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English as a second language (ESL) student teachers’ perceptions of change in their practical knowledge… Cook, Melodie Lorie 1992

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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL) STUDENT TEACHERS'PERCEPTIONS OF CHANGE IN THEIR PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE OVERTHE COURSE OF A 20-HOUR PRACTICUMbyMELODIE LORIE COOKB.A., University of Ottawa, 1987A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESDepartment of(Language Education)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA© Melodie Lorie Cook, 1992In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.Department of  Language EducationThe University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate	 September, 1992DE-6 (2/88)AbstractAlthough studies in student teachers' perceptions of change in theirpractical knowledge over the course of a teaching practicum have beenundertaken, almost no studies exist reporting perceptions of change bystudent teachers in the field of English as a Second Language (ESL). Onestudy researching such changes in ESL student teachers' practicalknowledge, over a sixteen-week period, found that changes occurred instudent teachers' abilities to set up and carry out lessons, use classroomspace, select content, and treat student errors. Another study, usingdialogue journals as a method of data collection, found that over a ten-week practicum period, student teachers reported changes in theirperceptions of methods and activities, teaching techniques, and lessonorganization. The present study seeks to add to the body of knowledge inthis area by investigating the changes which occurred in five ESL studentteachers' perceptions of their practical knowledge over the course of a 20-hour practicum. It also describes these student teachers' comments as tohow aspects of the teaching course content and practicum might havebeen developed or expanded to facilitate their practicum experiences.The study found that changes in teachers' perceptions of their practicalknowledge occurred in different areas, depending on such agents asstudent-sponsor teacher relationships, rapport with students, andexperiences during the practicum period. Absence of change wasattributed to several factors, among them, that some of the scaled itemsiiused for data collection may have been exclusively applicable toelementary and secondary school classrooms, as well as the short natureof the practicum. Expectations of the student teachers in their practicumsettings is also another factor affecting absence of change. All of thestudent teachers thought that modifications to the course content (i.e., amore practical and less theoretical focus), and a lengthening of thepracticum component would have been beneficial in heightening theirfeelings of competence and confidence in teaching.Further studies should attempt to document changes in student teachers'perceptions, matching them with actual teaching abilities perceivedthrough the practicum period, by way of participant-observation, interviewswith student teachers, sponsor teachers, practicum supervisors, and ESLstudents. Research regarding sponsor-student teacher relationships andgender is also recommended.iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT 	  iiTABLE OF CONTENTS	  ivLIST OF TABLES 	 viiiLIST OF FIGURES 	 ixACKNOWLEDGEMENTS	  xCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the Study	 11.2 Purposes of the Present Study	 21.3 Practical Significance of the Study	41.4 Definitions of Terms	 51.5 Rationale for the Study	 61.6 Organization of the Thesis	6CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF THE LITERATURE	2.1 	 Changes in Student Teachers' Perceptions:Quantitative Studies 	 7	2.2 	 Qualitative Studies in ESL Teacher Education.... 	 16	2.4 	 Rationale for Methodology 	 19iv2.5	 Summary 	CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY223.1 Purpose of the Study	 243.2 Research Design	 243.3 Participants 	 253.4 Participants' Practicum Placements	 353.5 Research Questions 	 353.6 Procedure and Instrumentation	 383.7 Research Questions, Data Measures, and Analysis 383.7.1 The Modified PREP Scale: An Important Note.... 383.8 Summary 	 44CHAPTER FOURRESULTS4.1 Agents Reported Influencing Change	 454.2 Reports of Change/Absence of Change and Agents 474.3 Agents Reported Influencing Absence of Change 624.4 The Most Important/Useful Things Learned inPracticum	 694.5 Suggestions for Modifications to TESL 400	 714.6 Suggestions for Changes to the Practicum 	 734.7 Recommendations/Advice for Future Students	73v4.8 	 Summary 	  73CHAPTER FIVEDISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS5.1 Changes in Student Teachers' Perceptions of TheirPractical Knowledge	 775.1.1 Relations to Literature and Speculations	 805.2 Perceptions of Absence of Change in StudentTeachers' Practical Knowledge: Reasons Cited	 855.2.1 Relations to Literature and Speculations	 865.3 The Most Useful Things Learned in Practicum 	 885.3.1 Speculations 	 885.4 Suggestions for Changes to Teaching Course andPracticum: Useful Information for Course Instructors,Sponsor Teachers and Practicum PlacementSupervisors 	 895.4.1 Relations to Literature and Speculations	 895.5 Advice for Future Students	 915.5.1 Speculations	 915.6 Relations to Other Relevant Literature 	 925.7 Limitations of the Research	 945.8 Implications for Future Research	 955.9 Implications for ESL Teacher Education 	 955.10 Summary 	 965.11 Famous Last Words	 99viREFERENCES	 101APPENDICES (I-VI)APPENDIX I 	 SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE 	  105APPENDIX II 	 SUBJECT CONSENT FORM	  107APPENDIX III	 SAMPLE JOURNAL ENTRY: CLARE	  109APPENDIX IV 	 STUDENT TEACHERS' FEELINGS OFPREPAREDNESS TO TEACH (PREP) SCALE 110APPENDIX V 	 SAMPLE TRANSCRIPT: CLARE 	  113APPENDIX VI 	 STUDENT TEACHERS' FEELINGS OFPREPAREDNESS TO TEACH (PREP) SCALE:ORIGINAL VERSION 	  115viiLIST OF TABLESTable 4.1 	 Agents Most Frequently Listed InfluencingPerceptions of Change	  61viiiLIST OF FIGURES	Figure 2.1 	 Changes in Student Teachers' PerceptionsOver the Practicum Period: Research Findings 8	Figure 2.2 	 Changes Occurring in Student TeacherTeaching: Gebhard's (1990b) Study	  20	Figure 3.1	 Profile of Participants	  26	Figure 3.2	 Profile of Participants' Practicum Situations	 36	Figure 3.3	 Changes to PREP Scale	  39	Figure 3.4 	 Changes to Factor Analysis	  41	Figure 4.1 	 Reasons Reported For Change/No Change 48	Figure 4.2	 Cited Reasons for Absence of Change byFactor 	 63	Figure 4.3	 Most Important/Useful Things Learned inPracticum 	  70	Figure 4.4	 Suggestions for Modifications to TESL 400.	 72	Figure 4.5	 Suggestions for Changes to the Practicum..	 74	Figure 4.6	 Recommendations/Advice for FutureStudents 	 74Figure 5.1 	 Main Areas of Change and Agents	 78	Figure 5.2	 Experiential and Awareness-Raising Changes 93ixACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to acknowledge the following people for helping make thisthesis and my graduate studies possible.Barbara Shuman and Cheri McLeod, sponsor teachers with whom I havebeen privileged to work.My advisor, Margaret Early, whose support and kindness lowered myaffective filter for graduate studies.My committee members Billie Housego, Gloria Tang, and Bernie Mohan fortheir thoughtful comments and helpful suggestions.Patricia Vertinsky, Alister Cumming, Richard Berwick, and MarionCrowhurst for offering gainful employment over the past two years.Dean, Liane, and Adrian: the staff at the Office of Graduate Programs andResearch for doing such a damn fine job.Kelvin Beckett for letting me think out loud at him and for nodding andlooking interested as I droned on and on about this thesis.Dave Bene for all his patience, love, and understanding, during this time ofextreme "tunnel-vision". Also thanks to Dave for proofreading, criticalcomments, and generally being a guardian of my academic conscience.Oh yeah and Kate also. You big foos.xCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the StudyPrevious studies exist documenting changes in student teachers'perceptions during their teacher training and practicum experiences insuch areas as preparedness to teach (Housego, 1990), anxiety, attitude,concerns, and confidence about teaching (Pigge, et al., 1990; Staab, 1984;Tabachnick, 1980). Changes in areas such as the development ofprofessional attributes (Ralph, 1989; Ross,1988), beliefs about teachingsuccess and non-success (Placek, et al., 1988; Borko, et al., 1987; Henry,et al., 1977), stress levels (Hourcade, et al., 1988; Buitink, et al., 1986;Jelinek, 1986), and attitudes towards teacher effectiveness in authoritarianor non-authoritarian teaching philosophies (-Ilene, et al., 1987) have alsobeen studied. Such agents as teaching environment (Johnson, 1986;Manning, 1977), early teaching experiences (Evans, 1986), and interactionbetween student and sponsor teachers (Gebhard, 1990b) have beenexamined in terms of their contributing to change in student teachers'perceptions.Primarily quantitative methods have been used to study changes instudent teachers' perceptions. Only two studies to date (Brinton andHolten, 1989; Gebhard, 1990), used qualitative methods for this purpose.121.2 Purposes of the Present StudyThe first purpose of the study is to explore inexperienced ESLstudent teachers' perceptions of change in their practical knowledge overa short practicum period, and to determine agents to which these changesin practical knowledge were attributed. Three questions were used toguide the research:i) What changes occurred in student teachers' perceptions oftheir practical knowledge?ii) What agents were perceived to have contributed to orfacilitated these changes?iii) 	 If no changes occurred, what agents were perceived to havecontributed to the absence of change?The second purpose of the study is to solicit from student teachersinformation felt to be useful to a) course planners, b) practicum placementsupervisors, and c) prospective students. To this end, three additionalquestions were used:i) What information would be helpful to course planners?ii) What information would be helpful to course instructors,practicum placement supervisors, and sponsor teachers?iii) 	 What information would be helpful to prospective studentstaking the course in the future?The present study, based on an interview protocol and studentjournals, analyzed five inexperienced ESL student teachers' perceptions ofchange in their practical knowledge over the course of a 20-hour3practicum. The practicum period was a component part of the studentteachers' ESL teacher education and the practicum placements included avariety of settings and learning foci (i.e., university-level academic courses,specialized skill-building courses, and acculturation courses). During eachinterview, the student teacher was asked to reflect on his or her abilities toplan, organize, teach, and manage classrooms. Housego's (1990)"Student Teachers' Feelings of Preparedness to Teach" (PREP) scale wasused as a guide for interview questions. As part of the methodology inteaching English as a second language (TESL) course requirements,student teachers were asked by their course instructors to keep a journaldocumenting their activities and thoughts after each practice teachingsession. These journals were collected and analyzed for informationcongruent with the student teachers' PREP scale responses.The study attempts to fill a gap in the research literature concerningchanges in ESL student teachers' perceptions of their practical knowledgeover the course of a short practicum period. It also attempts to provideanother example of how qualitative techniques can be used for research inESL teacher education. The study also attempts to add to the researchdata base in ESL teacher education, which, according to Lange (1990) is"pitifully small" meriting concern for the quality of preparation of teachers atall levels. (p. 252)To summarize, the present study sought to examine changes in ESLstudent teachers' perceptions of their practical knowledge over the courseof a 20-hour practicum period. The study also sought to determine in what4areas changes occurred and what agents influenced or mitigated againsttheir occurrence. As well, it sought to provide information helpful to thoseresponsible for and affected by the course. The study used the qualitativetechniques of interviewing, using the PREP scale as a guide for questions,and diary (journal) collection for obtaining data.1.3 Practical Significance of the StudyAt a western Canadian university, in order to obtain certification toteach English as a second language to adults, students must take, alongwith a prerequisite Linguistics or English course, TESL 400, "Introduction toTeaching English as a Second Language." A description of the coursereads: "The application of linguistic insights to the effective teaching ofEnglish as a second language. Methods of teaching. Practice teaching."The course was first introduced as a methods course for certifiedelementary and secondary school teachers, as well as for adult educatorspossessing teaching experience. Currently, however, because of acomputer-registration system allowing any registered student in theuniversity to enroll in the course, instructors have found themselvesteaching students who have had little or no prior teaching experience. Onthe flipside, some students have found themselves in classes whereprevious pedagogical knowledge is expected of them; knowledge whichthey do not possess. It is hoped that this study will aid course planners,course instructors, practicum placement supervisors, and future students,in short, all those who are responsible for and affected by TESL 400.51.4 Definitions of TermsThis section defines terms used in this thesis which are ESL-specificor which require clarification for the purposes of this research.A  student teacher is someone engaged in learning to teach ...through a formal educational setting, such as a course or practicum.(Freeman, 1990, p. 104). Sponsor teachers are those teachers who haveagreed to admit and supervise student teachers during the course of the20-hour practicum period. Course planners are those individuals involvedin the development of the ESL certification course (TESL 400). Courseinstructors oversee and in some way facilitate the student teachers'learning process by offering on-campus course work. (Freeman, 1990, p.104). Practicum placement supervisors are those individuals responsiblefor placing students in their respective practicum situations and conductingan on-site evaluation of student teachers' classroom performances. Thepracticum, in this case 20-hours, is a portion of teaching over which thestudent teacher has direct and individual control. (Freeman, 1990, pp.104-105.)Academically-oriented ESL classes are those classes focussing onscholastic, university-oriented content (i.e., Political Science,Anthropology) in order to build language skills and knowledge of ESLstudents. These courses (as in this case) may be offered by universitycredit-granting agencies. Acculturation classes are those classes in whichlimited English proficiency (LEP) students are taught survival skills andaspects of Canadian culture in the English language. Skill building classes6are those classes focussing on specific English language skill development(i.e., vocabulary building, grammar and composition, etc.) A diary (journal)study is a first-person account of a language learning or teachingexperience, documented through regular, candid entries in a personaljournal and then analyzed for recurring patterns or salient events. (Bailey,1990, p. 215.)1.5 Rationale for the StudyBecause of the idiosyncratic nature of this study, (i.e., personalitydifferences between participants, differences in their practicumplacements, and differences in their relationships to their sponsor teachersand sponsor classroom students) it was believed that the case studyformat would be the most appropriate format for collection andpresentation of the findings of this research. The qualitative methods ofdata collection used, such as interviewing and journal study could beundertaken quite easily with the small sample size.1.6 Organization of the ThesisChapter one introduces the thesis and subsequent chapters.Chapter two is a review of literature related to the research questions. Theremaining chapters explain the research methodology, describe, discussand examine literature related to the results of the study, outline thelimitations of the study, and make suggestions for future research.CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF THE LITERATUREThe relationship of the present study to prior research on change instudent teachers' perceptions, qualitative studies in ESL teachereducation, and the rationale for the present research methodology will bediscussed in this review. Figure 2.1 summarizes the research on changewhich has been included.2.1 	 Change in Student Teachers' Perceptions: QuantitativeStudiesThe literature surveyed falls loosely into three categories; studies ofchange in student teachers' perceptions of personal characteristics,studies of change in student teachers' perceptions in the affective domain,and studies of change in student teachers' perceptions of their ability toperform teaching-related tasks. some studies might be included in morethan one category.Changes in Student Teachers' Perceptions of Personal CharacteristicsThe purpose of Dumas' 1969 study was to determine the cumulativeeffect of the student teaching experience on the self-perceptions of studentteachers in English, social studies, science, mathematics, and physicaleducation. The Fiedler Interpersonal Perception Scale, a 6-point bi-polarsemantic differential, was administered to 94 secondary student teachersat the beginning and end of an eighteen week practicum. 