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The relationship between elementary classroom collections and the school library resource centre program Doiron , Ray 1995

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM COLLECTIONS AND THE SCHOOL LIBRARY RESOURCE CENTRE PROGRAM by RAY DOIRON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction Department of Language Education We accept this dissertation as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1995 © Ray Doiron, 1995  In presenting this thesis  in  degree at the University of  partial fulfilment  of  the  requirements  for an advanced  British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature)  Department of Language Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  April  19,  1995  ABSTRACT The school library resource centre and the collection of trade books that classroom teachers gather in their classrooms were the focus of an exploratory, descriptive study designed around the first stages of an action research model. Little research had been done on how effective classroom teachers have been at acquiring trade books for their classroom collections, and on how teacher-librarians, working in partially or fully integrated school library resource centre programs, helped make trade books accessible to elementary teachers and students. One instrument, The Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections. was designed to examine four descriptive areas: the contents and size of classroom collections, the source of trade books for these collection, the organization and management of classroom collections, and the use classroom teachers make of these trade books. The 205 elementary English language classroom teachers in one school district were sent a Survey and 80% responded. The series of interviews that followed were conducted with a stratified random sample of 30 classroom teachers, nine principals and seven teacher-librarians. The stratification was organized by Phases 1, 2 or 3 of school library program development, which were determined by the score on a second instrument. The  11  Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs. and from information on staffing, resources and teacher-librarian experience. Results were analyzed under the four areas explored in the Survey, by grade level and by Phase. A detailed description of the classroom collections led to the development of the Independent, Interactive and Integrated models for classroom collections. Each reflected a different concept of the classroom collection, its role in the literacy program and its relationship with the school library resource centre program. Indications were that a collaborative approach to trade book provisioning emerged in schools where the school library resource centre program was more fully integrated into the school curriculum. Details on a school-based/district-wide strategy to build a collaborative approach were given, as well as suggestions for a plan of action for individual schools and for further research to explore questions raised by this study.  III  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  11  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES  xiii  LIST OF FIGURES  xvi  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  xviii  DEDICATION  xix  CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM  1  Introduction  1  Background to the Problem  1  Statement of the Problem  6  Purpose and Overview of the Study  8  Research Questions  9  Definition of Terms  10  Scope and Delimitation of the Study  12  Significance of the Study  14  Outline of the Dissertation  15  CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  16  Introduction  16  The Trade Book Assumption  16  The Role of Trade Books in Literacy Programs  17  Trade Books in the Traditional Paradigm  17  The Shift to Literature-Based Programs  19  IV  The Role of Classroom Collections  22  The Role of the School Library Resource Centre  30  The Relationship Between Classroom Collections and the School Library Resource Centre  34  Summary  43  CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES  46  Overview  46  The Design  47  The School District  52  The Population  57  Classroom Teachers  57  Teacher-Librarians  58  Principals  60  The Instruments  61  Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections  61  Profile of the School Library Resource Centre66 Pilot Procedures  71  Data Collection  72  Survey Procedures  72  Profile Procedures  74  Data Entry  75  Initial Analysis of the SurveyData  76  Purpose  76  Procedures  77  Initial Analysis of the Profile Data V  78  Purpose  78  Procedures  78  Research Interviews  85  Purpose  85  Research Questions  86  Stratified Random Sampling Procedures  88  Interview Procedures  90  Interview Transcriptions  92  Data Analysis  93  Analysis of the Survey Data  93  Analysis of the Interviews  94  Limitations  95  Methodological Assumptions  95  Summary  96  CHAPTER FOUR: THE RESULTS  97  Introduction  97  PART ONE: SURVEY RESULTS  98  The Size and Contents of Classroom Collections  98  Research Question One  98  The Size of Classroom Collections  98  Trade Book Totals by Grade  104  Trade-Books-Per-Student  107  Trade Book Totals by Phase of SLRC Program  110  Trade-Books-per-Student by Phase/Grade  113  vi  The Distribution of Trade Book Types  115  Summary: Research Question One  119  Sources of Trade Books for Classroom Collections  120  Research Question Two  120  Sources of Trade Books  121  Exchanging Trade Books in the Classroom Collections  135  Source of Money for Classroom Collections  136  Summary: Research Question Two  141  The Organization and Management of Classroom Collections  142  Research Question Three  142  Displaying Trade Books in the Classroom  142  Establishing a Separate Place for Classroom Collections  143  Categorizing the Trade Books  143  Sending Trade Books Home with Students  145  Labeling the Trade Books  146  Protecting and Repairing the Trade Books  148  Furniture, Storage Materials and Accessories Found in Classroom Collections  149  Summary: Research Question Three The Use of Trade Books from the Classroom Collection  155  Research Question Four  155  Classroom Collections as Essential  156  vii  Components of the Language Arts Program  157  Reading Aloud and Silent Reading  157  Trade Books for the Reading Program  160  Trade Book Connections with the SLRC  163  Summary: Research Question Four  165  Summary; Part One-Survey Results PART TWO: INTERVIEW RESULTS  167 169  Introduction  169  The Size and Contents of Classroom Collections  170  Research Question One  170  Interview Questions  171  Reactions to Size of Classroom Collections  171  Reasons for the Predominance of Fiction  175  Factors Affecting Collection Size  178  Possible Additions to Classroom Collections  179  Summary: Research Question One  182  Sources of Trade Books  184  Research Question Two  184  Interview Questions  184  Why Teachers Spend Their Own Money  184  The Use of Book Clubs  187  Criteria for Selecting Trade Books  191  Balancing Trade Book Choices  195  How Teacher-Librarians Support Trade Book Selection  197  Vlll  Summary: Research Question Two  201  Organization and Management of Classroom Collections  202  Research Question Three  203  Interview Questions  203  The Organization of Classroom Collections  203  The Affects of the Physical Layout of the Collection  206  Summary: Research Question Three  208  Uses for the Classroom Collection  209  Research Question Four  209  Interview Questions  209  The Purposes of Classroom CollectionsClassroom Teachers  210  The Purposes of Classroom CollectionsTeacher-Librarians and Principals  211  Uses Within the Reading Program  217  Reading for Pleasure and Reading for Information  220  Summary: Research Question Four  222  The Relationship Between Classroom Collections and the SLRC  225  Research Questions Five and Six  225  Interview Questions Classroom Teachers and Teacher-Librarians Working Together  225 ix  Centralized and Decentralized Collections  230  Funding Trade Book Collections  236  New Curriculum Endeavors  240  Factors That Inhibit and Enhance the Relationship  244  Summary: Research Questions Five and Six  248  Summary: Part Two-Interview Results CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS  251 257  Introduction  257  Summary of the Study  257  A Description of Classroom Collections  259  Discussion of the Results  265  The Size of Classroom Collections Teachers' Personal Philosophies The Contents of Classroom Collections Paperbacks  265 267 268 269  The Sources of Trade Books for Classroom Collections The SLRC as a Source of Trade Books  270 270  The Holistic Approach as a Source of Trade Books  272  Funding for Classroom Collections  274  Choosing Trade Books for Classroom Collections  275  The Organization and Management of Classroom Collections X  276  The Use of Trade Books from Classroom Collections  278  Responsibility for Providing Trade Books279 From a Personal Collection to a Shared Collection  280  Teachers' Enthusiasm for Trade Books  281  Silent Reading and Reading Aloud  281  Using Trade Books with the SLRC Program 283 Three Models of Classroom Collections and their Relationship to the School Library Resource Centre  284  Independent Classroom Collections  288  Interactive Classroom Collections  290  Integrated Classroom Collections  291  The Three Models with the Three Phases  293  A Return to the Problem  297  Implications for Schools  301  A Strategy for Developing Trade Book Collections  303  A Plan of Action  305  Implications for Future Research  307  Limitations of the Study  311  An Ending...A Beginning...  313  XI  REFERENCES APPENDIX A  315 Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections  APPENDIX B  322  Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs  328  APPENDIX C  Authorization for the Study  336  APPENDIX D  Interview Questions-Classroom Teachers  337  APPENDIX E  Interview Questions-Teacher-Librarians  340  APPENDIX F  Interview Questions-Principals  343  APPENDIX G  Permission Form-Interviews  345  Xll  LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1  School Library Resource Centres - Summary Data by Phase  TABLE 2  81  Return Rate of Surveys and Number of Participants Interviewed in Each Phase  TABLE 3  88  Principals and Teacher-Librarians Interviewed by Phase  90  TABLE 4  Descriptive Statistics for Trade Book Totals 99  TABLE 5  Numerical Summary for Total Trade Books  TABLE 6  Descriptive Statistics of Trade Book Totals by Grade Level  102  105  TABLE 7  Total Trade-Books-per-Student by Grade Level 108  TABLE 8  Descriptive Statistics for Trade Book Totals by Phase  110  TABLE 9  Trade-Books-per-Student by Phase and Grade  114  TABLE 10  Trade Book Totals from Four Library Sources 121  by Grade TABLE 11  Trade Book Totals from Four Library Sources by Phase  TABLE 12  123  Trade Book Totals from "Other" Sources by Grade  TABLE 13  125  Trade Book Totals from "Other" Sources by Phase  TABLE 14  127  Trade Book Totals from the Holistic Approach by Grade  129 xiii  TABLE 15  Trade Book Totals from the Holistic Approach by Phase  TABLE 16  130  Trade Book Totals from Four Commercial Sources by Grade  TABLE 17  132  Trade Book Totals from Four Commercial Sources by Phase  TABLE 18  134  Mean Book Exchanges Between Classroom Collections and the SLRC by Grade  TABLE 19  Money Spent Out-of-Pocket, from Administration and from Others  TABLE 2 0  137  Percentage by Grade Level Who Categorized their Trade Books  TABLE 21  144  Percentage by Grade Level Who Loan Trade Books for Home Use  TABLE 22  145  Percentage by Grade Level Who Label Trade Books  TABLE 23  136  146  Percentage by Grade Level Who Maintain, Protect and Repair Trade Books  148  TABLE 24  Furniture, Storage and Accessories by Grade  150  TABLE 25  Furniture, Storage and Accessories by Phase  153  TABLE 26  Classroom Collections as Essential to Language Arts Programs  156  TABLE 27  Reading Aloud and Silent Reading by Grade  158  TABLE 28  Reading Aloud and Silent Reading by Phase  159  TABLE 29  Trade Books Used for Reading by Grade  161  XIV  TABLE 30  Trade Books Used for Reading by Phase  TABLE 31  Resource-Based Units of Study and Independent Reading by Grade  TABLE 32  164  Resource-Based Units of Study and Independent Reading by Phase  Table 33  163  165  Models of Classroom Collections by Phase of SLRC Development  297  XV  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1  Stem-and-Leaf Display of Trade Book Totals  100  FIGURE 2  Trade Book Totals  103  FIGURE 3  Trade Book Totals by Grade  106  FIGURE 4  Trade-Books-per-Student by Grade  109  FIGURE 5  Trade Book Totals by Phase  112  FIGURE 6  Distribution of Easy Fiction by Grade  117  FIGURE 7  Distribution of Fiction by Grade  117  FIGURE 8  Distribution of Nonfiction by Grade  118  FIGURE 9  Distribution of Poetry by Grade  118  FIGURE 10 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from Four Library Sources by Grade  122  FIGURE 11 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from Four Library Sources by Phase  124  FIGURE 12 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from "Other" Sources by Grade  126  FIGURE 13 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from "Other" Sources by Phase  128  FIGURE 14 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from the Holistic Approach by Grade  129  FIGURE 15 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from the Holistic Approach by Phase  131  FIGURE 16 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from Commercial Sources by Grade  133  XVI  FIGURE 17 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from Commercial Sources by Phase  135  FIGURE 18 Out-of-Pocket Spending on Trade Books by Grade  139  FIGURE 19 Money from Administration for Trade Books  140  FIGURE 20 Money from Other Sources for Trade Books  140  FIGURE 21 Three Models of Classroom Collections and Their Relationship to the School Library Resource Centre  285  XVI1  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS For his support and professional integrity, I would like to acknowledge Dr. Jon Shapiro, Department of Language Education, who, while acting as my faculty advisor and dissertation supervisor, became my lifelong friend. For his editorial expertise, I would like to acknowledge Dr. Ken Haycock, who nurtured my academic growth in the collegial spirit of a fellow school library educator. For their critical reading and professional support, I thank Dr. James Anderson and Dr. Ronald Jobe. For my colleagues in Regional Administrative Unit 3, I thank you for supporting this study, especially Judy Davies, who listened, offered advice and facilitated my research. For his support in the data analysis and computer programming for the study, I would like to acknowledge Don Doiron, who gave freely of his time to help a brother. For my fellow graduate students, Andy, Richard, Garold, Erica, Patricia and Marlene, who became my daily support network. When it has all been said and done, your friendship is what I really gained. For his deep and abiding friendship, I would like to thank Leigh Faulkner, a poet, a scholar and fellow doctoral student, who helped me persevere, to never loose sight of my goal and to "live by metaphor". I'll see you in Greece!  XVlll  DEDICATION  I wish to thank my children Matthew, Emily and Laura, who put up with Dad's obsession "to be a doctor" and who, I hope, learned a valuable lesson about lifelong learning.  I wish to dedicate this work to my wife, whose love and support could guide me through anything! Elizabeth, you freed me to pursue this dream; you never said "No"; you always trusted; you always believed. It's yours, as much as mine.  xix  CHAPTER ONE - THE PROBLEM  Introduction During the past decade, a great deal of attention has focused on students' and teachers' use of trade books in school literacy programs. Some teachers use trade books as supplementary materials to reinforce reading skills and to promote a love for reading. Many others use trade books as the principal material for all their instructional needs. This has increased trade book usage and has meant that teachers are relying heavily on the collection of trade books they house and maintain in the classroom. These classroom collections are accepted as a fait accompli by many educators and part of every teachers' regular routine. However, little is known about how successful classroom teachers have been at developing these classroom collections, nor how teachers use their school library resource centre to support, complement or augment the classroom collection. This study describes the trade book collections of 163 elementary classrooms and explores the relationship between these collections and the school library resource centre (SLRC).  Background to the Problem For most elementary students, the SLRC and the classroom collection are the two main sources of trade books. Students choose books for independent reading or for their school assignments from those selected by their teacher-librarian or  their classroom teacher. Teacher-librarians usually receive special training for selecting materials for the school's curriculum and for the students' reading interests. They work to build a large and varied centralized collection of trade books that students and teachers use in a variety of literacy activities. Classroom teachers also choose many trade books for their classroom collections for the same goals of supporting the school curriculum and for meeting students' free-choice reading needs. While teacher-librarians have many tools that assist them in their selection duties (Loertscher, 1988), many classroom teachers must rely on their own intuition and experience in finding materials for their classroom curricula. Teachers' guides, journal articles and professional books on literature-based programs do give lists of recommended titles (Jobe & Hart, 1991; Lake, 19 93), and teachers may build repertoires of favorites that they use each year or that they discover in university courses or at workshops on children's literature. They generally select new titles for their classroom collection in more informal ways and often buy trade books themselves. This leaves the development of these collections heavily influenced by how strong the teachers' beliefs are about the use of trade books, their willingness to collect trade books or their ability to lobby their administration for more financial assistance in developing better classroom collections.  Many authorities have recoiranended that classrooms should have well-stocked trade book collections (Fielding, Wilson & Anderson, 1984; Strickland & Morrow, 1988; Hepler,1992; Sanacore, 1992; Skolnick, 1992; Fractor, Woodruff, Martinez, & Teale, 1993). Little evidence, however, can be found of what teachers are actually choosing for these libraries. Where do they get these trade books? How are they chosen? What types of trade books are they putting into the classroom collection? How well are the classroom collections arranged to be attractive spaces for students to use? How effectively are these classroom collections used as part of the literacy program?  How effectively do these classroom collections  function for student use? Are these libraries integrated into the overall program; are they considered a supplementary part of the program; or are they basically just a bookcase where the books are stored? These questions are particularly relevant when consideration is given to the amount of money being spent, the quality and variety of books being purchased and the ultimate advantages of putting these efforts into building large classroom collections. All of these questions are issues that teacherlibrarians deal with as part of their professional responsibility in the SLRC (Haycock, 1990; Marland, 1990). Efforts to provide students and teachers with ready access to a large centralized collection of trade books is based on the belief that this is essential if a SLRC program is to operate to its fullest potential. What emerges then from the focus on  the trade books placed in classrooms and the SLRC are issues about the relationship between the two collections. Classroom teachers use the SLRC to supplement their classroom collections by borrowing large numbers of trade books and regularly changing that collection throughout the school year. Classroom teachers also provide valuable information to teacher-librarians on what to purchase for the SLRC. This demonstrates that there can be an interactive relationship between these two facilities, and yet research has not looked at this relationship either to describe it or to identify the potential it may have for building better access to trade books for all students. This is particularly ironic when one considers the increasing demand for trade books, the shrinking budgets for trade books and the resource-based models of learning that emphasize cooperative teaching and collaborative learning. What then can be determined by examining this relationship? Do these two collections compete for the same money and for the same resources? Are classroom teachers and teacher-librarians buying similar types of trade books for students? Are they both providing a solid balance of different types of trade books? Are there some ways that classrooms can provide better access to trade books for children than school library resource centres? How are classroom collections conceptualized in terms of the overall school curriculum? Is it possible for the two facilities to operate without one suffering at the expense of the other?  Are there competing levels of service or do they perhaps complement each other and work symbiotically? Are educators better off to concentrate efforts in building large, multipurpose resource centres where everyone has equitable access to a larger pool of resources, or should efforts be directed at flooding individual classrooms with trade books? These economic, pedagogic and conceptual questions indicate the need for detailed information on just what is happening with classroom collections, so that discussions about the relationships between the two libraries can develop within an accurate framework and not be based on suppositions, myths or opinion. The main issue may prove to be whether trade books should be centralized in the school library resource centre or decentralized and placed in classrooms so students have easier access to them. Even beyond these two opposing positions is the issue of whether a more collaborative approach is necessary (Thomas & Goldsmith, 1992; Hansen, 1993), one that fosters a partnership between the classroom teacher and the teacher-librarian and that allows for the careful development of both levels of libraries to meet student needs (Harper,1991). Within the context of this debate, several options are available to describe the situation. For instance, one might argue that classroom collections are a threat to the strong centralized school library resource centre since they divert money and attention from the main school collection. Others may claim that  centralized libraries actually inhibit the use of trade books and often leave teachers frustrated because books are out when they need them or, alternately, they may not know what trade books are available. The issue of access versus ownership often creeps in because some teachers feel strongly they want to own the trade books in their classroom collections to ensure they control access. Classroom collections are often advocated because they put books easily into children's hands. On the other hand, no classroom collection could ever offer the wealth and variety of material available in a we11-developed SLRC collection. It may also be true that classroom teachers feel pressured to have large libraries in the classroom, when they know it is impossible or even undesirable to be in the position of having to find all the trade books they need. These varying and often dichotomous positions are examples of situations that may or may not be true. This points to the need for a detailed description of the ways classroom collections are presently operating so that accurate evidence of the reality of the situation can be applied to the issues.  Statement of the Problem The increased emphasis on literature-based programs in the elementary school curriculum has created a greater demand for children's trade books. Such programs rely on a large quantity and the best quality of children's trade books in the classroom to meet instructional goals and to build a  lifelong love for reading and learning. Some commercial programs include independent sets of trade books for student use but these programs are usually supplemented by "real" books that teachers gather from a variety of sources and place in their classroom collections. Teachers using literature-based programs, without the support of commercial program materials, must spend more time and effort gathering trade books. For traditional reading programs, trade books play more of a supplementary role in recreational reading, but the need is still great for plenty of trade books. This pressure for more trade books gives the classroom collection a renewed and role in the curriculum. Little research has been forthcoming, however, that examines these collections to see how teachers are meeting these growing demands, what trade books are being put into classrooms, and what factors influence the uses made of these trade books. Reflecting the increasingly integrated nature of the elementary curriculum, classroom collections support all subject areas. This study, however, focused primarily on the contributions of these collections to the literacy/language arts curriculum. One easily-named source of support for classroom teachers as they build effective classroom collections is the school library resource centre and the teacher-librarian who facilitates its program. Teacher-librarians have expertise in a wide range of resources (Eisenberg, 1990) and in the integrated use of resources across the curriculum. Teacherlibrarians apply collection development skills to build a  8 strong and balanced collection of trade books that supports the curriculum needs of the school, as well as the voluntary reading interests of students. Their expertise in children's literature makes them a valuable resource for classroom teachers needing assistance in developing classroom collections. Research has supported the role of teacherlibrarians in building strong, centralized collections (Gaver, 1963; Wilson, 1965; Becker, 1970; Loertscher,  Ho, &  Bowie, 1987), as well as their efforts in cooperatively planning and teaching in various curriculum areas (Daly, 1992; Wehmeyer, 1993; Lance, Welborn, & Hamilton-Pennell, 1993). However, research dealing with the relationship between the SLRC and the many classroom collections that exist in the same building is virtually non-existent. With both levels of libraries trying to achieve many of the same goals, an examination of their shared role in meeting instructional goals, in developing independent reading habits and in nurturing a love of literature is warranted.  Purpose and Overview of the Study This study investigated and described classroom collections as they are presently operating in elementary classrooms across a large school district in the province of Prince Edward Island. School library resource centres were also examined according to eight program areas: nature of the instructional program, personnel, facility, collection, management, district support, finances and advocacy. This  identified them as having reached one of three developmental Phases (referred here as Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3) of an integrated SLRC program. Four major components of the classroom collection were examined: the trade book contents of the classroom collection; the physical characteristics of the classroom collection; procedures used in the selection of trade books for this collection; and the role of the classroom collection in the literacy program. An initial data-gathering yielded information that was analyzed within the context of the three Phases of development of the SLRC program. This categorization led to a series of interviews that acted as a further probe of factors that inhibit and enhance the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC, resulting in a model for a collaborative approach to providing trade books for the school curriculum.  Research Questions The study addressed the following research questions: 1. What fiction, nonfiction and poetry trade books are available in primary and intermediate grade classroom collections? 2. What procedures for selecting trade books do classroom teachers use to acquire fiction, nonfiction and poetry trade books for their classroom collections? 3. How are primary and intermediate grade classroom collections organized for student use?  10 4. How are primary and intermediate grade classroom collections used as part of the school curriculum? 5. What is the relationship between primary and intermediate grade classroom collections and the school library resource centre in schools with school library resource centre programs that are partially or fully integrated into the school curriculum? 6. What specific factors identified by classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals inhibit and enhance the relationship between primary and intermediate classroom collections and the school library resource centre?  Definition of Terms The following statements will clarify the frame of reference for these terms as they are used in this study: School Library Resource Centre  (SLRC) - This study was  guided by the definition of a school library approved by the Canadian School Library Association. The school library is an essential component of the educational  process,  contributing  achievement of educational  goals and  to  the  objectives  through programs and services that implement and support the instructional programs of the school. The role and responsibility of the school library lies in the development of resource-based programs that will ensure  that  all young  people  in our  schools have the opportunity to learn the skills  11 that will enable them to become competent users of information. The school library also houses and provides  access  to  resources  in  a variety  of  formats and in sufficient breadth and number to meet the demands of the curriculum and the varied abilities  and  interests  of  the  students.(CSLA,  1988) Teacher-librarian - A teacher-librarian is understood to be  "an outstanding or master teacher with specialized  advanced education in the selection, organization, management and use of learning resources and the school library, a resource centre inseparable from the instructional program" (Haycock, 1990). An integrated school library resource centre program According to the Canadian School Library Association, the SLRC program is successful when it is an integral part of the instructional program of the  school  and  when  information  skills  are  integrated in a developmental and sequential way with  subject-specific  program  is  developed  skills  and  content.  The  jointly  by  teachers  and  teacher-librarians who work cooperatively to plan, implement study.  and  evaluate  Through  activities  such  students  resource-based planned learn  how  and to  evaluate, organize, share and apply  units  of  purposeful retrieve, information  objectively, critically and independently. As well.  12 they  are  intellectually,  given  opportunities  to  grow  a e s t h e t i c a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y .  (CSLA, 1988) Classroom collection - The classroom collection (sometimes called a reading corner, a library corner or a classroom library) refers to a section of the classroom, managed and developed by the classroom teacher and established for the storage and display of trade books and for engaging students in a variety of literacy activities. Trade Books - Those children's books (fiction, nonfiction and poetry) that are available for purchase from bookstores or found on the shelves of libraries and available in paperback or hard cover. (This eliminates textbooks which are produced for specific curriculum objectives and are written with controlled content and vocabulary.) Selection - Selection refers to the process by which trade books are evaluated and chosen for inclusion in a SLRC or a classroom collection. Literacy - Literacy refers to those aspects of language learning developed through a school's curriculum, including instruction in reading and writing, their application to content areas, information literacy, critical thinking and the role of literacy as the key to lifelong learning.  Scope and Delimitation of the Study Several points of delimitation need to be addressed in order to clarify the scope of this study. The school district  13 in which the study took place has no kindergarten program, so only the classroom collections in grades one to six were examined. A few schools in this district have grades one to nine but only the grades one to six were included. The content of classroom collections and SLRCs includes a wide range of learning resources such as books, magazines, encyclopedias, charts, tapes, videos, student-made books, computer and multi-media software and numerous other items. However, since trade books are the main type of learning resource used by teachers and students in elementary schools, this study focused only on fiction, nonfiction and poetry trade books found in these classroom collections and SLRCs. Several schools also had French immersion programs, but only English language trade books were included in the survey and the subsequent interviews. By grade three, French immersion students have an English component to their program and data on the English language trade books in classroom collections was collected from the teachers of these grades. The study is also delimited by the size and population of the school district chosen for investigation and how indicative the experiences of the educators in this district are of what other educators find.  While the design was not  set up to draw generalizations from this sample to a larger population, the model for interpreting the baseline data will be useful for other school districts wanting to establish more effective policies for providing trade books for elementary programs. Possibly the application of the findings  14 may be limited by how typical the situation in Regional Administrative School Unit 3 on Prince Edward Island is seen to be of other school districts in Canada. However, like most school districts. School Unit 3 has witnessed an increasing use of trade books across the curriculum, has experienced many of the same financial restraints and has felt the growing pressure to meet more and more demands for increased service and better programs. The population of students and teachers in this school district may also suggest a delimitation because it lacks the cultural and linguistic diversity so common in many Canadian school districts. Unless it is a French immersion classroom, English is the only instructional language spoken and there are no English as Second Language programs or services.  Significance of the Study With little knowledge of just how successful classroom teachers are in their efforts to provide ready access to trade books for children, this study gathered a broad data base of information that detailed and described what is happening with classroom collections. The series of individual interviews with classroom teachers, teacherlibrarians and school principals acted as a further probe to explore the implications of the data, to test the validity it may have in formulating a model for classroom collection development and to discuss factors that inhibit and enhance the relationship between the two types of libraries. Such  15 information and the three models that emerged give educators the framework for developing a more effective and collaborative process for providing trade books equally and efficiently for all students and teachers. In summary, this study provides a clearer picture of the existing situation and forms the basis for future plans of action aimed at building effective and substantive collections of trade books for children's literacy development.  Outline of the Dissertation Following Chapter One on the problem investigated in this study. Chapter Two presents a review of related research and professional literature concerning the provision of trade books in classroom collections and the SLRC. Chapter Three outlines the research design and the methodology used in the study. Chapter Four details the information gathered with the two major instruments employed in the study and presents a descriptive analysis of the interviews conducted with classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and administrators. Chapter Five considers interpretations of the summative and descriptive analyses, details three models of classroom collections and suggests implications for educators providing trade books for classrooms and SLRCs.  16 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Introduction This chapter offers a review of related research and educational literature considered within the context of this study. The intent of the review is to acquaint the reader with the major studies relevant to this area, as well as to furnish background for the conceptual framework within which the study operated. The review begins with the basic assumption about the importance of trade books in literacy programs and continues with a discussion of the role of trade books within the traditional paradigm of teaching reading using basal reader series and then within whole language or literature-based approaches. Next, the role of classroom collections and the school library resource centre in providing trade books for students and teachers and for supporting instructional programs is explored. Finally, factors related to the centralization of trade books in school libraries or the decentralization of trade books into classroom collections are explored, as well as the educational literature supporting a collaborative relationship between classroom collections and the school library resource centre (SLRC).  The Trade Book Assumption Whether they are used to supplement language arts programs, to provide independent reading materials for young  17 readers or to take a more central role as the chief instructional tool in the delivery of language arts and content-area programs, trade books play a significant role in the elementary curriculum. Educators of the system recognize the value and importance of providing students with the best quality trade books and in as much quantity as possible (Fielding, Wilson, & Anderson, 1984;  Strickland, & Morrow,  1988; Tunnel & Jacobs, 1989; Galda & Cullinan, 1991; Fractor, Woodruff, Martinez & Teale, 1993). These two factors, quantity and quality, combine into one basic assumption pervasive in teacher education programs, in many new curriculum initiatives and in the myriad of professional development activities available to educators today. This assumption permeates the professional literature, teacher workshops, conference presentations and methodological texts. Publishers and curriculum designers also include a variety of trade books in many of the programs they initiate. Few educators would argue with the statement that a large number of quality trade books is essential in today's curriculum.  The Role of Trade Books in Literacy Programs Trade Books in the Traditional Paradigm With this assumption in place, recommendations for the inclusion of trade books are many and varied. Within the traditional paradigm of teaching reading using basal reader series, voluntary reading programs have been encouraged and organized as autonomous, supplementary ways of motivating  18 students to read (Barr & Johnson, 1991; May, 1990). Robeck (1982) cautions that "one basal series can not provide enough material" (p. 357) and that trade books are needed to supplement any reading program. Teachers, who teach reading skills separately following a scope and sequence of skill development, must then develop activities that motivate good reading habits (Mayer, 1989). Reward systems, wall charts and other motivating activities are employed to get students reading independently. The use of numerous trade books in the classroom is seen as a stimulating way to encourage independent reading and to provide practice with the skills being developed (Huck, 19 79; Robeck, 1982). While textbooks dominate traditional methods of teaching in the content-areas, trade books also play a role in project work or research assignments that teachers give to students (Moss, 1991). Students often study the core content in a textbook and then explore specific topics through trade books usually found in the school or public library. These trade books are used for the purpose of fact-gathering and reportwriting and are usually treated as separate from the independent and pleasurable reading goals of the program. So, in both the direct teaching of reading skills and instruction in the content-areas, trade books play a significant, albeit supplementary role, that places demands on teachers to provide many trade books in the classroom and in the school library.  19 The Shift to Literature-Based Programs While literature-based programs are not a new phenomenon, it was during the 1970's that research exploring the way reading developed in early childhood identified the availability and use of children's books as a key influence (Durkin, 1974; Teale, 1978; Holdaway, 1979). Studies on language development also identified books as containing strong language models that children emulated in their emergent reading behavior. These findings, combined with the influence of psycholinguistic and social constructivist theories of reading (Vygotsky, 1962, 1978; Jagger & SmithBurke, 1985) focused greater attention on the role of children's literature in reading and writing instruction. Reading and writing were described as meaning-making activities (Wells, 1986) and literature was seen as authentic language essential for modeling how language worked. Literature became the central focus of literacy programs, the principal way to develop literacy skills and the key to motivating students to read. Literature was seen as representing the myriad ways that language is used to share the full range of human experience, knowledge and emotions. This literature is found in trade books and teachers are urged to use these "real" books for reading and writing activities and not to rely on basal readers which traditionally were created with controlled vocabularies and hierarchical skill development. Whole language has become the way to describe the philosophy of literacy instruction based  20 on the assumption that we learn to read by reading (Smith, 1988) and to write by writing. Plenty of reading aloud, long periods for reading self-selected trade books, discussions with teachers and peers about the books read, and purposeful and independent activities that use reading and writing in meaningful ways, are all crucial strategies in these whole language classrooms (Edelsky et al., 1991; Heald-Taylor, 1989). The quality literature found in trade books for children has emerged as the principal tool of literacy (Buck, 1979; Tunnel & Jacobs, 1989; Lamme & Ledbetter, 1990; Wehmeyer, 1993). They provide powerful read aloud material, offer students endless choice for personal selection, hold student interest for long silent reading times, provoke personal response and interactive discussions, provide models for young writers and launch students into literacy activities that extend the reading experience (Lesesne, 1991; Galda & Cullinan, 1991). While not all elementary classrooms have embraced the whole language philosophy, its influence has been pervasive. Publishers have developed "whole language programs" that adapt many of the principles of the philosophy to the more structured format of traditional basal readers. Most programs use sets of trade books as the main materials for reading instruction. Literature activities initiated through the use of trade books are incorporated into the classroom curriculum through reading aloud, silent reading, group and individual projects, literary activities, writing, sharing of books and  21 through drama, music and art. Programs are described as literature-based (Cox & Zarrillo, 1993) with the focus on readers' response to and love of literature. Literature is understood as having the power to develop "enthusiastic readers and full-fledged members of the literacy club" (Skolnick, 1992; p.121). Many teachers find themselves in transition from the traditional structured approach of the basal reader to the more holistic methods of literature-based models (Routman, 1988). The increased use of trade books establishes a link between the two paradigms making them the focus of many teachers' curriculum development activities. To be successful with literature-based programs, there are three key factors that must be considered: (a) accessibility of trade books, (b) students' self-selection of trade books, and (c) the provision of time for reading a wide range of books (Fielding et al, 1984; Galda & Cullinan, 1991). Each of these factors is essential to such programs, but it all begins with accessibility. Such programs require many trade books, close at hand, in order to ensure students and teachers have books when and where they need them (Lamme & Ledbetter, 1990). This presents the problem of finding the best way to provide these books. While it will probably always be said, "If we only had more money", reality suggests that schools have traditionally worked within the constraints of inadequate budgets. So, where should the money be spent and how can schools make the best use of the funds available?  22 The two sources of trade books in the school that receive the most attention and the most financial support are the classroom collection, made up of books teachers provide from a variety of sources, and the SLRC, which contains a myriad of resources and instructional materials selected by the teacher-librarian and often with input from classroom teachers. Each plays a role in providing trade books and each has factors that inhibit and enhance its ability to make a large quantity of good quality trade books available for student and teacher use.  The Role of Classroom Collections Classroom collections have long been part of the elementary school curriculum. Sometimes they are referred to as classroom libraries (Fractor et al., 1993; Castle, 1987), library corners (Morrow, 1982) or book nooks (Munson-Benson, 1988), but they are usually described as a section of the classroom set aside for housing and displaying trade books (and other materials) used by students and teachers for pleasurable reading, informational needs and instructional activities. They operate in traditional basal reader or literature-based programs and in whole language environments where plenty of literacy materials are necessary to build print-rich learning environments (Huck, 1979; Strickland & Morrow, 1988). The key rationale for having a classroom collection is that it provides children with ready access to trade books  23 (Krashen, 1993; Castle, 1987; Thorn, 1974) and that without that access students will not be as easily inclined to read independently. Fractor et al. (1993) feel that a "key characteristic for building a conununity of readers in the classroom, is the classroom library, a focal area within the classroom where books are easily accessible to students" (p.477). Some research supports the belief that children read more in classrooms where they have access to trade book collections (Bissett, 1969), indicating that the easier the access to trade books is, the greater the amount that is read (Powell, 1966). Accessibility ensures that students can visit the classroom collection, browse and select a book and read it silently. Teachers use the collection as a source of books to read aloud, to discuss literary qualities, to develop literacy skills or simply to encourage students in their independent reading (Castle, 1987). If literature is to play the central role in literacy programs, then the classroom library is essential to bring this about (Skolnick, 1992). The books housed in this collection may be gathered from school and public libraries and be added to in an increasing number, but it is the convenience of close proximity, which the classroom collection assures, that is often considered its greatest strength (Skolnick, 1992). With this understanding in place concerning accessibility, researchers have attempted to measure the effects of size and design of the classroom library on  24 children's use of trade books (Morrow & Weinstein, 1982; Morrow, 1982; Morrow & Weinstein, 1986). As a principal researcher in this area. Morrow (1982) designed a study to survey and then describe both the physical characteristics of classroom library corners and the literature activities used by primary teachers. Indications were that many classrooms had poorly designed and under-utilized library corners. However, there was also a significant, positive correlation among frequency of use, physical design and characteristics of the literature program. This implied that the combined factors of design and an active literature program significantly affected the amount of voluntary reading students did. Building on this study. Morrow and Weinstein (1982, 1986) attempted to measure the effects that changing the physical design and implementing a literature program would have on increasing student use of literature. Three experimental groups, each made up of three intact kindergarten classes, were randomly assigned to treatments. One other intact kindergarten class acted as a control group. One group had only physical changes introduced; one group had only literature program changes introduced; one group had both physical changes and literature program changes introduced; and one group acted as a control group where no changes in either design or literature program were introduced. Observations were made for two weeks prior to the intervention; then the researchers introduced the  25 intervention and allowed one week for the novelty to wear off; they then completed another series of post-intervention observations over the next two weeks. All three treatment groups showed a significant increase in student use of literature indicating the importance of creating a suitable library corner. Students showed more interest in books, visited the library corner frequently and reported reading more. Morrow and Weinstein also concluded that "design and program can never be completely separated (p.136)" and that this was experimental evidence supporting the recommendations made by early childhood educators for well-designed library corners and for a program that used a variety of literature activities. Morrow and Weinstein (1986) duplicated the earlier study with grade two students and found similar results. These students chose reading as an independent activity more frequently in classrooms with well-designed libraries and a variety of literature activities. Their work provides empirical evidence that paying attention to the design and the physical characteristics of the classroom environment established for students stimulates their interest in voluntary reading. It also focuses educators on the need to establish a literature program that strongly links the availability of books to the intrinsic motivating quality of trade books and the types of rich activities that can surround their use.  26 Morrow and Weinstein's work (1982) also provided a detailed description of what makes a good classroom library: a wide variety of trade books, 5-8 books per child, a wellorganized area for storage, accessible shelving, comfortable seating and freedom from distraction. These collections should also be well-managed and include a plan for rotating some books in and out of active use, while involving students in their management and design (Strickland & Morrow, 1988). Fractor et al. (1993) designed a qualitative study to observe and then describe to what extent elementary students have access to well-designed classroom libraries. Observational data on sixteen design items was collected from 183 classrooms, kindergarten to grade five. Over 80% of the classrooms had trade books available for students but fewer than 50% had a space actually allocated for a classroom library. The frequency of even finding a classroom library decreased as the grade level increased. Of the 52 library centres examined, 48 were categorized as basic, leaving less than 10% of the classroom libraries that could be described as good or excellent. The researchers concluded that much work needs to be done to improve the quality of classroom libraries and to utilize their potential power in promoting voluntary reading among students. Rash (1987) conducted a study that also recommended a general improvement of classroom collections. This study examined the adequacy and use of school libraries and classroom collections by 686 grade four, five and six  27 teachers in Idaho. Questionnaires were used to collect information from classroom teachers on their use of the school library and to the extent to which they developed and used classroom collections. Teacher-librarians in the 120 schools surveyed were also given a questionnaire covering their qualifications, size of library collection, facilities and budgets. Rash found that many school libraries were staffed with under-qualified teacher-librarians and that standards did not match national ones set by the American Library Association. As well, not all classrooms had collections of trade books for student use, and many of the collections that were found needed more books and more effort to improve the overall quality. Loughlin & Martin (1987) also found that design of the classroom environment and the ready access of literacy materials had a positive influence on student use. While having a large number and a wide variety of books is critical, they stress "it is the arrangement, rather than just quantity, that encourages children to explore and share books" (p.139). They use the concept of "arranged environment" to describe the varied spaces and places where books are displayed and arranged in interesting and attractive ways, helping to ensure that books are used effectively in literacy programs. As well as research on good design and how the classroom collection affects voluntary reading, other studies looked at the effect of moving into a classroom and creating a "book  28 flood" with dozens of quality trade books. Would student reading attitude and interest improve after making more books accessible?  The key study of this type by Ingham (1981)  measured the effects of an increased supply of trade books on students' reading habits by monitoring reading habits and interests before and after the introduction of large, wellstocked classroom collections. Students in classrooms flooded with books showed a marked improvement in their attitude and interest in reading. Presented with more choice, these students also read a wider variety of authors and titles, a larger number of books and from more divergent types of books. The students and teachers in this large and comprehensive study were overwhelming in their support for the idea of classroom libraries which became incorporated into many regular classroom programs. While such a study may be criticized because it could be considered fairly obvious that children would be stimulated by any such massive change in their classroom environment, it still lends weight to the belief that simply having lots of trade books nearby will encourage children to read. Fader and McNeil (1969) in their landmark study aimed at "hooking" students on books, made dozens of trade books, newspapers and magazines available to students categorized as delinquent with poor reading skills and attitudes. They implemented a program designed to move the emphasis in reading instruction from the mechanics of reading and writing to the use of literacy in everyday situations. They applied  29 "the principle of saturation" where the "customary texts and workbooks" were replaced with trade books, newspapers and magazines. They based their study on the assumption that "the chief problem in teaching reading and writing is not intellect but motivation (p.l9)", and it was the first attempt to apply a school-wide strategy to the language problems "of poor students". The response from students was overwhelming and Fader and McNeil concluded that literature instruction should be social, not literary; and organic, rather than mechanistic. Classroom teachers should select the trade books they use with students, since it was found that, if the teachers liked the books and were enthusiastic about them, the students liked them as well (p.77). Other studies that flooded classrooms with trade books have examined the effects of increased availability of trade books on second language learning (Elley & Mangubhai, 1983) and the impact of availability of trade books on out-ofschool reading (Wilson et al., 1986), all supporting the finding that before any gains will be made in improving student attitudes and in developing a life long love for reading, trade books have to be accessible. While the provision of many trade books in a classroom collection makes it more likely that students will choose books and read more, accessibility is considered only the first step. Just supplying books is not enough: time for browsing though the collection, selecting books and then sitting for sustained periods of silent reading must be  30 considered as part of any overall plan for encouraging students to read (Kennedy, 1987; Krashen, 1993). There needs to be a "mediation" between the books and reading (Sebesta, 1970), where the teacher plays an active role in enticing students into reading (Thorn, 1974; Fractor et al., 1993) and ensuring that voluntary reading becomes part of the overall goal for reading instruction. "Providing access to books is thus a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for encouraging reading" (Krashen, 1993, p.36).  