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An investigation into the effectiveness of a modified middle school reading program at the high school.. Peplow, Karen Winifred 2000

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An Investigation into the Effectiveness of a Modified Middle School Reading Program at the High School Level by Karen Winifred Peplow B. A., University of British Columbia, 1976 A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment For the Degree of Master of Education in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Department of Language & Literacy Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standards The University of British Columbia October 2000 © Karen Winifred Peplow, 20000 Network Cataloging Utility -Selection Mode- Tue 05/06/2001 1. University of British Columbia. Language and Literacy Education, Dept. of. (0) 2. see University of British Columbia. Dept. of Language and Literacy Education. (0) > > 0=MARION In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Xt^a <^4L^£> & X'<^u_&£// 6? £hO The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date &^€f)6tyt) s/Sk->JL&6r> DE-6 (2/88) High School Reading Program ii Abstract The reading of literature is rarely practiced in our high schools today yet many studies have shown that voracious, free, voluntary reading improves students' grammar, spelling, vocabulary, and composition. The demands of our present day economy require higher literacy rates of our citizens if businesses are to compete successfully in the international marketplace. However, the majority of high school students do not or cannot make time to read for pleasure. The purpose of this study is to ascertain if English 9 students and transitional English students would welcome a reading program as part of their course work. I selected School District # 43 (Coquitlam's) A Literature Based Individualized Reading Program because it has been used successfully in the district's elementary and middle schools and because it allows teacher-librarians to actively promote the reading of literature, beyond their more traditional role of book displays and booktalks. A questionnaire was administered by the teacher-librarian/researcher to three classes at the end of the six week program asking students to give their opinions on those aspects they liked and disliked about the program. Two teachers who also took part give their opinions as well. Major findings indicate that a reading program is acceptable to most students if some alterations are made to the design of the unit. English 9 students educated in Canadian classrooms prefer more choice in reading materials and fewer written assignments that interfere with their readings. Entry level English as a Second Language, or transitional High School Reading Program iii English students, need more support than our modified program gave them. The more advanced transitional English (TRAN) students handled the demands of the program quite well. A reading unit at the secondary level, then, must be simplified and tailored to the needs of specific groups before it is accepted by a majority of teachers and their students. High School Reading Program iv Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents v List of Tables xi List of Charts xiv Acknowledgement xvi CHAPTER I: THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 The Research Problem 2 Background to the Problem 5 Paradigms of Educational Instruction, English/ESL Literacy and Reading Theories, and School Library Programs 7 Reluctant Readers Theories 9 Young Adult Public Librarian Strategies 9 Research Questions 10 My Assumptions 1 Importance of the Study 12 Chapter Summary and Overview of the Following Chapters 13 Limitations of the Study 1High School Reading Program v CHAPTER II: THE LITERATURE REVIEW 15 Introduction 1Historical Influences 6 Cognitive Information Processing Theories 1Piagetian/Naturalist Theories 18 Social-Constructivist Theories 21 Current Perspectives in English and ESL Literacy and Reading Theories 24 Cognitive Information Processing Theories 2Piagetian/Naturalist Theories 25 Social-Constructivist Theories 8 English as a Second Language Models of Instruction 29 Literature Circles and The Book Club 30 Paradigms for School Library Programs 2 Reluctant Readers Theories 34 The Beers StudyThe Jobe & Dayton-Sakari Study 37 The Bintz Study 38 The Worthy, Moorman, and Turner Study 39 Young Adult Public Librarian Strategies 41 Collection Development 42 High School Reading Program vi Chapter Summary and Preview of Chapter III 44 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 45 Participants and Setting 4Teachers 4Students 6 Teacher-Librarian 47 The Modified Program for High School Students 48 My School's Literature Reading ProgramData Gathering Procedures 54 Reading Enjoyment and Preferences 55 Administration 5Data Analysis 5 Student Subgroup Comparisons 5Whole-group Analysis 6 Analysis of Teachers'Responses 5Chapter Summary and Preview of Chapter IV 57 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS 58 Research Question One: Did you enjoy this program? 58 English 9 Response 5High School Reading Program vii TRAN 9/10 Response 61 TRAN 11/12 Response 2 Combined Responses From All Three Classes 64 Teachers' Comments 66 Research Question Two: What did you like about this program? 66 English 9 Response 6TRAN 9/10 Response 8 TRAN 11/12 Response 69 Combined Responses From All Three Classes 70 Teachers' Comments 71 Research Question Three: What did you dislike about the program? 72 English 9 Response 73 TRAN 9/10 Response 5 TRAN 11/12 Response 76 Combined Responses From All Three Classes 78 Teachers' Comments 79 Research Question Four: What would do if you were in charge? 80 English 9 Response 8TRAN 9/10 Response 2 TRAN 11/12 Response 83 Combined Responses From All Three Classes 85 High School Reading Program viii Teachers' Comments 86 Research Question Five: What genre do you normally like to read? 86 English 9 Response 87 TRAN 9/10 Response 8 TRAN 11/12 Response 89 Combined Responses From All Three Classes 91 Research Question Six: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? 9English 9 Response 91 TRAN 9/10 Response 2 TRAN 11/12 Response 93 Combined Responses From All Three Classes 94 Research Question Seven: If yes, what would that/those genre/s be? 95 English 9 Response 9TRAN 9/10 Response 6 TRAN 11/12 Response 97 Combined Responses From All Three Classes • 98 Chapter Summary and Preview of Chapter V 99 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS 100 Summaries 10High School Reading Program ix Research Question One: Did you enjoy this program? 100 Research Question Two: What did you like about this program? 101 Research Question Three: What did you dislike about this program? 103 Research Question Four: What would you change if you were in charge? .. 104 Research Question Six: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? .. 106 Conclusions 107 Directions for Further Research Ill WORKS CITED 113 APPENDICES 121 Appendix A: Patrick Jones: Strategies for Reaching Reluctant Readers .... 121 Appendix B: Original Program: A Literature Based Reading Unit: Cooperatively Planned and Taught 125 Appendix C: Study's copy: My School's Literature Reading Program 129 Reading Log 132 Graphic Organizer 3 Magazine/Webpage/Comic Graphic Organizer 134 Guide to Response Writing 135 TheDo'sandDon'tsofBooktalking 136 Booktalk Guidelines for Students 137 High School Reading Program x Guide for Marking Booktalks 139 Appendix D: Questionnaire 140 Appendix E: Teachers' Responses 142 Appendix F: Student Responses: What did you like about this program? 144 Appendix G: Student Responses: What did you dislike about this program? .. 152 Appendix H: Student Responses: What would you do if you were in charge? . 159 Appendix I: Combined Responses: What genre do you normally like to read?.. 165 High School Reading Program xi List of Tables Table 1: English 9 Responses: Did you enjoy this program? 59 Table 2: TRAN 9/10 Responses: Did you enjoy this program? 61 Table 3: TRAN 11/12 Responses: Did you enjoy this program? 62 Table 4: Combined Responses: Did you enjoy this program? 64 Table 5: Combined TRAN Responses: Did you enjoy this program? 65 Table 6: English 9 Responses: What did you like about this program? 66 Table 7: TRAN 9/10 Responses: What did you like about this program? 68 Table 8: TRAN 11/12 Responses: What did you like about this program? ... 69 Table 9: Combined Responses: What did you like about this program? 71 Table 10: English 9 Responses: What did you dislike about this program? .. 73 Table 11: TRAN 9/10 Responses: What did you dislike about this program? 75 Table 12: TRAN 11/12 Responses: What did you dislike about this program? 76 Table 13: Combined Responses: What did you dislike about this program? .. 78 Table 14: English 9 Responses: What would you do if you were in charge? .. 80 Table 15: TRAN 9/10 Responses: What would you do if you were in charge? 82 Table 16: TRAN 11/12 Responses: What would you do if you were in High School Reading Program xii charge? 83 Table 17: Combined Responses: What would you do if you were in charge? 85 Table 18: English 9 Responses: What genre do you normally like to read? . 87 Table 19: TRAN 9/10 Responses: What genre do you normally like to read? 88 Table 20: TRAN 11/12 Responses: What genre do you normally like to read? 90 Table 21: Combined Responses: What genre do you normally like to read? 165 Table 22: English 9 Responses: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? 1 Table 23: TRAN 9/10 Responses: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? 92 Table 24: TRAN 11/12 Responses: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? 93 Table 25: Combined Responses: Would you now voluntarily read anther genre? 94 Table 26: English 9 Responses: If yes, what would those genres be? 96 Table 27: TRAN 9/10 Responses: If yes, what would those genres be? 97 Table 28: TRAN 11/12 Responses: If yes, what would those genres be? .... 98 High School Reading Program xiii Table 29: Combined Responses: Three most frequently mentioned categories to emerge from Question Two: What did you like about this program? 101 Table 30: Combined Responses: Three most frequently mentioned categories to emerge from Question Three: What did you dislike about this program? .... 103 Table 31: Combined Responses: Three most frequently mentioned categories to emerge from Question Four: What would you change if you were in charge? 104 High School Reading Program xiv List of Charts Chart A. 1: Composition of English 9 class on day of questionnaire 59 Chart A. 2: English 9 Responses 60 Chart A. 3: English 9: Did you enjoy this program? 60 Chart A. 4: Composition of TRAN 9/10 class on day of questionnaire 62 Chart A. 5: Composition of TRAN 11/12 class on day of questionnaire ... 63 Chart A. 6: TRAN 11/12 Responses 6Chart A. 7: Combined Responses: Did you enjoy this program? 64 Chart A. 8: Combined TRAN results 65 Chart F. 1: English 9: What did you like? 149 Chart F. 2: TRAN 9/10: What did you like? 150 Chart F. 3: TRAN 11/12: What did you like? 15Chart F. 4: Combined Responses: What they liked 151 Chart G. 1: English 9: What they disliked 156 Chart G. 2: TRAN 9/10: What they disliked 15Chart G. 3: TRAN 11/12: What they disliked 157 Chart G. 4: Combined Results: What they disliked 158 Chart H. 1: English 9: What they would change 163 Chart H. 2: TRAN 9/10: What would you change 163 Chart H. 3: TRAN 11/12: What would you change 164 High School Reading Program xv Chart H. 4: Combined Responses: What would you change 164 Chart I. 1: English 9: Genre normally read 88 Chart I. 2: TRAN 9/10: Genre normally read 9 Chart I. 3: TRAN 11/12: Genre normally read 90 Chart I. 4: Combined Responses: What genre do you normally like to read? 165 Chart J. 1: English 9: Would they voluntarily read other genres? 92 Chart J. 2: TRAN 9/10: Would they voluntarily read other genres? 93 Chart J. 3: TRAN 11/12: Would they voluntarily read other genres? 94 Chart J. 4: Combined Responses: Would they voluntarily read other genres? 95 Chart K. 1: English 9: Newly discovered genres 96 Chart K. 2: TRAN 9/10: Newly discovered genres 97 Chart K. 3: TRAN 11/12: Newly discovered genres 98 High School Reading Program xvi Acknowledgements This paper's completion could not have happened without the support of several people. I would like to thank my mother, Effie Hancheryk Peplow, who unswervingly supported me all through this process. I also owe a great deal to my deceased father, Captain Arthur Clive Peplow, who years ago put me on the path to higher education. Without his influence, interest, and curiosity for the world of ideas, I should never have persevered. Friends have also supported me along the way. A heartfelt thanks to Bill Colford who encouraged me through all the difficulties. Also, a grateful thankyou to Judith Lawson, who took time out of her busy schedule to proof-read this paper. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the support of my advisor, Dr. Marlene Asselin. High School Reading Program 1 Chapter 1: The Research Problem Introduction The definition of a literate person has changed dramatically in the past half century, keeping in step with our evolving and increasingly complex economy. Canadians are no longer "hewers of wood", able to compete economically on the world stage with a knowledge of their environment and a minimum literacy rate. Today, Canada's economy is entrenched in the computer age with all its cutting edge technology, and competes in an increasingly sophisticated, international marketplace. Understanding the link between citizens' literacy levels and a country's economic competitiveness, the Canadian government conducted a study in 1996 entitled Reading the future: A portrait of literacy in Canada. Using five levels to ascertain proficiency in prose, document and quantitative reading, this study found that 40 percent of people over the age of 16 have low literacy skills (p. 35). The bulk of young Canadians, aged 16 to 25, read at the second or third levels of proficiency, that is, they can determine which movie review was least favourable, read a bus schedule, and work out how much more energy Canada produces than it consumes by comparing figures on two bar charts (p. 36). However, 20 percent of recent graduates have insufficient literacy skills to manage entry-level jobs (Asselin, 1999b). These findings are not at a particularly high level if we are to "handle the complex literacy demands of modern society" (Krashen, 1993, p. ix) and remain competitive in a global marketplace that will demand ever increasing levels of literacy from its participants. The authors of the government study point out that "without the ability High School Reading Program 2 to read and process information, further learning becomes both time consuming and expensive for participants, a fact that limits their economic success and life chances " (p. 9). Arguing for higher levels of literacy, The International Reading Association/National Council of Teachers of English published Standards for the English Language Arts (1996) which states that ".. .being literate in contemporary society means being active, critical, and creative users not only of print and spoken language but also of the visual language" (p. 6). Expanding levels of literacy then, in all its various forms, will become the vehicles by which individuals, adolescents in particular, can keep pace with the demands of an increasingly complex, global marketplace. Higher literacy levels will also result in a richer individual life as well as ensuring a more critical understanding of our demanding democratic process. The Research Problem Richard Vacca pointed out, in his preface to Reconceptualizing the literacies in adolescents' lives (Vacca in Alvermann, Hinchman, Moore, Phelps, & Waff, 1998) and elsewhere (1998), that adolescent literacy has been neglected at the high school level. In the past, educators have felt that there is little practical value in literacy learning programs beyond elementary school (Alvermann, et al., 1998). At the same time a large percentage of young adults, students between the ages of 13 and 18, appear to be reluctant readers; that is, they are ambivalent about the act of reading and many "just don't read and write very well" (Krashen, 1993, p. ix). This state of affairs has serious implications for our technologically driven society. If this age group is to deal competently with the information technology explosion, they must be successfully motivated to read a variety of materials and to read them High School Reading Program 3 more often. Voracious, voluntary reading of literature, which provides rich language, imagery, and genre variety will help individuals improve comprehension, spelling, grammar, and style of writing (Krashen, 1993; McMahon, Raphael, Goatley, & Prado, 1997). Unfortunately this type of reading is not taking place in today's high schools because pleasure reading is not emphasized. The Association of Teacher-Librarianship in Canada makes casual mention in their professional competencies for teacher-librarians (ATLC website) of the need for a "commitment to voluntary reading". Their American counterparts go one step further and acknowledge the fact that school library media professionals have an obligation to view literature as being "integral to, rather than an enrichment of, the language arts program (AASL & AECT, 1998, p. 9). Teacher-librarians are uniquely positioned to facilitate a reading program at the high school level. For the past twenty years, high school libraries, with one teacher-librarian, have focused on preparing teachers and students to deal with a "significant shift to resource based teaching" " (Bens, Burton, Driscoll, McConnell, Nelson, & Oliver, 1999, p. i) and have concentrated their energies on information literacy. A teacher no longer is expected to instruct using a single textbook. There is a shift towards the "use of multiple and varied types of learning resources to deliver learning outcomes" (Bens, et al., 1991, p. i) in which the school librarian is a major partner in the instruction process. However, if a student cannot read at an appropriate level for his or her age, the goals for information literacy will not easily be met. Among other tasks, teacher-librarians use their few, spare hours to select reading materials to support curriculum and pleasure reading. A quick survey of high school teacher-librarians in my district revealed that time devoted to promoting pleasure reading through High School Reading Program 4 book talks is minimal to non-existent. However, with 1.5 or two full-time teacher-librarians now administering some high-school library programs in this district, I feel that a literature based reading program could be implemented by teacher-librarians to help improve adolescent students' reading comprehension, spelling and writing. Over the past few years, School District No. 43 (Coquitlam's) A Literature Based Individualized Reading Program (Douthwait, Ward, & Wilby, n.d.) developed for elementary and middle students, has been used successfully by some teacher-librarians in the district. While no formal study has been done on its efficacy, anecdotal comments by English teachers and students in the program have been positive. This reading program also fits the criteria that I believe are necessary to successfully promote reading to high school students in that it incorporates many concepts of social-constructivist theories including balanced literacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a modified middle school reading program at the high school level. Can a concentrated, six week reading program with English 9, Transitional English 9/10, and Transitional English 11/12 classes improve students' comprehension, spelling, and writing, while introducing them to new genres, without turning them away from pleasure reading? Transitional English students, more commonly known as English as a Second Language students, were included in this survey because Canada is a multilingual, multicultural society. Transitional English teachers are part of the school's English Department. They heard my introduction for this reading program and wanted to be included as the program is an excellent way to introduce immigrants to the literature and culture of their new country while improving their English at the same time. My objectives for this High School Reading Program 5 program grew out of several years of "trial and error" in my attempts to promote leisure reading to adolescents. They are as follows: 1. To promote the reading of literature; 2. To encourage reading in genres normally ignored; 3. To teach students to write or e-mail a business letter to an author or publisher; 4. To teach students to prepare and present a booktalk; 5. To foster an enjoyment of reading that goes beyond finishing class assignments. Background to the Problem When I first became involved with promoting reading to high school students I did so because fiction circulation statistics were very low for a population of 1,800 teenagers at my school. Although I had done several booktalks to English and Comparative Civilization 12 classes, results were not encouraging. After my course work in the University of British Columbia's School of Library, Archival & Information Studies, where I had taken courses on Services in Public Libraries and literature for adolescent readers, I decided to use some of the successful strategies developed by public librarians. I confidently picked a mixed, Grade 10, Physical Education class on which to try out my ideas. I developed specifically designed booklists, field tested by Young Adult Public Librarians, with fiction, non-fiction, magazine, and website titles for each sport the class studied and played that term. I had specialists in softball, badminton, and Kung Fu booktalk some titles to the students and hand out booklists on that sport before giving them a professional's opinion of their game. From February to the High School Reading Program 6 end of June, not one student in that class signed out a book, either fiction or non-fiction (Peplow, 1998). These were indeed hard-core, reluctant readers. I came to realize that my clientele differed from that of a public library and that my strategies to promote reading in a high school must change. Adolescents who frequent public libraries do so because they know about and like books and information services. Most young people in high schools never set foot in the library on their own volition. I came to the conclusion that pleasure reading must be tied to an assignment in order to give students the time and opportunity to like books and reading. No longer could I waste precious time by going into a class just before winter or spring break, booktalk a few titles, and hand out booklists on specific genres. I should have realized much sooner that most students do not willingly sign out a library book just before vacation. But how to change my approach? It was the following year, after accepting a position in an elementary school library, that I found a partial answer to my question. Several classes were accustomed to doing A Literature Based Individualized Reading Program with the previous teacher-librarian. I had an opportunity to see how this program worked. I also saw that it could be an effective tool to help elementary students' comprehension, spelling and writing. And, I liked the thought of a teacher-librarian sharing a class with the teacher because it allows the school librarian to promote reading in a more effective way. It also represents a curriculum-integrated approach to school library programming. The following year I was back at the high school level again, determined to put my new ideas about reading promotion to the test. The background of this study draws on five related bodies of literature: paradigms of educational instruction; paradigms of school library programs; and paradigms of literacy and High School Reading Program 7 reading theories for native and also non-native speakers. Background literature also includes research literature on the nature of reluctant readers as well as Young Adult Public Librarian practices designed to foster voluntary reading among the reluctant. I shall first present an historical overview of educational instruction to show how shifts in paradigms affected library practices as well as literacy and reading theories and practices. Paradigms of Educational Instruction, English/ESL Literacy and Reading Theories, and School Library Programs Throughout the twentieth century three major paradigms describing the practice of education instruction have surged and ebbed according to the prevailing thinking of the day. Cognitive information processing theories, whole language/inquiry based/transactions, and social-constructivist practices can all be seen in today's high school libraries and classrooms. Cognitive information processing theories can be broadly described as teacher lectures. On the other hand, whole language/inquiry based theories focus on students' learning materials by their own research. Social-constructivist practices are a balance of the lecture and inquiry based learning approaches. They remain in a teacher's repertoire, either from habit, or as a reserve to draw upon when circumstances demand yet another eclectic approach (Asselin, 1995). School librarians also adjust their strategies to fit patrons' teaching orientations. However, it was not until 1979 that teacher-librarians had an alternative to behaviorist practices. Literacy and reading programs also underwent similar paradigm shifts (Asselin, 1995). Reading teachers in the early part of twentieth century believed in workbooks, drills, High School Reading Program 8 and basal readers. In the 1970s whole language and the reading of quality literature surged into mainstream classrooms. By the 1990s social-constructivists were using an assisted learning model which integrates skills with the reading of literature. English as a Second Language (ESL) paradigms are very similar to English language reading theories. Advocates of the skills approach exist side-by-side with practitioners of the wholistic model (Gunderson, 1991. p. 17). Eventually researchers articulated the interactive model (constructivism) which "contains a mixture of the two" above mentioned theories (Gunderson, 1991, p. 18). ESL instructional practices, especially for secondary students, are influenced by three factors: that these students have no time to waste, so they must be "actively engaged in learning" (Gunderson, 1991, p. 115); and that "students' second language reading abilities must be at the "instructional level," meaning at least 75% comprehension (Gunderson, 1991, p. 108), before students can engage in content reading. These underlying realities of ESL instruction coloured the modifications introduced to the reading program. Also colouring the alterations was the fact that several ESL students were reluctant readers, as were many in the other groups, factors I had to account for when planning this program. The school library program is a striking example of the difference a theoretical paradigm can make to education practices. Prior to 1979, the behavioral/cognitive information processing theories saw teacher-librarians as teaching adjuncts, who determined what the student was to do, and who managed the school library collection, that is, ordered, maintained, withdrew, and circulated material. With the advent of inquiry based learning after 1979 (still being implemented in some schools), school librarians are now seen as High School Reading Program 9 teaching partners, who co-operatively determine what the student is to learn while still managing the school library collection (Austrom et al., 1986). For twenty-one years teacher librarians fought for full implementation of inquiry based learning but it has not yet happened in many schools. Perhaps it is time to take a more pragmatic, social-constructivist approach to draw reluctant teachers and students towards services the library can provide. Reluctant Readers Theories Two useful studies on reluctant readers, G. K. Beers' No time, no interest, no way!: The 3 voices of aliteracy: Parts I & II (1996) and Ronald Jobe and M. Dayton-Sakari's Reluctant Readers: Connecting students and books for successful reading experiences. (1999) provide analyses of the different types of reluctant readers and offer suggestions for tempting them into the world of print. William Bintz (1993) objects to labeling readers "reluctant" and offers further insights into the actions of adolescent readers. While these frameworks help to understand reluctant readers they only help to a certain degree with English as a Second Language (ESL) readers. Young Adult Public Librarian Strategies Young Adult Public Librarians have a repertoire of strategies and a wealth of research literature on reluctant readers to draw upon. Booktalks, guest speakers, special events appealing to, and supporting teenage interests all take place within a library or "on location" (McRae, 1996). In effect, public librarians have the freedom, and some time, to plan imaginative strategies that leave school librarians envious. Generally, teacher-librarian time High School Reading Program 10 is taken up by classes involved with research projects. Public libraries attract young people who have an affinity with their programs and with books. Not so the school library. It is ignored by the majority of students in the school. One librarian in a school library cannot research and implement strategies that help attract the reluctant beyond reading magazines and sites on the World Wide Web. Works by such researchers as Jo Worthy (1996a; 1996b), Worthy, Moorman, & Turner M. (1999), Daniel Barron (1991; 1993), N. Thimmesch (1984), Patrick Jones (1994), Jobe & Dayton-Sakari (1999), Chelton & Rosinia (1993), K. Miller (1982), Stan Weisner (1992), Cathi Dunn MacRae (1996), and K. Barker (1993) have left us with information about adolescent readers and strategies for enticing them into reading, few of which have been implemented in high school libraries. The reading program described in this paper attempts to incorporate some of these ideas. Research Questions I designed a simple, qualitative questionnaire asking participants, both students and involved teachers, if they liked or disliked the program they had just completed. Their answers gave me an understanding as to how participants felt about pleasure reading in a classroom setting. Two questions were very similar: "what did you dislike", and "what would you change", as I wanted analytical, well thought out responses as to why they disliked certain aspects of this program. I also wanted to discover if forcing participants to read genres outside their usual choices would prove counterproductive. Following are the questions students answered in class on the last day of this assignment: High School Reading Program 11 1. Did you enjoy this program? 