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Negotating cultures : a case study of collaborative conversations between Japanese students learning… Cahill, Neta Simpkins 2002

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NEGOTATING CULTURES: A CASE STUDY OF COLLABORATIVE CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN JAPANESE STUDENTS LEARNING ENGLISH PAIRED WITH AMERICAN STUDENTS LEARNING JAPANESE by Neta Simpkins C a h i l l B a c h e l o r s Degree i n Japanese R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , U n i v . o f Washington, 1990 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER i of ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language and L i t e r a c y E d u c a t i o n (TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of B r i t i s h Columbia December 2002 © Neta Simpkins C a h i l l , 2002 UBC Rare Books and Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form Page 1 of 1 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r sch o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada Department http://www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.htrnl 12/15/02 ABSTRACT N e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n among language l e a r n e r s has. been w e l l r e s e a r c h e d t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n e r s t r a t e g i e s which s u r f a c e i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . However, most s t u d i e s have been c o n f i n e d t o p o p u l a t i o n s who are l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language w o r k i n g w i t h n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e akers or o t h e r n o n n a t i v e s p e a k e r s . T h i s f a i l s t o t a k e i n t o account the scope of p o s s i b i l i t i e s a more l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y b a l a n c e d p e r s p e c t i v e c o u l d r e v e a l about n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n . . • T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n and language use between f o u r American c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g Japanese p a i r e d w i t h f o u r Japanese s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h . P e r f o r m i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t i n an i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , each p a r t i c i p a n t was e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o attempt t a r g e t forms and t o p r e s e n t model forms of communication as c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s were e x p l o r e d t o g e t h e r . S i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s from - the . p r e s e n t s t u d y f e l l i n t o t h r e e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . F i r s t , t h e d a t a r e v e a l e d the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of E n g l i s h and Japanese i n each dyad and d e t e r m i n e d the p e r c e n t a g e s of f i r s t or second language u t t e r a n c e s f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t , thus g i v i n g a c l e a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the amount and type of language b e i n g g e n e r a t e d i n the i n f o r m a l d i a l o g s , and a l s o r e v e a l i n g g l a r i n g i m b a l a n c e s both i n q u a n t i t i e s of i n p u t per p a r t i c i p a n t and i n language d i s t r i b u t i o n between . E n g l i s h and Japanese'.' The Japanese p a r t i c i p a n t s spoke . c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than' t h e i r American p a r t n e r s , and E n g l i s h f a r outweighed J a p a n e s e ( i n i t s usage. . Re g a r d i n g n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n , comprehension checks, feedback r e q u e s t s , c o n f i r m a t i o n checks, and c l a r i f i c a t i o n r e q u e s t s , as w e l l as language m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the form of s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n , o t h e r - c o r r e c t i o n , c o m p l e t i o n r e q u e s t s , .and o t h e r - c o m p l e t i o n u t t e r a n c e s were t a l l i e d and compared, r e v e a l i n g an u n e x p e c t e d l y l a r g e number of s e l f - and o t h e r -c o r r e c t i o n s i n b o t h languages, dominance . of the American •s t u d e n t s i n i n i t i a t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s , and a l a r g e number of language s p e c i f i c feedback r e q u e s t s d i s c u s s i n g grammar, p r o n u n c i a t i o n , and l e x i c a l gaps. P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o shared t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s o f the l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t took p l a c e i n t h e dyads and e x p r e s s e d p o s i t i v e and e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s p o n s e s , i n d i c a t i v e o f the i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n t h i s l e a r n i n g environment evoked and the v a l u e c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r programs may h o l d i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n . Table of Contents A b s t r a c t . • i i Tabl e o f Co n t e n t s . . . / l v, L i s t of T a b l e s v i i ,v-±-ii Acknowledgments . i_ 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1 The Purpose of t h i s Study 1 1.2 S y n o p s i s of the Remaining Ch a p t e r s . . . . . . 5 2. Review of E m p i r i c a l L i t e r a t u r e 7 2.1 N e g o t i a t i o n : B r o a d l y D e f i n e d . . , 7 2.1.1 N e g o t i a t i o n : i n Language L e a r n i n g . . . 9 2.2 Research i n N e g o t i a t e d I n t e r a c t i o n 10 2.2.1 Research I n v o l v i n g NNS-NS & 11 NNS-NNS P a r t i c i p a n t s 2.3 I n f o r m a l C o n v e r s a t i o n . .14 2.3.1 C o n v e r s a t i o n : A Means t o an End . . . . 14 2.3.2 N a t u r a l i s t i c L e a r n i n g : 16 Group and P a i r work 2.3.3 B e n e f i t s of U n s t r u c t u r e d C o n v e r s a t i o n . 17 2.3.4 C r i t i c i s m of U n s t r u c t u r e d C o n v e r s a t i o n .19 2.3.5 A P o s i t i v e A f f e c t i v e C l i m a t e .20 2.4 Broader S o c i o c u l t u r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . . . 20 2.4.1 Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n Through . . . . 21 C o o p e r a t i v e M u l t i c u l t u r a l L e a r n i n g • 3. R a t i o n a l e of t h e P r e s e n t Study 25 3.1 N e g o t i a t e d " I n t e r a c t i o n : Gaps i n Research . . . 27 3.2 Research Q u e s t i o n s 28 3.2.1 Research Q u e s t i o n #1 29 3.2.2 Research Q u e s t i o n #2 31 3.2.3 Research Q u e s t i o n #3 .31 3.3 Methodology 32 3.3.1 The S i t e : In P a r t n e r s h i p t o 32 Promote C u l t u r a l Exchange 3.3.2 P a r t i c i p a n t s 34 3.3.3 The I n v e s t i g a t o r . . 37 3.3.4 Data C o l l e c t i o n P rocedures 38 .3.4 Data A n a l y s i s 40 3.4 .1 A u d i o & V i d e o R e c o r d i n g s . 42 4. R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n s o f Research Q u e s t i o n s : . . . 44 4.1 Examples Found i n the Data . 44 4.1.1 A d d i t i o n a l Communication S t r a t e g i e s . . 49 4.1.2 The Dominance of E n g l i s h i n D i s c u s s i o n s . 5 0 & the P e r c e p t i o n s o f Language A b i l i t i e s 5. S i g n i f i c a n t F i n d i n g s 59 5.1 Summary of R e s u l t s 59-5.2 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e Research 62 5.3 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Tea c h i n g and L e a r n i n g . . . . 63 B i b l i o g r a p h y .' 70 Appendixes ' . . ' 7 4 A. Coding A b b r e v i a t i o n s and Te r m i n o l o g y 75 C. Samples of Coded T r a n s c r i p t i o n s . . . . . . . . 76 L i s t of Tables Table 1 P r o f i l e s of P a r t i c i p a n t s • . . 36 T a b l e 2 Japanese - E n g l i s h Data A n a l y s i s 67 T a b l e 3 I n i t i a t i n g N e g o t i a t i o n - Data A n a l y s i s 68 Table 4 M o d i f i c a t i o n - Data A n a l y s i s 69 vxxx Acknowledgments I would l i k e t o ta k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x t e n d my g r a t i t u d e t o the many who have h e l p e d me a l o n g t h e way, bo t h at home and a t UBC, over t h e p a s t few y e a r s s i n c e I r e t u r n e d t o f u r t h e r my l e a r n i n g i n language e d u c a t i o n . F i r s t , and fore m o s t , I thank my a d v i s o r , Dr. L i n g S h i , f o r her i n f i n i t e p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and f o r . her . sage a d v i c e and her ever p r e s e n t p o s i t i v e o u t l o o k . My o t h e r committee• members, Dr. P a t r i c i a Duff and Dr. Margaret E a r l y , were a l s o i n c r e d i b l y s u p p o r t i v e and e n c o u r a g i n g b o t h as my p r o f e s s o r s e a r l i e r on i n the program, and then more r e c e n t l y as I s t r u g g l e d toward c o m p l e t i o n of my t h e s i s . I c o u l d not have managed w i t h o u t your k i n d n e s s and gu i d a n c e . L i k e w i s e , I have much a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r Dr. Lee Gunderson, and h i s e f f o r t s t o h e l p me get t h r o u g h some tough s p o t s . I am g r a t e f u l t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i t s s t a f f , s t u d e n t s , and i n s t r u c t o r s f o r p r o v i n g time and a g a i n t h a t an immense i n s t i t u t i o n i s s t i l l c a p a b l e o f b e i n g a p l e a s a n t , k i n d , and c a r i n g p l a c e . D e s p i t e the t h r e e hour d r i v e , I w i l l m iss coming up t o Canada and UBC. A l l . t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n my r e s e a r c h and gave so f r e e l y of t h e i r t i me and e f f o r t s w i i l always be a p p r e c i a t e d and remembered, as w i l l my employer and my co- w o r k e r s , who demonstrated much f l e x i b i l i t y and . f o r t i t u d e d u r i n g my absences. I thank my mother and f a t h e r f o r the o t h e r e d u c a t i o n I r e c e i v e d i n t h i s l i f e t h r o u g h t h e i r examples and t h e i r l o v e , and I am g r a t e f u l t o my husband, Jim, f o r h i s unwavering u n d e r s t a n d i n g , encouragement, l o v e , and f r i e n d s h i p . • Thank you, Dinny, f o r b e i n g my dear, dear f r i e n d , as w e l l as my Vancouver home away from home. - CHAPTER ONE -1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Purpose of t h i s Study T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n dyads whose p a r t i c i p a n t s were a t r e l a t i v e l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l p a r i t y t o each o t h e r , i n an e f f o r t t o a s s e s s how such p a r t n e r s would i n i t i a t e n e g o t i a t i o n sequences and mo d i f y output i n u n s t r u c t u r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e b a l a n c e o f language usage (Japanese and E n g l i s h ) was examined, and i n s t a n c e s o f n e g o t i a t i o n and m o d i f i c a t i o n sequences were compared i n each language group and f o r each i n d i v i d u a l i n an e f f o r t t o dete r m i n e what, i f any, s i g n i f i c a n t n e g o t i a t i o n p a t t e r n s emerged. L a s t l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o d i s c u s s and e v a l u a t e t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s and o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s t y p e o f u n s t r u c t u r e d c o l l a b o r a t i v e language l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . N a t i v e Japanese speakers l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h were p a i r e d w i t h n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s l e a r n i n g Japanese t o d i s c u s s t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s and c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y t a k e t u r n s s t e e r i n g t h e i r way thr o u g h the i n t r i c a c i e s of c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n bo t h t h e i r f i r s t and second languages. P e r f o r m i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t , each p a r t i c i p a n t was e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o attempt t a r g e t forms and t o p r e s e n t model forms of communication as c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s were e x p l o r e d t o g e t h e r . I n f o r m a l d i a l o g s between the f o u r p a i r s of c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r s , were r e c o r d e d , coded, and a n a l y z e d f o r examples of n e g o t i a t i o n i n i n f o r m a l , non-s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n b o t h languages. P e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n s of s i m i l a r p a i r i n g s of s t u d e n t s i n c o n v e r s a t i o n programs over th e y e a r s , a l o n g w i t h a n e c d o t a l e v i d e n c e and s c o r e s of program e v a l u a t i o n s t o u t i n g the b e n e f i t s of such i n t e r a c t i o n s prompted me.to t a k e a c l o s e r l o o k a t the a c t u a l l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g t h e s e p a r t n e r s h i p s are c a p a b l e o f , as w e l l as' the s h o r t c o m i n g s such arrangements may have. However, d e s p i t e a w e a l t h o f r e s e a r c h e x p l o r i n g n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n i t s v a r i o u s n a t i v e speaker (NS) - n o n - n a t i v e speaker (NNS) or NNS-NNS arrangements, v e r y few s t u d i e s have l o o k e d i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n as i t p e r t a i n s t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n o r p o p u l a t i o n o f language l e a r n e r s . Such i n f o r m a t i o n would be v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n h e l p i n g language programs, f a c i l i t a t o r s , and second language l e a r n e r s t o a c h i e v e the maximum b e n e f i t s from one-on-one i n t e r a c t i o n i n a b a l a n c e d and p o s i t i v e manner. More r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be a r r a n g e d , p r o t o c o l s or c u r r i c u l a c o u l d be b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d , and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e g i t i m a c y of programs which are o f t e n viewed as e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r or o n e - s i d e d i n ' f a v p r of ESL s t u d e n t s c o u l d be r e e v a l u a t e d and f u r t h e r promoted t o b e n e f i t b oth p a r t i c i p a n t s , t o a g r e a t e r degree. As i t s t a n d s now, many c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r o r community i n t e r a c t i o n programs may be m i s s i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o improve the s u c c e s s of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s because few s t u d i e s have been conducted t o date t o p r o v i d e recommendations or proven g u i d e l i n e s f o r s u c c e s s . S i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s from the p r e s e n t s t u d y f e l l i n t o t h r e e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . F i r s t , t h e da t a r e v e a l e d t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of E n g l i s h and Japanese i n each dyad and d e t e r m i n e d t h e p e r c e n t a g e s of f i r s t o r second language u t t e r a n c e s f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t , t h u s g i v i n g a c l e a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e amount and t y p e o f language b e i n g g e n e r a t e d i n the i n f o r m a l d i a l o g s , and a l s o r e v e a l i n g g l a r i n g i m b a l a n c e s b o t h i n ' q u a n t i t i e s of i n p u t p e r p a r t i c i