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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Developing artistic awareness in young children Perel-Panar, Anita F. 1991

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DEVELOPING ARTISTIC AWARENESS IN YOUNG CHILDRENbyANITA F. PEREL-PANARB.A., The University of British Columbia, 1973A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTERS OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESDepartment of Language EducationWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADecember 1991© Anita F. Perel-Panar, 1991DateIn presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department ofThe University of British Colum aVancouver, CanadaDE-6 (2/88)iiAbstractTHE IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPINGARTISTIC AWARENESS IN YOUNG CHILDRENI have designed a program for young children, ages 2 to10, that integrates music, movement, drama, and children'sliterature. I teach this program in my own studio. Thisstudy looks at the beginnings of artistic awareness from theviewpoints of the people directly involved in the program:the parents, the students, and the teacher. The studydetermines that the following conditions are necessary forthe development of artistic awareness in young children: anenvironment that includes enriched experiences that aredevelopmentally appropriate; activities that match thechildren's interests; encouragement, respect andunderstanding that cultivates a positive self-concept; andpositive parental involvement.iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT^ iiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS^ vCHAPTER1^INTRODUCTION^ 1The Setting,the Program and the Children^42^BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY^ 16Creative Potential 17The nature of childrenCreativity - a characteristic of young^18children: definition and theoriesFostering creative potential^ 23The Importance of Enriched Early Environment^25Some theoriesLearning concepts^ 28Factors Which Affect Learning^ 29Appropriate learning experiencesPositive attitude and motivation^ 30Consequences of inappropriate stimulation^32Importance of fostering a positive self^35conceptModes of Learning^ 38Play^ 39Creative Expression^ 41Art^ 42Poetry 43Music and MovementConclusionCHAPTERiv44463 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 49Parents 50Students 524 THE EMERGENCE OF ARTISTIC AWARENESS 54Children absorbing experiencesParental observations of children:ages two to six57Children's perceptions:ages two to six 64Children's perceptions:ages seven to ten 67Parental observations of children:ages seven to ten69Background, class examples, and the use of drama 70Social development 75Parental Perspectives 78Summary 845 IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 86Recommendations for further study 93BIBLIOGRAPHY 94ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI am truly thankful for having such a wonderfuladvisor, Dr. Pat Verriour, who has given me the kind ofexperience in the writing and the sorting of ideas in thisthesis that I hope to give to the children that I teach.I also wish to thank my loving husband Avie, for hisconstant encouragement and support; my precious children,Carina, Vanessa and Lara Melanni for all they have taughtme; my caring friends for always being there when needed;and my devoted parents for their strong values and theirwisdom.vTHERE WAS A CHILD WENT. FORTHThere was a child went forth every day;And the first object he looked upon, that objcct he became.And that object became part of him for the day, or a certainpart of the day, or for many years, or stretching cycles ofyears:The early lilacs became part of this child....And the apple-trees covered with blossoms, and the fruitafterward, and wood-berries, and the commonest weeds by,the road;^, '^•And the schoolmistress that passed on her way to the school....The blow, the quick loud word, the tight bargain, the craftyThe family usages, the language, thc company, the furniture—the yearning'and swelling heart....The doubts of day-time and the doubts of night-time--4hecurious whether and how,Whether that which appears is so, or is it all flashes and specks?Men and women crowding fast in the streets—if they arenot flashes and specks, what are they?These became part of that child who went forth every day,and who now goes, and will always go forth every day.!MU WhitmanCHAPTER ONE ,INTRODUCTIONI have designed a program for young children thatintegrates music, movement, drama, and children'sliterature. I teach this program in my own studio. Thechildren are grouped according to age: 2 year olds, 3 and 4year olds, and 5 and 6 year olds. There are between nine totwelve children in each group. The classes take place once aweek for thirty weeks in the year from October to May. Eachclass lasts between thirty to forty minutes.The program progresses developmentally. The childrenbegin learning very basic concepts of music at the age oftwo and advance to more complex concepts built on familiarmaterial as they grow older. This program prepares thechildren for piano lessons which they can begin when theyenter grade one. The piano program involves group pianolessons which the parents attend.Although parents do not attend the pre-piano classesunless they need to be there to settle in their two yearold, they are all informed about the program. All theparents have the opportunity to view a video tape taken ofother children participating in the classes that shows howthe program progresses.The following are some ideas that are representative ofthe philosophy on which this music program is based.1-Children should begin learning at an early age(Benjamin Bloom, 1964, McVicker Hunt, 1961, JeromeBruner,1966).