2. What did you like about this program? 3. What did you dislike about this program? 4. What would you change if you were in charge? 5. What genre do you normally like to read? 6. Would you now voluntarily read another genre? 7. If yes, what would that/those genre/s be? My Assumptions I entered this program with several assumptions and a librarian's point of view which can readily be seen from my objectives and my questionnaire. I wanted to encourage leisure reading and set up this reading program with that emphasis in mind. I never considered the possibility that pleasure reading in a classroom setting might be "off-putting" (Bintz, 1993). I assumed that reluctant adolescent readers would read with some difficulty. That was not the case with the majority of Grade 9 English students I worked with. The majority read aloud quite fluently, although many were reading lower level, "short" books instead of literature. There were a few hard cases in the classes who evaded their reading and writing responsibilities, but the numbers were low. I thought that most students would dislike the assignment. That also was not the case, as the questionnaire results will show. I had assumed that many students would not complete their response and summary assignments. On the whole, the majority finished their written assignments on time. I thought that Transitional English (also known as TRAN) students would have difficulties, and they did. High School Reading Program 12 Fortunately the literature I purchased for them was graded for ESL readers. What I had not considered was the "toughness" of the TRAN teachers. They knew all the dodges and had strategies to circumvent them. They also demanded the very highest standards for all assignments. Their expectations put a particular "stamp" on the revisions that we developed for this program. Importance of the Study I believe this study to be an important one because it acknowledges the fact that reading is part of a continuum that must be carried beyond the 4th grade (Vacca, 1998). The program I shall investigate also extends the role of a high school teacher-librarian into the field of reading, a field that has been neglected, dare I say barely considered, for senior students and school librarians alike. This high school reading program includes instruction, writing, and discussion, key elements in balanced literacy instruction (Asselin, 1999a), but without an overemphasis on teaching reading skills in isolation so feared by today's constructivists (Weaver, 1999). With increased teacher-librarian time in many high school libraries, I believe it is appropriate for schools now to seriously consider a reading program in some form. Eventually a reading program like this one could give a teacher-librarian credibility in the eyes of her colleagues if she wished to promote pleasure reading in content areas. From my findings, it would appear that the majority of teenagers are not "turned off reading, they just don't have the time for it in today's fast-paced society. We teachers then need to make the time for them to read, in whatever ways we can. High School Reading Program 13 Chapter Summary and Overview of the Following Chapters This chapter includes a section on the background information to the problem, the problem statement itself, a description of the original study, my assumptions about this study, the importance of this study, and finally this overview. In Chapter 2,1 shall review and critique the literature relevant to this study. Chapter 3 will deal with the design of this study as well as the method used to collect the data. More information about the specific population and participants will be presented and discussed as well as the data analysis procedures used. Chapter 4 will outline the findings of this study and make reference to the literature presented in Chapter 2. A general summary of results, conclusions, and future implications for high school teacher-librarians and teachers will be presented in the concluding chapter, Chapter 5. Limitations of the Study Findings based on data obtained from the questionnaire are limited. A major concern was the small number of students in class the day the questionnaire was completed, possibly making findings unrepresentative of English 9 and TRAN students views in general. Another concern that materialized after the program was completed was the fact that the English 9 teacher also taught the TRAN 9/10 class. Instruction practices tended towards a highly structured ESL model, so that a picture of a whole language/social constructivist English 9 class does not emerge. Another English 9 class should have been officially included in this study. The length of this program, 6 weeks, was not enough time to see an improvement in grammar and spelling, especially with TRAN students. The fact that students were forced to High School Reading Program 14 sit in a classroom or at library desks to read may have destroyed the atmosphere I wanted to create thus further alienating disgruntled readers. The discussion section was not structured and this fact might also have impacted negatively on some participants. Finally, my classification of students' comments are subjective. The findings of this study indicate broad, general attitudes young adults hold about reading. High School Reading Program 15 Chapter II: The Literature Review In the previous chapter I discussed the background information to the problem, the problem statement itself, a description of the original study, my assumptions about this study, and the importance of this study. In this chapter, I shall review and critique the literature relevant to this study. Introduction Generally speaking, educational practices fall into three broad categories of thought: the cognitive information processing theories, also known as behavioral or transmission meta-orientation; the Piagetian/naturalist theories, or transaction meta-orientation; and the social-constructivist theories, or transformational meta-orientation. These paradigms helped develop different educational practices educators believed would improve students' literacy performances. Such practices evolved according to the definition of literacy needed at a particular time in society. In this chapter I shall begin with an historical overview of these three meta-orientations and look at their philosophical and psychological "underpinnings". Next I shall summarize and critique literacy and reading strategies generated by these schools of thought for English as well as for English as a Second Language students before describing Literature Circles (Daniels, 1994) and The Book Club program developed by McMahon et al. (1997) on which I partially based my study. The school library program follows with a High School Reading Program 16 discussion of its changing perspectives and practices brought about by shifts in paradigms. Afterwards I shall discuss studies detailing the nature of teenage reluctant readers, which have given librarians some understanding of that group's needs (Beers, 1996; Bintz, 1993; Jobe & Dayton-Sakari, 1999; Worthy, Moorman & Turner, 1999). Finally, Public Librarians have long been conversant with reluctant adolescent readers' studies and have developed strategies to meet their needs (Beers, 1996; Grimes, 1991; Barron, 1991; 1993a; 1993b; Jones, 1994; Worthy, 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 1999). These strategies will be assessed and incorporated into this study to ensure a successful experience for both students and teachers. The program reflects elements of each meta-orientation, but does not emphasize cognitive information processing theories. Rather it demonstrates Piagetian/ naturalist theories and social-constructivist theories, with the latter assuming progressively greater emphasis. Historical Influences The theories of some very eminent philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and educators have contributed to views on learning and teaching instruction which are reflected within these meta-orientations. These individuals still influence the ways educators think about curricula and use instructional processes in classrooms today. Cognitive Information Processing Theories Cognitive information processing theories reflect an atomistic paradigm in which reality is broken down into distinct, separate elements. These theories are based on a positivist philosophical tradition first articulated by Auguste Comte (1798 - 1857). High School Reading Program 17 Psychologically, they belong to the behaviorist school of thought. They also are politically allied with the conservative economic theory prevalent in the 1920s, laissez-faire capitalism. Their educational aims include the mastery of school subjects and the inculcation of students in social norms. Students are expected: to learn facts and concepts associated with the subject; to master certain key skills; and to adapt to the school's academic, social, and disciplinary framework. Theorists view students as acting passively in a structured learning situation (Miller & Seller, 1990). Teachers, however, play a directive role in the learning process. Instruction is often didactic with students responding to teacher initiatives. Teachers plan and sequence the material so that the students can proceed through the units at their own pace. The teacher is also involved in diagnosis and feedback so that learning is facilitated. In terms of literacy instruction, information processing theorists assume that reading and writing consists of a number of subprocesses used to perform specialized tasks. They claim that students have a limited capacity for attention and competence in reading and writing. They believe that operations will be performed more efficiently if less memory is involved (McCarthey & Raphael, 1992). Evaluation focuses on traditional achievement tests where deficiencies in student learning can be corrected. In this way students will absorb the norms predominant in their culture. American psychologist, Edward Lee Thorndike (1874 - 1949), posited the law of use and disuse. He believed that repetition is important in learning. Thorndike also maintained that the teacher is the active determiner of the learning environment, a belief shared by the American educator, Franklin Bobbitt. High School Reading Program 18 Bobbitt (1876 - 1952) was prominent in the 1920s and 1930s. His mechanistic view of teaching was published in How to make a curriculum (1929). Bobbitt believed that the purpose of education was to prepare students for their adult lives and employed the scientific management techniques used in industry to achieve that end. He stated that schooling should focus on producing desirable responses. Education must create a product, the student's mind, which would be shaped according to uniform standards. Curricula should prepare students for all the activities they may encounter in daily life and should consist of activities that can readily be identified and measured. Education should not include any activities that are not specifically intended to serve this purpose. Curricula should be a mirror of society, reflecting the social context. This is a model in which the status quo is accepted (Miller & Seller, 1992). While Bobbitt was referring to the society of the Twenties and Thirties, permeated with ideas about efficient business practices and the mechanized factory workplace, his theories eventually influence the design of some major behaviorist reading models, vastly different in orientation to the naturalist theories that became popular in the 1970s. Piagetian/Naturalist Theories Piagetian/naturalist theories, or transactional meta-orientation, grew out of the work of cognitive psychologist Jean Piaget's developmental theory of learning (1926). Piaget's theory assumes: that thinking resembles logio-mathematical structures; that the child actively constructs knowledge and tries to maintain equilibrium between him or herself and the environment; and that cognitive development depends on the learner acting upon the world (McCarthey & Raphael, 1992). He focused on individuals' innate cognitive structures, such High School Reading Program 19 as language ability, which is consistent with today's whole language approach. His main goal was the development of an individual's rational intelligence in general and complex problem-solving skills. Politically allied with liberalism, Piagetian/naturalist theories stress an emphasis on rational intervention to facilitate social and economic development. Educational theories that grew out of this study were most clearly represented in the work of John Dewey and Louise Rosenblatt, whose thinking about the interactions between individuals and the social environment is central to this position. John Dewey (1859 - 1952) wrote My pedagogic creed (1897) and How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process (1933s). These works provided the philosophical "underpinnings" of an inquiry approach to curricula and instruction that became popular after the launching of the Soviet's Sputnik in 1957. The Soviet's move into space, ahead of the Americans, sparked a critical analysis of educational practices in the west. Dewey identified with the progressive education movement although he was critical of certain aspects of it. He fostered the scientific method, which allows an individual to examine and control experience and to place students' faith in analysis and rational intervention. He focused on the education of the student as an individual who can: intelligently participate in social and political life; resolve social ills; and help direct the course of social change in a positive direction particularly through solving problems. He emphasized cooperative interaction, or transaction, between students and teachers. Dewey believed that learning experiences should stress inquiry and problem-solving skills and should occur within the framework of an academic discipline, with students pursuing inquiry as would an academic within a particular discipline. He also believed that it is possible to High School Reading Program 20 pursue inquiry within an interdisciplinary framework or a social context, in which the emphasis is on developing inquiry skills that facilitate democratic decision making. In this model teachers foster student inquiry skills. They must be familiar with appropriate resources and be able to stimulate inquiry with questions and probes. Teachers should be interested in how children think, how they approach problems, be willing to listen to their reasons, and understand their thinking processes. Evaluation focuses on the student's acquisition of a complex intellectual framework (e.g., analysis and synthesis), and social skills (Miller & Seller, 1992). Dewey believed that this model would help teachers pass on the values and language of a culture. The goal of inquiry based learning is to help prepare youth to function in a democratic society. Louise Rosenblatt ( 1904 - ) also believes in the force of this meta-orientation to keep democracy "healthy". In a recent interview she mentions that her "belief in the importance of the school in a democracy has not only evolved but also increased over the years ... schools can contribute to the growth of people able to preserve and carry into greater fulfillment the democratic society..." (Karolides, 1999, p. 169, 160). She comes to this stance from her studies in education and literature, more specifically reading and writing. Influenced by John Dewey, and other early twentieth century Pragmatist philosophers who espoused transactional theories, Rosenblatt's early work, Literature asexploration (1938) articulated the view that each reader brought different personal experiences and different assumptions about people and society to their readings. She posits that meaning "is built up through back-and-forth relationship between reader and text during a reading event" (Karolides, 1999, p. 160). She felt that reflection and discussion in a conducive environment could lead to self-High School Reading Program 21 criticism and a growth in reading ability. Rosenblatt formalized her model of the reading process in The reader, the text, the poem (1978) in which she emphasized the importance of "selective attention" in explaining the difference between reading that produces a scientific report, efferent reading, and reading that produces a poem, or aesthetic reading. With the introduction of literature based curricula into some schools, Rosenblatt initially was pleased at this attempt to do "justice to the aesthetic" but then felt that proponents of this program needed to concentrate on alternative ways of transacting with text to ensure that critical analysis was not neglected and that skills be acquired as tools in meaningful activities. Louise Rosenblatt suggested a new way of thinking about language, the process of making meaning, and the processes of reading and writing (Karolides, 1999). However, she left the implementation of specific strategies to be worked out by school teachers and university professors, which proponents of the Piagetian/naturalist and social constructivist schools of thought both explored. Social-Constructivist Theories Social-constructivist theories, or transformational meta-orientation, assume that acquiring knowledge: is an interactive process with the socio-cultural environment; is formed through consensus; and evolves over time (McCarthy & Raphael, 1992). Acquiring prominence in the post industrial era, proponents of this orientation believe that knowledgeable members of a culture can help other members learn. Philosophically, it can trace its roots back to the 6th century Greek philosopher and mathematician, Pythagoras. Today's philosophers posit that knowledge is not an objective reality, as transactionists High School Reading Program 22 believe, but is formed by consensus, by members of society (McCarthy & Raphael, 1992). The psychological roots of social-constructivism are based on the theories of Russian born Len Vygotsky and others who maintain that all thought is social in nature. Educators like Paulo Freire, Alfred Alschuler, and Michael Apple stress the transformational nature of schools and contend that schools cannot be morally neutral. They argue that teachers should be actively involved in social change and should run for political office. In their view educators need to collaborate with other groups in society to effect social change. Schools should not deny the importance of learning basic skills, but should integrate these tasks with the emotional, physical, social, and spiritual dimensions of life. Students need to see the connections and relations between themselves and the world around them. By seeing these connections, social-constructivists hope to bring into society students who feel a deep sense of responsibility for their ecology and social environment. (Miller & Seller, 1990). As early as the 6th Century, B.C., Pythagoras made the connection between the inner person and the universe. Coining the word 'psyche' to represent the inner self, he suggested that certain techniques be used in one's search for self-knowledge, including the use of parable and symbol, meditation, music, and sacred dance. Social constructivists of the late twentieth century have incorporated some of these techniques into literacy practices designed to include those students in our education system who do not respond to traditional, transmission type practices. Social constructivists assume that human learning occurs when knowledge is constructed through the individual's interaction with the sociocultural environment; that higher mental functions, including reading and writing, are social and cultural in nature; and knowledgeable members of a culture can help others learn High School Reading Program 23 (McCarthney & Raphael, 1992). However it was Len Vygotsky (1896 - 1934) who declared that the role of language and dialogue is critical to the new learner. Vygotsky contends that all thought is essentially social in nature and depends on communication across generations and between individuals. Learning occurs first between people, the interpsychological plane, and then within the individual, the extrapsychological plane, (Wertsch, 1985, pp. 60 - 61). Language and dialogue is crucial since it is through speech and social interaction that the learner acquires new abilities. Students then have the opportunity to learn the role of writing within our culture, to understand the relationships between writing and reading, and to experience different ways of thinking when planning to read or write. Vygotsky developed a model, the zone of proximal development, to describe how learners develop higher mental functions, to become "what he not yet is" (Wertsch, 1985, p. 67). He posits that what an individual can achieve alone is different from what can be achieved with the help of a knowledgeable adult or peer. He also states that there is a deliberate transfer of control from the more knowledgeable person to the less knowledgeable (McCarthy & Raphael, 1992). Later theorists came to call this process an assisted learning model, which can be compared to a temporary and adjustable scaffold (Applebee & Langer, 1983, cited in McCarthy & Raphael, 1992). Further, educational scaffolding involves structuring tasks through instruction, modeling, questioning, and feedback until the learner can operate independently (Raphael, 1986 cited in McCarthy & Raphael, 1992). In effect social constructivism is a blend of behaviorist and naturalist theories. High School Reading Program 24 These three orientations have directed our visions of education practices for most of the twentieth century. They also have changed drastically the ways in which reading and writing is taught and the ways in which school libraries deliver services to students and staff. Current Perspectives in English and ESL Literacy and Reading Theories Cognitive Information Processing Theories Cognitive information processing theories pertaining to literacy have been refined since the years of Franklin Bobbitt. Researchers have looked at the component parts of successful literacy strategies hoping to teach these components to less proficient readers and writers. Models for instruction abound, ranging from automation of processes models to process automation models to the component model. Generally, information processing models have looked at the expert reader and writer, believing that knowledge structures critical to success in literacy can be broken down into their component parts and then successfully taught to less proficient readers and writers. By analyzing reading and writing processes they have improved our understanding of the complexities of various structures and their inter-relatedness. This model neglects to show us how less successful or novice readers and writers become more skilled, or, what kind of environment fosters literacy development (McCarthey & Raphael, 1992). A. Applebee feels that these models overlook or dismiss such features as: the context in which learning literacy skills occur; the social practices; and different cultures' views of the purposes for and ways of carrying out literacy tasks. He posits that glossing over these factors may lead to High School Reading Program 25 "decontexturalized learning of subskills", i.e., the worksheet method. (Applebee, 1986, cited in McCarthey & Raphael, 1992). Taken all together, these studies delineate a perspective based on skills acquisition. Advocates of skills believe that "phonics, spelling, punctuation, grammar and other language conventions must be the focus of the literacy curriculum" (Strickland, cited in Au, Carroll, & Scheu, 1997, p. 10) and taught through direct instruction, with students involved in drill and practice. However, naturalist and social-constructivist theorists consider it more important to look at the ways individuals interact with the environment in which their abilities develop. Piagetian/Naturalist Theories Whole language teaching methods are consistent with Piagetian/naturalist/ transactional theories. Language learning is considered to be both personal and social in nature and driven by the learner's need to make sense, actively, of the world. Theorists suggest that the development of reading and writing is based on the development of oral language and they assert that language develops naturally. Ken Goodman maintains that: language learning moves from the whole to the part with no hierarchy of subskills, that is, students learn words before letters, read stories before sentences, and acquire meaning within the context of reading and writing. He believes that learning to read and write involves actively reading and writing rather than mastering specific skills or participating in formal instruction (Goodman, 1986). Other proponents of this meta-orientation posit that language is functional and children are able to make sense of it when real needs are met. Children have strategies, High School Reading Program 26 developed over time, that help them achieve understanding. As well, children are able to correct themselves if what they read does not fit into the meaning they are trying to construct (Newman, 1985, cited in McCarthey & Raphael, 1992). Self-correction occurs when a child passes through Piaget's stages of development: the sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operational; and formal operational stages. Individuals move from one stage to another: when physical growth has occurred; when they have experience with physical objects or with society's expectations; and when they have achieved equilibrium, or balance between themselves and their environment. In other words, children grow naturally into the ability to master skills that allow them to read and write competently without too much guidance from teachers or parents (Miller & Seller, 1990). Certain reading and writing strategies evolved in this naturalist perspective. Proponents believe students can learn without deliberate assistance and teachers then become facilitators (Smith, 1982, cited in McCarthey & Raphael, 1992). They do not lecture but provide situations for students to explore language and ask open-ended questions. They also provide opportunities for writing, shared reading, and sustained silent reading. Other strategies include journal writing, writing for a real audience, opportunities for revision, and high levels