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Academic reading strategies used by Chinese EFL learners : five case studies 2003

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A C A D E M I C R E A D I N G S T R A T E G I E S USED B Y CHINESE E F L L E A R N E R S : F I V E C A S E STUDIES by LI C H E N G B.A. Beijing Normal University, 1990 M . A . Beijing Normal University, 1993 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Language and Literacy Education) We accept this thesis as confirming to Jhe required ^tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 2003 © L i Cheng, 2003 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date A]>r%*£} DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The number of people learning English as a second or foreign language has increased dramatically over the last two decades. Many of these second language learners are university students who must attain very sophisticated academic skills. To a great extent, their academic success hinges on their ability to read a second language. This multiple- case study investigated first language (LI) and second language (L2) reading strategies in academic settings. The study drew on Bernhardt's (2000) socio-cognitive model of second language reading. Five Chinese students in a graduate program in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) volunteered to participate in the study. A combination of data collection techniques was employed including think-alouds, interviews, learning logs, classroom observations, course materials, and the participants' reading samples. The results showed that there were similarities and differences between LI and L2 reading strategies. Although evidence was found supporting the view of cognitive universals and socio-cultural constraints, individual differences at the cognitive level and similarities across cultures were also identified. The findings of this study indicate that the comparison between LI and L2 academic reading should take into consideration the similarities and differences at both cognitive and cultural levels. Implications are discussed in relation to the construction of an L2 transfer model as well as the delivery of L2 reading instruction. T A B L E OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i T A B L E OF CONTENTS iii LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES .' vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viii CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 1 1.0 Introduction : 1 1.1 The Problem 1 1.2 Purpose of the Present Study 2 1.3 Significance of the Present Study 3 1.4 Definition of Terms 3 1.5 Overview of the Dissertation 8 CHAPTER 2 - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE: READING PROCESS A N D READING STRATEGIES ; 9 2.0 Overview 9 2.1 Theoretical Framework 9 2.2 Research on L2 Reading Strategies 10 2.2.1 Metacognition in L2 Reading 10 2.2.2 Orthographic Influence on L2 Reading 12 2.2.3 Social/Cultural Factors 15 2.2.4 Competent vs. Less Competent Reading .' 17 2.2.5 Reading Strategies Transfer 21 2.3 Taxonomy of Reading Strategies .30 2.4 Summary 32 CHAPTER 3 - METHODS AND PROCEDURES 34 3.0 Overview 34 3.1 Data Collection Approaches Employed in L2 Reading Research 35 3.2 Thinking Aloud and Other Verbal Reports in Reading Research 38 3.3 Using Think-Aloud Method to Investigate Reading Comprehension 40 3.3.1 Historical Background 40 3.3.2 Theoretical Underpinnings of Thinking Aloud 41 3.4 Research Site 46 3.5 Participants 47 3.6 Data Collection Procedures 48 3.6.1 Reading Comprehension Tests 51 3.6.2 Think-Aloud Sessions 52 3.6.3 Reading Strategy Questionnaire and Group Interview 56 3.7 Data Analysis Techniques 57 3.8ySummary 57 iv CHAPTER 4 - ANALYSIS A N D IDENTIFICATION OF READING STRATEGIES: FIVE CASES 58 4.0 Overview 58 4.1 Individual Cases 58 4.1.1 Profile l : X i n 60 Language Learning Background 60 Reading Style and Strategy Use 66 Summary of Xin 69 4.1.2 Profile 2: lian '. 70 Language Learning Background 70 Reading Style and Strategy Use 75 Summary of Jian 91 4.1.3 Profile 3: Guo 91 Language Learning Background 91 Reading Style and Strategy Use 95 Summary of Guo 102 4.1.4 Profile 4: Rong 103 Language Learning Background 103 Reading Style and Strategy Use 107 Summary of Rong 111 4.1.5 Profile 5: Shun 112 Language Learning Background 112 Reading Style and Strategy Use 116 Summary of Shun 125 4.2 Summary 126 CHAPTER 5 - SOCIO-COGNITIVE DISCUSSION TOWARDS A MORE UNIFIED VIEW OF A C A D E M I C READING STRATEGIES 128 5.0 Overview 128 5.1 Academic Reading Strategies: Cross-Case Analysis and Summary 128 5.1.1 Similarities between LI and L2 Reading 134 5.1.2 Differences between LI and L2 Reading 136 5.1.3 Most Frequently Used Reading Strategies 137 5.1.4 Social and Affective Reading Strategies 138 Working Cooperatively and Competing 139 Being Interested/Motivated 141 5.1.5 Interaction of Multiple Factors 145 5.2 Summary , 149 CHAPTER 6 - FINAL R E M A R K S A N D CONCLUSIONS 151 6.0 Overview 151 6.1 Findings of the Study 151 6.2 Instructional Implications 153 6.3 Implications for Future Research 156 BIBLIOGRAPHY 159 V APPENDIX A - INFORMED CONSENT 186 APPENDIX B - GUIDELINES FOR LEARNING LOGS 188 APPENDIX C - CLOZE TESTS 189 APPENDIX D - READING COMPREHENSION TESTS 191 APPENDIX E - READING STRATEGIES QUESTIONNAIRE 204 APPENDIX F - TRANSCRIPTION CONVENTIONS 207 APPENDIX G - A C A D E M I C ARTICLES USED FOR THINK-ALOUD TASKS 208 VI LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Taxonomy of Reading Strategies 31 Table 3.1 Summary of Data Collection Procedures 49 Table 3.2 Reading Comprehension Tests Results 52 Table 3.3 Summary of the Selected Articles for Thinking Aloud 54 Table 4.1 Time Each Participant Spent on Each Think-Aloud Task (in Minutes) 59 Table 4.2 English Reading Strategies Reported by Xin in Her Learning Logs 64 Table 4.3 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Xin in Her Learning Logs 65 Table 4.4 English Reading Strategies Reported by Jian in Her Learning Logs ,...72 Table 4.5 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Jian in Her Learning Logs 73 Table 4.6 English Reading Strategies Reported by Guo in Her Learning Logs 93 Table 4.7 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Guo in Her Learning Logs 94 Table 4.8 English Reading Strategies Reported by Rong in Her Learning Logs 105 Table 4.9 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Rong in Her Learning Logs 105 Table 4.10 English Reading Strategies Reported by Shun in Her Learning Logs 114 Table 4.11 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Shun in Her Learning Logs 114 Table 4.12 Academic Reading Strategies Used by Participants 126 Table 5.1 Reading Strategies Used by Participants in the Six Think-Aloud Tasks 130 Table 5.2 Reading Strategies Reported by Participants in Their Learning Logs 132 Vll LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4.1 Reading Strategies in Xin's Think-Aloud Protocols 68 Figure 4.2 Reading Strategies in Jian's Think-Aloud Protocols 76 Figure 4.3 Reading Strategies in Guo's Think-Aloud Protocols 96 Figure 4.4 Reading Strategies in Rong's Think-Aloud Protocols 108 Figure 4.5 Reading Strategies in Shun's Think-Aloud Protocols 117 Figure 5.1 Influence of Educational Factors on the Reading of Chinese and English.... 145 A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S Throughout my graduate studies at the University of British Columbia, I have received inspiration, advice and encouragement from many people. First, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my committee members, Dr. Lee Gunderson, my supervisor, for his most appropriate and invaluable guidance and suggestions since the beginning of the program; Dr. Patricia Duff, for her insightful comments and support in the warmest and most gracious manner; Dr. Monique Bournot-Trites, for her many encouraging suggestions; And Dr. Gloria Tang, who was a committee member until her sabbatical leave, for her generous help. Without their continued guidance and support, this dissertation would never be completed. Sincere thanks also go to Dr. Jim Anderson, Dr. Linda Siegel and Dr. Rebecca Oxford for their valuable input. I am greatly indebted to the professors, staff and my fellow students in the Department of Language and Literacy Education, as well as my friends and colleagues both in China and in Canada, for sharing my interest and providing me help from various aspects. In particular, the students who participated in this study have earned my deepest respect and appreciation for sharing their thoughts and experiences with me. Last, but not least, I am very grateful to my parents, my parents-in-law, my husband, and my son for their love, support and patience. To all these people, I would like to offer my heartfelt thanks. 1 CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction There are approximately 60 million students studying English as a foreign language (EFL) in China (TEFL-China, 2003). In the year 2001, two million university students were taking English courses for four to eight academic terms (Wu, 2001).The number of students enrolled in English classes increases dramatically each year. As a result of the increasing demand, English language teaching (ELT) has had to reform with regard to language planning, teacher education, writing materials, designing assessments, and conducting research (Qin, 1999; Wu, 2001). This has been particularly true for E F L programs designed for university students. In addition, the number of Chinese graduate students in North American graduate programs has grown over the past decade and the needs and strategies of these second-language (L2) readers are important for all educators to understand. 1.1 The Problem Chinese university students bring a repertoire of reading strategies to their studies as a result of being assigned reading tasks and homework in strategy-based instruction throughout their learning of English in high schools and at universities (Ping, 1995; Pratt & Wong, 1999). However, they do not appear to have sufficient training with regard to how to selectively and efficiently apply reading strategies in dealing with both a foreign language and new written material simultaneously. Consequently, they find reading a major difficulty in English-medium programs. Indeed, many fail to develop adequate second language reading strategies. 2 Academic learning in English-medium graduate programs requires more than just mastering knowledge of the English language. According to Shouyu Boshi Shuoshi Xuewei He Peiyang Yanjiusheng De Xueke Zhuanye Jian Jie (1999) (Ph.D. and M.A. Programs in China) distributed by the State Ministry of Education in China, graduate students are expected to grasp academic content as well as to acquire independent research capabilities. To a great extent, students' academic success in English-medium programs in both China and abroad hinges on their ability to read English. Therefore, academic learning requires both students' own efforts and teachers' assistance that reflect the multidimensional nature of learning from academic texts. Although there have been some informative studies of Chinese students reading English (e.g., Chen & Graves, 1995; Chem, 1993; L i & Munby, 1996, Lin & Akatsu, 1997; Tang, 1997), none appear to have investigated the reading experiences of graduate students in Mainland China. - 1.2 Purpose of the Present Study The purpose of this study is to explore a socio-cognitive view of Chinese graduate students' reading experiences in academic contexts. Specifically, the study was designed to investigate first- and second-language reading processes by examining the reading strategies Chinese EFL learners used in reading Chinese (LI) and English (L2) academic materials, and the phenomenon of reading strategy transfer. It drew on Bernhardt' s (2000) socio-cognitive model of second language reading. There are two research questions addressed in this study: 1. What strategies do Chinese EFL learners use to read Chinese and English texts, respectively, for academic purposes? 3 2. To what extent are students' Chinese reading strategies similar to or different from their English reading strategies and what factors account for these similarities or differences? In order to answer these research questions, information about strategic behaviors in academic reading was obtained with the technique of data triangulation with the think- aloud method being the major data collection technique. 1.3 Significance of the Present Study The study of academic reading strategies is important because of the role of reading comprehension in students' academic success. Foreign language learning can be viewed as the acquisition of the appropriate reception and production processes. Given this perspective, the importance of this study of reading strategies becomes clear. The results can be used to confirm or support Bernhardt's (2000) model (to be described in Chapter 2). In addition, identifying and analyzing LI and L2 reading strategies in academic contexts will be helpful in understanding proficient L2 readers' complex reading processes. Furthermore, crucial information about the integration of individual and socio-cultural processes in reading comprehension may also be obtained. This understanding of cognition and culture can be used for curriculum and program developers in China to efficiently design second language or foreign language reading materials and reading programs. 1.4 Definition of Terms The terms used throughout this dissertation are defined below: 4 .1. Reading Strategy There is a mutually agreed definition of reading strategies. A description of strategy has to account for the view that strategic behaviors are conscious, deliberate, goal-oriented, planful, complex, flexible, and self-regulatory. First of all, reading strategies are mental activities which are highly conscious, deliberate, goal-oriented and planful (Olshavsky, 1976; Paris, Lipson, & Wixson, 1994; van Dijk & Kintsch, 1983). This refers to the state in which readers are aware of what they do and how they make sense of what they read. In particular, when a comprehension problem occurs, deliberate strategic plans will be made to solve the problem (Block, 1986; Langer,J982; Wellman, 1988). Because they are conscious and deliberate, reading strategies are available to conscious verbal report or introspection (Paris, Lipson, & Wixson, 1994).1 Second, strategies are complex and flexible. Strategies "are embedded in complex sequences of behavior or hierarchies of decision" (Paris et al., 1991). Moreover, there is no one strategy which is applicable to all situations. The effectiveness of strategies "depends on the contextual appropriateness of the action, intentions and capabilities of the agent, available alternatives, and the 'costs' to the individual" (Paris et al., 1994, p. 791). Third, reading strategies are self-regulatory. Inherent in this process is the notion of comprehension monitoring or metacognition. Casanave (1988) proposes that comprehension monitoring consists of any behaviors which allow readers to evaluate their ongoing comprehension processes and which help them take compensatory action when necessary. Some researchers (e.g., Anderson & Armbruster, 1984; Wade & 1 More information on the "consciousness" of strategies can be found in the differences between strategies and skills (p. 6). 5 Reynolds, 1989) suggest that there are three kinds of metacognitive knowledge: knowledge about the task (i.e., the examination of the reading task and the decision about what needs to be done), knowledge about strategy (the application and adjustment of strategies), and knowledge about performance (the evaluation of one's understanding). For the convenience of discussing empirical investigations, the term reading strategies in this study is taken to mean a wide range of tactics bearing the above- mentioned characteristics. Sometimes used interchangeably with comprehension strategies, reading strategies in this study are defined as actions which readers take deliberately to achieve a goal or to solve a problem. Reading strategies "indicate how readers conceive a task, what textual cues they attend to, how they make sense of what they read, and what they do when they do not understand" (Block, 1986, p. 465). 2. Strategic Competence The above discussion of reading strategies defines the broad scope of reading strategies including all the reading actions deliberately employed by a reader. Strategies can be identified at any level including the lower level of linguistic processing and the higher level of interpretation processing (Paris et al., 1994). Bachman and Palmer (1996) provide a framework for strategic behaviors, in a broader context of language learning, which is referred to as "strategic competence."2 The researchers conceive of such competence as consisting of three elements: a goal-setting component, an assessment component, and a planning component. Paris et al. (1994) contend that learning to become a strategic reader is fundamental in many learning situations. 2This concept, originally proposed by Canale and Swain (1980) as a component of communicative competence, emphasizes the use of compensatory strategies (i.e., strategies used to compensate when comprehension fails such as literal translation, using the dictionary and guessing form the context). 6 3. Reading Skills Paris, Wasik and Turner (1991) distinguish reading skills from reading strategies. Skills are "information-processing techniques that are automatic, whether at the level of recognizing grapheme-phoneme correspondence or summarizing a story. Skills are applied to text unconsciously for many reasons including expertise, repeated practice, compliance with directions, luck, and naive use. In contrast, strategies are "actions selected deliberately to achieve particular goals" (pp. 610-611). It is contended, however, that there is no clear-cut distinction between strategy and skills (Paris et al., 1991; Vygotsky, 1978). A strategy can become a skill as a result of training and practice (i.e., when the application process becomes automatic and unconscious). Similarly, a skill can become a strategy if it is used deliberately and purposefully. The view of strategies as within the individual's sphere of consciousness is consistent with Ellis' (1994) position that those actions no longer accessible for description through conscious verbal reports lose their significance as strategies. 4. Academic Reading Academic reading is an in-depth comprehension and learning activity in a content area. It "is associated with the requirement to perform identifiable cognitive and/or procedural tasks ... [to meet] the criteria on tasks such as taking a test, writing a paper, giving a speech, and conducting an experiment" (Anderson & Armbruster, 1984, p. 657). In L2 learning, academic reading is related to not only tasks but also to language, concepts, as well as texts in the field. 7 5. ESL vs. EFL English as a second language (ESL) differs from English as a foreign language (EFL) in terms of learning context. A second language has social and communicative functions within the community where the language is learned or acquired with better environmental support. A foreign language, on the other hand, does not have immediate social or communicative functions within the speech community where it is learned. In this study, "L2" was used to refer to "ESL" and "EFL" unless otherwise mentioned. 6. Culture According to Tylor (1987), "[c]ulture ... is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man [sic] as a member of society" (p 37). It distinguishes the member of one group from another. Some aspects of culture (e.g., beliefs and values) are below the surface of consciousness while others (e.g., food and clothing) are within people's consciousness (Hall & Hall, 1990). It is usually the less conscious part of culture that influences language learning (Oxford, 1996). In this study, two levels of culture were identified: educational culture and general culture. 7. Schema According to cognitive theorists (Adams & Collins, 1985; Anderson & Pearson, 1984; Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart & Ortony, 1977), a schema is an abstract structure for prior knowledge, which is stored in the memory system. Schemata can be organized hierarchically. A schema is connected to other schemata by a variety of relations, e.g. part-whole or subordinate-superordinate relations. Because of these characteristics, 8 schemata, in a broader sense, can be applied not only to objects and texts, but also to events and situations. 1.5 Overview of the Dissertation This dissertation is organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 describes the research problem as well as the importance of investigating reading strategies in academic settings. ; Chapter 2 presents the theoretical positions and empirical evidence related to reading comprehension and reading strategies. The purpose of providing a critical review of the literature is twofold: (1) to present a holistic view of L1/L2 reading and (2) to identify areas of consensus and controversy with respect to reading strategies. This chapter begins with a discussion of the theoretical framework for the present study and then reviews recent strategy research for the purpose of providing the criteria for classifying reading strategies in academic settings. Chapter 3 deals with the research design. The research site, participants, data collection techniques and procedures are described in this chapter. Chapters 4 and 5 present the research results and the discussion of data. In Chapter 4, the presentation of the frameworks for analyzing data is followed by descriptions of five individual cases. LI and L2 reading strategies are identified. Chapter 5 focuses on the analysis of possible similarities and differences between LI and L2 reading, and among different readers. Links are made to individual preferences and the cultural context. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings for L2 reading models and reading instruction. 9 C H A P T E R 2 - R E V I E W OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E : R E A D I N G PROCESS AND R E A D I N G STRATEGIES 2.0 Overview This study investigated the academic reading strategies used by Chinese EFL learners in a graduate program in China. Chapter 2 discusses the theoretical framework used in the study and reviews the literature related to L2 reading and strategy uses. 2.1 Theoretical Framework Bernhardt's (2000) socio-cognitive model provided theoretical guidelines for this study because her model is a multifactor account of second language reading. This model is based on a comprehensive analysis of the recent models and research data base in L2 reading. Bernhardt's socio-cognitive model of L2 reading specifically addresses the way L2 learners approach L2 texts. What they read may be culturally distinctive. Four major themes in this model provided guidance for the study. First, the L2 reading process is cognitive because reading is viewed as a problem-solving activity that takes place within the brain's knowledge structures. The L2 reading process is also social because the social context influences reading practice. Second, second language literacy is developmental. Certain kinds of errors may be characteristic of certain stages of . development. This suggests that there is no perfect reader. Third, there exist interactions in L2 reading. In other words, three language-based features (i.e., word recognition, phono-graphemic features, and syntax) and two knowledge-driven aspects (i.e., background knowledge and intratextual perceptions) interact as second language proficiency develops. In addition, metacognitive activities take place at all levels of information synthesis. 10 Finally, L2 reading is situational. L2 readers are different readers at different times in different contexts. As a result, the input (textual information) and the output (reconstructed text) may be different in different situations. This view is supported by Urquhart (1996) and Venezky (1990). Venezky (1990) notes that "most readers show differing reading abilities across different types of materials" (p. 12). The implication of this view is that the interpretation of research findings should take into account the specific context of the study. Despite the fact that some variables (e.g., affective factors) are not considered in Bernhardt's model, it remains to be a well developed model of second-language reading process. 2.2 Research on L2 Reading Strategies Strategic reading is very complex, influenced by various factors such as reading purpose, the reader, and the text. This perspective is true for L2 readers. The review of L2 reading strategies in this section is divided into five parts. The first three sections discuss the three major research trends, which are related to the role of metacognition, orthographic differences, and social/cultural influence on strategy uses. In the fourth and last section, the reading strategies employed by proficient or poor readers are described and the issue of strategy transfer is discussed. 2.2.1 Metacognition in L2 Reading Researchers and educators in L2 teaching and learning increasingly acknowledge the importance of metacognitive knowledge to students' success. Although there is consensus that metacognition is diverse and complex, at a basic level, most researchers suggest that metacognition includes planning, monitoring, evaluating and regulating 11 processes that govern how strategies are effectively employed (Brown, 1980; Flavell, 1979; Paris, Lipson & Wixon, 1994). Moreover, many researchers suggest that knowledge gains are more likely when students are active and self-regulating and use a variety of strategies in order to complete academic tasks (Karabenick, 1996; Pressley, 1995; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1994; Simpson & Nist, 2000; Weinstein, 1994). In the field of second or foreign language reading, researchers such as Carrell, Gajdusek, and Wise (1998) have observed that, the three research streams of investigating metacognition, reading strategies, and strategy training converge. They argue that although L2 readers need a variety of strategies to complete academic tasks, it is metacognitive awareness that is essential to reading comprehension. L2 reading research has focused on the identification of metacognitive strategies primarily and the investigation of strategy transfer (e.g., Block, 1986, 1992; Goetz, 1993; Kamhi-Stein, 1998; L i & Munby, 1996; Tang, 1997). Research indicates that strategies concerning comprehension monitoring and linguistic knowledge are important for L2 reading comprehension, especially in the context of academic reading. One implication of this conclusion is that less proficient readers are able to improve their comprehension monitoring by learning to use the strategies identified in more proficient readers (Anderson & Armbruster, 1984; Carrell, et al., 1989; Wade & Reynolds, 1989). Cross-linguistic studies have also shown that same types of metacognitive and cognitive strategies were employed in both LI and L2 academic reading, thus supporting Cummins' (1979, 1981, 1984) view that there exits a common underlying proficiency that allows literacy-based skills to be transferred across languages. 12 2.2.2 Orthographic Influence on L2 Reading Writing systems are conventionally classified into three major types: logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic according to the basic units of meaning representation and the regularity of symbol-sound correspondence. Two themes occur from the research investigating the orthographic influence on reading strategies. One is that different reading strategies are developed while processing different orthographies, especially at the word recognition level. The other is that L2 readers' LI orthographic backgrounds may have positive or negative interference on their utilization of L2 processing strategies. Most adult L2 learners usually have extensive experience with their first languages. It seems logical to propose that readers' knowledge of their native language affects their reading of a second language. A number of studies have demonstrated that various aspects of LI orthographic knowledge affect L2 word processing. Inherent in this finding is the view of transfer of skills or strategies from LI to L2. Green and Meara (1987), for example, examined the effects of scripts on the visual search of three groups of ESL learners with Spanish, Arabic and Chinese LI backgrounds. They found that although subjects employed different visual processing strategies for letter search in their respective LI, the visual processing strategies in L2 were similar to those used in LI. This finding indicated that orthographic constraints in LI influenced L2 performance, and, therefore, suggested that there was a transfer of processing strategies from LI to L2. A study conducted by Sun (1994) provides confirmation of this finding by showing that the knowledge of LI writing system influenced L2 word recognition process. Two variables were measured in this study: word familiarity and word structure difficulty. Analysis of reading accuracy and response time on word identification showed that orthographic complexity affected strongly L2 word recognition, but no effect was found on LI readers' word recognition. Further support for transfer has been provided by Koda (1988, 1990, 1995). In the first two studies, Koda compared the phonological coding strategies used by ESL learners with Arabic, Spanish, and Japanese LI backgrounds. The data showed that the phonological information provided in L2 reading tasks affected the processing of the alphabetic (Arabic and Spanish) LI readers. However, such information did not show any effects on the logographic (Japanese) LI readers' performance. Koda suggested that the Japanese ESL learners used processing strategies similar to those used in their LI processing that required visual encoding analysis for lexical access. Similar results were reported by Koda (1995), who investigated the phonological processing of Arabic, English, Spanish, and Japanese readers. In that study, two experiments were designed with the first investigating the effects of phonological inaccessibility (i.e., Sanskrit symbols) on reading speed and the second examining the effects of phonological coding interference (i.e., phonologically similar and unpronounceable letter-strings) on recall performance. In the first experiment, the phonographic subjects (Arabic, English, and Spanish) spent more time in reading Sanskrit passages than in reading nonsense English passages. Japanese subjects, on the other hand, spent similar amount of time in the two conditions. This finding suggested that phonologically inaccessible elements affected the reading speed of the phonographic subjects more seriously than that of morphographic readers: The data from Koda's (1995) second experiment showed that the short-term memory (STM) recall performance of the four groups was seriously impaired by phonological coding interference. Moreover, the two types of interference had deferential effects upon the performance between the phonographic and morphographic subjects groups. Findings suggested that phonological recoding was used in STM across languages and that different phonological coding strategies were employed by morphographic and phonographic readers. The results of the two experiments showed an orthographic impact on L2 reading, further confirming transfer across languages. However, as Haynes and Carr (1990) have noted, Japanese language consists of Kanji (logographic) and Kana (syllabic) symbols. Japanese readers in Koda's studies were called "logographic" or "morphographic." Since Japanese readers do use phonological recoding processing when reading Kana (Kimura & Bryant, 1983), Koda's results need to be interpreted with caution. Brown and Haynes' (1985) study of transfer included a developmental issue. These researchers examined the relationship between literacy background and L2 reading development of Arabic, Spanish, and Japanese ESL learners. The results showed that the Japanese learners outperformed the other groups in the visual matching task, but had difficulty in the visual-to-sound translation task, confirming that LI reading experience played a significant role in L2 processing. The researchers also found that the reading ability of the Arabic and Spanish readers 15 was correlated highly with their listening ability. No such correlation was found among Japanese readers. The researchers suggested that LI orthographic experience interacted with other cognitive processes and those different processes were developed among readers with different LI backgrounds. Similarly, Haynes and Carr (1990) measured the reading comprehension of LI (American) and L2 (Chinese) readers. The results were consistent with the idea that orthographic knowledge is important for L2 word recognition. The researchers also found that knowledge of LI writing-system still affected experienced L2 readers, thus suggesting word processing is a significant predictor for individual differences in proficient reading. From another perspective, Geva (1995) studied the development of cognitive and linguistic skills of Grade 2 and 5 English-speaking children learning Hebrew as a second language. She found that those children who were poor LI readers also had problems in L2 reading. Moreover, good LI readers tended to be good L2 readers. The researcher suggested that "[linguistic skills in LI and L2 are related through underlying cognitive constructs such as working memory capacity, and non-verbal ability" (p. 288). 2.2.3 Social/Cultural Factors Parry (1993, 1996) argues that L2 reading strategies are socially and culturally related behaviors. Parry (1993) examined the research on LI and L2 reading and found that considerable differences were reported in the strategies employed by individual readers. A close examination of the strategy use by Japanese and Nigerian readers indicated that how people read was dependent on the social context to which both the text and the reader belonged. Parry suggested that research was necessary on how reading strategies were developed by individuals with different cultural backgrounds and how those strategies were developed in different communities. Following this direction, Parry (1996) explored qualitatively the relationship between L2 reading strategies and a set of cultural practices having to do with literacy. The subjects were Nigerian secondary school students and Chinese university graduates. Different methods were used for collecting data on the strategies used by the students doing academic tasks (e.g., preparing for an exam and for academic reading assignments): interviews for the Nigerian students, and writing assignments for the Chinese graduates. The results indicated that different strategies were reported by the two groups of students. The Nigerian subjects reported a strong tendency to use top-down strategies (i.e., strategies related to background knowledge) whereas the Chinese subjects showed a preference for bottom-up strategies (i.e., strategies related to linguistic features). Different language backgrounds and literacy experiences were then used to account for the differing strategies. Parry suggested that L2 reading strategies could be seen partly as a function of culture. For example, more emphasis on linguistic analysis in English language teaching in China seemed to have affected the Chinese students' bias in L2 reading. Although Parry listed several facts to bear in mind when interpreting the results, she did not explain how other variables (e.g., age, task feature, and learning goals) interacted with the cultural factor and influenced the application of L2 reading strategies. Moreover, Parry did not distinguish testing strategies from reading strategies. As part of the data were collected from the Nigerian students' working for an exam, it is necessary 17 that testing effects be taken into consideration because reading strategies are different from testing strategies. In a cross-language study, Carson, Carrell, Silberstein, Kroll, and Kuehn (1990) examined the LI and L2 reading processes of 48 Chinese and 57 Japanese ESL learners. The data collected from writing prompts and cloze tests showed that different ethnic groups used different strategies in reading. This conclusion is consistent with those drawn from the previous studies, suggesting a powerful impact of educational experiences and cultural practices on the use of reading strategies. However, the researchers did not show the relative significance of educational experiences and cultural practices over time on L2 reading strategies. A longitudinal study carefully controlling these two variables over different developmental stages is necessary. The relationship between L2 strategies and culture reflects the current view that language and culture are interrelated. On the one hand, language is a reflection of cultural norms (Brown 1994; Kramsch, 1989; Lado, 1957), and on the other hand, patterns of dominant beliefs and values are the product of certain language uses (Brogger, 1992). Brogger (1992) suggests that the text is "the linguistic expression of culture" (p. 113). Therefore, the cultural background of the text and that of the reader are very crucial to the understanding of how people read and what strategies they use. 2.2.4 Competent vs. Less Competent Reading This line of research has investigated to what extent skilled reading is different from less skilled reading. Mangubhai (1990) conducted a study examining reading strategies used by proficient and less proficient ESL readers. The subjects in this study were 6 students of English in Year 11, who were asked to complete three cloze passages 18 and at the same time verbally report what they were thinking. The results of the think- alouds revealed different profiles of successful and less successful readers, i.e., they used different reading strategies. Better readers tended to actively use their background knowledge to help construct meaning from the text whereas poorer readers did not show any effective problem-solving strategies when difficulties arose. For example, a good reader looked at the immediate and larger context to ascertain the meaning of an unknown word. A poor reader, on the other hand, used only the immediate context and did not check the correctness of the word meaning. Similar results were reported in a study done by Karnhi-Stein (1998), who examined the characteristics of reading strategies used by adult ESL learners. Three Spanish-speaking college students taking ESL as part of their college courses participated in the study. Data were collected from a think-aloud task, a prior knowledge assessment, a questionnaire, and a summary task. The results showed that among the three subjects, more successful L2 readers used multiple strategies in the process of reading comprehension. The less successful readers, on the other hand, did not do so and frequently failed to resolve their reading problems. In a more complicated study by Block (1992), LI and L2 readers (proficient and less proficient) were examined for how they dealt with vocabulary and referential problems in their reading of an expository text. Twenty-five college students, 16 proficient and 9 nonproficient readers, were classified into four groups: LI proficient readers, LI less proficient readers, L2 proficient readers, and L2 less proficient readers. Three stages of comprehension monitoring by the readers were identified: evaluation (identifying the problem and its source), action (planning and acting), and checking 19 (checking the result and making possible revision). The results indicated that compared with less proficient readers, proficient readers were more aware of problems and they verbalized their strategic plans more frequently. Moreover, proficient readers preferred general strategies for information gathering and comprehension monitoring whereas less proficient readers favored word-based processing strategies at the linguistic level. Researchers in the previous studies focused on the differences between two groups of readers, proficient and less proficient. Other researchers (e.g., Davis & Bistodeau, 1993; Horiba, 1996; Young, 1993) have examined the same individuals in their LI and L2 reading. The subjects who participated in these studies were more fluent in LI reading than in L2 reading. Results showed that due to their limited L2 proficiency, L2 readers tended to rely more on bottom-up strategies. Horiba (1996) compared the comprehension processes of four groups of university students (LI-Japanese, LI-English, English L2 intermediate, and English L2 Advanced) when they read two short stories. Data from verbal reports and free recalls showed that LI readers paid more attention to higher level processing such as the generation of inferences and the integration of general knowledge. L2 readers, on the other hand, used much of their attention for lower level processing (e.g., recognizing words, resolving anaphoric relations). The differences between LI and L2 readers, according to the researcher, might be the result of incomplete competence in the second language. Young's (1993) findings also provide evidence for the effects of low foreign language proficiency on strategy use/This researcher examined the effects of authentic and edited textual input on the comprehension processing strategies used by foreign 20 language readers. Young defined authentic texts as those intended for the native speakers of the target language. Edited texts, on the other hand, derived from original texts and took into account L2 learners' level of language instruction. Forty-nine university students with different levels of Spanish proficiency were asked to read a Spanish authentic passage and an edited passage silently. After silent reading, they performed think-aloud and recall tasks. Statistical analysis indicated that the subjects achieved 9 points higher scores for the authentic text (mean 24 percent) than for the edited text (mean 15 percent). The results also indicated that the subjects employed more local strategies (i.e., word-oriented strategies) in processing edited passage than in reading authentic passage. In this study, the edited text was perceived as more difficult than the authentic text. Thus, the researcher suggested that more strategies at lower linguistic level were used if the text is more difficult. Davis and Bistodeau (1993) conducted a study and found similar results. Sixteen university students, 8 native speakers of English and 8 native speakers of French, were told to report their reading processes while reading two newspaper articles in an English version and in a French version. The data from the think-aloud protocols indicated that differing patterns of strategy use were reported by two groups. When considering the participants reading LI and L2 at the same time, the researchers found that the pattern of strategy use was influenced by various factors. For the native speakers of English, more bottom-up strategies were reported for L2 reading, supporting the hypothesis that limited linguistic proficiency altered the subjects' reading strategies. However, these students' use of prior background knowledge in word recognition suggested that top-down processing strategies also had an effect on their L2 reading. This result can be interpreted 21 by Hudson's position (1982) that under certain conditions it is possible that the reader can override the effects of limited L2 proficiency by using appropriate background knowledge. Davis and Bistodeau's findings, however, failed to extend to the performance of the native speakers of French. No significant difference was found for the effects of language variables on the strategy use. The researchers expressed their concerns over the influence of other variables such as age, educational level, divergent literacy practices, as well as affective factors (e.g., attitudes towards language use). On the whole, research involving skilled readers and skilled reading has indicated that strategies related to comprehension monitoring, problem-solving, and linguistic knowledge are important for L2 reading comprehension, especially in the context of academic reading. The implication of this conclusion is that less proficient readers are able to improve their comprehension by learning to use the strategies identified in more proficient readers (Anderson & Armbruster, 1984; Carrell, et al., 1989; Wade & Reynolds, 1989). However, factors determining whether a reader is proficient are complex. For example, the reader's interest can affect his/her comprehension because greater interest in the reading materials can lead to better comprehension (Carrell, Pharis, &Liberto, 1989). 