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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teaching and learning Shakespeare through song Mikulin, Michael 2006

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TEACHING AND LEARNING S H A K E S P E A R E THROUGH S O N G  by MICHAEL MIKULIN B . M u s . , T h e University of British C o l u m b i a  1996  B. E d . , T h e University of British C o l u m b i a  1997  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (LANGUAGE AND LITERACY EDUCATION)  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A  - April, 2 0 0 6  © M i c h a e l S t e p h e n Mikulin, 2 0 0 6  ABSTRACT Shakespeare's plays are filled with music. Over 70 songs can be found in the Shakespeare canon, and no less than 32 of the plays make reference to music or musical matters in the text itself (Naylor, 1965, p. 3). In addition to songs that advance the action, known as mimetic music, performances of Shakespearean drama often make use of non-mimetic music - that is, the incidental music used at the start and end of the plays to entertain the audience (Duffin, 2004, p.11). While much innovative research has resulted in new and exciting ways to teach Shakespeare (i.e., O'Brien, 1993; Davis & Salomone, 1993; Gibson, 1998), the possibility of exploring musical settings in the context of teaching Shakespeare is often overlooked, possibly due to a lack of accessible information and resources. This thesis explores how understanding of Shakespearean drama might be enriched through attention to the song texts. It is comprised of three main sections: 1) an examination of the history of song in Shakespearean text; 2) a presentation of the author's original arrangements for five song texts accompanied by discussion of how the composition process required sophisticated engagement with the text; and 3) a reflection on the author's experiences inviting Grade 10 English students to compose original settings for Shakespearean songs employing a computer-based music making application. The print manuscript is accompanied by a hypermedia compilation for classroom use that features musical settings (both historical and original), song texts, and practical resources for teachers. Additional materials, including streamed music files of the author's original song settings, are available at www.shakesonqs.com.  iii T a b l e of C o n t e n t s ABSTRACT  ii  LIST O F F I G U R E S  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vi  C H A P T E R 1. I N T R O D U C T I O N  1  Preface Context a n d P u r p o s e C H A P T E R 2. H I S T O R Y O F S O N G IN S H A K E S P E A R E E l i z a b e t h a n S o c i e t a l Attitudes T o w a r d s M u s i c S h a k e s p e a r e ' s Performing V e n u e s a n d M u s i c a l R e s o u r c e s Unusual Performance Practices Shakespeare's Musical Ethos Collaboration U s e of P o p u l a r M u s i c a s S o u r c e Material M u s i c M o v e a b l e a n d Interchangeable S h a k e s p e a r e a n S o n g C o m p o s e r s a n d Extant Settings T h o m a s Morley: C o n t e m p o r a r y S h a k e s p e a r e C o l l a b o r a t o r ? Robert Johnson: S h a k e s p e a r e ' s C o m p o s e r G e n r e s of S o n g - B a l l a d s , T a v e r n S o n g s , a n d A y r e s Tavern Songs Ayres Brief M u s i c a l History - A M i d s u m m e r Night's D r e a m A W o r d A b o u t T e x t u a l V a r i a n c e , Authority a n d Authenticity C H A P T E R 3. W R I T I N G T H E S O N G S  1 2 5 5 8 12 12 12 13 15 16 17 19 21 23 24 25 29 34  Clarification of Important M u s i c a l T e r m s T h e First S o n g - U n d e r T h e G r e e n w o o d T r e e Folk V e r s u s Courtly C o n s i d e r i n g K e y , M e t e r a n d Other Settings Context a n d Dramatic Function A Word About Ducdame (Ducdame) M u s i c a l F o r m a n d Repetition of Text R e v i e w i n g the Earliest Settings a n d C o m p a r i n g T h e S e c o n d S o n g - Blow, B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d Interpreting a n d R e s p o n d i n g to the M o o d of the Lyrics  35 40 41 45 47 50 51 51 53 54  C h o o s i n g a K e y to Reflect M o o d a n d T o n e C h o o s i n g a Meter to Reflect M o o d a n d T o n e S e e n a n d U n s e e n : Dramatic Context Ophelia's Song R e v i e w i n g Historical Settings Interpretation, Context, a n d Dramatic Function T e x t u a l V a r i a n c e in O p h e l i a ' s S o n g  55 57 59 60 61 63 66  iv M u s i c a l F o r m a n d Repetition of Text Performance Decisions D e s d e m o n a ' s S o n g : Willow W i l l o w R e v i e w i n g Historical Settings Interpreting the S o n g T e x t Key, Meter and Musical Form  67 69 70 70 73 74  The Canakin Clink Pub S o n g Drinking S o n g a s G e n r e T e x t a n d Origins of C a n a k i n Clink D r a m a t i c Function P e r f o r m a n c e and Instrumentation: T o n e a n d M o o d C o n c l u d i n g T h o u g h t s o n C o m p o s i n g S o n g Settings  77 77 78 80 82 83  C H A P T E R 4. T E A C H I N G S H A K E S P E A R E T H R O U G H S O N G D e v e l o p i n g a n Instructional Methodology: G e n e r a l G o a l s G o a l s for Evaluation L e a r n i n g Objectives a n d O u t c o m e s D e s i g n i n g Activities: G a r a g e B a n d S h a k e s o n g s Garage Band Shakesongs C l a s s r o o m Highlights Effect of Instrumentation o n M o o d a n d T o n e Logopoeia, Phanopoeia, and Melopoeia K e y , R h y t h m , T e m p o , a n d Text U n d e r l a y : M o o d a n d T o n e Singing Shakespeare: Music and Memory Writing T h e S h a k e s o n g s Multiple Interpretations: Alternate V e r s i o n s a n d Textual V a r i a n c e s Film a n d T e l e v i s i o n : R e - c o g n i z i n g S h a k e s p e a r e C H A P T E R 5. M O M E N T S O F P R O C E S S Music and Memory D r a m a t i c Function, Context, a n d S y n t h e s i s Imagery Multimodality Tone and Mood K e y : Illuminating T o n e a n d M o o d FINAL T H O U G H T S REFERENCES  84 85 87 88 89 91 92 92 96 98 103 105 106 108 110 110 113 118 118 122 126 129 ,.. 132  A p p e n d i x A - Ministry Learning Objectives a n d O u t c o m e s  140  A p p e n d i x B - Unit P l a n Outline  143  A p p e n d i x C - Evaluation R u b r i c s / S c a l e s  147  Note: Additional materials m a y be found online at w w w . s h a k e s o n g s . c o m .  V  LIST O F F I G U R E S Figure 1. It W a s a L o v e r a n d H i s L a s s - by T h o m a s Morley  18  Figure 2. Full F a t h o m Five - by R o b e r t J o h n s o n  20  Figure 3. U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e - Traditional M e l o d y  42  Figure 4. Nuptial H y m n : W e l c o m e B l a c k Night - by J o h n D o w l a n d  44  Figure 5. U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e (Verse) - by M i c h a e l Mikulin  46  Figure 6. U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e (Bridge) - by M i c h a e l Mikulin  49  Figure 7. U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e - S i r E g l a m o r e T u n e  52  Figure 8. B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d - G o d d e s s e s T u n e  55  Figure 9. B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d - L o n g ' s R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  58  Figure 10. B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d (Chorus) - by M i c h a e l Mikulin  59  Figure 11. O p h e l i a ' s S o n g - W a l s i n g h a m M e l o d y  61  Figure 12. O p h e l i a ' s S o n g - Drury L a n e T u n e  63  Figure 13. W i l l o w W i l l o w - L o d g e Lute B o o k M e l o d y  71  Figure 14. T h e C a n a k i n Clink - Soldier's Life M e l o d y  80  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank the following individuals. First, my thanks to Jennie Emery, for lending your remarkable voice to several original Shakesong recordings, especially the chorus of fairies. Second, much appreciation to Mr. Angus Macdonald, for lending your vocal talents to the "Canakin Clink." Third, I wish to thank Ashley Macdonald, for supplying your wonderfully sweet voice to two distressed female leads (Ophelia and Desdemona), even though you were incredibly busy performing The Secret Garden  at  the time. To Scott and Gerina Heath, thank you for assistance in all matters technical and computer related - your advice proved invaluable throughout and I am deeply in your debt. Lastly, a thank you to my parents, for innumerable piano lessons, guitar lessons, and your support throughout the years. In addition, I would like to offer a very special thanks to my professors, Dr. Carl Leggo, Dr. Scott Goble, and Dr. Teresa Dobson, for bringing their own areas of expertise to this document. I especially wish to thank my advisor, Dr. Teresa Dobson, who made this entire project possible and oversaw it from start to finish. Your help, support, dedication, and gently guiding hand kept me going through some difficult times, and your scope and breadth of knowledge of the subject matter kept me constantly striving to do better. I hope the end product has exceeded your expectations. You are a truly gifted teacher and advisor. Many, many Thanks. I couldn't have done it without you.  1  CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Preface Shakespeare's plays are filled with music. Over 70 songs are in the Shakespeare canon, and no less than 32 of the plays make reference to music or musical matters in the text itself (Naylor, 1931, p. 3). In addition to the songs that advance the action, known as mimetic  music,  the non-mimetic  music  - incidental music - is used at the start  and end of the plays to entertain the audience (Duffin, 2004, p. 11). Following the rise of the printing press, printed ballads and songs infiltrated almost every aspect of Elizabethan life, including drama. The age of Shakespeare was a golden age of song. Elizabethan dramatists borrowed much of their music from a common body of folk song, so it is unlikely that Shakespeare wrote his own music, but perhaps no playwright understood the power of music to move an audience better than Shakespeare. The songs in his plays are not merely entertaining diversions; rather, they are used to reinforce thematic ideas, advance plot, foreshadow action, delineate character, localize setting, cover exits and entrances, and depict the passage of time. In Shakespeare's drama, then, music is almost always used for a specific purpose. The Elizabethan audience had a voracious appetite for new productions: it is estimated Shakespeare's acting company performed 5 to 6 plays per week and 20 new plays over the course of a season (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 188). A s a result of the intense demand for new material, and in keeping with the theatrical traditions of the times, music was often moved, changed, or re-used in different plays (Duffin, 2004, p. 13). Judging from the songs appropriated for use in the plays, Shakespeare clearly understood and appreciated music's significance for all social classes, and offered songs in numerous popular genres, from ayres and ballads to bawdy tavern songs.  2 Context and Purpose Many students find early modern English difficult to understand and interpret; consequently, the study of Shakespearean drama presents a challenge to both teachers and students alike. In provinces like British Columbia, with a high population of new immigrants without English as a first language, this problem is compounded because many students are struggling with contemporary English grammatical structures and are doubly challenged by the complexities of early modern English. What methods might teachers use to help students come to appreciate and enjoy early modern texts? While much innovative research has resulted in new and exciting ways to teach Shakespeare (i.e. O'Brien, 1993; Davis & Salomone, 1993; Gibson, 1998), the possibility of exploring musical settings is often overlooked by school teachers, possibly due to a lack of accessible information and resources. A s Duffin (2004) points out, the songs are often neglected in student productions: I attended a student performance of Twelfth Night. The production was spirited and there were many talented players, but as I heard song reference after song reference go by, with either no melody at all or what seemed to me a terrible hodgepodge of arbitrarily chosen tunes, I wondered " Do they know that some of these things are songs rather than just verses?" (p. 40) It is worth considering how the understanding of drama can be enriched by the inclusion of song. This thesis consists of a historical and theoretical discussion of song in Shakespearean drama followed by my personal reflections as a musician and teacher. To consider the possibilities for composing music in the English classroom, I designed a unit in which students considered variant musical settings for particular song texts and then composed settings themselves using Garage Band, a multi-track recording program. The aim of the thesis is threefold: 1) to examine the history of song  3 in Shakespearean text; 2) to discuss how my own knowledge of Shakespeare was expanded in the context of composing original settings for some of the song texts; and 3) to explore the potential for integrating music in the teaching of Shakespeare and outline the learning outcomes that might be achieved with this method. The reflective portions of the thesis draw on narrative research as defined by Connelly and Clandinin (1988). The thesis might be characterized as an arts-based method, in that it emphasizes modes of expression other than the verbal (cf Rapport, Wainwright, & Elwyn, 2005). Ultimately, I hope to provide a media-rich resource for practicing teachers that will promote interdisciplinary instructional approaches that integrate English and Music. The questions with which I began my exploration, and which guided me throughout the writing of my thesis, were these: •  What is the history of Shakespeare and song?  •  What issues arise when one engages in the process of considering possible settings for Shakespeare's song texts?  .  What are the affordances of teaching Shakespeare to adolescents focusing on an activity of composing settings to the song texts?  •  How does my own understanding of Shakespearean drama change as a result of engaging in this activity and reflection? I focused my examination on songs from two plays: As You Like It and A  Midsummer  Night's Dream. Both are widely taught in Grades 9 and 10, and contain  some of Shakespeare's most memorable song texts. A s well, I have composed musical settings for some songs from Romeo  & Juliet, Othello, and Hamlet, which shed light on  different issues raised by Shakespeare's song texts, this thesis is comprised of two components: 1) a print manuscript, and 2) a hypermedia compilation for classroom use that features musical settings (both historical and original), song texts, and practical resources for teachers. In addition to these elements, I have developed a Web site,  4 w w w . s h a k e s o n g s . c o m , that provides additional materials, including descriptions a n d pictures of period instruments, b i o g r a p h i e s o f important S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g c o m p o s e r s , a n d s t r e a m e d m u s i c files of my original s o n g settings.  5  CHAPTER 2. HISTORY OF SONG IN SHAKESPEARE The true concord of well-tuned sounds. -Shakespeare, Sonnet 8 (8.5)  To put the songs in context, I provide in this chapter a general overview of Elizabethan societal attitudes towards music, the musical traditions and sources that Shakespeare may have absorbed, the instrumental resources and performance venues available to him, and his musical ethos as evidenced in the plays. In addition, I profile two composers who were contemporaries of Shakespeare and who may have collaborated with him during his lifetime. (For biographies of other relevant Shakespearean song composers and descriptions of Elizabethan instruments, see the additional materials on the accompanying disc.,) To provide an example of the rich musical history of Shakespeare's dramas, the chapter concludes with a brief musical history of one of the most commonly taught plays, A Midsummer  Night's  Dream.  Elizabethan Societal Attitudes Towards Music The society into which Shakespeare entered as a young playwright in the 1590's was stratified by class, occupation, and family lineage. A s an irony of Shakespeare's profession, he wrote about the lives of Kings and Queens, and no doubt impersonated the upper class as an actor on stage, yet he himself occupied a tenuous social position at best. A s an actor, Shakespeare could be detained as a vagrant without cause and subjected to severe punishment (such as whipping, being branded, or being put in the stocks), if he were not sponsored by a noble family or by the monarchy itself (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 74). A similar attitude was evinced toward musicians; however, composers of music, who, if accomplished, were often held in high esteem. Elizabethan society at the time was a harsh world in which individuals had to show deference to their  6 social betters or risk imprisonment and torture. The monarchy required absolute loyalty of its subjects, and this loyalty included regular observance of the official state religion, Protestant Christianity. Any deviation from the norm could result in accusations of treason, which was punishable by torture, imprisonment, and death. For commoners, one of the few officially sanctioned outlets in this stern social hierarchy was music. Shakespeare's hometown of Stratford-Upon-Avon abounded with all types of folk music, including songs, ballads (story songs), catches or "rounds" and simple part singing. Certainly, Shakespeare must have absorbed the folk music tradition of his home town, for he frequently alluded to ballads and other popular music forms in his plays, and many lyrics from the popular musical literature form the basis of his jokes and puns. At the same time that music served as release from the authoritarian nature of English society, music reinforced the existing social order; indeed, knowledge of music was considered a sign of a proper education as well as an indication of good moral character. A practical acquaintance with music was an essential part of the education of nobility, the higher middle class, and clergy (Naylor, 1931, p. 13). Shakespeare reflects the perceived relationship between music and character in the following passage spoken by Lorenzo to Jessica in Merchant of  Venice:  Here we will sit and let the sounds of music Creep in our ears... There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st But in his motion like an angel sings, Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubins . . . The man that hath no music in himself, Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils, The motions of his spirit are dull as night,  7 And his affections dark as Erebus: Let no such man be trusted. (Merchant  5.1.83-88)  The reference to the "orb" in the night sky, to which "like an angel sings" alludes, is the Elizabethan concept (drawn from Ptolemaic astronomy) that the harmonious movement of planetary bodies produces a heavenly music inaudible to human ears the "music of the spheres." Similarly, the ensuing lines about "treasons, stratagems, and spoils" and "affections dark as Erebus" rely on the Elizabethan concept of the humors or affections - the four fluids of the body thought to determine temperament. It was customary in Elizabethan drama to include at least one song in every play. Even the most profound tragedies included music, usually in the form of military trumpets and drums (Springfels, 2004, p. 1), though Shakespeare broke with this tradition of sparse martial music in Othello and Hamlet. Of the 37 canonical plays of Shakespeare, no less than 32 had interesting references to music and musical matters. A s Naylor explains in Shakespeare  and  Music,  there are . . . over three hundred stage directions which are musical in their nature . . . . The musical references in the text are most commonly found in the comedies . . . while the musical stage directions belong chiefly to the tragedies, and are mostly of a military nature. (Naylor, 1931, pp. 3-4) Music was an integral part of every performance, and Elizabethan actors were all expected to have some knowledge of it. One of Shakespeare's fellow actors, Augustine Phillips, left a will indicating the range of musical skill Elizabethan actors had to possess: "I give to Samuel Gilborne . . . my purple cloak, sword and dagger, and . . . my bass-viol. I give to James Sands . . . a cittern, a bandore, and a lute . . . " (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 73). Clearly, actors were expected to have a strong knowledge of music and  8 the ability to play a diverse range of instruments, in addition to some knowledge of fighting and swordplay. A s actors, they were required to impersonate the nobles and gentry, and a sufficient knowledge of music was part of making a convincing impression. No concrete proof exists as to whether or not Shakespeare was a musician, but the ample musical references in his plays suggest he had a working knowledge and appreciation of music. For example, he mentions the fingering of the recorder in Hamlet (3.2.352-380), and the solfeggio syllables (fa.sol, la, mi, or F G A B) in King Lear (1.2. 141-145). In sonnet 128, he also refers to the keys of the virginal, Queen Elizabeth's favorite instrument (Naylor, 1931, p. 52).  Shakespeare's Performing Venues and Musical Resources The musical resources available to Shakespeare would have varied greatly, depending on his performing situation. Essentially, three types of theatre venues existed in his day - public or "commercial theatres," private theatres, and court productions. Nine public playhouses were built in and around London between 1576 and 1642. The three most important - the Globe, the Fortune, and The Swan, were all outside the city limits, and, consequently, outside the jurisdiction of civic authorities (Trumbull, 2002, p. 2). These theatres were all "outdoor" style theatres with an open yard for the lower classes or "groundlings." A s Greenblatt (2004) explains, One penny would get you into the yard where you could stand for two or three hours with the crowd . . . Another penny would get you out of the rain and onto a seat in one of the covered galleries that ringed the playhouse; a third penny would get you a cushioned seat in one of the 'gentlemen's rooms' on the lower level of the galleries . . . where one not only sees everything well but can also be seen. (p. 185) Some of these theatres had a music room located over the stage, where musicians could be hidden. Nevertheless, without an orchestra pit (indeed, the concept  9 of an "orchestra" had not yet been invented), most musicians would have appeared on stage as part of the dramatic action. The musical resources of a public playhouse would have been limited by budget constraints, probably to a small ensemble of musicians and a couple of boy singers. The ensembles of Shakespeare's time were known as "consorts," as depicted in the following witty pun from Romeo  and  Juliet  Tybalt: Mercutio, thou consort'st with Romeo. Mercutio: Consort! what, does thou make us minstrels? An thou make minstrels of us, look to hear nothing but discords: Here's my fiddlestick; here's that shall make you dance. Zounds, consort!" (3.1.46-50)  Shakespeare puns on both meanings of "consort," while also providing some phallic imagery that ties in with the swordplay in the ensuing fight scene. A reference is also made to the low caste of the musician at this time. The consorts of Shakespeare's age were generally composed of one family of instruments. Viols were the favored instrument in these consorts, and were sold to music lovers in sets, so that a "chest of viols" usually consisted of six pieces: two treble viols, two tenors, and two basses. The violin, as we know it, was not popular in the Elizabethan period. The golden age of violin making did not begin until nearly 50 years after Shakespeare's death; indeed, it was regarded as a vulgar instrument by the Elizabethans (Elson, 1901, p. 13). If another type of instrument came into the consort, it was called a "broken" consort. The classic consort for theatre music was a broken consort (consort of mixed instruments) comprising lute, pandora or cittern (guitars), treble and bass viols, and flute or recorder (Stevens, 1966, pp. 223-24). Two main classes of musicians were used on stage: royal consorts (musicians employed by nobility) and city consorts or "waits" (musicians employed by the city). A s time  10 progressed, the public and private theatres employed singer-actors more heavily (Stevens, p. 25). The beauty of the broken consort was that it was small enough to accompany a solo voice without drowning it out, but large enough to play music of six parts and be sung and danced to by a group of actors (as in the fairy scenes in A Midsummer Night's Dream). The other type of theatre in Shakespeare's time was the private theatre, which was distinguished from the public by being fully enclosed (i.e., indoors). Typically, these theatres were smaller (one-half to one-quarter the seating capacity of the public theatres) and roofed (Trumbull, 2002, p. 1). The actors could perform in the private theatres during the winter months, when it was too cold to perform outdoors. Many of these theatres, such as the famous Blackfriars, were located in precincts known as liberties. These liberties were the locations of former Catholic monasteries that had enjoyed exemptions from city codes. After the Reformation, the nuns and monks were expelled, but the legal exemptions remained, allowing the actors to flout any attempts by the civic leaders to stop the performance of plays, which the London authorities often viewed as scandalous or dangerous to public decency (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 165). Often, incidental music was played for a whole hour before the play began in such private playhouses, as indicated in the Diary of the Duke of Stettin-Pomerania in 1602: For a whole hour preceding the play one listens to a delightful entertainment on the organs, lutes, pandorins, mandolins, viols, and flutes, as on the present occasion, indeed, when a boy cum voce tremula sang . . . charmingly to the accompaniment of a bass-viol. (qtd. in Hartnoll, 1966, p. 11) In addition to the music that prefaced every drama, non-mimetic music was played at the play's conclusion, called a jig. Such jigs were essentially music and dance entertainments, and not directly related to the plot of the play, even if it was a tragedy.  11 Therefore, it would not be uncommon for the audience to watch Hamlet, King Lear, or Romeo  and Juliet, which end in suffering and death, only to have the actors rise and  perform a lively dance (Duffin, 2004, p. 12). While these mini-masques may seem to break the theatrical illusion for the audience, I would argue that the song and dance acted as a segue back into reality, much as the concluding song of a film does today. The audience rises, stretches, and contemplates what they have just seen, even as they continue to be entertained. A s well, the music, even if it does not directly relate to the plot of the play, comments on the drama by virtue of the catharsis it induces. In the public and private theatres, the instrumental forces available to Shakespeare would have been fairly sparse. Nevertheless, in the two plays produced at court, Twelfth Night and The Tempest, Shakespeare probably had access to court musicians and singers (Springfels, 2004, p. 3). The first recorded production of The Tempest  was at the royal residence of Whitehall in 1611, and the second was for the  wedding festivities of Princess Elizabeth (daughter of James I) in 1613. Similarly, Twelfth Night was performed at Whitehall in 1601 as part of a royal celebration of the twelfth day of Christmas, January 6 (Springfels, 2004, p. 3). Both of these plays contain three times the amount of music present in other plays, indicating that Shakespeare had access to more than the usual resources for these productions. Of course, Shakespeare may also have recognized the inherently musical nature of these two plays, and sought to have them performed in venues where he had the resources to realize them adequately. Both A Midsummer  Night's Dream and The Tempest deal with the dualities  of the everyday world and the world of magic, and music plays an important part in establishing this contrast. Many of the instruments had symbolic significance for Elizabethan listeners, so that when a particular instrument was heard, it immediately  12 conjured a mood for the audience. For example, the oboe was frequently utilized to foreshadow doom or disaster, such as the vision of the eight murdered kings in Macbeth.  Here, as the witches enter and present Macbeth with a vision, he cries "what  noise is this?" (4.1.145) and the stage direction calls for "hautboys" (from the French haut-bois  or "high wood"), which was the medieval word for the predecessor of the  medium oboe, with a tone that was harsher. It is also sometimes spelled "hoboy." In contrast to the malevolent sounds of the hautboy, the lute and the viol were regarded as benevolent, harmonious instruments that eased melancholy (Springfels, pp. 3-4).  Unusual Performance Practices One of the most bizarre practices of the Elizabethan period was to cut a door in the back of a violone (contrabass) and have a small boy stand inside the instrument. At the concert, the contrabass player would render the bass part on his instrument and sing the middle part, while the invisible boy would add a treble/soprano harmony. In effect, audiences heard a trio, but with only one performer in sight (Elson, 1901, p. 27).  Shakespeare's Musical Ethos Collaboration Discussing Shakespeare's musical ethos can be difficult, since we do not know that he actually composed any music himself. Much of the music in his plays was drawn from the popular music of the day - ballads and street songs - or provided by composer collaborators such as Morley and Johnson, whose genres I will discuss later. Collaboration, then as now, was not uncommon. As the chief writer-in-residence for the King's Men after 1603, Shakespeare was responsible for bringing on new playwrights, such as Thomas Middleton, and overseeing other scripts besides his own plays (Wood,  13 2003, pp. 291-292). A third of all shows in the period were joint efforts, and we know that, as Shakespeare got older, he collaborated more frequently, perhaps because of his other business responsibilities, or simply because he did not wish to work as hard. It is not unreasonable to assume, then, that when it came to songs, Shakespeare served in many cases as an overseer rather than writer. Therefore, in discussing Shakespeare's musical "ethos," I can base conclusions only on the evidence in the plays.  Use of Popular Music as Source Material From the music contained in the plays, we can ascertain that Shakespeare was a writer of the people. Nothing in his plays indicates that he was interested in the art music of the period, such as the church polyphony of William Byrd or the madrigals of Thomas Weelkes. The complexity of such music was inappropriate for the resources at his disposal and above the understanding of most of his audience. In many of the plays, Shakespeare (or his composer collaborators) used the popular folk tunes of his childhood referentially. For example, in Hamlet, Ophelia's madness is depicted through her singing song fragments of popular ballads at an inappropriate moment in an audience with the King and Queen. The text of "How Should I Your True Love Know?" stems from the ballad "Walsingham": As you came from Walsingham from that holy land, Met you not with my true love by the way as you came? How should I your true love know, that hath met many a one . . . (Duffin, 200, p. 422)  14 Clearly, the text of "Walsingham" has some similarities to Ophelia's song, as seen in the excerpt below: How should I your true love know From another one? By his cockle hat and staff And his sandal shoon... (Hamlet, 4.5.23-26)  To begin with, the reference to the Holy Land and the idea of a pilgrimage is mirrored in the text of "How Should I Your True Love Know" in the line "by his cockle hat and his staff/And his sandal shoon" (Hamlet 4.5.25-26). Next, an obvious reference is made of the title itself (Duffin, 2004, p. 422). "Walsingham" also seems to have provided some source material for the Palmer's Sonnet in Romeo and  Juliet:  A s I went to Walsingham to the shrine with speed Met I a jolly Palmer In a Pilgrim's weed. Now God save you jolly Palmer Welcome, Lady gay, Oft have I sued to thee for love. Oft have I said you nay. (Duffin, 2004, p. 422)  The banter between the suitor and his lady, as well as the repetition of key words such as "pilgrim," "palmer," and "shrine" indicate that Shakespeare may have been inspired by this material. Additionally, "Walsingham" was sung and performed as part of a stage jig, so Shakespeare may have performed it as part of the opening or closing to one of his plays (Duffin, p. 423).  15 Another example of how popular music was appropriated is the famous ballad "Willow, Willow." Although "Willow, Willow" appears in almost every collection of Shakespeare songs, it is not, strictly speaking, an original Shakespeare song at all, but rather a famous folk ballad of the day. In Othello, Desdemona sings "Willow, Willow" as a precursor to her murder at Othello's hands. A portion of the text is reprinted below: Sing all a green willow must be my garland Let nobody blame him; his scorn I approve, I call'd my love false love, but what said he then? If I court moe [more] women, you'll couch with moe men. (4.3)  Here, the lyric integrity of the original song is destroyed intentionally, to show the feeling of reproach that Desdemona feels after Othello's accusations of infidelity. The "Willow, Willow" love lyric has nothing to do with murder, but its melancholy tone takes on new meaning in the dramatic context Shakespeare has constructed.  Music Moveable and Interchangeable Another important indicator of how Shakespeare and his Elizabethan contemporary playwrights regarded music is that the songs in his plays are moveable and interchangeable (within certain limits). A new song setting could be inserted whenever a play was revived, so that the music would sound fresh and contemporary (Duffin, 2004, p. 13). Furthermore, songs could "migrate" from play to play. For example, the clown Feste sings a song in Act 5.1 of Twelfth Night, entitled "When that I was and a little tiny boy," which reappears in King Lear during Act 3.2, at the moment Lear raves madly during a storm accompanied by the Fool. Although the tragic Fool sings a different stanza, the key line of the song, "For the rain it raineth every day," appears in both plays. In the case of "When that I was and a little tiny boy," the song's  16 bitter lyric, describing the life of an alcoholic, seems to dismiss the resolution of Twelfth Night's romantic plot; in King Lear, the line "the rain it raineth every day" takes on a more tragic tone in light of the dramatic situation. The question remains as to whether Shakespeare viewed music as something purely interchangeable, or whether re-using music served as a kind of literary allusion, connecting the audience to a previous dramatic situation. For instance, what would be the effect on the Lear audience of hearing a song previously sung in a romantic comedy? What is clear is that the recycling of music was a common practice; the tune usually came first, and words were composed (or recomposed) to fit the music as needed.  Shakespearean Song Composers and Extant Settings Composers have long recognized and appreciated the quality of Shakespeare's song texts, and many musical luminaries of subsequent periods considered doing a musical setting of Shakespeare a test of their abilities. Some of the notables to tackle Shakespearean music, or to be influenced by his plays, include: Thomas Arne (sometimes called the "father" of bard song), Thomas Linley, William Boyce, Matthew Locke, Maurice Greene, Henry Purcell (the most famous English composer of all time), William Byrde, Felix Mendelssohn, and Ludwig van Beethoven. Distinguished modern composers who have contributed to the Shakespeare musical cannon include Benjamin Britten, Ralph Vaughan-Williams, Roger Quilter, Peter Warlock, and William Walton. Again, I emphasize that very little of the surviving music from Shakespeare's plays is of the period; those few musical settings that are contemporary with his lifetime may or may not have actually been used in the original productions of the plays. In terms of the songs, only about half a dozen exist in contemporary Elizabethan settings.  17 A s regards to the instrumental/incidental m u s i c , not a single note survives, with the e x c e p t i o n of the W i t c h e s ' D a n c e from Macbeth,  w h i c h w a s c o m p o s e d by another  apprentice author, T h o m a s Middleton ( W o o d , 2 0 0 3 , p. 291). N o n e of the plays' m u s i c a l or v o c a l settings w e r e actually c o m p o s e d by S h a k e s p e a r e himself, but rather by c o m p o s e r s w h o w e r e hired by or a s s o c i a t e d with S h a k e s p e a r e ' s c o m p a n y . M a n y settings w e r e c o m p o s e d after S h a k e s p e a r e ' s death - s o m e for s u b s e q u e n t productions, a n d others a s "stand a l o n e " settings by art m u s i c c o m p o s e r s . T h e s o n g s that are often pointed to a s being p o s s i b l e extant m u s i c a l settings are T h o m a s M o r l e y ' s "It W a s A L o v e r A n d His L a s s " (from As You Like it), a n d R o b e r t J o h n s o n ' s " G e t Y o u H e n c e " (The Winter's  Tale), "Hark Hark T h e Lark" {Cymbeline),  a n d his "Full F a t h o m F i v e " a n d  " W h e r e the B e e S u c k s " (both from The Tempest).  Both Morley a n d J o h n s o n w e r e  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s of S h a k e s p e a r e , a n d are d i s c u s s e d below.  Thomas Morley: Contemporary Shakespeare Collaborator? T h o m a s Morley w a s a g e n t l e m a n of the C h a p e l R o y a l to Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h I, organist of St. P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l , a n d the most f a m o u s c o m p o s e r of s e c u l a r m u s i c in E n g l a n d during his day. It is generally believed that M o r l e y ' s "It W a s A L o v e r A n d His L a s s " w a s written e s p e c i a l l y for As You Like It. That s o m e direct collaboration o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n Morley a n d S h a k e s p e a r e h a s long b e e n s p e c u l a t e d , but never p r o v e n . T h e r e a s o n s for t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s are listed by L o n g (1955, p. 155) a s follows: •  M o r l e y ' s lyrics, found in his First Book of Airs (1600), are virtually the s a m e a s t h o s e of S h a k e s p e a r e .  •  T h e publishing date of M o r l e y ' s s o n g is contemporary with the play's date of creation (circa 1600).  18 •  S h a k e s p e a r e a n d Morley w e r e neighbours, living in the s a m e parish neighbourhood of B i s h o p s g a t e during the period w h e n the play a n d M o r l e y ' s book of s o n g s a p p e a r e d . A c c o r d i n g to Bridge, both Morley a n d S h a k e s p e a r e w e r e a s s e s s e d by the city for t a x e s , w h i c h they took a long time in paying (Bridge, 1 9 2 3 , p. 19). In spite of the e v i d e n c e of a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the two m e n , no c o n c l u s i v e  proof s h o w s that M o r l e y ' s s o n g w a s c o m p o s e d specifically for S h a k e s p e a r e ' s play, that it w a s actually u s e d in a production during S h a k e s p e a r e ' s lifetime, or i n d e e d , that it w a s not simply a popular tune of the d a y borrowed by both c o m p o s e r a n d dramatist alike. N e v e r t h e l e s s , it r e m a i n s a n excellent setting of the text a n d , chronologically s p e a k i n g , the oldest m u s i c a l setting of a s o n g u s e d in a S h a k e s p e a r e play. T h e s o n g survives in both M o r l e y ' s First Book of Airs in the F o l g e r Library a n d in a manuscript c o p y of the v o c a l part in Edinburgh University k n o w n a s the Leyden Manuscript (1639). I h a v e reprinted a brief excerpt b e l o w (Duffin, 2 0 0 4 , p. 222) ( C D T r a c k #1) in m o d e r n notation:  It Was A Lover And His Lass  -rt-fr  irIt  §  1 hey  was  Thomas Morley  P—f a  lo v  U J 1 non - ny  er  p  p  m  and  his  lass,  with  hf  P  m  P  non  ny  non  ~~f  m  P  ?  no,  and  a  hey  i  IS  r  ir  m ~  :  a  hey,  u r  | and  •  J  ny  a  ho,  i° no,  Figure 1. It W a s a L o v e r a n d His L a s s - by T h o m a s Morley  and  ' a  '  19  Robert Johnson: Shakespeare's Composer Another possible extant musical setting is Robert Johnson's version of "Full Fathom Five" from The Tempest. For a number of years some disagreement existed over the date of Johnson's birth, and thus, over his age when he wrote the songs attributed to him. Wilson (1922) asserts that Robert Johnson was born in 1604, and would have been only 12 years old when Shakespeare died in 1616 (p. xi). On the other hand, Wood (2003) maintains that Johnson was 26 when he teamed up with Shakespeare in 1609 (pushing his birth date back to 1583) and that his music may have been utilized in original productions of The Tempest, The Winter's Tale, Cymbeline, Henry VIII, and The Two Noble Kinsmen (p. 315). Robert Johnson was an indentured servant in the household of George Carey, the Lord Chamberlain (as in Lord Chamberlain's Men, Shakespeare's acting company, from 1596 to 1603 [Duffin, 2004, p. 159]), making it possible that he met Shakespeare at that time. Johnson was officially engaged by Shakespeare's company, the King's Men, in 1609, so it is unclear whether his songs were written (as Wood maintains) for original productions of the plays or for revivals of earlier productions done with the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Regardless, Johnson's settings are considered the closest we have to "original" Shakespearean songs (Wilson, p. xi). Although scholars have argued that Johnson was too young to have written the songs ascribed to him, he did come from a considerable musical tradition. His cousin Margaret Johnson married into the famous Italian musical family, the Bassanos. Robert's father, John Johnson, was a famous lutenist, and Robert Johnson himself served as lutenist at court for 30 years, first to King James I and later to Charles I (Macy, 2005, U 1), making it believable that Johnson was a precocious  20 adolescent composer. Johnson belongs to a group of English composers who emerged circa 1609 and developed a declamatory style of song for the stage that was more dramatic (Wood, 2003, p. 315). Johnson stated that he wished to "marry the words and notes well together" (p. 315). To achieve the unity of song and dramatic context he was seeking, he made a habit of working closely alongside the authors of the plays, including Shakespeare. Johnson's music is much different from that of other Elizabethan English composers like John Dowland - the music (Duffin, 2004, p. 157) emphasizes the rhythms and inflections of speech, and Johnson made a real attempt to capture the psychology of the scene in his music (CD Track 2):  Robert Johnson  Full Fathom Five  V  Full 0  pearls  12  In  S  fa-thorn  O ' five  thy Fa  g>  that were his eyes:  to  some  ther  lies,  — -f No thing of him  thing  |»=P= Of his  — bones  V J)»  J*"l  J  l i  are co - ral_raade;  that doth fade,  But doth suf fer a  rich  and strange.  Those  sea  are  9  change  Figure 2. Full Fathom Five - by Robert Johnson  The setting is somewhat sombre in character, but full of dignity. Although the piece may appear to be in the Key of C at first glance, because of the key signature, or in G major, because it is centered on the tone "G", it is actually written in the G mixolydian mode (on the piano, all the white keys from one G to the next). In particular,  21 Johnson makes a special effort to dramatize the "sea-change" by briefly going to a new key area, or mode, at the end of the first phrase. (This is discussed in the next chapter at greater length.) One of the main points of contention surrounding Johnson's authorship is that several of his songs are attributed to Oxford music professor John Wilson, himself a talented composer of Shakespearean songs. Wilson included Johnson's "Full Fathom Five" in his own collection, entitled Cheerful Ayres or Ballads (1660) with an additional two voices composed by himself. Wilson clearly attributes the original melody to Johnson in his Cheerful Ayres, but subsequent collections attribute the song solely to Wilson. Likely, the attribution of the Tempest songs to Wilson is due to the fact that as an Oxford professor, Wilson's name had more commercial value to publishers than did Johnson's during his lifetime (Seng, 1967, p. 271). One final footnote about Johnson's connection to Shakespeare: in an interesting twist, it seems Johnson's kinswoman Margaret Smith was also the mother of Emilia Lanier. Lanier is alleged to be the mysterious "dark lady" of the sonnets (Wood, 2003, p. 315).  Genres of Song - Ballads, Tavern Songs, and Ayres Although he may have occasionally used professional composers, Shakespeare more likely mined the rich tradition of English folk ballad for musical inspiration for his dramas. If the term is used strictly, a ballad is an anonymous folk song that tells a story or tale of events (while a song deals with emotions only, rather like a lyric). Many of the ballads that are still known today have an ancient history - for example, "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" can be traced to the old French tune "Malbrooke" and to yet another melody from the time of the crusades entitled "Mambron" (Elson, 1901, p. 233). More significantly, some English ballads actually present the plots of Shakespeare's plays,  22 lending credence to the question "which came first - the play or the ballad?" (Elson, p. 254). Among the group of "play ballads" are "Gernutus, The Jew of Venice," "King Lear and His Three Daughters," "Pyramus and Thisby," and "Titus Andronicus' Complaint" (Duffin, 2004, p. 21). The dates of composition for these ballads are speculative, making it difficult to prove that they were source materials for Shakespeare's plays. It seems likely that at least some of them existed before Shakespeare wrote his dramas, which means that these ballads may have provided him with partial source materials. The most important aspect about the ballads is their sheer ubiquity. Everyone knew these songs-the slightest reference or allusion to them would have been noted by both nobles and groundlings in the audience. Printed ballads were issued on broadsides  (single  sheets of paper printed on one side). In most cases, the actual music does not appear on the page; rather, directions to sing the song "to the tune o f (or something similar) were provided (Duffin, p. 17). Some ballads were not anonymous folk creations, but were penned by professional ballad writers whose work was commissioned by printers and publishers. John H. Long distinguishes these professionally penned ballads from folk ballads by calling them "urban street songs" (Long, 1955, p. 2). The subject matter of these street songs was usually topical, describing an execution or the capture and confession of a notorious criminal. Some of the street songs were even used for advertising, such as naming the wares of an itinerant vendor. Musically speaking, most street songs were for unaccompanied solo voice, while the folk ballads were often set in 3-part harmony or sung as catches—a  composition similar to a round, in which the  same melody started at different times produces harmony. The familiar nursery rhyme "Three Blind Mice" is a catch (Long, 1955, p. 2). Ballads were also occasionally collected and published in volumes, some of which still survive (Duffin, 2004, p. 21).  23 Because most of the ballad lyrics survive without their intended melodies, anthologists search for the tunes in other types of musical collections - usually as arrangements for solo instruments such as lute, cittern, or harpsichord. Often, such arrangements do not contain the lyrics, so scholars must conjecture about which lyrics correspond to a given melody. Tavern S o n g s  Another form of popular music with which Shakespeare would have been familiar, was the tavern or drinking song. Taverns were the clubs and coffee houses of the time-places where people met and socialized. People could enjoy cakes and ale, gambling, card games, and a meal. The taverns became centers of social interaction as London's churches grew more puritanical. At the Mermaid Tavern, in Bread Street, many poets and dramatists of the day congregated, and possibly, Shakespeare was among them (Elson, 1901, p. 172). The circle of writers gathered there may have included Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Watson, Thomas Lodge, George Peel, and the now-infamous Robert Greene, most notable today for giving Shakespeare his first bad review (Greenblatt, 2004, p. 200). Many taverns and inns were located in Southwark, home of the Globe Theatre. In addition to offering food and drink, some of these taverns offered private rooms (Greenblatt, p. 176). The tavern musicians were regarded as vagabonds and considered to be on a level with professional beggars, as evidenced from the following excerpt from the famous puritan tract Short Apologie Abuse: London is so full of unprofitable pipers and fiddlers, that a man can no sooner enter a tavern, than two or three cast of them hang at his heels, to give him a dance before he depart. (Gosson, 1587, pp. 62-75)  for the School  of  24  This is not to suggest that their music was of low quality: On the contrary, even a simple catch or ballad was usually sung in 3-part harmony. Often, the third part would contain a bawdy reference that would be difficult for the inexperienced listener to hear. When music was asked for, it was generally played in the best room of the tavern, and the musicians could earn up to 20 shillings for a couple of hours work (Naylor, 1931, p. 102). These private rooms usually had names of their own. For example, in Measure Measure  for  (2.1), the clown speaks about the "Bunch of Grapes" - not a tavern, but a  special room within a tavern. Shakespeare certainly enjoyed this lively style of music and the double-entendres that were part and parcel of the texts, as evidenced by his use of this repertoire in his own plays, from Othello to the King Henry cycle. Ayres A third type of song that was less commonly used in the plays was the ayre. Ayres were precursors of what we now term an art song. Like art songs, ayres were written by literate professional composers who normally wrote the melody for a specific lyric and accompaniment (Long, 1955, p. 2). The use of the ayre was largely popularized by the children of the chapels, young musician/singers who made up the acting companies of the earliest private indoor theatres (Long, p. 4). When it came to performance in the public outdoor theatres, however, ayres could pose a problem their performance required trained singers who could not always be drawn from the ranks of the actors. In such cases, boy singers were often inserted into the production as pages or servants who would briefly appear, sing their song, and then depart. In As You Like It, the song "It Was A Lover and His Lass," attributed to composer Thomas  25 Morely, is introduced in this manner: Two pages appear to Touchstone the Clown and Audrey and spontaneously perform for them, as seen below: Audrey: . . . . Here come two of the banished Duke's pages. First Page: Well met, honest gentleman. Touchstone: By my troth, well met. Come, sit, sit, and a song! Second Page: W e are for you. Sit in the middle . . . Song. It was a lover and his lass, With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino, That o'er the green cornfield did pass . . . (5.3.4-16)  The scene concludes with Touchstone giving the boys a poor review, saying "Truly, young gentlemen, though there was no great matter in the'ditty, yet the note was very untuneable" (5.3.33-35). Presumably Touchstone criticizes the pages' performance in an effort to avoid any sort of payment or token for the boys, or perhaps simply as a means of exercising his wit.  Brief Musical History - A Midsummer Night's Dream Attempting to trace the complete musical history of even one Shakespeare play would be a monumental task, as so many composers have attempted settings of his song texts. Nevertheless, to give some idea of the wealth of music generated by Shakespearean drama, here is an abbreviated history of one of his most frequently produced plays, A Midsummer  Night's Dream. The play calls for a great deal of music,  and is quite complex, blending prose, poetry, masque, song, and dance. One of the reasons for this complexity is that Shakespeare had more than the usual resources at his disposal for this production. The play is believed to have been first performed in 1596 for an aristocratic wedding - possibly the marriage of Elizabeth Carey, daughter of  26 Sir George Carey, Lord Chamberlain (Long, 1955, p. 83). A s one of Lord Chamberlain's men, likely Shakespeare and his company contributed to the festivities. Lord Carey was a noted patron of the arts and had a considerable musical establishment in his household, including the famous composer/lutenist John Dowland (Long, p. 83). Notably, many other noble weddings have been considered possibilities by Shakespeare scholars, including the wedding of William Stanley, Earl of Derby (Cuningham, 1905, pp. 24-30), or the double wedding of Lady Somerset to William Petre and Lady Elizabeth to Henry Guildferd in November of 1598 (Long, 1955, p. 102). In addition, the play was revived and played at Court for King James in 1604. Regardless of the exact performance history, Shakespeare clearly had lavish musical resources available for Midsummer  Night's Dream, and his musicians were probably  drawn from the court or the noble household where the play was first performed. The actual song texts contained in the play are as follows: • You Spotted Snakes (sung by the fairy attendants to Titania in a round in Act Two, Scene Two) • The Ousel Cock (sung by Bottom in Act Three, Scene One) • Now, Until the Break of Day (sung by Oberon, Titania, and the Fairies in Act Five, Scene One) While no music survives from the original production of the play, it is possible that John Dowland, the house lutenist and a famous songwriter, composed the Elizabethan version of "You Spotted Snakes." After the English Renaissance, A Midsummer  Night's  Dream was not performed in its entirety again until the 1840s. In 1648, the public theatres in London were closed, and the Commonwealth era remained a largely barren period for Shakespearean drama and any music that might have accompanied the plays  27 in performance. When the theatres finally reopened after the reestablishment of the monarchy, numerous changes were made, including the adoption of the proscenium or "picture frame" stage, the inclusion of female actors, and an increasing emphasis on elaborate sets and spectacle (Cudworth, 1966, p. 52). When A Midsummer Night's Dream was revived, it resurfaced in several textually corrupt versions. The most famous of these 18th century alterations is Henry Purcell's The Fairy Queen, produced at the Dorset Garden Theatre in 1692 (Cudworth, 1966, p. 67). Although the libretto varies markedly from Shakespeare, this semi-opera is considered a Baroque musical masterpiece. Purcell writes in what is called strict canon, a difficult task, as it is the strictest form of contrapuntal imitation (Bridge, 1923, p. 58). The word canon means rule. In a canon, one melodic strand or idea gives the rule to all the others, which at varying intervals of time must imitate it. Strict canon is even more difficult, because the intervals of the imitating version must be exactly the same as the original motif. In other words, to use a literary analogy, no "half rhyme" is possible (CD Track 3, Purcell's Fairy Queen). The semi-opera also contains some very nonShakespearean scenes that were in keeping with 18th century European tastes for exotic and far away lands: in one scene the stage is suddenly illuminated and discloses a Chinese Garden. A man and woman enter and sing a duet, while monkeys come from behind the trees and dance (CD Track 4). The score of The Fairy Queen was lost in 1701 and lay dormant for over 150 years, before being rediscovered in the late 1800s (Bridge, 1923, p. 59). Other productions that altered the text significantly from early print editions are Richard Leveridge's A Comique Masque ofPyramus and Thisbe (1716), Charles Johnson's 1723 production of Love in a Forest (which also included songs from As You  Like It) and an extraordinary distortion of the play entitled, The Fairy Tale, produced by George Coleman and David Garrick and staged at Drury Lane Theatre in 1763 (Cudworth, 1966, p. 67). Much of the music for The Fairy Tale (1763) was by Michael Arne, son of the famous Thomas Arne, one of the first composers of Shakespeare song. Michael Arne was a gifted composer in his own right, but most of his settings had little relation to Shakespeare's own text. Arne's other collaborators included music historian Dr. Charles Burney, who contributed a setting of "The Ousel-Cock," and Jonathan Battishill, who set the "be as thou wast won to be" speech (Cudworth, p. 67). In 1777, The Fairy Tale was revived at the Haymarket with music by Michael Arne, Charles Dibdin, Charles Burney, James Hook, Theodore Smith, and Samuel Arnold (Cudworth p. 69). Arnold also wrote music for his own adaptation of A Midsummer Night's Dream, entitled, The Enchanted Wood, staged in 1792. In many of these productions, not a single line of Shakespeare was set to music; in others, parts of the plot were excised to make room for additional musical numbers. In some versions of the play, Bottom becomes the main character. In 1840, English actress and entrepreneur Lucia Elizabeth Vestris revived the play and staged it at Covent Garden. The Vestris version contained a relatively faithful text, but was padded out enormously with dance, music, and ballet numbers. In addition, Madame Vestris herself took the role of Oberon, and Puck was played by a woman - a tradition that would continue for the next 70 years (Nationmaster, 2005,1J 2). The Vestris production also utilized Felix Mendelssohn's incidental music, which would become standard throughout the rest of the 19th century, and which provided the world with the famous Wedding March (1826).  29 Perhaps the most intriguing modern musical setting of the play is Benjamin Britten's opera, A Midsummer  Night's Dream, recorded in 1966 (CD Track 5). In this  version, the part of Oberon was played by famous countertenor Alfred Deller. (A countertenor is the highest possible male voice, which is a significant departure from the traditional casting of Oberon as a Bass.) Britten uses the modern orchestra to great effect, providing harp glissandos when Oberon says "I Know a band where the wild thyme blows" (1.6) and string slides (also known as portamentos) to depict the swaying branches of the forest. Woodwinds and strings are used to represent the pomp and ceremony of the court, while harpsichord, harps, celesta, and percussion evoke the magic of the fairies. The low strings, brass and bassoon are used to represent comic characters such as Bottom and the rustics. The role of Puck is scored as a spoken part and is played by a young teenage boy, while the fairies' chorus is a boy's choir (HanLeon, n.d., U 2). These are examples of how modern-day instrumentation and scoring can achieve musical effects that were unavailable to Shakespeare. Perhaps most significantly, the Britten opera is relatively faithful to the text (about one-half of it is used). Although it has been abridged and the order rearranged in some parts, the text used is not altered from the Folio version, which puts Britten closer to Shakespeare's contemporary Robert Johnson than to any of the 18th century composers.  A Word About Textual Variance, Authority and Authenticity The publishing history of Shakespeare is long and complex, with many plays existing in multiple forms. Many of Shakespeare's plays were first issued in Quarto form, and then compiled in the First Folio of 1623. (Folio books of the 17th century were volumes achieved by binding large once-folded sheets of hand-made paper, such that each side of the paper, when printed, bore the impression of two book pages; Quartos  30 were smaller volumes achieved by binding twice-folded sheets of paper, such that each side of the paper bore the impression of four book pages.) The First Folio project was initiated by Shakespeare's fellow actors and shareholders in the King's Men, John Heminge and Henry Condell (Murphy, 2003, p. 41). Of the 36 plays presented in the Folio, 18 had never been published before. A s well, the Folio began the time-honored tradition of dividing the plays into histories, comedies, and tragedies, though some of the editors' classifications of certain plays (e.g. Cymbeline  as a tragedy) have since  been overturned. Plays, at times, appear in compacted versions in the Quartos, and in more expansive versions in the Folio (Murphy, 2003, pp. 302-307). For this reason, editors wrongly labeled some of the Quartos as bad or spurious; today, editors prefer to use the terms "long" and "short" to distinguish between versions of the plays (Murphy, p. 25). Even the editors and printers of the First Folio, who had access to prompt books and possibly authorial papers of Shakespeare, consulted the Quartos, and in many cases, reprinted them with minor changes in their stage directions (Murphy, p. 49). Therefore, though the Folio edition of a play is often regarded as the best available source, it is really only one of many possible options. Controversy over conflicting editions of Shakespeare shows no signs of abating. A s Spevack (1996) points out in his somewhat ironical text, The End of Editing Shakespeare: The past 60 years have seen the appearance of editions by Ridley, Kittredge, Neilson & Hill, Alexander, Harrison, Sisson, Munro, Craig, Harbage, Evans, Bevington, three by the Oxford team, as well as Arden 2 and Arden 3, Cambridge 3 and Cambridge 4, Yale 2, Pelican, Penguin, Signet, Bantam, F o l g e r . . . to name just a few among the seventeen columns devoted to editions of Shakespeare . . . (p. 78)  31 Indeed, the arrival of hypertext has in some sense made everyone an editor, as hyper-readers can now pick and choose from a multitude of interpretations, editions, and source materials (Spevak, 1996, p. 79). Authority, then, is a key issue in regards to textual variance. While each edition brings a new perspective to Shakespeare's work, and some editions are more respected in the scholarly community than others, none can truly claim to be more authoritative than others because of conflicting source materials, varying language, ideologies of the editors, and so on. Essentially, "any truth that is couched in a particular language is affected or distorted by that language" (Bonnycastle, 1991, p. 94). A s soon as we admit the existence of alternate versions or interpretations, as we must do with Shakespeare, the text is open to debate and negotiation. A s Murphy asserts, perhaps the best - albeit unsatisfactory - explanation that can be provided for the divergent texts is that they offer up various conceptions of the plays, marked by complex theatrical and extra-theatrical histories and arriving into print by routes which are not amenable to a single explicatory narrative. (2003, p. 30) In terms of Shakespeare and music, the concept of variance takes on an even broader definition. In the last section, I briefly discussed the numerous adaptations of A Midsummer  Night's Dream in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Certainly, the majority  of Restoration productions took great liberties with what would be recognized today as the standard edition or typical versions of the plays. For example, for a production of Macbeth  in the early 1660s, music from Thomas Middleton's The Witch was inserted.  Middleton may have worked as an apprentice playwright to Shakespeare; Middleton's writing style is recognized in Macbeth,  and he appears to have worked as a reviser on  Timon of Athens (Wood, 2003, p. 291). In addition to Middleton's music, extra music for this production of Macbeth  was supplied by composer Matthew Locke, who also  32 provided incidental music for versions of The Tempest staged in 1667 and again in 1674 at Dorset Garden Theatre (Cudworth, 1966, p. 53). (Locke's Macbeth music is sometimes attributed to his friend and protege Henry Purcell.) Similarly, Samuel Pepys, who saw the 1667 version of The Tempest, describes an adaptation in which Miranda acquires a sister, Ariel a wife, and Caliban a female counterpart (Cudworth, p. 53). Overall, the text and music of many Restoration productions tended to be a hodgepodge of various playwrights and composers; the 1667 production of The  Tempest  included textual additions by Dryden, some of the original music by Robert Johnson, as well as new music by composers: Matthew Locke, Pelham Humphrey, John Banister, James Hart, and an Italian composer living in London at the time, Pietro Reggio (Cudworth, p. 54). Of course, such a collaborative process may not have been that different from Shakespeare's own method of borrowing source materials, overseeing scripts written by others, and collaborating with composers and apprentice playwrights, so it is impossible to label these productions as any more or less authentic than others (Wood, 2003, pp. 290-91). As Wood points out, Working in tandem with less talented jobbers doesn't fit in with our idealization of Shakespeare as the lone creator, but anyone involved today in scriptwriting for movies, comedy or television knows what it is like to work in a high pressure entertainment business. Often 'authorship' doesn't e x i s t . . . (p. 292) The Restoration productions pose an intriguing question regarding textual variance, one that Margreta De Graza (1995) phrases succinctly: "When does something cease to be itself, and become something else?" (p. 245). The Platonic concept of an ideal form was kept alive for many years by the notion of Shakespeare as Author; the theory behind this concept was that skilled editors could know the intentions  33 of the author and thus reconstruct the ideal text (form) of a given play as Shakespeare would have intended. A s Wimsatt and Beardsley (1946) observe, however, "critical inquiries are not settled by consulting the oracle" (p. 9). Indeed the New Criticism movement and later Barthes (1977) overturned the notion of the author as the ultimate textual authority. A s Barthes observes, writing is the destruction of every voice, of every point of origin. Writing is that neutral, composite, oblique space where our subject slips away, the negative where all identity is lost, starting with the very identity of the body writing. (1977, p. 143) Modern technology now makes multiple versions of the plays readily available to the general public. Photographic and computer technology allows multiple versions of the plays to be presented alongside each other. Multimedia multiform text editions are perhaps closest to the notion of a contemporary idealized Shakespearean text; yet, as De Grazia (1995) points out, "multiple texts may be no more historical than conflated ones, dependent not only on a later technology and politics but also on later editorial and hermeneutic practices" (p. 251). Nevertheless, with such technology available, it seems reasonable to conclude that soon any Shakespeare edition that presents only one version of the text will be considered ideologically suspect.  34 C H A P T E R 3. WRITING T H E S O N G S People often complain that music is too ambiguous, that what they should think when they hear it is so unclear, whereas everyone understands words. With me it is exactly the opposite...these too seem to me so ambiguous, so vague, so easily misunderstood in comparison to genuine music, which fills the soul with a thousand things better than words. -composer Felix Mendelssohn (Werner, 1963) Amiens: My voice is ragged. I know I cannot please you. Jaques: I do not desire you to please me; I desire you to sing. -As  You L/7ce/f(2.5.13-15)  This chapter details my process in creating original musical settings of Shakespeare song texts from a number of different plays, and discusses how that process illuminated certain aspects of those texts for me, as both a teacher and a student of Shakespeare. The song settings I discuss in the following pages are found in a handful of commonly taught plays: As You Like It, Hamlet, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, and A Midsummer  Night's Dream. In each case, I have attempted first to discuss the  dramatic function of the song text and then to provide some historical context before detailing the particulars of my own song writing. For some of the songs included in this chapter, I was able to provide an overview of the earliest musical settings. For others I have not done so, since many of these settings have been lost. The aim of this section is to explore the creative process of writing the songs, to detail the activities involved, and to remark on how those activities enhanced my understanding of the plays and influenced my personal response to the song texts. The question to be considered in the context of this section is: "What creative and pedagogical issues does the songwriting process encourage the composer to confront?"  35 I address the pedagogical implications of teaching Shakespeare through song in the chapter's conclusion and expand on them practically in Chapter 4. All textual references are either to the Signet Classic Editions (Barnet, 1986) or to the Folger Library Editions (Mowat & Werstine, 1993) of the plays, texts which are currently used in many high schools. I have chosen to reference these texts rather than more scholarly editions because they are the ones available to me in my teaching, which is the impetus for my Shakespeare composing efforts.  Clarification of Important Musical Terms One distinction that I make before addressing the songs, is the difference between folk or popular music and art music. Although such terms are applied retrospectively by musicologists, a distinction has always been made in the popular consciousness between indigenous folk music and the music of the court and aristocracy. The term art music embraces many periods and styles, ranging from Baroque,  Classical,  or Romantic, to Impressionist,  Minimalist, or 20th  Century/Modern  (Machlis, 1984, p. 5). The forms and genres of secular art music are too diverse to cover here (they include Symphonies, Madrigals,  and Tone Poems,  Concertos,  some Oratorios and  Operas,  not to mention the wealth of repertoire written for the  piano), but all art music shares some common qualities. Typically, art music is written by a known professional composer, is highly structured, and is written for an elite or aristocratic audience. In contrast, folk music originates from the common people, usually has no known composer (and may have numerous composers add to it over the years), exists in many variations, and is much simpler in structure. Because of its complexity, most art music is notated in some fashion (written down) and thus much art music has been preserved over the centuries; conversely, our knowledge of early folk  36 music (especially before the era of magnetic tape recording and the commercial music industry) is more fragmentary because notation was usually not a priority (Grout, 1988, p. 98). A second important point of clarification is the term key. In Western European music, a musical key is named after its tonic, or keynote, and may be defined as major or minor, depending on which scale pattern is used. Since the Baroque era and the development of equal temperament, composers have gravitated to the major-minor system of tonality, or key harmony, as codified by Rameau (Schulter, 2006, U 2). Previous to this, Western music utilized a series of scales called modes. In Modality, a greater freedom is present to emphasize various degrees of a scale, compared to Major-Minor Tonality, and more freedom allows to mix modes (scales) within one piece without being limited to the notion of a key area or tonality. Some patterns and techniques are common to both systems (for example, the Major scale resembles the Ionian mode), and may be interpreted modally or in terms of key. The Baroque Doctrine of the Affections promulgated the notion that music could be used to express an emotion or "affection," and that particular scales or modes could be utilized to represent emotional states (Machlis, 1984, p. 360). For the purposes of this exploration, I use the terms mode, scale, and key interchangeably and frequently discuss songs in terms of a major or minor tonality. In doing so, I am imposing a contemporary Western sensibility on a concept that extends as far back as the ancient Greek musical system. Another definition that may seem self-evident but should nevertheless be clarified is the word song. For the purposes of this thesis, I define a song as a short composition  musical  for voice, based on a written lyric (Machlis, 1984, p. 66). A single vocal  melody is emphasized and given instrumental accompaniment that gives the melody  37 harmonic background and support. Here, I distinguish between three types or subcategories of song: folk song, art song, and popular song A s mentioned previously, folk song usually has no known composer and may exist in many permutations. Folk songs are usually strophic in structure, meaning that the same melody is repeated with every stanza of a poem, a scenario that does not allow for great variations in mood or atmosphere (Machlis, 1984, p. 66). Instead, the music establishes a general mood that accommodates itself equally well to every stanza of the poem, as in the popular drinking songs and ballads of the Elizabethan period. In the 19th century, art music composers appropriated the folk song genre and created the art song, as perfected in the work of such composers as Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, and Johannes Brahms. The genre these composers consummated became known as the Lied or Lieder (plural), the German word for song (Machlis, 1984, p. 67). Art songs are often through-composed, meaning that the text is set to music without musical repetitions, following the storyline of the poem and changing accordingly with the text. The German Romantic songwriters (e.g., Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms) were obsessed with fidelity to their interpretation of the text, and used a great deal of word painting (Grout, 1988, p. 669). Word painting is a musical technique in which the melody line and accompaniment mimic the literal meaning of words in the song. For example, ascending scales would accompany lyrics about climbing, a peak in the melody would accompany the mention of a mountain or hill, and a dip in the melody would respond to the word valley. Word painting was also used figuratively to show emotional states, such as using slow, plodding music to accompany lyrics about death. Many of the short lyric poems that the art song composers set to music in their Lieder, survive today only in their song-text forms (Machlis, 1984, p. 68).  