of peer interaction (McCarthey & Raphael, 1992). Stephen Krashen articulates this perspective at its most natural. Krashen recommends free voluntary reading. For students this means reading because one wants to. There are no book reports, no end-of-chapter questions, and no vocabulary sheets. He believes that from this type of reading, comprehension will improve and even academic writings found in text books will be more comprehensible. Students' High School Reading Program 27 spelling, grammar, vocabulary, and writing styles will also improve to acceptable levels demanded by today's society. Free voluntary reading is also the way to achieve advanced second language proficiency. Krashen further posits that free voluntary reading "will not, by itself, produce the highest levels of competence, rather it provides a foundation so that high levels of proficiency may be reached. When FVR is missing, these advanced levels are extremely difficult to attain" (Krashen, 1992, p. 1). But how to capture the interest of those individuals who do not like to read? Krashen suggests exposing reluctant readers to light reading, primarily comic books and magazines. He insists that the texts in magazines and in comic books are linguistically appropriate, with pictures helping to make texts comprehensible. "When children read for pleasure,.. .they acquire involuntary and without conscious effort, nearly all of the so-called "language skills" many people are so concerned about:..." (Krashen, 1992, p. 84). Students' interests then should become the vehicle by which literacy skills can evolve. A major strength of this paradigm is its focus on the child as a developing individual. Children must be involved in meaningful activities that encourage learning. This theory encourages educators to provide literacy experiences that build on children's knowledge and provide several opportunities for students to engage in reading and writing activities (McCartney & Raphael, 1992). However, when this naturalist orientation is taken to extremes, students, who cannot or will not take responsibility for their learning, slip below acceptable levels of knowledge considered appropriate for their age. McCartney and Raphael point out several weaknesses in this orientation. As the theory is biological, theorists assume that literacy development occurs in stages as does High School Reading Program 28 physical growth. Society's role is diminished whereas the individual's is emphasized. And, more importantly for our multicultural society, this orientation ignores other language practices. Lastly, this perspective under-emphasizes the role of the teacher. Instructors may be important to the structure of the environment, but students are left on their own, instructionally speaking (McCarthey & Raphael, 1992). Basically, Piagetian/naturalist theories do not tell us how learners acquire new knowledge, only that such knowledge is simply acquired "naturally". Social-Constructivist Theories When reactions set in against cognitive and whole language/naturalist practices, studies of classroom practices indicated that a balanced approach to literacy would be the next perspective to surge to the forefront in literacy education (Weaver, 1998). Balanced literacy, or social constructivism, emphasize that "reading and writing are connected through their uses within the culture and through the role dialogue plays in the development of literacy" (McCarthy & Raphael, 1992, p. 18). Heir to the philosophical ideas of Jean Piaget, Len Vygotsky, Ken Goodman, and Louise Rosenblatt, social-constructivist literacy instruction ensures that "students are given the chance to learn through both direct and indirect instruction. Direct instruction occurs in mini-lessons.. .indirect instruction and opportunities for discovery occur as students are involved in the full process of reading and writing..." (Strickland cited in Au, Carroll, & Scheu, 1997, p. 11). Social constructivism has several strengths for examining literacy: it avoids the extremes of the behaviorist and naturalist theories and makes a case for a view of knowledge High School Reading Program 29 based on consensus; it accounts for variations among cultures in language practices and in the ways children learn to read and write in different settings; and as it is a developmental theory, it avoids "expert-novice contrasts" and explains how children acquire new learning (McCarthy & Raphael, 1992, p. 20). Unfortunately, it is difficult to test. Neither traditional quantitative studies nor naturalist case studies can successfully capture the complex interactions between individuals and their sociocultural environment (McCarthy & Raphael, 1992). In my next section I shall discuss theories relating to English as a Second Language acquisition at the high school level. English as a Second Language Models of Instruction ESL theories of instruction closely shadow those of literacy and reading: cognitive information processing theories are referred to as "bottom-up"; naturalists theories as "top-down" or "wholistic"; and social-constructivist theories as interactive (Gunderson, 1991, pp. 17-18). Advocates of the skills approach, or bottom-up theory, believe that "students learn to read and comprehend by acquiring a large set of skills in a particular sequence" Gunderson, 1991, p. 17). Since basil readers are designed on this principle most students do not become deeply involved in building meaning "through the back-and-forth relationship between reader and text during a reading event" (Rosenblatt, cited in Karolides, 1999, p. 160). Top-down theorists believe that only through the act of reading will students acquire such basic skills as phonics (Gunderson, 1991, p. 17). However, in high school classrooms the curriculum demands more structure and accountability of both teachers and students. On the other hand, High School Reading Program 30 the interactive model "suggests that readers use both bottom-up and top-down information as they read" (Gunderson, 1991, p. 17). In this study I have tried to incorporate both the skills and literature approaches, keeping in mind that ESL students do not have time to waste and that they must perform at certain levels before they can engage in content reading (Gunderson, 1991). What follows is a brief description of two reading programs, designed for students whose first language is English, and a critique of their appropriateness to this study. Literature Circles and The Book Club Several researchers have devised literature based reading programs that incorporate the reader response theories of Louise Rosenblatt (1938; 1976) and Len Vygotsky's zone of proximal development (Daniels, 1994; McMahon, Raphael, Goatley, & Pardo, 1997). Following is a brief outline of Daniels' Literature Circles program: 1. Students choose their own reading materials; 2. Small temporary groups are formed, based on book choice; 3. Different groups read different books; 4. Groups meet on a regular, predictable schedule to discuss their reading; 5. Kids use written or drawn notes to guide both their reading and discussion; 6. Discussion topics come from the students; 7. Group meetings aim to be open, natural conversations about books, so personal connections, digressions, and open-ended questions are welcome; 8. In newly forming groups, students play a rotating assortment of task roles; High School Reading Program 31 9. The teacher serves as a facilitator, not a group member or instructor; 10. Evaluation is by teacher observation, and student self-evaluation; 11. A spirit of playfulness and fun pervades the room; 12. When books are finished, readers share with their classmates and then new groups form around new reading choices (Daniels, 1994, p. 18). Although the author strongly believes that "students cannot effectively move to the level of analysis until they have worked through, and processed, their personal responses, Daniels states that he parts company with some other proponents of literature groups and contends that "much of the time, sharing responses is enough" (1994, p. 23). Unfortunately, sharing is not enough at the high school level. Senior students must marry discourse to various types of written response. McMahon et al. sought "to design a program that attended to the readers, to what they bring to the act of reading, and to the context in which reading occurs" (1997, p. 16). Known as The Book Club it incorporates many of the features of the literature circle format, emphasis, however, is on more flexible ways to interact with texts. There are extended opportunities for students to read, write, and discuss their texts Two main writing opportunities exit within Book Club: daily writing in student reading logs, and more focused writing using "think sheets"; plus extended writing through participation in the full process of planning, drafting, revising, and publishing as students developed essays or create content-area reports. Discussion is done daily, on the texts they read and on the ones they compose. The classroom teacher leads the community share, or whole class discussion, while small student led discussion groups are a mainstay of the Book Club, with each member assigned a High School Reading Program 32 task to fulfill during the discourse period (1997, pp. 22-23). The authors are convinced that Book Club is important for second-language learners' development in three ways: providing the context for guided literacy learning; providing opportunities to experiment with language-in-use; and providing a context for second language acquisitions (1992, p. 142). Literacy instructional strategies were not the only institutions affected by shifts in paradigm, the school library program changed as well. Paradigms for School Library Programs With a naturalist/transactional theoretical focus after 1979, school librarians struggled to persuade administrators and teachers to accept their new role as teaching partners, rather than just viewing them as library clerks. Their responsibilities now include co-operatively program planning and teaching with classroom teachers, and integrating instruction in research and study skills with subject content. Teacher-librarians developed a "scope and sequence" to provide teachers with an outline for team teaching which includes strategies for: locating and selecting information; analyzing and acquiring information; recording, classifying, and organizing information; and communicating information findings. Students engaged in problem solving and inquiry based learning should learn both the subject matter and a variety of inquiry skills including: identifying assumptions; developing hypotheses through various analytic procedures and empirical methods; testing assumptions and finally, stating conclusions. Research literature has shown that research skills taught in isolation, that is, not as part of a research unit, will not be remembered by students (Austrom, et al., 1986). High School Reading Program 33 Therefore, some teacher-librarians will not initiate or involve themselves in library units that are not inquiry based. The reading program this study is based on is not inquiry based. Beyond teaching students how to use the automated catalogue, few library and research skills are incorporated in the unit. However, I argue that in middle and secondary high school, if the school library is to provide service to all students and staff, then teacher-librarians should attempt to move beyond the Piagetian/naturalist models of inquiry based instruction to the more balanced approach of the social-constructivists to support assignments that are either behavioral/transmission in orientation, or "beyond labels". Marlene Asselin, in a series of articles in the Teacher Librarian, has presented a view of the school librarian's role that goes beyond inquiry based instruction. She advocates a more active commitment to literacy. Asselin suggests that teacher-librarians: heighten colleagues' awareness of adolescent literacy through a presentation of the IRA position statement on adolescent literacy; augment and update published lists of recommended and popular titles; display and present these resources along with a variety of titles of young adult books; include a place for student recommendations and book discussions on the library web page; collect and present examples of literacy activities drawn from students' lives that represent critical and creative thinking; include lessons about strategies that increase comprehension and critical and creative reading during cooperative units in all subject areas; model lessons focused on these strategies to teaching colleagues and offer follow-up support; and ensure that students have opportunities to interact with and represent their thinking in multiple media (1999b, p. 63). Asselin also recommends the following strategies to support reader-based experiences with High School Reading Program 34 literature: build the collection with an eye to books that will stimulate rich discussion; develop theme sets of books for use in literature circles; facilitate literature circles in the library; engage kids in book reviewing and sharing activities; bring authors into the school to talk about the meanings of their texts; share ideas with teachers by giving them articles to read; and finally, foster response activities and suggest alternatives to book reports and other practices that discourage children from reading (2000, p. 63). Two teacher-librarians in a school library can initiate this new emphasis on literacy instruction. One teacher-librarian on her own can do very little beyond the basics because time constraints may make these worthy suggestions impractical in many instances. Reluctant Readers Theories Before I could revise my district's reading program I first needed to understand the nature of reluctant readers. Studies done by Beers (1996) and Bintz (1993) are pertinent to teenage readers, while Jobe and Dayton-Sakari (1999) looked at young emerging readers and I found their categories to have some application to adolescent ESL students. Worthy, Moorman and Turner (1999) assessed middle school students' reading patterns and I saw an immediate application to our Grade 9 readers. Taken together, many of these findings provide the behind-the-scene backbone of this high school reading program. The Beers Study G. K. Beers (1996) contends that there are several different types of teens who avoid reading. Teens who are aliterate (can read but refuse) are themselves made up of three High School Reading Program 35 groups: the dormant, the uncommitted, and the unmotivated. The dormants like reading but do not or cannot make time for it, while the uncommitted and the unmotivated aliterates need works of fiction written and produced to a specific set of criteria so that the stories they read are understandable and relevant. There are also teens who, classified as illiterate, read below the Grade 4 level, the level needed to understand a newspaper. ESL and some Special Needs students fall into this category and require books written in a specific style to ensure that their reading experiences are less than "tortuous." Of the three types who make up the aliterates , the dormants appears to be the most amenable to intervention. They actually like to read and read quite well. There are a number of reasons why they do not do so. Teens can face scorn if their peers do not value reading. They are busy. Reading faces competition for time with school assignments and exams, sports, drama, or music activities outside school hours, to name but a few. Dormant aliterates have some specific traits: they prefer to choose their own books; they will listen to someone read a few pages aloud during a book talk; and they prefer to see the movie first before reading the novel. However, they do not like writing book reports, or preparing a lot of book-related art activities, or listening to someone read an entire novel aloud. (Beers, 1996b). Generally, titles cited in most book lists appeal to them. Uncommitted and unmotivated aliterates, and those classified as illiterate, require a different format. The uncommitted aliterate does not have an aesthetic experience with the text (that is, "the reader's attention is [not] centered directly on what he is living through during his relationship with that particular text"). Rather, they experience non-aesthetic (or efferent) reading whereby "the readers' attention is focused primarily on what will remain as the High School Reading Program 36 residue after the reading - for information to be acquired, the logical solution to a problem, the actions to be carried out" (Rosenblatt, 1978). These individuals enjoy reading non-fiction and remain open as to whether they will read in the future. Magazine, newspaper, and internet articles will satisfy their need for facts, but basically they view reading as a skill that bores them (Beers, 1996a). Unmotivated readers, unfortunately, share the same view, although for a different reason. This particular group also views reading as a skill, and a distasteful one at that. The unmotivated are efferent readers with negative attitudes towards those who do read. This group "knows" they will never read in the future. These individuals cannot see "what is happening", they cannot visualize the scenes (Beers, 1996a). For them, illustrated thin books would help immensely. Graphic novels, a more sophisticated form of the comic book, would also appeal. In the past few years graphic novels have moved far beyond the "Archie" comics in terms of plot, characterization, and art work. Classics, like Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, and Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent have now been rendered into the graphic format, but original "modern-day" works are more popular with teens. Illiterates, as well as the unmotivated, will tolerate graphic novels and "thin" books with pictures. Illiterates spend their time trying to understand the text. They are efferent readers and they may or may not be negative towards other readers. ESL and some Special Needs teens fall into this category as well. However, many ESL and Special Needs students make the time to improve their skills. The uncommitted and unmotivated aliterates as well as the illiterates have very specific needs: they prefer to choose books from a narrowed selection; they enjoy listening to someone read an entire novel to them; they prefer to read the novel High School Reading Program 37 before viewing the movie; they want illustrated books; they will do book-related art activities; and the uncommitted will read non-fiction. However, they do not take part in book discussions or share books with friends (Beers, 1994). "Thin" books have been written specifically to catch their interest and to help with comprehension. More formally known as high interest/low vocabulary novels, "thin" books now contain more "realistic" fiction, with subjects that speak to teens' concerns. The Jobe and Dayton-Sakari Study Ronald Jobe and Mary Dayton-Sakari (1999) describe reluctant readers in different terms. They have found the I Can't reader, the I Don't Know How reader, the I'd Rather Do Something Else reader, the older, I Don't Care reader, and What? I Don't Understand reader, generally an ESL student (Jobe & Dayton-Sakari, 1999). For the purposes of this study I am particularly interested to the last two categories: the I Don't Care and the What? I Don't Understand readers. The former is usually an older reader who appears disinterested or bored, has suffered habitual failure, and has expert coping skills. They have not yet realized that literacy is an economic survival skill in our culture, while the What? I Don't Understand reader comprehends the link between literacy and economics only too well. These students are generally ESL and lack vocabulary and cultural meaning, but not concepts. Their struggle is in "joining the concepts and the literacy skills they have to the sounds and the meanings of a new language..." (1999, p. 26). Jobe and Dayton-Sakari urge the use of "cool" books and comics for those I Don't Care readers. Any book or comic book based on a current hit movie will certainly be read. High School Reading Program 38 They also suggest peer recommended materials, pop music, rap, computers, the web, real life materials, such as job applications, license manuals, forms, and also any book that catches their interest. Effective strategies must be based on "real life" interests, such as finding a job. On the other hand ESL students would benefit from any strategy that develops their oral competence and extends their vocabulary. Jobe and Dayton-Sakari make an astute observation about society's reading patterns today: ".. .we now graze". Instead of reading big chunks of print, these days, "many people prefer to sample newspapers, magazines, listserves or web pages..." (1999, p. 11). They further note that readers with problems end up in a skills oriented program from which fun and enjoyment have been banished. They ask the question: "If we had put more emphasis on reading for enjoyment instead of worksheets, wouldn't they be more positive about reading?" (1999, p. 15). However, Bintz (1993) disputes the reliability of labels in his attempt to understand the problem of reluctant readers. The Bintz Study William Bintz (1993) questions the usefulness of using labels such as avid, passive, reluctant, or even resistant to describe individual readers. He challenges the assumption that many secondary students lack interest in reading. Bintz prefers to view readers in terms of "interpretive stances", who "naturally demonstrate different literate behaviors and attitudes depending on the social context as well as on the nature, purpose, and function of the reading itself (1993, p. 613). He feels teachers should focus more on student strengths, to recognize, and to value out-of-school reading activities. He also feels that we, as educators, need to look at our beliefs along with other factors such as: pedagogy; curriculum; school and classroom High School Reading Program 39 organization; reading materials; reading instruction; teacher-student relationships; and school and community goals before asserting that the problem lies only within the student. The study done by Bintz et al. found that reading in content areas bores most students. They expect the material to be dull. Many read only what they need to complete assignments, while others rebel and refuse even to attempt their homework. Students complain of their lack of choice in selecting reading material. Bintz contends that interpretative stances rather than labels then might give educators a better perspective on the complexities inherent in the world of adolescent reading. Bintz also maintains that one problem may lie in the fact that students are forced to read materials they have no voice in selecting. He has come to believe that students demonstrate "not an explicit reluctance to read but rather an implicit resistance to reading school-assigned materials" (1993, p. 612). To Bintz, student selection of materials then becomes all important. After reading his article I felt compelled to augment drastically the fiction section in my school library before starting the reading program. The Worthy, Moorman and Turner Study Jo Worthy, Megan Moorman, and Margo Turner (1999) did a study of middle school students' reading preferences and the materials available in their school libraries and classrooms. Findings indicate the importance of interest in motivation and learning. Light reading materials, including scary series books, comics, and magazines are preferred by middle school students, a conclusion supported by Krashen's (1992) study of high school teenagers. Yet many educators feel constrained to provide only quality literature, therefore High School Reading Program 40 there is an "ever-increasing gap between students' preferences and materials that schools provide and recommend" (Moorman, et al., 1999, p. 23). Libraries need to provide "an array of materials from which students can choose and read materials that are personally interesting" (1999, p.12). Their findings also indicate, as did Bintz's study, that "middle school students do read, or at least that they have some interest in reading" (1999, p. 23). The authors feel that the definition of school reading should include "the use of materials that students read outside of school" (1999, p. 34). They recommend: teacher recommended books; time for informal book sharing; and libraries to purchase more "light" reading material. Many reluctant readers have been traumatized by past failures with reading. Jo Worthy mentions that students who continually meet with failure need to rebuild their damaged self-concepts through motivation that is "fueled by successful experience." Interesting reading materials that students choose themselves will do much to help them "transcend their so-called reading level". She further advocates that a well designed reading program should include: teacher read-alouds, guided reading instructions and free choice, independent reading; choice in instructional reading, opportunities to read for enjoyment, and access to high-interest materials" (Worthy, 1996b, p. 489). Lastly, Worthy, et al. suggest that the answer to "motivating students to read is as simple as encouraging them to follow their interests" (Moorman, et al., 1999, p. 34). High School Reading Program 41 Young Adult Public Librarian Strategies Public librarians have long practiced strategies designed to direct teenagers towards reading. Booktalks, specially designed book lists, and after school programs target those who enjoy reading or need information on specific topics. An understanding of Beers " labels" has helped librarians set up displays and programs that appeal to several types of reluctant readers. Promotion of "good books", not necessarily award winning books, and matching titles to students' interests becomes crucial if one is to "hook" teens on future, self-motivated, reading experiences. Patrick Jones, a member of the Recommended Books for the Reluctant Teen Reader Committee selects titles that can "hook" reluctant readers: • have a hook to get the reader immediately interested; • move at a fast pace with only a few characters; • have a single point of view and few flashbacks or subplots; • deal with real-life situations/high interest topics; • have emotional impact and are gripping and memorable; • use short sentences and paragraphs with familiar words; • have attractive covers, wide margins, easy type face; • weight in at less than 200 pages and are in paperback (Jones, 1994). Any illustrated work is an added bonus. For ESL students teacher-librarians need to locate material with little or no slang. Nonfiction will meet many of the above mentioned criteria, but also will: High School Reading Program 42 • contain lots of illustrations to complement the text; • adopt a magazine-style layout approach; • contain first-person narrative and real-life experience (Jones, 1998, p. 168). Another point librarians should be aware of is that all titles labeled appropriate for reluctant readers may not be that appropriate. Titles need to be read and evaluated before they are recommended to certain types of reluctant readers. Placing the wrong book in a student's hand may turn that person off reading for some time. Patrick Jones (1998) recommends a number of time tested strategies for promoting materials for the reluctant Young Adult reader, ranging from advertising to contests to joint ventures with public libraries (see Appendix A). School librarians may find these suggestions helpful if they have the time and the desire to reach out to reluctant readers in the school population. Collection development must also be reevaluated if students are going to find titles that appeal to them. Collection Development With research findings (Beers, 1996; Jobe & Dayton-Sakari, 1999; Worthy, 1998; Worthy, Moorman & Turner, 1999) in mind, I spent the first term at my new school purchasing books for reluctant readers and ESL students while also augmenting the original fiction collection. Fiction and non-fiction books for ESL students are fairly easy to purchase. Publishers now produce abridged classics and original works that have been carefully graded for different reading levels. I was able to purchase enough books to keep two ESL classes reading for six weeks. However, books for reluctant readers are more difficult to find, High School Reading Program 43 especially "thin" books, works generally less than 100 pages. More formally known as high interest/low vocabulary novels, thin books now contain more realistic fiction, with subjects that speak to