 102). These private rooms usually had names of their own. For example, in Measure for Measure (2.1), the clown speaks about the "Bunch of Grapes" - not a tavern, but a special room within a tavern. Shakespeare certainly enjoyed this lively style of music and the double-entendres that were part and parcel of the texts, as evidenced by his use of this repertoire in his own plays, from Othello to the King Henry cycle. Ayres A third type of song that was less commonly used in the plays was the ayre. Ayres were precursors of what we now term an art song. Like art songs, ayres were written by literate professional composers who normally wrote the melody for a specific lyric and accompaniment (Long, 1955, p. 2). The use of the ayre was largely popularized by the children of the chapels, young musician/singers who made up the acting companies of the earliest private indoor theatres (Long, p. 4). When it came to performance in the public outdoor theatres, however, ayres could pose a problem -their performance required trained singers who could not always be drawn from the ranks of the actors. In such cases, boy singers were often inserted into the production as pages or servants who would briefly appear, sing their song, and then depart. In As You Like It, the song "It Was A Lover and His Lass," attributed to composer Thomas 25 Morely, is introduced in this manner: Two pages appear to Touchstone the Clown and Audrey and spontaneously perform for them, as seen below: Audrey: . . . . Here come two of the banished Duke's pages. First Page: Well met, honest gentleman. Touchstone: By my troth, well met. Come, sit, sit, and a song! Second Page: We are for you. Sit in the middle . . . Song. It was a lover and his lass, With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino, That o'er the green cornfield did pass . . . (5.3.4-16) The scene concludes with Touchstone giving the boys a poor review, saying "Truly, young gentlemen, though there was no great matter in the'ditty, yet the note was very untuneable" (5.3.33-35). Presumably Touchstone criticizes the pages' performance in an effort to avoid any sort of payment or token for the boys, or perhaps simply as a means of exercising his wit. Brief Musical History - A Midsummer Night's Dream Attempting to trace the complete musical history of even one Shakespeare play would be a monumental task, as so many composers have attempted settings of his song texts. Nevertheless, to give some idea of the wealth of music generated by Shakespearean drama, here is an abbreviated history of one of his most frequently produced plays, A Midsummer Night's Dream. The play calls for a great deal of music, and is quite complex, blending prose, poetry, masque, song, and dance. One of the reasons for this complexity is that Shakespeare had more than the usual resources at his disposal for this production. The play is believed to have been first performed in 1596 for an aristocratic wedding - possibly the marriage of Elizabeth Carey, daughter of 26 Sir George Carey, Lord Chamberlain (Long, 1955, p. 83). As one of Lord Chamberlain's men, likely Shakespeare and his company contributed to the festivities. Lord Carey was a noted patron of the arts and had a considerable musical establishment in his household, including the famous composer/lutenist John Dowland (Long, p. 83). Notably, many other noble weddings have been considered possibilities by Shakespeare scholars, including the wedding of William Stanley, Earl of Derby (Cuningham, 1905, pp. 24-30), or the double wedding of Lady Somerset to William Petre and Lady Elizabeth to Henry Guildferd in November of 1598 (Long, 1955, p. 102). In addition, the play was revived and played at Court for King James in 1604. Regardless of the exact performance history, Shakespeare clearly had lavish musical resources available for Midsummer Night's Dream, and his musicians were probably drawn from the court or the noble household where the play was first performed. The actual song texts contained in the play are as follows: • You Spotted Snakes (sung by the fairy attendants to Titania in a round in Act Two, Scene Two) • The Ousel Cock (sung by Bottom in Act Three, Scene One) • Now, Until the Break of Day (sung by Oberon, Titania, and the Fairies in Act Five, Scene One) While no music survives from the original production of the play, it is possible that John Dowland, the house lutenist and a famous songwriter, composed the Elizabethan version of "You Spotted Snakes." After the English Renaissance, A Midsummer Night's Dream was not performed in its entirety again until the 1840s. In 1648, the public theatres in London were closed, and the Commonwealth era remained a largely barren period for Shakespearean drama and any music that might have accompanied the plays 27 in performance. When the theatres finally reopened after the reestablishment of the monarchy, numerous changes were made, including the adoption of the proscenium or "picture frame" stage, the inclusion of female actors, and an increasing emphasis on elaborate sets and spectacle (Cudworth, 1966, p. 52). When A Midsummer Night's Dream was revived, it resurfaced in several textually corrupt versions. The most famous of these 18th century alterations is Henry Purcell's The Fairy Queen, produced at the Dorset Garden Theatre in 1692 (Cudworth, 1966, p. 67). Although the libretto varies markedly from Shakespeare, this semi-opera is considered a Baroque musical masterpiece. Purcell writes in what is called strict canon, a difficult task, as it is the strictest form of contrapuntal imitation (Bridge, 1923, p. 58). The word canon means rule. In a canon, one melodic strand or idea gives the rule to all the others, which at varying intervals of time must imitate it. Strict canon is even more difficult, because the intervals of the imitating version must be exactly the same as the original motif. In other words, to use a literary analogy, no "half rhyme" is possible (CD Track 3, Purcell's Fairy Queen). The semi-opera also contains some very non-Shakespearean scenes that were in keeping with 18th century European tastes for exotic and far away lands: in one scene the stage is suddenly illuminated and discloses a Chinese Garden. A man and woman enter and sing a duet, while monkeys come from behind the trees and dance (CD Track 4). The score of The Fairy Queen was lost in 1701 and lay dormant for over 150 years, before being rediscovered in the late 1800s (Bridge, 1923, p. 59). Other productions that altered the text significantly from early print editions are Richard Leveridge's A Comique Masque ofPyramus and Thisbe (1716), Charles Johnson's 1723 production of Love in a Forest (which also included songs from As You Like It) and an extraordinary distortion of the play entitled, The Fairy Tale, produced by George Coleman and David Garrick and staged at Drury Lane Theatre in 1763 (Cudworth, 1966, p. 67). Much of the music for The Fairy Tale (1763) was by Michael Arne, son of the famous Thomas Arne, one of the first composers of Shakespeare song. Michael Arne was a gifted composer in his own right, but most of his settings had little relation to Shakespeare's own text. Arne's other collaborators included music historian Dr. Charles Burney, who contributed a setting of "The Ousel-Cock," and Jonathan Battishill, who set the "be as thou wast won to be" speech (Cudworth, p. 67). In 1777, The Fairy Tale was revived at the Haymarket with music by Michael Arne, Charles Dibdin, Charles Burney, James Hook, Theodore Smith, and Samuel Arnold (Cudworth p. 69). Arnold also wrote music for his own adaptation of A Midsummer Night's Dream, entitled, The Enchanted Wood, staged in 1792. In many of these productions, not a single line of Shakespeare was set to music; in others, parts of the plot were excised to make room for additional musical numbers. In some versions of the play, Bottom becomes the main character. In 1840, English actress and entrepreneur Lucia Elizabeth Vestris revived the play and staged it at Covent Garden. The Vestris version contained a relatively faithful text, but was padded out enormously with dance, music, and ballet numbers. In addition, Madame Vestris herself took the role of Oberon, and Puck was played by a woman - a tradition that would continue for the next 70 years (Nationmaster, 2005,1J 2). The Vestris production also utilized Felix Mendelssohn's incidental music, which would become standard throughout the rest of the 19th century, and which provided the world with the famous Wedding March (1826). 29 Perhaps the most intriguing modern musical setting of the play is Benjamin Britten's opera, A Midsummer Night's Dream, recorded in 1966 (CD Track 5). In this version, the part of Oberon was played by famous countertenor Alfred Deller. (A countertenor is the highest possible male voice, which is a significant departure from the traditional casting of Oberon as a Bass.) Britten uses the modern orchestra to great effect, providing harp glissandos when Oberon says "I Know a band where the wild thyme blows" (1.6) and string slides (also known as portamentos) to depict the swaying branches of the forest. Woodwinds and strings are used to represent the pomp and ceremony of the court, while harpsichord, harps, celesta, and percussion evoke the magic of the fairies. The low strings, brass and bassoon are used to represent comic characters such as Bottom and the rustics. The role of Puck is scored as a spoken part and is played by a young teenage boy, while the fairies' chorus is a boy's choir (Han-Leon, n.d., U 2). These are examples of how modern-day instrumentation and scoring can achieve musical effects that were unavailable to Shakespeare. Perhaps most significantly, the Britten opera is relatively faithful to the text (about one-half of it is used). Although it has been abridged and the order rearranged in some parts, the text used is not altered from the Folio version, which puts Britten closer to Shakespeare's contemporary Robert Johnson than to any of the 18th century composers. A Word About Textual Variance, Authority and Authenticity The publishing history of Shakespeare is long and complex, with many plays existing in multiple forms. Many of Shakespeare's plays were first issued in Quarto form, and then compiled in the First Folio of 1623. (Folio books of the 17th century were volumes achieved by binding large once-folded sheets of hand-made paper, such that each side of the paper, when printed, bore the impression of two book pages; Quartos 30 were smaller volumes achieved by binding twice-folded sheets of paper, such that each side of the paper bore the impression of four book pages.) The First Folio project was initiated by Shakespeare's fellow actors and shareholders in the King's Men, John Heminge and Henry Condell (Murphy, 2003, p. 41). Of the 36 plays presented in the Folio, 18 had never been published before. As well, the Folio began the time-honored tradition of dividing the plays into histories, comedies, and tragedies, though some of the editors' classifications of certain plays (e.g. Cymbeline as a tragedy) have since been overturned. Plays, at times, appear in compacted versions in the Quartos, and in more expansive versions in the Folio (Murphy, 2003, pp. 302-307). For this reason, editors wrongly labeled some of the Quartos as bad or spurious; today, editors prefer to use the terms "long" and "short" to distinguish between versions of the plays (Murphy, p. 25). Even the editors and printers of the First Folio, who had access to prompt books and possibly authorial papers of Shakespeare, consulted the Quartos, and in many cases, reprinted them with minor changes in their stage directions (Murphy, p. 49). Therefore, though the Folio edition of a play is often regarded as the best available source, it is really only one of many possible options. Controversy over conflicting editions of Shakespeare shows no signs of abating. As Spevack (1996) points out in his somewhat ironical text, The End of Editing Shakespeare: The past 60 years have seen the appearance of editions by Ridley, Kittredge, Neilson & Hill, Alexander, Harrison, Sisson, Munro, Craig, Harbage, Evans, Bevington, three by the Oxford team, as well as Arden 2 and Arden 3, Cambridge 3 and Cambridge 4, Yale 2, Pelican, Penguin, Signet, Bantam, F o l g e r . . . to name just a few among the seventeen columns devoted to editions of Shakespeare . . . (p. 78) 31 Indeed, the arrival of hypertext has in some sense made everyone an editor, as hyper-readers can now pick and choose from a multitude of interpretations, editions, and source materials (Spevak, 1996, p. 79). Authority, then, is a key issue in regards to textual variance. While each edition brings a new perspective to Shakespeare's work, and some editions are more respected in the scholarly community than others, none can truly claim to be more authoritative than others because of conflicting source materials, varying language, ideologies of the editors, and so on. Essentially, "any truth that is couched in a particular language is affected or distorted by that language" (Bonnycastle, 1991, p. 94). As soon as we admit the existence of alternate versions or interpretations, as we must do with Shakespeare, the text is open to debate and negotiation. As Murphy asserts, perhaps the best - albeit unsatisfactory - explanation that can be provided for the divergent texts is that they offer up various conceptions of the plays, marked by complex theatrical and extra-theatrical histories and arriving into print by routes which are not amenable to a single explicatory narrative. (2003, p. 30) In terms of Shakespeare and music, the concept of variance takes on an even broader definition. In the last section, I briefly discussed the numerous adaptations of A Midsummer Night's Dream in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Certainly, the majority of Restoration productions took great liberties with what would be recognized today as the standard edition or typical versions of the plays. For example, for a production of Macbeth in the early 1660s, music from Thomas Middleton's The Witch was inserted. Middleton may have worked as an apprentice playwright to Shakespeare; Middleton's writing style is recognized in Macbeth, and he appears to have worked as a reviser on Timon of Athens (Wood, 2003, p. 291). In addition to Middleton's music, extra music for this production of Macbeth was supplied by composer Matthew Locke, who also 32 provided incidental music for versions of The Tempest staged in 1667 and again in 1674 at Dorset Garden Theatre (Cudworth, 1966, p. 53). (Locke's Macbeth music is sometimes attributed to his friend and protege Henry Purcell.) Similarly, Samuel Pepys, who saw the 1667 version of The Tempest, describes an adaptation in which Miranda acquires a sister, Ariel a wife, and Caliban a female counterpart (Cudworth, p. 53). Overall, the text and music of many Restoration productions tended to be a hodge-podge of various playwrights and composers; the 1667 production of The Tempest included textual additions by Dryden, some of the original music by Robert Johnson, as well as new music by composers: Matthew Locke, Pelham Humphrey, John Banister, James Hart, and an Italian composer living in London at the time, Pietro Reggio (Cudworth, p. 54). Of course, such a collaborative process may not have been that different from Shakespeare's own method of borrowing source materials, overseeing scripts written by others, and collaborating with composers and apprentice playwrights, so it is impossible to label these productions as any more or less authentic than others (Wood, 2003, pp. 290-91). As Wood points out, Working in tandem with less talented jobbers doesn't fit in with our idealization of Shakespeare as the lone creator, but anyone involved today in scriptwriting for movies, comedy or television knows what it is like to work in a high pressure entertainment business. Often 'authorship' doesn't ex is t . . . (p. 292) The Restoration productions pose an intriguing question regarding textual variance, one that Margreta De Graza (1995) phrases succinctly: "When does something cease to be itself, and become something else?" (p. 245). The Platonic concept of an ideal form was kept alive for many years by the notion of Shakespeare as Author; the theory behind this concept was that skilled editors could know the intentions 33 of the author and thus reconstruct the ideal text (form) of a given play as Shakespeare would have intended. As Wimsatt and Beardsley (1946) observe, however, "critical inquiries are not settled by consulting the oracle" (p. 9). Indeed the New Criticism movement and later Barthes (1977) overturned the notion of the author as the ultimate textual authority. As Barthes observes, writing is the destruction of every voice, of every point of origin. Writing is that neutral, composite, oblique space where our subject slips away, the negative where all identity is lost, starting with the very identity of the body writing. (1977, p. 143) Modern technology now makes multiple versions of the plays readily available to the general public. Photographic and computer technology allows multiple versions of the plays to be presented alongside each other. Multimedia multiform text editions are perhaps closest to the notion of a contemporary idealized Shakespearean text; yet, as De Grazia (1995) points out, "multiple texts may be no more historical than conflated ones, dependent not only on a later technology and politics but also on later editorial and hermeneutic practices" (p. 251). Nevertheless, with such technology available, it seems reasonable to conclude that soon any Shakespeare edition that presents only one version of the text will be considered ideologically suspect. 34 C H A P T E R 3. WRITING THE S O N G S People often complain that music is too ambiguous, that what they should think when they hear it is so unclear, whereas everyone understands words. With me it is exactly the opposite...these too seem to me so ambiguous, so vague, so easily misunderstood in comparison to genuine music, which fills the soul with a thousand things better than words. -composer Felix Mendelssohn (Werner, 1963) Amiens: My voice is ragged. I know I cannot please you. Jaques: I do not desire you to please me; I desire you to sing. -As You L/7ce/f(2.5.13-15) This chapter details my process in creating original musical settings of Shakespeare song texts from a number of different plays, and discusses how that process illuminated certain aspects of those texts for me, as both a teacher and a student of Shakespeare. The song settings I discuss in the following pages are found in a handful of commonly taught plays: As You Like It, Hamlet, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, and A Midsummer Night's Dream. In each case, I have attempted first to discuss the dramatic function of the song text and then to provide some historical context before detailing the particulars of my own song writing. For some of the songs included in this chapter, I was able to provide an overview of the earliest musical settings. For others I have not done so, since many of these settings have been lost. The aim of this section is to explore the creative process of writing the songs, to detail the activities involved, and to remark on how those activities enhanced my understanding of the plays and influenced my personal response to the song texts. The question to be considered in the context of this section is: "What creative and pedagogical issues does the songwriting process encourage the composer to confront?" 35 I address the pedagogical implications of teaching Shakespeare through song in the chapter's conclusion and expand on them practically in Chapter 4. All textual references are either to the Signet Classic Editions (Barnet, 1986) or to the Folger Library Editions (Mowat & Werstine, 1993) of the plays, texts which are currently used in many high schools. I have chosen to reference these texts rather than more scholarly editions because they are the ones available to me in my teaching, which is the impetus for my Shakespeare composing efforts. Clarification of Important Musical Terms One distinction that I make before addressing the songs, is the difference between folk or popular music and art music. Although such terms are applied retrospectively by musicologists, a distinction has always been made in the popular consciousness between indigenous folk music and the music of the court and aristocracy. The term art music embraces many periods and styles, ranging from Baroque, Classical, or Romantic, to Impressionist, Minimalist, or 20th Century/Modern (Machlis, 1984, p. 5). The forms and genres of secular art music are too diverse to cover here (they include Symphonies, Concertos, some Oratorios and Operas, Madrigals, and Tone Poems, not to mention the wealth of repertoire written for the piano), but all art music shares some common qualities. Typically, art music is written by a known professional composer, is highly structured, and is written for an elite or aristocratic audience. In contrast, folk music originates from the common people, usually has no known composer (and may have numerous composers add to it over the years), exists in many variations, and is much simpler in structure. Because of its complexity, most art music is notated in some fashion (written down) and thus much art music has been preserved over the centuries; conversely, our knowledge of early folk 36 music (especially before the era of magnetic tape recording and the commercial music industry) is more fragmentary because notation was usually not a priority (Grout, 1988, p. 98). A second important point of clarification is the term key. In Western European music, a musical key is named after its tonic, or keynote, and may be defined as major or minor, depending on which scale pattern is used. Since the Baroque era and the development of equal temperament, composers have gravitated to the major-minor system of tonality, or key harmony, as codified by Rameau (Schulter, 2006, U 2). Previous to this, Western music utilized a series of scales called modes. In Modality, a greater freedom is present to emphasize various degrees of a scale, compared to Major-Minor Tonality, and more freedom allows to mix modes (scales) within one piece without being limited to the notion of a key area or tonality. Some patterns and techniques are common to both systems (for example, the Major scale resembles the Ionian mode), and may be interpreted modally or in terms of key. The Baroque Doctrine of the Affections promulgated the notion that music could be used to express an emotion or "affection," and that particular scales or modes could be utilized to represent emotional states (Machlis, 1984, p. 360). For the purposes of this exploration, I use the terms mode, scale, and key interchangeably and frequently discuss songs in terms of a major or minor tonality. In doing so, I am imposing a contemporary Western sensibility on a concept that extends as far back as the ancient Greek musical system. Another definition that may seem self-evident but should nevertheless be clarified is the word song. For the purposes of this thesis, I define a song as a short musical composition for voice, based on a written lyric (Machlis, 1984, p. 66). A single vocal melody is emphasized and given instrumental accompaniment that gives the melody 37 harmonic background and support. Here, I distinguish between three types or subcategories of song: folk song, art song, and popular song As mentioned previously, folk song usually has no known composer and may exist in many permutations. Folk songs are usually strophic in structure, meaning that the same melody is repeated with every stanza of a poem, a scenario that does not allow for great variations in mood or atmosphere (Machlis, 1984, p. 66). Instead, the music establishes a general mood that accommodates itself equally well to every stanza of the poem, as in the popular drinking songs and ballads of the Elizabethan period. In the 19th century, art music composers appropriated the folk song genre and created the art song, as perfected in the work of such composers as Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, and Johannes Brahms. The genre these composers consummated became known as the Lied or Lieder (plural), the German word for song (Machlis, 1984, p. 67). Art songs are often through-composed, meaning that the text is set to music without musical repetitions, following the storyline of the poem and changing accordingly with the text. The German Romantic songwriters (e.g., Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms) were obsessed with fidelity to their interpretation of the text, and used a great deal of word painting (Grout, 1988, p. 669). Word painting is a musical technique in which the melody line and accompaniment mimic the literal meaning of words in the song. For example, ascending scales would accompany lyrics about climbing, a peak in the melody would accompany the mention of a mountain or hill, and a dip in the melody would respond to the word valley. Word painting was also used figuratively to show emotional states, such as using slow, plodding music to accompany lyrics about death. Many of the short lyric poems that the art song composers set to music in their Lieder, survive today only in their song-text forms (Machlis, 1984, p. 68). 