38 The last genre of song I discuss here is popular song, which I utilize as a blanket term for songs of the modern mass-market recording era of the 20th century, including rock, country, and jazz styles. Popular songs have amalgamated aspects of folk and art songs, and usually combine the repetition of the strophic folk song with the complexity of the through-composed art song, introducing new material when the text seems to require it. The popular song is the model I have followed for my own music. Related to the popular song is the idea of the melodic hook. In popular songwriting, a hook is a recurring melodic idea that is designed to be memorable and thus "hook" the listener. A comparable concept in art music would be Wagner's use of the recurring leitmotif \n his Ring cycle of operas, though pop song hooks do not normally have programmatic associations (Machlis, 1984, p. 167). A musical term which may have different connotations in other fields, and which I also wish to define here for purposes of clarity, is text underlay. Underlay refers to how the syllables of lyrics or individual words are actually synchronized to the music. In the case of reconstructed musical settings of Shakespearean songs, where the text and melody exist in two separate sources, underlay can be one of the most difficult tasks and points of discrepancy among settings by different editors. A s Duffin (2004) points out, long notes . . . in one version of a tune can be subdivided to fit [an entirely] different text. Similarly, unaccented syllables can be crammed together to make an accent fall on the right place in the tune... Performers should be aware that underlay is not cast in stone, and that there is frequently more than one acceptable way for subsequent stanzas . . . to be set. (p. 37) A unique property of music that affects textual underlay is the composer's ability to assign several pitches to one syllable of a word. A long melodic passage sung on one syllable is known as a melisma (Grout, 1988, p. 27). In composing my Shakespearean  39 songs, I avoided long melismatic passages because they occasionally obscure the words. A s a general rule, I assigned a maximum of three notes to any given syllable. Even when the melody has been refined to the point where significant changes are no longer possible, some areas may still exist where shifting the accent of a syllable or adding extra pitches to one syllable will shift the natural rhythms of the text. While no unyielding rules exist for text underlay, most composers would logically avoid inadvertently stressing words that communicate little to the listener, such as articles or conjunctions, unless they are attempting to increase listener anticipation of the subsequent word. A s with the reading of dialogue, shifting the emphasis of a single word can change the entire interpretation of a passage. This applies in poetic meter, but in music, the results are perhaps more obvious because of the addition of pitch. In music, the double conundrum is present in choosing underlay that will stress the words in accordance with the interpretation of the text, while keeping in mind the issue of singability for the performer. Stressing a particular word can emphasize meaning, but a passage that becomes physically awkward or impossible to sing for the vocalist can obliterate meaning altogether (at least meaning in a conventional sense) if the passage becomes too difficult to navigate. Finally, I wish to caution the reader that all of the musical settings of my own included here are based on my own encounters with the texts. The settings are products of my own biases, musical background and training, and understanding of the texts. Many of the musical techniques utilized are culturally specific. For example, the notion of using particular keys or modes to set the mood of a song (major for a happy song, minor for a sad or mysterious song) is culturally situated, and such associations  40 m a y not exist for listeners of different cultural b a c k g r o u n d s . Indeed, m a n y m o d e r n avant-garde c o m p o s e r s h a v e d o n e a w a y with the notion of key a n d its a s s o c i a t i o n s entirely. Similarly, notions of c o n s o n a n c e (euphonious to the h u m a n ear) or d i s s o n a n c e (jarring to the h u m a n ear) are fluid a n d constantly c h a n g i n g ( M a c h l i s , 1984, pp. 13-15).  The First Song - Under The Greenwood Tree Written in 1599 or 1600, As You Like  It h a s a s its generally r e c o g n i z e d s o u r c e a  novel written by T h o m a s L o d g e in 1590 entitled Rosalynde  ( L o n g , 1 9 5 5 , p. 139). T h e  play contains only six s o n g s , s p a c e d throughout the play, the first of w h i c h is " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " (2.5.1-55), the lyrics of w h i c h are reprinted b e l o w (refer to C D T r a c k 6 for my arrangement): U n d e r the g r e e n w o o d tree W h o loves to lie with m e , A n d turn his merry note Unto the s w e e t bird's throat C o m e hither c o m e hither c o m e hither C o m e hither c o m e hither c o m e hither [my addition] H e r e shall he s e e No enemy But winter a n d rough w e a t h e r W h o doth ambition s h u n A n d loves to live in the s u n S e e k i n g the food he e a t s A n d p l e a s e d with what h e gets, C o m e hither, c o m e hither, c o m e hither H e r e shall he s e e No enemy But winter a n d rough w e a t h e r  41 If it d o c o m e to p a s s That any m a n turn a s s L e a v i n g his wealth a n d e a s e , A stubborn will to p l e a s e D u c d a m e , d u c d a m e , d u c d a m e , ** H e r e shall he s e e G r o s s fools a s he, A n if he will c o m e to m e . * * A n invocation to call fools into a circle (according to the m e l a n c h o l y philosopher, J a q u e s ) (2.5.53)  Folk Versus Courtly A l l the s o n g s , with the exception of the closing w e d d i n g m a s q u e s o n g (a h y m n to the g o d H y m e n ) h a v e a n a p p e a l i n g folk-like quality. M o r e importantly, the s o n g s h a v e a unified structure that e x p o u n d s on the play's major t h e m e s of h u m a n mortality, folly, alienation, a s well a s rural v e r s u s urban e x i s t e n c e . T h e s o n g s parallel the m a i n t h e m e s at every s t a g e , a n d establish setting a n d c h a r a c t e r ( L o n g , 1 9 5 5 , pp. 139-140). F o r e x a m p l e , " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " e s t a b l i s h e s setting a n d depicts the merry Utopian world of the exiles in the F o r e s t of A r d e n , while at the s a m e time scrutinizing that ideal a n d introducing the a u d i e n c e to J a q u e s ' s a r d o n i c wit a n d philosophical m u s i n g s . " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " is written in a folk style, while the c l o s i n g w e d d i n g s o n g is courtly, reflecting the characters' resumption of a n aristocratic e x i s t e n c e . B e l o w is the oldest k n o w n setting of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " ( C D T r a c k 7) provided by G i b b o n (1930, p. 56) a n d a r r a n g e d to a tune from P l a y f o r d ' s Dancing  Master  (1650):  English  42 Under the Greenwood Tree r-  P*  l Jn  P~P  3•  der the green  Trad. Gibbon m  wood  4=  —•—4 •  tree,  ry  note  Un  F = h =  to  - v i  lov es  4=  ±=: =4^  his mer  M "  W/ho  » ft—t turn  •  t<) lie;  JM the  sweet  with  *  S  Bird's  —mm  4  M  And  •  throat  Figure 3. U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e - Traditional M e l o d y  T h e folk-like melody is s i m p l e , d e s i g n e d for s o l o v o i c e , a n d requires little in the w a y of a c c o m p a n i m e n t . A s i n g l e - v o i c e h a r m o n i c texture like this is known a s a monophonic  texture. If c h o r d s a n d a c c o m p a n i m e n t are a d d e d (as in the C D  arrangement), the s o n g b e c o m e s homophonic  in texture, m e a n i n g that a single v o i c e  p r e d o m i n a t e s a n d all of the h a r m o n y in the s o n g is u s e d in support of that principal m e l o d y (Machlis, 1984, pp. 296-97). In t h e s e types of h a r m o n i c textures, the text is never o b s c u r e d by overlapping m e l o d i c lines. A s well, the s a m e tune is repeated for every s t a n z a of the text, in k e e p i n g with the strophic folk s o n g format. In c o m p a r i s o n , the last s o n g of the play, " W e d d i n g Is G r e a t J u n o ' s C r o w n " (5.4.141-147) is clearly intended for s e v e r a l v o i c e s (perhaps all the actors together), a s indicated in the text by the following lines: W h i l e s a w e d l o c k h y m n w e sing F e e d y o u r s e l v e s with questioning T h a t r e a s o n w o n d e r m a y diminish H o w thus w e met, a n d t h e s e things finish. (5.4.136-140)  43 T h e s t a g e directions a l s o call for still music (soft b a c k g r o u n d music) to b e played a s the g o d H y m e n m a k e s his entrance. P e t e r S e n g (1967) s u g g e s t s that if H y m e n m a d e his entrance by d e s c e n d i n g to the s t a g e , the still music m a y h a v e b e e n u s e d to c o v e r up the s o u n d of the lift m e c h a n i s m ( S e n g , p. 93). After the c o n c l u s i o n of the s o n g , the D u k e calls for e v e r y o n e to d a n c e , s a y i n g " P l a y , m u s i c , a n d y o u brides a n d b r i d e g r o o m s all / With m e a s u r e h e a p e d in joy, to the m e a s u r e s fall" (5.4.176). T h e u s e of s o n g a n d d a n c e , c o m b i n e d with the allusion to G r e e k mythology, is reminiscent of a f a s h i o n a b l e form of courtly entertainment of the time, the Masque  (Grout, p. 4 1 5 ) . If  playwrights w e r e i n d e e d emulating a courtly m a s q u e , they probably w o u l d h a v e c h o s e n v o c a l m u s i c that w a s m o r e c o m p l e x a n d in k e e p i n g with aristocratic forms s u c h a s the Madrigal  (Grout, p. 260). W h i l e no m u s i c survives for the final s o n g text, I h a v e supplied  the following contemporary tune ( C D T r a c k 8) by J o h n D o w l a n d (Long, 1 9 5 5 , p. 159). In the excerpt below, the metre/time signature markings a r e a m o d e r n edition resulting from m y notation software. N e v e r t h e l e s s , I believe it g i v e s t h e flavor of w h a t S h a k e s p e a r e (or his collaborators) m a y h a v e intended.  44 John Dowland  Nuptial Hymn-Welcome Black Night  Soprano  P  (9  1*  Hy  men,  O  Hy  men  of  mine  Alto  »— Hy  men  O  Hy  men  Hy  men  O  Hy  men  p  J  J  Hy  men  O  f  r  men  O  mine  treas  rJ  —f~  of  treas  ures  of  treas  3  Tenor 1  Tenor 2  Bass  jj-B  .'»^er Hy  II  p r Hy  Min.  men  i i f -  1  Hy  u  men  of  treas.  treas  ures.  ^ mine  of  Figure 4 . Nuptial H y m n : W e l c o m e B l a c k Night - by J o h n D o w l a n d  T h i s setting differs from the earlier s o n g s in its complexity; it h a s a d e n s e h o m o p h o n i c texture that at times b e c o m e s polyphonic,  m e a n i n g that two o r m o r e  m e l o d i c lines are c o m b i n e d a n d n o o n e m e l o d y or v o i c e p r e d o m i n a t e s ( M a c h l i s , 1984, pp.295-96). P o l y p h o n i c texture is b a s e d o n counterpoint (that is, the combination of two or m o r e s i m u l t a n e o u s m e l o d i c lines). In a true polyphonic c o m p o s i t i o n , all the lines are equally important; in the e x a m p l e a b o v e , the addition of the s e c o n d tenor line g i v e s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n its polyphonic texture. T h e d a n g e r o f a p o l y p h o n i c setting, if o n e i s a i m i n g to m a k e the lyrics clearly audible for listeners, is that w o r d s c a n b e c o m e o b s c u r e d in t h e  45 interweaving lines. T h e setting u s e d in the original production of A s You Like It w a s probably not a s intricate a s D o w l a n d ' s , but the final s o n g definitely w o u l d h a v e b e e n the most c o m p l e x m u s i c a l setting in the play. C o n s e q u e n t l y , in my o w n setting of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " I opted for a s i m p l e ballad texture, but a d d e d s o m e contrasting m u s i c a l material in v e r s e 3 to reflect the differing m o o d of the third s t a n z a .  Considering Key, Meter and Other Settings B e c a u s e this w a s my very first setting, I w a n t e d to write a p i e c e that approximated my i m p r e s s i o n of what a S h a k e s p e a r e s o n g s h o u l d s o u n d like (i.e., s o m e t h i n g with a ballad or folk-like quality a n d melody) to prove to myself that I could respect the S h a k e s p e a r e a n m u s i c a l tradition before I b e g a n experimenting. T h e first setting of " U n d e r T h e G r e e n w o o d T r e e " that I heard w a s a m o d e r n d a y art s o n g by E n g l i s h c o m p o s e r W i l l i a m W a l t o n (1902-1983) (a brief e x c e r p t c a n b e h e a r d o n the a c c o m p a n y i n g C D , T r a c k 9). A l t h o u g h I found the W a l t o n s o n g setting beautiful, my initial reaction w a s that it w a s too s o m b r e for the m o o d of the lyric, in part d u e to the minor m o d e of the s o n g . I w a n t e d to capture the playful nature of the text, a s well a s all of J a q u e s ' witty j e s t s (the W a l t o n setting completely omits the last s t a n z a of the song.) A l s o , I felt the h a r m o n i c complexity of the c o m p o s i t i o n a n d the bel canto style of singing m a d e W a l t o n ' s s o n g l e s s a c c e s s i b l e for high s c h o o l students, my p r o p o s e d a u d i e n c e , b e c a u s e the w o r d s w e r e difficult to understand a n d the tune could not b e easily committed to m e m o r y . T h e next setting of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " that I h e a r d , w a s by S i r Arthur S o m e r v e l l (1863-1937), another c o m p o s e r of the E n g l i s h s c h o o l ( C D T r a c k 10). T h i s setting w a s m o r e in-line with what I h o p e d to d o : S o m e r v e l l u s e s a c o m p o u n d meter (6/8) a n d a major k e y (F major), though h e , too, a v o i d s the third s t a n z a , a point I shall  46 d i s c u s s later. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s o n g is written a s a m a l e - f e m a l e duet a n d h a s m a n y overlapping lines; o n c e a g a i n , lyrics a r e o b s c u r e d by the c o m p l e x m e l o d i c texture a n d v o c a l style. I r e s o l v e d to c o m p o s e my o w n m e l o d y in a folk style, m e a n i n g my m e l o d y w o u l d b e simpler, slightly slower, h a v e m o r e repeated material, a n d a non-operatic v o c a l style to e a s e perception of the w o r d s . I a l s o settled o n the k e y of G , w h i c h I e x p e r i e n c e a s a bright, h a p p y key, a n d borrowed S o m e r v e l l ' s 6/8 meter. A t this point, I deliberately a v o i d e d listening to a n y more interpretations of the " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e , " including the earliest settings (which I only listened to after the fact), to avoid being overly influenced by t h e s e other m e l o d i e s . B e l o w is a brief excerpt of the m e l o d y I ultimately c o m p o s e d ( C D T r a c k 11):  Under the Greenwood Tree—Verse G  Michael Mikulin  Am7  G/B  D  Em  Csus2  C  D  I Un - der the green - wood  \l* $  Em  I J  J  J  -  note  tree  -  D  1  J  J J  J J J—*  Who loves to he G  III  «—  Un to the sweet bird's  r rp throat  with  Come  1  _ W.  •  hither  And turn his mer  me  Am  W  M  ry  D  G  -fr—  1  r—4  come hither  m  come  d  d -4-—  1  hith er.  Figure 5. U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e V e r s e - by M i c h a e l Mikulin  A s I d i s c o v e r e d later, m a n y similarities existed b e t w e e n what I c o m p o s e d a n d s o m e of the traditional settings of the s o n g (such a s the G i b b o n Traditional a n d Duffin's reconstruction of " S i r Eglamore"). Part of the similarity m a y b e d u e to my e x p e r i e n c e with E l i z a b e t h a n m u s i c over the y e a r s , though it m a y a l s o be a facet of the text itself,  47 w h i c h l e n d s itself to a c o m p o u n d 6/8 meter. In part, this m a y b e b e c a u s e c o m p o u n d meters like 6/8 a n d 6/4 naturally a c c e n t the 1  st  and 3  r d  beats, w h i c h follow the a c c e n t e d  b e a t s of the text for the m o s t part.  Context and Dramatic Function E a c h s o n g in As You Like It is f r a m e d in its o w n individual s c e n e . T h i s h a s led m a n y s c h o l a r s to s p e c u l a t e that the s o n g s w e r e a d d e d after the play w a s c o m p l e t e ( L o n g , 1 9 5 5 , p. 140). W h i l e this is p o s s i b l e , I prefer another explanation: that the s o n g s w e r e f r a m e d in m i n i - s c e n e s by S h a k e s p e a r e deliberately to give t h e m p r o m i n e n c e a n d continuity with regard to the t h e m e s of the play. A c t T w o , S c e n e F i v e b e g i n s with the first s t a n z a of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e , " s u n g by the c h a r a c t e r of A m i e n s after s o m e prodding by J a q u e s , a n d it provides a fairly straightforward exposition of the m a i n t h e m e of the play at this point (the joys of pastoral life): U n d e r the g r e e n w o o d tree W h o loves to lie with m e , A n d turn his merry note, Unto the s w e e t bird's throat, C o m e hither, c o m e hither, c o m e hither: H e r e shall he s e e / no e n e m y But winter a n d rough weather. ( 2 . 5 . 7 - 1 0 )  A m i e n s ' s o n g invites the listener to participate in a pastoral e x i s t e n c e free of the c a r e s of urban life. A c c o r d i n g to A m i e n s , the only difficulties h u m a n s will e n c o u n t e r in the F o r e s t of A r d e n are "winter a n d rough weather." N o m u s i c a l directions or mention of instruments are given, s o A m i e n s likely s a n g u n a c c o m p a n i e d or with very s i m p l e instrumentation, s u c h a s a c c o m p a n y i n g himself o n the cittern or lute. T h e setting is a l s o localized here, a n d possibly, this s o n g w a s the e s s e n t i a l prop utilized to set the s c e n e  48 for the a u d i e n c e of a rustic b a n q u e t under the forest c a n o p y . T h e s e c o n d s t a n z a of the s o n g is a c c o m p a n i e d by the Folio s t a g e direction "all together," s u g g e s t i n g that this s o n g w a s intended for a group of untrained v o i c e s , not professional s i n g e r s or m u s i c i a n s . T h e third s t a n z a of the s o n g plays with our expectations, a n d is s u n g by the m e l a n c h o l y J a q u e s a s a n e x t e m p o r i z e d addition to A m i e n s ' s o n g : If it d o c o m e to p a s s T h a t any m a n turn a s s , L e a v i n g his wealth a n d e a s e A stubborn will to p l e a s e , Ducdame, ducdame, ducdame: H e r e shall he s e e G r o s s fools a s he, A n d if he will c o m e to m e . (5.2.45-51)  S o m e speculation exists a s to w h e t h e r or not this last s t a n z a of the s o n g w a s originally s u n g ( L o n g , 1955, p. 143). It is not m a r k e d to be s u n g a s are the first two, a n d J a q u e s is not portrayed a s being m u s i c a l . T h e c y n i c a l , m o c k i n g tone of the s t a n z a , however, definitely requires a d e g r e e of transformation in the m u s i c itself if the alteration in tone a n d m o o d a r e to b e effective - e v e n t h o u g h the line s c a n s i o n is the s a m e a n d would underlay perfectly with a repeat of the s a m e tune u s e d in the first two s t a n z a s . I e l e c t e d to c h a n g e to the parallel minor k e y ( G minor) to reflect J a q u e s ' s c a t h i n g tone, a s d e m o n s t r a t e d in the e n s u i n g e x a m p l e ( C D T r a c k 12):  49 Michael Mikulin  Under The Greenwood Tree—Bridge Section  c m/El>  D  If it do come to  c m/Ek  pass  F  That an - y man turn  Bl>  stub born will  *y  to please,  I«  ^i'  P Due dam  Leav ing Gm  F8°  r A  ass,  e due  dam  his wealth and ease  D — e due dam e_  Figure 6. U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e (Bridge) - b y M i c h a e l Mikulin  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the final three lines p o s e d a d i l e m m a : w o u l d it b e best to continue with t h e minor k e y to reflect the text, o r to return to the h a p p y major t o n e of the o p e n i n g to give the s o n g a s e n s e of c o h e s i v e n e s s a n d unity? Certainly a 19th century art s o n g c o m p o s e r s u c h a s S c h u b e r t w o u l d h a v e felt the n e e d to d r a m a t i z e the last three lines to be true to the " m e a n i n g " of the text (as previously m e n t i o n e d , the G e r m a n art s o n g c o m p o s e r s generally held t h e belief that superior songwriting w a s about reflecting the emotional gradations in the text through t h e u s e of m u s i c , for w h i c h they u s e d the term word painting),  but I had set m y p a r a m e t e r s differently. M y m a i n g o a l w a s to k e e p t h e  m u s i c a c c e s s i b l e to a m a s s a u d i e n c e a n d , generally s p e a k i n g , that requires a certain d e g r e e of repetition of material s o that the s o n g is e a s i l y m e m o r i z e d (similar to the u s e of alliteration a n d rhyme in poetry). In the instance of t h e s e last three lines, t h e importance of maintaining a s i m p l e s o n g structure trumped t h e imperative to d r a m a t i z e the text. C o n s e q u e n t l y , I o p t e d to return to the m e l o d i c h o o k of the o p e n i n g for the final lines: " H e r e shall h e s e e / G r o s s fools a s he / A n d if he will c o m e to m e " (2.6.50-51).  50 A Word About Ducdame (Ducdame) D u c d a m e is a n o n s e n s e word that o c c u r s in J a c q u e s ' third s t a n z a a n d h a s no t r a c e a b l e origins. It g a v e m e considerable  trouble in the c o m p o s i t i o n p r o c e s s . First,  what did it m e a n ? In reading about the history of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e , " I d i s c o v e r e d that m u c h d e b a t e h a s taken p l a c e o v e r the etymology of d u c d a m e . Is it simply S h a k e s p e a r e ' s jest o n the m e a n i n g l e s s character of m a n y E l i z a b e t h a n s o n g refrains, or is there a d e e p e r intent? P o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s conveniently c o m p i l e d by E l s o n are a s follows: 1) D u c d a m e is a Latinization of come hither and is intended to be a pun on A m i e n s ' n a m e a n d the F r e n c h ami (friend); 2) d u c d a m e is a d u c k call a n d c o n n e c t e d to the old folk tune " D a m e W h a t M a k e s Y o u r D u c k s to Die"; 3) d u c d a m e m e a n s "lead him from m e , " the da being the Italian preposition for from, a n d therefore is a jest o n the first s t a n z a ' s " c o m e hither" ( E l s o n , 1 9 0 1 , p. 64). Alternately, S e n g (1967) offers this explanation: T h e word is . . . a corruption of the R o m a n i d u k r a m e . . . . T h e e x p r e s s i o n . . . m e a n s 'I f o r e t e l l ' . . . . A s the call of the G i p s y fortune-teller at fairs or public gatherings, it is a G r e e k invocation to call fools into a circle, (p. 74) T h e intimation here is that the D u k e a n d his followers are v a g a b o n d s f o r c e d to lead a n uncomfortable life by their o w n s t u b b o r n n e s s a n d pride. A n o t h e r writer, Ingleby, points out that Due da me is Italian for " D u k e by m y s e l f or " D u k e without a D u k e d o m " ( S e n g , p. 75). A l l e n (1934, p. 126) s u g g e s t s that D u c d a m e refers to Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h I: the circle is her court, a n d the fools within it her courtiers ( S e n g , 1967, p. 75). B e y o n d m e a n i n g , w a s the question of pronunciation. After m a k i n g my best g u e s s at a F r e n c h pronunciation of the word (duc-dam), a n d c o m p o s i n g m u s i c to suit this pronunciation, I d i s c o v e r e d that most S h a k e s p e a r e s o n g s c h o l a r s ( C h a p p e l l , E l s o n ,  51 Knight, Collier, et al.) agree that ducdame is tri-syllabic (duc-dam-e). After discovering this, I decided to go back and re-record the song to suit this pronunciation.  Musical Form and Repetition of Text The general rule I set for myself regarding repetition of words in the song texts was that I would not repeat an individual word that was not already repeated in the original song text; nor would I add an extra individual repetition that did not conform to the phrase structure of the text (e.g., I would not add a fourth "come hither" to the original three). Nevertheless, I freely repeated entire lines, usually altering the music each time a line was repeated. For example, with respect to the line "come hither, come hither, come hither," I decided to extend the existing repetition and repeat the entire line, using an A B or A1 A2 phrase pattern (question and answer), thus making a total of six repetitions of "come hither." This seems to keep the original feeling of the text without unbalancing it, and yet prevents the listener from getting bored by too much musical repetition. In comparison, the line "But winter and rough weather" had no precedent when it came to repetition. Nevertheless, I felt that since it occurred in Stanza 1 and was reiterated in Stanza 2, it should be repeated to add musical interest and emphasis. In retrospect, some of my decisions regarding repetition of textual material were purely arbitrary and the result of an erroneous belief that I could be faithful to an absolute meaning of a given text, a viewpoint that underwent significant revision as I progressed with my research.  Reviewing the Earliest Settings and Comparing For my first Shakespearean song effort, I felt I had achieved my goal of writing something structurally and melodically simple with a genuine folk flavour, while adding  52 e n o u g h material to k e e p the s o n g interesting for a m o d e r n - d a y listener. A s a test of my ability to a c h i e v e s o - c a l l e d authenticity, I looked up the oldest existing setting of the s o n g , to c o m p a r e with my o w n . A s with m a n y of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s o n g s , a great d e a l of conjecture w a s present o v e r what is "original." In the c a s e of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e , " the possibilities are e n d l e s s b e c a u s e G r e e n w o o d s o n g s w e r e c o m m o n in the 16th a n d 17the centuries. M o s t s c h o l a r s ( L o n g , S e n g , E l s o n ) c o n c u r that the oldest k n o w n setting is provided by G i b b o n , set to a G r e e n w o o d tune from Playford's The English Dancing Master (1650). T h i s tune, set forth in a n earlier e x a m p l e a b o v e , is contemporary with the E l i z a b e t h a n period, but it m a y not h a v e b e e n actually u s e d in the original production. In Shakespeare's Songbook, Duffin (2004) conjecturally s e t s the G r e e n w o o d lyric to a tune called "Sir E g l a m o r e , " ( C D T r a c k 13) the s o u r c e of w h i c h is a manuscript at Edinburgh University dating from the 1 6 6 0 s (p. 4 1 6 ) , s h o w n in Figure 7:  Under the Greenwood Tree— Sir Eglamore Tune  i j ' v J-  J  Un  Jr ft  -4SJ  * And  J  J  der  m  turn  1  iJ  the  J his  J  green  «  mer  ir  J.  wood tree,  a  ry note,  r  Who  H= un  loves  v—F— to the  r to  ? sweet  r  ir lie  ^  J  with me,  *  f ^1 bird's throat.  J Come...  Figure 7. U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e - Sir E g l a m o r e T u n e  In both c a s e s , the editors had indeed c h o s e n t u n e s in the key of G with c o m p o u n d meters ( G i b b o n ' s is in 6/8, Duffin's is in 6/4). In contrast, my m e l o d y a n d  53 chord c h a n g e s are different, a n d neither o n e of the folk settings d r a m a t i z e s J a q u e s ' final s t a n z a , s u g g e s t i n g that it w a s indeed s p o k e n rather than s u n g . Setting " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " to m u s i c highlighted i s s u e s of context, v o c a b u l a r y , style/genre, a n d textual authority - i s s u e s that are p u r s u e d further in the following chapter. T h e next s o n g text I c h o s e to set, " B l o w B l o w T h o u W i n t e r W i n d , " provided other c h a l l e n g e s , including using key a n d meter to represent m o o d a n d tone.  The Second Song - Blow, Blow Thou Winter Wind Suit the action to the w o r d , the word to the action , with this s p e c i a l o b s e r v a n c e , that y o u not overstep the m o d e s t y of nature. F o r anything s o o'erdone is from the p u r p o s e of playing, w h o s e e n d , both at the first a n d n o w , w a s a n d is to hold, a s 'twere, the mirror up to nature; to s h o w virtue her o w n feature, s c o r n her o w n i m a g e , a n d the very a g e a n d b o d y of the time his form a n d p r e s s u r e . -Hamlet  (3.2.17-2)  T h e a b o v e p a s s a g e , from H a m l e t ' s s p e e c h to the first player in Hamlet's  play  within a play, m a y b e the c l o s e s t w e get to a d r a m a t i c treatise from S h a k e s p e a r e . If the author d o e s indeed try to 'hold up a mirror to nature,' he often d o e s s o by attempting to e m b o d y the contradictions a n d moral ambiguities of real life. T h e s e c o n d s o n g of As You Like It, e x c e r p t e d below, d e m o n s t r a t e s the conflicting ideals that h a v e b e e n a s o u r c e of intrigue for generations of a u d i e n c e s (refer to C D T r a c k 14 for my arrangement). Verse 1 Blow, blow, thou winter w i n d , T h o u art not s o unkind A s m a n ' s ingratitude;  54 T h y tooth is not s o k e e n , B e c a u s e thou art not s e e n , A l t h o u g h thy breath b e rude.  Chorus H e i g h - h o ! s i n g , heigh-ho! unto the g r e e n holly: M o s t friendship is feigning, m o s t loving m e r e folly: T h e n , heigh-ho, the holly! T h i s life is most jolly.  Verse 2 F r e e z e , f r e e z e , thou bitter s k y , That d o e s not bite s o nigh A s benefits forgot: T h o u g h thou the waters warp, T h y sting is not s o s h a r p A s friend r e m e m b e r e d not. (To chorus)  (2.7)  Interpreting and Responding to the Mood of the Lyrics " B l o w , B l o w , T h o u Winter W i n d " contains the jaunty refrain of a typical E l i z a b e t h a n s o n g , a s exemplified in the lines " H e i g h - h o ! s i n g , heigh-ho! unto the g r e e n holly" (2.7.180); however, the remainder of the lyric is a c o n d e m n a t i o n of humanity, asserting that "most friendship is feigning, m o s t loving m e r e folly" (2.7.181). T h e s o n g , s u n g b y A m i e n s , parallels J a q u e s ' f a m o u s s p e e c h , "All t h e world's a s t a g e . . . " located in the s a m e s c e n e , a s a r d o n i c a c c o u n t of the s t a g e s of h u m a n life with a morbid description of old a g e a s being " s a n s teeth, s a n s e y e s , s a n s taste, s a n s everything" (2.7.166). In light of t h e s e lines, the final line of the refrain, "this life is m o s t jolly," must be taken a s a s a r d o n i c witticism (2.7.182). T h e first d e c i s i o n of the c o m p o s e r , then, is  55 whether to treat the s o n g a s a superficial entertainment d e s i g n e d to lighten the m o o d after J a q u e s ' soliloquy, or to explore the underlying m o o d a n d a t m o s p h e r e of the lyrics, w h i c h reflect the t h e m e s of h u m a n vanity, mortality, a n d alienation. I opted for the latter, but this a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d its o w n p r o b l e m s . A s well, t h e s t a g e directions never specifically mention A m i e n s a s t h e s i n g e r - though he is a s s u m e d to b e the singer b a s e d o n his earlier p e r f o r m a n c e of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e . "  Choosing a Key to Reflect Mood and Tone M y c h o i c e of a key for " B l o w , Blow, T h o u Winter W i n d " w a s m a d e m o r e difficult d u e to t h e lack of a n y historical m e l o d y that could b e u s e d a s a precedent. N o n e of the s c h o l a r s of S h a k e s p e a r e s o n g h a v e pinpointed a n original m e l o d y for "Blow, Blow, T h o u Winter W i n d . " M o s t m e l o d i e s in textbooks are reconstructions b a s e d o n conjecture a n d the meter of the w o r d s . F o r e x a m p l e , Duffin (2004) c l a i m s that " B l o w , B l o w " m a y h a v e b e e n set to a tune entitled " G o d d e s s e s " ( C D T r a c k 15) from J o h n P l a y f o r d ' s English Dancing Master of 1651 (Duffin, p. 70), s h o w n in Figure 8:  Blow Blow Thou Winter Wind—Goddesses Tune  m Blow  man's though  blow thou wint tooth is not  in thy  to the green  grat breath  ti be  hoi ry, Most  er wind, so keen,  hide; rude.  friend  ship  m  art not so cause thou art  Thou Be  Thy Heigh  is feign  ho,  ning, most  un kind, not seen,  sing heigh ho,  Lov ing mere  Figure 8. B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d - G o d d e s s e s T u n e  As Al  un  fol ly:  56  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Duffin's c o n c l u s i o n s are b a s e d largely o n his belief that the word ivy in the original G o d d e s s e s tune a n d the word holly in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s lyric fall on the s a m e beat (p. 71). In my opinion, Duffin's "holly a n d the ivy" theory is a t e n u o u s c o n n e c t i o n at best. T h e earliest k n o w n setting by T h o m a s A r n e d a t e s from 1740, but this setting, though f a m o u s , is technically incomplete, b e c a u s e it d o e s not include m u s i c for the refrain of the s o n g . After looking at various settings, a m o n g t h e m R o g e r Quilter's brilliant setting in C Minor (1905), I e l e c t e d to write my v e r s i o n of the s o n g in the k e y of G Minor, taking a hint from Quilter's c h o i c e of a minor k e y a n d the minor m o d e of the Goddesses  tune. I w a n t e d to create a s o n g that w o u l d carefully b a l a n c e both the jollity  a n d c y n i c i s m of the lyrics. Quilter d o e s this by literally refusing to c o m m i t to either major or minor tonality - he alternates constantly b e t w e e n the two m o d e s , leaving the p i e c e in a continuous state of h a r m o n i c flux. I d e s i r e d s o m e t h i n g m o r e musically a c c e s s i b l e , but still w a n t e d to capture this duality in the m u s i c . F o r the v e r s e , I constructed a m e l o d y in the minor key that elicited m e l a n c h o l y . W h e n reaching the "heigh-ho" refrain, however, I felt that s o m e c h a n g e w a s n e e d e d to k e e p m u s i c a l interest a n d to reflect this m o r e positive (at least superficially) part of the s o n g ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , I m o v e d to the relative major key of B b Major for t h e s e lines, before returning to G M i n o r for the c o n c l u d i n g lines of the refrain. B y revisiting G minor for the last line of the refrain, I w a s a b l e to c r e a t e a n ironic contrast b e t w e e n the positive statement of the lyric - this life is m o s t jolly - a n d the mournful m o o d of the m u s i c .  57  Choosing a Meter to Reflect Mood and Tone T h e other a r e a that p o s e d a unique c h a l l e n g e in setting "Blow, B l o w " to m u s i c w a s the meter of the text. A brief a n a l y s i s reveals that the first a n d second-to-last lines of the refrain a r e metrically variant from the v e r s e , a s illustrated below: Verse Blow, blow, / thou win / ter w i n d , T h o u art / not s o / unkind  s p o n d e e , iamb, iamb  3 iambs  A s m a n ' s / ingrat / titude.... 3 i a m b s  Refrain H e i g h - h o ! / s i n g , / heigh /-ho! Unto / the g r e e n / holly:  metrically variant  3 iambs  M o s t friend / ship is / feigning,  3 iambs  m o s t lov / ing m e r e / folly: 3 i a m b s T h e n , heigh-ho, the holly! T h i s life / is most / jolly.  metrically variant 3 iambs  A s a result, m a n y settings of the s o n g alternate b e t w e e n o n e time signature in the v e r s e a n d another in the refrain. M u s i c a l l y , this translates into 4/4 meter for the v e r s e (counted 1-2-3-4) a n d a 6/8 meter for the refrain (counted 1-2-3-4-5-6 or 1-2 if only the 1st a n d 3rd beats are a c c e n t e d ) . J o h n H. L o n g (1955) offers a n e x a m p l e of this m u s i c a l a p p r o a c h . H e writes the v e r s e in 4 / 4 , a n d s u p p l i e s a n e w refrain in 6/8 in his reconstruction of the m e l o d y (p. 149), b a s e d o n c e a g a i n o n a tune in P l a y f o r d ' s English Dancing Master, a s e x c e r p t e d below in F i g u r e 9 ( C D T r a c k 16):  58 Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind—Long's Reconstruction  8i *  p Blow, blow thou  Heigh ho,  wint er wind, Thou  sing heigh ho  un  to  * r art not so un  the green holl  1  g  kind  As  y;  Most  man's in grat ti  friend ship  is  hide;  feign ing; Most  1 10  lov  ing  mere  fol  ry:  Then  heigh  ho  the  hoi  hf  This  life  is  most jol  II  ty.  Figure 9. B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d - L o n g ' s R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  M a n y E l i z a b e t h a n d a n c e t u n e s h a v e c h a n g e s of meter, but I found this a p p r o a c h rather jarring; I w a n t e d to a c h i e v e a m o r e fluid e x p r e s s i o n that w o u l d not break from t h e mournful a n d cynical m o o d of the lyric. T h e r e f o r e , I d e c i d e d to k e e p m y v e r s i o n of the s o n g entirely in 4/4. T o d o this, t h e rhythm of the refrain had to b e e l o n g a t e d to fit comfortably into a 4/4 meter without giving t h e i m p r e s s i o n of the s i n g e r stumbling o v e r the w o r d s , a s d e m o n s t r a t e d in Figure 10 ( C D T r a c k 17):  59 Michael Mikulin  Blow, Blow , Thou Winter Wind— Chorus Excerpt E''sus2  El>sus2  Bl>  F  Ftt°7  i Heigh  9  r  f r—m  LI  v  holl  B!»  lj?t>-  ho!  heigh  sing.  gm  m—m— 1 I •  -o  —  r pi  Most  un  green  to  ' - -  y  EI»SUS2  1  i V-  1 —  %—%—  r-T  lov  the  Ehius2  B^  i—i—i  _ —  1  ho!  F/A  rr  1 **=  1  FB°7  i »  >  m  ing mere foil  —  »=  '*  F Then,  y  r  •—i  i  f r  -1  heigh ho,  the  9  W~T* 1•  holl  y.  El>Maj7  75'  " 3»r * * * *  *  | «J  This  life  is  most  joU y..  Figure 10. B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d (Chorus) - by M i c h a e l Mikulin  T h i s elongated v e r s i o n of the m e l o d y a l s o s e e m e d beneficial b e c a u s e it allowed for a sharper, m o r e forward, p l a c e m e n t of the v o w e l s o u n d . F o r the s a m e r e a s o n , I opted to p r o n o u n c e the refrain a s "hi-ho" rather than "hey-ho."  Seen and Unseen: Dramatic Context S e n g (1967) points out that "Blow, Blow, T h o u Winter W i n d " is a s o n g d e s i g n e d to suit the D u k e ' s exiled condition in the play (p. 147). Indeed, S h a k e s p e a r e f o r e s h a d o w s t h e s o n g earlier in the play in the w o r d s of D u k e S e n i o r , w h o s a y s : A r e not t h e s e w o o d s M o r e free from peril than the e n v i o u s court? H e r e w e feel but the penalty of A d a m , T h e s e a s o n ' s difference, a s , the icy fang A n d churlish chiding of the winter's w i n d ,  60 W h i c h , w h e n it bites a n d blows u p o n my body E v e n till I shrink with c o l d , I s m i l e , a n d s a y "This is no flattery; t h e s e are c o u n s e l l o r s That feelingly p e r s u a d e m e what I a m . " (2.1.3-11)  T h e key line of the s o n g is "thy tooth is not s o k e e n / b e c a u s e thou art not seen"  (2.1 Ml),  s u g g e s t i n g that a n u n s e e n e n e m y is s o m e h o w l e s s b o t h e r s o m e or hurtful  than the e n e m y o n e k n o w s (i.e., the invisible agitations of the winter wind are preferable to the visible deceit of h u m a n beings). O f c o u r s e , a p a r a d o x o c c u r s in the line: the deceit of h u m a n beings c a n be just a s invisible a s the winter w i n d . S h a k e s p e a r e m a y h a v e b e e n referring to the frequent machinations of the royal court, in w h i c h courtiers c o u l d flatter their superiors while plotting against t h e m . Ironically, m a n y a s p e c t s of " B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d " are u n s e e n by the a u d i e n c e - the idealization of rustic life a n d vilification of society are e s p o u s e d in the s o n g text, but the dramatic material surrounding the s o n g undercuts t h e s e ideals. W h e n A m i e n s c o n c l u d e s his s o n g , D u k e S e n i o r offers refuge a n d hospitality to A d a m a n d O r l a n d o - hardly the sort of b e h a v i o u r in k e e p i n g with " m a n ' s ingratitude."  