p a n t and i n language d i s t r i b u t i o n between E n g l i s h and Japanese. Without t h i s d a t a , i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e . r t a i n t h e t r u e l e v e l of. participât i o n and b a l a n c e o c c u r r i n g i n p a i r work, and t h e b e n e f i t s o r sh o r t c o m i n g s i n d i v i d u a l s may have been e x p e r i e n c i n g . The second r e l e v a n t " c o n t r i b u t i o n t h i s s t u d y o f f e r s i s a c a r e f u l l o o k a t n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n as i t o c c u r r e d i n i n i t i a t i o n of n e g o t i a t i o n sequences t h r o u g h comprehension checks, feedback r e q u e s t s , c o n f i r m a t i o n c hecks, and c l a r i f i c a t i o n r e q u e s t s , as w e l l as language m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the form of s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n , o t h e r - c o r r e c t i o n , c o m p l e t i o n r e q u e s t s , and o t h e r - c o m p l e t i o n . A g a i n , th e a c t u a l number of t h e s e u t t e r a n c e s were f u r t h e r broken down i n t o c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g Japanese and E n g l i s h i n b oth f i r s t and second languages. I t was hoped t h a t by u s i n g f a i r l y s t a n d a r d and w i d e l y a c c e p t e d c a t e g o r i e s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n (Doughty & P i c a , 1986; S h i , 1998) t h i s d a t a might c o n t r i b u t e t o the g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s of n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n . D i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s emerged i n the performance of s e l f -and o t h e r c o r r e c t i o n s which showed an u n u s u a l l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r r e c t i o n s when compared w i t h t h e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n a s t u d y by Chun, Day, Chenoweth, and Luppescu (1982) of i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s between NSs and NNSs. t h a t s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n s made by t h e NSs were r e l a t i v e l y r a r e , and u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d when t h e r e was a f a c t u a l e r r o r . Many of the c o r r e c t i o n s I o b s e r v e d were e x p l i c i t s e l f - o r o t h e r - c o r r e c t i o n s i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n , v o c a b u l a r y , and.grammar. The r e s u l t s of t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h may be due i n p a r t t o the c o l l a b o r a t i v e a s p e c t of t h e s e dyads and the r e s u l t a n t r e d u c t i o n i n c o n c e r n f o r " f a c e " . Concern f o r e t i q u e t t e and ego may have been r e p l a c e d by a mutual d e s i r e t o b e n e f i t from the o t h e r ' s s t a t u s as e x p e r t w h i l e c o m m i s e r a t i n g w i t h one a n o t h e r ' s s t r u g g l e s as second language l e a r n e r s . L a s t l y , the t h i r d , and perhaps most i m p o r t a n t group o f f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study' came d i r e c t l y from the p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves as they r e l a t e d t h e i r unique and h i g h l y r e l e v a n t p e r s p e c t i v e s • o n the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and the e x p e r i e n c e s and p e r c e p t i o n s t h e y remembered t h r o u g h t h e s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l s e s s i o n s a f t e r w a r d s . There were many c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s t o improve the c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r p r o c e s s , and many p o s i t i v e comments about t h e e x p e r i e n c e . 1.2 Synopsis of the Remaining Chapters The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f s y n o p s i s o f t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Chapter 2 w i l l p r e s e n t a r e v i e w of e m p i r i c a l ' s t u d i e s d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n , which i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o NNS-NNS and NNS-NS g r o u p i n g s ; then i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be compared t o s t r u c t u r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The c h a p t e r w i l l end w i t h an o v e r v i e w o f b r o a d e r s o c i o c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , as w e l l as an argument f o r the r e l e v a n c e of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Chapter 3 p r e s e n t s the c u r r e n t s t u d y , f i r s t by o u t l i n i n g gaps i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , f o l l o w e d by the t h r e e main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s which form the b a s i s of t h i s s t u d y . Next, the f o l l o w i n g items are a d d r e s s e d : the methodology, i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the s i t e , p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n v e s t i g a t o r , and p r o c e d u r e s f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The d a t a a n a l y s i s w i l l t hen be i n t r o d u c e d a l o n g w i t h d e f i n i t i o n s o f c o d i n g markers, i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y , and examples of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s w i t h coding'. F i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w i n Chapter 4 f o r each of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Chapter 5 p r e s e n t s a f i n a l summary of the r e s u l t s , t a b l e s , and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and p e d a g o g i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . - CHAPTER TWO -2.0 Review of Empirical L i t e r a t u r e The g o a l of t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x p l o r e n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n and language use between American s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g Japanese p a i r e d w i t h Japanese s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h when th e y a re p l a c e d i n an i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g and encouraged t o a s s i s t each o t h e r i n a c q u i r i n g language and c u l t u r a l knowledge w h i l e i n t e r a c t i n g i n u n s t r u c t u r e d . c o n v e r s a t i o n s ' o f t h e i r own making u s i n g w h i c h e v e r languages t h e y p r e f e r . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine t h e many d e f i n i t i o n s o f n e g o t i a t i o n , t h e n w i l l d i s c u s s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of group or p a i r work i n f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . A r e v i e w o f r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h on n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n ' a m o n g NNS-NNS and NNS-NS, and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l , w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . L a s t l y , the e f f e c t s of groups o r p a i r s on f i n d i n g s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . 2.1 Negotiation : Broadly Defined The o r i g i n a l , term ' n e g o t i a t i o n ' , by d e f i n i t i o n has a s s o r t e d l a y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which add depth and r e l e v a n c e when r e f l e c t e d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a s s i g n e d t o ' n e g o t i a t i o n ' i n A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s . A c c o r d i n g t o Webster's d i c t i o n a r y , the v e r b ' n e g o t i a t e ' means: t o communicate or c o n f e r w i t h a n o t h e r so as t o a r r i v e at a s e t t l e m e n t of some m a t t e r : meet w i t h a n o t h e r so as t o a r r i v e t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n at some k i n d o f agreement or compromise about something: come t o terms... t o d e a l w i t h (some m a t t e r or a f f a i r t h a t r e q u i r e s a b i l i t y f o r i t s s u c c e s s f u l h a n d l i n g ) :' manage, handle , conduct: t o a r r a n g e f o r or b r i n g about t h r o u g h c o n f e r e n c e and d i s c u s s i o n : work out o r ' a r r i v e a t or s e t t l e upon by meetings and agreements and compromise: t o i n f l u e n c e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a d e s i r e d way by d i s c u s s i o n s and agreements and compromise: t o t r a n s f e r or a s s i g n t o a n o t h e r b y d e l i v e r y o r endorsement or b o t h i n r e t u r n f o r e q u i v a l e n t value... t o s u c c e s s f u l l y get over or a c r o s s (as a road) or up or down (as a h i l l ) o r t h r o u g h (as an o b s t a c l e ) : t o e n c o u n t e r and d i s p o s e of (as problem, c h a l l e n g e ) w i t h completeness and s a t i s f a c t i o n : t a c k l e s u c c e s s f u l l y : complete, accomplish... (Gove, 1986) . As the term ' n e g o t i a t i o n ' p e r t a i n s t o second language a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e r e are many a d d i t i o n a l nuances and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o c o n s i d e r , but the t a n g i b l e p e r s o n a l rewards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l l y overcoming a c h a l l e n g e , whether s m a l l or l a r g e , i n second language communication, s h o u l d not be f o r g o t t e n when the l i n g u i s t i c v e r n a c u l a r a p p l i e s the word t o a speech a c t ' o r grammar p o i n t . . 2.1.1 Negotiation : i n Language Learning S t a r t i n g from a broad, m a c r o l e v e l p e r s p e c t i v e , n e g o t i a t i o n o c c u r s w i t h i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s p r a g m a t i c a l l y r e g a r d i n g s p e a k e r s ' b e l i e f s and background a t t i t u d e s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c o n t e x t , and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h how language can be m a n i p u l a t e d and a p p l i e d . S e m a n t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , n e g o t i a t i o n o f c o n t e n t and meaning has been i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h the use o f s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s of r e q u e s t s and v a l i d a t i o n s . Syntax comes i n t o p l a y when speakers n e g o t i a t e o r exchange grammar r u l e s e i t h e r i m p l i c i t l y , o r e x p l i c i t l y , w h i l e m o r p h o l o g i c a l n e g o t i a t i o n i s e v i d e n t when sp e a k e r s d i s c u s s and r e p a i r language a t the l e v e l i n v o l v i n g word f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A c l o s e r l o o k a t language n e g o t i a t i o n r e v e a l s p r o c e s s e s i n which p h o n e t i c s and phonology a re adapted or c o r r e c t e d , i n c l u d i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n and p a t t e r n s o f speech sounds. Taken as a whole, n e g o t i a t i o n i n SLA o f f e r s a broad range of i n v e s t i g a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s (Nakahama, T y l e r , & van L i e r , 2001). 2.2 Introduction to Research i n Negotiated Interaction Research i n bo t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e nvironments has shown n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t , though v a r i e d , i n f l u e n c e on language a c q u i s i t i o n ( P i c a , Young, & Doughty, 1987; Nakahama e t a l . , 2001; S h i , 1998). N e g o t i a t i o n i n second language i n t e r a c t i o n has broad r e l e v a n c e and can be viewed w i t h a wide spectrum of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r a n g i n g from the m i c r o s c o p i c end of the s c a l e w i t h s p e c i f i c s t o do w i t h p r o n u n c i a t i o n t o a w i d e r , m a c r o s c o p i c p o s i t i o n i n v o l v i n g g e n e r a l s t e e r i n g o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t o p i c s , tone, and t u r n t a k i n g (Nakahama e t a l . , 2001). The f o l l o w i n g i s a r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n d i v i d e d i n t o NNS-NS and NNS-NNS c a t e g o r i e s based on t h e arrangement and backgrounds of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each s t u d y . S e c t i o n 2.3 w i l l l o o k ' a t r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . 2.2.1 Research Involving NNS-NS & NNS-NNS Participants A broad 'global'.' approach t o c a t e g o r i z i n g c o n t e n t and d i s c o u r s e sequences was one of s e v e r a l t a c t i c s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y documented i n a r e c e n t c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n gap a c t i v i t i e s and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n , which s e p a r a t e d , i d e n t i f i e d , and t a l l i e d s p e c i f i c ' t r i g g e r s / f o r r e p a i r n e g o t i a t i o n s . " G l o b a l t r i g g e r s i n v o l v e d elements such as a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e , d e i x i s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f an e n t i r e u t t e r a n c e , and elements t h a t can cause a r e a n a l y s i s o f more than one t u r n " (Nakahama e t a l . , 2001, pp. 384-385). Far removed from the e f f e c t s of g l o b a l and r e p a i r n e g o t i a t i o n , n e g o t i a t i o n of the f i n e r p o i n t s o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n can a l s o be examined. The f o l l o w i n g i s an example o f a p r o n u n c i a t i o n t r i g g e r and r e p a i r from the Nakahama et a l . s t u d y (2001, p.385): . Sumiko (NNS) : Preschool...? [ p r E s k u l ] R i t a (NS) : • Pre-school...? [ p r i s k u l ] Sumiko: P r e - s c h o o l . [ p r i s k u l ] Even i n a NS-NNS c o m b i n a t i o n , one can assume t h a t the p r e s s u r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than a s t u d e n t would f e e l i f s i n g l e d out by a t e a c h e r i n f r o n t o f the c l a s s f o r c o r r e c t i o n . The r e s u l t s of the Nakahama e t ' a l . s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , an average of 76% of a l l r e p a i r n e g o t i a t i o n s employed g l o b a l t r i g g e r s , v e r s u s more s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t o r s " such as p r o n u n c i a t i o n , m o r p h o s y n t a c t i c , and l e x i c a l t r i g g e r s . However, t h i s p e r c e n t a g e dropped t o 25.6% i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n gap a c t i v i t i e s , o s t e n s i b l y due t o dominant need of t h a t a c t i v i t y t o compare and g a t h e r s p e c i f i c and c o - r e l a t i o n a l : d a t a , as r e p r e s e n t e d by a 55% average of l e x i c a l t r i g g e r s . NSs and NNSs i n t e r a c t i o n was examined by Chun, Day, Chenoweth, and Luppescu (1982) the c o n c l u s i o n was made t h a t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n s by the NSs were r e l a t i v e l y r a r e , and u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d when t h e r e was a f a c t u a l e r r o r , then d i s c o u r s e and v o c a b u l a r y were r e v i s e d , though grammar was r a r e l y c o r r e c t e d . Data was g a t h e r e d from a v a r i e t y o f a d u l t s u b j e c t s w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of E n g l i s h f l u e n c y as t h e y conducted i n f o r m a l r e c o r d e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h n a t i v e E n g l i s h , s p e a k i n g f r i e n d s o u t s i d e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . There were no r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n , and the NNS were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n d u c t i n g the t a p i n g . Twenty p a i r s were r e c o r d e d t w i c e , f o r about twenty minutes each t i m e , then the 15 hours of d i s c o u r s e was a n a l y z e d t o d etermine th e number of NNS e r r o r s and t h e p e r c e n t a g e of e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n s NSs made when s p e a k i n g w i t h t h e i t NNS f r i e n d s . The f i n d i n g s showed t h a t o n l y 8.9% o f NNSs' e r r o r s were c o r r e c t e d . I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t the pe r c e n t a g e of e r r o r s t h a t were c o r r e c t e d d e c r e a s e d from 13.4% f o r b e g i n n i n g l e v e l s t u d e n t s t o o n l y 3.0% f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h advances ESL a b i l i t i e s , and t h a t most e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n s were r e l a t e d t o f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t h a t t h i s c o u l d be. due t o the p o s s i b l e c o n s t r a i n t s of s o c i a l e t i q u e t t e r e g a r d i n g the i m p r o p r i e t y o f c o r r e c t i n g a r e l a t i v e s t r a n g e r ' s m i s t a k e s . However, a comparison s t u d y between NNS-NNS peer group and NS (teacher)-NNS by S h i (1998) examined n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n f e a t u r e s such as comprehension checks, feedback r e q u e s t s , c l a r i f i c a t i o n r e q u e s t s , and c o n f i r m a t i o n c h e c k s , as w e l l as i n s t a n c e s of speech m o d i f i c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g e r r o r ' c o r r e c t i o n , t o a s c e r t a i n t h e l e v e l s and t y p e s o f n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e i r f r e q u e n c i e s . Three NS(teacher)-NNS groups and NNS-NNS peer group d i s c u s s i o n s were a u d i o t a p e d , t r a n s c r i b e d , a n a l y z e d , and compared. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e NS(teacher-NNS i n s t a n c e s of n e g o t i a t i o n were not as f r e q u e n t as i n t h e peer groups, t h e t e a c h e r - l e d i n t e r a c t i o n s p r o v i d e d more a c c u r a t e language m o d e l i n g o f E n g l i s h than t h e NNS-NNS groups and a l s o p r o v i d e d more i n depth and extended i n s t a n c e s o f n e g o t i a t i o n . Student feedback i n d i c a t e d t h a t v a l u e was p l a c e d on b oth methods of i n t e r a c t i o n , and t h a t s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e d b o t h a c t i v i t i e s t o be m e a n i n g f u l and p r o d u c t i v e f o r l e a r n i n g languages. Based on t h e s e f i n d i n g s , the next q u e s t i o n t h a t begs t o be e x p l o r e d i s whether NSs who a r e not t e a c h e r s , but have a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n s h a r i n g languages w i t h NNSs, would a c h i e v e s i m i l a r t y p e s of n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n as t h e t e a c h e r l e d groups i n S h i ' s . s t u d y (1998), o r whether t h e y would f a l l i n t o the p a t t e r n of NS-NNS i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t Chun et a l . (1982) ob s e r v e d . 2.3 Informal Conversation Spontaneous c o l l a b o r a t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r second language development and c u l t u r a l exchange i n a more n a t u r a l environment, w i t h reduced a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s and g r e a t e r • i n d i v i d u a l autonomy ( R i c h a r d s , 1980). The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s w i l l examine r e s e a r c h which has t a k e n a c l o s e r l o o k a t i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and the r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t s on n e g o t i a t i o n . 2.3.1 Conversation : A Means to an End The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e v e r b a l a c t i v i t y i d e n t i f i e d as n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y d e r i v e d from t h e b e l i e f t h a t language, whether n a t i v e or n o n - n a t i v e , i s a h u m a n i s t i c , s o c i a l l y d r i v e n t o o l f o r communication (Di P i e t r o , 1987). The need t o exchange i n f o r m a t i o n i s a c a t a l y s t f o r human c o n v e r s a t i o n ; however, communication i n the form of c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s not o n l y a b e n e f i t d e r i v e d from l e a r n i n g languages but i s p u r p o r t e d t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e language development i t s e l f . V y g o t s k y a s s e r t s t h a t second language l e a r n e r s a c t u a l l y d e v e l o p . s p e c i f i c c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , or regulation, t h r o u g h c o n v e r s i n g w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , thus d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g development and performance i n the t a r g e t language (Vygotsky, 1978, 1986). A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s by C a r o l l and Swain (1992, 1993), and van L i e r (198.8) have e x p l o r e d t h i s concept f u r t h e r t o a s s e s s c o r r e c t i v e feedback and c o l l a b o r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s between n o v i c e s and e x p e r t s i n the t a r g e t language ( L a n t o l f , 2000). A l j a a f r e h and L a n t o l f (1994) i d e n t i f i e d t h i s s o c i o c u l t u r a l approach t o l a n g u a g e 1 development as "the st u d y o f how m e d i a t i o n a l means are a p p r o p r i a t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l as a r e s u l t o f d i a l o g i c i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s (p.467)." The a u t h o r s then went on t o c o n c l u d e t h a t such m e d i a t i o n i s c r i t i c a l f o r feedback t o be r e l e v a n t as a form o f r e g u l a t i o n ( A l j a a f r e h & L a n t o l f , 1994, p. 480), v a l i d a t i n g the importance o f s m a l l group o r p a i r work, as t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h p o i n t s out. 2.3.2 N a t u r a l i s t i c Learning through Group and Pair work P e d a g o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , Brown (1994) d e f i n e s group or p a i r work as a " m u l t i p l i c i t y of t e c h n i q u e s i n which two or more s t u d e n t s are a s s i g n e d a t a s k t h a t i n v o l v e s c o l l a b o r a t i o n and s e l f - i n i t i a t e d language" (p.173). Numerous s t u d i e s t o u t the b e n e f i t s o f group or p a i r work i n the c l a s s r o o m as an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s (Long & P o r t e r , 1985). In an e f f o r t t o a c h i e v e a n a t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c environment, B r u m f i t m a i n t a i n s t h a t " t h e use of p a i r and group work i s t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e b a s i s f o r n a t u r a l i s t i c b e h a v i o r , i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n ' class..." (1984, p.87). Furthermore, i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p t r u l y n a t u r a l language, such c o n v e r s a t i o n s must o c c u r outside o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t h r o u g h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r community and s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t , which n o u r i s h t a r g e t language exposure and development i n an i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g ( R i v e r s , 1983) . . . •-K l e i n (1986) argues t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , i n n a t u r a l i s t i c language l e a r n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d second•'language a c q u i s i t i o n . S t u d i e s of spontaneous l e a r n i n g may r e v e a l p r o c e s s e s s p a r e d t h e i n h e r e n t s i d e e f f e c t s of c o n t r i v e d l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s found i n t y p i c a l c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s . F urthermore, K l e i n s u g g e s t s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t l e a r n e r s may even h a r b o r an u n d e r l y i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o f o r m a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n which f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n n a t u r a l i s t i c language s e t t i n g s c o u l d r e v e a l . However, r e a l i t y d i c t a t e s t h a t many l e a r n e r s o f a second language may not have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o engage i n spontaneous and' n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h n a t i v e s p e a k e r s due t o g e o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n , i n which case t h e f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g may be the o n l y r e a l i s t i c avenue of l e a r n i n g a v a i l a b l e (Johnson, 1992). Johnson goes on t o p o s i t : ' • ... because n a t u r a l i s t i c and tutored learning are not completely d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e , and because both kinds of learning occur i n s i d e and outside of classrooms and schools, there is l i t t l e reason that research conducted in informal environments should be valued as more basic and thus more important than research conducted in formal s i t u a t i o n s (p. 12).. 2.3.3 Benefits of Unstructured Conversations W h i l e the statement by Johnson i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n r e f l e c t s a p o s i t i o n t h a t has been f a i r l y s t a n d a r d i n SLA r e s e a r c h , the st u d y by Nakahama e t a l . (2001) a l s o r e v e a l e d c o m p e l l i n g e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t b oth t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of n e g o t i a t i o n sequences and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r language use were g r e a t e r i n u n s t r u c t u r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s . T h e i r d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s compared the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of NS-NNS dyads b o t h q u a l i t a t i v e l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y as th e y n e g o t i a t e d meaning i n b o t h a s t r u c t u r e d i n f o r m a t i o n gap a c t i v i t y and a r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . The d i a l o g s were d e s i g n e d t o approximate n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n i n an attempt t o a s c e r t a i n the t y p e s of l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e and t h e means by which n e g o t i a t i o n may t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n such a c t i v i t i e s . • The c o n v e r s a t i o n gap a c t i v i t y was a t y p i c a l problem s o l v i n g t a s k i n v o l v i n g two p i c t u r e s c o n t a i n i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o v e r b a l l y compare. The f i n d i n g s not o n l y s u p p o r t the v a l u e o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h o f n a t u r a l i s t i c c o n v e r s a t i o n , but a l s o m a i n t a i n t h a t c o n t r o l l e d a c t i v i t i e s , such as t h e i n f o r m a t i o n gap p r e s e n t e d , r e s u l t i n s h o r t e r and l e s s complete u t t e r a n c e s when compared t o t h e r i c h e r , more complex d i s c o u r s e s o b t a i n e d from u n f e t t e r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s (Nakahama, T y l e r , & van L i e r , 2001). Such r e s e a r c h not o n l y p o i n t s t o the b e n e f i t s - o f i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n i n second language e d u c a t i o n , but v a l i d a t e s the need f o r language l e a r n e r s and e d u c a t o r s t o seek a c c e s s t o a u t h e n t i c i n t e r a c t i o n and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r exposure i n the t a r g e t language, i n a d d i t i o n t o expounding on o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r spontaneous l e a r n i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m . 2.3.4 C r i t i c i s m of Unstructured Conversations Another p e r s p e c t i v e on i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s between NSs and NNSs can be found i n the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d r e s e a r c h by Chun et a l . (1982) i n which t h e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e t h a t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n s by the NSs were r e l a t i v e l y r a r e , and u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d when t h e r e was a f a c t u a l e r r o r , then d i s c o u r s e and v o c a b u l a r y were r e v i s e d , though grammar was r a r e l y c o r r e c t e d . The r e s e a r c h e r s went on t o p o i n t out the p o s s i b l e c o n s t r a i n t s o f s o c i a l e t i q u e t t e r e g a r d i n g the i m p r o p r i e t y of c o r r e c t i n g a r e l a t i v e s t r a n g e r ' s m i s t a k e s and c a u t i o n e d r e s e a r c h e r s t o t a k e c a r e w i t h l a b o r a t o r y formed dyads used s o l e l y f o r the purpose o f g e n e r a t i n g d a t a , as t h e language o b t a i n e d may not be " n a t u r a l " i n the sense d e s i r e d . The q u e s t i o n a l s o remains, what do the NNSs a c t u a l l y l e a r n from t h e s e c o r r e c t i o n s ? 2.3.5 A Positive A f f e c t i v e Climate B e s i d e s p r o m o t i n g i n c r e a s e d i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t o utput and i n t e r a c t i o n , s t u d i e s have shown t h a t group o r p a i r work s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduces the n e g a t i v e a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s which can impede l e a r n i n g and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n (Long & P o r t e r , 1985, p. 211). T h i s more i n t i m a t e environment i s l e s s i n t i m i d a t i n g than p e r f o r m i n g i n f r o n t o f a c l a s s f u l l of s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , t h e t e a c h e r , measuring and j u d g i n g e v e r y u t t e r a n c e . In a dyad composed o f NS/NNS-NNS/NS, n e i t h e r has t h e upper hand or i s more o f an e x p e r t than the o t h e r . Both have comparable s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, and the stigma of s p e a k i n g out.and p o s s i b l y f a l t e r i n g i s u s u a l l y l e s s f r i g h t e n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o ready a c c e s s t o co m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n has been shown t o be g r e a t e r , and more language p r a c t i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a re a v a i l a b l e i n p a i r or s m a l l group work (Long & P o r t e r , 1985; S t e v i c k , 1996) . 