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The study found furtherthat the presence of cooperating teachers a majority of the time duringstudent teaching tends to be associated with an improving self-concept bystudent teachers.Student teachers' conceptions of teacher characteristics have alsobeen studied. Callahan sought to identify the attitudes of 120 elementaryand secondary teacher candidates toward teacher characteristics thoughtimportant for effective teaching: in particular, knowledge and poise,friendliness, liveliness and ability to maintain interest, ability to control theclass firmly, and make decisions in a democratically. Using a researcher-constructed semantic differential-type scale, responses were measuredbefore and after a 20-week student teaching period. There were significantpositive shifts in perception towards four of the five attributes (there was apositive trend in the fifth attribute, but it did not prove significant). Thisstudy is important as it highlights the important role of the practicum in"crystallizing teaching candidate attitudes toward the role andcharacteristics of the effective teacher, their personal effectiveness as ateacher, and the respective worth of the training they received in theireducation program" (p. 175).11Changes in Student Teacher's Affective ResponsesResearch on change in student teachers' perceptions in theaffective domain has focussed primarily on four areas: stress, anxiety,attitude, and confidence. Hourcade et al. (1988) investigated severalpotential sources of stress prior to the student teachers' practicum, andsubsequent changes in stress following completion of the student teachingexperience. At the end of the first day of student teaching and again uponcompletion of the practicum, each of 30 elementary and 20 secondaryeducation students was given the Work Stress Scale, a 33-item, bi-polarrating scale designed to assess individual perceptions of the quality ofwork environments and to ascertain specific sources of stress within thoseenvironments. Results of the study revealed that overall stress was not afactor for most student teachers, although individuals in each group scoredabove the cutoff level in one or more areas of the test.Anxiety, another source of stress, was the focus of Silvernail andCostello's 1983 study assessing the impact of different practicum durations(one semester as opposed to one year internship) on anxiety levels ofstudent teachers. The Teaching Anxiety Scale (TCHAS), a 29-item Likert-type scale measuring anxiety specifically related to teaching, wasadministered to 36 student teachers involved in a 15-week practicumperiod, prior to and following the student teaching experience. Sixtystudent teachers involved in the internship program (30 weeks) were giventhe scale prior to, in the middle of, and at the completion of theirinternships. Results of this study showed that there were no significant12differences in scores for the group involved in the 15-week practicum;however, there was a significant reduction in anxiety for student teachersinvolved in the 30-week internship.Pigge and Marso (1987) also investigated anxiety, as well asattitudes and confidence about becoming a teacher. Their researchhypothesis was that teacher-education students' attitudes towardsteaching and anxiety about teaching would not change over the course oftheir teacher training. As well, they hypothesized that ratings of confidenceabout becoming teachers would show no significant change. Five hundredand eighty-one students, at different points in their programs (before theirfirst education course, before their practicum, at the end of the practicum)were given the Attitude Toward Teaching as a Career Scale, The TeachingAnxiety Scale and a demographic questionnaire. The Attitude TowardTeaching as a Career Scale contains 11 items, each of which is answeredon a response format ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree(6). The Teaching Anxiety Scale consists of 29 items with a responseformat for each item on a continuum from never (1) to always (5). Meanscores on attitude did not change, anxiety scores showed a declining trendover the three points in training time for the total sample and confidenceincreased over the three periods of measurement. It is important to notethat in this study, as well as in the next one, the entire period of teachertraining was measured (i.e., instructional time), not just time spent duringthe student teaching experience.13In a similar study, assessing longitudinal changes in studentteachers' attitudes, anxiety, and confidence concerning teaching, Piggeand Marso (1990) hypothesized that over the course of the teacher trainingperiod, student teachers would have a more positive attitude, less anxietyand greater confidence about teaching. The 153 elementary andsecondary teachers were given the Attitude Toward Teaching as a CareerScale, the Teaching Anxiety Scale and a researcher-constructed scalemeasuring confidence about teaching. The findings indicated a decreasein anxiety levels, an increase in confidence, and stable and highly positiveattitudes towards teaching.Changes in Student Teachers' Perceptions of Their Ability to PerformTeaching-Related TasksResearch in this area focuses primarily on academicimplementation, assessment, behaviour management, teacher concerns,and feelings of preparedness to carry out teaching tasks. Johnson (1986)examined the events and experiences influencing practicum studentsduring their field experience. In a specialized instruction program at theUniversity of Illinois, regular elementary education students were taughtskills enabling them to a) act as advocates for handicapped students; b)function as members of an educational team, c) manage classroom socialand study behaviour problems; and d) assess and remediate academicbehaviour problems. The three foci of the research were, academicimplementation (i.e., teaching to instructional objectives, deliveringinstruction clearly and concisely, delivering appropriate corrective14feedback); behaviour management (i.e., accelerating appropriateclassroom behaviours, decelerating inappropriate classroom behaviours,maintaining student attention and interest during small and large groupinstruction); and assessment (pinpointing classroom behaviour problems,collecting data on classroom behaviour problems, conducting curriculum-based assessments, pinpointing academic behaviour problems andmaking instructional decisions based on data). Eight female seniorstudents and eight female sponsor teachers were asked to complete thePracticum Student Competency Questionnaire (PSCQ), a Likert-type scalerating skill items from 1(poor) to 10 (superior) at three points: prior to thepracticum period, in the 5th week of the practicum, and at the conclusionof the practicum. As well, semistructured interviews were held with allparticipants. Results indicated that the ratings of student and sponsorteachers significantly increased as the practicum progressed.Behaviour management and teaching concerns were also variablesin the Silvernail and Costello study assessing the impact of differentpracticum durations. The Teaching Situation Reaction Scale (TSRT), ascale used to measure teaching attitudes of pupil control perspectives (i.e.,teacher planning, classroom management, and teacher pupil interactions)and the Teacher Concerns Questionnaire (TCQ), a 15-item scalemeasuring self, task, and impact concerns of teachers) were administeredto the student teachers involved in both semester and internship programsat the same points in time as the affective scales. Scores on theseinstruments indicated that there were no significant changes for the group15involved in the 15-week practicum, nor for the group involved in the 30-week internship.Pigge and Marso (1987) as well as researching affective variables,also used the Teaching Concerns Questionnaire to test their hypothesisthat concerns about teaching would not change over the course of teacherpreparation. The scale consists of 15 items with 5 items on each of theself, task, and impact subscales. Responses were scaled for each item ona continuum from not concerned (1) to extremely concerned (5), Again,the 581 student teachers were given the Teaching Concerns Questionnaireat three different points in their programs (before first education course,before practicum, and post-practicum). There was an increase in totalconcerns immediately prior to student teaching and a return toapproximately the number of concerns evident at the beginning of theprogram by the end of the practicum period.In a second study by the same researchers assessing longitudinalchanges in student teachers' concerns, Pigge and Marso (1990)hypothesized that over the course the teacher training period, studentteachers' task concerns would increase and their self-concerns woulddecrease. The 153 elementary and secondary teachers were again giventhe Teacher Concerns Questionnaire upon commencement of teachertraining and upon completion of student teaching. As hypothesized, tasksconcerns increased significantly while the self concerns of the studentteachers decreased.16Teaching tasks were also the focus of study in Housego's (1990)research. One of the guiding questions for this research was "Doteachers' feelings of preparedness to teach increase significantly duringtheir teacher education year?" One hundred and twenty-seven secondaryand 90 elementary students were given the Student Teachers' Feelings ofPreparedness to Teach Scale (PREP), a researcher-constructed, Likert-type scale consisting of scaled responses to lesson objectives, such as "Ifeel prepared to plan lessons", before each of three practicum periods(October: 3 weeks; February: 4 weeks, May: 3 weeks). Results of thisstudy indicated that overall feelings of preparedness to teach grew, thatinitially students felt more prepared for the general tasks of fitting into theschool setting, designing and using questions as part of instructing andencouraging pupils and least prepared to deal with behaviour problems,the assessment of learners, and choosing suitable methods for teaching.The greatest changes occurred in classroom management andinstructional survival; the least amount of change occurred in the areas ofquestioning skills, encouragement and motivation of individual learners,specification and writing of objectives, promotion of self-discipline andmaintenance of daily records.2.2 Qualitative Studies in ESL Teacher EducationOnly two studies to date, (Brinton and Holten, 1989; Gebhard,1990b) have used qualitative methods to study changes in studentteachers' perceptions or behaviour. Brinton and Holten's study sought to17determine the changing nature of the perceptions of twenty graduatestudent teachers of ESL over the course of a ten-week practicum period.Dialogue journals between student teachers and their coursesupervisors were used to "track more accurately the students' perceptionsof their teaching experience and to establish better contact between thesupervisor and course participants" (p. 344). Data recorded wereclassified as relating to:1. Student population: Students' age, languagebackground, ethnic mix, educational andproficiency level, expectations, and motivation2. Instructional setting: Type of program (i.e., adulteducation program, intensive language institute),administrative policy, class size, socioeconomicsetting3. Curriculum and methodology: Programobjectives, philosophies, and methodologies,including the time frame for achieving objectives4. Methods and activities: For example, group work,role plays, drilling5. Techniques: Correction; modeling; classroommanagement; L1 use; and teacher's adjustmentof input, register and complexity6. Material: Use of print medium, realia, and visuals;availability of resource materials and teacher-developed materials; and the match of the abovewith student needs7. 	 Role of the teacher: Dealing with multipleproficiency levels and differing paces of learningwithin a class, identifying the comfortable andappropriate role to adopt, setting clearexpectations, determining a border betweenchallenging students to find their own linguisticresources and assisting (or "rescuing") themwhen in need, and defining the general nature ofassessment and feedback8. Lesson organization: Pacing, timing, recycling ofmaterial, variety of activities, and transitionsbetween activities9. Awareness of self: Presence/absence of self-confidence: language proficiency (of nonnativeteachers); and comments about peerobservations by the supervisor, and videotapedlessons (pp. 344-345).The researchers found that of the nine items listed above, categories 4(methods and activities), 5 (techniques), and 8 (lesson organization)elicited the most comments.The purpose of the Gebhard study was to determine how interactionin the practicum provided opportunities for change in the teaching behaviorof seven inexperienced student teachers' preparing to teach in an ESLprogram.The three research questions which guided this research, were: a)Are there changes in the teaching behaviour of student teachers while theyare participating in a practicum for inexperienced ESL teachers?, b) If thereare changes in the teaching behaviour, what opportunities are madeavailable through the interaction that can possibly account for thesechanges?; and c) If there are no apparent changes, how does theinteraction seem to block student teachers from change? The focus of thestudy was not the student teachers themselves, but rather the patterns ofinteraction among all participants (i.e., student teachers, teachereducators, ESL students) in the ESL program.1819The researcher acted as a participant observer by joining the classas a student teacher. Some of the requirements of the course were teamteaching an ESL class three mornings per week for twelve weeks, whilebeing supervised, doing assigned readings, investigating projects onteaching and observing students and teachers.Data were gathered through audiotapes of classroom teaching,seminar meetings, informal discussions over coffee and other activities.The researcher had access to lesson plans, notes, journal notes andwritten feedback from the teacher educator. The data were analyzed usingFanselow's FOCUS (Foci in Communication Used in Settings).The study found that five of seven aspects of teaching behaviourchanged during the sixteen-week practicum. Figure 2.2, on page 20,highlights the changes which occurred.Gebhard found that change occurs in teaching behaviour when:1. interaction is arranged so that student teacherscan process aspects of their teaching throughmultiple activities;2. interaction affords student teachers chances totalk about their teaching;3. 	 student teachers are given a break from theirusual teaching setting and a chance to teach in anew setting. (p. 124)2.3 Rationale for MethodologyBecause of the exploratory and phenomenological nature of thisstudy, qualitative techniques were deemed appropriate. The researchmethods chosen were selected for their potential usefulness in capturingFigure 2.2 Changes occurring in Student Teacher Teaching:Gebhard's (1990b) Study20Teaching areaSetting up andcarrying out lessonUse of classroomspaceSelection of contentTreatment of students'language errorsBehaviour at start ofpracticumprimarily teacher-centred lectureor teacher questioning (teachersolicit, student response, teacherreact)students sit in rows; teacherstands in front; some arrangementof chairs into groupsprimarily a focus on the study oflanguage itself (e.g., vocabulary,grammar, pronunciation); somefocus on functions (agreeing,introductions, asking forinformation, etc.)no treatment, or treatment limitedto two basic strategies: (1) repeatsentence with correction usingemphatic stress at point ofcorrection; (2) write correction onboard and lectureBehaviour duringsecond half ofpracticum whole-class discussion (mostlyteacher directed); small groupdiscussions (without teacher); pairwork (interviewing, functions oflanguage practice); individual seatwork (silent reading, writingtasks;); teacher-centred lectureless (more student solicits andreactions).reorganization of chairs (back-to-back, circles); use of tables;students stand at blackboard andwalk around room; teachersmoves around room; use of spaceoutside classroom (hallway,kitchen)some study of language continues;"real-life" content (e.g., talkingabout family based on photosstudents bring in) and the "study ofother things" (e.g., putting togethera jigsaw puzzle, writing a "DearAbby" letter, sharing recipes,watching a film)some adaptation to original errortreatment strategies; additionalstrategies used: stopping studentat point of error and doing mini-drill; telling student to write downerror and correction; havingstudents work in groups to correctlist of sentences with errors;having students take home theirown sentences with errors andfinding out the corrections. (p.122)21the student teachers' understandings of their classroom experiences.According to McMillan & Schumacher (1989), "Understanding is acquiredby analyzing the many contexts of the participants and by narrating the"stories" of the participants." (pp. 384-385). Due to the idiosyncratic natureof the study (i.e., short practicum period, foci of practica, structure and fociof the various TESL 400 courses), these methods were deemed to be themost appropriate. The small sample size (N =5) easily accommodated theuse of in-depth interviews and journal collection; thus, a well-roundedportrait of student teachers' perceptions of their teaching experiencescould be painted.Reflective journals assigned as a required component of TESL 400were viewed as another non-interventionist source of information.According to Bailey (1990):As a research genre, diary (journal) studies are part of agrowing body of literature on classroom research(Allwright, 1983; Gales, 1983; Long, 1983; van Lier, 1984;,1988; Bailey, 1985; Chaudron, 1988, Allwright and Bailey,1990). They are examples of participant observation thatfall within the "anthropological approach" to classroomresearch (Long, 1983: 18) in the hermeneutic(interpretive) tradition (Ochsner, 1979). (Bailey, p. 215.)In line with the findings of Brinton and Holten's study, it was believed thatjournals would contain additional information relevant to the PREP scaleresponses as well as any information related to adult education notcovered by the PREP scale.222.4 SummaryThe present study is designed to address a distinct gap in theresearch to date regarding ESL student teachers perceptions of changeover a short practicum period.Research indicates that student teachers' perceptions do change inmany different areas over the practicum period. In the area of personalcharacteristics it appears that students usually feel more positively aboutthemselves at the end of their practicum. During the practicum, their viewsof what characteristics are important in teachers also changes (Dumas,1969; Callahan, 1980). In the affective domain, students' attitudes remainstable, however their anxiety may decrease, while their confidenceincreases (Silvernail and Costello, 1983; Hourcade, 1988; Pigge andMarso, 1987, 1990). In the area of teacher tasks, student teachers'feelings about classroom management and teaching concerns may vary.Their task concerns may increase, while their self-concerns may decrease(Silvernail and Costello, 1983; Johnson, 1986; Pigge and Marso, 1987,1990; Housego, 1990).The surveyed research has primarily been conducted in firstlanguage (i.e., English) classrooms with elementary- and secondary-levelstudent teachers. This research has been conducted primarily usingquantitative methods.The two qualitative studies done examining change in ESL teachers'perceptions and teaching behaviours, found that over a ten-weekpracticum period changes occurred in students' perception in the areas of23methods and activities, techniques, and lesson organization. In thesixteen-week practicum period found that changes occurred in studentteachers' abilities to set up and carry out lessons, use classroom space,select content, and correct students' errors. In both studies, differenttypes of interaction facilitated these changes.The purpose of this study is to contribute to the small body ofresearch on the education/training of ESL teachers. Most studiesfocussing on change in teacher education have been primarily quantitativein design and have been directed at first language, elementary andsecondary teacher education. The practica studied have all been of a fairlylengthy duration. This study seeks to understand changes taking place inadult ESL student teachers' perceptions of their practical knowledge overthe course of a short practicum period. It is hoped that what emerges willbe of use to those responsible for and affected by ESL teacher training inthe future.CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGYThis chapter explains the purpose of the study and its methods,including information on the research design, participants, researchquestions, instrumentation, and methods of analysis. A summaryconcludes the chapter.3.1 Purpose of the studyThe purpose of this study is twofold: first, to explore areas in whichchanges occurred in five inexperienced ESL teachers' perceptions in theirpractical knowledge over a 20-hour practicum period, and to determineagents possibly contributing to or mitigating against these changes.Second, the study sought to report, based on student teachers' reflectionsafter having completed the practicum, information felt worthy ofconsideration by a) course planners, b) practicum placement supervisors,and c) prospective students.3.2 Research DesignBefore beginning their practicum, each student teacher wasinterviewed to obtain demographic information (i.e., age, occupation,educational background, etc.). At the end of the practicum period, eachstudent was again interviewed and asked to reflect, guided by the PREPscale, on changes occurring in the specific teaching areas. As part ofTESL 400 course requirements, student teachers were asked to completedaily journals, recording their observations, thoughts, and learning2425experiences for each day spent in the classroom. These journals werealso collected for this study in order to obtain information relating tostudent teachers' reflections related to PREP scale items as well as anyinformation relevant to the adult ESL classroom.3.3	 ParticipantsSelection of ParticipantsThe target population for this study were student teachers enrolledin TESL 400 at a western Canadian university in the 1991-92 session (seeAppendix I for a sample TESL 400 course outline). They were planning toteach adults, had little or no prior teaching experience, had little or no priorteacher education, and had not yet begun their practica.A list of names of potential candidates meeting the above criteriawas provided to the researcher by the practicum placement supervisor.Initial contact was made with course instructors, who were approachedindividually and personally informed about the nature of the study. Eachcourse instructor agreed to ask potential candidates to volunteer for thestudy by providing them with covering letters outlining the intent of theresearch and consent forms (See Appendix II). The researcher thencollected the consent forms and contacted those student teachers whohad indicated their willingness to participate in the study.The Selected SampleA profile of each of the five participants is summarized in Figure 3.1.Four of the five student teachers were between 21-29 years old and onewas forty-four years old. The backgrounds of the student teachers varied0_ 	 .2) tv•as vai 	 c 	 2oas 	 co 	 as 0.c 	 as 	 =O 6 13 	 02:t-r. 	 "6" -C 	 11.1 	 o 2I— 	 c 4)	> a )	. c 	 co ft.) c•-• 	 CA)o 	 -4= 	 OS 0 	 0.)	 C c.. 0 	 0 6 4.-. o 	 o-.= ...CO c cc	c c	 1:,1 	 ..,C g 0 aj,C 	 Q) ..V	Z. .... 	 CN C Ow..2 	 0) cn6 c i• . a) a,2 0-N 	 . 0 • o 	.0.• 	 _a ..	 c c -a=c ED.	0	 T)c)) ° 75 E0 ›. 	 N 	 —	 ,- 	-.E -- 4:-. o	ES 	 o E m- w ar e  8 = 063:F,  	 0. 	 0- .o _.,	 .... .	 0 alC 	O „c'q o o c g A e 0 02 	 0, .. 	 0 	 •F••, s2  Ic	.,-.. 	 0_ GP ID	 - —	 4 Q 	 g. 	 =s...10C-10cacara	c. 0 .r., 2 ,„	 ! r- ..- .5 	 . 2 . _ 0! § - 00 1g 	 C C , ca •en, CO C 4...0 alco-)App a) g TS C.cla al M S 	 La - --IL) -0 > a- r)--	Ill LLI ..... ( :re-26O .c8 0) OaC .0m E"Ea .05 — 5u• lI— 0E c8E 11 mu'0 0) ,Dvss 	 zeg.,0- 	 0 	 03 co- 	 g, al 00 	 — °a)ai	 ,.., -a..-s!	... 41,a) 	 155 	 c 'g8 	 0 	 c. 	 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In terms of educational background, some had completedgraduate work, while others were currently in the process of fulfilling theirundergraduate degree requirements. Some of the student teachers' workexperience was quite varied and extensive, while others had had limited orno work experience. As well, the previous teaching experiences of thestudents were varied. Some student teachers had had extensiveexperience as sports instructors and counsellors, while others had sometutoring experience. One student taught a first-year course in Germanlanguage while working towards a master's degree. The participants'reasons for wanting to teach ESL varied as well. Most of the studentteachers mentioned the flexibility that TESL provides to people wishing totravel. Some of these participants said that they found teaching interestingand enjoyable. As well, some of the participants mentioned that theywanted to impart something useful to people in need of it. Two of theparticipants commented that the teaching course was an elective whichcould be easily combined with their degree requirements.A Brief Profile of Each ParticipantBecause each student teacher's background and personality isunique, thus affecting the researcher-respondent relationship, andbecause each student teacher was placed into a different practice teachingsituation, I believe that any results obtained in this study should be lookedat in light of the individual student teachers. It is for these reasons that Ibelieve it is important that a brief impressionistic account of each studentteacher be included. My purposes are a) to highlight factors which I28believe may have had an impact on the research, in that my personalimpressions of and relationships to the student teachers may be affectedthe way questions were interpreted, and b) to highlight the studentteachers' perceptions of their experiences. Also, I think it is important thatthe reader have a sense of the student teachers' thoughts, feelings, goals,and concerns about the practicum experience, and themselves asteachers.JudyJudy was the youngest of the participants. From my first interviewwith her, I surmised that her family background would strongly influenceher philosophy of classroom management, especially in a class where shewas younger than her students. For example, in our first interview, I hadjust asked Judy to tell me what kind of an impression she thought ateacher could make on adult students:Depends on their motivation. If they're not motivated,there's nothing that the teacher can do for them.Especially an adult situation, because they're not beingforced to do anything. And they're paying their moneyand if they want to learn then they'll learn. Urn, we can'tforce them to learn anything. If they don't do theirhomework, I would feel really odd saying, "Oh well, youdidn't do your homework, you know, you'd better readtwo extra pages tonight!" And one reason I feel odd isbecause they probably all will be older than me. Youknow, and, so, in a way I found it hard to, to disciplineadults. I find that really hard, because you never talkback to older people, older people, whatever you say isright.I found Judy to be a very expressive, energetic, and serious student. Sheseemed to be at ease during our interviews and was willing to tell me about29her feelings about teaching. She was placed in a different and much morechallenging teaching situation than she had originally expected and had tocope with academic content as well as pedagogical concerns. Sheseemed to be quite nervous and excited about teaching and placed a greatdeal of importance on her personal relationship with the students. Shenotes in her journal, following her first teaching experience:The funny part about me teaching the lesson was that I did not really feellike a teacher. In fact, I felt more like a student in their class who wasgiving a presentation. I knew that I was in control of the class and that Icould do what I wanted, but because the students are all the same age asme, I found that I couldn't put myself into a position whether they wouldhave to consider me as their "boss." This feeling will probably change as Iget more experience and perhaps things will be different with differentstudents.FrankieFrankie, the oldest of the student teachers, brought a wealth of lifeexperience to his practicum. Although survival factors did concern him tosome extent, his main focus in the classroom centred on finding a way ofteaching that matched his personality and personal philosophies. He wasmore critical of traditional teaching and classroom management methodsthan were his sponsor teacher and colleagues and tended to focus moreon the "whys" of teaching rather than the "hows". In our first interview,Frankie expressed the following thoughts on cooperative learning:There's a way in which it, it, it's pedagogical andcontrolling, and also, you know, I, I'm not sure about it, Ifind it, there's something, something a little stinky about it... And it has to do with the aspects of it which, whichexpect, uh, for the sake of the institution apparently, urn,an evaluation in a, a, certain kinds of evaluation andcontrolling things that kind of go on. You can cooperate,but you have to cooperate and, and ask our criteria and Ithink that's like, I think they're antithetical. ... On thesurface it seems like it's a really smart idea, but I, youknow, the way it may actually be practised in the longrun, except by exceptional teachers again, it may just beas bad or worse in terms of controlling, in terms of how itliberates a questioning spirit, you know, a learning soul,and, uh, I wonder, you know.In our second interview, when I asked him to tell me his perceptions aboutchanges occurring in his ability to state lesson objectives clearly, hisresponse was as follows:Well, see again, I, I, I'm not sure that I really buy thenecessity to do that. Um, and I think that that'ssomething that I probably came out of the teaching withmore skepticism about that practice of objectives. That itseems like it's too, urn, too specific, that it's, that timefilled, that it's, considering it's so quick that you can'tmeasure, it's hard to test. Objectives are supposed to betestable right? So, how do you test? How do you knowwhether you've really met your objectives? Becauselanguage learning is such a, urn, practically metaphysicalactivity, I mean it's not something that, I mean it's, somepeople can excel one day and not do well the next dayand it's, it's up and down and it's over the long haul thatlanguage learning really happens and not the short term.Aside from personal philosophies about teaching, I believe that Frankie'sprior education in the fine arts strongly influenced his views on teachingmethods. He draws a relationship between painting and teaching in thefollowing excerpt:To know how to do it means that you've already, you'renot gonna be there in a mode of discovery while you'repainting. You're not gonna be really, if you know whatyou're doing when you're teaching, in that sense whereyou have some kind of method you apply, like if you'regonna draw, going back to the drawing, if you're gonnadraw a person, if you know how to draw a person, thenthe drawing is gonna look like an illustration. It's gonna30look like something else, not very lively. And I think thathaving to know how to teach, or have that method, thatsolid method of teaching is gonna limit the, it's gonnaconstrain the interface between you and the student.I felt that my interviews with Frankie took on a more "philosophical tone"than did the others.ClareClare, very personable and willing to share her thoughts, wasdescribed by her sponsor teachers as "laid back"; my own impressions ofClare during our interviews concurred with this description. Before herpracticum, Clare felt that she had had a good grounding theoretically, butwas lacking in practical knowledge. When asked what kinds of things shefelt she needed to work on, she replied:...try and look at your class and try to make what you'reteaching pertain to who your students are and urn, youknow, look for being conscious of content and languageskills that you'd be teaching and what kind of vocabularyyou'd be learning so that you would kind of go over thatseparately before you do the exercise. Things like that.But urn, what I don't know is how to put the two together.And urn, to be faced with a class, and how to choose theright things to do.In spite of her misgivings, Clare did feel that her strength and friendlinesswould stand her in good stead in the classroom. I also gleaned from herthat she believed that lessons should be relevant, interesting, and practicalfor students.I guess, well it's important to me to um, have activitiesthat, I guess I just think of myself and think that there aresimilar kinds of things I would want to do and wouldn'twant to do really babyish things. I think it's always betterif you do something that's more ... practical for the31person. ... On the whole you want to have just somethingthat, that might actually carry on after your class is over.JohnI felt that John could best be described as a person surrounded byan aura of calm and control. He had a great deal of empathy for hisstudents, especially those who came to class tired after a long day at work.He notes in his journal:I noticed that many students seemed very tired. Sincethis is a night course, most students came from work. Ibelieve that learning English is important to them. Yet,not matter how important it is for the students to learn,like anyone your [sic] tired it just becomes difficult foranyone to concentrate.John would also be described as "a person of few words"; his responses tomy questions are characterized by their brevity. Often he and I had towork quite hard in coming to a consensus on the meaning of a question.Reading the transcripts of my interview with John, I realized that perhapshe thought that I was questioning his competence in the different teachingareas; perhaps I hadn't made my intentions clear enough, or had wordedmy questions in such a way as to make him think this. Perhaps he felt thatmy questions were too "obvious" or self-evident. For example, when Iasked him about changes in his perceptions of giving appropriatefeedback on student behaviour, specifically, strategies for getting theattention of the class, John responded, "Well yeah, 'Why aren't you paying32attention? Cause I don't want to be here.' Why else, don't be stupid. Ijust, you know ... right, 'keep it down or something'."SabineSabine was the only student teacher who had done some formalteaching, as a teaching assistant during her modern language graduatestudies. In this capacity, she was given a textbook from which to teach;this textbook was written by one of the senior professors at the universityand was being "tested" by the teaching assistants and the students.We had specific things to teach every day and we couldvary the order up to a point, the length of time you spenton a certain thing, but you had to cover certain things in aday or in a couple of days, because you had to keeppace. ... In that way, I mean it wasn't a real situation, Imean I didn't have to um, uh, create any kind of unit planor anything ... the curriculum itself was taken care of butnot how to teach it.Although Sabine brought with her to the practicum some teachingexperience and the experience of being in front of a classroom ofuniversity-level students, she, as her words indicate, was not responsiblefor the creation or planning of lessons.Sabine's interests in teaching English as a Second Language initiallydeveloped during her experience working at an ethno-cultural organization,where she first became aware of the lack of information available in theirown language to many Canadian newcomers. Her compassion for thesepeople is apparent:... people that come to Canada have nothing in their ownlanguage. If they don't speak English, they're lost. Youknow, they have nothing. They have no resources. So33that's what got me interested even more, when I realizedthat there was actually a problem. ... The idea of teachingsomebody something that they really need, they reallycan use, appeals to me too.She is also interested in helping women in particular:And I would really like to work with urn, say immigrantwomen who might not have any kind of idea, or rolemodel of what Canadian women, might be like and whatkind of things are available to them.She, similar to Judy, was concerned about her rapport with the students:... that's one of my biggest worries because I have thisfear that the students won't like me or something. I'll getup there and you know, they won't like me or take meseriously or something and as a result, nothing will work,you know? They won't listen or something like that. SoI'm not really confident about that right now.Improving her tone of voice was one of Sabine's goals. When speaking ofher sponsor teacher she said:Her tone of voice is something I would like to imitatebecause mine is uh, not assertive enough. Especially infront of the classroom. Urn, she's got that teacher voice,it's not a, that's in a good way. I don't mean like anagging teacher voice, I mean like, she urn, isn't talkingdown to the students, but she's talking very clearly, shepauses, not noticeably, but the words come out and itcarries authority, but not, it's not oppressive at all.Sabine seemed to have fairly practical expectations as far as her practicumwas concerned. As she notes in her journal:Going into a practicum, you're starting in the middle of aclass. Everything is basically established as far asrelationships - the way the students interact with eachother and with the teacher. My expectations have to becoloured by that. I can't expect to go in and have thestudents react the way I think they should ideally bereacting to a teacher.3435During our interviews, I found Sabine willing to share her feelings aboutteaching and her practicum experiences.3.4 Participants' Practicum PlacementsFigure 3.2 offers a profile of the five student teachers' practicumplacements. As the figure indicates, the situations in which the studentteachers found themselves were similar, except in a few cases. Almost allof the student teachers were placed in upper-beginner to intermediate non-credit ESL classrooms, except for one student teacher who was placed ina credit course offered expressly to university-level students from aJapanese university. As well, most classrooms contained a mix ofethnicities, while the university-level course was created for a group ofJapanese students from the same university. The classroom numbersranged from 12 to 25 people and the courses were all between six andtwelve weeks. The duration of classes ranged from between one hour andthirty minutes to two hours. The foci of the courses also varied somewhat.Two of the courses were primarily acculturation courses, that is to say,they taught life and survival skills to their students. The three other courseswere skillzbased. One of the courses focussed on grammar, listening, andspeaking, one focussed on vocabulary building, and one focussed onreading and writing for academic purposes.3.5 Research QuestionsTo reiterate: two sets of three research questions were posed in thisstudy. They fall into two groups concerned with i) exploring the changesN	Es= 	 =L o.c 	 ..cN 	 CMUCC)XiT)CD 	 Ncli 	 li0) 	 a().- 	 ..-AC)>.CO•	-)EasC0lGEPI a'PI a'css cc W c'Tg=36t tO a—-0 	 -0C	 CE al 0 	 0 0= 	 .5 -§ 	 3 2O o , 	 0 2.. 	 .c • 	 .. —N 	 .- E 	 — E06a• CcEc0Z C7-) 	 N 	 •-•C"ICC	os= 	 LI -° 	 2 	 •S 3 	 C2 	 2. Lu g 	 0 	co0. 	 -03 	 E cp 	 2V)° ..' 	 2 E 2ca c 	 0 	 7)..- 1,7 S =ca 	 0 	 0 	 -- 1.- c 	 0 S he 	 a)in a) 	 . 