2.2.5 Reading Strategies Transfer Second language reading is a multifaceted process. There is a considerable amount of literature which supports Cummins' claim of linguistic interdependence between LI and L2. Most of the research has investigated reading. The following discussion draws on research in two areas: the transfer of literacy skills across 22 languages (i.e., from LI to L2 or vice versa) and across modalities (i.e., between reading and writing). Cummins (1979) examined 9 empirical studies and found high correlations between LI and L2 cognitive language skills of minority children. Another major finding was that both LI and L2 language skills showed a very similar pattern of correlations with other verbal and nonverbal variables such as language aptitude and IQ. Leslie (cited in Cummins, 1979), for example, studied Cree Indian children in Alberta learning English as an L2. Statistical analysis indicated that the children's oral Cree proficiency was highly correlated with their English literacy skills. Another study, by Geva and Ryan (1993), examined the extent to which academic performance (i.e., academic reading tasks) could be predicted by such factors as intelligence, LI linguistic knowledge, LI and L2 reading comprehension, and memory. Results involving 75 bilingual children showed that memory measures (word-span, working memory span, and operational speed) correlated with performance on linguistic tasks (tests of knowledge of conjunctions, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and cloze). Children who employed analytical strategies in their LI were more likely to apply these skills in their L2, thus supporting the theoretical notion of interdependence. An evaluation of bilingual programs adds more support to this view of interdependence. A beneficial effect of bilingual instruction and of LI instruction on the development of English literacy skills was reported in several studies (Carlson, 1981; Collier, 1989; Cummins, Swain, Nakajima, Handscombe, Green, & Tran, 1984). Carlson (1981) conducted a study investigating the effects of such variables as \ 23 age of arrival and length of residence on the English proficiency of Russian immigrant children. She found that age of arrival was significantly related to the academic and cognitive skills of English proficiency, rather than to interpersonal communication skills. Cummins et al. (1984) worked with 91 Japanese and 45 Vietnamese immigrant students in Toronto. Three kinds of skills (grammatical competence, interactional style, and academic competence) were assessed by measures such as reading and oral language tasks, and interviews. They concluded that a high level of LI literacy skills and age of arrival facilitated the student's academic progress in English, and that linguistic transfer thus did occur. Similarly, Collier (1987), assessed 1548 ESL students with limited English proficiency from upper or upper middle class families. Results showed that older students used knowledge gained in learning LI to help them make better progress in the acquisition of L2. Research on bilingual programs indicates that instruction in one language not only leads to the development of literacy skills in that language, but also to the development of the underlying conceptual and linguistic proficiency. Therefore, it is concluded that both LI and L2 rest on and affect the development of the common knowledge base. The studies discussed above have focused on school learners, who are in the developmental stages of both LI and L2 literacy skills. Studies with adult L2 learners, however, have yielded mixed results. Numerous studies have been conducted examining the effects of two variables (i.e., LI reading ability and L2 proficiency) on the transfer of reading strategies across 24 languages. Although some researchers have argued for the significance of one variable over the other, others have found an interaction between the two variables. Goetz (1993), L i and Munby (1996), and Tang (1997) examined the reading comprehension processes of the same subjects and drew a similar conclusion that the same reading strategies were identified in both LI and L2 reading, thus highlighting the view of the significant role of LI reading ability. Goetz's investigation (1993) focused on 32 biliterate third and fourth grade readers, who were asked to read two stories in Spanish as LI and English as L2. Results indicated that about the same number of reading strategies were reported for both LI and L2 reading, regardless of the language in which the story was written (M = 7.68 for Spanish, 7.47 for English on the strategy checklist; 3.22 for Spanish, 2.58 for English in the interview). In addition, students who reported using more strategies achieved higher scores in both languages. The researcher concluded that reading strategies exerted possible effects on comprehension and that reading strategies were transferable from students' native language to their second language. L i and Munby (1996) examined the metacognitive strategies of two Chinese university students performing LI and L2 academic reading tasks. Data were collected from interviews, think-alouds, and learning journals. The researchers found that the subjects used the same strategies in both LI and L2 reading (e.g. self-questioning, predicting, and picking out key words). Tang (1997) compared LI and L2 reading strategies employed by eight Chinese students at the university level. Strategies presented from a think-aloud protocol and comprehension checklists were classified into four categories: text-based, text structure- based, text and prior knowledge combined, and self-corrective. The results showed that 25 same categories of strategies were found for students doing reading tasks in both LI and L2. Researchers in the studies discussed previously have claimed that L2 readers rely on their first language reading strategies in their second language reading. However, some concerns have been expressed about the conditions under which the transfer of strategies takes place (e.g., Benedetto, 1984; Bernhardt & Kamil, 1995; Brisbois, 1995; Carrell, 1991; among others). The relative effects of LI reading ability and L2 proficiency have received much attention. Benedetto (1984) conducted five case studies of native speakers of Spanish at the college level learning English as an L2. The data were collected from students' performance on cloze tasks, recalls, and interviews. Benedetto found that students who lacked an efficient approach to texts in LI were less sensitive to textual constraints. Moreover, second language proficiency did not seem to exert an impact on the students' strategy uses. Students relied heavily on the strategies developed in LI reading even after they had acquired a higher level of L2 proficiency. The results implied that compared to L2 proficiency, LI reading was a more important factor affecting L2 reading performance. Block's study (1986) has been frequently cited by L2 reading researchers. In this study, Block examined strategy uses by LI and L2 nonproficient readers. College students (6 ESL students and 3 native speakers of English) enrolled in remedial reading classes were asked to read two passages and report what they were thinking while reading. Two levels of comprehension strategies were identified: (a) general strategies Which dealt with comprehension-gathering and comprehension monitoring (e.g., integrating 26 information, using general knowledge and associations), and (b) local strategies including those for understanding specific linguistic information (e.g., paraphrasing, rereading). Block found that LI and L2 readers seemed to process reading materials in a similar way. That is, ESL readers did not appear to use strategies different from those of native speakers. The researcher suggested that strategy use was a stable phenomenon which was not influenced by specific language features. The implication is that the application of reading strategies is not dependent on the reader's L2 proficiency. However, one reservation for the interpretation of the results is that Block compared reading strategies between two different groups (LI readers and ESL readers) instead of examining the same individuals. Learners' differences which were not controlled in the study might have influenced the interpretation of the results. Carrell (1991), on the other hand, contended that both LI reading ability and L2 proficiency contributed equally to L2 reading. In her study, the L2 proficiency level of the two groups of university students (English and Spanish) varied from intermediate to advanced. The subjects were asked to read in LI and L2 and then answer multiple-choice questions. The results showed that LI reading ability was more important for native Spanish speakers reading English texts. L2 proficiency was more influential for native English speakers reading Spanish texts. Carrell suggested that such difference may be due to factors related to the learner and the learning environment. The Spanish native speakers were learning English in an English speaking country. On the other hand, the English native speakers were learning Spanish outside the Spanish speaking community, which could provide immediate communicative support. The limitation of this study is that levels of L2 proficiency were determined on the basis of instructional level. This 27 measure of proficiency may be questionable because students enrolled in the same class may exhibit significantly different levels of performance. A more stringent set of criteria should be applied to the measurement of L2 proficiency. Studies conducted by Brisbois (1995) and Bernhardt and Kamil (1995) suggested that L2 proficiency had greater impact on L2 reading ability than LI reading. Brisbois (1995) examined the contribution of LI reading proficiency, L2 vocabulary, and L2 grammatical skills to L2 reading performance. One hundred and thirty-three college learners of French who were English native speakers were tested. The results of multiple regression revealed that LI reading ability was a major contributor to L2 reading for readers with higher L2 proficiency. It was, therefore, concluded that L2 readers needed to attain a certain level of L2 proficiency for the transfer of language skills. Bernhardt and Kamil's study (1995) provided supporting evidence for Brisbois' conclusion suggesting significant effects of both LI reading and L2 proficiency on L2 reading with the latter as a more powerful factor. It should be noted that the above studies have followed a correlational research design. Correlations do not necessarily imply direct causal effects (Bell, 1995). In addition, it is suggested that the interaction of other variables such as memory. age> learning styles, and educational background should be taken into account as they influence L2 reading comprehension. Despite the different views on which factor exerts a more powerful influence on L2 reading (LI reading ability or L2 proficiency), the common conclusion drawn from the literature is that LI reading and L2 reading are similar in that they share a common knowledge base which allows reading skills and strategies to transfer across 28 languages (Cummins, 1979, 1981). According to Cummins (1991), such transfer, which is referred to by some researchers (Carson, 1990; Carson et al., 1990) as interlingual transfer, is not unidirectional. That is to say, language learners who are already literate in their first language have two primary sources of influence as they develop second language literacy skills: LI literacy background and input from the second language. According to some researchers (e.g., Carson, 1990; Carson et al., 1990), the input from second language refers to the literacy activities (reading and writing) and is usually called intralingual input. Researchers supporting intralingual transfer suggest that "reading and writing are transferable and intertwined" (Bernhardt & Kamil, 1995). There is a common knowledge base of L2 for both reading and writing. Learners can apply the skills acquired in one modality (reading, for example) to the other (writing in this case). Several studies done by Janopoulous (1986), Campbell (1990), and Carson et al. (1990) have shown positive effects of L2 reading on L2 writing. Janopoulous (1986) found that L2 composition was significantly influenced by exposure to L2 pleasure reading. Campbell (1990) studied how native speakers of English and ESL students at the university level used their background reading texts in their academic writing. Analyses of direct quotations, paraphrases, and summaries showed that the ESL students frequently integrated information from the reading text, and referenced the author or the text. In a more complicated study, Carson et al. (1990) investigated the reading- writing relationship in LI (Chinese and Japanese) and in L2 (English). The participants were asked to write an essay and do a cloze test in both their first and second languages. The results indicated that the relationship between reading and writing skills did not show the same patterns for the two language groups. For Chinese subjects, reading and writing were more related in L2 than in L I . For Japanese subjects, reading-writing connections were noted in both languages. The researchers suggested that the reading-writing relationship might change as L2 proficiency developed. In accordance with the concept of reading-writing connections, common in the reading class is the use of writing as pre-reading (to activate relevant background) and post-reading activities (e.g., writing to comment). More support can be found in the whole language approach in ESL education, where L2 reading and L2 writing are viewed as integrated activities (e.g., Rigg, 1991). L2 reading-writing connections and L1-L2 relationship are two aspects of L2 reading acquisition. Discussion of the literature so far reveals that "at some fundamental core they are interdependent or are in actuality the same" (Bernhardt & Kamil,.1995,p. 17). Second language reading acquisition is a complex process influenced by the interaction of multiple variables including linguistic, individual, instructional, socio- cultural, and political factors. The above discussion has indicated that both LI and L2 language proficiencies share a "deep" common knowledge base that allows cognitive/academic skills to transfer, either across languages or across domains. 30 2.3 Taxonomy of Reading Strategies Based on previous strategy research (e.g., Adamson, 1990; Block, 1986, 1992; Carrell, 1989; L i & Munby, 1996; O'Malley & Chamot, 1990; Oxford, 1990; Tang, 1997), a list of potential reading strategies was identified (see Table 2.1). O'Malley and Chamot's (1990) and Oxford's classifications of learning strategies provided guidelines for the list of reading strategies in this study. To be more specific, there are three categories of L2 learning strategies in O'Malley and Chamot's discussion: metacognitive, cognitive, social and affective strategies. Oxford (1990) distinguishes direct strategies from indirect strategies. Direct strategies refer to language learning strategies that directly involve the target language and thus require mental processing of the language. Direct strategies consist of three subsections, i.e., memory, cognitive and compensation strategies. Indirect strategies, on the other hand, involve metacognitive, affective and social strategies that allow learners to control their cognition, to regulate their emotions, motivations and attitudes, and to learn the language through interaction with others. The proposed list of reading strategies consisted of strategies at the metacognitive, cognitive, social and affective levels. It also indicated the interaction between the reader and the text. It should be noted that this was a working list. It was possible that other strategies would emerge in the process of analyzing data. 60 u Ui •+-» 00 T3 CU c o CO - O I 1- <L> T3 CO CU «*: 4) > O o cu > o o C3 60 e c a> .2 S « <=-< cu 3 CT 3 N 60 C o o c CD c o O & 3 a. 60 C . 3 O t J cu U -C c o O & > g> g> J •C a. cu >> 60 e as u U CO -*-» c cu E c o ' C o 60 c ccj C3 O O 60 C 13 c 15 co C 60 -fe! ° S w -. 3 ^ O O • - g j X £ -| c oo.S ^ ^ cu > 60 <u c 2 >^ c 60 « £ 4=  - 5 ~ 00 O <U ? 60 C H h n 2 S % S c - i a. a, c is E 3 3 E- 3 •4—* — ed cd >- > a. o 5 o 8 E 8 oo O 60 60 .S c n D . X I J O 32 2.4 Summary The previous discussion has attempted to account for proficient L2 reading in terms of strategy uses. Conclusions drawn from the literature are: (1) good L2 readers are strategic; they examine task features, decide what needs to be studied, attend to contextual information, integrate information from the text with their background, identify a reading problem, take effective actions, use a variety of strategies, choose appropriate strategies to achieve their reading goals, monitor their understanding, evaluate strategy uses, and determine what is further needed; (2) less proficient L2 readers can be trained to use strategies more effectively and more efficiently; and (3) various factors such as metacognitive awareness, differences in writing systems, and social/cultural influence affect the use of reading strategies. However, what is missing is the issue of academic success or good learners. In China, for example, many schools and universities equate academic success with their students' high achievements on tests. Recently, many scholars have urged researchers to examine academic success with respect to students' affective and cognitive needs, as well as the social contexts where individuals practice their learning (Cummins, 1996; Norton & Toohey, 2001; Sharkey & Layzer, 2000). Therefore, a list of good reader's strategies may not be of much help in investigating the reading process unless the relationship among the strategies, the individual reader, and the context where reading takes place is taken into consideration. Research on L2 strategy use has demonstrated that strategic behavior is crucial in reading comprehension. Although the facilitative effects of strategy training is widelyv acknowledged, it is not suggested that strategy instruction be taught to the exclusion of 33 other approaches. The development of students' vocabulary and their grammatical knowledge, for example, can support their use of reading strategies (Nagy, 1988; Strother & Ulijn, 1987; Williams, 1986; Zimmerman, 1997). Moreover, it is suggested that reading instruction should incorporate authentic content materials in order to improve students' academic progress in the content area (Chamot & O'Malley, 1987; Hudson, 1991; Kasper, 1997). Furthermore, ESL instructors should help students understand the directions and expectations of content instructors and take steps to complete academic reading tasks successfully (Shih, 1992). Therefore, reading instruction should be conducted in a holistic, task- and text-specific, content-centered, and strategy-integrated curriculum (Grabe, 1991; Shih, 1992). Given that linguistic variables, learner differences, and cultural influence are interacting and impacting upon one another during L2 reading processing, a comprehensive understanding of L2 reading strategies requires examining the effects of individual factors as well as a combination of multiple factors. On a practical note, it is undoubtedly beneficial for ESL teachers to place greater emphasis on strategy training when helping students become more proficient in L2 reading. 34 C H A P T E R 3 - M E T H O D S AND PROCEDURES 3.0 Overview The present study was designed to investigate how Chinese learners read Chinese and English and why they chose the way they read. This study employed five case studies to understand the reading performance of Chinese graduate students. A case study format provided in-depth data for analysis of LI and L2 reading strategies in academic settings. Case study was "an interpretation in context" (Cronbach, 1975, p. 123). The ibcus of this approach was to investigate the interaction of various factors characteristic of the phenomenon under discussion. As Yin (1994) posits, "case studies are the preferred strategy when 'how' or 'why' questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context" (p. 1). In other words, case study was suited to situations where it is impossible to separate the phenomenon and the context. Moreover, any and all methods of gathering data could be used in a case study. A multiple-case design was used, with five single cases selected from volunteers enrolled in a graduate program at a major Chinese university. The principal data collection technique for the present study was thinking aloud. Other methods included interviews, learning journals, classroom observations, questionnaires and survey, and documents. This chapter addresses the methodological issues related to the present study. It begins with a review of data collection approaches employed in reading research, followed by the rationale for the selection of thinking aloud as the major data collection technique for the present study. Next, the information about the research site as well as 35 the participants is provided. Finally, data collection and data analysis procedures are discussed. 3.1 Data Collection Approaches Employed in L2 Reading Research For many years, reading researchers have attempted to employ various techniques to gain insights into the process of reading (see Baker & Brown, 1984 for a review of relevant literature). Some have adopted a quantitative approach to examine how much the reader can grasp from the text. Emphasis has been put on the outcomes of reading performance in an attempt to make inferences of the mechanisms of the comprehension processes that take place during reading. Research with this product orientation has used such assessment measures as comprehension questions (Carrell, 1987; Hudson, 1982), recalls and summaries (e.g., Bernhardt, 1990; Carrell, 1984; Horiba et al., 1993; Riley, 1993; Walters & Wolf, 1986), and cloze tests (e.g., Benedetto, 1984; Clarke, 1979; Cziko, 1978; Geva, 1992; Goldman & Murray, 1992). Multiple-choice, comprehension questions, and recall protocols, for example, have been frequently adopted by L2 researchers (Bernhardt, 1990, 1991; Carrell, 1989, 1991). These techniques help analyze what kind of textual information the reader remembers and how s/he remembers it. Based on the data, researchers can infer what kind of processing strategies the reader uses while reading. However, these techniques fail to account for the type of resources the reader resorts to in solving comprehension problems. Moreover, there is a risk of confusing test-taking strategies with reading strategies. Wolf (1993) posits that the task with which learners are tested is one of the factors affecting the learners' reading ability. Testing tasks may function as an additional 36 source of information facilitating meaning construction in reading comprehension tests (Gordon & Hanauer, 1995). Generally speaking, the criticism of the product-oriented research techniques is that they may be dependent on the reader's memory because they typically test the outcomes of a performance, not the process itself (Alderson, 1984; Baker & Brown, 1984; Cavalcanti, 1987; Pritchard, 1990). Kavale and Schreiner (1979) posit: reading comprehension processes are not directly observable, research efforts have typically been post hoc; that is, subjects are directed to read passages and then answer questions about those passages. From the obtained responses, inferences are drawn with respect to the processes the subjects might have used. Such product-centered research remains speculative, however, because it is once removed from the actual processes of reading comprehension, (p. 104) Parallel with the product-oriented research are process-oriented investigations into the on-line processing of text information. Studies using miscue analysis have focused on errors made during oral reading. Based on Goodman's (1967) model of reading as a "psycholinguistic guessing game," miscue analysis reflects the ways in which the reader interacts with the text. According to Goodman and Burke (1972): [mjiscues are generated by the reader in the same way that expected responses are, and with use of the same information. They are miscues in the sense that the reader, in the process of reading, makes a deviation from the path that would lead to the expected response, (p. 1) However, studies using miscue analysis have produced mixed results. Although Goodman's model suggests that readers' errors do not necessarily interfere with comprehension, some researchers (e.g., Connor, 1981; Mott, 1981; Nicholson, 1978, Nicholson, Pearson & Dykstra, 1979) find no direct relationship between miscues and reading comprehension. Rather, miscues may impede comprehension (e.g., Bernhardt, 1983). Moreover, in the case of L2 reading, it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the errors are the result of miscues, mispronunciation, or slips of the tongue (Tang, 1997). 37 The reason is that many L2 readers, adult readers in particular, begin their L2 reading before they have acquired L2 oral proficiency. Therefore, miscue analysis may not be reliable in the investigation L2 reading. There are other studies that have examined the ongoing processes by utilizing reading time (e.g., Horiba, 1993) and eye movements (Bernhardt, 1986; Just & Carpenter, 1980; Oiler & Tullius, 1973). Research on eye movements has beenbased on LI models of bottom-up processing. The movements appear to confirm the linear sequence of what and how long the reader fixates (Swaffar, Arens & Byrnes, 1991). Eye movements reveal how readers process visual information. Eye movement research in LI indicate that readers tend to spend more time looking at content words than at function words (Carpenter & Just, 1981), and that the length of fixation depends on the difficulty of the reading task (Underwood & Batt, 1996). Sun and Feng (1999) conducted a comparative study of eye movements in proficient LI reading. Thirteen native Chinese graduate students and 13 English-speaking graduates read short paragraphs of popular science articles in their respective L I . The researchers found that the participants had similar eye-movement patterns. That indicates that eye movements are mainly determined by the content of the text, rather than the linguistic characteristics of a particular language. L2 research on eye movements has a relatively short history (e.g., Bernhardt, 1986; Oiler & Tullius, 1973). Bernhardt (1986), for example, investigated eye movements of native and normative speakers reading easy, difficult, and unedited texts. She found that inexperienced L2 readers spent more processing time than experienced L2 readers and LI readers. In other words, inexperienced L2 readers used the same 38 inefficient eye tracking strategy in all three texts. Bernhard's findings support Clarke's (1980) "short-circuit hypothesis" in ESL reading. Based on eye-movement data, researchers can infer what kind of strategies, such as anticipatory strategy, are employed during reading (Bernhardt, 1987). However, eye- movement research focuses only on attention and related processes for readers. It cannot assess reading comprehension, and needs to be supplemented by performance tasks (Baker & Brown, 1984; Kucan & Beck, 1998). Moreover, studies with the eye-movement technique do not look at the effects of background knowledge on the behaviors of readers. Recently, the think-aloud technique, or the expressing of one's thoughts, has received increasing attention in the exploration of ongoing processes as of reading. Originally adopted from cognitive psychology, this method of inquiry has been regarded as a "stream-of-consciousness disclosure of thought processes while information is being attended to" (Cohen, 1998, p. 34). Although criticisms and concerns over the think-aloud technique have been expressed and still continue (e.g., Nisbett & Wilson, 1977; Smagorinsky, 1994; Zabrucky & Moore, 1989), think-aloud has proved to be a valid and reliable research methodology in literacy research (Ericsson & Simon, 1980, 1984, 1993; Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995). 3.2 Thinking Aloud and Other Verbal Reports in Reading Research Think-aloud, as a technique of describing the participant's on-line cognitive processing during the performance of a task, belongs to a larger category of verbal reports which are "subjects' general verbal descriptions of their cognitive processes and experiences" (Ericsson & Simon, 1993, p. xiii). However, this term is often confused with other verbal reports such as introspection and retrospection (Kormos, 1998). 39 Therefore, of particular relevance to the main discussion in this review are the distinctions among think-alouds, introspection, and retrospection. These distinctions are based on two criteria of whether data from the verbal reports reflect: (1) behavior (think- aloud) or process (introspection), and (2) the temporal distance between action and verbalization, i.e., while the task is being performed (concurrent) or after the task has been completed (retrospective) (Ericsson & Simon, 1993; Faerch & Kasper, 1987; Kormos, 1998; Pritchard, 1990). In other words, both think-aloud and introspective procedures refer to the reports of thought processes at the same time as they occur. The difference between think-alouds and introspection is that for the former technique, subjects report their thoughts continuously during various tasks. Think-aloud protocols provide direct observation about a behavior while it still remains in short-term memory (STM). For introspection, on the other hand, subjects are requested not only to describe what is going on in their mind but also to explain their thoughts. In retrospection, subjects verbalize their thought processes after they have completed the task. Retrospective reports are usually characterized by generalized statements about specific behaviors (Cohen, 1998). In this approach, the information that is stored in long-term memory (LTM) is also activated to provide an adequate account of the thought process. This classification of verbal reports is useful from the point of view of data collection design. In practice, however, the borderlines may not be very clear-cut due to the different interpretations of these various research techniques. In L2 research, for example, other research methods such as self-report interviews and questionnaires, group discussions, journals, and diaries have been included in the category of verbal reports (Cohen, 1998; Faerch & Kasper, 1987; Kormos, 1998). 40 3.3 Using Think-Aloud Method to Investigate Reading Comprehension 3.3.1 Historical Background Studying thought processes through think-aloud research methodology has been a procedure in cognitive psychology since the early part of the twentieth century (Duncker, 1926; McCallister, 1930). However, the main thrust of reading comprehension research at that time was dominated by a "strong behavioral and task-analytic notions" (Dole, Duffy, Roehler, & Pearson, 1991, p. 240). Research from the behaviorist perspective examined the surface-level outcomes of the processes (i.e., overt, observable behaviors) so as to infer the nature of the process. During this period, the investigation of reading as a process of active meaning making and problem solving was largely abandoned. In 1972, Newell and Simon published their book Human Problem Solving, which detailed the analysis of think aloud protocols, which they termed as protocol analysis. The researchers studied the problem-solving strategies through the combination of tasks analysis, model building, and think-alouds. Newell and Simon assigned a pivotal role to the analysis of think-aloud protocols provided by their subjects. Since then thinking aloud has become an important tool of inquiry into cognitive processes of people engaged in all manner of activities, from solving puzzles (Thomas, 1974) to composing (Flowers & Hayes, 1981; Hayes & Flower, 1980). Another important event in the historical records of think-aloud research was the publication of Ericsson and Simon's Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data (1984, revised in 1993). Ericsson and Simon interpreted protocol analyses with regard to information processing theory and provided a detailed description of methodological considerations including the specific techniques for analyzing protocols. After the 41 publication of the book, Ericsson and Simon (1984/1993) became one of the most important references on think-aloud methodology. 3.3.2 Theoretical Underpinnings of Thinking Aloud Newell and Simon (1972) provided the theoretical framework of information processing and problem solving, which was then expanded by Ericsson and Simon (1984/1993) in their discussion of on-line verbal reports. The cognitive psychological view of human information processing is able to link the analysis of reading tasks with the construction of a reading model (Ericsson & Simon, 1984/1993; Kucan & Beck, 1998). Ericsson and Simon's (1984/1993) identification of two constructs in the information processing theory is of particular importance to answer the question: "How can processing, which takes place somewhere and somehow in our information processing system, be made observable, and what exactly is being processed ?" (Feldmann & Stemmer, 1987, p. 252) The two constructs are long-term memory and short-term memory. Ericsson and Simon proposed that information is processed as certain mental patterns of knowledge which are stored in "chunks." Knowledge stored in L T M addresses what people know about (i.e., declarative knowledge) and how people do things (i.e., procedural knowledge). One of the characteristics of L T M is that it has "large capacity and relatively permanent storage, but with slow fixation and access times" (Ericsson & Simon, 1993, p. 11). Short-term memory, on the other hand, has limited capacity and intermediate duration. Information stored in STM is often viewed as currently in consciousness (Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995). People can quickly access the contents of STM and report them. The consensus view is that information in STM is easy ' 42 to access but leaves quickly. However, with sufficient operation, information in STM may be transferred to L T M , where it is stored permanently. There are two sources of information for STM: external stimulation through the recognition process and contents from L T M through the association process. The central process determines what part of the information, either from the external sensations or from internal L T M , finds its way to STM. According to Ericsson and Simon (1984/1993), this is the information that is heeded or attended to. The core hypothesis in Ericsson and Simon's theory is that "the information that is heeded during performance of a task, is the information that is reportable; and the information that is reported is information that is heeded" (Ericsson & Simon, 1984, p. 167). In other words, the cmcial issue for concurrent verbal reporting procedures (i.e., think-alouds) is the information which is currently held in STM. This position is supported mostly by analysis of think-aloud data generated in the context of problem solving. Think-aloud protocols play a central role in Problem Solving Theory (Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995; Cavalcanti, 1987). Reading, from this perspective, is conceptualized as a process of problem solving. Emphasis is put on the strategies readers employ to solve problems and to construct meaning. The confidence in the use of think-alouds has been extended to the investigations beyond the well-defined problem-solving activities such as chess and the cryptarithmetic puzzles (Kucan & Beck, 1998). In the ill-defined domain of reading, several attempts have been made using think-alouds not long after the publication of Newell and Simon's book Human Problem Solving (e.g., Olshavsky, 1976; Waem, 1978, 1980). The 43 distinction between well-defined and ill-defined problem solving tasks was clearly made by Waem (1980), one of the first researchers to use think-aloud method in reading. Most problems investigated in problem-solving research are "well defined." By this it means: a test exists, performable by the system, that will determine whether an object proposed as a solution is in fact a solution" (Newell & Simon, 1972, p. 73). In contrast, reading belongs to the general class of "ill-defined" problems. In a reading task, the reader usually sets the goal himself. This goal may be somewhat unclear at the beginning of reading, but can develop and change during the course of reading. (Waem, 1980, p. 123) Waem posits that efforts made to meet the developing goals of reading can be viewed as a problem solving activity. The representation of reading as a problem solving process has led to increasing interest in investigating strategies by skilled readers (Kucan & Beck, 1998). As the nature of think-aloud technique requires the readers to report only on conscious and controlled cognitive processes, Ericsson and Simon (1993) suggest that information requested from the readers relate to specific reading problems, or else the participants will infer or generalize their thoughts as they would do in retrospective reports. There is ample evidence showing that the think-aloud method has been widely adopted in LI reading research (e.g., Collins, Brown, & Larkin, 1980; Kucan & Beck, 1996; Meyers, Lytle, Palladino, Devenpeck, & Green, 1990; Olshavsky, 1976; Schmitt, 1988; Waem, 1978, among others). The focus of these studies was the problem solving strategies in reading comprehension. Results demonstrated that think-aloud was a valuable and promising research tool. L2 strategy research has benefited greatly from the extensive use of think-aloud method in LI reading. Studies using think-aloud method have been focused on examining 44 the strategies that L2 readers use for dealing with comprehension difficulties (e.g., Block, 1986, 1992; Davis & Bistodeau, 1993; Horiba, 1996; Hosenfeld, 1977; Kamhi-Stein, 1998; L i & Munby, 1996; Mongubhai, 1990; Young, 1993). Results from the literature have shown that reader-generated data have revealed the complex nature of reading processing. However, research with mixed results has led many reading researchers to consider the appropriate conditions under which think-aloud technique can be brought to its full potential (e.g., Anderson, 1991; Davis & Bistodeau, 1993; Gamer, 1987; Rankin, 1988, among others). As with other data collection techniques, there are drawbacks and limitations to the think-aloud method. First, language plays a central role in the data collection procedure. Due to a readers' inadequate command of their L2, more cognitive demands are placed on L2 readers (Cohen, 1996), which may result in incomplete verbal reports (Block, 1992). On the other hand, the use of LI in verbalizations is also problematic because there is a process of recoding, which may interfere with the readers' natural processes of reading. Second, mental operations that are automated are not likely to be part of the content of immediate awareness (Waem, 1988). In this view, those processes which are already automatic and not easily verbalized may not readily be studied through think- aloud method (Block, 1986). Therefore, the challenge for studies investigating LI and L2 reading of learners with already developed LI literacy system is that many of the processes which tend to be automated and unconscious in LI reading will become unautomated and conscious in their L2 reading. This makes it difficult to compare think- aloud protocols obtained from LI and L2 reading. 45 Third, task verbalization may interfere with the natural process of reading. That is concerns have been expressed about the accuracy of subjects' reports (Baker & Brown, 1984; Bacon & Finnemann, 1990). Bacon and Finnemann (1990) claim that "students may respond in a way they believe they are expected to respond" (p. 460). Note the same criticism has been made about interviewing as a research method. Despite these drawbacks, the think-aloud technique has continued to be an effective research method for providing the most objective and on-line information about the processes of L2 reading (e.g., Gamer, 1982; Block, 1986, 1992; Auberbach & Paxton, 1997). The value of thinking aloud is that it is "extremely revealing about the dynamics i of comprehension difficulties and how understandings of text shift in reaction to comprehension difficulties and surprises in text" (Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995, p. 38). However, researchers should bear in mind the conditions under which the think-aloud method can be employed and its data interpreted. These conditions include providing clear instructions in the training session prior to data collection (e.g., Cohen, 1998; Cohen & Hosenfeld, 1981; Gamer, 1982; Afflerbach & Johnston, 1984); designing tasks with appropriate difficulty level (e.g., Cohen & Hosenfeld, 1981; Ericsson & Simon, 1993), and appropriate data transcription and analysis (e.g., Ericsson & Simon, 1993; Green, Franquiz, & Dixon, 1997; Kasper, 1998; Roberts, 1997; Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995). A proper way of using think-aloud method in L2 reading research can offer a unique and indispensable insight into L2 reading processes. Moreover, as has been frequently pointed out by many researchers, the validity of the think-aloud method can be considerably enhanced with the complementary use of other research methods such as retrospective reports (e.g., Cohen, 1998; Ericsson & 46 Simon, 1980; Faerch & Kasper, 1987; Gamer, 1982; Kormos, 1998). Despite the potential disadvantage of providing inadequate and inaccurate information about the participant's mental activity (Cohen, 1987, 1998; Hare, 1981; Johnston, 1983; Winograd & Johnston, 1982), retrospection remains a popular research method in language learning because data from retrospective reports involve the description of subjects' metacognitive thoughts (Cohen, 1998; Kormos, 1998). Literature has shown that journals are effective for identifying the strategies employed by readers (Wollman, 1989). Moreover, retrospective approaches such as questionnaires and self-report instruments have frequently been employed used in reading research for the purpose of gaining insights of self-awareness of strategic reading processes (Barnett, 1988; Padron & Waxman, 1988, 1990; Syananondh & Vattanapath, 1991). Therefore, a combination of methods was employed in this study. Apart from think-aloud, other sources of data include interviews, learning diaries, classroom observations, reading strategy questionnaire, survey and documents. 3.4 Research Site The site of this study was a major university in Beijing. The Department of Foreign Languages and Literature had offered a graduate program in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) since 1989. According to the program description, this M.A. program was designed to prepare students for a career in EFL, teacher training or in English for specific purposes (ESP). The program was based on a joint project between the university and the British Council, which started in September, 1988 and ended in 1994. The major objectives in this program were to help students: 47 • to acquire a background knowledge of modern linguistic theories with particular reference to English; • to understand how such theories may be of practical relevance to language teaching and learning with special emphasis on methodology, materials development, and evaluation procedures for TEFL in China; • to gain some teaching experience in order to put theory into practice; • to raise their own proficiency in English language skills in order to be able to function as EFL teachers or teacher trainers in higher education in China, and; • to develop the capability of undertaking research work in their chosen field. There were 20 to 30 M.A. students enrolled in this program each year. Some of them were part-time students whereas others were full-time. The students were required to take two years of coursework of 44 credits, the distribution of which was 4 credits for political studies, 4 for second foreign language, 8 for language proficiency courses, 17 for degree courses, 8 for optional courses, and 3 for practicum. Upon completing all the coursework, M.A. candidates could spend their third year writing their theses. First-year and second-year students usually could not take the same courses at the same time. 3.5 Participants As has been described in Chapter 1, the purpose of the study was to investigate Chinese EFL learners' academic reading experiences. With this in mind, the researcher made a public announcement about her research project in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature in the spring of 1999. Five female students who were in the 48 first year of the TEFL program volunteered to participate in the study. They were Xin, Jian, Guo, Rong and Shun (pseudonyms). The participants were between twenty-two and thirty-three years of age at the time when the study was conducted. They had studied English for at least ten years, six years in high schools and four years majoring in English at universities or colleges. Three of them had taught English before entering the program. A l l of the participants lived on campus. The courses they were taking included Research Design and Statistics for TEFL, Readings on Linguistics, TEFL Methodology, Action Research, Testing, Psycholinguistics and Sociolinguistics. 