38 The last genre of song I discuss here is popular song, which I utilize as a blanket term for songs of the modern mass-market recording era of the 20th century, including rock, country, and jazz styles. Popular songs have amalgamated aspects of folk and art songs, and usually combine the repetition of the strophic folk song with the complexity of the through-composed art song, introducing new material when the text seems to require it. The popular song is the model I have followed for my own music. Related to the popular song is the idea of the melodic hook. In popular songwriting, a hook is a recurring melodic idea that is designed to be memorable and thus "hook" the listener. A comparable concept in art music would be Wagner's use of the recurring leitmotif \n his Ring cycle of operas, though pop song hooks do not normally have programmatic associations (Machlis, 1984, p. 167). A musical term which may have different connotations in other fields, and which I also wish to define here for purposes of clarity, is text underlay. Underlay refers to how the syllables of lyrics or individual words are actually synchronized to the music. In the case of reconstructed musical settings of Shakespearean songs, where the text and melody exist in two separate sources, underlay can be one of the most difficult tasks and points of discrepancy among settings by different editors. As Duffin (2004) points out, long notes . . . in one version of a tune can be subdivided to fit [an entirely] different text. Similarly, unaccented syllables can be crammed together to make an accent fall on the right place in the tune... Performers should be aware that underlay is not cast in stone, and that there is frequently more than one acceptable way for subsequent stanzas . . . to be set. (p. 37) A unique property of music that affects textual underlay is the composer's ability to assign several pitches to one syllable of a word. A long melodic passage sung on one syllable is known as a melisma (Grout, 1988, p. 27). In composing my Shakespearean 39 songs, I avoided long melismatic passages because they occasionally obscure the words. As a general rule, I assigned a maximum of three notes to any given syllable. Even when the melody has been refined to the point where significant changes are no longer possible, some areas may still exist where shifting the accent of a syllable or adding extra pitches to one syllable will shift the natural rhythms of the text. While no unyielding rules exist for text underlay, most composers would logically avoid inadvertently stressing words that communicate little to the listener, such as articles or conjunctions, unless they are attempting to increase listener anticipation of the subsequent word. As with the reading of dialogue, shifting the emphasis of a single word can change the entire interpretation of a passage. This applies in poetic meter, but in music, the results are perhaps more obvious because of the addition of pitch. In music, the double conundrum is present in choosing underlay that will stress the words in accordance with the interpretation of the text, while keeping in mind the issue of singability for the performer. Stressing a particular word can emphasize meaning, but a passage that becomes physically awkward or impossible to sing for the vocalist can obliterate meaning altogether (at least meaning in a conventional sense) if the passage becomes too difficult to navigate. Finally, I wish to caution the reader that all of the musical settings of my own included here are based on my own encounters with the texts. The settings are products of my own biases, musical background and training, and understanding of the texts. Many of the musical techniques utilized are culturally specific. For example, the notion of using particular keys or modes to set the mood of a song (major for a happy song, minor for a sad or mysterious song) is culturally situated, and such associations 40 may not exist for l isteners of different cultural backgrounds. Indeed, many modern avant-garde composers have done away with the notion of key and its assoc ia t ions entirely. Similarly, notions of consonance (euphonious to the human ear) or d i ssonance (jarring to the human ear) are fluid and constantly changing (Machl is , 1984, pp. 13-15). The First Song - Under The Greenwood Tree Written in 1599 or 1600, As You Like It has as its general ly recognized source a novel written by T h o m a s Lodge in 1590 entitled Rosalynde (Long, 1955, p. 139). The play contains only six songs , s p a c e d throughout the play, the first of which is "Under the Greenwood Tree" (2.5.1-55), the lyrics of which are reprinted below (refer to C D Track 6 for my arrangement): Under the greenwood tree W h o loves to lie with me, A n d turn his merry note Unto the sweet bird's throat C o m e hither come hither come hither C o m e hither come hither come hither [my addition] Here shal l he s e e No enemy But winter and rough weather W h o doth ambit ion shun A n d loves to live in the sun Seek ing the food he eats A n d p leased with what he gets, C o m e hither, come hither, come hither Here shal l he s e e No enemy But winter and rough weather 41 If it do come to pass That any man turn a s s Leaving his wealth and ease , A stubborn will to p lease Ducdame, ducdame, ducdame, ** Here shal l he s e e G r o s s fools as he, A n if he will c o m e to me. * *An invocation to call fools into a circle (according to the melancholy phi losopher, Jaques) (2.5.53) Folk Versus Courtly Al l the songs , with the except ion of the closing wedding masque song (a hymn to the god Hymen) have an appeal ing folk-like quality. More importantly, the songs have a unified structure that expounds on the play's major themes of human mortality, folly, al ienat ion, a s well as rural versus urban ex is tence. The songs parallel the main themes at every stage, and establ ish setting and character (Long, 1955, pp. 139-140). For example , "Under the Greenwood Tree" estab l ishes setting and depicts the merry Utopian world of the exi les in the Forest of A rden , while at the s a m e time scrutinizing that ideal and introducing the aud ience to Jaques ' sardonic wit and phi losophical mus ings. "Under the Greenwood Tree" is written in a folk style, whi le the c losing wedding song is courtly, reflecting the characters ' resumption of an aristocratic ex is tence. Be low is the oldest known setting of "Under the Greenwood Tree" (CD Track 7) provided by G ibbon (1930, p. 56) and arranged to a tune from Playford 's English Dancing Master (1650): 42 Under the Greenwood Tree Trad. Gibbon P* P~P 3 • m M F = h = - v -r -l Jn der ft—t the gr » een wood 4= tree, —•—4 W • /ho • " 4= lov es t< ) lie i ; w S ith —m-m And ±=: =4^ J M * 4 M • turn his mer ry note Un to the sweet Bird's throat Figure 3. Under the Greenwood Tree - Tradit ional Melody The folk-like melody is s imple, des igned for solo vo ice, and requires little in the way of accompaniment . A s ingle-voice harmonic texture like this is known as a monophonic texture. If chords and accompaniment are added (as in the C D arrangement), the song b e c o m e s homophonic in texture, meaning that a s ingle vo ice predominates and all of the harmony in the song is used in support of that principal melody (Machl is, 1984, pp. 296-97). In these types of harmonic textures, the text is never obscured by overlapping melodic l ines. A s wel l , the s a m e tune is repeated for every s tanza of the text, in keeping with the strophic folk song format. In compar ison, the last song of the play, "Wedding Is Great Juno ' s C rown" (5.4.141-147) is clearly intended for severa l vo ices (perhaps all the actors together), as indicated in the text by the following l ines: Whi les a wedlock hymn we sing F e e d yourse lves with quest ioning That reason wonder may diminish How thus we met, and these things f inish. (5.4.136-140) 43 The stage directions a lso call for still music (soft background music) to be played as the god Hymen makes his entrance. Peter S e n g (1967) suggests that if Hymen made his entrance by descend ing to the stage, the still music may have been used to cover up the sound of the lift mechan ism (Seng, p. 93). After the conc lus ion of the song , the Duke cal ls for everyone to dance , saying "P lay , music , and you brides and br idegrooms all / With measure heaped in joy, to the measures fall" (5.4.176). The use of song and dance , combined with the al lusion to Greek mythology, is reminiscent of a fashionable form of courtly entertainment of the time, the Masque (Grout, p. 415). If playwrights were indeed emulat ing a courtly masque , they probably would have chosen voca l mus ic that was more complex and in keeping with aristocratic forms such as the Madrigal (Grout, p. 260). Wh i le no music surv ives for the final song text, I have suppl ied the following contemporary tune (CD Track 8) by John Dowland (Long, 1955, p. 159). In the excerpt below, the metre/t ime signature markings are a modern edition resulting from my notation software. Never the less, I bel ieve it g ives the f lavor of what Shakespea re (or his col laborators) may have intended. 44 Nuptial Hymn-Welcome Black Night Soprano Alto Tenor 1 Tenor 2 Bass P (9 1* Hy men, O Hy men mine Hy men O Hy men mine Hy men O Hy men jj-B p J J II p r u John Dowland of treas 3 »— rJ —f~ of treas ures of treas Hy men O Hy men Min. of treas. . ' » ^ e r f r i i f -1 ^ Hy men O Hy men mine of treas ures. Figure 4. Nuptial Hymn: W e l c o m e B lack Night - by John Dowland Th is setting differs from the earl ier songs in its complexity; it has a dense homophon ic texture that at t imes b e c o m e s polyphonic, mean ing that two or more melodic l ines are combined and no one melody or vo ice predominates (Machl is , 1984, pp.295-96). Polyphonic texture is based on counterpoint (that is, the combinat ion of two or more s imul taneous melodic l ines). In a true polyphonic composi t ion, all the l ines are equal ly important; in the example above, the addition of the second tenor line gives the composi t ion its polyphonic texture. T h e danger of a polyphonic sett ing, if one is a iming to make the lyrics clearly audible for l isteners, is that words can become obscured in the 45 interweaving l ines. The setting used in the original production of A s You Like It w a s probably not as intricate as Dowland 's , but the final song definitely would have been the most complex musica l setting in the play. Consequent ly , in my own setting of "Under the Greenwood Tree" I opted for a s imple bal lad texture, but added some contrasting musica l material in verse 3 to reflect the differing mood of the third s tanza. Considering Key, Meter and Other Settings B e c a u s e this was my very first setting, I wanted to write a p iece that approximated my impression of what a Shakespea re song should sound like (i.e., something with a bal lad or folk-like quality and melody) to prove to mysel f that I could respect the Shakespea rean musica l tradition before I began experiment ing. The first setting of "Under The Greenwood Tree" that I heard w a s a modern day art song by Engl ish compose r Wi l l iam Wal ton (1902-1983) (a brief excerpt c a n be heard on the accompany ing C D , Track 9). Al though I found the Wal ton song setting beautiful, my initial reaction was that it was too sombre for the mood of the lyric, in part due to the minor mode of the song. I wanted to capture the playful nature of the text, a s wel l a s all of Jaques ' witty jests (the Wal ton setting completely omits the last s tanza of the song.) A l so , I felt the harmonic complexity of the composi t ion and the bel canto style of singing made Wal ton 's song less access ib le for high schoo l students, my proposed aud ience, because the words were difficult to understand and the tune could not be easi ly commit ted to memory. The next setting of "Under the Greenwood Tree" that I heard, w a s by Si r Arthur Somerve l l (1863-1937), another composer of the Engl ish schoo l (CD Track 10). Th is setting was more in-line with what I hoped to do: Somerve l l uses a compound meter (6/8) and a major key (F major), though he, too, avoids the third s tanza , a point I shal l 46 d iscuss later. Never theless, the song is written as a male- female duet and has many over lapping l ines; once again, lyrics are obscured by the complex melod ic texture and voca l style. I resolved to compose my own melody in a folk style, meaning my melody would be simpler, slightly slower, have more repeated material, and a non-operat ic voca l style to e a s e percept ion of the words. I a lso settled on the key of G , which I exper ience as a bright, happy key, and borrowed Somerve l l ' s 6/8 meter. At this point, I del iberately avoided listening to any more interpretations of the "Under the Greenwood Tree," including the earl iest sett ings (which I only l istened to after the fact), to avoid being overly inf luenced by these other melodies. Be low is a brief excerpt of the melody I ultimately composed (CD Track 11): Under the Greenwood Tree—Verse G Am7 G/B Em Michael Mikulin D Csus2 C D I Un - der the green - wood tree - Who loves to he with me Em D G Am G And turn his mer ry D \l* J I J J J J I II _ W. W M 1 -fr— $ J- 1 J J J—* «— r r p 1 • r—4 m d d - 4 - — 1 note Un to the sweet bird's throat Come hither come hither come hith er. Figure 5. Under the Greenwood Tree V e r s e - by Michae l Mikul in A s I d iscovered later, many similarit ies existed between what I composed and s o m e of the traditional sett ings of the song (such as the G ibbon Tradit ional and Duffin's reconstruction of "Sir Eglamore") . Part of the similarity may be due to my exper ience with El izabethan mus ic over the years, though it may a lso be a facet of the text itself, 47 which lends itself to a compound 6/8 meter. In part, this may be b e c a u s e compound meters like 6/8 and 6/4 naturally accent the 1 s t and 3 r d beats, which follow the accented beats of the text for the most part. Context and Dramatic Function E a c h song in As You Like It is f ramed in its own individual scene . Th is has led many scholars to speculate that the songs were added after the play w a s complete (Long, 1955, p. 140). Whi le this is poss ib le , I prefer another explanat ion: that the songs were f ramed in min i -scenes by Shakespea re deliberately to give them prominence and continuity with regard to the themes of the play. Ac t Two, S c e n e Five begins with the first s tanza of "Under the Greenwood Tree," sung by the character of A m i e n s after s o m e prodding by J a q u e s , and it provides a fairly straightforward exposit ion of the main theme of the play at this point (the joys of pastoral life): Under the greenwood tree W h o loves to lie with me, A n d turn his merry note, Unto the sweet bird's throat, C o m e hither, come hither, come hither: Here shal l he s e e / no enemy But winter and rough weather. (2.5.7-10) Am iens ' song invites the l istener to participate in a pastoral ex is tence free of the cares of urban life. Accord ing to Amiens , the only difficulties humans will encounter in the Forest of A rden are "winter and rough weather." No musica l directions or mention of instruments are given, so A m i e n s likely sang unaccompan ied or with very s imple instrumentation, such as accompany ing himself on the cittern or lute. T h e setting is a lso local ized here, and possibly, this song w a s the essent ia l prop util ized to set the scene 48 for the aud ience of a rustic banquet under the forest canopy. T h e second s tanza of the song is accompan ied by the Fol io s tage direction "all together," suggest ing that this song was intended for a group of untrained vo ices, not professional s ingers or music ians. The third s tanza of the song plays with our expectat ions, and is sung by the melancholy J a q u e s as an extempor ized addition to Am iens ' song : If it do come to pass That any man turn a s s , Leav ing his wealth and e a s e A stubborn will to p lease, Ducdame, ducdame, ducdame: Here shal l he see G r o s s fools as he, A n d if he will come to me. (5.2.45-51) S o m e speculat ion exists as to whether or not this last s tanza of the song was originally sung (Long, 1955, p. 143). It is not marked to be sung as are the first two, and J a q u e s is not portrayed as being musica l . The cynical , mocking tone of the s tanza, however, definitely requires a degree of transformation in the mus ic itself if the alteration in tone and mood are to be effective - even though the line scans ion is the s a m e and would underlay perfectly with a repeat of the s a m e tune used in the first two s tanzas . I e lected to change to the paral lel minor key (G minor) to reflect J a q u e s ' scathing tone, as demonstrated in the ensuing example ( C D Track 12): 49 Under The Greenwood Tree—Bridge Section c m/El> D c m/Ek Michael Mikulin F If it do come to pass That an - y man turn ass, Leav ing his wealth and ease Bl> F8° Gm D ^ i ' — r *y I« P A stub born will to please, Due dam e due dam e due dam e_ Figure 6. Under the Greenwood Tree (Bridge) - by Michae l Mikulin Never the less, the final three l ines posed a d i lemma: would it be best to continue with the minor key to reflect the text, or to return to the happy major tone of the opening to give the song a s e n s e of cohes iveness and unity? Certainly a 19th century art song composer such as Schuber t would have felt the need to dramat ize the last three l ines to be true to the "meaning" of the text (as previously ment ioned, the G e r m a n art song composers general ly held the belief that superior songwrit ing was about reflecting the emotional gradat ions in the text through the use of music , for which they used the term word painting), but I had set my parameters differently. My main goal w a s to keep the mus ic access ib le to a m a s s aud ience and, general ly speak ing, that requires a certain degree of repetition of material s o that the song is easi ly memor ized (similar to the use of alliteration and rhyme in poetry). In the instance of these last three l ines, the importance of maintaining a s imple song structure t rumped the imperative to dramat ize the text. Consequent ly , I opted to return to the melodic hook of the opening for the final l ines: "Here shal l he see / G r o s s fools a s he / A n d if he will c o m e to me" (2.6.50-51). 50 A Word About Ducdame (Ducdame) Ducdame is a nonsense word that occurs in J a c q u e s ' third s tanza and has no t raceable origins. It gave me considerable trouble in the composi t ion p rocess . First, what did it m e a n ? In reading about the history of "Under the Greenwood Tree," I d iscovered that much debate has taken p lace over the etymology of ducdame. Is it s imply Shakespea re ' s jest on the meaning less character of many El izabethan song refrains, or is there a deeper intent? Poss ib le explanat ions convenient ly compi led by E lson are as fol lows: 1) D u c d a m e is a Latinization of come hither and is intended to be a pun on Amiens ' name and the French ami (friend); 2) ducdame is a duck call and connected to the old folk tune " D a m e What M a k e s Y o u r Ducks to Die"; 3) ducdame means " lead him from me," the da being the Italian preposit ion for from, and therefore is a jest on the first s tanza 's "come hither" (E lson, 1901, p. 64). Alternately, S e n g (1967) offers this explanat ion: The word is . . . a corruption of the Roman i dukra me . . . . The express ion . . . means 'I f o r e t e l l ' . . . . A s the cal l of the G ipsy fortune-teller at fairs or public gatherings, it is a Greek invocation to call fools into a circle, (p. 74) The intimation here is that the Duke and his fol lowers are vagabonds forced to lead an uncomfortable life by their own s tubbornness and pride. Another writer, Ingleby, points out that Due da me is Italian for "Duke by m y s e l f or "Duke without a Dukedom" (Seng, p. 75). A l len (1934, p. 126) suggests that Ducdame refers to Q u e e n El izabeth I: the circle is her court, and the fools within it her courtiers (Seng, 1967, p. 75). Beyond meaning, w a s the quest ion of pronunciat ion. After making my best guess at a French pronunciation of the word (duc-dam), and compos ing mus ic to suit this pronunciat ion, I d iscovered that most Shakespea re song scholars (Chappel l , E l son , 51 Knight, Collier, et al.) agree that ducdame is tri-syllabic (duc-dam-e). After discovering this, I decided to go back and re-record the song to suit this pronunciation. Musical Form and Repetition of Text The general rule I set for myself regarding repetition of words in the song texts was that I would not repeat an individual word that was not already repeated in the original song text; nor would I add an extra individual repetition that did not conform to the phrase structure of the text (e.g., I would not add a fourth "come hither" to the original three). Nevertheless, I freely repeated entire lines, usually altering the music each time a line was repeated. For example, with respect to the line "come hither, come hither, come hither," I decided to extend the existing repetition and repeat the entire line, using an A B or A1 A2 phrase pattern (question and answer), thus making a total of six repetitions of "come hither." This seems to keep the original feeling of the text without unbalancing it, and yet prevents the listener from getting bored by too much musical repetition. In comparison, the line "But winter and rough weather" had no precedent when it came to repetition. Nevertheless, I felt that since it occurred in Stanza 1 and was reiterated in Stanza 2, it should be repeated to add musical interest and emphasis. In retrospect, some of my decisions regarding repetition of textual material were purely arbitrary and the result of an erroneous belief that I could be faithful to an absolute meaning of a given text, a viewpoint that underwent significant revision as I progressed with my research. Reviewing the Earliest Settings and Comparing For my first Shakespearean song effort, I felt I had achieved my goal of writing something structurally and melodically simple with a genuine folk flavour, while adding 52 enough material to keep the song interesting for a modern-day listener. A s a test of my ability to ach ieve so-cal led authenticity, I looked up the oldest existing setting of the song , to compare with my own. A s with many of Shakespea re ' s songs, a great dea l of conjecture w a s present over what is "original." In the c a s e of "Under the Greenwood Tree," the possibi l i t ies are end less because Greenwood songs were common in the 16th and 17the centuries. Mos t scho lars (Long, S e n g , E lson) concur that the oldest known setting is provided by G ibbon , set to a Greenwood tune from Playford 's The English Dancing Master (1650). Th is tune, set forth in an earl ier example above, is contemporary with the El izabethan period, but it may not have been actually used in the original production. In Shakespeare's Songbook, Duffin (2004) conjecturally sets the Greenwood lyric to a tune cal led "Sir Eg lamore, " ( C D Track 13) the source of which is a manuscr ipt at Edinburgh University dating from the 1660s (p. 416), shown in Figure 7: Under the Greenwood Tree— Sir Eglamore Tune i j ' v J- J J J i J J J . i r r r ir r J ^ Un der the green wood tree, Who loves to lie with me, Jr ft ? * -4SJ * m 1 J « a H= v—F— f ^ 1 J And turn his mer ry note, un to the sweet bird's throat. Come... Figure 7. Under the Greenwood Tree - Sir Eg lamore Tune In both c a s e s , the editors had indeed chosen tunes in the key of G with compound meters (Gibbon's is in 6/8, Duffin's is in 6/4). In contrast, my melody and 53 chord changes are different, and neither one of the folk sett ings dramat izes J a q u e s ' final s tanza, suggest ing that it was indeed spoken rather than sung. Sett ing "Under the Greenwood Tree" to mus ic highlighted issues of context, vocabulary, style/genre, and textual authority - i ssues that are pursued further in the following chapter. T h e next song text I chose to set, "B low B low Thou Winter W ind , " provided other chal lenges, including using key and meter to represent mood and tone. The Second Song - Blow, Blow Thou Winter Wind Suit the action to the word, the word to the action , with this spec ia l observance, that you not overstep the modesty of nature. For anything s o o 'erdone is from the purpose of playing, whose end , both at the first and now , w a s and is to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the t ime his form and pressure. -Hamlet (3.2.17-2) The above passage , from Hamlet 's speech to the first player in Hamlet's play within a play, may be the c losest w e get to a dramat ic treatise from Shakespea re . If the author does indeed try to 'hold up a mirror to nature,' he often does so by attempting to embody the contradict ions and moral ambiguit ies of real life. The second song of As You Like It, excerpted below, demonstrates the conflicting ideals that have been a source of intrigue for generat ions of aud iences (refer to C D Track 14 for my arrangement). Verse 1 Blow, blow, thou winter wind, Thou art not s o unkind A s man 's ingratitude; 54 Thy tooth is not so keen , B e c a u s e thou art not s e e n , Al though thy breath be rude. Chorus Heigh-ho! s ing, heigh-ho! unto the green holly: Most fr iendship is feigning, most loving mere folly: Then , heigh-ho, the holly! Th is life is most jolly. Verse 2 Freeze , f reeze, thou bitter sky, That does not bite s o nigh A s benefits forgot: Though thou the waters warp, Thy sting is not so sharp A s friend remembered not. (To chorus) (2.7) Interpreting and Responding to the Mood of the Lyrics "Blow, Blow, Thou Winter W ind " contains the jaunty refrain of a typical E l izabethan song , as exempli f ied in the l ines "Heigh-ho! s ing, heigh-ho! unto the green holly" (2.7.180); however, the remainder of the lyric is a condemnat ion of humanity, assert ing that "most fr iendship is feigning, most loving mere folly" (2.7.181). The song , sung by A m i e n s , paral lels J a q u e s ' famous speech , "Al l the world's a s tage . . . " located in the s a m e scene , a sardonic account of the s tages of human life with a morbid descript ion of old age as being "sans teeth, sans eyes , sans taste, s a n s everything" (2.7.166). In light of these l ines, the final line of the refrain, "this life is most jolly," must be taken as a sardonic witticism (2.7.182). The first dec is ion of the composer , then, is 55 whether to treat the song as a superf icial entertainment des igned to lighten the mood after Jaques ' sol i loquy, or to explore the underlying mood and a tmosphere of the lyrics, which reflect the themes of human vanity, mortality, and al ienation. I opted for the latter, but this approach presented its own problems. A s well , the stage directions never specifically mention A m i e n s as the singer - though he is a s s u m e d to be the singer based on his earl ier performance of "Under the Greenwood Tree. " Choosing a Key to Reflect Mood and Tone My choice of a key for "Blow, Blow, Thou Winter W ind " w a s made more difficult due to the lack of any historical melody that could be used as a precedent. None of the scholars of Shakespea re song have pinpointed an original melody for "Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind . " Mos t melod ies in textbooks are reconstruct ions based on conjecture and the meter of the words. For example , Duffin (2004) c la ims that "Blow, Blow" may have been set to a tune entitled " G o d d e s s e s " ( C D Track 15) from John Playford 's English Dancing Master of 1651 (Duffin, p. 70), shown in Figure 8: Blow Blow Thou Winter Wind—Goddesses Tune m m Blow blow thou wint er wind, tooth is not so keen, Thou Be art not so un kind, cause thou art not seen, As Al man's in grat ti hide; though thy breath be rude. Thy ho, sing heigh ho, un Heigh to the green hoi ry, Most friend ship is feign ning, most Lov ing mere fol ly: Figure 8. B low Blow Thou Winter W ind - G o d d e s s e s Tune 56 Never the less, Duffin's conc lus ions are based largely on his belief that the word ivy in the original G o d d e s s e s tune and the word holly in Shakespea re ' s lyric fall on the s a m e beat (p. 71). In my opinion, Duffin's "holly and the ivy" theory is a tenuous connect ion at best. The earl iest known setting by T h o m a s Arne dates from 1740, but this setting, though famous, is technical ly incomplete, because it does not include music for the refrain of the song. After looking at var ious sett ings, among them Roger Quilter's brilliant setting in C Minor (1905), I e lected to write my vers ion of the song in the key of G Minor, taking a hint from Quilter 's cho ice of a minor key and the minor mode of the Goddesses tune. I wanted to create a song that would carefully ba lance both the jollity and cynic ism of the lyrics. Quilter does this by literally refusing to commit to either major or minor tonality - he alternates constantly between the two modes , leaving the p iece in a cont inuous state of harmonic flux. I desi red something more musical ly access ib le , but still wanted to capture this duality in the music . For the verse, I constructed a melody in the minor key that elicited melancholy. W h e n reaching the "heigh-ho" refrain, however, I felt that s o m e change w a s needed to keep musica l interest and to reflect this more posit ive (at least superficially) part of the song ; consequent ly , I moved to the relative major key of Bb Major for these l ines, before returning to G Minor for the concluding l ines of the refrain. By revisiting G minor for the last line of the refrain, I w a s able to create an ironic contrast between the posit ive statement of the lyric - this life is most jolly - and the mournful mood of the music . 