0 0	 C a) 6 a) 	 0 a; -0 - (4 	 0m - 	 0 co 	 .LacLnc 	 asLa cc u 	 0 c ..c 	 a).0 7 	 0 ‘ C 	 . al a) 0 	 C 4) — es -7. 	 0 0 	 CCE A. 	 -0 0 2 	 ;lc 0..c ; 	 as c •-• -- as 	 as ; Tg 	 La.c w 	 E .— .73 	 as .E" -Fs 	CL — (4 caj .c 0 0 	 0 al 7 	 0.0Lti 13 	 a- .0 	 a c.) 1-- 	 --, c.) ii, 2. 	 -31-1-1— 	 —337perceived by inexperienced ESL teachers in their practical knowledge overthe course of a 20-hour practicum and ii) reporting information, based onstudents' reflections after having completed the practicum, feltworthy of consideration by those people involved in the planning andexecution of all facets of TESL 400.In order to address the questions arising from the first purpose, thefollowing questions were put forth:	P1: a)	 What changes occurred in student teachers' perceptions oftheir practical knowledge over a 20-hour practicum?b) What agents contributed to these changes (if changesoccurred)?c) If no changes occurred, what agents contributed to the lackof change?The second set of questions was developed to elicit informationabout the practicum and the teaching course which might be worthy ofconsideration to course planners, practicum placement supervisors, andprospective students, in short, all those people responsible for andaffected by TESL 400.	P2: a)	 What information would be helpful to course planners?b) What information would be helpful to course instructors,practicum placement supervisors, and sponsor teachers?c) What information would be helpful to prospective studentstaking the course in the future?383.6 Procedure and InstrumentationPrior to beginning their practica, all of the student teachers wereinterviewed for about one hour in order to obtain the demographicinformation as set out in Figure 3.1 above. Each of the interviews wasaudiotaped and transcribed by the researcher. Copies of the studentteachers' journals were collected by the researcher at the end of eachstudent teacher's practicum period. (See Appendix III for a sample journalentry.) Upon completion of the practicum, each student was interviewedagain by the researcher for between one and a half to two hours. Theparticipants were asked to reflect on different areas of teaching promptedby Housego's (1990) PREP scale; specifically, each student was asked toindicate about how they perceived their abilities in each area to havechanged from the beginning to the end of the practicum period. (SeeAppendix IV for the PREP scale.) Again, these interviews were audiotapedand transcribed by the researcher. The scheduling of all interviews was atthe convenience of the participants. (See Appendix V for a sampleinterview transcript.)3.7 Research Questions, Data, Measures, and AnalysisThis section includes a description of the research questions, data,and analysis used in this study.3.7.1 The Modified PREP Scale: An Important NoteIt is important to note here that the 50-item PREP scale used in this studywas a modified version of the original 43-item PREP scale used inHousego's (1990) study. In order to mirror the practicum assessmentFigure 3.3 Changes to PREP scaleAdditions Deletions  39Draw subject matter for teaching from myown knowledge.Enrich instruction with additional content.Select an appropriate method forteaching.Relate past learnings to a new lesson.Integrate learnings from two or moresubject areas.Develop stimulating practice exercises.Focus students' attention prior tobeginning a lesson.Provide students with a rationale forlearning activities.Develop appropriate means for holdingstudents accountable for school work.Adapt instruction to a particular class.Give clear directions to students.Maintain lesson momentum.Summarize a lesson.Ask questions at various levels ofintellectual difficulty.Determine student grades.Prepare the physical classroom setting forinstruction.Implement routines to minimize time loss.Correct student misbehaviourunobtrusively.Establish positive rapport with students.Maintain good staff relationships.Relate effectively to parents.Sequence topics from a collection ofmaterials.Adjust strategies for discipline on anindividual basis.Make a choice between inductive anddeductive teaching.Shift from inductive to deductive teaching.State cognitive, affective and psychomotorcomponents in the objectives written.Evaluate the appropriateness of materialsaccording to community standards.Analyze the verbal interaction in avideotape of a lesson.Plan for the attainment of long-rangegoals.Adjust teacher-student interactionaccording to individual students.Teach classroom rules.Identify biases present in special teachingmaterials.Provide clear questions appropriate to theobjectives you intend for students.Make special arrangements for problembehaviour.Provide encouragement in a variety ofways to promote good self-conceptsamong students.Fit into a school setting and abide by thegeneral ethical framework.40forms which were modified over the years 1987 to 1989-, Housegomodified the scale by adding, deleting and rewording items from theoriginal PREP scale. The new assessment forms were more concernedwith lesson items, e.g. getting attention, giving directions, maintainingmomentum and summarizing (B.J. Housego, personal communication,July 27, 1992). See Appendix VI for the original 43-item PREP scale.Figure 3.3 identifies those items added or deleted.These changes also affected the factor analysis used to categorizeand combine items. The deletion of items necessitated, in some cases, thecomplete removal of factors, for example "Factor I -- understanding andusing inductive and deductive methods." As well, the addition of itemsrequired the researcher to seek ways of adding items to the remainingfactors. Figure 3.4 highlights the ten original factors and indicates in whichareas the new questions were added and factors were changed to reflectthese additions. The new PREP scale items were connected to factorsbased on the researcher's assessment of appropriateness. For example,items such as "Relate past learnings to a new lesson" were added to FactorIX on the basis that relating past learnings could be seen as an actionsimilar to "reviewing" - part of the Factor IX description.P1: a) 	 What changes occurred in student teachers' perceptions oftheir practical knowledge over a 20-hour practicum?First, the transcripts of all participants were analyzed for responses to thePREP scale items, question by question. Then, the journals were read andany information supplementing the responses to these items, was added.Information specific to the adult ESL classroom was also listed. TheFigure 3.4 Changes to Factor AnalysisFactor 	 Addition/Deletion41Factor I - understanding and usinginductive and deductive methodsFactor II - identifying and writing clearcomprehensive objectivesFactor III - designing appropriate,individualized, clear questions and usingthem skillfullyFactor IV - evaluating materials accordingto student level, curriculum guidelines andcommunity standards, identifying biases.Factor V - managing the class: teachingand enforcing classroom rules androutines, monitoring and providingappropriate feedbackFactor VI - assessing and analyzing one'steaching and student learning, keepingdaily records and grouping learners asrequiredFactor deleted."Ask questions at various levels ofdifficulty" added."Community standards" replaced with"level of controversy"."Implement routines to minimize time loss"added."Prepare the physical classroom setting forinstruction" added."Develop appropriate means for holdingstudents accountable for school work"added."Determine student grades" added.Factor VII - understanding andindividualizing the treatment of problembehaviourFactor VIII - motivating learners, choosingstrategies, conveying expectations andencouragement and grouping to elicit thebest possible performance from learners"Correct student misbehaviourunobtrusively" added."Adapt instruction to a particular class"added."Establish positive rapport with students"added.Figure 3.4 (con't)Factor IX - performing a teaching role inthe school setting - motivating, explaining,providing appropriate well-timed activitiesand reviewingFactor X - selecting and sequencing topicsand activities in planning instruction"Develop stimulating practice exercises"added."Relate past learnings to a new lesson"added."Focus students' attention prior tobeginning a lesson" added."Provide students with a rationale forlearning activities" added."Give clear directions to students" added."Maintain lesson momentum" added."Summarize a lesson" added."Select an appropriate method forteaching" added."Maintain good staff relationship" added."Relate effectively to parents" added."Draw subject matter from my ownknowledge" added."Integrate learnings from two or moreareas" added."Enrich instruction with additional content"added.42modified PREP scale factors were used as a tool for organizing andcombining the responses into categories (i.e., planning lessons, classroommanagement, etc.).P1: b)	 What agents contributed to these changes (if changesoccurred)?Wherever changes in perception were noted, the transcripts andjournals were re-analyzed to determine what the reported agents ofchange were. Then, a list was made of these agents alongside thereported changes (e.g., sponsor-teacher intervention, knowledge ofstudents, etc.).43P1: c) 	 If no changes occurred, what agents contributed to thelackof change?If changes were not reported, the transcripts and journals were re-analyzed for each student for mentions of reasons why changes did notoccur (e.g., prior knowledge, not being required to perform a specificfunction, etc.). The agents affecting non-occurrences of change were thenlisted.The second set of questions, eliciting information about thepracticum and the teaching course were asked as follows:P2: a) 	 What information would be helpful to course planners?b) What information would be helpful to course instructors,practicum placement supervisors, and sponsor teachers?c) What information would be helpful to prospective studentstaking TESL 400in the future?To answer these three questions, student teachers were asked thefollowing:i) What were the most useful things you learned in practicum;things that you could not have learned in the course?ii) If you could make changes in the content of TESL 400, whatwould you change?iii) If you could make changes in the practicum, what would youchange?iv) What advice would you give to a friend interested in takingthis course?44Responses to these questions were listed and then analyzed forcommon themes.3.8 SummaryThe research design used two methods of eliciting informationabout changes in ESL student teachers' perceptions of their practicalknowledge over the course of a short practicum. To answer questionsderived from the Purpose 1, determining where changes in perceptions ofpractical knowledge occurred and reasons for or against their occurrence,analysis involved separating items into factors and looking for areas inwhich change took place and the reasons for these changes. To answerquestions derived from the second purpose, students were asked torespond directly to questions about their classroom and practicumexperiences. Two audiotaped interviews, prior to and following thepracticum period were conducted and transcribed. The second interviewwas guided by the PREP scale. Student teachers' journals were collectedand analyzed for items related to the PREP scale responses as well as ofmentions of any other items related to the adult ESL classroom. Itemswere categorized using a modified version of Housego's (1990) tenfactors, derived from her original research in this area. Student teacherswere also asked directly to comment on the course and practicum andoffer advice to future students. These items were listed then summarized.CHAPTER FOURRESULTSThis chapter summarizes the answers to all the research questions.Results will be discussed for each of the three research questions groupedunder the two purposes: 1) Exploring changes in inexperienced ESLstudent teachers' perceptions of their practical knowledge over the courseof a short practicum period; and 2) Reporting information worthy ofconsideration to those people responsible for and affected by TESL 400and practicum.4.1 Agents Reported Influencing ChangeIn determining the agents affecting change, several categoriesemerged. Items were placed under the categories falling within theconditions outlined below:AgentsSponsor/PracticumSupervisor SuggestionConditionsSponsor teacher orpracticum supervisor givesadvice directly to studentteacher; direct interventionby sponsor teacher basedon his/her knowledge orexperienceExamples"She told me to bring yourlesson to a climax, likereally clearly state yourobjective and then get youractivities and have it worktowards attaining thatobjective.""... she had to tell me that Iwasn't doing it right."45Observed SponsorSolicited Help fromSponsorStudent teacher learnssomething from observingthe sponsor teacherteaching"So Andrea specificallypaired him (student notworking well with females)with someone.""Okay, classroom rules.Nicole closes the door andlocks it at 9:00."46Student teacher asks	"I would just ask Nicole,sponsor directly for advice 	 'How should I do it?'"Experience"Like I never knew what theobjective of review wasbefore ... I was asking her'What is the pointanyway?'""Uh, well, I think in thebeginning, urn, I was afraidthat the activities wouldn'ttake very long and I foundthat they took a lot longerto do than I thought. Butafter two at least, andmaybe more classes I wassurprised.""Like I'm saying I learned afew more practical things inmy practicum, but thegeneral concept I hadbefore that."Student teacher improveson an item through practicePrevious experiencesinfluence changesI realized that I don't haveto respond to all thequestions. They can bedeferred until later. (Here'ssomething from TESL 400!)Interaction with Students Student teacher change onan item based on workingwith/observing studentsIt seemed like the students,I'd been watching, thestudents didn't feelcomfortable ... when theyhad to form a group theywere really reticent to comeout and be around theinside part..."... you have to beconscious of who's pairingwith who and the dynamicsof the pairs...47Enabling Conditions 	 Student teachers' level of	 "I would be morecomfort or confidence	 comfortable just being ableincreased	 to catch, pick up onpeople's comments...""... I was a bit more meek atthe beginning."4.2 Reports of Change/Absence of Change and AgentsFigure 4.1 summarizes changes or lack of changes in the fivestudent teachers' perceptions of their practical knowledge as guided bythe PREP scale questions.As Figure 4.1 indicates, changes were reported by a greaternumber of student teachers for some items within a factor than for otheritems. These reported changes and the agents cited to have influencedthese changes will be briefly summarized.In Factor II, three student teachers perceived change to haveoccurred in their ability to identify lesson objectives. 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S 	 i	 1 	 z	I .2°- 	Amg 	 C. 	 1 &A	 w . . 	 g:3 .s 	 v D.— 	 1: 	 i 	 8le. 	 !I 	 ..2 	 547.tcg 	 f 	 54E go 	 .E n 	 E2 k 	 2 :c 	 . 	 • ;11 	 1 °Ig1z. -8- 	4 1.,1'01 	 MM 2 3Eint &h 	 21 6 i3e8,._ 3Ear.!. 2.-..- 2giIs 	 V_w e.2= 	 g0.- 	 ii 	 t >2 2 	 00. 	 00 2 	 .0	 0°'-4Tie 	 - 	 =of 2 	 amc - 	 tgi . 	 . 2 118 g 8a. a 	 a1341C'E 	 1 1,1e8-8 -8 	 6: 2§ggiA 2g 	 2g. Q2gc 	 1• 	e..b.154O E . 	 itU .Z!2 	 e21-N IgE 	 g C0 qt 	 r,EM 68	e 	 ig Al5758experience, and interaction with students were listed as the agentsinfluencing changes for this item.In Factor III, all five students reported perceiving changes in theirabilities to redirect questions to involve more students. Agents listedinfluencing change for this item included sponsor suggestions andexperience. As well, all five students reported perceiving changes in theirabilities to estimate the appropriate wait time between asking questionsand choosing respondents. The student teachers cited sponsorsuggestions, interaction with students, and experience, as agentsinfluencing change for this item. In terms of re-wording questions toenhance clarity, experience was the only agent cited.In Factor IV, four students reported having perceived changes intheir abilities to evaluate the appropriateness of materials according tostudents' abilities. According to the student teachers, these changes were,in all four cases, influenced by interactions with the students.In Factor V, three students reported perceived changes in theirability to monitor the entire class while working with only part of it. Theycited experience and sponsor suggestions as having been agents ofchange for this item.In Factor VI, three student teachers reported perceiving changes intheir ability to develop ways of improving their own teaching. Sponsorsuggestions and experience were cited as being the agents contributing toperceived changes59In Factor VIII, all five student teachers reported perceived changesin their ability to group students for instruction. Agents cited influencingthese changes included interactions with the students, experience,observing the sponsor, asking the sponsor for help, and sponsorsuggestions. Three of the five student teachers reported perceivingchanges in their ability to adapt instruction for a particular class.Influencing agents reported included, interactions with the students andexperience.In Factor IX, all five students reported perceiving changes in theirability to estimate the time required for activities. Cited agents influencingchange included knowledge of the students, observation of sponsor andsponsor suggestions, and experience. Experience, sponsor suggestions,observation of sponsor, and interactions with students, were reported asinfluencing change in the student teachers' perceptions of their ability todevelop stimulating practice exercises. Four of the student teachers citedsponsor suggestion, observation of sponsor, and experience to haveinfluenced perceived change in their ability to give clear directions tostudents. As well, four student teachers reported changes in their ability tomaintain lesson momentum. Enabling agents, observation of sponsor,and experience were cited as having influenced the student teachers'perceptions of their ability to relate past learnings to a new lesson. Agentscited influencing these changes included experience, observation ofsponsor, and sponsor suggestions. Four of the five student teachersreported perceived changes in their ability to give clear explanations to60students and cited experience, sponsor suggestions, and observation ofsponsor to have been the agents influencing change for this item. At leastthree of the student teachers reported perceiving change in their ability todevelop stimulating practice exercises, relate past learnings to a newlesson, focus students' attention prior to beginning a lesson, design reviewactivities, and summarize a lesson. Agents reported influencing change inall of the items included experience, sponsor suggestions, observation ofsponsor, interaction with students, and enabling items. As far as selectingan appropriate method for teaching, three students reported perceivedchanges, influenced by experience and observation of the sponsorteacher.In Factor X, at least three student teachers perceived changes intheir ability to plan for the attainment of lesson