3.6 Data Collection Procedures The researcher followed the five students for an academic term, i.e., from March to mid July 1999. A summary of data collection procedures is presented in Table 3.1. There were three group meetings during this period. In early March, the researcher i organized the first group meeting. The first part of the meeting involved self-introduction, the purpose of which was to establish rapport. Next, the researcher explained, in more detail, the purpose of the study and how data would be collected. The participants were asked to sign consent forms (see Appendix A). They were also told that each of them would need to take part in three think-aloud sessions, one at the beginning of the semester, one in the middle, and the last one at the end of the semester. The dates and the times of the think-aloud sessions were then decided based on the individuals' schedules. The first was in early April, the second in May, and the third at the end of June. 49 Table 3.1 Summary of Data Collection Procedures Group Meetings Time 1 (Mar.) Time 2 (May) Time 3 (Jul.) (Cloze Tests and Reading Comprehension Tests) (Feedback) (Reading Strategy Questionnaire and Group Interview) Think-Aloud Sessions Session 1 (Apr.) Session 2 (May) Session 3 (Jun.) (2 Academic Texts) (2 Academic Texts) (2 Academic Texts) Learning Logs Mar. - mid Jul. Diaries about what the participants read and how they read Classroom Observations Mar. - mid Jul. The relationship between the information gained from their reading and classroom activities Note: The instruments used are presented in parentheses. In the same meeting, each participant was given guidelines (see Appendix B) to write learning journals/logs, i.e., to keep a record of what the student read and how she read every day. In their first learning log, they were asked to write about their personal c 50 information, their experience in English and Chinese learning/teaching, and their view of LI and L2 reading. The time varied depending on how long the participants wanted to spend writing their diaries. Finally, participants took two cloze tests, one in English and the other in Chinese (see Appendix C). In addition, they took two 60-minute reading comprehension tests, one in English and the other in Chinese (see Appendix D). The purpose of using these tests was to identify their LI and L2 reading proficiency levels. In early May, the researcher and the participants had the second group meeting for the purpose of collecting their feedback on the study. During the third group meeting in July, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire of reading strategies (see Appendix E). In addition, they were interviewed regarding their opinions about the courses and the instruction in this program as well as their suggestions for the study. During the semester, the researcher observed all the class sessions of the courses. The purpose was to find out how the participants used the information they gathered from their reading in their classroom activities. The documents the researcher collected included course descriptions and course packages, samples of the participants' writing assignments, and some reading articles used by the participants. Other sources of data came from casual conversations with the instructors, the participants, and with other graduate students in the same program. In the following sections, more detail will be provided regarding the instruments used in the study. They are: (1) cloze tests and reading comprehension tests, (2) think- aloud sessions, and (3) reading strategy questionnaire and interviews. 51 3.6.1 Reading Comprehension Tests It was assumed that participants were proficient in both Chinese and English since they had learned English for more than ten years and that they had passed the Chinese language test in their Matriculation Examinations for entering universities and colleges in China. The purpose of using two cloze tests and two comprehension tests was to identify whether the participants were proficient in LI and L2 reading. The researcher spoke with a professor specializing in testing in the department. She recommended using the reading section of a language test in Certificate of Proficiency in English (1995), i.e., Cambridge Level Five designed by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). The examination system was composed of five levels: Key English Test (Level One), Preliminary English Test (Level Two), First Certificate in English (Level Three), Certificate in Advanced English (Level Four), and Certificate of Proficiency in English (Level Five). Upon the advice of the professor, the researcher selected a sample , test comprised of three comprehension passages with 15 multiple-choice questions and a cloze passage with 41 blanks. Like the English reading test, the Chinese reading test also consisted of a reading comprehension section of three passages and a cloze section. The researcher worked with a Grade 12 teacher of Chinese at the secondary school attached to the university in selecting the test items. Three comprehension texts and a cloze passage were chosen from two tests: 1998 Chinese test for Matriculation Examination and 1998 Chinese test of Entrance Examination for Continuing Education. Both tests were similar in that they tested the language proficiency level of applicants for entering universities or colleges. However, the former was aimed at high school graduates whereas the latter at adults in 52 continuing education. Moreover, compared with the latter, the former had more test items which were focused on the linguistic analysis of Chinese or classical Chinese. Such analysis was an indispensable part of secondary education but might be too distant from the present lives of the participants. Therefore, these items were excluded in the reading test for the present study. The comprehension section in the Chinese reading test included 13 comprehension and multiple-choice questions and the cloze section included 41 blanks. The Chinese and English tests were comparable in that both had similar number of test items and intended to test advanced level of reading comprehension in either language. The participants took the tests in the first group meeting in March. Before they took the tests, they were asked whether or not they knew the sources of the tests. None of them said that they had seen those tests before. Results showed that all the participants were proficient in Chinese and English reading, i.e., all of them achieved scores over 80 in both tests (Table 3.2). Table 3.2 Reading Comprehension Tests Results Xin Jian Guo Rong Shun Mean Standard Deviation Chinese 91.5. 81.0 83.0 80.5 85.0 84.2 4.45 English 85.5 90.0 81.5 84.0 80.0 84.2 3.88 3.6.2 Think-Aloud Sessions A pilot study using the think-aloud method was conducted in early January, 1999. Two second-year students in the same program volunteered to participate in the pilot study. After careful consultation with the instructors, the researcher chose two academic 53 articles for the think-aloud tasks. The title of the first article was "Learning Strategies and Learning Environments" (LoCastro, V. (1997), TESOL Quarterly, 31, 409-414). This was a report written in English about a study on the learning strategies used by successful Japanese learners of English. The second article was written in Chinese. (Hua, H. (1998). Shi Lun Yingyu Xuexi De Dongji Y u Celue De Yanjiu. Foreign Language World, 3, 44- 47). The English translation of the title was "On the Relationship between Motivation and Learning Strategies." The report was based on a study using questionnaires and a survey. The two volunteers read the texts and spoke to a tape recorder. The researcher found that the method of think-aloud was appropriate for the present study. However, the original intention of asking the participants to respond in English was changed because the two volunteers in the pilot study, although regarded as top students in the second year class, felt it very difficult to express their flow of thoughts fluently in English. On the contrary, they used a mixture of English and Chinese. Therefore, the researcher decided to let participants decide on which language they felt comfortable using to describe their thoughts in the think-aloud tasks. A mutual decision was also made between the researcher and each participant on the dates of the three think-aloud sessions. The first think-aloud session took place in early April, the second in mid May, and the third at the end of June. As to the reading materials for the think-aloud tasks, compared with the content and the type of the article, the length of the articles was of less priority in the process of selecting reading materials. Altogether 12 articles were selected from academic journals in the field of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). These 12 articles were classified into three categories: 4 in the category of literature review, 4 in 54 the category of quantitative research report, and 4 in the category of qualitative research report. In each category there were 2 articles in Chinese and 2 in English. To ensure no articles had been used before for course purposes, the researcher consulted the instructors and finally selected 6 articles,3 3 in Chinese and 3 in English (see Table 3.3). Table 3.3 Summary of the Selected Articles for Thinking Aloud English English 1 (El) English 2 (E2) English 3 (E3) Polio, C , & Wilson- Duffy, C. (1998). Teaching ESL in an unfamiliar context: international students in a North American M A TESOL practicum. TESOL Journal, 7, 24- 29. Ooi, D., & Kim-Seoh, J. L. (1996). Vocabulary teaching: Looking behind the word. ELT Journal, 50, 52-58. Simpson, C. (1997). Culture and foreign language teaching; Language Learning Journal, 15, 40-43. Chinese Chinese 1 (Cl) Chinese 2 (C2) Chinese 3 (C3) Wen, Q. (1995). Yingyu xuexi chenggong zhe yu bu chenggong zhe zai fangfa shang de chayi. Waiyu Jiaoxue Yu Yanjiu, 3, 61-66. (Wen, Q. (1995). Differences in strategy uses between successful and non-successful learners of English. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 3, 61-66.)A Chen, J. (1997). Yingyu xuesheng ketang jiaolugan yu kouyu shuiping de guanxi. Guowai Waiyu Jiaoxue, 1, 15-18. (Chen, J (1997). The relationship between classroom anxiety and the level of spoken language. Foreign Language Teaching, 1, 15-18.) Chen, S. (1997). Wenhua yu waiyu jiaoxue de guanxi. Guowai Waiyu Jiaoxue, 2, 1-4. (Chen, S. (1997). The relationship between culture andforeign language teaching. Foreign Language Teaching, 2, 1-4.) The procedure for the three think-aloud sessions was as follows: Session 1 (April) 3 The six academic articles are in APPENDIX G. 4 The translations are in italics. 55 1. Researcher introduced the study 2. Pre-training of the think-aloud procedure 3. Participant read and responded to the article of "Teaching ESL in an Unfamiliar Context: International Students in a North American M A TESOL Practicum" 4. Immediate interview 5. Participant read and responded to the article of "Yingyu Xuexi Chenggong Zhe Zai Fangfa Shang De Chayi" (Differences in Strategy Uses between Successful and Non-Successful Learners of English) 6. Immediate interview Session 2 (May) 1. Brief review of the think-aloud procedure 2. Participant read and responded to the article of "Vocabulary Teaching: Looking behind the Word" 3. Immediate interview 4. Participant read and responded to the article of "Yingyu Xuesheng Ketang Jiaolugan Yu Kouyu Shuiping De Guanxi" (The Relationship between Classroom Anxiety and Level of Spoken Language) 5. Immediate interview Session 3 (June) 1. Brief review of the think-aloud procedure 2. Participant read and responded to the article of "Culture and Foreign Language Teaching" 56 3 Immediate interview 4 Participant read and responded to the article of "Wenhua Yu Waiyu Jiaoxue de Guanxi" (The Relationship between Culture and Foreign Language Teaching) 5 Immediate interview There was a 20-minute training of the think-aloud method in the first session. Participants were encouraged to speak in whatever language they felt comfortable. In each think-aloud session, the participant was asked to read the text silently and verbalize to the tape-recorder what she was thinking or doing. A red dot was placed at the end of each sentence to remind the participant to speak. The average length of a think-aloud session was about 82 minutes. After the participant finished reading, an immediate interview was conducted. The focus of the interview was on what information the student could recall, and what strategies she thought she had used during reading. Some of the questions raised were specifically related to what the researcher observed when the student was reading. A l l the think-aloud sessions and the immediate interviews were tape-recorded. 3.6.3 Reading Strategy Questionnaire and Group Interview The reading strategy questionnaire for reading in Chinese and in English was administered in the third group meeting in early July. This questionnaire was an edited version of the one designed by the researcher in her M.A. thesis. It consisted of 41 statements with a six-point rating scale with 1 representing "never" and 6 "always." Participants were asked to respond to each statement by writing the appropriate numbers next to it. 57 The purpose of conducting a group interview was to gather information about students' opinions about and attitudes towards the courses they were taking, the instruction they were receiving, as well as their academic learning and reading in general. 3.7 Data Analysis Techniques In qualitative research, coding means looking for patterns in the data and examining pre-formed categories based on the literature. Coding serves to interpret, synthesize, and sort out emergent themes from observations, interviews, and other sources of data (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). In this study, an open coding approach of examining, comparing, and categorizing (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) was employed as the major analysis technique. This approach was similar to the one proposed by Spradley (1979), i.e., domain, taxonomic, componential, and themes analysis. Moreover, strategy uses were also counted so that LI and L2 reading strategies could be compared in terms of frequency. 3.8 Summary This chapter has addressed the methodological issues related to the present study. It began with a rationale for using the think-aloud method as the principal data collection technique followed by a description of the research site and participants. Next, data collection procedures as well as the instruments employed in the study were described. The open coding approach was then discussed in relation to data analysis. The next chapter presents detailed information about individual cases under investigation. 58 C H A P T E R 4 - ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF READING STRATEGIES: FIVE CASES 4.0 Overview Understanding how these Chinese readers processed academic texts in English (L2) and in Chinese (LI) required a careful examination of the reading strategies the participants employed in dealing with specific texts, the frequency of strategy occurrence, and the reasons behind the strategy use. In this chapter, data are presented in five individual cases. Each case study consists of two subsections, i.e., (1) language learning background and (2) reading style and strategy use. The first subsection describes each participant's language learning background and her current reading and learning experience so as to provide a context of the reading world of the participant. The second subsection describes the reading performance of each participant in the six think-aloud tasks. The identification of reading strategies and the frequency of strategy use indicate the type and quantity of interaction between the reader and the text in the actual reading task. 4.1 Individual Cases The think-aloud protocols revealed a complex process of strategy use. As a group, the five participants read the articles individually from the beginning to the end. Sometimes they stopped in the middle, rereading, examining, predicting, and commenting. Other times, they read ahead even when comprehension problems occurred. Sometimes they read very fast, skipping some of the major themes in the article while other times they were quite efficient in identifying the key points. The participants' purposes for reading varied depending on the nature of the task, their long-term and 59 short-term academic goals and their interests. Moreover, participants were different from one another in terms of individual reading times, reading strategies in dealing with each article, and the reasons each participant gave for strategy use. Table 4.1 presents the length of time each participant spent on each think-aloud task. Table 4.1 Time Each Participant Spent on Each Think-Aloud Task (in Minutes) Task Length (#of sentences) Xin Jian Guo Rong Shun Total Average E l 149 41.4 36.2 35.2 43.9 57.3 214.0 42.8 C l 190 35.2 36.3 38.1 39.6 53.4 202.6 40.5 E2 86 50.3 42.9 43.3 55.6 51.4 243.5 48.7 C2 116 33.8 32.4 31.4 34.7 40.5 172.8 34.6 E3 97 38.4 40.2 44.3 46.8 , 45.4 215.1 43.2 C3 75 28.1 30.7 36.5 40.8 41.5 177.6 35.5 Total 227.2 218.7 228.8 261.4 289.5 Average 37.9 36.5 38.1 43.6 48.3 Note: E l : English text: qualitative C l : Chinese text: qualitative E2: English text: quantitative C2: Chinese text: quantitative E3: English text: literature review C3: Chinese text: literature review Participants varied in the time they spent reading each article. This could be due to the fact that some made more associations while others skipped more material. Moreover, in the immediate interviews, all five told the researcher that, although they had noticed a similar academic style between the Chinese and the English texts in each think- aloud session, they found reading in Chinese much easier than reading in English and, therefore, spent relatively less time reading the Chinese articles. The following five subsections present detailed case studies of the participants. Each case study is an analysis of the student in terms of her language learning background and strategy use for the accomplishment of the six reading tasks. To be more specific, the first part of each case study consists of a description of the participant's academic background in relation to her past learning experience in Chinese and in 60 English, her language teaching experience if she had any, and the current graduate program she was attending. The data presented in this subsection came from each participant's learning logs, interviews, completed questionnaire on reading strategies, classroom observations, and her reading and writing samples. The second part of each case study consists of a detailed analysis of the participant's strategy uses as revealed in the think-aloud protocols. A l l the think-aloud protocols and interviews were transcribed. Data were read and revisited numerous times. The researcher coded the data and identified a categorization of reading strategies according to the research purpose. Later, the researcher recoded and re- categorized the data twice at two-month intervals. The percentage of consistency between the primary codings with the second and the third codings was 91.6% and 90.2%5 respectively. Moreover, the list of identified reading strategies, together with a randomly selected excerpt of each think-aloud protocol was sent to an EFL teacher, who was proficient in both Chinese and English, for recoding. This rater was free to add reading strategies to the existing list. Her codings were then compared with the researcher's. The percentage of consistency between the rater's and the researcher's codings was 90.1%. 4.1.1 Profile 1: Xin Language Learning Background Xin graduated from a major university in the northeastern part of China with a Bachelor degree in English. She had studied English for eleven years. In the first and second year of her undergraduate program, language teaching and learning were focused 5 The researcher compared the lists of reading strategies identified the second time and the third time with those identified the first time and calculated the percentage of consistency. 61 on vocabulary learning and literature appreciation, as in the courses of Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading.6 Teacher lecturing and students doing grammar or comprehension exercises were the major classroom activities in both courses. There were some group discussions and pair work, but the focus was on the clarification of vocabulary items and the checking of reading comprehension by way of comprehension questions, multiple-choice questions and true/false statements. Xin had taught English for four years before entering the graduate program. She was, at the time of the study, teaching "Cambridge Young Learners' English" as her practicum with a specific focus on conversational skills. She was also teaching "American Family Album" 7 at a night school. Xin preferred to use a communicative teaching method to teach Cambridge English. But at the night school, she tended to combine the communicative approach with a more traditional structural approach. When she first entered graduate program, Xin had many difficulties in understanding academic content and terminology. She tended to read an English academic article for a while and then took a short break by reading some Chinese material for entertainment. She would turn back to the English article when she felt less strained. Xin liked to consult with students who were senior to her when she had difficulties in her coursework. The reason was that those students could give her academic guidance because they knew more about the program requirements and their teachers' expectations. i 6 Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading were two compulsory courses for students who majored in English. The former focused on teaching vocabulary, grammar/language points, and writing styles whereas the latter on reading skills, speed reading, and reading comprehension. 7 "Cambridge Young Learners' English" was an EFL program aiming at teaching kids basic English. "American Family Album" was a course offered at that night school teaching students mainly conversation and listening skills. It was also the title of the textbook used in the course. 62 Xin was different from the other four participants in that, although she was enrolled as a first year graduate student in the TEFL program, she had audited some of the first year courses before she was formally accepted into the program. Therefore, she was the only participant who was considering writing a research proposal. The title of her research proposal was "Chinese Children's English Phonological Awareness and Its Relation to Reading." Therefore, compared with the other students, Xin used more planning strategies, and was more motivated in looking for Chinese academic articles. Xin said she would read in a different way depending on her reading goals. If the material was not required by the instructor, she would usually read the article several times. In the first time, she would skip those places she did not understand because she wanted to get the gist of the text. She reported that keeping on reading sometimes helped her understanding because "the information in the later part of the text explained the unknown or difficult points in the previous part." However, as she went on reading, new comprehension problems occurred. She had to wait for a later explanation from the text. That was, as she called it, "spiral progression," which indicated the clarification of the previous information, the occurrence of new comprehension problems, and the suspension of the problems for later understanding. As for the course readings, Xin said that she skimmed and scanned the reading materials if they were for in-class discussions or if they were chosen by other students for their oral presentations. The only times when she read very carefully and used the dictionary were when she had to read for an exam and when she wanted to present the article to the class (Learning log/June 28, 1999). It should be noted that Xin not only frequently summarized orally what she had read previously but also made written summaries. She said written summaries were prompts 63 for the readings, which would be useful for the organization of the readings for writing, for discussion, and for exams. Xin found it very helpful noting good expressions and sentences she could use when writing assignments. As far as her learning logs were concerned, Xin wrote 47 diary entries. Her learning logs were related to three aspects of reading: (1) academic reading in English, mostly written in English; (2) her students' assignments at the night school, in English; and (3) pleasure reading of newspaper, magazines and short stories, all in Chinese. Table 4.2 and Table 4.3 show the types of reading strategies and their frequencies, as revealed from Xin's learning logs. On the whole, Xin reported strategy use 133 times while reading in English and 122 times while reading in Chinese. It is interesting to notice that Xin wrote her diary entries in English when she read English but she wrote in Chinese when she read Chinese. No Chinese words were found in her English diary entries but there were occasional English words in her Chinese diary entries. As can be seen from Table 4.2, the most frequently reported strategies for reading English were switching languages (17), raising questions (17), invoking prior knowledge (13), making summaries (12), and making comments/evaluating (10). This indicated that Xin was mostly aware of these five reading strategies or that she possibly used these strategies more frequently than other strategies. 64 Table 4.2 English Reading Strategies Reported by Xin in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Setting reading goals 7 Strategies Planning 2 Making comments/evaluations 10 Making predictions/ 3 Confirrning/verifying/revising hypotheses 1 Identifying reading problems 2 ' Raising questions 17 Being aware of strategy use 2 Cognitive Language Analyzing sentence structures ' 1 Strategies Content Identifying main ideas 3 Looking for specific information 4 Invoking prior knowledge 13 Making summaries > 12 Verbalizing from graphics 1 , Structure Noticing the format of the whole text 1 Noticing graphics 1 Attending to references 3 Recognizing different rhetoric patterns 2 Others, i.e., Identifying intended audience 1 study Reading aloud 1 strategies Rereading/ reviewing 3 that apply to Skipping 2 the 3 levels Taking notes 5 Switching languages 17 Using the dictionary 3 Photocopying/purchasing 2 Social Asking other people 2 Strategies Discussing with other people/cooperating 1 Affective Being interested/motivated 8 Strategies Managing/adj usting boredom/stress/frustration 3 Total 133 Table 4.3 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Xin in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Setting reading goals 8 Strategies Planning 4 Making comments/evaluations 6 Making predictions/ 1 Confirrning/verifying/revising hypotheses 1 Identifying reading problems 6 Raising questions 11 Being aware of strategy use 3 Reasoning 1 Cognitive Language Analyzing sentence structures 1 Strategies Content Identifying main ideas 4 Looking for specific information 4 Invoking prior knowledge 10 Making summaries 13 Structure Noticing the format of the whole text 1 Noticing graphics 3 Attending to references 1 Recognizing different rhetoric patterns 1 Others, i.e., Identifying intended audience 1 study Guessing/Inferencing 4 strategies that Reading aloud 1 apply to the 3 Rereading/reviewing 3 levels Skipping 1 Taking notes 1 Switching languages 21 Social Strategies Asking other people 1 Affective Being interested/motivated 8 Strategies Managing/adjusting boredom/stress/frustration 2 Total 122 It should be noted that although being interested/motivated and setting reading goals were not among the list of most frequently used strategies, they did show up relatively frequently. One possible explanation for this was that Xin was very motivated to find resources for her thesis proposal. She had overt reading goals and had to identify information that was important and useful for her research. She even went to the 66 Department of Psychology for resources and consultation since her research was related to phonological awareness. Xin's reading of Chinese was similar. The most frequently reported strategies in Xin's diaries were switching languages (21), making summaries (13), raising questions (11), and invoking prior knowledge (10). In her learning logs, Xin said that she often noted the references which she thought would be useful some day in the future. For example, in her May 16th diary, Xin wrote: Kan le Le (1997) de "Yuyan Huode Lilun Yanjiu," youguan Maccoby dui xingbie fazhan de san ge jieduan ....Maccoby de yuanzhu shi zenme shuo de? Wo cha le reference. (IreadLe's (1997) article "Theories of Language Acquisition. " The author mentioned three stages of gender development, as proposed by Maccoby.... What did Maccoby actually say in his book? I have noted the reference.)8 Xin believed that reading aloud helped her understand. In her diary dated May 17, Xin mentioned that she had read aloud a piece of news in Chinese on the invention of plastics. Skimming and scanning did not seem to work because there were many chemical terms. So she decided to read the news aloud. She read the unknown words with extra word stress. This, according to her report, brought more attention to the words and thus made her rely on various sources including the text and her background knowledge to make sense of the words. Reading Style and Strategy Use It took Xin about 227 minutes to complete all the six think-aloud tasks. Xin told the researcher later that she was mostly'interested in two articles, one in English and the other in Chinese, which employed a quantitative research design, because she intended to do a quantitative study for her thesis. See APPENDIX F for transcription conventions. 67 Xin used strategies 1135 times. As can be seen from Figure 4.1, there were three tendencies in her strategy uses. First, Xin set goals before and during her reading. For example, after she read the title of the first English passage, she said, "Jiao Yingyu. Erqie hai shi M A . Gen women yiyang. Wo xiang kan kan tamen shi zenyang jiao Yingyu de." (Teaching English. Also M.A.. Just like us. I'd like to know how they taught English.) Then she scanned the passage looking for the description of teaching ESL. Another example was from the reading of the third English passage, which was on culture and foreign language teaching. At the beginning, Xin intended to look for the definition of culture and the relationship between the teaching of culture and the teaching of language. As she moved on and came to the section of TEACHING CULTURE FOR TERTIARY SOCIALIZATION she decided to read more carefully. The second tendency of Xin's strategy use was that she liked to make summaries, either orally or in writing. Although she did not write summaries during the think-aloud tasks, she did mention twice, one in reading E2 and the other in reading C l , that she wanted to write short summaries in her notebook because she could turn to this quick reference later i f she wanted information of similar nature. In many cases, Xin's summaries contained the key words she noted while reading. This might be the reason why the frequencies of both strategy uses were high in Figure 4.1. CM co CM CO 111 LU LU o o o • • • • • 0 0 o u c ^ c -a. s a < c IE H 09 fl K w "So w C5 E ox B •~ 3 OX o u o o 1 - CL T5 3 o < c !c I— _</> "c ix c oo a u> o ro C TS ro cu ? UBp«joqb*jitjnlp»/*uibeu»Lj; I) b u i l d u p t. JO)JI> dn kuiAit) U*pijVB> bUl^g » ^ B if)in bjum JIQ pj -|4a«d 1*^)0 bwi^nj •vimpjnd/buixBJ«)( K ^ ^ b U ^ J B L J *b»nbu»| b u i ^ m ; ^ V)BUb>ll))R^ • " " S I S •UIXIJBU)*^ •upu«i«jU|/buiJJ«ng •>V#ipn> ptputsjui byi.Cjiju*p| 1IJ«)l»d3IJB)«t{J u«j*j,j jp bu;xju»a>*y "J3U US/SldO} bUlI jl'^op j V N I N |#j | | buipuf ^ •si^dejb bvi3i)D^ K * J «|B^n -si^dojfe WSJJ. buizi|»^j«^ ia i }»u j jD^ i |»n )K«] • jc i pow lui b u i J V J ^ H I J >bp«|naui) J • r Jd h*Q\Bftu| lOHPimnju i •tj,ii-?dj-jn.| bur^nq-j UI»UI bgijCj;)u«p| ' W W •UBI)D3B||» pjnn buiJtj j)u«p| •pjnn iflj) buLijuy^pj iBj)KUiJflj pjnn buii^icuy uik|»nJtJ'«3>uvtv«/buizj(|c>uy •uiuBJ»«y •m£>9)Piii)a * j » n » bui«g •j«n A l t JO j t-Ul^CD-] TiO|l«ftb bUIJI»y (A 0) "o> a) •#-< ro L - O) c T : ro CJ W«|^Qjd b«ipB*J tillJl^'JflpI VXft^BdJt^ -UIAA*J/bujlj,Uf A/bUIIUJIjUBQ UDj}?Jp«jd bUI)]BL^ ]cab buip»4J bui ) ) *£ o Aouanbaaj 69 The third tendency, which was noticing graphics and verbalizing them, was related to Xin's reading habits. In one of her learning logs and in an interview, Xin said that she liked to read graphics not only because they explained information in a visual way but also because graphics sometimes made the "boring layout of academic articles" more "eye-catching and interesting." There were three graphics in the form of three sentences on three pictures of blackboards in E l , four tables in E2, one chart in E3, one chart and one table in C l , and three tables in C2. Xin paid attention to all the tables and charts, although she did not verbalize about all of them. Take the first graphic in E l , for j example. She said: ((Reads aloud the sentence in the graphic)) A student had arrived late to class and had asked a question; Alice had been nervous and did not know how to handle the situation, so she ignored his question. (##) Alice (##) ((Scans the page and then the next page)) Oh Alice shi zui hou zhe ge participant. (((Reads aloud the sentence in the graphic)) A student had arrived late to class and had asked a question; Alice had been nervous and did not know how to handle the situation, so she ignored his question. (##) Alice (##) ((Scans the page and then the next page)) Oh, Alice is this last participant.) Xin read aloud not only graphics but also words or sentences she thought were useful, as revealed in her think-aloud tasks and in her learning logs. Reading aloud, according to Xin, helped her remember and memorize important information. It also helped her reorganize her thoughts. Summary of Xin Xin had taught English for four years before entering the TEFL program. She was the only one of the five participants who wanted to write her research proposal. Apart from reading for her coursework, Xin looked for English and Chinese academic articles pertaining to her research interests. Xin used a variety of reading strategies, as indicated in her learning logs and think-aloud protocols. The data also showed that she frequently 70 set reading goals prior to her reading and summarized, either in writing or orally, what she read. In addition, Xin liked to read aloud because she found this strategy helped her not only understand the text and retain the information in her memory, but also appreciate the style and content of the text. Furthermore, there was a high integration of Chinese and English in her think-alouds. In other words, she switched languages very frequently and sometimes translated directly what she read from English into Chinese and vice versa. 4.1.2 Profile 2: Jian Language Learning Background Jian was a 21-year-old student from Shenyang, the capital city of Liaoning Province in the northeastern part of China. Her parents were teachers, one working at a university and the other in a secondary school in her hometown. Jian learned to read Chinese characters at the age of three. In the last year of kindergarten, the teacher taught her how to write some simple Chinese characters so as to help her prepare for elementary schooling. Jian's parents had high expectations of her. In the following journal entry, Jian described her experiences in her childhood (Chinese in original): My mother used to ask me to learn to read some Chinese every day. She bought me many picture books with simple Chinese characters. I remember at the beginning, I said out the sounds according to the pictures. I didn't make any associations between the characters and the sounds. But later, after we had gone through the book many times, I started to recognize the characters even when they were not accompanied by the pictures. ... So when I look back, I think they were right. I was too young. I knew nothing. The parents should make decisions for their kids. Jian's parents' high expectations affected her learning at school as well as. at home. She went to ballet class and piano class when she was very young. Although she stopped going to ballet class after she entered elementary school, she continued her piano training and at the same time worked hard on her school work to meet the requirements 71 of her teachers. Her school's attitudes towards Chinese reading and writing were that students should learn pinyin9 first. Moreover, reading and writing were separate. Students were supposed to read a poem or a nursery rhyme in each lesson but to write only a few characters in the poem. Starting in Grade 2, Jian learned to analyze the meanings of Chinese words in sentences or in texts. She did not leam the function of words or parts of speech until Grade 5. Such analysis at the lexical and the syntactical levels, together with literary appreciation through answering comprehension questions, were the major goals of her Chinese learning all the way up to and throughout her secondary school. After she entered a university in Xi'an, Jian took a one-year course in Modem Chinese. In this course, Jian analyzed literary works in terms of their historical background, the authors, the style and the rhetoric, the themes, and the use of words in the text. When she was asked what Chinese materials she usually read in her leisure time, Jian said, "I read Chinese newspapers like Huan Qiu Shi Bao (Global Time) and Jing Ping Gou Wu Zhi Nan (Shoppers Guide). I also like to read Reader.10 Different kinds of articles, stories, essays, and prose. Up-to-date and interesting." Unlike her Chinese reading experiences which were related to both pleasure and academic purposes, Jian's experience of reading English had been primarily academic. Jian began her English study in Grade 6. Her English class was similar to her Chinese class in that for each lesson she studied word meanings, analyzed sentences in the text and answered reading comprehension questions. After entering university, Jian studied economics as her major. Therefore, her English training during this period of time was focused on English for science and technology. The English instruction was teacher- 9 Pinyin is the romanized phonetic writing system of the Chinese language. 10 Reader was a Chinese magazine. 72 dominated with much emphasis on speed reading, extensive reading, vocabulary study, and sentence analysis. In the third and the fourth year, Jian passed the College English Band 4 and 8 1 1 respectively. Upon completion of her Bachelor degree in Science, Jian applied to study in the TEFL program at her current university. Table 4.4 English Reading Strategies Reported by Jian in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Setting reading goals 3 Strategies Planning 2 Making comments/evaluations 3 Identifying reading problems 15 Being aware of strategy use 1 Cognitive Content Identifying main ideas 11 Strategies Looking for specific information 2 Invoking prior knowledge 6 Making summaries 2 Structure Noticing graphics 1 Others, i.e., Rereading/reviewing 3 study Skipping 3 strategies that Switching languages 52 apply to the 3 levels Photocopying/purchasing 4 Social Asking other people 1 Strategies Discussing with other people/cooperating 1 Affective Being interested/motivated 3 Strategies Giving up after attempting to evaluate the suitability/correctness of the textual information and accepting it. 3 Managing/adjusting boredom/stress/frustration 10 Total 126 Altogether Jian wrote 45 learning journals, among which only 5 were about her Chinese reading. Table 4.4 and Table 4.5 show the English and Chinese reading strategies revealed in her journals. 1 1 College English refers to English taught to university students who are not majoring in English language or literature. Usually in their third or fourth year, students will take a nation-wide test designed by the State Ministry of Education. 73 Table 4.5 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Jian in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Strategies Setting reading goals 3 Making comments/evaluations 4 Cognitive Content Identifying main ideas, 2 Invoking prior knowledge 1 Affective Strategies Being interested/motivated 2 Total 12 For Jian, studying in the program of English language teaching was very different . from what she had learned before. Although she had passed the highest level of College English in her undergraduate program, she felt she "almost failed to get accustomed to the post-graduate study." She stated: I was forced to leam by the teachers before. Most of the time, I was just a passive receiver, listening to the teacher and finishing the assignments without much consideration. Now, I have to really get involved in all kinds of activities. In order to finish the assignments, I have to do research work, and to go to the resource room to find references. I cannot rely on others but to depend on myself. Her learning frustrations, as well as the strategies she employed to meet the real challenges, were expressed in many places in her learning journals. According to her, one of the reasons why she felt frustrated was that her previous English learning in her undergraduate program was mainly about science and technology, which had nothing to do with English language learning or teaching. Nor did Jian have any teaching experience before entering the masters program. Therefore, in class discussion, Jian did not participate much because she felt the discussion was, in many cases, about teaching practice. When Jian started to teach English in the "Cambridge Young Learners' English" program organized by the Department, she felt she had to look for guidance from books. For example, she explained in one of her journal entries: 74 Today I read an article in Forum. The title is "The Role of Games in Language Acquisition." This article is very practical to me because I'm now teaching kids "Cambridge English." I have to use various kinds of games to stimulate students' interest. This article starts with the definition of "games," and then states the purpose of using games, and makes suggestions for using games in language teaching. At the end of the article, the author lists several popular games which students usually like. This article is easy to understand. The second frustration Jian had was about her academic writing. One of her journal entries talked about her first impression of the TEFL program she was attending. She said: I took many exams when I was an undergraduate. The teacher taught us how to write business letters but never taught us how to write academically. We had a course on academic reading and writing last semester. I now know the basics but I'm still very poor in writing. The professors told us not to copy things from others but they have never told us what copying is or what imitating is. I like to take note of not only good words and expressions or terminology but also sometimes good writing styles because I may use similar style in my writing. I don't know if that is copying. Despite Jian's frustrations, she seldom talked about them either with her classmates or with the teachers. In my conversations with the instmctors, all the, teachers said that Jian was eloquent and quite good at organizing her thoughts, as shown in her oral presentations and her writing assignments. Moreover, they considered Xin to be a good and hard-working student. As to the question of what she read after class, Jian spent around five to seven hours a week reading the essays in the GRE tests. When I asked her what else she read in English, she said: Most of my readings are for the coursework. We have to discuss the reading assignments in class. But since it's usually group discussions I usually read the materials very quickly. Just focus on the main ideas. But in Luo Laoshi's class and Xiao Laoshi's class, we have to do oral presentations. So when it's my turn, I read the article very carefully. For the Statistics course, there will be a mid-term exam and a final exam. So I have to read each chapter of the textbook and do the exercises at the end of each chapter. 