The Role of the School Library Resource Centre In many elementary schools, the SLRC provides an extensive centralized collection of print and non-print resources for use in a wide range of learning activities. The core of these collections is trade books which are placed there for students' independent reading interests and to support the school curriculum. Trade books at various reading levels, of differing genre, concerning a wide range of subject areas and in different formats are provided for teachers and students to enhance and enrich their work. Although SLRCs are more commonplace now, they continue to battle the image of being a frill in the education system as evidenced by recent cuts to SLRC services in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Strong support for a centralized collection emerged early in research on the SLRC. Gaver (1963) studied the impact of three types of library collections on the reading  31 achievement of elementary students. Until that point, there was little research to support the role of strong centralized school library collections. Many educators felt that public libraries were doing a good job of supplying books and that there was no real need to build collections of books in schools. Others emphasized the classroom library as the best place to be concentrating efforts to put more books in the hands of students and teachers. So within the context of this debate, Gaver (1963) set out to design instruments which would evaluate the program of library services in elementary schools and to analyze the resulting data in terms of the relationship of the measures to educational achievement and to determine if differing methods of providing books had any effect. Students in schools with only classroom collections, schools with a centralized collection but without a school librarian, and schools with a centralized collection and a school librarian were identified and compared on a variety of reading achievement measures. The study focused on Grade 6 students since they would have experienced one of the three contexts identified in the investigation. On all measures, students who attended a school with a centralized collection and a school librarian scored significantly better. The centralized school library with a librarian provided greater accessibility to a greater number and better quality of books than the other categories; the amount of reading done by students favored these same school library situations; and the scope and depth of the use of materials by teachers was  32 stronger in schools with a centralized school library and a librarian. Gaver concluded that the classroom teacher and the school librarian have a shared role in developing reading habits and library-related activities. The classroom teacher knows the interests and abilities of the students but needs assistance in finding resources and teaching part of the curriculum. The school librarian needs knowledge of the school curriculum and how the classroom program is developing, so that information skills can be integrated into that curriculum. These principles have guided the growth of SLRC programs and have become cornerstones of today's integrated programs. Other studies supported Gaver's work (Greve, 1974; Lowe, 1984; McMillen, 1965; and Yarling, 1968 - all cited in Haycock, 1992), while Krashen (1993) re-analyzed Gaver's data and found an even stronger correlation between accessibility to centralized collections and the amount of reading that students reported. At the time, the Gaver study had a major impact on funding for SLRCs in the United States and acted as an impetus for improving the standards of library collections in the mid-1960's and for the redefinition of the role of the school library. The growth and development of centralized school libraries continues in response to demands for an everwidening variety of resources needed to support the school curriculum. The demand, specifically for trade books, has  33 continued to grow as more programs rely on trade books to support their basic goals. Leading the drive for the inclusion of more trade books has been the whole language philosophy and the resurgence of literature-based programs. These programs depend on trade books not only for the reading and writing components of literacy programs but for contentarea instruction as well, which is changing to incorporate many activities that require students and teachers use trade books (Pappas, 1991). Literacy programs also incorporate information skills that are developed through a wide variety of print and nonprint materials. Such programs are described as "highly dependent on libraries and library personnel" (Bishop & Blazek, 1994; p.147). Since literature forms the basis of these programs, schools recognize the teacherlibrarian as "the key person to guide teachers into a program centered [sic] on literature" (Lamme & Ledbetter, 1990; p. 736). This has given the school library resource centre an even more significant role and placed the teacher-librarian in the key position of assisting teachers in acquiring and maintaining trade books for the school curriculum (Lamme & Ledbetter, 1990; Hansen, 1993; Wehmeyer, 1993) With the school library resource centre pressured to meet an ever widening resource demand (Lamme & Ledbetter, 1990) and with the classroom teacher assuming more responsibility for selecting materials for the curriculum, it places an increased importance on the need for classroom teachers and teacher-librarians to work together to ensure  34 that any trade books they purchase work well to support the overall goals of the literacy program. It makes little sense for classroom teachers to be buying trade books for their classrooms isolated from what their colleagues are doing any more than it does for the teacher-librarian to be selecting materials with little regard for the classroom teachers' program. The cooperative planning process, which links the classroom and the SLRC into an integrated program for information literacy and collaborative teaching, should also be activated for the shared responsibility for providing trade books (Austrom, 1989; Harper, 1991).  The Relationship Between Classroom Collections and the School Library Resource Centre While it could be said that the relationship between the SLRC and classroom collections is a fairly obvious one, where a large centralized collection serves the needs of a smaller decentralized one, the issues are more complex and often not carefully considered by educators. There is a major danger that decentralized collections will develop in isolation from each other and from the main SLRC collection so that funding and energies are expended to select and acquire trade books with little consideration for the cost-effectiveness and overall impact of these collections within the school curriculum (Jahn, 1960; Bavakutty, 1981). There is also the danger that large centralized school collections will develop in isolation from the classroom curriculum with selection  35 goals aimed at providing the "best" literature with little regard for student interests and the overall curriculum needs. Some educators argue very forcefully for the need to have strong classroom collections (Thorn, 1974; Korsunsky, 1989; De Ridder, 1990), yet rarely mention any significant role for the SLRC. In some cases, a separate "Literature Collection" was set up for the whole language program and trade books for it are selected, ordered, stocked, housed and otherwise managed without any direct role by the school library (Routman, 1988). The circulation of these books, the management of losses, and even data base management were done without the assistance of the school librarian. This viewpoint by-passes the major role for the SLRC as an instructional partner in education and as a leading force in information literacy. It reinforces the notion that teachers need to be self-sufficient in resources and provide as many as they can for their students. The SLRC is reduced to being a service station where teachers "drive in and fill'er up". Other educators emphasize the centralized SLRC as the only area where resources should be housed and managed, expecting that classroom teachers will come there for everything they need (McClain, 1992). This dismisses the key role that the classroom teacher plays in developing a love for reading and isolates resources from the routine, but sometimes spontaneous, quality of classroom programs. It fails to recognize that information literacy and resource-  36 based learning develop in both classroom and school library contexts. In this scenario, the SLRC develops as an isolated "ivory tower", where knowledge is stored and shared only in restricted and controlled ways. Teacher-librarians, committed to an integrated SLRC program, see the issue as a clear indication of how fully the school library program has been developed (Sale, 1990). So in schools where the role of the teacher-librarian and the SLRC program have been more fully integrated into the school curriculum, the classroom collection plays a supplementary role. However, where the school library program has not evolved to this point, classroom collections have become "mini" libraries, determined to meet all the reading need of students (Sale, 1990). This assessment appears to have a certain face validity, but it is a question that requires more inquiry and serious research. These conflicting opinions and attitudes leave both the classroom collection and the school library competing for priority, acceptance and budgets. Without any overall plan for resource management and development both sources of trade books develop haphazardly, drifting along with little regard for the other. Adding to the problem is the lack of concrete research to describe what really is happening with classroom collections. Are teachers building large classroom collections? What materials are they housing there? How do they conceive of the role of this collection in their programs? How is the SLRC involved in these collections?  37 Without this research, we are left in a static position or wallowing in opinion and unclear as to how to proceed. This bifurcation of efforts in supplying trade books for literacy programs also threatens to undermine curriculum theory that stresses the need for congruence across instructional programs leading to a "curriculum coherence" (Allington, 1991). This theory supports the belief that children learn best when there is congruence among components of different school programs rather than a shattering of the school program into a piecemeal approach. Many educators have realized that the obvious solution is that we need both levels of accessibility to trade books, not because it solves the dilemma, but because the students are the real benefactors (Hiebert et al., 1990; Sanacore, 1992; Hansen, 1993). They need books readily available in the classroom to promote literacy and support independent reading programs (Fractor et al., 1993) and their teachers need an extensive choice of trade books when developing a program, but they also need the school library to help support the classroom collection, to develop independent reading and to lead the development of information literacy. In her book flood study, Ingham (1981) reported that students who had access only to classroom libraries felt restricted in their choices and she recommended the "use of the school library in conjunction with class libraries" (p.225) to ensure students were stimulated to read from both sources. Huck (1979) stressed "[T]here should be no argument as to whether to have  38 a classroom collection of books or a library media center [sic]; both are necessary (p.590)". If both are essential, it suggests that a permanent and dynamic connection between the two needs to be established to ensure the most effective and efficient use of trade books. Austrom (1989) outlined several key principles that underline issues in the debate related to the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC. First of all, access to resources, and in this case trade books, should be considered as access to all resources for all members of the school population. If materials are housed only in classrooms, they are used only by those students, but if they are managed through the SLRC then their use is multiplied and extended. A second principle relates to students' self-selection of trade books for their literature-based or independent reading programs. No classroom collection could ever provide an extensive enough collection to meet all students' interests without some plan for sharing and changing the collection to keep it fresh and appealing. Even the teachers and students in the Bradford Book Flood Experiment, where thousands of books were introduced into classrooms, felt that eventually "the choice soon became limited (Ingham, 1981; p.220) . Related to this issue is the third principle that programs should provide trade books at varying reading levels  39 to meet the reading needs of students. Again, no classroom collection could ever meet all these demands. The issue of maintaining quality literature in the school curriculum becomes a factor if every teacher is selecting trade books, perhaps with varying criteria and intended uses. Austrom (1989) argued that a centralized procedure for acquiring trade books from publishers and bookstores can assure that the best trade books are purchased for the best price. Sets of multiple copies of trade books can also be ordered and checked out to classrooms (Bishop & Blazek, 1994). What this indicates is the need for research to determine how many books teachers are purchasing for their collections, how they make their selection decisions and from what sources they acquire trade books. Austrom (1989) continued her argument by suggesting "alternatives to classroom collections", such as rotating sets of trade books from the SLRC throughout the school. Such an organized and well-managed system could help avoid static classroom collections and assure stimulation and variety in the trade books accessible for students. This shared system would depend on classroom teachers and teacher-librarians working together to cooperatively plan for the use of trade books and to integrate the goals and procedures for using trade books with those of the school's overall plan for curriculum. Such a concept, will ensure that the highest quality, greatest number and widest range of trade books will be provided. It can also ensure that "resource sharing"  40 becomes more common (Haycock, 1990a), that good selections are made, that trade books are accounted for and that classroom collections are fluid and stimulating (Harper, 1991). After completing a book flood study, Ingham (1981) felt that students should "see school and class libraries as complementary rather than exclusive" (p.220), and she encouraged schools to build "a total centralized stock of books from which teachers borrow a certain number" (p.220). This gives more choice for everyone and reinforces the school library as a common, shared facility that everyone in the school may draw from for their reading needs and interests. One example of this concept in practice was provided by Hansen (1993) in her study on the "synergism" of classroom collections and SLRCs. In her school, thousands of trade books were provided for classroom and SLRC use, with students and teachers planning for their use and designing a program where students moved back and forth between the two collections depending on their reading needs. The teacherlibrarian was heavily involved in the language arts program and the SLRC became "critically important in the school." Both the school and classroom libraries were used as sources of trade books, as places to interact with books and as centres for teaching skills in context. The school library program became integrated with the school's overall reading program.  41 Harste et al. (1988) found that having active classroom libraries "increases children's use of the school library" because of the stimulation nurtured in the classroom. Each source of trade books works to support and encourage reading for pleasure and reading for information. The connections between the two collections need to be emphasized and developed through a process like cooperative program planning (Hiebert, Mervar & Person, 1990; Sale, 1990; Thomas & Goldsmith, 1992), where classroom teachers and teacherlibrarians plan for the use of resources within the overall instructional goals of the curriculum. Thomas & Goldsmith (1992) described a situation in which a partnership developed between the school library resource centre and early childhood educators around the issue of trade books for the school curriculum. In this case, the partners planned for informational and pleasurable literacy activities, selected trade books for the program and shared the teaching responsibilities. The results indicated that a stronger partnership led to a stronger and better designed program to meet the needs and interests of students. Humphrey (199 0) asked "Do we provide enough books to read?" and outlined the decline in the number of trade books being supplied to schools. He lamented the fact that needs are growing but budgets aren't keeping pace and he recommends that teacher-librarians, reading teachers and school administrators all work together to start rebuilding  42 plentiful school libraries where students and teachers can have access to many books. Beckman (1972) described a process one school went through to create "a wholistic [sic] synergism" that refocused the curriculum goals and plans of the teachers. Wholistic [sic] in this sense emphasizes the organic relationship between parts and wholes rather than an atomistic approach where each classroom works in isolation (p.45). Synergism refers to the combined action of two or more agents being greater than the action of the two agents acting alone. This concept implies that the SLRC and the classroom working together have a greater impact on the curriculum and students' independent reading, than each working in isolation. In Beckman's school, they view the library as "the most important resource in the school" (p.47), and so, both a central collection and small in-class collections were maintained but within the context of a more holistic approach to resource management. In whole language programs, a strong partnership between the classroom and the SLRC is also advocated (Lamme & Ledbetter, 1990; Gold et al., 1992; Buck, 1992). These programs are resource-based and theme-oriented, relying heavily on trade books as the basis of independent learning activities. Lamme & Ledbetter recognize that with "the demand for resources more critical than ever.... planning and collaboration between teachers and librarians become essential" (p.737). Hiebert et al. (1990) echoed these  43 sentiments when they suggested that the "connections between library and classroom programs have a new sense of urgency" (p.758) as trade books become integral to the success of literacy programs.  Summary Elementary educators operate from the assumption that trade books are essential in literacy programs. Whether they are used as supplementary reading material within the more traditional reading paradigm or as the central focus of reading instruction in literature-based programs, trade books must be accessible to students and teachers for their daily reading and writing activities. The two most common sources of trade books are classroom collections and the SLRC. Observational studies, experimental research and book flood studies have indicated that accessibility to trade books and their use within welldesigned facilities along with rich literature programs help students develop strong interests in reading and increase their use of books. Centralized SLRCs provide accessibility to trade books for students and teachers. Schools with centralized school libraries and qualified teacher-librarians showed greater reading achievement amongst students and had a larger quantity and better quality of trade books than schools without these services. Now that literacy programs demand  44 even more use of trade books, the need for a SLRC and a teacher-librarian is even more crucial. While there is a great deal of testimony and recommendation for the integrated use of trade books in the school curriculum, little research can be found that documents how classroom collections are being stocked, how they are being used or how they are conceptualized within the school curriculum and in relation to the SLRC. The debate seems to continue about where the best place is to house trade books and to assure their accessibility. One group favors a strong centralized collection in the SLRC, while another group prefers large, well-stocked classroom collections. With little research to support either side, the debate remains static and unresolved. However, a growing number of educational writers have been advocating a more collaborative approach to trade book provision, one that is more in harmony with the recommended instructional partnership between classroom teachers and the teacher-librarian. This partnership ensures that a more cohesive strategy is applied to curriculum development, implementation and evaluation and offers the potential to make the provision of trade books more coherent with the overall school curriculum. Little has been documented in the professional literature about the status of classroom collections and even less has been forthcoming about how classroom teachers and teacher-librarians can work together in this endeavor. This  45 study described the classroom collections in one school district and probed the existing relationship between these classroom collections and the SLRC programs in the respective schools.  Factors that inhibit and enhance a more cooperative  procedure for making trade books accessible to students and teachers were examined and applied to a developing model of how the schools can provide efficient and effective service in trade book provision. With the documentation of details on what is happening with these classroom collections, speculation can be replaced by evidence, and educators can begin to work together to provide trade books for literacy programs.  46 CHAPTER THREE - RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES  Overview An exploratory study with two key purposes was conducted: to describe the classroom collections in 15 elementary schools in one school district; and to investigate the relationship between classroom collections in primary and intermediate grade classes and the school library resource centre (SLRC). The study was based on an action research model, which allowed for a systematic data gathering process and for unanticipated research questions to emerge. Since research into classroom collections is quite limited and almost non-existent in Canada, two survey instruments were designed for the initial probe: one, to collect baseline data from a large population of elementary classrooms and a second to identify the phase of development of the SLRC program. The initial data analysis from these two instruments was used in combination with the original research questions as a foundation for a series of interviews with classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals. This second probe was used to examine more closely the issues inherent in the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC. This chapter outlines in detail the research design, the school district, the population, the instruments and interviews used, the research procedures and the data analysis process.  47 The Design This study was conceptualized within an action research model, although it was limited to the first few stages of this type of research methodology. It was a form of research that allowed for the earliest questions around a research issue to be examined in an emergent and exploratory way. McKernan (1991) defines action research as a "systematic, self-reflective, scientific inquiry by practitioners to improve practice " (p.5). Although this study was not aimed directly at improving practice, it provides the detailed information and analysis that leads to hypotheses formation or model building. It was a concept that provided the researcher with a stance toward the research process and an opportunity to address the lack of previous research around the topic of classroom collections and their relationship to the SLRC. The researcher has worked for 18 years in Regional Administrative School Unit 3 on Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) as a classroom teacher, an administrator and a teacherlibrarian and so the research topic could be approached with a great deal of respect for the participants who would be providing the information and with an open regard for the situation in which they work. McKernan (1991) provides a rationale for action research based on the assumptions that naturalistic settings are best studied by those participants experiencing the situation and by using qualitative, triangulated research methods. Action research also operates from the belief that behavior is  48 highly influenced by the naturalistic surroundings in which it occurs. With these precepts in place, a research design emerged grounded in a set of guiding questions, but with the built-in flexibility for the data to generate new questions that could be addressed through subsequent data gathering and analysis. The action research cycle begins with early deliberations around a research topic and the major issues identified with it, framed within the context of the educational setting. This leads to the setting of a series of research questions to be investigated. Several methods are then chosen to gather information on these questions in a process referred to as "reconnaissance"  (McKernan, 1991).  This reconnaissance provides a wide-angled view of the situation, using a methodological triangulation to build a coherent frame of reference around which the research issue may be described. Just as a soldier might be dispatched on a reconnaissance mission to do a preliminary inspection, or to survey the field, to take an advanced look at the situation or to gather information about the position, strengths, weaknesses or movements of the forces at work, so too does the researcher conduct a broad sweep of the unknown territory and returns with information that will provide the basis for future plans of action. In terms of educational research, this reconnaissance process is ultimately aimed at providing a clear picture of the situation under investigation and to generate a number of working hypotheses that relate to the  49 data collected and that seek to explain the relationships (McKernan, 1991). Little research was found in the area of classroom collections and their relationship to the SLRC on which to develop and study new research questions. Therefore, it was first necessary to explore the whole issue in general and gather some descriptive data related to the status of classroom collections. The debate might be clarified, educators might be provided with models of how these classroom collections are conceptualized and operationalized, and a series of further research plans that were based on the information gathered in this study might be established. The research process began with early deliberations around the topic of providing trade books for students and teachers in elementary schools. Classroom collections, built by classroom teachers, and the SLRC, developed principally by the teacher-librarian were easily identified as the two key sources in this trade book provisioning. These deliberations included a thorough investigation of the professional literature in this area, plus several discussions with practising classroom teachers and teacher-librarians combined with the researcher's years of experience working in both of these educational contexts. Clear areas of concern began to emerge concerning the ways classroom teachers use and develop their collections, as well as what role the SLRC plays in the use of these collections. Strong opinions were identified on both sides of  50 the issue concerning which educational setting deserved the most support, whether trade books should be centralized or decentralized and what types of materials should be placed in either situation. Conceptual reports and descriptive evidence were also discovered in the literature review that describe a more cooperative and synergistic nature to this relationship. However, there was little direct evidence from research about the contents, structure, sources or use of classroom collections or their relationship to the SLRC. So, much of the debate around these issues remained opinionated and unsubstantiated testimony. Once the areas of concern were identified, a set of research questions was developed and the reconnaissance procedures were designed. Reconnaissance became an important concept for two fundamental reasons. First, it was instigated with very specific purposes and accomplished with reliable research methods. These methods allowed for a broad sweep of the research area, an exploration of the issues from the perspectives of classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals and the gathering of detail on the situation as it existed. The nature of this research issue lent itself well to this exploratory stance and offered the possibility of detailing in a systematic and scientific way the various ways classroom collections operate in one school district. Secondly, reconnaissance also allowed for the chance that hidden or unforeseen issues would emerge, be identified and added to the overall process, making for a fuller and richer  51 description. The combination of these two potentials could lead to the generation of more authentic working hypotheses for the future components of this action research model. The purpose of the research plan then was to establish clear areas of concern built on the initial deliberations and then conduct an in-depth reconnaissance to provide a deep and expansive data pool that could be used to address the research questions of this present study and to launch several working hypotheses into future studies in this area. For the reconnaissance process and this present study, a questionnaire/interview design was used to examine the six research questions. The Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections was designed and piloted in a neighboring school district and distributed to 205 primary and intermediate classroom teachers in the target school district. The researcher-designed Profile of the School Library Resource Centre Program used similar piloting procedures and 15 elementary teacher-librarians in the district completed it. Once the Surveys were completed and the data were entered, an initial data analysis was conducted to identify any recurring themes or issues. The original research questions and any newly identified issues were combined as the basis for the questions used during the research interviews. These interviews became the third element in the triangulation procedure. They were conducted with a sampling of classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals, randomly selected from their stratified grouping based on the phase of  52 development of the SLRC program as determined by the Profile of the School Library Resource Centre Program.  The School District The study was conducted in Regional Administrative School Unit 3 (Unit 3 ) , the largest school district in Canada's smallest province. Prince Edward Island (PEI). Unit 3 is located in the geographic centre of the province and has the largest number of students and teachers in the province. The heart of Unit 3 is Charlottetown, the largest urban area and capital city of PEI. The school district spreads out from Charlottetown to include small towns, villages and rural areas making it an eclectic mix of urban, suburban and rural people. Most people are employed in the farming, fishing and tourism industries, with Charlottetown being the centre for professional and service industry workers. The population consists of a small group of First Nations people, with the vast majority of people representing French, English, Irish and Scottish ancestry. The people are deeply rooted in a strong community spirit with institutions like churches and schools providing focal points of social, cultural and religious activity. There are 23 schools across Unit 3 - 1 6  elementary  (Grades 1-6), four junior high schools (grades 7-9) and three large composite high schools (grades 10-12). Included in the 16 elementary schools are three that have grades 1-9. There is no kindergarten program in Unit 3 schools. The schools are  53 well-maintained and are serviced with a comprehensive busing system to bring children from smaller communities into these consolidated facilities. All but one of the schools have a gymnasium and a centralized school library. Only elementary schools that contained grades 1-6 were included in the study. Two of the sixteen schools considered for the study had grades 1-9, but only grades 1-6 were used. Several schools are two-track schools with an English program for most students and a French Immersion program for one or two classes per grade. Only English language classes were included and in the case of grades 3-6 French Immersion, the English component of their program was included. The smallest elementary school in Unit 3 had only 52 students with three teachers teaching several grade levels and all specialist subjects. This school had no centralized school library or an identifiable SLRC, so it was eliminated from the study. The remaining fifteen elementary schools were the focus of this research study. There are 205 classroom teachers, as defined above, in these schools and they were all invited to participate. Each of these schools had a centralized SLRC with a qualified person working in the position of teacher-librarian. Not all the teacher-librarians were full-time in that position, but all of them had classroom experience and special training in school librarianship. The amount of time allocated to the position of teacher-librarian varied from school to school and depended on the size of the school and the administrative  54 priority the SLRC was given. The teacher-librarians in Unit 3 are well-qualified and proactive members of their staff. Unit 3 students and staff are supported with many services delivered from a centralized Board Office team of consultants and program coordinators. The Unit employs a full-time language arts consultant, who works with grades 112, and a half-time Head Teacher-Librarian, who provides leadership across the Unit in the area of school librarianship. Teachers also have access to the Unit 3 Board Office Library, which is staffed half-time with a qualified librarian and houses a growing collection of curriculum and professional support resources. Educational journals, professional books and curriculum resources including trade books, computer software, AV materials and a myriad of other resources are housed in this centralized collection and are loaned out freely to classroom teachers. Unit 3 has 15,000 students in grades 1-12 and over 500 teachers, administrators and specialists. The classes in the elementary grades range in numbers from 18 to 30 with smaller sizes encouraged in primary grades making for slightly larger sizes in intermediate grades. Classrooms are self-contained, most often carpeted, with windows, bulletin boards, chalkboards and some shelving. A few are outfitted with sinks and cupboard space or large areas for storage of instructional materials or for items like coats and boots. Some schools are quite old but have been remodeled and upgraded and several of the schools were built with open-plan  55 classrooms that have since been enclosed and partitioned off. A few brand new schools have been completed and they reflect a plan that had more direct input from classroom teachers and the teacher-librarian. Language arts programs are eclectic in Unit 3 schools with programs in transition from the very structured, skillbased, basal reader type of language arts program towards a literature-based program that relies heavily on children's trade books, the teachers' working knowledge of curriculum and what is typically expected of children at their particular grade level. Primary programs are more integrated across curriculum areas than intermediate programs, which tend to keep the subject areas of math, social studies, science and health more segmented and separated from each other. New programs in math, science and health have been introduced by the Department of Education and Human Resources and they are used extensively by all grade levels. These newer programs encourage more integration across subject areas, base instruction on more active learning models and rely heavily on a broad usage of different print and nonprint resources. During the past five years. Unit 3 has been feeling a financial pinch, with cutbacks in programs, services and salaries already in place with the outlook of more to come. This reduction in support for classroom programs seems to fly in the face of demands from the many curriculum programs that  56 use more resources and it has increased teacher demand for more support in providing resources. Program initiatives in P.E.I, have also been undertaken in the area of SLRC programs. The Department of Education and Human Resources has a school library policy in place and Unit 3 has been proactive in its efforts to implement this policy. The policy is rooted in the conception of the centralized school library as a fully integrated part of the school curriculum, founded on the philosophy of resource-based learning and dedicated to acting as an active learning environment where students interact with resources to build new knowledge and to develop information literacy skills. The school library must be managed and directed by a qualified teacher-librarian, who is first of all a good teacher, but who also has special training and expertise in the area of using resources in meaningful and engaging learning activities. The process of cooperative program planning and teaching (CPPT) is how teacher-librarians and classroom teachers plan for the full integration of the program. In Unit 3 all schools had someone assigned to the SLRC at least on a part-time basis. These people were classroom teachers who took extra training in school librarianship in order to move into the teacher-librarian position. These positions have remained more stable than they ever were before and have led to more consistent efforts at implementing the change outlined in the provincial policy. The influence of whole language, literature-based programs  57 and resource-based learning have interacted with the strengthening of the role for teacher-librarians and placed a renewed emphasis on the role of trade books in the curriculum and the need for finding efficient and effective ways to make the largest quantity and the best quality of trade books available for students both for their information needs and for their personal reading choices.  The Population Classroom Teachers There are 205 English language elementary classroom teachers in Regional Administrative School Unit 3. The teachers' range of experience varies from 1 to 43 years. They have been in a state of transition from traditional basal reading programs to more holistic, literature-based programs for about seven years. Many teachers have opted for the Department of Education's "Holistic Approach" Program in which they may order packages of literature-based materials, developed along themes, in place of the workbooks and readers common to Gage Expressways, which is the provincially authorized language arts program. Teams of teachers in the same school often get together and order different sets of these materials and then share them. Many professional activities have been offered to elementary teachers by the district language arts consultant and her provincial counterpart. These activities have focused on the rationale for literature-based programs and  58 methodologies for implementation, as well as evaluation and reporting procedures. The 'change process' has been handled as part of the transition where teachers are given ample time to assimilate the change and give it meaning in their own classrooms. The change has not been fast but it has been profound. Interest in this study was strong because the province is about to choose a new language arts program and many educators are interested to know what trade books are in the classroom collections now, how they got there and how educational partners could work together with the SLRC to provide better accessibility for teachers and students.  Teacher-Librarians All elementary schools (except for the very small school eliminated from the study) had active school library programs. Some of them had been in operation for many years with consistent leadership and effort by a teacher-librarian and principal working together to bring about the change, while others had programs that drifted along for several years outside the Department policy and have only in the past few years started to develop a plan of action for an integrated SLRC program and attempted to implement it. The 15 schools in the study had a teacher-librarian assigned to the school library between .33 to 1.5 time, with the number of years experience in their position ranging from one to 11 years. All teacher-librarians, one male and 14 females, have had previous classroom experience and several  59 hold other part-time positions in their school to supplement their teaching time. In two cases, the principal of the school acted as teacher-librarian for .33 or .40 of his or her time. The teacher-librarians of Unit 3 are an active group of professionals meeting formally every month while maintaining informal communication from school to school. Their professional development activities have been spearheaded by the school district's Head Teacher-Librarian, who has worked closely on a one-to-one basis with all the teacher-librarians and their principals, as well as giving workshops for groups of educators. Unit 3 teacher-librarians also make many connections with teacher-librarians in other school districts in the province. Like their classroom counterparts, teacher-librarians have been in a state of change for many years. Many efforts were concentrated on establishing a Diploma Program in School Librarianship at the local university and when that program came about, many Unit 3 teacher-librarians enrolled. Unit 3 and the Department of Education and Human Resources have also offered many professional development services for teacherlibrarians and their principals. The 'change process' for teacher-librarians has been maintained with patience and persistence over six years, and it too has been profound. All the teacher-librarians are familiar with the goals of the integrated school library program and try to activate the cooperative planning process to develop and teach  60 resource-based units of study with their teachers and students. They work with their principal to refine and articulate to staff the goals for the SLRC in their school and are developing various policies and procedures that work for their individual school setting. A variety of factors such as staffing allocation, administrative leadership, school culture and time affect the stage of development that a SLRC reaches, but all the school libraries in the district are well on their way to achieving the ideals of an integratd SLRC prorgam.  The Principals This study would not have been successful without the cooperation and support of the principals in Unit 3 elementary schools. All the principals agreed to take part in the study and to have their schools involved. The four female and eleven male principals have been working for many years as administrators in the Unit. They were very interested in the study, willing to cooperate and curious to know how their school was doing in comparison to others. They encouraged their staffs to take part but always respected their choice of not taking part. They know the many demands that are put on teachers and tried to present the research study as an interesting, professional experience that could provide the whole school district with valuable information. All of the principals are experienced administrators who understand the financial and economic pressures that are  61 affecting the school system. They act as educational leaders who are keenly interested in the professional development of their staff. They take their role as instructional leaders seriously and recognize the importance of their partnership with the teacher-librarian in developing an integrated SLRC program. They work closely with the district curriculum consultants in developing and implementing plans for the continued growth and improvement of the school curriculum.  The Instruments Two instruments were constructed for the first part of the study, one directed at classroom teachers and their classroom collections and the second to teacher-librarians and the school library resource centre program.  The Survey of Classroom Collections The Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections  (the  Survey) was constructed to examine four major topics related to elementary classroom collections - the  contents, the  physical features, the selection of trade books and their uses within the school curriculum.  The number and type of  trade books present in the classroom collection were counted. Information on the physical features of and facilities for the classroom collection, including the furniture, storage and design were also gathered to shed light on how trade books are housed and displayed for student access. Procedures for the selection and acquisition of trade books for  62 classroom collections by classroom teachers were identified and some of the general uses made of the trade books in the teachers' classroom program were probed. These four factors provided the framework for describing elementary classroom collections at both the primary and intermediate grade levels. A copy of the Survey is located in Appendix (A). Details on the items included in the Survey are outlined below. 1. General Information. The cover page outlined the respondents rights as a participant and gave general information on the purpose of the research. Respondents tore this page off and kept it as a record of their participation. The first page contained instructions for respondents to complete the Survey only for trade books in the classroom today. It clearly explained what trade books are and that textbooks were not to be included. Each participant was identified with an alpha-numeric code which was needed in order to contact the classroom teacher at a later time to request a follow-up interview if their names were drawn during the random stratified sampling process. Other general information supplied in this section was the date, the grade level, the number of students in the class and the number of years of teaching experience. 2. The Contents of Classroom Collections. Teachers were first asked "How many trade books are part of your classroom collection today ? and they were expected to count the number of trade books in their classroom collection for that day.  63 This was to be a grand total of all trade books they had and could not include books in storage for earlier or later themes. Subsequent to taking the grand total, they were to examine the collection and tell what percentage was easy fiction (for example, picture books), novels, nonfiction (informational books) or poetry. A range of percentages was given and they chose from that —  none, up to 20%, 21-40%,  41-60%, 61-80%, 81-100%. Within the contents section, teachers also used the same percentage scale to indicate the number of paperback books in their collections. 3. The Source of Trade Books for the Classroom Collection. Teachers reported how many (a specific number) of the trade books in their classroom that day came from the PEI Public Library, their school library, the Unit 3 Board Office Library, other resource centres (such as museums, art galleries or science centres) or that they borrowed from another teacher. Respondents recorded how many books came from donations in the last school year and how many they had received to date from the Department of Education "Holistic Approach" program, which provided trade books into classrooms where the teacher chose to use this approach rather than receive the usual workbooks and readers supplied with the Expressways reading program.  64 Teachers filled out a section on how many books they had purchased from these sources during the past year: the local children's book store, a book club, a school-based book fair, a publisher's catalogue and any other source. Teachers reported how many times per month they exchanged trade books for the classroom collection at their SLRC. The question of money spent on books was addressed by having respondents indicate on a five-point scale how much money they had spent "out of their own pocket" on trade books for the classroom last year, how much their administration had spent during that same time and how much came from other sources such as parent groups or community organizations. The five-point scale used for these three questions was: under $50, $50-$100, $100-$150, $150-$200, over $200. 4. Organization and Management of the Classroom Collection. The Survey questioned teachers about the design features of their classroom collections, including many of the items described by Morrow (1982), Morrow & Weinstein (1986) and Loughlin & Martin (1987) as basic to well-designed classroom library corners. A list of furniture and furnishings was presented and teachers indicated if they had the item and in what quantity. The items listed were: bookcases, room dividers, paperback racks, other display racks, tables, rocking chair, sofa, easy chair, carpet, pillows, lamp, bulletin boards, containers and other furniture.  65 Teachers were asked to indicate if their classroom collection was easily identifiable as a separate place in the classroom. They also marked if there were trade book displays in the classroom that day and whether or not the trade books were displayed with the covers showing. Teachers answered 'yes' or 'no' to questions on whether the classroom collection was categorized, whether students took the trade books home, whether they reinforced the books to add to their longevity or whether the books were labeled to identify them. If the answer was 'yes' to any of those questions, a prompt was given for the respondent to write in how they handled that process. 5. The Use of Trade Books in Literacy Programs. This section of the Survey probed the use teachers make of trade books. It began with a general question, "Is your classroom collection essential to your language arts program?". If the answer was 'yes' then they were prompted to list some of the ways it is used. Then teachers were presented with a 25 item checklist and asked to "check any statement that describes your language arts program." The list included reading aloud (with a prompt for how long each day), silent reading (with a similar prompt), teacher reading silently with the students, novel studies, reading logs, balancing fiction and nonfiction, literature circles, discussion groups, writing process, independent research projects, teacher sharing personal writing, trade books used for teaching reading (with  66 a prompt for what percentage of the time), using the Expressways reading program (with a similar prompt), book reports, trade books used for content area reading (with a prompt for the percentage of time), textbooks used for content-area reading (with a prompt for percentage of time), resource-based learning activities with the teacherlibrarian, using the school library for independent reading, use of skill sheets for practice, direct teaching of phonics, grammar skills, spelling and the use of ability grouping.  The Profile of the School Library Resource Centre Program The second instrument. The Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs (the Profile) was designed for teacher-librarians in these 15 elementary schools. They were asked to complete the questionnaire to determine the phase of development reached by their school library resource centre program. The Profile was based on the Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 categories outlined in the Partners in Action: The Library Resource Centre in the School Curriculum (Ontario Government: Ministry of Education, 1983). This document has become widely influential in the growth of school library resource centre policies across Canada (Doiron, 1994) and the P.E.I. School Library Policy (Prince Edward Island Government: Department of Education and Human Resources, 1989) was modeled closely on this Ontario document as well as the British Columbia Ministry of Education policy statement (1991).  67 The three Phases are laid out as a continuum across eight areas of the SLRC program - program features, personnel, facilities, collections, management, district support services, finances, and program advocacy. These are also the key components of the P.E.I. School Library Policy and ones that educators at all levels in this school district have worked for five years to implement. The Profile acted as one indication of how successful an individual school has been at meeting these goals. For each of the eight areas, three statements were given and respondents were asked to "think how they apply to your school library resource centre program". Then they were asked to "check the one that most accurately describes the reality of your program now". Each statement was at either a Phase 1, 2 or 3 level of development. The statements were presented in random order and with no mark or number to indicate to the respondent which statement went with which Phase. An example of one item from the Profile is given here to demonstrate the format used to probe each of the eight areas.  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program.  Check the one statement that most  accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, The teacher-librarian  is not considered in relation to  curriculum development. The teacher-librarian provides an auxiliary service, with limited involvement in curriculum development.  68 Teacher-librarian is actively involved in the three major aspects of  curriculum  development, implementation and evaluation.  A full copy of the Profile is included in Appendix (B) and details on the eight areas included in the Profile are included below. 1. General Information. The cover page outlined the respondents rights and provided them with general information on the goals of the study. Respondents tore the cover page off and kept it as a record of their participation. The first page of the Profile itself contained instructions for how respondents were to complete the questionnaire. An alpha-numeric code for each school was written on the first page of the Profile and respondents were asked to supply information on the number of students in their school, number of trade books in the SLRC collection, the breakdown of fiction, nonfiction and poetry within that number, and the number of years experience as a teacher-librarian and as a classroom teacher. Most of these SLRCs are automated so the information was accurate and easy to access. Before moving into the main body of the Profile, the teacher-librarians were reminded to "answer the questions based on how things are operating now, rather than your expected goals." This was to keep the focus on the development of the SLRC program to this point in time rather than on what they hoped to achieve.  69 2. Program. The first area examined under program was how the teacher-librarian is considered in relation to the school curriculum. The three Phases span the range of no involvement by the teacher-librarian, an auxiliary role and full involvement in curriculum development. The second area under program is the role of the SLRC in providing resources to the curriculum with the same range - no involvement, an auxiliary role and a fully integrated role. The third area is the role of cooperative program planning and teaching in the SLRC program - no consideration given to it, an inconsistent role or it is accepted as a guiding principle. 3. Personnel. Three areas were examined under the issue of personnel: (a) how teacher-librarian staffing is assignedafter all other staffing is done, based on enrollment or as part of the overall plan for staffing the school; (b) the availability of support staff- none provided, occasional support or consistent support staff; and (c) the use of volunteer staff - just the use of students, the use of adults and students or the use of trained adults and students. 4. Facilities. Two areas under facilities were probed: (a) how flexibly the facility can accommodate individuals, small groups and large groups; and (b) how flexibly the facility can handle a wide variety of learning activities. 5. Collections. Three areas in this section included: (a) how comprehensive the SLRC collection is; (b) how materials are selected either by classroom teachers, teacher-  70 librarians or by both; and (c) whether materials are housed centrally and freely accessible to students and teachers. 6. Management. The two key areas probed here were: (a) how book exchanges are managed - either in regularly scheduled visits, informal arrangements or open, flexible schedules; and (b) how the teaching of information skills is managed - either by the classroom teacher alone, in scheduled classes in the SLRC or as part of an integrated approach. 7. Board Office Support. One question on the support services of the Unit 3 School Board used by the SLRC included the range of no support services, occasional support and a wide variety of support services. 