Ophelia's S o n g T h e first two s o n g texts with w h i c h I dealt offered opportunities to e x a m i n e m o d e / k e y , meter, a n d text underlay. B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the p e d a g o g i c a l implications of the c o m p o s i n g p r o c e s s in the context of the E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m , I will t o u c h briefly o n my e x p e r i e n c e s setting three additional s o n g s to m u s i c . T h e s e s o n g s raised q u e s t i o n s of interpretation, style, g e n r e , form a n d p e r f o r m a n c e that are vital to the t e a c h i n g of S h a k e s p e a r e . O p h e l i a ' s m a d s o n g from Hamlet, entitled " H o w S h o u l d I Y o u r T r u e L o v e  61 K n o w , " is o n e of the most well-known s o n g s in the S h a k e s p e a r e c a n o n (refer to C D T r a c k 18 for m y arrangement): H o w s h o u l d I your true love k n o w F r o m another o n e ? B y his c o c k l e hat a n d staff A n d his s a n d a l s h o o n . H e is d e a d a n d g o n e , lady. H e is d e a d a n d g o n e ; A t his h e a d a g r a s s - g r e e n turf, A t his heels a stone. W h i t e his shroud a s the mountain s n o w , L a r d e d with s w e e t flowers; W h i c h bewept to the grave did g o With true love s h o w e r s . (4.5.23-40)  Reviewing Historical Settings M o s t s c h o l a r s a g r e e that O p h e l i a ' s first s o n g is a n allusion to the popular ballad " W a l s i n g h a m , " the melody of w h i c h I have r e c o r d e d a n d reprinted b e l o w with o n e particular s e t of original w o r d s ( C D T r a c k 19), though literally h u n d r e d s of variations a l s o exist:  if *u r  Ophelia's Song—Walsingham Tune  As  if  n  r r  you came  r  Met you not  from  u with  J  J 'c r r r  sing  ham,  Wal  r  *  J  my  true  love  from that ho  i-rip r by  the way  ly  r '  land,  -\  n  as  you came?  Figure 11. O p h e l i a ' s S o n g - W a l s i n g h a m M e l o d y  11  62  T h e m e l o d y given here is b a s e d on W i l l i a m Byrd's setting in My Ladye  Nevells  Booke of 1591 (Duffin, 2 0 0 4 , p. 423). T h e " W a l s i n g h a m " tune, in turn, e v o l v e d into another m e l o d y set to a text in Hamlet that a l s o s u r v i v e s . T h e m o s t c o m m o n s o n g performed o n s t a g e today is a v e r s i o n of this s e c o n d a r y m e l o d y from the 18th century. A c c o r d i n g to L o u i s E l s o n (1901), the traditional tune survives in at least two v e r s i o n s , t h a n k s to the efforts of two different c o m p o s e r s , a s related in the following: W h e n Drury L a n e T h e a t r e w a s burned in 1812, the old transcription of the m e l o d i e s , w h i c h had b e e n h a n d e d d o w n from the original s o u r c e s , w a s lost; a n enthusiastic m u s i c i a n , however, to w h o m all S h a k e s p e a r i a n s o w e t h a n k s , Doctor ( S a m u e l ) A r n o l d , sought out M r s . J o r d a n , w h o h a d often p l a y e d the part of O p h e l i a , a n d from her lips transcribed the t u n e s that s h e h a d s o frequently s u n g . Mr. Linley a l s o wrote d o w n the m e l o d i e s from m e m o r y , having heard M s . Field . . . sing the tunes in the a b o v e mentioned theatre. ( E l s o n , 1 9 0 1 , p. 234) E l s o n g o e s o n to explain that the two v e r s i o n s m a t c h c l o s e l y e n o u g h to prove o n e another, s u g g e s t i n g that the m e l o d i e s are authentic Drury L a n e tunes. W h a t r e m a i n s in question is w h e t h e r or not t h e s e Drury L a n e m e l o d i e s originated from the original production of the play, s i n c e Drury L a n e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d well after S h a k e s p e a r e ' s lifetime. O n e hypothesis s u g g e s t s that S h a k e s p e a r e w a s the natural father of W i l l i a m D'Avenant, w h o p a s s e d t h e m onto his protege T h o m a s Betterton, w h o in turn brought the tunes to Drury L a n e - a contentious theory at best. A m o r e likely explanation is that the 18th century tune is a badly corrupted v e r s i o n of the original W a l s i n g h a m ballad, w h i c h w a s e n d l e s s l y parodied b e c a u s e of its i m m e n s e popularity (Naylor, 1 9 3 1 , pp. 189-90). Figure 12 s h o w s the Drury L a n e melody, a s reprinted from K i n e s ' (1964) Songs from Shakespeare's  Plays ( C D T r a c k 20):  63  Ophelia's Song—Drury Lane Tune Am ~~rv~~I* J  E  Am  Dm  m  P  J  should  I  your  _&_L_d—p.—e— How Em  Am  Dm  E  m  P  r  p  By  his  cock  le  E  J  1  true  love  know  F  E  Am  Dm  staff,  And  his  1  J  Am  C  F  E  #  r  I' s  i  tS  From  Am i*  E  *  (3 —  an oth  ,  C  • er  one?  Am  E  Am  sand  al  shoon.  3C  *  hat  and  Figure 12. O p h e l i a ' s S o n g - Drury L a n e T u n e  Evidently, a n u m b e r of c h a n g e s w e r e m a d e over the y e a r s from s t a g e u s e . T h e s o n g s e e m s to h a v e c h a n g e d key (though it is still in a minor m o d e ) a n d h a s m e t a m o r p h o s e d from W a l s i n g h a m ' s c o m p o u n d time signature - 6/4 in Duffin's reconstruction a n d 3/2 in Naylor's - to a straight 4/4.  Interpretation, Context, and Dramatic Function W o r k i n g with O p h e l i a ' s s o n g p o s e d n u m e r o u s c h a l l e n g e s in regards to integrating the s o n g into the dramatic context, considering multiple possibilities for interpretations of the s o n g text, a n d my c h o i c e of performer, w h i c h in turn affected the overall interpretation. Unlike the thematic s o n g s of As You Like It, the s o n g s of  Hamlet  are utilized to e s t a b l i s h character a n d dramatic motivation. " H o w S h o u l d I Y o u r T r u e L o v e K n o w " is the o p e n i n g s o n g in O p h e l i a ' s display of m a d n e s s before the K i n g a n d Q u e e n in A c t Four, S c e n e Five. B r a d l e y (1904) points out, In the latter part of a t r a g e d y . . . S h a k e s p e a r e often a p p e a l s to a n emotion different from a n y of t h o s e excited in the first half of the play . . . A s a rule this n e w emotion is pathetic . . . (p. 60)  64 T h e Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (1990) defines pathos a s "the emotionally m o v i n g quality or p o w e r of a literary work, a p p e a l i n g e s p e c i a l l y to our feelings of sorrow, pity, a n d c o m p a s s i o n a t e s y m p a t h y " (Baldick, p. 163). I believe a pathos is present in this s c e n e that is simultaneously s u b l i m e a n d terrible. T h e s t a g e directions for O p h e l i a ' s s o n g in the First Quarto read "enter O p h e l i a playing o n her lute a n d her hair d o w n singing," (Best, 2003). In the S i g n e t edition, w h i c h is b a s e d o n the First Folio, the s t a g e directions are simply "enter O p h e l i a , distracted." I w a n t e d to write a s o n g that would e n c a p s u l a t e this feeling of beautiful d e r a n g e m e n t . I d o not feel O p h e l i a is completely insensible to her misfortunes; rather, s h e is u n a b l e to b e a r t h e m a n d d e s c e n d s into m a d n e s s . T h e s o n g , then, is a g l i m p s e into her feelings a s I understand t h e m , albeit a view c l o a k e d in metaphor. N u m e r o u s interpretations m a y b e found of w h a t O p h e l i a ' s c o d e d lyrics m e a n , but I h a v e c h o s e n P e t e r J . S e n g ' s (1967) rendering a s provided below: H o w s h o u l d I your true love k n o w F r o m another o n e ? B y his c o c k l e hat a n d staff A n d his s a n d a l s h o o n .  (4.5.23)  O n the s u r f a c e , the s o n g tells the story of a pilgrim w h o h a s j o u r n e y e d b e y o n d the s e a to a p l a c e of devotion. T h e c o c k l e shell w a s a s y m b o l of having visited a holy shrine, b e c a u s e the chief p l a c e s of devotion w e r e located o n the c o a s t s . A s well, in the early c h u r c h , c o c k l e shells w e r e u s e d to pour out the w a t e r s of baptism ( S e n g , 1967, p. 134). In a n y c a s e , a s the s o n g continues, the s i n g e r learns from a traveller that her lover h a s died on his journey a n d h a s b e e n buried without the proper rites or "true love showers":  65 H e is d e a d a n d g o n e , lady. H e is d e a d a n d g o n e ; A t his h e a d a g r a s s - g r e e n turf, A t his h e e l s a stone. W h i t e his s h r o u d a s the mountain s n o w , L a r d e d with s w e e t flowers; W h i c h bewept to the g r a v e did not g o With true love s h o w e r s . (4.5.23-40)  M o s t explanations s u g g e s t that the s o n g is about the death of O p h e l i a ' s father, P o l o n i u s ( S e n g , 1967, p. 133); however, the lyric c a n a l s o be c o n s t r u e d a s a recognition of the death of O p h e l i a ' s love for H a m l e t himself. S i n c e the s o n g is s u n g directly to Q u e e n G e r t r u d e , S e n g (p. 133) g o e s s o far a s to s u g g e s t the s o n g is a n a c c u s a t i o n : the s o n g ' s lyric c a n b e interpreted a s s u g g e s t i n g that Q u e e n G e r t r u d e o n c e h a d a true love that s h e failed to properly m o u r n - a p o i s o n dart a i m e d at the Q u e e n by O p h e l i a for her hasty remarriage to C l a u d i u s , a n d p o s s i b l y other m o r e s e r i o u s offences. T h i s , then, is a s o n g of leave-taking o n m a n y levels: a farewell to O p h e l i a ' s father, the c o l l a p s e of her relationship with P r i n c e Hamlet, a n d a n a d i e u to the stable world s h e o n c e k n e w w h e n King H a m l e t a n d her father w e r e alive. T h e context of O p h e l i a ' s s o n g in the play is important to understand a s well. E l i z a b e t h a n society w a s intensely hierarchical, a n d singing in public by the nobility would not be c o n s i d e r e d proper b e h a v i o u r e x c e p t under s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In A c t Five, however, O p h e l i a s i n g s o n e s o n g after another before the court of D e n m a r k . S u c h behaviour would b e contrary to all propriety for a n E l i z a b e t h a n noble, m a n or w o m a n . A l t h o u g h k n o w l e d g e of m u s i c w a s s e e n a s d e s i r a b l e at every s o c i a l rank, p e r f o r m a n c e operated within strict rules a n d limits. B a l d a s s a r C a s t i g l i o n e , w h o s e b o o k The Courtier  66 (1528) set the standard for court behaviour a n d m a n n e r s , c o n d e m n s the unsolicited p e r f o r m a n c e of m u s i c by aristocracy, arguing " c l a s s distinctions b e t w e e n a n o b l e m a n a n d his music-performing s e r v a n t s w o u l d be broken d o w n " (Castiglione, 1528, B o o k 2). C a s t i g l i o n e a d v i s e s w o m e n to cultivate modesty, s a y i n g " w h e n s h e c o m e t h to d a n c e , or to s h o w a n y kind of m u s i c , s h e ought to be brought to it with suffering herself s o m e w h a t to be p r a y e d , a n d with a certain b a s h f u l n e s s . . . " (Book 2). T h i s c o d e of etiquette permitted D e s d e m o n a to sing in the familiar c o m p a n y of E m i l i a , but would not support a n unsolicited p e r f o r m a n c e for the king a n d q u e e n at court. T h e E l i z a b e t h a n a u d i e n c e , therefore, w o u l d h a v e r e c o g n i z e d O p h e l i a ' s public singing a s another indicator of the b r e a k d o w n of her sanity, a l o n g with her d i s h e v e l l e d a p p e a r a n c e a n d incoherent s p e e c h .  Textual Variance in Ophelia's Song T h e writing of O p h e l i a ' s s o n g led to my first e n c o u n t e r with a significant S h a k e s p e a r e a n textual variation. A l t h o u g h s o m e m o d e r n editions p h r a s e lines 3 9 - 4 0 in the affirmative - " W h i c h bewept to the g r a v e did g o " - the two distinct early v e r s i o n s of Hamlet  (the short Quarto of 1603 a n d the longer Quarto of 1604-05), a s well a s all other  quarto texts a n d the Folio of 1623, insert a negative into the line: "which, bewept, to the g r a v e did not g o " (Murphy, 2 0 0 3 , pp. 2 9 4 - 3 0 2 ) . T h e o m i s s i o n of the negative is apparently the result of a n editorial d e c i s i o n by A l e x a n d e r P o p e a n d other early editors, w h o regularized the line without a n y textual authority for this d e c i s i o n ( L o n g , 1 9 7 1 , p. 124). Kittredge (1939) puts forth the theory that the u s e of "not" is S h a k e s p e a r e ' s o w n p e r s o n a l interpolation - a deliberate attempt to remind the a u d i e n c e that the traditional w o r d s of " W a l s i n g h a m " (on w h i c h the tune is b a s e d ) d o not entirely fit the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of P o l o n i u s ' hasty burial or O p h e l i a ' s impending d e a t h . C o m p o s i n g this s o n g required grappling with textual v a r i a n c e a n d m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s about p o s s i b l e wordings.  67 Musical Form and Repetition of Text Instead of following the original ballad formula, w h i c h simply repeated the s a m e m u s i c for e v e r y s t a n z a , I opted to m a k e s t a n z a s o n e a n d two verses, a n d s t a n z a three a chorus or middle eight (as o p p o s e d to a refrain, w h i c h usually h a p p e n s after every verse). In popular songwriting, this is s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d a n A - B - A form, a n d is u s e d in m a n y 3 0 s a n d 4 0 s j a z z s t a n d a r d s , s u c h a s Stormy Weather. T h e actual plan of the form is m o r e elaborate than a s i m p l e A - B - A , following a pattern that I would d o c u m e n t a s A 1 A 2 - B 1 - A 1 - A 2 - B 2 - A 3 / C o d a . I h a v e attempted to label both the textual a n d m u s i c a l form below, including my o w n lyrical adaptations/repetitions: Verse  1orA1  H o w s h o u l d I your true love k n o w F r o m another o n e ? B y his c o c k l e hat a n d staff A n d his s a n d a l s h o o n .  Verse 2 or A1 H e is d e a d a n d g o n e , lady. H e is d e a d a n d g o n e ; A t his h e a d a g r a s s - g r e e n turf, A t his h e e l s a stone.  Chorus  orB1  W h i t e his s h r o u d a s the mountain s n o w , L a r d e d with s w e e t flowers; W h i c h bewept to the g r a v e did [not] g o With true love s h o w e r s . With true love s h o w e r s , {my addition}  R e p e a t V e r s e 1,2 a n d C h o r u s {my addition}  68 Coda  orA2  H o w s h o u l d I your true love know, {my additions} F r o m another o n e ? H o w s h o u l d I your true love know, F r o m another o n e ? P i a n o c o d a to c l o s e  (4.5.23-40)  B y following s u c h a form, however, I created a problem: w h e n reaching the e n d of the c h o r u s (B2) for the s e c o n d time, the m e l o d y s o u n d e d unfinished. C o n s e q u e n t l y , I m a d e the first s t a n z a of the text a C o d a , repeating the first line of the s o n g a s a question for the a u d i e n c e to ponder, " H o w s h o u l d I your true love know/ F r o m another o n e ? " F o r m e , this line is the key to the s o n g , if it is interpreted a s a n a d d r e s s from O p h e l i a to Hamlet. W h i l e I w a s p l e a s e d with all t h e s e c h a n g e s from a m u s i c a l point of view, I felt I w a s losing control of the dramatic impact. A s my setting grew a n d d e v e l o p e d , it b e c a m e apparent that my v e r s i o n of O p h e l i a ' s s o n g w a s b e c o m i n g too m u c h a " m u s i c a l theatre number," isolated from the dramatic context. In the context of the s c e n e , I felt it would be more appropriate to h a v e O p h e l i a h u m s n a t c h e s of a folk ballad than to launch into a m u s i c a l soliloquy. Furthermore, s i n c e the m u s i c of O p h e l i a ' s s o n g h a s b e e n traced b a c k to " W a l s i n g h a m , " clearly, the original g e n r e of the s o n g w a s a folk ballad. In A c t Four, S c e n e F i v e , the s o n g is p r e s e n t e d in b e t w e e n s n a t c h e s of s p o k e n dialogue, with plenty of interruptions from the Q u e e n a n d O p h e l i a herself. B e l o w , I h a v e only italicized the s o n g lyrics: Enter O p h e l i a [distracted] O p h e l i a : W h e r e is the b e a u t e o u s Majesty of D e n m a r k ? Q u e e n : H o w now O p h e l i a ? O p h e l i a : How should I your true love know / From another one? By his cockle hat and staff, / And his Sandal shoon.  69 Q u e e n : A l a s , s w e e t L a d y : what imports this S o n g ? O p h e l i a : S a y y o u ? N a y pray y o u mark. He is dead and gone Lady /He  is dead and gone,  At his head a grass-green turf, / At his heels a stone. (5.4.21-31)  A s a result, O p h e l i a ' s s o n g retains its informal, ballad-like quality. B y m a k i n g the form m o r e elaborate a n d removing the textual interpolations, I felt the s o n g w a s in d a n g e r of overwhelming the a u d i e n c e . O n the other h a n d , if m y setting of the s o n g w a s reinserted into the s c e n e with interruptions of d i a l o g u e , a n d the a c c o m p a n i m e n t r e m o v e d entirely, it w o u l d be m o r e effective a n d avoid being o v e r b l o w n . Artistically, the contrast of the light, inconsequential ballad m u s i c with O p h e l i a ' s internal a g o n y would h a v e more of a n impact than a d r a m a t i c outpouring of grief.  Performance Decisions F r o m the outset, the m o s t important p e r f o r m a n c e d e c i s i o n in the c a s e of O p h e l i a ' s s o n g w o u l d b e the c h o i c e of singer; in particular, the type of v o i c e a n d the delivery of the p e r f o r m a n c e . Initially, I d e s i r e d to follow tradition a n d c r e a t e a c h a r a c t e r that s o u n d e d u n h i n g e d , being c o n c e r n e d that a singer with too p l e a s a n t a v o i c e might detract from the context, a n d that a m o r e r a g g e d v o i c e might better capture the m o o d . Certainly, a n e l e m e n t in the p e r f o r m a n c e s h o u l d m a k e the a u d i e n c e uncomfortable. A t the s a m e time, the s o n g ' s d r a m a t i c function is to reveal s o m e t h i n g about O p h e l i a ' s character, a n d a s s u c h , it must remain true to the c h a r a c t e r e s t a b l i s h e d earlier in the play. A s J o h n L o n g a s s e r t s , the performed [vocal] m u s i c is a i m e d primarily at characterization... T h e v o c a l m u s i c . . . is fragmentary a n d incoherent a n d therefore a n outward sign of the inward c h a r a c t e r of the s i n g e r s . (1971, p. 105)  70 T h e s o n g a l s o s e r v e s a s a mirror for the other c h a r a c t e r s , a n d w e are a n x i o u s throughout the s c e n e that O p h e l i a m a y overstep her b o u n d s with the K i n g a n d Q u e e n by mentioning p e r s o n a l subjects that s h e s h o u l d not b r o a c h with t h e m . O p h e l i a is comically pathetic, a n d all the other s o n g s in Hamlet are a s s i g n e d to c l o w n s a n d fools c h a r a c t e r s w h o are allowed to s p e a k their m i n d s with impunity. Ultimately, I u s e d a y o u n g singer with a s w e e t v o i c e in a n attempt to capture the beauty, youth, a n d i n n o c e n c e of O p h e l i a . T h e result s e e m e d to be i n c r e a s e d pathos a n d a greater feeling of tragedy. T o maintain the s o n g ' s function of serving a s a mirror for C l a u d i u s ' a n d Q u e e n G e r t r u d e ' s thoughts a n d motives, however, the dialogue of t h o s e c h a r a c t e r s really must be interpolated into the m u s i c .  Desdemona's Song: Willow Willow S h e h a d a s o n g of willow, A n old thing 'twas, but it e x p r e s s e d her fortune, A n d s h e died singing it. T h a t s o n g tonight Will not g o from my m i n d . — D e s d e m o n a to E m i l i a (Othello 4.3.26-29)  Reviewing Historical Settings After the study of O p h e l i a ' s s o n g , I b e c a m e interested in the expropriation of preexisting m e l o d i e s a n d b a l l a d s in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays. I l o o k e d at o n e of the most popular t u n e s from the plays - the W i l l o w s o n g in Othello, s u n g by D e s d e m o n a in A c t Four, S c e n e T h r e e . S c h o l a r s h a v e long b e e n a w a r e that this tune is not original in terms of either text or lyric, but rather, a c l e v e r adaptation of a popular ballad to the dramatic p u r p o s e s of the play ( S e n g , 1967, pp. 196-98). A s with all of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s o n g s o u r c e s , s o m e d i s c r e p a n c y is present over exactly what constitutes the original m e l o d i c  71 s o u r c e . Duffin (2004, p. 4 7 0 ) puts forward the following tune, taken from a combination of the Lodge Lute Book (1559) a n d fragments from the Drexel C o l l e c t i o n ( C D T r a c k 21):  Willow, Willow— Lodge Lute Book Melody  ill, ! $  ti '  J  Ii—«| pa  The  U  or  f=t=f —J—« ' — 1 :• •  *  4  it sigh ing soul s<  \lv | | hand  by a  i *  —  on her bo som, her  *F J _j—  .  —i  head  T=4=i mj mji mj mj mj =n  sp  £z il  J  J  «  a  ca more tr«:e,  sy  | ^  on her knee,  *  Sing  all  a green wil low; Her  J 1=^  —*—J  L  Sing  ^  J  TH—1 J  1—  J — ^ — i — 1  wil low, wil low wil low, wil  low.  Figure 13. W i l l o w W i l l o w - L o d g e Lute B o o k M e l o d y  T h e m o r e f a m o u s a n d generally a c c e p t e d melody, however, is from the P e p y s collection, entitled The Complaint  of a Lover Forsaken,  dating from 1 6 1 4 ( E l s o n , 1 9 0 1 ,  p. 290). T h i s s o u r c e , a book of lute s o n g s , p r e s e r v e s the text with the m u s i c . A s is evident in c o m p a r i n g the two v e r s i o n s below, the text of the original ballad is not exactly the s a m e (Early M o d e r n E n g l i s h spelling notwithstanding) a s the lyric found in the F o l g e r Library edition of Othello: Othello  Version  T h e poor s o u l s a t sighing by a s y c a m o r e tree, S i n g all a g r e e n willow; H e r hand o n her b o s o m , her h e a d o n her k n e e , S i n g willow, willow, willow T h e fresh s t r e a m s ran by her, a n d m u m u r ' d her m o a n s S i n g willow, willow, willow; H e r salt tears fell from her, a n d softened the s t o n e s ; S i n g willow, willow, willow.  S i n g all a g r e e n willow must be my g a r l a n d . Let n o b o d y b l a m e him; his s c o r n I a p p r o v e , I call'd m y love f a l s e love; but what s a i d he t h e n ? If I court m o e [more] w o m e n , you'll c o u c h with m o e m e n . (4:3)  Traditional  Version  A poore s o u l e sat sighing under a s i c a m o r e tree; O willow, willow, willow! With his h a n d o n his b o s o m , his h e a d o n his k n e e : O willow, willow, willow! O willow, willow, willow! S i n g , O the g r e e n e willow shall b e my garland T h e cold s t r e a m s ran by him, his e y e s wept a p a c e ; O willow etc. T h e salt tears fell from him, w h i c h d r o w n e d his f a c e . O willow, etc. S i n g , O the g r e e n e willow shall be m y g a r l a n d . ( E l s o n , 1 9 0 1 , p. 290)  In addition to the pronoun c h a n g e s (from his to her), the lyrics follow a slightly different structure, a n d the last two lines "I call'd my love f a l s e love; but what s a i d he t h e n ? / If I court m o e [more] w o m e n , you'll c o u c h with m o e m e n " (4.3.60-61) are completely n e w additions, s u g g e s t i n g that S h a k e s p e a r e w a n t e d to e m p h a s i z e Othello's a c c u s a t i o n s of infidelity. W h i c h m e l o d y (the Drexel or P e p y s ' collection) w a s u s e d with S h a k e s p e a r e ' s text in productions during his lifetime is o p e n to conjecture, but clearly, with the lyric, S h a k e s p e a r e w a s not attempting to intensify the pathos or tragedy with a light p i e c e of m u s i c , a s in O p h e l i a ' s m a d s o n g s . Rather, the s o n g p r e s e n t s a straightforward e x p r e s s i o n of the m e l a n c h o l y m o o d of the s c e n e , in w h i c h D e s d e m o n a c o n t e m p l a t e s her o w n premonitions of death a n d her l o s s of Othello's affection. T h e  73 lyrical integrity is a l s o c h a n g e d : T h e original plaintiff o d e to lost love is u n d e r m i n e d with the p a r a n o i a a n d s u s p i c i o n that prevails throughout the rest of the play.  Interpreting the Song Text T h e text of the W i l l o w s o n g is r e c o m m e n d e d , from a m u s i c a l point of view. It h a s a great d e a l of alliteration - "the poor soul sat sighing  by a sycamore  tree" - a l o n g with  the repetition of the refrain "willow, willow, willow," w h i c h m a k e s for a p l e a s i n g p h r a s e structure. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the text is a l s o highly a m b i g u o u s , operating o n three levels simultaneously. First, a n a n o n y m o u s lover narrates the folk ballad. Next, D e s d e m o n a is a narrator, offering her thoughts about her relationship with Othello. Lastly, D e s d e m o n a refers to her h a n d m a i d e n , B a r b a r a y , w h o s a n g the s o n g to her a s a little girl a n d w h o , a c c o r d i n g to D e s d e m o n a ' s account, "died singing it" (4.3.32). T h e s o n g effortlessly shifts from o n e narrator's a c c o u n t to another, but the line "let n o b o d y b l a m e him; his s c o r n I a p p r o v e " (4.3.56) s e e m s particularly appropriate for D e s d e m o n a ' s reaction to Othello b e c a u s e it reinforces the i n n o c e n c e of her character, a n d i n c r e a s e s the s y m p a t h y for her u n d e s e r v e d suffering. Irony is a l s o present in the line, b e c a u s e the a u d i e n c e k n o w s that Othello, a s a soldier w h o h a s w a g e d c a m p a i g n s in far-away lands, h a s probably not b e e n faithful to D e s d e m o n a , e v e n though he is d e m a n d i n g a pure wife. W h i l e E l i z a b e t h a n a u d i e n c e s undoubtedly a c c e p t e d this d o u b l e s t a n d a r d , S h a k e s p e a r e s e e m s to be calling it into question with the line "If I court m o e [more] w o m e n , you'll c o u c h with m o e m e n " (4.3.60-61). I interpreted the aforementioned line to b e D e s d e m o n a ' s p a r a p h r a s e of Othello's angry w o r d s to her in the previous s c e n e (4.2), w h e r e he o p e n l y a c c u s e s her of infidelity. T h e naivete that D e s d e m o n a d e m o n s t r a t e s in the W i l l o w s o n g is e c h o e d in the e n s u i n g p a s s a g e , w h e n s h e a s k s the worldly E m i l i a , " D o s t thou in c o n s c i e n c e think - tell m e , E m i l i a - That there b e w o m e n  d o a b u s e their husbands/In s u c h g r o s s kind" (4.3.67-69)? E m i l i a astutely r e s p o n d s that if w o m e n are unfaithful to their h u s b a n d s they h a v e learned this behaviour from watching m e n : " A n d h a v e not w e affections/Desires for sport, a n d frailty, a s m e n h a v e ? T h e n let them u s e us well. E l s e let t h e m know,/ T h e ills w e d o , their ills instruct us s o " (4.3.112-115). Key, Meter a n d Musical  Form  In writing my o w n v e r s i o n of the s o n g , I h a d to m a k e s o m e d e c i s i o n s . W o u l d I o b s e r v e the m e l a n c h o l y tone of the original lyric? Both R o s s i n i a n d V e r d i c o m p o s e d operatic v e r s i o n s of Othello, a n d both u s e d m e l a n c h o l y folk-like m e l o d i e s for " O S a l c e , S a l c e " (O Willow, Willow). It s e e m e d r e a s o n a b l e to p r e s e r v e this m e l a n c h o l y m o o d , but I w a n t e d to d o s o m e t h i n g unique with the structure of the s o n g . After hearing Ivor G u r n e y ' s setting of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " (1923), I realized the possibilities for putting a s o n g , traditionally written in 3/4 time, in 4/4 time. I a l s o liked the A minor m o d e u s e d in the p i e c e , a n d w a n t e d to write s o m e t h i n g similar. M o s t importantly, I w a n t e d to get a w a y from the 6/4 folk-ballad feel of the Lodge Lute Book m e l o d y ( s e e Figure 13), w h i c h I felt w a s too languid to e x p r e s s the underlying a n g e r a n d frustration D e s d e m o n a w o u l d likely feel after being falsely a c c u s e d by Othello. In e s s e n c e , I w a n t e d to portray a m o r e active D e s d e m o n a . C o n s e q u e n t l y , I opted to differentiate my setting from the Lodge Lute Book m e l o d y in the following w a y s : 1) divide the s o n g into three s e c t i o n s v e r s e o n e beginning on " T h e p o o r s o u l , " v e r s e two beginning o n " T h e fresh s t r e a m s , " a n d a c h o r u s beginning o n " S i n g all a g r e e n willow"; 2) c h a n g e the time signature from a c o m p o u n d meter to 4/4; 3) c h a n g e the key signature from the folk ballad's traditional minor to major at the c h o r u s , a s a kind of m u s i c a l surprise a n d to e m p h a s i z e the c h a n g e of m o o d o n the line "sing all a g r e e n willow must b e my g a r l a n d . . . " ; a n d 4)  75 reverse the last two lines of the s o n g , s o that the two most important lines ("I called my love f a l s e love . . . " a n d "If I court m o r e w o m e n . . .") would h a v e more impact without being interrupted by the "sing willow, willow, willow" refrain. T h i s a l s o allowed m e to e n d the s o n g with the refrain. T h e s e c h a n g e s to the lyric are d o c u m e n t e d b e l o w (refer to C D T r a c k 22 for my arrangement): Verse 1 T h e poor s o u l sat sighing by a s y c a m o r e tree, ( M I N O R K E Y ) S i n g all a g r e e n willow; H e r hand on her b o s o m , her h e a d o n her k n e e , S i n g willow, willow, willow  Verse 2 T h e fresh s t r e a m s ran by her, a n d m u m u r ' d her m o a n s S i n g willow, willow, willow H e r salt tears fell from her, a n d soften'd the s t o n e s ; S i n g willow, willow, willow.  Chorus S i n g all a g r e e n willow must be my g a r l a n d . (IN M A J O R K E Y ) Let n o b o d y b l a m e him; his s c o r n I a p p r o v e , I call'd my love f a l s e love; but what s a i d he t h e n ? ( M E L O D Y A S C E N D S ) If I court m o e w o m e n , you'll c o u c h with m o e m e n . ( P A U S E ) S i n g willow, willow, willow ( R E V E R S E D F R O M O R I G I N A L O R D E R ) S i n g willow, willow, willow ( T H E S E R E P E T I T I O N S A D D E D ) S i n g willow, willow, willow.  T h e p u r p o s e of subdividing the s o n g into s e c t i o n s w a s to allow for m o r e m u s i c a l variety, a n d to build m u s i c a l tension at the a p p r o a c h of the c h o r u s a n d the lines " S i n g all a g r e e n willow must be my g a r l a n d / Let nobody b l a m e him; his s c o r n I a p p r o v e "  (4.3.55-  76 56), w h i c h I a s s o c i a t e d with feelings of frustrated p a s s i o n , resignation, a n d s a d n e s s at the break in the relationship. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c o n v e r s i o n to 4/4 time p o s e d s o m e p r o b l e m s for m e a s a m e l o d y writer. W h e n a lyric, normally performed in triple meter (3/4), is shifted to a 4/4 meter, the w o r d s tend to b u n c h up into c l u m p s , a n d the s i n g e r will trip o v e r t h e m without e n o u g h s p a c e in the m e l o d y line. I struggled a great d e a l o v e r w h e r e to put the rests in the m e l o d y s o the singer w o u l d h a v e time to catch her breath b e t w e e n p h r a s e s . I a m still not entirely satisfied with the line "the fresh s t r e a m s ran by her," w h i c h proved to be a real tongue twister. Still, I w a s p l e a s e d with the c h a n g e to major at the c h o r u s , a n d felt it w a s worth the effort of the previous build-up. F o r the climactic line - "I call'd my love f a l s e love; but what s a i d he t h e n ? " - I m a d e the m e l o d y s w e e p upwards to give it m o r e emotional impact, in yet another e x a m p l e of w o r d painting. T h e m o s t biting a n d satirical line, "If I court m o e w o m e n , you'll c o u c h with m o e m e n " is isolated from the rest of the s o n g with a dramatic p a u s e . I then returned to the refrain of " S i n g willow, willow, willow," reversing the last two lines of text to provide a feeling of c l o s u r e . With the W i l l o w s o n g , I w a s a b l e to exploit the contrast b e t w e e n major a n d minor tonality a n d affect of e a c h o n m o o d or tone to a greater extent than I h a d d o n e in any of the previous s o n g s . I a l s o played with the m u s i c a l form of the s o n g a n d f a c e d the c h a l l e n g e of interpreting a s o m e w h a t a m b i g u o u s text. H a v i n g set four ballad texts in a row, I w a s n o w e a g e r to try a different s o n g g e n r e . T h e last s o n g I d i s c u s s in this chapter is o n e of the drinking s o n g s in  Othello.  77  The Canakin Clink Pub Song A g o o d s h e r r i s - s a c k . . . . a s c e n d s m e into the brain.... m a k e s it a p p r e h e n s i v e , quick, forgetive, full of nimble, fiery, a n d delectable s h a p e s , w h i c h delivered o'er to the v o i c e , the tongue, w h i c h is the birth, b e c o m e s excellent wit. - Falstaff (2 Henry IV 4.3.95-101) D r u n k ? A n d s p e a k parrot? A n d s q u a b b l e ? S w a g g e r ? S w e a r ? A n d d i s c o u r s e faustian with o n e ' s own s h a d o w ? O thou invisible spirit of wine, if thou hast no n a m e to be known by, let us call thee devil! - C a s s i o to lago {Othello 2.3.298)  Drinking Song as Genre Without doubt, E l i z a b e t h a n a u d i e n c e s enjoyed a g o o d drinking s o n g . A t Stratford-on-Avon, visitors are s h o w n a chair w h e r e o n S h a k e s p e a r e himself "is s a i d to h a v e sat at the tavern a n d joined in the jovial singing there" ( E l s o n , 1 9 0 1 , p. 171). T h e c l o w n s a n d v a g a b o n d s of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays often recite a line or two from a drinking s o n g ( E l s o n , 1 9 0 1 , p. 171), a technique that the dramatist m a y h a v e borrowed from the morality plays he w a t c h e d a s a youth (Greenblatt, 2 0 0 4 , p. 31). T a v e r n s a b o u n d e d in L o n d o n , a n d w e r e the c l u b s a n d coffee h o u s e s of the period. A l e w a s a n important part of the diet of the day, e v e n for children ( W o o d , 2 0 0 3 , p. 267), a n d a n a p o c r y p h a l story is told that S h a k e s p e a r e died of a fever he contracted brought o n by a drinking s e s s i o n with B e n J o h n s o n a n d the poet M i c h a e l Drayton ( W o o d , p. 335). A t the M e r m a i d T a v e r n , in B r e a d Street, m a n y of the poets a n d dramatists of the late 16th a n d early 17th centuries c o n g r e g a t e d , a n d S h a k e s p e a r e w a s likely o n e of the writers' circle. W h a t m a k e s " A n d Let M e the C a n a k i n Clink" s o intriguing is that s o m e v e r s i o n of it probably  78 was performed in the bars a n d t a v e r n s of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s day. S h a k e s p e a r e or o n e of his c o m p o s e r collaborators simply e x p a n d e d upon it or borrowed it wholly from its natural pub environs.  Text and Origins of Canakin Clink Textually s p e a k i n g , " A n d Let M e the C a n a k i n Clink" is a straightforward drinking s o n g , w h i c h , like most s o n g s of its type, p r a i s e s the joy of drinking a n d insists that life is too short to d o without ale. T h e canakin  itself is a little c a n or c u p u s e d for drinking,  h e n c e the title of the s o n g . (The word is s p e l l e d differently in the Folio a n d Quarto v e r s i o n s of the play: in the Folio, the drinking c u p is s p e l l e d cannakin, Quarto a n d F o l g e r Library editions, it is spelt cannikin.  while in the  T h e D o v e r Edition s p e l l s it  canakin.) T h e s o n g , w h i c h o c c u r s in a pub, is s u n g by l a g o , w h o is attempting to get C a s i o drunk a n d discredited in the e y e s of Othello. T h e tune provides c o m i c relief while simultaneously building dramatic t e n s i o n a s the a u d i e n c e waits for C a s i o ' s inevitable fall from g r a c e . T h e s c e n e c o n c l u d e s with C a s i o brawling drunkenly with R o d e r i g o a n d then w o u n d i n g M o n t a n o in a n intoxicated rage, a n offence m a d e graver by M o n t a n o ' s rank a s a former governor. Othello then enters to find C a s i o inebriated while o n guard duty a n d d i s m i s s e s him. T h e e n s u i n g tragedy is precipitated w h e n D e s d e m o n a attempts to intervene o n C a s i o ' s behalf, thus increasing O t h e l l o ' s p a r a n o i a o v e r her fidelity, w h i c h is being fueled by l a g o ' s o n g o i n g innuendo. A s l a g o remarks: " F o r w h i l e s this honest fool P l i e s D e s d e m o n a to repair his [Casio's] fortune, A n d s h e for him [Casio] p l e a d s strongly to the M o o r . . . A n d by h o w m u c h s h e strives to d o him g o o d , S h e shall undo her credit with the M o o r " (2.3.374-379).  79  B e l o w is the full text of the s o n g (refer to C D T r a c k 2 3 , for m y arrangement), w h i c h a p p e a r s uninterrupted by d i a l o g u e in A c t T w o , S c e n e T h r e e : A n d let m e the c a n a k i n clink, clink; [second clink omitted in my version] A n d let m e the c a n a k i n clink: A soldier's a m a n ; A life's but a s p a n ; W h y then let a soldier drink.  