75 Jian did spend time every week reading English for information and pleasure. As was stated in her journals, she liked to read China Daily, especially the finance section, and English novels such as Pride and Prejudice. Jian's view of LI and L2 reading was based on her personal experience. To her, there existed many differences between LI reading and L2 reading. She felt strongly that her Chinese and English were not equally strong. Therefore, she could appreciate any literary works and read between the lines easily in Chinese but not in English. Her limited English also contributed to her slow reading speed in English. As a result, she was always "conscious of [her] reading strategies such as guessing, predicting, [and] inferencing," which was not the case in her reading of Chinese. Reading Style and Strategy Use Jian spent a total of 219 minutes on all the six think-aloud tasks. The total number of strategy uses was 1056 (Figure 4.2). Perhaps, because she was not very confident in her use of English, Jian chose to think aloud more in Chinese than in English while reading the six passages. Moreover, she used more Chinese while reading Chinese passages than reading English passages. T - CN CO V CN CO 111 111 LU O O O o o o *•> o 1_ Q_ T3 O !E H m "c ro to '5> co i_ *-> CO c T3 ro or u o p ? J o g >»)tA!)oui/p9)S)j»)U! 6UJ?g uapyuco b u p g jai«%SiaiMM»!i,fll(ia(Mfcn •tiBRJI'l̂ lSiPjSiP J m ; t 4 3 j n d ^ 6 u i x o j i x i jcuoji i jp iu j 6u;ff) : 3 £ t n £ ' j t | 6ij!ip3i,\^ jujddtijs >U;M3IA3J/6uipC3J>y ouaipnc p»pu»}ui &ui^t)U?p| U3j» j j ip BuicmSoasy :»3)U3]U4S 3{dO) &Uj/ij]l)U9p| t*l»M4i jM 0) Bu;pu9]]y oiudcj6 6up|j;o|y 19) 3|QL1M •if) jo i c u j o j 34j 6ui>uo|y :>(4dcJ6 U J O J J 6 u i : i | cq j9 j \ •1CJP9UIUJI 6ui5CJ(jdcJC,rJ •&p?|MO<j)| j o u d 6u;»jOAU| IQIlCUIJDjUl unpads JOJ buj i focj :e?p; UJCUJ 6ti;^i)U9p| trtj!(5l JO felJSlSjSUCO >UC 33U3iOL)0^ 6ui)j39IJ3 :U0j ]»Oj |C pJOM 6ui^jj]U?p| :pjOM fay Bu;^j!iu»p| io;)euiJOj p j o * 6u;sJf|cuy ouajuw 6u;sA|cuy •in A'&^J.CJJ.S jo 9JCMC &uiag : J3;;.;uc JQj 6u;i|00'] :uoij;3nb bujfjty :ui3|qojd 6u;pc9J &u;^i)u?p| :353'^0dl<4 )U!flA)J/Su{^jJ9A/&U!UlJ|jU0Q :uoi)3jp9jd S u ^ c ^ j :UGj)Cn|CA3/f]V3UJllJ03 :|Co6 6 u i p » J t-Uljj-'5 c/> Q) 'CD o *-* CO CD C T3 ro cu 0; o o CD o L O o o co o CN Aouanbajj 77 In each task, Jian seemed to approach the articles with an easy and relaxed attitude. Usually, she went through each sentence very quickly and spent time responding to it. On a few occasions, Jian did not say anything but went on reading. Later, she told the researcher that the difficulty level of the sentences was not challenging. Therefore, she just processed the sentences without much thinking. Another reason that may have contributed to her quick and smooth reading was that Jian did not seem to have a sense of purpose or direction when she began to read each passage, although she did develop her direction of reading as she read on. This was very obvious, especially in the first task of reading E l . In the first think-aloud session Jian read two reports that involved qualitative research methods, one was "Teaching ESL in an Unfamiliar Context: International Students in a North American M A TESOL Practicum" (El) and the other "Yingyu Xuexi Chenggong Zhe Y u Bu Chenggong Zhe Zai Fangfa Shang De Chayi" (Cl) (Differences in Strategy Uses between Successful and Non-Successful Learners of English). Jian spent about 36 minutes reading E l . She used strategies a total of 178 times when reading this passage. The strategies she used most frequently were switching languages (43), paraphrasing immediate textual information (43), marking the text (24), identifying key words (16), and making summaries (16). The following are 3 examples illustrating the use of 4 reading strategies: identifying key words, guessing/inferencing, switching languages, and marking the text: 78 Jian read Jian said #1. Teaching ESL in an Unfamiliar Context: International Students in a North American M A TESOL Practicum En, guoji xuesheng de TESOL practicum. (##) ((Uses a pen and underlines the word "practicum")) Wo xiang zhe ge "practicum" gen "practice" de yisi cha bu duo. Keneng jiu shi "shixi" ba. (Hum, international students' TESOL practicum. (##) ((Uses a pen and underlines the word "practicum ")) I think this practicum " is similar to "practice. " May be it means in Chinese "shixi. ") For this title, Jian made a connection between the word practicum and practice: She underlined the word practicum, which indicated this was a key word. Furthermore, she translated not only practicum but also international students into Chinese verbally. In 43 places, Jian switched languages, from Chinese to English and vice versa. She translated English words/phrases/sentences into Chinese 15 times. Translating as a useful strategy can be seen not only in Jian's reading tasks but also in her learning logs. She relied heavily on her Chinese in her reading of English. Not only did she translate many words and sentences into Chinese but she also used Chinese in expressing her thoughts. The only time she switched to English in her first think-aloud was when she used special terminology in her report. The following is a journal entry which describes how Jian used translating in her reading of English idioms: I read) the book - Normal Idioms in TOEFL's Listening Comprehension. ("Tuofu Tingli Changjian Chengyu"). The idioms listed are explained both in Chinese and in English. I found that i f I'm familiar with the idiom, I only read the English explanation and I match it with my translation of the idiom in my mind. So I can remember the idiom & its explanation clearly. But if I encounter an unfamiliar idiom, I usually read the English explanation first and then the Chinese explanation. Zai zhe zhong qingkuang xia, ruguo zhi du Yingyu shiyi, haoxiang shi sui dong le gai idiom, dan yinxiang bu shen. Zhiyou kan le Zhongwen shiyi huoshi zhaodao le Zhongwen duiyingci, cai xiang zhen de jizhu le zhe ge idiom. 79 (.. .In this situation, if I read only the English explanation of the idiom, although I seem to understand this idiom, I won't have a deep impression. Only after I read the Chinese explanation or find a Chinese equivalent can I really remember this idiom.) Except for the word practicum, which Jian spent some time decoding, she devoted most of her attention to the content, rather than to the linguistic aspects of the text. She did not report having any difficulty reading the passage. Although she did mention that she was not quite clear about the research approach described in the text, she could easily follow the structure of the passage and make connections between the textual information and her prior knowledge of TESOL. Therefore, she skimmed some segments because she knew what would be said in the next section after she scanned the subtitles of the articles such as INTERVIEWS, JOURNALS and ASSIGNMENTS. Throughout the whole passage, Jian underlined 16 keys words, e.g., international students, TESOL practicum, preservice teachers, nonnative speakers (NNSs), and cultural norms. Jian paraphrased 43 sentences and summarized or made connections of ideas in the text 16 times. While making summaries, she also drew lines between/among ideas. In the immediate interview, Jian told the researcher that underlining key words, paraphrasing and making summaries helped her remember the information. She also used these strategies when she read for her coursework, e.g., in the Readings on Linguistics course, which she and other participants called Seminars.12 Jian usually read very quickly if the articles were chosen by other groups. Noticing key words, paraphrasing and making short summaries of ideas in her mind helped her reorganize the main ideas and thus 1 2 Two instructors co-taught this course. They used the format of seminar. Thus, the major classroom activity in this course was group presentations. Students were expected to look for an article in TEFL/TESOL and present it to the whole class. The Methodology in TEFL course had a similar format of co-teaching and group presentations. However, the instructors in the Methodology course used videos for discussion. 80 remember them. Also, doing this, as was stated by Jian, could save time and at the same time she could participate actively in the discussion, which was the final part of group presentations. Jian took the same approach in the Action Research course and the Methodology in TEFL course, where the instructors sometimes gave out reading assignments. When the researcher asked Jian whether she would have taken the same or similar approach if she had been involved in the presentation, Jian said: I would have read the article more carefully. When it's my turn to do the presentation, I usually read the text many times, making sure I understand every word and sentence because I'm afraid other students may ask me questions after the presentation. I won't be able to answer them if I don't fully understand the text. So sometimes I use the dictionary and write the Chinese expressions next to the unknown words. I also underline key words and important sentences because I will use them in drafting my presentation. The description of reading strategies so far has focused on the ones that Jian used frequently in processing the first English passage. There were other strategies Jian used but not extensively, e.g., invoking prior knowledge (7), looking for specific information (5), setting reading goals (2), making comments/evaluations (2), making predictions (2), being aware of strategy use (2), noticing the format of the text (2), confirming/verifying/revising hypotheses (1), identifying main ideas (1), attending to references (1), photocopying/purchasing (1), and being interested/motivated (1). Two observations were made about Jian's strategy uses in terms of making comments and photocopying texts. First, Jian made two comments when responding to the passage. The first comment was made about the sentence of "In [my country], teachers who teach a class over time are often called good teachers" (p. 26). Jian agreed that this was the case when she was in high school but not now. She complained that the statistics class always ran over time and she rated this course low saying that "kecheng anpai shibai, jiaoxue 81 siban" (This course failed in curriculum design and the teaching is mechanical). The second comment was made in response to the discussion of the cultural norm that a teacher is regarded as perfect. She said, "laoshi zai zhishi fangmian bu yinggai ye bu hui shi perfect, dan zai jiaoxue jiqiao fangmian yinggai shi perfect" (A teacher can not be perfect in terms of knowledge but s/he should be perfect in teaching skills).13 The second mention of strategy use was that Jian said she was interested in the section of S U M M A R Y A N D RECOMMENDATIONS. She wanted to photocopy this page afterwards. Later, when the researcher asked how often she made photocopies, she said she would do that when (1) there was only one copy in the reading room and the instructor asked the students to read it for discussion; (2) when she wanted to use the article for her presentation; and (3) when she found useful words or structures. Jian mentioned twice in her learning logs that she photocopied two articles because she thought she could emulate the structure of these articles in her writing. When reading and responding to the second passage "Yingyu Xuexi Chenggong Zhe Y u Bu Chenggong Zhe Zai Fangfa Shang De Chayi" (Differences in Strategy Uses between Successful and Non-Successful Learners of English), Jian made noticeably fewer strategy uses (164) than in the first reading task (178), although the Chinese article (Cl) was longer than the English one (El). However, Jian took a similar approach in processing C l and used strategies at the metacognitive, cognitive, social and affective levels. The strategies at the metacognitive level included making comments (10), raising questions (6), making predictions (4) identifying reading problems (4), being aware of strategy use (3, setting reading goals (1), confirming hypotheses (1), and planning (1). 1 3 The above two comments were made to the tape recorder while reading the text. The complaint about the Statistics class, on the other hand, was made in the interview after the think-aloud task was finished. 82 At the cognitive level, Jian employed such strategies as summarizing (21), identifying key words (20), using background knowledge (17), switching languages (13), identifying topic sentences (11), paraphrasing (9), rereading (7), marking the key words (6), looking for specific information (6), guessing (4), analyzing sentence structures (3), noticing (3) and verbalizing from graphics (4), noticing the format of the article (3), skipping unknown information (2) when her comprehension was blocked, noticing main ideas (1), and recognizing different rhetorical patterns (1). As to the strategies at the social and affective level, Jian showed, twice, that she was very interested in the content of the text. Another affective strategy Jian employed was accepting the author's idea after attempting to validate it. For example, after reading "Yingyu xide guocheng ye jiushi he muyu ganrao jinxing douzheng de guocheng" (The process of English language acquisition is also the process offighting against the interference of one's native language), Jian did not agree because she felt her LI sometimes helped her remember information. However, she added "jirang zhe shi zai zazhi shang fabiao de wenzhang, wo xiang yinggai shi dui de." (Since this is a published article, I guess it's correct.) When she started to read C l , Jian did not go through the text sentence by sentence. Instead, after reading the title and the abstract, she said, "You yisi. Wo dao xiang kan kan xuexi chenggong zhe shi shenme yang de." (Interesting. I'd like to know what a successful learner is like.) So she immediately set a goal for her reading and went directly to the last section of the article T A O L U N (DISCUSSION). After reading the four topic sentences in the DISCUSSION, Jian commented: Taolun guoyu zongjiehua. Zhexie wo dou zhidao. Keneng dui qita ren you yong ba. (##) ((Flips over the page)) Ye, zenme meiyou jielun jiu wan le?" (This 83 discussion is too general. I already know this. It may be helpful to others. (##) ((Flips over the page)) Uh, why isn't there a conclusion part in this article?) Jian made more comments in reading C l than in E l . Later she told the researcher that she was more prone to choosing an American author than a Chinese author, probably because western countries had a longer history of educational research than China. Therefore, the writing format, even the terminology in Chinese articles, was borrowed from abroad. Jian's comments towards C l were all negative. They fell into two categories: comments on the writing format and the use of language. The above excerpt is an example indicating that Jian had doubts about the writing format. Before going into detail, Jian liked to take a quick glance at the subtitles of an article, if there were any, to have a general idea of what the article was about. She did the same thing with this passage. She was expecting to see a conclusion part after the discussion part. Since she read only the topic sentences in the discussion part, she did not notice that the last three sentences of this passage were a brief conclusion. The second type of comments Jian made was when she responded to sentences #7 and #8: 84 Jian read Jian said #7. Jieguo biaoming zai dui chengji you yingxiang de yinsu zhong you bufen shi xueshengkeyi kongzhi de yinsu. Tamen shi guanli celue, cihui celue, huibi muyu celue he rongren hanhun yuyan de celue. (Results showed that, among the factors affecting students' achievement, some could be controlled by students. These controllable factors were management strategies, lexical strategies, strategies of avoiding first languages, and strategies of being tolerant with mixed languages.) (#) Zheli yinggai shi liang ju hua, Xian shi shuo youxie yinsu shi xuesheng keyi kongzhi de. Ranhou shuo xuesheng keyi kongzhi de yinsu shi guanli celue, cihui celue, huibi muyu celue, hai you rongren hanhun yuyan de celue. (##) Shenme shi ongren hanhun yuyan ? Keneng shi tolerance with mixed language ba. (#) You dianr bieniu. Bu xiang shi Zhongwen. ((#) There should be two sentences here. First, it says that there were some factors which could be controlled by students. Then, it says these factors included management strategies, lexical strategies, strategies of avoiding first languages, and strategies of being tolerant with mixed languages. (##) What is rongren hanhun yuyan? May be "being tolerant with mixed languages. " (#) A bit weird. Doesn't sound like Chinese.) #8. Zhe qizhong wei you rongren hanhun yuyan de celue dui chengji suo chansheng de shi fumian yingxiang. (Only the strategies of being tolerant with mixed languages had a negative influence on students' achievement.) You shi rongren hanhun yuyan. (#) Zhe haqxiang shi Yingwen fan guolai de. Nandong. (#) ((Points to the first part of the sentence)) Zhe ge (#) shi fumian yingxiang. Suoyi zhe (#) shi zhuyu. (Once again, being tolerant with mixed languages. It looks like direct translation of an English sentence. Difficult to understand. (#). ((Points to the first part of the sentence)) This (#) is negative influence. So this (#) is the subject.) As can be seen from the above excerpts, Jian used such strategies as guessing (2), making comments (2), raising questions (1), translating (1), and analyzing sentence structures (1). 85 Among the ten comments Jian made in reading this passage, seven were in the first two sections, i.e., the introductory part and Y I N G Y U XUEXI FANGFA DE JIEGOU KUANGJIA (THE FRAMEWORK OF ENGLISH LEARNING) whereas the other three were in the last section of TAOLUN (DISCUSSION). In the second think-aloud session, Jian read two research reports that involved quantitative approaches. These two articles were "Vocabulary Teaching: Looking behind the Word" (E2) and "Yingyu Xuesheng Ketang Jiaolugan Yu Kouyu Shuiping De Guanxi" (The Relationship between Classroom Anxiety and Level of Spoken Language) (Cl). Unlike E l , E2 contained an abstract and had more terminology and longer and more complex sentences. This could be the reason why Jian spent longer (43 minutes) reading this article than the first one, although E2 was shorter than E l . Altogether, she used reading strategies 142 times. In reading the second English passage, Jian's interaction with the text was somewhat different from her reading of E l . Although the most frequently used strategies were still switching languages (26), identifying key words (23), paraphrasing immediate textual information (15), and making summaries (10), Jian used some strategies which she did not seem to employ in reading E l , e.g., checking the coherence and consistency of textual information (4), reading aloud (3), and reading aloud (3). After reading the title, Jian scanned the subtitles and found this was a quantitative research paper. Then she decided to read aloud the abstract since " Y i ge yi ge zi de dasheng langdu zhe yi duan bangzhu wo lijie, erqie rongyi jizhu yixie." (Reading this 86 paragraph aloud in a word by word manner helps me understand and remember the information.) Apart from reading aloud, there were three strategies Jian used in E2 but not in E l . These were skipping unknown information (5), checking coherence and consistency of textual information (4), and analyzing word formation (1). In the following excerpt, Jian demonstrated some of the processes using the reading strategies mentioned above. Jian read Jian said #6. As a result, traditional ideas about what is involved in the teaching of lexis appeared to be no longer tenable. (##) lexis (##) lexical and lexis (#) En wo zhidao le. ((##) lexis (##) lexical and lexis (#) (En, now I know.) #13. The fixed-ratio method of deletion was employed, and responses were judged according to the acceptable-word scoring method. Fixed-ratio method of deletion (#) ((Looks puzzled for a second and then goes on reading)) As can be seen from the excerpts, the response to sentence number 6 was an indication of analyzing the formation of the word lexis and the response to sentence number 13 indicated that Jian did not know what the method offixed-ration method was. However, she did not dwell on the meaning of the method. She ignored the unknown information and went on reading. Later in the immediate interview, Jian said that she skipped some segments in this text not because she could predict what would be said but because she did not quite understand what was discussed. Moreover, she was more interested in the section of IMPLICATIONS FOR CLASSROOM TEACHING rather than the description of the research tools or the presentation of results. This may have 87 contributed to the fact that the 5 times Jian skipped unknown information occurred in reading THE STUDY and RESULTS sections. A final note on strategy uses on E2 is that Jian made 4 connections between the tables and the text/subtitles. For example, in the RESULTS section, after reading Table 4, Jian flipped the page back and forth and said, (##) You dianr luan. (##) Tables yi zhi san jiang de shi incomplete appreciation. ((Turns to page 55)) Um Table si shi inadequate knowledge of correct collocations. Danshi you yong le Table 1 jiang inadequate knowledge of word derivations. ((##) A bit confusing. (##) Tables 1 to 3 are about incomplete appreciation. ((Turns to page 55)) Um Table 4 is about inadequate knowledge of correct collocations. But he uses Table I again to talk about inadequate knowledge of word derivations.) Here Jian used two strategies, rereading and checking the consistency of textual information. She was a bit confused by the tables at the beginning. So she reread the RESULTS section again very quickly focusing on the tables and the first sentence below each table. The purpose was to look for the connections among the tables. The reading of C2 took Jian 32 minutes. She made 153 strategy uses. Her approach to this article was similar to that to C l except that she made 8 skips, 2 in the section of LILUN BEIJING (THEORETICAL BACKGROUND) and the rest in the section of TONGJI JIEGUO (STATISTICAL RESULTS). The reasons Jian gave later in the immediate interview were that she was not interested in the literature and that the statistical analysis was boring. The strategies that Jian used frequently were paraphrasing immediate textual information (28), switching languages (26), invoking prior knowledge (12), making summaries (11), guessing (10), making comments (9), looking for specific information (8), and skipping (8). Similar to processing C l , Jian went directly to the conclusion part 88 after reading the abstract. She first looked for the specific information about anxiety, i.e., the type of anxiety. Then she summarized the first paragraph in JIELUN {CONCLUSION): Oh, ketang jiaolu you liangzhong. Y i zhong shi huanjingxing. Y i zhong shi xinggexing. Tamen dou bu li yu xuesheng de kouyu tigao." (Oh, there are two kinds of anxiety. One is environmental anxiety and the other trait anxiety. Both are not good for the improvement of students' oral English.) Then Jian took a look at the subtitles and decided to start from the beginning. Jian's awareness of the format of the text was obvious in reading of all the passages. Jian did not do much translation in reading this text. She did use some English in her think-aloud but about 90 percent of her English was the English terminology presented in the text. For example, the author of this article gave English equivalents in brackets following the Chinese terms such as yiban xingge tezheng (general personality traits), ketang jiaolugan (classroom anxiety), cujinxing jiaolu (facilitating anxiety), fangaixing jiaolu (deliberating anxiety), xinggexing jiaolu (trait anxiety), and huanjingxing jiaolu (environmental anxiety). These English words constituted most code- switching in Jian's think-aloud of C2. In the interview, Jian told the researcher that she felt more comfortable using English terms rather than Chinese ones because she learned the English ones first. That could be the reason why Jian translated some Chinese terms into English, e.g., zhengxiangguan (positive correlation), fu xiangguan (negative correlation), ceshi xiangmu (test items), shuju shouji (data collection), wenjuan (survey), xiangguan (correlation), and t-jianyan (t-test). In the last think-aloud session, Jian read two reviews. One was "Culture and Foreign Language Teaching" (E3) and the other "Wenhua Y u Waiyu Jiaoxue De Guanxi" (The Relationship between Culture and Foreign Language Teaching) (C3). Among the 89 six reading passages, "Culture and Foreign Language Teaching" was the one for which Jian employed reading strategies most frequently (265). At the beginning, when she saw the title, Jian was expecting to read a practical report. So she said, "Zhe pian wenzhang shi gei jiaoshi zuo cankao de." (This passage is a reference for teachers). However, as she read along, she changed her ideas. Jian's general impression of this article was that the sentences were long and the content was boring. She was more interested in practical implications than a literature review. This could be the reason why, when reading C l and C2, she jumped to the last section of the articles. There were two things Jian did to handle boredom. One was that she would laugh or look aside for a short time and then go back to the text, like what she did with the 19 and 40 sentences. The other thing Jian did was to make associations between the textual information and her prior knowledge. Below is an example of this. Jian read Jian said #18. A widespread conclusion seems to be that language should not be taught as an isolated skill, but needs to be embedded in a content-based area of the syllabus. r { ((Rereads the sentence)) Zhe jiu shi suowei de language gen content de jiehe ba. Methodology de ke jiangguo. Wo gei Jianqiao ban shangke ye shi zhe me zuo de. (((Rereads the sentence)) This may be the so-called integration of language and content. We learned it in our Methodology course and Ifollowed this in the Cambridge class.) The above excerpt indicated that Jian made two associations, one being what was taught in the Methodology course and the other what she was teaching. Although she was not interested in the content of the article, Jian did notice that there were two references that she might use in the future: Byram's (1989) "Cultural 90 Studies in Foreign Language Education" and Jenk's (1974) "Conducting Socio-cultural Research in the Foreign Language Class." Another note about Jian's reading was that Jian did not underline or mark any key words in this text. Instead, she underlined unknown words such as anachronistic, menial, culprit, ab initio and corpus. For the word corpus, she reread the sentence # 43 and said, "Zhe ge ci wo zai nar jian guo. (#) Dao shihou cha cha zidian." (I've seen this word before. I'll look it up in the dictionary.) A final note about Jian's strategy uses was that she used three strategies very frequently. The three strategies were switching languages (63), paraphrasing immediate information (53), and making summaries (12). Similar to the process used in the previous passages, Jian liked to paraphrase the sentences she had just read and she tended to use more L2 in her summaries and paraphrases. In 6 cases, Jian's paraphrases were almost the same as the text except the change of function words. On the other hand, she tended to use more LI while making associations or invoking prior knowledge. In the last reading task, Jian read the title silently for 30 seconds and then predicted that this article might be about the relationship between language teaching and the teaching of culture. So she scanned the text quickly and7confirmed her prediction in the third section of Y U Y A N Y U WENHUA DE GUANXI (RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE). This time, Jian did hot read anything in this section. Instead, she went back to the beginning. Altogether, she used identifiable reading strategies 154 times. The session was filled with the use of strategies such as invoking prior knowledge (35), making predictions (29), switching languages (19), confirming/revising hypotheses (12), and paraphrasing (11). As usual, Jian used mixed . 91 languages with more use of Chinese. The explanation she gave was that she did not have any problem processing the content or language since her only concern about terminology was waived with the presentation of both Chinese and English equivalents. Summary of Jian Unlike Xin, Jian did not have teaching experience before starting her graduate studies. As a result, when she first entered this program, she found it very difficult to adjust to the academic culture, where almost half of the instmction was focusing on teaching practice. Jian read English mainly for her coursework and for the GRE but Chinese mainly for pleasure. Among the many strategies Jian used/reported to use in reading, the top two were paraphrasing and switching languages. To be more specific, Jian frequently liked to paraphrase textual information. Although she made relatively fewer summaries, she did occasionally connect bits of information and bring them together. Moreover, there were many large chunks of Chinese in Jian's think-aloud protocols. With Chinese being the major language tool in her learning logs and think- alouds, Jian sometimes switched to use English when (1) repeating textual information, (2) using technical terms, or (3) expressing simple ideas/opinions. Her translation was two-way, i.e., from English into Chinese and vice versa, with the former being used much more frequently than the latter. i 4.1.3 Profile 3: Guo Language Learning Background Guo was a science student in high school. She went to an institute in Harbin, where she learned English for science. While she was in the institute, Guo took many courses such as Intensive Reading, Extensive Reading, Oral English, Listening, Writing, 92 Literature Appreciation, Video, American and British Cultures, Readings of Science, Grammar, Translation, and German and Japanese. She could remember that in the reading class, the teachers focused only on certain words, the analysis of some complicated sentences, and comprehension questions with multiple-choice response format. Upon graduation, Guo taught English at a college in the same city for three years. When she first entered TEFL program, Guo had a difficult time in her courses because she "was not familiar with the field and some readings were too theoretical." Therefore, in the first term, her reading of English was mainly the materials assigned by instructors. Guo's view of LI and L2 reading was related to her personal experience. She saw more differences than similarities between the two kinds of reading. Although in the first semester, Guo read Chinese mainly for pleasure whereas she read English mainly for academic purposes, she began to read some English novels in her leisure time this semester. For whatever purposes, Guo felt more relaxed reading in Chinese than reading in English. She had to spend more time and effort reading her coursework, some of the time memorizing terminology and even memorizing good sentences and writing styles which might be useful for her writing. Fourteen of the 15 diary entries Guo wrote were about her coursework. These logs were more weekly reports than daily reports. Among the 15 diary entries, 14 were written in English, which described what English materials she read during the past few days (or on the day of writing). There was only one report about her reading of Chinese, which was written solely in Chinese. No mixed languages sentences were found in the diary entries. Table 4.6 and Table 4.7 present two lists of reading strategies revealed in Guo's learning diaries. Table 4.6 English Reading Strategies Reported by Guo in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Strategies Setting reading goals 6 Planning 2 Making comments/evaluations 9 Identifying reading problems 5 Raising questions 3 Being aware of strategy use 17 Reasoning 3 Cognitive Strategies Language Identifying key words 3 Content Checking coherence and consistency of textual information 3 Identifying main ideas 6 Looking for specific information 2 Invoking prior knowledge 7 Making summaries 2 Structure Noticing the format of the whole text 2 Others, i.e., study strategies that apply to the 3 levels Identifying intended audience 2 Reading aloud '3 Memorizing 3 Rereading/reviewing 2 Skipping 4 Taking notes 1 Marking the text 2 Affective Strategies Being confident 1 Being interested/motivated 3 Managing/adjusting boredorn/stress/frustration 4 Total 95 94 Table 4.7 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Guo in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Strategies Setting reading goals 1 Making comments/evaluations 2 Cognitive Strategies Content Invoking prior knowledge 1 Others, i.e., study strategies that apply to the 3 levels Reading aloud 1 Affective Strategies Being interested/motivated 2 Total 7 As can be seen from Table 4.6, Guo usually set a goal before reading. Generally speaking, two different approaches were used depending on the reading purposes. For the readings she was supposed to use for an oral presentation or to lead a discussion in class, she tended to read them many times with different focus each time. In her journal entry for May 4 t h, for example. Guo wrote in English: I began to prepare an outline for the oral presentation in May 13 th. The article I chose was "Reading Dilemma: An Individual Approach".. ..With such a large collection of subtopics, this article is really hard to present orally without boring the audience. I had to make some arrangement on my outline. I had read this article for several times for different purpose. 1st time: I skimmed it quickly to find something enlightening or worth mentioning about. Because of so many subtopics, I could figure out the logical relations between these topics. I had to read it twice to find details that reveal the logical relations.. .In the third time, I read aloud the whole article, hoping to present the article in the author's language.. ..For the fourth time, I started to take note of the key words in every subtopic while reading silently. Guo commented 9 times about her reading of English and Chinese. There were 8 comments on English readings and 1 on a Chinese reading. Among the 8 comments on reading English materials, 7 were negative, saying how "boring" and "useless" she thought the content of the assigned readings was. As a result, she felt "disappointed," "tired," and "frustrated" and had to "put away the book" or "give up." One of the 2 95 positive comments Guo provided was about the organization of an article given by the Statistics instructor. The other positive comment was about the writing style of two Chinese novelists, Yao Qiong and Fengyi Liang. 1 4 Actually the whole diary entry described how different one novelist was from the other. Guo appreciated both and said she often read aloud or read aloud "in her mind" the ornate diction of both authors. An interesting feature observed was the use of memorization and imitation in Guo's reading. In the same journal dated May 4th, Guo said that she memorized the main points of the article and tried to imitate the author's style in her presentation. By style here she meant writing style. Reading Style and Strategy Use Guo spent around 229 minutes reading and responding to the 6 assigned passages and made a total of 755 strategy uses. The time spent reading the articles was 35 minutes for E l , 38 minutes for C l , 43 minutes for E2, 31 minutes for C2, 44 minutes for E3, and 37 minutes for C3. Guo liked to use a mixture of Chinese and English to respond to the reading passages, with more use of English in responding to English passages and more use of Chinese in reading Chinese articles. Figure 4.3 shows Guo's strategy use in the six think-aloud tasks. 1 4 The novels were not assigned by the instructors. Guo read them for pleasure. T— C M C O CNJ C O LU LU LU o O O • • • • • • o O O O •«-» o Q. •o O < • XL C IE H co "o 0 C C O 0) '5> CD -»-> CO i _ * • « CO O) c CO QJ ujopsjoq Bupinlpc/BuiBcuej/g O) bu(jdoi3i4C j ? j j c dn BUJAIQ cz p3)CA!)ouj/p9)S9j?iui 6upg JU3PJJ.U03 Bupg ipns sssjnowj J^ IO Bujsn 6u|jcj3doo3/3 |do3d • J ^ H J»mo I|)J;M Bupsnasirj czzz sjdo^d 13410 BujXjfy 1X31 5U) 6UJHJCL/J Trrĵ ĵ j 6u;*\9iA3j/6u;pc»J3|jj pno|c 6uipcsy • |= S3U3ipnc p»pU3)U{ 6uî jJU5pi ISS 533ua)u9S 3ido) ButA'jriuapi j— E33U3J9J3J O] 6uipU3})y " ^ • ^ S 3 i u d c j 6 Supijofij )X9) 9|0«)M 341 jo jcujjoj. 9i{] &upnorg ;>(4dcj6 tuojj 6'jp!|cqj3/i, Esijccuuin? BUIIJCL/J, uoqciujojui |cnj.i5i 91CIP9UIUI! Buiscj^dcjccj >&p9|Aoui| jojjd buiM,o,w| UOI1CUIJOJJUI n t jpsd; ioj Bu;i)oo-] sc9pi u|cui 6u;/ij{)U9p| |cniX9)j jo risu9if puo^ put 93U9J9403 Buispa^Q spjOM A"aj( Buirijiiuapi MIPJQMMJV 93U9>U9S BupAjCuy 6uiuo;c3y sen itBaicj)? jo SJCMC Bupg SJ9M5UE JOJ 6u;tfoo-| ;uoij;3fib 6upiey suj?|qojd & u i p c 3 J But£j:pu3p| 5 9 5 * ^ 0 d A* 4 p i j BUI£JA9J/BU!/(JU9A/&U;UJJIJUO3 suoijiipsjd Buitfci/j SUO!)Cn|CA9>S)U9UIUJ03 Bmuuc|d M ; too Bu;pe9i &v;))9S o "CT> o TO L _ -*-» CO CB C •D ra QJ Qi o to co o co CM o CM L O L O A o u a n b a j j 97 In the first reading task, Guo used reading strategies 140 times. At the beginning Guo seemed to focus a lot on the key words. She read aloud only the words she thought were important. Below is an example to illustrate this point. i Guo read Guo said Teaching ESL in an Unfamiliar Context: International Students in a North American M A TESOL Practicum Unfamiliar context (#) practicum (##). After singling out the two key words in the title, she predicted that it must be a "research paper." Then she went on reading the first sentence, picking out the key points "international students" and "TESOL." Guo found that focusing only on the key words did not always help, especially when the sentence was long and contained some words she did not know. Therefore, she had to turn to other strategies such as guessing, rereading, and reading aloud the sentence word by word. For example, Guo was not sure what the word practicum meant. She ignored it at the beginning and then rushed to make a conclusion about it, "not useful". However, as she read on, she encountered this word a couple more times. She then guessed its meaning saying, "It's (#) maybe (#) concerned with the program - the training program." Guo reported having difficulty understanding the text 6 times, 2 with unknown words, 3 with long and complicated sentences, and 1 with the ideas. One thing that might r contribute to her reading problems was that the words she picked out might not be the key words or simply jumbled words. Here is an example: 98 Guo read Guo said #61. One of her few nonlinguistic concerns was that the lesson plan had been too long and she had not finished it. Concerns (#) lesson plan (#) too long (#) and finished it. It is interesting to note that Guo used more Chinese to report having reading difficulties. However, she turned to English when she felt she could easily understand the textual information or when she made some associations between the text and her personal experience. For example, Guo made 25 utterances in English when responding to the last 6 sentences of the article, 4 under the subtitle of HOLD PERIODIC DISCUSSIONS ON TEACHING and 2 under CONCLUSION. When responding to the Chinese article on learning strategies, as soon as she saw the title of the Chinese article in the first reading session, Guo said "it's interesting" and then skimmed the abstracts. She underlined the three key words presented right after the abstract, i.e., Yingyu xuexi (English learning), fangfa (strategies), and chayi (differences). Guo used strategies 131 times to understand the text. One of the major differences between her reading of E l and C l was the language she used to respond. Whereas over 90 percent of the utterances in the reading task of E l were in English, almost all of the utterances in this reading task were in Chinese except in 9 places Guo switched to use a word or an expression to explain her thoughts. Below is an example of using mixed languages: i 99 Guo read Guo said #190. Ciwai haiyao you yishi de jiehe jiaoxue neirong, xunlian xuesheng yunyong guanli celue qu jiankong yuyan xuexi celue de jineng, zhe dui tigao wo guo de Yingyu jiaoxue zhiliang jiang you zhongyao de yiyi. (In addition, [teachers] should integrate content and strategy instruction. [They should] teach students to use management strategies to monitor their language learning strategies. This will improve the quality of English language teaching in our country.) Xunlian yunyong guanli celue (##) zhe jielun (##) tai longtong le. Shi yinggai jinxing learning strategy training. Dan what's the effect of it? (Train to use management strategies. (##) This conclusion (##) too general. Yeah, should have strategy training but what's the effect of it?) Guo's reading of E2 was similar to that of E l except that she made more skips (13) and comments (7), and fewer predictions (2). Guo was not interested in the research design in this article. Therefore, most of the skips she made were in the sections of THE STUDY and RESULTS. In particular, she skipped all 4 tables in the RESULTS section. It was because of this that 2 of Guo's comments were related to the lack of practical use of this paper to her because she did not "intend to do any research or reading on vocabulary." However, when she read in more detail the sections of IMPLICATIONS FOR CLASSROOM TEACHING and TEACHING V O C A B U L A R Y THROUGH READING she showed increasing interest and made 10 connections with her teaching experience. In reading the Chinese article on anxiety (C2), Guo made 103 strategy uses. She did not pay attention to every word in the text. Instead, she focused on the key words (23) and sometimes paraphrased the sentences she had just read using the key words (11). Compared to her paraphrases in E l , her paraphrases in this article were more extensive 100 and accurate. However, 2 out of 8 of her predictions were incorrect. Take sentence #15 for example: Guo read Guo said #15. Bizhe jiu ci dui Nanjing Waiguo Y u Xuexiao gao nianji de 35 ming xuesheng zuo le wenjuan diaocha. Yixia shi ben ci diaocha de jieguo fenxi, xiwang dui waiyu jiaoxue yousuo jiejian. (The researcher conducted a questionnaire survey on 35 students in Nanjing Foreign Language School. Provided below are the results and the discussion of the survey. It is hoped that the discussion will be helpful in improving foreign language teaching.) (##) Wenjuan diaocha de jieguo fenxi hui dui waiyu jiaoxue yousuo jiejian. (#) Yinggai hui you xuesheng de lizi ba. ((##) The analysis of the questionnaire will provide helpful implications for foreign language teaching. (#) There must be some examples of individual students.) After reading this sentence, Guo predicted that there would be some case studies of the students. Actually this prediction was not correct. But she went on reading without going through the article to test her prediction. This did not mean that Guo did not check her comprehension. In the last section of JffiSHUYU (CONCLUSION), she read the words such as huanjingxing jiaolu, and xinggexing jiaolu. She said in Chinese, with some English, "Shi environmental anxiety he trait anxiety ba." (They may be environmental anxiety and trait anxiety.) Then she went back to the section of J IAOLUGAN DE DINGYI (DEFINITIONS OF ANXIETY) and looked for the English translation of huanjingxing jiaolu and xinggexing jiaolu. In reading the third passage in English, Guo used reading strategies 153 times to understand the text. At the beginning, Guo did not have any goal for her reading. As usual, she looked at the subtitles and stopped at TEACHING CULTURE FOR TERTIARY SOCIALIZATION and said, "It must be guidelines for teaching culture at 101 the university." After she found out the meaning of tertiary socialization, Guo jumped back and forth twice and then decided to start from the beginning, as she said, 'The sentences are quite long and the ideas are too abstract." Guo made 8 paraphrases throughout the reading, 1 in INTRODUCTION, 2 in THE CULTURE TEST, 3 in TOTAL IMMERSION, and 1 in the last part of INTEGRATED SYLLABUS A N D COLLABORATIVE MODULES. Her paraphrases were short and sometimes incomplete, often containing only what she thought was important in the sentence or the key words she picked out from the sentence. The most frequently used strategies in processing this text were rereading (21), identifying key words (19), marking the text (17), and raising questions (11). Like the processing of E l and E2, Guo read aloud the words she thought were important. Apart from that, Guo tended to question herself about the content and the language use in the text. However, in only two cases did she look for answers. In the last reading task, Guo read the Chinese article on culture and language teaching. Guo made a total of 79 strategy uses to understand the passage. The most frequently used strategies were switching languages (16), invoking prior knowledge (12), and making summaries (11). There were altogether 19 terms in this article which were followed by their English equivalents in brackets. Guo used 12 of these terms in her paraphrases, summaries, or comments. The ones she did not use were xingshi (message form), zhuti (subject matter), changjing (setting), canyu zhe (participants), and huodong (activity). The reason might be that these words, together with qudao (channel) and daima (code), were the major characteristics of a language. After reading the sentence 102 containing these terms, Guo listed only the first two, i.e. qudao (channel) and daima (code) and used deng deng (and so on) to refer to other features. Another interesting feature of Guo's reading was that she made two attempts to figure out the logical relations of the ideas presented by the author. The first one was in the section of Y U Y A N HE WENHUA DE GUANXI (RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE) where Guo noticed the sequence words like shouxian (first), qici (second), and di san (third). The other attempt was made in her comment after reading the whole passage. She said: Zhe pian wenzhang bu cuo. Wenzi chuli jianlian, erqie shang xia lianguan, xiang ((Turns to page 3)) "raner," "jiran," "zong shang suo shu" deng. Tiaoli hen . qingchu. Wo j i de zai yuelan shi kan guo yi pian xiang zhe yang de wenzhang. Wo dao shi keyi qu zhao zhao kan. (This article is good. The language is concise and it's coherent. There are words like ((Turns to page 3)) "nevertheless, " "now that" and "in conclusion " and so on. The ideas are very clear. I remember I've read a paper like this in the reading room. I'll go and check some day.) Summary of Guo In Guo's opinion, reading in one's first language was more different from than f similar to reading in a second language. LI reading was not only easier but also faster than L2 reading. Guo was confident using English in writing journals and in thinking aloud. As a result, 14 out of 15 of her journal entries were written in English. Although she switched to Chinese frequently in the think-aloud tasks, Guo did try to speak only in English at the beginning of all three English articles. The use of Chinese in reading English, according to Guo, would slow down her reading speed. The only time she found Chinese helpful was when she encountered technical terms in the field. 