57 Choosing a Meter to Reflect Mood and Tone The other a rea that posed a unique chal lenge in setting "Blow, Blow" to mus ic was the meter of the text. A brief analys is reveals that the first and second-to- last l ines of the refrain are metrically variant from the verse , a s il lustrated below: Verse Blow, blow, / thou win / ter wind, spondee , iamb, iamb Thou art / not so / unkind 3 iambs A s man 's / ingrat / titude.... 3 iambs Refrain Heigh-ho! / s ing, / heigh /-ho! metrically variant Unto / the green / holly: 3 iambs Most friend / ship is / feigning, 3 iambs most lov / ing mere / folly: 3 iambs Then , heigh-ho, the holly! metrically variant Th is life / is most / jolly. 3 iambs A s a result, many sett ings of the song alternate between one time signature in the verse and another in the refrain. Musical ly , this translates into 4/4 meter for the verse (counted 1-2-3-4) and a 6/8 meter for the refrain (counted 1-2-3-4-5-6 or 1-2 if only the 1st and 3rd beats are accented). John H. Long (1955) offers an example of this musica l approach. He writes the verse in 4/4, and suppl ies a new refrain in 6/8 in his reconstruction of the melody (p. 149), based once again on a tune in Playford 's English Dancing Master, as excerpted below in Figure 9 ( C D Track 16): 58 Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind—Long's Reconstruction 8 i * p * r 1 g Blow, blow thou wint er wind, Thou art not so un kind As man's in grat ti hide; Heigh ho, sing heigh ho un to the green holl y; Most friend ship is feign ing; Most 1 II 10 lov ing mere fol ry: Then heigh ho the hoi hf This life is most jol ty. Figure 9. B low Blow Thou Winter W ind - Long's Reconstruct ion Many El izabethan dance tunes have changes of meter, but I found this approach rather jarring; I wanted to ach ieve a more fluid express ion that would not break from the mournful and cynical mood of the lyric. Therefore, I dec ided to keep my vers ion of the song entirely in 4/4. T o do this, the rhythm of the refrain had to be elongated to fit comfortably into a 4/4 meter without giving the impress ion of the s inger stumbl ing over the words, as demonstrated in Figure 10 ( C D Track 17): 59 Blow, Blow , Thou Winter Wind— Chorus Excerpt Bl> El>sus2 E''sus2 Michael Mikulin F Ftt°7 i r r r-T Heigh ho! sing. heigh ho! gm F / A B^ un to the green Ehius2 9 f r—m 1 m—m— -o _ i—i— i — i ' - - **= r L I v I •1 — %—%— 1 — V- 1 1 holl y B!» EI»SUS2 F B ° 7 l j ? t > - 1 r p i i » — > m »= • — i f r 9 W~T* 1 • '* F r i -1 Most lov ing mere foil y El>Maj7 Then, heigh ho, the holl y. " r * * * * * | «J 3» 75' This life is most joU y.. Figure 10. B low Blow Thou Winter W ind (Chorus) - by Michae l Mikulin This elongated vers ion of the melody a lso s e e m e d beneficial because it a l lowed for a sharper, more forward, p lacement of the vowel sound. For the s a m e reason, I opted to pronounce the refrain as "hi-ho" rather than "hey-ho." Seen and Unseen: Dramatic Context S e n g (1967) points out that "Blow, Blow, Thou Winter W i n d " is a song des igned to suit the Duke 's exi led condit ion in the play (p. 147). Indeed, Shakespea re foreshadows the song earl ier in the play in the words of Duke Senior , who says : A re not these woods More free from peril than the envious court? Here we feel but the penalty of A d a m , The season ' s difference, as , the icy fang A n d churl ish chiding of the winter's wind, 60 Which , when it bites and blows upon my body Even till I shrink with cold, I smi le, and say "This is no flattery; these are counsel lors That feelingly persuade me what I am. " (2.1.3-11) The key line of the song is "thy tooth is not s o keen / because thou art not seen" (2.1 Ml), suggest ing that an unseen enemy is somehow less bothersome or hurtful than the enemy one knows (i.e., the invisible agitations of the winter wind are preferable to the visible deceit of human beings). Of course, a paradox occurs in the line: the decei t of human beings can be just as invisible as the winter wind. S h a k e s p e a r e may have been referring to the frequent machinat ions of the royal court, in which courtiers could flatter their superiors while plotting against them. Ironically, many aspec ts of "B low Blow Thou Winter W ind " are unseen by the aud ience - the idealization of rustic life and vilification of society are espoused in the song text, but the dramatic material surrounding the song undercuts these ideals. W h e n A m i e n s conc ludes his song , Duke Sen ior offers refuge and hospitality to A d a m and Or lando - hardly the sort of behaviour in keeping with "man 's ingratitude." Ophelia's Song The first two song texts with which I dealt offered opportunit ies to examine mode/key, meter, and text underlay. Before d iscuss ing the pedagogica l implications of the compos ing process in the context of the Engl ish c lass room, I will touch briefly on my exper iences setting three addit ional songs to music. T h e s e songs raised quest ions of interpretation, style, genre, form and performance that are vital to the teaching of Shakespea re . Ophel ia 's mad song from Hamlet, entitled "How Shou ld I Y o u r True Love 61 Know," is one of the most wel l -known songs in the Shakespea re canon (refer to C D Track 18 for my arrangement): How should I your true love know From another o n e ? By his cock le hat and staff A n d his sanda l shoon. He is dead and gone, lady. He is dead and gone; At his head a grass-green turf, A t his heels a stone. Whi te his shroud as the mountain snow, Larded with sweet f lowers; Wh ich bewept to the grave did go With true love showers . (4.5.23-40) Reviewing Historical Settings Most scholars agree that Ophel ia 's first song is an al lusion to the popular bal lad "Wals ingham," the melody of which I have recorded and reprinted below with one particular set of original words ( C D Track 19), though literally hundreds of variat ions a lso exist: Ophelia's Song—Walsingham Tune if *u r r r J J ' c r r r r ' As you came from Wal sing ham, from that ho ly land, if n r u r * J i-rip r n -\ 11 Met you not with my true love by the way as you came? Figure 11. Ophel ia 's S o n g - Wa ls ingham Melody 62 The melody given here is based on Wi l l iam Byrd's setting in My Ladye Nevells Booke of 1591 (Duffin, 2004, p. 423). The "Wals ingham" tune, in turn, evolved into another melody set to a text in Hamlet that a lso survives. The most common song performed on stage today is a version of this secondary melody from the 18th century. Accord ing to Louis E lson (1901), the traditional tune survives in at least two vers ions, thanks to the efforts of two different composers , as related in the fol lowing: W h e n Drury Lane Theatre w a s burned in 1812, the old transcription of the melodies, which had been handed down from the original sources , w a s lost; an enthusiast ic music ian, however, to w h o m all Shakespear ians owe thanks, Doctor (Samuel) Arno ld , sought out Mrs. Jo rdan , who had often played the part of Ophe l ia , and from her lips transcr ibed the tunes that she had so frequently sung . Mr. Linley a lso wrote down the melodies from memory, having heard M s . Field . . . s ing the tunes in the above ment ioned theatre. (E lson, 1901, p. 234) E lson goes on to explain that the two vers ions match c losely enough to prove one another, suggest ing that the melodies are authentic Drury Lane tunes. What remains in quest ion is whether or not these Drury Lane melod ies originated from the original production of the play, s ince Drury Lane w a s establ ished well after Shakespea re ' s lifetime. O n e hypothesis suggests that S h a k e s p e a r e w a s the natural father of Wi l l iam D'Avenant, who passed them onto his protege T h o m a s Betterton, who in turn brought the tunes to Drury Lane - a content ious theory at best. A more likely explanat ion is that the 18th century tune is a badly corrupted vers ion of the original Wa ls ingham bal lad, which was endless ly parodied because of its immense popularity (Naylor, 1931, pp. 189-90). Figure 12 shows the Drury Lane melody, as reprinted from Kines ' (1964) Songs from Shakespeare's Plays ( C D Track 20): 63 Ophelia's Song—Drury Lane Tune Am E Am Dm E F E C Am ( 3 C ~~rv~~I* J m P J J 1 J 1 Is' i* * — , • _ & _ L _ d — p . — e — # tS i r E How should I your true love know From an oth er one? Em Am Dm E Am F E Am Dm Am E Am 3C m P r p * By his cock le hat and staff, And his sand al shoon. Figure 12. Ophel ia 's S o n g - Drury Lane Tune Evidently, a number of changes were made over the years from stage use. T h e song s e e m s to have changed key (though it is still in a minor mode) and has metamorphosed from Wals ingham's compound time signature - 6/4 in Duffin's reconstruction and 3/2 in Naylor 's - to a straight 4/4. Interpretation, Context, and Dramatic Function Working with Ophel ia 's song posed numerous cha l lenges in regards to integrating the song into the dramatic context, consider ing multiple possibi l i t ies for interpretations of the song text, and my cho ice of performer, which in turn affected the overal l interpretation. Unl ike the thematic songs of As You Like It, the songs of Hamlet are utilized to establ ish character and dramatic motivation. "How Shou ld I You r True Love Know" is the opening song in Ophel ia 's d isplay of madness before the King and Q u e e n in Ac t Four, S c e n e Five. Bradley (1904) points out, In the latter part of a t ragedy. . .Shakespeare often appea ls to an emotion different from any of those exci ted in the first half of the play . . . A s a rule this new emotion is pathetic . . . (p. 60) 64 The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (1990) def ines pathos a s "the emotional ly moving quality or power of a literary work, appeal ing especia l ly to our feel ings of sorrow, pity, and compass ionate sympathy" (Baldick, p. 163). I bel ieve a pathos is present in this s c e n e that is s imul taneously subl ime and terrible. T h e stage directions for Ophel ia 's song in the First Quarto read "enter Ophe l ia playing on her lute and her hair down singing," (Best, 2003). In the Signet edit ion, which is based on the First Fol io, the stage directions are simply "enter Ophel ia , distracted." I wanted to write a song that would encapsula te this feeling of beautiful derangement. I do not feel Ophe l ia is completely insensible to her misfortunes; rather, she is unable to bear them and descends into madness . The song, then, is a g l impse into her feel ings a s I understand them, albeit a v iew c loaked in metaphor. Numerous interpretations may be found of what Ophel ia 's coded lyrics mean , but I have chosen Peter J . S e n g ' s (1967) rendering a s provided below: How should I your true love know From another one? By his cock le hat and staff A n d his sanda l shoon. (4.5.23) O n the surface, the song tells the story of a pilgrim who has journeyed beyond the s e a to a p lace of devot ion. The cock le shel l was a symbol of having visited a holy shrine, because the chief p laces of devot ion were located on the coasts . A s wel l , in the early church, cock le shel ls were used to pour out the waters of bapt ism (Seng, 1967, p. 134). In any case , as the song cont inues, the s inger learns from a traveller that her lover has died on his journey and has been buried without the proper rites or "true love showers" : 65 He is dead and gone, lady. H e is dead and gone; At his head a grass-green turf, A t his heels a stone. Whi te his shroud as the mountain snow, Larded with sweet f lowers; Wh ich bewept to the grave did not go With true love showers . (4.5.23-40) Most explanat ions suggest that the song is about the death of Ophel ia 's father, Po lon ius (Seng, 1967, p. 133); however, the lyric can a lso be construed as a recognit ion of the death of Ophel ia 's love for Hamlet himself. S ince the song is sung directly to Q u e e n Gertrude, S e n g (p. 133) goes so far as to suggest the song is an accusat ion: the song 's lyric can be interpreted as suggest ing that Q u e e n Gertrude once had a true love that she failed to properly mourn - a poison dart a imed at the Q u e e n by Ophe l ia for her hasty remarr iage to C laud ius , and possib ly other more ser ious of fences. Th is , then, is a song of leave-taking on many levels: a farewell to Ophe l ia 's father, the co l lapse of her relationship with Pr ince Hamlet, and an adieu to the stable world she once knew when King Hamlet and her father were al ive. The context of Ophel ia 's song in the play is important to understand a s wel l . E l izabethan society was intensely hierarchical, and singing in public by the nobility would not be considered proper behaviour except under spec ia l c i rcumstances. In Ac t Five, however, Ophe l ia s ings one song after another before the court of Denmark. S u c h behaviour would be contrary to all propriety for an El izabethan noble, man or woman . Al though knowledge of mus ic w a s seen as desi rable at every soc ia l rank, per formance operated within strict rules and limits. Ba ldassa r Cast ig l ione, whose book The Courtier 66 (1528) set the standard for court behaviour and manners , condemns the unsolicited performance of mus ic by aristocracy, arguing "c lass distinctions between a nobleman and his music-performing servants would be broken down" (Cast igl ione, 1528, Book 2). Cast ig l ione adv ises w o m e n to cultivate modesty, saying "when she cometh to dance , or to show any kind of music, she ought to be brought to it with suffering herself somewhat to be prayed, and with a certain bashfu lness . . . " (Book 2). Th is code of etiquette permitted D e s d e m o n a to s ing in the famil iar company of Emi l ia , but would not support an unsolici ted performance for the king and queen at court. The El izabethan audience, therefore, would have recognized Ophel ia 's public singing as another indicator of the breakdown of her sanity, a long with her d ishevel led appearance and incoherent speech . Textual Variance in Ophelia's Song The writing of Ophel ia 's song led to my first encounter with a significant Shakespea rean textual variation. Al though s o m e modern edit ions phrase l ines 39-40 in the affirmative - "Which bewept to the grave did go" - the two distinct early vers ions of Hamlet (the short Quarto of 1603 and the longer Quarto of 1604-05), a s well as all other quarto texts and the Fol io of 1623, insert a negative into the line: "which, bewept, to the grave did not go" (Murphy, 2003, pp. 294-302). The omiss ion of the negative is apparently the result of an editorial dec is ion by A lexander P o p e and other early editors, who regular ized the line without any textual authority for this dec is ion (Long, 1971, p. 124). Kittredge (1939) puts forth the theory that the use of "not" is Shakespea re ' s own personal interpolation - a del iberate attempt to remind the aud ience that the traditional words of "Wals ingham" (on which the tune is based) do not entirely fit the c i rcumstances of Po lon ius ' hasty burial or Ophel ia 's impending death. Compos ing this song required grappling with textual var iance and making dec is ions about poss ib le wordings. 67 Musical Form and Repetition of Text Instead of following the original bal lad formula, which simply repeated the s a m e mus ic for every s tanza , I opted to make s tanzas one and two verses, and s tanza three a chorus or middle eight (as opposed to a refrain, which usual ly happens after every verse). In popular songwrit ing, this is somet imes cal led an A - B - A form, and is used in many 30s and 40s jazz standards, such as Stormy Weather. T h e actual plan of the form is more elaborate than a s imple A - B - A , following a pattern that I would document as A 1 -A 2 - B 1 - A 1 - A 2 - B 2 - A 3 / C o d a . I have attempted to label both the textual and musica l form below, including my own lyrical adaptations/repetit ions: Verse 1orA1 How should I your true love know From another one? By his cock le hat and staff A n d his sanda l shoon . Verse 2 or A1 He is dead and gone, lady. H e is dead and gone; At his head a grass-green turf, A t his heels a stone. Chorus orB1 White his shroud as the mountain snow, Larded with sweet f lowers; Wh ich bewept to the grave did [not] go With true love showers . With true love showers , {my addition} Repea t V e r s e 1,2 and Cho rus {my addition} 68 Coda orA2 How should I your true love know, {my additions} F rom another one? How should I your true love know, F rom another one? P iano coda to c lose ( 4 . 5 . 2 3 - 4 0 ) By following such a form, however, I created a problem: when reaching the end of the chorus (B2) for the second time, the melody sounded unf inished. Consequent ly , I made the first s tanza of the text a C o d a , repeating the first line of the song as a quest ion for the aud ience to ponder, "How should I your true love know/ From another one? " For me, this line is the key to the song , if it is interpreted as an address from Ophel ia to Hamlet. Whi le I w a s p leased with all these changes from a musica l point of view, I felt I w a s losing control of the dramat ic impact. A s my setting grew and deve loped, it became apparent that my vers ion of Ophel ia 's song w a s becoming too much a "musical theatre number," isolated from the dramat ic context. In the context of the scene , I felt it would be more appropriate to have Ophe l ia hum snatches of a folk bal lad than to launch into a musica l sol i loquy. Furthermore, s ince the mus ic of Ophel ia 's song has been traced back to "Wals ingham," clearly, the original genre of the song was a folk bal lad. In Ac t Four, S c e n e Five, the song is presented in between sna tches of spoken dia logue, with plenty of interruptions from the Q u e e n and Ophe l ia herself. Below, I have only italicized the song lyrics: Enter Ophe l ia [distracted] Ophe l ia : W h e r e is the beauteous Majesty of Denmark? Q u e e n : How now Ophe l ia? Ophe l ia : How should I your true love know / From another one? By his cockle hat and staff, / And his Sandal shoon. 69 Q u e e n : A l a s , sweet Lady: what imports this S o n g ? Ophe l ia : S a y you? Nay pray you mark. He is dead and gone Lady /He is dead and gone, At his head a grass-green turf, / At his heels a stone. (5 .4.21-31) A s a result, Ophel ia 's song retains its informal, ballad-l ike quality. By making the form more elaborate and removing the textual interpolations, I felt the song was in danger of overwhelming the aud ience. O n the other hand, if my setting of the song was reinserted into the scene with interruptions of d ia logue, and the accompaniment removed entirely, it would be more effective and avoid being overblown. Artistically, the contrast of the light, inconsequent ia l bal lad mus ic with Ophel ia 's internal agony would have more of an impact than a dramat ic outpouring of grief. Performance Decisions From the outset, the most important per formance dec is ion in the c a s e of Ophel ia 's song would be the cho ice of singer; in particular, the type of vo ice and the delivery of the performance. Initially, I desi red to fol low tradition and create a character that sounded unhinged, being concerned that a singer with too pleasant a vo ice might detract from the context, and that a more ragged voice might better capture the mood. Certainly, an e lement in the performance should make the aud ience uncomfortable. At the s a m e time, the song 's dramat ic function is to reveal something about Ophel ia 's character, and as such , it must remain true to the character establ ished earl ier in the play. A s John Long asser ts , the performed [vocal] mus ic is a imed primarily at character izat ion.. . The voca l music. . . is fragmentary and incoherent and therefore an outward sign of the inward character of the s ingers. (1971, p. 105) 70 The song a lso serves as a mirror for the other characters, and we are anxious throughout the scene that Ophel ia may overstep her bounds with the King and Q u e e n by mentioning personal subjects that she should not broach with them. Ophe l ia is comical ly pathetic, and all the other songs in Hamlet are ass igned to c lowns and fools -characters who are al lowed to speak their minds with impunity. Ultimately, I used a young singer with a sweet vo ice in an attempt to capture the beauty, youth, and innocence of Ophel ia . The result s e e m e d to be increased pathos and a greater feeling of tragedy. To maintain the song 's function of serving a s a mirror for C laud ius ' and Q u e e n Gertrude's thoughts and motives, however, the dia logue of those characters really must be interpolated into the music. Desdemona's Song: Willow Willow S h e had a song of willow, A n old thing 'twas, but it exp ressed her fortune, A n d she died singing it. That song tonight Wil l not go from my mind. — D e s d e m o n a to Emi l ia (Othello 4.3.26-29) Reviewing Historical Settings After the study of Ophel ia 's song , I became interested in the expropriat ion of pre-existing melod ies and bal lads in Shakespea re ' s plays. I looked at one of the most popular tunes from the plays - the Wi l low song in Othello, sung by D e s d e m o n a in Ac t Four, S c e n e Three. Scho la rs have long been aware that this tune is not original in terms of either text or lyric, but rather, a c lever adaptat ion of a popular bal lad to the dramatic purposes of the play (Seng, 1967, pp. 196-98). A s with all of Shakespea re ' s song sources , some d iscrepancy is present over exactly what constitutes the original melodic 71 source. Duffin (2004, p. 470) puts forward the following tune, taken from a combinat ion of the Lodge Lute Book (1559) and fragments from the Drexel Col lect ion (CD Track 21): Willow, Willow— Lodge Lute Book Melody i l l , ti I | £ z f=t=f : sp T=4= i j ji j j j =n ! $ ' J The \lv | | i—« pa U * 4 or soul s< il it sigh ing —J—« by a i '—1 s * F • • J J « y ca more tr« | J 1 :e, Sing =^ m- m m m m a all a green wil low; Her TH—1 1— * — . J _j— — i * ^ L — * — J ^ J J J — ^ — i — 1 hand on her bo som, her head on her knee, Sing wil low, wil low wil low, wil low. Figure 13. Wi l low Wi l low - Lodge Lute Book Melody The more famous and general ly accepted melody, however, is from the Pepys col lect ion, entitled The Complaint of a Lover Forsaken, dating from 1614 (E lson, 1901, p. 290). Th is source, a book of lute songs , preserves the text with the music . A s is evident in compar ing the two vers ions below, the text of the original bal lad is not exact ly the s a m e (Early Modern Engl ish spel l ing notwithstanding) as the lyric found in the Folger Library edition of Othel lo: Othello Version The poor soul sat sighing by a sycamore tree, S ing all a green willow; Her hand on her bosom, her head on her knee, S ing willow, wil low, wil low The fresh st reams ran by her, and mumur 'd her moans S ing willow, wil low, willow; Her salt tears fell from her, and softened the stones; S ing wil low, wil low, wil low. Sing all a green wil low must be my gar land. Let nobody b lame him; his scorn I approve, I cal l 'd my love fa lse love; but what sa id he then? If I court moe [more] w o m e n , you'l l couch with moe men. (4:3) Traditional Version A poore soule sat sighing under a s icamore tree; O willow, wil low, wil low! With his hand on his bosom, his head on his knee: O willow, willow, wil low! O willow, wil low, wil low! S ing , O the greene wil low shal l be my gar land The cold s t reams ran by him, his eyes wept apace ; O wil low etc. The salt tears fell from him, which drowned his face. O willow, etc. S ing , O the greene wil low shal l be my gar land. (E lson, 1901, p. 290) In addit ion to the pronoun changes (from his to her), the lyrics fol low a slightly different structure, and the last two l ines "I call 'd my love fa lse love; but what said he then?