T h e e x a c t s o u r c e s of the text a n d original m u s i c for l a g o ' s first drinking s o n g are both u n k n o w n , but s o m e interesting c o n n e c t i o n s c a n be m a d e . It is both fitting a n d ironic that the key line of " A n d Let M e the C a n a k i n C l i n k , " " a soldier's a m a n , a life's but a s p a n , " is derived from the cautionary w o r d s of P s a l m 39:6: " B e h o l d , thou hast m a d e my d a y s a s it w e r e a s p a n long . . . a n d verily e v e r y m a n living is altogether vanity . . . he h e a p e t h up riches, a n d cannot tell w h o shall gather them." l a g o ' s first drinking s o n g s e r v e s a s both a rousing call to c a r o u s i n g for all in the theatre (actors a n d a u d i e n c e alike), a s well a s a f o r e s h a d o w i n g of d o o m . In terms of the m e l o d i c origins, C h a p p e l l s e t s the text to a n old ballad tune c a l l e d " W i g m o r e ' s G a l l i a r d " ( L o n g , 1 9 7 1 , p. 151) dating from 1602, while Sternfeld (1963) s u g g e s t s a tune called " J o a n S a n d e r s o n " (p. 146) from Playford's English  Dancing  Master, dating from 1 6 5 1 . Neither of t h e s e  settings c a n be proved to be c o n t e m p o r a r y with S h a k e s p e a r e . Both Sternfeld (1963) a n d Duffin (2004) s u g g e s t a tune called " T h e S o l d i e r ' s Life," a ballad frequently referred to by playwrights of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s time (Sternfeld, 1 9 6 3 , p. 63). Figure 14 s h o w s a brief excerpt of Duffin's reconstruction (Duffin, 2 0 0 4 , p. 50) of " C a n a k i n Clink" ( C D T r a c k 24), set to the " S o l d i e r ' s Life" melody:  80 The Canakin Clink-Soldier's Life Melody G  s  J ip And  rr  let me the can  G  p a kin  clink,  clink, And  D  p-  p sol dier's a man; m  D  m A  let me the can G  a kin D  clink: G  m  life's but  a span;  Why  then let  a  sol  dier  drink.  Figure 14. T h e C a n a k i n Clink - Soldier's Life M e l o d y  Duffin points out that the line " a solider's a m a n / a life's but a s p a n " m a y h a v e b e e n part of a lost s t a n z a of the original Soldier's  Life s o n g (p. 50). A l l of the traditional  settings are in 6/8, 6/4, or 3/4, s o my o w n setting in 4/4 is a slight departure from the traditional v e r s i o n s of the s o n g , but the 4/4 time signature better a c c o m m o d a t e d the j a z z / k l e z m e r style that I w a s aiming for in this setting. Dramatic Function M o o r e o b s e r v e s that drinking s o n g s frequently a p p e a r in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays a s a "foreshadowing of peril" (Moore, 1916, p. 85). Indeed, of all the drinking s o n g s in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays, only t h o s e of Falstaff a n d S i r T o b y are free from impending disaster (though Falstaff d o e s eventually meet his e n d in the off-stage d e a t h b e d s c e n e of Henry V [2.3]). N e v e r t h e l e s s , the C a n a k i n Clink pub s o n g a l s o s e r v e s a practical dramatic p u r p o s e : the actual stage time of the drinking e p i s o d e in Othello is short, a n d C a s s i o must b e c o m e drunk quickly; therefore, by e m p l o y i n g a s o n g , the n e c e s s a r y bawdy a t m o s p h e r e is conjured a n d s t a g e time is s u s p e n d e d , m a k i n g C a s s i o ' s instant d r u n k e n n e s s plausible to the a u d i e n c e . In S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays, m u s i c is frequently  81 e m p l o y e d for the p u r p o s e of s u s p e n d i n g or stretching s t a g e time, s u c h a s in As You Like It, w h e n the D u k e h e a r s O r l a n d o ' s story of h o w h e c a m e to be in the forest of A r d e n during A m i e n s ' p e r f o r m a n c e of " B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d . " M o r e o v e r , the a u d i e n c e m e m b e r s t h e m s e l v e s might well be imbibing during the drinking s c e n e , a s " o n e p e n n y w o u l d get y o u into the yard w h e r e y o u c o u l d stand for the two or three hours with the c r o w d , milling about, buying a p p l e s , o r a n g e s , nuts, a n d bottled ale . . . " (Greenblatt, 2 0 0 4 , p. 185). O n e c a n imagine that at the m e r e mention of drinking, m a n y a u d i e n c e m e m b e r s w o u l d h a v e heartily raised their o w n bottles a n d joined in with the on-stage carousing. In addition, the s o n g allows l a g o to d i s g u i s e his true nature from C a s s i o . A s Sternfeld (1963) puts it,". . . by pretending to be full of s o n g , a s good-natured a n d kindly p e o p l e w e r e s u p p o s e d to b e , "honest" l a g o d i s a r m s any s u s p i c i o n C a s s i o my h a v e h a r b o u r e d " (p. 145). B y singing, l a g o is a b l e to c o v e r up the fact that h e is not drinking a s m u c h a s the others. L o n g (1971) points out that S h a k e s p e a r e u s e s C a s s i o ' s c o m m e n t a r y o n the quality of the m u s i c to s h o w the a u d i e n c e the deterioration of his judgement, stating " w h e n at the e n d of the s e c o n d s o n g C a s s i o j u d g e s it ' a m o r e exquisite s o n g than the other', w e m a y be sure that his critical faculties are c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s k e e n than before" (p. 151). A l l of the aforementioned t e c h n i q u e s relate to preserving the theatrical illusion for v i e w e r s , allowing t h e m to a c c e p t C a s s i o ' s rapid intoxication a n d the e a s e with w h i c h the lieutenant is lured to his d o o m . Without the two pub s o n g s ("And Let M e T h e C a n a k i n Clink," followed by " K i n g S t e p h e n W a s A W o r t h y P e e r " ) , the s c e n e w o u l d fall flat.  82  Performance and Instrumentation: Tone and Mood O f all the s o n g s I c o m m e n t o n in this chapter, this o n e w a s the e a s i e s t to write, a n d definitely the most fun to record - though it a l s o turned into a n incredibly c o m p l e x multitrack recording s e s s i o n . F o r this s o n g , I utilized the full r e s o u r c e s of my recording studio. B e c a u s e the lyric w a s s o slight, a n d the a c c o m p a n y i n g m e l o d y a fairly straightforward drinking ditty, I found myself delving d e e p e r into the s c e n e to realize the dramatic situation a n d m a k e e a c h of the three principal c h a r a c t e r s c o m e alive for the listener, through the u s e of varying v o i c e s a n d s o u n d effects. I w a s a i d e d by the talent of A n g u s M a c d o n a l d , a n exceptionally gifted actor a n d v o i c e - o v e r artist w h o h a s w o r k e d o n n u m e r o u s local film a n d television productions. A n g u s w a s a b l e to provide different v o i c e s for lago, C a s i o , a n d M o n t a n o - s o m e t h i n g I never could h a v e d o n e if I performed the s o n g myself. I wrote my version of " A n d Let M e the C a n a k i n Clink" in about half a n hour, but it took m e s e v e r a l d a y s to record it. After recording the b a s i c piano part a n d singing the s o n g , I felt that s o m e t h i n g w a s m i s s i n g . A l l of the s o n g texts in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays are tied to locality (often u s e d to set the s c e n e a n d s u g g e s t a particular environment, time, or place), a n d a drinking s o n g that t a k e s p l a c e in a tavern s e e m e d to require s o m e t h i n g that m a d e the location real for the listener. In a s e n s e , t h e s e b a c k g r o u n d n o i s e s that formed the a m b i a n c e of a pub w e r e part of the instrumentation. I b e g a n sifting through s o u n d effects libraries looking for a pub environs. W h i l e the addition of the s o u n d effects s u c h a s a n out-of-tune piano, crowd n o i s e , clinking g l a s s e s a n d breaking d i s h e s h e l p e d , I realized that what I really w a n t e d to d o with this s o n g w a s t a k e the next step: rather than writing a s o n g a n d having it performed in isolation, I w a n t e d to m a k e it part of the dramatic fabric a n d h a v e it s u n g by the characters. I k n e w I w a s not a g o o d e n o u g h  83 thespian to a c c o m p l i s h s u c h a task myself, s o I enlisted the aid of a professional actor. W h e n I e l e c t e d to intersperse s n a t c h e s of dialogue from A c t T w o , S c e n e T h r e e , during the s o n g to include C a s i o a n d M o n t a n o , I did not anticipate the task I had set for myself. I realized that to record d i a l o g u e from e a c h of the three c h a r a c t e r s - C a s i o , lago, a n d M o n t a n o - for a three minute s o n g , my actor a n d I would h a v e to c o m e up with a c h a r a c t e r description for e a c h of t h e m . O n e could not simply sit d o w n a n d read the lines - e a c h h a d to h a v e a distinctive v o i c e , personality, a n d b a c k story to m a k e him c o n v i n c i n g , e v e n a s c o m e d i c caricatures in our Kurt W e i l - e s q u e tavern/cabaret scenario. Ultimately, our performance m a y h a v e b e e n too c o m e d i c , but e a c h character c o m e s a c r o s s distinctly: lago a s a l o w - c l a s s ruffian a n d bully; C a s s i o a s a r i d i c u l o u s f p p (certainly, the e l e m e n t of the ridiculous is a s s o c i a t e d with C a s s i o , though he d o e s r e d e e m himself at the play's end); a n d M o n t a n o a s a snivelling bureaucratic official. A l l in all, " A n d Let M e the C a n a k i n Clink" w a s a n excellent e x p e r i e n c e in exploring characterization in relation to s o n g .  Concluding Thoughts on Composing Song Settings C o n t e m p l a t i n g m y e x p e r i e n c e s of r e s e a r c h i n g a n d recording various S h a k e s p e a r e s o n g s led m e b a c k to the primary question of this thesis: W h a t are the possibilities for a p e d a g o g y of teaching S h a k e s p e a r e through s o n g ? In the e n s u i n g chapter, I f o c u s o n a s p e c t s of the songwriting p r o c e s s that w e r e particularly v a l u a b l e for e n h a n c i n g my understanding of the p l a y s , a n d for linking t h e s e m o m e n t s of p r o c e s s to the g e n e r a l o u t c o m e s of the high s c h o o l E n g l i s h curriculum. In addition, I a d d r e s s t h o s e c o n c e p t s that might take students b e y o n d the curriculum, or e n c o u r a g e t h e m to reinterpret the existing curriculum in n e w w a y s . W h i l e m a n y m o m e n t s of the p r o c e s s  84 w e r e interesting, I feel that most of my songwriting activities c o u l d be represented in four m a i n a r e a s : 1) M u s i c a n d M e m o r y ; 2) C o n t e x t a n d S y n t h e s i s ; 3) Multimodality; a n d 4) T o n e a n d M o o d .  CHAPTER 4 . TEACHING SHAKESPEARE THROUGH SONG T h o s e that d o t e a c h y o u n g b a b e s , D o it with gentle m e a n s a n d e a s y t a s k s . - D e s d e m o n a to lago (Othello  4.2.113-114)  In the p r e c e d i n g chapter, I related m y a p p r o a c h to S h a k e s p e a r e through s o n g , a s well a s s o m e of the c o n c e p t s a n d i s s u e s raised during the creative p r o c e s s , including m e m o r y , context, authority, interpretation, m o o d , a n d tone. In this chapter, I d e s c r i b e a potential instructional method for teaching S h a k e s p e a r e through s o n g , reflect o n my t e a c h i n g practice a n d c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e s using this instructional method with a n E n g l i s h 10 c l a s s , a n d highlight t h o s e e l e m e n t s that would benefit other e d u c a t o r s w h o m a y b e contemplating using s o n g in teaching S h a k e s p e a r e . I a l s o attempt to a n s w e r the q u e s t i o n s I originally p o s e d at the beginning of this thesis (refer to p a g e 3). A l t h o u g h m y primary p u r p o s e is reflection, throughout this chapter I try to u s e a l a n g u a g e with w h i c h m y t e a c h i n g c o l l e a g u e s would be familiar, in terms of instructional g o a l s , learning objectives, o u t c o m e s , a n d evaluation. I h a v e m a d e a c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e to a d h e r e to the existing British C o l u m b i a Ministry curriculum a s a s t a n d a r d , though I r e c o g n i z e that it is but o n e p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h . T h i s is d o n e out of the d e s i r e to a p p e a l to a broader a u d i e n c e , not only of s c h o l a r s , but of fellow British C o l u m b i a ( B C ) t e a c h e r s , w h o must work a n d t e a c h within a n existing framework. D a v i s (2000) notes,  85 F o r m a l curricula that a r e structured a r o u n d t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s of a c c u m u l a t i o n a n d linearity are tied to popular c o n c e p t i o n s of ' l e s s o n s ' a n d ' l e s s o n p l a n n i n g ' . . . 'learning o b j e c t i v e s ' . . . T e a c h i n g a n d planning for teaching are, in this f r a m e , truly c o n c e i v e d a s c o m p l i c a t e d (that is, m e c h a n i c a l ) p r o c e s s e s . (Davis, S u m a r a , & L u c e - K a p l e r , 2 0 0 0 , p. 58) M y d e s i r e here is not to r e d u c e the t e a c h i n g of S h a k e s p e a r e to a m e c h a n i c a l p r o c e s s , but to a p p r o a c h it within the existing structure a n d reinterpret the curriculum in n e w w a y s . A s well, I w i s h to d e m o n s t r a t e the interdisciplinary nature of t e a c h i n g S h a k e s p e a r e through s o n g . T o this e n d , the chapter c o n c l u d e s with a s u m m a r y of my o w n thoughts a n d implications for future S h a k e s p e a r e curricula.  Developing an Instructional Methodology: General Goals In d e s i g n i n g my method for t e a c h i n g S h a k e s p e a r e through s o n g , the first step w a s to formulate s o m e g e n e r a l instructional g o a l s before m o v i n g o n to specific learning objectives a n d o u t c o m e s related to the existing B C curriculum. T h e first group of g o a l s dealt with a c c o m m o d a t i n g v a r i o u s skill levels a n d providing b a c k g r o u n d a n d context for the play. I a l s o had b a s i c skills a n d material for the students to m a s t e r s o that they could h a v e m o r e time for critical thinking. I regard m a n y of the artistic c h o i c e s students m a k e while e n g a g e d in the creative p r o c e s s a s e x a m p l e s of critical thinking. In addition to the practical g o a l s a b o v e , I h a d metacognitive  goals a s well.  Metagcognition refers to learners' a w a r e n e s s of their o w n k n o w l e d g e a n d of the cognitive p r o c e s s e s they u s e to construct k n o w l e d g e . W h e n students reflect o n their p r o c e s s a n d the r e a s o n s for their d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , m u c h a s I did in the previous chapter, they are e n g a g i n g in metacognition. M y two m a i n g o a l s in this a r e a w e r e a s follows: •  to e m p h a s i z e p r o c e s s a n d critical thinking by giving students opportunities to revisit the texts a n d to c o n s i d e r h o w they arrived at their understandings  86 •  to facilitate synthesizing activities by helping students: a) m a k e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n the various e l e m e n t s of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s poetry, a n d b) understand h o w t h o s e e l e m e n t s c o m b i n e to m a k e a creative work. R e g a r d i n g the first of t h e s e metacognitive g o a l s , I k n e w that the activity would  only be s u c c e s s f u l if it h a d a c o m p o n e n t that e n c o u r a g e d the students continually to critique, revise, a n d perfect their work. T h e E n g l i s h a n d M u s i c Instructional R e s o u r c e P a c k a g e (IRP) lists the ability to revise a n d critique a s a n important learning objective, stating that students s h o u l d be a b l e to "revise a n d edit their c o m m u n i c a t i o n s to improve content, organization, a n d effect to suit specific a u d i e n c e s " (English I R P , p. 68). T h i s o u t c o m e is e c h o e d in the M u s i c I R P , w h i c h states that students s h o u l d "demonstrate a n ability to critique the work of self a n d others" ( M u s i c I R P , p. 46). In writing the s o n g settings, students w o u l d h a v e multiple opportunities to d e l v e into the text to c o n s i d e r their o w n a p p r o a c h e s , a s I did in c o m p o s i n g my S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g s . T h e y would h a v e to m a k e critical c h o i c e s , edit their o w n work, d e v e l o p their o w n criteria for what constitutes a " g o o d " c o m p o s i t i o n , a n d c o m p a r e various v e r s i o n s of the s a m e s o n g by other c o m p o s e r s , a s well a s c o m p a r e settings of their o w n d e s i g n . I felt that c o m p u t e r s would be a n ideal vehicle for e n c o u r a g i n g revision a n d a n a l y s i s . A s H a m m e t t (2002) points out, "technologies . . . c a n b e u s e d to j u x t a p o s e texts to e x p r e s s particular m e a n i n g s or to o p e n p e d a g o g i c a l possibilities for critical questioning" (p. 143). In other w o r d s , technology c a n be utilized for m o r e than its o w n s a k e ; p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e a n d e n g a g e m e n t with the text c a n be d e v e l o p e d through the u s e of technology that e n c o u r a g e s students to " m a k e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n the i d e a s . . . p r e s e n t e d in literary a n d m a s s m e d i a w o r k s a n d their o w n e x p e r i e n c e s " (English 11/12 I R P , p. A - 5 ) .  87 In relation to the s e c o n d metacognitive g o a l - s y n t h e s i s - I w a n t e d students to b e a b l e to appreciate v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s poetry. E z r a P o u n d d e s c r i b e d three e l e m e n t s of poetry: " m e l o p o e i a " (music, s o u n d a n d rhythm), l o g o p o e i a (logic or intellectual content), a n d p h a n o p o e i a (imagery a s related to m e m o r y a n d imagination) ( L u c e - K a p l e r & S a n d h u , 2 0 0 2 , p. 71). In particular, I w a n t e d to f o c u s o n the p h a n o p o e i a a n d m e l o p o e i a of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s poetry b e c a u s e , in my e x p e r i e n c e , t h e s e e l e m e n t s are often neglected in c l a s s r o o m s in favor of concentration on the logos of the p o e m . A s L u c e - K a p l e r points out "what is c o n s i d e r e d l e s s often is the p o w e r of i m a g e s to e v o k e our imaginations a n d m e m o r i e s . . ." ( L u c e - K a p l e r & S a n d h u , p. 72). M y intent w a s to h a v e students c o n s i d e r h o w m e l o p o e i a , l o g o p o e i a , a n d p h a n o p o e i a c o m e together to m a k e a creative work. T h i s g o a l d r a w s o n that outlined in the M u s i c I R P , w h i c h s u g g e s t s that students s h o u l d " a n a l y z e h o w the e l e m e n t s of e x p r e s s i o n a r e c o m b i n e d to a c h i e v e specific effects" (p. 40).  Goals for Evaluation T h e last group of g o a l s I d e v i s e d w e r e c o n c e r n e d with d o c u m e n t a t i o n a n d evaluation. T h e two m a i n g o a l s in this a r e a w e r e : •  to s u p p l y effective evaluation by d e s i g n i n g a suitable m e a n s of evaluation for both p r o c e s s a n d product a n d providing opportunities for self-evaluation  .  to avoid the pitfalls of complicity in regards to d o c u m e n t i n g the creative p r o c e s s . With respect to the s e c o n d g o a l , I w i s h e d to d o c u m e n t the creative p r o c e s s , but  not to affect or stunt the p r o c e s s by m a k i n g students overly s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . S u p p l y i n g a n effective m e a n s of evaluation thus meant not only evaluating the end-product, but a l s o evaluating the journey students took to get there. A s well, I felt that s o m e c o m p o n e n t of self-evaluation ought to be present that involved students in setting their  88 own criteria for what would constitute a worthy c o m p o s i t i o n , a s well a s in deciding w h e t h e r or not they a c h i e v e d their own s t a n d a r d . Intrinsically related to the evaluative p r o c e s s w a s d o c u m e n t a t i o n , b e c a u s e students n e e d e d to b e a b l e to look b a c k at their p r o c e s s a n d s e e its evolution.  Learning Objectives and Outcomes After considering my own g e n e r a l instructional, skill-related a n d metacognitive g o a l s , I referred to the E n g l i s h 8-10 Instructional R e s o u r c e P a c k a g e (1996), to get a clearer s e n s e of the Ministry guidelines, learning objectives, a n d o u t c o m e s . I utilized the B C Ministry of E d u c a t i o n ' s G r a d e 10 prescribed learning o u t c o m e s for E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e Arts. A s well, I consulted the M u s i c a n d T e c h n o l o g y Integrated R e s o u r c e P a c k a g e s . A list of the learning objectives that w e r e most relevant to this enterprise is included in A p p e n d i x A . T h e Ministry's g e n e r a l learning objectives that w e r e most interesting involved students d e v e l o p i n g their e x p e r i e n c e with electronic m e d i a , d e v e l o p i n g a n d utilizing e l e m e n t s of creative e x p r e s s i o n , revising a n d exploring a p r o c e s s rather than generating a product, working towards a collective g o a l , a n d synthesizing the e l e m e n t s of form a n d e x p r e s s i o n to represent their interpretation of a text. Of c o u r s e , I a l s o h a d specific learning objectives in mind, b a s e d o n my songwriting e x p e r i e n c e s detailed in C h a p t e r 3. T h e s e are outlined in A p p e n d i x B (Unit P l a n Learning Objectives). W i t h my g e n e r a l instructional g o a l s articulated, a n d my learning objectives refined, in light of the Ministry's learning o u t c o m e s a n d my initial t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , I b e g a n to s e a r c h for a n activity that would promote t h e s e o u t c o m e s .  Designing Activities: Garage Band Shakesongs With the r e l e a s e of the G a r a g e B a n d software application by A p p l e in 2 0 0 4 , I finally h a d a tool that would help m e t e a c h S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g the w a y I w a n t e d to. T h e connotations of the software's title are c l e a r to a n y o n e with a rock m u s i c b a c k g r o u n d : Garage Band allows individuals to d o what they m a y h a v e d o n e in the g a r a g e a s a t e e n a g e r - m a k e m u s i c , undisturbed by unappreciative others - s o it s e e m e d a natural fit for my s e c o n d a r y students. T h e program c a m e free a n d pre-loaded with A p p l e M a c i n t o s h c o m p u t e r s , a n d a r e a s o n a b l e n u m b e r of t h e s e w e r e at the s c h o o l w h e r e I taught, s o student a c c e s s w o u l d not b e a p r o b l e m . P e r u s i n g the c o m p a n y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l W e b site, I s a w a l e s s o n plan entitled Garage Band Poetry. T h e i d e a w a s s i m p l e e n o u g h : students w o u l d c o m p o s e their o w n p o e m s a n d set t h e m to m u s i c using the Garage Band software. I immediately c o n s i d e r e d applying this t e c h n i q u e to S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g s . Initially, that w a s the extent of my i d e a , but the m o r e I investigated, the m o r e I b e c a m e c o n v i n c e d that this could b e a full-fledged multimedia e x p e r i e n c e , with students adding stills and/or m o v i n g i m a g e s to their S h a k e s o n g s a n d , m o s t importantly, creating multiple v e r s i o n s of the s a m e s o n g . A s Neil P o s t m a n (1993) wrote, " E v e r y t e c h n o l o g y is both a burden a n d a b l e s s i n g ; not either-or, but this-and that" (p. 5); therefore, a t e a c h e r ' s d e c i s i o n to utilize a n e w p i e c e of t e c h n o l o g y in the c l a s s r o o m s h o u l d be b a s e d o n whether or not the p e r c e i v e d benefits  outweigh the  deficits (p. 9). In other w o r d s , " w h e n w e admit a n e w t e c h n o l o g y to the culture, w e must d o s o with our e y e s w i d e o p e n " ( P o s t m a n , p. 7). E x a m i n i n g my instructional g o a l s a n d learning objectives, I c o n s i d e r e d h o w I w o u l d a d d r e s s t h e m with this n e w activity. T h e software a l l o w e d students to o v e r d u b limitless tracks of a u d i o , c o m b i n i n g v o i c e s , instruments, a n d p e r c u s s i o n a s they c h o s e . A s well, the learning c u r v e w a s  90 relatively g r a d u a l - the interface w a s not c o m p l i c a t e d to master. B e s t of all, students h a d a library of m u s i c loops from w h i c h to c h o o s e , including p r e - s a m p l e d s n a t c h e s of guitar, p e r c u s s i o n , a n d other s o u n d s that students could arrange a n d layer. A l l of t h e s e a s p e c t s suited my g o a l of a c c o m m o d a t i n g varying skill levels a n d allowing students to "develop imaginative or creative r e s p o n s e s to s h a r e their i d e a s " (English I R P , p. 60). S i n c e this w a s a first attempt, no m o d e l s of student-produced S h a k e s o n g s w e r e available; however, e x a m p l e s of other student w o r k s h a d b e e n created with the p r o g r a m , from " c o m p o s e r raps" (raps about the lives of f a m o u s c o m p o s e r s ) , to other poetry projects. T h e potential existed to take a n existing m o d e l by a f a m o u s c o m p o s e r , or myself, a n d " s a m p l e " it into the program a s part of the n e w p e r f o r m a n c e . B y beginning with a variety of s m a l l projects to familiarize students with the software a n d s o m e s i m p l e a s s i g n m e n t s , I h o p e d that they c o u l d build c o n f i d e n c e in their o w n creative abilities without feeling o v e r w h e l m e d . T h e c o m p u t e r offered the potential for students to revise their work a n d edit it; therefore, the f o c u s w a s o n p r o c e s s rather than p e r f o r m a n c e . I b e l i e v e d that electronic m e d i a w o u l d allow students to try different a p p r o a c h e s to the s a m e line of text without e r a s i n g previous attempts, m a k i n g them m o r e willing to e n g a g e in a variety of interpretations a n d to " c o n s i d e r m o r e than o n e interpretation of different c o m m u n i c a t i o n s " (English I R P , p. 60). If textual variations a r o s e , s u c h a s the d i l e m m a I e n c o u n t e r e d w h e n setting O p h e l i a ' s s o n g , students h a d a n opportunity to explore a n alternate v e r s i o n of the s o n g text or to create a n alternate m u s i c a l setting without dismantling their first attempt. O n e r e s o u r c e that w a s extremely useful in exploring textual v a r i a n c e s w a s M i c h a e l B e s t ' s Internet S h a k e s p e a r e Editions (Best, 2005). T h e site p u b l i s h e s high quality texts a n d multimedia materials of r e l e v a n c e to S h a k e s p e a r e  91 studies, a n d presents multiple quarto a n d folio v e r s i o n s for c o m p a r i s o n . A l s o , the possibility e x i s t e d of building a c o m p o n e n t into the a s s i g n m e n t that w o u l d a s k for multiple v e r s i o n s or "remixes" of the s a m e S h a k e s o n g . A c c o r d i n g l y , I could a s k the students for s e v e r a l m i x e s of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " that varied in tone a n d m o o d . Further, b e c a u s e students c o u l d s a v e their m u s i c , they c o u l d work o n c o m p o s i t i o n s o v e r s e v e r a l periods rather than having to recreate t h e m from scratch every c l a s s , e n c o u r a g i n g t h e m to "revise a n d edit their c o m m u n i c a t i o n to improve content" ( I R P , p. 68). B e s t of all, students c o u l d s a v e multiple v e r s i o n s of the s o n g in v a r i o u s s t a g e s of d e v e l o p m e n t , to s h o w the nature of the p r o c e s s . A g a i n , m y plan w a s to h a v e the students f o c u s o n p r o c e s s rather than product. T h e deficits of u s i n g the software that w e r e anticipated w e r e a s follows. First, the novelty factor, while exciting, h a d to b e c h a n n e l e d effectively. A n o t h e r i s s u e that could b e c o n s t r u e d a s a benefit or a deficit, d e p e n d i n g o n o n e ' s perspective, w a s the e l e m e n t of c h o i c e : students n o w h a d the ability to m a k e multiple versions/interpretations, but s u c h c h o i c e a l s o could prevent t h e m from m a k i n g tough artistic d e c i s i o n s a n d committing t h e m s e l v e s to a particular a p p r o a c h or vision for their work. In my e x p e r i e n c e , students s o m e t i m e s " h e d g e d their bets" by p r o d u c i n g two v e r s i o n s of a work, only to d i s c o v e r that neither interpretation w a s understood by the a u d i e n c e in the w a y anticipated (Wimsatt & B e a r d s l e y , 1946).  Garage Band S h a k e s o n g s T h e unit that I finally d e s i g n e d took approximately three w e e k s a n d involved m a n y a s p e c t s of S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g , from historical p e r s p e c t i v e s , to the composition p r o c e s s . A l l of the a s s i g n m e n t s w e r e criterion-referenced a n d students w e r e g i v e n a n opportunity to self-evaluate. F o r a n outline of the Unit P l a n , a s well a s E v a l u a t i o n  92 R u b r i c s a n d S t a n d a r d s , s e e A p p e n d i c e s B a n d C . I u s e d the G a r a g e B a n d S h a k e s o n g s Unit with a G r a d e 10 E n g l i s h c l a s s that c o n s i s t e d of a mixed population of m a l e a n d f e m a l e students with a w i d e range of abilities. T h e c l a s s a l s o contained a s i z a b l e portion of E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ( E S L ) students. A l l of the students w e r e unfamiliar with S h a k e s p e a r e ; in fact, in most c a s e s , students w e r e encountering his work for the first time. C l a s s e s w e r e 7 5 minutes in length. T h e students w e r e broken up into g r o u p s of 3, a s w e h a d a c l a s s of 2 7 a n d only 9 c o m p u t e r s . W e h a d b e e n working o n the play As You Like It for two w e e k s , a n d students w e r e n o w at a point w h e r e they k n e w the b a s i c plot of the play a n d the major c h a r a c t e r s . I d e c i d e d to u s e the s o n g s from As You Like It a s a g a t e w a y to exploring the t h e m e s , c h a r a c t e r s , a n d settings of the play. In the c o u r s e of teaching the G a r a g e B a n d S h a k e s o n g s Unit, I found that m a n y of the s a m e i s s u e s I e n c o u n t e r e d a s a songwriter w e r e a l s o of interest to the students, a n d t h e s e b e c a m e key topics for questioning a n d d e b a t e a s they p r o g r e s s e d with their o w n c o m p o s i t i o n s . In the e n s u i n g s e c t i o n , I detail s o m e of the l e s s o n s that provided intriguing topics for further study. I w i s h to e m p h a s i z e , however, that this is not a n experimental study. W h a t follows is a reflection on m y o w n t e a c h i n g practices - practices w h i c h e x t e n d e d out of r e s e a r c h a n d m u s i c a l exploration of text undertaken in the context of my o w n composition process.  Classroom Highlights Effect of Instrumentation on Mood and Tone Instrumentation, at its c o r e , involves the relationship b e t w e e n m u s i c a l timbre the distinct quality of a m u s i c a l s o u n d - a n d its ability to e v o k e e m o t i o n . G a b r i e l s s o n a n d Lindstrom (2001) s u g g e s t a scientific explanation: t o n e s with m a n y h a r m o n i c s or  93 partials m a y e v o k e anger, fear, activity, o r surprise, while t o n e s with f e w partials m a y s u g g e s t b o r e d o m , h a p p i n e s s , or s a d n e s s (p. 241). T h e p r e c i s e c a u s e of the relationship b e t w e e n timbre a n d emotional r e s p o n s e remains u n k n o w n , but it is n e v e r t h e l e s s c l e a r that the a s s o c i a t i o n s are related to the listener's o w n internal b i a s e s a n d cultural b a c k g r o u n d . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n Hindustani m u s i c w a s j u d g e d by W e s t e r n e a r s , listeners a s s o c i a t e d stringed instruments with feelings of a n g e r (Balkwill & T h o m p s o n , 1999); in c o m p a r i s o n , W e s t e r n listeners p e r c e i v e d the violin (as utilized in m u c h W e s t e r n art music) to e x p r e s s s a d n e s s ( B e h r e n s & G r e e n , 1993). W h i l e n o n e of the aforementioned studies are c o n c l u s i v e , my o w n students b e c a m e interested in instrumentation a n d its emotional effects early o n in our unit. T h e p u r p o s e of the first part of the G a r a g e B a n d S h a k e s o n g Unit w a s to get students m a k i n g m u s i c a n d feeling comfortable with the software. I b e g a n by having the students input existing s o n g s a n d m e l o d i e s into the program. A s a prerequisite, students w e r e familiarized with h o w to read m u s i c notation in treble clef a n d h o w to identify the notes on a p i a n o k e y b o a r d ( G a r a g e B a n d ' s interface is a virtual piano k e y b o a r d that students "play" with a m o u s e ) . S t u d e n t s w e r e given a d i a g r a m of the p i a n o k e y b o a r d to label a n d k e e p a s a reference. Originally, I h a d intended to g i v e the c l a s s a n E l i z a b e t h a n tune to input into G a r a g e B a n d a s their trial run, but instead opted for something s i m p l e a n d familiar: "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star." T h e children's s o n g proved to b e a g o o d c o n f i d e n c e builder for the students. I h a d anticipated that learning the software, c o m b i n e d with the difficulty of interpreting m u s i c notation a n d locating it on a piano k e y b o a r d w o u l d take at least two c l a s s s e s s i o n s , but by the e n d of the first c l a s s most of the g r o u p s had finished inputting "Twinkle Twinkle" a n d w e r e a s k i n g m e for other m u s i c to input (the c h o r u s of "Twinkle Twinkle" filled the room). T h e i r e n t h u s i a s m  94 for this activity s e e m e d b o u n d l e s s . T h e y a l s o b e g a n to play their s o n g s with different instrument s o u n d s , s u g g e s t i n g that they w e r e ready to c o n s i d e r the effect of instrumentation in their m u s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . I then g a v e t h e m a c h o i c e b e t w e e n two E l i z a b e t h a n tunes: " G r e e n s l e e v e s " a n d "Heart's E a s e . " I h a d a v o i d e d t h e s e t u n e s in the initial l e s s o n b e c a u s e they w e r e longer, m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d , a n d l e s s familiar. I p l a y e d recordings of both s o n g s d o n e with period instruments, a s well a s a n E l i z a b e t h a n d a n c e tune, " G r e e n G a r t e r s , " performed by the Deller C o n s o r t . M o s t of the students opted for " G r e e n s l e e v e s " b e c a u s e they h a d heard it previously a n d therefore k n e w the rhythm. (Indeed, " G r e e n s l e e v e s " r e m a i n s the m o s t popular s o n g of the E l i z a b e t h a n period surviving to the present d a y . S h a k e s p e a r e mentions it twice in T h e Merry Wives of Windsor,  in A c t T w o , S c e n e O n e a n d A c t F i v e ,  S c e n e Five.) T h e u s e of the "Heart's E a s e " a n d " G r e e n s l e e v e s " m e l o d i e s proved to b e a n excellent s e g u e into a d i s c u s s i o n of E l i z a b e t h a n instrumentation, including period instruments s u c h a s the cittern, lute, recorder, virginal a n d viol, a s well a s the c o n c e p t of the "broken" consort. F r o m the outset, it w a s fascinating that the students w a n t e d to recreate the instrumentation of the period rather than simply inputting the m e l o d y into their c o m p u t e r a n d h a v e it play b a c k with a g e n e r i c midi p i a n o s o u n d . T h e y r e c o g n i z e d that instrumentation played a key role in the m o o d a n d a t m o s p h e r e of dramatic m u s i c . T h e students' d e s i r e to b e authentic w a s s o i m p r e s s i v e that I went b a c k to o n e of m y o w n s o n g s a n d re-thought the instrumentation. T h e result w a s not merely a n e w a r r a n g e m e n t of my existing setting of O b e r o n ' s s o n g from A Midsummer  Night's  Dream,  but a n entirely different m u s i c a l setting, replete with electronic reproductions of recorder, harp, viols a n d harpsichord ( C D T r a c k 25). T h i s s e c o n d setting of the s o n g  95 w a s different from the first attempt, w h i c h h a d b e e n a c c o m p a n i e d solely by piano ( C D T r a c k 29). Undoubtedly, the new setting w a s no l e s s authentic, in terms of g e n u i n e period instrumentation, but had a stronger m u s i c a l rationale. N o w , the harp a n d harpsichord w e r e u s e d to represent the fairy world, while the recorder, viols, a n d piano represented h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . A s well, the addition of instrumentation permitted a reconsidering of the v o c a l performance - v o i c e s , after all, w e r e instruments too - a n d I r e a s s i g n e d m u c h of the s o n g text to other c h a r a c t e r s b e s i d e s O b e r o n , including Titania a n d her retinue of Fairies. A d d i n g characters, in turn, affected the m u s i c ; I d e c i d e d to introduce a stately, s l o w - m o v i n g m e l o d i c line to represent O b e r o n a n d Titania's c o m m a n d i n g status, while the Fairies received a more fluid, fast-moving line to s u g g e s t their ethereal nature. S u c h c h o i c e s w e r e , of c o u r s e , arbitrary, but consistent, a n d g a v e the s o n g m o r e c o h e s i o n . T h e listener c a n r e s p o n d well to this, m u c h a s a viewer might s u b c o n s c i o u s l y r e s p o n d to a c h o i c e of color s c h e m e in the art direction of a film. B y the middle of the c l a s s period, most of the g r o u p s had finished inputting " G r e e n s l e e v e s " a n d u s e d various instruments to c o n v e y their i d e a s a n d m o o d s . In m a n y c a s e s , the students set up binary oppositions, w h e r e o n e a s s o c i a t i o n of a s o u n d d e p e n d e d o n a direct contrast with its opposite. F o r e x a m p l e , o n e setting of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " u s e d electric guitars to represent the urban world a n d a c o u s t i c guitar s o u n d s to represent the rural l a n d s c a p e . A n o t h e r group took a character a p p r o a c h , using a fiddle s o u n d to represent the rustic characters a n d h a p p y n o b l e m e n , a n d a solitary flute to represent J a q u e s , w h o m they p e r c e i v e d a s a lonely, isolated individual. A s with m y o w n instrumentation, t h e s e w e r e arbitrary c h o i c e s b a s e d o n the students' own cultural b i a s e s a n d e x p e r i e n c e , but they h a d a logic that w a s u n d e n i a b l e to the  96 intended a u d i e n c e of their p e e r s . I h a d not anticipated that the students w o u l d a c c o m p l i s h their orchestrations s o quickly, s o I e x p a n d e d the p a r a m e t e r s of the a s s i g n m e n t by e n c o u r a g i n g e a c h group to p r o d u c e a n alternate a r r a n g e m e n t of their s o n g utilizing different instrumentation. T h e alternate a r r a n g e m e n t s a l s o offered the students a n opportunity to explore the m u s i c loops (digitally s a m p l e d m u s i c a l motifs a n d rhythm patterns) of G a r a g e B a n d , e x p a n d i n g their s o n i c possibilities.  