103 4.1.4 Profile 4: Rong Language Learning Background Rong entered the TEFL program as soon as she graduated from university in Shangdong Province. She started to study English when she was in high school. She could remember at that time students like her were expected to internalize grammatical rules through practicing mechanical drills and translating unrelated sentences. Their English teacher spoke much Chinese in class, not only when doing the translation exercises but also when explaining grammar rules and meanings of sentences. She had "never been involved in any communicative activities." i In her undergraduate program, Rong studied English as her major. She took several courses. Similar to her high school experience, Rong's learning of English in those courses was traditional with the teachers being the center of the class. For example, in the Intensive Reading course students were expected to preview the text and look up new words in the dictionary before going to the class. In class, the teacher would ask them to read the text. Then she would explain the language points in detail and at the same time translate some sentences or phrases into Chinese. After going through the text, the teacher would ask the students to do comprehension and grammar exercises in the textbook. The teaching of Extensive Reading was somewhat different. Texts with a variety of writing styles were given to the students to read, for in-class or after-class reading. The purpose was to improve students' reading speed and to help them read extensively. Rong noticed that her learning in the graduate program was totally different from what she had experienced before. She had more freedom in terms of selecting articles for 104 her presentations and choosing topics for her term papers. Because of this, Rong felt she had to read and study independently, though they had group projects such as presentations. It took Rong quite some time to get used to this kind of learning style. And she was still adjusting to the new experiences. Like Jian, Rong had no teaching experience before entering graduate program. She was, at the time of the study, teaching a grammar class in the same night school as Shun's. Her learning of teaching skills, as Rong said, did not help much so she had to go to the reading room and look for materials which provided guidance for teaching grammar in a stimulating and communicative way. Rong wrote 46 learning journal entries, among which 4 were about her reading of Chinese and 42 about her reading of English. She read Chinese for information and for pleasure. Her reading of English, on the other hand, was solely academic. A l l the 42 journal entries were about her reading assignments or academic materials she chose to read to broaden her view in the field of TESOL. 105 Table 4.8 English Reading Strategies Reported by Rong in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Making comments/evaluations 6 Strategies Identifying reading problems 7 Raising questions 9 Being aware of strategy use 3 Cognitive Content Looking for specific information 5 Strategies Invoking prior knowledge 11 Structure Attending to references 1 Others, i.e., Reading aloud 2 study Memorizing 3 strategies Rereading/reviewing 11 that apply to Skipping 2 the 3 levels Taking notes 2 Switching languages 12 Marking the text 1 Using the dictionary 5 Social Asking other people 2 Strategies Discussing with other people/cooperating 1 Affective Being interested/motivated 7 Strategies Managing/adjusting boredom/stress/ frustration 3 Total 93 Table 4.9 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Rong in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Setting reading goals 1 Strategies Making comments/evaluations 2 Cognitive Content Identifying main ideas 1 Invoking prior knowledge 3 Making summaries 2 Others, i.e., Reading aloud 1 study strategies that apply to the 3 levels Rereading/reviewing 1 Affective Being confident 1 Strategies Being interested/motivated 2 Managing/adjusting boredom/stress/frustration 1 Total 15 106 As can be seen from Table 4.8 and Table 4.9, there were three major characteristics of Rong's reading in Chinese and in English. First, her reports of reading Chinese magazines, newspapers and novels were written in Chinese whereas her reports of academic reading in English were almost all written in English. Second, 7 of her journal entries talked about the strategies she employed to deal with the words she did not know. The following are two excerpts from her learning logs.15 When the author mentioned the word domain, I was a little confused and didn't have a clear idea of the word. I had thought it referred to the setting. After reading the following part, I got a better understanding. Then I looked it up in the dictionary. (Yuanwen (Origin): "Sociolinguistically, the distinction between classroom and naturalistic L2 learning can be viewed as one of the domain.") (May 4 t h) In the conclusion, one sentence stopped me from reading on. "If you feel that your data are amenable to precise interval scaling, you will, of course, opt for more powerful tests of the relationship among the variables." Wo'du dao for jiu ting xia lai (I stopped reading when I saw the word for) because there were some "new" words. One was "amenable," which was really new to me. But I didn't stop reading and another word "permeable" appeared in my mind. The second word was "precise." It was the part of speech instead of the meaning which was new to me. I have never known that it can be used as a verb apart from an adjective. I went on reading and stopped at the word "for" because I didn't recognize "opt" on the first sight. I read this sentence again and still had no clear idea of it. I went on reading the second " i f sentence which I could understand completely. The understanding of the second sentence made me understand the first one better since there exists one relation of comparison between them. Moreover, I guessed the meaning of "amenable" was suitable. To check my guessing, I looked it up in the dictionary and found that although my guess was not 100% accurate, it did not hamper my understanding." (May 10th) These two journal entries indicated that Rong used a variety of strategies to understand the meanings of the words. However, as can be seen from the descriptions, Rong might not always get the right answer. She did not realize that some of her guesses 1 5 Both learning logs were mainly in English in original, except "Yuanwen" in the first excerpt and "Wo du dao for jiu ting xia lai" in the second excerpt. 107 were wrong. For example, she took the word precise as a verb because it was after to. She did not know that to was a preposition. The third characteristic of Rong's entries was that she tended to make comments on the materials she read, sometimes agreeing/disagreeing with the author, while at other times saying that she was interested or commenting on the content of the reading materials. For example, she mentioned, 6 times, that she was not interested in certain parts of an article and, therefore, she skipped it. When she saw something she was very interested in, on the other hand, she would read it very carefully, take note of it, or even photocopy the article. Reading Style and Strategy Use Rong believed that she was a good reader, not only using many strategies to construct the meaning of a text but also being accurate in her understanding. It was because of her confidence in her reading ability that, in many cases during the six think aloud tasks, she did not realize that her comprehension was incomplete or incorrect. Rong was consistent in the six reading tasks in that she read the texts very slowly, spending much time figuring out what certain words meant, making several attempts when having i comprehension difficulties, moving backwards and forwards in the text, criticizing the content when she did not agree with the author, reacting to her feelings and monitoring her comprehension. w o o o o Q_ T3 o c o '5> -4-> ro -t-> (/> Ui c ~o ra a> o oo CM CO T— CM CO LU LU LU O o O • • • • • i i GO O uopsjoq iunsnlpc/DuiBcuc^ >u;sc^jnd/6u!X0J9x )uidd;ifs jiJ!«?;A9j/&u;pc9j»y >nojt 6yipc5y ogsipne p?pu?}u; &u;Xj!iuap| :?10UpU?/SD)OU100j 6uiD!j0fg X3 j ?|OtjM •ijj JO ICUIJOj 5U) Bui3l)0pj oi^dtjb uiojj DUj^ijtqjs/., :?ijtujujn; Bu;s|t|^ loiicujjojui iciuni •Itip^ujuji Buiicjudcicj •6p3|*OUJ1 J O l j d &UI^OAUj IOj)CUIJOJUt •ijpads JOJ 6u;t|Qoi •capi u;tu) Suj^jiiuspi c n » » J O feuusisuoa :UO(JC30||C pJOM Sui^l juspj ou9)U9s Suisnjcuy a >uraos»y •fit /!6J jtJJ; J O » J C * C Dupg •J3.v,;uc J O J 6u;ijoo-f :uon:snb £ u i c i c y :uj9|qojd &u;pc»j &ujAjj)U9p| :«31j.)0drf lJ }<JI5IA»JJ6U;^JIJ?A /&UIUIJ^UO3 :UCIJ3 ip3 jd :UOIlCri|CA3/5JU3UJLJ03 }UlUUC|d :|CO& D U I p O J 6u|)t9$ o o CO Q in o o 00 o CM 92 'a> a c T3 CO CD A o u a n b a j j 109 Rong spent altogether 261 minutes to complete all the reading tasks, 44 minutes for reading E l , 40 minutes for C l , 56 minutes for E2, 35 minutes for C2, 47 minutes for E3, and 41 minutes for C3. Moreover, a total of 1122 strategy uses were identified (Figure 4.4). In all reading tasks, she chose to use Chinese as the major language to report. In the first task, she immediately set goals for her reading as she said, "I would like to see if there's anything similar to our program." Then she took a quick look at the subtitles before starting to read the first sentence. Rong made a total of 278 strategy uses with the most frequently used strategies being marking the text (61), switching languages (23), invoking prior knowledge (19), making comments (17), identifying key words (16), making summaries (15), being aware of strategy use (12), looking for specific information (12), paraphrasing (10), raising questions (10), and rereading (10). A note should be made here about the highly used strategy of marking the text. According to Rong, there were two resources for highlighted information: those words and sentences she thought were important, and those she could not figure out. In the first case, when she wanted to read the text again, reading highlighted words and sentences would remind her of the textual information and consequently save time. In the second case, she would ask her classmates or the teachers. In reading the Chinese article on learning strategies, Rong took a similar approach. There were 72 places which she marked. Among those she underlined, there were technical terms she wanted to remember e.g., renzhi celue (cognitive strategies), kekong yinsu (controllable factor), and lilun mushi (theoretical models). She said she would take note of some of the words she underlined and try to remember them. Apart from marking the text, the top 3 on the list of frequently used strategies were identifying key words (26), 110 invoking knowledge (13), and identifying topic sentences (12). It is interesting to note that the strategy of making comments, although not on the top of the list, was used 10 times. It was evident from her learning journals that Rong was a critical reader. This strategy, together with marking, was used consistently later in her reading of E2, C2, E3 andC3. Making comments, in Rong's case, often went together with another strategy, i.e., being interested or motivated. Below are three examples, one from Rong's reading of E2, another from her reading of C2, and the third from her reading of E3: Rong read (E2) Rong said #2. The data indicated that they have a problem which is related to use rather than to inadequate knowledge of word-meaning. Zhe ge, bu tai keneng ba. Zhexie xuesheng dou shi xue Yingyu de. Zenme neng zhidao name duo ciyi? Ci de yisi he ci de yongfa dou you wenti cai dui. Buguo, ta zhe zhong shuofa dao ting you yisi de. (This sounds impossible.. These students were all learning English. How come they knew so many English words? They should have problems related to both word meanings and word use. However, this view is interesting.) I l l Rong read (C2) Rong said #20. Tongguo diaocha yi qian duo ming zai Jianada xuexi Fayu de gaozhong sheng, tamen faxian zai qi nianji dao shiyi nianji de xuesheng zhong, ketang jiaolugan (classroom anxiety) yu xuesheng de kouyu shuiping cheng fu xiangguan. (They investigated more than one thousand Canadian students studying French in secondary schools. Negative correlation was found between classroom anxiety and the oral proficiency of students from Grade 7 to Grade 11.) Kouyu shuiping cheng fu xiangguan. (#) Zhe ge guandiah you dian mosheng. (#) Dan zixi xiang xiang, ye shi you daoli de. En, you qur. (Negative correlation with the oral proficiency. (#) This point is strange to me. (#) But after a careful consideration, I think it's reasonable. Um, interesting.) Rong read (E3) Rong said ((Subtitle)) TOTAL IMMERSION ((Underlines the word "immersion")) Wo dui "immersion" zhe ge gainian mei you renhe xingqu, shenzhi you dianr fan. (((Underlines the word "immersion ")) I don't have any interest in the concept of "immersion. " Fm even a bit annoyed by it.) Rong's level of interest played an important role in her academic reading, as shown not only in her learning logs but also in her think-alouds. Generally speaking, Rong was less interested in the description of theories or tables than the discussion of teaching implications. This was why, in the 6 reading tasks, most of her skips occurred in the sections containing theoretical background or results. Summary of Rong Rong was a slow reader because she tended to read in a word-by-word manner. She liked to mark the text with different colored pens. This, according to Rong, would help her review and remember the major points in the text. Rong agreed7with Guo in that 112 the use of LI in reading a second language should be avoided as much as possible. Moreover, data from her learning logs and think-aloud protocols indicated that interest was a very important factor influencing how Rong read. 4.1.5 Profile 5: Shun Language Learning Background Shun was the oldest but the most experienced in terms of English teaching. She graduated from a university in the Northeastern part of China and had taught English to non-English majors at a college in Hebei Province for ten years before entering the TEFL program. In terms of Chinese, Shun could only remember her reading aloud sessions in the morning, the memorization of famous poems and ornate diction, and the appreciation of Chinese literary works, both classical and contemporary, in her classes at school. As far as her studying English was concerned, all of the courses Shun took in her undergraduate program were teacher-centered. Shun regretted that she had not studied hard at that time. She did not learn much. Therefore, when she entered the program, she was exposed to different kinds of teaching methodologies. She realized then how limited her teaching approach was because her way of teaching was very similar to what she had experienced in her undergraduate studies. Shun had mixed feelings towards teaching and learning. On the one hand, she was used to the traditional approach because almost everything in class was under control and the end results were predictable. On the other hand, Shun was aware of the limitations of such an approach. She wanted to change and try different kinds of methods. However, she was afraid of the process of changing from the stable and the predicable to just the opposite, from the things she had been used to, to the new 113 things she had to adjust to. She felt she was willing to change but she was not sure if she was ready for a change. Sometimes she felt she had to change for the sake of her scores. Such mixed feelings were one of her frustrations in her studies. Another frustration was being a slow reader. She spent almost all her leisure time doing her coursework but still, often, could not finish her reading assignments. Many of the assigned readings were theoretical. Even when she read papers related to teaching practice, she felt ten years' teaching experience and her practical knowledge did not seem to be very helpful because she lacked terms in the field. When asked what she felt about her studies in graduate program, Shun said, "Kewang waiyu neng you zhangjin. Ke du waiwen shu zong zhua bu dao zhongxin. Zhen fan. Du le jiu wang, gen fan. Qidai qiji chuxian, jiu bu fan le." (I desired to make much improvement but I always cannot grasp the main ideas of books written in a foreign language. Really frustrated. I also forget what I've read. Even more frustrated. I'm waiting for a miracle. Then I won't feel frustrated any more.) Shun wrote 33 learning journal entries, 2 of which were about her reading of Chinese novels and prose, but both journals were written in English. Thirty-one of Shun's, entries were about her reading of English and were written in English except for the first two. Shun usually read Chinese for pleasure, but English for her coursework and her teaching. As a part-time instructor at a night school, Shun taught grammar every Thursday night. 114 Table 4.10 English Reading Strategies Reported by Shun in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Setting reading goals 5 Strategies Making comments/evaluations 6 Identifying reading problems 7 Raising questions 9 Being aware of strategy use 3 Cognitive Content Looking for specific information 5 Strategies Invoking prior knowledge 11 Structure Attending to references 1 Others, i.e., Reading aloud 2 study Memorizing 3 strategies Rereading/reviewing 11 that apply to Skipping 2 the 3 levels Taking notes 2 Switching languages 12 Marking the text 1 Using the dictionary 5 Social Asking other people 2 Strategies Discussing with other people/cooperating 1 Affective Being interested/motivated 1 Strategies Managing/ adj usting boredom/sfress/frustration 3 Total 92 Table 4.11 Chinese Reading Strategies Reported by Shun in Her Learning Logs Categories Sub- Categories Types Frequency Metacognitive Setting reading goals 1 Strategies Making comments/evaluations 2 Cognitive Content Identifying main ideas 1 Invoking prior knowledge 3 Making summaries 2 Others, i.e., Reading aloud 1 study strategies that apply to the 3 levels Rereading/reviewing 1 Affective Being confident 1 Strategies Being interested/motivated 2 Managing/adjusting boredom/stress/frustration 1 Total 15 115 In her learning logs, Shun reported having difficulties understanding some of the reading assignments. So she read the materials again and again several times, first in a word by word manner. When she encountered unknown words, she usually underlined them. If she thought the word was important to her understanding of the article, she would look it up in the dictionary and write the meaning, usually in Chinese, next to it. Often, she would take note of important words, expressions or sentences she thought might be helpful in her other academic tasks such as presentations or writing. As to the presentations, she spent most of her time trying to figure out the meanings of unfamiliar words, mostly by looking them up in the dictionary, to understand each sentence, to form an outline according to subtitles, to write a draft for her presentation with details including transition words, and finally to memorize and to rehearse the presentation process. She told me that she was aware of her limited English, especially her spoken English. She wanted to look good in her presentation so that she could get a good grade. However, she found that sometimes the results were not good. For example, in the last group presentation in the Methodology course, she had spent much more time on her part than expected. As a result, her partners had to cut their parts short so that their group presentation would not run over time. Shun was the only one of the five participants who showed concerns about her grade in her journals. As she said: Du de dongxi jinguan tai lilunhua, bu hao dong, dan wo bu gan bu kan. Youshi dei kan de hen zixi. Zhe yang yi lai, ketang taolun canjia de duo, jiu hui ba fen tigao. (I dare not not to read, although the material was very theoretical and it was difficult to understand. Sometimes I have to read very carefully so that I can participate more in the classroom. By doing so I can improve my score.) 116 Shun read English mainly for her coursework and her teaching, whereas she read Chinese mainly for pleasure. She read Chinese novels and prose once in a while. The purpose was to relax and appreciate the writing style. Reading Style and Strategy Use Shun required 290 minutes (i.e., nearly 5 hours) to finish the 6 reading tasks. Her reading process tended to be mainly bottom up. In other words, she read the text word by word and sentence by sentence. This tendency was evident when she read and responded to long and complicated sentences. - CN CO CN CO LU LU LU O o O • • • • • • o u o o 0-T3 3 o < c M C s: V) C CO 0) '5> a •«-> ro i_ -*-» co cn c ra cu a: uopsjoq >< 6u|)dui3))c jsjjt dn D«!*!3 >»)CA!)oui/p9)s?j?iw 6u;?g u?p!juos 6u;?g • |do?d J3<|)0 Duiijsy ijtuoipjp 3lj4 &u;sf| :»6tn&UC| 6uicp •)!•*$ ? >uiddiif3 • >ui,*}iA:'j|'6u!pc3J3y >y izijQUj?l/ij >no|c 6uipc?y 3 H IHWI 3;do) 6uiiijiju?pi g :»u*J9,pj 0] &u;pu9uy — ! :?;jtiuuins DuiqtiAj - io|icujJojui |eniS9) £ 'Ittpxuuji Suiccji^dcjcj • -6p3|MOHI| JOud DUII|0AU| i I lOIJCCUjojUl • -ijoad; J O J 6u;i|00i § cjpi UICIU 6u;Aji)U4p| CnjXSi JO faMHSISUOS I >uc jsijo: 6ui>| •pjoM ÂMJ &u;/ij|)u»p| >Uiy05C9.y • ;n ri69)d)S 40 9jc*c 6ui9g :J9«*SUC JOJ &u;i)oo-] ;«i>|qojd fiuipcaj bu;^j;iu»p| :4S»u,}odrii| iuis!A3jjBu;Aj!J9A/6uiujijjuo3 :UO;}3ip9jd DUl^cy.J :U0!]Cn|CA3/2)U9UIU03 0 =|C0& 6uipC3J &UI^9$ a o cs •*-• C O O ) c '•5 ra o A o u a n b a j j 118 When reading the first English passage, Shun made a total of 292 strategy uses trying to understand the text (Figure 4.5). Six times, Shun reported having reading difficulties, 2 with the words, and 4 with sentences. She tried various kinds of strategies, among which were (1) making a guess and confirming her guess from the text that followed, (2) ignoring and going on reading, (3) rereading, (4) marking the word/sentence with a question mark, (5) tonsulting others, and (6) using the dictionary. Take the word practicum for example. This word first appeared in the title. Unlike Jian, who immediately made a guess and was sure that her guess was correct, Shun first ignored it. But when she encountered the word for the second time, she thought it was a key word and then tried to guess its meaning. She said, Ranhou shi setting, rahuo shi practicum students. ((Looks back and finds the word "practicum" in the title)) Ta zhe ge gen wo zhe xueqi xue de Action Research you dianr xiangsi. Keneng shi curriculum design shenmen de. (##) Bu zhi dao ." (Then setting. And then practicum students. (((Looks back and finds the word "practicum " in the title)) It's like Action Research which I'm learning this semester. Maybe it's curriculum design or something like that. (##) / don't know.) She made a guess but she was not sure if she was right or not. She went on reading five more sentences until she saw the word again. She then said: ((Reads aloud the phrase "had the practicum waived")) Oh, wo jue de zhe ge practicum you dianr xiang research de yisi, xiang practice side." (((Reads aloud the phrase "had the practicum waived")) Oh, I think this practicum is a bit like research. It's like practice.) Shun made 2 more guesses and then decided this word meant practice. The above was one example of several in this reading task which showed that Shun tried different strategies to help her understand. The most frequently used strategies were switching languages (64), marking the text (43), reading aloud (39), rereading (13), identifying key words (13), invoking prior knowledge (13), raising questions (12), 119 identifying reading problems (11), and making summaries (10). However, many of the strategies were not effective. As a result, her comprehension was incomplete and sometimes incorrect. For instance, she liked to make summaries, instead of paraphrases. However, her summaries tended to consist of the key words or words she thought were important. Her summaries tended to be brief containing mainly the key words she picked out from sentences. She did not realize that two out of the ten summaries she made were incorrect. When she found the information was important but she did not understand, she tried hard to construct the meaning. In other words, when she found one strategy was not working, she immediately turned to another or made a third attempt. Such persistence may have contributed to the fact that Shun made more reading moves than the other four participants. , Apart from the ineffective use of strategies, there were two salient points regarding Shun's reading of this text. One was her use of mixed languages and the other was her reading habits. The amount of Chinese used by Shun was considerably more than Xin, Jian and Guo on the same task. Although she was reading an English text, Shun preferred to respond in Chinese as she told me later that she was not confident in her English ability. Moreover, responding in English limited her thinking and slowed down her reading speed. She did use many English words in her think-alouds, but over 98 percent of these words were just the key words in the text. Shun liked to use her right index finger to point to the words or sentences she was reading, which to a large extent slowed down her reading speed. Marking the text and sometimes using the dictionary made it even worse. Shun was aware of her slow speed 120 but she said she could not do anything about is because the more anxious she became as she tried to speed up, the more likely she would lose the track of the ideas. Shun was slow not only in English reading but also in Chinese reading. It took her 53 minutes to finish reading the Chinese article on learning strategies (Cl). And she used the same text-pointing approach. However, Shun was more relaxed while reading C l and her comprehension was more complete and deeper. Altogether, she used reading strategies 159 times. The most frequently used strategies included marking the text (35), looking for specific information (17), invoking prior knowledge (13), making comments (12), switching languages (12), and raising questions (11). Compared to reading E l , Shun used less code-switching in reading C l . The reason may be that Shun was using Chinese to think in both reading tasks. Shun attended to specific information. She did not like tables or any other graphics. For example, in E l there were three quotations presented in a picture of a blackboard. The three sentences were from the three case studies. She read aloud the graphics but did not make any associations with the case studies. Later, when she was asked what the graphics were about, she said, "I just read them aloud but I don't know why they are there. I don't even remember what they were about." It was the same case in reading C l . Shun ignored both graphics in the text including a chart and a table. In this task, Shun reported having difficulties understanding the section of the introduction to the theoretical framework, not only the ideas but also the technical terms. For example, after reading the description of the framework of English learning strategies, she said, "Wo j i de shang xueqi xueguo leisi de. Dan mei xue hao, hai shi j i bu zhu." (/ remember I have learned something similar last semester but I didn't learn it well. I still 121 can't remember anything.) The previous example was only one of 13 cases in which Shun made associations between textual information and her prior knowledge. She made many associations in her reading but she said "I've learned or read this before." She did not say how relevant the textual information was to her prior knowledge. This tendency of making incomplete associations was evident in all six reading tasks, no matter whether the language of the text was English or Chinese. Shun made a total of 200 strategy uses in reading the text on vocabulary teaching (E2), with the most frequently used ones being switching languages (39), marking the text (34), identifying key words (13), rereading/reviewing (13), raising questions (11), making comments (10), and invoking prior knowledge (10). Her processing of E2 was similar to that of E l except that she paid attention to some of the names in the text. Before reading E2, Shun did not seem to have any goal for her reading. She paid no attention to the title. Therefore, she probably did not have any idea of what the passage was about. She started with the abstract but she did not realize that it was an abstract until she began to read the next paragraph entitled INTRODUCTION. So she decided to start all over again. After reading the abstract for a second time, she said that this article was interesting and she might choose it for her term paper.16 This task was the only one in which Shun attended to the references in the article. Here is how she responded to the sentence with the reference she was interested in. 1 6 The term paper for Statistics course was to write a critique of a research paper. 122 Shun read Shun said # 5. In a state-of-the-art article McCarthy (1990) made the observation that, in recent years, vocabulary teaching has come into its own again in ELT. (#) ((Speaks in a low voice)) state-of-the- art article McCarthy (#) Zhe ge McCarthy wo du guo ta de wenzhang. ((Looks at the last page 58)) Ji zhu zhe ge ((Marks McCarthy in References.)) ((Goes back to page 52)) (##) Ta made the observation (#) in recent years (#) vocabulary teaching (##) its own again in ELT. ((#) ((Speaks in a low voice)) state-of-the- art article McCarthy (#) This McCarthy I've read his article before. ((Looks at the last page 58)) Remember this ((Marks McCarthy in References.)) ((Goes back to page 52)) (##) He made the observation (#) in recent years (#) vocabulary teaching (##) its own again in ELT.) In the subsequent interview, the researcher asked Shun why she wanted to mark the reference. She said, "Laoshi mei jiang guo. Shi wo ziji shouji leyixie vocabulary de wenzhang, xiang fabiao. Qizhong jiu you McCarthy." (The teachers didn't talk about him. I collected some articles on vocabulary. I wanted to publish something. Among these articles, there was one by McCarthy.) In this reading task, Shun made 6 skips including 4 tables and 2 sentences in the results section. The reasons were (1) the tables were difficult to understand and (2) the explanations of the results were confusing. / Lacking interest in tables was also evident in her reading of the Chinese article on anxiety (C2), which was also a quantitative study. When she was asked what the most difficult part was in the text, Shun said, "Shouxian shi lilun bufen, qici shi jieguo bufen. Lilun bufen yuyan nan, jieguo bufen shuju fenxi tailuan. Jieguo bufen shuju fenxi tailuan." (First the theory part and then the results section. The language in the theory 123 part is difficult. The analysis of data in the results section is confusing.) When she noticed that, after several attempts, she still could not understand, she marked the text and later asked her classmates or the teachers. Shun marked the text not only for the purpose of later consultation but also for note-keeping. She had a notebook which contained words, phrases and even sentences she thought were important. While reading C2, Shun marked all the terms which had English equivalents in brackets, the definition of anxiety as well as two sentences in the conclusion section. In one case while she was marking, Shun said she would have taken note of the terms if she had not been involved in the think-aloud task. It took Shun 45 minutes to finish reading the last English passage on culture (E3). The total number of strategy uses, as revealed in the think-aloud data, was 181. This was the article she reported having the most reading problems with. As soon as she saw the title "Culture and Foreign Language Teaching," she predicted that it was going to talk about some aspects of a culture such as holidays and customs to teach in a foreign language setting. However, after she took a quick look at the subtitles, she realized that her prediction was wrong, as the following excerpt illustrates: 124 Shun read Shun said #1. This essay considers various approaches to the teaching of culture in connection with foreign language (FL) teaching with a view to making a realistic suggestion as to how to integrate the language and culture elements. This essay (#) various approaches (#) teaching of culture (#) in connection with foreign language teaching (#) with a (#) make a realistic suggestion (#) integrate the language and culture elements. ((Rereads the sentence)) (##) Oh, various approaches to teaching. ((Marks the phrase)) Wo hai yiwei shi jiang yixie fengsu xiguan ne. (This essay (#) various approaches (#) teaching of culture (#) in connection with foreign language teaching (#) with a (#) make a realistic suggestion (#) integrate the language and culture elements. ((Rereads the sentence)) (##) Oh, various approaches to teaching. ((Marks the phrase)) I thought it is going to talk about customs and habits.) As usual, Shun tried to read the text word by word and sentence by sentence. However, there were longer and more complicated sentences in this article than in all the other five passages. Reading in a word by word manner did not seem to help much in her understanding. As a result, she simply read aloud most of the words in a sentence with few paraphrases or summaries. There were four sentences which she marked and reread 3 times. She noticed there were many unknown words. Shun told the researcher that 19 out of the 45 words and expressions that she marked were unfamiliar, She said she would look them up in the dictionary later. The last Chinese passage (C3) was also on culture and language teaching. However, she had almost no difficulty understanding the Chinese article. She made 101 strategy uses, 15 of which were identifying key words, 14 invoking prior knowledge, and 14 switching languages. Shun felt her Chinese was much better than her English, which 125 was true in her reading of C3. As can be seen from her think-alouds, her paraphrase and summaries were concrete and accurate. Moreover, she took note of the English words in the text, not for consultation with others but for remembering and memorizing. It was the same case when she read aloud the direct quotation of Rivers, "Yuyan bun neng yu wenhua wanquan fen kai lai. Yinwei ta shen shen de za gen yu wenhua zhong." (Language and culture cannot be separated completely because the former is deeply rooted in culture.) Summary of Shun Although she had taught English before entering graduate program, Shun was not confident about her teaching or about her learning. She was used to the traditional learning approach. As a result she had a difficult time adjusting to the new learning approach, which aimed at fostering interactive and cooperative learning skills as well as / independent research capabilities. In addition, the length of time Shun spent on all the 6 think-aloud tasks was the longest of any of the participants. There may be two reasons for this. One is that although she used a variety of strategies in reading, many of them resulted in incorrect or incomplete comprehension. The other reason was that Shun liked to finger-point and mark the text while reading. Shun relied heavily on her world knowledge and Chinese in comprehending English texts, as can be seen from the high frequency of the two strategies, i.e., invoking prior knowledge and switching languages. Another interesting note is that, among the five participants, Shun was the highest in frequency using the dictionary and memorizing the information she thought useful. 126 4.2 Summary The data in this study have shown that the participants used similar reading strategies while they were reading English and Chinese passages, although the frequency of each strategy varied. Presented below is a classification of the reading strategies identified based on the data including think-aloud protocols and learning logs. This list is a revised version of the original list proposed according to the literature (see Table 4.12). Table 4.12 Academic Reading Strategies Used by Participants Categories Sub- Categories Types Metacognitive Setting reading goals Strategies Planning Making comments/evaluations Making predictions Confirming/verifying/revising hypotheses Identifying reading problems Raising questions Looking for answers Being aware of strategy use Reasoning Cognitive Language Analyzing sentence structures Strategies Analyzing word formation Identifying key words Identifying word collocations Content Checking coherence and consistency of textual information Identifying main ideas Looking for specific information Invoking prior knowledge Paraphrasing immediate textual information Making summaries Verbalizing from graphics Structure Noticing the format of the whole text Noticing graphics Noticing footnotes/endnotes Attending to references Identifying topic sentences Recognizing different rhetoric patterns Identifying intended audience 127 Categories Sub- Categories Types Others, i.e., study strategies that apply to the 3 levels Guessing/Inferencing Reading aloud Memorizing Rereading/reviewing Skipping Taking notes Switching languages Marking the text Using the dictionary Photocopying/purchasing Social Strategies Asking other people Discussing with other people/cooperating Using other resources such as books and internet Affective Strategies Being confident Being interested/motivated Giving up after attempting to evaluate the suitability/correctness of the textual information and accepting it Managing/adjusting boredom/stress/frustration The descriptions of the participants' language learning background, their current status in graduate program, and their reading performance in the think-aloud tasks suggest that these bilingual readers (1) did not read at the same speed, even when reading the same passage; (2) used various kinds of strategies that matched their reading goals and performance, their LI and L2 learning background, and the particular reading tasks; (3) did not use same number or same type of strategies across tasks; (4) employed some of the same strategies across tasks, but combined differently; (5) used some strategies which might or might not be effective in helping them construct meanings from the text; (6) used some strategies which could not be revealed in the think-aloud tasks; (7) might use more strategies than could be identified in real life reading; and (8) were still developing new ways to deal with academic articles. The next chapter will discuss, in detail, these findings as well as the rationale behind them. 128 C H A P T E R 5 - SOCIO-COGNITIVE DISCUSSION TOWARDS A M O R E UNIFIED VIEW OF A C A D E M I C READING STRATEGIES 5.0 Overview The in-depth case studies presented in Chapter 4 provide a window on understanding proficient L2 readers' complex reading processes. From a socio-cognitive perspective, this chapter presents a discussion about the themes emerging from the investigations undertaken for this study. This chapter consists of two parts. The first part summarizes the reading strategies the participants used. It intends to answer the first research question: What strategies do Chinese EFL learners use to read Chinese and English texts, respectively, for academic purposes? The second part of this chapter focuses on the themes emerging from the analysis of the reading strategies used by the participants. It intends to address the second research question: To what extent are students' Chinese reading strategies similar to or different from their English reading strategies and what factors account for these similarities or differences? 5.1 Academic Reading Strategies: Cross-Case Analysis and Summary This section summarizes the major findings across the five case studies. A close look at these five participants' backgrounds reveals an interesting combination of personal characteristics and provides insights into the profile of Chinese readers of English. First, all of the participants had a similar length of Chinese learning experience in a formal classroom setting. That is to say, their formal study of Chinese occurred from Grade 1 to Grade 12. Only Jian studied Modem Chinese for one year. It is the same case i with their English learning experience. The participants stated that they had learned English for about 10 years before entering graduate program, 6 years in secondary 129 schools and 4 years in undergraduate programs. Three of the participants studied French as a second foreign language when they were undergraduate students. Jian's second foreign language was Japanese and Guo's were German and Japanese. Second, four of the participants said they read few Chinese academic articles in their graduate program. One possible reason was that the teachers seldom gave out Chinese articles as reading assignments. Although Chinese articles were occasionally cited as references, they were never used for classroom discussion. Xin was an exception. She was very motivated to look for Chinese articles related to phonological awareness because she intended to do her research on this topic. Among the five participants, Xin was the only one who had a clear idea of what she was going to do in terms of her research. It might be because of this that she tended to use the strategy of setting reading goals more frequently than the other four participants. Third, all participants were teaching English as part-time jobs, although their previous teaching experiences ranged from no experience to ten years. One of the benefits, according to them, was that they could apply what they had learned in class to their teaching. Fourth, all of them had a fairly clear understanding of their own strategy use and talked about it with clarity and ease. Finally, all of the participants used mixed languages in their think-alouds. They tended to speak more English in reading English passages than in reading Chinese passages. Moreover, the English they used in their reading of English texts usually consisted of the academic terminology in the text they were reading. 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Table 5.1 is a summary of the reading strategies as revealed from the think-aloud protocols. It is organized by language (i.e., English and Chinese) and by task (i.e., the reading of six passages), and provides data in relation to the frequency of strategy use. Table 5.2 is a summary of the strategy uses as reported in the participants' learning logs. It is organized in relation to their reading of English and Chinese. Five themes emerge from data analysis. The following section presents an integrated discussion of the themes. 