2.4 Broader Sociocultural Considerations U n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t r a c t and r e c r u i t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t o promote g l o b a l i z a t i o n and d i v e r s i t y of i d e a s , and t o g e n e r a t e revenue. Most s c h o o l s p r o v i d e or ar r a n g e f o r the ESL i n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g s t u d e n t s . u p t o a l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y t h a t w i l l a l l o w them t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n mainstream c o u r s e s . U n t i l such p r o f i c i e n c y i s a t t a i n e d , i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s o f t e n f i n d themselves s e q u e s t e r e d i n ESL c l a s s r o o m i s o l a t i o n w i t h the burden o f a s s i m i l a t i o n r e s t i n g on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s . In the meantime, r e g u l a r s t u d e n t s go on about t h e i r c o l l e g e l i f e , m i s s i n g the chance t o i n t e r a c t w i t h and l e a r n from t h e s e s t u d e n t s next door. 2.4.1 Language S o c i a l i z a t i o n Through Cooperative M u l t i c u l t u r a l Learning C u l t u r e and language are i n t e r t w i n e d . i n a s y m b i o t i c b a l a n c e of power. To remove th e c u l t u r a l component from a language s t u d y e l i m i n a t e s the v e r y fib'er which c r e a t e s t h e t e x t u r e and depth o f communication. Without c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s , words become mere l i n k s - i n a c h a i n , m e c h a n i c a l and i m p e r s o n a l . Brown s t a t e s , "A s i n g l e sentence can seldom be f u l l y a n a l y z e d . • w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g i t s c o n t e x t . We use language as s t r e t c h e s of d i s c o u r s e . We s t r i n g many sentences t o g e t h e r i n c o h e s i v e u n i t s such t h a t s e n t e n ces bear i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . . . " (p. 189). Without c o n t e x t , he goes on t o say, i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o communicate c l e a r l y due t o p o t e n t i a l a m b i g u i t y , whether i n speech or i n w r i t i n g . C o n t e x t i s c r u c i a l . I t i s more than s i m p l y a c a u s a l v a r i a b l e . S o c i o c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s - have h i g h l i g h t e d t h i s p o i n t by f o c u s i n g on t a s k and a c t i v i t y s e t t i n g s ; on c o n t e n t and meaning; on t a s k accomplishment; on s o c i a l p r e c u r s o r s t o i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i o n ; and on e n c u l t u r a t i o n (Ochs & S c h i e f f e l i n , 1984, D u f f , 1995). Furthermore, g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n i s now b e i n g g i v e n t o m u l t i c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s as v a l u a b l e environments f o r s u c c e s s f u l language s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( B a r r o n , 1991). C o l l i n B a r r o n q u e s t i o n s , ". . . i f i t i s f e l t w o r t h w h i l e t o i n c l u d e the c u l t u r e o f t h e t a r g e t language, i s i t not j u s t as' w o r t h w h i l e t o i n c l u d e the (L2) s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r e ( B a r r o n , 1991, p. 174)?" • As f o r t h e b e n e f i t s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e nvironments f o r n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s ' language a c q u i s i t i o n , H a r k l a u s t a t e s : The evaluation of mainstream classrooms as spoken language a c q u i s i t i o n environments rests not only on input received, but on opportunities for output and the e n t i r e process of i n t e r a c t i o n . The productive use of an L2 and feedback from native speakers is also a major component in the process of second language a c q u i s i t i o n ( H a r k l a u , 1994, p.249) . C o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e the i d e a l environment f o r m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l l e a r n i n g t o t a k e p l a c e . A c c o r d i n g t o McGroarty, "Research on . c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n s e t t i n g s of l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y c o r r o b o r a t e s the advantages of c o o p e r a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n shown i n s e t t i n g s where a l l s t u d e n t s speak t h e same language (1992, p. 5 9 ) . " McGroarty goes on t o s t a t e t h a t , "... r e p a i r sequences, where l e a r n e r s n e g o t i a t e meaning between t h e m s e l v e s , were f r e q u e n t ..." (p. 62), and t h a t a s t u d y w i t h S p a n i s h s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s showed t h a t "... academic use of the p r i m a r y language h e l p s s t u d e n t s master E n g l i s h (p. 6 3 ) . " A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h by D e l p i t (1988) and De l a l u z Reyes (1992) reminds us t h a t i n o r d e r f o r c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g t o f l o u r i s h , t e a c h e r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s must pos s e s s a commitment t o d i v e r s i t y , as w e l l as thorough t r a i n i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e t h e o r y and t e c h n i q u e s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s f o r a l l . s t u d e n t s . S t u d i e s by A l b r e c h t s e n e t a l . , (1980), have measured n a t i v e speaker r e a c t i o n t o n o n n a t i v e speech and have demonstrated the i r r i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of c e r t a i n L2 communication s t r a t e g i e s , i n c l u d i n g i n t e r l a n g u a g e and a c c e n t . Hadley (1993) i n s i s t s t h a t many American s t u d e n t s s i m p l y a re not w e l l c o n d i t i o n e d t o d e a l w i t h f o r e i g n p e o p l e o r c u l t u r e s . E t h n o c e n t r i c i t y breeds i g n o r a n c e , and f o r . t h a t v e r y r e a s o n , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l exchange and d i s c u s s i o n i s c r i t i c a l f o r b r o a d e n i n g awareness and p r o v i d i n g a much needed o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r . c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n . - CHAPTER THREE -3.0 Rationale of the Present Study Few s t u d i e s have e x p l o r e d t h e b e n e f i t s and c h a l l e n g e s of a more b a l a n c e d , two-way approach t o second language n e g o t i a t i o n i n which p a r t n e r s a r e a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l s t a g e s o f development, i n each o t h e r ' s language and c u l t u r a l e xposure, thus b e i n g c a p a b l e of p e r f o r m i n g d u a l r o l e s , b oth as e x p e r t s and as l e a r n e r s (Kachru, 1994). With t h i s g o a l i n mind, I w i l l now p r e s e n t t h e u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f the c u r r e n t s t u d y s t a r t i n g w i t h gaps i n c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s t o p i c , f o l l o w e d by the t h r e e main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s I chose t o e x p l o r e , an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i r r e l e v a n c e , t h e methodology employed, f o l l o w e d by the data a n a l y s i s , f i n d i n g s , t a b l e s , and d i s c u s s i o n . The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x p l o r e beyond the t y p i c a l ESL b i a s t h a t e x i s t s i n most second language s t u d i e s by f o c u s i n g on n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n dyads whose p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a t r e l a t i v e l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l p a r i t y t o each o t h e r . I n f o r m a l one hour l o n g d i a l o g s between f o u r p a i r s of c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r s , each s t u d y i n g the o t h e r ' s language and c u l t u r e , have been recorded,-coded, and a n a l y z e d f o r examples o f c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c n e g o t i a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n . N a t i v e Japanese speakers l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h were teamed w i t h n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s l e a r n i n g Japanese t o d i s c u s s t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s and c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y t a k e t u r n s s t e e r i n g t h e i r way th r o u g h t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n ' b o t h t h e i r f i r s t and second languages. P e r f o r m i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t , each p a r t i c i p a n t was e q u a l l y 1 r e s p o n s i b l e t o attempt t a r g e t forms and t o ' p r e s e n t model forms of communication as c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , were e x p l o r e d t o g e t h e r . S t u d e n t s ' i n p u t , p e r c e p t i o n s , and feedback were an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h i s r e s e a r c h and were i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o c e s s from s t a r t t o f i n i s h , r e s u l t i n g i n an a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t r i n s i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s s h a r i n g i n c o n t e x t u a l i z e d and p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t language exchange. S c r e e n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r second language competencies was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a more l e v e l p l a y i n g f i e l d w i t h l e s s o f an a f f e c t i v e ' f i l t e r t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h n a t u r a l communication. However, once t h i s s t u d y was underway, i t i became o b v i o u s t h a t a more thorough e v a l u a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s a c t u a l language a b i l i t i e s was needed t o a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d b a l a n c e of language s k i l l s . 3.1 Negotiated Interaction : Gaps i n Research Research c o n t i n u e s t o examine v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n among language l e a r n e r s t o i d e n t i f y commonalties and r e l e v a n t l e a r n e r s t r a t e g i e s which s u r f a c e s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . T a c t i c s which have been i d e n t i f i e d and s t u d i e d i n c l u d e the use of r e p e t i t i o n , feedback r e q u e s t s , c o n f i r m a t i o n c h e c k s , and c o r r e c t i o n s , t o name a few. However, most r e s e a r c h has been c o n f i n e d t o p o p u l a t i o n s who are l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language. O f t e n t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s come from d i v e r s e and d i s p a r a t e l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l o r i g i n s . Such d i v e r s i t y , w h i l e b e n e f i c i a l i n i t s own r i g h t , f a i l s t o t a k e i n t o account the scope of p o s s i b i l i t i e s a more l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y b a l a n c e d p e r s p e c t i v e c o u l d r e v e a l about n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n . S c h o l a r l y e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e premise t h a t second language l e a r n e r s d e r i v e m u l t i p l e b e n e f i t s from c o n v e r s a t i o n a l exposure t o and n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h " e x p e r t s " , or n a t i v e - s p e a k e r s , i n the t a r g e t language ( E l l i s , 1994; Gass & V e r o n i s , 1984; Izumi & B i g e l o w , 2000; Izu m i , B i g e l o w , F u j i w a r a , & Fearnow, 1999; Long, 1983, 1985, 1996; P i c a , 1988;. Ohta, 2001; P i c a , Young, & Doughty,. 1987; Swain,- 1985; Young, 1984) . D e s p i t e t h e s e d i s c o v e r i e s , t h a t fundamental essence of language, communication of meaning, i s o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d o r un d e r v a l u e d , whether i n r e s e a r c h o r i n c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n (Chun, Chenoweth, & Luppescu, 1982; Kachru, 1994; K l e i n , 1986). S t u d i e s c o n t i n u e . t o l e a n toward the mechanics of language a c q u i s i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n somewhat a r t i f i c i a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s , r a t h e r t h a n n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g speech a c t s i n c a s u a l , l e s s c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n s (Nakahama e t a l . , 2001). 3.2 Research Questions D e s p i t e many a r t i c l e s and s t u d i e s e x p l o r i n g p a i r work, i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s and n e g o t i a t i o n i n SLA, v e r y few s t u d i e s ' w e n t beyond t h e NS-NNS or NNS-NNS c o m b i n a t i o n s t o i n c l u d e m u t u a l l y c o m p a t i b l e language exchange. I t i s the aim o f t h i s s t u d y t o examine t h e i n s t a n c e s o f n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n dyads w i t h somewhat comparable language s k i l l s t o determine the b a l a n c e between the two languages as w e l l as t h e sp e a k e r s , how t h i s i s n e g o t i a t e d , and a l s o what l i n g u i s t i c and s o c i o c u l t u r a l exchanges a re e v i d e n t as ex p r e s s e d d u r i n g the s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l s e s s i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s form the b a s i s o f t h i s t h e s i s and w i l l be examined t o dete r m i n e t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n language l e a r n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : 1) How do conversation par tners f a m i l i a r with each other's languages i n i t i a t e negotiation sequences and modify t h e i r own, or the other's language output in informal conversation? 2) What is the balance of Japanese and English.being spoken, and how is t h i s r e f l e c t e d in the negotiation and modification sequences? 3) - What were the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' perspectives on t h i s conversational a c t i v i t y and how did they remember and describe t h e i r experiences and perceptions of learning and teaching through the stimulated r e c a l l sessions afterward? 3.2.1 Research Question #1 How do conversation partners f a m i l i a r with each other's languages i n i t i a t e negotiation sequences and modify t h e i r own, or the other's language output in informal conversation? C o n v e r s a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s can v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y depending on the p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r backgrounds, the s e t t i n g , and the m o t i v a t i o n s prompting v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . Knowing, what t o say and how t o say i t can a t t i m e s be d i f f i c u l t f o r speakers i n a f i r s t language. Add t o t h i s t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h second language use and t h e m y r i a d o f i n t r i c a c i e s i n v o l v e d i n n e g o t i a t i n g n o n - n a t i v e c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , and b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s ; and t h e importance o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s toward s u c c e s s f u l communication between NS and NNS i s p r o f o u n d l y e v i d e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o Ramirez, D e v e l o p i n g o r a l p r o f i c i e n c y i n a second language i n v o l v e s a b r o a d range of competencies a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s , t o p i c s , and r u l e s f o r t a l k i n g . O r a l .communication i n c l u d e s b o th t r a n s a c t i o n a l uses o f language r e l a t e d t o t h e exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n a l purposes connected w i t h t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s of speech. C o n v e r s a t i o n s are governed by a number of d i s c o u r s e r u l e s e n a b l i n g s p eakers t o s h i f t t o p i c s , r e p a i r problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h miscommunication, and m a i n t a i n i n t e r a c t i o n a l sequences (Ramirez, 1995, p. 232) . 