teens' concerns. Patrick Jones suggestions helped with the selection of books for reluctant readers (Jones, 1994). These findings have been the guideposts for developing my fiction collection. Magazines, graphic novels, that is, novels rendered into a picture format, and comic books are a mainstay of the reluctant readers' collection. Purchasing comics has proved something of a headache, as female teachers were and are quick to point out the problems with comic books: depiction of the female form; unexpected scenes of violence; and sexual activity, particularly the Japanese produced ones. Fortunately, my principal believes in the benefits of reading comic books. Krashen reported that: ".. .comic book readers do as much book reading as non-comic book readers.... Moreover, there is evidence that light reading can serve as a conduit to heavier reading. It can help readers not only develop the linguistic competence for harder reading but can also develop an interest in books" (Krashen, 1993, p. 56). Armed with the academic literature, (Steinberg, 1992; Bruggeman, 1997; Gruber, 1983; Miller, 1982; Barker, 1993; Kranshen, 1993) I defended my belief that comics books can be beneficial to students' reading comprehension and speed and should remain in the collection. To date, I have read a good number of the comics, just to ensure that they are appropriate for a library setting. Not one parent or student has complained, although some female staff members still are not happy with their inclusion in the school's library collection. High School Reading Program 44 Chapter Summary and Preview of Chapter III Three major perspectives in educational theory were discussed in this chapter: behavioral, whole language/naturalist, and social constructivist. These perspectives reflect changes in instructional practices that have altered both reading strategies and school library practices. The traditional transmission behavioral perspective assumes an atomistic view of instruction, a building-upon-skills view of learning to read, a passive role for the student, and a view of school librarians as clerks. Whole language or naturalist perspective assumes an inquiry-based approach to instruction, with reading emphasizing immersion in "meaningful, whole literary events" (Asselin, 1995, p. 42). Students are actively involved in their own learning and teacher-librarians are seen as teaching partners in the inquiry process. Social constructivism emerged as a response to traditional, cognitive perspectives and the less structured naturalist perspective. Reading strategies are interactive, incorporating skills instruction with pleasure reading. Again students are actively involved in their learning, although few teacher-librarians have incorporated social constructivist instructional practices into their programs. The next chapter describes the methodology chosen for this study including description of the participants and setting, the data gathering procedures, and data analysis as well as a rationale for their selection and application. High School Reading Program 45 Chapter III: Research Methodology The preceding chapter presented a survey of educational theories and how they influenced reading practices and school library strategies alike. Also presented in the last chapter were various research studies, along with their inherent problems and assumptions, that were considered when designing this study. This chapter includes a description of the participants, the modified program, the methodology chosen for this study, data collection procedures, analysis procedures, as well as a rationale for their selection and application. Participants and Setting The participants for this study were drawn from a Grade 9-12 high school of approximately 1,450 students in a large urban district in western Canada. There is a large multicultural population at this school, including a high percentage of Iranians, East Indians, Chinese, Koreans, and a smaller number of Eastern Europeans. The school also has the highest number of special needs students in the district. Generally, the area is comprised of low to middle class income families. Academically, the school population achieves an average grade on provincial government exams. Teachers In late fall of 1999 I introduced the English Department to a reading program that had been successfully used in a few elementary and middle schools in our district. Four teachers High School Reading Program 46 expressed an interest in trying this program. For ease of administration I asked the two Transitional English (TRAN) teachers, one of whom also taught English 9, to join this study of the program. At that time I did not understand the different underlying philosophies between TRAN and English teachers The senior TRAN teacher was raised in Japan, while the intermediate TRAN / English 9 teacher originated from France. The other two English teachers, whose classes were not part of the official study, are Canadians. In the initial stages, I also did not suspect that differences in educational backgrounds would influence instructional practices. Recently graduated teachers educated in Canada, who would conceivably adhere to constructivist theories, obviously have a different orientation than those raised in more traditional, behavioral-type education systems like Japan and France. Only one Canadian English teacher was able to join us in the planning sessions that revised the original program used in the younger grades (please see Appendix B). All brought different perspectives to the conference table, with the TRAN teachers introducing a strong ESL slant to the modifications that were made to the original program. Most notable was their insistence that students not misuse their time, a point made in Gunderson's (1991) work on ESL literacy instruction. Several "checks" were put in place to ensure that participants did their readings, as well as their vocabulary lists, summary, and response writings on time. Students The participants of this study were drawn from one Grade 9 English class of 24 students, one TRAN 9/10 class of 18 students, and one TRAN 11/12 class of 24 students, making 66 students in total to officially take part in this study. Most English 9 students High School Reading Program 47 spoke English at home. Only four had English as a second language. There was also one special needs student in the class. TRAN 9/10 had a large percentage of Asians in the class (Chinese and Korean) along with three Eastern Europeans, four Iranians and one Pakistani. The senior TRAN class showed much the same composition, with a fairly even split between Chinese, Korean, and Iranian students. Teacher-Librarian Before I arrived at the school I had worked seven years in the School District at two schools, for six years as a teacher-librarian at a high school and then at an elementary school for one year as school librarian, among other positions. I was very new to my present high school in the fall of 1999 when I approached the English Department about initiating this program. Although only officially half time in the library, I spent my other half as a learning assistance instructor stationed in the library. I was uniquely positioned to assist teachers with this reading program, while my partner (department head and full-time teacher-librarian) carried on with classes that booked the library for inquiry based research activities. Being so new, I did not feel comfortable about imposing my point of view on strangers, especially with regards to the final presentation. Teachers could choose between a multi-media presentation of a book report placed on the library's web page or a traditional booktalk or both. All teachers opted for a traditional booktalk, as this reading assignment came just before the "speeches" unit. Teachers saw the booktalk as an excellent first step in preparing students to research, write, and present a speech. Since working with these individuals, I feel more comfortable about urging them to try the multi-media presentation, High School Reading Program 48 especially as more students presented assignments in this manner during the last few months of the 1999 - 2000 school year. The Modified Program for High School Students Shortly after the three TRAN and English teachers met with me, it became obvious that our modifications incorporated a considerable degree of structure controlling students' use of time. We differed from the original program in that we deleted the literature survey, the oral reading assessment, guided questions for conferencing, interest inventory, My Reading Wheel handout, and a booktalk planner as being too elementary for the high school level. We were left with: a description of the program; a reading log; a graphic organizer; a Guide to Response Writing; the Do's and Dont's of Booktalking; Booktalk Guidelines for Students; a Vocabulary Sheet; and a Guide for Marking Booktalks (please see Appendix C). We ensured that students had choice of selection (Krashen, 1993; Daniels, 1994; Hynds, 1997; Worthy, 1996b; Worthy, Mooreman & Turner, 1999), even though they were being forced to try new genres. Contrary to advice (Krashen, 1993; Worthy, et al.,1999), we overdid the writing component as teachers wanted a written assignment completed for each class. We included the graphic organizer with its summary writing component and minimum five sentence response writing assignment for each class we met. A few students, both TRAN and native English speakers, had difficulty with response writing. They kept telling the story, even though we had gone over the guide to response writing with its examples in class, and then when conferencing individually. Again, contrary to Krashem's (1993) advice, we included vocabulary sheets as a means by which to improve TRAN students' word bank, High School Reading Program 49 which TRAN students diligently filled out and most English 9 students ignored. There was no official discourse component as Alvermann, Dillion & O'Brien (1987), Beach & Hynds (1990), Daniels (1994), and McMahon, Raphael, Goatley, & Pardo (1997) recommended, mainly because it was difficult to organize with students reading different titles. I did attempt a modified form in my classes, with a 15 minute period at the end of the block. Student broke into groups of four and exchanged summaries. However they did not booktalk consistently and it was difficult for some TRAN students. After the first few occasions many students opted to keep reading. As it was set up the discourse component failed. Yet sharing did take place as titles were "swapped" between students. In future I shall give time for sharing. The discussion segment needs more structure and will incorporate a more constructivist approach. In hindsight, we designed a literature based reading program for Transitional Language students rather than a program for native speaking English 9 students. Following is the handout we developed together to outline the program for teachers. My School's Literature Reading Program Objectives: 1. To promote the reading of literature in English 9, TRAN (Transitional English) 9/10, and TRAN 11/12 classes by booking into the library with the Teacher-Librarian for 6 weeks, normally meeting twice a week. 2. To encourage reading in genres normally ignored by students. 3. To teach students how to fill in graphic organizers for the literature they will read, how to write summaries of plots, and how to write responses to their readings. High School Reading Program 50 4. To teach students to write or e-mail a business letter to their favourite author describing their reaction to his or her work (response writing). 5. To teach students to prepare and present a booktalk (public speaking) or prepare and present a multi-media review of their favourite reading for the school's web page (summary writing). 6. To foster an enjoyment of reading that goes beyond finishing class assignments. Time Required: Six weeks, starting in the second week in February and ending just before Spring Break. Expectations: Teacher and teacher-librarian to check for comprehension but not grammar or spelling in responses. Responsibilities Teacher and teacher-librarian to meet and discuss assignments as well as determine dates and length of time for this program Teacher introduces assignment with Teacher-Librarian and: - identifies those students in the class who would need to read Quick Reads, novels under 100 pages long; - teaches students summary & response writing; - helps class with selection of novels; - takes half the class, location to be deter mined by teacher; - responds to students' responses for the class; Teacher-Librarian introduces assignment with Teacher and: - gives class an orientation on searching for novels on the library computers; - helps class with selection of novels; - takes half the class in the library; - responds to response writing for half the other half of the class; High School Reading Program 51 - teaches students to write a business letter; - determines final project; - determines who will mark final assignment. - will book computer room for the needed days and helps students with searching on the net for e-authors' web pages, formatting and e-mailing responses; - can model and supply written instructions for booktalks; - can supply guide for marking booktalks & can assist with marking the assignments. Procedures 1. After an introduction in the classroom and a lesson on filling out graphic organizers and completing response writing, students are to report to the library during their next English Block. 2. Students will be given instruction on searching for literature on the library computers. 3. Students will search for and locate novels of their choice, but they must fall into the following categories: - biographies - mysteries - science fiction  fantasy - adventure stories - love stories/romance - Canadian fiction  historical fiction - sports fiction - animal stories - short story anthology - one non-fiction book - horror Or, a maximum of two from the following: - two web pages - two magazines - two comic books 4. Students are to select a different category each time they finish reading a book, magazine, or short story anthology. The idea is to have students read genres they don't normally select. We will put students on a weekly schedule, but it will depend upon the High School Reading Program 52 length of the books they choose. Thick books (over 150 pages) may take between 1 Vi and 2 weeks. 5. Students will fill in a graphic organizer detailing the summary in point form at the end of each book. They will also write a response on their reading for every class they conference with the teacher. The response is to be no shorter than 5 sentences and no longer than 10. They should come to each class with a completed response. Teachers will check students' write-ups for comprehension and initial their reading logs. 6. Wednesdays are generally left to the teacher's discretion, except for those weeks when students will need to type up their mid-term projects and do their final assignment. 7. Recommended is a midterm project, i.e., a letter or e-mail to the author, a newspaper or a publisher. I will book the computer lab for two blocks. Teachers will teach the business letter format. 8. At the end of the program students will complete a final project, i.e. prepare a write-up and booktalk their favourite title to the class OR prepare a write-up for the library's web page, place it on the web and then do a multi-media presentation to the class. The teacher-librarian will model the booktalk beforehand and give students a handout to follow. 9. Students will be given a questionnaire on the last day to determine if they enjoyed or were bored by the experience of reading literature in all the different genres. We agreed to try this program for six weeks, from the second week of February to the beginning of Spring Break in the third week of March, with classes presenting their booktalks after the break. Once we started it quickly became apparent that my initial idea, to have students select a book, record the number of pages, divide by 7 days, or if over 150 pages, by 14 days, to figure out how many pages they needed to read each night to finish their book in one or two weeks, was far too complicated. One TRAN teacher quickly had his students reading 20 pages a night. The number of pages then, became the way we kept track of reading. We could tell immediately if students were falling behind. It was also more fair, as competent, High School Reading Program 53 but reluctant readers were heading for the "thin books" rather than the longer, more complex literature in order to get one book read for the week without much effort. Those students who initially chose "thicker" titles no longer perceived themselves as being penalized. I found that many Grade 9s did not like response writing, graphic organizers, or vocabulary sheets. In fact, all the assignments that kept them on task and accountable. However, one aspect of the unit confused all students in the program and that was the numbers beside each line for recording their book titles in the reading log. In future I would eliminate the numbering of lines. Students should read approximately 15 to 20 pages per night (classroom teacher to set the number). Completion now will depend on the length of the book. One thing I noticed, with Grade 9s in particular, was that many tended to pick the so called "easy books" and consequently were "bored out of their skulls". I gave one boy The Song of Troy by Colleen McCullough. He loved it. Some students need to be challenged and there appear to be two ways this can be done: either through vocabulary or through the length of the book. If readers can't find words in the text they don't know, then they should be reading more complex books. This would work best with the TRAN students who have a graded system for ESL titles. They simply move on to the next level. With native speakers perhaps it is as simple as asking them to read "thicker" books. We need to encourage students to read titles with more complex characterizations and descriptive passages. By using a set number of pages per day, readers could take on a large volume without feeling intimidated or rushed. High School Reading Program 54 I should also note that the TRAN 11/12 class wrote an essay on one of the books they read while they continued with their reading, their summaries, response writings, and vocabulary lists. The TRAN 11/12 teacher had introduced literary terms to students and had them analyze their favourite novel in a six page, double spaced essay. These students were hard pressed to keep up with the work load, as can be seen from their comments in the next chapter. We met every second day except during a two week period we had one week when classes met three times. Wednesdays became the day for the teacher's use, except when we needed that class time for the letter to the author, or for preparing the booktalk. Data Gathering Procedures The methodology chosen for this study is quasi-experimental, which is "an approach to research in which the logic underlying the traditional laboratory experiment is adapted for use in a field setting (e.g., evaluation research) where, unlike in the lab, the researcher does not have complete control over all aspects of the situation" (Palys, 1997, p. 423). Mine is a very simple study: to investigate if high school students would respond to a formal reading program incorporated into their course work. The "yes" and "no" questions were easy to deal with in a quantitative manner whereas questions requiring comments needed to be coded using a qualitative approach. High School Reading Program 55 Reading Enjoyment and Preferences I examined students' preferences regarding this program with a questionnaire that was administered at the end of the six week program (please see Appendix D). Participants were asked if they liked or disliked the program, what specifically they liked about it, what they disliked, and what they would change if they were in charge. I also asked them what genre they preferred to read and whether they would voluntarily read newly discovered genres once this program was completed. Finally, I asked them to list the new genres they enjoyed during the course of this program. Administration I administered the questionnaire to each class, explaining the purpose and the procedures. Students were assured that their individual surveys would be kept confidential but that their teachers would be provided with summary information about their views and preferences. More importantly, students were informed that they did not have to fill out the questionnaire and that there would be no negative impact on their grades for this unit. Only 3 students in the English 9 class declined to fill out the questionnaire, 12 were absent from the three classes when the questionnaire was administered, with 57 students completing the form. Data Analysis Student Subgroup Comparisons The information from the questionnaire was analyzed by subgroup (e.g., for each class). Questions 1 and 6 were straight yes or no answers. The first class to which I High School Reading Program 56 administered the questionnaire wanted to know if they could use the "maybe" category. I agreed and made sure that all other classes were notified of that option. That first class did not use that option, but the others certainly did. I next coded the responses for questions 2 through 5 and question 7, computed totals and percentages for each question, ranked each item by popularity, and then compared results. I did not separate male from female views on pleasure reading because I had found in the past that both sexes were equally adamant about their dislike of reading. I wanted to test a classroom's response to the program. Distinguishing male from female responses is another study in itself and outside the intent of this study. Whole-group Analysis After analyzing the information from the subgroups I combined the results from all 57 students who filled out the questionnaire and took percentages of the results. Analysis of Teachers' responses Two teachers in the program partially filled out the questionnaire as well (please see Appendix E). On the whole their comments are positive. Unfortunately, the senior TRAN teacher did not submit her comments, even after repeated requests. I am not sure why that happened. Perhaps it was the program itself, or perhaps it was my management of her class in the library. When I observed students in the TRAN classrooms, they were spaced throughout the room unable to communicate with their neighbours. Unfortunately, the library is not organized in a way that would allow me to adopt that approach. We have an L-shaped area in High School Reading Program 57 the stacks, which prevents me from observing all students at the same time. The library was also booked with other classes doing assignments. Friends liked to visit the students in the program and on two occasions I had to asked one persistent young man to leave the library. Given the TRAN teachers insistence on students being task oriented for the whole 75 minutes, I could very well have turned this TRAN teacher "off the program because of the situation in the library and/or my management skills. Chapter Summary and Preview of Chapter IV This chapter includes a description of the setting, the participants, and the modified program designed by three teachers and myself, plus a rationale for incorporating specific changes. I described the methodology chosen, discussed the data gathering procedures, and emphasized the coding aspects of anecdotal comments made by students in questions 2 through 5 and question 7, as well as the quantitative nature of questions 1 and 6. In the next chapter I shall detail at length the results of the questionnaire. High School Reading Program 58 Chapter IV: Results In the previous chapter, I delineated the setting, the participants, the modified program, and reasons for incorporating specific changes. I also described the methodology chosen, discussed the data gathering procedures, and related the analysis procedures. In this chapter I shall present the findings from all seven questions on the questionnaire, describe the findings from each class separately, and then combine most results in order to ascertain the views of the majority to determine the advisability of promoting a reading program to high school students. Research Question One: Did you enjoy this program? I wanted to know if a formal program like this study was acceptable to a majority of students who took these classes. At the onset I asked for a "yes" or "no" answer. Participants in the first class surveyed asked for the "maybe" option. Students in all classes were then appraised of that option at the time the questionnaire was distributed. English 9 Response All students in this English 9 class of 26 gave permission to take part in this study which tested the validity of my research question: Can a concentrated, six week reading program improve high school students' comprehension, spelling, and writing, and introduce them to new genres, without turning them away from the pleasures of reading? On the day of High School Reading Program 59 the questionnaire, 7 students were absent, many on a field trip of which I had no advance knowledge. A few were absent on account of illness. Since participants were allowed to exercise the option, 3 students decided not to complete the form. Chart A. 1 shows the composition of the class that day. Twelve students, or 39 % of the class, did not participate. Chart A. 2 gives the percentage figures for the number of students who actually filled out the form. Table 1 English 9 Responses: Did vou enjoy this program? # of students in class: 26 Absent: 7 Declined: 3 # who filled in form: Responded with a yes: Responded with a no: 16 9 6 Responded with a maybe Composition of English 9 class on day of questionnaire Declined 12% No 23% Absent 27% Maybe Yes 34% 4% Chart A. 1 High School Reading Program 60 English 9 Responses Maybe 6% No jjflk 38% • ) Yes J 56% Chart A. 2 Of the 16 who cooperated, 56 % said yes, 38 % said no, and 6 % said maybe. I assume that the 12% who declined to cooperate were also in the "no" camp, which alter the figures. When I add these three students to the equation our figures change as follows: English 9: Did you enjoy this program? Declined Yes 47% Chart A. 3 The "yes" response drops to 47%, with a qualified 5% saying "maybe", and the "no" vote at 48%. As the class was onto a new unit the following day I could not take up more class time with this questionnaire. I realize that a sample of 16 teenagers is a low number by which to gage the majority opinion of Grade 9 students towards this program. The ratio: 47 High School Reading Program 61 % in favour, with a partial affirmative from 5 %, to 48% saying nay, is low when compared to the results from the TRAN classes. I believe, even with the design flaws previously mentioned, that these statistics are a fairly accurate reflection of English 9 views. To use Hynds's (1990) term, the literacy problem is to a great extent one of "aliteracy" as well as illiteracy. I am not surprised at the high levels of "no" from this grade level or this class. TRAN 9/10 Response This group was highly unusual. There were 17 students in total, all of whom gave permission to be in the study. On the day the questionnaire was administered, 3 students, or 18 % of the class, were absent. Fourteen students, or 82 % of the class, completed the form (see Chart A. 4). No one said they "did not like it" and no one said "maybe", even though they were told of the "maybe" option at the onset of the class. All 14 students who were in the class that day responded with a "yes". This is not typical. It may be that students were pleased to do something other than their regular routine or perhaps saw it as a holiday, a way to get out of homework. Comments from Question Two will shed more light on this unanticipated finding. Table 2 TRAN 9/10 Responses: Did you enjoy this program? # in class: Absent: Declined: 17 3 0 18% Responded with a yes: 14 Responded with a no: 0 Responded with a maybe :0 100% High School Reading Program 62 Composition of TRAN 9/10 class on day of questionnaire Absent 18% No 0% A Yes 82% Chart A. 4 The finding from this class, however, did not repeat itself with the advanced level TRAN 11/12 class. TRAN 11/12 Response Twenty-four students gave permission to be a part of this study and only 2, or 8 % of the class, were absent on the day the questionnaire was administered (see Chart A. 5). With 22 students remaining: 10 responded with a "yes"; 9 said "maybe"; and 3 said "no". Again, an unusual response. The large number of "maybes" may