5.1.1 Similarities between L I andL2 Reading The results affirm those of previous studies that LI and L2 reading processes share similar general characteristics (e.g., Grabe, 2002; L i & Munby, 1996; Tang, 1997). First, LI and L2 reading are both an individual process and a social process. As can be seen from both Table 5.1 and Table 5.2, while processing English and Chinese academic texts, all of the participants used similar reading strategies, which can be classified into four categories: metacognitive, cognitive, social and affective strategies. This indicates that various factors both at the individual level and at the social level work as a whole to influence LI and L2 reading. Moreover, data show that LI and L2 reading are both purposeful and strategic. A reader's purpose as one of the most powerful forces on reading often determines what is 135 to be read and how it will be read. Due to the nature of the think-aloud tasks, the participants did not seem to have pre-set goals before they started to read the text. However, they gradually developed reading goals, i.e., reading (1) to enlarge their vocabularies, (2) to gain knowledge related to their coursework or to their teaching, and (3) gather information for later publication. Xin's case was a bit different. She had already set her purpose before reading. This was because she wanted to write her research proposal on phonological awareness. Therefore, in the six think-aloud tasks, Xin tended to look for information useful for her research. Her learning logs also indicated that she searched purposefully for academic articles pertaining to her research interests, either in English or in Chinese. Apart from reading purposefully, the data also indicated that the participants read Chinese and English in a strategic way. They used a variety of strategies to process the texts such as questioning, making predictions, identifying key words, using prior knowledge, and marking the text. Some processed the same information using more than one strategy. They also used different strategies when comprehension problems occurred. A note should be made here that similar reading strategies identified in English and Chinese reading in this study indicated a transfer of strategies between LI and L2 reading. Such transfer was very complex. Participants had a repertoire of reading strategies that they could use for reading English and Chinese. However, the use of certain strategies and the transfer of LI and L2 reading strategies depended on many factors. To be more specific, there were four basic features of the transfer of academic reading strategies. First, such transfer took place at four levels: metacognitive, cognitive, social and affective. Second, such transfer was two-way, i.e., from English reading to 136 Chinese reading and vice versa. Third, it was not stable. It changed according to the nature of the reading task, the reading texts, the participants' English and Chinese learning/reading experiences, their language and reading ability, and individual preferences. That is to say, the transfer of reading strategies might occur in one case but not in the other. Finally, the transfer of reading strategies did not necessarily facilitate comprehension. 5.1.2 Differences between L I and L2 Reading Despite the fact that the participants used similar types of reading strategies while processing English and Chinese academic texts, they did not use all the identified strategies in all the think-aloud tasks. In addition, the frequency of strategy use varied across languages and across tasks. This indicated that some reading strategies might be language-specific. Using the dictionary is one example. None of the participants said they would use the dictionary while reading Chinese. This does not mean that the participants did not have reading problems while reading Chinese academic articles. Major problems they reported were difficult concepts and terms in the field of TESOL. Since they were in the graduate TEFL program, most concepts were borrowed from English and translated into Chinese. As a result, when reading Chinese articles on TESOL, the participants had a difficult time understanding the specific terms and ideas, although they could recognize all the characters used in the articles. There are three possible explanations for not using the dictionary in reading Chinese. First, the participants' Chinese reading ability was much higher than their ability to read English, although they were considered to be advanced readers of English, as shown from the results of the reading tests presented earlier in Chapter 3. A few unknown 137 words in the Chinese texts, according to them, would not hinder their understating and interpretation of the whole text. Second, their previous English learning experience made it natural for them to turn to the dictionary when they encountered unknown vocabulary. However, they did not regularly use the dictionary while reading Chinese, let alone reading Chinese academic articles. Besides, instructors seldom gave their students Chinese articles. Third, no dictionary has been compiled so far which explains TESOL terminology. Even if the participants wanted to look some terms up in Chinese dictionaries, they would not be able to find the explanations they wanted. 5.1.3 Most Frequently Used Reading Strategies As can be seen in Table 5.1, the five most frequently used reading strategies were code-switching (814), marking the text (505), identifying key words (448), invoking prior knowledge (383), and making summaries (302). Among the 814 instances where participants used mixed languages, 551 took place when the participants read English texts and 263 Chinese. The general tendency was that the participants used more Chinese than English in all the six think-aloud tasks. Moreover, there was more use of English in reading English than in reading Chinese. Code-switching or using mixed languages in this study took three major forms. The first form was direct translation of the words, phrases, sentences or paragraphs in the reading texts. In this study, the translation from English into Chinese occurred at the word, sentence, and text levels whereas the translation from Chinese into English occurred only at the lexical level. The second form was summarizing the ideas in the text. The summaries of the ideas in reading English texts usually consisted of the key words (in English) the participants identified and other words (in Chinese) which made the S 138 siitrrrnaries coherent. The third form of code-switching was making associations with the information outside the text. This form included large chunks of Chinese. It could be a possible explanation for the frequent use of the strategy of invoking prior knowledge. There were two major functions of using mixed languages. Switching languages was a way of releasing cognitive anxiety since participants were free to choose whichever language they felt comfortable in for the think-aloud tasks. Moreover, it was a resource for clarifying, constructing meaning from the text or expressing pertaining ideas. The strategies of marking the text, identifying key words, and making summaries were high in frequency in total. They were almost equally high in frequency in English reading and in Chinese reading. The main purposes of using these strategies, according to participants, were to help them quickly review the gist of the article and locate important/unknown information. 5.1.4 Social and Affective Reading Strategies The reason why a separate section is included to discuss the social and affective reading strategies as identified in this study is that these strategies cannot be analyzed only in relation to their frequencies. For example', the strategies of being interested and being confident are more related to the whole reading process than to just the frequency of strategy use. Moreover, due to the nature of the think-aloud tasks, social strategies such as asking other people, using other resources and so on could not be identified unless the participants mentioned them explicitly. Therefore, numbers of social and affective strategies in the tables represent only the number of occasions when these strategies were reported verbally by participants. The analysis of these strategies should take into consideration other data collected from 139 interviews, classroom observations and documents. Provided below is a brief account of participants' use of social and affective strategies. Working Cooperatively and Competing In this study, the strategy of cooperating with others was high in terms of frequency in the category of social strategies (i.e., 19 in total). However, in the interviews and in their learning logs the participants provided both positive and negative comments on cooperative learning in academic reading. The researcher observed that in four of the seven courses participants were taking, group discussions and presentations took most of the class time. Students were expected to read articles either assigned by the instructors or selected by themselves so as to prepare for discussion and presentation in class. A l l of the participants said that they liked this form of group work as the main activity in class because they could leam from each other. Another reason why the students liked cooperative work was to avoid disagreement, as Shun said in Chinese in an interview: For most of the time while others are presenting their part of the work, I keep silent. Introverted person. I'm afraid of disagreement. But I am thinking and I like to hear others' ideas. Supporting evidence also came from the learning logs. While reading an article entitled "In Defense of the Communicative Approach," Rong wrote: It was written by a Chinese teacher. This article criticizes almost all the activities being implemented in classrooms, such as role play, games, and drama. The reason is that such activities are only simulated. He argued that communication should take place in real situations and in real roles. I think he is too arbitrary. Those activities are really useful in EFL setting. But this is a published article. I guess this view is reasonable, to some extent. In both cases, Shun and Rong were inclined to avoid disagreement for the purpose of achieving harmony. 140 Data, however, showed that cooperative work did not necessarily facilitate learning. Since marks were assigned to groups as a whole, individuals were more focused on their own part of reading and thus less interested in others' work. Interviews showed that students tended to think cooperative work was time-consuming and difficult to organize. Moreover, good students thought they would receive better marks if working on their own than working with others, whereas poor students preferred working with others so that they could leam from good students. There may be psychological and social explanations for why students had mixed feelings about cooperative work. Among the possible reasons is that competition is a major factor affecting students' perceptions of cooperation. In the Chinese national education system, competition and efforts are highly emphasized. Therefore, competition is seen by many as providing individuals opportunities to take a lead in academic performance and thus achieve academic success. Behind the notion of competition is the strong emphasis on efforts in education (Stevenson & Lee, 1996; Yu, 1996). In Chinese history, examinations have been the principal testing and selection for civil service since the Sui Dynasty more than 1,500 years ago. Emphasis was placed on the demonstration of one's knowledge of Confucian classics as well as one's ability at poetic composition. Only a small percentage of candidates succeeded. Therefore, competition was quite high. Exams continue to be one of the major issues in contemporary education in China. Parents, teachers and students are well aware that students have to work hard and get high marks so as to advance to successively higher levels of schooling. 141 Cross-cultural studies have shown that, compared with American parents, Chinese parents put more stress on their children's hard work. Moreover, over 80 per cent of college students in Hong Kong chose effort as the explanation for their academic achievement (see Leung, 1996, for a review of the literature). In Mainland China, Gui (1985) found that competition was one of the major reasons for high motivation for learning among university students. To Chinese students, the ultimate goal of competing for academic success is seeking recognition for themselves and opportunities for higher education and high-level jobs (Stevenson & Lee, 1996). Academic success not only promises a better future for students but also enhances their family status. Poor academic performance, on the other hand, may result in the loss of prestige for the students as well as the loss of family face. The following excerpt from an interview with Shun gives a good example of how she thought of academic achievement: I spent more time in reading for presentations than for discussion. If I don't know I can keep my mouth shut. But for presentation, I have to look intelligent and know much about the topic. Only by doing this can I get a good mark. Being Interested/Motivated In the category of affective strategies, being interested/motivated was the highest in frequency (i.e., 50 in total). Data from the learning logs and the interviews showed that a strong motivation for doing well in academic tasks and an interest in reading materials were two major reasons why in many cases participants read actively for their coursework. In this sense, they were autonomous in academic reading. To be more specific, the participants were willing to spend more time reading and working for their presentations and for their research projects. 142 In this program, students were given more autonomy in decision-making. One of the objectives of the graduate program, as stated in the program description, was "to develop the capabilities of undertaking research work in their chosen field" (p. 1). Students could pursue their research interest and decide on a topic they would like to work on. In some courses like Readings on Linguistics, Language Learning Theory, and Action Research opportunities were given to students to decide on their presentations, research projects, as well as their term papers. Participants were particularly careful about their presentations which, along with written assignments, contributed up to fifty per cent of the assessment. The preparation for their presentation involved selecting an interesting article from the resource room, reading the article carefully and underlining/highlighting important ideas, looking up key words in the dictionary, i f necessary, outlining steps for the presentation including warm- up and follow-up activities, and finally memorizing and rehearsing. The researcher observed that in their presentations, students sometimes memorized certain parts of the article and reported them to the class. The reason for this may be that they thought the author's ideas were best explained by his/her own words rather than by others' interpretations. The researcher also noticed that the students did not memorize the ideas mechanically or passively. Instead, they integrated the textual information with their own ideas and experiences. Participants used visual aids and other presentation skills to help them remember. This led the researcher to reconsider the traditional understanding of memorization, represented in the works of Chu Hsi (1230-1200), who argued for memorizing before understanding. The traditional Chinese learning approach emphasizes learning products (i.e., examination results) rather than the learning process (i.e., how V 143 students arrive at the results). Mechanical memorization and the reproduction factual knowledge are stressed. The data in this study, however, indicated that participants memorized academic information in a more autonomous way. In graduate program, students were given more autonomy to improve their independent research capability. Memorization was thus given a new meaning, which focused on the production and integration of information with understanding and critical thinking. Passive reading went hand in hand with self-regulated reading in this study. The instruction in this graduate program ranged from strong framing to weak framing. Among the seven courses (required or optional) the participants were taking, two were highly teacher-centered with the instructor lecturing for most of the time. There was little student-teacher interaction in class. In one of the two courses, students were also I expected to take in-class quizzes once in a while and a mid-term exam. The teacher played a central role in deciding what and when to teach, sometimes without giving students advance notice of the content of the next lesson. Although students could choose topics for their term papers, the autonomy they had was limited. The participants rated the two controlled courses low. The reasons they gave were: (1) the instruction was poorly organized in terms of class activities and time management; (2) the course was test-driven, which was not suitable for graduate program like TEFL; and (3) the teaching content was difficult, dull, or not practical. It was interesting to notice that while students felt uncomfortable in highly controlled classes, they sometimes took a passive role in other classes in which they had more autonomy. Consider the following three examples from the interview data: It depends on whether the article is chosen by yourself or assigned by the instructor. Sometimes, I would read it very quickly without even taking a single 144 note. Sometimes I have to remember the main ideas in the article because the instmctor will ask us to discuss it in class. Quite often, I won't read it very carefully because the teacher will talk about it in detail. (Jian) The instmctor asked us to read some materials, but we didn't have time to discuss. Therefore, we had little pressure. Sometimes, we didn't read the assigned readings. The teachers should organize more activities. (Guo) If the instructor could spend more time in preparing the class, i f she could devote more time in talking to us, if she could give us more suggestions on how and what to do now and later, that would be much better. (Xin) Students expressed both positive and negative opinions about learner autonomy and teacher control. On the one hand, they complained about lacking adequate help from the instructors to improve their learning autonomy. On the other hand, the participants expected that teachers should have more control of the class, especially in the first year when students needed time to get used to the academic requirements in the graduate program. Two possible reasons for this finding were identified in this study. These students had obtained some theoretical and empirical information related to student- centered language teaching and learning in the TEFL program. They were told that student-centered language teaching and learning was better than a teacher-centered classroom. These students were part-time teachers of English. Based on their own teaching experiences, they felt strongly that students learned more if they were motivated. Highly controlled and planned classrooms did not motivate students much and thus hampered learning. However, due to their long language learning experience (i.e., in Chinese and English) in a controlled manner, these students felt more comfortable sitting in a teacher-centered classroom with moderate student control. 145 5.1.5 Interaction of Multiple Factors Academic reading in English and in Chinese, as indicated in this study, was influenced by various kinds of factors, both at the macro-level and at the micro-level. The influence at the macro-level came from educational, social, and cultural forces whereas that at the micro-level referred to cognitive and individual differences. Figure 5.1 illustrates a model that explains the influence of educational factors on the use of English and Chinese academic reading strategies. Figure 5.1 Influence of Educational Factors on the Reading of Chinese and English Methods Assessment & Goals Students' Roles & Attitudes Reading Process Learning and Reading Chinese/English in Schools and Undergraduate programs Compulsory subjects Test-driven Transmissive and structural Teacher-centered Tests Mostly passive and negative • Mostly bottom-up • Sometimes interactive Learning and Reading Chinese/English in the TEFL Graduate Program Compulsory/optional Transmissive/ transactional Teacher-centered/ students-centered Reading for academic purposes Tests/discussions/ presentations/ academic writing, etc. Passive and negative/active and positive Mostly interactive The descriptions of participants' learning background in Chapter 4 have shown that all of the participants began their Chinese learning when they were in Grade 1 and 146 their English learning when they were in Grade 6. There was nine years of age difference among the participants, i.e., the oldest being 33 and the youngest being 22. Teaching and learning Chinese and English in elementary and secondary schools were similar, as revealed in their reports. One of the similarities was that in both Chinese and English classes, the participants were asked to read aloud the texts and memorize useful words/expressions in the text. Such memorization, according to the participants, was mechanical and dull. However, they did mention that memorization had been so powerful that they could still remember many Chinese poems and parts of Chinese texts, which they had learned even ten years before. Because they had formed the habit of reading aloud in the early morning, many students, after entering the university, were still inclined to read aloud repeatedly the English texts in the mornings and tried to memorize all the useful expressions and words. Another similarity between the participants' learning of Chinese and English was that the instruction in both classes was teacher-centered. Because of this teacher control, both classes were predictable in terms of the instructional content and in-class activities. Despite these similarities, the English class was different from their Chinese class in two respects. The first difference was that there was a drill session in the English class. Students were supposed to get familiar with the grammatical structures and thus internalize the process through repeating the sentences in the drill session. The second difference lay in the objectives of reading. The major objectives of the participants' English learning at the elementary and the secondary schools were to extend their vocabularies and to understand texts by doing comprehension questions after reading the texts. These two objectives remained the same all the way by their learning of English at 147 universities. In reading Chinese, on the other hand, the focus of reading instruction at the early stage, say at elementary schools, was on vocabulary extension but it shifted to literary appreciation at a higher stage, i.e., at secondary schools and universities. The above discussion is a brief summary of the description of the participants' learning experience in Chinese and in English. These participants' learning experience lend support to the view that reading strategies are socially constructed (e.g., Parry, 1996). At the stage of English learning in secondary schools and in undergraduate programs, both the grammar-translation approach and the approach of comprehension questions and language work were the core of reading instmction. As a result, the participants tended to use bottom-up strategies more frequently than top-down strategies. However, this does not mean that the participants did not use top-down reading strategies. A possible reason was that their way of reading English might be influenced by the way in which Chinese was taught and read. The Chinese instructional approach tended to be interactive in the sense that it harnessed both word analysis at the bottom/linguistic level and literary appreciation at the top/content level. Moreover, literature has indicated that readers of Chinese tended to use context, to a great extent, to help them construct meanings from the text (e.g., Chen, 1996). Such an interactive approach in reading Chinese might, to some extent, affect the reader's approach in reading English. At the second stage, when the participants studied English in the graduate program, with the improvement of their English proficiency and the shift of instructional objectives, they tended to use more comprehension monitoring strategies and information gathering strategies. Therefore, some bottom-up strategies such as using the dictionary and analyzing word formations and sentence structures, which had been used heavily 148 before, were less and less used. Other strategies had taken on a more important role in reading. These strategies included using mixed languages and comprehension monitoring. As shown in the think-aloud protocols, the participants used strategies at all the four levels: metacognitive, cognitive, social and affective. Although the participants made transitions in strategy use, they did not always use reading strategies equally frequently. Nor did they use strategies effectively at all times. Sometimes they were either unaware of their comprehension problems or did not know how to read effectively. For example, Shun understood that she read very slowly but she did not know that her habit of pointing to words or sentences while reading actually slowed down her speed. Another possible explanation of the inappropriate strategy use was that the participants' perception of strategy use might be different from their actual use of reading strategies. So far, we have discussed the influence of macro-level factors on academic reading. The influence at the micro-level attributes to such factors as the development of reading strategies and the actual use of reading strategies in academic reading. Previous discussion about the participants' learning experience indicates that they had, in general, similar developmental paths in academic reading strategies. Moreover, they used similar , kinds of reading strategies while reading in English and in Chinese (see Table 5.1). However, variations in the frequency of strategy use indicated that the participants employed different strategies at different times. The possible factors affecting these differences in strategies were the reading task, the language in which the text was written, reading goals, interaction between LI and L2, and individual factors such as interest and motivation. The discussion of the relationships between academic reading strategies and 149 these factors is beyond the scope of this dissertation. Previous research on reading strategies has only focused on the discussion of cognitive universals and cultural constraints. The role of cognitive differences and cross-cultural similarities has been downplayed. However, data in this study have indicated that the similarities and differences between LI and L2 reading were at both cognitive and socio-cultural levels. 5.2 Summary The following is a brief summary of the findings in relation to two research questions of this study. 1. What strategies do Chinese EFL learners use to read Chinese and English texts, respectively, for academic purposes? The identification and the classification of reading strategies in the previous section are related to this research question. There were altogether 45 types of reading strategies identified in both LI and L2 reading. These strategies were classified into four major categories: metacognitive, cognitive, social, and affective strategies. The second major category of cognitive strategies was further divided into four subcategories, i.e., reading strategies related to language, content, structure, and study strategies that apply to the three levels of language, content and structure. 2. To what extent are students' Chinese reading strategies similar to or different from their English reading strategies and what factors account for these similarities or differences? The data indicated that the participants used similar academic reading strategies in reading Chinese and English. In other words, same kinds of reading strategies at the metacognitive, cognitive, social, and affective levels were used in constructing meanings 150 from English and Chinese academic texts. However, the frequency of strategy use varied across tasks and across cases. Moreover, some strategies were used more frequently than others. Furthermore, the participants did not use all the reading strategies effectively and efficiently all the time. These findings were supported by the data from the participants' learning logs. The participants' language learning experience suggests that both cognitive and socio-cultural factors influenced their way of reading Chinese and English. Academic reading, as can be seen from this study, was multiple-layered, drawing upon many knowledge bases embedded within the cognitive world of individuals and within the socio-cultural system of education. The findings discussed previously render useful implications for the constmction of L2 reading models as well as for future research, which will be the focus of Chapter 6. 151 C H A P T E R 6 - F I N A L R E M A R K S AND CONCLUSIONS 6.0 Overview Exploring the reading world of the five participants was very informative. This chapter summarizes the findings of the research, discusses implications for teaching academic reading at the university level, and provides suggestions for future research. 6.1 Findings of the Study In Chapter 4, the researcher has attempted to answer the two research questions by analyzing the data from a socio-cognitive perspective. There are four major findings in this study. First, the participants had a repertoire of strategies to deal with various kinds of comprehension problems and to meet various kinds of reading needs. The students were mostly strategically competent. That is to say, they knew when and where to use appropriate reading strategies. There were times when they noticed a comprehension problem and managed to try different strategies to help them solve the problem. However, as noted in this study, the participants did not always use reading strategies successfully. There were other times when they used inappropriate strategies. The second finding was based on a comparison of LI and L2 academic reading strategies. Results of this study support Bernhardt's (2000) model of second language reading in that "knowledge and affect are linked to individual readers" (p. 798). In this study, each participant had her own personal way of responding to a text, regardless of how proficient her English/Chinese was or what reading task she was doing. Moreover, data analysis showed that same types of reading strategies were identified in LI and L2 reading. That is to say, there was a transfer of strategies between LI and L2 reading. Moreover, this transfer was not one-way but two-way. The data also revealed that the • 152 frequency of strategy use varied across languages, tasks, and across individuals. This suggested that there exist generalities (e.g., cross-language strategy transfer) and particularities (e.g., personal manner of responding to a text) in LI and L2 academic reading. On the one hand, findings of this study are supportive of the literature of strategy research in that LI and L2 reading, in general, share similar processes (e.g., L i & Munby, 1996, Tang, 1997). On the other hand, there are special processes that are characteristic of LI and L2 reading due to the language, the content, the task, and the individual reader. In other words, it seems that the basic elements in LI and L2 reading processes are the same. However, the complexity of the reading strategies varied from reader to reader and from task to task due to such differences between LI and L2 reading as linguistic and processing individual and experiential differences, and socio-cultural and institutional differences (Carrell & Grabe, 2002). The third finding is related to the research method. As can be seen from the discussion in Chapter 4, unlike academic reading tasks like reading for writing assignments, reading for presentations, and reading for tests, the task of thinking aloud did not seem to make the participants set immediate reading goals. Xin was the only learner in the study who had a clear reading purpose right at the beginning of the task. Others gradually developed their goals. One interpretation is that the research method of thinking aloud may encourage or discourage the use of certain reading strategies. In other words, metacognitive strategies may be encouraged in think-aloud tasks because verbalizing while reading will naturally increase a reader's awareness of his/her thinking process. Social and affective strategies, on the other hand, may be limited, to some extent, due to the constraints of the thinking aloud methodology. Another interpretation is that 153 understanding academic reading tasks is crucial to strategic reading (see Simpson & Nist, 2000, for a review of the literature). The fourth finding is that data in this study support the view that the process of constructing meanings at various levels, including lexical, syntactic, and textual levels, and the process of monitoring one's comprehension go on no matter what culture one brings into his/her reading and no matter what culture one is reading about. The data also support the view that common values and ideologies across cultures interact with the cognitive universals and work as a whole on academic reading. Research in the past has focused only on cognitive universals or cultural differences in reading. A more comprehensive approach, as noted in this study, is necessary. The similarities and differences in reading LI and L2 indicate that relationships among various factors or forces occur naturally but may not be causal. Therefore, it is the interactions of all the factors that result in the commonalities and differences in LI and L2 academic reading at both cognitive and cultural levels. Such transfer cannot be determined in absolute terms. 6.2 Instructional Implications Data in this study have revealed how socio-cognitive factors contributed to the use of reading strategies in academic settings. This has profound implications at both theoretical and practical levels. As previously discussed, according to Cummins (1979, 1981, 1991), there exists a common underlying proficiency (CUP) that allows transfers to take place across languages and across modalities. One of the weaknesses of this transfer model is that we know little about the CUP in terms of its size and its characteristics. The findings of this study support the view of two-way strategy transfer. In the context of 154 academic reading, the CUP refers to the cognitive and cultural universals in LI and L2 reading. In other words, what and how to transfer depend constantly on the changing relationship among many factors at various levels. The factors, to name a few, include L2 readers' LI and L2 proficiency, LI and L2 reading ability, the nature of instruction and academic tasks, and socio-cultural context. This study has explored the processes that underlie effective strategy uses. In terms of instructional implications, it is suggested that some concepts be adjusted, effective strategy models be applied, and English language teaching in China be improved. To be more specific, there are six instructional implications. First, analyzing the conflicts among Chinese traditions, educational requirements and socio-economic demands would help educators plan language policies and design nation-wide curricula. At the local and instmctional level, it is suggested that ESL and EFL instructors have English education tailored to their students' unique cultural needs. Moreover, teachers should be very careful about their beliefs about language teaching because their behaviors may directly influence their students' perceptions of language teaching and learning. Metacognition leads to more effective learning and more autonomy. Teachers' metacognition is as important as students' metacognition and they interact with each other. Therefore, it is necessary that both teachers and students be kept up-to-date of the current theoretical developments in second language teaching and learning. Second, knowledge about cognitive, linguistic and cultural issues as well as the use of effective and efficient reading strategies is essential for ESL/EFL students at all levels. Fortunately, there are a number of useful resources that provide information about delivering strategy instruction. When adopting a model of strategy instruction, students 155 should be informed of the usefulness of strategies. In other words, for strategy training to have long-term effect, students should learn what strategies are, why they are important, how they can be used, and when and how to transfer strategies to new situations. The reason is that the purpose of strategy instruction is "to work with students collaboratively to develop in them the habits of mind that are strategic processing at its best" (Pressley & El-Dinary 1993, p. 107). It is, therefore, suggested that through self-directed learning and with helpful guidance from teachers, students gradually develop skills of managing their reading, regulate their reading process, and finally learn to be self-motivated, self- directed, and self-regulated. To this end, apart from teaching specific reading strategy in class, teachers should also explain to their students the process that underlies effective strategy uses so as to facilitate generative use of strategies on the part of students. The reason is that gaining the declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge about strategy uses leads to greater transfer of strategy across languages and across tasks. Third, it is suggested that TEFL graduate programs in China: • help students develop a large English and Chinese technical vocabulary in TESOL; • provide students with a variety of academic articles in both languages, and a supportive environment for reading for academic purposes, and; • help students understand the importance of strategic reading and metacognitive awareness of becoming successful strategic readers. Fourth, English classes in undergraduate programs should not focus on the teaching of linguistic knowledge exclusively. As shown in this study reading instruction in most undergraduate programs in China tended to focus on the linguistic features 156 including grammar points and vocabulary, which encouraged the use of bottom-up strategies. Students would benefit, to a greater extent, if they are trained earlier in the program with both top-down and bottom-up strategies with careful scaffolding. Moreover, in this graduate program, teachers should include not only English articles but also Chinese academic articles for academic activities such as presentations and discussions. Lack of sufficient experience reading Chinese articles, as indicated in the study, made the participants less motivated to read Chinese passages, let alone look for materials themselves. Fifth, successful comprehension depends on effective strategy uses not only at metacognitive and cognitive levels, but also at social and affective levels. This indicates that the attitudes, the motivation, the interest, as well as the will to use strategies well play very important roles in academic reading (Nist & Holschuh, 2000; Weinstein, 1997). Therefore, another suggestion for EFL/ESL teachers is to help students to foster positive motivation and attitudes towards academic learning and reading. Finally, different educational systems have different values and expectations in different cultures. Chinese educators should not msh to borrow North American techniques for teaching reading because such borrowing might be futile, given the particular requirements of the current Chinese education system, the general level of satisfaction expressed by teachers and students, as well as the high expectations of Chinese parents. 6.3 Implications for Future Research In this dissertation I was trying to investigate the complex phenomenon underlying the use of academic reading strategies from a socio-cognitive perspective. 157 Discussion so far has indicated that how Chinese students deal with academic reading may be influenced by their acceptance of or resistance to a certain belief about academic reading, by their experiences in both Chinese and English education, by the particular social context where learning and reading take place, and by the cultural and philosophical forces that motivate and guide their actions. Therefore, instructors need to implement effective teaching strategies so as to help their students become strategic readers. Consequently, a tentative research topic is a long-term descriptive investigation of the amount of scaffolding that helps readers transfer strategies across languages and across situations. Alternatively, it is suggested that researchers explore the situational nature of LI and L2 academic reading strategies, the relationships among those strategies, as well as the relations between students' perceptions of strategies and their actual use of reading strategies. Moreover, Confucianism, as one of the major philosophies in Chinese tradition, has influenced Chinese thinking and education for over 2,000 years. There are other traditions such as Buddhism, and Taoism, which have exerted as much influence upon Chinese people's beliefs and actions. Such influence has yet to be empirically explored. A longitudinal investigation of how Chinese traditions mediate the present political and socio-economic forces at the macro-level and individuals' cognition at the micro-level would provide useful insights for our understanding of L2 reading acquisition. Finally, the conclusions of this study should be considered as tentative given the limitations of the research design. Three major limitations were observed. The first was the comparability of the Chinese and the English academic articles. There was no single 158 criterion available for assessing the passages in terms of content, structure, length, and difficulty level, which indicated that the two passages were not an exact match. The second major limitation was the influence of the researcher. Although multiple research methods were employed in this study, the researcher's role, more or less, influenced the way data were collected and interpreted. 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Do reading and interactive vocabulary instruction make a difference? An empirical study. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 121-140. 188 APPENDIX B - GUIDELINES FOR LEARNING LOGS 1. For your first learning log: Please provide background information about yourself, especially your Chinese/English learning and teaching experience. a. Where did you get your Bachelor degree? What was your major? How was English taught in your undergraduate program? How did you read course materials at that time? b. Did you have any teaching experience before you started the M.A. program? What and how did you teach? c. What are you teaching now? d. What do you know about reading Chinese and English? i e. What courses are you taking this term? Who teaches this course? How does the instructor teach? What are the reading and written assignments for the courses? f. What do you do with the readings assignments? 2. Questions for your every day (if possible) learning log: a. What did you read today? What was your purpose? In what language(s)? b. If the reading materials were found by yourself, how did you find them? To what extent were they helpful? c. How long did you spend in reading English (or Chinese)? d. What was interesting? Why? e. What was difficult for you? Why? How did you solve the reading problems? 189 APPENDIX C - CLOZE TESTS mmmiwm^mmm c n Ps^jnm (2) r*m mmmmm, o> 1983^, m ^ m i (4) %mmm^m xmiA (5) ft^mmmmmmm (6> j^mmmm^i, & (7) ^ ^ ^ ^ ( 8 ) ^ m m m * (9) tft^mftm ( io) & a n m&M #tt^o (12) - — — m m m m n j (13) tefa£t*H*: i i , (14) ^ 0 $ f s s f ^ t i s f r ^ E i t t ^ ± (15) f t e w s i 1 0 0 0 ^ t i g (i6) — ftHft^ftj (17) TOtLffi (18) c ^ E ^ S i ^ t ^ (19) gjrr^ j f g ^ (20) „ i 5 ^ i f t @ » 7 (21) 2 J r , ft£^tliSf (22) n np#^iil-)i#f^o {IlWtilW (23) JI>l^S@fr^Mit&*f (24) Wferto \tim&mm (25) 3P#igtrLAWw (26) »smMk (27) (28) . ^mmMffi^tt1? (29) ttwun-k ntf)"&$kW\ (30) mm-w&m o n i t s & # £ ^ * 0 2 ) ffrgftj". x - ^ ^ i p * (33) mmmmm, mi-E. 