3.2.2 Research Question #2 What is the balance of Japanese and English being spoken, and how is t h i s r e f l e c t e d in the negotiation and modification sequences? 3.2.3 Research Question #3 What were the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' perspectives on t h i s conversational a c t i v i t y and how did they remember and describe t h e i r experiences and perceptions of learning and teaching through the stimulated r e c a l l sessions afterward? In e v e r y dyad, t h e language p r o d u c t i o n a t the end o f each hour t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s were l o n g e r , more complex, and more f r e e f l o w i n g , as t h e p a r t n e r s began t o get t o know each o t h e r a b i t more' and f e l t more ~ c o m f o r t a b l e . S i x out of e i g h t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s a d m i t t e d t o f e e l i n g q u i t e a p p r e h e n s i v e b e f o r e t a p i n g the d i a l o g s , but a l l commented d u r i n g the d e b r i e f i n g s e s s i o n s t h a t t h e y e n j o y e d the exchange and would l i k e t o do i t a g a i n . Three d i s p l a y e d new knowledge.that they had g a i n e d and r e t a i n e d s i n c e t h e i r i n i t i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r meeting. S e v e r a l v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s were made by the . p a r t i c i p a n t s . For example, i t was recommended•that p a r t n e r s , b e g i n g e t t i n g t o know each o t h e r i n an i n f o r m a l , s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g f i r s t i n o r d e r to' seek each o t h e r out f o r p a i r i n g and t o break the i c e w i t h l e s s p r e s s u r e t o pe r f o r m . A l s o , t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s suggested t h a t some s p e c i f i c t o p i c s be p r o v i d e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n t o h e l p move t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s a l o n g . A l l e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s v o i c e d a s t r o n g a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o share languages and c u l t u r e s and a l l e x p r e s s e d a s t r o n g d e s i r e c o n t i n u e i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r arrangement. 3.3 Methodology The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e the l o c a t i o n and environment where t h i s s t u d y was conducted, i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s and how they were det e r m i n e d , the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s , and.the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and how th e y were a p p l i e d . 3.3.1 The S i t e : In Partnership xto Promote C u l t u r a l Exchange The language s c h o o l a t t h i s American community c o l l e g e has l o n g r e c o g n i z e d the v a l u e o f i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , both i n r e g a r d s t o i t s ESL s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , as w e l l .as t o the community a t l a r g e i n an e f f o r t t o c u l t i v a t e c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , d i a l o g , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The language s c h o o l has devel o p e d numerous s u c c e s s f u l a c t i v i t i e s and programs t o p r o v i d e i t s s t u d e n t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s , and the C o n v e r s a t i o n P a r t n e r Program, which has been a c t i v e l y promoted on campus f o r more than e i g h t y e a r s , e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s approach t o l e a r n i n g . A l o n g s i m i l a r l i n e s , T h i s c o l l e g e d e s c r i b e s i t s m i s s i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g words: "To meet t h e d i v e r s e , l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f our community and de v e l o p t h e p o t e n t i a l of our s t u d e n t s ... F o s t e r i n g and development of v a l u e s which promote open-mindedness, awareness, s e n s i t i v i t y and r e s p e c t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s a re encouraged and w i l l be s u p p o r t e d ( C o l l e g e C a t a l o g , 2001-2)." In a d d i t i o n t o meeting t h e needs of the community, t h i s c o l l e g e has been a c t i v e l y p r omoting and r e c r u i t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs f o r more than twenty y e a r s . The c u r r e n t f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i s over 6000, w i t h 180 i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d from 86 c o u n t r i e s . The c u r r e n t c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r program promotes the v a l u e of d i v e r s i t y a t a l l l e v e l s o f l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y and r e c o g n i z e s the b e n e f i t s t o bo t h f i r s t - and second-language speakers as th e y n e g o t i a t e meaning and compare c u l t u r e s t h r o u g h c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . CC s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o work thr o u g h t h e many s t r u g g l e s i n h e r e n t i n l i n g u i s t i c and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l communication d i f f i c u l t i e s , w h i l e g a i n i n g g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r d i v e r s i t y and t h e . c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g thei.r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . Whenever p o s s i b l e , e f f o r t s a re made t o p a i r s t u d e n t s who are s t u d y i n g each o t h e r ' s languages and c u l t u r e s , as w e l l as. t o t a k e c a r e i n matching p e r s o n a l i t i e s and g o a l s t o t h e b e s t o f our a b i l i t y . 3.3.2 Participants The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h b e l o n ged t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s and demographics: • A l l were b e g i n n i n g l e v e l o r h i g h b e g i n n i n g l e v e l second language s t u d e n t s , w i t h l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e t r a v e l i n g or l i v i n g i n 'the c o u n t r y o f t h e t a r g e t language i • Four were Japanese n a t i o n a l s c u r r e n t l y l i v i n g i n the U.S. and l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language (ESL) a t a c o l l e g e based i n t e n s i v e language i n s t i t u t e • Four were n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers l e a r n i n g Japanese as a f o r e i g n language (JFL) • An e q u a l number of males and females i n each language s e t was sought i n o r d e r t o form gender d i v e r s e p a i r i n g ; however, the e l i g i b l e r e spondents were p r e d o m i n a t e l y male -in the JFL group and p r e d o m i n a t e l y female i n the ESL group. The make up of the p a i r s was as f o l l o w s : Male JFL + Male ESL Male JFL + Female ESL Male J F L + Female E S L Male J F L + female E S L W h i l e gender b i a s or e f f e c t may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e d a t a , i t was not i n t e n d e d t o be a foc u s of t h i s s t u d y . However, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h comparing the e f f e c t s o f gender on n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n among second language l e a r n e r s i s needed and s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r . L i k e w i s e , age and economic s t a t u s was not g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e . As a n t i c i p a t e d g i v e n the c u r r e n t makeup o f c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r s , a t the host . i n s t i t u t i o n , t he a p p l i c a n t s who v o l u n t e e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y f e l l w i t h i n t h e range o f 18 t o 27 y e a r s o f age and had s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e comparable t o a t l e a s t one year of s u c c e s s f u l c o l l e g e s t u d y i n the t a r g e t language. P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o had a t l e a s t some l i m i t e d - c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e o r knowledge of Japan and the U.S. A p p l i c a n t s w i t h more th a n one y e a r immersion i n the t a r g e t language c o u n t r y were, c o n s i d e r e d o v e r - q u a l i f i e d and were not i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y . A p p l i c a n t s were screen e d f o r the minimum language r e q u i r e m e n t s mentioned above, then were-randomly matched. PARTICIPANTS' INFORMATION NAME (PSEUDONYM) COUNTRY AGE & SEX LANG. EDUC. TIME ABROAD TARGET LANG. IN DYADS: NATIONALITY M/F 1-12 TERC. TOTAL: 'SACHI' JAPAN 18 F 6YR. 3 MO. 3 MONTHS 'BRETT' USA 20 M 0 1 YR. 4 WEEKS 'YASU' 1 JAPAN 20 M 6 YR. 6 MO. 6 MONTHS 'PETE' I USA 23 M 1 YR. 1 YR. 0 'RIE' JAPAN 25 F 6 YR. 3 MO. 3 MONTHS 'SAM' USA 23 M 0 2 YR. 5 WEEKS 'ASUKA' JAPAN 21 F 6 YR. 6 MO. 10 MONTHS •TIM' USA 21 M 0 1 YR. 4 WEEKS 3.3.3 The Investigator I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c l a r i f y my r o l e s a t the language s c h o o l and the c o l l e g e , as w e l l as t o e x p l a i n the p e r s p e c t i v e I have t a k e n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . At the time o f t h i s w r i t i n g I am the d i r e c t o r o f the language s c h o o l , as w e l l as the Japanese language i n s t r u c t o r f o r the c o l l e g e , though none o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were s t u d e n t s of mine a t the time o f t h i s s t u d y . With over t w e l v e y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g ESL and'JFL, I have l o n g pondered and e x p l o r e d the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r the two s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s I work most c l o s e l y w i t h t o team up and l e a r n from each o t h e r . By a d m i n i s t e r i n g the c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r program, I have had many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o observe s t u d e n t p a i r s t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g from each o t h e r , and have w i t n e s s e d f i r s t h a n d the en t h u s i a s m and dynamic l e a r n i n g t h a t can t a k e p l a c e . I n a d d i t i o n , I have r e v i e w e d the q u a r t e r l y p a r t i c i p a n t e v a l u a t i o n s o f the c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r program f o r . many y e a r s and have c o n s i s t e n t l y been i m p r e s s e d by the numbers o f and t y p e s o f p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s . A common c h a l l e n g e I f a c e e v e r y q u a r t e r i s f i n d i n g enough v o l u n t e e r s t o r e p l a c e t h e many who s t a y w i t h t h e i r , p a r t n e r s q u a r t e r a f t e r q u a r t e r , sometimes over s e v e r a l y e a r s . P e r s o n a l l y , I have a l s o been f o r t u n a t e t o have had a wide v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g environments i n which t o s t u d y Japanese m y s e l f , and found the most r e w a r d i n g and p r o d u c t i v e means of o b t a i n i n g language and c u l t u r e by f a r t o be t h r o u g h a v e r y b a l a n c e d and mutual exchange w i t h a Japanese f r i e n d who was e q u a l l y m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n E n g l i s h . Our language a b i l i t i e s were comparable, and our many i n t e r e s t s • s i m i l a r , so we c o n s c i o u s l y devoted o u r s e l v e s t o h e l p i n g each o t h e r w i t h our second languages and f o c u s e d on a c t i v e l y l e a r n i n g whenever we w e r e , t o g e t h e r . For a l l o f t h e s e reasons I have chosen t o conduct the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h i n the hopes t h a t . i t might encourage l i k e s t u d i e s and g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s r e l a t i v e l y untapped r e s o u r c e , as w e l l as p r o v i d e much needed d a t a t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t r u e e x t e n t o f l e a r n i n g and exchange t h a t t a k e s p l a c e . 3.3.4 Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures The g o a l s and p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t , g i v e n t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l r e a d y s t r i v i n g t o l e a r n and u n d e r s t a n d each o t h e r ' s languages and c u l t u r e s . T h e r e f o r e , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n v o l v e d i n the r e s e a r c h from b e g i n n i n g t o end t h r o u g h t h e use o f s e l f -g e n e r a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n t o p i c s and s t i m u l a t e d r e f l e c t i o n based on r e v i e w i n g and d i s c u s s i n g the v i d e o w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y , i n a d d i t i o n t o o b s e r v a t i o n s , , a u d i o , and v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s . Each dyad met once f o r a one hour c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e n each p a r t i c i p a n t spent i a p p r o x i m a t e l y one and a h a l f hours a l o n e w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r i n s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l r e v i e w i n g the' v i d e o . None of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had met t h e i r dyad p a r t n e r s p r i o r t h e v i d e o t a p e d i n t e r a c t i o n . A u d i o r e c o r d i n g s were p a r t of e v e r y m e e t i n g , whether with, c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r s or i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s . However, o n l y t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r t a p e s were c o m p l e t e l y t r a n s c r i b e d and coded. V i d e o r e c o r d i n g s were made once f o r each s e t o f p a r t n e r s i n o r d e r t o document body language, g e s t u r e s , and any w r i t t e n cues. P h y s i c a l g e s t u r e s a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n communication and t o r e l y p u r e l y on a u d i o t r a n s c r i p t i o n s f o r e v i d e n c e o f n e g o t i a t e d meaning, .comprehension, and e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n i s tantamount t o t r y i n g t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d a movie w i t h eyes c l o s e d . The f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y was not g e s t u r e s , but t h e v i s u a l r e c o r d o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s p r o v i d e d s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c a l l y r i c h e r d a t a . V i d e o t a p e s were compared t o t h e a u d i o t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and g e s t u r e s or a c t i o n s were n o t e d on t h e t r a n s c r i p t s . 3.4 Data Analysis The f o l l o w i n g a r e the e i g h t c o d i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e d e f i n i t i o n s , and sample u t t e r a n c e s based on the r e s e a r c h and c o d i n g a p p l i e d by S h i (1998). Example 1 Coding Abbreviations & Terminology (Note: examples and terminology taken from S h i , 1998, pp. 60-68) Initiating N&gotiation: CC = Comprehension Checks ("Do you understand me?") FB = Feedback Requests ("Is t h i s your idea, Kim?") CF = Confirmation Checks ("Lower?") (Often r e p e a t s info., i n q u e s t i o n form...) CR = C l a r i f i c a t i o n Requests ("What's that?") , Modification : sc = Se l f - c o r r e c t i o n (Makes a d j u s t m e n t s t o own output) oc = Other-correction (Makes a d j u s t m e n t s t o a n o t h e r ' s output) pr = Completion Requests ("and in some...") (Incomplete sentence w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t a n o t h e r w i l l ' f i l l i n the b l a n k s ' ) op = Other-completion ( F i l l s i n t h e b l a n k s , o r gaps, f o r anot h e r ) P r i o r t o commencing the c o d i n g , a s e c t i o n was chosen at random from the complete t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and an i n t e r c o d e r r e l i a b l i l i t y of 89% was a t t a i n e d w i t h a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r i n the SLA f i e l d . 