-Heredity sets the limits to the child's potential(J.P. Gilford, 1970), but motivation and attitudedetermine to what extent this can be reached(McVicker Hunt 1961).-There is a correlation between an enriched environmentand the cultivation of intrinsic motivation and apositive attitude (Elkind, 1981, Bruner, 1966).-Teaching material must be developmentally appropriate(McVicker Hunt, 1961, Weininger,1982).-Children should be given the opportunity to expresstheir thoughts and ideas, and when this is accepted asvalid content it can contribute to their self-confidence (Samuels 1977).-Extending what children already know and areinterested in can enhance their excitement aboutlearning. (McVicker Hunt, 1961).-It is important to make the most of teachable momentsthat might not be part of the lesson plan (Bloom, 1981,Bruner, 1966).2-Children are intrigued by imaginative situations andby creating their own stories (Nixon, 1969).-Good listening skills are important for many reasonsbesides just learning an instrument (Aranoff,1969, Nye,1983, Cass-Beggs, 1974, O'Brien, 1983).Providing children with enriched experiences at anearly age is considered essential (Fowler, 1968, Reaney,1927) in order for the children to grow and develop "to thefull stature of which they are capable" (Maslow 1964,p.126). Children who are encouraged to experience andexpress themselves in activities that extend what they donaturally and expand on what they are interested in, aredeveloping their sense of aesthetics. The current B.C.Primary Program Foundation Document (1990) states,As young children explore and experience the worldaround them through the arts, they learn to respondthoughtfully and sensitively to their environment.They develop personal creativity and a sense ofaesthetics. They enrich, deepen and extend theirthinking and language, their learning andcommunicating. (p.49)After many years of working with children and drawingmy own conclusions, I was very pleased to come acrossarticles by educators and psychologists that support myideas. I feel that it is necessary to include a briefdiscussion of what goes on in these classes so that thereader may also see relationships between this program andthe literature.3The Setting, the Program and the Children.This integrated arts program parallels Bruner's ideain the way that it develops in progressive stages using theenactive, iconic and symbolic levels of learning. Childrenat the age of two use the same materials as the olderchildren, but the focus is different. An example can beseen with the song "Ring around the Rosies." The two yearolds are taught to listen and to fall down on the word"down" while the older children are taught to understand therhythm, the pitches and form of the song. This piece is thenone of the first pieces the children learn to play when theybegin piano lessons. Most of the material that is usedprogresses in this same way.When children are exposed to classical music, poetry andstories of our traditional literature, or material that hasstood the test of time, it is bound to have some enduringeffect on them and influence them in their later years oflife. The materials that are chosen are from these areas. Ifeel that when children have moved to, analyzed and had funwith classical pieces of music they will become interestedin playing an instrument, studying a form of dance, or atleast become critical listeners and enjoy music at a laterstage in their development. Deriving pleasure from listeningto and participating with valuable pieces of literature willalso help to cultivate their interest in literature.The classes usually begin with sitting in a circle andsinging songs, or reading from a book. We then do different4kinds of activities where each child moves in his own way.The activities are based on music or movement concepts,drama or story ideas. At the end of every class we gathertogether again in a circle. This format seems to work forall ages and it helps to keep every child involved.A familiar opening song and good-bye song with puppetsis used for every class, but the complexity of the lessonthat is taught with these songs and puppets depends on theage group. For example, at age two the children watch andtry to mimic my hand signs that correspond to the pitches ofthese songs, they sing along and kiss the puppets good-bye.When the children are older they understand the hand signs,the pitches and rhythms of these songs. I often surprise theolder children by a change in the rhythms or pitch or wordsof their familiar songs, and they are able to tell me whathappened.Individual attention is an important part of classtime. There are songs that sing good-bye to the childrenindividually, songs that call attention to their names, andsongs that each child sings individually for the greatenjoyment of the puppet that they are singing to. In BellHorses, for example, each child has to sing for the bell hehas chosen. In every class the children have theopportunity to tell us about something they want us to singabout and we make up a song to a familiar melody. The songcould be about news that the child has or about what he is5wearing. For the older children, the song is analyzed todetermine either pitches or rhythms or melody.I am constantly amazed to see how patiently thechildren wait for their turns. They are attentive, patientand focused while they wait. They show respect for thesituation and for one another. Underlying expectations suchas the above exist in most of the exercises. The childrenare required to follow certain conventions such as listeningquietly while others are talking or singing. They aredeveloping social skills and learning about trust and co-operation. This is very valuable for any kind of learningsituation.I