/ If I court moe [more] women , you'l l couch with moe men" (4.3.60-61) are completely new addit ions, suggest ing that Shakespea re wanted to emphas ize Othel lo 's accusat ions of infidelity. Wh i ch melody (the Drexel or P e p y s ' collection) w a s used with Shakespea re ' s text in product ions during his lifetime is open to conjecture, but clearly, with the lyric, S h a k e s p e a r e w a s not attempting to intensify the pathos or t ragedy with a light p iece of music , as in Ophel ia 's mad songs . Rather, the song presents a straightforward express ion of the melancholy mood of the scene , in which D e s d e m o n a contemplates her own premonit ions of death and her loss of Othel lo 's affection. T h e 73 lyrical integrity is a lso changed : The original plaintiff ode to lost love is undermined with the paranoia and suspic ion that prevai ls throughout the rest of the play. Interpreting the Song Text The text of the Wi l low song is recommended, from a musica l point of view. It has a great deal of alliteration - "the poor soul sat sighing by a sycamore tree" - a long with the repetition of the refrain "willow, wil low, willow," which makes for a p leasing phrase structure. Never theless, the text is a lso highly ambiguous, operating on three levels s imultaneously. First, an anonymous lover narrates the folk bal lad. Next, D e s d e m o n a is a narrator, offering her thoughts about her relationship with Othel lo. Lastly, D e s d e m o n a refers to her handmaiden, Barbaray, who sang the song to her a s a little girl and who, accord ing to Desdemona ' s account, "died singing it" (4.3.32). T h e song effortlessly shifts from one narrator's account to another, but the line "let nobody b lame him; his scorn I approve" (4.3.56) s e e m s particularly appropriate for Desdemona ' s reaction to Othel lo because it reinforces the innocence of her character, and increases the sympathy for her undeserved suffering. Irony is a lso present in the line, because the aud ience knows that Othel lo, a s a soldier who has waged campa igns in far-away lands, has probably not been faithful to D e s d e m o n a , even though he is demanding a pure wife. Wh i le El izabethan aud iences undoubtedly accepted this double standard, Shakespea re s e e m s to be call ing it into quest ion with the line "If I court moe [more] women , you'l l couch with moe m e n " (4.3.60-61). I interpreted the aforement ioned line to be Desdemona ' s paraphrase of Othel lo 's angry words to her in the previous s c e n e (4.2), where he openly a c c u s e s her of infidelity. T h e naivete that D e s d e m o n a demonstrates in the Wi l low song is echoed in the ensuing passage , when she a s k s the worldly Emi l ia , "Dost thou in consc ience think - tell me, Emi l ia - That there be w o m e n do abuse their husbands/In such gross kind" (4.3.67-69)? Emi l ia astutely responds that if women are unfaithful to their husbands they have learned this behaviour from watching men : "And have not we af fect ions/Desires for sport, and frailty, as men have? Then let them use us wel l . E l se let them know,/ T h e ills we do, their ills instruct us so " (4.3.112-115). Key , Meter a n d M u s i c a l F o r m In writing my own vers ion of the song, I had to make s o m e dec is ions. Wou ld I observe the melancholy tone of the original lyric? Both Ross in i and Verd i composed operat ic vers ions of Othel lo, and both used melancholy folk-like melodies for "O Sa l ce , S a l c e " (O Wil low, Wil low). It s e e m e d reasonable to preserve this melancholy mood , but I wanted to do something unique with the structure of the song . After hearing Ivor Gurney 's setting of "Under the Greenwood Tree" (1923), I real ized the possibil i t ies for putting a song , traditionally written in 3/4 t ime, in 4/4 time. I a lso liked the A minor mode used in the p iece, and wanted to write something similar. Most importantly, I wanted to get away from the 6/4 folk-ballad feel of the Lodge Lute Book melody (see Figure 13), which I felt was too languid to express the underlying anger and frustration D e s d e m o n a would likely feel after being falsely a c c u s e d by Othel lo. In e s s e n c e , I wanted to portray a more active D e s d e m o n a . Consequent ly , I opted to differentiate my setting from the Lodge Lute Book melody in the following ways : 1) divide the song into three sect ions -verse one beginning on "The poor soul , " verse two beginning on "The fresh st reams," and a chorus beginning on "Sing all a green willow"; 2) change the t ime signature from a compound meter to 4/4; 3) change the key signature from the folk bal lad's traditional minor to major at the chorus, as a kind of musica l surpr ise and to emphas ize the change of mood on the line "sing all a green wil low must be my gar land. . . " ; and 4) 75 reverse the last two l ines of the song , so that the two most important l ines ("I cal led my love fa lse love . . . " and "If I court more women . . .") would have more impact without being interrupted by the "sing willow, wil low, wil low" refrain. Th is a lso al lowed me to end the song with the refrain. T h e s e changes to the lyric are documented below (refer to C D Track 22 for my arrangement): Verse 1 The poor soul sat sighing by a sycamore tree, (M INOR K E Y ) S ing all a green willow; Her hand on her bosom, her head on her knee, S ing willow, wil low, wil low Verse 2 The fresh s t reams ran by her, and mumur 'd her moans S ing wil low, willow, wil low Her salt tears fell from her, and soften'd the stones; S ing willow, willow, willow. Chorus Sing all a green wil low must be my gar land. (IN M A J O R K E Y ) Let nobody b lame him; his scorn I approve, I cal l 'd my love fa lse love; but what said he then? ( M E L O D Y A S C E N D S ) If I court moe women , you'll couch with moe men. ( P A U S E ) S ing willow, willow, wil low ( R E V E R S E D F R O M O R I G I N A L O R D E R ) S ing willow, wil low, wil low ( T H E S E R E P E T I T I O N S A D D E D ) S ing wil low, willow, willow. The purpose of subdividing the song into sect ions w a s to al low for more musica l variety, and to build musica l tension at the approach of the chorus and the l ines "S ing all a green wil low must be my gar land/ Let nobody b lame him; his scorn I approve" (4.3.55-76 56), which I assoc ia ted with feel ings of frustrated pass ion , resignation, and s a d n e s s at the break in the relationship. Never the less, the convers ion to 4/4 time posed some problems for me as a melody writer. W h e n a lyric, normally performed in triple meter (3/4), is shifted to a 4/4 meter, the words tend to bunch up into c lumps, and the s inger will trip over them without enough s p a c e in the melody line. I struggled a great dea l over where to put the rests in the melody s o the singer would have t ime to catch her breath between phrases. I a m still not entirely satisf ied with the line "the fresh s t reams ran by her," which proved to be a real tongue twister. Stil l, I w a s p leased with the change to major at the chorus, and felt it w a s worth the effort of the previous build-up. For the cl imact ic line - "I cal l 'd my love fa lse love; but what sa id he then?" - I made the melody sweep upwards to give it more emot ional impact, in yet another example of word painting. The most biting and satir ical line, "If I court moe w o m e n , you'l l couch with moe men" is isolated from the rest of the song with a dramat ic pause. I then returned to the refrain of "S ing wil low, wil low, willow," reversing the last two l ines of text to provide a feeling of c losure. With the Wi l low song , I w a s able to exploit the contrast between major and minor tonality and affect of each on mood or tone to a greater extent than I had done in any of the previous songs . I a lso played with the musica l form of the song and faced the chal lenge of interpreting a somewhat ambiguous text. Having set four bal lad texts in a row, I was now eager to try a different song genre. T h e last song I d i scuss in this chapter is one of the drinking songs in Othello. The Canakin Clink Pub Song 77 A good sherr is-sack . . . .ascends me into the brain.... makes it apprehensive, quick, forgetive, full of nimble, fiery, and delectable shapes , which del ivered o'er to the voice, the tongue, which is the birth, becomes excel lent wit. - Falstaff (2 Henry IV 4.3.95-101) Drunk? A n d speak parrot? A n d squabb le? Swagge r? S w e a r ? A n d d iscourse faustian with one 's own shadow? O thou invisible spirit of wine, if thou hast no name to be known by, let us call thee devi l ! - C a s s i o to lago {Othello 2.3.298) Drinking Song as Genre Without doubt, E l izabethan aud iences enjoyed a good drinking song. A t Strat ford-on-Avon, visitors are shown a chair whereon S h a k e s p e a r e himself "is sa id to have sat at the tavern and joined in the jovial s inging there" (E lson, 1901, p. 171). The c lowns and vagabonds of Shakespea re ' s plays often recite a line or two from a drinking song (E lson, 1901, p. 171), a technique that the dramatist may have borrowed from the morality plays he watched as a youth (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 31). Taverns abounded in London, and were the c lubs and coffee houses of the period. A l e w a s an important part of the diet of the day, even for chi ldren (Wood, 2003 , p. 267), and an apocryphal story is told that Shakespea re died of a fever he contracted brought on by a drinking sess ion with B e n Johnson and the poet Michae l Drayton (Wood, p. 335). A t the Mermaid Tavern , in Bread Street, many of the poets and dramatists of the late 16th and early 17th centur ies congregated, and S h a k e s p e a r e w a s likely one of the writers' circle. Wha t makes "And Let M e the Canak in Cl ink" s o intriguing is that s o m e vers ion of it probably 78 was performed in the bars and taverns of Shakespea re ' s day. S h a k e s p e a r e or one of his composer col laborators simply expanded upon it or borrowed it whol ly from its natural pub environs. Text and Origins of Canakin Clink Textual ly speak ing, "And Let M e the Canak in Cl ink" is a straightforward drinking song , which, like most songs of its type, praises the joy of drinking and insists that life is too short to do without ale. The canakin itself is a little can or cup used for drinking, hence the title of the song. (The word is spel led differently in the Fol io and Quarto vers ions of the play: in the Fol io, the drinking cup is spel led cannakin, whi le in the Quarto and Folger Library edit ions, it is spelt cannikin. The Dover Edit ion spel ls it canakin.) The song, which occurs in a pub, is sung by lago, who is attempting to get C a s i o drunk and discredited in the eyes of Othel lo. The tune provides comic relief while s imultaneously building dramat ic tension as the aud ience waits for C a s i o ' s inevitable fall from grace. T h e scene conc ludes with C a s i o brawling drunkenly with Roder igo and then wounding Montano in an intoxicated rage, an offence made graver by Montano 's rank as a former governor. Othel lo then enters to find C a s i o inebriated while on guard duty and d ismisses him. The ensuing tragedy is precipitated when D e s d e m o n a attempts to intervene on C a s i o ' s behalf, thus increasing Othel lo 's paranoia over her fidelity, which is being fueled by lago 's ongoing innuendo. A s lago remarks: "For whi les this honest fool P l ies D e s d e m o n a to repair his [Casio's] fortune, A n d she for him [Casio] p leads strongly to the Moor. . . A n d by how much she strives to do him good, S h e shal l undo her credit with the Moor" (2.3.374-379). 79 Be low is the full text of the song (refer to C D Track 23 , for my arrangement), which appears uninterrupted by d ia logue in Ac t Two, S c e n e Three: A n d let me the canak in clink, clink; [second clink omitted in my version] A n d let me the canakin clink: A soldier 's a man; A life's but a span ; W h y then let a soldier drink. T h e exact sources of the text and original mus ic for lago's first drinking song are both unknown, but s o m e interesting connect ions can be made. It is both fitting and ironic that the key line of "And Let M e the Canak in C l i n k , " " a soldier 's a man, a life's but a span , " is derived from the cautionary words of P s a l m 39:6: "Beho ld , thou hast made my days as it were a span long . . . and verily every man living is altogether vanity . . . he heapeth up r iches, and cannot tell who shal l gather them." lago's first drinking song serves as both a rousing cal l to carousing for all in the theatre (actors and aud ience alike), as well as a foreshadowing of doom. In terms of the melodic origins, Chappe l l sets the text to an old bal lad tune cal led "Wigmore 's Gal l iard" (Long, 1971, p. 151) dating from 1602, while Sternfeld (1963) suggests a tune cal led "Joan Sande rson " (p. 146) from Playford's English Dancing Master, dating from 1651. Neither of these sett ings can be proved to be contemporary with Shakespea re . Both Sternfeld (1963) and Duffin (2004) suggest a tune cal led "The Sold ier 's Life," a bal lad frequently referred to by playwrights of Shakespea re ' s t ime (Sternfeld, 1963, p. 63). Figure 14 shows a brief excerpt of Duffin's reconstruction (Duffin, 2004, p. 50) of "Canak in Cl ink" ( C D Track 24), set to the "Sold ier 's Life" melody: 80 The Canakin Clink-Soldier's Life Melody G D s J ip r r p And let me the can a kin clink, clink, And let me the can a kin clink: G D G D G m m m p - p sol dier's a man; A life's but a span; Why then let a sol dier drink. Figure 14. The Canak in Cl ink - Soldier 's Life Me lody Duffin points out that the line "a sol ider 's a man / a life's but a span " may have been part of a lost s tanza of the original Soldier's Life song (p. 50). A l l of the traditional sett ings are in 6/8, 6/4, or 3/4, so my own setting in 4/4 is a slight departure from the traditional vers ions of the song , but the 4/4 time signature better accommodated the jazz /k lezmer style that I was aiming for in this setting. Dramatic Function Moore observes that drinking songs frequently appear in Shakespea re ' s plays as a " foreshadowing of peril" (Moore, 1916, p. 85). Indeed, of all the drinking songs in Shakespea re ' s p lays, only those of Falstaff and Si r Toby are free from impending disaster (though Falstaff does eventual ly meet his end in the off-stage deathbed scene of Henry V [2.3]). Never the less, the Canak in Cl ink pub song a lso serves a practical dramatic purpose: the actual stage t ime of the drinking ep isode in Othello is short, and C a s s i o must become drunk quickly; therefore, by employing a song , the necessary bawdy atmosphere is conjured and stage time is suspended , making C a s s i o ' s instant drunkenness plausible to the aud ience. In Shakespea re ' s plays, mus ic is frequently 81 employed for the purpose of suspend ing or stretching stage t ime, such as in As You Like It, when the Duke hears Or lando 's story of how he c a m e to be in the forest of A rden during Am iens ' performance of "Blow Blow Thou Winter Wind . " Moreover , the aud ience members themselves might well be imbibing during the drinking scene , as "one penny would get you into the yard where you could stand for the two or three hours with the crowd, milling about, buying app les , oranges, nuts, and bottled ale . . . " (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 185). O n e can imagine that at the mere mention of drinking, many aud ience members would have heartily raised their own bottles and joined in with the on-stage carous ing. In addit ion, the song al lows lago to d isguise his true nature from C a s s i o . A s Sternfeld (1963) puts it,". . . by pretending to be full of song , as good-natured and kindly people were supposed to be, "honest" lago d isarms any susp ic ion C a s s i o my have harboured" (p. 145). By singing, lago is able to cover up the fact that he is not drinking as much as the others. Long (1971) points out that S h a k e s p e a r e uses C a s s i o ' s commentary on the quality of the mus ic to show the aud ience the deterioration of his judgement, stating "when at the end of the second song C a s s i o judges it 'a more exquisite song than the other', we may be sure that his critical facult ies are considerably less keen than before" (p. 151). A l l of the aforement ioned techniques relate to preserving the theatrical i l lusion for v iewers, al lowing them to accept C a s s i o ' s rapid intoxication and the e a s e with which the lieutenant is lured to his doom. Without the two pub songs ("And Let M e T h e Canak in Cl ink," fol lowed by "King S tephen W a s A Worthy Peer") , the s c e n e would fall flat. 82 Performance and Instrumentation: Tone and Mood Of all the songs I comment on in this chapter, this one was the eas iest to write, and definitely the most fun to record - though it a lso turned into an incredibly complex multitrack recording sess ion . For this song, I utilized the full resources of my recording studio. B e c a u s e the lyric w a s so slight, and the accompany ing melody a fairly straightforward drinking ditty, I found mysel f delving deeper into the s c e n e to realize the dramatic situation and make each of the three principal characters come alive for the listener, through the use of varying vo ices and sound effects. I w a s aided by the talent of A n g u s Macdona ld , an exceptional ly gifted actor and voice-over artist who has worked on numerous local film and television productions. A n g u s w a s able to provide different vo ices for lago, C a s i o , and Montano - something I never could have done if I performed the song myself. I wrote my version of "And Let M e the Canak in Cl ink" in about half an hour, but it took me severa l days to record it. After recording the bas ic piano part and singing the song , I felt that something w a s miss ing. Al l of the song texts in Shakespea re ' s plays are tied to locality (often used to set the scene and suggest a particular environment, t ime, or place), and a drinking song that takes p lace in a tavern s e e m e d to require something that made the location real for the listener. In a sense , these background no ises that formed the amb iance of a pub were part of the instrumentation. I began sifting through sound effects l ibraries looking for a pub environs. Whi le the addit ion of the sound effects such as an out-of-tune piano, crowd noise, cl inking g lasses and breaking d ishes he lped, I real ized that what I really wanted to do with this song w a s take the next step: rather than writing a song and having it performed in isolation, I wanted to make it part of the dramat ic fabric and have it sung by the characters. I knew I w a s not a good enough 83 thespian to accompl ish such a task myself, so I enl isted the aid of a professional actor. W h e n I e lected to intersperse snatches of d ia logue from Ac t Two, S c e n e Three, during the song to include C a s i o and Montano, I did not anticipate the task I had set for myself. I real ized that to record d ia logue from e a c h of the three characters - C a s i o , lago, and Montano - for a three minute song , my actor and I would have to c o m e up with a character descript ion for e a c h of them. O n e could not simply sit down and read the lines - each had to have a distinctive vo ice, personality, and back story to make him convincing, even as comed ic car icatures in our Kurt We i l -esque tavern/cabaret scenar io . Ultimately, our performance may have been too comedic , but e a c h character c o m e s across distinctly: lago as a low-class ruffian and bully; C a s s i o as a r id icu lousfpp (certainly, the e lement of the ridiculous is assoc ia ted with C a s s i o , though he does redeem himself at the play's end); and Montano as a snivell ing bureaucrat ic official. A l l in all, "And Let M e the Canak in Cl ink" w a s an excel lent exper ience in exploring character izat ion in relation to song . Concluding Thoughts on Composing Song Settings Contemplat ing my exper iences of researching and recording var ious Shakespea re songs led me back to the primary quest ion of this thesis: Wha t are the possibi l i t ies for a pedagogy of teaching Shakespea re through song? In the ensuing chapter, I focus on aspec ts of the songwrit ing p rocess that were particularly va luable for enhanc ing my understanding of the plays, and for linking these moments of p rocess to the general outcomes of the high schoo l Engl ish curr iculum. In addit ion, I address those concepts that might take students beyond the curr iculum, or encourage them to reinterpret the existing curr iculum in new ways . Whi le many moments of the p rocess 84 were interesting, I feel that most of my songwrit ing activities could be represented in four main a reas : 1) Mus i c and Memory ; 2) Context and Synthes is ; 3) Multimodality; and 4) Tone and Mood . CHAPTER 4. TEACHING SHAKESPEARE THROUGH SONG T h o s e that do teach young babes , Do it with gentle means and easy tasks. - D e s d e m o n a to lago (Othello 4.2.113-114) In the preceding chapter, I related my approach to S h a k e s p e a r e through song , as well as s o m e of the concepts and issues raised during the creative process , including memory, context, authority, interpretation, mood, and tone. In this chapter, I descr ibe a potential instructional method for teaching S h a k e s p e a r e through song , reflect on my teaching practice and c lass room exper iences using this instructional method with an Engl ish 10 c lass , and highlight those e lements that would benefit other educators who may be contemplat ing using song in teaching Shakespea re . I a lso attempt to answer the quest ions I originally posed at the beginning of this thesis (refer to page 3). A l though my primary purpose is reflection, throughout this chapter I try to use a language with which my teaching co l leagues would be familiar, in terms of instructional goals , learning objectives, outcomes, and evaluat ion. I have made a consc ious cho ice to adhere to the existing British Co lumb ia Ministry curr iculum as a standard, though I recognize that it is but one possib le approach. Th is is done out of the desire to appea l to a broader audience, not only of scholars , but of fel low British Co lumb ia (BC) teachers, who must work and teach within an existing framework. Dav is (2000) notes, 85 Formal curr icula that are structured around these assumpt ions of accumulat ion and linearity are tied to popular concept ions of ' lessons ' and ' lesson p l a n n i n g ' . . . ' learning o b j e c t i v e s ' . . . Teach ing and planning for teaching are, in this f rame, truly conce ived as compl icated (that is, mechanical ) p rocesses . (Davis, S u m a r a , & Luce-Kap ler , 2000, p. 58) My desire here is not to reduce the teaching of Shakespea re to a mechan ica l p rocess , but to approach it within the existing structure and reinterpret the curr iculum in new ways . A s well , I w ish to demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of teaching S h a k e s p e a r e through song . To this end , the chapter conc ludes with a summary of my own thoughts and implications for future S h a k e s p e a r e curr icula. Developing an Instructional Methodology: General Goals In designing my method for teaching S h a k e s p e a r e through song , the first step w a s to formulate s o m e genera l instructional goals before moving on to speci f ic learning objectives and outcomes related to the existing B C curr iculum. The first group of goals dealt with accommodat ing var ious skill levels and providing background and context for the play. I a lso had bas ic skil ls and material for the students to master so that they could have more t ime for critical thinking. I regard many of the artistic cho ices students make while engaged in the creat ive p rocess as examp les of critical thinking. In addition to the practical goa ls above, I had metacognitive goals as wel l . Metagcogni t ion refers to learners' awareness of their own knowledge and of the cognit ive p rocesses they use to construct knowledge. W h e n students reflect on their p rocess and the reasons for their dec is ion-making, much as I did in the previous chapter, they are engaging in metacognit ion. My two main goa ls in this a rea were as fol lows: • to emphas i ze p rocess and critical thinking by giving students opportunit ies to revisit the texts and to cons ider how they arrived at their understandings 86 • to facilitate synthesiz ing activities by helping students: a) make connect ions between the var ious e lements of Shakespea re ' s poetry, and b) understand how those e lements combine to make a creative work. Regard ing the first of these metacognit ive goals , I knew that the activity would only be success fu l if it had a component that encouraged the students continually to critique, revise, and perfect their work. T h e Engl ish and Mus i c Instructional Resou rce P a c k a g e (IRP) lists the ability to revise and critique as an important learning objective, stating that students should be able to "revise and edit their communicat ions to improve content, organizat ion, and effect to suit speci f ic aud iences" (Engl ish IRP , p. 68). Th is ou tcome is echoed in the M u s i c IRP, which states that students should "demonstrate an ability to critique the work of self and others" (Music IRP, p. 46). In writing the song sett ings, students would have multiple opportunit ies to delve into the text to cons ider their own approaches, as I did in compos ing my Shakespea rean songs . They would have to make critical cho ices , edit their own work, deve lop their own criteria for what constitutes a "good" composi t ion, and compare var ious vers ions of the s a m e song by other composers , a s well as compare sett ings of their own des ign . I felt that computers would be an ideal vehic le for encouraging revision and analys is . A s Hammett (2002) points out, " technologies . . . can be used to juxtapose texts to express particular meanings or to open pedagogica l possibi l i t ies for critical quest ioning" (p. 143). In other words, technology can be utilized for more than its own sake ; personal response and engagement with the text can be deve loped through the use of technology that encourages students to "make connect ions between the ideas . . . presented in literary and m a s s media works and their own exper iences" (Engl ish 11/12 IRP, p. A-5) . 