8. Financial Support. Respondents indicated how financial support for their SLRC is provided by using a range of no plan, support based on last year's allocation or determined by the long-range planning goals of their program. 9. Program Advocacy. The final area probed the role of the teacher-librarian in advocating for the SLRC program. The range included no attempts made to communicate to staff about the role, sporadic attempts are made or full acceptance by the SLRC program for this responsibility.  71 Pilot Procedures Both instruments were piloted in early January, 1994 in an adjoining school district. The six classroom teachers in Amherst Cove Elementary School in Borden, Prince Edward Island were invited to fill out the Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections. Subsequently a meeting was held to discuss questions or concerns they had about the content, structure or format of the Survey. The classroom teachers indicated that the Survey was easy to follow, took about 40 minutes to complete and was actually a good exercise for them to do. Since they had never actually counted the number of books they had in their classroom, they felt it gave them a better idea of what trade books they had and it made them more aware of how they were getting these books for their programs. A few items were fine-tuned for sentence structure, word usage and clarity of terminology. Four teacher-librarians in this adjoining school district agreed to act as pilot participants to complete the Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs and to provide feedback on the content, procedures and format of the Profile. The Provincial School Library Consultant in the Department of Education and Human Resources and the Head Teacher-Librarian of Unit 3 were also interviewed to get their feedback on the instrument. These teacher-librarians and consultants agreed that the format was easy to follow, that the language was clear and concise and that the items  72 were strong indicators of the development of the SLRC program.  Data Collection Permission to conduct the study was given by officials of Regional Administrative School Unit 3 (See Appendix C ) . During the month of January, 19 94, the principals were approached individually to discuss the research goals, the plan for data collection and to enlist their support. They were very interested in the topic and were keen to talk about the situation at their school and to have their staff included. They agreed that February and the time leading up to Spring Break would be the least intrusive for teachers.  Survey Procedures After the individual meetings with all principals had occurred, the research goals and procedures were reviewed at a monthly meeting of all principals. They were given a package of materials that included a Survey for each classroom teacher in their school, a Principal's Checklist of procedures they would need to know to get the Surveys completed and a small poster to hang in the staff room to encourage teachers to take part. The presention of these packages was timed to coincide with their monthly staff meetings held the following week. They preferred this timing because they could share the information with their staffs and encourage their support without having to call a special  73 meeting. A two-week period was set for the completion of the Survey. By the target date over 100 Surveys had been returned. The Superintendent of the Unit 3 School District had established a mail box in the central Board Office and this became the collection point for the Surveys. During the week after the target date, all the principals were telephoned to thank them for the initial turn out and to have them encourage the remainder of their staff to complete a Survey as soon as possible. Another poster was sent to each school thanking those who had completed a Survey and encouraging others to fill one out. As the Surveys continued to come in, it appeared that grade two participation was lower than the other grades, so a special letter was sent along with a second copy of the Survey  to those 17 grade two teachers who had not completed  one. This second mailing resulted in five more Surveys from the grade two participants. All principals were telephoned again during the last week before Spring Break (March, 1994) to encourage the last of the Surveys to be returned that week. The results continued to be strong. After Spring Break, one final contact of each school was made by sending a final poster to thank staff for taking part and to make one final solicitation. By the end of March, 163 of the 205 Surveys sent out had been returned. This represented a return rate of 79.51% and no further attempts were made to gather more Surveys.  74  Profile Procedures Teacher-librarians in Unit 3 schools have a monthly meeting to discuss issues of interest and concern and to socialize with their colleagues. At one of these meetings (February 16, 1994), the research goals and procedures were outlined and the teacher-librarians completed The Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs. Ten of the elementary teacher-librarians in Unit 3 attended that meeting and all of them completed the Profile. The Head TeacherLibrarian for the district had sent out a letter before the February meeting to outline her support for the research, to encourage teacher-librarians to take part and to request that teacher-librarians bring with them to the meeting the information concerning the number of students in their school and the number of trade books in their SLRC collections. The five teacher-librarians who could not attend the meeting indicated they would like to take part. They were contacted personally, visited in their SLRC and completed a Profile there. This meant that all 15 schools could be included in the results. Several of the teacher-librarians indicated that they had helped their classroom teachers with the Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections. Many of them helped count books or freed their library volunteers to go into classes to count books or answered questions for classroom teachers about the types of books. All of them reported lots of  75 support amongst their teachers and felt that the Survey was taken seriously. All of the Profiles were completed by the start of the Spring Break. A letter was sent to all teacher-librarians thanking them for their support and offering to share the results with them next year.  Data Entry As the Surveys and the Profiles were completed and returned they were scored and the information was entered on different computerized databases. The Profile was scored by assigning a value of 1, 2 or 3 to each choice made by the respondent on each of the sixteen items. This meant that the total possible score on the Profile was 48. If the item checked by the respondent was the Phase 1 response, it scored 1; if it was a Phase 2 or 3 response it scored a 2 or 3. Then the total was calculated and that SLRC program was given that score. All individual item scores, the total score and the general information concerning number of students, number of trade books and years of experience were entered on one database. A colleague verified the data on all of the 15 Profiles that were entered. He found no errors in the data entry. Scoring the Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections was more complicated since it had many more items and several response scales for probing the information in different areas. Four databases were developed for entering the scores  76 from the Survey. one each for items related to the contents of the collections, the source of trade books, the facilities and design of the collection and how the trade books were used in the literacy program. Items were assigned a 0-5 score depending on the range selected by the respondent or by assigning 0 for a 'no' answer and 1 for a 'yes' answer. Some answers also indicated a count of items such as books, furniture or design features and some items were measured in amount of time or percentage of time spent at an activity, such as amount of time spent reading aloud daily or percentage of time trade books are used for teaching language arts. All scores were entered and double-checked. A random sample of 30 completed Surveys was given to a colleague, who verified what had been entered. He found no data entry errors. Several questions required write-in answers by the respondents and these were analyzed individually. Each question was examined on its own and frequency counts were made for each different answer given. They were organized by grade and from the most frequent response given to the least.  Initial Analysis of the Survey Data Purpose There were three basic purposes in undertaking the initial data analysis: (a) to organize and visualize as much of the Survey data as possible, (b) to utilize this  77 organization to become acquainted with the data, and (c) to identify questions and/or recurring themes that could be probed more deeply in the subsequent series of research interviews. The goal was not to summarize data or reduce it to a summative statistic, which can sometimes conceal "what may be the most informative aspects of the data" (Hartwig & Dearing, 1979; p.9). Rather it was important to remain open to patterns that were not anticipated and to hold to the goals of describing these classroom collections in detail and exploring their relationship with the SLRC. This description and exploration depended on an exploratory mode of analysis which Hartwig & Dearing (1979) define as an "interactive and iterative mode of analysis in which both numeric and visual summaries and displays are used to explore data for unanticipated patterns" (p.81).  Procedures Once all of the Survey data was entered, the results were organized into a series of tables in which the results for each question were arranged by grade level. Each respondents' score was visible for each question. Frequency counts were taken on all the variables and graphs were made to examine cross-grade patterns in the number of trade books reported in the collections, the distribution of fiction, nonfiction and poetry books, the amount of money spent on trade books and the sources of the trade books. Patterns or emerging trends were noted. The information was examined for  78 how the respondents were using trade books in their literacy programs and topics for discussion were added to the original list of general questions based on the six guiding research questions of the study. This initial data analysis of the Survey  results allowed for the interviews to be structured  in such a way that they provided some preliminary feedback to the participants and led into the discussing of questions that were informed by the data.  Initial Analysis of the Profile Data Purpose The goals for the initial data analysis of the Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs were slightly different, although the preliminary objectives were the same: to organize and visualize the Profile data and to utilize this organization to become closely acquainted with the data. The schools were grouped according to their Phase of development and this categorization was used for drawing the stratified random sampling for the research interviews. It also provided another way of organizing and examining the Survey data in the more detailed data analysis that was to follow the interviews.  Procedures After the 15 Profiles were entered, the results were organized into a series of tables in which the results for each question were arranged by school. Graphs displaying the  79 total scores in ascending order and graphs of the total number of trade books in the SLRC collection were created to see where the 'natural' groupings of schools appeared to be. The tables of individual scores were examined to see which areas seemed to discriminate one school from another. The Head Teacher-Librarian in Unit 3 was contacted to collect information on the full-time equivalent (FTE) staffing positions assigned to each of the SLRC in the school district. The FTE number is the amount of time a teacherlibrarian is assigned to perform SLRC duties. The FTE in Unit 3 ranged from .33 to 1.5, meaning someone was assigned for one-third time in a particular SLRC while another school had a full-time position plus another half-time position. The first part of the process of determining the three Phase groupings, was to examine the total score on the Profile.  The maximum score possible was 48, meaning that a  participant chose the Phase 3 response for all 16 items on the Profile. This type of instrument with three choices meant that anyone filling it out had to score at least 16, since 1 was the lowest they could score on any one item. A score of 2 on each item would give a total score of 32. Since a score of 16 was really a given, a score of 32 was set as the cut-off between Phase 1 and Phase 2. This meant that anyone scoring between 16 and 32, inclusive, signified a Phase 1 school. This left the scores ranging from 33-48, which is a 16 point range. This number was divided in half, making the range 33-40 as indicating a Phase 2 school and a score in the  80 range 41-48 as a Phase 3 school. This matched fairly closely the 'natural' grouping that the graph of total scores had indicated. Obviously, this was quite arbitrary and needed further evidence to corroborate this initial grouping. Each school was assigned a Phase number based on this scoring system and then the information from the Profile was organized into a table according to the Phase. Table 1 presents the 15 schools in the study and their scores on the 16 items of the Profile. Three schools were classified as Phase 1, seven schools as Phase 2, and five schools as Phase 3. Also included in Table 1 were the school's alpha-numeric code, the FTE for that school, the total number of trade books, the number of students in the school, the trade book per student number (which was calculated by dividing the total number of trade books by the total number of students),and the years of experience of the teacherlibrarian. The individual scores on the individual items on the Profile were also listed in the table.  81  Table 1 S c h o o l L i b r a r y R e s o u r c e C e n t r e s - Summary Data by P h a s e  Profile of School Library Resource Centre By Phase Phase 1 Sch  SCO FTE T b P e r Pop TB-T Y-TL P r l Pr2 P r 3 P e r l P e r 2 P e r 3  Manl Man2 B o s l F i l Adl  A-05  31 . 3 3 1 6 . 9 6 203 3527  1  1  2  2  2  1  2  1  3  3  2  2  A-10  31 . 7 0 1 5 . 3 1 351 5465  5  2  2  2  2  1  1  1  2  3  2  2  A-11  26 . 3 3 1 8 . 2 0 242 4550  1  1  2  1  1  2  2  1  1  3  1  2  Mean  29 . 4 5 1 6 . 8  2.3  1.3  2.0  1.6  1.6  265 4514  1.3  1.6  1.0  2.0  2.0  Phase 2 Sch  SCO FTE T b P e r Pop TB-T Y-TL P r l SCO  Pr2 P r 3 P e r l  Per2 Per3  Manl Man2 B o s l F i l Adl  A-01  34  67 1 0 . 3 8 340 3530  1  2  3  2  2  1  1  2  2  2  2  2  A-02  38  80 1 8 . 5 4 424 7862  5  3  2  2  3  1  2  2  2  3  2  2  A-04  34  50 1 6 . 8 0 250 4200  5  2  2  3  2  1  2  2  3  3  2  2  A-07  37  50 1 4 . 9 5 330 5134  4  2  2  2  1  2  2  3  3  2  1  3  A-09  35  40 2 5 . 5 6 180 4600  4  2  3  2  1  1  3  1  2  3  2  3  6758  2  2  3  2  3  1  2  1  1  3  2  2  33 2 0 . 0 0 205 4100  5  2  2  3  2  1  3  1  3  3  2  2  2.1  2.4  2.2  2.0  A-12  34 1.0 34  A-15  35  9 . 8 8 684  Mean  35 . 6 0 1 6 . 5  345 5169  3.7  1.1  2.1  1.7  2.2  2.2  Phase 3 Sch  SCO FTE T b P e r Pop TB-T Y-TL P r l  A-03  41 . 8 0 1 4 . 1 4  A-06 A-08  Pr2 P r 3 P e r l  Per2 Per3  Manl Man2 B o s l F i l Adl  444 6280  6  2  3  2  3  2  3  1  2  3  3  3  43 1 . 5  1 1 . 3 5 790 8965  6  3  2  3  3  1  3  2  3  3  2  3  46 1.0  1 9 . 9 4 351 7000  11  3  3  3  3  2  3  3  3  3  3  3  A-13  45 1.0  1 6 . 0 6 557 8943  7  3  3  3  3  1  3  3  3  3  2  3  A-14  41 1.0  1 3 . 9 5 385 5513  8  2  2  3  3  1  3  2  3  3  2  3  Mean  43 1.0  15.0  2.6  2.6  2.8  3.0  505 7340  7.6  1.4  3.0  2.2  2.8  3.0  82  Note. Sch- s c h o o l ; S c o - s c o r e ; F T E - f u l l - t i m e e q u i v a l e n t ;  Pop-Population;  TB-T- t r a d e book t o t a l i n SLRC; Y-TL-years as t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n ;  Prl-  program item 1; Pr2-program item 2; Pr3-program item 3; P e r l ; p e r s o n n e l item 1; P e r 2 - p e r s o n n e l item 2; P e r 3 - p e r s o n n e l item 3;  Facl-facilities  item 1; F a c 2 - f a c i l i t i e s 2; C l l - c o l l e c t i o n item 1; C l 2 - c o l l e c t i o n item 2; C l 3 - c o l l e c t i o n item 3; Man1-management item 1; Man2-management item 2; Bosl-Board Office s u p p o r t ; F i l - F i n a n c e s ; Adl-advocacy.  Averages for FTE, trade books per student, number of students in the school, years as a t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n and scores for nine of the sixteen individual items from the Profile were calculated for a l l the schools within each Phase. These nine items were the three from the program component of the P r o f i l e , three from the personnel section, two from the management area and the one item probing advocacy. These were considered because they deal most closely with SLRC program i s s u e s , such as cooperative program planning and teaching, flexible time t a b l i n g ,  staffing,  integration of information s k i l l s and advocating the r o l e of the SLRC. While the other areas c e r t a i n l y impact on the development of the program, no program would e x i s t without these fundamental components. An average was also taken of the trade books per student number for each Phase. Phase 1 schools had an average of 16.82 books per student; Phase 2 schools averaged 16.59 books  83 per student; and Phase 3 schools averaged 15.09. Schools seemed to have approximately the same number of books per student regardless of the Phase of the SLRC program. A close look at Table 1 revealed that Phase 1 schools had an average score on the Profile of 29.73. Their FTE average was .45; their trade book per student average was 16.82; the school population averaged 265 students and the average years experience of the teacher-librarian was 2.3. Phase 2 schools had an average score on the Profile of 35.71. Their FTE average was .60; their trade book per student average was 16.59; the school population averaged 345 students and the average years experience of the teacherlibrarian was 3.7. Phase 3 schools had an average score on the Profile of 43.2. Their FTE average was 1.0; their trade book per student average was 15.09; the school population averaged 505 students and the average years experience of the teacherlibrarian was 7.6. The categorization of the schools into these Phase groupings, based on the score from the Profile, seemed to hold when the other factors of staffing, size of student population and years of experience were examined. Phase 1 teacher-librarians had less experience than Phase 2 teacherlibrarians, who in turn had less experience than Phase 3 teacher-librarians. The size of school also seemed to contribute to the categorization, i.e. smaller schools were in Phase 1, with larger ones in Phase 2 and the largest  84 schools in Phase 3. This coincided with the FTE or amount of staffing assigned to the SLRC. Phase 1 schools had less than half-time service from a teacher-librarian; Phase 2 schools had about two-thirds time assigned to the teacher-librarian; and Phase 3 schools had full-time staff in the SLRC. The scores on the individual items examined from the Profile also maintained this ascending Phase 1, 2 and 3 grouping. For all items except 'Per 2'(which was a personnel issue focused on the availability of paid support staff) scores increased with the Phase category. This was to be expected since their total scores also increased, but what is significant for this grouping procedure is that the pattern was consistent for individual items too. These five factors combined to characterize Phase 1 schools as smaller, with less than half-time allotted to a teacher-librarian, who had about two years experience. They scored more Phase 1 answers on the Profile and had a total score between 16 and 32. Phase 2 schools were larger, with nearly two-thirds time allotted to a teacher-librarian who had between three and four years experience. They scored more Phase 2 answers and had a total between 33 and 40. The Phase 3 schools were the largest ones with an average of 500 students, a full-time teacher-librarian with an average of seven years experience. These schools all scored over 40 on the Profile and many of the individual items were Phase 3 answers. This categorization became the basis for the stratified random sampling done for the research interviews  85 and formed a framework for examining in more detail the results from the Survey  and the transcript analyses done  after the interviews.  Research Interviews Purpose The Survey Profile  of Elementary Classroom Collections and the  of School Library Resource Centre Programs provided  two sources of information in the process of describing classroom collections and of exploring the relationship between those collections and the SLRC. They gave a wideangled view of the topic with input from as broad a group as possible. To move in more closely on the topic and to explore the issues on a one-to-one basis with some of the participants, 46 interviews were conducted with a stratified random sampling drawn from classroom teachers who had completed the Survey. and from the principals and teacherlibrarians within the school district. The research interviews were conducted for three main purposes. First, they acted as an "exploratory device" to help identify key variables and relations (Isaac & Michael, 1981) that were central to the research focus. They offered the potential to suggest future hypotheses, to clarify or to add detail to the description of the classroom collections and to probe the relationship between the classroom collections and the SLRC in a face-to-face, personal encounter with the people who were intimately involved in the  86 situation. Second, the interviews supplemented the other data collection instruments by allowing for the follow-up of any unexpected results, to explore emerging themes and to validate the information from the Surveys and the Profiles. And third, the interviews gave the participants the opportunity to share their motivations, attitudes and reasons for responding as they had. They contributed their opinion on the issues raised by the research topic and added the personal, authentic and human quality that a questionnaire or Survey format can not assure.  Research Questions Three sets of questions were developed, one each for classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals. The questions for classroom teachers (Appendix D) centred on the contents of the collections, the source of the trade books in their classrooms, the physical design and organization of the collection and the uses made of trade books in their literacy programs. A set of eight general questions was included at the end of the interview. Many of the same questions were used for teacherlibrarians (Appendix E) and organized under the four major research areas. However, several questions were added so they could share their school-wide perspective on the use of classroom collections and how they interacted with the classroom teachers. Their interview concluded with the same eight general questions asked of the classroom teachers.  87 Fewer questions were used for principals (Appendix F) since they would not have detailed information on the daily use of trade books in specific classrooms. The focus was on their school-wide perspective and how they conceptualized these collections and the role of the school library. Principals were also asked the same eight general questions as the others at the end of the interviews. Many of the questions began by giving the participant some information on the early results from the Survey and asked for their reaction or comment on those results. For example:  The Survey showed that in the 163 classrooms that responded, there are close to 60,000 trade books. That represents an average of 375 books per classroom. What is your reaction to that number?  Information from the Survev was also used to establish the context for the ensuing question. For example:  The Survev showed overwhelmingly that the type of book in the classroom is fiction, either picture books or novels.  Why do we buy  fiction almost exclusively ?  These questions engaged the interest of the participants and strengthened the relevance and credibility of the interview situation.  They kept the interviews focused on the  key issues in the study while maintaining consistency throughout.  88 Stratified Random Sampling Procedures In order to ensure that a representative group of participants would be interviewed, a random sample of 30 classroom teachers was drawn from those who responded to the Survey and stratified by Phase 1, 2 or 3 on the Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs. Table 2 summarizes the return rate by Phase and the number of participants interviewed.  Table 2 Return Rate of Surveys and Number of Participants Interviewed in Each Phase Number Surveyed  Number Returned  1  34  2 3  Phase  Per Cent Returned  Per Cent of T o t a l  Number of 30  Number interview  27  79.41%  16.57%  4.97  5  81  69  85.18%  42.33%  12.62  13  90  67  74.44%  41.10%  12.33  12  There were t h r e e schools c a t e g o r i z e d as Phase 1 and 27 of 34 p o s s i b l e Surveys were completed by classroom t e a c h e r s from t h e s e s c h o o l s . That r e p r e s e n t e d a r e t u r n r a t e of 79.41% for Phase 1 schools and 16.57% of t h e t o t a l number of r e t u r n e d Surveys ( 1 6 3 ) . A t o t a l of 30 classroom t e a c h e r s were t o be i n t e r v i e w e d and t h a t meant t h a t a random sample of from t h e s e t h r e e schools (16.57% of 30 = 4.971) would be  five  89 taken. One alpha-numeric code for each of grades 2-6 was drawn. There were seven schools categorized as Phase 2 schools and 69 of 81 possible Surveys were completed by classroom teachers in these schools. That represented a return rate of 85.18% for Phase 2 schools and 42.33% of the total number of 163 Surveys completed. Working with the number of 30 interviews, that meant that a random sample of thirteen teachers from these seven schools (42.33% of 30 = 12.62) would be interviewed. Two alpha-numeric codes for each of grades 1-6 to make twelve were drawn and then a third grade 1 choice was added to make the thirteen. Grade one was also the group that responded so strongly to the Survey. There were five schools identified as Phase 3 schools and 67 of 90 possible Surveys were completed by classroom teachers in these schools. That represented a return rate of 74.44% and 41.10% of the total number of Surveys (163) completed. That meant twelve classroom teachers from Phase 3 schools (41.10% of 30 = 12.33) were to be picked. Two alphanumeric codes for each grade level were drawn to complete the random sampling of 30 classroom teachers to interview. To identify the teacher-librarians and principals, the alpha-numeric code for nine of the fifteen schools was drawn. For each of these nine schools, that meant the principal and teacher-librarian would be interviewed. However, in two of the cases, the principal was also the teacher-librarian, so seven principals, two principal/teacher-librarians and seven  90 teacher-librarians were interviewed. Table 3 summarizes the sampling numbers by Phase of the principals and teacherlibrarians interviewed.  Table 3 Principals and Teacher-Librarians Interviewed bv Phase  Phase  Number Interviewed  Number of Principals  Number Prin/teach/librarian  Number of Teacher-Librarians  1  3  1  1  1  2  7  3  1  3  3  6  3  0  3  Once all the alpha-numeric codes were drawn, the master list was consulted and the participants involved were identified.  Interview Procedures The participants to be interviewed were contacted during the week after the Spring Break. The principals and teacherlibrarians who were chosen were asked for their permission verbally and an interview time was set. Several principals agreed to help make internal arrangements so classroom teachers could be freed from their classes for the 40 minutes needed for each interview. Classroom teachers were contacted by phone or in person and invited to take part in an interview to discuss some of  91 the issues arising from the Survey and some that had been identified as important for the study. Individuals were told that they were not being questioned about their personal responses to the Survey but more to provide them some feedback on the general results and to have them talk about the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC. They were advised that the interview would be audio-taped for later transcription, but that they would only be identified by their teaching position and not by name or by school and that the transcriptions and tapes would be destroyed after the research project was completed. All 46 people agreed to be interviewed; however one grade four and one grade six teacher said they did not want to be audio-taped. So, two new names were drawn to replace them and these newly selected teachers agreed to the process as outlined. Upon verbal approval, a suitable time was arranged to come to the school. They were also sent a copy of the permission form (Appendix G) that the researcher and the participant would each sign before the interview began. A letter that summarized the goals of the study and what the general goals and topics would be in the interview was also included. All the interviews were conducted during the last week of March and the entire month of April. A few that were cancelled or hard to arrange were held the second week of May. Principals made arrangements for a room in the school  92 and if the interview took place after school, then the teacher's classroom was used. An informal chat preceded the questions. Participants were very cooperative and more than willing to talk on a subject many felt was interesting and very important. They appreciated the feedback on the Survey results and many commented on how much they enjoyed taking part in the whole process. As each interview was completed, the tape was labeled with the alpha-numeric code for that participant.  Interview Transcriptions Approximately half the interviews were transcribed by the researcher and the other half by a paid typist, who had many years experience working as a legal secretary and as a transcriber for the PEI provincial court system. They were entered on computer with each interview stored in a separate file. Each transcription was then verified. A colleague randomly chose twelve interviews out of the 46 and did another verification matching the audio tape with what had been entered on the computer. The transcriptions matched what was entered into the word processing files. Each transcript was then printed out and arranged by grade level without looking at Phase and then rearranged by Phase. The transcripts for principals and teacher-librarians were printed out as a group, examined in that way and then regrouped and placed into the Phase grouping. The transcripts  93 averaged 5500 words each and they were entered with the respondents words in bold type to ease reading and analyses.  Data Analysis Analysis of the Survey Data Analysis of the Survey data was completed using an exploratory data analysis framework. "The underlying assumption with the exploratory approach is that the more one knows about the data, the more effectively data can be used to develop, test and refine theory" (Hartwig & Dearing, 1979; p.9). The goals of this analysis were to identify the patterns in the data and then to examine the parts that didn't seem to conform to those patterns. This left the data analysis open to a wide range of alternative explanations so that instead of imposing a hypothesized model on the data, a model could be generated from the data (Hartwig & Dearing, 1979). Data was not reduced to just statistical summaries; it was presented and displayed through visual representations of the data and resistant statistics. The data from the Survey was examined under the four areas of contents of the classroom collections, organization and management of the collections, sources of trade books for these collections and how the trade books are used in the classroom. Frequency counts were made for each variable under these four categorizations and the resulting distributions were described in terms of location, spread and shape. The location of the distribution refers to the value around which  94 the other values are distributed and is measured by the mean, median or mode (Hartwig & Dearing, 1979). The spread refers to how wide the distribution is and how spread out the responses are. The shape refers to the type of distribution, whether it is a normal distribution, skewed to the left or right or multi-peaked and where the outliers sit within the distribution (Hartwig & Dearing, 1979). Location and spread are usually represented with numeric summaries and displays, while shape is best presented visually. Exploratory data analysis uses a balance of numeric and visual displays and summaries quite extensively.  Analysis of the Interviews Analysis of the interviews with classroom teachers began by listening to the tapes and reading the printed transcriptions. Notes were made of the important themes and topics mentioned by respondents and any quotes that seemed to encapsulate a particular viewpoint were listed. This holistic analysis continued by choosing one question and reading the answers across all respondents and again tracking the salient points or recurring themes. A third trip through the transcripts was made with them organized according to Phase. Common ideas or specific answers for each question were recorded and counted. Similar procedures were used for the interviews with teacher-librarians and principals. Results were organized under the four key areas examined in the Survey or by aspects  95 common to either classroom teachers, teacher-librarians or principals, as well as by the eight common questions related to the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC.  Limitations 1. Results are limited by the typical response effects that are inherent to research interviews such as predisposition of the respondents, predisposition of the researcher and the procedures of the interview process. 2. Results are limited by the reliability and validity of the Survey and the Profile to probe accurately the relevant questions under investigation. 3. Results are limited by how closely this one snapshot of classroom collections represents the real situation.  Methodological Assumptions It was assumed that: 1. The information supplied by respondents on The Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections and The Profile  of  School Library Resource Centre Programs was freely given and that it accurately represents the requested information. 2. The stratified random sampling procedures as applied led to a sample of typical respondents that represents the views, opinions and ideas of the whole group of respondents.  96 Summary An exploratory, descriptive study designed around the first stages of an action research model was conducted. Two instruments intended to survey classroom teachers' use of classroom collections and to describe the Phase of development of the SLRC program were constructed. Early analysis of the two instruments helped in the design of questions for a series of interviews conducted with a random stratified sample of classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals. An exploratory data analysis framework was applied to a further analysis of the Survey instrument data and the transcriptions of the interviews. This led to the description of classroom collections as they are presently operating in Unit 3 elementary schools and to an analysis and discussion of the relationship between these collections and the SLRC program.  97 CHAPTER FOUR - RESULTS  Introduction The six research questions that guided the study were used to organize and share the results, which are presented using descriptive statistics from the exploratory data analysis framework and rely heavily on numerical and visual summaries. The first four questions concerned the contents of the classroom collections, the source of trade books for classroom collections, the organization of classroom collections and the uses teachers make of these trade books in language arts programs. Part One of Chapter Four presents the results from the Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections, which provided the descriptive data for these four questions. These data were organized by individual grade and by the Phase 1, 2 or 3 categorization of SLRC program development. This Phase categorization resulted from the initial data analysis of the Profile of SLRC Programs. Part Two of Chapter Four presents the results from the set of interviews conducted with classroom teachers, teacherlibrarians and principals. These interviews probed participants' reactions to the early analysis of the Survey results, and focused on the last two research questions exploring the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC.  98 PART ONE: SURVEY RESULTS  The Size and Contents of Classroom Collections Research Question One The first research question was: What fiction, nonfiction and poetry trade books are available in primary and intermediate grade classroom collections? Data from the Survey provided information in the following areas: the overall size of the classroom collections, the distribution of fiction, nonfiction and poetry, and whether or not the trade books were paperback or hardcover.  The Size of Classroom Collections The Survey of Classroom Collections yielded 163 responses from a total of 205 elementary classroom teachers surveyed in this school district. This represented a 79.51% overall response rate. The participants counted how many trade books there were in their classroom collections for the day they completed the Survey. A variety of univariate distributional displays were used to present the results of trade book totals counted as part of the Survey. Table 4 presents the initial descriptive statistics for the numbers of trade books reported for the 163 classroom collections.  99  Table 4 Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s for Trade Book Totals  N  Mode  Median  Mean  SD  LE  HE  Ql  Q3  163  300  266  377.6  349.4  34  2540  163  443  N o t e . LE = L o w e s t E x t r e m e , t h e l o w e s t v a l u e HE = H i g h e s t E x t r e m e , t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e Ql and Q3 r e f e r  to the f i r s t  reported.  reported.  q u a r t i l e and t h i r d  quartile.  Figure 1 i s a stem-and-leaf display of the t o t a l t r a d e books-per-classroom for the 163 respondents. The display used a leaf unit of 10 t o consolidate the individual t o t a l s and group them by similar s i z e . For example, the row for 500 looks l i k e t h i s ( 5  1258). With the leaf unit of 10, these  scores become 510, 520, 550, 580 t h a t were rounded numbers closest to the actual t o t a l s reported by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . As a second example, the row for 800 contains (8  025), which  represented the t o t a l s , 800, 820 and 850. This display allowed a l l individual t o t a l s t o be seen at once, but in a shortened format, so they could be displayed in r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other. This type of display worked like a histogram, or bar graph, providing information on the shape and v a r i a t i o n in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o t a l trade books, while retaining information on each individual value.  100 Figure 1 Stem-and Leaf Display of Trade Book Totals  Stem-and-leaf of tottb Leaf Unit = 1 0  12 52 (33) 78 53 35 31 22 14 11 9 8 6 5 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  N  = 163  345556778899 0000001222222333344555555666666777778899 000000000111222222333455566666779 0000000000124555556677799 000002223334455677 1258 000000229 00012556 025 07 0 01 3 3 00  3  4  The totals were rounded off and then sorted from minimum to maximum values. This allowed for the quick determination of the range and the median. The counts on the left side of the display are inwardly cumulative counts that add information on the depth of the values and the location of the median. An examination of the stem-and-leaf display revealed a wide range in the size of classroom collections from a low value of 34 to a high of 2540. There was an obvious clustering of values between 100 and 499, with another small  101 group between 600 and 799. The number values fell off quickly to show fourteen classroom collections between 800 and 2540. By turning the display on its side, the asymmetric shape of the distribution was seen to be positively skewed toward the clustering of lower values between 100 and 299 with a long tail reaching out to the larger values over 1000. These large values extending beyond the bulk of the values had an influence on the size of the mean and made it less useful when comparisons were made. The more resistant statistic of the median gave a better indication of the location and spread of the distribution. Since the distribution was positively skewed, the median was also more informative and gave a better indication of the middle point or typical value in the distribution. Combining with the median were other order statistics that measured variation and represented the typical values around the median. Together they made up the five-number summary of Table 5, which showed the lowest through to the highest total reported in the Survey. This numerical summary added information about the spreads of the individual scores and clarified the range of the totals.  102 Table 5 N u m e r i c a l Summary f o r T o t a l T r a d e Books  Lowest  1st  Extreme(LE)  Quartile(Ql)  34  163 129  Median  3rd  Highest  Quartile(Q3)  Extreme (HE)  443  2540  266 103  177  lowspread  midspread  232  280  2097 highspread 2274  The first row of the numerical summary consists of the lowest value or lowest extreme (LE), the first quartile (Ql), the median, the third quartile (Q3) and the highest value or the highest extreme (HE). Added to this display were the distances between each of these values (the interquartile ranges), which were the differences between the LE and the Ql, the Ql and the median, the median and the Q3, and the Q3 and the HE. The values in the bottom row were: the lowspread (the range between LE and the median), the midspread (the range between Ql and Q3) and the highspread (the range between the HE and the median). The numerical summary showed that the spreads between LE and Ql(129), between Ql and the median (103), and between the median and Q3 (177) were fairly consistent. However, the distance between Q3 and HE (2097) was 16 times the distance between Ql and LE (129), and the highspread (2274) was close  103 to ten times that of the lowspread (232). This indicated the same asymmetry and positive skew in the distribution as evidenced in the stem-and-leaf display. Figure 2 is a box-and-whiskers plot or a visual representation of the numerical summary.  Figure 2  Trade Book Totals  Boxplot Trade Book T o t a l s 2500 -  *  2000 -  *  ^ 1500 -  *  o ^1000 -  1  :  500 0 -  1  Trade Book Totals  The box contains fifty per cent of the values in the distribution with the bottom side of the box representing the Ql value, the line within the box the median and the top line  104 the Q3 value. Thus, one-fourth of the cases lie between the median and one side of the box and another fourth between the median and the other side. The lines extending from the box (called the whiskers) represented the cases within one midspread of the Ql and Q3 values. Any cases beyond this were marked with individual stars. Taken together, the box and the whiskers represent 95% of the cases in the distribution. An examination of the boxplot showed clearly the line of the median closer to the lower quartile, an indication of the positive skew of the distribution. The detail provided by the boxplot for the right tail of the distribution also showed the reason for the larger highspread compared to the lowspread, namely, the ten extreme values on the high end of the distribution.  Trade Book Totals by Grade Table 6 summarizes the total number of trade books in the classroom collections, the range of these totals, and the mode, median, quartiles and mean for each grade level.  Insert Table 6 about here  The median for grade one was 400, while the medians for grades two and three were virtually the same - 298 and 300 respectively. The grade four median dropped to 255, while the grade five median of 284 came the closest to the mean (298)  105 of any grade level. Statistically, this indicated a more normal distribution of trade book totals for grade five. The grade six median dropped sharply to 150, the lowest of any grade level.  Table 6 Descriptive Statistics of Trade Book Totals by Grade Level  Gr.l  Gr.2  Gr.3  Gr.4  Gr.5  Gr.6  29  22  28  31  28  25  Mode  400  290  300  240  260  140  Mean  583.0  414.3  429.9  322.9  298.4  204.6  Median  400.0  298.0  300.0  255.0  284.0  150.0  Ql  200.0  177.8  201.7  180.0  166.0  106.5  Q3  899.0  493.7  581.2  430.0  398.0  283.0  LE  95  125  60  56  55  34  HE  2540  1935  1500  750  768  716  Range (HE-LE)  2445  1810  1440  694  713  682  N  Figure 3 represents the trade book totals for each grade level in a box-and-whiskers plot. Each box represents 50% of the reported values for that grade.  106 Figure 3 Trade Book Totals by Grade  2500 -  *  2000 -  •If  ^ 1500 -  -  *-<  o *" 1000 -  1  500 0 -  I  1  1  2  1 3  *  1——1  1—'—1  ^  ^  4  * 1  ^  5  6  Trade Books by Grade  One of the more obvious things about the primary collections was the wider range of values reported when compared to the shorter range for the intermediate grades. The distributions were also positively skewed for grades 1,2,3, 4 and 6, while grade 5 had a more normal shape. The grade five values were more evenly distributed as evidenced by the median line centrally drawn in the box. While none of the intermediate grades had values over 800, the primary grades had 14 values over 800. This wider variance in the  107 values for primary grades contrasted with the denser distribution for the intermediate grades. The descriptive statistics for the trade book totals by grade, as well as the corresponding stem-and-leaf display and box-and-whiskers plots, all indicated that grade one had the largest number of trade books of all the grades. The number dropped substantially in grade two and rose slightly in grade three. The number dropped sharply again in grade four, dipped slightly in grade five and then took a final drop in grade six. This indicated that the size of classroom collections varied both within grade levels and between grade levels.  Trade-Books-Per-Student Another way to examine the difference among the six grade levels was to determine how many trade books were reported per student. Table 7 summarizes the total number of trade books and the total number of students found in each grade level. These two values were used to calculate the trade-books-per-student number for each grade level. The 29 classroom collections in grade one had a tradebook-per-student number of 28.56; the grade two trade-bookper-student number was 17.01; the grade three number was 18.63; the grade four number was 13.22; the grade five number was 12.08; and grade six trade- book-per-student was 8.28.  108 Table 7 Total Trade-Books-Per-Student by Grade Level  Grade  # classes  NumStu  Total TB  TB/Stu  1  29  592  16909  28.56  2  22  536  9115  17.01  3  28  646  12038  18.63  4  31  757  10010  13.22  5  28  692  8356  12.08  6  25  618  5115  8.28  Grades 1--3  79  1774  38062  21.46  Grades 4--6  84  2067  23480  11.36  Grand Total  163  3841  61542  16.02  Figure 4 displays the trade-book-per-student number for each grade level. The graph shows that grade one had a much higher trade-book-per-student number than any other grade. Grades two and three dropped approximately 10 trade-booksper-student from the grade one number, but their numbers were quite consistent with each other. Grades four and five were also similar to each other, but again they were 4 or 5 tradebooks-per-student less than grades two and three. The number for grade six dropped another five books from grades four and five, which represented the least number of any grade.  109 Figure 4 Trade-Books-per-Student by Grade  T rade - Boo ks - pe r - St ude nt  30 r28.56  Grade 1  | Grade 3 | Grade 5 Grade 2 Grade 4 Grade 6  The trade-book-per-student number, when collapsed across the three intermediate grades, was 11.36. This number compares very favourably with recommendations for 5-8 trade books per student suggested in the literature (Strickland & Morrow, 1988; Fractor et al., 1993). The trade-book-perstudent number across primary grades was 21.46. When compared to intermediate grades, primary classrooms had 10 trade books more per student, an indication that the classroom collections in this school district exceeded recommended minimums.  110 Trade Book Totals by Phase of SLRC Program Table 8 presents the descriptive statistics for trade book totals arranged by Phase of SLRC program development.  Table 8 Descriptive Statistics for Trade Book Totals by Phase  Phase 1  Phase 2  Phase 3  N  27  69  67  Mode  300  270  220  Mean  451.0  349.1  377.3  Median  300.0  296.0  255.0  LE  60  34  56  HE  1935  1500  2450  Range HE-LE  1875  1466  2394  Ql  204  176  155  Q3  475  436  440  240  262  199  271  260  285  1474  1151  2195  Lowspread Md-LE Midspread Q3-Q1 Highspread HE-Md  The Phase 1, 2 or 3 categorization was determined from scores on the Profile of SLRC Proarams combined with factors  Ill of full-time equivalent staffing positions in the SLRC, the years of experience of the teacher-librarian and the size of the library collection. Phase 1 schools had a smaller student population, scored lower on the Profile, had less staffing with less experience as teacher-librarians. Phase 2 schools were the mid-size schools with scores on the Profile in the second range. They were staffed with more teacher-librarians, who had more experience in the SLRC. The Phase 3 schools scored the highest on the Profile, had more students, more staffing in the SLRC and the teacher-librarians from these schools had more years of experience. This categorization was used for comparison purposes throughout the data analysis. Three schools were categorized as Phase 1, seven schools as Phase 2 and five schools as Phase 3. Since the mean for each Phase was greater than the median, it indicated that the distribution for each Phase was positively skewed. The range for each Phase was also great pointing to a wide variance in the trade book totals within Phases. The lowspreads for each Phase were more consistent (240, 262 and 199 respectively) indicating the values in the lower half of the data were more evenly distributed. The same observation was made for the middle half of the data with consistent midspreads of 271, 260 and 285 respectively. However, the highspreads were very large (1474, 1151 and 2195 respectively), a clear indication of the positive skew in the distribution and the effect on that distribution of the extreme high values.  112 The box-and-whiskers plot for trade book totals by Phase in Figure 5 below added visual clarification to the distribution.  Figure 5 Trade Book Totals by Phase  *  2500 2000 -  *  JO 1500 -4—* -•—'  O ^ 1000 500 0 -  1 1  '  \  '  2  '  1  '  3  T r a d e Books by P h a s e  Although the three Phases were positively skewed. Phase 2 was closer to a normal distribution since the median line was closer to the middle of the box, while for the other two Phases it was closer to the Ql line.  All three Phases had  outliers, although the Phase 2 distribution was more tightly gathered around the median. This was also supported by the  113 closeness of the mean (349.1) and median (296) for Phase 2 as compared to Phases 1 and 3.  Trade-Books-per-Student bv Phase and Grade The trade-book-per-student number was also examined by grade levels within Phases. This helped identify the number of trade books that teachers at each grade level in each Phase were providing for their students. Table 9 outlines the trade-books-per-student for each grade level within each Phase. Summary totals for primary and intermediate grades for each Phase are also provided.  Insert Table 9 about here  The trade-book-per-student number was collapsed across primary and intermediate grades for each Phase. The combined number of trade-books-per-student in the primary grades for Phase 1 was 32.02; for Phase 2 was 18.26; and for Phase 3 was 20.23. The number for Phase 1 stood out as substantially greater than the primary total for Phases 2 and 3. This indicated that primary teachers in these Phase 1 schools had more trade-books-per-student in their classroom collections than the teachers in either the Phase 2 or Phase 3 schools. However, all primary teachers provided a greater number of trade-books-per-student than their intermediate colleagues.  114 Table 9 Trade-Books-per-Student by Phase and Grade  Ph  Gr 1  3  N  NumStu  TotTb  TB/Stu  1  6  121  4270  35.29  2  4  85  2985  35.11  Gr 1-3  3  4  78  1839  23.57  32.02  4  5  111  1212  10.91  5  5  97  1262  13.01  Gr 4-6  6  3  65  610  9.38  11.29  1  11  228  4402  19.30  2  8  192  2651  13.80  Gr 1-3  3  9  214  4525  12.06  18.26  4  15  375  5471  14.58  5  13  330  4291  13.00  Gr 4-6  6  13  338  2748  8.13  11.99  1  12  243  8237  33.89  2  10  259  3479  13.43  Gr 1-3  3  15  354  5674  16.02  20.23  4  11  271  3327  12.27  5  10  265  2803  10.57  Gr 4-6  6  9  215  1757  8.17  10.50  115 The trade-book-per-student numbers for grades four, five and six were more consistent across Phases. Grade four was highest in each Phase, grade five followed closely and grade six took a substantial drop in number of trade-books-perstudent.  The combined number of trade-books-per-student in  the intermediate grades for Phase 1 was 11.29; for Phase 2 was 11.99; and for Phase 3 was 10.50. These numbers were much more consistent and indicated that teachers in the intermediate grades provided about the same number of tradebooks-per-student regardless of Phase of SLRC program. Intermediate teachers too, provided many trade books for students.  The Distribution of Trade Book Types After respondents indicated the total number of trade books they had in their classroom collections, they were asked to indicate what percentage of their collection was composed of paperbacks and what percentage was composed of fiction (novels), easy fiction (picture books), nonfiction (information books) and poetry. Respondents used the following scale: (0) -None; (1) up to 20%; (2) 21-40%; (3) 41-60%; (4) 61-80%; and (5) 81-100%. A tally of the number of respondents that chose each of the percentage ranges was made for each grade level. Paperback books were reported to be the major type of trade books in all the classroom collections with 144 of the  116 163 respondents (88.34%) indicating that 80% and more of their collection was paperback books. Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9 present area graphs that indicated the distribution of easy fiction (picture storybooks), fiction (novels), nonfiction and poetry for each grade.  Insert Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9 about here  Grade one had the highest concentration of easy fiction (picture storybooks) and that number tapered off as the grade level increased, leaving grade six with the fewest number of easy fiction storybooks. This would be expected since the reading level and interest level of most easy fiction picture books is aimed at the primary grades. The graph for fiction trade books (novels) was just the opposite. Grade one had the lowest number of fiction trade books and the number increased with grade level up to grade six, which had the highest number of fiction. This, too would be expected, since the reading level and interest level of upper elementary students would require fiction (novels) trade books.  117 Figure 6 Distribution of Easy Fiction (Picture Storybooks) by Grade 35-  Grade  DoDiH^H Figure 7  P e r c e n t o f Classroom C o l l e c t i o n 0-None 3 - 4 1 t o 60% 1-Up t o 20% 4 - 6 1 t o 80% 2 - 2 1 t o 40% 5 - 8 1 t o 100%  D i s t r i b u t i o n of F i c t i o n (Novels) by Grade. 35-  Grade  Percent of Classroom Collection 0-None 3-41 to 60% 1-Up to 20% 4-61 to 80% 2-21 to 40% 5-81 to 100%  118  Figure 8 Distribution 35-  of N o n f i c t i o n  by G r a d e ,  P e r c e n t of Classroom C o l l e c t i o n 0-None 3-41 t o 60% 1-Up t o 20% 4-61 t o 80% 2-21 t o 40% 5-81 t o 100%  Figure 9 Distribution of Poetry by Grade, 353025 m 0)  2 20 o m 15 0)  10  3  4 Grade  DoQiH^ Percent of Classroom Collection 0-None 3-41 to 60% 1-Up to 20% 4-61 to 80% 2-21 to 40% 5-81 to 100%  119 The results were quite different, however, for the nonfiction and poetry trade book distributions. No teacher selected the value of 4 or 5 in any of the grade levels and no teacher chose the 3 value for poetry. Most chose 0, 1 or 2 for nonfiction and poetry, which indicated that these types of trade books represented less than 20% of classroom collections in this school district. When fiction (novels) and easy fiction (picture storybooks) numbers were combined, they comprised over 80% of these classroom collections, an indication that students had more access to fiction and easy fiction in their classroom collections than to nonfiction or poetry.  