objectives, developalternative activities to achieve the same objective and enrich instructionwith additional content. Agents listed contributing to changes in theseitems included enabling items, sponsor suggestions, experience,observation of sponsor, and personal experience.It seems that almost all the items affecting student teachers'perceptions of change were present in six of the nine factors listed above.Perhaps a look at the agents most frequently listed by each of the studentswould be more telling.Table 4.1 	 Agents most Frequently Listed Influencing Perceptions ofChange *Name SponsorSuggestedObservedSponsorSolicitedHelp fromSponsorExperience Interaction withstudentsEnablingFactorsNumber ofChangesReportedSabine 6 (20%) 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 13 (43%) 6 (20%) 4 (13%) 30Clare 11 (24%) 19 (42%) 2 (4%) 11 (24%) 4 (8%) 0 (0%) 45Judy 18 (52%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 13 (38%) 3 (8%) 0 (0%) 34Frankie 2 (9%) 2 (9%) 0 (0%) 15 (68%) 6 (27%) 0 (0%) 22John 5 (22%) 1 (4%) 0 (0%) 11 (50%) 3 (13%) 1 (4%) 22* Sometimes more than one agent was reported to have influenced a change in an item; consequently,percentages will not necessarily total 100%.From the table, we see that sponsor suggestions, experience andinteraction with the students induced change most in Sabine's perceptionsof her abilities to teach. For Clare, observing and receiving suggestionsfrom her sponsor teacher, and experience were the agents which affectedchange in her perceptions. Sponsor suggestions and experience weremost often cited by Judy as influencing change in her perceptions.Experience and interaction with students were the strongest affectingagents reported by Frankie; and sponsor suggestion and experience werecited more often by John than any of the other reasons responsible forchange in his perceptions.If we look at these numbers in terms of percentages, we see that43% of perceptions of change of practical knowledge reported by Sabinewere influenced by experience. Experience was also reported by Frankieand John to be the most influential agent affecting perceptions of changeof practical knowledge: 68% and 50% respectively. For Clare, 42% of6162changes were influenced by observing her sponsor teacher. Sponsorteacher suggestions rated highest for Judy: 52%.In terms of changes related specifically to adults in the ESLclassroom, John mentioned noticing that students seemed tired; he wasaware that many of them had jobs during the day.4.3 Agents Reported Influencing Absence of ChangeStudent teachers reported a plethora of reasons why no change intheir perceptions of their practical knowledge occurred for certain items onthe PREP scale. Figure 4.2 highlights the most frequently cited reasons forlack of change in the PREP scale items. Because personality, practicumplacement , and TESL 400 experiences affected each individual's reasonsfor reporting lack of change, it may be useful to also look at the mostcommon reasons why change in the student teachers' perceptions of theirpractical knowledge was reported not to have occurred. Once this hasbeen done, there will be an examination of the manner in which questionswere changed or reinterpreted by the five student teachers.For Sabine, perceptions of stating and identifying lesson objectivesdid not change, as she perceived both items not to have arisen during herpracticum. As well, evaluating the appropriateness of controversialmaterials was not an issue in her practicum. She reported a lack ofchange in making smooth transitions between activities because there wasan established routine in place in her sponsor's classroom and she wasnot required to make transitions herself. She felt that she could alreadygive fairly clear directions to students, thus no significant changes in herFigure 4.2 Cited Reasons for Absence of Change by FactorFactor 	 Influences63II: Identifying and writing clear,comprehensive objectives.III: Designing appropriate, individualized,clear questions and using them skillfully.IV: Evaluating materials according tostudent level, curriculum guidelines andcontroversial level.V: Managing the class: teaching andenforcing classroom rules and routines,monitoring and providing appropriatefeedback.VI: Assessing and analyzing one's ownteaching and student learning, keepingdaily records and grouping learners asrequired.VII: Understanding and individualizing thetreatment of problem behaviour.VIII: Motivating learners, choosingstrategies, conveying expectations andencouragement and grouping to elicit thebest possible performance from learners.IX: Performing a teaching role in a schoolsetting - motivating, explaining, providingappropriate well-timed activities andreviewing.Didn't arise during practicum; Practicedwhat had been learned in teaching courseSome items were natural interpersonalskillsSome items didn't come up in practicum;(especially evaluating controversialmaterial) In most cases, there was noexplicit curriculumDidn't notice any routines; Rules wereenforced to appease sponsor, but studentteachers wouldn't otherwise haveenforced them; Maturity levels were not aproblem; Student discipline was not aproblem in most cases; almost all studentsaccepted the physical setting of theclassroomStudent teachers were not required toassess students, keep recordsBehaviour problems weren't reported,therefore discipline wasn't requiredProviding a rationale didn't come up;students were usually motivated, studentteachers did not have to relate to otherstaff or parents64Figure 4.2	Cont'dX: Selecting topics and activities inplanning instruction.Drawing subject matter for teaching wasinterpreted differently by each studentteacher; almost all student teachersreported being able to design activitiesbased on a collection of materials;perceptions of her ability to do so took place. Providing students with arationale for learning did not come up in her practicum, therefore shereported no perceptions of change on this item. Although Sabine did notreport being asked to draw subject matter for teaching from her ownknowledge, she reported that she would have done so, if it were possible.Clare did not report change in her perception to ask questions atvarious levels of intellectual difficulty as she didn't feel her skills here "sharpenough" to do this at all. She said that she didn't think about evaluating theappropriateness of materials according to students' abilities and that as faras selecting an appropriate method for teaching, she didn't learn morethan she had already learned in TESL 400. Monitoring the entire classwhile working with only part of it was something that Clare reported shehad not done. As far as drawing subject matter for teaching from her ownknowledge, Clare reported that she had no opportunity to do it during herpracticum period.Judy was the only student teacher fulfilling her practicumrequirements in an accredited institution; therefore, where students usuallyreported a lack of change in some items because the nature of theirpracticum placement did not demand it, Judy could usually report change.65As far as stating lesson objectives clearly, Judy reported that sheperceived there to have been no change in her ability to do this: shepracticed what she had learned in her teaching methods course. In termsof asking questions at various levels of difficulty, because of the nature ofthe class Judy was teaching in, Judy said that her sponsor teacher told herto ask questions at a level appropriate for university students. Judy didn'tnotice any routines in place in her sponsor's classroom. As far asenforcing classroom rules, Judy did so in order to appease her sponsorteacher; she said that she wouldn't have done so otherwise. Noperceptions of change of her ability to communicate expectations forstudent learning were reported as Judy assumed that the students wouldthink her expectations were the same as her sponsor teacher's. Becauseher classroom visits were not consecutive, Judy reported that it was notpossible for her to relate past learnings to a new lesson or design reviewactivities. She said that she always found focussing students' attentionprior to beginning a lesson difficult because she didn't know all of theirnames.For Frankie, stating lesson objectives clearly was something that hereported knowing; he continued to practice doing it during his practicum.In terms of asking questions at various levels of intellectual difficulty, hereported that he had always had difficulty asking simply-worded questions.Frankie reported that he didn't have an opportunity to make transitionsbetween activities. He didn't notice any routines implemented in theclassroom and said that he would not enforce rules in the classroom, but66that the rules would have to come from the students themselves. Hereported that his perceptions of his ability to manage a class according tostudents' maturity levels did not change - he felt that it was intuitive toacknowledge a less committed student more often than other students.When asked about change in his ability to communicate his expectationsfor student learning and design review activities, Frankie replied that hedidn't do them. In terms of developing stimulating practice exercises andfocussing students' attention prior to beginning a lesson, he said that hepracticed what he already learned in his teaching methods course, thus, heperceived no change to have taken place. He found relating past learningsto a new lesson difficult to do in a short-term practicum and thatsummarizing a lesson was impossible when the classroom activities lasteduntil the end of the class. Frankie reported that although he did practiceproviding students with a rationale for learning activities, he didn't do it ascompletely as he'd learned how to do it; thus, he reported no perceivedchange in his ability to have occurred. As well, he felt that he still neededmore experience giving clear explanations to students. Because theclassroom objectives did not seem clear to him in his practicum classroom,he reported that there was not change in his ability to plan for theattainment of lesson objectives. As well, he said that he didn't have todevelop alternative activities to achieve the same objective. Because heand his sponsor teacher made their own materials for the course, Frankiereported that enriching instruction with additional content was notapplicable. He believed that he already drew subject matter for teaching67from his own knowledge, therefore, no change in his ability to do so wasreported. Although he did not design activities based on a collection ofmaterials in his practicum, Frankie said that he would do so based on theattitudes and mores of his students.John's practicum was characterized by his sponsor teacherallowing him to teach whatever he wanted and providing him with ready-made teaching materials. John used his practicum as a time to try outmaterial he had made previously in his teaching methods course; hereported no change in this area, explaining that identifying, stating, andplanning for the attainment of lesson objectives were not applicable in hisclassroom context as he was not called upon to design new materials. Interms of selecting an appropriate method for teaching, John said that healways chose student-centred, low teacher-intervention activities. Hissponsor teacher made transitions between activities, therefore John hadno opportunity to practice doing it. He believed that his ability to monitorthe entire class while working with only part of it was natural to him; thus,he reported no perceived change to have taken place. Similar to Judy,John reported that he enforced classroom rules to appease his sponsorteacher but would not have done so otherwise. He reported thatcommunicating his expectations for student learning, summarizing lessonsand providing students with a rationale for learning were items that didn'tarise in the practicum. In terms of maintaining lesson momentum, Johnreported that his ability to do so fluctuated daily; therefore, he reported nooverall change. John said that he needed more experience motivating a68class to achieve his expectations for learning; thus, no perceived changeswere reported.Changed PREP Scale ItemsBecause the adult ESL classroom is different from the elementary orsecondary classroom, some of the PREP scale items were interpreteddifferently than originally intended. During the interviews, it arose that twoof the PREP scale items were modified according to the manner in whichthe student teacher interpreted the question. The following illustrates thetwo items changed and a rationale for their modification:Original ItemRedirect questions toinvolve more studentsDevelop stimulatingpractice exercisesModified ItemRedirect questions (toinvolve more students)Develop stimulatingexercisesRationaleVariables, such asstudent levels ofcomfort whenanswering questions,necessitated thebroadening of thisitem to redirecting forother reasons.It was difficult for thestudent teachers andresearcher to come toa consensus on"practice" exercises inthe ESL context.ExamplesLearned to choosestudents who show aninterest in responding.Learned that ifstudents areuncomfortable talkingabout themselves,they will take abouttheir partners.Learned that mimeand singing arestimulating activities.Learned how to makeactivities relevant forstudents.Reinterpreted questionsAlthough all of the student teachers were able to respond to almostall of the questions as they were originally structured, some of the69questions were reinterpreted by a few of the student teachers andanswered accordingly. I am not entirely sure why this occurred; perhaps itwas the way the question was originally worded and that I didn't catch theirreinterpretations at the time. For example, when I asked John to tell meabout change in his perceptions of his ability to implement routines tominimize time loss, he interpreted the question to mean "fill in time" andresponded by saying that he learned to fill in time by asking questions inmore depth than he had previously. Both Sabine and John re-interpretedability to develop ways of improving my own teaching to mean "Did yourteaching improve?" and both answered "Yes." Similarly, Sabine, Clare andJohn all re-interpreted ability to establish positive rapport with students tomean "Did you establish a positive rapport with students?" and allanswered "Yes."4.4 The Most Important/Useful Things Learned in PracticumThe five student teachers were asked to relate what they perceivedto be the most important or useful things they learned during theirpracticum periods; things which could not have been learned in thecourse. Figure 4.3 outlines the responses for each participant.The most frequently cited items were learning how to positiononeself in the classroom, how to give instructions and directions, and howto think on one's feet. The next frequently cited items learned were how togroup students for instruction, how it feels to be in front of a class, how tounderstand students' accents, what methods work, and the importance offinding a teaching style matching one's own personality. The responsesFigure 4.3 	 Most Important/Useful Things Learned in PracticumSabine	Clare	Judy	Frankie	John70How to positionself in class;relate to studentsphysicallyHow to groupstudents foractivitiesHow to open andclose activitiesmore effectivelyHow to elicitanswers; How toelicit answersfrom individualsHow to wordquestions withoutgiving away toomuch informationHow to paceactivities atdifferent speedsHow to mixdifferent activitieswithin a classHow to checkcomprehensionBecame aware ofmonitoring theclassPlanning andcarrying outobjectivesHow to be in frontof a class, whereto stand, how tospeakHow tomodel/demonstrate activities,what to write onthe board, how toconvey things topeopleHow it feels to bein front of a classHow to think onyour feetHow tounderstand anddeal with accentsand non-standardpronunciations(how to askstudents to spellwords)How loud tospeakWhere to standthe classroomHow to giveinstructions tostudentsHow to groupstudentsHow to evaluatestudents' workHow to deal withand work withother colleaguesHow to deal withdiscipline in theclassroomHow to think onyour feetIn whichsituations theKnowledgeFramework worksSeeing andgetting a feelingfor how thingswork in aclassroomThat teacher-centred activitiesare appropriate insome contextsGot a sense of hisown confidencein becoming acompetentteacherLearned how tomix teachingmethods with hisown personalityLearned thatsilence has aplace in theclassroomLearned thatvocabularyproblems mayarise whenexplainingdirectionsLearned how tothink on his feetLearned theimportance offinding a teachingstyle for himselfLearned how tounderstand andrelate to studentsLearned thatadults areaffected by theirlives outside theclassroomBecamecomfortable withgetting up in frontof a classListening to andresponding tostudents is thein most importantthing71of Sabine, Judy, and Clare are characterized primarily by their referencesto practical classroom applications. Frankie's responses are characterizedby references to the nature of ESL teaching and activities and John'sresponses are characterized by references to the students themselves andhis own feelings about being a teacher.4.5 Suggestions for Modifications to TESL 400Figure 4.4 highlights the five student teachers' responses to the question "Ifyou could make changes in the content of the course, what would youchange?"Three student teachers suggested that changes be made to theway in which the teaching course is evaluated. Two reports by studentteachers mentioned that they would have benefitted from being exposed toa variety of teaching methods, that less of an emphasis should have beenplaced on theory, and more on practice, and that classroom visits orvisiting teachers would have been beneficial. Two student teachersmentioned separating the course for pre- and in-service teachers, but oneof the student teachers later mentioned that he benefitted from thepresence of in-service teachers in his course. One student teacherthought that course instructors, in general, should have been more"radical" in their approaches to teaching and learning.Figure 4.4 Suggestions for Modifications to TESL 400Sabine Clare Judy Frankie John    72Role-plays inclass to practiceactivitiesLess academictheoryLearning theoriesother thanknowledgeframeworkMore practicalaspects ofteachingLearning theoriesother thanknowledgeframeworkRemove textbookExaminationshould synthesizethe year'slearningsInitially thought of Less theoryseparatingclasses for pre-and in-serviceteachers, butrealized that helearned muchfrom in-serviceteachers in theclassHave some ESLteachers come toclass to sharetheir strategiesTeach how tomodify activitiesfor differentpurposesSeparate sectionsof the course forpre- and in-service teachersEliminate finalexamClassroom visitsto different ESLclasses to helpovercome thefear of practicumInsist that peopleget volunteerplacementsChangeterminology"evaluation"(implies a grade) -to a name thatimplies helpingrather thanassessmentMore focus oncontent ratherthan form ofpapers (waspenalized for notusing references)Instructors shouldbe more radical intheir approachesto teaching andlearning734.6 Suggestions for Changes to the PracticumFigure 4.5 outlines the five student teachers' responses to the question "Ifyou could make changes to the practicum, what would you change?"Aside from