87 In relation to the second metacognit ive goa l - synthesis - I wanted students to be able to appreciate var ious aspec ts of Shakespea re ' s poetry. E z r a Pound descr ibed three e lements of poetry: "melopoeia" (music, sound and rhythm), logopoeia (logic or intellectual content), and phanopoe ia (imagery as related to memory and imagination) (Luce-Kapler & Sandhu , 2002, p. 71). In particular, I wanted to focus on the phanopoe ia and melopoe ia of Shakespea re ' s poetry because , in my exper ience, these e lements are often neglected in c lass rooms in favor of concentrat ion on the logos of the poem. A s Luce-Kap le r points out "what is cons idered less often is the power of images to evoke our imaginat ions and memor ies. . ." (Luce-Kapler & S a n d h u , p. 72). My intent w a s to have students consider how melopoeia , logopoeia, and phanopoe ia come together to make a creative work. Th is goal draws on that outl ined in the Mus i c IRP, which suggests that students should "analyze how the e lements of express ion are combined to ach ieve speci f ic effects" (p. 40). Goals for Evaluation The last group of goa ls I dev ised were concerned with documentat ion and evaluat ion. The two main goals in this a rea were: • to supply effective evaluat ion by designing a suitable means of evaluat ion for both p rocess and product and providing opportunit ies for self-evaluat ion . to avoid the pitfalls of complicity in regards to document ing the creative p rocess . With respect to the second goal , I w ished to document the creative process , but not to affect or stunt the p rocess by making students overly se l f -consc ious. Supply ing an effective means of evaluat ion thus meant not only evaluat ing the end-product, but a lso evaluat ing the journey students took to get there. A s wel l , I felt that s o m e component of self-evaluation ought to be present that involved students in setting their 88 own criteria for what would constitute a worthy composi t ion, as well as in deciding whether or not they ach ieved their own standard. Intrinsically related to the evaluat ive p rocess w a s documentat ion, because students needed to be able to look back at their p rocess and see its evolution. Learning Objectives and Outcomes After consider ing my own genera l instructional, skil l-related and metacognit ive goals , I referred to the Engl ish 8-10 Instructional Resou rce P a c k a g e (1996), to get a c learer s e n s e of the Ministry guidel ines, learning object ives, and outcomes. I utilized the B C Ministry of Educat ion 's G rade 10 prescr ibed learning outcomes for Engl ish Language Arts. A s wel l , I consul ted the Mus i c and Techno logy Integrated Resou rce P a c k a g e s . A list of the learning objectives that were most relevant to this enterprise is included in Append ix A . The Ministry's genera l learning object ives that were most interesting involved students developing their exper ience with electronic med ia , developing and utilizing e lements of creative express ion , revising and exploring a p rocess rather than generat ing a product, working towards a col lective goa l , and synthesiz ing the e lements of form and express ion to represent their interpretation of a text. Of course, I a lso had speci f ic learning objectives in mind, based on my songwrit ing exper iences detai led in Chapter 3. T h e s e are outl ined in Append ix B (Unit P lan Learning Object ives). With my general instructional goals art iculated, and my learning objectives refined, in light of the Ministry's learning ou tcomes and my initial teaching exper iences, I began to search for an activity that would promote these outcomes. Designing Activities: Garage Band Shakesongs With the re lease of the G a r a g e B a n d software appl icat ion by App le in 2004, I finally had a tool that would help me teach Shakespea rean song the way I wanted to. The connotat ions of the software's title are c lear to anyone with a rock mus ic background: Garage Band al lows individuals to do what they may have done in the garage as a teenager - make music , undisturbed by unappreciat ive others - s o it s e e m e d a natural fit for my secondary students. The program came free and pre- loaded with App le Macin tosh computers, and a reasonable number of these were at the schoo l where I taught, s o student a c c e s s would not be a problem. Perus ing the company 's educat ional W e b site, I saw a lesson plan entitled Garage Band Poetry. The idea was s imple enough: students would compose their own poems and set them to mus ic using the Garage Band software. I immediately cons idered applying this technique to Shakespea rean songs . Initially, that was the extent of my idea, but the more I investigated, the more I became conv inced that this could be a full-f ledged mult imedia exper ience, with students adding stills and/or moving images to their S h a k e s o n g s and, most importantly, creat ing multiple vers ions of the s a m e song . A s Nei l P o s t m a n (1993) wrote, "Every technology is both a burden and a b less ing; not either-or, but this-and that" (p. 5); therefore, a teacher 's decis ion to utilize a new p iece of technology in the c lassroom should be based on whether or not the perceived benefits outweigh the deficits (p. 9). In other words, "when we admit a new technology to the culture, we must do so with our eyes wide open" (Postman, p. 7). Examin ing my instructional goa ls and learning objectives, I cons idered how I would address them with this new activity. The software al lowed students to overdub limitless tracks of audio, combining vo ices, instruments, and percuss ion a s they chose . A s wel l , the learning curve w a s 90 relatively gradual - the interface w a s not compl icated to master. Bes t of al l , students had a library of mus ic loops from which to choose , including pre-sampled snatches of guitar, percuss ion, and other sounds that students could arrange and layer. A l l of these aspec ts suited my goal of accommodat ing varying skil l levels and al lowing students to "develop imaginative or creative responses to share their ideas" (Engl ish IRP, p. 60). S ince this w a s a first attempt, no mode ls of student-produced S h a k e s o n g s were avai lable; however, examples of other student works had been created with the program, from "composer raps" (raps about the l ives of famous composers) , to other poetry projects. The potential existed to take an existing model by a famous composer , or myself, and "sample" it into the program as part of the new performance. By beginning with a variety of smal l projects to famil iarize students with the software and s o m e simple ass ignments , I hoped that they could build conf idence in their own creative abilities without feeling overwhelmed. The computer offered the potential for students to revise their work and edit it; therefore, the focus was on p rocess rather than performance. I bel ieved that electronic media would al low students to try different approaches to the s a m e line of text without erasing previous attempts, making them more willing to engage in a variety of interpretations and to "consider more than one interpretation of different communicat ions" (Engl ish IRP, p. 60). If textual variations arose, such as the d i lemma I encountered when setting Ophel ia 's song , students had an opportunity to explore an alternate version of the song text or to create an alternate musica l setting without dismantl ing their first attempt. O n e resource that w a s extremely useful in exploring textual var iances was Michae l Best 's Internet S h a k e s p e a r e Edit ions (Best, 2005). The site publ ishes high quality texts and mult imedia materials of re levance to S h a k e s p e a r e 91 studies, and presents multiple quarto and folio vers ions for compar ison. A l so , the possibil i ty ex is ted of building a component into the ass ignment that would ask for multiple vers ions or "remixes" of the s a m e S h a k e s o n g . Accordingly , I could ask the students for severa l mixes of "Under the Greenwood Tree" that var ied in tone and mood . Further, because students could save their music , they cou ld work on composi t ions over severa l per iods rather than having to recreate them from scratch every c lass , encouraging them to "revise and edit their communicat ion to improve content" ( IRP, p. 68). Bes t of al l , s tudents could save multiple vers ions of the song in var ious s tages of development, to show the nature of the process . Aga in , my plan w a s to have the students focus on process rather than product. T h e deficits of using the software that were anticipated were a s fol lows. First, the novelty factor, while excit ing, had to be channeled effectively. Another issue that could be construed as a benefit or a deficit, depending on one 's perspect ive, w a s the e lement of cho ice : students now had the ability to make multiple versions/interpretations, but such cho ice a lso could prevent them from making tough artistic dec is ions and committ ing themse lves to a particular approach or vis ion for their work. In my exper ience, students somet imes "hedged their bets" by producing two vers ions of a work, only to d iscover that neither interpretation w a s understood by the aud ience in the way anticipated (Wimsatt & Beards ley, 1946). Garage Band Shakesongs The unit that I finally des igned took approximately three weeks and involved many aspec ts of Shakespea rean song , from historical perspect ives, to the composit ion process . Al l of the ass ignments were cri terion-referenced and students were given an opportunity to self-evaluate. For an outline of the Unit P lan , a s well as Evaluat ion 92 Rubr ics and Standards, s e e Append i ces B and C . I used the G a r a g e Band S h a k e s o n g s Unit with a G rade 10 Engl ish c lass that cons is ted of a mixed population of male and female students with a wide range of abilit ies. The c lass a lso contained a s izab le portion of Engl ish as a second language ( E S L ) students. Al l of the students were unfamiliar with Shakespea re ; in fact, in most c a s e s , students were encounter ing his work for the first t ime. C l a s s e s were 75 minutes in length. The students were broken up into groups of 3, as we had a c lass of 27 and only 9 computers. W e had been working on the play As You Like It for two weeks , and students were now at a point where they knew the bas ic plot of the play and the major characters. I dec ided to use the songs from As You Like It as a gateway to exploring the themes, characters, and sett ings of the play. In the course of teaching the Ga rage Band S h a k e s o n g s Unit, I found that many of the s a m e issues I encountered a s a songwriter were a lso of interest to the students, and these b e c a m e key topics for questioning and debate as they progressed with their own composi t ions. In the ensuing sect ion, I detail s o m e of the lessons that provided intriguing topics for further study. I wish to emphas ize , however, that this is not an exper imental study. Wha t fol lows is a reflection on my own teaching pract ices - pract ices which extended out of research and musica l exploration of text undertaken in the context of my own composi t ion process. Classroom Highlights Effect of Instrumentation on Mood and Tone Instrumentation, at its core, involves the relationship between musica l timbre -the distinct quality of a musica l sound - and its ability to evoke emot ion. Gabr ie lsson and Lindstrom (2001) suggest a scientif ic explanat ion: tones with many harmonics or 93 partials may evoke anger, fear, activity, or surpr ise, while tones with few partials may suggest boredom, happiness, or s a d n e s s (p. 241). The precise cause of the relationship between timbre and emotional response remains unknown, but it is nevertheless c lear that the assoc ia t ions are related to the l istener's own internal b iases and cultural background. For example , when Hindustani mus ic w a s judged by Weste rn ears , l isteners assoc ia ted stringed instruments with feel ings of anger (Balkwill & Thompson , 1999); in compar ison, Western l isteners perceived the violin (as utilized in much Western art music) to express s a d n e s s (Behrens & G r e e n , 1993). Whi le none of the aforement ioned studies are conclus ive, my own students became interested in instrumentation and its emot ional effects early on in our unit. The purpose of the first part of the G a r a g e Band S h a k e s o n g Unit was to get students making mus ic and feel ing comfortable with the software. I began by having the students input existing songs and melodies into the program. A s a prerequisite, students were famil iar ized with how to read mus ic notation in treble clef and how to identify the notes on a piano keyboard (Garage Band 's interface is a virtual piano keyboard that students "play" with a mouse) . Students were given a d iagram of the p iano keyboard to label and keep a s a reference. Originally, I had intended to give the c lass an El izabethan tune to input into G a r a g e Band as their trial run, but instead opted for something s imple and familiar: "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star." The chi ldren's song proved to be a good conf idence builder for the students. I had anticipated that learning the software, combined with the difficulty of interpreting mus ic notation and locating it on a piano keyboard would take at least two c lass sess ions , but by the end of the first c lass most of the groups had f inished inputting "Twinkle Twinkle" and were asking me for other mus ic to input (the chorus of "Twinkle Twinkle" filled the room). Their enthus iasm 94 for this activity s e e m e d boundless. They a lso began to play their songs with different instrument sounds , suggest ing that they were ready to cons ider the effect of instrumentation in their musica l arrangements. I then gave them a cho ice between two El izabethan tunes: "Greens leeves" and "Heart 's E a s e . " I had avoided these tunes in the initial lesson because they were longer, more compl icated, and less familiar. I p layed recordings of both songs done with period instruments, as well as an El izabethan dance tune, "Green Garters," performed by the Deller Consor t . Most of the students opted for "Greens leeves" because they had heard it previously and therefore knew the rhythm. (Indeed, "Greens leeves" remains the most popular song of the El izabethan period surviving to the present day. Shakespea re ment ions it twice in T h e Merry Wives of Windsor, in Ac t Two, S c e n e O n e and Ac t F ive, S c e n e Five.) The use of the "Heart 's E a s e " and "Greens leeves" melod ies proved to be an excel lent segue into a d iscuss ion of E l izabethan instrumentation, including period instruments such as the cittern, lute, recorder, virginal and viol, a s well a s the concept of the "broken" consort. From the outset, it w a s fascinat ing that the students wanted to recreate the instrumentation of the period rather than simply inputting the melody into their computer and have it play back with a gener ic midi p iano sound. They recognized that instrumentation played a key role in the mood and atmosphere of dramatic music. The students' des i re to be authentic was s o impress ive that I went back to one of my own songs and re-thought the instrumentation. The result w a s not merely a new arrangement of my exist ing setting of Oberon 's song from A Midsummer Night's Dream, but an entirely different mus ica l setting, replete with electronic reproductions of recorder, harp, viols and harpsichord (CD Track 25). Th is second setting of the song 95 was different from the first attempt, which had been accompan ied solely by piano (CD Track 29). Undoubtedly, the new setting was no less authentic, in terms of genuine period instrumentation, but had a stronger musica l rationale. Now, the harp and harpsichord were used to represent the fairy world, while the recorder, viols, and piano represented human ex is tence. A s wel l , the addit ion of instrumentation permitted a reconsider ing of the voca l performance - vo ices, after all, were instruments too - and I reass igned much of the song text to other characters bes ides Oberon , including Titania and her retinue of Fair ies. Add ing characters, in turn, affected the music; I dec ided to introduce a stately, s low-moving melodic line to represent Oberon and Ti tania 's command ing status, while the Fair ies received a more fluid, fast-moving line to suggest their ethereal nature. S u c h cho ices were, of course, arbitrary, but consistent, and gave the song more cohes ion . The listener can respond well to this, much as a viewer might subconsc ious ly respond to a cho ice of color s c h e m e in the art direction of a film. By the middle of the c lass period, most of the groups had f inished inputting "Greens leeves" and used var ious instruments to convey their ideas and moods . In many c a s e s , the students set up binary opposit ions, where one assoc iat ion of a sound depended on a direct contrast with its opposite. For example , one setting of "Under the Greenwood Tree" used electric guitars to represent the urban world and acoust ic guitar sounds to represent the rural landscape. Another group took a character approach, using a fiddle sound to represent the rustic characters and happy nob lemen, and a solitary flute to represent Jaques , whom they perceived as a lonely, isolated individual. A s with my own instrumentation, these were arbitrary cho ices based on the students' own cultural b iases and exper ience, but they had a logic that w a s undeniable to the 96 intended aud ience of their peers. I had not anticipated that the students would accompl ish their orchestrat ions so quickly, s o I expanded the parameters of the ass ignment by encouraging e a c h group to produce an alternate arrangement of their song utilizing different instrumentation. The alternate arrangements a lso offered the students an opportunity to explore the mus ic loops (digitally samp led mus ica l motifs and rhythm patterns) of Ga rage B a n d , expanding their son ic possibi l i t ies. Logopoeia, Phanopoeia, and Melopoeia J a n e Hirshfield (1997) reminds us that poetry can express the inexpressible, in which the "conceptual mind and the inexpressible p resence of things become one" (p. 32). Teache rs often teach character, setting, and theme a s if these were concrete e lements to be found, rather than textual construct ions that result from interaction between factors, and which may be interpreted and rediscovered on every new reading of the text. S o n g s , because of their coupl ing of text with music , al low students to see how the melopoe ia (rhythm and sound) of a text combine with its phanopoe ia (imagery related to imagination) and logopoeia (intellectual content), to create the subs tance of character, theme, and setting (which includes locality and time). Mus i c makes visible those contextual aspec ts that are largely hidden from students - t ime, rhythm/metre, form, and tone - thus allowing them to deal with abstract concepts in a more concrete fashion. For this lesson, the c lass w a s introduced to the texts of two songs from As You Like It, "Under the Greenwood T ree" and "B low B low Thou Winter W ind . " W e read through the s c e n e s in which both songs were presented (Act Two, S c e n e Five and Ac t Two, S c e n e Six , respectively), d iscuss ing at length the character of J a q u e s , who plays a prominent role in both s c e n e s and articulates severa l of the main ideas of the play. A t this point, I dec ided to play recordings of the songs . I began with my own sett ings of "Under the Greenwood Tree" and "B low B low Thou Winter W i n d " ( C D Tracks 6 and 14), fol lowed by other historical adaptat ions, including the T h o m a s Arne version of "Under the Greenwood Tree" (1740), and Roger Quilter's "B low Blow" O p u s 6, No . 3 (1905) (Track 26). T h e immediate result w a s that the song text w a s highlighted for the students - they began to talk in their groups about the song as a distinct entity, rather than as simply more text to be ana lyzed . I bel ieve that this recognition of the song text as a distinct entity is the result of a response to musica l form; specif ical ly, the song form, which is smal l and compact enough to be recognized by students without them becoming overwhelmed. Th is is strictly my own hypothesis; studies in musica l form indicate that g lobal mus ica l structure is a much less influential aspect of mus ica l express ion in compar ison to e lements such a s tempo or pitch (Konecni & Karno, 1994). Never the less, I bel ieve the consequence of perceiving the song text a s an integral yet separa te part of the s c e n e motivated the students to revisit the surrounding text and ask more quest ions about the dramatic function of the song in the play. The students a lso became more consc ious of the e lement of t ime and the ability of songs to stretch or condense t ime for the aud ience. Mus ic , after all, is a t ime-based art, as John C a g e pointed out so eloquently in his 4 '33" (1952). (In this famous avant-garde p iece, composer John C a g e sits at a piano with a stopwatch for 4 minutes and 33 seconds of s i lence. Of course, the p iece is not really silent; C a g e plays with the audience/performer relationship by making the aud ience aware of themse lves and the ambient no ises of the performance hall.) There was recognit ion on the part of the students that musica l t ime w a s somehow different from the hours, minutes, and seconds of Paci f ic Standard T ime, because musica l t ime had the unique property of 98 being able to speed up stage time, s low it down, or even make t ime s e e m to stand still. Another benefit of the students hearing the song text as mus ic w a s the way in which this presentation contributed to their understanding of locality. Both "Under the Greenwood Tree" and "B low Blow Thou Winter W ind " local ize differing aspec ts of the Forest of A rden in As You Like it. The students began to use more speci f ic words like utopia and paradise to descr ibe the settings, and they s e e m e d to recognize the locality as another character in the play For example , s o m e of the students listed compar isons between the harshness of winter in the Forest of A rden , depicted in "B low Blow," and the more pastoral setting of "Under the Greenwood Tree," recogniz ing the contrast between the two songs . In terms of character, Jaques is usually a s s e s s e d in terms of his intellectual contributions to the play, but in the song "Under the Greenwood Tree" his ironical third verse reveals a s much about his character as his phi losophical musings. (I will return to this thought in this chapter 's concluding sect ion on tone and mood.) T h e m e is a lways difficult to teach, but the students could connect with the character of J a q u e s through the songs, identifying many thematic ideas in his words and attitudes that they felt were mirrored in the song texts. A l l in all, I felt that the introduction of the musica l sett ings w a s a posit ive step that made the dramat ic function of the song texts more tangible for the students, much as see ing a live performance of a S h a k e s p e a r e play g ives students a perception different from reading the text. Key, Rhythm, Tempo, and Text Underlay: Mood and Tone The activities d i scussed previously were largely devoted to encouraging students to cons ider poss ib le dramat ic functions of the text relating to the literary e lements of character, theme, and sett ing. I next wanted to concentrate more fully on mus ica l 99 aspec ts by having students cons ider and develop criteria for what they cons idered a "good" composi t ion or musica l setting of a Shakespea rean song text, and having them consider more fully the e lements of express ion relating to mood and tone. I began by defining s o m e musica l terms for the students, including key, rhythm, tempo (speed), and text underlay. I then played my own setting of "Under the Greenwood Tree" ( C D Track 6), set in G major, fol lowed by composer Wi l l iam Wal ton 's version of the s a m e song (CD Track 9) set in G Minor, asking students to pay c lose attention to the musica l e lements. T h e c lass was particularly fascinated with the notion of mode as it affected the mood/atmosphere of a song . Mos t agreed that the Wal ton setting of the song made it s e e m much more somber in tone, though the text was identical. A s another example , I p layed my own version of "Blow B low Thou Winter W ind " (CD Track 14) set in G Minor, fol lowed by composer Roger Quil ter 's vers ion ( C D Track 26) of the s a m e song O p u s 6 No. 3 (performed by W e l s h baritone Bryn Terfel on the a lbum Silent Noon). O n c e aga in , students general ly found my own vers ion to be more melancholy than Quil ter 's, which alternates between var ious keys (technically, in C Minor but it general ly stays in the relative major key [Eb] throughout.) I emphas ized to the students that notions of associat ing particular keys with a mood or state of mind were largely condi t ioned, and that in other cultures, these distinctions might not apply. Certainly, much more can be sa id on the notion of key, but as an initial introduction to the subject, I d id not want to confuse students by introducing too many except ions to the traditional convent ions of Western European music. Th is would certainly be worthwhile to explore further in future c l asses . Other important musica l e lements that students felt affected their interpretation of a song text were rhythm and tempo (speed of the music). Whi le these are actually two 100 separate e lements , most students did not make a distinction between the two. T h e general consensus , as ment ioned earlier, was that my vers ion of "Blow Blow" w a s more somber than the Quilter setting, not only due to key, but a lso partly due to its s lower tempo and fluid rhythm of undulating arpeggios in the accompaniment . Interestingly, scholars (Hevner 1937; Jusl in 1997; Schere r & Osh insky 1977) cons ider tempo one of the most important factors influencing emotional express ion in music. Jus l in 's (1997) summary of studies on tempo suggests that fast tempos are usual ly assoc ia ted by l isteners with excitement, activity, joy, or anger, while s low tempos tend to suggest serenity, dignity, sadness , boredom, or even disgust (p. 239). Of course, tempo, like many other aspec ts of music , is relative to what is going on around it. For example , a passage of mus ic in 4/4 t ime at 120 beats per minute with only one pitch per bar would not s e e m terribly fast, while the s a m e passage , p layed with 16 pi tches/notes per bar (as in s o m e electronic and minimalist music), would s e e m incredibly rapid. Tempo , then, is contextual and largely a matter of percept ion. Play ing the songs opened up d iscuss ion about musica l interpretation of the text that w a s not anticipated and , for a change, the c lass w a s ask ing me quest ions instead of v ice versa . For example , my dec is ion to set the third s tanza of "Under the Greenwood Tree" w a s quest ioned by the students, who noticed its absence in the A rne vers ion. I expla ined that these l ines were ass igned to Jaques and s o m e quest ion existed as to whether they were spoken or sung. W e a lso d i scussed the difference in tone between the initial two s tanzas and the third, which w a s now more evident as a result of my musica l setting. Similarly, in "B low B low Thou Winter Wind , " the irony of the lyrics was more apparent in a musica l vers ion. After hearing my fairly straightforward rendition of the song, the students immediately p icked up on the contrast in folk s inger J o e Hil ler's 101 very happy major key rendition of the song on his Bard Americana a lbum (1998). S o m e of the students attributed the contrast to a del iberate attempt at irony, while others argued that it w a s simply a bad setting of the song , which paid no attention to the content of the lyric. In this c a s e , mus ic w a s effective in assist ing students with detecting the mood/tone of a text in a way that convent ional analys is could not. In introducing the concept of text underlay, I used my own chorus of "B low B low Thou Winter W ind " as an example . Here, I had set the words "heigh-ho" to three notes and elongated the "heigh" syl lable. Converse ly , Quilter ass igns the s a m e words two pi tches in rapid success ion . The consensus s e e m e d to be that elongating the syl lables made the tune sound more plaintiff than did short rapid-fire syl lables. The students a lso noticed dif ferences in pronunciat ion (Bryn Terfel uses the pronunciat ion for "wind" that w a s common before the Great Vowe l Shift, pronouncing it to rhyme with "kind"), and debated my change from "heigh-ho" to "hi-ho." S o m e of the students liked Terfel 's attempt at restoring the original rhyme, while others found it d isconcert ing. (I speak of the "original" rhyme here in reference to the way in which this vowel sound would have been pronounced prior to the "Great Vowe l Shift," a large-scale modif ication of Engl ish language pronunciation in the 15th and 16th centur ies whereby long vowels shifted upwards [i.e., the short "eh" b e c a m e the long "aye"] [Pyles & A lgeo , 1993]). At this point, I gave the students some time in their groups and asked them to formulate a list of criteria that they felt a 'good' musica l setting of Shakespea rean song text should have. I found their d iscuss ions reflected, in a large degree, the rules of interpretations I had set for myself in compos ing songs : • Key - should be appropriate to the mood of the mus ic and should change with a signif icant change in mood 102 • Melody - should be memorab le and e a s y to hum, but not boring or repetitive • Rhythm - should match the natural rhythm of the text (i.e., if the text s e e m s jumpy or exci table, the rhythm should reflect that feel ing; if the text is reflective, the rhythm should be less frenetic) • T e m p o - in general , faster tempos should be utilized for "happy' songs ; s lower tempos for melancholy songs • Instruments - appropriate instrumentation should be used to reflect the mood of the song • P i tches - high notes create exci tement and should be used on the most important words • Text Under lay - must be set in such a way that important words are emphas i zed and the voca l line is physical ly comfortable for the s inger The students a lso talked about text underlay. Mos t of the students agreed that underlay w a s important, but could not come up with a set of "rules" to govern it, other than to say that unimportant words should not be al located too many pi tches/notes. S o m e students quest ioned the whole notion of governing art with rules, arguing that any regulations were an infringement on personal response and interpretation. Certainly, these issues (authority, interpretation, rules governing art) were topics I wanted to raise with the students, and I w a s p leased that they brought them into the d iscuss ion , independently. By this point, I felt I had ach ieved my goal of encouraging students to cons ider some of the musica l e lements that affect mood and tone when setting a text to music . 