Summary; Research Question One Results indicated a wide range in trade book totals from the 163 respondents to the Survey of Classroom Collections. Totals ranged from 34 to 2540 trade books in a classroom collection. With such a wide range, the median was chosen as the most resistant statistic for comparisons. An examination of the totals indicated a positive skewness in the data towards the median of 266. When totals were examined by primary and intermediate levels, the range was wider for primary and more compact for intermediate grades. Grade one had the greatest trade-books-per-student number, followed by grades two and three, grades four and five, with grade six having the least trade-books-per-student number. When collapsed, the trade-book-per-student number for  120 primary grades was 21.46 and for intermediate 11.36, an indication that primary grades had about ten trade-books-perstudent more than intermediate grades. However, all grades exceeded recommendations from the professional literature for the number of trade-books-per-student that should be in elementary classrooms. Trade book totals were compared by Phase of SLRC development. Primary classes in Phase 1 had ten trade-booksper-student more than than either Phase 2 or 3, while the trade-book-per-student number for intermediate classes was virtually the same for the three Phases. Results indicated that over 80% of the trade books in the classroom collections were paperbacks and over 80% were either fiction (novels) or easy fiction (picture books).  Sources of Trade Books for Classroom Collections Research Question Two The second research question was: What selection procedures do classroom teachers use to acquire fiction, nonfiction and poetry trade books for their classroom collections? Data from the Survey provided information in these areas: sources of trade books for classroom collections; frequency of use of the SLRC; and sources of funding for classroom collections.  121 Sources of Trade Books Table 10 presents the number of trade books by grade reported to have come from four possible library sources: the SLRC, the Unit 3 district library, the Prince Edward Island Public Library and other sources of resources, such as those in museums, galleries or specialized libraries.  Table 10 Trade Book Totals from Four Library Sources by Grade  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  N  29  22  28  31  28  25  SLRC  514  588  383  746  637  431  District  178  273  91  299  217  179  PEI Lib  91  70  91  100  72  199  0th Lib  40  122  23  33  18  0  Total  823  1053  588  1178  944  809  Figure 10 summarizes the trade-books-per-classroom number reported by each grade level for each of the four library sources. The total count of trade books was taken and then divided by (N) —  the number of classrooms at that grade  level. This number was referred to as the trade-books-perclassroom number. The graph allowed a comparison of tradebooks-per-classroom across the grade levels for each library  122 source, as well as a visual representation of the distributions of trade books from each of four sources.  Figure 10 T r a d e - B o o k s - P e r - C l a s s r o o m from Four L i b r a r y S o u r c e s by Grade  Trade Book Source - Libraries  SchLib  •  BoOfLib  D  Pub Lib  OthReCen  For each grade level, the SLRC was the major library source of trade books. In every grade level, twice as many trade books came from the SLRC as from the next largest library source, the Board Office Library. This is a centralized, district library servicing the curriculum and professional needs of teachers in this school district. The other two library sources accounted for very few trade books in the classroom collections.  123 The total of all trade books counted for the day of the Survey was 61,542. The total number of trade books from the four library sources for all six grades was 5395, which was 8.76% of the total. Table 11 presents the number of trade books by Phase reported to have come from four possible library sources: the SLRC, the Unit 3 district library, the Prince Edward Island Public Library and other resource centres.  Table 11 Trade Book Totals from Four Library Sources bv Phase  Phase 1  Phase 2  Phase 3  N  27  69  67  SLRC  351  1726  1222  District Library  181  648  408  PEI Library  79  255  289  Other Library  3  91  142  Total  614  2720  2061  Figure 11 presents the trade-books-per-classroom from each of four different library sources arranged by Phase of SLRC program development. The trade-books-per-classroom number was the number of trade books divided by the number of classrooms in that Phase.  124 Figure 11 Trade-Books-Per-Classroom from Four Library Sources by Phase  Trade Book Source - Libraries  SchLib  QeoofLib  Q PubLib  OthReCen  The distribution was consistent across Phases with the SLRC being the main library source reported, the district library second, followed by the PEI public library and other resource centres respectively. While the distributions were the same shape. Phase 2 and 3 had many more trade-books-perclassroom from the SLRC than Phase 1. This would be easy to predict since Phase 1 schools have less time allotted and fewer school library services in their schools. Phase 2 classroom teachers reported more trade-books-per-classroom than either Phase 1 or Phase 2 for both SLRC and district library sources, while all three Phases used the other two library sources virtually the same amount.  125 Table 12 displays the number of trade books identified by each grade level that came from "other" sources, such as fellow teachers, donations and a general miscellaneous category for things like yard sales and give aways.  Table 12 Trade Book Totals from "Other" Sources by Grade  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  N  29  22  28  31  28  25  Miscellan  85  260  59  140  54  73  Fellow Tea  189  292  190  183  139  191  Donate  191  274  196  542  64  176  Total  465  826  445  865  257  440  Tot/N  16.03  37.55  15.89  27.90  9.18  17.60  Figure 12 presents the trade-books-per-classroom number arranged by grade for each of three "other" library sources. The trade-books-per-classroom number was the number of trade books divided by the number of classrooms at that grade level.  126 Figure 12 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from "Other" Sources by Grade  I 18 o  Trade Book Source - Other  M 16 to  Sl4H  O 12 I  S 10-  7.9  i 8-  5.9  ^ 6o to 4.  Z.9  T3 210  3  4 Grade  OthSour IQothTea 1 OthTea  Q Donate  Grade two had the greatest number of trade-books-perclassroom when the three items were combined. Grades four and six were next, followed by grades one and three. Grade five had the least number for the three combined items. Within grades one, two, three and six, the trade-booksper-classroom number was much the same for books from other teachers and from donations. In grade four, the number was much greater for donations than for the other two items and when it was compared to the other grade levels. In grade five, the numbers were generally lower than the other grades for all items, but particularly for donations. No particular item was consistently used the most across the grades. "Other  127 teachers" and "donations" were used more than the general category of "other sources" by all grade levels. Table 13 displays the number of trade books identified by Phase that came from "other" sources, such as other teachers, donations and a general category 'other' for things like yard sales, gifts or give aways.  Table 13 Trade Book Totals from "Other" Sources bv Phase  Phase 1  Phase 2  Phase 3  N  27  69  67  Other Library  41  305  325  Other Teacher  217  734  233  Donations  160  593  692  Total  418  1632  1250  Figure 13 presents the trade-books-per-classroom from each of three "other" library sources arranged by Phase. The trade-books-per-classroom number was the number of trade books divided by the number of classrooms in that Phase.  128 Figure 13 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from "Other" Sources by Phase  Trade Book Source - o t h e r  B  o 19 o u m n 1n  10.6  ro  8.1  10.3 8.6  r-t  u I M  85.9  i)  a  «.«  4.9 BSS^aa  10 A;  H—  o o  m  9 -  l.b  •o  0-  ^ ^  I (U  ro M H  3.5  1  1  ^^m  2 Phase 1 OthTea [J QothTea  OthSour I  Donate  When the number of trade books identified in the Survey as coming from "Other" sources was totaled across grades or Phases, the sum was 3300. This represented 5% of the total number of trade books counted in the Survey (61,542) an indication that classroom teachers did not rely heavily on these sources for trade books in their classroom collections. Table 14 presents the total number of trade books reported to have come from the PEI Department of Education's Holistic Approach Program. This program provided trade books to elementary classroom teachers who wished to use an alternate approach to language arts from the traditional basal reading series. Each grade level may have had several  129 packages of trade books, but respondents were instructed to count only trade books in use the day they completed the Survey. Books stored for later themes were not to be counted.  Table 14  Trade Book Totals from the Holistic Approach by Grade  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  N  29  22  28  31  28  25  Hoi App  3266  1975  1790  1110  1318  980  Figure 14 displays the trade-books-per-classroom for each grade from the Holistic Approach program. Figure 14 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from the Holistic Approach by Grade  Trade Book Source - Holistic Approach  6 0 110M100  109.1 93.71  ^  80+-  L 70 1 60 + In 50-o 40-m 30  63.93  47.07 35.81  1  i) 2 0 - -  "S 10-S 0  3  4 Grade  I HolApp  39.2  130 Grade one had the greatest number of trade books from the Holistic Approach and the number generally declined as grade level increased. The intermediate grades had a more consistent number of trade books from this source. The influence of the Holistic Approach program has grown from the early emphasis on grade one to include all grade levels. This was reflected in the large number of trade books reported in these classroom collections. Table 15 shows the total number of trade books from the Holistic Approach arranged by Phase of SLRC program development.  Table 15 Trade Book Totals from the Holistic Approach bv Phase  Holistic Appro  Phase 1  Phase 2  Phase 3  2411  3961  4067  The total from the three Phases was 10,439 which represents 16.96% of the total number (61,542) of trade books counted in the Survey. One in six trade books came from the Holistic Approach program. Figure 15 displays the trade-books-per-classroom number for each Phase. This number represented the total number of trade books received from the Holistic Approach program  131 divided by the number of classrooms identified from the Phase of SLRC program development.  F i g u r e 15 T r a d e - B o o k s - p e r - C l a s s r o o m from t h e H o l i s t i c Approach by Phase T r a d e Book S o u r c e - H o l i s t i c  Approach  100  g o o 90-1M 10 SOto 10 H O U V  88.3  TO 60 57.41  a, 50 I in  ^ 40 o o 30  a  I d)  20 m u 10  •0  tn  2 Phase  D  HolApp  Although Phase 1 had the least total number of trade books (2411) from the Holistic Approach of the three Phases, it had the greatest trade-books-per-classroom number (89.3). This indicated that the Holistic Approach was supporting these classroom collections more heavily than the other two Phases, which had similar trade-books-per-classroom numbers of 57.41 and 60.7 respectively. This contrasted with the greater number that came from the SLRC as a source of trade books in Phase 2 (25.01) and Phase 3 (18.24) as compared with the smaller number (13.5) for Phase 1.  132 The fourth category of sources of trade books was "commercial" ones including books teachers bought "during the past school year" from book stores, book clubs, schoolsponsored book fairs and publisher's catalogs. Table 16 presents number of trade books identified by each grade that were purchased from these four commercial sources.  Table 16 Trade Book Totals from Four Commercial Sources by Grade  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  N  29  22  28  31  28  25  Bk Store  610  257  220  195  149  89  Bk Club  1038  610  730  1084  774  579  Bk Fair  406  238  235  219  279  201  Pub Cat  362  100  5  172  36  50  Total  2416  1205  1190  1670  1238  919  The total of all trade books from the four commercial sources was 8638. In each grade, the greatest number of trade books purchased was from book clubs. These were commercial book clubs that teachers ran in their classrooms. The book club sent flyers to the students and they purchased trade books. Teachers also ordered many books and they received bonus books for the books students bought.  133 The second most frequently used commercial source was a book store, for grades one and two, and the school book fair for grades three to six. The school book fair was a close third for grades one and two. The publisher's catalogs were the least used of the four commercial sources by all these classroom teachers. Figure 16 displays the trade-books-per-classroom number by grade for each of the four commercial sources. The total for each item in each grade was divided by the number of classrooms at that grade level and arranged with each source side-by-side for each grade level.  Figure 16  Trade-Books-per-Classroom from Commercial Sources by Grade T r a d e Book S o u r c e -  Conmiercial  40 36.8  % 36o *-• 3 2 - - 0)  m28o I 24-  26.1  0)  O.20I  ^o 16O -1-5  m 12•a o n) ^ 44--  11.6  '^  "•  H  8.4  "8  8.1  7.1 5.6  T1  3  5.3  4 Grade  BkStore  f  IBkClub BkClub I I B k F a i r  PubCat  134 The results were the same when the data was converted to a trade-books-per-classroom number. Book clubs were the most frequently named commercial source, followed by either book stores or book fairs. The publisher's catalog was the least used commercial source. Table 17 presents the same data on the number of trade books from each of four commercial sources arranged by Phase of SLRC program development.  Table 17 Trade Book Totals from Four Commercial Sources bv Phase  Phase 1  Phase 2  Phase 3  N  27  69  67  Book Store  292  681  547  Book Club  680  2246  2089  Book Fair  305  629  644  Pub's Catalog  284  156  285  Total  1561  3712  3565  Figure 17 displays the trade-books-per-classroom number for four commercial sources arranged by Phase.  135 Figure 17 Trade-Books-per-Classroom from Commercial Sources by Phase  o 40 o M 35 m  Trade Book Source - Commercial  0)  u .25 (1)  a 20  i?15 o  11.3 10.5  9.1  9.8  S10 ^  5  ^  0  2 Phase BkStore  BkClub  D  BkFair  PubCat  When examined by Phase, the trade-books-per-classroom number from book clubs was the greatest in each Phase. However, it was 6 or 7 trade-books-per-classroom greater in Phase 2 and 3 than in Phase 1. The number for the other three commercial sources was very consistent within Phase 1 and slightly greater than for either Phase 2 or Phase 3. In Phases 2 and 3, the number from book stores and book fairs was much the same, while the number from publishers' catalogs was the lowest. Book clubs were heavily used by all classroom teachers but particularly those in Phase 2 and 3 schools.  Exchanging Trade Books in the Classroom Collections Classroom teachers reported the number of times per month they exchanged books in the classroom collection from  136 the SLRC collection. Table 18 presents the mean number of times reported by each grade level.  Table 18 Mean Book Exchanges Between Classroom Collection and the SLRC by Grade  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  N  29  22  28  31  28  25  M Bk Exc  2.07  1.82  1.46  1.58  1.46  1.56  Grades one and two exchanged books nearly twice a month, while grades three to six close to one and a half times per month. When the number of times per month trade books were exchanged with the SLRC collection was calculated according to Phase of SLRC program development, the means were: Phase 1 - M= 1.66; Phase 2 - M= 1.94; Phase 3 - M= 1.63 Phase 1 and Phase 3 classroom teachers exchanged trade books with the SLRC about the same number of times per month, while Phase 2 teachers exchanged trade books more frequently.  Source of Money for Classroom Collections Three sources of money per year for purchasing trade books for classroom collections were probed in the Survey of Classroom Collections; (a) the personal money classroom teachers spent out of pocket; (b) money supplied by  137 administration; and (c) money from "other" sources including parent groups and community funding. For each area probed, participants were asked to choose from a five-point scale to estimate money spent from each source. The scale was: 1- up to $50; 2 - $51-$100; 3 - $101 to $150; 4 - $151 to $200; 5 over $200. If participants chose the over $200 category, they were prompted to tell how much money was spent. Table 19 presents the frequency count of responses to each of the five categories on the scale for each grade level for the three areas probed: out of pocket spending, administrative money received and money from other sources.  Table 19 Money Spent Out-of-Pocket, from Administration and from Others on Trade Books  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  Source  Po  Ad  Ot  Po  Ad  Ot  Po  Ad  Ot  Po  Ad  Ot  Po  Ad  Ot  Po  Ad  Ot  Up t o $50  3  17  22  4  17  15  11  21  21  11  28  25  5  21  21  11  21  21  $51 - $100  5 5  8  5  6  7  3  3  $101-$150  4  4  -  2  -  2  -  1  $151-$200  6  2  1  over  11  1  29  29  $200  Total  5  8 1  1  2  6  5  4  1  5  2  2  5  -  -  2  2  -  -  5  1  -  4  -  1 2  -  -  -  -  4  -  1  2  1  1  3  -  - 3  1  -  22  28  28  3 1 8  29  4  22  22  8  28  1  31  4 1  31  8  31  28  28  28  25  25  25  138 Note. "Po" stands for money out of pocket; "Ad" stands for money from administration; "Ot" stands for money from others.  The frequency counts indicated that teachers were spending a great deal of their personal money on trade books for their classrooms. For the primary grades, 23 of 79 teachers (29.11%) reported they spent over $200 of their personal money on trade books, while there were 8 of 84 (9.52%) intermediate teachers who spent that much. This indicated that three times as many primary teachers as intermediate teachers spent over $200. When the figures were combined for money spent over $100 (categories 3, 4 and 5 on the scale), 42 of the 79 primary teachers (53.16%) spent that much, while 34 of 84 intermediate teachers (40.48%) reported spending over $100 on trade books last year. If respondents indicated that they spent "over $200" of their personal money, they were prompted to write in how much they estimated they had spent. The write-ins and their frequency counts were: 14-$300; 7-$350; 8-$400; and 2-$500. The comparison was quite different for money received from administration. Only three teachers of the total 163 respondents reported their administration spent over $200 on trade books. Of the 163 respondents, 131 or 80.37% reported their administration spent "up to $50". This indicated that teachers were spending much more money out of their own  139 pocket on trade books than they were allocated from their school administration. A similar finding was evidenced in the amount of money received from "others" such as parent or community groups. There were 125 of the 163 respondents (76.69%) who indicated that they received "up to $50" from others. Figures 18, 19 and 20 are area graphs representing the frequency counts on the amount of personal out-of-pocket money spent, the amount of money received from administration and the amount received from "others" during the "last year". These area graphs added a visual representation to the frequency counts and showed the distribution of responses across grade levels.  Figure 18  Out-of-Pocket Spending on Trade Books by Grade $$$ Out of Pocket  1  2  Dollars Spent 1-Up to $50 2-S51 to $100 3-$101 to $150 4-$151 to $200 5-Over $200  Grade I 1 1  D'  140  F i g u r e 19 Money from A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r Trade Books $$$ From A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F r e q u e n c y Count  Dollars Spent 1-Up t o $50 2-S51 t o $100 3-$101 t o $150 4-$151 t o $200 5-Over $200  Grade  n  D'  F i g u r e 20 Money from O t h e r S o u r c e s f o r Trade Books $$$ From o t h e r s F r e q u e n c y Count 30-  •  •  -  —  ,  25-  u w 20c 0  in 1 5 -  10-  5fl-  1  3  2  1-Up to $50 2-$51 to $100 3-$101 to $150 4-$151 to $200 5-Over $200  4  Grade  Dollars Spent  D  D'  5  €  141 Summary; Research Question Two Results indicated that of the four library sources probed, the SLRC was the heaviest supplier of trade books for all grade levels. When numbers were arranged by Phase, Phase 1 had the least trade-books-per-classroom number from the SLRC. Of the 61,542 trade books counted on the day of the Survey. only 8.76% came from all library sources. Of the three "other" sources probed, donations provided the most trade books. Of all trade books in the Survey. only 5% came from other sources. Trade books from the Holistic Approach accounted for 16.96% of all trade books counted. Grade one had the greatest trade-books-per-classroom number (112.62) from the Holistic Approach and the number was reduced as grade level increased. When the number of books from the Holistic Approach was examined by Phase, Phase 1 had 89.3 trade-books-perclassroom, thirty more than either Phase 2 or 3. All respondents reported frequent use of commercial sources for acquiring trade books. Book clubs were the most frequently used source at all grade levels and in all Phases. Grades one and two exchanged trade books from the SLRC about twice a month, while grades three to six exchanged about 1.5 times a month. Results from the Survey on the sources of funds for trade books indicated that classroom teachers relied heavily on their personal spending with 46.63% of respondents reporting they had spent over $100 of their own money on  142 trade books during the last year. Administrative and "other" sources did provide some funding for trade books but in much smaller amounts. Of all respondents, 8 0.37% reported they received less than $50 from administration, while 76.69% reported receiving less than $50 from other sources.  The Organization and Management of Classroom Collections Research Question Three The third research question was: How are primary and intermediate classroom collections organized for student use? Data from the Survey provided information in these areas: book displays, setting up the classroom collection as a separate place, categorizing the books, lending out the books to students, labelling the books and the procedures teachers used to protect and repair their trade books. Respondents were also provided with a checklist of furniture, storage items and other accessories possibly found in their classroom collection. If the items were in their classroom, respondents checked them off and indicated how many of these items they had.  Displaying Trade Books in the Classroom Classroom teachers were asked two general questions about displays. The first dealt with whether or not the teachers had a book display set up for students the day of the Survey. Of the 79 primary respondents, 76 (96.20%) said that a book display was set up for students in their  143 classrooms. Of the 84 intermediate respondents, 75 (89.29%) said they had trade books on display for students. This indicated that book displays were common in most elementary classrooms in this school district. A second question asked whether or not trade books in the classroom collection were usually displayed with their covers showing as opposed to stored on a shelf with their spines showing. These figures were very similar to the numbers for book displays. Of the 79 primary teachers, 77 (97.47%) said they showed the covers of trade books in the classroom. For the 84 intermediate teachers, 74 (88.10%) indicated that they displayed the covers of trade books.  Establishing a Separate Place for the Classroom Collection Most elementary teachers in this school district said "yes" their classroom collection was easily identified as a separate place in the room. For the primary grades, 92.41% said it was and for the intermediate grades, 96.43% identified their classroom collection as an easily identifiable place in the classroom.  Categorizing the Trade Books Teachers were asked if they categorized the trade books in their classroom collection in any way. Table 20 indicates the percentage of respondents at each grade level who answered "yes" to this question.  144 Table 20 Percentage by Grade Level Who Categorized their Trade Books  % yes  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  82.76  86.36  78.57  64.52  64.29  36.00  The primary grades, particularly grades one and two, categorized the trade books in the classroom collection more than teachers in the intermediate grades. Of the 79 primary teachers, 65 (82.28%) said they categorized their trade books while, of the 84 intermediate respondents, only 47 (55.95%) said they categorized their trade books. If respondents answered "yes" to this question they were prompted to describe how they categorized their collection. A frequency count was done on the items written in by teachers. Across all grade levels, the most frequently stated way that trade books were categorized was by theme. Of the 112 respondents who responded positively to the question, 85 (75.89%) said they categorized trade books by theme. In primary grades, the second most common response was by reading difficulty or reading level. The third most common way to categorize trade books was by author. For intermediate teachers, the second most common method to categorize trade books was by book type or genre, for example, fiction, nonfiction, mystery or humor. No third category emerged for intermediate teachers.  145 There were isolated teachers in both primary and intermediate grades who stated other ways trade books were categorized, but no real groupings could be made. For example, two teachers grouped them by source, two grouped alphabetically and one person gave a number to each book and arranged them numerically.  Sending Trade Books Home with Students Teachers were asked if their students took trade books home from the classroom collection.  Table 21 indicates the  percentage of respondents at each grade level who answered "yes" to this question.  Table 21 Percentage by Grade Level Who Loan Trade Books for Home Use  % yes  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  93.10  100.00  92.86  87.10  92.86  92.00  The vast majority of primary and intermediate teachers loaned the trade books in their classroom collections to students to take home. Slightly more primary (94.93%) than intermediate (90.48%) teachers loaned trade books to their students, but it was obviously a common practice in most elementary classrooms in this school district.  146 If respondents answered "yes" to this question they were prompted to describe how they kept track of the trade books they loaned for home use. Individual items were identified and frequency counts were made on the items written in by teachers. In grade one, a wide range of strategies was used, but no dominant category emerged. Some of the methods used were homework scribblers, a manual list, book bags, cards in the pockets of the books, honor system and a reading log. In the other elementary grades, three systems emerged almost equally. The most frequently cited system was a manual list kept by the teacher, followed closely by the honor system. The third method was book cards (often obtained from the SLRC) in the back of the trade books. A few teachers were using a reading record booklet where students tracked the books they were borrowing.  Labeling the Trade Books Teachers were asked if they labeled trade books in any way.  Table 22 indicates the percentage of respondents at  each grade level who answered "yes" to this question.  Table 22 P e r c e n t a g e by Grade L e v e l Who L a b e l e d T r a d e Books  % yes  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  72.41  72.73  60.71  58.06  75.00  60.00  147 In grades one, two and five, over 70% of teachers labeled their trade books and in grades three, four and six less than 60% labeled their trade books.  When the numbers  were collapsed for the primary grades, 68.34% of teachers reported they labeled their trade books in some way, while for intermediate grades, the number was 64.29%. This indicated that generally, most trade books were labeled to identify them as part of a particular teacher's classroom collection, but, at the same time, over 30% reported they use no system for labeling their trade books. If respondents answered "yes" to this question they were prompted to describe how they labeled the trade books in the classroom collection. Individual items were identified and frequency counts were made on the items written in by teachers. The widest variety of methods for labeling trade books was found in grade one. Writing the teacher's name and grade directly on the trade book was the most common method, but others reported using numbers, reading levels, a sticker for different book types, the school name and commercially made stickers with the owners' name. Grade two teachers used the direct writing of name and grade on the trade book most often, with a few reporting the use of stickers. In grade three, half of the respondents used teacher's name only while the others used grade level only with no teacher's name. Grades four, five and six used mostly the teacher's name written directly on the trade book, with a few using stickers to identify theme books, grade levels and classroom number.  148 such as 4E or 6D. Only five respondents of 163 reported any labeling of the Department of Education Holistic Approach materials.  Protecting and Repairing the Trade Books Teachers were asked if they used any procedures to maintain, protect and repair their trade books.  Table 23  indicates the percentage who answered "yes" to this question.  Table 23 Percentage by Grade Level Who Maintain. Protect and Repair Trade Books  % yes  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  96.55  90.91  75.00  70.97  67.86  68.00  Most elementary teachers were using some procedures to protect and maintain their classroom collections. The issue appeared to be of more concern for primary teachers than intermediate teachers. In the primary grades, 87.34% of respondents protected and maintained their trade books, while 69.05% of intermediate teachers reported using some method to maintain, protect or repair their trade books. The majority of respondents used wide, clear, plastic tape for reinforcing the spine and to cover edges of their trade books. Some stapled the books at the spine before the  149 tape was applied. One person used a clear laminating film on the covers and six teachers used zip-lock plastic bags to protect trade books sent home with students.  Furniture. Storage Materials and Accessories Found in Classroom Collections Respondents were provided with a list of furniture, storage items and several small items, like pillows and plastic containers, that could be found in the classroom. These materials would normally be used to store trade books, establish a reading corner, display trade books and/or make the area comfortable and attractive for student use. Respondents were instructed to check an item if they had it in their classroom and then to record how many of that item they had. Frequency counts were made and the means calculated for each item by grade and then by Phase. Table 24 summarizes the mean for each item by grade.  Insert Table 24 about here  Classroom teachers in this school district had a wide variety of furniture and display or storage facilities in their classroom collections. Grades one, two and five had over two bookcases in each classroom, while grades three, four and six had, on average, one and a half bookcases. Respondents indicated a wide variety of sizes of bookcases.  150 Table 24 Furniture. Storage and Accessories bv Grade  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  N  29  22  28  31  28  25  Bk Case  2.17  2.09  1.39  1.55  2.04  1.52  Room Div  0.66  0.27  0.25  0.16  0.18  0.20  PB Rack  0.62  0.82  0.86  0.65  0.57  0.56  Dis Rack  0.72  0.82  0.79  0.48  0.43  0.40  Bulletin  2.24  2.23  1.82  1.55  1.89  1.64  Tables  2.90  2.18  1.50  1.26  1.57  1.40  Rock-Ch  0.38  0.14  0.14  0.00  0.14  0.04  Sofa  0.24  0.18  0.04  0.03  0.04  0.12  Easy-Ch  0.38  0.09  0.07  0.23  0.29  0.32  Rug  0.90  0.91  0.61  0.52  0.64  0.44  Pillows  1.21  0.36  0.89  0.13  0.40  0.15  Lamps  0,03  0.00  0.00  0.06  0.00  0.00  Contain  10.21  6.50  5.50  2.77  1.32  5.81  0th Furn  0.83  0.36  0.50  0.13  0.16  0.30  Room dividers to separate the classroom collection and to provide a private reading corner were counted in over half the grade one classes, but in fewer than 30% of grade two classrooms and than 25% of grades three through six. Over 50% of all classrooms reported paperback racks available to store trade books. The same number reported that other types of  151 display racks were also being used. All grades reported plastic containers for holding trade books. Grade one had close to ten containers per class, grades two and three had 6 or 7 containers per class, while intermediate classrooms had five or less containers per room. These elementary teachers reported they had tables and chairs in their classroom collection areas, as well. Grades one and two averaged two tables used for the classroom collection in each classroom, while grades three through six reported one and a half tables or less. Rocking chairs were reported in one third of grade one classes, but in fewer than 15% of the other grades. Sofas were counted in 20% of grade one and two classrooms, but fewer than 10% of grades three through six. Easy chairs were reported in one-third of grade one classes, but in fewer than 10% of grades two and three. Grades four, five and six reported that approximately 25% of classrooms had easy chairs for student reading. Most classrooms had a rug or carpeted area where the classroom collection was located, although the number varied from 90% in grades one and two, to 60% in grades three, four and five and 40% in grade six. Pillows and lamps were not common items in any grades. Bulletin boards for displays and announcements were reported at all grade levels. Grade one and two averaged over two bulletin boards per room, while grades three through six averaged more than 1.5 bulletin boards per room. The item "other furniture" was provided for respondents who wanted to list other items that were part of their  152 classroom collection but were not in the list provided. If this item was checked, respondents were prompted to write in the "other" things. Grade one teachers added several items to the list, such as easels, desk and a chair, flannel board, chart stands, stuffed toys, a trolley table and filing cabinets. Grade two teachers added fewer items, but these included a desk with a chair, a listening centre and a filing cabinet. Grade three teachers included chart stands, puppet theatres, listening centres, easels, filing cabinets and stools. Grade four teachers wrote in fewer items, but included a filing cabinet, a projection screen, a set of steps and a cupboard. Grade five teachers included a wide range of items including tree branches, a lobster trap, a computer, easels, a filing cabinet, stools and chairs. Grade six teachers included very few items, but they included a coffee table, end tables and a counter top. Frequency counts were also made and the means calculated for each item by Phase. Table 25 summarizes the mean for each item by Phase. Phase 1 had fewer bookcases per room than Phase 2 or 3, but more room dividers than either Phase. Phase 1 had more wire paperback racks than Phase 2 or 3 but the differences were small. Phase 3 had more display racks than Phase 2 or 1. Classrooms in all Phases averaged two bulletin boards near the classroom collection.  153 Table 25 Furniture, Storage and Accessories by Phase  Phase 1  Phase 2  Phase 3  27  69  67  Book Cases  1.52  1.84  1.84  Room Dividers  0.41  0.26  0.27  PaperBack Rack  0.74  0.62  0.70  Display Rack  0.41  0.58  0.70  Bulletin Boards  1.85  1.93  1.85  Tables  1.93  1.81  1.72  Rocking Chair  0.15  0.16  0.12  Sofa  0.11  0.03  0.18  Easy Chair  0.30  0.22  0.22  Rug  0.67  0.74  0.58  Pillows  0.15  0.29  0.93  Lamps  0.00  0.04  0.03  Containers  5.81  3.87  6.21  Other Furniture  0.30  0.30  0.58  N  Phase 1 had more tables than Phase 2 or 3 and all three Phases had very few rocking chairs in the classrooms. Sofas were not common in these classrooms, while easy chairs were found in 30% of Phase 1 classes and 22% of Phases 2 and 3. Rugs were provided in many classrooms, but fewer than one pillow per classroom was reported. Lamps were evident in  154 very few classrooms. Plastic containers for storing, sorting and displaying trade books were common. Phase 3 had the most reported with over six in a classroom, while Phase 1 had just under six per room and Phase 2 had close to four in each classroom.  Summary; Research Question Three Results indicated that more than 90% of respondents had a display of trade books set up in their classroom on the day of the Survey. Close to 95% said they displayed trade books with the covers showing. Primary teachers, especially in grades one and two, categorized trade books more frequently than intermediate teachers. The most common way indicated by all grade levels to categorize trade books was by theme. The second most common way for primary teachers was by reading level of the books and, for intermediate teachers, by book type or genre, such as novels or mysteries. Over 90% of respondents indicated they sent trade books home with students. The most common ways to manage the borrowing of these trade books was by a manual list kept by the teacher, the honor system or with book cards in the back of each trade book. Most trade books were labeled as belonging to a particular teacher's collection. However, over 30% reported no system for labeling trade books.  155 Close to 90% of primary teachers and 70% of intermediate teachers used some method to maintain, protect and repair the trade books. Most used clear, plastic tape to reinforce spines and covers. Classroom teachers in this school district indicated they had a wide variety of furniture and display or storage facilities associated with their collection of trade books. One or two bookcases were counted in all classrooms; half of the classes had paperback racks and other types of display racks; bulletin boards, plastic containers for trade books, and tables and chairs were common items in these classrooms. A large number of miscellaneous items were also identified.  The Use of Trade Books from the Classroom Collection Research Question Four The fourth research question was: How are primary and intermediate grade classroom collections used as part of the school curriculum? Data from the Survey provided information on this question: Was the classroom collection considered essential to the teacher's program? If respondents answered "yes", they were prompted to write some of the ways the classroom collection was used. Respondents were also provided with a checklist of items that described language arts programs and the ways trade books were used in these programs. They were asked to check any item that described their program.  156 Classroom Collections as Essential Table 26 indicates the percentage of respondents per grade level who said their classroom collection was essential to their language arts program.  Table 26 Classroom Collections as Essential to Language Arts Programs  % yes  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  100.00  100.00  89.29  87.10  85.71  68.00  All respondents in grades one and two said the classroom collection was essential for their language arts program. Grades three, four and five also felt strongly about the role classroom collections play in these programs. The majority of grade six teachers agreed but to a lesser degree. The respondents used the space provided to list some of the ways they used their classroom collections. Individual items were identified and categorized and frequency counts were made on the items written in by teachers. The two major reasons for using the classroom collection given by all teachers across the grades were: (a) to support their themes and their author/literature studies, and (b) to provide independent and/or silent reading material for students. After these two main reasons, differences appeared according to grade levels. In grades two and three, the next  157 major uses were for teaching reading and writing skills, followed by aesthetic reasons, such as building a love of reading and exposing children to quality books. For grades three, four and five, the next reasons were to support research/writing projects and then the same aesthetic reasons. Grade six reasons were more heavily concentrated in the two main reasons given by all grades, with a few isolated comments about promoting reading or helping in research. These items indicated that trade books were playing a strong role in the language arts curriculum in this school district. They suggested also that classroom collections are perceived by teachers as playing a vital role in those programs.  Components of the Language Arts Program A checklist of the uses for trade books in language arts programs was provided for respondents. It was analyzed by taking frequency counts for individual items by grade level and by Phase and then converting that count to a percentage. Similar items were grouped for presenting the results.  Reading Aloud and Silent Reading Table 27 presents the percentage of teachers at each grade level who read aloud each day, used silent reading each day and how much time they spent on each.  158 Table 27 Reading Aloud and Silent Reading bv Grade  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  Read Aloud each day  100%  100%  89.3%  93.5%  96.4%  72.0%  Time spent reading aloud  29.83 minutes  28.18 minutes  18.75 minutes  18.06 minutes  16.79 minutes  13.60 minutes  Silent reading each day  100%  95.5%  89.3%  93.5%  96.4%  92.0%  Time spent silent reading  19.48 minutes  19.77 minutes  18.75 minutes  20.16 minutes  20.18 minutes  19.20 minutes  75.9%  72.7%  60.7%  77.4%  82.1%  76.0%  Teacher reads at silent reading  All grade one and two teachers read aloud to students every day, while 90% of teachers grades three, four and five read aloud everyday. About 72% of grade six teachers reported they read aloud everyday. Grades one and two read aloud close to thirty minutes a day, while grades three and four read aloud about 18 minutes a day and grades five and six read aloud 16 or 13 minutes each time they read to students. Over 90% of these elementary teachers reported giving students a daily time for silent reading. They gave their students approximately 20 minutes a day for silent reading.  159 For grades one, four, five and six, over 75% of the teachers reported that they took part in silent reading with their students, while in grade two 70% do and in grade three 60 % of the teachers read silently with their students. Table 28 presents the same information on reading aloud and silent reading arranged by Phase of SLRC program development.  Table 28 Reading Aloud and Silent Reading by Phase  Phase 1  Phase 2  Phase 3  Read Aloud Each Day  85.2%  91.3%  95.5%  Time Spent Reading Aloud  18.70 minutes  18.91 minutes  23.43 minutes  Silent Reading Each Day  92.6%  94.2%  95.5%  Time Spent Silent reading  14.81 minutes  20.00 minutes  21.12 minutes  Teacher Reads At Silent Reading Time  74.1%  75.4%  73.1%  For each item, except the teacher spending time reading silent with the students, the values increased across Phases. Phase 1 had the lowest percentage or lowest number of minutes. Phase 2 had a slightly higher number and Phase 3 had the largest. For the teacher reading silently with students. Phase 3 had the lowest value, followed by Phases 1 and 2.  160  Trade Books for the Reading Program The next group of items concerned how often teachers used trade books for reading, how often they used the basal reading program approved by the Province, how often they used trade books in the content areas and how often they used textbooks for their content area teaching. Table 29 displays these results.  Insert Table 29 about here  These elementary teachers used a combination of trade books and a basal reading series for their language arts programs. However, much more time was spent with the trade books than the basal series. Grade one used trade books 73.8% of the time while reporting they used basal series only 13.3% of the time. Grades two and three used trade books twice as often as the basal series, while grade four was more equally balanced in its use of each. Grades five and six used trade books 50% of the time and the basal series 30% of the time. All teachers chose to use trade books most of the time, but they still relied on the basal series some of the time in their language arts programs.  161  Table 29 Trade Books Used for Reading by Grade  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  TB f o r reading  86.2%  77.3%  85.7%  71.0%  81.5%  76.0%  Time u s i n g TB  73.8%  55.7%  56.1%  33.7%  50.2%  48.0%  Basal for Reading  55.2%  72.7%  75.0%  74.2%  75.0%  60.0%  Time using Basal  13.3%  28.9%  27.5%  36.4%  30.7%  30.6%  69.0%  77.3%  89.3%  71.0%  82.1%  60.0%  Time TB for content  50.0%  40.9%  47.9%  19.1%  33.8%  20.0%  Textbook for content  34.5%  63.6%  89.3%  80.6%  92.9%  84.0%  11.0%  20.0%  43.4%  46.9%  47.3%  57.0%  TB for content  Time  using textbook  N o t e . Time spent u s i n g TB, time u s i n g b a s a l s , time TB f o r c o n t e n t and time u s i n g t e x t b o o k s were r e p o r t e d i n p e r c e n t a g e of time t e a c h e r s e s t i m a t e d t h e y spent u s i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s f o r  instruction.  For t h e c o n t e n t a r e a s , t r a d e books and textbooks were both being used. Primary t e a c h e r s used t r a d e books for a  162 greater percentage of the time than textbooks, while for intermediate teachers the opposite was true: textbooks were used for a greater percentage of the time than trade books. The information on the use of trade books for reading was rearranged according to Phase of SLRC program. Table 30 presents the trade book use for reading by Phase.  Insert Table 30 about here  Phase 2 and 3 teachers used trade books more often than Phase 1 teachers. However, regardless of Phase, those who indicated they used trade books for reading used them about 52% of the time.  Phase 3 teachers used basals less often  than either Phase 1 or 2. Regardless of Phase, those who used basals, used them less than 30% of the time. Phase 3 teachers used trade books for content area reading more often than either Phase 1 or Phase 2 teachers. All teachers across Phases, who used trade books in the content areas, used them between 32% and 37% of the time. Textbooks were used by most teachers in all Phases, but more Phase 1 teachers used them more than the others. Across all Phases, those who indicated they used textbooks for content area reading used them about 37% of the time.  163  Table 30 Trade Books Used for Reading by Phase  Trade Books used  Phase 1  Phase 2  Phase 3  74.1%  80.6%  80.9%  52.6%  52.9%  52.5%  74.1%  71.0%  64.2%  27.6%  29.5%  26.3%  70.4%  72.5%  79.1%  37.6%  32.1%  37.3%  81.5%  71.0%  74.6%  36.3%  38.9%  37.5%  for reading Time spent using Trade Books Basal Used for Reading Time spent using Basal Trade Books for Content Area Time trade books used for Content Textbooks for Content Time using Textbooks for Content  Trade Book Connections with the SLRC As part of the checklist of items related to the use of trade books in the language arts program, classroom teachers  164 were asked to indicate if they became involved with 2 or 3 resource-based units of study each year with the teacherlibrarian. They were also asked to indicate if their students used the SLRC regularly for choosing independent reading material. Table 31 presents these results by grade.  Table 31 R e s o u r c e - B a s e d U n i t s of Study and I n d e p e n d e n t Reading  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5  Grade 6  -Based Units  58.6%  45.5%  64.3%  58.1%  64.3%  52.0%  Choosing TB in SLRC  100.0%  95.5%  89.3%  96.8%  89.3%  84.0%  Resource  Fewer than 60% of teachers in grades one, two, four and six reported involving their students in 2 or 3 resourcebased units of study each year. In grades three and five, approximately 65% of teachers worked with the teacherlibrarian on resource-based units. Most teachers reported their students used the SLRC for accessing trade books for independent reading. Table 32 presents the same information on resource-based units and independent reading materials arranged by Phase of SLRC program.  165  Table 32 Resource-Based Units of Study and Independent Reading by Phase  Resource-Based  Phase 1  Phase 2  Phase 3  22.2%  60.9%  68.9%  77.8%  95.7%  95.5%  Units Choosing TB in the SLRC  Close to 70% of Phase 3 classroom teachers reported the use of resource-based units planned with a teacher-librarian. Sixty percent of Phase 2 teachers reported they used resource-based units, while only 22% of Phase 1 teachers became involved with resource-based units of study with a teacher-librarian. Over 95% of Phase 2 and 3 classroom teachers reported using the SLRC so students could access trade books for independent reading. In Phase 1, 78% of teachers reported using the SLRC in this way.  Summary; Research Question Four Results indicated that 10 0% of grade one and two respondents considered the classroom collection as essential to the language arts program, while over 85% of grades three.  166 four and five and 68% of grade six agreed. The two main reasons given for using the classroom collection were to support themes and to provide independent reading material for students. Other reasons included: direct teaching of reading/writing skills, aesthetic goals such as developing a love of reading and support for research/writing projects. All grade one and two teachers, 90% of grades three, four and five and 70% of grade six teachers read aloud to students every day. Time ranged from 15 minutes in grades five and six to 30 minutes in grade 1. Over 90% of all respondents gave students 20 minutes a day for silent reading. Close to 75% of teachers indicated they read silently with students. When the responses were arranged by Phase, they increased from Phase 1 to Phase 3. All teachers chose to use trade books most of the time in their reading program, but they still relied on the basal series some of the time, ranging from 13% of the time in grade one to approximately 36% of the time for other grades. In the content areas, primary teachers used trade books for a larger percentage of the time than textbooks, while for intermediate teachers the opposite was true, textbooks were used for a larger percentage of the time than trade books. When the responses were arranged by Phase, Phase 2 and 3 teachers used trade books more often for language arts than Phase 1. In the content area. Phase 3 used trade books more often than the other two Phases. Most teachers indicated they  167 used textbooks more often than trade books in content area reading, with Phase 1 using them most. Fewer than 60% of grades one, two, four and six, and fewer than 65% of grades three and five were involved in 2 or 3 resource-based units of study with the teacher-librarian. Over 85% of all respondents indicated their students used the SLRC to exchange trade books for independent reading. When these responses were arranged by Phase, 70% of Phase 3, 60% of Phase 2 and only 22% of Phase 1 respondents indicated they were involved in resource-based units of study with the teacher-librarian. As well, 95% of Phases 2 and 3 had students exchange trade books with the SLRC, compared to 78% of Phase 1 respondents.  Summary: Part One-Survev Results Results from the Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections were presented by grade and by Phase of SLRC program development. Results were organized by the first four questions that guided the research study. The major areas were the size and contents of classroom collections in this school district, the source of trade books for these collections, how teachers organized and managed these collections and how trade books were used in the language arts program. Over 60,000 trade books were counted on the day of the Survey and the results indicated a wide range in the size of individual classroom collections by grade level and by Phase.  168 Sizes of collections generally decreased as grade level increased, but there were large and small individual collections in all grade levels. Boxplots indicated a positive skewness in the data when examined by grade or Phase. Most of trade books counted for this Survey were fiction. Results indicated that classroom teachers were spending more of their personal money on trade books than they received from administrators. Trade books came from several library sources, commercial book clubs and book fairs. One in six of the trade books counted in the Survey came from the Department of Education's Holistic Approach program. Classroom teachers spent a great deal of time labeling their trade books, categorizing them, repairing them and lending them out to students. A variety of systems was reported to be used to manage and organize these collections. A wide variety of furniture, storage facilities and accessory items was identified by teachers. Bookcases and display or storage racks were common, but accessory items like pillows, lamps and rocking chairs were less frequent. Classroom teachers indicated they were making wide use of trade books for language arts programs. Basal reading series were used in conjunction with trade books, although the trade books were reported being used most often. In the content areas, textbooks were used most often by intermediate teachers, although both primary and intermediate teachers  169 reported they used trade books often for content area reading. The results from the Survey helped in developing the questions used in a series of interviews conducted with classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals. These questions, plus others that related directly to the last two main research questions in the study, formed the basis of the interviews. Part Two of Chapter Four presents the results of these interviews.  PART TWO: INTERVIEW RESULTS  Introduction The initial analysis of the Survey results led to a series of interviews designed to probe, more deeply, responses given to each of the first four research questions. These questions centred on the contents of classroom collections, the source of trade books for these collections, the organization and management of classroom collections and how teachers are using these trade books. The interviews that followed the Survey explored these four areas, as well as the last two research questions that guided the entire study. These research questions centred on the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC. A total of 46 people were interviewed. Seven male and 23 female classroom teachers (five at each grade level) were interviewed. They represented five from Phase 1 schools, 13  170 from Phase 2 schools and 12 from Phase 3 schools. Seven teacher-librarians (all female) and nine principals (two female and seven male) were also interviewed. One principal from each of Phases 1 and 2 was also the teacher-librarian for their school. Participants ranged from one to 32 years of experience and many had worked at a variety of grade levels. The classroom teachers, who were interviewed had completed the Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections and were familiar with the goals of the study. The teacherlibrarians had completed the Profile of SLRC Programs and were experienced in a SLRC. The principals interviewed had several years experience in their jobs and they expressed interest in taking part in the interviews and in discussing issues about providing trade books for students and teachers. The interview results were organized by the six research questions. Within each research question, the results from classroom teachers were presented by Phase and by primary or intermediate grade groupings. If the responses were the same for all grade levels, then results were only given by Phase. The results from principals and teacherlibrarians were presented by Phase.  The Size and Contents of Classroom Collections Research Question One The first research question was: What fiction, nonfiction and poetry trade books are available in primary and intermediate grade classroom collections?  171  Interview Questions When the data analysis of the Survey of Classroom Collections was completed, it was evident that over 60,000 trade books were counted in the 163 classroom collections that responded to the Survey.  All 46 participants in the  interviews were asked for their reaction to that number. The next question focused on what the participant said was an accurate number of how many trade books ideally should be in a classroom collection. Early analysis also indicated that the contents of those collections were predominately fiction and participants were asked to discuss reasons why that was so. Classroom teachers that were interviewed were asked to discuss factors that affected the size of classroom collections at their grade level. Finally, they were asked to speculate what would be included in their collections if money was not a factor and they could spend all they wanted.  Reactions to the Size of Classroom Collections The first question was: "The Survey showed that in the 163 classrooms that responded, there are over 60,000 trade books. That represents an average of 370 books per classroom. What is your reaction to that number?" Phase 1 classroom teachers said the number seemed high; they were quite surprised by it. Some of their reactions  172 included "That seems like an awful lot," and "It sounds like a big number." Phase 2 classroom teachers were initially surprised by the size of the number. On second thought, they said the number was likely accurate since "a lot of teachers are involved with literature and novel studies." Several said that teachers were constantly looking for books and adding them to their collections. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers responded with little surprise at over 60,000 trade books being counted in the Survey. They "could well believe that number" since so many people use literature-based programs. One person said this high number was "just showing the amount of books the children are reading today." Several teachers spoke of their own surprise when they filled out the Survey and counted their books. "It made us realize just how much we do spend on our own books." Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers said the number "sounds like a lot" but added that when you think about it, the number didn't represent a wide variety in each classroom. They, too, were surprised when they counted their books and learned how many were really there. The Phase 1 teacher-librarian felt that number was very large and must be true of other schools but "not in our school." Phase 2 teacher-librarians said "that's one pile of books!" and that it is "staggering what the teachers have." The Phase 3 teacher librarians found it to be "an astounding  173 number" of books but "it's important to have the books there." Phase 1 principals felt the number was "way more" than would have been expected and yet "very encouraging." Phase 2 principals said the number was really high but they believed it "because of the type of programs we are moving into." The influence of the Holistic Approach program in particular and literature-based programs in general were noted. Phase 3 principals were not surprised by the number and said "it really indicates our commitment to literacy in large measure." It also indicated to these principals that teachers were really committed to children's literature. The second question was: "The smallest collection had 34 trade books and the largest had 2540 books. Do you feel there is a magic number of trade books that should be in the classroom collection? So if you had that number, you would have enough?" Phase 1 classroom teachers said they could not think of a specific number that should be in a classroom collection, "there's just never enough books in the classroom." In their schools, they said "we're pretty much on our own" when it came to getting books and most said that whatever number they had were purchased with their own funds. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers said "there's no real magic number" and that "you'd never have enough." They were able to break down the number they said they needed into books for a theme or books to meet student interests. They  174 suggested that between two and three hundred would be a minimum. One teacher said five hundred would be a minimum, while another summed it up by saying, "I'd say if a person had around a thousand books, they wouldn't be doing too badly." Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers also began by saying there was no real number, but went on to suggest that between 125 and 200 books would be a minimum. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers said there was no real number that should be there, although several said at least five hundred books would be necessary. They were concerned that they had enough to meet their program needs and said "there's so many great books" that they just keep adding to their collections. Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers were more concerned that a wide range of choices be offered students than in setting a magic number. One teacher was more concerned "with the range that's within, than I am with the total number." Another felt it wasn't "so much the quantity as the quality of the books that you have and how appealing they are to the children." The Phase 1 teacher-librarian said five books per child would be right, while the Phase 2 teacher-librarians thought perhaps one hundred books would be enough even though teachers don't stop at that, "they just keep going." Phase 3 teacher-librarians could not set a "magic number" for the classroom collection and said it depended very much on  175 individual teachers and the purpose they see the collection serving. Phase 1 principals could not suggest a number of trade books that would be enough for a classroom collection, but said it depended on "how teachers are using the books" and whether or not they are into thematic teaching or not. Phase 2 principals said the number will continue to grow, "that you can never have enough" and "that no one would ever be satisfied because there is always new stuff coming out." Phase 3 principals estimated about fifteen books per child would be a good number. One principal said that "every class has thousands of books in it if there is a school library" and that "the closer teachers align themselves to the teacher-librarian, the more access they have to thousands of books."  Reasons for the Predominance of Fiction One question was discussed in this area:  "The Survey  showed overwhelmingly that the type of book in the classroom is fiction, either picture books or novels. Why do we buy fiction almost exclusively?" Phase 1 classroom teachers gave several reasons why they bought so much fiction: they were doing themes that were more fiction oriented; nonfiction was harder to find; and students "love to get into imaginary stories." They relied on a library for nonfiction material and suggested that many teachers were not "comfortable with nonfiction books" or they  176 didn't "have enough knowledge about purchasing nonfiction books." They also indicated that the trend was changing and that more teachers were including nonfiction books in their collections. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers said that fiction was more common because it was what students liked and where students' interests lay. One teacher said "we are pushing fiction," but many of her students chose nonfiction from the library. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers said the main reason fiction was more common in classroom collections rested with the curriculum topics they covered. They said more science and social studies topics were being developed, but that themes related to friendship and relationships were dominating the curriculum. To develop these types of themes, you need fiction. They also used fiction as a model for student writing and used the school library for nonfiction. Two teachers mentioned that "teacher bias resides with fiction, especially at the elementary level" and that another "bias says you need to go to a library" for nonfiction books. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers said fiction books "are the ones children relate to," so they were the ones most people started with. However, several said this was changing and that they were developing more science and social studies themes and using nonfiction with their SLRC program. One said "a child can enjoy an information book as much as a fiction."  177 Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers stated children like fiction and it "is more of a key in developing interest." It was felt that teachers "have a respect and attitude toward fiction, good literature, that we want to instill and share with students. We assume that the library collections are going to take care of the nonfiction." However, these teachers said that this view was changing. Literature-based programs began with heavy emphasis on fiction but now these programs were more theme-driven so they used a wider range of trade book types. The teacher-librarians generally gave the same reasons for fiction being so common in classroom collections. First of all, they stated that fiction was more easily obtained, since it was the most common material in book clubs and book fairs. Also, classroom teachers were really promoting reading for pleasure and they assumed that that meant fiction. All the teacher-librarians said that when students came to the school library resource centre it was just the opposite. Nonfiction was "what they want to get when they come to the library." Some considered teachers had just not made the connection between reading for pleasure and nonfiction. Phase 1 principals believed teachers' background was generally in the arts and not the sciences and there was a lack of teaching the information process. Phase 2 principals said fiction was more common because we have tended to promote reading for pleasure and we have assumed that that means fiction. Stories were considered to  178 be "more attractive to the age group we are working with." The principal/teacher-librarian in this group believed that the high fiction result was a surprise because from her experience in the SLRC, children prefered nonfiction. Phase 3 principals said teachers had a history of using fiction to promote reading and that nonfiction had been "left out of the elementary program." These principals agreed that this would turn around with more emphasis on science and because children enjoyed reading nonfiction.  Factors Affecting Collection Size The question was: "Are there factors at your grade level that account for the size of classroom collections?" The main factor affecting the size of classroom collections for Phase 1 classroom teachers was financial, "how much money you want to spend on your own." Of concern also was having enough trade books to meet a wide range of reading abilities. These teachers wanted to provide their students with enough trade books for "all the different reading levels they go through." Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers were consistent in their belief that the main factor affecting the size of classroom collections was the wide range of reading levels of their students. They felt a large quantity of books was needed if students were to find plenty of reading material at their reading level early in the school year and throughout the year as that level increased.  179 Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers stated that the themes from their curriculum and individual student interests were the two factors that affected the size of their classroom collections. Also mentioned was the fact that more teachers were moving to a literature-based program that required more books. Primary and intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers stated that the main factor influencing the size of classroom collections was the type of program the teacher uses. Literature-based or thematic approaches required many more trade books both for the core program and to supplement independent reading and back-up themes. Another factor given by some was trying to meet the wide range of reading levels and interests of their students. Teacher-librarians and principals were not asked this question since it related specifically to classroom teachers.  Possible Additions to Classroom Collections The question was: "In a perfect world where money was not a factor, how would you conceive of the classroom collection working as part of the classroom program at this grade level? What would be in it? What would it be like?" Phase 1 classroom teachers said there would be a lot more books, more of them would be hardcover and a wider variety of materials would be available. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers felt there would be many more books particularly to meet specific teaching needs.  180 such as "big books," sets of the same title, and books to support specific themes. These teachers also would buy hardcover books and add more shelving. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers would also buy many more books, particularly more fiction and nonfiction in specific subject areas. They also spoke of the need for more shelving, as well as "new, shiny books" that could replace the worn titles presently in classrooms. Phase 3 classroom teachers said that if money was not a factor they would have many more books and that they would be able to buy quality books that were hardcover and more durable. They could include the expensive trade books as well and not have to buy cheaply just to get more quantity. They would also like to have specialized books, such as big books and poetry collections, plus commercially prepared teacher materials to support activities generated by the books. Several spoke of using money to protect books and set up systems for managing and circulating classroom collections throughout a school. Teacher-librarians and principals were not asked this question since it related specifically to classroom teachers. However, they were asked to discuss generally the classroom collections in their schools. The question for teacherlibrarians and principals was "How would you describe the classroom collections in your school?" The Phase 1 teacher-librarian believed the grade one collections were very good and the grade twos "not bad."  181 However, for the other grades, it was more erratic and depended on the type of program teachers were trying to develop. The Phase 2 teacher-librarians said collection sizes ranged according to the type of program teachers had and the extent teachers were committed to literature-based programs. Some collections were very poor and "not very attractive to the children," while others had "a mini-library in their classrooms." The influence of the Department of Education's Holistic Approach program was mentioned as a factor in the size of classroom collections. Concerns were also expressed about the selection of materials for the classroom collections. The Phase 3 teacher-librarians described the classroom collections in their schools as "really good" and composed of mostly fiction that teachers feel the children would be interested in reading. They reported teachers spend a great deal of money on books "and their rooms are full of books". The use of the collections varied where "some people rely very heavily on them and have specific uses for them," while others "don't seem to be used as much." In response to the general question "how would you describe the classroom collections in your school?". Phase 1 principals reported there were many books in the classroom, most of them were fiction and soft-covered, and that they reflected the teachers' interest and philosophy.  182 Phase 2 principals said every class had one; some were large and some were small; the content was very similar in them all; and some teachers were spending a great deal of their own money on them. One principal recognized "a strong correlation between what was happening in the classroom collections and literature-based programs." Phase 3 principals described the classroom collections in their schools as "eclectic," mostly paperbacks chosen from book clubs, and mostly fiction. They expressed some concern that classroom collections "reflect the teacher too much," often depended on how much money the teacher was willing to spend and that "it doesn't necessarily meet the needs and interests of students."  Summary; Research Question One Reaction to the count of over 60,000 trade books ranged from general surprise among Phase 1 teachers and principals, to initial surprise among Phase 2 teachers and principals, but then confirmation that the number was true. Phase 3 teachers and principals showed little surprise because of the type of programs being developed. Teacher-librarians reacted with surprise that the number was so high. The main reason given for why teachers bought so much fiction was because the primary goal for language arts programs was reading for pleasure and everyone assumed that meant fiction. Teacher-librarians and Phase 3 respondents  183 recognized that this was changing as more teachers realized that students also enjoy nonfiction. Phase 1 and Phase 2 teachers felt there was no specific number that should be in classroom collections, but that teachers could never have too many. Phase 3 teachers agreed, but expressed more concern about the use and quality of trade books. Phase 1 and 2 teacher-librarians gave small numbers for what should be in a collection, while Phase 3 teacherlibrarians and most principals said there was no number. It depended on the type of program teachers developed. Phase 1 teachers said money and the variety of reading levels in the classroom were factors that affected the size of classroom collections. Phase 2 teachers said the range of reading levels and the themes developed were the key factors. Phase 3 teachers said the type of program being developed and students' reading levels and interests were the key factors. If was money was no object, all teachers said they would buy many more trade books. They would buy hardcover and better quality books. Phase 1 and 2 teacher-librarians described a wide variance in the classroom collections in their schools. They were mostly paperbacks, fiction and depended on the type of program developed by teachers. Phase 3 teacher-librarians described the classroom collections in their schools as very good, but mostly fiction and paperbacks. Principals said classroom collections were mostly fiction and varied in size according to the type of program teachers developed.  184  Sources of Trade Books Research Question Two The second research question was: What procedures do classroom teachers use to select fiction, nonfiction and poetry trade books for their classroom collections?  Interview Questions Results from the early analysis of the Surveys indicated teachers were spending a great deal of money out of their own pockets on trade books, so the reasons why teachers were willing to do this were probed. Survey data also indicated that many trade books were coming from commercial book clubs. The use of these book clubs and the quality of the books they offer were also explored. Procedures for selecting trade books were probed, as well as questions on the criteria used in selecting trade books and the importance of balancing trade book choices. How teacher-librarians support classroom teachers in their efforts to obtain trade books for their classroom collections was also discussed.  Why Teachers Spend their own Money The reasons classroom teachers spent their own money on trade books were discussed. The interview question was: "The Survey indicated that classroom teachers spent a great deal  185 of their own money on trade books. Why do you think teachers are willing to do this?" Phase 1 classroom teachers said teachers were willing to spend their own money on trade books basically "because you need them" and "you just have to do it." If teachers were not buying these trade books there would just not be enough available to run their programs. "It would be a very sorry state if we didn't." Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers said that they spent so much money on books because it gave them a sense of "daily satisfaction" to see a child show an interest in a book. It made teachers feel good "to see the satisfaction on the children's faces when they have the book..." that they provided for them. One teacher expressed this general sentiment well, "when you see a child loving to read and you feel that you have done something to create that, that keeps you wanting to keep going ahead and buying." A second reason given by several teachers in this group was being able to have the trade books readily available and that it "makes it much easier for you the teacher." Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers gave two reasons teachers spent their own money. First of all, it was "because they couldn't get the money any other way." Secondly, they had strong beliefs about the value of having many books for students, so they wanted to provide the feeling of having plenty of new books. Several teachers suggested "it's a kind  186 of belief or philosophy that goes with" their love of teaching. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers expressed a strong commitment to their type of program as being a key factor in why they spent so much of their own money on trade books. They were strongly convinced that the literature-based approach was working, but that in order to deliver this type of program, you needed many trade books. One teacher summed it up this way, "I don't feel I can do the program adequately unless the materials are there and I have to do what I can to get them." There was also a sense of professional pride and caring for children reflected in many of the teachers' responses. "It's just in us that we want to keep building and getting better." Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers also expressed a strong personal commitment to their students and their teaching as being the main reason they spent their own money. Teachers "realize that providing the environment motivates kids" and that there is a sense of personal satisfaction when you provided students with books they enjoyed. Teacher-librarians believed the main reason that teachers spend their own money on trade books was their strong personal belief in reading and literature. They said teachers find "it's very hard to instill a love of literature and of reading in children without lots of good resources available," so they spent their own money trying to provide the best for their students.  187 The principals generally gave the same reasons why they thought teachers were willing to spend so much of their own money on trade books. First of all, they recognized there was a need and if they didn't provide the books no one would. Secondly, it represented their firm commitment to teaching in a certain way and with a strong personal philosophy and professional attitude; they were "teachers by vocation and avocation." Thirdly, it represented their personal commitment to learning. "Those teachers who are learners themselves, the first learner in the classroom, are in there buying the books." And fourth, as a teacher "in elementary school, you're already a 'bookaphile' and so you buy books because you like them." Many teachers "pig out" and really buy many books to read.  The Use of Book Clubs All participants were asked several questions on the use of book clubs by classroom teachers. The interview questions were: (a) "The Survey showed that many books are purchased from Book Clubs or are taken as free selections. Do you agree?" (b) "Are you satisfied with the quality of choice from Book Clubs?" (c) "Are there other ways to use our free selections?" All Phase 1 classroom teachers indicated that they used book clubs, either Scholastic or Troll. They felt it was "an inexpensive way of getting books," but that they'd "like to see more variety" offered to meet wider reading levels. These  188 teachers used their free choices to find theme materials or they chose books at students' reading level. No suggestions were made for alternate ways of using these free choices. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers all reported that they used commercial book clubs on a regular basis. They were generally "really pleased with the selection that is there." They were active users of the free bonus points that they collected and used to order resource materials and/or paperback books for their collections. All teachers used the free selections for their own classroom collections only, although one teacher suggested maybe a grade level could get together and share the accumulated points. Intermediate Phase 2 teachers also reported they used book clubs every month. They had some misgivings about the quality of the materials offered and said "they were going downhill rather quickly." Several said they had written letters of complaint to the book club about too many non-book items and too many "horror novels" being offered for sale. These items seemed aimed at making money and made the book club "less weighted towards good books and good literature." Similar to their primary counterparts, the intermediate teachers used the free bonus points for filling out their own classroom collections, with only one teacher reporting that the grade level did hope to put their points together to purchase a class set of one particular novel. All Phase 3 classroom teachers reported that they purchased books from commercial book clubs and most said that  189 the quality was not consistent and varied from month to month. Some were concerned with the number of non-book items offered for sale. Everyone valued the free book choices as a good way of building their classroom collections, but they said they were using them up on books that were not of a great quality or interest to students. Several teachers mentioned they liked to pool their bonuses with others at their grade level to establish a class set or a text set of one title that everyone at the grade level could use. Teacher-librarians confirmed that classroom teachers were frequent supporters of commercial book clubs. They said "sometimes there are some very good choices for students," but that often the selection offered in book clubs was poor with many titles repeated over each month. A concern among teacher-librarians was the physical quality of the trade books purchased through book clubs with many of them having a very short life span in the hands of young children. It was recognized that the book clubs were so attractive to teachers because of the inexpensive price for books and the free bonuses offered. Teacher-librarians also expressed concern that, when one grade level was compared to another, many classroom collections were developing with many of the same titles. This resulted because there was not enough diversity in the choices offered from these book clubs. The choices were also described as commercialized and "faddy" so that "whatever is in vogue at the time is determining what the  190 students are reading and buying and what is also going into that collection." When discussing the use of the free choices teachers earn, teacher-librarians said there were alternative ways to use them. For example, free bonus points could be collected across a school or grade level and selections made for particular themes and special projects, or groups could get together to buy a class set of one title to be used for the particular grade. Principals were also asked to discuss some of the issues related to the use of book clubs in their schools. Phase 1 principals were concerned that the choices offered in book clubs were quite limited and teachers choose what is presented to them. They said teachers like the free bonuses, although there was a concern that everyone was buying the same titles. Phase 2 principals found that book clubs were used to a considerable extent by classroom teachers and that they were aware "that the quality is not always good." They pointed out however, that items were offered at a fair price and that parents were positive about them. They too expressed concern that grade level collections were developing with many of the same titles. Phase 3 principals had some concerns about the quality of books offered in book clubs, but they said the prices were good. Concern was also expressed that teachers "take what is offered" and are really not doing very much selection —  "if  191 they see something on a topic, they just buy it without looking at three or four on the topic and picking the best one." They recognized a need for teachers and the teacherlibrarian to work together on using free choices and in selecting materials from the flyers or the company catalogue.  Criteria for Selecting Trade Books Participants were asked to discuss the selecting of trade books for the classroom collection. The interview questions were: (a) "What are the major considerations you have before choosing a particular trade book for inclusion in your classroom collection?" (b) "Have you ever met with the teacher-librarian to choose trade books for classroom use? If yes, describe that experience." (c) "How does your teacherlibrarian help you develop your classroom collection?" For Phase 1 classroom teachers, the major consideration when choosing trade books for their classroom collections was the reading level of the material. Phase 1 classroom teachers indicated they did not meet with their teacher-librarian to choose trade books for their classroom collections. When asked this question, one participant said, "I could do that, but our teacher-librarian is only here part-time." Another didn't feel "the teacherlibrarian is very aware of the curriculum. So I know what I want and I just go and get it." Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers had several considerations they gave before choosing trade books, the  192 principal one being the "appearance of the book itself." They expressed interest in the illustrations and the covers of the books and said that children would not read a book that was not attractive. One teacher said "a child comes to my mind, when I'm choosing a book," so there was a concern to match the book with the child. A second major consideration for these primary teachers was how the book could be used in the language arts program, that is, it may help develop writing skills, have examples of phonic skills in it or suit the theme or topic being developed. All primary Phase 2 classroom teachers reported they did talk with their teacher-librarian about trade books for their classrooms and these meetings could be informal discussions about new books or more formal sessions where a theme was being discussed. Their teacher-librarians suggested titles in the current flyer of a book club or ordered titles to support the classroom themes. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers took into consideration several factors when choosing trade books for their classroom collections. Their main concern seemed to be literature. They were choosing what they "think is good literature" and what they "don't think the children would pick themselves." Authors that were familiar to the teachers and students were also given consideration. As well as this concern with literature, teachers mentioned the desire to meet a variety of reading abilities and interests.  193 Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers were split on the issue of meeting the teacher-librarian for help in choosing books for the classroom. Three said they never did, while the other three said they talk "all the time" with the teacher-librarian, who was "always suggesting titles" and supporting them with new ideas for books. These meetings were often informal but they sat down at grade level meetings and shared ideas and new books. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers were primarily concerned with the reading level of trade books when they considered them for purchase. "The reading level, that's number one" was a common response. Other factors considered were theme, student interest and the price and quality of the book under consideration. Several teachers mentioned the spontaneous way some books were chosen. They spotted and recognized "that's exactly what might fit a certain student or certain theme." All of the primary Phase 3 teachers reported they met regularly with the teacher-librarian about trade books for the classroom. These meetings were centred on up-coming themes and were held once a month or more. These teachers commented on the "good communication" they had with their teacher-librarian and the "system" in place for getting trade books. Some planned their themes so not all classes at the grade level needed the resources at the same time. Another said their planning was "very reflective and when we choose a theme, we often do it in concurrence with what is available."  194 Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers considered several factors when choosing trade books for their classroom collections. First, they chose books by authors they were familiar with and books they felt were "good literature." Second, they looked at the reading level of the text and finally they looked for books that matched the themes they would cover that year. Most of the intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers stated they met informally with the teacher-librarian about trade books for the classroom collection. These discussions centred around new books offered at book fairs and themes being developed in the classrooms. The teacher-librarian might set up in the SLRC a display of trade books on the theme or the author being studied and students at the grade level had access to them. These teachers reported "a lot of communication about trade books". For this set of interview questions, teacher-librarians were asked about meeting with classroom teachers to choose books for their classroom collections. They were also asked to suggest what classroom teachers should consider when selecting trade books for their classroom collections. The Phase 1 teacher-librarian reported that she doesn't meet with classroom teachers about choosing books for classroom collections and she had no suggestions to make to them about what they need to consider when choosing books. The Phase 2 teacher-librarians reported that their meeting tends to be "really informal." Classroom teachers  195 came to the teacher-librarian to suggest books to buy, to find out about a specific author or to find out about books offered at the school book fair. There were several selection procedures that Phase 2 teacher-librarians said classroom teachers should be more aware of when they select books. First of all, they needed to balance what they are buying to include more nonfiction, and second, they needed to recognize that they just can't buy the book because it was written by a recognized author. They were advised not to select "on a whim" but to "carefully plan it out" much like the teacherlibrarian has to do. Phase 3 teacher-librarians stated they met with classroom teachers to talk about books to order, usually when there was a book fair and teachers wanted suggestions of things to buy. These teacher-librarians said that they had tried to make their teachers "more aware of the process we go through when we're choosing books" for the SLRC. The teacherlibrarians said that classroom teachers used very informal, "browsing" methods to choose trade books and tended to choose from what is offered to them. However, the teacher-librarians felt that classroom teachers are improving in their selection skills and are choosing "a preferred author" or theme or reading level rather than being unduly influenced by the cover or "a cute story."  Balancing Trade Book Choices  196 The issue of balancing trade book choices to match program and student needs was also discussed. The interview question asked was: "How important do you feel it is to balance the contents of the classroom collection to include a variety of types of trade books, interest levels and reading abilities?" Phase 1 classroom teachers did not consider balance to be a major concern. They indicated that the classroom teachers used a "more haphazard" approach and they "go back to what they are comfortable with" when choosing books. Many teachers "just take what they can get" so they had something on the themes they taught. They didn't say "I won't take this because it isn't really appropriate. You just take whatever." Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers were primarily concerned with balancing trade book types within the themes they did with their students. So if they did a theme on animals they may use mostly factual books, while one on dinosaurs may have some fiction and nonfiction. They also tried to balance for different reading levels. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers said that "the constant struggle is to try to balance the reading level and the interest level" of their students. When discussing the issue of balance, primary Phase 3 classroom teachers were mostly concerned about balancing the types of books students were reading. They emphasized the link between reading and writing fiction and nonfiction by suggesting if "you want them to be able to write in both  197 areas, you have to read in both areas." They tried to balance their needs for factual material with books from the SLRC. Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers spoke of wanting to "broaden the scope" of students' reading and how balance "has a lot to do with your objectives in the curriculum." One teacher emphasized "that you are not just developing their reading ability in terms of getting higher, but you are also broadening it" to include different fiction genre and nonfiction. Several intermediate teachers mentioned how they see the SLRC as helping them balance their collections particularly in the area of factual materials. Teacher-librarians and principals were not asked this question.  How Teacher-Librarians Support Trade Book Selection The interview question was: "The Survey showed that the school library also supplies many trade books for the classroom. How does the teacher-librarian help you provide for trade books in the classroom collection?" Phase 1 classroom teachers indicated that their teacherlibrarian helped them provide trade books for their classrooms. The time restraints of the teacher-librarian were mentioned as something that kept them from asking too often, but they all indicated that if they wanted something for their classroom they simply went and asked and "she'll pull a whole section for you and she'll put them on display." The teacher-librarian was asked "to be on the lookout" for any  198 books on the theme that the classroom teacher requests. Also, one participant indicated that when the school was given free books for holding a book fair, the teacher-librarian "was usually very good at allowing each class to have some free books." Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers met with their teacher-librarians to discuss up-coming themes and the teacher-librarians pulled trade books and other resources to support the theme. As well as resources to support the theme, a research project could be designed to go with the theme. The teacher-librarian also tried to find out what other topics the classroom teacher needed help with. They might add an extra book exchange to have students come and find books on a new topic; they might teach information skills within the theme; and they might set up displays of trade books. The teacher-librarian was used as "an excellent support" to the classroom teacher's program. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers did not indicate any coordinated method for meeting with the teacher-librarian for planning. They met informally to tell the teacherlibrarian what theme was coming up and the teacher-librarian got a variety of materials for the teacher. The teacherlibrarian would anticipate an up-coming theme and gather materials, hold a special book exchange to supply students with books and generally "scrounge around" to find all sorts of support materials for the classroom.  199 Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers stated that the teacher-librarian "helps us with every theme." They discussed how they "get together and talk about particular things we can do together" and how teacher-librarians supplied trade books for their theme work. They spoke of how themes were planned according to the resources available and how teacherlibrarians set up displays of materials for grade levels to use in the SLRC or in the classroom. Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers also got help from the teacher-librarian when planning themes. Teacherlibrarians collected and displayed theme books in the SLRC and/or provided access to materials through sets of materials that move in and out of classrooms. Several teachers stressed the importance of establishing regular planning times so they could "coordinate library services with teachers' programs. We have to have that time for conversation and it has to be structured in." Teacher-librarians were asked how they provided trade books for the classroom collections and how the SLRC could better assist teachers in providing trade books for the classroom. The Phase 1 teacher-librarian spoke of having to approach the classroom teachers "to see what they are working on." The teacher-librarian then tried to find things to go with that topic and provided them for the classrooms. This person would like to see teachers give more advanced notice as to what they were doing and when they wanted the books.  200 The Phase 2 teacher-librarians reported they had handled many requests from classroom teachers to supply trade books to meet their curriculum needs. Some requests came informally, while others happened at planning sessions. Classroom teachers no longer asked the teacher-librarian to "just give me some books for my classroom," but they met to discuss their specific needs and selected books to address those needs. They reported supplying a great deal of nonfiction for research projects and other information needs. As far as better assisting their classroom teachers, the Phase 2 teacher-librarians recognized the value of planning time to foresee the trade book need and to make connections between the classroom and SLRC. The automated library system was also seen as having great potential for improving the ability of the SLRC to meet the demands for trade books. The Phase 3 teacher-librarians described a very dynamic and complex system for supplying students and teachers with trade books. Through cooperative program planning, theme materials were determined and supplied either in a SLRC display where students came individually or in groups to select books or directly into the classroom collections where students did individual research or teachers used the trade books for instruction. Some of the books then came back out of the classroom and were used as the teacher-librarian instructed students in various information skills. Trade books served multi-purposes and were used in several places within the school. Better services were being supplied all  201 the time because of library automation facilities and the continued growth of the cooperative planning process among teachers and teacher-librarians.  Summary; Research Question Two Phase 1 classroom teachers and principals said the main reason teachers spent their own money for trade books was because they saw a need and if they didn't do it there would be no books. The other respondents said it was because of strong beliefs in their programs and a strong personal commitment to reading. All respondents used commercial book clubs regularly. Most had concerns about the quality and variety of materials offered. Teachers liked the free bonuses and saw these book clubs as inexpensive ways to build classroom collections. Teacher-librarians had concerns about the quality of the selection in book clubs, the quality of format, the repetition and how collections were developing with basically the same titles. Primary teachers considered the reading level of the books, the appeal of the book and the use they could make of them in their program when deciding to buy a book. Intermediate teachers considered mostly the quality of the literature and the reading level. Teacher-librarians suggested that classroom teachers needed to try for more balance in their collections and had to plan their choices rather than picking on impulse. Phase 3 teacher-librarians  202 added that teachers needed to be more aware of the selection process they went through when choosing books. Some classroom teachers and teacher-librarians reported no meetings took place for choosing trade books, while others met informally and put many demands on the SLRC for assistance. Phase 3 classroom teachers and teacher-librarians reported a formal system to meet and discuss themes and to choose trade books. Phase 1 classroom teachers had no concerns about balancing trade book choices, while Phase 2 teachers tried to balance book types, reading levels and reading interests. Phase 3 classroom teachers balanced book types to broaden the scope of students' reading. When discussing how the teacher-librarian supported the classroom teacher in providing trade books for the classroom. Phase 1 classroom teachers reported no help, while the teacher-librarian spoke of having to approach classroom teachers to find out what their needs were. Phase 2 classroom teachers met informally with  teacher-librarians about their  needs and supplied the trade books. Some formal meetings also took place to plan theme work. Phase 3 classroom teachers and teacher-librarians stressed the value of the planning times. They met to plan for themes and to choose trade books.  Organization and Management of Classroom Collections Research Question Three  203 The third research question was: How are primary and intermediate grade classroom collections organized for student use?  Interview Questions Results from the analysis of the Surveys indicated that classroom teachers displayed trade books and set up the classroom collection as a distinctive place in the classroom. They also had a wide variety of furniture and storage facilities for housing their trade books. The interviews probed how classroom teachers organized the classroom collection for student use, and the impact that the physical layout of the collection had on its use.  The Organization of Classroom Collections The way classroom teachers arranged and organized the trade books in their classroom collections was probed with this interview question: "Some teachers have a group of books that are permanent in their room and another group of materials that are borrowed for certain periods of time. How is your collection organized?" Most Phase 1 classroom teachers did not speak of any structure or organization being given to their collections. It was basically "mine," just their personal collection with some "extra library materials we take in." One participant  204 said her collection consisted of a core set of books, theme books and some student books. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers organized their collections by theme and by the source of the trade books. They reported having boxes of books on a theme that they took out when they needed them and put away at the end of the theme. They also had trade books drawn from different sources, such as the SLRC, the public library, the district library and from their students' collections at home. Some teachers reported they kept all these books separated by the source, while others put them all into one "whole collection."  Trade books from sources outside the classroom  were not usually sent home with students, while those that were permanently part of the teachers' classroom collections were signed out by students to take home. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers did not "have a plan of any sort" for organizing their trade books, although a few reported they kept theme books on one shelf. They had a general collection of books from book clubs, book fairs or that they purchased from other sources and these were not organized in any way. A few also reported they kept a small collection of personal books behind their desk and took them out only when the theme was being discussed. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers organized their collections by the source of the trade books and/or by the use they make of the books. Some kept theme-related trade books in one section, author study books in another and then  205 a general mix of books in another section. These books were used for reading practice in the classroom or at home. Some teachers had very detailed organizational and procedural structures in place so that "physical arrangement in terms of manageability" became a factor. These collections had trade books coming in all the time, while others were stored or returned. Easier reading material was out in September and replaced as students' reading levels increase. Theme materials were collected in one area and students used reading records to track what they had read. Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers also organized their collections according to the way the different components fit into their curriculum. They had a "group of books that are just there" for students to take for independent reading. They had "personal ones" that had limited circulation and theme materials that were taken from various sources and that "are changing all the time." One teacher said "it should be structured like a miniature version of the library," while another said "it is a library in itself." They saw a link between the way the collection is organized and the interest it generated amongst the students. One teacher said "you need to think about what a library is, what a collection is and it should function in the same way." The Phase 1 teacher-librarian did not notice much organization in the classroom collections in that school, although the grade one classes categorized the books by  206 author. The other grades just kept the books in one corner of the room with little or no organization. Phase 2 teacher-librarians reported that many teachers in their schools had racks and shelves for displaying books and that the books that belonged to the teacher were not organized in any structured way, but that books from sources outside the classroom were kept in separate areas and often highlighted by theme or author. One teacher-librarian commented that "most of them think of it as being more organized than it actually is." Most classroom teachers would not refer to their books as a library, but they would "think of them as a specialized collection" that they used for instruction. The Phase 3 teacher-librarians referred to classroom teachers as having "a personal collection" of trade books that they owned and had gathered from various sources and then groups of learning resources "that come and go" from the school library, public library and the district library. The personal collection could be highly organized with a system for circulating the books or it could be very haphazardly placed on shelves and tables. One teacher-librarian also said that primary teachers "have that very personal affinity to their collection more so than the upper elementary people." Bringing in the group of learning resources from outside sources "radically changes your collection because it gives it a focus." They were often kept in a separate area and highlighted with signs or posters.  207 Principals were not asked this question.  The Affects of the Physical Layout of the Collection The ways classroom collections were presented for student use were discussed with this interview question: "How do the physical look, the organization or the set-up of the classroom collection affect the way it is used in classroom programs?" All Phase 1 classroom teachers said that the appearance of the classroom collection did have an affect on how often students used the trade books. It was important to "make it look attractive" and to "have displays out." Changing the displays and showing the covers of the books were also indicated as important things to do. All Phase 2 classroom teachers indicated that the appearance of the classroom collection had an affect on the use it got. Primary Phase 2 teachers spent a great deal of time and energy setting up displays, exhibiting the covers of books and highlighting special books and authors in an effort to promote reading among their students. Intermediate Phase 2 teachers agreed the look of the classroom collection would have an effect, but admitted they did not do as much to set up displays and/or highlight books. All Phase 3 classroom teachers agreed that the way a classroom collection was set up affects the use that children make of the trade books. Primary teachers said the way books were displayed affected "students' response" and a good  208 display was a way "to build excitement in the children." They highlighted particular books and used signs or posters to draw students' attention. Intermediate Phase 3 teachers also spent time displaying and presenting trade books with covers showing, since it was "much more appealing to the child." Teacher-librarians agreed that the way books were displayed affected the use they got by students. "The more attractive the display was or the more organized it was, the more students will go to use it." Several teacher-librarians commented on the condition of the books as also being a factor. "If the cover is ripped or if the cover is gone, they [the students] don't care how good the story is." Principals were not asked this question.  Summary; Research Question Three Classroom teachers indicated that classroom collections were organized or structured in various ways. Classroom collections had personal books that teachers had purchased and collected from various sources and groups of trade books organized by theme or by where the books came from or by the use the teachers made of them in class. Personal books were usually in one location and theme books would be highlighted in another section. Phase 1 teachers said very little about the organization of their collections, while Phase 2 and 3 teachers discussed in detail how the various components of the collections were structured.  209 Teacher-librarians described little organization in Phase 1 classroom collections, while Phase 2 teacherlibrarians described them as "specialized collections" serving particular needs. Phase 3 teacher-librarians said the classroom collections had two components, a personal collection of teachers' trade books and groups of learning resources gathered from several library sources. All participants agreed that how a classroom collection was organized and presented to students had a positive affect on students' use of trade books. Classroom teachers discussed spending time arranging and highlighting books in various ways. Intermediate teachers admitted they spent less time than was really needed to do this well. Teacher-librarians added a concern about the physical look and condition of individual books as also affecting how appealing they were.  Uses for the Classroom Collection Research Question Four The fourth research question was: How are primary and intermediate grade classroom collections used as part of the school curriculum?  Interview Questions Results from the analysis of the Survey indicated teachers were using their classroom collections in differing ways. The interviews probed the purposes for classroom collections in the curriculum, how they were used for reading  210 programs and in the content areas, and how they helped teachers develop the goals of reading for information and reading for pleasure. The interview questions were focused slightly differently for teacher-librarians and principals and the results from these participants are presented in a separate section below.  The Purposes of Classroom Collections- Classroom Teachers A general interview question was used to stimulate discussion on how classroom teachers conceptualized classroom collections: "What do you think the purposes of a classroom collection are at your grade level?" Primary Phase 1 classroom teachers said the purpose of a trade book collection was that "[I]t gives the children a wide range of what's available in literature" and that it helped them make "a wise decision about what they can and can't read and what they do and do not enjoy." Accessibility to a wide range of quality children's literature was seen as important for young readers. Intermediate Phase 1 classroom teachers said their collections were principally "to promote reading especially during extra time." Students needed trade books when they had free time or had finished their class work. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers said that the classroom collection was central in their language arts program. "My books are my teaching tools," was how one teacher described the collection. Most said they were using  211 these books to teach reading and writing skills, and as material for students to practice those skills. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers referred to this collection of trade books as providing their students with access to a wide variety of books for their supplementary reading. They said they helped promote reading and turned students on to reading. One teacher reported the collection was used as the core reading material of the reading program. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers said that the purpose of a classroom collection was "basically as exposure" to a "variety of reading materials at different levels." Having many trade books readily accessible in the classroom helped "to motivate and build an interest in reading." Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers described the purpose for having a classroom collection as providing materials "to encourage children to read." These teachers said "[T]he trade books are there to provide a freedom of choice for the children to use" and to extend their themes.  The Purposes of Classroom Collections- Teacher-Librarians and Principals Since principals and teacher-librarians worked with all grade levels, slightly different questions were asked of them concerning the purpose of classroom collections. Teacher-librarians were asked to discuss how they conceived of the classroom collections as part of the curriculum. They also discussed the role of classroom  212 collections in relation to the school library and how classroom teachers in their school think of these collections. The Phase 1 teacher-librarian summed up the way classroom teachers felt about their classroom collections this way: "If they're into themes and if they're into whole language and if they're into a very creative curriculum, then their collection is very important to them." Classroom collections in this school supported the curriculum but were used mostly to encourage reading for enjoyment. The Phase 2 teacher-librarians would like to see the classroom collection more integrated into the curriculum. Many classroom teachers in these schools were collecting a large number of trade books, but teacher-librarians didn't feel "they're being careful enough" in what they select. Teacher-librarians said they were "outside...trying to get in" when it comes to helping classroom teachers select for their classroom. It was described as "their little domain" and some were very possessive of what they had. Some classroom teachers were happy with what they had, some didn't really care to build a very large collection and others "never have enough." Most of the them used the books "for free reading, for student choices" while some used them to "support what they're doing in their themes." One teacherlibrarian said intermediate teachers used the books "more for reading for enjoyment," while primary teachers used them for read alouds and "as jump-offs for getting into other areas."  