rarely have any discipline problems in my classesbecause the children are engrossed in the activities, andthey are conditioned to listening to musical and vocal cues.I only have to whisper positive reinforcements to thechildren that are well behaved, or play something familiaron the piano and the child that is misbehaving immediatelyattends.It is very important to maximize the concentration spanand attentiveness of the children, especially since someclasses are made up of such young children, so there isalways a smooth transition from one activity to the next.Since children tend to be more focused and less distractedin larger groups, I have about twelve children enrolled ineach class.In planning my curriculum I try to enhance what6children already know and what children already do, by howthey like to do it. Play encompasses much of what childrenlike to do, and it is through play and make believe that thestudents experience the music and movement concepts, dramaor story ideas.Children learn best when it is pleasurable. They willusually be totally involved and attentive when games areused for extending their understanding of a certain concept.For example, children love playing games that help themdiscern the differences between high and low; loud and soft;fast and slow.Another resource for obtaining the children's undividedattention is to take cues from what the children are doingat that moment and embellish it. These are usually the mostexciting moments for both the teacher and the studentsbecause everyone becomes totally absorbed. For example, oneday the children came into my class and instead of sittingin their usual circle, they sat in two straight lines.Rather than reorganize them, I dispensed with my lesson planand we spent the entire class singing and paddling down theriver. There have been studies that state engaging withchildren in their play activities broadens theirsensitivities and increases many of their skills(Dixon,1985).My program originated with giving the child experiencesthat only dealt with the musical concept. For years I woulduse magic to change the children into hopping frogs and7swimming frogs (staccato and legato), or whatever I neededthem to be in order for them to experience the musicalconcept in their bodies. It would stop there. I could sensethat the children wanted to continue to explore in thatimaginary way, but I wasn't sure how to go about it.One day in doing an activity about the Three Bears, Idiscovered that more was happening with the children thanjust experiencing the musical concepts.There were so many musical and movement concepts thatthe children learn from the Three Bears that I neverbothered to ask them about anything else. Papa bear movesslowly to the rhythm of "ta". The children march feelingbig and heavy. The music is low. Mama bear skips to therhythm of "titi". Music is in the middle range. Babybear's music is high and very quick to the rhythm of "tiritiri". The older children are taught how the sounds of aninstrument, correspond with the bears. Big instruments havelow sounds, and so forth. When I finally thought to ask thechildren to tell me about what these bears were like, itadded another dimension to hear one child say "I have fuzzyhair all over my face"! Well of course, this is what thechildren are experiencing besides the musical concepts, andwhy they wanted to continue in that imaginary way.There is no division between music and movement and theimagery and stories that accompany that experience, and as amusic teacher it is most important to maintain this8integration. In playing piano one calls up feelings orimages which help to express the piece of music.Images are so interrelated to one's senses that if yousee something beautiful it might give you the feeling ofserenity, while hearing a musical piece might conjure upvisions of that beautiful sight. In any art form, whetherdance, drama or music, the experience is more poignant whenthe artist is able to call upon his imagination to helpexpress himself. At a music festival recently a child wasasked to imagine how horses might gallop to the music thatshe played, this entirely changed the expression andperformance of her piece. This might be a key to whycertain artists are so much better than others even thoughtheir technique is comparable. The better ones are more intune with their imaginations and are more able to let go andexpress themselves.It is important that children have the opportunity toexpress what they imagine and what they feel. This willhopefully enable them to keep in touch with that area ofcreativity that so often gets suppressed as they grow up andattend school.By questioning the children about what they areexperiencing, they are encouraged to express what theyimagine. The children actively engage in reflecting ontheir experiences. Questioning helps to extend thechildrens' experience beyond the activity and time and spaceare provided for children to discuss their ideas and create9stories within the imaginary situations that are set up. Inthis way more thinking and reflecting is encouraged.Piontkowski and Calfee support this idea of questioning.In the book Attention and Cognitive Development (N.Y.PlenumPress, 1979), it is stated that teachers' use of directquestions is positively correlated with achievement.In one activity the children (two and three year olds)learn the concept of high and low by being caterpillars inthe low music and butterflies for the high music. Along withquestioning the children about the musical concepts, Iencourage them to tell me about their experience, forexample, what the butterflies' wings look like, and soforth.The children as caterpillars go into a cocoon, andbesides telling me the music was in the middle range, theydescribe