103 Singing Shakespeare: Music and Memory In my exper ience as a mus ic teacher, getting ado lescents to sing in public can be difficult. Part of the student reluctance s e e m s to be perpetuated by the inf luence of the modern m a s s media . Simi lar to the airbrushed images of fashion mode ls and celebrit ies that many teenagers wish to imitate, the sounds of modern mus ic are highly produced, technical ly altered and almost impossib le to recreate in a performing environment outside a recording studio. W h e n students hear their own music a longside the professional creat ions, they often feel se l f -consc ious about their own efforts. Never the less, home recording software like Garage Band has in s o m e s e n s e put mus ic making back in the hands of individuals. The students had already seen that they could construct and record their own musica l arrangements of tunes. The next step w a s to conv ince them that their own singing could and should be a part of this form of mus ic -making. Part of the chal lenge was to get the c lass to differentiate between the public images of particular s ingers, bands, and genres of mus ic and the technical aspect of the actual music-making. W e began our activity by listening to examples of different singing styles - from opera, to pop, to R & B , to heavy metal . W e talked a bit about what all these s ingers shared in c o m m o n ^ - e lements such as phrasing, pronunciat ion, diction, breathing, and interpretation of the lyric. W e a lso d i scussed how the musica l styles differed, in terms of both voca l technique and cultural origins. I wanted to free the students from the notion that one musica l style w a s "superior" to another and to have them develop their own criteria for what constituted "good" s inging. S o m e of the students argued that technical criteria such as singing on pitch and clearly pronouncing the words were stylistic cho ices that s ingers make, while others argued that these were the bas is of good 104 singing, because not being able to understand the words limited their emotional effect, while s inging flat (off pitch, out of tune) in any c i rcumstance w a s distracting to the listener and showed a lack of ability. Of course, in many kinds of art music , singing "off key" would be acceptable, so the exerc ise w a s really about students developing their own criteria and being faithful to those criteria, rather than about determining absolute principles. Next, I divided the students into groups of six students each . Fortunately, I had a few students in this c lass with s o m e piano lessons and mus ic reading ability. (This is not a lways the case , however - in complet ing this exerc ise with other c l asses , I have simply provided each group with a C D of the song in quest ion and encouraged them to learn "by ear." Mus ica l ability is not a pre-requisite for these activities.) In this c a s e , however, I gave students both a C D of the song and a notated sheet music , which the group leader could fol low and use as a teaching a id. T h e song I had chosen for them to learn w a s my own setting of "Under the Greenwood Tree," which they had heard previously. After giving the students about 20 minutes in which to pract ice in smal l groups, I recal led everyone and we did a c l ass run-through of the song , with mysel f accompany ing on the piano. Th is proved to be modest ly success fu l , and we did severa l more run-throughs before breaking. I then asked the students to write a reflection descr ib ing their exper ience of s inging the song in which they listed their criteria for good singing and stated how singing had affected their understanding of the text. A s an unintended consequence of the singing sess ion , students memor ized the text. For many of the students, this proved to be a great conf idence booster, and had other posit ive repercuss ions as wel l , which I will d i scuss shortly. 105 Writing The Shakesongs The aforement ioned activities could be as far as a teacher wants to go with a c lass , in terms of Shakespea rean song , particularly with the severe t ime constraints of many high schoo l Engl ish programs. Never the less, I wanted to take the concept to its logical conc lus ion, and have students write song sett ings of their own. Until this point, the students had largely been listening to the mus ic of others, getting comfortable with making their own music and singing, and learning how to use the G a r a g e Band software. At this juncture, they had the opportunity to put what they had learned to use and to make their own musica l sett ings of a Shakespea rean song . Originally, the students were to work in pairs, but the number of computers did not permit this computer-student ratio, and so they worked in groups of three. In retrospect, three w a s actually a better number - it gave the students more opportunity to bounce ideas off one another and avo ided a creative deadlock if two partners could not agree with e a c h other. It a lso increased the chance that one person would be able and willing to s ing. S inging w a s not a compulsory e lement of the students ' mus ica l setting of the song text, but I encourage it. Students were a lso given an option to use voice-over narration of the text, accompan ied by mus ic in lieu of s inging. The actual song length w a s limited to five minutes. For a copy of the original ass ignment sheet, s e e Append ix B. Many of the s tuden tswere already famil iar with v ideo editing software such as i-Mov ie , as well a s digital photo programs like i-Photo, which I hoped to integrate into the ass ignment after the initial composi t ional p rocess was complete. T h e students spent a total of three c lass periods developing their music, during which t ime I superv ised and gave feedback on their works- in-progress. Mos t of my feedback revolved around trying to get the students to capital ize, a s much as possib le, on any imagery in the song texts, 106 feel ing that this would help them when it c a m e to adding v isuals. I did not insist on any particular musica l style, for example , a restriction to El izabethan style music, nor did I insist on any speci f ic instrumentation (though I made suggest ions based on whatever mus ica l style the students s e e m e d to be pursuing). M y other major concern w a s to remind the students to be faithful to their own criteria for what they cons idered a "worthy" composi t ion. A s soon a s the students' composi t ions were at a stage where their artistic direction was clear, I encouraged one or two members of the group to begin col lecting stills or filming images to accompany the music. Multiple Interpretations: Alternate Versions and Textual Variances O n e of the goals of the G r a d e 11 Engl ish I R P (1996) is for students to "demonstrate a wi l l ingness to take a tentative s tance, tolerate ambiguity, explore multiple perspect ives, and consider more than one interpretation" (p. 2). O n e of the earl iest mean ings of "interpret" is "to expound the meaning o f (Oxford Engl ish Dictionary Onl ine 2005, H 1). Not until the 1800s did the word take on the connotat ion of an individual artistic rendering (i.e., personal interpretation). Chal lenging students to take up the learning outcome iterated in the IRP required finding different sett ings of the song texts that clearly illustrated to the students the breadth of interpretation possib le. Essent ial ly, my v iew of the song texts w a s deconstructive, in accordance with the v iews of phi losophers such as Derr ida, who bel ieved that any truth expressed in a particular language is affected by that language (Bonnycast le, p. 95). A s Leggo (2002) reminds us, "There can be no univocal , authoritative response to a text. There is a lways something more. Deconstruct ion encourages a multiplicity of responses" (Leggo, 2002, p. 170). 107 O n e of my original goa ls had been to have the students produce multiple vers ions of the s a m e song. Initially, I abandoned this goal in the ass ignment parameters, feel ing that we were too pressed for t ime to accommodate it; however, the students spontaneously made their own alternate vers ions of their songs . Work ing in groups may a lso have contributed to their desi re to exp ress different interpretations and points of view. I a lso attribute the alternate vers ions to our previous lessons , in which the students had clearly s e e n that more than one way was poss ib le for setting a S h a k e s p e a r e a n song to music . Another factor may have been the dec is ion to accompany the songs with images; when students began setting images to their music , they recognized that s o m e images were suitable for their mus ic and others were not. Often, the students b e c a m e tied to a particular v isual image or shot and composed the mus ic to suit the image, rather than v ice-versa. In their book Engaging Minds, Dav is , S u m a r a and Luce-Kap le r (2000) point out a similar phenomenon when asking students to write poems based on their own photographs, stating: Wha t students noticed as they created their pictures and text and presented them to c lassmates w a s the strong interconnection between image and word. . . W h e n they cons idered both [words and images] they used v isual and verbal skil ls interacting with e a c h other to gain a fuller understanding of the book. (p. 29) The students took three addit ional per iods to add images to their mus ic and edit those images. In some c a s e s , their alternate vers ions of their composi t ions were completely different arrangements; in other instances, they were rearrangements or remixes of the s a m e material. A s noted earl ier, severa l vers ions exist of a number of Shakespea re plays and much debate has taken p lace about which are "authoritative" - or even whether or not it is poss ib le or desirable to establ ish authoritative texts. T h e activity of compar ing variant 108 texts goes well beyond the G r a d e 10 learning outcomes, relating more c losely to G rade 12 learning outcomes such as "Interpreting and synthesiz ing information from more than one source" and "Interpreting ambiguit ies in written, oral or v isual works . . . " (Engl ish Language Arts IRP, p. 5). Certainly, introducing students to textual variants can be a beneficial exper ience. Luce-Kap le r maintains that "the vital quality of an interpretation is that it enab les one to draw connect ions from one set of exper iences to another" (Davis, Sumara , & Luce-Kap ler , 2000, p. 91). Students undertaking a similar task will have to confront numerous historical musica l adaptat ions of the songs by compose rs of all schoo ls and abilit ies, multiple s tage and sc reen adaptat ions, and varying vers ions of the song texts, all of which provoke conflict and critical dec is ion-making of the highest order. Film and Television: Re-cognizing Shakespeare W h e n I first began teaching S h a k e s p e a r e through song , I avoided film and television interpretations of Shakespea re for fear of compromis ing the originality of my students' work; however, in progressing with the project, I real ized that this w a s inconsistent. Alternate vers ions of song sett ings had informed my own composi t ions: l ikewise, exposure to alternate vers ions could be useful in broadening students' perspect ives. A s Coursen (1997) points out in Teaching Shakespeare with Film & Television, "Students who are shown two or three different vers ions of the s a m e moment in a g iven script can s e e s o m e of the opt ions in that moment and how the dec is ion has been condit ioned by the medium in which the production is occurr ing" (p. 13). In addit ion, like film and television, songs can be used to v iew modern-day i ssues through the lens of Shakespea re ' s work, or to v iew Shakespea re ' s work from a modern 109 perspect ive. F i lms such as 10 Things I Hate About You (Junger, 1999) and Romeo and Juliet (Lurhman, 1996) explore both options, looking backward while imposing modern sensibi l i t ies on Shakespea re ' s work. A s Ar iane Bal izet (2004) expla ins, Th is particular exper ience can be s u m m e d up a s what is termed recognition: in this way, these f i lms [teen oriented S h a k e s p e a r e films] fit a Shakespea rean lens over the modern world depicted on sc reen , offering an understanding of the high schoo l prom through a familiar f ramework of Shakespea re ' s names and themes. . . . The opposi te perspect ive is equal ly important. A film like [Baz Lurhmann's] Romeo & Juliet literally re-cognizes Shakespea re ; that is, it uses a contemporary setting as a means to know aga in the play at the heart of the film. (p. 123) Similarly, in the performance of a song , students have an opportunity to highlight the text in new ways , or to address contemporary i ssues within the framework of the plays. For example , students who produced rap and hip-hop vers ions of the S h a k e s o n g s were able to loop the music , play it backwards, change the speed , and deconstruct the text in numerous ways . Alternately, they were able to use the rap genre in combinat ion with El izabethan Engl ish to address modern concerns . Go ing through this p rocess changed my v iew of Shakespea re : I became much more willing to exper iment with the text and to take chances . After working with the students and see ing the ways in which they freely exper imented with Shakespea re ' s song texts, I c a m e to a new appreciat ion of the value of multiple interpretations. C H A P T E R 5. MOMENTS OF P R O C E S S 110 He hath never fed of the dainties that are bred in a book. He hath not eat paper, a s it were; he hath not drunk ink: his intellect is not replenished. - Love's Labour's Lost (5.1.74) My purpose in researching Shakespea re and song was in part to s e e if mult imodal learning involving mus ic indeed enhances students' engagement with and comprehens ion of Shakespea rean d rama. My original research quest ions, a s outlined in the introduction, were a s fol lows: What is the history of Shakespea re and song? • Wha t quest ions and issues ar ise when one engages in the p rocess of consider ing poss ib le sett ings for Shakespea re ' s song texts? . Wha t are the benefits of teaching Shakespea re to ado lescents focusing on an activity of compos ing sett ings to the song texts? . How did the act of composi t ion change my own approach to and understanding of the p lays? Hav ing addressed all of these quest ions to s o m e extent in the previous sect ions, I now wish to highlight a few key points with respect to the af fordances of teaching and learning Shakespea re through song : 1) mus ic and memory; 2) context and synthesis; 3) imagery; 4) multimodality; 5) tone and mood; and 6) key and mode. Music and Memory Heaven and earth, Must I remember? - Hamlet (1.2.142-43) 111 O n e of the first things I noted in using the S h a k e s o n g method - something that I had not observed in c l asses I taught without using song - was that students unintentionally memor ized the song text. I do not cons ider memorizat ion to be a signif icant accompl ishment in itself, but the subsid iary benefits of memorizat ion -increased ownership of the text, increased student conf idence, and recognit ion of the song text as a distinct entity within the play - have significant implications for teachers. Many teachers seek ways to boost student conf idence and to give them a feeling of ownership of Shakespea re ' s text, and s o m e ass ign memorizat ion activities, such as memoriz ing a sol i loquy or acting out a scene from memory for these purposes. S inging and listening to mus ic is a useful way to approach this activity. T h e link between mus ic and memory has long been of interest to researchers , but exactly how mus ic contributes to memorizat ion is not entirely understood. Bas i c models of memory (which are all s imply metaphorical) divide auditory memory into three areas : echoic, short-term, and long-term (Snyder, 2000). S o u n d is initially p rocessed through echo ic memory, which only lasts about 250 mi l l iseconds before it is forgotten or transferred to short-term memory (Massaro & Loftus, 1996, pp. 73-80). Shor t -Term Memory (STM) can be def ined as what is immediately avai lable to consc ious awareness at any given t ime (Snyder, 2000 , p. 51). T h e number of different e lements that can persist s imultaneously in S T M is, on average, seven (Snyder, p. 54); however, short-term memory can be extended through the use of chunking: that is, consol idat ing previous smal l groups of associat ive patterns into larger e lements (Snyder, p. 54). T h e length of such chunks is typically quite short (3-5 seconds is the average length of most sen tences and phrases) , and therefore limited. Chunks , in turn, can form larger units in memory (Baars , 1988, p. 37). Mus ica l phrases are an example of such hierarchical 112 chunking, where numerous previous patterns are combined to form a larger unit. O n c e a pattern exceeds the limits of S T M , it must be handled by long-term memory (LTM). L T M works on some of the s a m e associat ive principles as does chunking; one long-term memory or pattern is typically cued by another memory with which it has formed an associat ion (Snyder, 2000 p. 70). Accord ing to Fuster (1995, p. 11), long-term memor ies may be permanent; when we "forget" an L T M , what we have actually lost is the associat ive connect ion or cue for recall ing the memory. Despi te the fact that we sang s o m e songs only a few t imes in c lass , many students remembered the songs and the accompany ing texts, suggest ing that musica l sett ings of text are extremely effective at producing the kind of associat ive long-term memory cues that result in retention over an extended t ime. More significantly, as a result of the involuntary memorizat ion, the students felt that they had 'mastered ' Shakespea re . W h e n students feel comfortable with the text, they are more willing to engage in other activities a s wel l , such a s acting out s c e n e s from the play, reciting p a s s a g e s in front of the c lass , and engaging in d iscuss ion about the meaning of the text. For s o m e of the students, who were E S L learners, getting up in front of the c lass and saying anything, let a lone reciting Shakespea re , w a s a significant ach ievement and appeared to increase their feel ing of se l f -esteem and their overal l conf idence in their ability to master Engl ish. Never the less, the connect ion of mus ic with memory is not only a technical p rocess , but an emot ional one a s wel l . A t least three schoo ls of thought pertain to mus ic and emot ion: O n e suggests that mus ic inherently produces emot ional responses , while another maintains that mus ic s imply represents emot ions that the l istener imposes on the mus ic (Scherer & Zentner, 2001 , p. 361). A third schoo l suggests that mus ic 113 provides an associat ive link to implicit memories - cognit ive p rocesses not avai lable to consc iousness and not requiring consc ious recollection - priming the memory to recall an emotional response to a previous exper ience (LeDoux, 1996, pp. 200-204). In such c a s e s , mus ic is used to help the brain recall a memory of an emot ion; in other words, a memory of a memory. Of course, students listening to Shakespea rean songs had many opportunit ies to link to implicit emot ional memor ies through the content of the song text, the var ious musica l styles and examp les they were exposed to in c lass , their own cho ices of t imbres and instrumentation in their composi t ions, and later, the accompany ing images they added to their own composi t ions. In addit ion, there were emot ions evoked that I had attempted to convey to the students through the music, as well as emot ional content that the mus ic itself conveyed to the students, apart from anything I had intended, through express ive e lements such as tempo, pitch, and rhythm. Grafted onto these emot ional memor ies were yet two more layers: the emot ional exper ience of sitting in c lass and listening to the music, as well a s later recol lect ions of that exper ience. To s u m up, mus ic s e e m s to provide a powerful cue for resurrecting past emot ional exper iences, and the strong link between memory and emotion suggests that mus ic that is emotional ly stirring will be memorab le as wel l . A s we form a mental representation of a p iece of music , each subsequent performance is informed by the technical nuances and emotional layers of those that p receded it, suggest ing that mus ic is a powerful force for remember ing both the intellectual and emotional content of a text. Dramatic Function, Context, and Synthesis Context is def ined as "the whole structure o f a connected passage regarded in its bearing upon any of the parts that constitute it" (S impson, 2005 , ^ 1). Writ ing 114 Shakespea rean songs proved to be an involved task that highlighted the importance of context. O n e of the first chal lenges w a s to fully understand the lyric of the song in the context of the dramatic scene . The Grade 10 Engl ish Language Arts IRP (1996, p. 58) suggests that students should be able to "interpret the main ideas, events, or themes of a variety of novels, stories, other print material, and electronic media . " In attempting to find the main ideas and themes of the songs , I began to real ize how well integrated the songs were with the dramat ic act ion. For example , out of its dramat ic context, "Under the Greenwood Tree" s e e m s like a s imple, charming Engl ish song ; however, when inserted into the context of Jaques ' phi losophical musings, it takes on the quality of a diatribe against a materialistic urban society that has mistakenly ideal ized the joys of rural life. After hearing the texts in musica l sett ings, the students were better able to relate them to character, locality, t ime, and theme. In part, I think the students' improved understanding of these e lements w a s related to an increased focus on the surrounding contextual material created by the artificial boundar ies imposed by the music . For instance, when first reading through the song texts, students have a hard t ime identifying thematic material in the songs , and few can link the themes they found in the song texts to the overarching themes of As You Like It. After hearing the musica l sett ings of the song texts, the students were making stronger connect ions to thematic e lements . I cannot s a y that the mus ic w a s directly responsib le, especia l ly s ince that the students l istened to a number of different musica l arrangements bes ides my own. T h e increased connect ions may not be attributable to the mus ic itself, but rather to the c lose reading that the mus ic encouraged the students to do. In e s s e n c e , the mus ic highlighted the passage for the students in a way that I could not have done simply by ask ing 115 students to read it carefully. A s wel l , particular l ines in the song texts were highlighted by formal musica l groupings, rhythms, and phrases. The mus ic automatical ly broke up the song texts into smal l digestible and memorab le chunks. Snyder (2000) speaks of the establ ishment of grouping boundar ies in mus ic as closure. C losure is the quality that makes a musica l phrase s e e m self-contained from another, and therefore e a s y to remember (p. 33). Var ious degrees of c losure can exist: the ultimate, of course, is the c losure we exper ience as l isteners, when tonality is resolved and a p iece ends on the tonic (main note) of the key area in which it is written. In music , motion to a harmonic goal that creates such a s e n s e of c losure is cal led a resolution (Aldwell & Schacter , 1989, p. 31). Interestingly, such disparate discipl ines as memory research and musica l theory use similar terms (closure and resolution) to descr ibe the ordering of patterns into cohes ive units. In many c a s e s , the students recognize that a song deve lops a particular literary element, such as a speci f ic character or setting of the play, and are able to g lean a better understanding of that e lement a s a result. It s e e m s logical that once students gain greater insight into one particular character, locality, or theme, they can utilize this knowledge as a spr ingboard into other aspec ts of Shakespea re ' s d rama. The implication for teachers is that the songs are plays within the play that often address s o m e of the broad themes of the d rama. A l s o , focusing on the songs removes the distraction of plot and act ion. Students who are not preoccupied with "what's going on" can devote their attention to other facets of the play that they might otherwise overlook in their desire (or lack of desi re, depending on their comfort level with Shakespea rean language) to follow