213 Phase 3 teacher-librarians described classroom collections and the SLRC collection as "complementing each other" and focusing on the same curriculum topics. When it was time to plan for a theme at a particular grade level, the two collections come together to supply materials for the students. One teacher-librarian said "in our school we tend to look at resources as a whole, that we all contribute to it"• Another teacher-librarian described her school as moving in that direction where the teacher-librarian and the classroom teachers came together and "we're going to focus on this and we pull it all together." These teacher-librarians saw a need for a sharing of selection goals and that both collections were chosen more for a specific purpose. Some of the classroom teachers had developed a broader perspective on the role of the classroom collection and how they selected books for it while others were not making any connection between their classroom collection and what they're doing in terms of curriculum." One teacher-librarian said that just as "the centralized library has evolved from being a small collection of recreational titles and a few essential other titles into something that supports what is happening in that school," so too did classroom collections have to move into being more consciously considered as part of the overall curriculum. Principals were asked to discuss how they conceived of the classroom collections as part of the curriculum. They also discussed the role of classroom collections in relation  214 to the school library and how their classroom teachers think of those collections. Phase 1 principals stated that the role of classroom collections was "to embellish" and "to augment" the reading program and "to generate and create interest in reading." Classroom collections could supplement the basal reading series or "add on to the literature-centred curriculum." Phase 2 principals spoke of classroom collections as "very important" especially if "you're promoting reading." If you are into literature-based programs, "you have to have books readily available." These principals spoke of great demands from their classroom teachers for money to buy trade books for their collections. They said that if teachers were not given the books they could not be expected to do the program. Phase 3 principals described classroom collections as part of the curriculum and they were "necessary, but secondary rather than primary." They "were fulfilling the role once done by basal readers," but they also expanded that role "by acting as jumping off points for further exploration of language and ideas." In the primary grades, "they surround the children with books" and they led "to further access to more books in the school library." While discussing the role of classroom collections in relation to the SLRC, Phase 1 principals said their classroom teachers saw "their classroom collections as libraries within their classrooms" but the "SLRC is still the umbrella." The  215 SLRC allowed for "universality of accessibility" and classroom collections represented a very "subjective response" on the part of classroom teachers. Phase 2 principals described the two collections as "very complementary" with "the school library in support of the classroom with a lot of books. In classrooms with no books, "the library is the mainstay." These principals said some teachers saw the school library "as the research end of things" and since "we're into reading here, we have a classroom collection." These principals reported their classroom teachers got many materials from the school library "and in that way the library collection becomes part of the classroom collection." Several principals discussed how some of their teachers were more cooperative with the SLRC program while others "are still not cooperative in their thinking" about working with the teacher-librarian within the SLRC program. The Phase 3 principals stated that the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC "depends on the philosophy of the school." They said there was more concern in their schools about what was going on at the grade level, the consistency of programs and the cooperative relationship between the teacher-librarian and the classroom teachers. One principal said "the classroom collection should create a hunger for more, the more that comes from the SLRC." Classroom collections and the SLRC "are the same from the point of view of providing books for students," but that  216 "[J]ust as teacher-librarians are not to be isolated with their collections, so it is for classroom teachers." Ownership for these principals went beyond the person: "it's an attitude; it's a philosophy; it's a way of thinking... ." These principals also expressed very strong opinions about the centralization of trade books that all members of staff could share. When discussing how their classroom teachers conceived of their collections. Phase 1 principals said that the "most avid ones about classroom collections are the avid whole language people," while others just needed books for silent reading. They said primary teachers were "more militant about gathering books" than intermediate teachers and they were clearer as to why they were doing it. Phase 2 principals said that their classroom teachers considered their classroom collections as very important. They knew their curriculum well and they saw the classroom collection "as a part of their overall program." These principals reported a great deal of sharing among their classroom teachers and with the teacher-librarian when choosing materials for classrooms. They said their teachers were moving away from seeing the "library just as a place to supply books —  it's a curriculum concept." These Phase 2  principals said their primary teachers had more "easy books" while intermediate teachers matched their collection more to the themes they do. Primary teachers wanted "lots of books.  217 lots of stories" while intermediate teachers "match to the student interest and their curriculum." Phase 3 principals stated that their classroom teachers were "very committed" to their classroom collections and that they were "busy adding to them." They reported much more sharing among their classroom teachers than ever before, with some teachers working very collaboratively with the teacherlibrarian in the whole area of resources. One principal said that "the more they [classroom teachers] have internalized the role of the SLRC, the more they let go and use books from all sources."  Uses Within the Reading Program The ways classroom teachers used trade books for reading instruction were probed with these interview questions: (a) "The Survey showed that trade books are used a lot in place of or along with Expressways. How are you using trade books in your reading program?" (b) "How are you using them for content areas like science, social studies and health?" Primary Phase 1 classroom teachers used trade books most often for teaching reading but they did use the provincial basal series at times. Children read trade books from the classroom collection in class and at home. In the content areas, these teachers reported they did use trade books some times, but "we don't focus a lot on them." Intermediate Phase 1 teachers used the provincial basal reading series most of the time and supplemented it with two  218 or three novels and/or author studies a year. Trade books were used to encourage students to read independently. In the content areas, these teachers reported they sometimes used books from the SLRC to help develop content areas, but these uses were not planned or organized. One respondent summed it up with "I just grab and get whatever I can." Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers organized their reading program under themes and they used trade books either exclusively or in partnership with the provincial basal series. This basal program acted as a guide for the skills that should be taught, while the theme provided a focus for interest and motivation. Many teachers said the literature in the trade books was better and that they could use the trade books to teach most of the skills required. Many spoke of "buddy reading" systems where students read to each other and "home reading" programs where books from the classroom collection were taken home to read. In the content areas, primary Phase 2 teachers spoke of trying to integrate science and social studies within the theme and of using trade books to read aloud and present new content to students. They reported working with the teacherlibrarian on small research projects and of using the trade books for developing information skills. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers used the provincial reading program to varying degrees. One teacher reported, "All teachers are at varying stages of development in the use of trade books." Most followed the basal series  219 and added several novel studies or author studies to their repertoire. Trade books were used for read alouds, and "to turn them [students] on to reading and say that reading is important and it's enjoyable." They also provided supplementary reading materials. In the content areas, intermediate teachers used the prescribed textbook most of all, but added trade books to highlight certain content areas and to provide supplementary material for reading on a topic in science or social studies. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers used the provincial basal reading series as a basic organizational tool for structuring their themes and deciding the skills that were to be taught. The theme was developed and supported through various trade books. These books were used for home reading, shared reading, "buddy reading," silent reading and reading conferences. In the content areas, these primary Phase 3 teachers used a single trade book on a specialized topic to teach science concepts that were usually integrated within the theme developed in language arts. Some textbook programs were being used for health and social studies and these programs used trade books for support and reinforcement of concepts. Trade books were also drawn into the content areas when research projects were assigned to students. Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers reported they used the basal series "if a particular story fits the theme" they were developing but they didn't go through the series  220 story by story. Trade books supplemented and helped develop the theme and were used in literature circles and for independent reading. In the content areas, these intermediate Phase 3 teachers relied on the SLRC to help support science and social studies textbooks with trade books. Research projects and information skills were developed in cooperation with the teacher-librarian. Teacher-librarians and principals were not asked the questions related specifically to reading programs.  Reading for Pleasure and Reading for Information The two areas of reading for pleasure and reading for information were discussed with the interview question: "How do the trade books in your classroom collection support your goals of reading for enjoyment and reading for information?" Primary Phase 1 classroom teachers said that "a trade book is much more literature rich than a basal reader," so they helped develop the goal of reading for pleasure. Reading for information, on the other hand, was described as "something we ignore a lot and that we shouldn't" and was not given a big priority at this level. Intermediate Phase 1 classroom teachers described a large quantity and wide variety of trade books as very important to have in order to develop a love of reading. One person described it like this: "if you have enough books out and around, at some point in time a child is going to pick a  221 book up and the light will come on... . You just have to wait for that to happen."  The basic reason for having trade books  was to support the goal of reading for enjoyment. Using trade books from the classroom collection to support the goal of reading for information was not mentioned by any intermediate Phase 1 teacher. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers saw reading for information and reading for pleasure more closely linked. They tried to provide students with plenty of opportunities to read independently for both purposes in the classroom and at home. They said trade books make "it a lot more exciting for the students to actually want to learn to read".  They  "bring in such a variety of information, such a variety of imaginative ideas, that it makes it very exciting and very interesting." Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers thought trade books helped to promote reading and make it a part of students' daily lives. Teachers said they felt they were changing in their roles, more "towards a motivator," as someone who encouraged and promoted reading. They developed a classroom collection so they could encourage students to read and "by controlling the quality, and having good literature there, it sells itself." Two teachers talked about how the two goals of reading for information and reading for pleasure "are not separated" and that you must give students choice in their reading.  222 Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers believed that providing trade books in the classroom motivated children to read for pleasure. Trade books helped meet a variety of reading interests and they made it "easier to meet the information needs of students." Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers also recognized trade books as an important way to develop reading for pleasure. It was seen as "a life skill" and that by providing a wide variety of trade books we were teaching students that "reading is going to continue through their life." We also taught them that they will "access trade books at libraries in the future" for their pleasurable reading and for their information needs. These intermediate teachers also reported using the SLRC to supplement the information reading of their students. Teacher-librarians and principals were not asked the questions about reading for information and for enjoyment.  Summary: Research Question Four Most classroom teachers said the purposes of classroom collections were to provide access to a wide range of literature and to promote reading. Many saw the collection as integral to their teaching. Teacher-librarians said classroom collections were principally to promote reading. Phase 2 teacher-librarians said they support curriculum in more fully integrated ways. Phase 3 teacher-librarians said classroom collections worked  223 more closely with the SLRC to support thematic work in classrooms and to promote reading. Principals said the purposes of classroom collections were to promote reading and support the curriculum. Phase 3 principals said they filled the role of basal readers and were more integrated into school programs. Principals also discussed the role of classroom collections in relation to the SLRC. Phase 1 principals said the classroom collections represented "a personal response" on the part of classroom teachers, while Phase 2 principals said they "complement each other." Some teachers used the classroom collection to promote reading and the SLRC for research. Phase 3 principals said the relationship depended on the school's philosophy. The classroom collection should not develop in isolation from the whole school program, but with consistency at grade levels and cooperation between classroom teachers and teacher-librarians. Principals discussed how classroom teachers conceived of their classroom collections. Phase 1 principals saw a link between teachers' professed beliefs about literature and their avid use of classroom collections. Phase 2 principals said teachers were beginning to see connections across grades and with the SLRC in the use and development of classroom collections. They said primary teachers wanted many books, easily accessible, while intermediate teachers matched collections closely to student interests and curriculum topics. Phase 3 principals said classroom collections were  224 very important to teachers. The more they understand the role of the SLRC, the more they shared and worked collaboratively. Classroom teachers discussed the use of trade books in reading programs. Most teachers structured their programs around themes and used the basal reading series to guide the skills appropriate for each grade level. Primary teachers used trade books for teaching reading, independent reading and promoting reading. Intermediate teachers used the basal series more often, but used trade books for literature studies and independent reading. In the content areas, textbooks were the main materials used. Trade books supplemented the teaching of concepts, provided extra reading or supported research projects. Primary teachers used trade books more often for content teaching. Intermediate teachers relied heavily on content area textbooks and used trade books for extra reading and research projects. Classroom teachers discussed how trade books supported reading for pleasure and reading for information. Phase 1 classroom teachers said that a large quantity and variety of trade books were needed to promote reading. They admitted not emphasizing trade books enough when reading for information. Phase 2 classroom teachers said there should be closer ties between the two goals. Trade books helped promote reading and make it part of daily life. They emphasized how effective a literature-rich environment was to promote reading. Phase 3 classroom teachers said trade books promoted reading as "a life skill" for both, pleasure and information needs.  225 The Relationship Between Classroom Collections and the SLRC Research Questions Five and Six Two research questions guided the exploration of the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC: (Question 5) What is the relationship between primary and intermediate grade classroom collections and the SLRC in schools with SLRC programs that are partially or fully integrated into the school curriculum? and (Question 6) What specific factors inhibit and enhance the relationship between primary and intermediate classroom collections and the SLRC?  Interview Questions All classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals who were interviewed were asked the same list of questions. These questions probed how teacher-librarians and classroom teachers can work together to provide trade books, the debate between centralized and decentralized trade book collections, funding issues, new curriculum endeavors and what factors inhibit and enhance the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC.  Classroom Teachers and Teacher-Librarians Working Together The first major topic centred on classroom teachers and teacher-librarians cooperating to provide trade books for the curriculum. The interview question was: "Everyone says having lots of trade books is essential to today's literacy programs. A lot of the responsibility for providing these  226 trade books falls to classroom teachers and teacherlibrarians. How can the classroom teacher and the teacherlibrarian work together to provide students with access to trade books?" Phase 1 classroom teachers said it was necessary for classroom teachers to tell the teacher-librarian what themes they would be covering each year, so the teacher-librarian could order more books on that topic and so the teacherlibrarian would have ample time to answer classroom teachers' requests. One teacher summed it up by saying "give her a date and a starting time and then she might be able to pull things together." The fact that the teacher-librarian set up a book fair was also seen as something that really helped the classroom teacher. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers said the key factor in the teacher-librarian and the classroom teachers working together to provide trade books for students was the contact and communication between the two. They said that "sitting down and planning a particular theme" was a time when they work together. Several teachers mentioned cooperative program planning as the way they tried to do it in their school. It was suggested that the teacher-librarian had a responsibility in this area and that classroom teachers also had a responsibility to work with the teacher-librarian so that "the budget is used wisely" and the best resources would be found.  227 Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers said that "planning sessions" between classroom teachers and teacherlibrarians were the key if they were to work together. At these sessions, up-coming themes could be discussed as well as resource needs for other years. Several teachers expressed the feeling that these meetings needed to be done by grade level to help build consistency across the grade and to prevent duplication. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers said that there already was a great deal of working together by classroom teachers and their teacher-librarians through their planning sessions. They said that realizing "the importance of the librarian and having a good relationship with this person" was an important first step. "Good communication" between the teacher-librarian and the classroom teachers was needed to plan together what resources we need. These teachers also emphasized the fact that this relationship would be even more important in the future as we tried to meet the needs of students. Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers said the two were working together at their schools and they emphasized the need for "strong communication" in order to maintain that relationship. They discussed working together with the teacher-librarian to order trade books for the SLRC that supported the themes in the classrooms and the reading interests of students.  228 The Phase 1 teacher-librarian said that more discussion was needed across the school, but their school was "just at the very beginning" of such a system. Phase 2 teacher-librarians said they "would like to see more communication between the two of us so that we can have better selection and no duplication." They said some teachers were willing and ready to work together with the teacherlibrarian since "they know exactly the goals and objectives of the themes" they wanted to do. They said they needed to make themselves available and accessible to teachers and that they worked first with those that seemed ready for it. Phase 3 teacher-librarians also described communication and cooperation as key elements, but added the need "to have some mutual understanding about how those collections were going to develop." Long range planning was seen as very important so that when they agreed on what theme or topic would be developed, both the classroom teacher and the teacher-librarian could select materials to support that particular curriculum. As well as the strong communication system established to develop both of these collections. Phase 3 teacher-librarians mentioned the need for consistent financial support to build better centralized collections, as well as the classroom ones. Principals were also asked to discuss how classroom teachers and the teacher-librarian could work together to provide access to trade books. The Phase 1 principals said that the focus and vision needed for the role of the teacher-  229 librarian had to be articulated and promoted across the school. Once that was done, the teacher-librarian "needs to get in there and find out what's going on" with the classroom teachers. Both of these principals described their schools as being at the very beginning of developing the role of the SLRC. At this point, they saw very little discussion between classroom teachers and the teacher-librarian about "books needed for a particular program" or any "planning for the collection development." Phase 2 principals described the benefits of the teacher-librarian and classroom teachers "working together in the curriculum planning themes" and that the relationship depended "on constant dialogue." They said it depended on "establishing right off, what the role of the teacherlibrarian is" and that "it's part of a professional development issue." They described how "the teacher-librarian was better able to choose quality literature because of reviews" and access to other selection tools, "but the classroom teacher knows the kids well and what fits her [sic] program." Together then, they could use their strengths to find the best trade books for the programs. Issues related to staffing, time allotment to the position of teacherlibrarian, as well as the personality of the teacherlibrarian as an assertive person "willing to really get in there" were also listed as factors that affected what happens with the cooperative model.  230 Phase 3 principals gave a very strong endorsement of the collaborative model of the teacher-librarian and classroom teachers working together to plan for resources to be used for the curriculum. "The clearer the vision of the teacherlibrarian and the whole concept of the SLRC, the more likely a collaborative model for providing resources will develop." In these schools, the two partners "consult with each other" and "make their selections based on the program" and student interests. The principals said that "by sitting down and planning the choosing together, we do a better job."  Centralized and Decentralized Collections The second major topic centred on the debate between centralizing or decentralizing trade book collections. The interview questions were: (a) "Some people favor centralized policies where the SLRC stores and manages sets of trade books for classroom use. Others feel they need to have their own sets of materials in the class to use when they want. How do you feel about this issue?"  (b) "Unit 3 Board Office  Library has sets of trade books that are kept centrally and people borrow for a limited time for their classrooms. Could such a program work here in your own SLRC?" Generally, Phase 1 classroom teachers said "we need a lot of books and we need them right in the classroom," but that specialized materials such as encyclopedias or novel sets could be stored in the SLRC. One primary Phase 1 teacher said that developing the SLRC was preferable, but "if I  231 couldn't get my books when I wanted them for my theme, then I might think differently." As for applying the model of centrally housing materials in the school district's library to the school level. Phase 1 classroom teachers said it would make accessibility better since materials would be housed at the school level and money could be saved by pooling. However, the source of funding for such a model was mentioned as an important first consideration before the model could be implemented. Phase 2 classroom teachers said centralization was preferable especially for certain types of materials that were not used all the time, such as big books, audio-visual materials and theme materials. Several teachers spoke about planning as the key to having a good system for organizing and sharing centralized resources. Teachers were quite familiar with centralizing theme materials at grade levels, so that each class had access to the materials and other grade levels would not cover their topics. As for the centralized school district model for sharing materials, primary Phase 2 teachers generally believed that the model was a good one and they all gave examples of using the materials in this program themselves and of how their SLRC had developed some similar packages already at the school level. They said the demand for the school district materials was growing and that more and more schools would have to develop their own sets of materials just to improve accessibility. Two concerns were expressed about books  232 possibly being stored away for too long and for finding the funds to build school-based sets of materials. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers said it would be very redundant and too idealistic to have all materials available in every class. A centralized system that was well managed was preferred, particularly for specialized materials or seldom used items. Some teachers said there was a set of core books they needed, but that the SLRC should be used to store novel sets and curriculum support materials centrally. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers were familiar with and in favor of the centralized district model for sharing resources. They said there was a need for more cooperation and organization at the school level to reduce duplication and to use money more wisely. The school district system could be used as a model and many gave examples of how their school was moving in this direction. Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers spoke of the tendency for teachers to want their own materials in their classroom and to keep them there. However, they recognized that this was not possible and that it would become even more difficult in the future to have all your own materials. They saw that sharing of resources would be more necessary but that "it's going to require a lot of organization" to make the sharing work. A good system would be required to organize and manage the sharing of centralized resources. As for the school district model of developing and circulating sets of trade books and other specialized  233 materials, these primary Phase 3 teachers already used the system frequently and said schools could develop these kits for their own needs. They gave examples of how their school had already started to do this. Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers did not see the issue of centralization as an either/or issue. They said that trade books were definitely needed in classrooms and that some materials were better stored centrally. A good system for organizing and managing the trade books was essential and that planning ahead of time also helped. The model of developing kits of centrally-located and theme-related trade books was supported by all the intermediate Phase 3 teachers. They had used the school district collection and recognized it as one that could work well at their school. They gave examples of how several "collections were established and circulated out of the library into the classrooms" at their schools. All teacher-librarians strongly endorsed the principle of centralization. They said it was fundamental to the role of a SLRC. It made for the better use of resources, a better balance of trade book type, better quality of book format, better selection of trade books to match the curriculum and everyone had equal access to the resources. With centralized resources, "they are getting to more children, they're getting to more teachers, they're getting a wider use and we're getting more for our money." The decentralized approach with "every teacher with enough money to go out and buy their  234 own library ... that's the luxury model" and with tight budgets and our goals for working together to develop curriculum and information skills we needed "the library model, which is more of an economy class." These teacher-librarians did not object to classroom collections, in fact they were described as useful to help teachers meet their spontaneous needs with such things as poetry anthologies or favorite read alouds. But "in a good, well-organized central collection," we "don't keep classroom teachers waiting too long for the resources they need." Good organization and good communication made the system work. In one teacher-librarian's words, "Our resources are a reflection of how we work together and how we collaborate. If we are truly collaborating to develop themes, then part of that collaboration is the purchase and use of resources." All teacher-librarians supported the school district model for developing kits of materials on specific themes and they gave many examples of how their SLRC had developed similar packages already. They saw this model as one that would have even greater impact in the future if budget restraints continued. Principals were also asked to discuss the issues surrounding centralization of resources and to speculate on the feasibility of the school district model for sharing resources within a school. Phase 1 principals stated that centralization was the better way to go "because things are easier to control." However, both principals said it "only  235 works as well as the person running the library." They said the model of building kits of resources on particular themes and housing them centrally for all teachers to use was "an effective use of funds," led to "less duplication" and made for "easier accessibility at the school level." Phase 2 principals were consistent in their view that "we have to have both" centralized collections in a SLRC and decentralized ones in classrooms. They were also committed to having one person "who knows what's going on" and was able to manage and organize resources. Several of these principals spoke of the need to move to a concept that the resources were "all in one collection." One principal expressed it this way: "You need a really good central collection and you need really good classroom collections. I don't think you can make them mutually exclusive; they are all part of one big collection." Phase 2 principals said their teachers were frequent users of the school district's central supply of trade book kits and also shared several examples of how these kits of materials were being developed at their own school. They said it was a "feasible idea", that "the idea works here" and that it definitely was "the way to go, no question." Phase 3 principals favored a "centralized policy for most materials" since it offered "a better system for supervising materials." Although they recognized the need for some materials in classrooms, centralizing "makes for sharing" and "better use of the materials." They described it  236 as "a cooperative effort" that was needed throughout the school in order to have the best system for sharing. The centralized school district service was also endorsed by these principals. It was described as "an excellent idea because classroom collections will never be able to afford to have all the items." It also "allows for the collection to change more often, to rotate it."  Funding Trade Book Collections The third issue discussed by all participants was money used to buy trade books for schools. The interview questions were: (a) "Many schools have procedures for the equitable distribution of funds for trade books. Is there a need for individual schools to develop an in-school policy for supplying trade books for their literacy programs?"  (b) "If  a school wants to spend $1000 on trade books for their literacy programs, is the money better spent on books for each classroom collection or books for use in the SLRC?" For the first question on the need for an in-school policy for distributing funds for trade books, the Phase 1 classroom teachers said it was a good idea and that they had a procedure now where funds were equally divided amongst staff. Each classroom gets so much money each year and "how you use it is up to you." Phase 1 classroom teachers would spend the hypothetical $1000 on the classroom with the principal meeting with teachers to decide how it was to be used. One person  237 suggested it go to the SLRC, since they were becoming more "library-oriented" as a school. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers said an in-school policy would be useful because it would help meet prioritized needs at different grade levels. Concerns were expressed about the lack of recent funding and the projected cuts in support for trade books in classrooms. The majority said the policy should work at a grade level where the needs of that grade could be identified and addressed. As for spending the hypothetical thousand dollars on trade books, these primary Phase 2 teachers were divided on their solutions. No one said individual teachers should get the money. Most gave the SLRC the first priority, while others said the money should be given to a grade level to meet their needs. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers agreed that an in-school policy for equitable dividing of funds was needed because it would "give us some sort of direction," but they varied on how formal that policy should be. Some said it should be linked to programs and the needs identified there, while others said some classes were well stocked already and did not need the funding. As for spending the hypothetical thousand dollars on trade books, these intermediate teachers said the majority of the money should go to the SLRC because "it goes further." Two said that some of the money could go to a grade level to meet specific needs.  238 Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers said that their school had a system in place to divide any funds equitably although it was not a "policy." Most received funds from the parent group called The Home and School Association at the beginning of the school year and they were free to use it for whatever they wanted in their classrooms. As for how to spend the thousand dollars, most said they would give it to the SLRC and have classroom teachers advise the teacher-librarian on what to buy. They also suggested that if the need was greater in the classrooms that year, they would give it to the classroom collections. The intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers said that a policy for equitably dividing funds for trade books would be a good idea. It should be "an open policy" that everyone knew what it was and how it worked. It should be developed "to do what's good for the whole school rather than just what's good for the classroom." As for spending the hypothetical $1000 on trade books, the intermediate Phase 3 teachers said it would be important to meet as a staff with the teacher-librarian to determine where the needs were. They would give the money to the SLRC with input from the classroom teachers. Teacher-librarians agreed that an in-school policy for the distribution of funds for trade books was a good idea. That policy however, should not be based on simply dividing any money equally by the number of classrooms. It should be allocated by needs that staff members determine. For example.  239 a new program may come into one grade level and it would receive some money, while the next year another group would get support. Several teacher-librarians said the policy should be linked to the selection policy of the school so parents know how books are chosen and where the money goes. As far as spending the hypothetical $1000, the teacherlibrarians were unanimous in their belief that the money should go to the SLRC, for some with "no questions asked," while for most it should be spent with input from the classroom teachers. Principals of Phase 1 schools said there was a need for an in-school policy for the allocation of funds. This would make it "clear to everyone on their share" and the individual classroom teacher could decide how to spend the money. These principals said the hypothetical thousand dollars should be divided "amongst the classrooms by grade." Phase 2 principals spoke of dealing with needs "as they come and in the end it pretty well balances out." They spoke of deciding priorities and putting the money there, but not with the guidance of any formal policy. The "history has been that everyone gets a bit each year" and that there is never really "enough money to develop a policy." These principals said the hypothetical $1000 would be spent by having the teacher-librarian and the classroom teachers meeting "to discuss it and come up with a solution." They would choose the books and decide where to put them.  240 Phase 3 principals saw a need for an in-school policy for allocating funds for trade books, "if not, the squeaky wheel will get it." The principals said "we have one for the regular budget, so it's needed for special funds raised for trade books." One principal said the hypothetical $1000 should be given to the SLRC, while the other two said that the teacher-librarian and classroom teachers needed to work out the priority needs and spend it there.  New Curriculum Endeavors The issues raised by implementing programs that require many trade books were discussed next. The interview question was: "Many of the new programs we have in classrooms today provide a certain amount of materials but they all rely heavily on supplementary trade books for their implementation. What advice do you have for administrators and/or program developers who are bringing in these programs?" Primary Phase 1 classroom teachers said they had a handle on the trade book side of things but said they needed support in finding activities and other resources to go with the trade books they had bought themselves or had received with a program. The concerns of intermediate Phase 1 classroom teachers in this area centred on the general availability of support materials for these new programs. They said they needed more books and they suggested teachers should be provided with  241 lists of trade books that go with these new programs. Then they could set about getting the materials. Primary Phase 2 classroom teachers had two major concerns in this area. First, they suggested that consultants meet with classroom teachers and teacher-librarians to find out if materials already exist in the system to support the intended new program. Second, the need was expressed for a set of standards and guidelines so that consistent expectations could be set for different age groups. Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers were very positive about the new child-centred programs that were being implemented. One teacher said, "it's rejuvenated me after a few years of mediocrity of mid-life in the classroom." However, others said they were "overwhelmed" and "overloaded with all these extra things coming in." The need was expressed for consultants to get into classrooms and find out what teachers need. As well, several said there was a great need for more resources to implement these programs as they were intended. Fear was also expressed about cutbacks and lack of funding in this area: "the last area that we should be forced to make any cutbacks has to be in the elementary school." Primary Phase 3 classroom teachers said there was a need for more financial support from consultants and administrators who were encouraging them to use programs that relied heavily on trade books. Support was needed to obtain trade books and for sustaining and maintaining the existing  242 materials. It was also expressed that "we need to have some guidelines" for what skills should be taught. Others wanted to see more support material provided showing how to use the trade books more effectively. Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers were primarily concerned about consultants taking the lead to provide guidelines for what goals and skills should be expected at each grade level. The need for support material for teaching with trade books was also expressed. One teacher said "we also have to do a better job of selling to the public why and what we are doing." Teacher-librarians recommended that program consultants and administrators, who were advocating programs that relied heavily on trade books for their full implementation, consult more with teacher-librarians before they implemented new programs. This would enable them to start to adjust their collections to meet the new curriculum needs. This consultation would allow consultants to see what resources already existed to support any new initiatives. Teacherlibrarians wanted to have copies of new programs and all the support materials that went with them, so they could use them in their curriculum meetings with classroom teachers. Several teacher-librarians also took exception to the way some individual classrooms were supplied with trade books through the Holistic Approach program, by-passing the school library and effectively eliminating any other use that those trade books could have had if they were centrally located and  243 managed as part of the SLRC. They said that more accountability should be attached to the materials that come into the school from programs like the Holistic Approach. In the SLRC, teacher-librarians were accountable for the funds and resources that were supplied there. However, when funds and books were sent into classroom collections, "there is no accountability attached to it." "No one has ever questioned that accountability should be attached to the centralized collection, but only now are we starting to ask about accountability of other resources." Teacher-librarians recommended consultants "look beyond their own little niche and see how the whole thing works" and "analyze the whole system's needs for resources" and somehow "get all the funds working together." They said consultants also needed to recognize "the benefits of cooperative program planning between teacher-librarians and teachers" and to support the process in all their curriculum endeavors. Principals made several points related to the curriculum endeavors of consultants trying to implement new programs. A strong need was identified for consultants to look "for connections among the different programs" and to build into the implementation process ways of getting the vast number of resources needed to teach these programs. The role of the teacher-librarian was also seen as one that consultants hadn't addressed enough in the implementation process, both in the area of resources and curriculum development. The  244 issues of maintenance and repair of resources and the need for more long range planning were also listed.  Factors That Inhibit and Enhance the Relationship Two interview questions were used to discuss the working relationship between classroom teachers and teacherlibrarians: (a) "What factors inhibit the sharing of trade books between classrooms and the SLRC?" and (b) "What factors enhance the sharing of trade books between classrooms and the SLRC?" Primary Phase 1 teachers said that "getting a library program up and running" would enhance the relationship. They recognized they were at the beginning stages of this process, but that "more and more teachers are getting to work with the teacher-librarian and seeing how things are going and seeing exciting things... ." As for factors that inhibited the relationship, one teacher suggested that "it's how much knowledge you have about what the library can do for you" that inhibits the relationship. Intermediate Phase 1 classroom teachers said that teachers were not really aware of, nor were they using, all the materials that were available. "We could make better use of the library." They said teachers were good to share but that finding out what people have was more of the problem. When discussing factors that inhibit and enhance the sharing relationship between classrooms and the SLRC, the primary Phase 2 classroom teachers focused on the person who  245 acted as teacher-librarian. First of all, they said it was important to have a person staffing the library all the time, and that the personality of that person played a big role in the type of relationship that was developed. A person who respected the different ways teachers work and a person who was "really open" was identified as essential. One teacher said, "it's important to know the person and their strengths and what they can do with you and for you." The need for planning was also considered an important factor because the "library could be used to much more full advantage with ongoing teacher-librarian planning." Intermediate Phase 2 classroom teachers placed emphasis on the personality of the teacher-librarian as a factor that enhanced and inhibited the sharing relationship. Others linked the personalities of the classroom teachers in a school with the issue. Also, the more that teachers worked in a common way with the curriculum, the more likely sharing would take place. One person spoke of needing "a cohesive team" with a "common purpose" in order to create this atmosphere. Several teachers said sharing would not happen without efficient systems being put in place for managing the resources in the SLRC. The more easily resources could be accessed, the more teachers would want to use them. Lack of time for planning with the teacher-librarian was listed as inhibiting the relationship, as was a SLRC facility that was not "open" or "cooperative in spirit."  246 When discussing factors that inhibited and enhanced the sharing relationship between classrooms and the SLRC, the primary Phase 3 classroom teachers placed most emphasis on good communication between classroom teachers and the teacher-librarian. It was considered that "the biggest factor was having the type of system where we built-in planning time together." As well, the attitudes of a staff about borrowing and sharing were mentioned as something that must be developed in a school if a good relationship was to develop. Intermediate Phase 3 classroom teachers commented that "the tone is set in the school" for sharing or not. It may be a personal thing but "usually it's global" and it was the responsibility of the administrator to develop a positive tone. Good communication was essential "so that there's a mutual understanding and comfort" between classroom teachers and the teacher-librarian. Teachers needed to look beyond their classroom too, and not try to hang on to whatever they could get. Plenty of time for meeting and a good organizational system for trade book management were also given as factors that enhanced the relationship. Teacher-librarians identified several factors that inhibited and enhanced the sharing and cooperation among teacher-librarians and classroom teachers. The Phase 1 teacher-librarian said time was the biggest factor, time for planning and discussing the curriculum needs of the teachers. Phase 2 teacher-librarians said that the relationship between the teacher-librarian and the classroom teachers was  247 the big factor. They reported having a group of people on staff with whom they had a good relationship and that they were "building from there." The Phase 3 teacher-librarians said the amount of communication through cooperative program planning was the best influence on the sharing that went on between the teachers and the teacher-librarian. Several expressed some concern about meeting the demands of teachers and students for more resources. In their words, "our whole system is unaware of the cost of courting the whole language approach" and that "[I]f you're going to have trade books, you need money to buy them." Principals also listed several factors that inhibited and enhanced the sharing between classrooms and the SLRC. Phase 1 principals said that "the one over-riding factor is the personality of the teacher-librarian." They placed heavy emphasis on getting a "dynamic person" who had a clear vision and was able to bring it about. The "administrator's job was to facilitate" the professionalism and communication across the school. Phase 2 principals focused their discussion on the relationship between the teacher-librarian and the classroom teachers. They emphasized cooperative planning "as the most important part of achieving a cooperative atmosphere." The administrator needed to be "supportive" and to provide opportunities for discussions about resources. One principal emphasized the need for full-time staffing of the teacher-  248 librarian position so you had someone "focused on bringing it all together." The Phase 3 principals emphasized the need for a "clear vision" and a "commitment to a shared role" in providing resources. They said "a good classroom collection and a good SLRC work together" and the classroom collection "reinforces the main centre of the school." We need to "keep people from being isolated" and we had to "work to build cooperation" and not "let ownership get in the way."  Summary; Research Questions Five and Six When discussing teacher-librarians and classroom teachers working together to provide trade books, teachers stressed planning and communication as two factors that ensured an effective working relationship. Teacher-librarians agreed communication between classroom teachers and teacherlibrarians was how the two could work together. Phase 3 teacher-librarians added the need for a mutual understanding of the role and development of these collections. Phase 1 principals emphasized the personality of teacher-librarians as a critical factor. Phase 2 principals emphasized on-going dialogue and the recognition that teacher-librarians knew quality resources and classroom teachers knew student interests. Phase 3 principals also strongly endorsed the collaborative model. Classroom teachers recognized the need for trade books to be located in classrooms, but differed on the impact of  249 centralization. They favored centralization of resources when a good management system was there to ensure accessibility. The school district model for circulating resource kits was seen as a valuable method of managing resources. Teachers gave examples of how this model was already developing. Teacher-librarians endorsed a centralized model for resource management and development. They supported classroom collections as one component of a larger plan for resource provision. Teacher-librarians also supported the school district model for developing kits on specific topics and emphasized that solutions like this would have to be found to meet future needs. Principals supported centralization as a better way to go, but they saw classroom collections as very important in the overall plan. They stressed the need for strong leadership in the SLRC for developing a collaborative model. Respondents said an in-school policy for the distribution of funds for trade books would be useful. Examples were given of various formal and informal methods already in place. Phase 3 classroom teachers suggested the policy should be developed within the context of resources for the whole school. Teacher-librarians agreed with the idea of a policy, but suggested funds should be allocated by program needs. Phase 1 and 2 principals agreed and liked the idea of a policy to balance equal amounts to each teacher. Phase 3 principals said it should be conceptualized like a regular school budget.  250 When presented with a hypothetical situation of spending a thousand dollars on trade books. Phase 1 teachers would spend it on classrooms; Phase 2 teachers varied on spending the money in classrooms or centrally in the SLRC; Phase 3 teachers suggested the SLRC with input from teachers. Teacher-librarians were unanimous that the thousand dollars should be spent in the SLRC with many suggesting teacher input would be needed. Phase 1 principals suggested the money be divided equally among classrooms. Phase 2 and 3 principals said the SLRC, with teachers and teacher-librarians working together to spend it. Respondents had several recommendations for those responsible for implementing new programs. Classroom teachers had concerns about receiving enough books to teach the programs and many of them requested resource guides for using trade books. Others saw a need for standards and guidelines for each grade to ensure programs develop consistently. Teacher-librarians and principals suggested consultants needed to meet with teacher-librarians regularly about new programs and supplying trade books to implement them. Consultants were advised to focus on the bigger picture and recognize the connections among programs. Good communication and structured planning time were seen as the two main factors that inhibited and enhanced the relationship between classroom teachers and teacherlibrarians. The climate or tone for sharing in a school was also considered a factor. Phase 1 respondents placed emphasis  251 on the personality of the teacher-librarian. Phase 2 and 3 respondents saw it as a cooperative relationship between classroom teachers and teacher-librarians. Phase 2 also emphasized the role of cooperative planning. Phase 3 agreed, but added the need to develop an attitude of shared responsibility for resource provision in the school.  Summary: Part Two-Interview Results Results from 46 interviews with classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals were presented by primary and intermediate levels and Phase of SLRC program development. Results were organized by the first four research questions, which centred on the contents of classroom collections, the source of trade books for these collections, the organization and physical arrangement of trade book collections and how teachers used trade books in language arts programs. Results were also included from the last two research questions concerning the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC. Reactions to the size of classroom collections identified in the Survey of Classroom Collections by classroom teachers ranged from surprise and amazement to belief that the number was true because of the types of programs teachers were developing. Most respondents did not think there was a number that should be in classroom collections. Many said teachers could never have enough and would continue to acquire more.  252 Reasons for the predominance of fiction in the classroom collections centred on the role teachers gave fiction to promote a love for reading. There was an assumption that fiction did this best and that fiction was more related to students' interests. Most teacher-librarians said students enjoyed nonfiction just as well, and that attitudes about fiction and nonfiction were changing. The amount of money available, the need to meet wideranging student interests and reading levels, as well as the types of program teachers were trying to develop were all listed as the factors that affected the size of classroom collections. If teachers could spend an unlimited amount of money on their trade book collections, they said they would buy many more books of different kinds and of better quality. Teacher-librarians and principals described the classroom collections in their schools as varied in size, with mostly fiction and paperback books. The size of the collection often related to the type of program a teacher wanted to develop. The classroom teachers' personal philosophy and their commitment to reading were described as the main reasons teachers spent so much of their own money on trade books. Also mentioned were the facts that there were no other sources for the books and the feeling of professional satisfaction at providing students with good books.  