Logopoeia, Phanopoeia, and Melopoeia J a n e Hirshfield (1997) r e m i n d s us that poetry c a n e x p r e s s the inexpressible, in w h i c h the " c o n c e p t u a l mind a n d the inexpressible p r e s e n c e of things b e c o m e o n e " (p. 32). T e a c h e r s often t e a c h character, setting, a n d t h e m e a s if t h e s e w e r e c o n c r e t e e l e m e n t s to be f o u n d , rather than textual constructions that result from interaction b e t w e e n factors, a n d w h i c h m a y b e interpreted a n d r e d i s c o v e r e d o n every n e w reading of the text. S o n g s , b e c a u s e of their coupling of text with m u s i c , allow students to s e e h o w the m e l o p o e i a (rhythm a n d s o u n d ) of a text c o m b i n e with its p h a n o p o e i a (imagery related to imagination) a n d l o g o p o e i a (intellectual content), to create the s u b s t a n c e of character, t h e m e , a n d setting (which i n c l u d e s locality a n d time). M u s i c m a k e s visible t h o s e contextual a s p e c t s that are largely hidden from students - time, rhythm/metre, form, a n d tone - thus allowing t h e m to d e a l with abstract c o n c e p t s in a m o r e concrete fashion. F o r this l e s s o n , the c l a s s w a s introduced to the texts of two s o n g s from As You Like It, " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " a n d " B l o w B l o w T h o u W i n t e r W i n d . " W e read through the s c e n e s in w h i c h both s o n g s w e r e p r e s e n t e d (Act T w o , S c e n e F i v e a n d A c t T w o , S c e n e S i x , respectively), d i s c u s s i n g at length the character of J a q u e s , w h o p l a y s a prominent role in both s c e n e s a n d articulates s e v e r a l of the m a i n i d e a s of the play. A t  this point, I d e c i d e d to play recordings of the s o n g s . I b e g a n with my o w n settings of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " a n d " B l o w B l o w T h o u W i n t e r W i n d " ( C D T r a c k s 6 a n d 14), followed by other historical adaptations, including the T h o m a s A r n e version of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " (1740), a n d R o g e r Quilter's " B l o w B l o w " O p u s 6, N o . 3 (1905) (Track 26). T h e immediate result w a s that the s o n g text w a s highlighted for the students - they b e g a n to talk in their g r o u p s about the s o n g as a distinct entity, rather than a s simply m o r e text to be a n a l y z e d . I believe that this recognition of the s o n g text a s a distinct entity is the result of a r e s p o n s e to m u s i c a l form; specifically, the s o n g form, w h i c h is s m a l l a n d c o m p a c t e n o u g h to b e r e c o g n i z e d by students without t h e m b e c o m i n g o v e r w h e l m e d . T h i s is strictly m y o w n hypothesis; studies in m u s i c a l form indicate that global m u s i c a l structure is a m u c h l e s s influential a s p e c t of m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n in c o m p a r i s o n to e l e m e n t s s u c h a s t e m p o or pitch ( K o n e c n i & K a r n o , 1994). N e v e r t h e l e s s , I believe the c o n s e q u e n c e of perceiving the s o n g text a s a n integral yet s e p a r a t e part of the s c e n e motivated the students to revisit the surrounding text a n d a s k m o r e q u e s t i o n s about the dramatic function of the s o n g in the play. T h e students a l s o b e c a m e m o r e c o n s c i o u s of the e l e m e n t of time a n d the ability of s o n g s to stretch or c o n d e n s e time for the a u d i e n c e . M u s i c , after all, is a t i m e - b a s e d art, a s J o h n C a g e pointed out s o eloquently in his 4 ' 3 3 " (1952). (In this f a m o u s avantg a r d e p i e c e , c o m p o s e r J o h n C a g e sits at a piano with a stopwatch for 4 minutes a n d 33 s e c o n d s of s i l e n c e . O f c o u r s e , the p i e c e is not really silent; C a g e plays with the audience/performer relationship by m a k i n g the a u d i e n c e a w a r e of t h e m s e l v e s a n d the ambient n o i s e s of the performance hall.) T h e r e w a s recognition o n the part of the students that m u s i c a l time w a s s o m e h o w different from the hours, minutes, a n d s e c o n d s of P a c i f i c S t a n d a r d T i m e , b e c a u s e m u s i c a l time had the unique property of  98 being a b l e to s p e e d up s t a g e time, s l o w it d o w n , or e v e n m a k e time s e e m to s t a n d still. A n o t h e r benefit of the students hearing the s o n g text a s m u s i c w a s the w a y in w h i c h this presentation contributed to their understanding of locality. Both " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " a n d " B l o w B l o w T h o u W i n t e r W i n d " localize differing a s p e c t s of the F o r e s t of A r d e n in As You Like it. T h e students b e g a n to u s e more specific w o r d s like utopia a n d paradise to d e s c r i b e the settings, a n d they s e e m e d to r e c o g n i z e the locality a s another c h a r a c t e r in the play F o r e x a m p l e , s o m e of the students listed c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n the h a r s h n e s s of winter in the F o r e s t of A r d e n , depicted in " B l o w Blow," a n d the m o r e pastoral setting of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e , " recognizing the contrast b e t w e e n the two s o n g s . In terms of character, J a q u e s is usually a s s e s s e d in terms of his intellectual contributions to the play, but in the s o n g " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " his ironical third v e r s e reveals a s m u c h about his c h a r a c t e r a s his philosophical m u s i n g s . (I will return to this thought in this chapter's c o n c l u d i n g section o n tone a n d mood.) T h e m e is a l w a y s difficult to t e a c h , but the students c o u l d c o n n e c t with the character of J a q u e s through the s o n g s , identifying m a n y thematic i d e a s in his w o r d s a n d attitudes that they felt w e r e mirrored in the s o n g texts. A l l in all, I felt that the introduction of the m u s i c a l settings w a s a positive step that m a d e the dramatic function of the s o n g texts m o r e tangible for the students, m u c h a s s e e i n g a live p e r f o r m a n c e of a S h a k e s p e a r e play g i v e s students a perception different from reading the text.  Key, Rhythm, Tempo, and Text Underlay: Mood and Tone T h e activities d i s c u s s e d previously w e r e largely d e v o t e d to e n c o u r a g i n g students to c o n s i d e r p o s s i b l e d r a m a t i c functions of the text relating to the literary e l e m e n t s of character, t h e m e , a n d setting. I next w a n t e d to concentrate m o r e fully o n m u s i c a l  99 a s p e c t s by having students c o n s i d e r a n d d e v e l o p criteria for what they c o n s i d e r e d a " g o o d " c o m p o s i t i o n or m u s i c a l setting of a S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g text, a n d having t h e m c o n s i d e r m o r e fully the e l e m e n t s of e x p r e s s i o n relating to m o o d a n d tone. I b e g a n by defining s o m e m u s i c a l t e r m s for the students, including key, rhythm, tempo a n d text underlay.  (speed),  I then p l a y e d my o w n setting of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " ( C D  T r a c k 6), set in G major, followed by c o m p o s e r W i l l i a m W a l t o n ' s v e r s i o n of the s a m e s o n g ( C D T r a c k 9) set in G Minor, a s k i n g students to p a y c l o s e attention to the m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s . T h e c l a s s w a s particularly f a s c i n a t e d with the notion of m o d e a s it affected the m o o d / a t m o s p h e r e of a s o n g . M o s t a g r e e d that the W a l t o n setting of the s o n g m a d e it s e e m m u c h m o r e s o m b e r in tone, though the text w a s identical. A s another e x a m p l e , I played my o w n v e r s i o n of " B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d " ( C D T r a c k 14) set in G Minor, followed by c o m p o s e r R o g e r Quilter's v e r s i o n ( C D T r a c k 26) of the s a m e s o n g O p u s 6 N o . 3 (performed by W e l s h baritone B r y n Terfel o n the a l b u m Silent Noon). O n c e a g a i n , students generally found m y o w n v e r s i o n to be m o r e m e l a n c h o l y than Quilter's, w h i c h alternates b e t w e e n various k e y s (technically, in C M i n o r but it generally s t a y s in the relative major key [Eb] throughout.) I e m p h a s i z e d to the students that notions of a s s o c i a t i n g particular k e y s with a m o o d or state of mind w e r e largely conditioned, a n d that in other cultures, t h e s e distinctions might not apply. Certainly, m u c h m o r e c a n be s a i d o n the notion of key, but a s a n initial introduction to the subject, I did not want to c o n f u s e students by introducing too m a n y e x c e p t i o n s to the traditional c o n v e n t i o n s of W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n m u s i c . T h i s w o u l d certainly b e worthwhile to e x p l o r e further in future classes. O t h e r important m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s that students felt affected their interpretation of a s o n g text w e r e rhythm a n d t e m p o ( s p e e d of the music). W h i l e t h e s e are actually two  100 s e p a r a t e e l e m e n t s , m o s t students did not m a k e a distinction b e t w e e n the two. T h e g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s , a s mentioned earlier, w a s that m y v e r s i o n of " B l o w B l o w " w a s more s o m b e r than the Quilter setting, not only d u e to key, but a l s o partly d u e to its s l o w e r t e m p o a n d fluid rhythm of undulating arpeggios  in the a c c o m p a n i m e n t . Interestingly,  s c h o l a r s ( H e v n e r 1937; J u s l i n 1997; S c h e r e r & O s h i n s k y 1977) c o n s i d e r t e m p o o n e of the m o s t important factors influencing emotional e x p r e s s i o n in m u s i c . J u s l i n ' s (1997) s u m m a r y of studies o n t e m p o s u g g e s t s that fast t e m p o s are usually a s s o c i a t e d by listeners with excitement, activity, joy, or anger, while s l o w t e m p o s tend to s u g g e s t serenity, dignity, s a d n e s s , b o r e d o m , or e v e n disgust (p. 239). O f c o u r s e , t e m p o , like m a n y other a s p e c t s of m u s i c , is relative to what is going o n a r o u n d it. F o r e x a m p l e , a p a s s a g e of m u s i c in 4/4 time at 120 beats per minute with only o n e pitch per bar would not s e e m terribly fast, while the s a m e p a s s a g e , p l a y e d with 16 pitches/notes per bar (as in s o m e electronic a n d minimalist music), w o u l d s e e m incredibly rapid. T e m p o , then, is contextual a n d largely a matter of perception. P l a y i n g the s o n g s o p e n e d up d i s c u s s i o n about m u s i c a l interpretation of the text that w a s not anticipated a n d , for a c h a n g e , the c l a s s w a s a s k i n g m e q u e s t i o n s instead of v i c e v e r s a . F o r e x a m p l e , m y d e c i s i o n to set the third s t a n z a of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " w a s q u e s t i o n e d by the students, w h o noticed its a b s e n c e in the A r n e v e r s i o n . I e x p l a i n e d that t h e s e lines w e r e a s s i g n e d to J a q u e s a n d s o m e question existed a s to w h e t h e r they w e r e s p o k e n or s u n g . W e a l s o d i s c u s s e d the difference in tone b e t w e e n the initial two s t a n z a s a n d the third, w h i c h w a s n o w m o r e evident a s a result of my m u s i c a l setting. Similarly, in " B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d , " the irony of the lyrics w a s m o r e apparent in a m u s i c a l v e r s i o n . After hearing m y fairly straightforward rendition of the s o n g , the students immediately p i c k e d up o n the contrast in folk s i n g e r J o e Hiller's  101 very h a p p y major key rendition of the s o n g on his Bard Americana  a l b u m (1998). S o m e  of the students attributed the contrast to a deliberate attempt at irony, while others a r g u e d that it w a s simply a b a d setting of the s o n g , w h i c h paid no attention to the content of the lyric. In this c a s e , m u s i c w a s effective in a s s i s t i n g students with detecting the mood/tone of a text in a w a y that conventional a n a l y s i s c o u l d not. In introducing the c o n c e p t of text underlay, I u s e d m y o w n c h o r u s of " B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d " a s a n e x a m p l e . H e r e , I had set the w o r d s "heigh-ho" to three notes a n d e l o n g a t e d the "heigh" syllable. C o n v e r s e l y , Quilter a s s i g n s the s a m e w o r d s two pitches in rapid s u c c e s s i o n . T h e c o n s e n s u s s e e m e d to b e that elongating the s y l l a b l e s m a d e the tune s o u n d m o r e plaintiff than did short rapid-fire syllables. T h e students a l s o noticed differences in pronunciation (Bryn Terfel u s e s the pronunciation for "wind" that w a s c o m m o n before the G r e a t V o w e l Shift, pronouncing it to rhyme with "kind"), a n d d e b a t e d my c h a n g e from "heigh-ho" to "hi-ho." S o m e of the students liked Terfel's attempt at restoring the original rhyme, while others found it d i s c o n c e r t i n g . (I s p e a k of the "original" rhyme here in reference to the w a y in w h i c h this v o w e l s o u n d w o u l d h a v e b e e n p r o n o u n c e d prior to the " G r e a t V o w e l Shift," a l a r g e - s c a l e modification of E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e pronunciation in the 15th a n d 16th centuries w h e r e b y long v o w e l s shifted u p w a r d s [i.e., the short " e h " b e c a m e the long "aye"] [ P y l e s & A l g e o , 1993]). A t this point, I g a v e the students s o m e time in their g r o u p s a n d a s k e d t h e m to formulate a list of criteria that they felt a ' g o o d ' m u s i c a l setting of S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g text s h o u l d h a v e . I found their d i s c u s s i o n s reflected, in a large d e g r e e , the rules of interpretations I h a d set for myself in c o m p o s i n g s o n g s : •  K e y - s h o u l d be appropriate to the m o o d of the m u s i c a n d s h o u l d c h a n g e with a significant c h a n g e in m o o d  102 •  M e l o d y - s h o u l d be m e m o r a b l e a n d e a s y to h u m , but not boring or repetitive  •  R h y t h m - s h o u l d match the natural rhythm of the text (i.e., if the text s e e m s j u m p y or excitable, the rhythm s h o u l d reflect that feeling; if the text is reflective, the rhythm s h o u l d b e l e s s frenetic)  •  T e m p o - in g e n e r a l , faster t e m p o s s h o u l d b e utilized for "happy' s o n g s ; s l o w e r t e m p o s for m e l a n c h o l y s o n g s  •  Instruments - appropriate instrumentation s h o u l d b e u s e d to reflect the m o o d of the s o n g  •  Pitches -  high notes create excitement a n d s h o u l d be u s e d o n the  most  important w o r d s •  Text U n d e r l a y - must b e set in s u c h a w a y that important w o r d s a r e e m p h a s i z e d a n d the v o c a l line is physically comfortable for the s i n g e r T h e students a l s o talked about text underlay. M o s t of the students a g r e e d that  underlay w a s important, but could not c o m e up with a set of "rules" to g o v e r n it, other than to s a y that unimportant w o r d s s h o u l d not b e allocated too m a n y pitches/notes. S o m e students q u e s t i o n e d the w h o l e notion of governing art with rules, arguing that any regulations w e r e a n infringement o n p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e a n d interpretation. Certainly, t h e s e i s s u e s (authority, interpretation, rules governing art) w e r e topics I w a n t e d to raise with the students, a n d I w a s p l e a s e d that they brought t h e m into the d i s c u s s i o n , independently. B y this point, I felt I h a d a c h i e v e d m y g o a l of e n c o u r a g i n g students to c o n s i d e r s o m e of the m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s that affect m o o d a n d tone w h e n setting a text to music.  103 Singing Shakespeare: Music and Memory In my e x p e r i e n c e a s a m u s i c teacher, getting a d o l e s c e n t s to sing in public c a n be difficult. Part of the student reluctance s e e m s to be perpetuated by the influence of the m o d e r n m a s s m e d i a . Similar to the airbrushed i m a g e s of f a s h i o n m o d e l s a n d celebrities that m a n y t e e n a g e r s w i s h to imitate, the s o u n d s of m o d e r n m u s i c are highly p r o d u c e d , technically altered a n d a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e to recreate in a performing environment outside a recording studio. W h e n students hear their o w n m u s i c a l o n g s i d e the professional creations, they often feel s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about their o w n efforts. N e v e r t h e l e s s , h o m e recording software like Garage  Band h a s in s o m e s e n s e put m u s i c  m a k i n g b a c k in the h a n d s of individuals. T h e students h a d already s e e n that they c o u l d construct a n d record their own m u s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s of tunes. T h e next step w a s to c o n v i n c e t h e m that their o w n singing c o u l d a n d s h o u l d be a part of this form of m u s i c m a k i n g . Part of the c h a l l e n g e w a s to get the c l a s s to differentiate b e t w e e n the public i m a g e s of particular s i n g e r s , b a n d s , a n d g e n r e s of m u s i c a n d the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t of the actual m u s i c - m a k i n g . W e b e g a n our activity by listening to e x a m p l e s of different singing styles - from o p e r a , to pop, to R & B , to h e a v y metal. W e talked a bit about what all t h e s e singers s h a r e d in c o m m o n ^ - e l e m e n t s s u c h a s phrasing, pronunciation, diction, breathing, a n d interpretation of the lyric. W e a l s o d i s c u s s e d how the m u s i c a l styles differed, in terms of both v o c a l technique a n d cultural origins. I w a n t e d to free the students from the notion that o n e m u s i c a l style w a s "superior" to another a n d to h a v e t h e m d e v e l o p their o w n criteria for what constituted " g o o d " singing. S o m e of the students a r g u e d that technical criteria s u c h a s singing o n pitch a n d clearly pronouncing the w o r d s w e r e stylistic c h o i c e s that s i n g e r s m a k e , while others a r g u e d that t h e s e w e r e the b a s i s of g o o d  104 singing, b e c a u s e not being a b l e to understand the w o r d s limited their emotional effect, while singing flat (off pitch, out of tune) in a n y c i r c u m s t a n c e w a s distracting to the listener a n d s h o w e d a lack of ability. Of c o u r s e , in m a n y kinds of art m u s i c , singing "off key" w o u l d b e a c c e p t a b l e , s o the e x e r c i s e w a s really about students d e v e l o p i n g their o w n criteria a n d being faithful to t h o s e criteria, rather than about determining a b s o l u t e principles. Next, I divided the students into g r o u p s of six students e a c h . Fortunately, I h a d a few students in this c l a s s with s o m e piano l e s s o n s a n d m u s i c reading ability. (This is not a l w a y s the c a s e , h o w e v e r - in completing this e x e r c i s e with other c l a s s e s , I h a v e simply provided e a c h group with a C D of the s o n g in q u e s t i o n a n d e n c o u r a g e d t h e m to learn "by ear." M u s i c a l ability is not a pre-requisite for t h e s e activities.) In this c a s e , however, I g a v e students both a C D of the s o n g a n d a notated s h e e t m u s i c , w h i c h the group leader c o u l d follow a n d u s e a s a t e a c h i n g a i d . T h e s o n g I h a d c h o s e n for t h e m to learn w a s m y o w n setting of " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e , " w h i c h they h a d heard previously. After giving the students about 2 0 minutes in w h i c h to practice in s m a l l g r o u p s , I recalled e v e r y o n e a n d w e did a c l a s s run-through of the s o n g , with m y s e l f a c c o m p a n y i n g o n the piano. T h i s proved to be modestly s u c c e s s f u l , a n d w e did s e v e r a l m o r e run-throughs before breaking. I then a s k e d the students to write a reflection d e s c r i b i n g their e x p e r i e n c e of singing the s o n g in w h i c h they listed their criteria for g o o d singing a n d stated h o w singing h a d affected their understanding of the text. A s a n unintended c o n s e q u e n c e of the singing s e s s i o n , students m e m o r i z e d the text. F o r m a n y of the students, this proved to b e a great c o n f i d e n c e booster, a n d h a d other positive r e p e r c u s s i o n s a s well, w h i c h I will d i s c u s s shortly.  105 Writing The S h a k e s o n g s T h e aforementioned activities c o u l d b e a s far a s a t e a c h e r w a n t s to g o with a c l a s s , in terms of S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g , particularly with the s e v e r e time constraints of m a n y high s c h o o l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I w a n t e d to take the c o n c e p t to its logical c o n c l u s i o n , a n d h a v e students write s o n g settings of their o w n . Until this point, the students h a d largely b e e n listening to the m u s i c of others, getting comfortable with m a k i n g their o w n m u s i c a n d singing, a n d learning h o w to u s e the G a r a g e B a n d software. A t this juncture, they h a d the opportunity to put what they h a d learned to u s e a n d to m a k e their o w n m u s i c a l settings of a S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g . Originally, the students w e r e to work in pairs, but the n u m b e r of c o m p u t e r s did not permit this computer-student ratio, a n d s o they w o r k e d in g r o u p s of three. In retrospect, three w a s actually a better n u m b e r - it g a v e the students m o r e opportunity to b o u n c e i d e a s off o n e another a n d a v o i d e d a creative d e a d l o c k if two partners c o u l d not a g r e e with e a c h other. It a l s o i n c r e a s e d the c h a n c e that o n e p e r s o n w o u l d be a b l e a n d willing to s i n g . S i n g i n g w a s not a c o m p u l s o r y e l e m e n t of the students' m u s i c a l setting of the s o n g text, but I e n c o u r a g e it. S t u d e n t s w e r e a l s o given a n option to u s e v o i c e - o v e r narration of the text, a c c o m p a n i e d by m u s i c in lieu of s i n g i n g . T h e actual s o n g length w a s limited to five minutes. F o r a c o p y of the original a s s i g n m e n t sheet, s e e A p p e n d i x B. M a n y of the s t u d e n t s w e r e a l r e a d y familiar with v i d e o editing software s u c h a s iM o v i e , a s well a s digital photo p r o g r a m s like i-Photo, w h i c h I h o p e d to integrate into the a s s i g n m e n t after the initial c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s w a s c o m p l e t e . T h e students s p e n t a total of three c l a s s periods d e v e l o p i n g their m u s i c , during w h i c h time I s u p e r v i s e d a n d g a v e f e e d b a c k o n their w o r k s - i n - p r o g r e s s . M o s t of m y f e e d b a c k revolved a r o u n d trying to get the students to capitalize, a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e , o n a n y imagery in the s o n g texts,  106 feeling that this w o u l d help t h e m w h e n it c a m e to adding v i s u a l s . I did not insist o n a n y particular m u s i c a l style, for e x a m p l e , a restriction to E l i z a b e t h a n style m u s i c , nor did I insist o n any specific instrumentation (though I m a d e s u g g e s t i o n s b a s e d o n w h a t e v e r m u s i c a l style the students s e e m e d to b e pursuing). M y other major c o n c e r n w a s to remind the students to b e faithful to their o w n criteria for what they c o n s i d e r e d a "worthy" c o m p o s i t i o n . A s s o o n a s the students' c o m p o s i t i o n s w e r e at a stage w h e r e their artistic direction w a s clear, I e n c o u r a g e d o n e or two m e m b e r s of the group to begin collecting stills or filming i m a g e s to a c c o m p a n y the m u s i c .  Multiple Interpretations: Alternate Versions and Textual Variances O n e of the g o a l s of the G r a d e 11 E n g l i s h I R P (1996) is for students to "demonstrate a willingness to take a tentative s t a n c e , tolerate ambiguity, explore multiple p e r s p e c t i v e s , a n d c o n s i d e r m o r e than o n e interpretation" (p. 2). O n e of the earliest m e a n i n g s of "interpret" is "to e x p o u n d the m e a n i n g o f (Oxford E n g l i s h Dictionary O n l i n e 2 0 0 5 , H 1). Not until the 1 8 0 0 s did the word t a k e o n the connotation of a n individual  artistic rendering (i.e., p e r s o n a l interpretation). C h a l l e n g i n g students to  take up the learning o u t c o m e iterated in the I R P required finding different settings of the s o n g texts that clearly illustrated to the students the breadth of interpretation p o s s i b l e . Essentially, my v i e w of the s o n g texts w a s deconstructive,  in a c c o r d a n c e with the v i e w s  of philosophers s u c h a s Derrida, w h o believed that a n y truth e x p r e s s e d in a particular l a n g u a g e is affected by that l a n g u a g e ( B o n n y c a s t l e , p. 95). A s L e g g o (2002) reminds us, " T h e r e c a n be no univocal, authoritative r e s p o n s e to a text. T h e r e is a l w a y s s o m e t h i n g more. Deconstruction e n c o u r a g e s a multiplicity of r e s p o n s e s " ( L e g g o , 2 0 0 2 , p. 170).  107 O n e of my original g o a l s h a d b e e n to h a v e the students p r o d u c e multiple v e r s i o n s of the s a m e s o n g . Initially, I a b a n d o n e d this g o a l in the a s s i g n m e n t p a r a m e t e r s , feeling that w e w e r e too p r e s s e d for time to a c c o m m o d a t e it; however, the students s p o n t a n e o u s l y m a d e their o w n alternate v e r s i o n s of their s o n g s . W o r k i n g in g r o u p s m a y a l s o h a v e contributed to their d e s i r e to e x p r e s s different interpretations a n d points of view. I a l s o attribute the alternate v e r s i o n s to our previous l e s s o n s , in w h i c h the students h a d clearly s e e n that m o r e than o n e w a y w a s p o s s i b l e for setting a S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g to m u s i c . A n o t h e r factor m a y h a v e b e e n the d e c i s i o n to a c c o m p a n y the s o n g s with i m a g e s ; w h e n students b e g a n setting i m a g e s to their m u s i c , they r e c o g n i z e d that s o m e i m a g e s w e r e suitable for their m u s i c a n d others w e r e not. Often, the students b e c a m e tied to a particular v i s u a l i m a g e or shot a n d c o m p o s e d the m u s i c to suit the i m a g e , rather than v i c e - v e r s a . In their b o o k Engaging Minds, D a v i s , S u m a r a a n d L u c e - K a p l e r (2000) point out a similar p h e n o m e n o n w h e n a s k i n g students to write p o e m s b a s e d o n their o w n photographs, stating: W h a t students noticed a s they created their pictures a n d text a n d p r e s e n t e d t h e m to c l a s s m a t e s w a s the strong interconnection b e t w e e n i m a g e a n d w o r d . . . W h e n they c o n s i d e r e d both [words a n d images] they u s e d v i s u a l a n d verbal skills interacting with e a c h other to gain a fuller understanding of the book. (p. 29) T h e students took three additional periods to a d d i m a g e s to their m u s i c a n d edit t h o s e i m a g e s . In s o m e c a s e s , their alternate v e r s i o n s of their c o m p o s i t i o n s w e r e completely different a r r a n g e m e n t s ; in other i n s t a n c e s , they w e r e r e a r r a n g e m e n t s or r e m i x e s of the s a m e material. A s noted earlier, s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s exist of a n u m b e r of S h a k e s p e a r e p l a y s a n d m u c h d e b a t e h a s taken p l a c e about w h i c h are "authoritative" - or e v e n w h e t h e r or not it is p o s s i b l e or d e s i r a b l e to e s t a b l i s h authoritative texts. T h e activity of c o m p a r i n g variant  108 texts g o e s well b e y o n d the G r a d e 10 learning o u t c o m e s , relating m o r e c l o s e l y to G r a d e 12 learning o u t c o m e s s u c h a s "Interpreting a n d s y n t h e s i z i n g information from more than o n e s o u r c e " a n d "Interpreting ambiguities in written, oral or visual w o r k s . . . " (English L a n g u a g e A r t s I R P , p. 5). Certainly, introducing students to textual variants c a n be a beneficial e x p e r i e n c e . L u c e - K a p l e r maintains that "the vital quality of a n interpretation is that it e n a b l e s o n e to draw c o n n e c t i o n s from o n e set of e x p e r i e n c e s to another" (Davis, S u m a r a , & L u c e - K a p l e r , 2 0 0 0 , p. 91). S t u d e n t s undertaking a similar task will h a v e to confront n u m e r o u s historical m u s i c a l adaptations of the s o n g s by c o m p o s e r s of all s c h o o l s a n d abilities, multiple s t a g e a n d s c r e e n adaptations, a n d varying v e r s i o n s of the s o n g texts, all of w h i c h p r o v o k e conflict a n d critical d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g of the highest order.  Film and Television: Re-cognizing Shakespeare W h e n I first b e g a n teaching S h a k e s p e a r e through s o n g , I a v o i d e d film a n d television interpretations of S h a k e s p e a r e for fear of c o m p r o m i s i n g the originality of my students' work; however, in p r o g r e s s i n g with the project, I realized that this w a s inconsistent. Alternate v e r s i o n s of s o n g settings h a d informed m y o w n c o m p o s i t i o n s : likewise, e x p o s u r e to alternate v e r s i o n s c o u l d b e useful in broadening students' p e r s p e c t i v e s . A s C o u r s e n (1997) points out in Teaching Television,  Shakespeare  with Film &  "Students w h o are s h o w n two or three different v e r s i o n s of the s a m e  m o m e n t in a g i v e n script c a n s e e s o m e of the options in that m o m e n t a n d h o w the d e c i s i o n h a s b e e n conditioned by the m e d i u m in w h i c h the production is occurring" (p. 13). In addition, like film a n d television, s o n g s c a n be u s e d to view m o d e r n - d a y i s s u e s through the lens of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s work, or to v i e w S h a k e s p e a r e ' s work from a m o d e r n  109 perspective. F i l m s s u c h a s 10 Things I Hate About  You (Junger, 1999) a n d Romeo  and  Juliet ( L u r h m a n , 1996) explore both options, looking b a c k w a r d while imposing m o d e r n sensibilities on S h a k e s p e a r e ' s work. A s A r i a n e Balizet (2004) e x p l a i n s , T h i s particular e x p e r i e n c e c a n be s u m m e d up a s what is termed recognition: in this w a y , t h e s e films [teen oriented S h a k e s p e a r e films] fit a S h a k e s p e a r e a n lens o v e r the m o d e r n world depicted o n s c r e e n , offering a n understanding of the high s c h o o l prom through a familiar framework of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s n a m e s a n d t h e m e s . . . . T h e o p p o s i t e perspective is equally important. A film like [ B a z L u r h m a n n ' s ] Romeo & Juliet literally r e - c o g n i z e s S h a k e s p e a r e ; that is, it u s e s a c o n t e m p o r a r y setting a s a m e a n s to k n o w a g a i n the play at the heart of the film. (p. 123) Similarly, in the p e r f o r m a n c e of a s o n g , students h a v e a n opportunity to highlight the text in n e w w a y s , or to a d d r e s s contemporary i s s u e s within the framework of the plays. F o r e x a m p l e , students w h o p r o d u c e d rap a n d hip-hop v e r s i o n s of the S h a k e s o n g s w e r e a b l e to loop the m u s i c , play it b a c k w a r d s , c h a n g e the s p e e d , a n d deconstruct the text in n u m e r o u s w a y s . Alternately, they w e r e a b l e to u s e the rap g e n r e in combination with E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l i s h to a d d r e s s m o d e r n c o n c e r n s . G o i n g through this p r o c e s s c h a n g e d my v i e w of S h a k e s p e a r e : I b e c a m e m u c h m o r e willing to experiment with the text a n d to take c h a n c e s . After working with the students a n d s e e i n g the w a y s in w h i c h they freely e x p e r i m e n t e d with S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s o n g texts, I c a m e to a n e w appreciation of the v a l u e of multiple interpretations.  110 C H A P T E R 5. M O M E N T S O F P R O C E S S H e hath never fed of the dainties that are bred in a book. H e hath not eat paper, a s it w e r e ; h e hath not drunk ink: his intellect is not r e p l e n i s h e d . - Love's  Labour's  Lost (5.1.74)  M y p u r p o s e in r e s e a r c h i n g S h a k e s p e a r e a n d s o n g w a s in part to s e e if multimodal learning involving m u s i c indeed e n h a n c e s students' e n g a g e m e n t with a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n of S h a k e s p e a r e a n d r a m a . M y original r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , a s outlined in the introduction, w e r e a s follows: W h a t is the history of S h a k e s p e a r e a n d s o n g ? •  W h a t q u e s t i o n s a n d i s s u e s arise w h e n o n e e n g a g e s in the p r o c e s s of considering p o s s i b l e settings for S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s o n g texts?  .  W h a t are the benefits of teaching S h a k e s p e a r e to a d o l e s c e n t s f o c u s i n g o n a n activity of c o m p o s i n g settings to the s o n g texts?  .  