be due to the fact that students wrote a six page essay while working through this unit. Many felt stressed, as will be seen from the comments for Questions Three and Four. The fact that only 3 students, 13%, said "no" is remarkable and says a lot for the maturity of these teenagers. Table 3 TRAN 11 / 12 Responses: Did you enjoy this program? # of students in class: 24 Absent: 2 Declined: 0 8% Responded with a yes: Responded with a no: Responded with a maybe: 10 3 9 45% 14% 41% High School Reading Program 63 Composition of TRAN 11/12 class on day of questionnaire Absent 8% Maybe 38% (D Yes 41% No 13% Chart A. 5 One interesting aspect of this study is the definition of the word "maybe". Obviously it is not quite a "no", yet it does not give an overwhelming endorsement of the program as it is now designed. A ratio of 3.1 for "yes", to 3 for "maybe", to 1 for "no" indicates to me that this program could be a valuable tool in helping ESL students acquire fluency in English literacy. Chart A. 6 shows the breakdown from the 92 % of the class who filled out the questionnaire: Chart A. 6 With 45 % in favour and with 41 % almost endorsing the program, I believe there is room to feel encouraged about promoting this strategy to other TRAN classes in the district. TRAN 11/12 Responses No 14% High School Reading Program 64 Combined Responses From All Three Classes I do not believe that there is much advantage to combining TRAN responses with English 9 results. I feel it's like combining apples and oranges but for what it is worth, Table 4 delineates the combined statistics: Table 4 Combined Responses: Did you enjoy this program? total # of students: 52 responded with a yes: 33 64% absent: 12 18% responded with a no: 9 17% declined: 3 4% responded with a maybe: 10 19% Combined Responses: Did you enjoy this program? Maybe 19% Chart A. 7 Twenty-two percent, or 15 students, were not available to complete the questions. Fifty-two individuals did, with: 33, or 64 %, saying "yes"; 10, or 19 %, saying "maybe"; and 9, or 17 %, saying "no". I think it is more valuable to look at TRAN results separate from English 9 responses. Table 5 High School Reading Program 65 Combined TRAN Responses: Did you enjoy this program? # of students in both TRAN classes: 41 Responded with a yes: 24 67% Absent: 10 Responded with a no: 3 8% Declined: 0 Responded with a maybe:9 25% Combined TRAN results Maybe Chart A. 8 I believe the TRAN students at least have given this program a strong endorsement. As Linda Gajdusek (1988) pointed out, literary texts are not often used in ESL classrooms, even though they bring to ESL students cross-cultural awareness, context and contextualization, schema theory, and discourse analysis (p. 227). This was the first time TRAN students had read literature in class, albeit with graded literary texts, and the novelty may have impressed them. It appears at first sight that a reading program can be used effectively at the high school level for TRAN or ESL students. However results from Question Two: What did you like about this program? may give a more accurate impression of TRAN opinions. High School Reading Program 66 Teachers Comments The teacher who taught both English 9 and TRAN 9/10 thought this program had a great first run (please see Appendix E). The other English 9 teacher, whose class was not in the study, also responded in the affirmative. In the following sections I shall detail comments students made about the program. Research Question Two: What did you like about this program? In an attempt to clarify students' opinions about Question One, I asked the three classes to itemize those aspects of the program that appealed to them particularly. For this question I took all the comments and coded them by category (see Appendix F). English 9 Response I was pleased with the number of "positive" divisions that surfaced from the survey. The categories that emerged from the English 9 class are as follows: Table 6 English 9 Response: What did you like about this program? Categories # Responses Categories # Responses choice time to read consist homewk. felt encour. to read likes reading no reg. classes started to like reading 4 4 17.4% 17.3% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% easy work independently different genres forced to read no analyzing reading improves mks, liked set # pages 4 2 17.3% 8% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% High School Reading Program 67 Chart F.l (see Appendix F) shows the percentage breakdowns. Combining categories: able to read; felt encouraged to read; likes reading; started to like reading; different genres; and forced to read, 9 students, 73.3 %, mentioned they liked the idea of reading literature or had started to like it (Krashen, 1993; Daniels, 1994; Davidson & Koppenhaver, 1993; Worthy, 1996a; 19998; Worthy, Moorman & Turner, 1999; Grimes, 1991; McMahon et al, 1997). One student mentioned: "I liked this program because it gave me a chance and a reason to read. Because I usually don't have enough time, now I was able to". It surprised me that one student liked the fact that he or she was forced to read, as I had not anticipated that type of reaction. This individual wrote: "I liked how we had to read. Now that the program is over I feel I was more encouraged to read. And I will continue to!" Four teenagers, or 17.4 % of the class, appreciated the fact that they could choose their own reading material (Krashen, 1993) while 1 student, or 4%, felt relief at not having to analyze the text (Krashen, 1993). "I got to work independently and that everyone wasn't reading the same book. I also liked that I didn't have to analyze the books I read and I got to choose my own books." One student realized that reading literature would help improve marks and only one person felt that reading different genres was important enough to mention. Four individuals found the unit easy while only one enjoyed the escape from regular class work. Some of these five individuals then, 21.3 % or lA of the class, liked this program because they may have been able to "slack off, even with our controls in place. Transitional English 9/10 students however, have a slightly different perspective on the reading program. High School Reading Program 68 TRAN 9 / 10 Response Chart F. 2 (see Appendix F) shows the percentage breakdowns. This class is about the same age as the English 9 group and that same level of maturity comes across with 2 individuals, or 9 %, recording that they enjoyed not going to regular class, while only 1 student, 5 %, indicated that this was an easy unit. The difference with this group is that most realize they must improve their English comprehension. The "survival element" gives them a different perspective from regular Grade 9 students, hence categories like "improves reading" or "improves English" show up. Table 7 TRAN 9/10 Response: What did you like about this program? Categories # Responses Categories # Responses choice time to read likes writing no reg. classes 1 5% 2 9% 2 9% 2 9% started to like reading 1 5% easy different genres likes reading improves read./Eng. read with others 1 5% 3 13.5% 6 26% 3 13.5% 1 5% Combining statistics from the following categories: able to read; started to like reading; different genres; and likes reading, I found that 12 individuals, 53.5 %, liked to read, while only 1, that is 5 %, considered choice as important, and 3 students, 13.5 % liked the idea of reading different genres. " I can say that it makes you learn a lots of story even you don't like reading an you suporse [sic] to." One individual mentioned that they liked to read with others, a slight deviation from the English 9 class where two students indicated they liked to work independently. Three students, or 13.5% of the class, realized that this program helped High School Reading Program 69 improve their English understanding. That comment indicates to me that students may not have overwhelmingly endorsed this reading program, they nonetheless realized that it helped them. "I can read a lot which I never do". Considering 100 % of the class indicated they liked the program, I think we get a truer picture of this group's likes and dislikes when we look at the combined categories with its 53.5% figure to indicate who actually likes reading. The advanced TRAN class however had a different profile. TRAN 11/12 Response Advanced TRAN students are more articulate in their likes. Chart F. 3 (see Appendix F) gives the percentage breakdowns for this group. Table 8 TRAN 11/12 Response: What did you like about this program? Categories # Responses Categories # Responses choice 2 6% time to read 3 9% likes writing 1 3% no reg. classes 1 3% vocab. building 5 15% modeled book talk 1 3% read in library 1 3% forced to read 4 12% different genres 6 19% likes reading 2 6% improves read./Eng. 3 9% help from teacher 1 3% sharing 2 6% started to like reading 1 3% Combining the following categories: able to read; forced to read; different genres; likes reading; started to like reading, I found that 15 students, or 49 % of the class, indicated that they liked reading literature. Eight, or 24%, realized that reading improves their English and vocabulary. Only 2 teenagers, 6 %, saw the element of choice in selecting reading material as significant and 5, or 19%, indicated that reading different genres was a new and enjoyable High School Reading Program 70 experience for them. "It was fun to read different kinds of books, and since I don't like to read anything, it's a good way to make me read and learn something from it". A note of interest: 2 students indicated that they liked sharing. "I like this program about we could have the chance to read the book what we liked, and we could share to everyone what's the knowledge in the book! That's a great chance to practice". These students obviously felt the need to discuss their readings and appreciated the small discourse segment that I incorporated into my part of the program. This was a more mature group, many were close to graduation, which made them appreciate any effort that improved their English skills, witness the 5, or 15 %, who mentioned vocabulary building, or the 3, or 9 %, who indicated the program improved their reading and/or their English. However, I think it more realistic if I look at the combined figures to see what this age group really thinks of a reading program. Combined Responses From All Three Classes The following chart indicates the response categories for the 52 students in the three classes who completed the questionnaire. When I combined categories: likes reading; able to read; forced to read; encouraged to read; and started to like reading, 33 % of high school teens actually expressed the opinion that they liked the idea of reading literature. If I add to the above the following categories: choose books; and different genres, then positive opinions not overtly expressed, can be included in the total. Twenty-two percent can be added to the above figures, making a total of 55 %, who liked reading, which is not the same as liking this program. Chart F. 4 (see Appendix F) gives the percentage breakdowns. High School Reading Program 71 Table 9 Combined Responses: What did you like about this program? Categories # Responses Categories # Responses choice 7 9% forced to read 5 6% time to read 9 11% different genres 10 13% likes writing 4 5% likes reading 9 11% no reg. classes 4 5% improves read./Eng. 5 6% vocab. building 5 6% help from teacher 1 1% modeled book talk 1 1% sharing 2 4% read with others 2 3% started to like reading 3 4% easy 5 6% liked set # of pages 1 1% no analyzing 1 1% work independently 2 3% consistent homework 1 1% encouraged to read 1 1% improves marks 1 1% Compared to 64 % who said they liked the reading program in Question One, I believe 55 % percent may be a more accurate reflection of high school students' views. One important figure to take note of was the 6% who felt that being forced to read was a positive aspect to this program. Comments reveal these small victories, participants who started to enjoy reading for its own sake. I suspect that many students cannot fit leisure reading into their schedules otherwise. Teachers' Comments Both teachers had some positive comments to make about the program. One mentioned that: • many students (re)connected with the world of books (rather than TV or computers) in a "low-demand", non-threatening way; • even weak students are given an opportunity to shine; High School Reading Program 72 • opportunity to explore a range of reading material; • opportunity to learn true significance of the terms "Plot", "Character", "Setting", "Point of View" & "Theme"; • development of a more profound level of response over the duration of the program; • occasion to learn formal letter writing skills. The other English 9 teacher was pleased at: • the amount of reading students did; • having the class split in two - providing the opportunity to have daily one-to-one conversations with each student; • some students moved to more challenging literature during the program (see Appendix E). Teachers' findings parallel to a large extend the results from the Literature Circles program (Daniels, 1994) and The Book Club program (McMahon, Raphael, Goatley, & Prado, 1997), in particular: a more profound level of response; the amount of reading; and more challenging reading. Research Question Three: What did you dislike about the program? I asked the students to be very honest and they were. I wanted to discover which aspects had annoyed them particularly. Some comments surprised me because I had not High School Reading Program 73 anticipated that the length of classes and the strict rules to have been a problem for the Grade 9 students. Appendix G details their comments along with my coding of their responses. English 9 Response Chart G. 1 ( see Appendix G) gives the percentage breakdowns. The following are the categories that emerged from students' comments: Table 10 English 9 Responses: What did you dislike about this program? Comments # Responses Comments # Responses can't repeat genre 4 18.3% writing component 4 18.3% introduction 1 5% amt of reading each nt 3 14% strict rules 2 10% 75 minute classes 4 18.3% booktalk 1 5% vocab sheets 1 5% all of it  5% Length of classes, response writing, and not being allowed to repeat preferred genres proved irksome for 18.3 % of this class. As one individual put it: " That we had to read sooo [sic] many pages at a time and we aeren't [sic] suppose to do the same genre twice". Grade 9s may indeed find sitting still for 75 minutes too difficult. "I think that it was way too long to read in class. I don't read often and I find it hard to read for an hour without stopping and staying on task". They are young enough to still need that time broken up with different educational strategies. Three students in this class did not appreciate writing responses, that is, constructing five sentences on how they felt about their reading. Keeping in mind Krashen's views about no writing (1993), we deliberately kept the number of sentences to a High School Reading Program 74 minimum as we did not want the written component to be obtrusive, although we did want students to think and write about what they were reading (Daniels, 1994; McMahon, [et al.], 1999). Obviously writing, for whatever reasons, was an activity that 3 students in this class did not like. It may be because they had not done their readings or they may fit Beers' (1996b) dormant aliterate profile, those teens who do not like writing book reports. One student did not care for the graphic organizer, a form that was filled out at the end of the book, listing characters, setting, place, and brief plot line. Its completion was not to take more than five minutes and it was not a difficult assignment if one had done the reading. Not repeating a favourite genre was another complaint for 4 students in the class. "I disliked how I would be made to read other genres simply because I had no interest in them & I would find it tiring & a chore to read such books". In truth, I did not give participants complete free choice and these students did not care for that restriction. The amount of reading students had to complete each night annoyed 3, or 14 % of the class, and 2 students, 10%, objected to the strict rules, that is, no talking while they were reading. "I don't like how you had to read so much in an hour. I found it boring. I think it beter [sic] if you sorizlized [sic] about your book". At this age level I expect some students to object to homework or rules, yet the comment regarding "sorizlizing" about a book strikes home, as we did not heed researchers and neglected to include time for discussion. Various students, 1%, of the class, did not care for the instructions in the introduction, filling in vocabulary sheets, presenting a booktalk, or all of it, in one instance. I admit that the introduction was lengthy, but we tried with handouts and charting the information on the overhead to give students a clear overview of the program. Unfortunately, our instructions were not clear enough for one student at least. High School Reading Program 75 TRAN 9 / 10 Response One exceptional individual reported that this program was okay the way it was. Appendix G details students' comments along with my coding. Chart G. 2 (see Appendix G) gives the percentage breakdowns. Table 11 TRAN 9/10 Responses: What did you dislike about this program? Comments # Responses Comments # Responses booktalks 3 17% instructions 2 12% amount of reading 2 12% long stories 1 6% writing 4 23% too much work 2 12% vocab sheets 2 12% program okay 1 6% The most annoying aspect of this program for the TRAN 9/10 class was the response writing. "I don't like the part where we had to write vocabulary words and I also didn't like the daily response". As this was a beginning to intermediate transitional English group their dislike becomes understandable. Yet only 4 students, or 23 %, complained about the written component. I realize it was hard for them to express their opinions in a foreign language, yet it is important that they do so. Booktalks terrorized 3, or 17%, of the class. "I didn't like pressation [sic]". Again, it was very hard for this group to describe in front of the class the plot of a novel in a foreign language. I am impressed that only 3 objected. The amount of reading required each evening, filling in vocabulary sheets, the perceived lack of clear instructions, and too much work concerned 12 % of this class. "Although, this reading program was developed with very thoughful[sic] and careful consideration in enjoyable way there were few things I disliked. There was a bit too much work. The system wasn't clearly High School Reading Program 76 explained that made ESL students confused. The reading program was quite complicated". One student found the stories from the modified literature for ESL students too long for his or her comprehension. I probably need to purchase more level 1 stories for the library. With this group, the written component was most disliked, with 4 students, VA of the class, complaining about it. As there was a group of boys in this class who did not like any work at all, perhaps these comments originate from them. If the number were higher I would seriously consider altering the program. The TRAN 11/12 students however, were faced with quite a challenge. Their comments about the written segment of the program must be taken seriously. TRAN 11/12 Response One student reported this program was okay, "no thing, it was a [sic] enjoyable program", while 3 individuals, or 11 % of the class, left this question blank. An endorsement from a class that was overworked? Appendix G details students' comments along with my coding. Chart G. 3 (see Appendix G) gives the percentage breakdowns. Table 12 TRAN 11/12 Responses: What did you dislike about this program? Comments # Responses Comments # Responses boring booktalks too much work too long all of it vocab sheets 2 7% 7 25% 3 11% 1 4% 1 4% writing 5 19% not enough time3 11% left blank 3 11% poor selection 1 4% program okay 1 4% High School Reading Program 77 Seven students, 25% of the class, complained of too much work. They had a lot to do with a six page essay on top of all their readings, responses, and graphic organizers amd vocabulary sheets. "I had to record every vocabs that I don't know. Because I had more than 50 vocabs that I didn't know. But still I had to record every vocabs. That gave me a lot of works [sic]". Three students, or 11 %, stated their dissatisfaction another way, commenting that there was not enough time for all they had to do, bringing the total for that category up to 10 students, or 36%. "I dislike the program as there aren't enough time for us to read more and understand more about the book". They were pushed. Being an advanced transitional English group, their teacher felt comfortable about the workload and did not inform me of her intent to have the class write an essay. When I looked at the figures for the writing component, 5 students, 19 %, disliked it. Three objected to the responses, one to the graphic organizer, and only one to the essay. "It was too much work afterwards. I will want to just read it and not do the graphic organizer or the journal. And maybe we can have a little quiz or something to prove what we have learned." The concept of reading for pleasure is missing here. It would appear then that most in the class saw the value of the essay and the graphic organizer. Since response writing was new for these young people, it could be that three individuals found this assignment difficult or they felt particularly stressed with doing responses, summaries and vocabulary lists at the same time as they wrote an essay. Two students, 7%, talked about boring booktalks. They obviously did not appreciate the efforts their classmates had undertook to present a story for them in a foreign language. These two did not complain about doing booktalks per se, but that they were boring to listen to. Three in the class, 11%, felt the program was too long, "we took to [sic] LONG to finish up". In High School Reading Program 78 all honesty their unit did drag on after the spring break. They had a valid complaint. Four percent of the class complained about: vocabulary sheets; poor selection; and all of it. Poor selection is one complaint I feel compelled to heed. Many in this group were starting to read literature in the regular collection. To acquire quality novels at the 100 to 150 page range is difficult. I shall need time to locate and order more material at this level. In all, I am astonished that 4 students, or 15% of the class, gave this program a positive endorsement, especially in this question. It reflected well on their maturity level and their perseverance to do whatever it takes to learn another language. Combined Responses From All Three Classes Although included for the purpose of consistency, I do not feel comfortable with combining the responses for this question, as the essay TRAN 11/12 students wrote skewed the results abnormally. Appendix G details students' comments along with my coding. Chart G. 4 (see Appendix G) gives the percentage breakdowns. Table 13 Combined Responses: What did you dislike about this program? Comments # Responses Comments # Responses booktalks 4 6% writing 13 20% too much work 9 14% not enough time 3 5% boring booktalks 2 3% left blank 3 5% all of it 2 3% poor selection 1 2% vocab sheets 4 6% program okay 2 3% genres 4 6% reading hmwk 4 6% 75 min reading 4 6% too strict 2 3% instructions not clear 4 6% prog, too long 3 5% long stories 1 2% page require. 1 2% High School Reading Program 79 The difference in age and maturity levels between the classes also makes the combined figures suspect. The dislikes of each class must stand on their own terms without reference to other groups for they clearly reflect the culture of that class. The dislikes of each classroom culture have validity and will be treated differently when I come to propose changes to the program in Chapter Five. Teachers' Comments Both individuals commented on the external factors that interfered with the program and housekeeping details: • "Need to "juggle" other curriculum.. .but at Grade 9 level, I believe it worth the trouble!!"; • Too much "paper chase" & "keeping track" instead of "promised" interaction with students on a one-to-one basis. Perhaps unavoidable but.. .see below (refers to section: What would you change if you were in charge); • School environment constraints were a reality and proved detrimental to the program: a) too many school-wide interruptions that disrupted reading days; b) our school organization - only meeting every other day prevented the program from developing momentum; • Some students did not move to more challenging literature (see Appendix E). This is a complicated unit and their points are pertinent if I am to improve the overall efficiency of the program. High School Reading Program 80 Research Question Four: What would you change if you were in charge? Many individuals can be critical, but few can offer suggestions to improve a situation. Question Four was my attempt to get past criticism for its own sake. Some students gave thoughtful, in-depth comments about the changes they would implement. Appendix F details students' comments along with my coding. English 9 Response Chart H. 1 (see Appendix H) gives the percentage breakdowns. Two aspects of the program jump out immediately: genres and writing. The categories that came from Question 4 are as follows: Table 14 English 9 Responses: What would you do if you were in charge? Comments # Responses Comments # Responses no writing 2 11% alternative to writing 1 5% clearer instructions 1 5% more choice genres 4 21% limit # of books 1 5% no booktalks 1 5% 1 response per book 3 16% book discussion 1 5% no vocabulary 2 11% less strict 2 11% no read, every day 1 5% left blank 1 Four students, or 21% percent of the class, clearly wanted more choice when it came to choosing their reading material. One young person suggested: I would let students choose 4-6 different genres, so that they could: a) read 6 different books, in 6 different genres b) read 6 different books, repeating 1 genre once c) read 6 different books, repeating 2 genres once. High School Reading Program 81 This is an intriguing suggestion that allows participants to read in their comfort zone more frequently, yet if does not stretch them to read beyond their levels. Three individuals also wanted to limit the number of responses per book to one. "I would change the response notes. I would have them do one every time you finish a book". Two students wanted nothing to do with responses, graphic organizers, or vocabulary sheets. One individual put it succinctly: "I wouldn't give out vocabulary sheets. They were a waste of time I found. They didn't help me with my vocab. much". And two young people asked that we be less strict. Five percent of the class asked for: an alternative to writing; clearer instructions; a limit to the number of books read; no booktalks, no reading homework every day, and a book discussion. Two suggestions intrigued me. I had not thought to include at this grade level an alternative to writing: "I might do other things than just writing to respond, eg. pictures, etc". Perhaps a poster could be included once as an alternative to written responses. The other suggestion was the inclusion of a book discussion: "I would probably not change anything except the talking. I would perhaps have a book discution [sic] with a few students". As researchers have pointed out "some educators believe that the ability to enrich and refine knowledge gained from reading text depends on opportunities for hearing the information discussed from others' points of view" (Alvermann, Dillon, & O'Brien, 1987, p. 9). One person at least felt that discussion would be a positive benefit. The profile that emerges of this English 9 class appears to be a mixture of Krashen's "hands- off, whole language strategy, with the more controlled, social constructivist approach advocated by Strictland (cited in Au, Carroll, & Scheu, 1997) in which "students are given the chance to learn through both direct and indirect instruction" (p. 11). Whole High School Reading Program 82 language advocates are a little less than half in this class (8 students, or 43%, composed of categories: no writing; less strict; no vocabulary; no reading every day; no booktalks) while the majority seem to favour Hynds' findings that "the element of choice meant more personal power ... in dealing with otherwise unmotivated students" (p. 225). For English as a first language students, this program is probably too restrictive as it