Clare, who believed that the practicum was beneficial to her inits current format, all the student teachers said they would have benefittedfrom a longer practicum period. Two of the student teachers suggestedthat it would also have been useful for them to have had teachingexperiences with students at different levels of proficiency.4.7 Recommendations/Advice for Future StudentsFigure 4.6 outlines comments or advice that the five student teacherswould give to a friend expressing a desire to take TESL 400 in the future.Four of the five student teachers said that they would recommend thecourse to a friend. Two of them also mentioned that they enjoyed theprofessional, student-centred environment of the class.4.8 SummaryIt was found that six agents emerged from the agents listed by thestudent teachers influencing changes in their perceptions of their practicalknowledge: receiving suggestions from sponsor teacher or practicumsupervisor, observing the sponsor teacher, soliciting help from the sponsorteacher, experience (practice) in the classroom, interaction with thestudents, and enabling agents, such as confidence and comfort .Although many of the agents given for change appeared in almost all of theten factors of the PREP scale, it was found that the proportions of reasonswere different for each individual student.Figure 4.5 Suggestions for Changes to the PracticumSabine Clare Judy Frankie John    74Longer practicum(at least 30 hours)or two shortpractica to try outdifferent levels ofclassesLonger practicumPracticum shouldbe consecutivehoursMore studentinput on locationof practicum.Longer practicum(80 hours)Experiences atdifferent levels(beginner,intermediate, etc.)Longer practicumTeach some dayswithout thesponsor teacherin the classroomFigure 4.6 Recommendations/Advice for Future StudentsSabine	Clare	Judy	Frankie	JohnA goodbeginning, butmore teachingexperience isneededEnjoyed theprofessionalatmosphere,instructor wasn'tonly source ofinformationGroupworkshould have hadheavier weightingas it took moretime than otheractivitiesSome articlesdidn't seemusefulTo set upobjectives of whatthey want to learnand try to getthem out of theclass, either bypestering profs todiscuss them orbringing them upwith theirclassmatesWouldrecommend thecourse.It's a goodchance to find outif you really wantto teach or not.There is a lot ofwork involved inthe course.You should try tochoose a settingthat you want toteach in.A goodintroduction tothe practice ofteaching ESLIf you have analternative life, it'sa viable way ofmaking a livingWouldrecommend thecourse to a friend.It's not a teacher-centredenvironment.75Many agents affected the absence of change in student teachers'perceptions of their practical knowledge; however, some common reasonsappeared for all student teachers, such as items not being applicable tothe practicum situation (i.e., grading, management of misbehaviour).It was found that some of the questions had to be modified in orderto accommodate the special nature of teaching in the adult-ESL situation.As well, some questions were reinterpreted by the students and answeredaccordingly.For the most important things learned during the practicumexperiences, the five student teachers cited: positioning of self in theclassroom, giving instructions and directions to students, and thinking ontheir feet. The responses were characterized by references to practicalclassroom applications, references to the nature of ESL teaching,references to being a teacher and references to the nature of the studentsin the classroom.When asked how they would modify the teaching course, studentteachers listed changing the methods of evaluation of the course, beingexposed to a wider variety of teaching methods, placing less emphasis ontheory and more on practical applications, and a separating of pre- and in-service teachers in the course. When asked how they would modify thepracticum, all but one of the student teachers listed increasing the durationof the practicum period. Two student teachers mentioned that it wouldhave been beneficial for them to have had experience teaching students atdifferent levels of English proficiency.76Four of the five student teachers said that they would recommendthe teaching course to a friend. Two of them mentioned that they enjoyedthe professional, student-centred environment promoted in their classes.One student teacher thought that it is important for a student to have cleargoals in mind and make sure that their goals are fulfilled.CHAPTER FIVEDISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONSThis discussion summarizes the findings of this study and relatesthem to prior research. Limitations of the study and implications for furtherresearch in the area of ESL teacher education are examined.5.1 Changes in Student Teachers' Perceptions of Their PracticalKnowledgeSix categories emerged as being influential in changing the studentteachers' perceptions: sponsor or practicum supervisor suggestions,observation of the sponsor teacher, solicitation of help from the sponsorteacher, experience in the classroom, interaction with the students, andenabling agents, such as comfort or confidence. Each student teacherwas influenced by one or more of the six agents, to a greater or lesserextent. Figure 5.1 summarizes the main areas of change for all nine factorsand the agents contributing to change within each PREP scale item.As the figure indicates, the factor in which the most overall changeswere reported was Factor IX: Performing a teaching role in the schoolsetting - motivating, explaining, providing appropriate well-timed activitiesand reviewing. Out of the fourteen items comprising this factor, ten werecommented on by three or more students. Within this factor, five of the sixagents were reported; but, sponsor suggestion, experience, andobservation of sponsor were cited most frequently. For Factors II, Ill, IV,7778Figure 5.1	 Main areas of Change and AgentsFactorIIAgents of Changesponsor suggestions, experience,interaction with studentssponsor suggestions, experiencesponsor suggestions, interactionwith students, experienceItemIdentify lesson objectivesIII	 Redirect questions to involve morestudentsEstimate appropriate wait timebetween asking questions andchoosing respondentsIV	Evaluate the appropriateness of	interaction with studentsmaterials according to students'abilitiesVVIVIIIMonitor entire class while workingwith only part of itDevelop ways of improving ownteachingGroup students for instructionsponsor suggestions, experiencesponsor suggestions, experienceinteraction with students,experience, observing sponsor,asking sponsor for help, sponsorsuggestionsAdapt instruction to a particular class	 interaction with students,experienceFigure 5.1 (cont'd)79IX	Estimate time required for activitiesGive clear directions to studentsMaintain lesson momentumGive clear explanations to studentsDevelop stimulating practiceexercisesRelate past learnings to a new lessonFocus' students attention prior tobeginning a new lessonDesign review activitiesSummarize a lessonSelect an appropriate method forteachingX 	 Plan for the attainment of lessonobjectivesDevelop alternative activities toachieve the same objectiveEnrich instruction with additionalcontentDraw subject matter for teaching frommy own knowledgeinteraction with students,observation of sponsor, sponsorsuggestions, experiencesponsor suggestions, observationof sponsor, experienceexperience, observation ofsponsor, sponsor suggestionsexperience, sponsor suggestions,observation of sponsorexperience, sponsor suggestions,observation of sponsor,interaction with studentsAffective, observation of sponsor,experiencesponsor suggestions, solicitedhelp from sponsor, affective,experienceaffective, solicited help fromsponsor, observation of sponsor,sponsor suggestionsexperience, sponsor suggestionexperience; observation ofsponsoraffective, sponsor suggestions,experienceobservation of sponsor,experienceaffective, experienceexperience80and VIII, half of the items were commented upon and for Factors V, VI, andX, less than half of the items were commented on. Although almost all ofthe six agents were reported to have influenced change in Factors II, Ill, V,VI, VIII, and X, it is interesting to note that "interaction with students" wasthe only agent cited as influencing perceptions of change in evaluating theappropriateness of materials according to students' abilities. Similarly,"experience" was the only agent cited as influencing perceptions of changein drawing subject matter for teaching from (my) own knowledge. Further,it is interesting to note that no more than three people reported perceivedchanges on Factor VII: Understanding and individualizing the treatment ofproblem behaviour.Overall, experience was the most commonly cited agent of changeacross all Factors. Sponsor suggestion and observation of sponsor werenext, followed by interaction with students, enabling agents, and solicitinghelp from the sponsor teacher.5.1.1 Relations to Literature and SpeculationsHousego's (1990) study of student teachers' feelings ofpreparedness to teach found that instructional survival was among theareas where the greatest changes in perception occurred. In a similarvein, the student teachers in Brinton and Holten's study commented onchanges in the areas of methods and activities, techniques, and lessonorganization. Gebhard's study found that all of the student teachersreported perceiving changes in their abilities to set up and carry out81lessons, to select content for lessons. The present study found that thestudent teachers reported the greatest amount of perception of change inFactor IX: Performing a teaching role in the school setting - motivating,explaining, providing appropriate well-timed activities and reviewing;functions encompassing methods of instruction and classroom activities. Itappears that this study supports findings of previous similar studies in thatin all studies, instruction and activities were common areas where changeoccurred or was perceived to have occurred.Although experience, sponsor suggestions, and observation ofsponsor teacher were reported most often to be agents of change acrossall areas, it is important to note that some student teachers reportedsponsor observation and suggestion as having influenced theirperceptions of change more frequently than others, while others reportedexperience to be the dominant agent of change for them. Perhaps thesedifferences stemmed from the relationships between the student teachersand their sponsors. Gebhard's discussion of interaction between studentteachers, sponsor teachers, and practicum supervisors may shed somelight on this area.This research found that some of the student teachers reportedmore interaction with their sponsor teachers than did others. As well, theamount or type of interaction seemed to relate to the overall amount ofchange perceived to have occurred by each student. Clare, for instance,reported that changes in her perceptions were influenced mostly byobserving and receiving suggestions from her sponsor teacher. In herjournal, Clare characterizes her relationship with her sponsor teacher:I found my practicum experience to be invaluable. This islargely due to the excellence of my practicum supervisoras well as our compatibility in personality and teachingmethodology. Since I have had no prior teachingexperience and this was my first real life experience ofteaching, I was a sponge. I absorbed everything Andreawas doing and found it all fascinating. Then, of course,she was also there to keep me from falling on my face atmy first attempts by helping me to plan viable lessons.As I progressed then she pulled back from helping me toplan lessons, and instead gave me constructive feedbackon my lessons after I taught them.Cogan's (1973) model of "clinical supervision", as cited by Gebhard, saysthat the supervisor's (in this case, sponsor teacher's) role is to work withteachers but not direct them by actively participating with the teacher inany decisions that are made and attempts to establish a sharingrelationship. Based on the above, clinical supervision may be the best wayto describe her relationship with her sponsor teacher. Based on Clare'scomments above, it is not surprising that Clare reported a high degree ofsponsor teacher influence affecting change in her perceptions of herpractical knowledge.On the other hand, Judy's practicum, as reported by her, seemed tobe characterized by "directive supervision", in which the role of thesupervisor (in this case sponsor teacher) was to "direct and inform theteacher, model teaching behaviours, and evaluate the teacher's mastery ofdefined behaviour." (Gebhard, p. 156). Judy reported that fifty percent ofher perceived changes in practical knowledge came from suggestions82from her sponsor teacher. The following are a few examples of "directivesupervision" culled from Judy's journal:She told me that I must always tell the students to takenotes or they won't take any.... she told me that my timing was way off.Nicole told me to present something that was 15 minuteslong and then let them do the activity for about 15minutes.Judy found the feedback given her by her sponsor teacher to be "sohelpful that I (Judy) couldn't stress how much" and that her comments onJudy's teaching successes were "great."On the other hand, Frankie and John both reported that they foundexperience to be the factor most influencing change in their perceptions oftheir practical knowledge. It is interesting that both of these studentteachers expressed a desire for less sponsor intervention and moreautonomy in the classroom. Frankie, in his journal, expresses his feelingsafter teaching an unsupervised lesson:I feel great about how things went. Really, Elizabeth'sstuff isn't for me. Nor is the (school where practicumtook place). On my own terms, I'm sure I could be agreat teacher.John's final journal comments reveal a similar sentiment:I think I need to get experience in my own classroom.This way I can develop my own teaching style. I will feelless constraint [sic] and more comfortable with thefeeling that someone is not constantly monitoring myperformance. Experience will also improve myconfidence.8384Although Sabine also reported experience to be influential inchanging her perceptions of her practical knowledge, she did not expressthe same need for autonomy as did Frankie and John. She responded tothe question "maintain good staff relationship" as follows:... my relationship with Debbie was, you know, it wasfriendly, but strained, and I'm not sure why. That mightbe just me, you know, like I don't click with a lot ofpeople, so I don't feel like I clicked with her. But she wasvery nice and so she had really good things to say abouturn, my working with her in the class, and so, yeah.Good relations I suppose.It seems that relationships with sponsor teachers do have some bearing onhow much change a student teacher perceives to have taken place. Ifound it interesting that John and Frankie, the two males in the sample,expressed a similar desire for autonomy. Because the sample of studentteachers is small and because their personalities and practicumplacements are dissimilar, it would be difficult for me to make anyassumptions or conclusions about gender differences. Tannen's (1990)hypothesis, that men and women hold different views of the world and oftheir positions within it, may shed some light on gender differences.According to Tannen, men engage the world as individuals in ahierarchical social order in which they are either one-up or one-down and"life is a contest, or struggle to preserve independence..." (pp. 24-25).Women, on the other hand approach the world "as an individual in anetwork of connections ... Life, then, is a community, a struggle topreserve intimacy... (p. 25). Perhaps this offers some insight into the85differences in relationships between the various student and sponsorteachers, and suggest that more research in the area of gender differencesbe undertaken.That "interaction with students" was consistently cited by four of fivestudents as having influenced their perceptions of change in their ability toevaluate the appropriateness of materials according to students' abilities isalso interesting. Perhaps interacting with students is the only way todetermine appropriateness of materials for them. Perhaps the studentteachers all learned this in their different methods courses.Other factors which may have influenced the differences in studentteachers' responses and perceptions of change are the types of practicumplacements in which the students teachers were placed, and thepersonalities and personal philosophies of the students themselves.Again, that the students were enrolled in different sections of TESL 400,taught by different instructors, may have affected the student teachers'perceptions of how they interpreted the material learned in their courses.5.2 Perception of Absence of Change in Student Teachers'Practical Knowledge: Reasons CitedThe reasons cited by the student teachers for the perception ofabsence of change varied. Factor IV, "assessing and analyzing one's ownteaching and student learning, keeping daily records and groupinglearners as required", and those items in Factor X dealing with theintegration of subject matter, the drawing of subject matter from theteacher's own knowledge, the preparation of the physical classroom86setting for instruction, and the designing of activities based on a collectionof materials were reported to be inapplicable in the student teachers'practicum contexts. The ESL students were all adults, and most wereenrolled in non-accredited courses, therefore issues of discipline andgrading were seen by most of the student teachers as being irrelevant.The one student teacher working in an accredited institution was nevercalled upon to grade students for their work. As well, the student teacherswere present in only one classroom, thus, the adaptation of materials todifferent classes, and integration of materials from different subject areaswere again held to be irrelevant or the questions were reinterpreted by therespondents to more closely reflect their different teaching situations.Other reasons reported by the student teachers for a lack of change intheir practical knowledge included: items not coming up during thepracticum, items being believed by the student teachers to be naturalinterpersonal skills, and students believing that they required more practicein some areas. As noted, each student teacher's personality, teachingsituation, learning experiences in TESL 400, and the nature of thepracticum and teaching tasks demanded of student teachers by theirsponsor teachers may have some bearing as to why changes did notoccur.5.2.1 Relations to Literature and SpeculationsHousego's 1990 research found that the least amount of changeoccurred in questioning skills, encouragement and motivation of individuallearners, specification and writing of objectives, promotion of self-discipline87and maintenance of daily records, among other items. Again, thesefindings may relate to those of the present study, albeit for differentreasons. Although it appears that in some areas there were no perceivedchanges, perhaps items specific to adult ESL classrooms were notaddressed by the PREP scale questions. For example, almost all thestudent teachers reported