3.4.1 Audio & Video Recordings Four a u d i o r e c o r d i n g s of c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r m e e t i n g s , each one hour i n l e n g t h , c o m p r ised t h e b u l k of the d a t a f o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Japanese segments were t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o romanized a l p h a b e t t o a l l o w a c c e s s t o more r e a d e r s . The t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Japanese p o r t i o n s of t h e d i a l o g s a r e shown i n b r a c k e t s . ' , Four v i d e o segments (one per p a i r ) were v i s u a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d f o r g e s t u r e s and body language, and t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t p e r t a i n e d t o code s w i t c h i n g and n e g o t i a t i o n , and s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g o r l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were noted'on the a u d i o t r a n s c r i p t s . Japanese f i r s t and second language u t t e r a n c e s and E n g l i s h f i r s t and second language u t t e r a n c e s were t a l l i e d from the a u d i o tape t r a n s c r i p t i o n t o determine what amounts o f the languages were b e i n g spoken and by whom. Coding of n e g o t i a t e d sequences was based upon the number and t y p e o f comprehension checks, feedback r e q u e s t s , c o n f i r m a t i o n c hecks, and c l a r i f i c a t i o n r e q u e s t s , and language m o d i f i c a t i o n was coded by s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n , o t h e r -c o r r e c t i o n , c o m p l e t i o n r e q u e s t s , and o t h e r c o m p l e t i o n (see Example #1)* u t t e r e d by e i t h e r p a r t n e r , i n e i t h e r language, c o m p r i s i n g n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n and c o l l a b o r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e . These were then compared - f i r s t . l a n g u a g e Japanese, v e r s u s f i r s t language E n g l i s h - t o d e t e r m i n e i f any p a t t e r n s emerged. There was a t o t a l of e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l meetings w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s , one a p i e c e , t o view and d i s c u s s t h e v i d e o t a p e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o s t o p t h e tape a t any time t o comment, and a l s o t o note any s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g or l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h e y i d e n t i f i e d . I would a l s o s t o p the tape p e r i o d i c a l l y t o q u e s t i o n the p a r t i c i p a n t s about c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o asked t o r e f l e c t on the a c t i v i t y and share t h e i r t h o u g h t s . These s e s s i o n s were a u d i o taped and s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l t e c h n i q u e s were employed t o attempt t o a s s e s s the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of l e a r n i n g . A l l names have been changed t o a f f o r d p r i v a c y t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s . - CHAPTER FOUR -4.0 Results and Discussions of the Research Questions : 1) How do conversation partners f a m i l i a r with each other's languages i n i t i a t e negotiation sequences and modify t h e i r own, or the other's language output in informal conversation? 2) What is the balance of Japanese and English being spoken, and how is t h i s r e f l e c t e d in the negotiation and modification sequences? 3) What were the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' perspectives on t h i s conversational a c t i v i t y and how did they remember and ' describe t h e i r experiences and perceptions of learning and teaching through the stimulated r e c a l l sessions afterward? 4.1 Examples Found i n the Data A l t e r a t i o n s from second language t o f i r s t language o r back a g a i n , termed code s w i t c h i n g , was f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , then the c i r c u m s t a n c e around each i n s t a n c e was a s s e s s e d t o determine i f r and what type' of n e g o t i a t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e ( S h i , 1998). For example, i n the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t , b o t h s p e a k e r s s w i t c h from E n g l i s h t o Japanese i n an e f f o r t t o c l a r i f y a l e x i c a l gap. The t r a n s l a t i o n of the Japanese appears i n b r a c k e t s and i s denoted by the [*] : Example 2: Discussion about w r i t i n g one's own music ( P l e a s e r e f e r t o Example #1 f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s of c o d i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s and t e r m i n o l o g y . ) 250 R i e : Or, ... my words. CF 251 Sam: My words...? c r 252 R i e : I write.... 253 Sam: Oh! FB 254* R i e : How do you say... Kashi? Uta no Kashi? [ L y r i c s ? . Song's l y r i c s ? ] 255* Sam: Uhhh, Wakarimasen. [I don't know.] c r 256 R i e : (Gestures w r i t i n g w i t h hand) Shhh.. op 257 Sam: W r i t e - H a n d w r i t i n g ! Compose, compose CF 258 R i e : Corn-compose? sc/oc259 Sam/Rie Compose (Compose...) Compose. CF 2 60 R i e : My compose. No? oc 261 Sam: Yeah, you compose, sc 262 R i e : My compose... M y s e l f oc 263 Sam: Yeah, YOU compose. Urn I compose... As can be seen from the example above, a major breakdown i n communication was b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d a t t h i s p o i n t . During the s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l s e s s i o n , R i e stopped the tape and shared t h a t i n . an e f f o r t t o g a i n a c c e s s t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e , she had t r i e d s w i t c h i n g t o Japanese i n the hopes her p a r t n e r might be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e v o c a b u l a r y and u n d e r s t a n d h e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Sam d i d not know the Japanese word, b u t . chose t o respond i n Japanese w i t h wakar.imasen [I don't know]. The n e g o t i a t i o n c o n t i n u e d on i n E n g l i s h u n t i l t h r o u g h the use of g e s t u r e s and r e p e t i t i o n the p o i n t was f i n a l l y u n d e r s t o o d . Rather than embarrassment, b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t s c l a i m e d t o have e n j o y e d the p r o c e s s of f i g u r i n g out what t h e o t h e r was t r y i n g t o say. T h i s l e a d s me t o b e l i e v e t h a t c o n t r a r y t o the c l a i m s by Hadley (1993), n e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t was s e r i o u s l y annoyed or h i n d e r e d by t h e communication breakdown. In f a c t , i t was seen as an o p p o r t u n i t y by Sam, who c l a i m e d he remembered t h i n g s b e t t e r when he and h i s p a r t n e r had t o s t o p and " f i g u r e t h i n g s out".' N e g o t i a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o p r o n u n c i a t i o n a l s o comes i n t o p l a y as the " f i n e t u n i n g " o f t h e language. W h i l e e r r o r s i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n can cause a complete breakdown i n communication, and a t ti m e s be f r u s t r a t i n g t o both speaker and l i s t e n e r , o f t e n the e r r o r i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e second language l e a r n e r t o d e t e c t , even w i t h i n t e n t i o n a l e f f o r t s toward s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g ( Y u l e , Hoffman, & Damico, 19.87), as the f o l l o w i n g s h o r t e x c e r p t from Yasu and Pete's c o n v e r s a t i o n w i l l i l l u m i n a t e . I n t h e s e t y p e s of s i t u a t i o n s , h a v i n g one-on-one c o l l a b o r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a n a t i v e speaker i s i n v a l u a b l e . Example 3: Discussion about casual greetings. ( P l e a s e r e f e r t o Example #1 f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s o f c o d i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s and t e r m i n o l o g y . ) FB 192 Yasu; How about 'fwine' CF 193 Pete : Why? CF 194 Yasu : Fwine... (Wine?) Fwine... I'm fine... oc 195 Pete : Oh, FINE ! F i n e , f i n e , f f f f i n e . sc 196 Yasu : F i n e ! oc 197 Pete : Yeah. I know 'F's a r e , F's and R's are hard f o r Japanese..:' F's... How are you? F i n e . I t ' s u s u a l l y p o l i t e , i f the y ask you something, l i k e , "How are you?"'you say, " F i n e , how 'bout you? " Does t h a t make sense? (Yeah) sc 198 Yasu : F i n e , what's up, what up, (laughs) Another example, t h i s one t a k e n from S a c h i and B r e t t ' s d i s c u s s i o n , shows b o t h l e x i c a l , and p r o n u n c i a t i o n c o r r e c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n n e g o t i a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the Japanese word nannen [how many-ye a r s ] ( l i n e s 334-339): Example 4: Discussion about length of time in the US. ( P l e a s e r e f e r t o Example #1 f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s of c o d i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s and t e r m i n o l o g y . ) 333 B r e t t : Same? Yeah. I t g e t s e a s i e r , I t h i n k . FB So how long... Nan sen*... eetou, benkyou shimasu ka . [What (sen)? Umm, do you stu d y ? ] oc 334 S a c h i : Nannen. [How many y e a r s . ] sc 335 B r e t t : Nannen... Nansai... [How many years... • old...] CF 336 S a c h i : Nanse? • CF 337 B r e t t : How many y e a r s ? oc 338 S a c h i : Nannnen sc 339 B r e t t : Nannen? Nannen. Okay. Nannen... Working t o g e t h e r w i t h a n a t i v e speaker who may a l s o be s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e complementary second language i s an i d e a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r bo t h p a r t n e r s t o l e a r n from each o t h e r and d e v e l o p l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s c a p a b l e o f d e t e r m i n i n g the L2's sound d i s t i n c t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Y u l e e t a l . , (1987), t h e s e must f i r s t be r e c o g n i z e d f o r p r o p e r p r o n u n c i a t i o n t o d e v e l o p . ' C o r r e c t i n g and e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n and o f i t s e l f i s a c h a l l e n g i n g , and a t t i m e s , e m b a r r a s s i n g , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s endeavor wrought w i t h f e e l i n g s of f o o l i s h n e s s as second language l e a r n e r s fumble t o f i n d awkward sounds. As r e f l e c t e d i n the examples above, w i t h l o w e r e d a f f e c t i v e f i l t e r s , the p r o c e s s may even become f u n , w i t h the r i g h t c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r and language c o m b i n a t i o n . 4.1.1 Additional Communication Strategies Other, communication s t r a t e g i e s which were o f t e n employed, though not s p e c i f i c a l l y coded i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d p a r a p h r a s i n g and a p p r o x i m a t i o n , i n which an i n c o r r e c t form was i n t e n t i o n a l l y employed as a h i n t t o e x p l a i n the d e s i r e d v o c a b u l a r y i t e m , word c o i n a g e , and c i r c u m l o c u t i o n (T'arone, 1981). Tarone goes on t o i d e n t i f y the s t r a t e g y of " b o r r o w i n g " from one's f i r s t language e i t h e r i n d i r e c t word f o r word t r a n s l a t i o n , , o r i n a language s w i t c h . R i e attempted such a s w i t c h i n Example #2 of my d a t a on page 44 i n l i n e 254 when she i n s e r t e d the Japanese word kashi i n t o her E n g l i s h sentence when she c o u l d not remember th e word ' l y r i c ' . . In Example #4, l i n e 333, B r e t t a t t e m p t e d a word f o r word s w i t c h mid sentence from E n g l i s h t o Japanese. In most c a s e s , the s w i t c h e s were not a b r u p t and p r e m e d i t a t e d u t t e r a n c e s , but r a t h e r seemed t o be almost a c c i d e n t a l o r u n c o n s c i o u s b o r r o w i n g from e i t h e r language when c o n v e n i e n t or opportune. 4.1.2 The Dominance of English i n Discussions and the Perceptions of Language A b i l i t i e s In a l l but one r e c o r d e d c o n v e r s a t i o n , E n g l i s h dominated the d i s c u s s i o n s . In the one - c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t was we i g h t e d more h e a v i l y toward Japanese w i t h s i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t , i t seemed t o be more a m a t t e r o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s d i c t a t i n g t he b a l a n c e r a t h e r than language s k i l l . A q u i t e shy.Japanese female, Y o s h i e , was randomly matched w i t h B r e t t , a v e r y o u t g o i n g young American male w i t h good Japanese language • s k i l l s . ' When Y o s h i e met t o go over t h e v i d e o t a p e , she commented b e f o r e the tape was s t a r t e d t h a t her p a r t n e r had " p e r f e c t Japanese!" When I asked her i f she had had t o slow down or use s i m p l e language t o a s s i s t B r e t t i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , she adamantly s a i d no, she had n o t . However, a f t e r v i e w i n g t h e t a p e , Y o s h i e was, s u r p r i s e d t o observe t h a t she had i n d e e d a d j u s t e d her language s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o accommodate her p a r t n e r , and t h a t h i s language,''though good, was hot p e r f e c t . T h i s s i t u a t i o n r e v e a l s the p o s s i b l e p i t f a l l s o f p a i r work i f one or t h e o t h e r p a r t n e r i s e x t r e m e l y shy or o u t g o i n g , and t h e imp o r t a n c e o f c a r e f u l l y m a t ching p a r t n e r s f o r common i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i f p o s s i b l e . In the o t h e r t h r e e dyads, d e s p i t e e f f o r t s t o s c r e e n f o r language s k i l l , t h e r e was s ' t i l l a l a r g e d i s p a r i t y between the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the J.F.L s t u d e n t s when compared t o the ESL s t u d e n t s . As c o u l d be seen i n Example #2 above, E n g l i s h was the medium of exchange, w i t h Japanese s p r i n k l e d i n here or t h e r e . A placement t e s t o r language i n t e r v i e w would be a h e l p f u l way t o more a c c u r a t e l y e s t a b l i s h the JFL and ESL s k i l l l e v e l s and f i n d b e t t e r matches f o r language exchange. The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t r e f l e c t s an i n t e r e s t i n g mix of E n g l i s h and Japanese l e s s o n s i n which b o t h p a r t n e r s are a c t i n g e x p l i c i t l y as t e a c h e r s of t h e i r f i r s t language. In t h i s example, r a t h e r than l i m i t i n g t h e samples t o s h o r t e x c e r p t s w i t h a b s t r a c t ' u t t e r a n c e s o f n e g o t i a t i o n , i n an e f f o r t t o r e p r e s e n t the a c t u a l c o n t e x t and f l o w of the d i s c u s s i o n , a l o n g e r , c o n t i n u o u s segment of c o n v e r s a t i o n has been p r o v i d e d . Coding appears a l o n g t h e l e f t margin i n b o l d t e x t . A d d i t i o n a l comments and d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w t h i s d i a l o g and r e f e r t o the l i n e numbers shown on t h e l e f t . I n l o n g e r u t t e r a n c e s , t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a r e l a t i n g t o the_ c o d i n g has been u n d e r l i n e d f o r c l e a r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - . Example 5: Tim (B) and Asuka (A) discuss travel & music ( P l e a s e r e f e r t o Example #1 f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s o f c o d i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s and t e r m i n o l o g y . ) FB 19B So, i s t h i s your f i r s t t i m e i n America? 