the story. Further, songs often occur just before key moments in Shakespea re ' s d rama, and can be used to reflect on the action to come, thus 116 introducing students to techniques such a s foreshadowing, and which can encourage them to make predict ions about the text. The notion of using one component of the play as a gateway into the play as a whole is not new - S h a k e s p e a r e instructional methods, including those espoused in the wel l -known Folger Library ser ies (O'Br ien, 1993), routinely concentrate on the teaching of famous speeches , sol i loquies, and p a s s a g e s as a means of introducing students to character izat ion, theme, or setting. In using song , however, teachers have the advantage of present ing something to students that is immediately entertaining and captivating apart from its context in the play, and that a lso presents a fully real ized performance. Play ing a recording of a song in c lass is similar to the effect of showing a film clip of an important scene , but with the advantage that the song is a self-contained unit requiring little immediate explanat ion for enjoyment. The memory or "retention" factor cannot be underest imated either; a memorable song will stay with an individual all day (whether or not it is wanted). A third a rea related to synthesis and context, having a beneficial outcome, was the students' appreciat ion of historical context. Throughout our S h a k e s p e a r e a n song unit, c lass d iscuss ions frequently d ig ressed onto such topics a s types of E l izabethan instruments, historical composers of Shakespea rean song , boy s ingers, musica l requirements for actors, performing condit ions of the public, private and court venues , incidental music, bal lads and drinking songs , and the closing s tage jigs. Invariably, d iscuss ions of mus ic led to d iscuss ions of the society that produced the mus ic , and the result of these d iscuss ions in my c lass room w a s a deepen ing of students' interest in all things El izabethan. The signi f icance for teachers is that songs can provide a s e n s e of history and tradition for students of Shakespea re , just as they do in many other facets of life. S o n g s are artifacts of the society that produces them. In hearing "Shakespea rean " 117 music , students c o m e to real ize that E l izabethan Eng land is not only a fictional world of the plays, but a real society that existed in time. In my exper ience, understanding a song in its dramat ic context encourages students to appreciate the component e lements that c o m e together to make the play. Studying the songs in context a lso encourages them to make connect ions to other songs and s p e e c h e s in the play in quest ion, which, in turn, a l lows them to revise their understanding of the play as a whole. Essent ial ly, this is the p rocess of synthesis the composer must go through when writing mus ic for a production. No matter how artful the songs , the composer must be attentive to the poss ib le interpretations of the production; a lack of understanding of the context may result in a song that is aesthet ical ly p leas ing but d o e s not advance the dramat ic act ion. W h e n writing a song , I often found that I had to envis ion the entire s c e n e and how it might be performed. In lieu of an interpretation of my own, I frequently watched film vers ions to a get a s e n s e of how a scene might be s taged or how the song could operate in context. Of course, television and film product ions each have their distinct limitations; ultimately, I had to m a k e my own cho ices in regards to interpretation. A s C o u r s e n (1997) points out in Teaching Shakespeare with Film and Television: The s p a c e - stage, fi lm, television - def ines what can occur within i t . . . . Students s e e the script through production. They s e e it a s a script, full of options and dec is ions that must be made. The genius of the Shakespea re script is that it w a s des igned to be interpreted - not just presented - by Shakespea re ' s company . . . (pp. 12-13) Research ing historical sett ings of particular song texts frequently a ided in understanding context and providing insight into different approaches and interpretations. W h e n exploring sett ings of Shakespea re ' s song texts, students encountered a multiplicity of interpretations and had to reconci le these with their own 118 personal responses to the song . A s a result, their understanding of how the e lements of the play combined to make a whole was expanded as they struggled to form their own interpretation, in light of an alternate paradigm. Imagery The third area where I observed more student comprehens ion and engagement with the text, compared to c l asses I had taught without the song-composi t ion unit, was in students' ability to engage imagery. After l istening to musica l sett ings, I felt the students in my c lass were able to more clearly articulate descr ipt ions of locality in As You Like It. I attribute the students' increased appreciat ion for the setting to the cho ice of the songs we studied in c lass - "Under the Greenwood Tree" and "Blow Blow Thou Winter W i n d " - both contain a great dea l of imagery del ineating the play's sett ing. It would be intriguing to s e e how students would react to the more lyrical and emot ional songs depicted in other texts we did not look at in c lass , such a s Desdemona ' s Wi l low song . Multimodality O n e aspect of multiliteracy is the variability of meaning-making in different cultural or soc ia l contexts; a second aspect is the ability of technology to facilitate communicat ion and meaning-making in ways that are increasingly multimodal. Today 's students have multiple modes of communicat ion at their d isposa l , including writing, music , images, and speech . With the aid of digital tools, contemporary students can easi ly interface traditional written-linguistic modes with v isual , audio, gestural , and spatial patterns of meaning. In my exper ience, the use of mus ic in teaching S h a k e s p e a r e resulted in more in-depth responses and a broader approach to these 119 responses , wherein students used varying modes of communicat ion (writing, images, music , sound effects, graphics, and speech) to convey their ideas. Indeed, I argue that, by its very nature, a response that util izes a variety of modes of communicat ion is a more in-depth response than one that uses a single medium. Students, in utilizing different modes , may be encouraged to quest ion their assumpt ions about each med ium. A s Gunther K ress (2003) states so eloquently, "the world told is a different world to the world shown" (p. 1). In part, the mult imodal responses of students can be attributed to the parameters of the G a r a g e Band S h a k e s o n g s Unit, which asked students to use music , text, images, s p e e c h , and sound effects in their responses . In most c a s e s , students went beyond the minimum requirements of the ass ignment . I bel ieve that these in-depth, mult imodal responses can be attributed to the nature of mus ic itself. Mus i c is a lways mult idimensional; musica l sound has many parameters - key, pitch, rhythm, vo lume, tempo, loudness - all of which are being p rocessed by the listener s imultaneously, and which may be in var ious s tages of complet ion at any given time (Snyder, 2000, p. 61). In the p rocess of doing their ass ignments , the students could observe first-hand the interplay between var ious modes : the original song text that had inspired their music , the music 's effect on the song text, the addit ional meaning conveyed by images added to the music , and the resulting changes in their mus ica l composi t ions after examin ing differing images, per formances, and instrumentation of the music . A l though ment ioned in the previous sect ion, the role of imagery in the ass ignment cannot be over -emphas ized . Add ing v isual images to the S h a k e s o n g s created another layer of interaction that greatly inf luenced the mus ic produced by the students. A s Kress (2003) notes, 120 ...the screen is now the dominant site of texts; it is the site which shapes the imagination of the current generat ion around communicat ion. The sc reen is the site of the v isual , of the image, (p. 166) Students were inf luenced by images that they had photographed or imported from stock sources and made attempts to represent them using the express ive e lements of music , including tempo, rhythm, and pitch. In many c a s e s , these interactions appeared to change the students' interpretations of a song text. Moreover , this did not s e e m to be a one-way interaction. Mus i c is well documented as having the ability to conjure v isual images in the minds of the l istener apart from any textual or programmatic assoc iat ions, a feature that is greatly exploited in mus ic therapy (Bunt & Pavl icev ic , 2001 , p. 185). In a type of therapy known as Gu ided Imagery in Mus i c (GIM), the mus ic used is se lected on the bas is of its potential to evoke these kinds of reactions. A s with all musica l express ion, however, a one-to-one cor respondence between musica l e lements and images does not take p lace, as Bunt (2000) explains: Th is [imagery] does not happen in any simplist ic one-to-one symbol ic or causa l cor respondence between one musica l gesture and the creation of an image but in an on-going organic and interactive way . . . is a s if the client is exper iencing the mus ic at different levels from the sur face to the deep structural, reaching into the mus ic to find the level that matches and resonates with the image, (p. 46) The addition of mus ic to the modes of express ion opens up a virtually end less cyc le of interactions in which text containing imagery inf luences musica l composi t ion, which, in turn, inspires new images, which then c a u s e s us to reinterpret the mus ic in light of these images. The addit ion of mus ic to literacy opens up a multitude of possibi l i t ies beyond the mus ic itself; as K ress notes, "music is ana lyzed into this digital code just a s much as image is, or graphic word, or other modes . That offers the potential to real ize meaning in any mode" (Kress, 2003, p. 5). 121 In addit ion to the areas already ment ioned, s o m e tangible ev idence exists for more in-depth and mult imodal responses from the students in my S h a k e s o n g c lasses . A s ment ioned earlier, in the context of my teaching I interpret attempts to go beyond the parameters of an ass ignment as being a more "in-depth" response. W h e n students provided alternate vers ions of their S h a k e s o n g composi t ions for which they had not been asked , I felt they were showing greater motivation. A s wel l , the enthus iasm and depth of their written reflections and documentar ies of their creative p rocess led me to bel ieve that the songs succeeded in engaging the students' interest. Other interesting outcomes of the S h a k e s o n g activity were the S h a k e s o n g composi t ions themselves, which constituted mult imodal responses to the plays. W h e n we began the unit, I w a s not entirely sure students would be able to complete the assignment. I had never asked a c lass to write songs before, and I w a s uncertain they would be able to do so. The final composi t ions demonstrated that students had indeed absorbed enough of the musica l e lements of the song - melody, harmony, and rhythm -to respond effectively. In many c a s e s , the groups also dev ised their own sys tems of mus ic notation. T h e s e ad hoc musica l scores were essent ial ly graphic representat ions of their composi t ions, and another sign that students were no longer thinking purely in the written-linguistic mode. S o m e of the benefits to students of this mult imodal work were apparent in the reflections, sel f-evaluat ions, and documentar ies they produced. In their reflections, many students demonstrated a Level 4 or 5 response (Worsnop, 2002, p. 97), meaning that they integrated their personal feel ings, exper iences, and reflections with their understanding of the text. S o m e of the students were able to make connect ions with other outside texts, and many connected the song texts within the play to each other 122 and to the play as a whole. The responses were also metacognitive in quality, as students frequently examined how they had developed a particular melodic idea or chosen instrumentation for a song. Even some of the lower level responses were surprising, with their epistemological tone. Many of the students, in the process of composing their own songs and creating evaluation criteria, had posed questions such as "How do we know what makes a good song?" or "How can we know if we are reflecting the text honestly?" Some of the students, of course, simply paraphrased the text and could not explain their own composing process. This does not mean that they did not benefit from their musical experiences - many of these students demonstrated great creativity and originality in their compositions and in their use of text and image. They merely had not yet reached the stage of being able to examine their own praxis or of translating those responses into the written-linguistic mode. One way to encourage students to reach this stage would be to promote more written reflection throughout the composing process. Tone and Mood The emphasis of my third research question (refer to page 9) was on the affordances of the activity of composing settings to the song texts. Specifically, did the activity help students comprehend difficult elements of Shakespeare's text? The area in which I noted the most dramatic outcome in comprehension was in the students' understanding of the tone and mood of a song text. In BC, the Grade 10 curriculum states that students should be able to "describe how tone and mood affect the drama of a story, play, or film" (English Language Arts IRP 8-10, 1996, p. 56). In working with music, my students clearly moved beyond the curriculum, discovering for themselves how literary, mood, and tone are created through the compositional process. 123 T o n e is def ined in its original musica l context as "a mus ica l or voca l sound considered with reference to its quality, as acute or grave, sweet or harsh, loud or soft, c lear or dull" (S impson, 2005, H 1) The word tone can a lso be defined as "a sound of definite pitch and character, produced by regular vibration of a sounding body; a musica l note" (S impson, U 2). In the 17th century, tone began to appear in non-musica l capaci t ies, being appl ied to the inflection of the human vo ice, regional accents , and voca l express ion . The term mood first appears as a technical term in the writings of the Sto ic phi losophers, derived from the Latin modus, meaning measure , manner, or method, and w a s used to refer to categor ies of logical sy l logisms (S impson, 2005, U 4). In music , the term mood w a s used interchangeably with mode to refer to the Greek concept of the seven mus ica l m o d e s (scales). By the 19th century, however, the term mood had become assoc ia ted with heart, feel ing, and tumultuous emotion (S impson, ]| 1). Clear ly, tone and mood were long recognized to begin with technical and intellectual concerns , though resulting in an emot ional reaction. The e lements of musica l express ion that appear to contribute to tone and mood include mode or tonality, pitch, harmony, rhythm, tempo, and timbre. Other lesser e lements include vo lume and dynamics , articulation, and mus ica l form. Of course, v iewing the creat ion of tone and mood a s purely a mechan ica l procedure that uti l izes musica l e lements to evoke emotional responses and drawing a one-to-one correlation between an e lement and an emotion does not account for the interaction between all of these musica l e lements. For instance, the notion of tempo relies on the concept of beat, which is itself an "imaginary" underlying pulse super imposed on the mus ic by the composer . A s Jusl in (2001) states "No factor works in isolation: its effects are dependent on what other factors and levels are present. Mus i c abounds with 124 interactions . . . " (p. 243). Many of the e lements of musica l express ion are not well understood. For example , little research has been done on how the t imbre of different instruments affects emotional response (Jusl in, 2001 , p. 242), yet the students paid a great dea l of attention to this a rea in the instrumentation of their composi t ions. Moreover , as mentioned in Chapter 2, the E l izabethans had an entire sys tem of musica l assoc ia t ions for different instruments, and used such assoc ia t ions to great effect in their theatre music . Clear ly, mus ic facilitates emot ional responses , whether they are the students' own (evoked in conjunction with the stylistic features of the text), elicited by the composer through skil led use of musica l structures, or inherent in the musica l structures themselves. For example , students listening to my setting of "Wil low, Wil low" were able to identify the s a d n e s s and tragic mood of the song text much more easi ly after hearing the music. Furthermore, s o m e students were even able to identify the song a s an example of foreshadowing (predicting Desdemona ' s eventual doom at the hands of Othello) as a result of hearing the musica l setting. Wha t caused this comprehens ion? In part, I bel ieve that a direct emotional response w a s occurr ing to s o m e of the musica l dec is ions I had made when setting the song text: the cho ice of minor key tonality, the harmony/chord patterns, and melodic direction. T h e song 's minor key is an obv ious cue for sadness ; as Gabr ie lssohn and Lindstrom (2001) have shown, minor mode may be assoc ia ted with s a d n e s s from a s young a s 7-8 years of age (p. 239). The downward sweep of the melody a lso suggests melancholy (Gerardi & Ge rken , 1995). T h e song is fairly complex, harmonical ly speak ing , venturing into the major mode in s o m e p a s s a g e s and introducing chromatic chords (chords outside of the traditional tonality). In genera l , complex harmonies are more often assoc ia ted with anger, s a d n e s s , tens ion, and 125 unp leasantness (Gabr ie lsson & Lindstrom, 2001 , p. 241). Never the less, the song is not particularly slow, even though s low tempos are more often assoc ia ted with sadness . Apparent ly, the interaction of the cho ice of mode, harmony, and melodic direction were more important than cho ice of tempo in influencing l isteners' percept ions of s a d n e s s in this case . A s wel l , the mus ic may have highlighted the p a s s a g e so that students paid more attention to the surrounding contextual material, such a s Desdemona ' s d iscuss ion with Emi l ia , which in turn may explain their ability to identify a contextual dev ice like foreshadowing. Another more complex e lement related to mood and tone that w a s initially m issed by the students, was irony. In our first readings, most students did not catch the irony in "Under the Greenwood Tree" or "B low Blow Thou Winter Wind . " Fol lowing their l istening sess ion , the students became aware that the musica l settings somet imes opposed the lyric, making them more aware of ironic e lements in the songs . The clearest example of students discover ing irony was in "Under the Greenwood Tree." After hearing J a q u e s third verse set to music , for example , the c lass recognized it a s a spoof of the earl ier verses , and thus picked up on J a q u e s ' s a r c a s m . O n c e the students recognized that Jaques ' verse w a s not literal, they began re-reading the rest of the song in light of that d iscovery and were more attuned to ironic contrasts. In genera l , I do not bel ieve that mus ic has an ironic tone, but I feel that students recognized the incongruence between the mus ic and J a q u e s ' text in the third verse (in compar ison to the mus ic used in the rest of the song), because of the not iceable change in the key and rhythm of the music. The mode of the mus ic in J a q u e s ' third verse changes from major to minor, and the rhythmic articulations become short and abrupt. A l though minor mode can be used to suggest s a d n e s s , it can a lso be used to suggest playfulness, especia l ly 126 in conjunction with rapid rhythm and staccato (short and detached) articulations. (For an excel lent example of minor tonality used to suggest whimsy and playfulness rather than sadness , s e e Mende lssohn 's Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream [1826].) Students recognized that in this third verse the musica l setting w a s not in keeping with a ser ious song about being under the greenwood tree, and conc luded that they could not take J a q u e s ' words at face value. The contrast between music and text, juxtaposed against the surrounding material, highlighted the contrast between express ion and meaning that is at the heart of irony. Key: Illuminating Tone and Mood A s this thesis dea ls in part with mus ic and its relationship to text, I cannot ignore the importance of key as a significant e lement in il luminating the tone of a text. In compos ing songs , the students found one of their first dec is ions in choos ing a tonality or key area that suited the overall tone and mood of the text as they interpreted it. Interestingly, in music, the terms "pitch" and "tone' are used virtually synonymously ; in music, key is the organizing principle of these pitches and tones. A p iece of mus ic is said to be in a given key when all of its pitches relate to one central governing pitch -the pitch that has the s a m e name as the key a rea - and when the functions of the other pitches derive from how they relate to the central pitch/tone (Aldwell & Schacter , 1989, p. 6). To give a brief and somewhat oversimpli f ied example , a song written in the key of C major der ives all of its pitches from the C major sca le (C ,D , E, F, G , A and B) and all of these other pitches gravitate, or resolve, back to the central pitch of C , somet imes cal led the tonic. Many mus ic ians use the term tonal to descr ibe any type of mus ic organized around a central pitch or tone. In the 20th century, s o m e avant-garde composers (e.g., Schoenberg , W e b e r n , Cage) attempted to subvert the dominance of 127 the major/minor sys tem of tonal music , and Amer i can J a z z certainly pushes the boundar ies and rules of traditional tonality; however, very few types of mus ic can truly be label led atonal (i.e., without a central organizing tone). Most mus ic fol lows s o m e tone-centered organizat ional principles (music that does not, p lays against the aud ience 's expectat ions of form and organization). Certainly, the associat ion of particular modes and sca les with emot ions is an old one: In The Art of Counterpoint, Giosef fo Zarl ino (1558) states that melod ies featuring a major sca le sound happy and those with a minor sca le sound sad (pp. 21-23). Wh i le many music ians today would argue that such assoc ia t ions are arbitrary or culturally created, they are nevertheless influential, and aud iences clearly respond to tonality and the use of var ious modal sca les within a tonal framework. In compos ing my own songs , I utilized the most common Wes te rn musica l sca les - major and minor. In genera l , I reserved major keys for "happy" song texts, and minor keys for conveying s a d , mournful, or myster ious moods. T o expand , songs with more cheerful texts, such a s "Under the Greenwood Tree" and the "Pa lmer 's Sonnet , " were composed in a major mode. S o n g s with a mournful quality, such as "Wil low Wil low" and "A P lague on Y o u r Houses , " were composed in the minor. Never the less, I made except ions to this rule: Ophe l ia 's song , "How Shou ld I Y o u r True Love Know," w a s composed in C major, even though it s e e m s to be quite a sad song . The juxtaposit ion of key and text w a s intended to give the song a poignant quality. Converse ly , the pub song , "And Let M e the Canak in Cl ink," w a s composed in A minor, but it has a jazzy bur lesque feel to it that is anything but sad and is at t imes even comica l . Pe rhaps the most interesting except ion is Oberon 's song , "Now Until the Break Of Day." T h e first version of the song w a s composed in Bb major, and s e e m s to have the tone of a 128 bittersweet lullaby. The second vers ion of the song w a s composed in Bb minor, and has a more magical quality, reflective of the fairy world in A Midsummer Night's Dream. Although it is in a minor key, it s e e m s to be a more cheerful song than the major key vers ion. Does this mean that the assoc ia t ions of major and minor do not apply under all c i rcumstances? A s with other aspec ts of tone and mood, the musical conveyance of tone and mood is largely contextual. Depending on the text, the vocalist, the surrounding material, the character izat ion, the setting, and the individual l istening, a given melody can take on different assoc ia t ions and character ist ics. A t t imes, composers can rely on the cl iche and al low the aud iences ' normal pattern of culturally-produced assoc ia t ions to do the work for them; at other t imes, it becomes necessary to venture further afield and suggest new assoc ia t ions. Of course, a reas of d iscrepancy will a lways be found between what the author or composer intended and what the aud ience perceives. Never the less, such an exerc ise looks at the curr iculum in a new way; students must dea l with tone and mood not merely a s an aud ience responding to the text, but as composers creating the tone and mood themselves . 