is now designed. TRAN 9 / 10 Response Like the English 9 class, no responses seems to be the major request from this class. Appendix H details students' comments along with my coding. Chart H. 2 (see Appendix H) gives the percentage breakdowns. Table 15 TRAN 9/10 Responses: What would you do if you were in charge? Comments # Responses Comments # Responses don't split class 2 13% longer program 2 13% more time 1 6% no book talk 2 13% no letter 2 13% no responses 4 24% no vocab sheets 1 6% Teacher eye contact 1 6% 1 response per book 1 6% left blank 2 Four students, 24% of the class, want nothing to do with response writing. As one person put it: "I would cancel the_5 sentences." Yet no one complained about the graphic organizer. Is it because response writing is new and therefore difficult, even with handouts and conferencing with teachers to help them? Is it because connecting with the text is too difficult to put into words? Is it because the modified text for ESL students has little that is familiar for them to connect with? Or, is it because these four students do not like the work High School Reading Program 83 involved? Perhaps the answer is not a simple one, but a combination of all the above mentioned concerns. This group needs to write and complete vocabulary sheets. Unlike their English 9 counterparts, the amount of response writing should not be decreased as it provides opportunities to experiment with language-in-use (MaMahon, [et al.], 1997). Various students mentioned on two separate occasions that they wanted: a longer program; no booktalks, no letter to the author; and a undivided class. Another six percent wanted: more time, no vocabulary sheets, one response per book; and the teacher to make eye contact when conferencing. Some suggestions indicate the youth of this group, i.e., staying together, or requesting the elimination of assignments that keep them accountable. Concerns about response writing show that more instruction, modeling, and discussion may be in order. TRAN 11/12 Response Again one can see almost immediately that the advanced transitional English class is more articulate in their comments. Appendix H details students' comments along with my coding. Chart H. 3 (see Appendix H) gives the percentage breakdowns. Following are the comments advanced transitional English students articulated: Table 16 TRAN 11/12 Responses: What would you do if you were in charge? Comments # Responses Comments # Responses writing component discussions less structure 3 4 2 11% 15% 7% no genres more time to read miscellaneous: 2 7% 7 26% 9 34% able to do other homework able to choose easy books 1 High School Reading Program 84 Table 16 (Continued) better selection 1 learn more vocabulary and grammar 1 longer program 1 more funshorter program 1 teacher to model assignments 1 more booktalks 1 The stress the group obviously felt while working though this unit comes through with 7 students, 26% of the class, asking for more time to complete readings. "More time for this program. Then I think we can do one book together and then do some assignment [sic] together that show's him how to do it, then after finish one ask them to do the other book alone". One participant evidently felt unsure as to what was expected. Four students suggested that discussions be part of this program as Alvermann, Dillon, & O'Brien (1987), Hynds, (1997), and McMahon, [et al.], (1997) proposed. "If I were in charge, I wouldn't write the journal everyday. I will talk about the book after finish read one book". Only three students suggest that response writing and graphic organizers be eliminated. Two students wanted to eliminate the genre restrictions and two others suggest a less structured approach to the unit. The composition of this class is interesting, three students opted for a tougher, longer unit, while four others wanted more freedom and ease. Are we seeing a "culture clash" between Asian and Iranian students? Or, does this senior level classroom house reluctant readers? The miscellaneous category makes up 34 % of this group's suggestions. I see the more pertinent aspects of this list as being better selection for readers to choose from, and teachers to model assignments. Good suggestions to implement. However, how do I implement this cry from the heart: "I would like to do something more.. .fun"? High School Reading Program 85 Combined Response From All Three Classes Clearly, the different experience TRAN 11/12 students underwent colours the findings that we see. Appendix H details students' comments along with my coding. Chart H. 4 (see Appendix H) gives the percentage breakdowns. Table 17 Combined Responses: What would you do if you were in charge? Comments # Responses Comments # Responses no responses 5 8% fewer responses 4 7% alternative to respon. 2 3% no writing 4 7% more choice - genres 5 8% include discussions 5 8% less structure 3 5% longer program 3 5% no booktalks 3 5% don't split class 2 3% more time 8 13% miscellaneous: 14 23% no vocabulary sheets 3 5% able to do other homework 1 able to choose easy books better selection learn more vocabulary and grammar longer program more fun shorter program teacher to model assignments. more booktalks don't force students to read eliminate reading every day include more web pages in choice clearer instructions no genres read 6 books only shorter program teacher to use eye contact Eight students in total wanted more time, but as 7 were from the TRAN 11/12 class, I understand their concerns. Eight percent wanted: more choice when it comes to selecting readings; inclusion of discussions in the program; and elimination of response writing. I am convinced that more freedom of genre choice and inclusion of formal discussions would benefit the program, educationally speaking, as well as clarify and enhance students' opinions High School Reading Program 86 of their readings, in hopes of leading them to a more benign view of response writing (Alvermann, Dillon, & O'Brien, 1987; Hynds, 1997; McMahon, [et al.], 1997). Three students want to: eliminate booktalks and vocabulary sheets completely, ensure a longer program, or design a less restrictive program. Teachers' Comments Teachers were more concerned with housekeeping details. Comments included: • I would personally prefer to offer this earlier in the school year - allows revisiting terminology in a more academic manner; • Develop an improved record-keeping system for the teacher (especially made for the program; • Students better informer re. day-to-day responsibilities & expectations/criteria for assignments/evaluation, i.e. more compact format. Students often will not read, let alone re-read lengthy hand-outs (see Appendix E). These comments need to be taken seriously when redesigning the program for high school students. Research Question Five: What genre do you normally like to read? I asked this question because I wanted to know what genres I should concentrate on when purchasing new material. This was one way to gain an understanding of the particular culture of Riverside in terms of reading material, although I realize that I sampled only a small number of students in the school. Several years ago, as a Teacher-on-Call in another High School Reading Program 87 neighbouring District, I had the opportunity to see this "reading" culture at work when I substituted in all the high school libraries in that district. One high school's library collection consisted mainly of science fiction titles. Apparently that was the only genre most students would read. Other collections were not so one-sided, although they did reflect the specific interests of their clientele. This was my attempt to bring "choice, opportunity, and access" (Worthy, 1996, p. 485) to my current students. English 9 Response There were not too many surprises here: their main interests being horror and mysteries, typical responses for Grade 9 students. Table 18 details the genres and Chart I. 1 gives the percentage figures. What I did not expect from this grade level was the interest of two individuals in drama and only one person expressed an interest in comic books. Chart I. 1 gives the percentage breakdowns: Table 18 English 9 Responses: What genre do you normally like to read? Genre # Responses Genre # Responses biography drama internet non-fiction 1 4% 2 8% 1 4% 1 4% 1 4% 7 28% teen stories horror classics fantasy love 1 4% 1 4% 1 4% 1 4% 8 32% comics mystery High School Reading Program 88 English 9: Genre normally read Chart 1.1 Grade 9 students raised in the North American culture appear to have a fascination with horror and mysteries. However, that is not the case with Grade 9 immigrants. TRAN 9 /10 Response I find it interesting that the same age group, even though multicultural in make-up, could have such diverse interests. Table 19 details the genres and Chart I. 2 gives the percentage figures. Adventure was a great interest with four students, while mysteries appealed only to 3 individuals. Teenagers in this group have more diverse interests as can be seen from the following charts: Table 19 TRAN 9/10 Responses: What genre do you normally like to read? Genre # Responses Genre # Responses adventure 4 24% biography 1 6% horror 2 13% love stories 2 13% High School Reading Program 89 Table 19 (Continued) magazines 1 6% mysteries 3 19% science fiction 2 13% teen stories 1 6% TRAN 9/10: Genre normally read Teens 13% Chart I. 2 I find it reassuring that the young ladies in this class are reading love stories. It appears that they have not yet been subverted into thinking only stories read by men are worth reading. Although these students were reading in the ESL sections, mainly at levels 2 to 4, I feel relieved that our collection could support such diverse interests. TRAN 11/12 Response This group read ESL material until their teacher noticed that they were not adding many new words to their vocabulary lists. At that point these students were directed to the general collection. Table 20 itemizes the genres and Chart I. 3 gives the percentage figures. I think many found that love stories were fairly easy to understand and enjoyable to read. Five High School Reading Program 90 students enjoyed mysteries, but only one found the horror genre of interest. Classics, "hit" stories from the past few centuries appealed to 2 students, or 8% of the class, as did science fiction titles. The maturity of this class is again reflected in their choice of reading materials. Table 20 TRAN 11/12 Responses: What genre do you normally like to read? Genre # Responses Genre # Responses adventure 1 4% biography 1 4% left blank 1 4% classics 2 8% comic books 1 4% horror 1 4% love stories 9 36% mysteries 5 20% non fiction 1 4% science fiction 2 8% sport stories 1 4% TRAN 11/12: Genre normally read Sports Bi°9 Love 36% Chart I. 3 High School Reading Program 91 Combined Responses From All Three Classes I do not believe that combining the above genres and figures will give me an accurate idea as to what Riverside students prefer to read because these statistics only represent three segments of the school's population. I can purchase for those age groups and classrooms cultures, but I cannot assume that I have a profile of this school's reading preferences. Therefore I have placed Table 21, Combined Responses: What genre do you normally like to read?, and Chart I. 4 in Appendix I. Research Question Six: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? I wanted to find out if forcing students to read outside their preferred genres would create a backlash. This research question is at the heart of my study. Could I force some teens to read or would many then turn away from reading? Would a majority enjoy the experience of reading a title outside their usual preferences? Would many voluntarily select a newly discovered genre in the future? English 9 Response All 16 students answered the question. English 9 response statistics are as follows: Table 22 English 9 Responses: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? Responses # of Students Yes No 8 5 3 50% 31% 19% Maybe High School Reading Program 92 English 9: Would they voluntarily read another genre? Maybe 19% Yes 50% No 31% Chart J. 1 was surprised that 50% of the group responded with a yes. Previously, 18.3 % (see Table response, 19 %, suggests to me that some participants possibly are being "cool". It is not cool to like school assignments at this age level. TRAN 9 /10 Response All fourteen students in the class answered this question. Strangely, no one responded with a "maybe". Chart J. 2 gives the percentage breakdown. Table 23 TRAN 9/10 Responses: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? 0) mentioned that they objected to reading a favourite genre only once. The high "maybe Responses # of Students Yes No 11 3 79% 21% High School Reading Program 93 TRAN 9/10: Would they voluntarily read other genres? 79% Chart J. 2 I am astonished that 79% responded so positively. Is this result another indication that these students have not yet been indoctrinated with North America's teen culture? I suspect so. TRAN 11/12 Response Only twenty students in this class answered this question. One person left it blank. I am not quite sure how to interpret the blank. It could mean either "no" or "maybe", or "I don't understand the question", so I have left it as a separate category. Students' responses are as follows: Table 24 TRAN 11/12 Responses: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? Responses U of Students Yes No Maybe left blank 13 5 2 61% 24% 10% 5% High School Reading Program TRAN 11/12: Would they voluntarily read other genres? blank maybe 5% 10% yes 61% Chart J. 3 Sixty-one percent is a lower endorsement than the one given by TRAN 9/10 students, yet it a fairly strong, positive message, if the 10% "maybe" figure is included. It appears that transitional English students are more open to exploring the "unknown" when it comes to reading. Combined Responses From All Three Classes I believe that this is a generic enough question to allow me to combine the results. Sixty-three percent said "yes" and another 10% said "maybe". Combined statistics are as follows: Table 25 Combined Responses: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? Response # of Students yes 32 63% no 13 25% maybe 5 10% left blank 1 2% High School Reading Program 95 Combined Responses: Would they voluntarily read other genres? Maybe 10% Blank 2% No 25% Yes 63% Chart J. 4 I never anticipated that cultural differences would appear in the answers to this question. While I feel confident about promoting this program with minor adjustments, I also acknowledge that the evidence points to devising a separate program for Canadian students with English as their first language. Research Question Seven: If yes, what would that/those genre/s be? Charting high school students' newly aroused reading interests allows me to update our fiction collection. English 9 Response The high percentage of horror and mystery devotees does not surprise me. I am pleased that more English 9 participants discovered an interest in adventure, teen stories, love stories, and the all inclusive general category. Table 24 and Chart K. 1 itemizes the categories and give the percentage breakdown. High School Reading Program 96 Table 26 English 9 Responses: If yes, what would those genres be? Responses # of Students Responses # of Students classics 1 5% general 2 10% love stories 2 10% non-fiction 1 5% left blank 5 (not included in chart) English 9: Newly discovered genres adventure teen 10% non-fiction 10% classics 5% 0/0 fantasy mystery / /^^g^B general 20% I jA ^^^B 10% love stories horror 10% 25% Chart K. 1 I believe these figures indicated a small victory for reading. Voluntarily moving beyond the comfortable is not easy and I am pleased that these students would attempt to do so. TRAN 9 / 10 Response I find it fascinating that 34 % of this class discovered the mystery genre and another 17 % enjoyed horror titles. See Chart K. 2 for categories and percentage breakdown. adventure 2 10% fantasy 1 5% horror 5 25% mysteries 4 20% teen stories 2 10% High School Reading Program 97 Table 27 TRAN 9/10 Responses: If yes, what would those genres be? Responses # of Students Responses # of Students adventure fantasy humor mysteries 1 1 1 4 8% 8% 8% 34% anything horror love stories left blank 2 17% 2 17% 1 8% 3 (not included in chart) TRAN 9/10: Newly discovered genres adventure 8% mystery """V anything 34% M k 17% • fantasy V 8% love stories horror 8o/o humor 8% 17% Chart K. 2 Are these immigrant students being acculturated to our ways or are mysteries and horror stories that fascinating? Perhaps the answer lies somewhere in between. TRAN 11/12 Response With a different age group, I found a totally different profile emerging. Love stories were the "hot" genre attracting 24 % of this group. See Chart K. 3 for categories and percentage breakdown. High School Reading Program 98 Table 28 TRAN 11/12 Responses: If yes, what would those genres be? Responses # of Students Responses # of Students adventure historical fict. mysteries teen stories no change I 1 2 2 2 6% 6% 13% 13% 13% classic love stories science fiction non-fiction left blank 13% 24% 6% 6% 8 (not included in statistical chart) TRAN 11/12: Newly discovered genres non-fiction adventure 6% teen 6% classic 13% ^ 13% scifi A hi.fiction 6% A 6% no change m 13% \X love mystery 24% 13% Chart K. 3 Love stories are an obvious attraction for young people as they engage in dating rituals from a multicultural perspective. Stories about interracial dating need to be included in today's school library collection. Combined Responses From All Three Classes I do not believe that combining statistics will help me or any teacher-librarian select appropriate titles for the fiction collection. There are distinct communities or cultures in a High School Reading Program 99 high school that must be considered separately, as opposed to regarding Grades 9 to 12 as the young adult fiction audience only. Chapter Summary and Preview This chapter presented the results of the study and the meaning of the statistical findings reported in order of the research questions. Throughout this section, it was apparent that English as a first language and English as a second language students should be on different programs as this particular study was unintentionally designed for traditional English students. Chapter V summarizes major findings of each research question, draws conclusions from across the research questions, and suggests directions for further research. High School Reading Program 100 Chapter V: Conclusions The last chapter presented the results of the study and the meaning of the statistical findings reported in order of the research questions. In this chapter, Chapter V, I shall try to answer the question: Can a modified middle school program be used successfully at the high school level? To do this I shall summarizes the major findings from Research Questions One, Two, Three, Four and Six, draw conclusions from across these research questions, and suggest directions for further research. Summaries Research Question One: Did you enjoy this program? Data from the questionnaire confirmed my hypotheses that I had surveyed two distinct groups: English 9 students and Transitional English students. Findings for these two groups then must be considered separately. The sample for the English 9 class was low: 16 students completed the survey; 7 were absent; and 3 declined participation. I assumed that the three who declined were not in favour of the program and I added their figures to the "no" category. I then found that: 48 % of this group said "no"; 47 % replied "yes"; and 5 % responded with a "maybe" (see Table 1). I assumed that "maybe" meant a partial, qualified endorsement of the program as it is now designed. High School Reading Program 101 Teachers on the other hand quite enjoyed it. "A great first run!!" was how it was described (see Appendix E). Transitional English students accepted this program more readily than their Canadian counterparts. There was a total of 41 students in both TRAN classes. Ten were absent on the day the questionnaire was administered, with all completing it. Twenty-four individuals, 67 %, replied "yes", 9 people, 25 %, said "maybe", and only 3 % responded negatively (see Table 5). Why such different reactions from Canadian and TRAN/ESL students? Findings from Questions Two, Three, Four, and Six may give partial answers to this inquiry. Research Question Two: What did you like about this program? To clarify students' opinions about Question One, I asked the three classes to itemize those aspects of the program that appealed to them. Results reflected the diverse nature, or cultures, of these three groups. I took the three most frequently mentioned categories that presented themselves in the survey from each class and compared the findings. Table 29 Combined Responses: Three most frequently mentioned categories to emerge from Question Two: What did you like about this program? Grade 9: able to choose books 17.4% (see Table 6) able to read 17.3easy 17.3 % TRAN 9/10: likes reading 26% (see Table 7) liked reading different genres 13.5 % improves reading & English 13.5 % TRAN 11/12 liked reading different genres 19 % (see Table 8) vocabulary building 15 % liked being forced to read 12 % High School Reading Program 102 Table 29 (Continued) Teachers: - students (re)connected with books in "low-demand", non-threatening way; • even weak students had an opportunity to shine; • could explore a range of reading materials; • opportunity to learn literary terms; • development of a more profound level of response; • occasion to learn formal letter writing skills; • amount of reading students did; • having class split - opportunity then for daily one-on-one conversations with each student; • some students moved to more challenging literature (see Appendix E). Differences show up immediately. English 9s liked: choosing their reading material; that they were able to read; and that the unit was an easy one. Seventeen percent of Grade 9s stated having time to read was important to them whereas 26 % of TRAN 9/10s stated they liked reading. Twelve percent of older TRAN participants reported they liked being forced to read. This is the only aspect of the program common to all three groups. Although of a similar age as the Grade 9s, 13 % of TRAN 9/10s also mentioned they enjoyed reading different genres and saw the program as a way to improve reading and English comprehension, as did 15 % of TRAN 11/12 students, who saw the program as a way to improve vocabulary. Like their younger counterparts, 19 % of the older TRAN participants also liked reading different genres, an aspect of the program that was not appreciated by many in the English 9 class. Teachers liked: the amount of reading students engaged in; opportunity to explore a range of reading materials; development of writing skills; opportunity for weak students to perform well; and opportunities to conference daily with students. High School Reading Program 103 Research Question Three: What did you dislike about this program? I wanted to discover which aspects of the program annoyed students. Table 30 details the three most frequently mentioned categories for all classes: Table 30 Combined Responses: Three most frequently mentioned categories to emerge from Question Three: What did you dislike about this program? English 9: can't repeat genre 18.3% (see Table 10) writing component 18.3 % 75 minute classes 18.3 % TRAN 9/10: writing component 23% (see Table 11) booktalks 17 % amount of reading 12 % vocabulary sheets 12% instructions 12 % too much work 12% TRAN 11/12: too much work 25 % (see Table 12) writing component 19% not enough time 11 % too long 11 % Teachers: need to "juggle" other curriculum too much "paper chase" too many school-wide interruptions our school organization some students did not move to more challenging literature (see Appendix E). There was only one category common to all three classes: the amount of writing. No matter how little or how much each class had to write, many students objected to response writing. At this point the divergent natures of these classes reappear. Eighteen percent of English 9s wanted to read more of their preferred genres and objected to reading for 75 minutes at a time. Not one TRAN student, however, mentioned length of reading time in class as a problem. TRAN 9/10s lack of English was reflected in the categories they mentioned as High School Reading Program 104 being particularly irksome. Seventeen percent disliked the booktalks. Twelve percent objected to the amount of reading, the vocabulary sheets, the instructions, and the amount of work. I realize assignments are difficult to complete quickly if one is not proficient in English. With TRAN 1 l/12s: 25 % reported that this program had too much work; 11 % felt that there was not enough time; and 11 % stated that the program was far too long. Although they complained about the work load, this class did not specifically target the essay as an assignment to complain about. Teachers objected to the amount of administration needed to keep this program flowing. Research Question Four: What would you change if you were in charge? I asked this particular question to collaborate the results found in Question Three. The common element is again the writing component. Grade 9s still wanted more freedom to choose and for teachers to be more lenient with assignment deadlines, classroom expectations, and program requirements. Eleven percent also suggested no writing assignments and no vocabulary sheets. Using the three most frequently mentioned categories I found other concerns to be: Table 31 Combined Responses: Three most frequently mentioned categories to emerge from Question Four: What would you change if you were in charge? Grade 9: more choice of genres 21% (see Table 14) 1 response per book 16 % no writing 11 % no vocabulary 11 % less strict 11 % TRAN 9/10: no responses 24 % High School Reading Program 105 Table 31 (Continued) (see Table 15) don't split class no letter longer program no book talk 13 % 13 % 13 % 13 % TRAN 11/12: (see Table 16) more time to read discussions writing component 26% 15% 11 % Teachers: offer program earlier in school year - can then revisit terminology in a more academic manner; develop an improved record-keeping system for teacher; more compact format for instructions (see Appendix E). Booktalks presented few problems with the majority of Grade 9s although 16 % lobbied for a cut back in the number of responses per book and another 11 % wanted to delete the writing component. Twenty-one percent also wanted to see genre restrictions lifted. The findings here tally with those suggested in Question Three, with the exception of the 75 minute classes. These students, however, did not think to suggest a radical change to the format of the program. TRAN 9/1 Os did not like writing, with 24 % suggesting no responses and a further 13 % asking for the elimination of the letter to the author. Another 13 % wanted an end to booktalks. Obviously these entry level TRAN students found the written and verbal assignments difficult and would like to see an end to them On the other hand, TRAN 11/12 students managed the written and verbal assignments quite well with only 11 % objecting to the writing load. Mostly, 26 % of this class would just like more time to read. More importantly for this study, 15 % would prefer to discuss their readings during class time. Teachers on the other hand found administering this program High School Reading Program 106 burdensome. These suggestions for improvement reflect fairly closely the complaints detailed in Question Three. Research Question Six: Would you now voluntarily read another genre? The answer to this question should illuminate the main point of my research: can high school students be forced to read material they may not connect with or are unfamiliar with and still enjoy the process? Only 50 % of the English 9 class responded in the affirmative with 19 % reporting "maybe", and 31 % stating "no" (see Table 22). Not an overwhelming endorsement, but one that leads me to conclude that other strategies may be more welcome with Canadian Grade 9 students. Seventy-nine percent of TRAN 9/10 students reported they would choose an unknown genre voluntarily while 21 % responded in the negative (see Table 23) . TRAN 11/12 students were not so enthusiastic, with only 61 % saying "yes", 10 % saying "maybe", 24 % saying "no", with one person not answering the question (see Table 24) . The majority of Transitional English students do not appear to mind reading literature as a class assignment. In other words, they can be "forced" to read