253 Commercial book clubs were used by all respondents. Most said the quality was inconsistent, but that they did provide an inexpensive source of trade books. Some teachers were using free book choices in cooperative ways within grade levels. Some concerns were expressed about classroom collections having many of the same titles and about the tendency for classroom teachers to buy what was offered in the monthly flyers. Classroom teachers had considered several factors when they chose trade books: the reading level of the book, the appeal of the book and the quality of the literature. Phase 1 teachers rarely met with the teacher-librarian to select trade books; Phase 2 teachers met informally and sometimes when themes were being developed; Phase 3 teachers met formally and informally with their teacher-librarians to plan themes and resource development. Phase 1 teachers expressed little concern about balancing books in the their collections; Phase 2 teachers tried to balance for trade book types and students' interests and reading levels; Phase 3 teachers were concerned about balancing types of books and providing wide choice for students' reading. In Phase 1 schools, teacher-librarians had to approach teachers to find out what they were doing and how the SLRC could help. In Phase 2 schools, some formal planning sessions were occurring with some teachers and teacher-librarians said they were trying to broaden this format. In Phase 3 schools.  254 planning was an important component in having the teacherlibrarian and classroom teachers work together to provide trade books for the students. Respondents believed that the appearance of the classroom collection affected student use and many of them set up displays and highlighted books. Collections were structured with a personal group of trade books bought by the classroom teacher and a set of materials gathered from sources outside the classroom. Classroom teachers said the purposes of classroom collections were to promote reading and to support their programs. Teacher-librarians and principals said the purposes of classroom collections varied with the type of program teachers were developing, but they basically were helping teachers promote reading. They agreed that classroom collections were important parts of the curriculum, but that they should be developed within the context of school programs, rather than in isolation from one another. Trade books were used as the main materials for language arts programs, but the basal series was used by many to establish guidelines and expectations for each grade level. Textbooks dominated content area programs, but trade books were playing a larger role all the time. Communication and regular planning time were given as the two things necessary for classroom teachers and teacherlibrarians to work together to provide trade books.  255 Classroom teachers felt strongly about the need for trade books in their classrooms, but they recognized the benefits of centralization of resources, especially specialized materials. They said it depended on an efficient system to make materials easily accessible. Teacherlibrarians and principals endorsed centralization of resources and they fully recognized and accepted the need for classroom collections. They recognized the need for both, centralized and decentralized collections, and they emphasized the collaborative model for developing and supplying trade books. Respondents supported the idea of an in-school policy for equitable distribution of funds for trade books. Phase 3 respondents stressed the importance of involving classroom teachers and teacher-librarians in deciding how money should be spent. When giving advice to consultants who were advocating for the expanded use of trade books, respondents emphasized the need for consultants to find connections among these programs and to support them directly, with more trade books and with guidelines for using the books. They were also advised to involve teacher-librarians in the planning and implementing of programs that depended on many support materials. The key factors that inhibited and enhanced the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC were good communication between classroom teachers and teacher-  256 librarians and regular planning time to discuss curriculum and the trade books that could support it. Phase 3 respondents emphasized a collaborative model for meeting resource needs. They described the relationship as a shared responsibility, based on a mutual understanding of the role of trade books in classroom and school library resource centre programs.  257 CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS  Introduction This study arose out of concern for the economic, pedagogic and conceptual issues surrounding the use of trade book collections in elementary classrooms and for the relationship between these collections and the school library resource centre (SLRC) program, which acts as a source for trade books and as an integrated component of the curriculum. The discussion of the results returns to these original issues to clarify what has been learned about classroom collections and their relationship with the SLRC, to suggest implications for educators and to identify areas for future research goals.  Summary of the Study The SLRC and the classroom collection of trade books that classroom teachers gather in their classrooms were the focus of an exploratory, descriptive study designed around the first stages of an action research model. Little research had been done on how effective classroom teachers have been at acquiring trade books for their classroom collections, and on how teacher-librarians working in partially or fully integrated SLRC programs helped to make trade books accessible to elementary teachers and students. From early deliberations, six research questions were established which formed the focus of the data gathering  258 process intended to fulfill the two goals of the study: (a) to describe the classroom collections in the elementary classrooms in the largest school district on Prince Edward Island, and (b) to explore the relationship between these classroom collections and the SLRC. Two research instruments were constructed. First, A Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections was designed to probe four areas related to the classroom collections of the 2 05 elementary classroom teachers in this school district: (a) the contents and size of classroom collections; (b) the sources of trade books for classroom collections; (c) the organization and management of classroom collections; and (d) how elementary classroom teachers used trade books in their programs. A second instrument. The Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs. was used to define the phase of development of the SLRC programs in the 15 elementary schools in this school district. The score on the Profile, the size of the SLRC collection, the number of students in the school, the amount of staffing allocated to the SLRC and the years of experience of the teacher-librarian were combined and resulted in the determination of three schools as Phase 1, seven schools as Phase 2 and five schools as Phase 3. The initial analysis of these two instruments led to a series of interviews conducted with a random sample of 4 6 respondents, stratified by the Phase of SLRC program development. Thirty classroom teachers, seven teacherlibrarians and nine principals were interviewed on a variety  259 of issues identified in the Survey, plus other issues related to the two remaining research questions intended to probe the relationship between the SLRC and classroom collections. Once the interviews were completed, an exploratory data analysis framework was applied to analyze further the data from the 163 Surveys that were completed. This was used to describe the four areas of classroom collection use. Results were organized and presented by primary and intermediate grade levels and Phase of SLRC program development. The transcriptions of the interviews were analyzed across primary and intermediate grade levels and across Phases. The results were presented by the four areas of the descriptive part of the study, as well as by the two research questions probing the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC.  A Description of Classroom Collections One of the major goals of this study was to provide a description of the classroom collections in this school district. The following statements describe the classroom collections in Regional Administrative School Unit 3 on Prince Edward Island: 1. A total of 61,542 trade books were counted in 163 elementary classroom collections. Grade one had the greatest number of trade books and the number in each grade generally decreased as grade level increased.  260 2. Classroom collections ranged in size from 12 collections with under 100 trade books to 14 collections with over 80 0 trade books. The median was 266, with 50% of the classroom collections having between 163 and 443 trade books. 3. Primary collections had a greater average number of 21.46 trade-books-per-student than intermediate collections, which had 11.36 trade-books-per-student. However, primary collections had a wider range of classroom collection sizes than intermediate collections, which were more consistent in size. 4. The size of classroom collections in this school district exceeded recommendations of 5-8 trade-books-perstudent suggested by the professional literature. 5. The majority of tradebooks in all 163 of the 205 classrooms responding to the Survey were paperback in format. 6. The majority of the trade books in these collections were fiction, with poetry and nonfiction accounting for less than 20% of the trade books counted. 7. The size of classroom collection was influenced by the teachers' personal philosophy of reading and by how strong their commitment was to acquiring trade books. 8. Other than the classroom teachers' personal trade books, the Holistic Approach Program from the P.E.I. Department of Education was the largest single source of trade books in these classroom collections. One in six books came from this program.  261 9. Primary classrooms reported twice as many tradebooks-per-classroom from the Holistic Approach Program as intermediate classrooms. Phase 1 schools received over 30 more trade-books-per-classroom than Phase 2 or Phase 3 schools. 10. Classroom teachers and teacher-librarians described an imbalance in the size of classroom collections due to the greater support from Holistic Approach to some classrooms and not others. 11. Close to 30% of primary teachers and 10% of intermediate classroom teachers spent over $200 of their own personal money on trade books during the 1993-1994 year. However, most classroom teachers spent between $100 and $200 of their own money on trade books. Most teachers reported less than $50 was received from administration or parent groups to buy trade books for classroom collections. 12. Classroom teachers reported an imbalance in the size of classroom collections due to differences in the amount of money provided from their own pockets, from administration and parents and from the Department of Education to develop literature-based programs. 13. The SLRC was used by classroom teachers as a source of trade books for their classroom collections. The use of the SLRC by Phase 2 and 3 teachers was greater than Phase 1 teachers. 14. Book clubs were the most frequently used commercial source of trade books. Classroom teachers purchased  262 approximately 30 trade-books-per-classroom from book clubs, plus they used the bonus points received when students bought books to procure more trade books for classroom collections. 15. Participants expressed concerns about the consistency of quality and the degree of variety provided by book clubs. Concern also centred on how much alike the classroom collections would become with teachers basically choosing from the same lists. 16. Teacher-librarians said classroom teachers were becoming more aware of the importance of making informed decisions when choosing trade books, but that classroom teachers still relied heavily on choosing trade books from what was placed before them. 17. When choosing trade books, classroom teachers considered these factors: the reading level of students, the themes developed each year, the attractiveness of the books and their literary quality. 18. Almost all classroom teachers reported that they set up book displays in their classrooms and that they displayed trade books with the covers showing for students. This supported research indicating students used trade books more frequently when books were made visible and appealing. 19. Almost all classroom teachers reported that their classroom collection was set up as a separate place in the classroom, also supporting research on the displaying of trade books for student use.  263 20. Over 80% of primary teachers categorized their trade books in some way, while fewer than 50% of intermediate classroom teachers did so. The most common way to categorize trade books was by theme. 21. Between 60% and 70% of classroom teachers reported they labeled their trade books, mostly with just the teacher's name written on the inside. This suggested that over 30% of the trade books were not labeled in any way. 22. Classroom teachers reported they spent a great deal of time organizing and managing their trade book collections. Taping their trade books to protect them, organizing a system for loaning trade books to students, labeling books and organizing displays were some of the tasks associated with maintaining a trade book collection. 23. Classroom teachers and teacher-librarians reported an imbalance in the development of classroom collections due to the unwillingness of some teachers to spend the time developing and managing the collection. Some teachers took great pride in their efforts to build a substantial collection, while others did not invest the extra time and effort it took to have a good quality collection. 24. The majority of classroom teachers called their classroom collection essential to their literacy program but the collections were used in different ways: some for supplementary reading; some to develop literacy skills and to build a love for reading; and some in all these ways as an integrated part of their program.  264 25. Trade books were the main materials used for reading instruction, but the basal series provided guidelines for skill development. In the content areas, primary grades used trade books more than textbooks, while intermediate grades used textbooks most of the time. 26. Trade books were described as having considerable influence in developing a love of reading amongst students. Teachers said trade books motivated students to want to read. 27. Silent reading was a daily activity in over 90% of classrooms, while reading aloud was most common in grade one and two and declined in use as grade level increased. 28. When the use of trade books was examined by Phase of SLRC program development. Phases 2 and 3 schools used trade books in ways that integrated them more into the literacy program than Phase 1 schools. 29. Phase 2 and 3 classroom teachers were also more involved than Phase 1 classroom teachers in using trade books in the SLRC program, both for resource-based units of study and for exchanging books for students' independent reading. 30. Three models (Independent, Interactive or Integrated) for classroom collections and their relationship to the SLRC program were operating within this school district and the type of model developed was influenced by how well the SLRC program was integrated in the school curriculum.  265 Discussion of the Results To develop the description of the classroom collections in Regional Administrative School Unit 3 on Prince Edward Island, four areas provided a framework for the data gathering and analysis: what were the size and contents of the classroom collections; what were the sources of these trade books, how were they organized; and how were they used in school programs? The results were presented under these four areas and are discussed below.  The Size of Classroom Collections With a total of 61,542 trade books counted in the 163 classrooms, it was evident that classroom teachers in this school district valued the use of trade books in their programs and that they had been quite successful in building extensive collections for their students. Close to 80% of all elementary classroom teachers in this school district took part in the Survey. The smallest classroom collection identified had 34 trade books in it, while the largest had 2540. The classroom collections varied widely, but the majority clustered around the median of 266. This indicated that some classroom teachers were very active in acquiring many trade books, while others kept a minimal collection. Most of the classroom collections in this school district far exceeded most recommendations of 5-8 tradebooks-per-student in each classroom (Strickland & Morrow,  266 1988; Fractor et al., 1993). Only grade six, with a tradebook-per-student number of 8.28 reflected this recommendation. The teachers in this school district indicated that a large quantity of trade books available for students was important and that literacy programs could not operate without a wide selection of books. Grade one had the greatest number of trade-books-perstudent (28.56) and that number generally decreased as grade level increased. Primary collections averaged ten tradebooks-per-student more than intermediate classroom collections, an indication that primary teachers felt the need for more books to be readily accessible to students than intermediate teachers. Primary classes were also more involved with the Holistic Approach program, which began with the primary grades had more impact on the primary classes. While the primary grade classroom collections were greater, there was also more variance in the size of classroom collections. This suggested not all teachers were equally committed to the goals of literature-based approaches or that they were less willing or able to expend the time, effort and finances needed to build larger collections. As well. Holistic Approach program was only offered to a certain number of teachers each year, so some classroom collections had more trade books than others. The intermediate collections had fewer trade books, but they were more consistent in size across grade levels. This suggested that, while intermediate teachers may not be using  267 trade books to the same extent as primary teachers, they may be using them in more consistent ways within their programs. When the size of classroom collections was examined by the groups of schools within each Phase of SLRC program development, the intermediate classroom collections in all Phases had approximately 11 trade-books-per-student. This similarity in size of classroom collections across Phases supported the view that intermediate teachers were generally more consistent in their use of classroom collections. While intermediate classroom collections across Phases were more alike in size, the primary collections in Phase 1 were over 12 trade-books-per-student greater than either the Phase 2 or Phase 3 primary classroom collections. Since the SLRC program in Phase 1 schools was at the beginning stages of development, the primary Phase 1 classroom teachers seemed to be building larger collections due to a lower level of support and input from the SLRC.  Teachers' Personal Philosophies. During the interviews, teachers suggested that the size of classroom collections reflected teachers' personal philosophy about literacy and their commitment to that set of beliefs. In their efforts to develop fully a philosophy of literacy development in which trade books played a central role, some classroom teachers seemed to go to great lengths to provide plenty of trade books for students. This notion was supported by the fact that many teachers had already  268 provided students with a wide choice of trade books for their reading and they believed the more books you had, the better you could motivate students to read. Classroom teachers expressed pride in their collections and in their efforts to build large collections. They recognized the increased role children's trade books played in their programs and repeated many times that this was the way their literacy programs would continue to develop. They believed that sheer quantity of trade books in a classroom collection was an important first consideration.  The Contents of Classroom Collections The major type of trade book found in these classroom collections was fiction, either storybooks, picture books or novels. When classroom teachers were asked to break their collections down into trade book types, 80% were identified as fiction with "up to 20%" falling into the nonfiction and poetry categories. At least in their classroom collections, the elementary students in this school district were presented with mostly fiction as choices for their reading and writing. While many teachers said that attitudes were changing about increasing the use of nonfiction, they admitted that they did not do enough to promote nonfiction. They felt students enjoyed fiction and that some even preferred it. There was however, a large group of teachers who still considered fiction to be the best type of book to motivate  269 students to want to read. Others felt that the topics and themes they chose to develop with students were limiting their balanced use of fiction and nonfiction. Some also spoke of a bias that many elementary teachers had towards nonfiction that limited it to a functional use in literacy programs. These concerns supported those of educators who promoted a more balanced role for nonfiction and fiction and of researchers who challenged the primary role fiction has played in literacy programs in the past (Pappas, 1991; Sanacore, 1991).  Paperbacks. The majority of trade books found in the classroom collections were paperbacks. Repeatedly, teachers commented on how they tried to find the least expensive books they could and that paperback was really the only format they could afford. These classroom teachers were keen about paperbacks because of their affordability and accessibility but they were not necessarily the format of choice. If money was no object, many teachers said they would buy hard cover books because they lasted longer. The trade books from the Holistic Approach were also paperback and teachers commented on how the trade books were not holding up to frequent use by students. The problems of constantly having to supply these collections with new books and of having to replace damaged and worn books were of concern to all.  270 The Sources of Trade Books for Classroom Collections Results indicated that classroom teachers were resourceful in their ability to acquire trade books from several sources for their classroom collections. They were avid and frequent users of the major library, commercial and "other" sources of trade books named in the study.  The SLRC as a Source of Trade Books. Of the library sources, most classroom teachers named the SLRC as the main library they used for trade books, followed by the school district's centralized collection of professional and instructional resources. The public library system of PEI was used to a much smaller extent, as were the various "other" library sources. The SLRC was described as an important asset and support to classroom collections and essential if literacy programs centred around trade books were to continue to develop. In Phase 1 schools, the teacher-librarian was actively seeking ways to connect to classroom teachers' program needs. This involved going to classroom teachers and offering to help in any way. In Phase 2 schools, classroom teachers recognized the teacher-librarian as a valuable resource and saw the SLRC as one of the primary sources of trade books. These teachers placed many demands on teacher-librarians for ideas and materials, usually on a one-to-one basis or as a grade level. The teacher-librarians in Phase 2 suggested the need for a more coordinated process for planning for trade  271 book needs across a school. In Phase 3 schools, a collaborative approach seemed to be closer to the way teacher-librarians and classroom teachers worked. There was more planning of curriculum in general, and the planning for resources to support that curriculum became part of the curriculum process and the relationship between classroom teachers and the teacher-librarian. These three approaches were supported by the results on the sources of trade books. When examined by Phase of SLRC program development. Phase 1 schools had six fewer tradebooks-per-classroom from the SLRC than Phase 3 schools and 12 fewer trade-books-per-classroom than Phase 2 schools. This greater presence of trade books from the SLRC's in Phase 2 and 3 schools suggested that classroom teachers with partially or fully integrated SLRC programs used the SLRC as a source of trade books more than teachers in schools where the SLRC program was just emerging. In Phase 2 and 3 schools, there was also more staff assigned to the SLRC and the program included more formal and informal curriculum planning sessions. This indicated that the ways classroom teachers and teacher-librarians interacted concerning the supply and use of trade books in programs was part of the larger relationship inherent in the philosophy of an integrated SLRC program. Classroom teachers in this school district were also frequent users of commercial book clubs. They promoted the purchase of trade books from these book clubs among their  272 students and they used free choices to supply their classroom collections. Book clubs were seen as the best option currently available, because they were a convenient source of inexpensive trade books. However, when respondents discussed the issues related to these book clubs, they had several concerns that warranted consideration. Many commented on the inconsistent quality and poor variety of books offered. Some classroom teachers and most teacher-librarians were also concerned about how classroom collections were developing from a limited selection of books and how many collections had the same books in them. Respondents did not feel the SLRC was suffering at the expense of the classroom collections, because the quality of trade books, both in format and content, was not as high as trade books purchased for the SLRC. The concerns rested with the best use being made of the money classroom teachers seemed willing to spend or of the support provided by external sources of trade books for classroom collections.  The Holistic Approach as a Source of Trade Books. As one of the major sources of trade books for these classroom collections, the Department of Education's Holistic Approach Program allowed some classroom teachers to divert funds traditionally spent on basal readers and workbooks into a supply of trade books on various themes. With one in six trade books counted in this study having come from the  273 Holistic Approach, it had a substantial influence on the development of these classroom collections. While this Holistic Approach Program was obviously a great boon to classroom collections, many classroom teachers and teacher-librarians expressed concern about the inconsistency of participation in the program, about how some classrooms received books while others were left to fend for themselves and about how the SLRC was often by-passed in the management and use of these trade books. Several proposals to have these materials centrally stored and managed by the teacher-librarian suggested a more collaborative approach may ensure the most efficient and effective use of these trade books. With costs rising and more demands made on individual teachers and schools to provide trade books, the need appeared great for management systems that offered easier access for students and teachers. When the numbers from the Holistic Approach were examined by Phase of SLRC program. Phase 1 schools had 30 more trade-books-per-classroom from this program, than either Phase 2 or Phase 3 schools. The classroom teachers in these schools were more directly supported by the Department of Education. Since Phase 1 SLRC programs were at an early stage of developing a collaborative approach, this supplying of trade books directly into single classrooms by-passed the role of the SLRC and undermined how effectively the SLRC program was able to achieve its goals. If classroom teachers become completely self-sufficient in their trade book needs.  274 then they have fewer reasons to become involved with the SLRC program. Such programs as the Holistic Approach also reinforced the sense of ownership of resources by classroom teachers that could debilitate efforts to share trade books and make them accessible to more students and for more purposes. There can be no doubt that these programs do provide a needed injection of trade books into literacy programs, as well as helping classroom teachers make the transition into literature-based programs. However, the impact could be multiplied by a more efficient school-based system for managing and using these trade books, such as is possible with a we11-developed SLRC program.  Funding for Classroom Collections. Another topic considered under sources of trade books was funding for trade books. The majority of classroom teachers indicated they spent between one and two hundred dollars out of their own pocket on trade books during the past year. Coupled with the evidence that administrators and parent groups supplied less than fifty dollars for trade books, it was clear that these classroom teachers believed strongly in the value of trade books. They were willing to spend their own money out of a sense of professionalism and personal satisfaction at having provided trade books for their students. While the individual efforts of classroom teachers to stock their classroom collections from their personal funds are to be commended, the school district could  275 avoid the inequitable development of classroom collections by taking the leadership in this area and developing a planned system for providing trade books for the programs they wish to see in place. During discussions about the issue of teachers spending their personal money to buy trade books, many indicated they would always buy trade books to keep their programs fresh and stimulating. However, they expressed concern that classroom collections had developed inconsistently since some teachers were not willing or could not afford to spend their own money. The point was made several times that a more substantial and consistent source of support was needed if these collections were to be kept as a vital and viable part of literacy programs. This situation suggested that if the provision of trade books remained deeply dependent on classroom teachers' personal and financial commitment, students would have inconsistent access to trade books. It also suggested the need for a school-based plan for development of trade book collections that could help alleviate some of this inconsistency.  Choosing Trade Books for Classroom Collections. Many classroom teachers in this study were knowledgeable about children's literature and used a variety of sources to help choose trade books for their collections. In addition to their heavy reliance on the choices presented through book clubs, they visited book stores, participated in school-  276 sponsored book fairs and, in the case of Phase 2 and Phase 3 teachers, met with teacher-librarians to obtain information on new books. Teacher-librarians suggested that teachers were improving their skills at choosing quality trade books for students, but that they would like to see teachers develop even more skills at choosing good books. Teacher-librarians from Phase 2 and 3 schools suggested that classroom teachers should use a selection process similar to the one that they used in developing the SLRC collection. This pointed to the need for professional development activities that could help classroom teachers make better trade book choices, but more importantly, these sessions could reinforce what some researchers (Hansen, 1993; Saul, 1993) suggested and many of these teacher-librarians recognized: all staff members share the responsibility for building adequate and quality collections of trade books.  The Organization and Management of Classroom Collections As well as providing many trade books for classroom use, most classroom teachers maintained the classroom collection as a separate and obvious corner of the classroom. They also stocked the classroom collection with a variety of furniture, storage units and miscellaneous items intended to make the space comfortable and appealing to students. This finding was consistent with the research that indicated displaying trade books and setting them into easily identifiable spaces in the classroom made them more attractive to students and  277 encouraged their use (Morrow, 1982; Morrow & Weinstein, 1982; Loughlin & Martin, 1987). It also suggested that classroom teachers had added to their list of responsibilities the establishment and maintenance of a classroom collection. Classroom teachers also established a variety of systems to categorize, label, circulate and maintain the trade books in their classroom collections. Systems to categorize the books coincided with the way teachers were using the books. For instance, if a teacher developed several author studies, then trade books were often displayed to highlight that author and then stored in plastic bins on a shelf by that author's name. If themes were the principal way trade books were used, then the trade books were organized and stored by theme. Some also used the source of the trade books as a way to organize the books, so those from students' homes, from the SLRC or from other sources were all displayed and kept separate. For many classroom teachers, the classroom collection was not just a storage area, but a vital component of their program that required considerable time and attention if it was to grow and remain dynamic. The results from the Survey and from the discussions with classroom teachers supported the notion that classroom teachers spent considerable time managing and developing their collections. Most teachers loaned their trade books for students to use at home and many taped the books to protect them and extend their life. Not everyone labeled their trade books, but they were more conscious of the need to protect  278 and take care of their books. This suggested that classroom teachers were in many ways like teacher-librarians with management and book-processing duties that ensured trade books were maintained in good condition. It also implied that any coordinated effort to build trade book collections must include some energy to process the books.  The Use of Trade Books from Classroom Collections The majority of classroom teachers in this study said their classroom collection was essential to their literacy program. Trade books were used for reading over 50% of the time, while the basal series was used about 30% of the time. For some classroom teachers, trade books took the place of the traditional basal series to become the main instructional tools for reading and writing. The basal series was still retained as a guide to the skills and strategies that should be developed at a particular grade level. While the efforts of program consultants and administrators to encourage classroom teachers to incorporate more trade books into their literacy programs could be said to be successful just from the sheer quantity of trade books found in this study, classroom teachers repeated several times the need for a set of expectations to be identified by curriculum developers to guide and direct their programs. The structure of the basal series seemed to be fulfilling that need for many teachers. It is not enough to put lots trade books in the classroom and immerse students in an environment filled with trade books.  279 Some expectations and goals for the literature program must be in place, if the literacy program is going to be successful (Morrow & Weinstein, 1982).  Responsibility for Providing Trade Books. There were also some teachers who placed these trade books primarily in a supplementary role within their programs. They used the books mostly at silent reading time or for times when students finished their assigned work. This group added some books to their collections each year, but expressed concern that it was not really their responsibility to provide all the books for literature-based approaches. They said that if they had more, they would use them more. This raised questions as to who has responsibility for providing the materials needed for literacy programs. How much of it is the classroom teacher's responsibility, the school administration or parents' responsibility and how much of it belongs to the Department of Education?  While the  philosophy of whole language and the pedagogy of literaturebased programs have become quite pervasive in this school district, the efforts of supplying the trade books to support this program direction were uncoordinated and inconsistent. The efforts aimed directly at classroom collections such as the Holistic Approach, the individual efforts of classroom teachers who spent their personal money on trade books, plus the efforts to implement the philosophy of an integrated SLRC program, all play a role in supplying trade books for  280 students. What seemed to be missing was a more coherent, comprehensive and collaborative approach to supplying and managing trade books that could ensure more consistency, greater efficiency and more effective programs in which all students benefited from the use of trade books in their learning experiences.  From a Personal Collection to a Shared Collection. The teachers in this school district had not abandoned the basal series as an approach to literacy development but they were convinced that trade books had the power to motivate their students read and this was a major program goal. Many were also convinced that just having a large quantity of trade books in the classroom made it easier for students to learn to read and write. This pursuit of a quantity of trade books seemed to be a first step, propelled by the classroom teachers' conviction that using trade books was the best approach for their literacy programs. At some point, however, quantity did not seem to be as great a concern. Phase 1 primary collections, for instance, were greater in average size than Phase 2 and 3 collections, which were more alike in size. Phase 1 collections were also composed of a greater number of trade books from the Holistic Approach and from commercial sources, while Phase 2 and 3 collections used the SLRC and other library sources more to supply trade books. This suggested that perhaps a more collaborative approach began to emerge in situations where  281 the SLRC program was more fully involved, so that the classroom teachers' independent pursuit of trade books became more focused on working with other teachers at the same grade level and the teacher-librarian, not just to provide trade books for students, but to use these trade books in collaborative curriculum activities. This nurtured a move from ownership of a personal collection as the main goal to accessibility to a larger, shared collection as a more effective goal.  Teachers' Enthusiasm for Trade Books. During the interviews, these teachers also shared their personal enthusiasm for trade books, both in their willingness to take part in the study and to talk about the use of trade books. They talked a great deal about literature, the authors their students enjoyed and the popular genre at their grade level. Children's books excited them as teachers and they admitted wanting to share that excitement with their students. They expressed their enthusiasm for acquiring trade books for their classrooms and many had been zealous in their efforts to get books from whatever sources possible.  Silent Reading and Reading Aloud. Several other ways of using tradebooks in the school curriculum were also explored. Silent reading time each day occurred in over 90% of classrooms and the time spent in  282 silent reading was consistent across grade levels at about 20 minutes a day. This contrasted with reading aloud to students, which was done daily in all grade one and two classrooms, over 90% of grades 3-5 and about 70% of grade six classrooms. The time spent reading aloud each day was about 30 minutes in grades 1 and 2, 18 minutes in grades 3-5 and 15 minutes in grade 6. While classroom teachers gave students plenty of time for silent reading and the majority of them took part in the silent reading with their students, reading aloud to students on a daily basis decreased as grade level increased. There were some differences when the data for reading aloud and silent reading were compared by Phase. The percentage of classroom teachers reading aloud daily and using silent reading increased from Phase 1 through to Phase 3. Classroom teachers in Phases 2 and 3 spent a larger portion of their time at silent reading and reading aloud than Phase 1 teachers. The percentage of time trade books were used for the reading program also showed similar patterns for Phase 2 and 3 schools, when compared to Phase 1 schools. More classroom teachers in Phase 2 and 3 than in Phase 1 reported using trade books more often than the basal reading series. A similar pattern emerged for using trade books in content area reading. While the same amount of time for trade book use for content areas was reported for all Phases (about 35% of the time), only 70% of Phases 1 and 2 as compared to  283 nearly 80% of Phase 3 classroom teachers used trade books to help teach in the content areas. When these figures were combined, they suggested that Phase 2, and certainly Phase 3 classroom teachers had consistently integrated trade books more often into their reading and writing programs than Phase 1 teachers. This was surprising, since primary Phase 1 classrooms reported more trade books in their classroom collections when both total trade-books-per-classroom and trade-books-per-classroom from the Holistic Approach were compared with Phase 2 and 3 classrooms. While they had more trade-books-per-student in their classroom collections, they were not incorporating them as much into their literacy programs as classroom teachers in the other Phases. This would support the view that literacy development depends not just on having a large quantity of trade books accessible to students, but on the use made of the books (Morrow & Weinstein, 1982; Krashen, 1993).  Using Trade Books with the SLRC Program. Another way classroom teachers reported using trade books was in the development of resource-based units of study with the teacher-librarian. When compared by Phase, 70% of Phase 3 classroom teachers and 60% of Phase 2 teachers reported completing two or three resource-based units a year in partnership with the teacher-librarian. These units relied heavily on trade books for students' independent research and for the development of information skills. Only 22% of Phase  284 1 classroom teachers reported involvement in resource-based units of work. This suggested that the more integrated the SLRC program, the more likely the classroom teacher was to become involved working with the teacher-librarian to plan and teach resource-based units of study. It also implied that trade books would be integrated more as part of the literacy program with such a collaborative approach. In fact, when Phase 1 classroom teachers discussed their use of a classroom collection, they limited that use to providing books for independent reading, while Phase 3 classroom teachers linked the use of the classroom collection to their overall program. Also supporting this idea were the results on using the SLRC for students to choose trade books for their independent reading. About 78% of Phase 1 classroom teachers used the SLRC in this way, while over 95% of Phase 2 and 3 teachers reported the use of the SLRC by students for the purpose of choosing trade books.  Three Models of Classroom Collections and their Relationship to the School Library Resource Centre A synthesis of the results of the Survey and the interviews suggested, that among the educators in this school district, there were three conceptions of classroom collections and their relationship with the SLRC. These models combined the descriptive characteristics of the classroom collections with the way they worked in relation to  285 the SLRC program. Table 21 outlines these three conceptions as the Independent, Interactive and Integrated Models.  Figure 21 Three Models of Classroom Collections and Their Relationship to the School Library Resource Centre  Independent  Interactive  Integrated  static  Dynamic  Holistic  Conception  Recognized as a  Recognized as a key Recognized as part  of CC  separate and  component of CT  of the overall  unique collection.  program and  resources in the  supported by the  school.  Key Operative Word  SLRC collection.  How CC  Strongly linked to  Strong individual  Development guided  develops  CT's philosophy.  or grade level  by curriculum  efforts based on  needs.  CT's philosophy.  Reflects CT's  Shared efforts at  CT and T-L share  personal  grade levels.  responsibility for  interests.  developing TB collections.  286  Use of CC  Independent  Interactive  Integrated  To promote  To support themes.  Linked to CT's  independent  program and the  reading.  cooperative relationship between CT/T-L To provide students with a large selection of TB for independent reading.  How CC is  Teacher's personal  Teacher's personal  Teacher's personal  organized  collection of TB.  collection of TB.  collection of TB.  A few TB from  TB from several  Learning resources  outside sources.  sources -SLRC,  drawn from grade  other libraries,  level collections.  students' homes.... SLRC, libraries....  Source of TB  Displayed as  Displayed by where  Displayed by theme  general collection  TB came from, and  or topic in SLRC or  on bookcase/shelf.  by theme.  in classroom.  Reliance on  Use of many sources Coordinated use of  external sources.  by individual CT or grade levels.  many sources.  287  Factors  Independent  Interactive  Integrated  Financial support  Themes and student  Type of program the  interests  school has.  Affecting Size of CC Range of reading  Range of reading  levels  levels  Relationship  Parallel to each  Cooperate with each Work as one  CC to SLRC  other.  other.  collection.  SLRC Role  Offers support in  Acts as source of  Coordinates TB use  a a a m g ro cc.  many T B tor tne cc. in SLRC ana cc.  SLRC program  SLRC program  SLRC program  handles independent integrated by  integrated across  research requests.  some staff.  the school.  Acts as source of  Develops some  Develops resource-  specialized books.  information skills. based units of study.  CT Role  Independently  Actively seeking  Partners with T-L  developing a CC.  TB from a variety  in developing TB  of sources.  collections.  Seeking self-  Recognizes T-L as  Recognizes the need  sufficiency in TB.  major resource in  for a shared plan  meeting TB and  to meet TB and  program needs.  program needs.  288  T-L Role  Independent  Interactive  Integrated  Emerging.  Partially  Fully integrated.  integrated. Actively seeking  Meets formally and  Shares  connections to CT.  informally with CT  responsibility for  to plan themes and  resource  provide TB.  development.  Viewed as  viewed as  viewed as  instigator of a  coordinator of a  collaborator in  SLRC program.  SLRC program.  achieving the goals of a SLRC program.  Note. CC - classroom collection; TB - trade books; CT classroom teacher; T-L - teacher-librarian; SLRC - school library resource centre.  Independent Classroom Collections Independent classroom collections were autonomous collections of trade books used primarily for students' independent reading. They were static from the point of view that they do not move or become changed, other than a few new titles added periodically. Their role remained limited to a supplementary one within the program. They provided a supply of trade books for silent reading time or for when students had finished assigned work. The development of an Independent classroom collection was linked closely to the teacher's personal philosophy. If  289 teachers used a basal reading approach, it was likely the collection was small and provided some extra reading materials for students. If teachers used a literature-based approach, the collection was larger and used to develop a theme or for students to practice their literacy skills. One of the aims in developing an Independent classroom collection was self-sufficiency in resources, so that everything needed to teach with would be part of the teachers' collections. These teachers relied on external sources to the school for support in building their collections. For instance, the largest support came from the Department of Education supplementary materials, financial assistance from parent groups and trade books purchased from commercial sources. The size of the collections depended on the amount of personal money teachers spent, the support garnered from other sources and the range of student reading levels. Trade books were stored on a small shelf in one corner of the classroom, or if the collection was quite large, the trade books were displayed in various areas as attractive parts of the classroom, rather than in any organized or systematic way. In terms of the relationship of the classroom collection to the SLRC, the Independent model operated as a parallel collection of trade books at the classroom level. The teacher-librarian tried to get involved with teachers, to integrate the SLRC goals into their program and to draw the teacher into a more interactive relationship. Most  290 involvement by the teacher-librarian was on a demand basis for individual or specialized resources and to provide assistance with students' independent research projects. The classroom teacher welcomed the teacher-librarian's ideas and non-instructional help, but did not seek much interaction beyond what was offered.  Interactive Classroom Collections Interactive classroom collections were considered key focal points of classroom teachers' literacy programs. These classroom teachers were zealous in their efforts to build a good collection and they prided themselves on the extent they went to immerse their students in trade books. The trade books were used to support themes with read alouds, core reading materials, writing models, independent reading, cooperative projects and information skills development. These Interactive classroom collections developed from teachers' strong, personal commitment to their program and a desire to provide as many trade books as possible for students. They gathered materials from various sources beginning with their grade level colleagues. They had small sets of books shared by the group, class sets of novels and theme boxes developed by grade levels. Classroom teachers with Interactive classroom collections used the SLRC frequently. They met with the teacher-librarian independently or as a grade level to discuss an upcoming theme and what trade books they would  291 need. They were interested in the service that the teacherlibrarian could provide by rounding up trade books, but they also involved themselves in research and information skills development. Activities were planned and taught together with some teachers, while others were developing in that direction. Teacher-librarians said there were pockets of the staff that worked very well with them, but that consistency was needed to have all teachers and their students completely involved.  Integrated Classroom Collections The Integrated classroom collection operated as part of a holistic view of learning resources within the school. The curriculum was the major factor affecting how these collections developed. For instance, if a grade level wanted to develop a theme on "flight", then classroom teachers and the teacher-librarian would gather all the resources available and develop one large collection for all to share. If there were not enough resources, the theme could be dropped or changed. These themes became established as yearly components of the school program, and both classroom teachers and teacher-librarians looked for more trade books to add to the theme for the next time it would be used. The development of trade book collections became a cooperative effort and ownership of the resources and where they were located was secondary. Teacher-librarians used the concept of "learning resources" as a more encompassing term that included trade  292 books, but also numerous other print and non-print materials. It reflected a much broader view of resources and of how they were used and managed. The Integrated classroom collection included the teachers' personal sets of trade books, as well as the theme materials stored at the grade level, those borrowed from the SLRC and those from district and public libraries. Displays were set up in classrooms and in the SLRC for students and teachers to use for their information needs and independent reading. Collections were set up on display carts and rolled from class to class as needed. Sets of materials were put into classrooms for one purpose and then withdrawn to be used in the SLRC for an information skills activity. The trade books had multi-purposes and were used in both locations. It was a synergistic relationship where the impact of the two levels working together was greater than the impact of the two levels working on their own. The concept of an integrated SLRC program established teacher-librarians and classroom teachers as partners in developing and implementing curriculum. The evidence from the Phase 3 schools indicated that part of that process involved the development and use of several collections of learning resources that were managed and made accessible in efficient and effective ways. What emerged was a shared vision for resource development, where ownership of a large personal collection was less important than accessibility to a wide range and large quantity of quality resources.  293  The Three Models Within the Three Phases The Independent, Interactive and Integrated models of classroom collections and their relationship to the SLRC program represent a synthesis of how classroom collections were operating in these elementary classrooms. It would be incorrect, however, to suggest that the Model type coincided exactly with the Phase number. So, for instance, not all the classroom collections in Phase 1 schools were Independent and Phase 2, Interactive and Phase 3, Integrated. The wide range in classroom collection sizes and the variety of ways that classroom teachers used their collections suggested that any model could be operating in any Phase. The factors that seemed to be influencing which model operated most frequently in which school were the priority given to the SLRC program and how the teacher-librarian and the classroom teachers worked together for program implementation and resource development. Since Phase 1 schools had an emerging SLRC program, the classroom collections in these schools were mostly Independent with some classroom teachers moving towards or already operating with an Interactive classroom collection. Teacher-librarians in these schools reported they were just beginning to become involved with teachers in using trade books in more collaborative ways. They usually had to take the initiative and seek out classroom teachers and try to draw them into more cooperative activities. Their role was  294 often limited to providing trade books as a service in response to a demand. From that service base, they tried to build opportunities for working together on curriculum activities with teachers and students. These types of activities helped nurture the sharing and using of trade books in more varied ways. It seemed that many of these classroom teachers would not develop their concept of a classroom collection much beyond the self-sufficiency model until the benefits of collaborating could be demonstrated. Those teachers who were using the services of the SLRC more often and who had partnered with the teacher-librarian would be using an Interactive model. Since integrated SLRC programs would be just starting in Phase 1 schools, there would likely be no Integrated classroom collections operating here. Phase 2 schools might have some Independent classroom collections, but primarily Interactive ones would be found. Teacher-librarians in these schools reported being swamped with demands from classroom teachers for assistance in finding trade books for their programs. They coordinated efforts to access trade books from the district and public libraries, as well as the SLRC collection. They had some success developing theme boxes for common themes and author studies, as well as developing sets of trade books for novel studies and other group activities. At the same time, teacher-librarians were able to use the trade books as a way to establish curriculum connections with more classroom teachers. They were able to expand their roles beyond a  295 service base to include more cooperation in information skills development. The trade books acted as go-between, a common ground on which to build a collaborative program. Teacher-librarians in Phase 2 schools reported consistency as the main requisite needed for their program to progress. They wanted more grade levels working together on the same themes and developing the same information skills. They recognized that the SLRC program was becoming more integrated with more teachers all the time, but that a consistent approach to program implementation and resource development was needed at all levels. Although a few classroom teachers in Phase 2 schools were using an Independent type of classroom collection, most operated with an Interactive model. For those teachers, who had experienced success with the integrated SLRC program, their view of a classroom collection was approaching the Integrated view. Phase 3 schools had the most fully integrated SLRC programs in the school district. Most of the classroom collections in these schools operated as Integrated models, while some collections were still conceptualized as Interactive. Teacher-librarians in these schools reported that their relationship with classroom teachers centred on program goals and that requests for trade books were usually considered within the broader parameters of collaboratively planning and teaching resource-based units of study. The focus was on what classroom teachers and teacher-librarians  296 wanted to teach, and then, on which trade books would best assist in achieving these goals. It became the responsibility of both partners to teach these skills and to develop collections of trade books to make that possible. Classroom teachers still maintained personal collections of trade books, but they also had grade level collections of books used for themes and author or novel studies. When a theme was developed, trade books and other resources from the classroom, the grade level and the SLRC came together into one collection to be used by all. Classroom teachers were avid collectors of trade books for all types of collections, making suggestions to teacher-librarians and fellow teachers. Teacher-librarians commented several times on how teachers were developing better skills at selecting quality books for the program. Since the SLRC program pervaded all aspects of curriculum in Phase 3 schools. Independent collections would hardly ever be seen. Some teachers may have retained an Interactive view of classroom collections, but they would be moving toward the Integrated model. Table 33 summarizes the models that operated across the three Phases of SLRC development.  