20A I f o r g o t , when I was, when I was a child... I don't know what age, but maybe t h r e e or f o u r , I had, I had . . . H a w a i i . • 21 B Oh, wow ! sc 22 A Hawai ni ikimashita, ne. Un. [ ( I ) went t o H a w a i i , yeah.] 23 B Wakarimashita. [Got i t . ] H a w a i i ah, has takusan Nihonjin. [many Japanese] se 24A Ah, unn. Yeah, yeah, yeah. A c t u a l l y , I had a two t i m e , I had. a go... t o H a w a i i two t i m e s and the pr second t i m e s i s r e a l l y eh, nani... saikin? [What? L a t e l y ? ] op 25 B L a t e l y 26 A Yeah, yeah, yeah. So desu yo. [That's r i g h t ! ] I was s u r p r i s e d about a l o t o f American can speak Japanese. CF 27 B Oh, i n i n Ha w a i i ? .28 A Yeah... FB 29 B Oh, wow. Um, soooo Amerika ni nani ga... benkyou... [In America what... study...?] oc 30 A Ah, Amerika de nani wo benkyou shi ni k i t e i r u ka? [What d i d I come t o st u d y i n America?] 31B Hai. [Yes.] 32 A Ah, I see, soo, a c t u a l l y , I wanna be a singer... but I can s i n g a song i n English.... CF 33 B You want t o s i n g i n E n g l i s h ? 34 A Yeah, so I want t o know E n g l i s h ' s - a l l of mean, s c and uh, I have I wanna get knowledge o f E n g l i s h , or something. 35 B But I t h i n k s i n g i n g E n g l i s h i s d i f f e r e n t t h a n • s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h . 36 A Oh, r e a l l y ! Oh. FB 37B Yeah. W e l l , t h e same w i t h Japanese, r i g h t ? You know. L i k e t h e pace, and how you h o l d t h i n g s up... Umm. What k i n d of k i n d of Japanese music do you l i k e ? 38 A R & B, CF 39 B R & B? Yeah 40 A Yeah. I l i k e . 41B Do you l i k e ah Draganash? Dragonash? p r 42 A Hmmm? I don't know but... C F 4 3 B You don't know Dragonash? C R 4 4 A Onegai... [ P l e a s e ( t e l l me)!] 45 B They're, t h e y ' r e k i n d a l i k e h i p hop. Japanese, t h e y used t o p l a y r o c k n r o l l , but now hip.hop. I don't know, I've o n l y h e a r d them a c o u p l e o f t i m e s . Umm, soo, how would you... I f I was t o l i k e speak Japanese... Urn, I guess I want t o b r u s h up some of my s k i l l s . I t ' s been a w h i l e s i n c e I've FB s t u d i e d , s o , urn,how would I , FB how would I l i k e , uh, i f I was s t a y i n g somewhere, l i k e , a r e you s t a y i n g a t a h o s t p r f a m i l y , o r . . 46 A R i g h t now? CF Uh, me? At dorm. CF 47 B Uh, you're s t a y i n g a t t h e dorms. Say, l i k e , I v i s i t e d Japan, and I went t o your house, t h i s i s j u s t a h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , l i k e , how would I thank you f e r l e t t i n g me s t a y a t your house? L i k e , l i k e , say you l i v e w i t h a h o s t f a m i l y , you know, l i k e f o r one month, j u s t v i s i t i n g , and you would say, 'Thank you f o r l e t t i n g me s t a y a t your FB house, you know, how would you say t h a t i n Japanese? 48 A Eetoo, [Umm] p r 49 B Or l i k e 'thank you f o r your, ah, k i n d n e s s , o r t a k i n g c a r e o f me, k i n d of... pr/CR50A Ahhhh, ahh, I don't know t h a t many... CR 51 B Would you j u s t say Doomo arigatou? [Thank you?] s c 52 A Yeah, un, Doomo arigatou gozaimasu, So! Taihen osewa ni narimashita. Yeas, yeah, thank you v e r y , much. R i g h t ! You've t a k e n good c a r e of me.] CR 53 B Taihen... [Very...] Say t h a t more s l o w l y . 54 A Taihen... s c 55 B Taihen... 56 A Osewa ni [...cared for...] CR 57 B Osewan... Can you w r i t e t h a t down? "Cause, i t ' s i t ' d be e a s i e r i f I c o u l d see i t . You c o u l d w r i t e i t i n hiragana. I can r e a d hiragana. CF 58 A Hiragana? Okay. ( w r i t e s ) Yeah. T h i s i s thank you f o r your, e v e r y t h i n g . p r 59 B So, taihen, t h a t ' s l i k e a l i k e a., CC 60 A ' You know? 61 B 'So much', or or l i k e , yeah j u s t kinda' l i k e , 'overwhelming', so i t ' s k i n d a l i k e s a y i n g CR osewa ni what's osewa? 62 A Yeah, yeah, yeah! 'Take c a r e ' . CC 63 B And then narimashita i s 'become'? K i n d o f . op ,64 A Yeah,' yeah, k i n d o f ummm. Yeah, 'become'. Um. T h i s i s v e r y p o l i t e . Yeah, yeah, yeah, ( w r i t i n g ) In Tim and Asuka's c o n v e r s a t i o n , l i n e 22 g i v e s an, i n t e r e s t i n g example o f s e l f c o r r e c t i o n t h r o u g h code s w i t c h i n g . Asuska was unsure o f her E n g l i s h , so t o be s a f e she gave the statement a g a i n i n Japanese.. T h i s was a c c e p t a b l e and a c t u a l l y d e s i r a b l e from her p a r t n e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e g i v e n h i s own i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g and u s i n g Japanese, as h i s Japanese r e p l y i n l i n e 23 e x h i b i t s . Perhaps encouraged by h i s p a r t n e r ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o f a l t e r and s t r u g g l e , Tim then a t t e m p t s a more d i f f i c u l t c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Japanese, and though he f a i l e d t o g e n e r a t e a g r a m m a t i c a l l y complete sentence, h i s meaning was c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d by Asuka. There was l e s s shame i n u s i n g b o t h languages and t h e chance of b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d was do u b l e d w i t h the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f u s i n g e i t h e r E n g l i s h o r Japanese. T h i s c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c c o l l a b o r a t i o n was e v i d e n t a g a i n i n l i n e s 24 & 25, 29 & 30, and i n the l o n g e r exchange from l i n e s 47-64. In a d d i t i o n t o code s w i t c h i n g , , t h e above examples a l s o h i g h l i g h t the e x p l i c i t language t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g t h a t was t a k i n g p l a c e . S p e c i f i c language q u e s t i o n s were posed r e g a r d i n g both Japanese language usage ( l i n e s 47, 57, 61) and E n g l i s h ( l i n e 2 4 ) . Though n e i t h e r . p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e language . t e a c h e r s , b o t h a re f u l l y c a p a b l e of e x p l a i n i n g and c o n v e y i n g the r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Example 6: Discussion about music & language ( P l e a s e r e f e r t o Example #1 f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s of c o d i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s and t e r m i n o l o g y . ) 99 Pete FB 100 101 Yasu : Pete : FB 102 Yasu: C F / p r l 0 3 Pete: op 104 Yasu: 105 Pete: 106 107 FB/pr FB 108 109 110 FB 111 ! Yasu: Pete : Yasu : Pete : Pete: Yasu : Okay, okay, I go t c h a , g o t c h a . A l o t o Japanese s i n g e r s , are s t a r t i n g t o use l o t of E n g l i s h , l i k e Japanese s i n g e r s , rap-pop-whatever, (rapper) t h e y ' r e u s i n g E n g l i s h , l i k e , i n the songs. Yes. Do you understand? ' A l i t t l e b i t . Yeah, yeah, some p a r t s , urn... l i k e Tada Hikako, I l i s t e n t o t h a t a l o t so I , l i k e , know when she's s p e a k i n ' E n g l i s h a whole l o t , so. Why... don't... don't you underst a n d ? Why don't I understand....? Japanese r a p p e r s ' .... Ddddzzzddd Too f a s t sometimes. Not good pronunciation... Yeah... No, the E n g l i s h i s easy t o un d e r s t a n d , sometimes (laughs) but sometimes t h e y go t o o f a s t and t h e r e are o t h e r p a r t s , Japanese I guess. So, what e l s e do you do? Just... I l i k e Japanese song. Do you l i k e Japanese song? (Pete nods 'yes') What k i n d of...? ...Can you s i n g ? I've o n l y l i s t e n e d t a .... A s m a l l amount. L i k e , s m a l l ... (Small?) Yeah, s m a l l , i n s t e a d of like.... Can I s i n g (laughs) Oh, no! Oh, no. I'm w h i t e . No, um, - I c a n ' t s i n g . Do you remember t h a t ? CR 112 Pete: . Do I remember what? 113 Yasu: The ... ss you l i s t e n e d song. , CF 114 Pete: L i s t e n e d song? No. (No?) No. (laughs) J u s t p r e t t y much o l d songs, l i k e aaa remember " S u k i y a k i " ? That's about i t ! FB 115 Yasu: Ahh, " S u k i y a k i " ! Can you s i n g ? 116* Pete: Uh, I don't want t o ! (laughs) " S u k i y a k i " , yeah, t h a t ' s about i t . . . I t ' s , l i k e , o n e I know f a i r l y w e l l . Yeah. Sensei used t o p l a y i t a lot... FB 117 Yasu: Do you know who s s , who s i n g s some song? "Sukiyaki"... 117 Pete: Yeah, H i r o Sakamura! 118 Yasu: Oh!!! Yeah! (laughs) T h i s i s an example o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t does not e x h i b i t e x p l i c i t Japanese or E n g l i s h language i n s t r u c t i o n , but t h e r e i s - a l i v e l y c u l t u r a l exchange t a k i n g p l a c e i n which b o t h p a r t n e r s demonstrate an i n t e r e s t i n each o t h e r and- a d e s i r e t o l e a r n more about each o t h e r t h r o u g h a p r o l o n g e d c o n v e r s a t i o n ( l i n e s 100, 108, 111), as w e l l as e x p l i c i t q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o language i n g e n e r a l ( l i n e s 106 & 11.1) . When a s t i m u l a t i n g t o p i c was d i s c u s s e d , i n each dyad the i n h i b i t i o n ' s seemed t o l e s s e n and i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n would t a k e o v e r . There was l e s s c a r e or c o n c e r n g i v e n t o g r a m m a t i c a l a c c u r a c y and a more t y p i c a l n a t i v e speaker type of exchange t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h r a p i d t u r n t a k i n g and exuberance. C o n v e r s a t i o n s a l s o extended over l o n g e r p e r i o d s of time (Swain, 1985) . - CHAPTER FIVE -5.0 Significant. Findings The t a b l e s p r e s e n t e d at the end of t h i s c h a p t e r are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t y p e s - a n d terras of n e g o t i a t i o n sequences. ,Table #2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of E n g l i s h and Japanese usage, and r e f l e c t s who was s p e a k i n g and t o what degree. T a b l e #3 shows the i n s t a n c e s o f i n i t i a t e d n e g o t i a t i o n ( p l e a s e r e f e r back t o c o d i n g examples i n Chapter 3, page 41) . T a b l e #4 r e p r e s e n t s - the numbers and t y p e s of speech m o d i f i c a t i o n t h a t were documented, and a l s o shows the number of u t t e r a n c e s i n each language. Samples of d i a l o g s from each dyad are a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the appendixes f o r r e f e r e n c e . 5.1 Summary of Results As a p r e l i m i n a r y l o o k i n t o l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n dyads p a i r e d w i t h an e f f o r t t o b a l a n c e language a b i l i t i e s and c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s , t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y support the b a s i c assumptions put f o r t h by Nakahama e t a l . , (2001), and Swain, (1985), t h a t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s t y p e , t he fo c u s i s on " o v e r a l l d i s c o u r s e , o r t e x t u a l coherence, t h e c r e a t i o n o f shared schema and frame, the m a i n t a i n i n g o f f a c e and the b u i l d i n g of r a p p o r t , and the exchange ,of i n f o r m a t i o n (Nakahama et a l . , '2001, p.388)." I t i s a c h a l l e n g e t o f i n d b a l a n c e d a b i l i t i e s a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t languages and c u l t u r e s and my s t r o n g e s t c r i t i q u e . of t h i s r e s e a r c h would be t h a t d e s p i t e a t t e m p t i n g t o conduct a non-ESL b i a s e d s t u d y (Kachru, ,1994), ESL remained the - predominant language and i n f l u e n c e i n t h r e e out o f f o u r dyads. More complete s c r e e n i n g o f a b i l i t i e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s i s needed t o a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d b a l a n c e , as w e l l as a more e x t e n s i v e p o p u l a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s -S w i t c h i n g languages most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r e d when t h e r e was a breakdown i n communication t h a t r e q u i r e d c o n c e r t e d n e g o t i a t i n g e f f o r t s / o r , o c c a s i o n a l l y , f a m i l i a r words were s l i p p e d i n and."borrowed" (Tarone, 1981). A f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s appeared t o be reduced, based ,on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' comments, once the d i a l o g s got underway,,and a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e y had had a . w o r t h w h i l e and p o s i t i v e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . There was p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e p a r t n e r s h i p s beyond' t h i s s t u d y i n f o r m a l l y . Spontaneous c o l l a b o r a t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r second language development and c u l t u r a l exchange i n a more, n a t u r a l environment w i t h reduced a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s and g r e a t e r i n d i v i d u a l autonomy ( R i c h a r d s , 1980), p r o v i d e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s are a t comparable s t a g e s of language a b i l i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as seen i n t h e r e v i e w of l i t e r a t u r e , many s t u d i e s p a i r NS w i t h NNS i n a one-way exchange t h a t may i n a d v e r t e n t l y i n t i m i d a t e t h e second language l e a r n e r . L i k e w i s e , NNS are o f t e n p a i r e d w i t h NNS of e i t h e r the same or d i f f e r e n t language backgrounds, w i t h n e i t h e r b e i n g f l u e n t i n the t a r g e t language, thu s r e d u c i n g the r o l e o f " e x p e r t " t o an unknown l e v e l of e x p e r t i s e and a c c u r a c y (Gass & V e r o n i s , 1985; Doughty & P i c a , 1986). A l l t h e s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s can l e a d t o a d i s c o n c e r t i n g , degree of b i a s , whether i t be ESL d o m i n a t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o t h e r second languages, or i n an u n b a l a n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power/knowledge w i t h r e g a r d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e m s e l v e s (Kachru, 1994). In a d d i t i o n , a tremendous r e s o u r c e and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d u a l exchange i s o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , where s t u d i e s . h a v e r e v e a l e d a s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c y i n f o r e i g n language s k i l l s and w o r l d knowledge•among American s t u d e n t s (Hadley, 1993; S t e w a r t , 1985). P a r t i c i p a n t s i n c o n v e r s a t i o n dyads t h a t b a l a n c e l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l knowledge have an added d i m e n s i o n of communication a v a i l a b l e t o them. NS-NNS p a i r i n g s are r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d i n scope, c o m p a r a t i v e l y (Chun et a l . , 1982). T h i s ' i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e as i t p e r t a i n s t o n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Hadley, "American s t u d e n t s ' i n a d e q u a t e knowledge of the w o r l d i s r e f l e c t e d not o n l y i n t h e i r l a c k o f f o r e i g n language s k i l l s , but i n t h e i r g e n e r a l i g n o r a n c e of b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n about o t h e r n a t i o n s and' p e o p l e s (p. 355) ." NNSs of E n g l i s h are a b l e t o g a i n v a l u a b l e language s k i l l s and knowledge of American c u l t u r e t h r o u g h c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Through c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i s c u s s i o n s and n e g o t i a t i o n o f b i l i n g u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s , n a t i v e s p e a k e r s from b o t h s i d e s are g i v e n a unique o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n about a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . "Other p e o p l e ' s v i e w s , v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n s , f e e l i n g s , c u l t u r e s , a r e a s - v a l u a b l e as our own." (Brown, 1990, p. 14) . 