without destroying their interest in reading. A high percentage would also read genres outside their preferred interests after the program was completed. Thus concludes the summary of the major findings. I shall next draw conclusions from across the research questions. High School Reading Program 107 Conclusions and Implications for Practice Findings indicate that there were two distinct groups in this study, Canadians and immigrants, with different expectations, likes, and dislikes when it came to reading literature. A program designed mainly by transitional English teachers obviously suited TRAN students' expectations and needs far better than the needs and expectations of those educated in a Canadian classroom. Canadians appear to be less tolerant of the unfamiliar. Teachers then need to understand the nature of their clientele before deciding upon the structure of a reading program for them. At the high school level, one program apparently does not fit all participants. The English 9 profile indicates a group that would appreciate a number of changes before reluctant readers would find this program tolerable. The fact that the English 9 class was fairly evenly split with regards to reading indicates to me that pleasure reading, done as a school assignment, can be successfully promoted at the high school level if modifications are made to the program that reflect both young adult preferences while still satisfying teachers' curricula concerns. Also, the original program needs some adjustments to take into account the different proficiency levels of transitional English students before it can satisfy more of the immigrant population in our educational system. My school is now on the semester program, which allows teachers interested in promoting reading a number of alternatives to the original program. English teachers could design their classes to incorporate a reading component of perhaps 20 minutes every day, with one day a week being reserved for response writing. Complaints about lengthy classes and too much writing may thus be eliminated. As well, teachers need to present more mini-lessons on response writing if the quality of students' articulation is to improve. Such lessons High School Reading Program 108 may also eliminate the distaste for writing many individuals expressed in the questionnaire. Vocabulary sheets could be eliminated for Canadian high school students. Krashen (1993) maintains that older first language readers do not require them and findings from this study support his view. Discussions on the other hand need to be included if the quality of response writing is to improve (Alvermann, Dillon, & Brien, 1987; Beach & Hynds, 1990; Daniels, 1994; Hynds, 1997; McMahon, Raphael, Goatley, & Pardo, 1997). To organize discussions, when each student is reading a different book, will require some experimentation. Perhaps students could break into groups of four, with one person a day booktalking their selection. The remaining three participants could take on task roles as elucidated in the Literature Circles and The Book Club programs. Restrictions with genre selection can be lifted. Students will now be able to select two titles from their favourite genres. However, I would insist that the second title be at least 100 pages longer. This way students get to sample literature with more complex characterization, richer imagery, and more sophisticated language while giving them more choice. Modifying the reading log slightly could allow teachers to track the students' move to "thicker" titles with ease. In an attempt to inject more fun into this unit, perhaps classroom teachers might consider a poster response or other modes of response for one of the titles. Artwork may appeal to a few of the reluctant readers in the class. The letter or e-mail to the author remains, with the proviso that the author be alive and living in North America. Many students were upset when they did not receive replies to their letters. Individuals could also opt to send a letter or book report to the local newspaper or place it on the school webpage. Booktalks in one form or another will remain. Armed with statistical evidence from this study, perhaps I can convince teachers to High School Reading Program 109 include the webpage alternative, using the multi-media projector for the class presentation. With this option the teacher-librarian is free to visit classrooms, perhaps once a month, to booktalk titles students may not consider when browsing through the paperback spinners or when searching on the library database. Librarians though, must be aware of the different reading interests of specific groups before booktalking titles and preparing booklists. Some English teachers who have participated in this unit with me like the idea of splitting the class. If we were to continue with the program as originally designed I would suggest that: the whole class could meet once or twice a week; discussions could take place in the last 15 minutes of the block; the English teacher could do mini-lessons on specific topics to the whole class before splitting the group and settling into reading. Responses could be done in class rather than as homework. This way we can check to ensure that reading is done at home and break up the 75 minute classes. Other suggestions mentioned above would also be incorporated in the program. There is also another strategy that can be used at the high school level. Students could read a novel that pertains to their course work in Social Studies, Science, or Law. This coming spring, for example, a Science 9 teacher at my school will ask students to read a novel with an astronomy theme. Once the novel is completed and the teacher has presented materials pertaining to the various aspects of astronomy in class, students will then be ushered into the library to do research on the topic mentioned in their novel. Their task will be to research the astronomy in the book. Is it valid? What do astronomers say about the topic? Participants will then briefly summarize the plot and present their findings on the science mentioned in their novel with an oral presentation to the class and a written report to High School Reading Program 110 the teacher. This project is an attempt to blend content reading with pleasure reading. It will be interesting to read students' comments about the unit when a questionnaire is submitted to them at the end of the unit. TRAN students need the structure of the original program with a few adjustments. Transitional English students appear to be more willing to try new genres. Apparently they are not so set in their interests or as indoctrinated in the dominant culture as are Canadian students. The element of survival is strong with immigrant students, with only a few falling into Jobe and Dayton-Sakari's What? I Don't Understand category of reluctant readers. The more negative view of reading that half the English 9 class share may indicate that there are more aliterates and illiterates in that group who fall into Beers (1996) categories for reluctant readers. I strongly suspect that there are also a few reluctant readers in the TRAN classes as well. However, the fact that immigrant students need to perform at certain levels (Gunderson, 1991) to cope with this new country and to procure future employment, ensures that most will be more diligent in the acquisition of English language skills than many of their Canadian counterparts. The program can be done as a six week unit or as part of a regular, on-going class. I believe it is necessary to do the assignments together with the first novel. Students may then feel more confident as to what is expected of them. Teachers engaged with entry level TRAN students might want to concentrate on summary writing at first before introducing the class to response writing as these students found responses intimidating. However, vocabulary sheets must continue. I also would keep the genre requirements as originally set out because this group needs exposure to many different genres and restrictions on choice did High School Reading Program 111 not appear to upset them. The reading log should be revised to reflect changes to recording titles as a column needs for the book's reading level. In this way teachers can monitor how students are progressing from level to level with their reading comprehension. On the whole TRAN 11/12 students managed response writing well so I would keep that aspect of the program intact for them. However, I will try to convince the classroom teacher to rethink her approach to some extent so that students do not feel overwhelmed with the workload. Teachers liked the program but disliked the amount of administration as it cut into their contact time with students. The program needs to be simplified if more teachers are to use it with their classes. Inferences drawn from across the research questions are now concluded along with a description of the alterations needed to the original program. I shall next describe in which directions I think further research should venture. Directions for Further Research In my quest to promote reading at the secondary level I have gained a partial understanding of this complex problem. Since the sample I used was so small, I believe it necessary to question future English and TRAN classes on the efficacy of the modified programs after they complete the unit. A formal study of the proposed unit which will incorporate the reading of fiction into content areas would also prove beneficial for students. At the school level I believe it necessary for teacher-librarians to survey the different grades about their reading interests. Armed with that information teacher-librarians could High School Reading Program 112 more easily select titles suitable for their patrons, no matter what their age. I have found that many young adult novels are too young for the majority of high school students. I would like to see the Literature Roundtable at U.B.C. strike a committee to look into the reading needs of older students, particularly those in Grades 10, 11, and 12. Promoting the reading of literature at the secondary level is not an easy task. Many obstacles: teachers' reluctance; perceived student apathy; poor understanding of the different needs of diverse classes; and the complexity of this program to administer and understand, all stand in the way of its acceptance. As well, we are fighting a belief held by many educators that literacy programs past the elementary grades have little practical value (Richard Vacca,1998). However, as editors for Reading the future: A portrait of literacy in Canada (1996) observed ".. .the concept of literacy is undergoing an evolution of its own.. ..More important than the simple ability to read, literacy now focuses on the ability to use information from printed texts" (p. 9). If we are to "handle the complex literacy demands of modern society" (Krashen, 1993, p. ix) and remain competitive in a global marketplace that demands ever increasing levels of literacy from its participants, then educators must consider literature reading programs at the secondary level. Only time, perseverance, and a flexible approach on the part of administrators, teachers, and teacher-librarians can make this or any other secondary reading program work. The benefits for our young people will be immeasurable. High School Reading Program 113 Works Cited Alvermann, D. E., Dillion, D. R., & O'Brien, D. G. (1987). Using discussion to promote reading comprehension. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association. Alvermann, D. E., & Phelps, S. F. (1994). Content reading and literacy: Succeeding in today's diverse classrooms. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Alvermann, D. E., Hinchman, K. A., Moore, D. W., Phelps, S. F., & Waff, D. R. (Eds). (1998). Reconceptualizing the literacies in adolescents' lives. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates. American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (1988). Information power: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago, IL: American Library Assn.; Washington, DC: Assn. 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Appendix A: Strategies for Reluctant Readers High School Reading Program 121 Patrick Jones: Strategies for Reaching Reluctant Readers Advertise: Take out an advertisement in the school newspaper promoting one or more books. Or take out an ad in the PTA or PTO newsletter telling parents with nonreaders to contact the library for suggested books. Booktalk: Make the books come alive to nonreaders. Contests: Run trivia contests about authors or subjects that connect YAs with your collection. Dramatize: With a teacher's cooperation, lift dialogue sections out of YA novels and have the teens act them out. This makes the "action" in the book seem more real. Educate teachers to library resources: Just as we are often lacking knowledge about what teachers are doing, they probably re not aware of our tools. Make sure that they get a copy of Quick Picks... Find out more: As mentioned, much of the best literature about reading reluctant readers is not in our literature, but in the research on reading. Find out what teachers are doing and see how libraries can complement it. Genres: Assume that reluctant readers are not looking for a certain book by a certain author, thus having books in order by author on the shelf for easy access does not really help. But, by organizing by genre, you are arranging books how YSs think rather than how we think. Appendix A: Strategies for Reluctant Readers High School Reading Program 122 High visibility: Pull out the Quick Picks and other with high appeal and get them in people's faces. Reluctant readers are often not reluctant library users so you can find them and help them find you. Incentives: Offer prizes if the library is running a reading program or work with school to give extra credit. Joint ventures: Increase cooperation. Schools and public libraries can work together harder to reach this market than any other. Knowledge: Many librarians working with YAs only know the name Christopher Pike as the first captain of the Enterprise on Star Trek. Pike was publishing great reluctant reader books like Slumber Party which YAs knew about, but more librarians were clueless. Lists: Take apiece of legal-size paper and cut it in thirds. Now you have a skinny piece of paper. Fill it with the author, title, and one-word description of books under 150 pages. Now you have a list of skinny books on skinny paper. Magazines: Remember that reluctant readers need items other than books. Nonfiction: .. .nonfiction is a welcome change and also mixes text and illustration. Out loud: Not only small children like to be read to. Picture books: An interesting trend that impacts reluctant (and rampant) readers is ageless picture books like the Stinky Cheese Man. Appendix A: Strategies for Reluctant Readers High School Reading Program 123 Quantity: Use bookdumps. If you have multiple copies, more people can read them. The more people reading them, the more people know about a title, then the more "cool: it is to read that book. Reach out: Some students are talking loudly about a subject. They seem quite interested in the subject but you also know they are Quick Picks. Slip away and find something - a magazine article, an entry in a reference book, anything about this subject. Bring it back and mention is casually. Demonstrate in small ways the value of reading to obtaining information. Samples: Take a tooth pick, a photocopy of an interesting page or photo from a book attach a tag on the page with full information about the book, and leave these free samples out. Tie-ins: Take a rubber band, a book, and the movie based on the book and combine them together for a package deal. Or a rubber band, a fiction title, and a personal narrative, Or a rubber band, a photo of a celebrity, and a biography. Urgent: If students are reluctant readers yet they are facing a reading assignment, chances are they will be reluctant about choosing their books. Thus, lots of that last-minute "I want a thin One" reference transaction is going to take place. Make sure that other staff have access to all the materials you have prepared. If a nonreader is willing to come in and get something out of an urgent need and we cannot supply it, then there is virtually no chance that a YA will leave the building with a positive attitude. Appendix A: Strategies for Reluctant Readers High School Reading Program 124 Video reviews: If you offered a YA a chance to be a video star by telling about a book or magazine article he has read, would he do it? Writers: If a YA can see a real writer in person sometimes this makes reading a little more interesting. X marks the spot: Using posters and other decorations, make the YA area a comfortable inviting place to be. Yes: Find a way to say Yes to most any request. Zippy and Ziggy: Comic books, graphic novels, and the like appeal to reluctant readers. Reaching YA reluctant readers is not an easy task. A good deal of literature and a YALSA committee is out there to help, however. The market certainly is there, as every YA librarian knows. Meeting this market means adopting strategies, changing assumptions, and thinking creatively about ways to promote library materials. If we fail, then the reluctant readers are not the "dummies"; librarians are (Jones, 1998, pp. 169-171). Appendix B: Original Reading Program High School Reading Program 125 A Literature Based Individualized Reading Unit: Cooperatively Planned and Taught The original elementary program ran from 6 to 9 weeks, 30 to 40 minutes every day. The objective statement reads as follows: The individualized reading unit incorporates many of the principles of a literature-based reading program. Students read library books rather than basal readers on a daily basis. Time is provided for students to read a wide variety of genres and students are given the opportunity to respond to books through written responses, teacher conferences, and oral presentations (Douthwait, Ward, & Wilby, n.d., p. 1). Participants include the Classroom teacher, the Teacher-librarian, the Resource/LA teacher, and/or Gifted/Enrichment teacher. The teacher resource package includes: a literature survey; student conference logs; oral reading assessment; guided questions for conferencing; and booktalk evaluation forms. The student package contains: a letter to parents; interest inventory; My Reading Wheel; summary and response pages; Books I've Read form; a response to literature guide; effective ways to prepare and present a booktalk sheet; a booktalk planner; and a booktalk evaluation form. Teachers are expected to ensure the availability of reading selections for an appropriate range of levels and interests. Sources to investigate for titles are the school library, District Literature kits, recommended novels, and novels formerly prescribed by the Ministry. Teachers also needed to identify students with special needs, that is, those in the Learning Assistant program and the Gifted program. Responsibilities are split between the teachers involved. The classroom teacher is expected to: sent a letter home to the parents; monitor homework completion daily; apply Appendix B: Original Reading Program High School Reading Program 126 agreed upon consequences for incomplete work; and ensures that all necessary forms have been run off. The teacher-librarian: makes arrangements for access to library; discusses Literature Survey with students; discusses genre and My Reading Wheel; links genre to card catalogue; may invite public librarian to assist in explaining genre and how to present an effective book talk. The L. A./Resource teacher and/or Gifted/Enrichment teacher: monitors progress of Resource/LA and /or Gifted/Enrichment program students through the unit; teaches summary and response writing; and rehearses booktalks. All teachers: conference daily with individual students; participate in classroom discussions; take turns leading the sharing sessions; and take turns leading evaluation of booktalks. Student achievement is to be evaluated throughout the unit by: the daily conference record; oral reading session (pre-practiced by the student); summary and response writings; completing homework consistently; completion of genre wheels; ability to select books to match their ability level; booktalks; and completion of an extension activity, e.g., large book wheel, book banner, or other activity. During Week 1 teachers: introduce the unit; divide the class into groups depending on the number of teachers available for conferencing; set up teacher and student duotangs with information guides and pages; discuss with students the Letter to Parents and the Interest Inventory before they are sent home; brainstorm the Literature Survey; discuss how to select book according to genre and appropriate level; and teach summary writing. At this point the class and home reading, summary writing, and daily conferencing begins. Teachers use the Student Conference Log to track individual Appendix B: Original Reading Program High School Reading Program 127 student progress, parents and teachers initial daily summaries, and teachers begin a class bibliography for the books read during this unit. During Weeks 2 and 3 conferencing continues on a daily basis. There is informal sharing about books being read and enjoyed. At the end of the third week, groups shift and all student records go to the next teacher. In Weeks 4 to 6 the older students in grades 6 and 7 begin to write responses while the grade 4 and 5 students continue to write summaries for the duration of this unit. They may move into reader responses if their teacher so desires. Teachers start to model book talks as well as continuing to conference steadily. At this point there is a class discussion to focus on the selection of a book for the booktalk. Presentations may be individual or in partnership. At the end of the fifth week, the groups shift again, with all student records going to their next teacher. While the home reading and writings continue in Week 7, students start to prepare for the booktalk. Teachers discuss the handouts with the class. Teachers believe that the booktalk preparations should be done during additional language arts time rather than during schedules cooperative unit time. During Weeks 8 and 9 the booktalk presentations take place. Students and teachers are to: complete the written evaluation forms; students share comments orally; and student evaluation forms are collected after each booktalk. If they so wish, teachers can videotape the booktalks. Teachers conference after each group of booktalks to agree on marks. At this point students receive a packet of completed student and teacher evaluation forms. Finally, there is an information discussion to evaluate the unit. Appendix B: Original Reading Program High School Reading Program 128 Possible follow-up activities include creating a large reading wheel with summaries, which will help other students to select books, and/or creating a book banner to illustrate and "sell" the summary of a favourite book read during the unit. Appendix C: Student's copy High School Reading Program 129 My School's Literature Reading Program Objectives: 1. To promote the reading of literature; 2. To encourage reading in genres normally ignored; 3. To teach students to write or e-mail a business letter to an author; 4. To teach students to prepare and present a booktalk; 5. To foster an enjoyment of reading that goes beyond finishing class assignments. Time Required: Six weeks. Expectations: - You are to keep a log of your readings. - You will have a response written each time you come to class. - Responses to be not less than 5 sentences and not longer than 10 sentences. - Teacher and teacher-librarian to check for comprehension when reading responses and will initial reading logs, each class, to check for completion. - If the book is over 150 pages, please see teacher or teacher-librarian to help you calculate the time you have to complete the book. Mid-term Assign. - To occur in the 3rd week. - You will write a letter or send an e-mail to an author, newspaper, or publisher. You can describe what you liked or didn't like about the book; what you learned; any insights you had; how it affected you in your daily life. - You will receive a lesson on letter writing before you start composing your rough draft. - Letters will be e-mailed or sent by post to authors, newspapers or publishers. Appendix C: Student's copy High School Reading Program 130 Final Project: - You are to prepare a book-talk on your favourite title. - You will learn how to prepare cue cards for presentation. - You can be in costume if you wish. - You will need to hand in notes on your book-talk for marking. Program Evaluation: You can fill out a questionnaire, anonymously, evaluating the reading program you have just completed. You can refuse to complete the questionnaire if you so wish, without penalty. Procedures 1. After the introduction in the classroom, you and your classmates are to report to the library to pick up your first book. 2. You will search for and locate a novel of your choice, but it must fall into the following categories: - biographies - mysteries - science fiction  fantasy - adventure stories (BUT NOT Pick your own Adventure) - Canadian fiction - love stories/romance - sports fiction  short story anthology - animal stories - non-fiction - horror - historical fiction Or, a maximum of two from the following: - two web pages - two magazines of your choice - two comic books 3. During the next six weeks you will be taught how to search for titles using the computer. Appendix C: Student's copy High School Reading Program 131 4. You are to select a different category each time you finish reading a book, magazine, or short story anthology. You are on a weekly schedule, but it will depend upon the length of the books you choose. Please see your teacher or teacher-librarian if unsure about how much you should read a night. 5. You are expected to read something different each week. 6. During the last two weeks you are allowed to read comic books, magazines or webpages. Microsoft Word/Riverside Literature Reading Program/student copy Appendix C: Student's copy o a H CJ] o CJ c T3 2 § ° ;z; 3 o <u O «G -a « a pi i 1 <u et a * §1 II ^ r- a -l. % 64 (Ml a O o C5 High School.Reading Program 132 V5 60 o 60 .3. T3 .03 d> •o > o -•o Reading Instruction that Makes Sense Appendix C: Student's copy : High School Redding Program Graphic Organizer / •'••v Settings (where, when) Characters /Point of: View (i.e., who is telling the story) Title Author Problem/Events (piot) Theme Appendix C: Student's copy High School Reading Program 134 Magazine / Webpage / Comic Graphic Organizer Name: Block: Teacher's Name: Magazine / Webpage / Comic Title Date of Magazine/Comic: Issue No.: Web Page Address: 1. List title of articles or copy the subheadings on the webpage: Ignore this section if doing a comic book. 2. In no less than 5 sentences and no more than 10 sentences summarize the contents of the magazine articles. Discuss the articles similarities and their differences, i.e. what is the same about them and what is different? For a Webpage describe the site's layout and its purpose. For a comic book summarize the story on the back of this page. Appendix C: Student's copy High School Reading Program 135 Guide to Response Writing In your responses you are to find connections between the material you are reading and: • your own life • to happenings at school or in the community • to similar events at other times and places • to other people or problems that you are reminded of • other books or stories • other writings on the same topics • other writings by the same author You can start your response with phrases like: Some things today's reading reminded me of were... I liked this reading because... I was impressed / struck by... I wonder about... One question I have is... One thing I now understand is... Now I can sense why / how... I appreciate / don't appreciate... An interesting word / sentence / thought is... I predict... Although the setting isn't real, I relate to it because... You are to come to class with your response already done. You get full marks for being prepared. Your response should be no shorter than 5 sentences and no longer than 10 sentences. Write your responses on loose leaf paper. Each response should have the following information at the top of the page: • Your Name, • Block, • Teacher's name, • date, • Author, • Title, • genre. Taken from by Daniels, H. (1994). Literature Circles: Voice and choice in the student-centered classroom. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. Appendix C: Student's copy High School Reading Program 136 The Do's and Don'ts of Booktalking Don't: 1. Booktalk books you have not read 2. Booktalk books you did not like or would not recommend 3. Gush 4. Give away the end; the secret; the surprise 5. Label by gender/race/ other 6. Oversell 7. Read unless you must 8. Talk about sex/ drugs/violence without clearing it with your teacher 9. Be boring to yourself Do: 1. Bring the book with you 2. Memorize the talk or have cue cards 3. Be prepared to ad-lib and interact 4. Start strong, end strong 5. Be organized, cool and confident 6. Relax and enjoy Types of Talks: 1. Mood 2. Plot 3. Scene 4. Character Never Ever: Say "read this and find out". Booktalking tips Appendix C: Student's copy High School Reading Program 137 Booktalk Guidelines for Students A booktalk tries to convince someone to read the book that you are talking about. It does not judge the book: it assumes it is good and goes on from there. It is similar to an unfinished murder mystery, making the audience want to read it and see what happens at the end. How to Prepare for a Booktalk As you are reading, you should be writing down notes that will be useful to writing your booktalk. After you have read the first two or three chapters, write down the names of the main characters and anything about them that you find interesting or important. If you read about something that is particularly interesting or important, because it is funny, sad, scary, etc., make a note of it and the page it is on. When you are finished the book, write a brief (two or three paragraphs) plot summary. Since booktalking is sharing your excitement about the book, imagine what you would say to convince a friend to read it. There are several ways to do a booktalk but here are three types you can use: 1. Building a booktalk about a scene which has excitement, humour, or human interest in the novel. 2. Summarizing the plot up to a climactic moment and then cutting it off, but letting the audience know that something more will happen. 3. Doing a character sketch of the main character, e.g., describing what the character is like. Appendix C: Student's copy High School Reading Program 138 If the book has a complicated plot, only include the action and leave out the details. The point is to involve and make the listeners interested - not to tell them all that happens in the story. Booktalking is very individual, so do what feels right and works for you. Writing Your Booktalk The first and last thing mentioned in a booktalk is the title and author of the book. The two most important sentences are the first and last. The first sentence should be interesting and get the listeners' attention. Since the booktalk is only 3 or 4 minutes long, you have to get your audience's attention right away. The last sentence should let the listeners know that something else will happen, but do not tell them exactly what. Booktalks have a definite structure. The first sentence leads in to the action; the middle tell what happens in the book; the last sentence stops the action without any conclusion. Write your booktalk in full. Read it out loud and make changes as necessary. Try it out on a friend or a family member and then write a final copy. Write down the most important ideas or names on a file card which you can have in front of you. You cannot read your booktalk aloud. Practicing and Presenting Your Booktalk Your booktalk must be practiced at home before you present it to your audience. Rehearse your talk to yourself first, then with a friend. Your presentation will go more smoothly if you are comfortable with it. It's important that you begin by being calm and confident. Hold up the book so your audience can see it as you tell them its title and author. Then set the book down. Present your talk as you practiced it! Appendix C: Student's copy High School Reading Program 139 Guide for Marking Booktalks Booktalk Presentation Name: Score: Title of Book: Each section is worth marks. 1. Length (number of pages) 2. Had book to display 3. Plot explained and reasons given as to why this book was selected. 4. Posture 5. Voice 6. Grammar/language used Total: Appendix D: Questionnaire High School Reading Program 140 Research for an M. Ed. Graduating Paper: The Promotion of Reading at the High School Level: Questionnaire As a teacher-librarian at My School Secondary, I, Ms. K. W. Peplow, wish to research the promotion of reading at the high school level. The purpose of this study is to determine if a program developed for elementary and middle schools can be modified successfully to fit the needs of high school students. Over the past six weeks you have read several different genres, been exposed to response and summary writing, as well as public speaking or web page building. You have kept a reading log, written responses half way through and at the end of a novel/magazine/comic/webpage. Now I would like you to tell me if you enjoyed or disliked the assignment. You have the right to refuse to participate in this questionnaire without jeopardizing your class mark. It should take you about 10 minutes of class time to fill in the questions. Please note that the results of these measures remain anonymous and confidential. If you complete it, it will be assumed that you have given your consent. Please return this questionnaire to your teacher when you finish. It is important that you DO NOT put your name on this questionnaire. If you have any questions or concerns please contact me at Riverside Library, 941-6053. Did you enjoy this program? Yes No What did you like about this program? What did you dislike about this program? (See over, Page 1 of 2) Appendix D: Questionnaire High School Reading Program 141 Page 2 of 2 What would you change if you were in charge? What genre do you normally like to read? Would you now voluntarily read another genre? Yes No If yes, what would that/those genre/s be? MicrosoftWord/Riverside's Reading Program/Questionnaire Appendix E: Teachers' Responses High School Reading Program 142 Research for an M. Ed. Graduating Paper: The Promotion of Reading at the High School Level: Questionnaire As a teacher-librarian at Riverside Secondary, I, Ms. K. W. Peplow, wish to research the promotion of reading at the high school level. The purpose of this study is to determine if a program developed for elementary and middle schools can be modified successfully to fit the needs of high school students. Over the past six weeks you have read several different genres, been exposed to response and summary writing, as well as public speaking or web page building. You have kept a reading log, written responses half way through and at the end of a novel/magazine/comic/webpage. Now I would like you to tell me if you enjoyed or disliked the assignment. You have the right to refuse to participate in this questionnaire without jeopardizing your class mark. It should take you about 10 minutes of class time to fill in the questions. Please note that the results of these measures remain anonymous and confidential. If you complete it, it will be assumed that you have given your consent. Please return this questionnaire to your teacher when you finish. It is important that you DO NOT put your name on this questionnaire. If you have any questions or concerns please contact me at Riverside Library, 941-6053. Did you enjoy this program? Yes No What did you like about this program? • Many students (re)connected with the world of books (rather than TV or computers), in a 'Low-demand", non-threatening way. • Even weak students are given an opportunity to shine. • Opportunity to explore a range of reading material. • Opportunity to learn true significance of the terms "Plot", "Character", "Setting", "Point of View", & "Theme". • Development of a more profound level of response over the duration of the program. • Occasion to learn formal letter writing skills. What did you dislike about this program? • Need to "juggle" other curriculum...But at Grade 9 level, I believe it worth the trouble!! • Too much "paper chase" & "keeping track" instead of "promised" interaction with students on a one-to-one basis. Perhaps unavoidable but...see below. What would you change if you were in charge? • I would personally prefer to offer this earlier in the school year - allows revisiting terminology in a more academic manner. • Develop an improved record-keeping system for the teacher (especially made for the program). • Students better informed re. day-to-day responsibilities & expectations/criteria for assignments/evaluation, i.e. more compact format. Students often will not read, let alone re-read lengthy hand-outs. /Appendix E: Teachers';Responses s^oog^ Wivgraide's Re««iin? Progra»" Questionnaire Did you enjoy this program? No What would you change if you were in charge? What genre do you normally like to read?_ Would you now voluntarily read another genre? If yes, what would that/those genre/s be? Yes No lftWord/Riverside's Reading Program/Questionnaire Appendix F: What do you like? High School Reading Program 144 Code Student Responses: What did you like about this program? English 9 Comments choose books easy able to read easy consistent homework easy choose books no analyzing work independently no regular classes choose books able to read easy work independently able to read That we got to choose our own reading material and we did not have to do too much written work for it. Got to read books. Had an easy project. I like that fact that the homework was consistant and we didn't have to worry about anything else to do because the work was the same everyday. Got to do a easy project. I got to work idependantly and that everyone wasn't reading the same book. I also liked that I didn't have to analyze the books I read and got to choose my own books. Regular classes were missed. I liked that we got to read a book we chose. It gave me a chance to read, to make out of my day. I liked how you got to read at your own pase no one was saying that you had to finish the book in one day. Also you got easy marks. I liked this program because it gave me a chance and a reason to read. Because I usually don't have enough time, now I was able to. choose books I enjoyed the fact that we were able to choose books which we wished to read. Appendix F: What do you like? High School Reading Program 145 forced to read started to like reading felt encouraged to read different genres set no. of pages likes reading liked letter to author I liked how we had to read. Now that the program is over I feel I was more encouraged to read. And I will continue to! It shows students to read different genres. Usually when liked we read books we read one type of book and that is it. Also if people were lazy and read only small book they got that taken off in marks. I liked reading books and writing the letter to the author. able to read You got to read books and find out that reading stuff is good, and that reading can make you get good reading can improve marks grades and stuff:! able to read I liked it because it have me a chance & some time to read as I usually have very little time at home to read because I have rugby, homework and other things to work on. different genres TREN 9/10: I can say that it makes you learn a lots of story even you don't like reading and you suporse to. likes reading I liked reading the books and I also liked doing the graphic liked graphic organizer organizer for books. likes reading likes reading easy able to read no regular classes likes reading I love reading and I enjoyed it so much. I like it because is it easy and I like reading. I can read a lot which I never do. Because we didn't have to do any class work. I like reading and I enjoy going to library and pick difference books to read. Appendix F: What do you like? High School Reading Program 146 choose books different genres started to like reading improves reading improves reading no regular classes read with others likes reading short stories likes reading liked responses different genres able to read improves English Read more books, as I am reading the book. I learned the vocab. before I don't like reading book, because this program I start like to read books and it helps my english skill. It helped me to improve my reading skills. It was something different from our usuall work in the class. The fun of this program, is we can read books together in a group. Like read short story. I liked reading many kinds of books, and I could find what kind book I liked. Before I did not have time to read many books, but during the program I could read as much books as I liked. I liked writing responses too, because it made me think about the book once again. Imrovements in English (especially writing skills, reading, and vocabulary). TREN 11/12 forced to read modeled book talk That you force us to read English books a little bit and you showed us how we have to do our speech or book talk. vocabulary building I can learn more vocabularies from the book. different genres forced to read It was fun to read different kinds of books, and since I don't like to read anything, it's a good way to make me read and learn something from it. no regular classes I don't need to have class. able to read That I can read more different kind of books and in class Appendix F: What do you like? High School Reading Program 147 different genres able to read improves reading forced to read choose books started to like reading vocabulary building liked responses give us time to slicent reading time. I like this program because it can partise us how to read. That can help us to know that now to read, because we have some novel or story in English. I think this is probably the only thing that makes me to read a novel. Other than that I can choose my favourite book to read, which is I liked most. I could have much more knowledges and vocabs. And first I really hated to read a book, but now I pretty much like it. But still I hate to read long stories. And I also pretty much liked to write responses. able to read I could have a chance to read lots of books. different genres reading choose books sharing different genres vocabulary building learned about genres forced to read Well, it was fun reading different kind of stories. Also it likes was enjoyable to read stories. I like this program about we could have the chance to read the book what we liked, and we could share to everyone what's the knowledge in the book! That's a great chance to practice. The thing I like most in this program is: In this program, I can read lots of different novels and different magazine. In the book, I can learn more English and grammer. Also, in this program I learn many different kinds of vocabulary and how to determine a book, like which book is fiction and which is love story and books which is mystery. It gave me motivation to reading. As sometimes playing and reading you have to choose one, most of us would choose playing, right! But if it's an assignment then you have to do no matter what. different genres I like about this program, because we can know many kind of story. And then we can know what happen about this story. sharing We can figure out which book is most popular and most interesting. Appendix F: What do you like? High School Reading Program 148 good practice vocabulary building It was a very good practice specialy when we were able to understand most of the parts & because of that we could easily learn what we didn't know. Also I liked the vocabulary sheet & they were very helpful. reading in library help from teachers likes reading vocabulary building improves reading blank When we were reading the books in library. I liked it because when we read those novel, we had some help from the teachers when we didn't understand. It helped when we did the chat (?). I really enjoyed to read the book. I knew many books. Also, I knew a lot of new vocabs and grammar so I like this program. Improve the English reading skill not filled in. make more fun & interesting I would like to make it more fun and more interesting. Appendix F: What do you like? High School Reading Program 149 English 9: What did you like? liked set # pages Graph F .1 Appendix F: What do you like? High School Reading Program TRAN 9/10: What they liked Chart F. 2 TRAN 11/12: What they liked choose bks. started to like read. 6% able to read 3% Graph F. 3 Appendix F: What do you like? High School Reading Program Combined Responses: What they liked modelled bktalk read w ith others 1% shaonn9 3% improve marks 4% noanalyz. able to read likes writing improves Eng 6% Chart F. 4 Appendix G: What did you dislike? High School Reading Program 152 Code Student Responses: What did you dislike about this program? English 9 Comments page requirement can't repeat genre read every night graphic organizer reading for 75 minutes read every night reading for 75 minutes all of it book talk vocabulary sheets responses responses read for 75 minutes That we had to read sooo many pages at a time and we aeren't supposed to do the same genre twice. Had to read every night and cut into social life and other school stuff. Graphic organizers. I found that it was boring reading for the whole class. I do enjoy socializing but if I only had to read for half the class it would be more enjoyable. That I had to read every night for six weeks. I think that it was way too long to read in class. I don't read often and I find it hard to read for an hour without stopping and staying on task. Everything except the above (regular classes were missed). The book talk, vocab, reading responses. The responses. I didn't like how you had to read so much for an hour. I found it boring. I think it would be beter if you sorizlized about your book. responses can't repeat genre I disliked the part were we had to do responses every class. I disliked that we had to have a different genre every time we read a book. Appendix G: What did you dislike? High School Reading Program 153 read for 75 minutes no talking introduction more clear different genres strict rules different genres How we had to read in class and not talk. I think that if we choose to talk and not get work done then that's our fault. They should have made the introduction to this program more clear. The beginning was confusing to all of us. We were not sure if we were reading a book a week or just part of one. That we had to read different genres, not the once we like because it's boring reading genres that you never read. Rules were kind of strict, too much was expected. I disliked how I would be made to read other genres simply because I had no interest in them & I would find it tiring & a chore to read such books. TREN 9/10 program ok vocabulary sheets responses responses book talk responses book talk book talk responses vocabulary sheets read every day difficult responses difficult graphic organizers I don't dislike any this in this program I didn't like the part where we had to write vocabulary words and I also didn't like the daily response. The responses they were too much. I don't like the book talk in this program. I dont like to write a response. The only reason is the BOOK TALK. I didn't like pressation. Don't want to do responses, vocab after reading We had to read everyday. The Responses and Gr. Organizers were hard to undersstand. Appendix G: What did you dislike? High School Reading Program 154 too much work A little bit too short, and the homework is too much, long stories Don't like to read too long story. blank Left blank too much work Although, this reading program was developed with very thoughful and careful consideration in introduction unclear enjoyable way there were few things I disliked. There was a bit of much work. The system wasn't clearly explained that made ESL students confused. The reading program was quite complicated. TREN 11/12 too long too much work not enough time too much work responses graphic organizers too much work too much work not enough time too much work too long vocabulary sheets It taked to much weeks and it was a little bit boring because it was to long. Too many assignments, not enough time. It was too much work afterwards. I will want to just read it and not do the graphic organizer or the journal. Any maybe we can have a little quiz or something to prove what we have learned. I have to read a book per week. Too less time and too much homework. So many books to read. Have to spend time on it. Have to hard working to get a high mark. We took to LONG to finish up. I had to record every vocabs that I didn't know. Because I had more than 50 vocabs that I didn't know. But still I had to record every vocabs. that gave me a lot of works. responses I had to write many journals everytime I came to the class. Appendix G: What did you dislike? High School Reading Program 155 program ok independent program not enough time No thing, it was a enjoyable program. I felt that everyone read the different stories, so we couldn't really know what's the book talk about, if we could read the same book, everyone knows the same thing but we could discuss the different opinions from each other. I dislike the program is there aren't enough time for us to read more or understand more about the book. essay too long boring book talks blank responses blank blank too much work boring selection poor too much work all of it Essay part is I dislike. We took lnog time to do this program. Some of the book talk are really bored. Left blank. When we finished our book but we had to so somithing (reading the book) and the home work check. Left blank. Left blank. Too many things to read. Too boring. Not interesting story. It seemed to be a pressure. It was pushing us to read a book. I don't like boring and just fooling around and do research stuff. Appendix G: What did you dislike? High School Reading Program 156 English 9: What they disliked vocab sheets 5% all of it can't repeat bktalk 5% 9enre Chart G. 1 TRAN 9/10: What they disliked prog.okay 6% vocab sheets 12% too much work 12% w riting component 23% booktalk 17% instructions 12% amt reading 12% long stories 6% Chart G. 2 Appendix G: What did you dislike? High School Reading Program 157 TRAN 11/12: What they disliked vocab sheets program ok 4% Chart G. 3 Appendix G: What did you dislike? High School Reading Program 158 Combined Results: What they disliked poor selection page require. 2% 5% Chart G. 4 Appendix H: What would you do? High School Reading Program 159 Student Responses: What would you do if you were in charge? Code: More freedom 6 books 1 response per book English 9 Comments: I would tell people they can choose any six books and they read have to read them in six weeks & just check the end of each week to see if they person is done that book, then they could read whatever they choose 1 to read per day & just have one response for each book in the middle of the book. eliminate read every day no vocab sheets Reading every day I wouldn't give out vocabulary sheets. They were a waste of time I found. They didn't help me with my vocab. much. Left blank alternative to response writ. I might do other things than just writing to respond, eg. pictures, etc. don't force students to read I wouldn't make the kids read. no book talks or responses Book talks, responses. Respnses once a week Responses would only be every week (once). No vocab sheets I wouldn't give vocab sheet. I thought that was a waste of time. responses at end of bk only I would change the response notes. I would have them do one every time you finish a book. genres chosen twice I would let students choose 4-6 different genres, so that they could: a) read 6 different books in 6 different genres b) read 6 different books, repeating 1 genre once c) read 6 different books, repeating 2 genres once. Appendix H: What would you do? High School Reading Program 160 include book discussion Instructions more clear Choose same genre twice include more web pages no graphic organizers choose same genre twice I would probably not change anything except the talking. I would perhaps have a book discution with a few students. I would make what I wanted to happen in this program very clear. I would explain in detail that the objective for the program was. Can read same genre at least twice. I would let people read more web pages I would change how they made us do graphic organizers as I don't see any point in doing it and I would allow students to choose any book of their choice. TREN 9/10 teachers to conference with I would be more seriouse in with people. People when they do the presentation for the reading log they should give some eye contact. eye contact No change Responses once a wk not every class no letter to author no book talk More time per book no responses no vocab sheet Althoug I didn't like the vocab and the daily response I would say that you shouldn't change the program because it's really good they way it is now. I would change the time that we hand in our response. I would've made it once a week instead of every class. I would not tell the student to write a letter to the author. Nothing Not to have the book talk. Give more time to read the book. Responses, vocab. no responses No respone. Appendix H: What would you do? High School Reading Program 161 No responses Longer program don't split class longer program Don't split class no responses No letter to author no booktalk shorter program Student discuss readings more time to read book No graphic organizer more time to read choose same genre make program longer teacher to model assigns. Learn more vocab & gram. Read 1 book and discuss it be able to choose easy books No genres I would cancel the 5 sentences. Make it longer, don't divide groups, don't have to hand in homework everyday. I will be change to make it longer, don't divide group. Left blank Assaignments and system. TREN 11/12 Make it a little bit shorter and let the students take about their books after they finish. More time to read the books. Don't do the organizer, and we all need to read something with a higher level of English and we should have more time. Allow to read more webpage. More time for this program. Then I think we can do one book together and then do some assignment together that's show him how to do it, then after finish one ask them to do the other book alone. Learn more vocab. How to read faster as the English speaking. Learn more grammer. I'd like to read only one book and talk about it. I would choose easy books. I would let students read whatever they want. Appendix H: What would you do? High School Reading Program 162 More time No thing, because everything was great, or maybe I would change the time, we need more time to finish reading the book. art work instread of writing Maybe we could do the poster. More time better selection Group discussion more time Able to do homework More booktalks Fewer responses discussions more time more time less structure I would like to have more time to read the book and more time for me to understand the book bacause I still didn't have time to read newspaper. So, I would like to have more time. Offering more interesting book. Group discussion. The time would be change more lnog. The time can be more shorter, around 2 minuete. Left blank. When the students finish with their worke let them to do an othe when finished-reading homeworks because the students have lots of home works to do and I think the ESL class is for learning English. I would do more of speech like those booktalk. If I were in charge, I wouldn't write the journal everyday. I will talk about the book after finish read one book. I would manage the time more to read book. Have some more time and make it little bit more free to do and make us to read a book. more fun I would like to do something more... fun. Appendix H: What would you do? High School Reading Program English 9: What they would change Chart H. 1 TRAN 9/10: What would you change Chart H. 2 Appendix H: What would you do? High School Reading Program 164 TRAN 11/12: What would you change w riting "/0 no genres misc. 34% ' IjV^ \ discussions \^\J 15% less structure 7% more time to read 26% -Chart H. 3 Combined Response: What would you change no respon. Chart H. 4 Appendix I: Genre normally read? High School Reading Program 165 Research Question Five: What genre do you normally like to read? Table 21 Combined Responses: What genre do you normally like to read? Genre # Responses Genre # Responses adventure 5 8% biography 3 5% classics 3 5% drama 2 3% comic books 2 3% horror 11 17% love stories 12 18% mysteries 15 23% science fiction 4 6% teen stories 2 3% non-fiction 3 3% miscellaneous: 4 6% left blank 1 fantasy 1 magazines 1 sport stories 1 Combined Responses: Genre normally read Chart I. 4 

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