H o w did the act of composition c h a n g e my own a p p r o a c h to a n d understanding of the p l a y s ? H a v i n g a d d r e s s e d all of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s to s o m e extent in the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s ,  I now w i s h to highlight a f e w key points with respect to the affordances of teaching a n d learning S h a k e s p e a r e through s o n g : 1) m u s i c a n d m e m o r y ; 2) context a n d s y n t h e s i s ; 3) imagery; 4) multimodality; 5) tone a n d m o o d ; a n d 6) key a n d m o d e . Music and Memory H e a v e n a n d earth, M u s t I r e m e m b e r ? - Hamlet  (1.2.142-43)  111 O n e of the first things I noted in using the S h a k e s o n g method - s o m e t h i n g that I h a d not o b s e r v e d in c l a s s e s I taught without using s o n g - w a s that students unintentionally m e m o r i z e d the s o n g text. I d o not c o n s i d e r m e m o r i z a t i o n to be a significant a c c o m p l i s h m e n t in itself, but the s u b s i d i a r y benefits of m e m o r i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d o w n e r s h i p of the text, i n c r e a s e d student c o n f i d e n c e , a n d recognition of the s o n g text a s a distinct entity within the play - h a v e significant implications for t e a c h e r s . M a n y t e a c h e r s s e e k w a y s to boost student c o n f i d e n c e a n d to give t h e m a feeling of o w n e r s h i p of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s text, a n d s o m e a s s i g n m e m o r i z a t i o n activities, s u c h a s m e m o r i z i n g a soliloquy or acting out a s c e n e from m e m o r y for t h e s e p u r p o s e s . S i n g i n g a n d listening to m u s i c is a useful w a y to a p p r o a c h this activity. T h e link b e t w e e n m u s i c a n d m e m o r y h a s long b e e n of interest to r e s e a r c h e r s , but exactly h o w m u s i c contributes to m e m o r i z a t i o n is not entirely u n d e r s t o o d . B a s i c m o d e l s of m e m o r y (which are all simply metaphorical) divide auditory m e m o r y into three a r e a s : echoic,  short-term,  a n d long-term  (Snyder, 2 0 0 0 ) . S o u n d is initially p r o c e s s e d  through e c h o i c m e m o r y , w h i c h only lasts about 2 5 0 m i l l i s e c o n d s before it is forgotten or transferred to short-term m e m o r y ( M a s s a r o & Loftus, 1996, pp. 73-80). S h o r t - T e r m M e m o r y ( S T M ) c a n be defined a s what is immediately available to c o n s c i o u s a w a r e n e s s at a n y g i v e n time ( S n y d e r , 2 0 0 0 , p. 51). T h e n u m b e r of different e l e m e n t s that c a n persist simultaneously in S T M is, o n a v e r a g e , s e v e n (Snyder, p. 54); however, short-term m e m o r y c a n b e e x t e n d e d through the u s e of chunking:  that is, consolidating  previous s m a l l g r o u p s of a s s o c i a t i v e patterns into larger e l e m e n t s (Snyder, p. 54). T h e length of s u c h c h u n k s is typically quite short (3-5 s e c o n d s is the a v e r a g e length of m o s t s e n t e n c e s a n d p h r a s e s ) , a n d therefore limited. C h u n k s , in turn, c a n form larger units in m e m o r y ( B a a r s , 1988, p. 37). M u s i c a l p h r a s e s are a n e x a m p l e of s u c h  hierarchical  112 chunking,  w h e r e n u m e r o u s previous patterns are c o m b i n e d to form a larger unit. O n c e  a pattern e x c e e d s the limits of S T M , it must be h a n d l e d by long-term m e m o r y ( L T M ) . L T M w o r k s o n s o m e of the s a m e a s s o c i a t i v e principles a s d o e s c h u n k i n g ; o n e longterm m e m o r y or pattern is typically cued by another m e m o r y with w h i c h it h a s formed a n a s s o c i a t i o n (Snyder, 2 0 0 0 p. 70). A c c o r d i n g to F u s t e r (1995, p. 11), long-term m e m o r i e s m a y b e permanent; w h e n w e "forget" a n L T M , what w e h a v e actually lost is the a s s o c i a t i v e c o n n e c t i o n or c u e for recalling the m e m o r y . D e s p i t e the fact that w e s a n g s o m e s o n g s only a f e w t i m e s in c l a s s , m a n y students r e m e m b e r e d the s o n g s a n d the a c c o m p a n y i n g texts, s u g g e s t i n g that m u s i c a l settings of text are extremely effective at producing the kind of a s s o c i a t i v e long-term m e m o r y c u e s that result in retention o v e r a n e x t e n d e d time. M o r e significantly, a s a result of the involuntary m e m o r i z a t i o n , the students felt that they h a d ' m a s t e r e d ' S h a k e s p e a r e . W h e n students feel comfortable with the text, they are m o r e willing to e n g a g e in other activities a s well, s u c h a s acting out s c e n e s from the play, reciting p a s s a g e s in front of the c l a s s , a n d e n g a g i n g in d i s c u s s i o n about the m e a n i n g of the text. F o r s o m e of the students, w h o w e r e E S L learners, getting up in front of the c l a s s a n d s a y i n g anything, let a l o n e reciting S h a k e s p e a r e , w a s a significant a c h i e v e m e n t a n d a p p e a r e d to i n c r e a s e their feeling of s e l f - e s t e e m a n d their overall c o n f i d e n c e in their ability to m a s t e r E n g l i s h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c o n n e c t i o n of m u s i c with m e m o r y is not only a t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s , but a n emotional o n e a s well. A t least three s c h o o l s of thought pertain to m u s i c a n d emotion: O n e s u g g e s t s that m u s i c inherently p r o d u c e s emotional r e s p o n s e s , while another maintains that m u s i c simply r e p r e s e n t s e m o t i o n s that the listener i m p o s e s o n the m u s i c ( S c h e r e r & Zentner, 2 0 0 1 , p. 361). A third s c h o o l s u g g e s t s that m u s i c  113 provides a n a s s o c i a t i v e link to implicit memories - cognitive p r o c e s s e s not a v a i l a b l e to c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d not requiring c o n s c i o u s recollection - priming the m e m o r y to recall a n emotional r e s p o n s e to a previous e x p e r i e n c e ( L e D o u x , 1996, pp. 2 0 0 - 2 0 4 ) . In s u c h c a s e s , m u s i c is u s e d to help the brain recall a m e m o r y of a n e m o t i o n ; in other w o r d s , a m e m o r y of a m e m o r y . O f c o u r s e , students listening to S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g s h a d m a n y opportunities to link to implicit emotional m e m o r i e s through the content of the s o n g text, the v a r i o u s m u s i c a l styles a n d e x a m p l e s they w e r e e x p o s e d to in c l a s s , their o w n c h o i c e s of timbres a n d instrumentation in their c o m p o s i t i o n s , a n d later, the a c c o m p a n y i n g i m a g e s they a d d e d to their o w n c o m p o s i t i o n s . In addition, there w e r e e m o t i o n s e v o k e d that I h a d attempted to c o n v e y to the students through the m u s i c , a s well a s emotional content that the m u s i c itself c o n v e y e d to the students, apart from anything I h a d intended, through e x p r e s s i v e e l e m e n t s s u c h a s t e m p o , pitch, a n d rhythm. Grafted onto t h e s e emotional m e m o r i e s w e r e yet two m o r e layers: the emotional e x p e r i e n c e of sitting in c l a s s a n d listening to the m u s i c , a s well a s later recollections of that e x p e r i e n c e . T o s u m up, m u s i c s e e m s to provide a powerful c u e for resurrecting past e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , a n d the strong link b e t w e e n m e m o r y a n d emotion s u g g e s t s that m u s i c that is emotionally stirring will be m e m o r a b l e a s well. A s w e form a mental representation of a p i e c e of m u s i c , e a c h s u b s e q u e n t p e r f o r m a n c e is informed by the technical n u a n c e s a n d emotional layers of t h o s e that p r e c e d e d it, s u g g e s t i n g that m u s i c is a powerful force for r e m e m b e r i n g both the intellectual a n d emotional content of a text.  Dramatic Function, Context, and Synthesis Context is defined a s "the w h o l e structure o f a c o n n e c t e d p a s s a g e regarded in its bearing upon a n y of the parts that constitute it" ( S i m p s o n , 2 0 0 5 , ^ 1). Writing  114 S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g s proved to b e a n involved task that highlighted the importance of context. O n e of the first c h a l l e n g e s w a s to fully understand the lyric of the s o n g in the context of the dramatic s c e n e . T h e G r a d e 10 E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e Arts I R P (1996, p. 58) s u g g e s t s that students s h o u l d b e a b l e to "interpret the m a i n i d e a s , e v e n t s , or t h e m e s of a variety of novels, stories, other print material, a n d electronic m e d i a . " In attempting to find the m a i n i d e a s a n d t h e m e s of the s o n g s , I b e g a n to realize h o w well integrated the s o n g s w e r e with the dramatic action. F o r e x a m p l e , out of its dramatic context, " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " s e e m s like a s i m p l e , c h a r m i n g E n g l i s h s o n g ; however, w h e n inserted into the context of J a q u e s ' philosophical m u s i n g s , it t a k e s on the quality of a diatribe against a materialistic urban society that h a s mistakenly idealized the joys of rural life. After hearing the texts in m u s i c a l settings, the students w e r e better a b l e to relate t h e m to character, locality, time, a n d t h e m e . In part, I think the students' improved understanding of t h e s e e l e m e n t s w a s related to a n i n c r e a s e d f o c u s o n the surrounding contextual material created by the artificial b o u n d a r i e s i m p o s e d by the m u s i c . F o r instance, w h e n first reading through the s o n g texts, students h a v e a hard time identifying thematic material in the s o n g s , a n d f e w c a n link the t h e m e s they found in the s o n g texts to the overarching t h e m e s of As You Like It. After hearing the m u s i c a l settings of the s o n g texts, the students w e r e m a k i n g stronger c o n n e c t i o n s to thematic e l e m e n t s . I c a n n o t s a y that the m u s i c w a s directly r e s p o n s i b l e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e that the students listened to a n u m b e r of different m u s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s b e s i d e s m y o w n . T h e i n c r e a s e d c o n n e c t i o n s m a y not b e attributable to the m u s i c itself, but rather to the c l o s e reading that the m u s i c e n c o u r a g e d the students to d o . In e s s e n c e , the m u s i c highlighted the p a s s a g e for the students in a w a y that I c o u l d not h a v e d o n e simply by a s k i n g  115 students to read it carefully. A s well, particular lines in the s o n g texts w e r e highlighted by formal m u s i c a l groupings, rhythms, a n d p h r a s e s . T h e m u s i c automatically broke up the s o n g texts into s m a l l digestible a n d m e m o r a b l e c h u n k s . S n y d e r (2000) s p e a k s of the establishment of grouping b o u n d a r i e s in m u s i c a s closure.  C l o s u r e is the quality that  m a k e s a m u s i c a l p h r a s e s e e m self-contained from another, a n d therefore e a s y to r e m e m b e r (p. 33). V a r i o u s d e g r e e s of c l o s u r e c a n exist: the ultimate, of c o u r s e , is the c l o s u r e w e e x p e r i e n c e a s listeners, w h e n tonality is r e s o l v e d a n d a p i e c e e n d s o n the tonic (main note) of the key a r e a in w h i c h it is written. In m u s i c , motion to a h a r m o n i c g o a l that c r e a t e s s u c h a s e n s e of c l o s u r e is called a resolution  (Aldwell & S c h a c t e r ,  1989, p. 31). Interestingly, s u c h disparate disciplines a s m e m o r y r e s e a r c h a n d m u s i c a l theory u s e similar terms (closure a n d resolution) to d e s c r i b e the ordering of patterns into c o h e s i v e units. In m a n y c a s e s , the students r e c o g n i z e that a s o n g d e v e l o p s a particular literary element, s u c h a s a specific character or setting of the play, a n d are a b l e to g l e a n a better understanding of that e l e m e n t a s a result. It s e e m s logical that o n c e students gain greater insight into o n e particular character, locality, or t h e m e , they c a n utilize this k n o w l e d g e a s a springboard into other a s p e c t s of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s d r a m a . T h e implication for t e a c h e r s is that the s o n g s are plays within the play that often a d d r e s s s o m e of the broad t h e m e s of the d r a m a . A l s o , f o c u s i n g o n the s o n g s r e m o v e s the distraction of plot a n d action. S t u d e n t s w h o a r e not p r e o c c u p i e d with "what's g o i n g o n " c a n devote their attention to other f a c e t s of the play that they might otherwise overlook in their d e s i r e (or lack of d e s i r e , d e p e n d i n g o n their comfort level with S h a k e s p e a r e a n l a n g u a g e ) to follow the story. Further, s o n g s often o c c u r just before k e y m o m e n t s in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s d r a m a , a n d c a n b e u s e d to reflect o n the action to c o m e , thus  116 introducing students to t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s f o r e s h a d o w i n g , a n d w h i c h c a n e n c o u r a g e t h e m to m a k e predictions about the text. T h e notion of using o n e c o m p o n e n t of the play a s a g a t e w a y into the play a s a w h o l e is not n e w - S h a k e s p e a r e instructional m e t h o d s , including t h o s e e s p o u s e d in the well-known F o l g e r Library s e r i e s ( O ' B r i e n , 1993), routinely concentrate on the t e a c h i n g of f a m o u s s p e e c h e s , soliloquies, a n d p a s s a g e s a s a m e a n s of introducing students to characterization, t h e m e , or setting. In using s o n g , however, t e a c h e r s h a v e the a d v a n t a g e of presenting s o m e t h i n g to students that is immediately entertaining a n d captivating apart from its context in the play, a n d that a l s o p r e s e n t s a fully realized performance. P l a y i n g a recording of a s o n g in c l a s s is similar to the effect of s h o w i n g a film clip of a n important s c e n e , but with the a d v a n t a g e that the s o n g is a self-contained unit requiring little immediate explanation for enjoyment. T h e m e m o r y or "retention" factor cannot be underestimated either; a m e m o r a b l e s o n g will stay with a n individual all d a y (whether or not it is wanted). A third a r e a related to s y n t h e s i s a n d context, having a beneficial o u t c o m e , w a s the students' appreciation of historical context. Throughout our S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g unit, c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s frequently d i g r e s s e d onto s u c h topics a s types of E l i z a b e t h a n instruments, historical c o m p o s e r s of S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g , boy s i n g e r s , m u s i c a l requirements for actors, performing conditions of the public, private a n d court v e n u e s , incidental m u s i c , ballads a n d drinking s o n g s , a n d the closing s t a g e jigs. Invariably, d i s c u s s i o n s of m u s i c led to d i s c u s s i o n s of the s o c i e t y that p r o d u c e d the m u s i c , a n d the result of t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s in m y c l a s s r o o m w a s a d e e p e n i n g of students' interest in all things E l i z a b e t h a n . T h e significance for t e a c h e r s is that s o n g s c a n provide a s e n s e of history a n d tradition for students of S h a k e s p e a r e , just a s they d o in m a n y other f a c e t s of life. S o n g s are artifacts of the society that p r o d u c e s t h e m . In hearing " S h a k e s p e a r e a n "  117 m u s i c , students c o m e to realize that E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l a n d is not o n l y a fictional world of the plays, but a real society that existed in time. In m y e x p e r i e n c e , understanding a s o n g in its dramatic context e n c o u r a g e s students to appreciate the c o m p o n e n t e l e m e n t s that c o m e together to m a k e the play. Studying t h e s o n g s in context a l s o e n c o u r a g e s t h e m to m a k e c o n n e c t i o n s to other s o n g s a n d s p e e c h e s in the play in q u e s t i o n , w h i c h , in turn, allows t h e m to revise their understanding of the play a s a w h o l e . Essentially, this is the p r o c e s s of s y n t h e s i s the c o m p o s e r must g o through w h e n writing m u s i c for a production. N o matter h o w artful the s o n g s , the c o m p o s e r must b e attentive to the p o s s i b l e interpretations of the production; a lack of understanding of the context m a y result in a s o n g that is aesthetically p l e a s i n g but d o e s not a d v a n c e the dramatic action. W h e n writing a s o n g , I often found that I h a d to e n v i s i o n the entire s c e n e a n d h o w it might b e performed. In lieu of a n interpretation of m y o w n , I frequently w a t c h e d film v e r s i o n s to a get a s e n s e of h o w a s c e n e might b e s t a g e d or h o w the s o n g c o u l d operate in context. O f c o u r s e , television a n d film productions e a c h h a v e their distinct limitations; ultimately, I h a d to m a k e m y o w n c h o i c e s in r e g a r d s to interpretation. A s C o u r s e n (1997) points out in Teaching  Shakespeare  with Film and  Television:  T h e s p a c e - s t a g e , film, television - d e f i n e s what c a n o c c u r within i t . . . . S t u d e n t s s e e t h e script through production. T h e y s e e it a s a script, full of options a n d d e c i s i o n s that must b e m a d e . T h e g e n i u s of the S h a k e s p e a r e script is that it w a s d e s i g n e d to b e interpreted - not just p r e s e n t e d - by S h a k e s p e a r e ' s c o m p a n y . . . (pp. 12-13) R e s e a r c h i n g historical settings of particular s o n g texts frequently a i d e d in understanding context a n d providing insight into different a p p r o a c h e s a n d interpretations. W h e n exploring settings of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s o n g texts, students e n c o u n t e r e d a multiplicity of interpretations a n d h a d to reconcile t h e s e with their o w n  118 p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e s to the s o n g . A s a result, their understanding of h o w the e l e m e n t s of the play c o m b i n e d to m a k e a w h o l e w a s e x p a n d e d a s they struggled to form their o w n interpretation, in light of a n alternate p a r a d i g m .  Imagery T h e third a r e a w h e r e I o b s e r v e d more student c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d e n g a g e m e n t with the text, c o m p a r e d to c l a s s e s I h a d taught without the s o n g - c o m p o s i t i o n unit, w a s in students' ability to e n g a g e imagery. After listening to m u s i c a l settings, I felt the students in my c l a s s w e r e a b l e to m o r e clearly articulate descriptions of locality in As You Like It. I attribute the students' i n c r e a s e d appreciation for the setting to the c h o i c e of the s o n g s w e studied in c l a s s - " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " a n d " B l o w B l o w T h o u Winter W i n d " - both contain a great d e a l of imagery delineating the play's setting. It w o u l d b e intriguing to s e e h o w students w o u l d react to the m o r e lyrical a n d emotional s o n g s depicted in other texts w e did not look at in c l a s s , s u c h a s D e s d e m o n a ' s W i l l o w song.  Multimodality O n e a s p e c t of multiliteracy is the variability of m e a n i n g - m a k i n g in different cultural or s o c i a l contexts; a s e c o n d a s p e c t is the ability of t e c h n o l o g y to facilitate c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d m e a n i n g - m a k i n g in w a y s that are increasingly multimodal. T o d a y ' s students h a v e multiple m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n at their d i s p o s a l , including writing, m u s i c , i m a g e s , a n d s p e e c h . With the aid of digital tools, contemporary students c a n easily interface traditional written-linguistic m o d e s with v i s u a l , audio, gestural, a n d spatial patterns of m e a n i n g . In my e x p e r i e n c e , the u s e of m u s i c in t e a c h i n g S h a k e s p e a r e resulted in m o r e in-depth r e s p o n s e s a n d a broader a p p r o a c h to t h e s e  119 r e s p o n s e s , w h e r e i n students u s e d varying m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n (writing, i m a g e s , m u s i c , s o u n d effects, g r a p h i c s , a n d s p e e c h ) to c o n v e y their i d e a s . Indeed, I a r g u e that, by its very nature, a r e s p o n s e that utilizes a variety of m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n is a m o r e in-depth r e s p o n s e than o n e that u s e s a single m e d i u m . Students, in utilizing different m o d e s , m a y be e n c o u r a g e d to question their a s s u m p t i o n s about e a c h m e d i u m . A s G u n t h e r K r e s s (2003) states s o eloquently, "the world told is a different world to the world shown"  (p. 1).  In part, the multimodal r e s p o n s e s of students c a n be attributed to the p a r a m e t e r s of the G a r a g e B a n d S h a k e s o n g s Unit, w h i c h a s k e d students to u s e m u s i c , text, i m a g e s , s p e e c h , a n d s o u n d effects in their r e s p o n s e s . In most c a s e s , students went b e y o n d the m i n i m u m requirements of the a s s i g n m e n t . I believe that t h e s e in-depth, multimodal r e s p o n s e s c a n be attributed to the nature of m u s i c itself. M u s i c is a l w a y s multidimensional; m u s i c a l s o u n d h a s m a n y p a r a m e t e r s - key, pitch, rhythm, v o l u m e , t e m p o , l o u d n e s s - all of w h i c h are being p r o c e s s e d by the listener simultaneously, a n d w h i c h m a y be in various s t a g e s of completion at any given time (Snyder, 2 0 0 0 , p. 61). In the p r o c e s s of doing their a s s i g n m e n t s , the students c o u l d o b s e r v e first-hand the interplay b e t w e e n various m o d e s : the original s o n g text that h a d inspired their m u s i c , the m u s i c ' s effect o n the s o n g text, the additional m e a n i n g c o n v e y e d by i m a g e s a d d e d to the m u s i c , a n d the resulting c h a n g e s in their m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s after e x a m i n i n g differing i m a g e s , p e r f o r m a n c e s , a n d instrumentation of the m u s i c . A l t h o u g h mentioned in the previous s e c t i o n , the role of imagery in the a s s i g n m e n t c a n n o t be o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d . A d d i n g v i s u a l i m a g e s to the S h a k e s o n g s created another layer of interaction that greatly influenced the m u s i c p r o d u c e d by the students. A s K r e s s (2003) notes,  120 ...the s c r e e n is n o w the dominant site of texts; it is the site w h i c h s h a p e s the imagination of the current generation around c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e s c r e e n is the site of the v i s u a l , of the i m a g e , (p. 166) S t u d e n t s w e r e influenced by i m a g e s that they h a d p h o t o g r a p h e d or imported from stock s o u r c e s a n d m a d e attempts to represent t h e m using the e x p r e s s i v e e l e m e n t s of m u s i c , including t e m p o , rhythm, a n d pitch. In m a n y c a s e s , t h e s e interactions a p p e a r e d to c h a n g e the students' interpretations of a s o n g text. M o r e o v e r , this did not s e e m to be a o n e - w a y interaction. M u s i c is well d o c u m e n t e d a s having the ability to conjure visual i m a g e s in the m i n d s of the listener apart from a n y textual or p r o g r a m m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , a feature that is greatly exploited in m u s i c therapy (Bunt & P a v l i c e v i c , 2 0 0 1 , p. 185). In a type of therapy k n o w n a s G u i d e d Imagery in M u s i c (GIM), the m u s i c u s e d is s e l e c t e d o n the b a s i s of its potential to e v o k e t h e s e kinds of reactions. A s with all m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n , however, a one-to-one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s a n d i m a g e s d o e s not take p l a c e , a s Bunt (2000) e x p l a i n s : T h i s [imagery] d o e s not h a p p e n in a n y simplistic one-to-one s y m b o l i c or c a u s a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n o n e m u s i c a l g e s t u r e a n d the creation of a n i m a g e but in a n on-going o r g a n i c a n d interactive w a y . . . is a s if the client is e x p e r i e n c i n g the m u s i c at different levels from the s u r f a c e to the d e e p structural, reaching into the m u s i c to find the level that m a t c h e s a n d r e s o n a t e s with the i m a g e , (p. 46) T h e addition of m u s i c to the m o d e s of e x p r e s s i o n o p e n s up a virtually e n d l e s s c y c l e of interactions in w h i c h text containing imagery influences m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , w h i c h , in turn, inspires n e w i m a g e s , w h i c h then c a u s e s us to reinterpret the m u s i c in light of t h e s e i m a g e s . T h e addition of m u s i c to literacy o p e n s up a multitude of possibilities b e y o n d the m u s i c itself; a s K r e s s notes, " m u s i c is a n a l y z e d into this digital c o d e just a s m u c h a s i m a g e is, or graphic w o r d , or other m o d e s . T h a t offers the potential to realize m e a n i n g in a n y m o d e " ( K r e s s , 2 0 0 3 , p. 5).  121 In addition to the a r e a s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , s o m e tangible e v i d e n c e exists for m o r e in-depth a n d multimodal r e s p o n s e s from the students in m y S h a k e s o n g c l a s s e s . A s mentioned earlier, in the context of my t e a c h i n g I interpret attempts to g o b e y o n d the p a r a m e t e r s of a n a s s i g n m e n t a s being a m o r e "in-depth" r e s p o n s e . W h e n students provided alternate v e r s i o n s of their S h a k e s o n g c o m p o s i t i o n s for w h i c h they h a d not b e e n a s k e d , I felt they w e r e s h o w i n g greater motivation. A s well, the e n t h u s i a s m a n d depth of their written reflections a n d d o c u m e n t a r i e s of their creative p r o c e s s led m e to believe that the s o n g s s u c c e e d e d in e n g a g i n g the students' interest. O t h e r interesting o u t c o m e s of the S h a k e s o n g activity w e r e the S h a k e s o n g c o m p o s i t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s , w h i c h constituted multimodal r e s p o n s e s to the plays. W h e n w e b e g a n the unit, I w a s not entirely s u r e students w o u l d be a b l e to c o m p l e t e the a s s i g n m e n t . I h a d never a s k e d a c l a s s to write s o n g s before, a n d I w a s uncertain they would b e able to d o s o . T h e final c o m p o s i t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e d that students h a d i n d e e d a b s o r b e d e n o u g h of the m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s of the s o n g - melody, harmony, a n d rhythm to r e s p o n d effectively. In m a n y c a s e s , the g r o u p s a l s o d e v i s e d their o w n s y s t e m s of m u s i c notation. T h e s e a d h o c m u s i c a l s c o r e s w e r e essentially g r a p h i c representations of their c o m p o s i t i o n s , a n d another sign that students w e r e no longer thinking purely in the written-linguistic m o d e . S o m e of the benefits to students of this multimodal work w e r e a p p a r e n t in the reflections, self-evaluations, a n d d o c u m e n t a r i e s they p r o d u c e d . In their reflections, m a n y students d e m o n s t r a t e d a L e v e l 4 or 5 r e s p o n s e ( W o r s n o p , 2 0 0 2 , p. 97), m e a n i n g that they integrated their p e r s o n a l feelings, e x p e r i e n c e s , a n d reflections with their understanding of the text. S o m e of the students w e r e a b l e to m a k e c o n n e c t i o n s with other outside texts, a n d m a n y c o n n e c t e d the s o n g texts within the play to e a c h other  122 and to the play as a whole. The responses were also metacognitive in quality, as students frequently examined how they had developed a particular melodic idea or chosen instrumentation for a song. Even some of the lower level responses were surprising, with their epistemological tone. Many of the students, in the process of composing their own songs and creating evaluation criteria, had posed questions such as "How do we know what makes a good song?" or "How can we know if we are reflecting the text honestly?" Some of the students, of course, simply paraphrased the text and could not explain their own composing process. This does not mean that they did not benefit from their musical experiences - many of these students demonstrated great creativity and originality in their compositions and in their use of text and image. They merely had not yet reached the stage of being able to examine their own praxis or of translating those responses into the written-linguistic mode. One way to encourage students to reach this stage would be to promote more written reflection throughout the composing process.  Tone and Mood The emphasis of my third research question (refer to page 9) was on the affordances of the activity of composing settings to the song texts. Specifically, did the activity help students comprehend difficult elements of Shakespeare's text? The area in which I noted the most dramatic outcome in comprehension was in the students' understanding of the tone and mood of a song text. In B C , the Grade 10 curriculum states that students should be able to "describe how tone and mood affect the drama of a story, play, or film" (English Language Arts IRP 8-10, 1996, p. 56). In working with music, my students clearly moved beyond the curriculum, discovering for themselves how literary, mood, and tone are created through the compositional process.  123 T o n e is defined in its original m u s i c a l context a s " a m u s i c a l or v o c a l s o u n d c o n s i d e r e d with reference to its quality, a s a c u t e or g r a v e , s w e e t or h a r s h , loud or soft, clear or dull" ( S i m p s o n , 2 0 0 5 , H 1) T h e word tone c a n a l s o be defined a s " a s o u n d of definite pitch a n d character, p r o d u c e d by regular vibration of a s o u n d i n g b o d y ; a m u s i c a l note" ( S i m p s o n , U 2). In the 17th century, tone b e g a n to a p p e a r in n o n - m u s i c a l capacities, being applied to the inflection of the h u m a n v o i c e , regional a c c e n t s , a n d v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n . T h e term mood first a p p e a r s a s a technical term in the writings of the S t o i c p h i l o s o p h e r s , derived from the Latin modus,  m e a n i n g m e a s u r e , m a n n e r , or  m e t h o d , a n d w a s u s e d to refer to categories of logical s y l l o g i s m s ( S i m p s o n , 2 0 0 5 , U 4). In m u s i c , the term mood w a s u s e d interchangeably with mode to refer to the G r e e k c o n c e p t of the s e v e n m u s i c a l m o d e s (scales). B y the 19th century, however, the term mood h a d b e c o m e a s s o c i a t e d with heart, feeling, a n d tumultuous emotion ( S i m p s o n , ]| 1). Clearly, t o n e a n d m o o d w e r e long r e c o g n i z e d to begin with technical a n d intellectual c o n c e r n s , though resulting in a n emotional reaction. T h e e l e m e n t s of m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n that a p p e a r to contribute to tone a n d m o o d include m o d e or tonality, pitch, harmony, rhythm, t e m p o , a n d timbre. O t h e r l e s s e r e l e m e n t s include v o l u m e a n d d y n a m i c s , articulation, a n d m u s i c a l form. O f c o u r s e , viewing the creation of t o n e a n d m o o d a s purely a m e c h a n i c a l p r o c e d u r e that utilizes m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s to e v o k e emotional r e s p o n s e s a n d drawing a one-to-one correlation b e t w e e n a n e l e m e n t a n d a n emotion d o e s not a c c o u n t for the interaction b e t w e e n all of t h e s e m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s . F o r instance, the notion of t e m p o relies o n the c o n c e p t of beat, w h i c h is itself a n "imaginary" underlying p u l s e s u p e r i m p o s e d o n the m u s i c by the c o m p o s e r . A s J u s l i n (2001) states " N o factor w o r k s in isolation: its effects are d e p e n d e n t o n what other factors a n d levels are present. M u s i c a b o u n d s with  124 interactions . . . " (p. 243). M a n y of the e l e m e n t s of m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n are not well understood. F o r e x a m p l e , little r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n d o n e o n h o w the timbre of different instruments affects emotional r e s p o n s e (Juslin, 2 0 0 1 , p. 242), yet the students paid a great d e a l of attention to this a r e a in the instrumentation of their c o m p o s i t i o n s . M o r e o v e r , a s mentioned in C h a p t e r 2, the E l i z a b e t h a n s h a d a n entire s y s t e m of m u s i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s for different instruments, a n d u s e d s u c h a s s o c i a t i o n s to great effect in their theatre m u s i c . Clearly, m u s i c facilitates emotional r e s p o n s e s , w h e t h e r they a r e the students' o w n (evoked in conjunction with the stylistic features of the text), elicited by the c o m p o s e r through skilled u s e of m u s i c a l structures, or inherent in the m u s i c a l structures t h e m s e l v e s . F o r e x a m p l e , students listening to my setting of "Willow, Willow" w e r e a b l e to identify the s a d n e s s a n d tragic m o o d of the s o n g text m u c h m o r e e a s i l y after hearing the m u s i c . Furthermore, s o m e students w e r e e v e n a b l e to identify the s o n g a s a n e x a m p l e of f o r e s h a d o w i n g (predicting D e s d e m o n a ' s eventual d o o m at the h a n d s of Othello) a s a result of hearing the m u s i c a l setting. W h a t c a u s e d this c o m p r e h e n s i o n ? In part, I believe that a direct emotional r e s p o n s e w a s occurring to s o m e of the m u s i c a l d e c i s i o n s I had m a d e w h e n setting the s o n g text: the c h o i c e of minor k e y tonality, the h a r m o n y / c h o r d patterns, a n d m e l o d i c direction. T h e s o n g ' s minor key is a n o b v i o u s c u e for s a d n e s s ; a s G a b r i e l s s o h n a n d Lindstrom (2001) h a v e s h o w n , minor m o d e m a y be a s s o c i a t e d with s a d n e s s from a s y o u n g a s 7-8 y e a r s of a g e (p. 239). T h e d o w n w a r d s w e e p of the m e l o d y a l s o s u g g e s t s m e l a n c h o l y (Gerardi & G e r k e n , 1995). T h e s o n g is fairly c o m p l e x , harmonically s p e a k i n g , venturing into the major m o d e in s o m e p a s s a g e s a n d introducing chromatic c h o r d s (chords outside of the traditional tonality). In g e n e r a l , c o m p l e x h a r m o n i e s are m o r e often a s s o c i a t e d with anger, s a d n e s s , t e n s i o n , a n d  125 u n p l e a s a n t n e s s ( G a b r i e l s s o n & Lindstrom, 2 0 0 1 , p. 241). N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s o n g is not particularly slow, e v e n though s l o w t e m p o s are m o r e often a s s o c i a t e d with s a d n e s s . Apparently, the interaction of the c h o i c e of m o d e , harmony, a n d m e l o d i c direction w e r e m o r e important than c h o i c e of t e m p o in influencing listeners' perceptions of s a d n e s s in this c a s e . A s well, the m u s i c m a y h a v e highlighted the p a s s a g e s o that students paid m o r e attention to the surrounding contextual material, s u c h a s D e s d e m o n a ' s d i s c u s s i o n with E m i l i a , w h i c h in turn m a y explain their ability to identify a contextual d e v i c e like foreshadowing. A n o t h e r m o r e c o m p l e x e l e m e n t related to m o o d a n d tone that w a s initially m i s s e d by the students, w a s irony. In our first readings, most students did not catch the irony in " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " or " B l o w B l o w T h o u W i n t e r W i n d . " Following their listening s e s s i o n , the students b e c a m e a w a r e that the m u s i c a l settings s o m e t i m e s o p p o s e d the lyric, m a k i n g t h e m m o r e a w a r e of ironic e l e m e n t s in the s o n g s . T h e clearest e x a m p l e of students discovering irony w a s in " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e . " After hearing J a q u e s third v e r s e set to m u s i c , for e x a m p l e , the c l a s s r e c o g n i z e d it a s a s p o o f of the earlier v e r s e s , a n d thus p i c k e d up o n J a q u e s ' s a r c a s m . O n c e the students r e c o g n i z e d that J a q u e s ' v e r s e w a s not literal, they b e g a n re-reading the rest of the s o n g in light of that d i s c o v e r y a n d w e r e m o r e attuned to ironic contrasts. In g e n e r a l , I d o not believe that m u s i c h a s a n ironic tone, but I feel that students r e c o g n i z e d the i n c o n g r u e n c e between the m u s i c a n d J a q u e s ' text in the third v e r s e (in c o m p a r i s o n to the m u s i c u s e d in the rest of the song), b e c a u s e of the noticeable c h a n g e in the key a n d rhythm of the m u s i c . T h e m o d e of the m u s i c in J a q u e s ' third v e r s e c h a n g e s from major to minor, a n d the rhythmic articulations b e c o m e short a n d abrupt. A l t h o u g h minor m o d e c a n be u s e d to s u g g e s t s a d n e s s , it c a n a l s o b e u s e d to s u g g e s t playfulness, e s p e c i a l l y  126 in conjunction with rapid rhythm a n d staccato  (short a n d d e t a c h e d ) articulations. (For a n  excellent e x a m p l e of minor tonality u s e d to s u g g e s t w h i m s y a n d playfulness rather than s a d n e s s , s e e M e n d e l s s o h n ' s Overture  to A Midsummer  Night's  Dream  [1826].)  S t u d e n t s r e c o g n i z e d that in this third v e r s e the m u s i c a l setting w a s not in k e e p i n g with a s e r i o u s s o n g about being under the g r e e n w o o d tree, a n d c o n c l u d e d that they could not take J a q u e s ' w o r d s at f a c e v a l u e . T h e contrast b e t w e e n m u s i c a n d text, j u x t a p o s e d against the surrounding material, highlighted the contrast b e t w e e n e x p r e s s i o n a n d m e a n i n g that is at the heart of irony.  