Insert Table 33 about here  297 Table 33 Models of Classroom Collections by Phase of SLRC Development  Phase 1  Independent  > Interactive  Phase 2  Independent  > Interactive  Phase 3  Interactive  > Integrated > Integrated  Note. The underlined model types were the most common found in each Phase. The arrows represent the direction in which the model was developing.  A Return to the Problem The problem explored in this study centred on the lack of evidence about what trade books classroom teachers were choosing for their classroom collections, where they were acquiring their trade books, how well the collections were organized and managed and in what ways the trade books were being used. Larger issues, relating to the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC, were also used to provide a context in which to describe classroom collections. With that description in place and with three models outlined for classroom collections and their relationship to the SLRC program, a return can be made to the original discussion from which the main problem of this study emerged. There can be little doubt that classroom teachers in this school district were committed to having substantial  298 collections of trade books accessible to students in their classroom. For some, this collection was relatively isolated in its function within the curriculum, but these teachers believed it must be maintained at least for supplementary reading purposes. For other classroom teachers, this was a large collection that was used more and more in their literacy programs and that they considered their personal and professional duty to develop. For a third group, this classroom collection was still very important, but was considered within a broader framework for resource development throughout the school. A developmental pattern seemed to emerge, beginning with some situations in which the individual classroom teacher drove the purpose and size of the classroom collection. As the classroom teacher became more involved in developing a classroom collection, more sharing and communication among grade level teachers started to emerge and the teacher-librarian played a larger role. This developed into a collaborative relationship where the needs of the school curriculum, and the role of the SLRC program within it, nurtured a shared responsibility for trade book collections between classroom teachers and teacherlibrarians. The position taken by classroom teachers, principals and teacher-librarians regarding the centralization and decentralization of resources depended on how well developed this collaborative view of trade book collections had become. For example, those operating with Independent views of  299 classroom collections tended to favor decentralization of funds and other support away from the SLRC and focus that support directly into building larger classroom collections. Those with Interactive conceptions of classroom collections favored dividing money and supporting equally classroom collections and the SLRC, while those with an Integrated viewpoint were overwhelmingly in favour of putting the money into the SLRC, but with the cooperation of classroom teachers and the teacher-librarian in deciding where that money should be spent. The issue, then, about decentralized classroom collections and centralized SLRC collections is not an either/or question. Both levels of trade books are needed. The question becomes what factors help nurture a more collaborative model for trade book collection development? Indications from this study were that the more integrated the SLRC program was into the overall school curriculum, the more integrated all levels of trade book collections were into one, whole collection, collaboratively developed and used by teachers and students. If this collaborative relationship was to develop, classroom teachers and teacher-librarians repeatedly stated that two factors were critical: (a) sufficient time for planning by teacher-librarians and classroom teachers; and (b) good communication among the partners. If classroom teachers and teacher-librarians were not given adequate time to meet and plan for the teaching of resource-based units.  300 then their relationship was limited to what they can accomplish "on the fly", over coffee in the staff room or at the end of a busy day. Most of the Phase 3 schools had some time structured for grade level teachers to meet with the teacher-librarian for long-range planning. Part of that time together became focused on trade books and how best to acquire, organize and use them within the theme. Since Phase 2 teacher-librarians and classroom teachers repeatedly mentioned the need for more time for planning so they could work together, it indicated that they were moving in the same direction as Phase 3 schools. In addition to naming time for planning and good communication as factors that enhance the relationship between classroom teachers and teacher-librarians, respondents charged principals with the responsibility for creating a sharing atmosphere in the school and for nurturing the collaborative relationship. Many of the principals interviewed had well-developed visions for how the SLRC should be integrated and they supported the view that centralizing resources encouraged better use of trade books. What principals were just beginning to realize was that they could not take a hands-off position about collaboration. Teacher-librarians were encouraging them to take the lead and to promote the collaborative approach. Many of the Phase 1 and 2 principals described the success of this approach as dependent on the personality of teacher-librarians, as someone "who can get in there and get the job done." The  301 problem with this view is that it relinquishes the principals' leadership role in establishing a school climate, in this case a climate in which a more collaborative model could emerge. Principals must join with teacher-librarians and articulate to staff the economic and pedagogic benefits of more collaboration between classrooms and the SLRC. This is not choosing sides or declaring that classroom collections must suffer in favor of the SLRC. It is a recognition that both levels are needed and that a synergy can be created so that the impact of the whole set of resources developed by classroom teachers and teacher-librarians is greater than the impact of the two collections working independently of each other.  Implications for Schools This study operated within an action research framework that included the initial deliberations in the area of trade book provision in elementary schools. These deliberations led to a statement of the problem and then a series of reconnaissance procedures intended to gather information on the problem. The analysis and discussion of the results of the study suggested several implications for the educators in this school district. These suggestions constituted a plan of action for classroom teachers, teacher-librarians and principals across the school district and within each of the three Phases of SLRC program development.  302 This study indicated that some schools in this district had made a great deal of progress in meeting the goals of the integrated school library program, while others still struggled with slowly emerging programs. When this fact was focused on the issue of classroom collections, educators in this district were just beginning to realize that the inconsistency in sizes and uses of classroom collections was symptomatic of inconsistent and uncoordinated efforts in developing curriculum goals and of provisioning schools with an adequate supply of trade books to operate programs heavily dependent on trade books. If this school district remains committed to a central role for trade books in literacy programs, then it cannot rely on the personal commitment and zeal of individual teachers to provide the trade books necessary for such programs. Many teachers cannot afford the time or the financial resources needed to acquire trade books on their own and in the quantities that seem to be required. Any plans to implement such programs demand a school-based plan as part of a district-wide strategy for the development of collections. This would ensure that students are given consistent access to, and equal opportunity to use, a wide range of trade books.  303 A Strategy for Developing Trade Book Collections There are several foundations of any district-wide or school-based strategy for building a collaborative approach to trade book collection development: 1. The SLRC program, with its mandate to integrate information skills and the use of various resources into the school curriculum, is the logical focal point for the development of a school-based or district plan for resource development. 2. School principals, who provide the main educational leadership within a school, should consider two important points: (a) part of the mission for the SLRC program should include leadership in developing a shared role in resource management and development across the school; and (b) a concerted effort towards centralization will potentially reap more benefits in the long run than trying to keep everyone happy by giving a little money and support to each classroom. 3. Accompanying the support for the SLRC program should be an expectation that methods for efficient and effective access to the fullest range of trade books will be a priority for collection development goals. 4. As part of their leadership partnership, principals and teacher-librarians should include the development of a collection development plan for the school that includes: (a) all sources and locations of trade books (and learning resources in general); (b) assessments of the size and quality of existing classroom and SLRC collections; (c) the  304 development of plans for acquiring trade books for a variety of purposes and locations; and, (d) the development of a financial plan for raising, allocating and spending funds for trade books in the school. 5. Teacher-librarians should remain cognizant that classroom collections are here to stay. In many cases, they represent a classroom teacher's personal commitment to literacy and they need to be respected as such. These collections should not be seen as competition with the SLRC, but as another level of access that students require. Embracing these classroom collections as part of a bigger picture breaks down any defensive or territorial position and leaves the door open for better curriculum partnerships with classroom teachers. 6. Classroom teachers should recognize that an efficient system for supplying trade books for their students, managed by and developed in the centralized SLRC facility, offers better access to a wider choice and larger quantity of trade books. This does not supersede the classroom teacher's interest in building a collection of personal and reliable favorites. Rather, it broadens the concept of classroom collections and augments the literacy program with richer and larger collection of trade books. 7. All educational partners should recognize that the integrated SLRC program works. It is a model that will allow them to coordinate better their efforts at curriculum implementation and to establish stronger links among the  305 various instructional partners. As this study implies, when the integrated SLRC program becomes well established, a more collaborative atmosphere emerges that creates a shared vision for providing students with plenty of trade books for a variety of learning activities. 8. Administrators and program consultants, committed to implementing literacy programs in which trade books play a central role, should coordinate their efforts in providing trade books for these programs with the program goals of an integrated SLRC program, the individual efforts of classroom teachers, the financial support of parents and administration, as well as the initiatives of government.  A Plan of Action The development of a school-based plan and district-wide strategy for trade book collections provides the framework in which educators can begin to work together to develop trade book collections. While the plan provides the general direction and intent of efforts to build trade book collections, there are more specific activities that can be undertaken at different levels of the system that reflect the tone of the overall strategy and establish a more specific plan of action for principals, consultants, classroom teachers and teacher-librarians. This plan of action could include: 1. The Independent, Interactive and Integrated models of classroom collections and their relationship to the SLRC  306 could be used as an in-service vehicle for helping classroom teachers and teacher-librarians understand what is happening with these collections. These models could form the focus of discussions aimed at nurturing a more collaborative approach. 2. In-service sessions could also focus on the role each party plays in providing the school with trade books. Identifying problems and developing solutions could result. 3. The school could examine and re-organize the timetable to establish times for classroom teachers and teacher-librarians to meet to plan and implement curriculum. Principals should attend some of these sessions to help develop a deeper understanding of the collaborative relationship and to seek suggestions for ways trade books could be acquired and made more accessible. 4. Schools could explore and describe as many methods as possible for centralizing and managing trade books. Collecting trade books by topic, author or theme and putting them into a single package to be borrowed by classroom teachers is one system that works well for many schools. The use of a district library to distribute computer software, specialized trade books and sets of similar books is another useful and efficient model. The establishment of grade level sets of trade books, theme boxes and movable carts for minicollections of trade books were other examples described in this study. 5. Teachers could explore ways of streamlining procedures for processing trade books for student use and for  307 maintaining them in good repair. Older students and parent volunteers could be mobilized to alleviate this work for teachers. The provision of clerical assistance in the SLRC would provide a more permanent solution to this problem. Systems for labeling, repairing, taping and controlling the circulation of trade books could also be coordinated across a school in an effort to save work and extend the life of trade books. 6. Schools could explore alternate ways to use free bonuses and books collected from teachers' involvement in commercial book clubs. Pooling these bonuses may alleviate some duplication and direct these choices in more effective ways. Several teachers in this study mentioned pooling the bonus points at a grade level to purchase a set of novels for all students to use. 7. Principals, classroom teachers and teacher-librarians could work with other schools to share ideas and develop problem-solving strategies in the whole area of trade book provision, processing and maintenance. 8. Schools could assess the size and contents of collections that exist in the school at the present time and set priorities for future development.  Implications for Future Research This study was needed because there was little contemporary research on the status of classroom collections and their relationship to SLRC programs. As often happens  308 with an exploratory, descriptive study, more questions were generated than were answered. However, researchers now have an accurate description of the classroom collections in one school district that has been heavily influenced by literature-based programs and the integrated SLRC program. As well, three models for classroom collections and their relationship to the SLRC program emerged and are available to researchers for further study. In addition to the need for more research in the areas of these general outcomes, several other suggestions are presented to stimulate future research. 1. The data collection in this study focused on classroom teachers, principals and teacher-librarians. The results gave no indication of the role students play as a source of trade books for classroom collections or how much students make use of the trade books provided for them. Classroom teachers reported that the trade books were used for independent reading and for developing a variety of literacy skills. More research is needed on how students use these classroom collections, their evaluation of the contents and use of  classroom collections and on their frequency of  use of these trade books. The question of how well the contents of these collections matched students interests and reading preferences also remains to be explored. 2. Since commercial book clubs were a large supplier of trade books for classroom collections and because many questions arose about the quality and variety of trade books offered through these book clubs, further research into the  309 offerings of these book clubs is warranted. A study of individual titles offered over time could provide feedback to the distributors and supply evidence to teachers and parents on the reliability of these book clubs in supplying quality trade books• 3. The present study consulted classroom teachers, principals and teacher-librarians in the exploration of the questions related to the relationship of classroom collections and the SLRC program. A follow-up study should include the input of district and provincial program consultants who work on a broader scale and with different concerns. Their input could help refine the three models developed and add details to the school-based or districtwide plan for developing trade book collections suggested for schools as a result of this study. 4. The predominant type of trade book found in these collections was fiction, either picture storybooks or novels. Research is needed to clarify the contents of these collections in terms of trade book types, the balance of fiction and nonfiction and in the literary quality of the trade books. A study that examined in detail the specific titles, types and literary qualities of several of these classroom collections would add more to the description of the trade book collections in this district. 5. While many respondents suggested that the classroom teachers' personal philosophy and commitment determined how large classroom collections became, more information is  310 needed on the specific factors that spark a classroom teacher's zeal to build a large collection. 6. The present study indicated that classroom teachers were spending money on trade books from commercial book clubs. Indications were that they were choosing trade books from a very limited selection. This raises questions about the contents of classroom collections that were beyond the scope of this study.  Questions such as are classroom  collections similar in contents? do they replicate titles? what proportion of the classroom collection came from book clubs?, could form the basis of a follow-up study. 7. Phase 3 SLRC programs were described as having a more collaborative approach to developing trade book collections across the school. Research in these schools to observe and describe the development of this collaboration would benefit all educators interested in trade book provision specifically or in the development of an integrated SLRC program in general. 8. The Independent, Interactive and Integrated models of classroom collections and their relationship to the SLRC emerged out of this exploratory study in one school district. The application of these models to another school district would refine and help verify the usefulness of these models in clarifying the relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC program. 9. Schools that are interested in developing a schoolbased plan for developing trade book collections should be  311 identified and encouraged to continue the action research model by tracing the development of such a plan, the problems in implementing it and the advantages and disadvantages it offers educators and students. 10. The focus of this study in one school district in the province of Prince Edward Island should be expanded to explore these same issues in all school districts in the province. A wider and more broadly-based study could help verify some of the results from this study, plus aid in the development of a province-wide scheme for trade book provision. In such a small province, there may be many opportunities to coordinate the supply and management of trade books in schools. It could also facilitate a more consistent approach to implementing the existing SLRC policy, as well as other provincial curriculum initiatives.  Limitations of the Study The research design of this study provided a beginning point in exploring the whole issue of classroom collections and the relationship they have with the SLRC. Since there was little information on the descriptive characteristics of classroom collections, a general Survey was used to gather the initial data. One of the weaknesses with the Survey was that the number of areas that could be probed had to be limited.  So, for instance, it was anticipated that the  actual counting of the trade books would be a large task for many teachers, which eliminated any chance to collect  312 specific details on the titles of trade books and their literary qualities. In addition, since the specific areas probed were identified in a more speculative or hypothetical way, questions could be raised about items included or excluded in the Survey. Although the professional literature was consulted, experts in this field and from the school district examined the Survey, and a pilot study using the Survey was conducted, the results are only as valid as the questions asked. To balance the broad data collection device of the Survey, interviews were used to move closer to the situation and probe some of the issues that arose from the Survey and others that were identified as general issues related to this whole area. Although stratified random sampling procedures were used, it is possible that more classroom teachers and all principals and teacher-librarians could have been interviewed. This would obviously increase the data analysis process but it may have added even more credibility to the results. There was strong support for the study both with the pilot procedures in a neighboring school district and amongst the principals, classroom teachers and teacher-librarians of Regional Administrative School Unit 3. The personal meetings with principals could have been followed with a meeting with each school staff to explain the purpose and procedures of the study. This may have boosted the response rate even higher, but more importantly, it may have ensured that  313 everyone knew what the questions were about and what they were to answer for each question. As it was, the results depended on an assumption that everyone interpreted the questions in the same way. With the second instrument, the Profile of SLRC Programs. more effort should have been made to involve principals in completing the Profile and helping to establish the Phase categorization. One easy procedural change would have been to have principals and teacher-librarians fill out the Profile together. After discussing each question and examining the three choices given, they could have chosen one they both felt was true for their school. Although the Phase categorization did not hinge solely on the Profile score, the results did rely on the assumption that teacher-librarians answered the questions based on the situation in the SLRC program as of the day they completed it.  An Ending...A Beginning... The end of any research endeavor always signals the beginning of another. This study was designed as a beginning of the research needed to help educators develop better ways to provide trade books for the burgeoning demands of today's elementary schools. At first look, many said the answer to the research question was that there was no relationship between classroom collections and the SLRC program. But as more people took part in the Survey and answered the questions during the interviews, a growing sense developed  314 that educators were not taking these issues seriously enough. There was a great inconsistency in the efforts and in the results that classroom teachers and teacher-librarians have made towards ensuring a plentiful supply of the best quality trade books available for teachers and students to use. This situation cannot be left to the erratic development witnessed in many ways by this study. Action is needed by all levels of the educational system. One hopes that the ending of this study will bring an acceptance that we do have some problems in this area and that we need more research to clarify these problems and to find ways to work together to resolve them.  315 References Allington, R. (1991). 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Using "real" books: Research findings on literature based reading instruction. The Reading Teacher. 42(7), 470-477. Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Vygotsky, L.S. (19 78). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wehmeyer, L.B. (1993). Partners: The whole language teacher and the library media specialist. School Library Media Activities Monthly. 9(5), 29-34. Wells, G. (1986). The meaning makers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Wilson, E.J. (1965). Evaluating urban centralized elementary school libraries. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. (University Microfilms No.66-10123) Wilson, P.T., Anderson, R.C. & Fielding, L.G. (1986). Children's book reading habits: A new criterion for literacy. Reading education report #63. Urbana, 111: University of Illinois, Centre for the Study of Reading.  322 Appendix A A Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections  A  Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections Regional Administrative School Unit 3 Prince Edward Island  The purpose of this Survey is to gather information about what trade books are available for students to use in their classrooms and how teachers acquire these books- It will take approximately 45 minutes for you to complete the Survey and the information you supply will help paint a clearer picture of what trade books are available in classrooms now and how we might develop ways to improve the situation. Permission to conduct this Survey was given by Unit 3 School Board Office and your participation in this Survey is voluntary. Any information you supply will be kept in strict confidence by the researcher and then destroyed at the end of the study. An alpha-numeric code known only to the researcher will ensure confidentiality. It is your right to withdraw at anytime during the completing of the Survey. If the Survey is completed, it will be assumed that you have given consent. You may tear off this cover sheet and keep it as a record of your participation in the Survey. A final report of the general results of the Survey will be made available on request. This Survey forms the basis of the research I have undertaken for my doctoral dissertation at the University of British Columbia. The study is entitled "The Relationship Between Primary and Intermediate Classroom Collections and the School Library Resource Centre". I would be happy to answer any questions you have about this study, in particular, or about the nature of my studies, in general. My telephone number is below, or you may contact my advisor. Dr. Jon Shapiro, Department of Language Education at UBC, (604) 822-6345. Thank you for taking the time to complete this Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections in Regional Administrative School Unit 3. Ray Doiron Glen Stewart Elementary School work (902) 569-4581 home (902) 566-1593  323  Directions; The concept of a classroom collection as used in this Survey refers to a section of the classroom set aside for storage and display of trade books that are used for a variety of literacy activities. Classroom collections come in all sizes and shapes with varying numbers of books in them. As you are answering the questions, use the information on the status of your classroom collection today. For instance, books from the school library, public library, Board Office library are to be included, just label them as so. The kinds of material referred to in the survey are trade books - - hard cover or paperback books that you might buy at a bookstore, book fair, book club or that you would borrow from any kind of library. It does not include textbooks that are used in basal reading programs or science and social studies programs. As well, the classroom collection may not be limited to one corner of the room. Perhaps a board ledge, display area or several work stations comprise your conception of the classroom collection. The goal is for you to answer the questions based on your understanding of what a classroom collection is and upon what books and materials you have there today.  General  Information  Code:  Date:  Number  of  Grade  Students  1) How many today?  trade  Years books  are part  Level Teaching  of your  Experience_  classroom (A  a) Of this total number, what books (picture story books)? none  up to 20%  21-40%  41-60%  b)Of this total number, what books, young adult novels)? none  up to 20%  21-40%  c)Of this total, what (information books)? none d)Of none  up to 20% this  21-40%  total, what  up to 20%  61-80%  percentage  are  41-60%  41-60%  easy  fiction  novels  (chapter  81-100% nonfiction  61-80%  are poetry  number)  81-100%  are  41-60%  Total  are  61-80%  percentage  percentage  21-40%  percentage  collection  81-100%  books?  61-80%  81-100%  books  324 2) Approximately how many collection are paperback? none  up to 20%  21-40%  3) Are there book displays No 4)  Are No  books  of  displayed  the  books  41-60% up today  with  the  5) Is the classroom collection separate place in the room? Yes  the  61-80%  classroom  81-100%  in the classroom?  front  covers  easily No  6) Circle any items from this list that classroom collection. On the line next to of the item you have. Bookcases  in  Yes  showing?  identified are part of it, tell how  Yes  as  a  your many  Approximate dimensions  Room Divider Paperback Rack Display Rack from a store or other commercial source Table Rocking Chair Sofa Easy Chair Carpet Pillows Lamp B u l l e t i n Board Containers Other  furniture  7) Approximately how much money out o f you spend last y e a r on t r a d e books  vour for  own p o c k e t did your classroom  collection? under $50  $50-$100  $100-$150  $151-$200  If more t h a n $2 00, e s t i m a t e how much you f e e l you s p e n t .  over $200  325 8) Approximately how administration spend l a s t classroom collection? under $50  $50-$100  much year  money did your school t o p u r c h a s e books f o r your  $100-$150  $151-$200  9) Approximately how much money came ( P a r e n t g r o u p s , community organizations) under $50  $50-$100  $100-$150  from  over $200 other  $151-$200  sources?  over $200  10) During t h e l a s t s c h o o l y e a r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y how many books d i d you purchase from each of t h e s e s o u r c e s ?  trade  a) Your l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s book s t o r e b) A book c l u b c) A publisher's catalogue d) A school-based book fair e) Other 11) During t h e l a s t s c h o o l y e a r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y how many t r a d e books were donated to your classroom collection?  12) How many books have Department of Education  13)How many books i n your each of t h e s e s o u r c e s ?  you r e c e i v e d to date "Holistic Approach"  classroom  collection  today  from the program?  are  from  a) The PEI P u b l i c L i b r a r y system b) Your School L i b r a r y Resource Centre c) The Unit 3 Board Office L i b r a r y d) Other r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s  (a museum, a g a l l e r y ,  a science  centre....)  e) Borrowed from another t e a c h e r ' s t r a d e book c o l l e c t i o n 14)How many t i m e s p e r month do you exchange books classroom c o l l e c t i o n at the school l i b r a r y resource  f o r your centre ?  326 15)Are way? Yes  16) Do Yes  17)Do Yes  books No  in  the  classroom  collection  categorized  in  any  If yes, how are they categorized?  students take books home from the classroom collection? No If yes, how do you keep track of these books?  you No  reinforce, protect, and repair If yes, how is this done?  18) Are books labeled in numbers, etc.)? Yes No  19) Is your arts program? is used?  classroom Yes  these  books?  any way to identify them (stickers, If yes, how are they labeled?  collection essential to your language No If yes, list some of the ways it  327 20) Check program?  any  statement  Teacher reads aloud daily Silent reading daily  that  describes  your  language  arts  How long each day? How long each day?  Teacher reads silently as well during silent reading time Direct teaching of phonics Direct teaching of grammar skills Spelling quizzes 3 or 4 novel studies per year Students keep reading log Students are encouraged to read a balance of fiction and nonfiction Response journals 3 or 4  independent research projects a year  Small group and/or individual conferences Literature circles Discussion groups Reading groups established by ability Writing process activities Teacher shares his or her writing with the children Trade books used as main material for teaching reading the time? Expressways used as main material for teaching reading time?  What % of  What % of the  Students complete book reports on novels they read Trade books used to teach the content areas  What % of the time?  Textbooks used to teach the content areas  What % of the time?  2 or 3 resource-based learning activities with the teacher-librarian each year Skill sheets used for practice Students use the school reading material  library regularly  for choosing  independent  328  Appendix B The Profile of School Library Resource Centre Program  A  Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs Regional Administrative School Unit 3 Prince Edward Island  The purpose of this Profile is to provide an indication of the stage of development reached by school library resource centre programs in Regional Administrative School Unit 3. It will take approximately 30 minutes for you to complete the Profile and the information you supply will help clarify how school library resource centres provide resources and program services for teachers and students. Permission to administer this Profile was given by Unit 3 School Board Office and your participation is obviously voluntary. Any information you supply will be kept in strict confidence and then destroyed at the end of the study. An alpha-numeric code known only to the researcher will ensure confidentiality. It is your right to withdraw at anytime during the completing of the Profile without any consequence. If the Profile is completed, it will be assumed that you have given consent. You may tear off this cover sheet and keep it as a record of your participation in the Profile. A final report of the general results of the research will be made available on request. This Profile forms the basis of the research I have undertaken for my doctoral dissertation at the University of British Columbia. The study is entitled "The Relationship Between Primary and Intermediate Classroom Collections and the School Library Resource Centre". I would be happy to answer any questions you have about this study, in particular, or about the nature of my studies, in general. My telephone number is below, or you may contact my advisor. Dr. Jon Shapiro in the Department of Language Education at UBC, (604) 822-6345. Thank you for taking the time to complete this Survey of School Library Resource Centre Programs in Regional Administrative School Unit 3. Your input is important and valuable. Ray Doiron Glen Stewart School Library Telephone: Work (902) 569-4581 Home (902) 566-1593  329 Directions: This Profile was constructed from Partners in Action: The Library Resource Centre in the School Curriculum (Ontario Government: Ministry of Education,1983), a policy document which outlines eight major program components that comprise an integrated school library resource centre program. These same components are part of the PEJ School Library Policy (Prince Edward Island Government: Department of Education, 1989). The components of the school library resource centre program to be examined include program, personnel, facilities, collections, management. Boardbased support, financial support, and program advocacy. When combined, these eight areas will provide a profile of the degree of implementation of integrated school library resource centre programs in Unit 3 during the past five years. The Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs will also be used in conjunction with A Survey of Elementary Classroom Collections presently underway in Unit 3. Together, the two documents will help provide the basis for examining the relationship between classroom collections and the school library resource centre and the extent of use of trade books in elementary schools. The Profile of School Library Resource Centre Programs presents several concepts, procedures, policies and goals for the school library resource centre program and asks you to decide how they apply to your school.  School S L RC #  of  ID  #Students  Fiction  #  Of  #Trade  Nonfiction  Experience  as  a  teacher-librarian  Experience  as  a  classroom  Books #  Of  in  Poetry  teacher  Please answer the questions based on how now, rather than your expected goals.  things  are  operating  330 1.  Program  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, The teacher-librarian is not considered in relation to curriculum development. The teacher-librarian provides an auxiliary service, with limited involvement in curriculum development. Teacher-librarian is actively involved in the three major aspects of curriculum development, implementation and evaluation. Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, The role of the school library resource centre in providing learning resources is not considered in relation to curriculum implementation. The role of the school library resource centre in providing learning resources is an auxiliary service, with limited involvement in curriculum implementation. The role of the school library resource centre in providing learning resources is integrated into all major aspects of curriculum implementation.  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, The school library resource centre program is guided by the principles of cooperative program planning and teaching. Cooperative program planning and teaching is not considered in relation to curriculum implementation within the school. Involvement of the teacher-librarian in cooperative program planning and teaching is inconsistent.  331 Personnel Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, A teacher-librarian is added to staff only after all other school positions have been assigned. A teacher-librarian is part of the total professional staffing, hired on a full-time basis, in the light of program requirements and student enrollment. A teacher-librarian is hired on a part-time or full-time basis, depending on student enrollment.  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, Paid support staff is assigned on an occasional basis. There is no paid support staff. Support staff consists of trained school library assistants and/or library or audio-visual technicians.  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, Volunteer staff consists of trained adults and students. Volunteer staff consists of students. Volunteer staff consists of adults and students.  332 3.  Facilities  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, Facilities are designed to accommodate individuals, small groups and large groups. Facilities are large enough to accommodate one class of students only. Facilities consist of a small area or classroom not large enough to accommodate more than a few students at a time.  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, Facilities are designed for a wide variety of learning activities. Facilities are provided for some library functions. Facilities are limited to very few activities.  4.  Collections  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, The learning resources consist of a limited collection of catalogued materials. An extensive and comprehensive collection of catalogued learning resources is provided. The learning resources consist mainly of uncatalogued books and some reference materials.  333 Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, Selection of teachers. Selection of  resources is done independently by classroom  resources is done by the teacher-librarian.  Selection of resources is shared teacher-librarians.  by classroom teachers and  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, Most materials and equipment are housed in various areas of the school. Although materials and equipment are centrally housed, they are lent to students and teachers as required. Most materials and equipment are housed and used in the school library.  5.  Management  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, The management of the school library resource centre program involves setting up regularly scheduled class visits for book exchange. Book exchanges are managed by informal, unstructured arrangements. The management of the school library resource centre program hinges on flexible scheduling and open book exchanges.  334 Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, The management of the school library resource centre program involves setting up regularly scheduled class visits for the teaching of information skills. The teaching of information skills is handled by classroom teachers without school library resource centre support. The teaching of information skills is managed through cooperative planning and teaching within a school-based plan for the integration of these skills into the school's curriculum. 6.  Board-Office  Support  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my district, The Board provides a variety of support and resource services under the direction of a library coordinator. The Board provides occasional support and resource services for the school library resource centre program. The Board does not provide support or resource services for the school library resource centre program. 7.  Financial  Support  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, Financial support change.  is  based on last year's allocation with little  Financial support is determined by the long-range planning of program requirements. Financial support is not based on planning or past practice.  335 8.  Program  Advocacy  Read the three statements and think how they apply to your school library resource centre program. Check the one statement that most accurately describes the reality of your program now. In my school, The teacher-librarian accepts responsibility for interpreting the role of the school library in the teaching and learning activities of the school to teachers, principals, supervisors, parents, trustees and students. Sporadic attempts are made to inform teachers about educational programs that use a variety of resource materials. No attempt is made to inform staff about the school library resource centre program or to communicate the potential role of a teacher-librarian.  336 Appendix C Letter Granting Permission to Conduct the Study in Regional Administrative School Unit 3  UNIT 31 £P.«D. S o * S6oo, {1/irttoiUtoiiia,  <PxincK £duja.xd 0±Und  fgo2) s66.2o66  Cl<=4 SO/?  9d«; (gozj 566-970/ 24 ulindcn  Noveoaber 4 , 1993  Mr. Ray Doiron Walter Gage Residence Box 478 5959 Student Onion Mall Vancouver, BC V6T 1K2 Dear Mr. Doiron: Thank you for your October 28, 1993 letter regarding your research proposal. I am interested in your work and would be happy to approve access to schools and teachers in Regional School Unit 3 for you to conduct research for your study, "The Relationship Between Primary and Intermediate Classroom Libraries and the School Library". Participation in the study will be left to the discretion of principals and teachers. I have received a draft copy of your questionnaire. Please forward a copy of the interview questions prior to beginning your survey. May I take this opportunity to wish you well in this important undertaking, I trust ydur findings will make a significant contribution to your field of study as well as provide practical benefits to our schools. Sincerely,  David McCabe Superintendent of Education DM/ca  i:^cgConal  tSchooL  ^LinLt 5  crfvtnut  337  Appendix D Interview Questions for Classroom Teachers  Interview Contents  of  Questions: the  Classroom  Classroom  Teachers  Collection  1) The Survey showed that in the 163 classrooms that responded, there are over 60,000 trade books. What is your reaction to that number? 2) The smallest collection had 34 trade books and the largest had over 2000 books.Do you feel there is a magic number of books that should be in the classroom collection? How do we know we have enough? 3) Are there factors at your grade level that account for the size of classroom collections? 4) The Survey showed overwhelmingly that the type of book in the classroom is fiction, either picture books or novels. Why do we buy fiction almost exclusively ? 5) How important do you fell it is to balance the contents of the classroom collection to include a variety of types of trade books, interest levels and reading abilities? Choosing  Books  1) What are the major considerations you have before choosing a particular trade book for inclusion in your classroom collection ? 2) Do you talk with the teacher-librarian about choosing trade books for classroom use? If yes, describe that experience What ways does the teacher-librarian help you choose books? Use of Trade Books  in Literacy  Programs  1) What do you conceive of as the purpose of having a trade book collection? Why bother with all the work you are doing to get these books? 2) The Survey showed that trade books are used a lot in place of or along with Expressways. How are you using trade books in your reading program? 3) How are you using them for content areas like science, social studies and health?  338 4) How do the trade books in your classroom collection support your goals of reading for enjoyment? reading for information? 5) In a perfect world where money was not a factor, how would you conceive of the classroom collection working as part of the classroom program at this grade level? What would be in it; what would it be like?  Source  of  Trade  Books  1) The Survey showed many teachers spend a lot of money out of their own pocket on trade books for the classroom. Why do you think this is so? Why are teachers willing to spend their own money? 2) The Survey showed that many books are purchased from Book Clubs or are taken as free selections. Do you agree? -Are you satisfied with the quality of choice from Book Clubs? -Does it concern you that everyone in Grade 4,5,6 for example might be buying from the same limited selection? -Are there other ways to use our free selections? 3) The Survey showed that the school library also supplies many trade books into the classroom. How does the teacher-librarian help you provide for trade books in the classroom collection ?  Organization  of  the  Classroom  Collection  1) How do the physical look, the organization or the set-up of the classroom collection affect the way it is used in classroom programs? 2) Some teachers have a group of books that are permanent in their room and another group of materials that are borrowed for certain periods of time. How is your collection organized? Why is it that way?  339  General  Questions  for  All:  Classroom Collection Relationship  /  School  Library  Resource  Centre  1) Everyone says having lots of trade books is essential to today's literacy programs. A lot of the responsibility for providing these trade books falls to classroom teachers and teacher-librarians. How can the classroom teacher and the teacher-librarian work together to provide students with access to trade books? 2) Unit 3 Board Office Library has sets of trade books that are kept centrally and teachers borrow for a limited time for their classrooms. Could such a program work here in your own school library resource centre? If yes, describe how 3)Some people favor centralized policies where the SLRC stores and manages sets of trade books for classroom use. Others feel they need to have their own sets of materials in the class to use when they want. How do you feel about this issue? 4) Many schools have procedures for the equitable distribution of funds for trade books. Is there a need for individual schools to develop an in-school policy for supplying trade books for their literacy programs? Why or why not? 5) If a school wants to spend $1000 on trade books for their literacy programs, is the money better spent on books for each classroom collection or books for use in the school library resource centre? 6) What advice do you have for (administrators) and/or (program developers) who encourage teachers to develop classroom collections? As the classroom teacher would you have any advice for people bringing in new programs that rely heavily on trade books? 7) What factors inhibit the sharing of trade books between classrooms and the SLRC? What factors enhance the sharing of trade books between classrooms and the SLRC? 8) Do you have any concluding comments you would like to make concerning the issues related to providing trade books for our schools?  340  Appendix E Interview Questions for  Interview Contents  Questions of  the  for  Classroom  Teacher-Librarians  Teacher-Librarians: Collection  1) One of the goals of this Study is to describe the classroom collections in Unit 3 schools and to probe the relationship between classroom collections and the school library reosurce centre. How would you describe classroom collections in your school? 2) The Survey showed that in the 163 classrooms that responded, there are over 60,000 trade books. What is your reaction to that number? 3) The smallest collection had 34 trade books and the largest had over 2 000 books. Do you feel there is a magic number of books that should be in the classroom collection? 4) The Survey showed overwhelmingly that the type of book in the classroom is fiction, either picture books or novels. Why do we buy fiction almost exclusively ?  Choosing  Books  1) Have you ever met with a classroom teacher to choose trade books for classroom use? If yes, describe that experience 2) Are there ways the classroom collections ?  teacher-librarian  helps  develop  teachers'  3) Are there selection procedures you would encourage classroom teachers to use when they choose trade books for the classroom?  Use  of  Trade  Books  in  Literacy  Programs  1) How do you conceive of classroom collections within the overall goals of your school's curriculum? 2) How do you conceive of classroom collections in relation to the school library resource centre? 3) How do you feel your classroom collections within their programs?  teachers  conceive  of  classroom  4) Are primary teachers using classroom collections differently than intermediate teachers?  341  Source  of  Trade  Books  1) The Survey showed many teachers spend a lot of money out of their own pocket on trade books for the classroom. Why do you think this is so? 2) The Survey showed that many books are purchased from Book Clubs or are taken as free selections. Do you agree? -Are you satisfied with the quality of choice from Book Clubs? -Does it concern you that everyone in Grade 4,5,6 for example, might be buying from the same limited selection? -Are there other ways to use our free selections? 3) The Survey showed that the school library also supplies many trade books for the classroom. How do you as the teacher-librarian help provide trade books for the classroom collections ? 4) Are there ways the school library resource centre could better assist in providing trade books for your classroom programs?  Organization  of  the  Classroom  Collection  1) How do the physical look, the organization or the set-up of the classroom collection affect the way it is used in classroom programs? 2) Some teachers have a group of books that are permanent in their room and another group of materials that are borrowed for certain periods of time. How are classroom collections organized at this school? Why is it that way  342 General  Questions  for  All:  Classroom Collection Relationship  /  School  Library  Resource  Centre  1) Everyone says having lots of trade books is essential to today's literacy programs. A lot of the responsibility for providing these trade books falls to classroom teachers and teacher-librarians. How can the classroom teacher and the teacher-librarian work together to provide students with access to trade books? 2) Unit 3 Board Office Library has sets of trade books that are kept centrally and people borrow for a limited time for their classrooms. Could such a program work here in your own school library resource centre? If yes, describe how 3)Some people favor centralized policies where the SLRC stores and manages sets of trade books for classroom use. Others feel they need to have their own sets of materials in the class to use when they want. How do you feel about this issue? 4) Many schools have procedures for the equitable distribution of funds for trade books. Is there a need for individual schools to develop an in-school policy for supplying trade books for their literacy programs? 5) If a school wants to spend $1000 on trade books for their literacy programs, is the money better spent on books for each classroom collection or books for use in the school library resource centre? 6) What advice do you have for (administrators) and/or (program developers) who encourage teachers to develop classroom collections ? 7) What factors inhibit the sharing of trade books between classrooms and the SLRC? What factors enhance the sharing of trade books between classrooms and the SLRC? 8) Do you have any concluding comments you would like to make concerning the issues related to providing trade books for our schools?  343 Appendix F Interview Questions for Principals  Interview Contents  Questions of  for  Classroom  School  Principals:  Collections  1) This Study was designed to describe classroom collections in Unit 3 elementary schools and to explore the relationship between classroom collections and the school library resource centre. How would you describe the classroom collections in your school? 2) The Survey showed that in the 163 classrooms that responded, there are over 60,000 trade books. What is your reaction to that number? 3) The smallest collection had 34 trade books and the largest had over 2 000 books.Do you feel there is a magic number of books that should be in a classroom collection? 4) The Survey showed overwhelmingly that the type of book in the classroom is fiction, either picture books or novels. Why do we buy fiction almost exclusively ? Use