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In this section you will find after each of the passages a number of questions or unfinished statements about the passage, each with four suggested answers or ways of finishing. You must choose the one which you think fits best. Indicate the latter A, B, C, or D against the number of each item 1-15 for answer you choose. Given one answer only to each question. Read each passage right through before choosing your answers. FIRST PASSAGE From its foundation in 1984 English Heritage has been an organization which has recognized the need to provide guidance for others on good conservation practice. Now the organization has published The Repair of Historic Buildings: advice on principles and methods, a book that sets out the principles and methods that the group believes should be applied in the repair of historic buildings and monuments. The primary purpose of repair, it says, is to restrain the process of decay without damaging the character of building or monuments, altering the features that give them 198 their historic or architectural importance, or unnecessarily disturbing or destroying historic fabric. In short, the goal is to conserve as found. The importance of understanding the historical development of a building and making records of this before and during repairs is stressed. So too is the need to analyze carefully and monitor existing defects before deciding on solutions. Existing materials and methods of constmction should normally be matched in repairs, except where defects have clearly been caused by faulty specifications or design. In such cases, traditional alternatives are preferred to more recently developed and insufficiently proven techniques. Additions or alterations to a building are often important for the way they illustrate historical development. So they should be retained. There are cases where later changes detract from, rather than add to, the interest of the original, but it is now recognized by most that the restorations are important phases in the history of the building. Today, restoration back to the original structure is rare, usually only attempted when sufficient evidence exists, and where the later work is undisputedly of poor quality. For practical measures, the book advises, the first line of defence is day-to-day maintenance that can be done by the owner of the building. This will include keeping gutters and rainwater pipes clear, removing vegetation and ensuring there is adequate ventilation. Then there is maintenance in the form of minor repairs - which usually requires the services of a builder. The longest section of the book discuses techniques or repairs for each of the main elements and associated materials ranging from structural stabilization to applying internal finishes such as plain and decorative plasterwork. Inevitably there are techniques that are currently the subject of research, and alternatives to traditional methods which may be promising, but which have not yet been well proven. There are matters of approach about which there have long been differences of opinion among conservationists. But English Heritage intends to revise the book to take account of such developments. Opinions differ more about the approach to repairing stonework than about almost any other element of a historic building. In the case of valuable medieval fabric, especially where there is carved work, the object should be to conserve and consolidate what is there, and replace the bare minimum. For general stonework repairs, decisions on the extent of replacement can be the subject of strong debate. Generally, English Heritage advises, stones of medieval buildings should only be replaced where they have lost their structural integrity because of deep erosion, or because of serious fracturing. A different approach may be appropriate for classical or Gothic revival buildings, particularly if they are the work of important architects and if there is a need to retain the integrity and clarity of design. Debate of this kind will always continue to exercise the minds of conservationists. For this reason there can never be a standard specification for the repair and conservation of historic buildings. 1 The new book suggests that, when restoring a building, it is important to J 199 A employ experts throughout the work. B emphasize the character of the building. C keep accurate records of the work. D conceal damaged sections from view. 2 Alternative building materials are only recommended if A the original choice was unsuitable. B the building has developed defects. C traditional materials are unavailable. D the appearance of the building will not be affected. 3 Later additions to buildings should be removed if they are A intended to hide original features. B badly constructed. C in an inferior style. D in different materials from the original construction. 4 what is English Heritage's attitude to new repair techniques? A They are an improvement on traditional methods. B They should only be used as a last resort. C They should be treated with caution. D They stimulate useful discussion. 5 Medieval stonework should be replaced only if A it has no carving on it. B it has suffered severe cracking. C its condition is affecting the foundations. D it was not part of the architect's design. SECOND PASSAGE Alone in the apartment, Polly continued typing for ten minutes, then stopped to reheat her coffee. For the first time she felt the disadvantages of having become Jeanne's room mate. She didn't like being blamed for not wanting to visit Ida and Cathy, who weren't really her friends, and would probably be happier if she didn't come so they could analyze her character the way they always did with people who weren't there. They talked in a kind of catty way, even in a bitch way. Polly scowled, catching herself in a lapse of language. Jeanne, among others, had often pointed out how unfair it was that when women were compared to animals it was always unfavorably: catty, cow, henpecked. While for men the comparison was usually positive: strong as a bull, cock of the walk. 200 She turned on the tape recorder again and typed another page, then stopped, thinking of Jeanne again. She didn't like being called a workaholic, even affectionately. She didn't like being given permission not to see people she didn't want to see. It was, yes, as i f she were a child, with a managing, overprotective mother. Of course, when she really was a child, Polly never had an overprotective mother. Bea was only twenty when her daughter was bom and she'd trouble enough protecting herself. She looked out for Polly the way an older sister or a baby-sitter might have done, without anxiety, encouraging her to become independent as fast as possible. Later, when Polly's half-brothers came along, Bea had shown impulses towards overprotection, but her husband frustrated them; he didn't want his sons 'made into sissies'. According to Elsa, Polly's former shrink, any close relationship between women could revive one's first and profoundest attachment, to one's mother. Physically, of course, Jeanne was nothing like Polly's mother. Bea Milner was much smaller, for one thing. But to a child, all grown women are large. And psychologically there were similarities: Jeanne, like Bea, was soft and feminine in manner and given to gently chiding Polly for her impulsiveness, hot temper and lack of tact. Elsa's view had been that Polly needed Jeanne to play this role because she hadn't had enough 'good mothering' as a child and that Jeanne needed to play it because she was a highly maternal woman without children. But I'm not a child any more, Polly thought. I don't want mothering. Anyhow, I'm four years older than Jeanne; the whole idea is stupid. She poured her coffee and added less sugar than usual. 6 What did Polly resent? A Jeanne's attitude to her B Ida and Cathy's gossip C having to share a room D being talked about 7 Why did Polly scowl? A because she disliked Ida and Cathy B because she wouldn't be missed C because Jeanne had criticized the language she used D because she was irritated by the words she was using 8 what do we leam about Polly's childhood? A She had felt a lack of affection. B She had learned to look after herself. C She was often separated from her mother. D She resented the attention her half-brothers received. 201 9 Which of her step-father's opinions does Polly recall? A Boys need to be self-reliant. B Mothers should treat all their children in the same way. C Girls are more emotional than boys. D Children should not be treated with affection. 10 In what respect did Jeanne resemble Polly's mother? A her impatience B her appearance C her manner of speaking D her level of intelligence . THIRD PASSAGE There is no doubt that aggression and territoriality are part of modem life: vandalism is a distressingly familiar mark of the urban scene; we lock the doors of our houses and apartments against strangers who might wander in; and there is war, an apparent display of territoriality and aggression on a grand scale. Are these unsavory aspects of modem living simply part of an inescapable legacy of our animal origins? Or are they phenomena with entirely different causes? These are questions that must be answered since they are so clearly relevant to the future of our species. To begin with, it is worth taking a broad view of territoriality and aggression in the animal world. Why are some animals territorial? Simply to protect resource, such as food, a nest, or a similar reproductive area. Many birds defend one piece of real estate in which a male may attract and court a female, and then move off to another one, also to be defended, in which they build a nest and rear young. The 'choking' by male kittiwakes, the lunging by sticklebacks, and the early morning chorus by gibbons are all displays announcing ownership of territory. Intruders who persist in violating another's territory are soon met with such displays, the intention of which is quite clear. The clarity of the defender's response, and also of the intruder's prowess, is the secret of nature's success with these so-called aggressive encounters. Such confrontations are strictly ritualized, so that on all but the rarest occasions the biologically fitter of the two wins without the infliction of physical damage on either one. This 'aggression' is in fact an exercise in competitive display rather than physical violence. The individuals engage in stereotyped lunges, thrusts, and postures which may or may not be similar to their responses when a real threat to their lives arises, as from a predator, for instance. In either event, the outcome is a resolution of a territorial dispute with minimal injury to either party. The biological advantage of these mock battles is clear: a species that insists on settling disputes violently reduces its overall fitness to thrive in a world that offers enough environmental challenges any way. 202 The biological common sense implicit in this simple behavioral device is reiterated again and again throughout the animal kingdom, and even as far down as some ants. This law is so deeply embedded in the nature of survival and success in the game of evolution that for a species to transgress, there must be extremely unusual circumstances. We cannot deny that with the intention of tools, first made of wood and later of stone, an impulse to employ them occasionally as weapons might have caused serious injury, there being no stereotyped behavior patterns to defend their risk. And it is possible that our increasingly intelligent ancestors may have understood the implications of power over others through the delivery of one swift blow with a sharpened pebbled tool. But is it likely? The answer must be no. An animal that develops a proclivity for killing its fellows thrusts itself into a disadvantageous evolutionary position. Because our ancestors probably lived in small bands, in which individuals were closely related to one another, and had as neighbors similar bands which also contained blood relatives, in most acts of murder the victim would more than likely have been kin to the murderer. As evolutionary success is the production of as many descendants as possible, an innate drive for killing individuals of one's own species would soon have wiped that species out. Humans, as we know, did not blunder up an evolutionary blind alley, a fate that innate, unrestrained aggressiveness would undoubtedly have produced. I 11 The writer considers it important to determine the reasons for aggression in modem life because A he wants to stress our links with animals. B vandalism is unpleasant. C future generations may be affected. D personal safety has become an issue. 12 Animals are territorial because A they have to protect their offspring. B nests are needed for different purposes. C they are naturally aggressive. 1 D there is a limited supply of things they need. 13 In territorial confrontations, physical damage is A usually what happens in the end. B a consequence of competitive display. C inflicted to indicate superior status. D unlikely to happen in mock battles. 14 Physical damage is likely to occur during A courtship rituals. B conflict with a predator. C encounters between aggressive males. D the search for food. 15 what is the mark of evolutionary success for a species? A gaining control over a larger area B developing superior methods of attack C destroying all potential enemies D increasing the size of the population 204 A P P E N D I X E - R E A D I N G STRATEGIES QUESTIONNAIRE Name: Date: / / Month day year Direction: There are 41 statements about your reading in Chinese and in English in academic settings. For each statement there are 2 brackets. Please write the appropriate number in the brackets which best describes your reading of Chinese or English. Never <-— -> Always 1 2 3 4 5 6 (1) Never (2) Rarely (3) Sometimes (4) Often (5) Usually (6) Always R E A D I N G E N G L I S H R E A D I N G CHINESE ( ) 1. I try to connect what I am reading with what I already know. ( } ( ) 2. I try to somehow organize the material in my mind. ( ) ( ) 3. I take note of good words and expressions. ( } ( ) 4. I read aloud words or sentences ( } ( ) 5. I analyze sentence structures when I do not understand the sentence. ( ( ) 6. I make written summaries of information that I read. ( } ( ) 7. I translate. ( } ( ) 8. I try to relate the sound of the new words with the sounds of familiar words. ( ) 9. I use the dictionary. ( } ( ) 10. I analyze the formation of unknown words. ( } 205 ( ) 11. I ask the teacher, classmates or friends for help. ( } ( ) 12. I am aware of the format of the article. ( ) 13. I pay attention to the author, the foot/end notes and the references. ( } ( ) 14. I read the graphics in the article very carefully. ( } ( ) 15. I make summaries orally. ( ) 16. I ignore unknown words. ( } ( ) 17. I memorize technical terms. ( } ( ) 18. I take notes. ( } ( ) 19. I read books, magazines, and newspapers in my leisure time. ( } ( ) 20. I make comments and evaluations ( ) ( ) 21. I show my written assignments to others. ( } ( ) 22. Before I read an article, I plan what I'm going to do. ( ) ( ) 23. I use my time well in my reading. ( } ( ) 24. I think about how I read best. ( } ( ) 25. I test my newly-learned knowledge to new situations. ( } ( ) 26. I set goals in my reading. ( } ( ) 27. I read an article very carefully. ( } ( ) 28. I check if my understanding is correct. ( } ( ) 29. I raise questions. ( } ( ) 30. I make predictions. ( } ( ) 31. I pay attention to key words in the text. ( } ( ) 32. I pay attention to every word in the text. ( } ( ) 33. I notice the main ideas. 206 ( ) 34. I am aware of my strategy use. ( } ( ) 35. I paraphrase what I read. ( ) ( ) 36. I guess. ( ) ( ) 37. I pay attention to topic sentences in the text. ( } ( ) 38. I re-read. ( } ( ) 39. I mark the text. ( } ( ) 40. I discuss what I have read with others. ( } ( ) 41. I use other resources about the same topic I read. ( } A P P E N D I X F - TRANSCRIPTION C O N V E N T I O N S 1 7 (#) Marks the length of a pause (( )) Comments or details pertaining to interaction Italics English translation 1 7 The transcription conventions are adopted from Duff (2000). 208 APPENDIX G - A C A D E M I C A R T I C L E S USED F O R T H I N K - A L O U D T A S K S Teaching ESL in an Unfamiliar Context: International Students in a North American M A TESOL Practicum Charlene Polio and Carol Wilson-Duffy ach year many international stu- dents from non-English-speaking countries travel to North America to study for an MA in TESOL. 1 Although these future teachers have a variety of reasons and goals for study- ing in North America, most plan on returning to their native countries to teach EFL (Polio, 1994). Research on preservice teachers (e.g., Brinton & Holton, 1989; Johnson, 1992; Winer, 1992) refers to international students in MA TESOL programs simply because most North American TESOL programs seem to enroll many of them. Little has been written, howeverpabout their concerns and difficulties. Here we investigate the concerns and difficulties these students have regarding the TESOL practicum component of an MA program and make recommendations to teacher educators involved in preservice teacher education. Although the nature of the TESOL practicum may vary, international students will have to stand up and teach a language that is not their native language, in a setting in which they were not educated.. We suspect that this is a unique situation. Although North American universities and secondary schools have foreign language courses taught by nonnative speakers (NNSs), those teach- ers are familiar with the educational setting and share their students' LI. International teaching assistants, who may have language difficulties, are experts in the field they are teaching. Nonnative ESL teachers, however, are in a situation similar to their students'— and in some cases, may even be of similar English proficiency. Setting The practicum students at Michigan State University implement an independent ESL speaking and listening course, offered to members of the university and community for a nominal materials charge. The MA stu- dents are responsible for advertising, place- ment testing, curriculum development, and teaching. They spend the first 8 weeks plan- ning the curriculum, microteaching, and observing classes, and the next 6 weeks teaching 2 nights a week for 2 hours a night. The semester this study was completed, 140 ESL learners from more than 30 countries participated. These students were placed into one of four levels, each containing about 35 students. Eleven MA students were enrolled in the practicum; five from the United States, four from Asia, and two from the Middle East. (The other U.S. students in the MA program had the practicum waived because they were teaching assistants in university ESL courses.) Each ESL class had at least one native speaker (NS) and one NNS student teacher. A theme-based curriculum was developed for the course, with each week focusing on a different topic related to American culture. Each pair of MA students was responsible for a week (i.e., 4 hours) of lesson plans that they exchanged with the other students, who could modify them once they began teaching. Data Collection and Participants This study followed three international MA students through the practicum. Data .. 24. TESOL Journal 209 were gathered from three sources: interviews, journals, and assignments. Interviews MA students were interviewed three times—before they started teaching in the practicum; the second or third week of teach- ing, after the interviewer had observed them teach; and after the practicum was over.̂ Journals These were not dialogue journals but rather teaching logs in which the MA stu- dents recorded changes they made to the original lesson plans, how they thought the class went, even when their partners were teach- ing, and what they would have done differently. transplant what I have got here to [Asian] settings. Anne stated that she was not too con- cerned about teaching, although she was somewhat worried about being able to move easily from activity to activity in the class- room. In general, she was far more concerned about her language skills than her teaching skills, although her concern may not have been so much that she thought she had poor English skills but that the students might be disappointed with a NNS; What if they didn't listen to me? What if they thought my English is poor? Because I'm a normative speaker they Assignments MA students wrote a description of the class observed by the inter- viewer and what they learned from meeting with the interviewer, as well as a letter of recom- mendation about them- selves as ESL teachers. Two female students from Asia and one male student from the Middle East are profiled below. All three students had scored above 600 on the ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and had suc- cessfully completed at least one semester of graduate study in TESOL. Like the NSs in the practicum, the international students had very little teaching experience. Anne's Practicum Experience Anne-' came to the United States to expand her knowledge of U.S. culture and to "practice teaching English in English," as opposed to teaching English in the LI of her country. She admitted, however, that students in her Asian country did not always like it when she tried to teach English in English. In her first interview, Anne summarized her worst problem by saying: The biggest problem? I have to work in EFL setting. So far I have studied TESOL in ESL settings. I don't know how to transfer. I think that is the biggest problem. I don't know how to A student had arrived Jate'^td^sJ and had;asked a"questi6n£Alj rr^e^^ been nervous and did; not k n o y v ^ to handle the situation, so she ignored his question. " •" ;• ' _> —r , would expect native speakers to teach English in that course. I'm worried about that matter. All normative speak- ers are worried about that In Anne's second interview she appeared confident as she talked about how good she was at maintaining a comfortable classroom atmosphere by joking with the students. She even added, "If I were teaching in [my LI] I would be perfect, kinda perfect." However, when asked how she might change the lesson if she were to go back and do it again, she said that maybe she should have given a longer introduction; she had cut it short because she had been worried about her English: So usually my introduction part is kind of short compared to native teachers speaking. So I try to talk more, but I'm just afraid. I'm just afraid that what I'm going to tell them will not work or will be misunderstood. So I'm just worried about that kind of thing, so I'm just trying to make my introduc- tion part short as much as I can, suc- cinct ...You know, it's because I'm a normative speaker; I'm just afraid that they won't understand my speech or my introduction. I'm so depressed when I'm stressed and misunderstood. I hate that kind of thing. She expressed similar comments through- out the interview. One of her few nonhnguis- tic concerns was that the lesson plan had been too long and she had not finished it. She also wondered what to do when she could not answer a question. The interviewer explained that she could say that she was not prepared to answer the question but would find out the answer and get back to the stu- dent. Anne responded that in her country you cannot do that because "you are supposed to pretend to be perfect in your field." In the third interview her concerns remained similar. When asked about her strengths and weaknesses, she main- tained that she had a very good relationship with the students and felt comfort- able about creating lesson plans. She even stated, _ "Well, I think I should tell Ifetejl^lijl you that I think that I have talent to teach. I have tal- ent or character that is good at teaching some- thing as well as English." She did not, how- ever, discard the notion that her English ability was insufficient: Well, I thought I was good at teaching English. After the practicum, I evalu- ated myself and I am not qualified to teach English because an English teacher is supposed to be fluent in English and I don't think I was during the practicum. Anne said that she felt good about her teaching when the students understood her and when they gave her roses on the last day and told her she was a good English teacher. Anne's journals reflected pedagogical issues more often than her interviews did. Her comments about teaching were similar to those of many novice teachers and included concerns about the timing of lessons, class size, use'of the board, level of the students, course objectives, activities, directions, and classroom atmosphere and participation. She SummtrJWS 25 210 occasionally mentioned problems related to being a NNS, particularly the difficulties she had with slang or idioms in some of the authentic materials. One problem occurred when a student used a word that she did not know in a role play: When I heard that word I thought it was not a real word because I have never heard about it and sounded strange to me. After class, the student, who said the word [ukulele], explained to me it's a kind of instrument in a island. I was so embarrassed not to know and explain it to the class. I. as a nonnative English teacher, think I might sometimes have that kind of sit- uation. I'd better be honest with stu- dents about something I do cot know . or understand in class. It seems here that Anne may be question- ing her assumption that the teacher has to be perfect. Another interesting problem was a difference in cultural norms as to a good teacher. When Anne's class did not end on time, she recognized this as a problem, saying: In [my country], teachers who teach a class over the time are often called good teachers. It does not the case in the United States. I think I need to keep in mind class time manage- ment whenever I teach. Mark's Practicum Experience Upon graduation, Mark hopes to return to his native country in the Middle East and teach at the univer- sity level. Mark's greatest concerns regarding the practicum were his perceptions that he had not had enough previ- ous teaching experience and that the students would prefer' a NS teacher; he also worried about the amount of preparation time the practicum would take. When asked if he felt prepared to begin teaching, Mark replied, "No, not at all. I need more experience related to teaching English because that's what I'll do." He said that learning how to execute lesson plans would be his major con- cern. Mark's apprehension regarding the practicum focused on the different levels of the students and his unfamiliarity with these levels. Although Mark said that he generally did not worry about his English proficiency ("I mean, all the international students, even though they are ambitious, make mistake sometimes"), he said that from his experi- ence, students preferred NS teachers. When asked how he would overcome this problem, he said: Well, I'm trying to prepare myself to speak the language even though they wouldn't like it, you know. I heard they were even complaining, you know, about British accents. During the second interview, Mark said that each time he taught he felt more comfort- able, although there were many ways he could improve. His main concerns were with vocabulary and spelling. He reported that while attempting to elicit vocabulary concern- ing the topic of crime, he had difficulty deci- phering a student's response of blackmail. Thinking that the student was stereotyping a criminal as a Black man, the teacher attempted to ignore the student's apparent racist response, yet the student continued to repeat the answer. Finally, Mark asked him to spell the word. As soon as the word was spelled, Mark understood the student. In her peer observation"; assignment, she again said, that she lacked confidence in discussing U.S. culture. - Another problem was that students would sometimes respond to a question with a vocabulary word that Mark did not know how to spell. In order not to embarrass him- self, Mark would repeat the word, but avoid writing it on the board: For me, it's not the meaning of things that's the problem, but it's the spelling. But sometimes I use another strategy. When they brought something up that I didn't know how to spell, I discuss it with them orally instead of writing it on the board. It's not on my list,.but I'm not ignoring the things they brought up. I just figure it out—can I write it right? If not, then I discuss it with them orally. During the third interview Mark men- tioned the problem of students responding to his questions with unfamiliar vocabulary. But when asked about his impression of his teaching abilities, he answered, "You can't compare it with my ability before this course. For sure it has been improved. I feel OK now." Yet Mark felt that he needed more practice dealing with students, and would have liked to have taken another practicum to help him bridge the gap between theory and practice. Like Anne, however, Mark found confidence in the students' reactions at the end of the course. You know, when you are only practic- ing, to find the student happy with what you did is a really good indica- tion that you might be a good teacher. So at the end of the course, when some of the students came to me and thanked me and they said they had a wonderful time and that I did a good job and that it was a good course and they liked the way we were teaching, ... it gave me sort—I don't know how to express it—sort of a self- confidence that indicated that I might be a good teacher. The concerns expressed in Mark's journal and assignments were not related to being an inter- national student but rather to activi- ties, class participation, classroom management, materials, and diffi- culty and length of the lessons. Alice's Practicum Experience Our third participant, Alice, said that she was studying in the United States to learn more about the methodologies of teaching English and to improve her own English. In her first interview, Alice stated that her biggest concern was the accuracy of her English. "... If I teach the students in [my LI], I would do much better—yeah, I'm con- fident. But speaking English, maybe I'll be shaking again." She said that she also needed to work on classroom management skills: Stuff like please be quiet, should I have to say please be quiet, or I can use another way to make the students be [quiet], to draw students' attention to here or there ... even though I don't know where I should stay, where I should stand. Later in the conversation the topic turned to cultural differences involved in classroom management. Alice said that if a student was disruptive in class, she would not reprimand him regardless of how many times the situa- tion occurred. Instead, she would behave in the Asian way, which she interpreted as talk- 26 TESOL Jvumd 211 ing with the student after class. She also mentioned that using certain classroom media such as the overhead projector, black- board, and computers would be difficult because she had never done so. During all three interviews Alice men- tioned that working with other student teach- ers as part of a team was extremely helpful. When asked what she thought would be the easiest part of the practicum, she quickly answered, "Developing lesson plans and materials." When asked why, she answered: Because we have teams. It's teamwork. So we can help one another. You know what, teamwork is really good. We can help each other, and we get better information, very good information, or good sugges- tions from other students. During the second interview Alice discussed her concern with the perceived dullness of the les- ggQg son plan and a classroom manage- ment problem. A student had arrived late to class and had asked a question; Alice had been nervous and did not know how to handle the situation, so she ignored his question. At that time should I tell him about the classroom again? Right? I don't know. I don't know. Just ignore it ... oh . you're late ... I was just nervous ... I didn't know what to tell him, so it was hard to respond to that situation. Alice said that although she felt that her English was getting better, she still did not feel comfortable teaching in it. She also dis- cussed some problems she might have trans- ferring skills. She said that she would not be teaching in English when she returned to her native country, and that the use of group work was not very common in her country; judging from her own experience, it was mostly used there by American teachers. Although in the final interview Alice dis- cussed many areas that she still needed to improve, she proudly said that she was happy with her ability to develop lesson plans and her relationship with the students. She also said that she felt her English had improved, as well as her teaching ability. "It was a good experience. Actually it was my first experi- ence to teach. It was a really, really good experience." When asked her most successful moment, she answered: When I was explaining what choking was, I illustrated with my own experi- ence with ray nieces and nephews—lit- tle children and they are very vulnera- ble; they can even swallow hard and round candy, so they can be choked by that.... So, I can draw a picture of the story on the blackboard based on my own experience. It was very funny. We were enjoying my drawing .... I sue- I An issue constantly discussed fl by the NNSs was fear that the I \ ESL students would be | disappointed by another N N S , | I '\as a' t e a c h e * ~ ^J.-^v2^£' cessfully made them understand what the choking was. Other difficulties for Alice included the fact that she spent a great deal of time prepar- ing to teach—an average of 3 to 4 hours for each 2-hour lesson—and that she had to dis- cuss U.S. culture. "The daily culture—what's really happening to Americans. I don't have much self-confidence with that." The last concern that Alice expressed was shared by the other participants: She wanted more observations, feedback, and practice in teaching other skills, including grammar. Alice's journals revealed concerns similar to Mark's with such concepts as giving instructions, techniques and activities, transi- tions between lessons, the difficulty level of lessons, and the interest level of the students. In her peer observation assignment she again said that she lacked confidence in discussing U.S. culture. S u m m a r y a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s The international MA students had con- cerns similar to those of all preservice teach- ers. However, they also had concerns that were specifically related to their linguistic backgrounds. First and foremost were the problems they faced as NNSs of English. Specifically, they were afraid that the ESL students would not understand them, that they would misspell words, and that they would not understand U.S. slang, idioms, and cultural references in authentic texts. Even when they felt somewhat confident, they were afraid of the ESL students' attitude toward being taught by a NNS. Other problems were more cultural, such as U.S. classroom management styles (e.g.. ending class on time, dealing with late students) and the expectation that the teacher could not be less than perfect. Finally, the MA students were concerned with transferring skills to an EFL setting, where often English was not used and some kinds of activities, such as group work, were not common. Based on the discussion above, we devised the following recommendations with the MA students.. The suggestions assume the free ESL course practicum format; such a course was suggested in a recent article on intensive English program (IEP)/MA TESOL program inte- gration (Savova. 1997) to give beginners experience teaching. Use a Team-Teaching Model We believe that the pairing of NSs and NNSs is essential for international MA stu- dents to take on an English course in a new culture. In the practicum discussed in this article, the NNS always had a NS practicum student in the room who could address lin- guistic or cultural matters unknown to the NNS and assist with slang, idioms, and cul- tural information in the authentic materials. In addition, the NNSs had a better sense of the ESL students' background knowledge of U.S. culture. Encourage Better Communication Given that the classes are team taught, the teachers must decide ahead of time how they want to interact in the classroom. For exam- ple, when NNSs misspell or mispronounce a word, do they want their partner to interrupt? Would NNSs be willing to ask a NS for judg- ment on a structure? Similarly, do the NSs want the NNSs to help out when the NNS shares the ESL student's LI and is better able to understand the ESL student? Develop Lesson Plans in Teams In addition to team teaching, team lesson plan development is important. In the practicum. the NNSs had a sense of what the ESL students might like to cover for topics. Summer 1998 27 212 and the NSs could assist the NNSs in work- ing with authentic materials. Discuss Compensation Strategies The MA students interviewed were con- cerned about being understood. In the practicum, the use of the blackboard as a compensation strategy was emphasized. This backfired for Mark, however, who had trou- ble spelling; thus the same strategies may not be appropriate for everyone. Teachers also need to be aware of ways to get the ESL stu- dents to repeat and modify when they do not understand a student's response. In our observations, it often appeared that when an ESL student was not comprehensible, the NNS teachers seemed to think it was poor listening comprehension on their part. Engaging the student in interaction may repair the communication breakdown. Provide Additional Language Assistance The students interviewed wanted more practice and help with language; one student specifically mentioned a content-based ESL class for MA TESOL students. Although this is an excellent idea, low enrollment may pre- clude offering it. When giving feedback on microteaching, little time was left to discuss language. This year a few extra sessions for international students were added to the practicum, allowing them to teach each other and receive feedback on language. Tell ESL Students Who Their Teachers Will Be An issue constantly discussed by the NNSs was fear that the ESL students would be disappointed by another NNS as a teacher. After students signed up for the course, they were told that their teachers would be gradu- ate students who were just beginning to learn how to teach; this year we included the fact that half of them were international students. It should be noted, however, that throughout the course and on course evaluations from the ESL students, no one complained of hav- ing a NNS teacher. Have Large Classes The practicum participants had large classes to teach because we wanted to give more students an opportunity for free ESL classes and feared that the attrition rate might be high. In retrospect, it was beneficial for the international students, who would be returning to their countries where classes of IS to 20 were not common. Large classes allowed the MA students to consider, for example, how to organize group work with 35 students. This issue can be addressed fur- ther by having students seek out resources specifically for large classes (e.g.. Cross, 1995). Hold Periodic Discussions on Teaching Once the practicum .participants began teaching, they stopped meeting as a group. In retrospect, the MA students and professor should have met periodically during this time to discuss unanticipated problems for every- one—not just the international students. For the international students, such meetings may have facilitated communication with their team teacher. Also, the group could have dis-. cussed the cultural problems some members were having, such as dealing with late stu- dents and avoiding running overtime. Conclusion In conclusion, we feel that our program is well suited to giving U.S. and international students intensive practical training and is preferable to placing international students in an IEP, where tuition-paying students may protest about having a preservice teacher, or an English for academic purposes (EAP) course focusing on academic skills primarily for North American university students. Although the cultural differences will always Special Issue One World, Many Tongues: Language Policies 'and the Rights of Learners Coeditors: Robert A. .DeVillar and Joshiko . . Sugino The Autumn 1999 special issue of TESOL Journal will focus on understanding the role of language rights in the education of students within multilingual settings. The major purpose of this special issue is to raise the awareness of the language rights issue as a global phenomenon that affects the educational inputs (e.g., infrastructure, curriculum, policies. teacher preparation and attitudes, programs) and outcomes of students (e.g., individual and sociocultural development, academic achievement, personal and social identity, career, and social orientation). Contributions are particularly encouraged from the following topic areas, all of which relate to learning contexts, whether for youths or adults:. 1. The rationale for language rights: Its perceived Impact on the individual, school, and society 2. The practice of language rights in diverse learning settings: Standard or nonstandard (to include code switching), affluent or low income, public or private sector ... 3. The assessment of language rights policies and practices The categories are for illustrative purposes and do not imply that the areas are mutually exclusive; thus, a submission^ may relate to all three, or even other, areas. Submissions relating to the first category might address the philosophical, historical, and pedagogical aspects associated with the need for language rights policies and practices, as well as the perceived or assessed consequences for teachers, students, and society as a result of these policies and practices being present or absent. Submissions relating to the second category would describe actual contexts where language rights policies and practices have been implemented and identify salient strategies that contributed to instructional effectiveness and student learning. Submissions relating to the third category would present quantitative or qualitative assessments of instructional or learning endeavors within language rights-based settings. Contributions are welcome in all departments: articles, tips, reviews, and perspectives. All submissions must conform to regular submission guidelines. Send queries and material to: Robert A. DeVillar, University of California, Educational Research Center, 351 E. Barstow, Suite 101. Fresno, CA 93710-6002 USA. Queries only to 28 TESOL Journal J 214 Vocabulary teaching: looking behind the word Diana Ooi and Julia Lee Kim-Seoh This paper discusses some findings on the lexical competence of a group of undergraduates who are not native-speakers of English, but who have been through an education system in which that language is the medium of instruction. The data indicates that they have a problem which is related to use rather than to inadequate knowledge of word-meaning. It is argued that the teaching of vocabulary depends on the integration of lexis, grammar, and discourse, and that this can be achieved if lexis is taught through reading. Given the evidence, it is suggested that traditional criteria for item selection might have to give way to new ones that would allow specific learner needs to be more directly attended to.1 Introduction In a state-of-the-art article McCarthy (1990) made the observation that, in recent years, vocabulary teaching has come into its own again in ELT, but with a difference—practitioners now had much more to think about (and draw from). Computer-aided research was giving us vast amounts of information about how words behave and the relationships they form in real-life communication; psycholinguistic studies were providing further insights into how the mind processes and stores vocabulary, and we also knew more about effective teaching and learning strategies. As a result, traditional ideas about what is involved in the teaching of lexis appeared to be no longer tenable. This article discusses evidence that corroborates this observation. First, we present findings that indicate clearly that lexical competence must be understood as competence for use rather than just knowledge of word- meaning. We then consider the implications for classroom teaching. The study There were a total of 110 subjects: 20 native-speaker faculty members (NS), and 90 non-native-speaker (NNS) first year students from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. The subjects were asked to complete two general-interest texts, each containing 50 deleted items. The student sample was discriminated to reflect three levels of proficiency—high (SH), intermediate (SI), and low (SL). The fixed-ratio method of deletion was employed, and responses were judged according to the acceptable-word scoring method. A response 52 ELT Journal Volume 50/1 January 1996 © Oxford University Press 1996 was deemed acceptable if it was the original word, or a replacement that met both semantic and syntactic constraints. A response would be unacceptable if it was contextually appropriate but did not fit syntactically or stylistically; an altogether wrong answer would be any item that was clearly contextually inappropriate, that contained two words instead of one, or was not attempted. Results Data analysis showed that the only qualitative difference between the • performance of native speakers and SH learners lay in the fact that native speakers were able to provide original word answers more often; otherwise SH approximated very closely to native speakers. However, the activity did very clearly discriminate against the non-native speakers. The rest of this paper focuses on lexical competence as reflected in the subjects' performance on some selected verb items. Our observations about verbs would, we believe, apply equally to nouns, adjectives, arid adverbs. The data indicates that SI and SL performance was marred by (a) incomplete appreciation of 'contrast within similarity', (b) inadequate knowledge of correct collocations, and (c) inadequate knowledge of word derivations. Below we consider examples from the data. Incomplete appreciation of contrast within similarity Table 1 In languages with a very rich vocabulary we are unlikely to find words that are completely synonymous with one another. A set of words may share certain semantic features but not others. It cannot be presumed that learners will be aware of this possibility unless it has been explicitly taught. Generally speaking, incidental learning will not inculcate this awareness. Tables 1 to 3 show responses to test items which indicate this incomplete appreciation. k Item 43 Passage 1 And this alone, even if (40) we went no further, would be an excellent reason (41) for not merely brushing dreams aside Whose life would not be improved (43) by a little additional reflection? NS 5 6 4 Responses improved enriched enhanced bettered brightened affected changed Unacceptable: better, filled, interesting, complete, added, stimulated, meaningful, benefitted, liven, richer, happier SH 13 7 2 1 1 2 SI 3 1 SL 9 1 11 1 In item 43 of Passage 1 (see Table 1), we accepted affected and changed as contextually appropriate answers. Both words convey the idea of change, yet when represented along a continuum it becomes obvious that they lack the positive evaluation found in improved, enriched, enhanced, bettered, and brightened. Vocabulary teaching: looking behind the word 53 216 negative neutral positive marred affected improved spoilt changed enriched ruined enhanced worsened bettered brightened Whether a verb is neutral or positive makes a difference to the pragmatic or communicative value of a statement. Table 2 Item 22 Passage 2 Asked sjfflpjy. (15) 'Are you lonely?'women are more likely (16) than men to say yes. On other (17) more subtle measures of loneliness, however, men (18) often have higher scores...'