5.2 Implications fo r Future Research G i v e n th e p o p u l a r i t y of t h e s e c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r programs, and t h e many s t u d i e s which s u p p o r t the v a l u e of i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n , more s t u d i e s are needed t o p r o v i d e t a n g i b l e i n c e n t i v e s f o r s c h o o l s , communities, and i n s t i t u t i o n s t o a c t i v e l y promote and p r o v i d e t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , not j u s t t o ESL l e a r n e r s , but t o n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s as w e l l , as a way t o improve our exposure t o o t h e r c u l t u r e s and languages (Hadley,1993). F u t u r e r e s e a r c h i s needed t o examine and compare the t y p e s of n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s a b r o a d e r range of p a r t i c i p a n t s , t o i n c l u d e groups and p a i r s who are c a p a b l e of u t i l i z i n g b o t h languages and c u l t u r a l knowledge t o dete r m i n e c o n c l u s i v e l y , i f i n d e e d , t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n language l e a r n i n g outcomes based on language backgrounds and c o m b i n a t i o n s . An e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y of t h i s t o p i c would a l s o p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e case o f l o n g term c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e a s s o c i a t e d c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o v er time and would be a v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n t o t h i s growing body o f knowledge. More s t u d i e s w i t h more p a r t i c i p a n t s and more language c o m b i n a t i o n s a t a l l s k i l l l e v e l s ' a r e needed t o t r u l y u n d e r s t a n d a l l t he i n t r i c a c i e s o f n e g o t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n language a c q u i s i t i o n . 5.3 Implications f o r Teaching and Learning Languages S t u d i e s of n e g o t i a t i o n , b o t h p e d a g o g i c a l l y and o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m , have much t o o f f e r the f i e l d second language a c q u i s i t i o n , m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r e n a s , and s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s , who would g r e a t l y b e n e f i t from h e a r i n g the r e s u l t s o f such s t u d i e s i n a medium t h a t would be more a c c e s s i b l e .to them. Such r e s e a r c h would p r o v i d e much needed d a t a about what t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g a r e r e a l l y a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l n e g o t i a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n i n s m a l l groups or p a i r s ; and i t can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e development of t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s which can more s u c c e s s f u l l y c a p t u r e and r e p r e s e n t t h e r e a l w o r l d around us and our s t u d e n t s . I f r e s e a r c h l e g i t i m i z e s and p u b l i c i z e s t h e b e n e f i t s of c o n v e r s a t i o n programs l i k e t h e one p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , more s c h o o l s and programs w i l l f i n d ways t o a l l o c a t e the n e c e s s a r y .funding, s u p p o r t , and s t a f f i n g t o make c o l l a b o r a t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o mo r e . s t u d e n t s . American s t u d e n t s w i l l have more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to. i n t e r a c t w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s from v a r i e d c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds, and i n t e r e s t i n f o r e i g n language s t u d y and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l " e x p e r i e n c e s here i n t h e US c o u l d be n u r t u r e d and d e v e l o p e d . P e d a g o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , f a c i l i t a t o r s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n programs need t o have p r a c t i c a l , p r o v e n t a c t i c s and t o o l s t o put t o use i n t h e i r programs i n o r d e r t o h e l p s t u d e n t s s u c c e s s f u l l y and c o m f o r t a b l y a c c e s s each o t h e r ' s l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l g i f t s . I n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , as t h i s , s t u d y demonstrated, i s f r a u g h t w i t h v a r i a b l e s . A g u i d e d , y e t s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d p r o t o c o l f o r p a r t n e r s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t o h e l p b a l a n c e the language exchange o p p o r t u n i t i e s so one p a r t n e r i s not being' t a k e n advantage of or b e i n g l e f t out o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . S cheduled o r t i m e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r each language t o be used c o u l d r e l i e v e some of the p r e s s u r e s t u d e n t s f e l t and e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g s k i l l comparisons and p e r c e p t i o n s o r p o t e n t i a l problems i n b a l a n c i n g shy v e r s u s o u t g o i n g p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s . Use o f aud i o and v i d e o r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e s a re a l s o a n o t h e r way t o ext e n d the l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . - The s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y e x p r e s s e d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n v i e w i n g t h e i r own performances on v i d e o t a p e , as w e l l as a p p r e c i a t i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e v i e w t h e items t h e y had d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e i r p a r t n e r s . Yasu a c t u a l l y r e q u e s t e d a copy o f the tape because he s a i d he wanted t o "take i t home and p r a c t i c e " ! T h i s i s a s t u d e n t who has s t r u g g l e d i n h i s ESL c l a s s e s and has e x h i b i t e d v e r y few outward s i g n s of i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h i n the c l a s s r o o m environment, y e t was v e r y engaged and i n i t i a t e d numerous feedback r e q u e s t s when g i v e n t h e chance t o speak w i t h a peer i n f o r m a l l y . In c o n c l u s i o n , b e f o r e embarking on a c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r program, t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s h o u l d be aware of the r i s k s as w e l l as t h e time commitment. S c h o o l s must t a k e c a r e t o p r o t e c t t h e i r s t u d e n t s and p r o v i d e s a f e and s u p e r v i s e d meeting a r e a s , as w e l l as t o guard a g a i n s t language e x p l o i t a t i o n . Though t h i s s t u d y p r e s e n t e d d a t a c o l l e c t e d from mixed gender dyads, i n p r a c t i c e , t h e language s c h o o l and c o l l e g e campus where t h i s r e s e a r c h took p l a c e does not mix genders when ma t c h i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r s . There are ample o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r male and female s t u d e n t s t o i n t e r a c t s o c i a l l y on or o f f campus i f ' t h e y w i s h . E x p e r i e n c e and i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r e d by o t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n program f a c i l i t a t o r s has been the b a s i s f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n a t t h e language s c h o o l . However, once a g a i n more r e s e a r c h i s needed t o a s s e s s t h e r i s k s , l i a b i l i t i e s , and b e n e f i t s b e f o r e educated d e c i s i o n s can be made. JAPANESE - ENGLISH DATA ANALYSIS: 'NAME' TOTAL UTTERANCES BY DYAD TOTAL UTTERANCES (INDIVIDUAL) TOTAL UTTERANCES (JAPANESE) TOTAL J. UTTERANCES (INDIVIDUAL) TOTAL UTTERANCES (ENGLISH) TOTAL E. UTTERANCES (INDIVIDUAL) IN DYADS: IN BOTH J & E # % BY DYAD # % BY DYAD # % 'SACHI' (F) (JAPAN) 1423 27.8% 2013 62.3% 590 31.2% 'BRETT' (M) (USA) 5124 3701 72.2% 3233 63.1% 1220 37.7% 1891 36.9% 1301 68.8% 'YASU' (M) (JAPAN) 1599 35.8% 112 50.9% 1487 35.0% 'PETE' (M) (USA) 4467 2868 64.2% 220 4.9% 108 49.1% 4247 95.1% 2760 65.0% 'RIE' (F) (JAPAN) 1667 36.1% 271 70.8% 1396 33.0% •SAM' (M) (USA) 4615 2948 63.9% 383 8.3% 112 29.2% 4232 91.7% 2836 67.0% 'ASUKA' (F) (JAPAN) 2152 38.9% 481 60.0% 1671 35.4% TIM' (M) (USA) 5529 3377 61.1% 802 14.5% 321 40.0% 4727 85.5% 3056 64.6% INITIATING NEGOTIATION - DATA ANALYSIS: 'NAME* INITIATING UTTERANCES BY DYAD IN BOTH J & E TOTAL UTTERANCES COMPREHENSION CHECKS TOTAL UTTERANCES FEEDBACK REQUESTS TOTAL UTTERANCES CONFIRMATION CHECKS TOTAL UTTERANCES CLARIFICATION REQUESTS IN DYADS: # # J - E # J - E # J - E # J - E •SACHI' (F) (JAPAN) 24 35.8% 2 0 - 2 3 1 - 2 14 2 - 12 15 6 - 9 •BRETT' (M) (USA) 43 64.2% 7 3 - 4 11 0 - 11 17 6 - 11 9 3 - 6 'YASU' (M) (JAPAN) 39 40.2% 2 0 - 2 13 0 - 13 13 3 - 10 11 1 - 10 'PETE' (M) (USA) 58 59.8% 6 2 - 4 15 1 - 14 19 5 - 14 18 5- 13 'RIE' (F) (JAPAN) 24 34.3% 3 0 - 3 5 1 - 4 9 3 - 6 7 2 - 5 'SAM' (M) (USA) 46 65.7% 5 3 - 2 14 2 - 12 16 3 - 13 11 3 - 8 'ASUKA* (F) (JAPAN) 42 30.4% 10 4 - 6 9 3 - 6 15 5 - 10 8 3 - 5 'TIM' (M) (USA) J 9 6 69.6% 15 5 - 10 39 9 - 30 24 8 - 16 18 6- 12 MODIFICATION - DATA ANALYSIS: 'NAME' MODIFYING UTTERANCES BY DYAD IN BOTH J & E TOTAL UTTERANCES SELF-CORRECTION TOTAL UTTERANCES OTHER-CORRECTION TOTAL UTTERANCES COMPLETION REQUESTS TOTAL UTTERANCES OTHER-COMPLETION IN DYADS: # # J - E # J - E # J - E # J - E 'SACHI' (F) (JAPAN) 26 33.8% 5 0 - 5 4 4 - 0 8 1 - 7 9 9 - 0 'BRETT' (M) (USA) 51 66.2% 15 13 - 2 7 0 - 7 16 4 - 12 13 1 - 12 'YASU' ' (M) (JAPAN) 53 50.0% 17 1 . - 16 8 8 - 0 14 3 - 11 14 11 - 3 'PETE* (M) (USA) 53 50.0% 9 6 - 3 21 0 - 21 11 4 - 7 12 0 - 12 'RIE* (F) (JAPAN) 27 37.0% 16 0 - 16 3 3 - 0 7 0 - 7 1 1 - 0 'SAM' (M) (USA) 46 63.0% 7 7 - 0 10 0 - 10 11 2 - 9 18 0 - 18 •ASUKA' (F) (JAPAN) 87 42.2% 54 3 - 51 15 15 -0 8 1 - 7 10 9 - 1 'TIM' (M) (USAI 119 57.8% 37 34 - 3 21 0 - 21 49 15 - 34 12 0- 12 Bibliography A l j a a f r e h , A l i , & L a n t o l f , James P. 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American c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s . Yarmouth, ME: I n t e r c u l t u r a l P r e s s . Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some r o l e s of c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t and c o m p r e h e n s i b l e output i n i t s development. In S. Gass & C. Madden ( E d s . ) , Input and  second language a c q u i s i t i o n (pp. 235-256). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Tarone, E. (1981) . Some th o u g h t s on the n o t i o n , o f communication s t r a t e g y . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 15, 285-295. V y g o t s k y , Lev S. (1986). Thought and Language. Cambridge: MIT P r e s s . V y g o t s k y , Lev S. (1978). Mind i n S o c i e t y . Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Young, R. (1984). N e g o t i a t i o n of outcome and n e g o t i a t i o n o f meaning i n ESL c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n . TESOL  Q u a r t e r l y , 18, 525-526. Y u l e , G., Hoffman, P., & Damico, J . (1987). P a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o p r o n u n c i a t i o n : The r o l e o f s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g i n p e r c e p t i o n . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 21, 765-768. APPENDIXES C o d i n g A b b r e v i a t i o n s & T e r m i n o l o g y (Note: All examples and terminology taken from Shi, 1998, pp. 60-68) Initiating Negotiation: C C = C o m p r e h e n s i o n C h e c k s ("Do you understand me?") F B = F e e d b a c k R e q u e s t s ("Is this your idea, Kim?") C F = C o n f i r m a t i o n C h e c k s ("Lower?") (Often repeats info, in question form...) C R = C l a r i f i c a t i o n R e q u e s t s ("What's that?") Modification: s c = S e l f - c o r r e c t i o n (Makes adjustments to own output) o c = O t h e r - c o r r e c t i o n (Makes adjustments to another's output) p r = C o m p l e t i o n R e q u e s t s ("and in some... ") (Incomplete sentence with the expectation that another will 'fill in the blanks') o p = O t h e r - c o m p l e t i o n (Fills in the blanks, or gaps, for another) FB 66 BRETT Do you have a c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r r i g h t now? Someone you speak E n g l i s h with r e g u l a r l y ? 67 SACHI Yeah, but I d i d n ' t I d i d n ' t met her. Because I, a c t u a l l y I I don't l i k e the, pr l i k e a nani, f e e l like... op 68 BRETT Kind of, not not personal? CR 69 SACHI Nan to iu ka naa. op 7 0 BRETT I t ' s kind of almost, you're not f r i e n d s , maybe? Or i t ' s not l i k e a r e a l c o n v e r s a t i o n ? 71 SACHI Yes, but I l i k e with f r i e n d s . Urn. 72 BRETT Yeah sc 73 SACHI So, nanka, yakusoku? Yakusoku means promise CF7 4 BRETT Promise. sc 75 SACHI Yakusoku koto ga sugoi... I don't l i k e . 7 6 BRETT Ah, okay. 77 SACHI Sooo, nanka... I have a p r e s s u r e . 78 BRETT Yeah, l i k e you have to be t h e r e at a FB c e r t a i n time. Um, so what would make i t e a s i e r f o r you to um have more E n g l i s h c o n v e r s a t i o n ? 7 9 SACHI I don't know. 8 0 BRETT Maybe becoming f r i e n d s with... 81 SACHI Yes, maybe... 82 BRETT L i k e making i t not not an e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n g , but kind of l i k e a s o c i a l t h i n g , 83 SACHI Yes. Good. 292 SAM I haven't spoken Japanese i n so long, 293 RIE Ah, But you can speak good Japanese! PB 294 SAM So, What do you l i k e t o eat? 295 RIE Urranmin, I l i k e Japanese snack. CF 296 SAM Yeah? L i k e sembei? 297 ce RIE Not sembei. Unn. Ofu? You know, Ofu? And b l a c k sugar. You know b l a c k sugar? CF 2 98 SAM Ahh, Kuro-kuro kurozato! 299 RIE Black sugar... Soo, so sol Kurozato! op 300 SAM Kurozato ami ! 301 RIE Kurozato no naka ni white ofu? CR 302 SAM Ofu? 303 RIE Ofu. Hai. CF 304 SAM Madam*? 305 RIE No, dry... CF 306 SAM Kaki ? 307 RIE Nooo, urn I don't know, I don't know how to e x p l a i n , but very, very good! 308 SAM Yeah, I love ku-kurozato ami! 309 RIE R e a l l y ? R e a l l y ? R e a l l y ? I mol FB 310 SAM What about l i k e r e a l food, though? 311 RIE I don't know... Un. Yappa ah... pr 312 SAM Tabemono... 313 RIE Japanese foodo. Mmmm. I miss very muci 

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