perceiving no change in their ability to manageclassrooms and grade students. Perhaps management is not an issuewith adult students. "Management" problems were, as in the case of amale student who did not work well with female students, perceived to berelated to  cultural differences among students. However, due the shortpracticum period, many student teachers were not required to "manage"classes; the sponsor teacher remained in the classroom for the duration ofthe student teachers' in-class time. Perhaps the ESL students would havebehaved differently in a situation in which the student teacher had moreautonomy over a longer period of time. Many of the classes that studentteachers were placed in were not ones in which evaluation was requiredso, as far as assessment of students is concerned, teachers were notexpected to be responsible for any type of grading or record-keeping.Again, this may have been due to the short-term of the practicum.Another possible reason why changes were not perceived to haveoccurred is that items addressed by the PREP scale, which are common toall teaching situations (i.e., effective questioning) were not taught oraddressed in the TESL 400 methods course. Students may not have been88aware of the existence of some types of teaching strategies and thesestrategies may not have arisen during the practicum period either.5.3 The Most Useful Things Learned in PracticumThe most frequent comments on useful items learned in practicumincluded: positioning oneself in the classroom, giving instructions anddirections, and learning how to think on one's feet. These items werefollowed by grouping students for instruction, learning how it feels to be infront of a class, understanding students' accents, and determining whatteaching methods work, and finding a teaching style that matches one'sown personality. The responses were characterized by their references topractical classroom applications, the nature of ESL teaching, activities, andstudents, and feelings about being a teacher.It is interesting to note the relationship between the studentteachers' PREP scale responses and their comments about the mostuseful items they learned from their practicum experiences. Out of thethirty-six responses to the question "What were the most useful things youlearned in practicum?" almost half of them were related to PREP scaleitems.5.3.1 SpeculationsA reason why more items were not related to the PREP scale maybe that the types of questions asked by the it, were in some cases, specificto elementary or secondary school settings. Another reason may be thatbecause of the short duration of the practicum and the different demandsplaced on student teachers in their different practicum situations, more89items did not arise. Another reason may be that some items mentioned bythe student teachers may not be amenable to questioning: can one betaught to think on one's feet or to find a teaching style of one's own?5.4 Suggestions for Changes to Teaching Course and Practicum:Useful Information for Course Instructors, Sponsor Teachersand Practicum Placement SupervisorsThe student teachers reported that changes to the manner in whichthe teaching course was evaluated, that being exposed to a variety ofteaching methods, and that less of an emphasis be placed on theoreticaland more on pedagogical aspects of teaching would have been helpful.Two of the student teachers mentioned the possibility of having separatecourses for pre- and in-service teachers, however; one of these studentsdid believe that he benefitted from the knowledge of in-service teachers inhis course.In terms of the practicum, all but one of the student teachersreported that they thought the practicum should have been longer induration. As well, two of the student teachers reported that they wouldhave benefitted from teaching in classrooms with students of varying levelsof proficiency.5.4.1 Relations to Literature and SpeculationsReports about the nature of second language teacher educationseemed to relate to the student teachers' suggestions to the teachingcourse and practicum. Richards (1990) characterizes the nature of typicalteacher education programs in second language teaching as including a90knowledge base, drawn from linguistics and language learning theory, anda practical component, based on language teaching methodology andopportunity for practice teaching. According to Wright (1990) and Lange(1990), although the goal of these programs is to link theory and practice,one reason attempts to achieve this may fail is perhaps that the "overallapproach to a program is top-down, replete with content in the form of raw,unprocessed theory" (p. 82) and that "... it is probably fair to characterize ...programs as theoretically oriented toward linguistics and languageacquisition with but a modicum of attention given to teaching and learning."(p. 252) According to Lange:The ESL approach is basically theoretical in nature,somewhat an artifact of history, although it has attitudinalideological aspects. As the need for ESL teachersbecame more crucial in the late 1960s, formal programsfor teacher preparation developed within departments oflinguistics, not departments of education. The programsreflect, therefore, the nature of that environment.Richards and Hino (1983), in a survey of master'sgraduates working in Japan, found that the mostfrequently studied courses in master's programs werestructural linguistics, phonology, contrastive analysis,transformational grammar, and first and second languageacquisition. By contrast, little attention was apparentlygiven to "education" topics: curriculum development,instructional practice, and evaluation. (p. 252)The above seemed to be what the student teachers were conveying to meabout TESL 400. When I re-read the course description, however, I foundthat many of the "education topics" listed above were present in the courseoutline. It seemed odd that the student teachers did not appear torecognize that they were learning about practice in their classrooms;91perhaps, due to their lack of practical experience, they were unable tomake the connection between the theory they were learning prior to theirpracticum experiences and their classroom experiences.The student teachers' comments on wishing to have experience indifferent teaching settings appear to relate to one of Gebhard's findings:that student teachers seem to have opportunities to change their teachingbehaviour when interaction is arranged so that student teachers canprocess aspects of their teaching through  multiple activities and beinggiven a break from their usual teaching setting and a chance to teach in anew setting. It appears that the student teachers may be intuitively awareof the potential benefits of working in different settings.5.5 Advice for Future StudentsFour of the student teachers reported that they would recommendthe course to a friend and that it's a good beginning or introduction to thepractice of teaching English as a second language. Two of the studentteachers mentioned that they found the professional, student-centredenvironment of the course enjoyable. One of the students said that shewould advise a friend to set up their own objectives for what they wanted tolearn in the course and to ensure that these objectives were realized.5.5.1 SpeculationsIt seemed to me that although the changes reported were many, thestudent teachers, during the interviews, reported some dissatisfactionswith the course. However, when asked what advice they would give tofuture students, four of the five gave favourable recommendations for the92course. I was surprised that Frankie, reporting that he had a differentphilosophy of teaching from the institution in which he was studying wouldsay that he would recommend the course. However, he did say that hewas taking the course in order to make a living while having an "alternative"lifestyle (i.e., teaching English overseas while painting). Perhaps knowingthat his employment was somewhat assured, he felt he could be moreforgiving of what he perceived to be the course's shortcomings.5.6 	 Relations to Other Relevant LiteratureIn terms of changes in student teachers' perceptions of personalcharacteristics, this research found, as did Dumas' (1969) that the studentteaching experience was associated with an increasingly positive view ofself by student teachers of English. However, the nature of the questionsused in this study seemed to predetermine an increase in positive self-view.In the affective domain, reductions in anxiety were directly reportedby two of the student teachers, Sabine and John. Sabine reported anincrease in comfort in her ability to pick up on students' comments andrelate them to something they'd done in a previous lesson, specifically, andgenerally, in her ability to pick up on topics of interest to the students. Shealso reported an increase in confidence in checking students'comprehension, identifying, and solving problems. John reportedperceiving that he was better able to get the attention of his students as hebecame less meek in the classroom. These examples align with earlier93research in this area (Silvernail and Costello, 1983; Pigge and Marso, 1987,1990; Brinton and Holten, 1989).Another area relating to this research is that of experiential andawareness-raising practices and learnings. According to Ellis (1990):Teacher preparation practices, in the first, can be dividedinto those that are experiential and those that raiseawareness. Experiential practices involve the studentteacher in actual teaching. This can occur through"teaching practice" where the student teachers arerequired to teach actual students in real classrooms, or in"simulated" practice, as when the student teachersengage in peer teaching. Awareness-raising practicesare intended to develop the student teacher's consciousunderstanding of the principles underlying secondlanguage teaching and/or the practical techniques thatteachers can use in different kinds of lessons. (p. 27)I found, in this study, that practices could be extended to types ofknow/edge in the practicum. While analyzing the responses of the fivestudent teachers, I found that the perceived changes they reportedseemed to fit into either the experiential or awareness-raising category.Figure 5.2 highlights some examples:Figure 5.2 	 Experiential and Awareness-Raising ChangesExperiential  Awareness-Raising    Learned how to make objectives clear tostudentsLearned to ask someone for an answer ifthey're not paying attentionLearned how to group students who wererelying on Li in the classroomLearned the point of making objectivesLearned that student queries can bedeferred to at a later timeSaw how vital grouping is945.7 Limitations of the ResearchOne limitation of this research was the small number of participants,limiting the generalizability of the research. As well, the because theduration of the practicum was short, there may not have been enough timefor other items influencing change, as mentioned in the literature, to havearisen. Because only common themes could be examined, an in-depthexamination of each students' practicum experiences could not beundertaken; the large amount of data collected could not adequatelyreveal the complexities of variation found among the individual studentteachers. Future studies could follow and report on the experiences ofone student only. Another limitation was the variation among sections ofTESL 400. Although each of the four sections of TESL 400 dealt with manyof the same issues, each course, depending on the instructor and the levelof the course (i.e., K-12, adult) had a different "flavour." Many of thecourses focussed on one method of teaching, while others focussed onseveral, thus differences may have arisen in the student teachers'conceptions of "theory" and "practice." Future studies could observe thestudent teachers in their TESL 400 courses as well as their practicumclassrooms, in order to derive a clearer picture of the consonance betweenwhat the student learns in the course and does in the classroom.Generalizability of this study to other contexts is also limited for anumber of reasons. First of all, this type of 20-hour practicum is unusual,most practica are of longer duration. Second, because the students, their95practicum placements, and their TESL 400 classes were quite unique,generalizations of the results of this study would not be tenable.5.8 Implications for Future ResearchThis study found that those items influencing change in practicalknowledge varied considerably depending on the student teacher andhis/her philosophy of teaching, relationships between student and sponsorteachers, type of practicum placement, and TESL 400 background. Futureresearch could address issues of sponsor-student teacher relationships,gender and personality matches to name a few. A combination ofqualitative and quantitative research methods allowed for the relating ofjournal comments to questionnaire items, thus providing a more "well-rounded" picture of change in student teacher perceptions of their practicalknowledge over the course of a practicum. Future research couldincorporate more ethnographic techniques, perhaps by videotapingstudent teaching sessions, interviewing sponsor teachers and practicumsupervisors, thus providing a more comprehensive picture of the studentteachers' actual changes in teaching ability. It would be interesting todetermine if a relationship between perceived ability and actual abilityexists.5.9 Implications for ESL Teacher EducationThis research is useful for teacher educators in that it looks at themany agents influencing change in student teachers' perceptions of theirpractical knowledge. Because the teaching course was designed to meetthe needs of in-service teachers, but is currently admitting pre-service96teachers, (M. Early, personal communication, January, 1992) it is importantthat all people involved in the planning and execution of the course, (i.e.,course instructors, sponsor teachers, practicum placement supervisors)be aware of how some non-teachers perceive what the course is doing forthem and what they believe the course could have done for them.5.10 SummaryStudent teachers' perceptions of change were influenced by sixagents: unsolicited suggestions from the sponsor teachers and practicumsupervisors, observations of the sponsor teacher, help solicited from thesponsor teacher, experience in the classroom, interactions with students,and enabling agents, such as levels of comfort and confidence in theclassroom. This study revealed that most perceived changes were in thearea of performing a teaching role in a school setting - motivating,explaining, providing appropriate well-timed activities and reviewing.Among the reasons cited for lack of change, the most common were thatbecause of the nature of the practicum classes, issues of discipline,assessment and accreditation were inapplicable, that some items werebelieved by the student teachers to be natural interpersonal skills, and thatthey did not get enough practice in some areas to perceive any change tohave occurred.In commenting on the most useful things learned in practicum, thestudent teachers included positioning oneself in the classroom, givinginstructions and directions to students, and learning to think on one's feet.Grouping students, learning how it feels to be in front of a class,97understanding students' accents, determining what teaching methodswork, and finding a teaching style that matches one's own personality werealso cited.The student teachers reported that the changes to the manner inwhich the teaching course was evaluated, being exposed to a variety ofteaching methods and placing less emphasis on the theoretical and moreon the practical aspects of teaching would have been helpful to them intheir educational pursuits.Most of the student teachers reported that they would recommendthe teaching course to their friends and some said that they particularlyenjoyed the professional and student-centred atmosphere created in theirTESL 400 classes.Because of the small number of subjects and the differences in theirpersonalities and teaching situations it was difficult to relate this research toother quantitative studies. The findings of this study appear similar tothose of Dumas (1969) in terms of anxiety, Silvernail and Costello (1983)and Pigge and Marso (1987, 1990) in terms of confidence. Although someaspects of this study appear to support Housego's (1990a) research, thedisparities between the number and type of subjects of her research andmine, leads me to be wary of drawing any conclusions regarding similaritybetween the results.Because the type of research done and questions asked aresomewhat similar, this study most closely supports Brinton and Holten's(1989) and Gebhard's (1990b) study. All of the student teachers reported98perceiving changes in their abilities to set up and carry out lessons, selectcontent for lessons and treat student errors. However, again, because ofthe duration of this study and differing practicum situations, anyconclusions drawn may prove untenable.Other literature relating to types of models of supervision, types ofknowledge gained, and the nature of second language teacher educationto this study were referred to.The small number of student teachers in this study limits thegeneralizability of the study, as do the differences in personality of thestudent teachers as well as their practicum placements and TESL 400classroom experiences. The PREP scale was found to have containedsome items which were deemed inapplicable, reinterpreted, or changed bythe student teachers during the course of the interviews.This research is useful because it addresses the needs of pre-service teachers who are taking a course designed for in-service teachersand it contributes to qualitative research in the field of second languageteaching and learning. It is useful to teacher educators in suggestingagents influencing or hindering change in student teachers' perceptions oftheir practical knowledge.Future research in this area could address student teacher-sponsorteacher relationships and differences in these relationships based ongender, age, ethnicity, and goals of the student teachers.995.11 Famous Last WordsI searched through each of the student teachers' journals in order tofind something encapsulating their practicum experiences and theirthoughts about their futures as teachers. In their own words:SabineI enjoyed making the materials for the class. It's a greatexercise to have to think out every stage, every problemthat might come up. This was a vocabulary course, so Iguess that made it somewhat more straightforward, butthere were still questions that would come up as I wasputting together the materials, and I enjoyed doing that -matching exercises, coming up with definitions that wereunderstandable and didn't themselves contain too muchunknown vocabulary, because it would have to bechallenging but not totally discouraging...ClareI feel the most important next step for me is to continueto gain experience by teaching. "Experience is the bestteacher." as they say, and I need it.JudyI remember you (course instructor) saying that I wasreally lucky to get my practicum at Kyoto ExchangeProgram. I was excited about everything until I actuallygot there and had so much difficulty making up lessonplans etc. In fact, I think I even complained to a fewpeople about the situation and how I was spending moretime making lesson plans than I was actually studying myother courses. I take that all back now because it has allproved to be so helpful and I would never have traded myplace if anyone had offered me to. I learned lots aboutthe Japanese culture and the people and I hope they gotas much out of it as I did.FrankieThere remains some work necessary for me to do withrespect to technical aspects of the language -- I can seewhere it would be good to have specific structure orfunctional objectives in a lesson. But for now, it's fine tojust have some success, socially if you will, as a teacher... exploring the ways that I can powerfully work withstudents by keeping my integrity and by listening to thestudents.100JohnI think I need to get experience in my own classroom.This way I can develop my own teaching style. ...Experience will also improve my confidence. I will haveto make sure I know what teaching errors I make andalways try to improve on them, in order to improve as anESL instructor.ReferencesBailey, K.M. (1990). The use of diary studies in teacher educationprograms. In J.C. Richards and D. Nunan (Eds.), SecondLanguage Teacher Education (pp. 215-226). Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Borko, H. (1987). Student teachers' understandings of successful andunsuccessful teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 3(2), 77-90.Brinton, a and Holten, C. (1989). What novice teachers focus on. TESOLQuarterly, 23 (2), 343-350.Buitinik, J. and Keeme, S. (1986). Changes in student-teacher thinking.European Journal of Teacher Education, 9(1), 75-84.Callahan, R. (1980). A study of teacher candidates' attitudes. CollegeStudent Journal, 14(2), 156-175.Dumas, W. (1969). Factors associated with self-concept change in studentteachers. Journal of Educational Research, 62(6), 275-278.Ellis, R. (1990). Activities and procedures for teacher preparation. In J.C.Richards and D. Nunan (Eds.), Second Language TeacherEducation (pp. 26-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Evans, H.L. (1986). How do early field experiences influence the studentteacher? Journal of Education for Teaching, 12(1), 35-46.101102Freeman, D. (1990). Intervening in Practice Teaching. In J.C. Richards andD. Nunan (Eds.),  Second Language Teacher Education (pp. 103-117). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Gebhard, J.G. (1990a). Interaction in a teaching practicum. In J.C.Richards and D. Nunan (Eds.), Second Language TeacherEducation (pp. 118-131). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Gebhard, J.G. (1990b). Models of supervision: Choices. In J.C. Richardsand D. Nunan (Eds.),  Second Language Teacher Education (pp.156-166). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Hourcade, J.J., Parette, H.P. Jr., and McCormack, T.J. (1988). Stresssources among student teachers. Clearing House, 61, 347-350.Housego, B.J. (1990). Student teachers' feelings of preparedness to teach.Canadian Journal of Education, 15(1), 37-56.Jelinek, C.A. (1986). Stress and the pre-service teacher. TeacherEducator, 22(1), 2-8.Johnson, L.J. (1986). Factors that influence skill acquisition of practicumstudents during a field-based experience. Teacher Education andSpecial Education, 9(3), 89-103.Lange, D.L. (1990). A blueprint for a teacher development program. InJ.C. Richards and D. Nunan (Eds.), Second Language TeacherEducation (pp. 245-268). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Manning, D.T. (1977). The influence of key individuals on student teachersin urban and suburban settings. Teacher Educator, 13(2), 2-8.103McMillan, J.H. and Shumacher, S. (1989). Research in Education: AConceptual Introduction.Pigge, F.L. and Marso, R.N. (1987). Relationships between studentcharacteristics and changes in attitudes, concerns, anxieties, andconfidence about teaching during teacher preparation. Journal ofEducational Research, 82(2), 109-115.Pigge, F.L. and Marso, R.N. (1990). A longitudinal assessment of theaffective impact of preservice training on prospective teachers.Journal of Experimental Education, 283-289.Placek, J.H. (1988). A critical incident study of preservice teachers' beliefsabout teaching success and nonsuccess. Research Quarterly forExercise and Sport, 59(4), 351-58.Ralph, E. G. (1989). Developing professional attributes among studentteachers during field experience programs. Education Canada,29(1), 32-40.Ross, E.W. (1988). Becoming a teacher: The development of preserviceteacher perspectives. Action in Teacher Education, 10(2), 101-09.Silvernail, D.L. and Costello, M.H. (1983). The impact of student teachingand internship programs on preservice teachers' pupil controlperspectives, anxiety levels, and teaching concerns. Journal ofTeacher Education, 34(4), 32-36.Staab, C.F. (1984). Student teachers' perceptions of their competenceversus the perceptions of university supervisors and sponsorteachers. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 30(4), 284-98.Tabachnick, B.R. (1979). Teacher education and the professionalperspectives of student teachers. Interchange on EductaionalPolicy, 10(4), 12-29.Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand: Women and men inconversation. New York: Ballantine Books.Tiene, D. (1987). Student teachers and classroom authority. Journal ofEducational Research, 80(5), 261-65.Wright, T. (1990). Understanding classroom role relationships. In J.C.Richards and D. Nunan (Eds.),  Second Language TeacherEducation (pp. 82-95). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.104APPENDIX ISAMPLE COURSE OUTLINETESL 400: SECTION 1 TOPIC NUMBERA. 	 INTRODUCTION1. Introduction and overview2. Goals and responsibilities3. Assignments4. The Adult Learner5. Classroom Climate (trust, rapport)6. Learning another LanguageB.	 CULTURE7. Cultural Self-awareness8. Cross-cultural Communication9. Multi-cultural Classroom10. Stereotypes/Preconceptions/etc.11. 	 Addressing Culture in the ClassroomC. PREPARING TO TEACH12. Needs Assessment13. Preparation for Observation and Practice Teaching14. Knowledge Framework/Key Visuals15. Lesson Planning16. Introduction to Methods, Approaches & Techniquesand ProceduresD. TECHNIQUES AND MACRO SKILLS17. Grammar18. Teaching Speaking19. Listening, Pronunciation, etc.20. Language Functions21. Communication Activities22. Teaching Reading and Writing23. Language Experience and Process Writing24. Vocabulary Development105SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINEE. MANAGEMENT25. General Techniques26. Multi-level Classes27. Giving directions28. Grouping29. Pacing/timing30. The difficult student31. Bringing the Community into the Classroom32. Teacher RoleF. 	 GENERAL33. Unit Planning34. Curriculum35. ESL/EFL36. ESP/EAPG 	 EVALUATION AND NEEDS37. Text Evaluation38. Adapting Materials39. Testing40. Error Analysis	41. 	 Error CorrectionH.42 Review & Exam Prep	43. 	 Professional Considerations106APPENDIX IISUBJECT CONSENT FORMDear Student Teacher,I am writing to ask if you would be willing to participate in a research project which I am doing formy Master's thesis at UBC under the supervision of Dr. Margaret Early, "Student Teachers'Perceptions of their Preparedness to Teach English as a Second Language to Adults". This studywill be conducted during Term 2 of UBC's winter session. The purpose of this study is todetermine in which areas changes in student teachers' perceptions take place during the ENED478 practicum period.Participation will involve approximately three hours of your time in total. 2 20-minute sittings will beallotted for filling out a 3-page scaled questionnaire a) at the beginning of your practicum period,and b) at the end of your practicum period. You will also be interviewed extensively at two points:at the beginning of your practicum period and at the end of your practicum period. I expect thatthese interviews will take approximately one hour per sitting. I would also appreciate if you wouldkeep a journal and/or telephone me after each one of your practicum sessions.You are, of course, under no obligation to participate. If you do or do not decide to volunteer, thiswill in no way jeopardize or affect your status at UBC or any of your course grades. If you do wishto participate, your identity will be kept entirely confidential. A pseudonym will be used in reportingresults of this research, and the location of the course described will be concealed in writing up thethesis. You may withdraw from the study at any time, for any reason, if you so wish. If you wouldlike further information about this study, I would be happy to provide this; please contact me at thenumber below.If you would like to participate, could you kindly complete the attached form and give it to me atthe address above. Please keep a copy of this page for your records. Thank you very much foryour consideration of this request.Sincerely,Melodie L. Cookhome 682-4190office 822-6441107Dear Ms Cook,I have read your letter describing the research project, "Student Teachers'Perceptions of their Preparedness to Teach English as a Second Language toAdults" and kept a copy of it for future reference.I would/would not (circle one) like to participate.NameTelephone NumberDateSignature108APPENDIX IIISAMPLE JOURNAL ENTRY: CLAREMonday, February 3This two hour class was filled with many activities lasting 5-7 minutes each. I was amazed at howmany activities Andrea had prepared. Most of them seemed to build upon language and activitiesthe class had done in the first 4 weeks of class.Tonight was the eve of Chinese New Year, so the class was half the usual size. Only 10 of 20students were present... easier for me to learn names! Andrea is very friendly and open, so I felt atease immediately. I began interacting with the students immediately and Andrea let me help outduring group work. The students were very open to me as well.I will list all of the activities we did in class:1. Action song and gestures. MIME: This song named many body parts and Andrea tried to getthe class to give her the words as she acted it out. The students have spent time in previousclasses learning the song. They sang it together 2-3 times.2. She reviewed vocabulary from last class about body parts and how you express pain. Again sheellicted [sic] the words by acting out headache, stomachache, etc. Then, in groups of 3 thestudents practiced dialogue saying: "I have a headache." and the next person says "She (or he)has a headache." and then about themselves say "I have a sore leg." Then she conjugated theverb 'to have'.109APPENDIX IVSTUDENT TEACHERS' FEELINGS OF PREPAREDNESS TO TEACH (PREP) SCALEStudent Teachers' Feelings of Preparedness for TeachingPlease read and respond to each item. Indicate with an "X" the response on the seven-pointscale (7 - Almost Completely Prepared, to 1 - Almost Completely Unprepared) which most closely fitsyour feelings about how prepared you feel to handle the task described in each item.How prepared do you feel to ...7 	 6 	 5 	 4 	 3 	 2 	 11. identify lesson objectives?2. state lesson objectives clearly?3. plan for the attainment of lesson objectives?4. design activities based on a collection of materials?5. estimate the time required for activities?6. develop alternative activities to achieve the sameobjective? 7. evaluate the appropriateness of materials according tocurriculum guidelines? 8. evaluate the appropriateness of materials according tostudents' abilities?9. evaluate the appropriateness of controversialmaterials?10. draw subject matter for teaching from my ownknowledge?11. enrich instruction with additional content? 12. select an appropriate method for teaching? 13. relate past learnings to a new lesson? 14. integrate leanings from two or more subject areas?15.	 group students for instruction? 110How prepared do you feel to ...7 	 6 	 5 	 4 	 3 	 2 	 116. develop stimulating practice exercises?17. design review activities?18. focus students' attention prior to beginning a lesson? 19. provide students with a rationale for learning activities? 20. communicate my expectations for student learning? 21. motivate a class to achieve my expectations for learning?22. 	 develop appropriate means for holding studentsaccountable for school work?11123. adapt instruction to a particular class?24. give clear explanations to students?25. give clear directions to students?26. maintain lesson momentum?27. give appropriate feedback regarding achievement?28. summarize a lesson?29. ask questions at various levels of intellectual difficulty?30. reword questions to enhance clarity? 31. redirect questions to involve more students? 32. estimate the appropriate wait time between askingquestions and choosing respondents?33. design appropriate assessment procedures? 34. keep daily individual student achievement records? 35. determine student grades? 36. prepare the physical classroom setting for instruction?37. monitor the entire class while working with only partof it?38. manage a class according to students' maturity levels?39. enforce classroom rules?40. give appropriate feedback on student behaviour?How prepared do you feel to ...7 	 6 	 5 	 4 	 3 	 2 	 141. implement routines to minimize time loss? 42. make smooth transitions between activities? 43. 	 correct student misbehaviour unobtrusively?11244. 	 understand the underlying causes of student behaviourproblems? 45. handle most discipline problems in the classroom?46. promote student self-discipline? 47. develop ways of improving my own teaching? 48. establish positive rapport with students? 49. maintain good staff relationships? 50. relate effectively to parents? If you wish to, please make additional comments.APPENDIX VSAMPLE TRANSCRIPT: CLAREM	 Okay. Urn, "design activities based on a collection of materials."C 	 Urn, I think I felt pretty good about that before, because we'd done quite abit on our unit plans and things. And urn, now I feel about the same, really. Imean I didn't learn that much on that. I learned a few, a few specifics of whatkinds of activities you could do, but that was really just a small portion, I think. Ofwhat you can actually do. Like I'm saying I learned a few more practical things inmy practicum, but the general concept I had before that.M 	 Okay, urn "estimate the time required for activities."C 	 Oh I think when I talked to you last time I said I'd have no idea and now Ijust learned that it's okay to have no idea. Basically that's what, in my practicum,she's like "You never know how long it's gonna take and you just..." she waspretty good at leaving time for me to, just to leave it open, she always had a back-up exercise, so obviously she never knew how long it was gonna go. Urnsometimes you wouldn't even cover half your lesson. When I did my actual, whenI got supervised, I didn't even get through my whole lesson. I just ended upstopping it. And uh, so basically, you just learn to be prepared. And then I alsolearned from (S), 'cause I was kind of concerned about it and then she said, urn,you know and then with two different classes it's different. Like you get, if you dothe same material over and over again, get a general idea that sometimes some113114things, like certain things take longer, like she said actually that occupationsusually takes longer to do, but still it's different with every class.M 	 Okay. Urn, "develop alternative activities to achieve the same objective."C 	 Urn, I think, I'm not sure how I felt about that when we talked before. Urn, itwas probably...M 	 It was pretty low on the scale.C 	 It was probably, I was gonna say, probably pretty unclear. But urn now I,now I, well I didn't learn that from my practicum, because I saw her do oneexercise and do many different things with it, which I'd never really seen put intopractice before.M 	 Had you learned it in theory though?C 	 No.APPENDIX VISTUDENT TEACHERS' FEELINGS OF PREPAREDNESS TO TEACH (PREP) SCALE:ORIGINAL VERSIONStudent Teachers' Feelings of Preparedness for TeachingPlease read and respond to each item.. Choose the response from the five-point scale (1 - VeryWell Prepared - to 5 - Very Poorly Prepared) which most closely fits your estimation of how preparedyou are to handle the situation in question. Put an "X" in the box corresponding to your estimate.Indicate the degree to which you feel preparedat this time to . . . .How well are you prepared?Ade-Very 	 quate- Poor- VeryWell Well ly 	 ly 	 Poorly1	 2 	 3 	 4 	 51. sequence topics from a collection of materials.2. arrange activities from a collection of materials.3. fit into a school setting and abide by the generalethical framework.4. identify objectives.5. write objectives clearly.6. state cognitive, affective and psychomotorcomponents in the objectives written.7. plan two or more alternative sequences ofactivities for the same topic or objectives.8. plan for the attainment of long-range goals.9. determine a reasonable time sequence fordifferent activities.10. motivate students of varying abilities andinterests.11. design comprehensive review activities.12. construct an analysis scheme to provide youwith feedback on your own performance13. 	 develop clear explanations for students.115116How well are you prepared?Ade-Indicate the degree to which you feel prepared	 Very 	 quate- Poor- Veryat this time to . . . . 	 Well 	 Well 	 ly 	 ly 	 Poorly1 	 2 	 3 	 4 	 514. monitor an entire class while working with onechild or a small group.15. give feedback appropriate to the students andtopics as quickly as possible.16. make a choice between inductive and deductiveteaching.17. shift from deductive to inductive teaching,depending upon the topic and class.18. provide clear questions appropriate to theobjectives you intend for the students.19. reword a question.20. redirect a question.21. estimate the appropriate waiting time betweenthe question and the answer.22. analyze the verbal interaction in a videotapeof a lesson.23. select a variety of appropriate assessmenttechniques.24. keep daily individual records.25. use criteria necessary to group students fordifferent purposes.26. use praise effectively.27. adjust teacher-student interaction according toindividual students.28. convey expectations to elicit the bestperformance from students.29. choose the best strategies to motivate students.117How well are you prepared?Ade-Indicate the degree to which you feel prepared	Very 	 quate- Poor- Veryat this time to . . . . 	 Well 	 Well 	 ly 	 ly 	 Poorly1 	 2 	 3 	 4 	 530. prepare classroom rules according to thestudents' level.31. teach classroom rules.32. enforce classroom rules.33. develop strategies for encouragingself-discipline.34. provide a smooth transition betweenactivities.35. provide encouragement in a variety ofways to promote good self-concepts among students.36. identify the underlying difficulties of students withdiscipline problems.37. handle a range of discipline problems withinthe classroom.38. make special arrangements for problembehaviour.39. adjust strategies for discipline on anindividual basis.40. identify biases present in special teachingmaterials.41. evaluate the appropriateness of materialsaccording to student level.42. evaluate the appropriateness of materialsaccording to curriculum guidelines.43. evaluate the appropriateness of materialsaccording to community standards.

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