129 FINAL THOUGHTS No epi logue, I pray you; for your play needs No excuse . - T h e s e u s to Bottom, A Midsummer Night's Dream (5.1.356-57) In the preceding two chapters, I attempted to highlight the most significant i ssues and concepts raised in my c lass room as a result of teaching S h a k e s p e a r e through song , and to theorize them while a lso providing s o m e practical insights into how they may be appl ied to the existing schoo l curr icula. A t this point, I offer s o m e final thoughts on the most significant a reas as they relate to my original thesis quest ions. The history of song in Shakespea re ' s d ramas involves the contribution of numerous anonymous writers, composers , and actors, all of whom have enr iched a repertoire of Shakespea rean music through a cumulat ive p rocess of musica l pract ice and performance tradition. Th is long and remarkable history reminds us that Shakespea rean texts are not f ixed, immutable artifacts that may not be quest ioned; rather, these texts exist in variant edit ions and have been subject to interpretation by directors, mus ic ians, editors, and scholars for centuries. T h e range of textual interpretations and adornments avai lable in multiple med ia is an excel lent source for c lass room teachers wishing to tackle quest ions of interpretation, textual var iance, authority, and so on. The composi t ion p rocess raised numerous issues of interest, but the most significant of all w a s mus ic 's ability to evoke emot ion. My understanding of Shakespea re ' s d rama changed during the composi t ion p rocess , in part because I b e c a m e aware of how I w a s attempting to use the materials of my art (music) to elicit emot ion. Further, while I initially perceived myself to be writing original composi t ions, I 130 c a m e to real ize that many of my materials were derivat ives from the repertoire of folk bal lads utilized by El izabethan dramatists, in the s e n s e that I w a s relying on the musica l sys tem, sca les , and modes that I w a s taught in the Weste rn European tradition. Never the less, the p rocess required sophist icated interaction with the song texts and afforded me opportunity to learn much about both the nature of those texts and the ways in which mus ic might be employed as a mode of response to text. From a pedagogica l perspect ive, the benefits of teaching Shakespea re utilizing a musica l methodology were many. S o m e of these included an enr iched understanding of dramatic context, character, and setting, synthesis of the var ious express ive e lements of the text, and retention (in memory) of the text. The activity of having students write their own musica l settings to song texts gave them an opportunity to encounter many of the issues that I had encountered as a composer , which proved valuable for c lassroom d iscuss ion . T h e s e included such topics as authenticity, authority, textual var iance, authorial intention, and what constitutes artistic originality. Tone and mood , and the ability of mus ic to evoke emotion in the listener, a lso proved to be of cons iderab le interest to both my students and myself. The process of writing musica l sett ings to Shakespea rean song texts, teaching through song , and writing this narrative of that p rocess , has been a journey of d iscovery for me as a composer , educator, and student. A s a composer , many of the cho ices I made were the product of my background, cultural condit ioning, and musica l training. Similarly, the genera l l isteners and students who responded to my mus ic p o s s e s s e d their own b iases, preconcept ions, and paradigms that filtered their v iews of the songs I composed . Engaging students in a musica l exploration of Shakespea re is clearly an 131 invaluable exerc ise that can open up new avenues of d iscuss ion and interpretation, both in the c lass room and in the scholar ly community. A s a writer, I could not help but be astounded at the sheer ubiquity of narrative surrounding Shakespea re and his d ramas. From the narratives of Shakespea re ' s life, t imes, and theatre, to the tales of his fr iends and fellow actors, to the stories of compose rs who have scored his p lays, I have been inundated with a ser ies of over lapping, intertwining narratives, of which my own has now become a part. A s Bar thes points out, narratives exist everywhere in the world under all condit ions (1982, pp. 251-296). Through the last 400 or s o years, Shakespea re ' s plays, which themse lves emerged from the rich narrative of the El izabethan age, have passed through a process of repeated per formances and interpretations and suffered a "sea-change" into something "rich and strange" (The Tempest, 1.2). T h e songs themselves are but a tiny thread of this ongoing narrative, and serve as an excel lent gateway into the works of Shakespeare . 132 R E F E R E N C E S Baars , B. (1988). A cognitive theory of consciousness. N e w York: Cambr idge University P r e s s . Baldick, C . (1990). The Oxford dictionary of literary terms. Oxford: Oxford University P r e s s . Bal izet, A . M . (2004). Teen scenes : Recogn iz ing Shakespea re in teen film. In J . R . Kel ler & L. Stratyner (Eds.) , Almost Shakespeare: Reinventing his works for cinema and television (pp. 122-136). North Caro l ina : McFar land & Company , Publ ishers . Balkwil l , L L , & Thompson , W . F . (1999). A cross-cultural investigation of the percept ion of emotion in music: Psychophys ica l and cultural cues . Music Perception, 17, 4 3 -64. Barthes, R. (1977). The death of the author. In S tephen Heathe, (Ed. & Trans.) , Image-music-text (pp.141-148). N e w York: Hill & W a n g . Barthes, R. (1982). Introduction to the structural analys is of narratives. In S u s a n Sontag (Ed.), A Barthes reader (pp.251 -296). N e w York: Hill & W a n g . Behrens , G .A . , & G r e e n , S . B . (1993). The ability to identify emot ional content of solo improvisat ions performed vocal ly and on three different instruments. Psychology of Music, 21 , 20-33. Best , M . (2003). Internet S h a k e s p e a r e edit ions. Retr ieved Augus t 2 , 2005 , from http :// ise. uvic. ca/Annex/DraftTxt/ index. htm I Bonnycast le , S . (1991). In search of authority. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadv iew P ress . 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Senso ry and perceptual storage. In El izabeth Ligon Bjork and Robert A . Bjork (Eds.) , Memory. S a n Diego: A c a d e m i c P r e s s . Ministry Of Educat ion. (1995). Music 8-10 integrated resource package. Victor ia, B C : Prov ince of British Co lumb ia . Ministry O f Educat ion. (1996). English language arts 8-10 integrated resource package. Victor ia, B C : Prov ince of British Co lumbia . Ministry Of Educat ion. (1996). English language arts 11 &12 integrated resource package. Victor ia, B C : Prov ince of Brit ish Co lumbia . Ministry Of Educat ion. (1999). Composition and technology 11-12 integrated resource package. Retr ieved October 1, 2005, from http: / /www.bced.gov.bc.ca/ i rp/mus1112/apa.htm Moore , J . R . (1916). The function of the songs in Shakespea re ' s P lays . In Shakespeare studies by members of the department of English of the University of Wisconsin (pp.78-102). Mad ison : W iscons in University P r e s s . Murphy A . (2003). Shakespeare in print: A history and chronology of Shakespeare publishing. N e w York: Cambr idge University P r e s s . Naylor, E .W. (1931). Shakespeare and music. Toronto: J . M . Dent & S o n s Ltd. O 'Br ien , P. (Ed.). (1993). Shakespeare set free. New York: Wash ing ton Square P r e s s . Pos tman , N. (1993). Technopoly: The surrender of culture to technology. N e w York: Al fred A . Knopf Inc. Purcel l , H. (1691). Monkey 's dance : T h e fairy queen [Recorded by The Six teen & Ensemb le L 'Armonia e L' lnventione (Symphony of Harmony & Invention), Harry Chr is tophers, conductor]. O n The fairy queen [CD]. London: Co ro Records . (2002). Purcel l , H. (1691). Symphony : The fairy queen [Recorded by The Engl ish Baroque Solo is ts , John Eliot Gardiner , Conductor] . O n The fairy queen [CD]. Hamburg: Polydor International Records . (1982). Py les , T., & A lgeo , J . (1993). The origins and development of the English language, 4th ed. Or lando, F l : Harcourt B race & Company . 137 Quilter, R. (1901). Under the greenwood tree, from 3 S h a k e s p e a r e Songs , Op .6 . Recorded by Bryn Terfel & Ma lco lm Mart ineau]. O n Silent noon [CD]. London: EMI C lass i cs . (2005). Rapport, F., Wainwright, P. , & Elwyn. G (2005). Of the edge lands: Broadening the s c o p e of qualitative methodology. Journal of Medical Ethics, 31, 37-42. Retr ieved February 3, 2006 from http:/ /mh.bmiiournals.eom/cqi/content/ ful l /31/1/37#SEC3 Scherer , K.R. , & Osh inksy , J . S . (1977). C u e utilization in emot ion attribution from auditory stimuli. Motivation and emotion, 1, 331-46. Scherer , K.R. , & Zentner, M.R. (2001). Emot ional effects of music : Product ion rules. In P. Jus l in & J . S loboda (Eds.) , Music and emotion (pp. 361-392). New York: Oxford University P r e s s . Schulter, M. (2006). W h e n did modal mus ic give way to the modern key sys tem? Retr ieved January 26, 2006 from www.medieval .org S e n g , P . J . 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Emot ion and composi t ion In c lass ica l music . In P. Jusl in & J . S loboda (Eds.), Music and emotion (pp. 205-222). N e w York: Oxford University P r e s s . 138 S impson , J . , & Weiner , E . S . C . (Eds.) (1989). Context, n. In The Oxford English dictionary online. Retr ieved September 8, 2005, from http://dictionary.oed.com S impson , J . , & Weiner , E . S . C . (Eds.) (1989). imagery, n. In The Oxford English dictionary online. John S impson (Ed.). Retr ieved July 5, 2005 from http://dictionarv.com S impson , J . , & Weiner , E . S . C . (2002). memory, n. In The Oxford English dictionary online. Retr ieved October 12, 2005, from http://dict ionarv.oed.com S impson , J . , & Weiner , E . S . C . (Eds.) (2004). mode, n. In The Oxford English dictionary online. Retr ieved August 13, 2005 from http://dictionary.oed.com S impson , J . , & Weiner , E . S . C . (Eds.) (2002). mood, n. In The Oxford English dictionary online. 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Retr ieved September 27, 2005, from http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/connotat ions/speva61.htm Spr ingfels, M. (2004). Mus i c in Shakespea re ' s p lays. In The encyclopedia Britannica online. Retr ieved January 8, 2005 from ht tp : / /search.eb.com/shakespeare/ Sternfeld, F .W. (1963). Mus i c in Shakespea rean tragedy. N e w York: Dover Publ icat ions. S tevens , J . (1966). Shakespea re and the mus ic of the El izabethan stage. In P. Hartnoll, (Ed.), Shakespeare in music (pp. 3-48). N e w York: St. Mart in 's P r e s s . 139 Trumbul l , E .W. (2002). The El izabethan theatre. Retr ieved July 25 , 2005, from http:/ /novaonl ine.nv.cc.va.us/el i /spd130et/el izab.htm Wal ton, Wi l l iam, (n.d.). Under the greenwood tree [Recorded by Maco lm Mart ineau & Y v o n n e Kenny] . O n Complete songs: William Walton & Constance Lambert [CD]. E tCetera Records . (1994). Werner , E. (1963). Felix Mendelssohn. N e w York: Free P r e s s . Wi l son , C . (1977). Shakespeare and music. N e w York: D a C a p o P r e s s . Wimsatt , W . K . & Beards ley M . C . (1946). T h e intentional fal lacy. Retr ieved Sep tember 11, 2005, from Easter llinois University W e b Site: http://www.eiu.edu/~literary/2205/inten-fall.htm W o o d , Michae l . (2003). Shakespeare. N e w York : B a s i c Books . Worsnop , C M . (2002). A s s e s s m e n t in med ia educat ion. In Rober ta F. Hammett & Barr ie R . C . Barrel l (Eds.) , Digital expressions: Media literacy & language arts (pp. 87-111). Calgary : Detsel ig Enterpr ises Ltd. Zarl ino, G . (1976J. The art of counterpoint (G.A. Marco & C . Pa l i s ca , Trans.) . N e w York: Norton. (Original work publ ished 1558). 1 4 0 Appendix A - Ministry Learning Objectives and Outcomes The following are a list of relevant object ives from the B C Ministry of Educat ion Integrated Resource P a c k a g e s for the Engl ish Language Arts, Mus ic , and Mus i c Techno logy curr icula. It is expected students will: • Descr ibe how tone and mood affect the drama of a story, play, or film • M a k e general izat ions about key concepts , characters, and themes of written, oral and visual works • Consistent ly cons ider more than one interpretation of the communicat ions that they read, view, and listen to • C o m p a r e the features and relative merits of different communicat ions, including those created by the s a m e author, designer, or director • Deve lop imaginative or creative responses to share their ideas • Ana l yze and a s s e s s the impact of speci f ic techniques and des igns used by the media • U s e a variety of technological functions and computer software to publ ish original work • App ly speci f ic criteria to a s s e s s and revise communicat ions • Rev i se and edit their communicat ions to improve content • Create communicat ions for an increasing range of aud iences and purposes including p leasure and entertainment • Demonstrate their commitment to col lect ive goals 141 • Establ ish and use criteria to evaluate group p rocesses , their own contributions to them, and the results of their work. (Engl ish Language Arts IRP, 1996) The Mus i c curr iculum a lso contained numerous learning outcomes that I felt would be enhanced by teaching Shakespea re through song , many of which were interdisciplinarily related to the Engl ish outcomes, including the fol lowing: • Create , perform, and notate complex rhythms in a variety of metres • Crea te and perform melodic patterns to enhance express ive phrasing • Ana l yze how the e lements of express ion are combined to ach ieve speci f ic effects • Purposeful ly apply a variety of mus ic forms and principles of des ign in composi t ion • Re la te form and principles of des ign in mus ic to those in other arts • Ana l yze how thoughts, images, and feel ings are expressed in mus ic within a variety of historical, cultural, and stylistic contexts (Mus ic 8-10 IRP , 1996) I found s o m e of the most intriguing prescr ibed learning objectives and outcomes in the Composi t ion and Techno logy 11/12 curr iculum. Severa l of the key issues from Chapter 3 such as mood/tone, style/genre, and performance were e n c o m p a s s e d by the Mus i c Techno logy IRP , a s indicated by the fol lowing: • C o m p o s e mus ic that represents a broad range of thoughts, images, and feel ings 142 • C o m p a r e musica l express ion of thoughts, images and feel ings to other forms of express ion • Expla in how mus ic can be used to manipulate thoughts, images, and feel ings • U s e other forms of express ion to represent thoughts, images, and feel ings evoked by their own composi t ions • U s e a variety of mus ic technologies to manipulate sounds in composi t ions • Expla in how performance can alter the effect of a composi t ion • C o m p o s e mus ic incorporating a variety of forms and principles of des ign (Composi t ion and Techno logy IRP, 1996) 143 Appendix B - Unit Plan Outline G a r a g e Band S h a k e s o n g s Unit P l an : F o c u s O n As You Like It O V E R A L L O B J E C T I V E : To increase student comprehens ion of Shakespea re ' s song texts and extend that understanding to the rest of Shakespea re ' s d rama As You Like It. Speci f ic Learning Object ives/Referenced to Ou tcomes : Students will learn to/will be able to: > Develop awareness of the dramatic function of the song texts in Shakespea re ' s plays as they relate to locality, t ime, theme, and character izat ion > Demonstrate/d iscuss the dramatic function of a song in Shakespea re ' s play as it relates to character, locality, t ime, or theme using mus ica l or written express ion > Cons ide r multiple interpretations of a g iven song text in relation to varying personal responses , individual per formances, and textual variat ions • Prov ide different musica l sett ings of the s a m e song text to demonstrate var ious possib le interpretations and personal responses • Rev ise , edit, and critique their own musica l composi t ions in accordance with pre-determined criteria > Crea te an original musical setting of a song text that integrates into the overall dramatic fabric of the play, as a director would do in a professional production • Cons ide r how cho ice of musica l style/genre, form, instrumentation, and text underlay affect their personal response to and interpretation of the song text • Fi lm a v ideo that documents their own artistic p rocess and creative dec is ions • A d d instrumentation to an El izabethan song that reflects the mood/tone of the song text and be able to justify their cho ices of t imbre/instrumentation 144 > C o m p o s e their own musica l setting of a Shakespea re song text based on their personal response to the text and using appropriate style, instrumentation, and text underlay • Establ ish and use criteria to evaluate group p rocesses , their own contributions to them, and the results of their work • Develop their own criteria and standards for their artistic efforts • U s e mus ica l e lements (key, metre, melody, harmony, rhythm) to evoke thoughts, images, feel ings, and mood/tone of the text • C o m p o s e an original musica l setting of a song text and make critical cho ices regarding key, metre, and other e lements of mus ica l express ion > M a k e connect ions between the melopoeia , phanopoe ia and logopoeia of the song text as they combine to make a creative work • Write a reflection that expla ins how the logopoeia, phanopoe ia and melopoeia of a song text combine to make a creative work Outl ine Of L e s s o n P lans L e s s o n 1 - 2 per iods - Introduction to G a r a g e Band So f tware -E l i zabe than mus ic -E l izabethan instrumentation. Lesson 2 - 2 periods - Textual analys is of the song texts; l istening to musica l sett ings of Shakespea re song and compar ing them; developing criteria for what constitutes a "good" composi t ion L e s s o n 3 - 1 period - S inging a S h a k e s p e a r e song ; developing criteria for what constitutes "good" singing; compar ing different singing styles L e s s o n 4 - 3 periods - Compos ing a Shakespea rean song setting - Developing a personal response to the song text; exploring imagery in the 145 song text; understanding the dramat ic function of a g iven song text; using mus ic to heighten the emotional express ion of the text and making cho ices about style, instrumentation, and text underlay. L e s s o n 5 - 2 per iods - Add ing Images to the S h a k e s o n g - Finding or creating appropriate images to enhance the imagery of the song text L e s s o n 6 - 2 Per iods - Document ing the creative p rocess and dec is ions - Reflect ing on how var ious e lements of the poetry combine to make a creative work. Major Ass ignments : • G a r a g e Band A r r a n g e m e n t - Students will use the G a r a g e Band software to arrange an El izabethan tune with appropriate instrumentation /10 • Presentat ion on Text Ana lys is & C r i t e r i a - Students will present a brief analys is of one of the song texts to the c lass . They will compare two vers ions of the s a m e Shakespea rean song and present criteria for what constitutes a "good" composi t ion /20 • A written response to a Shakespea rean song text, outlining its dramatic function and concentrat ing on its connect ions to character, theme, and setting. /20 • Compos ing and Original S o n g S e t t i n g - B a s e d on a personal response to the text and utilizing the previously deve loped criteria, students will compose an original musica l setting of one of Shakespea re ' s song texts from As You Like It. and add appropriate imagery to their vers ion of the song • Documentary Featurette - Students will film a brief v ideo and write a reflection on their creative p rocess , outlining the reasons for their artistic cho ices and explaining their interpretation of the song Evaluat ion: 146 Al l of the ass ignments will be cri ter ion-referenced. The criteria for the song/composi t ion ass ignment will be based on what the students themse lves develop as a c lass . For the final ass ignment , students will a lso have an opportunity to self-evaluate their work. 147 Appendix C - Evaluation Rubrics/Scales In terms of designing a n evaluat ion procedure for the unit, I opted for a division of student self-evaluation and my own evaluat ion rubric, with the criteria based on standards we constructed together as a c lass . Despi te having two modes of evaluat ion at my d isposa l , I did not feel entirely comfortable evaluat ing the students' creative work. I had l istened to count less Shakespea rean song sett ings during the course of my own research, and knew that for every setting that matched a particular criterion or musica l rule, we could find an example that broke it. In the end , the only reliable criterion for judging a song setting s e e m e d to be that the musica l setting was faithful to the composers ' understanding of and personal response to the text. Consequent ly , I used the degree of faithfulness to the composer ' s own response and intentions as my primary benchmark for all the criteria. In addit ion, I opted to offer marks for s o m e of the procedural and presentat ion e lements of the task, such as meeting deadl ines, group cooperat ion, and the care and attention paid to the recording and editing. I a lso awarded addit ional grades separately for the written reflections and self-evaluat ions, which I used to determine how the group had responded to the text. T h e rubric I des igned is based on Worsnop ' s analyt ical sca le (1996). Worsnop uses five categor ies - content, organizat ion, vo ice/aud ience, technical competence, and effective use of media language - on a five-point sca le with one grid devoted to each area . For my more compact vers ion, I compressed the five categor ies onto one grid, opting for a four-point sca le and eliminating the "zero points" window, but added an extra category of my own - personal response to the text. Be low is my evaluat ion rubric for the creative aspect of the project: 148 CRITERIA 4 POINTS 3 POINTS 2 POINTS 1 POINT TOTAL Melody, Chords & Choice of Key, Rhythm, Tempo, Text Underlay & Instrumentation IDEAS/CONTENT Outstanding melody. Choice of Key, Tempo, Rhythm & nstruments. Good melody, choice of key, tempo, rhythm & instruments Fair melody, choice of key, tempo, rhythm, & instruments or not suitable to your response Melody, key, rhythm nstruments poor or not suitable to your vision of the text Singing or Voice-Over, Diction and Pronunciation VOICE/AUDIENCE Excellent singing—pays attention to diction, pronunciation Dreathing text underlay & interpretation Good singing-attention given to diction, breathing, text underlay interpretation Fair singing or voice over— more attention should be given to the previously mentioned elements Poor singing or voice over—lack of care given to one of the elements — breathing etc. Group Effort/Division of Labour and Meeting Deadlines ORGANIZATION Tasks equally divided among group members-All deadlines met on time! Tasks were not shared as equally as they could be or some deadlines missed Tasks not shared equally--several deadlines missed Tasks not shared-one member did all the work! Deadlines missed! Recording & Editing Technical, etc. TECHNICAL C O M P E T E N C E Outstanding care taken with technical aspects of recording-clear, well mixed and no background noise A good recording-care was paid to technical aspects such as mixing and avoiding noise etc. A fair recording-some background noise or mixing problems or poor edits. A total lack of care taken with the recording process-too much noise, poor edits, mixing etc. Interpretation of Imagery and Visual Images EFFECTIVE U S E O F MEDIA L A N G U A G E Music captures visual imagery of the text; excellent use of images Music captures some of the visual imagery; good use of images Not much attention paid to imagery or lack of accompanying visual images No attention paid to the imagery in the song text Interpretation of the Song Text P E R S O N A L R E S P O N S E TO T H E T E X T All the above elements used to capture your interpretation Responses to the text Most elements used to capture your vision of the song text Some elements used to capture your vision of the song text Did not use musical or visual elements to capture your vision of the song From the rubric above, it is no smal l task to evaluate creative work effectively. Moreover, at the high schoo l level, where the teacher is responsib le for encouraging good study habits, some attention must be paid to non-creative e lements, and the 149 limited s p a c e of a grid does not al low a teacher to define the standards in depth, such a s what constitutes "appropriate" instrumentation. Worsnop equates this sca le with a writing rubric, except that it offers a tool for assess ing many kinds of express ion, including v ideo, audio, and photographs (Worsnop, p. 95). Whi le my rubric is certainly not exhaust ive, I am p leased with it in one sense : I know that the students were involved in generat ing the criteria and had a good idea of what was expected of them by the time they received this assessmen t tool. In terms of the students' personal reflections (i.e. their response to the text), I chose to use the following assessmen t sca le , deve loped by Chr is Worsnop (Worsnop, p. 97), with s o m e slight modif ications of my own: A s s e s s m e n t S c a l e For Persona l R e s p o n s e To A Text Level 5 The student integrates personal feel ings, exper iences, hopes , fears, and beliefs with the text. The personal response is rooted in the text and c lear understanding of the whole text, and makes connect ions to other texts. Level 4 The student connects personal feel ings, exper iences, hopes, fears or beliefs with the text. The personal response refers to the text and conveys a s e n s e of understanding of the text. Leve l 3 The student explores personal feel ings, exper iences, hopes, fears and beliefs, but makes a superf icial connect ion to the text. Level 2 150 The student retells or paraphrases the text or identifies dev ices in isolation, making only superf icial reference to personal exper ience or feel ings O R The student writes about personal feel ings without connect ing them to the text. Level 1 The student 's response shows little or no interaction with the text O R The student 's response is incomprehensib le. Aga in , I el iminated the "zero" option and simplif ied s o m e of the expectat ions. In addit ion, I used a slight variation of the above sca le in a rubric form to mark the "making o f documentar ies the students made about their S h a k e s o n g Projects. Document ing the P rocess I wanted to document the creative p rocess of the students, but did not want the act of document ing to color that p rocess or intrude upon it. Whi le it is never poss ib le to completely avoid influencing events with documentat ion, I wanted to find a less disruptive method than videotaping the c lass . The solution s e e m e d to be to have the students document themselves. I asked them to produce a short three minute documentary that would accompany their S h a k e s o n g , similar to the "extras" one finds on D V D ' s of popular f i lms. The teens definitely enjoyed talking about their own work and why they had made particular cho ices in regards to instrumentation, s inging, musica l style, text underlay, tempo, key, and s o on . S o m e of the groups were organized enough to document their routines in-progress, while others simply reflected on the p rocess after the fact. Of course, parts of the group's workings were omitted or could not be observed on v ideo; however, much of the 'gap' in my observat ions w a s c losed by having e a c h member of the group submit a written reflection on their work. Between the 151 two literacy modes , I found that I w a s able to get a more detai led account of each group's modus operandi and an understanding of each student 's response to the song text. 


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