Key: Illuminating Tone and Mood A s this thesis d e a l s in part with m u s i c a n d its relationship to text, I cannot ignore the importance of key a s a significant e l e m e n t in illuminating the tone of a text. In c o m p o s i n g s o n g s , the students found o n e of their first d e c i s i o n s in c h o o s i n g a tonality or key a r e a that suited the overall tone a n d m o o d of the text a s they interpreted it. Interestingly, in m u s i c , the t e r m s "pitch" a n d "tone' are u s e d virtually s y n o n y m o u s l y ; in m u s i c , key is the organizing principle of t h e s e pitches a n d t o n e s . A p i e c e of m u s i c is s a i d to be in a given key w h e n all of its pitches relate to o n e central governing pitch the pitch that h a s the s a m e n a m e a s the key a r e a - a n d w h e n the functions of the other pitches derive from how they relate to the central pitch/tone (Aldwell & S c h a c t e r , 1989, p. 6). T o give a brief a n d s o m e w h a t oversimplified e x a m p l e , a s o n g written in the key of C major d e r i v e s all of its pitches from the C major s c a l e ( C , D , E , F, G , A a n d B) a n d all of t h e s e other pitches gravitate, or resolve, b a c k to the central pitch of C , s o m e t i m e s called the tonic. M a n y m u s i c i a n s u s e the term tonal to d e s c r i b e a n y type of m u s i c o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d a central pitch or tone. In the 20th century, s o m e avant-garde c o m p o s e r s (e.g., S c h o e n b e r g , W e b e r n , C a g e ) attempted to subvert the d o m i n a n c e of  127 the major/minor s y s t e m of tonal m u s i c , a n d A m e r i c a n J a z z certainly p u s h e s the b o u n d a r i e s a n d rules of traditional tonality; however, very f e w t y p e s of m u s i c c a n truly b e labelled atonal (i.e., without a central organizing tone). M o s t m u s i c follows s o m e tone-centered organizational principles (music that d o e s not, plays against the a u d i e n c e ' s expectations of form a n d organization). Certainly, the a s s o c i a t i o n of particular m o d e s a n d s c a l e s with e m o t i o n s is a n old o n e : In The Art of Counterpoint, G i o s e f f o Zarlino (1558) states that m e l o d i e s featuring a major s c a l e s o u n d h a p p y a n d t h o s e with a minor s c a l e s o u n d s a d (pp. 21-23). W h i l e m a n y m u s i c i a n s today would a r g u e that s u c h a s s o c i a t i o n s are arbitrary or culturally c r e a t e d , they are n e v e r t h e l e s s influential, a n d a u d i e n c e s clearly r e s p o n d to tonality a n d the u s e of various m o d a l s c a l e s within a tonal framework. In c o m p o s i n g my o w n s o n g s , I utilized the most c o m m o n W e s t e r n m u s i c a l s c a l e s - major a n d minor. In g e n e r a l , I r e s e r v e d major k e y s for "happy" s o n g texts, a n d minor k e y s for c o n v e y i n g s a d , mournful, or mysterious m o o d s . T o e x p a n d , s o n g s with m o r e cheerful texts, s u c h a s " U n d e r the G r e e n w o o d T r e e " a n d the " P a l m e r ' s S o n n e t , " w e r e c o m p o s e d in a major m o d e . S o n g s with a mournful quality, s u c h a s "Willow Willow" a n d " A P l a g u e o n Y o u r H o u s e s , " w e r e c o m p o s e d in the minor. N e v e r t h e l e s s , I m a d e e x c e p t i o n s to this rule: O p h e l i a ' s s o n g , " H o w S h o u l d I Y o u r T r u e L o v e K n o w , " w a s c o m p o s e d in C major, e v e n though it s e e m s to be quite a s a d s o n g . T h e juxtaposition of key a n d text w a s intended to give the s o n g a poignant quality. C o n v e r s e l y , the pub s o n g , " A n d Let M e the C a n a k i n C l i n k , " w a s c o m p o s e d in A minor, but it h a s a j a z z y b u r l e s q u e feel to it that is anything but s a d a n d is at t i m e s e v e n c o m i c a l . P e r h a p s the most interesting exception is O b e r o n ' s s o n g , " N o w Until the B r e a k Of Day." T h e first version of the s o n g w a s c o m p o s e d in B b major, a n d s e e m s to h a v e the tone of a  128 bittersweet lullaby. T h e s e c o n d v e r s i o n of the s o n g w a s c o m p o s e d in B b minor, a n d h a s a more m a g i c a l quality, reflective of the fairy world in A Midsummer  Night's  Dream.  A l t h o u g h it is in a minor key, it s e e m s to b e a m o r e cheerful s o n g than the major key version. D o e s this m e a n that the a s s o c i a t i o n s of major a n d minor d o not apply under all c i r c u m s t a n c e s ? A s with other a s p e c t s of tone a n d m o o d , the musical  conveyance  of  tone a n d m o o d is largely contextual. D e p e n d i n g o n the text, the vocalist, the surrounding material, the characterization, the setting, a n d the individual listening, a given m e l o d y c a n take o n different a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d characteristics. A t times, c o m p o s e r s c a n rely o n the cliche a n d allow the a u d i e n c e s ' normal pattern of culturallyp r o d u c e d a s s o c i a t i o n s to d o the work for t h e m ; at other times, it b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y to venture further afield a n d s u g g e s t n e w a s s o c i a t i o n s . O f c o u r s e , a r e a s of d i s c r e p a n c y will a l w a y s b e found b e t w e e n what the author or c o m p o s e r intended a n d what the a u d i e n c e p e r c e i v e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s u c h a n e x e r c i s e looks at the curriculum in a new w a y ; students m u s t d e a l with t o n e a n d m o o d not merely a s a n a u d i e n c e r e s p o n d i n g to the text, but a s c o m p o s e r s creating the tone a n d m o o d t h e m s e l v e s .  129 FINAL T H O U G H T S N o e p i l o g u e , I pray y o u ; for your play n e e d s No excuse. - T h e s e u s to Bottom, A Midsummer Night's Dream (5.1.356-57)  In the p r e c e d i n g two chapters, I attempted to highlight the most significant i s s u e s a n d c o n c e p t s raised in my c l a s s r o o m a s a result of teaching S h a k e s p e a r e through s o n g , a n d to theorize t h e m while a l s o providing s o m e practical insights into how they m a y b e applied to the existing s c h o o l curricula. A t this point, I offer s o m e final thoughts o n the most significant a r e a s a s they relate to my original t h e s i s questions. T h e history of s o n g in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s d r a m a s involves the contribution of n u m e r o u s a n o n y m o u s writers, c o m p o s e r s , a n d actors, all of w h o m h a v e e n r i c h e d a repertoire of S h a k e s p e a r e a n m u s i c through a cumulative p r o c e s s of m u s i c a l practice a n d p e r f o r m a n c e tradition. T h i s long a n d remarkable history reminds us that S h a k e s p e a r e a n texts are not fixed, immutable artifacts that m a y not be q u e s t i o n e d ; rather, t h e s e texts exist in variant editions a n d h a v e b e e n subject to interpretation by directors, m u s i c i a n s , editors, a n d s c h o l a r s for centuries. T h e range of textual interpretations a n d a d o r n m e n t s available in multiple m e d i a is a n excellent s o u r c e for c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s wishing to tackle q u e s t i o n s of interpretation, textual v a r i a n c e , authority, a n d s o o n . T h e c o m p o s i t i o n p r o c e s s raised n u m e r o u s i s s u e s of interest, but the most significant of all w a s m u s i c ' s ability to e v o k e emotion. M y understanding of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s d r a m a c h a n g e d during the c o m p o s i t i o n p r o c e s s , in part b e c a u s e I b e c a m e a w a r e of how I w a s attempting to u s e the materials of m y art (music) to elicit e m o t i o n . Further, while I initially p e r c e i v e d myself to b e writing original c o m p o s i t i o n s , I  130 c a m e to realize that m a n y of m y materials w e r e derivatives from the repertoire of folk ballads utilized by E l i z a b e t h a n dramatists, in the s e n s e that I w a s relying o n the m u s i c a l s y s t e m , s c a l e s , a n d m o d e s that I w a s taught in the W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n tradition. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r o c e s s required sophisticated interaction with the s o n g texts a n d afforded m e opportunity to learn m u c h about both the nature of t h o s e texts a n d the w a y s in w h i c h m u s i c might be e m p l o y e d a s a m o d e of r e s p o n s e to text. F r o m a p e d a g o g i c a l perspective, the benefits of teaching S h a k e s p e a r e utilizing a m u s i c a l methodology w e r e m a n y . S o m e of t h e s e included a n e n r i c h e d understanding of dramatic context, character, a n d setting, s y n t h e s i s of the v a r i o u s e x p r e s s i v e e l e m e n t s of the text, a n d retention (in memory) of the text. T h e activity of having students write their o w n m u s i c a l settings to s o n g texts g a v e t h e m a n opportunity to e n c o u n t e r m a n y of the i s s u e s that I h a d e n c o u n t e r e d a s a c o m p o s e r , w h i c h p r o v e d v a l u a b l e for c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n . T h e s e included s u c h topics a s authenticity, authority, textual v a r i a n c e , authorial intention, a n d what constitutes artistic originality. T o n e a n d m o o d , a n d the ability of m u s i c to e v o k e emotion in the listener, a l s o proved to be of c o n s i d e r a b l e interest to both m y students a n d myself. T h e p r o c e s s of writing m u s i c a l settings to S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g texts, t e a c h i n g through s o n g , a n d writing this narrative of that p r o c e s s , h a s b e e n a journey of d i s c o v e r y for m e a s a c o m p o s e r , educator, a n d student. A s a c o m p o s e r , m a n y of the c h o i c e s I m a d e w e r e the product of m y b a c k g r o u n d , cultural conditioning, a n d m u s i c a l training. Similarly, the g e n e r a l listeners a n d students w h o r e s p o n d e d to my m u s i c p o s s e s s e d their o w n b i a s e s , p r e c o n c e p t i o n s , a n d p a r a d i g m s that filtered their v i e w s of the s o n g s I c o m p o s e d . E n g a g i n g students in a m u s i c a l exploration of S h a k e s p e a r e is clearly a n  131 invaluable e x e r c i s e that c a n o p e n up new a v e n u e s of d i s c u s s i o n a n d interpretation, both in the c l a s s r o o m a n d in the scholarly community. A s a writer, I could not help but b e a s t o u n d e d at the s h e e r ubiquity of narrative surrounding S h a k e s p e a r e a n d his d r a m a s . F r o m the narratives of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s life, times, a n d theatre, to the tales of his friends a n d fellow actors, to the stories of c o m p o s e r s w h o h a v e s c o r e d his p l a y s , I h a v e b e e n inundated with a s e r i e s of overlapping, intertwining narratives, of w h i c h my o w n h a s n o w b e c o m e a part. A s B a r t h e s points out, narratives exist e v e r y w h e r e in the world under all conditions (1982, pp. 2 5 1 - 2 9 6 ) . T h r o u g h the last 4 0 0 or s o y e a r s , S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays, w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s e m e r g e d from the rich narrative of the E l i z a b e t h a n a g e , h a v e p a s s e d through a p r o c e s s of repeated p e r f o r m a n c e s a n d interpretations a n d suffered a " s e a - c h a n g e " into s o m e t h i n g "rich a n d strange" (The Tempest,  1.2). 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T h e function of the s o n g s in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s P l a y s . In Shakespeare studies by members of the department of English of the University of Wisconsin (pp.78-102). M a d i s o n : W i s c o n s i n University P r e s s . M u r p h y A . (2003). Shakespeare in print: A history and chronology publishing. N e w Y o r k : C a m b r i d g e University P r e s s . Naylor, E . W . (1931). Shakespeare  Shakespeare  and music. Toronto: J . M . Dent & S o n s Ltd.  O ' B r i e n , P . (Ed.). (1993). Shakespeare P o s t m a n , N. (1993). Technopoly: Alfred A . K n o p f Inc.  of  set free. N e w Y o r k : W a s h i n g t o n S q u a r e P r e s s .  The surrender  of culture to technology.  New York:  P u r c e l l , H. (1691). M o n k e y ' s d a n c e : T h e fairy q u e e n [ R e c o r d e d by T h e S i x t e e n & E n s e m b l e L ' A r m o n i a e L'lnventione ( S y m p h o n y of H a r m o n y & Invention), Harry C h r i s t o p h e r s , conductor]. O n The fairy queen [CD]. L o n d o n : C o r o R e c o r d s . (2002). P u r c e l l , H. (1691). S y m p h o n y : T h e fairy q u e e n [ R e c o r d e d by T h e E n g l i s h B a r o q u e S o l o i s t s , J o h n Eliot G a r d i n e r , Conductor]. O n The fairy queen [CD]. H a m b u r g : P o l y d o r International R e c o r d s . (1982). P y l e s , T., & A l g e o , J . (1993). The origins and development ed. O r l a n d o , F l : Harcourt B r a c e & C o m p a n y .  of the English  language,  4  th  137 Quilter, R. (1901). U n d e r the g r e e n w o o d tree, from 3 S h a k e s p e a r e S o n g s , O p . 6 . R e c o r d e d by Bryn Terfel & M a l c o l m Martineau]. O n Silent noon [CD]. L o n d o n : E M I C l a s s i c s . (2005). Rapport, F., Wainwright, P., & E l w y n . G (2005). O f the e d g e l a n d s : B r o a d e n i n g the s c o p e of qualitative methodology. Journal of Medical Ethics, 31, 3 7 - 4 2 . R e t r i e v e d F e b r u a r y 3, 2 0 0 6 from http://mh.bmiiournals.eom/cqi/content/full/31/1/37#SEC3 S c h e r e r , K . R . , & O s h i n k s y , J . S . (1977). C u e utilization in emotion attribution from auditory stimuli. Motivation and emotion, 1, 3 3 1 - 4 6 . S c h e r e r , K . R . , & Zentner, M . R . (2001). E m o t i o n a l effects of m u s i c : Production rules. In P. J u s l i n & J . S l o b o d a (Eds.), Music and emotion (pp. 361-392). N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d University P r e s s . Schulter, M . (2006). W h e n did m o d a l m u s i c give w a y to the m o d e r n key s y s t e m ? Retrieved J a n u a r y 2 6 , 2 0 0 6 from www.medieval.org S e n g , P . J . (1967). The vocal songs in the plays of Shakespeare: C a m b r i d g e , M.A.: Harvard University P r e s s .  A critical  history.  S h a k e s p e a r e , W . (1993). Complete songs from the plays ( S . A p p l e b a u m & C . W a r d , E d s . ) . L o n d o n : D o v e r Publications. S h a k e s p e a r e , W . (1986). As you like it: The Signet classic A . Gilman, Eds.). New York: Penguin Books. S h a k e s p e a r e , W . (1986). Hamlet: The Signet classic Hubler, E d s . ) . N e w Y o r k : P e n g u i n B o o k s .  Shakespeare.  Shakespeare.  ( S . Barnet &  (S. Barnet & E .  S h a k e s p e a r e , W . (1992). The new Folger Library Shakespeare: Romeo M o w a t & P . W e r s t i n e , E d s . ) . N e w Y o r k : S i m o n & S c h u s t e r Inc.  & Juliet. (B.  S h a k e s p e a r e , W . (1993). The new Folger Library Shakespeare: A midsummer night's dream. (B. M o w a t & P . W e r s t i n e , E d s . ) . N e w Y o r k : S i m o n & S c h u s t e r Inc. S h a k e s p e a r e , W . (1993). The New Folger Library Shakespeare: W e r s t i n e , E d s . ) . N e w Y o r k : S i m o n & S c h u s t e r Inc.  Othello.  (B. M o w a t & P .  S i m o n t o n , D.K. (2001). E m o t i o n a n d composition In c l a s s i c a l m u s i c . In P . J u s l i n & J . S l o b o d a (Eds.), Music and emotion (pp. 205-222). N e w Y o r k : Oxford University Press.  138 S i m p s o n , J . , & W e i n e r , E . S . C . (Eds.) (1989). Context, n. In The Oxford English dictionary online. Retrieved S e p t e m b e r 8, 2 0 0 5 , from http://dictionary.oed.com S i m p s o n , J . , & W e i n e r , E . S . C . (Eds.) (1989). imagery, n. In The Oxford English dictionary online. J o h n S i m p s o n (Ed.). Retrieved J u l y 5, 2 0 0 5 from http://dictionarv.com S i m p s o n , J . , & W e i n e r , E . S . C . (2002). m e m o r y , n. In The Oxford English dictionary online. Retrieved O c t o b e r 12, 2 0 0 5 , from http://dictionarv.oed.com S i m p s o n , J . , & W e i n e r , E . S . C . (Eds.) (2004). m o d e , n. In The Oxford English online. Retrieved A u g u s t 13, 2 0 0 5 from http://dictionary.oed.com  dictionary  S i m p s o n , J . , & W e i n e r , E . S . C . (Eds.) (2002). m o o d , n. In The Oxford English online. Retrieved A u g u s t 10, 2 0 0 5 from http://dictionarv.oed.com  dictionary  S i m p s o n , J . , & W e i n e r , E . S . C . (Eds.) (2003). multimedia, n. In The Oxford English dictionary online. Retrieved J a n u a r y 10, 2 0 0 5 from http://dictionarv.oed.com S i m p s o n , J . , & W e i n e r , E . S . C . (Eds.) multimodality, n. In The Oxford English online. Retrieved J a n u a r y 10, 2 0 0 5 from http://dictionary.oed.com S i m p s o n , J . , & W e i n e r , E . S . C . (Eds.) (2002). tone, n. In The Oxford English online. R e t r i e v e d A u g u s t 10, 2 0 0 5 from http://dictionarv.oed.com  dictionary  dictionary  S n y d e r , B. (2000). Music and memory. C a m b r i d g e , M.A.: T h e MIT P r e s s . S o m e r v e l l , A . (1900). U n d e r the g r e e n w o o d tree [ R e c o r d e d by E l l e n F r o h n m a y e r , Phillip F r o h n m a y e r , & L o g a n S k e l t o n (piano)]. O n The flowering of English song [CD]. C e n t a u r R e c o r d s . (1993) S p e v a c k , M . (1996-97). T h e e n d of editing S h a k e s p e a r e . Connotations, Retrieved S e p t e m b e r 2 7 , 2 0 0 5 , from http://www.unituebingen.de/connotations/speva61.htm  6 (1), 7 8 - 8 5 .  Springfels, M . (2004). M u s i c in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays. In The encyclopedia Britannica online. Retrieved J a n u a r y 8, 2 0 0 5 from h t t p : / / s e a r c h . e b . c o m / s h a k e s p e a r e / Sternfeld, F . W . (1963). M u s i c in S h a k e s p e a r e a n tragedy. N e w Y o r k : D o v e r Publications. S t e v e n s , J . (1966). S h a k e s p e a r e a n d the m u s i c of the E l i z a b e t h a n s t a g e . In P . Hartnoll, (Ed.), Shakespeare in music (pp. 3-48). N e w Y o r k : St. Martin's P r e s s .  139 Trumbull, E . W . (2002). T h e E l i z a b e t h a n theatre. Retrieved July 2 5 , 2 0 0 5 , from http://novaonline.nv.cc.va.us/eli/spd130et/elizab.htm W a l t o n , W i l l i a m , (n.d.). U n d e r the g r e e n w o o d tree [ R e c o r d e d by M a c o l m M a r t i n e a u & Y v o n n e Kenny]. O n Complete songs: William Walton & Constance Lambert [CD]. E t C e t e r a R e c o r d s . (1994). W e r n e r , E . (1963). Felix Mendelssohn. W i l s o n , C . (1977). Shakespeare  New York: Free Press.  and music. N e w Y o r k : D a C a p o P r e s s .  Wimsatt, W . K . & B e a r d s l e y M . C . (1946). T h e intentional fallacy. R e t r i e v e d S e p t e m b e r 11, 2 0 0 5 , from E a s t e r llinois University W e b Site: http://www.eiu.edu/~literary/2205/inten-fall.htm W o o d , M i c h a e l . (2003). Shakespeare.  New York: Basic Books.  W o r s n o p , C M . (2002). A s s e s s m e n t in m e d i a e d u c a t i o n . In R o b e r t a F. H a m m e t t & Barrie R . C . Barrell (Eds.), Digital expressions: Media literacy & language arts (pp. 87-111). C a l g a r y : Detselig Enterprises Ltd. Zarlino, G . (1976J. The art of counterpoint ( G . A . M a r c o & C . P a l i s c a , Trans.). N e w Y o r k : Norton. (Original work published 1558).  1 4 0  Appendix A - Ministry Learning Objectives and Outcomes T h e following are a list of relevant objectives from the B C Ministry of E d u c a t i o n Integrated R e s o u r c e P a c k a g e s for the E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e A r t s , M u s i c , a n d M u s i c T e c h n o l o g y curricula. It is e x p e c t e d students will: • D e s c r i b e h o w tone a n d m o o d affect the d r a m a of a story, play, or film • M a k e generalizations about key c o n c e p t s , c h a r a c t e r s , a n d t h e m e s of written, oral a n d visual w o r k s • C o n s i s t e n t l y c o n s i d e r m o r e than o n e interpretation of the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s that they r e a d , view, a n d listen to • C o m p a r e the features a n d relative merits of different c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , including t h o s e created by the s a m e author, d e s i g n e r , or director • D e v e l o p imaginative or creative r e s p o n s e s to s h a r e their i d e a s • A n a l y z e a n d a s s e s s the impact of specific t e c h n i q u e s a n d d e s i g n s u s e d by the media • U s e a variety of t e c h n o l o g i c a l functions a n d c o m p u t e r software to publish original work • A p p l y specific criteria to a s s e s s a n d revise c o m m u n i c a t i o n s • R e v i s e a n d edit their c o m m u n i c a t i o n s to improve content • C r e a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s for a n increasing range of a u d i e n c e s a n d p u r p o s e s including p l e a s u r e a n d entertainment • D e m o n s t r a t e their c o m m i t m e n t to collective g o a l s  141 • E s t a b l i s h a n d u s e criteria to e v a l u a t e group p r o c e s s e s , their own contributions to t h e m , a n d the results of their work. (English L a n g u a g e Arts I R P , 1996)  T h e M u s i c curriculum a l s o contained n u m e r o u s learning o u t c o m e s that I felt would b e e n h a n c e d by t e a c h i n g S h a k e s p e a r e through s o n g , m a n y of w h i c h  were  interdisciplinarily related to the E n g l i s h o u t c o m e s , including the following: • C r e a t e , perform, a n d notate c o m p l e x rhythms in a variety of metres • C r e a t e a n d perform m e l o d i c patterns to e n h a n c e e x p r e s s i v e phrasing • A n a l y z e h o w the e l e m e n t s of e x p r e s s i o n are c o m b i n e d to a c h i e v e specific effects • P u r p o s e f u l l y a p p l y a variety of m u s i c forms a n d principles of d e s i g n in composition • R e l a t e form a n d principles of d e s i g n in m u s i c to t h o s e in other arts • A n a l y z e h o w thoughts, i m a g e s , a n d feelings are e x p r e s s e d in m u s i c within a variety of historical, cultural, a n d stylistic contexts ( M u s i c 8-10 I R P , 1996)  I found s o m e of the most intriguing prescribed learning objectives a n d o u t c o m e s in the C o m p o s i t i o n a n d T e c h n o l o g y 11/12 curriculum. S e v e r a l of the key i s s u e s from C h a p t e r 3 s u c h a s mood/tone, style/genre, a n d p e r f o r m a n c e w e r e e n c o m p a s s e d by the M u s i c T e c h n o l o g y I R P , a s indicated by the following: • C o m p o s e m u s i c that represents a broad range of thoughts, i m a g e s , a n d feelings  142 • C o m p a r e m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of thoughts, i m a g e s a n d feelings to other forms of expression • E x p l a i n h o w m u s i c c a n b e u s e d to manipulate thoughts, i m a g e s , a n d feelings • U s e other forms of e x p r e s s i o n to represent thoughts, i m a g e s , a n d feelings e v o k e d by their o w n c o m p o s i t i o n s • U s e a variety of m u s i c t e c h n o l o g i e s to manipulate s o u n d s in c o m p o s i t i o n s • E x p l a i n h o w p e r f o r m a n c e c a n alter the effect of a c o m p o s i t i o n • C o m p o s e m u s i c incorporating a variety of forms a n d principles of d e s i g n ( C o m p o s i t i o n a n d T e c h n o l o g y I R P , 1996)  143  Appendix B - Unit Plan Outline G a r a g e B a n d S h a k e s o n g s Unit P l a n : F o c u s O n As You Like It O V E R A L L O B J E C T I V E : T o i n c r e a s e student c o m p r e h e n s i o n of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s o n g texts a n d extend that understanding to the rest of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s d r a m a As You Like It. S p e c i f i c Learning O b j e c t i v e s / R e f e r e n c e d to O u t c o m e s : S t u d e n t s will learn to/will b e able to: >  D e v e l o p a w a r e n e s s of the dramatic function of the s o n g texts in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays a s they relate to locality, time, t h e m e , a n d characterization  >  D e m o n s t r a t e / d i s c u s s the dramatic function of a s o n g in S h a k e s p e a r e ' s play a s it relates to character, locality, time, or t h e m e using m u s i c a l or written e x p r e s s i o n  >  C o n s i d e r multiple interpretations of a given s o n g text in relation to varying p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e s , individual p e r f o r m a n c e s , a n d textual variations •  P r o v i d e different m u s i c a l settings of the s a m e s o n g text to demonstrate various p o s s i b l e interpretations a n d p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e s  •  R e v i s e , edit, a n d critique their o w n m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s in a c c o r d a n c e with pre-determined criteria  >  C r e a t e a n original m u s i c a l setting of a s o n g text that integrates into the overall dramatic fabric of the play, a s a director would do in a professional production •  C o n s i d e r h o w c h o i c e of m u s i c a l style/genre, form, instrumentation, a n d text underlay affect their p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e to a n d interpretation of the s o n g text  •  Film a v i d e o that d o c u m e n t s their o w n artistic p r o c e s s a n d creative decisions  •  A d d instrumentation to a n E l i z a b e t h a n s o n g that reflects the mood/tone of the s o n g text a n d be able to justify their c h o i c e s of  timbre/instrumentation  144 >  C o m p o s e their o w n m u s i c a l setting of a S h a k e s p e a r e s o n g text b a s e d on their p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e to the text a n d using appropriate style, instrumentation, a n d text underlay •  E s t a b l i s h and u s e criteria to evaluate group p r o c e s s e s , their o w n contributions to t h e m , a n d the results of their work  •  D e v e l o p their own criteria a n d s t a n d a r d s for their artistic efforts  •  U s e m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s (key, metre, melody, harmony, rhythm) to e v o k e thoughts, i m a g e s , feelings, a n d mood/tone of the text  •  C o m p o s e a n original m u s i c a l setting of a s o n g text a n d m a k e critical c h o i c e s regarding key, metre, a n d other e l e m e n t s of m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n  >  M a k e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n the m e l o p o e i a , p h a n o p o e i a a n d l o g o p o e i a of the s o n g text a s they c o m b i n e to m a k e a creative work •  Write a reflection that explains how the l o g o p o e i a , p h a n o p o e i a and m e l o p o e i a of a s o n g text c o m b i n e to m a k e a creative work  Outline O f L e s s o n P l a n s L e s s o n 1 - 2 periods - Introduction to G a r a g e B a n d S o f t w a r e - E l i z a b e t h a n m u s i c E l i z a b e t h a n instrumentation. L e s s o n 2 - 2 periods - Textual a n a l y s i s of the s o n g texts; listening to m u s i c a l settings of S h a k e s p e a r e s o n g a n d c o m p a r i n g t h e m ; d e v e l o p i n g criteria for what constitutes a " g o o d " composition Lesson 3 - 1  period - S i n g i n g a S h a k e s p e a r e s o n g ; d e v e l o p i n g criteria for what constitutes " g o o d " singing; c o m p a r i n g different singing styles  L e s s o n 4 - 3 periods - C o m p o s i n g a S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g setting - D e v e l o p i n g a p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e to the s o n g text; exploring imagery in the  145 s o n g text; understanding the dramatic function of a g i v e n s o n g text; using m u s i c to heighten the emotional e x p r e s s i o n of the text a n d m a k i n g c h o i c e s about style, instrumentation, a n d text underlay. L e s s o n 5 - 2 periods - A d d i n g Images to the S h a k e s o n g - Finding or creating appropriate i m a g e s to e n h a n c e the imagery of the s o n g text L e s s o n 6 - 2 P e r i o d s - D o c u m e n t i n g the creative p r o c e s s a n d d e c i s i o n s - Reflecting on h o w various e l e m e n t s of the poetry c o m b i n e to m a k e a creative work. Major A s s i g n m e n t s : • G a r a g e B a n d A r r a n g e m e n t - S t u d e n t s will u s e the G a r a g e B a n d software to arrange a n E l i z a b e t h a n tune with appropriate instrumentation  /10  • P r e s e n t a t i o n o n Text A n a l y s i s & C r i t e r i a - S t u d e n t s will present a brief a n a l y s i s of o n e of the s o n g texts to the c l a s s . T h e y will c o m p a r e two v e r s i o n s of the s a m e S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g a n d present criteria for what constitutes a " g o o d " c o m p o s i t i o n /20 • A written r e s p o n s e to a S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g text, outlining its dramatic function a n d concentrating o n its c o n n e c t i o n s to character, t h e m e , a n d setting. / 2 0 • C o m p o s i n g a n d Original S o n g S e t t i n g - B a s e d o n a p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e to the text a n d utilizing the previously d e v e l o p e d criteria, students will c o m p o s e a n original m u s i c a l setting of o n e of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s o n g texts from As You Like It. a n d a d d appropriate imagery to their v e r s i o n of the s o n g • D o c u m e n t a r y Featurette - S t u d e n t s will film a brief v i d e o a n d write a reflection on their creative p r o c e s s , outlining the r e a s o n s for their artistic c h o i c e s a n d explaining their interpretation of the s o n g Evaluation:  146 A l l of the a s s i g n m e n t s will be criterion-referenced. T h e criteria for the s o n g / c o m p o s i t i o n a s s i g n m e n t will b e b a s e d on what the students t h e m s e l v e s d e v e l o p a s a c l a s s . F o r the final a s s i g n m e n t , students will a l s o h a v e a n opportunity to selfevaluate their work.  147 Appendix C - Evaluation Rubrics/Scales In terms of d e s i g n i n g a n evaluation p r o c e d u r e for the unit, I opted for a division of student self-evaluation a n d my own evaluation rubric, with the criteria b a s e d o n s t a n d a r d s w e constructed together a s a c l a s s . D e s p i t e having two m o d e s of evaluation at m y d i s p o s a l , I did not feel entirely comfortable evaluating the students' creative work. I had listened to c o u n t l e s s S h a k e s p e a r e a n s o n g settings during the c o u r s e of my own r e s e a r c h , a n d k n e w that for every setting that m a t c h e d a particular criterion or m u s i c a l rule, w e c o u l d find a n e x a m p l e that broke it. In the e n d , the only reliable criterion for judging a s o n g setting s e e m e d to b e that the m u s i c a l setting w a s faithful to the c o m p o s e r s ' understanding of a n d p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e to the text. C o n s e q u e n t l y , I u s e d the d e g r e e of faithfulness to the c o m p o s e r ' s own r e s p o n s e a n d intentions a s my primary b e n c h m a r k for all the criteria. In addition, I opted to offer m a r k s for s o m e of the procedural a n d presentation e l e m e n t s of the task, s u c h a s meeting d e a d l i n e s , group cooperation, a n d the c a r e a n d attention paid to the recording a n d editing. I a l s o a w a r d e d additional g r a d e s separately for the written reflections a n d self-evaluations, w h i c h I u s e d to determine h o w the group h a d r e s p o n d e d to the text. T h e rubric I d e s i g n e d is b a s e d on W o r s n o p ' s analytical s c a l e (1996). W o r s n o p u s e s five categories - content, organization, v o i c e / a u d i e n c e , t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e , a n d effective u s e of m e d i a l a n g u a g e - o n a five-point s c a l e with o n e grid devoted to e a c h a r e a . F o r my m o r e c o m p a c t v e r s i o n , I c o m p r e s s e d the five categories onto o n e grid, opting for a four-point s c a l e a n d eliminating the " z e r o points" window, but a d d e d a n extra c a t e g o r y of m y own - p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e to the text. B e l o w is my evaluation rubric for the creative a s p e c t of the project:  148  CRITERIA  4 POINTS  Melody, Chords & Choice Outstanding melody. Choice of Key, Rhythm, Tempo, Text Underlay & of Key, Tempo, Rhythm & Instrumentation nstruments. IDEAS/CONTENT  Singing or Voice-Over, Diction and Pronunciation VOICE/AUDIENCE  Excellent singing—pays attention to diction, pronunciation Dreathing text underlay & interpretation  3 POINTS  2 POINTS  1 POINT  TOTAL  Melody, key, Fair melody, choice of key, rhythm tempo, rhythm, nstruments & instruments poor or not or not suitable suitable to your vision of the to your text response Good singing- Fair singing or Poor singing or voice over—lack attention given voice over— more attention of care given to to diction, breathing, text should be given one of the elements — to the underlay breathing etc. previously interpretation mentioned elements Good melody, choice of key, tempo, rhythm & instruments  Tasks not Tasks equally Tasks were not Tasks not shared equally- shared-one divided among shared as member did all group equally as they -several the work! deadlines members-All could be or Deadlines deadlines met some deadlines missed missed! on time! missed A total lack of A fair Outstanding A good Recording & Editing care taken with care taken with recording-care recordingTechnical, etc. the recording some was paid to TECHNICAL technical process-too technical background COMPETENCE aspects of aspects such noise or mixing much noise, recordingpoor edits, as mixing and problems or clear, well mixing etc. mixed and no avoiding noise poor edits. etc. background noise No attention Interpretation of Imagery Music captures Music captures Not much attention paid paid to the visual imagery some of the and Visual Images imagery in the visual imagery; to imagery or of the text; EFFECTIVE USE OF lack of song text excellent use of good use of MEDIA L A N G U A G E images images accompanying visual images Most elements Some elements Did not use Interpretation of the Song All the above elements used used to capture used to capture musical or Text your vision of visual elements P E R S O N A L R E S P O N S E to capture your your vision of the song text to capture your the song text interpretation TO THE TEXT vision of the Responses to song the text  Group Effort/Division of Labour and Meeting Deadlines ORGANIZATION  F r o m the rubric a b o v e , it is no s m a l l task to e v a l u a t e creative work effectively. M o r e o v e r , at the high s c h o o l level, w h e r e the t e a c h e r is r e s p o n s i b l e for e n c o u r a g i n g g o o d study habits, s o m e attention m u s t b e paid to non-creative e l e m e n t s , a n d the  149  limited s p a c e of a grid d o e s not allow a t e a c h e r to define the s t a n d a r d s in depth, s u c h a s what constitutes "appropriate" instrumentation. W o r s n o p e q u a t e s this s c a l e with a writing rubric, e x c e p t that it offers a tool for a s s e s s i n g m a n y kinds of e x p r e s s i o n , including video, audio, a n d photographs ( W o r s n o p , p. 95). W h i l e my rubric is certainly not e x h a u s t i v e , I a m p l e a s e d with it in o n e s e n s e : I k n o w that the students w e r e involved in generating the criteria a n d h a d a g o o d idea of what w a s e x p e c t e d of t h e m by the time they r e c e i v e d this a s s e s s m e n t tool. In terms of the students' p e r s o n a l reflections (i.e. their r e s p o n s e to the text), I c h o s e to u s e the following a s s e s s m e n t s c a l e , d e v e l o p e d by C h r i s W o r s n o p ( W o r s n o p , p. 97), with s o m e slight modifications of my o w n : A s s e s s m e n t S c a l e F o r P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e T o A Text Level 5 T h e student integrates p e r s o n a l feelings, e x p e r i e n c e s , h o p e s , f e a r s , a n d beliefs with the text. T h e p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e is rooted in the text a n d c l e a r understanding of the w h o l e text, a n d m a k e s c o n n e c t i o n s to other texts.  Level 4 T h e student c o n n e c t s p e r s o n a l feelings, e x p e r i e n c e s , h o p e s , fears or beliefs with the text. T h e p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e refers to the text a n d c o n v e y s a s e n s e of understanding of the text.  Level 3 T h e student e x p l o r e s p e r s o n a l feelings, e x p e r i e n c e s , h o p e s , f e a r s a n d beliefs, but m a k e s a superficial connection to the text.  Level 2  150  T h e student retells or p a r a p h r a s e s the text or identifies d e v i c e s in isolation, m a k i n g only superficial reference to p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e or feelings O R T h e student writes about p e r s o n a l feelings without connecting t h e m to the text.  Level 1 T h e student's r e s p o n s e s h o w s little or no interaction with the text O R T h e student's r e s p o n s e is i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e .  A g a i n , I eliminated the "zero" option a n d simplified s o m e of the expectations. In addition, I u s e d a slight variation of the a b o v e s c a l e in a rubric form to mark the "making o f d o c u m e n t a r i e s the students m a d e about their S h a k e s o n g Projects. D o c u m e n t i n g the P r o c e s s I w a n t e d to d o c u m e n t the creative p r o c e s s of the students, but did not want the act of d o c u m e n t i n g to color that p r o c e s s or intrude u p o n it. W h i l e it is never p o s s i b l e to completely a v o i d influencing e v e n t s with d o c u m e n t a t i o n , I w a n t e d to find a l e s s disruptive method than videotaping the c l a s s . T h e solution s e e m e d to b e to h a v e the students d o c u m e n t t h e m s e l v e s . I a s k e d t h e m to p r o d u c e a short three minute d o c u m e n t a r y that would a c c o m p a n y their S h a k e s o n g , similar to the "extras" o n e finds on D V D ' s of popular films. T h e t e e n s definitely e n j o y e d talking about their o w n work a n d w h y they h a d m a d e particular c h o i c e s in regards to instrumentation, singing, m u s i c a l style, text underlay, t e m p o , key, a n d s o o n . S o m e of the g r o u p s w e r e o r g a n i z e d e n o u g h to d o c u m e n t their routines in-progress, while others simply reflected o n the p r o c e s s after the fact. O f c o u r s e , parts of the g r o u p ' s w o r k i n g s w e r e omitted or c o u l d not b e o b s e r v e d o n v i d e o ; however, m u c h of the 'gap' in m y o b s e r v a t i o n s w a s c l o s e d by having e a c h m e m b e r of the group submit a written reflection o n their work. B e t w e e n the  151  two literacy m o d e s , I found that I w a s a b l e to get a m o r e detailed a c c o u n t of e a c h group's m o d u s o p e r a n d i a n d a n understanding of e a c h student's r e s p o n s e to the s o n g text.  

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