. Men reveal (22) more loneliness when the question taps the (23) quality of their relationships. Responses NS SH SI Si- re veal 2 1 1 - indicate 1 - reflect 1 1 display? 2 1 admit? 8 2 3 1 acknowledge ? 2 1 - - express ? 3 4 1 2 show? 1 4 10 2 exhibit ? 1 In item 22 of Passage 2 (see Table 2), the writer is talking about the general reluctance of men to openly admit their feelings of loneliness, and the necessity, therefore, of using inferential data in order to elicit information of this nature. Consequently, the required word would not only have to convey the sense 'to make known', it must also possess the additional semantic feature of volition. Given this context, the following set of words must be differentiated: + volition +/- volition admit reveal acknowledge reflect express indicate display ? show ? The required response cannot be selected from the set that has the + volition property. The words show and display are rather tricky. They could be read as - volition. But we think the semantic feature that is central to both items is not the notion of ';tq make known' but 'to cause to be seen'. The use of these two words would suggest something that can be visually perceived. Consequently, we consider them unaccep- table. To be able to give a correct response to item 35 of Passage 1 (Table 3), the learner must distinguish between use and meaning. 54 Diana Ooi and Julia Lee Kim-Seoh Table 3 Item 35 Passage 1 In fact (32), the dreaming mind may be compared to a movie (33) director, picking up things from waking life that need (34) more attention than we have given them and reflecting (35) on them in depth by composing stories. Responses reflecting ... focussing working developing pondering elaborating dwelling ? NS SH SI SL 3 4 •- - 5 2 2 1 2 7 5 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 _ - 4 3 - 3 4 1 - Inadequate knowledge of correct collocations The expression dwelling on ̂ something is often used in a context where the speaker wishes to register disapproval or disagreement of a sort, e.g. 'Why are you dwelling on this? It's rather a depressing thought, isn't it?' The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines the meaning of dwell on as 'to think or speak a lot about esp. to an unhealthy or annoying degree'. While the COBUILD Dictionary does not specifically draw attention to this negative overtone, it describes dwelling on as synonymous with brood about/on, and its definition of brood about contains the phrase 'often with strong feelings of bitterness, resentment or revenge'. Learners with limited experience of use will not realize that since there is nothing the speaker has said so far (or subsequently) to suggest that he sees anything negative in what the movie director is doing, dwelling on would not be an appropriate response.2 In item 27 of Passage 1, it is interesting to note the large number of NNS subjects who responded with told (see Table 4). But the verbs told and taught do not habitually co-occur with the noun idea. Elsewhere in the cloze task, similar collocational errors were made with adjective-noun and noun-noun associations. Table 4 Item 27 Passage 1 . . . the day or so before the dream (25), while the dead person appeared perhaps in order ig. (26) remind us of an idea he or she gave (27) us many years ago, which . . . Responses NS SH SI SL gave 15 12 4 _ left - 1 4 9 told ? 3 16 18 8 taught ? • - - 1 Inadequate The unacceptable responses for item 43 in Passage 1 (see Table 1) show knowledge of word that the problem lay not with comprehension but with knowledge of derivations derived forms. Because of the syntax, item 43 would have to be a passivized verb and not an adjective like better or richer. But with one exception (the lone SI who supplied the word enriched), only two SH could produce an acceptable derived verb, bettered/brightened, in its passive form. Another clear example of this kind of inadequate knowledge is the word liven. Vocabulary teaching: looking behind the word 55 The following discussion assumes that learners are already at the intermediate or advanced level. The findings of this study indicate that lexical competence implies more than just knowing what a word means. It subsumes a number of other kinds of knowledge, including knowing what differentiates one word from other words that appear to mean the same; what other meanings a word might have; what other words derive from it; what kinds of associative links it has with other items in the lexicon; how it behaves syntactically and, just as importantly, its limitations of use according to situation and function (Richards 1976). This means that vocabulary Instruction should go beyond just helping the learner to internalize dictionary meaning. A central purpose in teaching should be to encourage and help the learner to become more aware of how native speakers and other proficient speakers use the target language, and to be more sensitive to differences in nuances and shades of meaning. Traditionally, vocabulary instruction has been equated with teaching word meaning, and students have learned lists of words, synonyms, and antonyms in the belief that vocabulary extension work has been taken care of. But this does not give learners a better understanding of the kind of lexical choices available to proficient users of the language, or of why one alternative is preferred to another. Learners should be encouraged to make a habit of comparing and contrasting particular uses of language. Lexical sets To achieve this goal, it is suggested that new items should be taught with reference to a set of other words, to draw attention to conceptual differences as well as differences in use. It is known, for example, that the semantic set comprising the items chat, talk, discuss, and debate reflects a scale of increasing formality or seriousness with which the activity is pursued (Macaulay 1976). So an invitation to new neighbours will be 'Do drop in for a chat any time you feel like it', rather than 'Do drop in for a talk/discussion/debate any time you feel like it'. Consider another example of contrast within similarity—the set of adjectives that includes generous, hospitable, liberal, charitable, and magnanimous. The expression generous parents does not mean the same as liberal parents, nor does hospitable friends mean the same as charitable friends. We are generous with our friends but magnanimous with our enemies. Teaching any one member of sets such as these in isolation from the others would be less efficient than presenting a fuller range that will allow us to contrast use. (Notice it is not suggested, that the complete set should be taught.) Collocations In like manner, it is argued that it would be more useful to the learner for target items to be presented in collocation with at least one other word, e.g. by teaching a verb with a noun, an adjective with a noun, an adverb with a verb or adjective, and a verb with a preposition. In this way, attention can also be drawn to syntagmatic relationships. Ideally, Diana Ooi and Julia Lee Kim-Seoh Implications for classroom teaching 219 the learner who happens to be an engineer, for example, should be able to use the verb collapse not only to talk about buildings, but also about people, talks, negotiations, the economy, the stock market, a pair of lungs, etc. Teaching To accomplish these wider goals for vocabulary instruction, it is vocabulary through suggested that lexis, grammar, and discourse should no longer be reading thought of as separate strands in the language syllabus. A n integrative . approach would allow the teacher to shift attention from one to the other and back again, in a manner that is natural and unforced. For example, immediately after explaining what a word means semantically, the teacher might want to talk about its discourse or pragmatic value (the concept, of marked and unmarked terms), teach or revise word formation processes in relation to that particular item, or show how syntactic configurations change depending on which form of a root word is used. This can be achieved without too much strain by reorientating the more established approach, and thinking in terms of 'activities' rather than clearly demarcated 'lessons'. This would mean no longer having the 'vocabulary lesson' as such, but instead teaching vocabulary through reading, and selecting passages for the reading skills lesson with a view to incorporating vocabulary and grammar activities. The avoidance of predetermined word lists of disparate items based on frequency counts, concepts of learnability, coverage, etc., is also recommended. Pedagogic word lists can be derived from a corpus of written texts, and learners should be strongly urged to contribute to this data bank according to their own interests and aims. There are certain advantages to this approach. Breen (1984) has argued in favour of teaching content that is jointly constructed by the learner and teacher, since all learners ultimately create their own learning syllabus out of what they are given in class. Rivers (1983) believes that retention of taught items is enhanced if the learner understands them in relation to his or her own goals and purposes. Gairns and Redman (1986) also regard learner engagement as of primary importance, and recommend that learners should be encouraged to contribute items they want to leam. McKeown et al. (1985) and Channell (1981) believe that learning will be facilitated if the learner is able to develop semantic networks around learned words. Stahl (1983) says that effective learning involves making connections between new and known information, and that for this, deep-level processing is necessary. Vocabulary taught through reading would give the learner more opportunities to process language use at a deeper level and to develop semantic networks and other kinds of associative links that will ultimately enhance learning. A good deal has been written in the same vein on techniques for learning and teaching (see Oxford and Crookall (1990) for a review). More recent approaches focus on the teaching of syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships, and describe the use of such devices as Vocabulary teaching: looking behind the word 57 scales, hierarchies, grids, and matrices for illustrating the semantic differences between items or their collocability, both syntactic as well as semantic (for example, Rudzka et al. 1985). There is sufficient published material, in other words, to help refine personal insights and educate intuitions. Conclusion It has been argued that the purpose of vocabulary instruction should be to make the learner more discriminating of word meaning and word use. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to integrate lexis, grammar, and discourse. This can be accomplished by teaching vocabulary through reading and thinking in terms of 'activities' with varying focus rather than clearly demarcated 'lessons'. This approach has advantages, in particular the fact that learners can be involved in the process of deciding what should be taught, and when. This should enhance motivation and engagement. It has also been argued that teaching content should address specific learner needs. This would mean that, for intermediate and advanced learners, traditional selectional criteria (frequency, coverage, availabil- ity, etc.) might be given a lower priority than items that lend themselves to particular kinds of treatment, such as comparison and contrast, derivational processes, and collocabilty. Received November 1994 Research Quarterly 20/5: 522-35. Oxford, R. and D. Crookall. 1990. 'Vocabulary learning: a critical analysis of techniques'. TESL Canada Journal 111: 9-30. Richards, J. C. 1976. 'The role of vocabulary teaching'. TESOL Quarterly 10/1: 77-89. Rivers, W. M. 1983. Speaking in Many Tongues (3rd edn.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rudzka, B., J. Channel!, P. Ostyn, and Y. Putseys. 1985. More Words You Need. London: Macmil- lan. Stahl, S. 1983. 'Differential word knowledge and reading comprehension'. Journal of Reading Behaviour 15/4: 33-50. The authors Diana Ooi is a lecturer in Business Communica- tions at the School of Accountancy and Business, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. She has an MSc in Applied Linguistics from Edinburgh University. Julia Lee Kim-Seoh is a senior lecturer in Communication Skills at the School of Applied Science, Nanyang Technological University, Sin- gapore. She has an M A in Linguistics and ELT from the University of Leeds. Both authors have wide experience in ESL teaching in tertiary institutions. . Notes 1 The findings discussed here were first presented at the Guilin E L T International Conference, Guilin, People's Republic of China, 19-24 July, 1993. 2 Our purpose is to highlight the distinction between use and meaning. We do not, there- fore, discuss the relative merits of the other responses listed in the table as acceptable substitutions for the original word. References Breen, M. P. 1984. 'Process syllabuses for the language classroom'. ELT Documents 118: 47- 60. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Channel], J. 1981. 'Applying semantic theory to vocabulary teaching'. ELT Journal 35/2:115-22. Gairns, R. and S. Redman. 1986. Working with Words: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Macaulay, R. 1976. 'The role of vocabulary teaching.' TESOL Quarterly 20/2: 131-6. McCarthy, M. J. 1990. 'Recent directions in vocabulary teaching.' The Language Teacher XIV/12:9-11. McKeown, M., I.. L. Beck, R. C. Omanson, and M. T. Pople. 1985. 'Some effects of the nature and frequency of vocabulary instruction on the knowledge and use of words'. Reading 58 Diana Ooi and Julia Lee Kim-Seoh Language Learning Journal, March 1997, No 15, 40-43 221 Culture and foreign language teaching Colin Simpson Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education I N T R O D U C T I O N This essay considers various approaches to the teaching of culture in connection with foreign lan- guage (FL) teaching with a view to making a realis- tic suggestion as to how to integrate the language and culture elements. I am particularly concerned with FL students at the lower and intermediate lev- els, where the cultural input is often omitted on the basis that students' linguistic skills do not allow them to study authentic information sources. There are many good reasons for considering which aspects of culture can be taught in the FL classroom. These can be divided roughly under two headings: motivation and cognitive development. Many students appear dissatisfied with language courses which aim to teach either 'essential' trans- actional phrases or the elementary grammatical rules governing basic structures. Students often say that they feel they are not 'making progress' despite the fact that the number and complexity of struc- tures introduced by the teacher increase as the course goes on. 1 think that this is due largely to the neglect of non-linguistic elements in certain cours- es, which fail to challenge students' preconceived attitudes to what they are studying. The emphasis is on the rehearsal of 'realistic' situations without the need to communicate thoughts and feelings. The consequent demotivation leads not only to a high drop-out rate, but also to inertia in the cognitive de- velopment of those students who persevere. Many of our students want to see more of the culture of the countries where the target language is spoken. It is crucial to use this natural curiosity to present stu- dents with alternative sets of cultural values and concepts which enable them to look critically at their native culture. There is also the desire on the part of many teachers to break down cultural barriers and under- mine the dominant association of certain languages with certain economically powerful nation states and the stereotypical images many people have of foreign countries. FL learning has traditionally been associated with the assumption of a deeper knowledge of the countries where that language is spoken. In practice, much of the knowledge which FL students gain of the target cultures is unsystem- atic and incidental. In addition to choosing which items of socio-political knowledge we want stu- dents to study, we need to consider the extent to which we ought to be enabling them to raise their consciousness of the process of language learning, undertake research projects, ask questions about their awareness of their own culture, etc. However, it continues to be easier to describe the benefits of FL learning which are not specific to the language than to plan a syllabus which incorpo- rates areas of non-linguistic competence. Whilst everyone agrees that teaching a FL involves intro- ducing their students to that culture, few agree on which parts of that culture their students would most benefit from getting to know. A R A D I C A L S O L U T I O N The various arguments in this debate are centred around the question of whether FL teaching should take place in an independent study field, or be at- tached to some other subject, in order to present language in natural communicative contexts. This is a reaction against the perceived failure of lan- guage teachers to teach real language use. Instead of this they are said to have emphasised discrete as- pects of language performance which their students have had to learn out of context through unnatural grammar drills or stiff role play exercises. The trend toward communicative language teaching techniques has not significantly altered the end re- sult, because these tend to put students in unrealis- tic rehearsal situations which do not contribute to a wider awareness of the cultural parameters associ- ated with the target language and as such are often demotivating.A widespread conclusion seems to be that language should not be taught as an isolated skill, but needs to be embedded in a content-based Language teaming Journal 222,, CULTURE AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHNQ area of the syllabus. This begs many questions about which area would be most suitable and how language competence could be achieved at all. One of the most radical alternative approaches to this problem was put forward by Lambert (1974). It is interesting to note that his proposals were a re- sponse to 'growing dissatisfaction among students with standard programmes of FL instruction' in US Institutions of Higher Education, reflected in, among other things, a drop-off in enrolments.Lara- bert sees part of the problem as the rigidity of the FL teaching profession and its unwillingness to change according to the changes in the nature of the de- mand for FL courses. One of the reasons why stan- dard FL courses were perceived to be anachronistic was, according to Lambert, their focus on distant countries and cultures when large numbers of citi- zens from those countries were living in the States. This influenced students' perception of the value of those cultures in two ways. Firstly they saw how people who came from those countries usually oc- cupied menial jobs and suffered poverty in the States. This was unlikely to convince students of the benefits of learning the language of the target group. Secondly, the aim of inspiring students with an in- terest in a foreign culture was misguided, as stu- dents perceived that the character of the countries from which those people came was being systemati- cally misrepresented in the language classroom. Having identified the main culprit as the mis- guided cultural focus within FL classrooms, Lam- bert goes on to suggest that the language teaching element should be taken out of the traditional teaching centre altogether, which would free FL teachers to get on with the business of teaching cul- ture..Lambert suggests that 'a good part of the rou- tine task of teaching languages in schools and universities might be shifted to training centers where native speakers of the languages could pro- vide a more natural language learning experience'. This would allow language teaching in the schools and universities to be centred around the study of 'people and language', a discipline which would be based in the human or behavioural sciences i.e. an- * thropology, political science, sociology, psycho- linguistics and socio-linguistics. He then gives examples of certain academics from the FL sphere who have drawn on the behavioural sciences for their work and vice versa. The examples given are a fascinating insight into areas of research where psychology and lan- guage meet in various socio-cultural settings. The examples of international exchanges and visits abroad might help teachers seeking new approach- es to introducing authentic cultural elements into advanced classes. For teachers of ab initio and in- termediate FL classes the problem is more com- plex. This is partly because the lower level of FL competence in these classes makes it difficult to ex- ploit the authentic materials provided by such ex- changes, unless care is taken to ensure careful grading of the material and provision of appropriate No 15 March 1997 reference materials. The funding of such exchanges is given low priority status in most institutions and the necessary investment would probably be con- sidered unwise for beginners, given that traditional approaches offer cheaper alternatives. Lambert's conclusion side-steps the issue when he suggests that 'the practitioners in the new field should become fully trained in the behavioral sci- ences so that they can have a deeper base for learn- ing and teaching about people's ways of life, language included.' This points out yet another de- ficiency in the knowledge and practice of FL teach- ers, without showing how the suggested remedy would improve the quality of their classes. The main objection to Lambert's approach is that he seems to be encouraging FL teachers to turn away from their subject altogether and do some- thing else. Such a radical solution is surely not called for when what we are really trying to achieve is a better understanding of how to improve the quality of a process which is already recognised as taking place, i.e. the learning of socio-cultural and other 'non-linguistic' elements in the FL classroom. A less radical' approach seems to be one which analyses the corpus of cultural knowledge into its constituent elements and integrates these into the syllabus. THE 'CULTURE TEST' Rebecca M Vallette (1977) considers the solution to be a more conscious inclusion of cultural elements within the FL syllabus than has traditionally been the case. She outlines several aims of a cultural syl- labus which a foreign language course ought to achieve and suggests ways of assessing these skills. Vallette is clearly thinking of a certain age group and level of education when she warns against the 'dangerous polarization' which can result from ill- advised attempts to 'free these young people from the strait jacket of monoculturalism'. Nevertheless, her ideas are more generally applicable and it is worth quoting her four cultural goals in full: • developing a greater awareness of and broader knowledge about the target culture; • acquiring a command of the etiquette of the tar- get culture; • understanding differences between the target culture and the students' culture; • understanding the values of the target culture. It is easy to see how these aims can be broken down or elaborated and included at appropriate levels in various language syllabuses. Vallette includes ex- amples from 'the culture test' which show how thoroughly these aims can be assessed. The advan- tage of this model is that it forces the teacher to separate the non-linguistic elements and examine their worth as items of knowledge to be taught ei- ther alongside or through the FL. It is assumed that C SIMPSON "It would seem appropriate to establish clear non-linguistic aims" Figure 1 students' competence in these skills will vary as does their language ability, and that they can be graded accordingly. Vallette's aims are useful for any analysis of what constitutes culture in a FL setting, but they need to be treated with caution. Apart from the rel- ative notions of 'greater awareness' and 'broader knowledge', there is the difficulty in defining the 'target culture'. If one takes students of Spanish, for example, there is a wide range of cultures, de- pending on the geographical area with which the students are primarily concerned. The presence of very large German and Italian speaking minorities outside their countries of origin raises the question whether it is correct to assume that our students will be mainly interested in those countries. We need therefore to be very clear about which target culture we are teaching. Another difficulty is in the selection of the teaching objectives or non-linguis- tic skills which we expect our students to learn. Etiquette is an area which carries very specific de- tails for each situation and which is subject to fre- quent change. It might prove quite difficult to select aspects of etiquette which are appropriate to our students' needs. TOTAL I M M E R S I O N It would seem appropriate to establish clear non- linguistic aims for our FL classes in much the same way as we select aspects of syntax or style appro- priate to each level. The question is whether this area should be incorporated into the language teaching e.g. via carefully selected materials, or whether it would be advantageous to teach aspects of culture in the first language. This could be taken to the point of planning each language lesson around carefully selected items of knowledge. Widdowson (1978) calls this the adoption of 'use criteria' and contrasts these with 'usage criteria', the latter usually leading to unrealistic rehearsals of unlikely linguistic situations. Widdowson actu- ally goes as far as suggesting that FL teaching can only be meaningful in bilingual or immersion con- texts where pupils study their mainstream subjects through the medium of the FL. It is possible to imagine certain advantages of such an approach, e.g. pupils' motivation, elimination of inauthentic drills of units of FL usage etc., but this again is ex- pecting language teachers to teach something which they may not be competent to teach. It is possible, however, to see how adopting this ap- proach in a limited form, by carefully selecting ma- terials in view of their cultural content, could Language Learning Cultural Experience Language Awareness A i t Cultural Awareness 42 223 contribute to the cultural competence of students. T E A C H I N G CULTURE FOR TERTIARY SOCIALISATION There is a growing awareness of the need to study language in context, as one can see in the prolifera- tion of published materials attempting to teach lan- guage for specific purposes e.g. German for Business, French for Hotel Management, etc. At the other end of the spectrum, much language teaching is informed by the assumption that stu- dents are all potential tourists who will need to learn how to survive in a given range of typical sit- uations, such as buying groceries or booking in at a hotel, etc. Michael Byram (1992) points out the shortcom- ings of this approach which fails to have any effect the on students' view of their own identity and that of others: 'they are implicitly invited to remain firmly anchored in their own values and culture.' Against this he proposes teaching FL as a means to achieving 'tertiary socialisation': 'If young people are led, through learning a lan- guage, to integration into their own concepts and value system of the value system and con- cepts of another mode of thinking and acting - another culture - they can be said to move into what I call 'tertiary socialisation'. Byram stresses that it is not the aim of FL teaching to undermine primary and secondary socialisation (i.e. the internalisation of general social roles e.g. gender roles on the one hand and specific social roles and values peculiar to a given society on the other) by creating a sense of anomie in language learners, but by providing other sets of concepts and values to open 'a perspective which is depen- dent on neither native nor foreign culture.' Byram believes that exposure to a FL is not sufficient to achieve tertiary socialisation and mentions new teaching methods currently being developed in Durham and London which take their starting point in ethnography. This approach attempts to adapt the methods of fieldwork to the FL situation and use insights from ethnography and anthropology to select the culture domains to be studied and analyse data gathered in 'fieldwork'. In an earlier work, Byram (1989) had suggested the integration of a range of different types of knowledge within a syllabus which would have the FL as their binding element, and each of which would contribute to the other (Figure 1). This spread of elements has the advantage of aiming to enable students to increase their cultural and linguistic awareness even if they are not partic- ularly competent language learners. It also has the advantage of making explicit some of the aspects of the cultural experience which FL learning aims to provide, e.g. experiencing being foreign, seeing the native culture from the outside etc. Against Languoge Learning Journal 224 these advantages there is the objection of the greater amount of LI use in the class than would be the case with a communicative approach. However, this could be seen positively in modern teaching situations where contact time is at a premium and emphasis is laid on students' use of self-access fa- cilities to supplement their lessons. Many FL text book authors seem to be well aware of the demand for non-linguistic knowledge associated with FLs (see the Breakthrough series (Macmillan), BBC language courses, the Working With Series (Stanley Thomes), which gives abun- dant cultural information in the target language, and numerous 'Business Language' courses which include so-called 'cultural briefing' sections). Given the impossibility of communicating this knowledge in the target language to beginners and intermediate students, they include sections in LI, which aim to increase students' stock of general knowledge. It is interesting to note that few authors include material for testing students' cultural knowledge, whereas the use of LI in language test- ing material is widespread, presumably on the grounds that students might be able to understand target language text, but not necessarily the ques- tions written with the aim of testing this compre- hension. SOCIO-CULTURAL RESEARCH PROJECTS One of the activities which can meet some of the non-linguistic aims mentioned above is the socio- cultural research project, which can be carried out in libraries and reference centres and submitted in the forms of oral/audio/video presentation and/or extended written dissertation. It is important that these projects should be seen as an integral part of the course and not an added extra. For this reason the topics for research must be chosen with care and research for its own sake should be avoided. Jenks (1974) gives an example of a library pro- ject with two procedural models, both of which would work for a whole range of research projects. Unfortunately, the example given is to find out the price of steaks per kilo in local currency in Bogotl Jenks makes helpful suggestions as to how one would go about solving the problem if primary sources were not available, such as contacting stock brokers, meat dealers and penpal agencies. The point here is that we cannot expect our students to take seriously research projects which are the FL equivalent of 'Trivial Pursuit'. Clearly the avail- ability of sources should be a major criterion in the selection of individual projects. Of greater impor- tance, however, is the extent to which such knowl- edge will deepen the students' understanding of the target culture. CULTURE AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHINGS INTEGRATED SYLLABUS AND COLLABORATIVE MODULES A solution which draws together various elements from the above approaches is to create a syllabus which refers explicitly to the socio-cultural, geopo- litical elements for each module. For example, complete beginners at a language should be expect- ed to know by the end of the module where their target language is spoken and by approximately how many people it is used. Intermediate students might be expected to know something about the countries concerned, including capitals, basic eco- nomic information such as the main industries, products etc. More advanced students might be ex- pected to be able to differentiate between native speakers from different areas, and make appropri- ate inferences using their knowledge of the institu- tions and historical and political background of the countries concerned. In addition to the integration of explicit non- linguistic criteria to be taught and assessed, thought should be given to the possibility of creat- ing common modules for students of different FLs, e.g. an introduction to socio-linguistics or language awareness for all students of FLs en- abling them to compare their FL with others. There is no reason why such modules should not be made available to students outside the FL field who have an interest in such areas, e.g. from the fields of sociology, psychology, cultural studies, etc. Such modules could be delivered by staff from various fields and would involve FL teachers making contributions without having to learn whole new areas of subject knowledge. There are obvious resourcing advantages in creating mod- ules which are made accessible to wider student participation, but one of the benefits of such mod- ules would be that FL students would sit alongside students from other fields, enabling a cultural cross-fertilisation to take place. Collaborative modules of this type would also help to locate FL teaching in relation to other subjects. REFERENCES M. Byram (1989). Cultural Studies in Foreign Language Educa- tion, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. M. Byram (1392). Foreign language learning for European citi- zenship, Language Learning Journal. 6. September. W. E. Lambert (1974). An Alternative to the Foreign Language Teaching Profession, in Altman & Hanzeli (eds). Essays on the Teaching of Culture, Advanced Press of America. R.M. Vallette (1977). The Culture Test, in Modern Language Testing (2nd ed), London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. H. G. Widdowson (1978). Teaching Language as Communica- tion, Oxford: OUP. F. L. Jenks (1974). Conducting Socio-cultural Research in the Foreign Language Class, in Altman & Hanzeli (eds). Essays on the Teaching of Culture. Advanced Press of America. "FL students would sit alongside students from other fields" No 15 March 1997 43 225 § 1975^ Rubin M f f i & T g i f ^ J J g i £ P ©|g W £ £ jffifr T W ft. M ( ^ - ^ , 1 9 9 3 ) 0 ^ W ^ ^ 1 8 ^ ^ # ^ & 1 9 9 1 « " ^ - JJ -%vS&®Mtt ft® ""• •ii995^»3ffl(J6*103»!) m«fc*f flfr*4 W ^ ftM&nrS]. % - F i r S . - Pir & w * . m K ft % m m 7 # g m b& £ .61 • 226 (beliefs) (strategies) (management beliefs) (management strategies) % ft-% n ± m m - ^ % m% (language learning beliefs) (language learning strategies) • r a # £ ® f t # M g # J . 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O H g S # ^ f f i f t » . 1993^1 SO. Rubin, J. 1987. Learner strategies ; theoretical as- sumptions .research history and typology. In A. Wenden &. J. Rubin. (Eds. )Learner strate- gies in Language Learning. Prentice-Hall. Wen , Qiufang.. 1993. Advanced level English lan- guage learning in China: The relationship of modifiable learner variables to learning out- comes-Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, Hong Kong University. 4fcfr$ B 88 :1994^8j=j 27 B ; #?J£>n8.i995*F5/3 4H iimttetit:210093 231 at fi-«***t«**flt « . 1 £ , f t & „ 1 * f l i M . S L f a & , H * * M * 0 • • - v . 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S - ^ a M 35 45« ,&4 , 2c£ 20 A ,M£. \ 15 Ao' W Q 9 9 6 -\:-)hX IB 18 -Y-J - i | ^ i^^ 17.0 $ 0 ' 3.2 I I &; %=Ltoft&&-&£¥&&»tomm 3.3 mwM *t;.#-T- 1996 *p 4 ^ 29 (3 $ | B J ® & & B f •#g^*a*#^!»U&JB ft & SPSS ( & £ ? r ^ £ B t mi'r 13), MS Windows Release 6.0 T M f t ^ i t & S & f t : E3N mt<£m .. ftf ^ El Alpha {£; '1,2,3,6,7 .5703 .4, 9,10,11,13 ; , .f.316 •:. > >mumm, mr«nmm, Aipw $ frhM) 0.5703''jffl:'ov«.3.i6„.,ljiia »;j *n * to '• v<&: -.40 ., .018 -.46 • - .000 ' ; ' >A# r r & « , • ;M ti^tiwimtm i/j-o.4o *n-o.460. mmwmmmmmm • 16 233 SD T-valuo 2 tail Sig .523 .2.274 .572 -2.07 .046 2.500 .707 ffi^t* o .523, M#^iEffi^,-- '^jSWTOteft 2 .274, WMMflWj isi^-2'.eooo' 3a\ Wife ' - « & & J S 3 t i ^ & P S * ¥ W & K # a * 5pJ *minx, & p w i , ffii&ffi*y3iit««^^ii?isp^ ffi-n#*JW&Wi&M& fli p# $ jfc & M ^ J ^ f f S M £ , M ' ^ i g i f i l l , A M m&m ® i§ r«i w, M $,&m mw-%0%t mto&~ft%nffiQi&£.v<%i m n - ^nrRg^s^iikin &M:£ 0 5 raws, » 7 t ^ « : £ M r $ M S ! SB, $ i 8 5 ^ & M # - % M . « ( o m • IT • 234 ' £ * H * s f t * « * t t H # , tt&fwmf^ ttil*«fn, . ^ £ * A f t - ^ & ^ « M " l ®ftW*lfi-amffiR(*IIJn Carroll 1963, Gardner 1976)„ ftJpJSfftgf&0f/Ts, « Carl Rogers (1969);ffl Curran (1976) ,M]&ffi££WA, 3C-#&$4\A# t f e » , • jit & &in ̂  tBW5!i & ft w # % * -«• Carroll, J. (1963) ''The Prediction of,Success in Intensive Foreign Language Training'/.,In R. Glazer (Ed.) Training Research And Education. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Chastain, K . (1675) "Affective . and JAWH$ Factors in Second Language iAquisitionV'.p»*ir*!<?fe» Lear »t»^3B:l68-61. Curran, C. (1676) Counsel(ing-Learning.,;in; Sft- cond Languages. Apple River, 111: Apple Kive» Press. Gardner, R., P. Smythe, R. Clement, ana ' L . Gliksman (1976) "Second-language learning;, a.;, so- cial-psychological perspective". Canadian Modern Language Review 32:198-213. Krashen, Stephen (1981) Second Language Ac- quisition And Second Language Learning.' Oxiot&z Pergamon Press. Naiman, N . / M . Brohlich, D. Stsrn, vdJtM.M- odesco (1978) The Good Language Learner. Toronto Ontario Institute For Studies In Education.; Pimsleur. P., L . Mosberg, and A. taorrison£l962) "Student Factors in Foreign Language Teaching." Modern Language Journal 16:160-170. Rogers, C, (1969) Freedom lo Learn. Ohio: Ch- arles E. Merrill, Scovel, T. (1978) "The Effect of. Aifpct <o» Foreign Language Learning: A Reviow of the. A n - xiety Research". Language Learning 28:139-48. • 18 • 235 '•mXW 1991:12-13.). %Mm%t%&ty. % 'i-: w Jk 3?|i i»! ̂  -i • m «w m x it a - m mFI M 0 -^#i*ft#ABtoig<target language) ^ t K f ^ f ] f « x # t f w w x « a mm (language forms), Mi&tiftJEffl(lang- uage , use), M (fy Jfl £ W t t £ X ;' WXfll A 3 t ^ m&&& W #Hfl (Stern 1983; Brogger 1992), ' W ' i i i . -X'f- ,rf &. iflCtfr, & * k IU 74 11 W 'Wi. M: , MX^ ttW, l ± 4tM&$$Q &~feX52k%& culture - im%.xmmm0 mmjl (Stern 1983: 246)0 ^ 5 W R £ ^ * . « I ' . } & IVi; flit j (c » i n m 11nteat ive competence) # g ftjftj, £ g f i B # 3 S # t B " . : B : , A ĴfTO-b W t f M W ® % (Stern; 1983: 229) 0 imt&mi]mmtw^xtM', s £ & fc'ft 3S £ *F ift W 52 Ift HM: Ĵ & * ftl A f t ? fMftiAmr&%i, WiU&M ^xmmmmmm^yr^^:^Mm at, umxtmw&o x^RFcXim- -t-mWlo Robinson (1985:7) Wff5f£M;is-X (ideas)^^^j(behaviors)f07 i : n cJ,.(products) o MJAUMVjfc, f/r/i!l)(W'fllili!)!!i:^, sfijf JWtftfm, (cultural studies) lir^-M ' " ^ j ^ f ! ! 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Newmark;(1995:94 )^X4bT r f t^^-^: ti^m-tmmxMm'&Mo xm. x& ft w ~s iw w m ft ® n • • ~s m ft # w a A & 5i-:ft « $ R immm mmz •iiî aLfis- ft ̂ nmw* .̂fî . p ?mm m £ 4" I I £ ft i& w* f̂fl:ftis-, 'rm&r^mmm®. m, mm^mikuTK^t&ximmm U'M, ttSH^SW'^H'rb (Americapisms>0.: ^Sf-^- ja 'ssw-si ri^fts^#fef'^ 2 237 » S J f i A ^ ; < C r y s t a l 1987)0 HJ&f&W ftjRlX.'fbeffio^ftl Trudgill (1983:41-42) Itm^jilWlgjt(channel), ft59<code)N M (̂message form)ifHigg(subject matter) $ $ S £ $ M ® S < s e t t i n g ) , # J g : g - (part- icipants) ̂ n^ ĵ (activity) $H & ili'l^Jo & 3. rr%«*s5*^Affi®o 2. g fc iS i tKfc "Alio" (Pg) 0 4. ^ f e i S ^ E ^ "Oui" (&>„ ^Ai l iSo « ; I H M H ft AMitito- « , A»5>maAW*Sfpr.t6!-ifc^ js-'a * tfci H ^ S A B ^ m T s a & m mm A£3&$*J—j&„ (Crystal 1987:48-65) j&ft 3 C f t W f i l ^ f o 0 W M I f l i t f t jJlllU-MJfi,TiiTJa,m^ffl^0 Eb Sftt&^Wi&Stt • •• nM, M W & w M i ? i a 7 o $ 7TN 7 ^ >J * h f i - SI 33 * h i i X 4b Z m ?b" W i l &immm, ra±£4bM««fe At§ iff # i £ f b ttmmnwinw s i « »T J$MJ(Barrow 1990), Dameii (1987:4) "i?fW^>J I ^ 7 ^ b ^ > ! % H l l t - ^ W i S ^ (bilingual) £ / I? f t~J iJ f a j i L ' ± - « m X ^ # ' (bicultural) 0. • •mmm^^xit'sn^m^Mm^i xuft%®&xftm.&, i 5 ^ - > m w « t ])| l̂ W-|Jim-IL^X4b ĵ)il) (Stern 1983:251), • ^ ^ i a x ^ - i i i ! ut, a ft M w » &0f, & Rift B A&f l* W Wo «a j f *& , wh&wiT&mxikm; am, isi w^im & M @ i i b wtfcwrasio' ikxfafimm^, mmmv VtltML9 "'ii?' a r a * . 3 238 mxwmmmm-m MM® W M IR ±m$%xm fil3.1£^ll, (1991) 'Learning n foreign language In learning another culture', «5i iSlk#»i B/91; 12-16. Barrow, R. (1990) 'Culture, values and the (language classroom', In Harrison, B. (ed.) Culture and the Language Classroom. Mudurn English Fu- ,blications-and the British Council. Brogger', F . C. (1992) Culture, Language, Text: Culture Studies within the Study of English as a Foreign Language. Oslo: Scandinavian University, Press. Byit.rfli'M. (1989) Cultural Studies-iH Foreign Language Education. Clevedon and Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Byram,' M. , Esarte-Sarries, V . and Taylor, S," (1991) Cultural Studies and Language Learning, Clevedon and Philadelphia.-; Multilingual Matters. Crystal, D, (1987) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, Cambridge; Cambridge University 1'rcsM. ; • Damen, L . (1»87) Culture Learning:. The Fifth Dimension in the Language Classroom. Reading, M a s K i i c l n i H c t t H , etc;.: Ail i l l tu'i i-YS'cHley. Newnittrk. P, (19BB) A- Textbook of Transla- tion, Moiiiel Hempstead; Phoenix E L T . Rivers, W . M. (1981) Teaching Foreign-Lang- uage Skills, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, Robinson, G.I , . finfl5) Crossculturat Underst- anding: Processes and Approaches for Foreign Language, English as a Second Language and Bi- lingual Educators. Oxford: Pergamon, Stern, H . H . (1983) Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching, [Oxford: Oxford University Press. Trudgill, P. (1983) Sociolinguistics: An Introd- uction to Language and Society. Harmondswortuj Penguin,


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