their feelings of what it is like in their cocoonand what it feels like to turn into a butterfly. They eachhave time to tell their own story.In another activity the children are growing flowers(gradually getting higher). They listen to a piece ofclassical music that they will probably study if theycontinue on to playing piano. I feel it is important forchildren to move to and experience music that they willlater play. The younger children grow to the music. Theolder ones do the same but are expected to answer questionsabout the form and phrases of this piece, the rhythm names,and the rhythmic patterns. It is equally important to10extend this experience by encouraging the children to talkabout what kinds of flowers they were, naming differentkinds of flowers, and talking about what the flowers need inorder to grow. The children love to answer these questions.They have the chance to share their images of what they looklike and feel like being flowers, as well as their knowledgeabout flowers.Children enjoy making up stories, and it is fascinatingto see them motivated, attentive and totally involved indoing so. They so quickly become committed to a sharedbelief. The following is an example that happened with anactivity called Bell Horses.When the children learn Bell Horses at two years ofage, they only have to turn into a horse, and listen forwhen the horse has to gallop away from his barn and gallopback to his barn. (Focused listening and ABA form). As theygrow older, they are able to sing for the bell themselves(individual singing with hand signs), and they understandthe form of the piece.The children are conditioned to responding to themusic of Bell Horses (listening skills). The same musictells them when to leave the barn and gallop away, and whento return. One day, after they had already galloped away,surprised them by playing their familiar song in the minorkey (musical variation). This intrigued the children, andthey immediately engaged in creating a story about what had1 1happened to the horses. I have done this a number of timeswith different groups and had similar responses.The mood the minor key had created could be seen in theway the children moved. Their story was about how the horsesgot lost on their way home from their gallop because of asudden change of weather. They talked about their sadfeelings and about what they were going to do (problemsolving). When the music changed back to the major key thechildren responded with relief and happiness. They decidedthat the horses found their way back to their barn. When Iasked, "How did you find your way back?," one of thechildren responded, "I dropped bread crumbs like Hansel andGretel did." Another child said, "I dropped pebbles like inthe story of Curious George." It was so interesting to seethe children make connections to other stories with thisexperience.I sometimes combine a few exercises into a story. Afterwe fall down in the garden where we sang 'ring around therosie', we pick up the posies, and then change into theposies that are growing in the garden. We talk about whatelse is in the garden and we find caterpillars andbutterflies, bluebirds (a song that I use to teach musicalform), hopping frogs and swimming frogs (staccato andlegato) who live in the pond near by, etc. Besides all themusical concepts that we deal with, we end up sharing anexperience in imagery that we have created together usingeveryone's contribution.12The other day I introduced the children to Saint Saens'"The Swan" from the Carnival of the Animals. We had a longtalk and we made analogies about birds and clothing in thisway. The children demonstrated how the swan moves and actslike he would be wearing his very best clothes, while thepigeon is always wearing grubby clothes.The music, movement, drama and story material arespringboards for the children's own creative and imaginativeideas. As an example, the children wanted to act out HumptyDumpty. They discovered that it was a galloping rhythm, andgalloped around as I played the tune on the piano.Some children chose to be the horses while the others choseto be Humpty, and they incorporated a few other nurseryrhyme characters like Jack and Jill who lived nearby. Thechildren were saddened that Humpty Dumpty falls and breaks,so they decided to change the end of the story and fixHumpty Dumpty. This in turn created other ideas as theyprepared to bring Humpty back to the castle with them, tomeet the King.Since many stories don't feel finished, the childrenrun into the class ready to continue from where they leftoff the previous week. One such example is that of theMusical Dolls. This began as an activity for one class andlasted for ten. The children (four to six year olds) weretoy dolls in a store window. They chose their instrumentsand went to pose in the window. These dolls have twoswitches, one for movement and one just for playing their13attached instrument. The concepts that I was dealing withwere different kinds of rhythms and their correspondingmovements. We were working on moving to a waltz or to amarch, and being able to identify the difference in themusic that I was playing on the piano. The first episodeended with the dolls all following me home and being storedin a closet. The next class the children all ran back intothe closet ready to continue. Other episodes involved ascene from the doll's first day at the department storebeginning with their arrival still in boxes; the mishaps ofa novice music teacher who turned on the dolls accidentallyand didn't know how to turn them off before the manager wasto come; a fight among the dolls because they each wantedthe others to move their way; the dolls becoming real andbeing pleased to move and be individuals and different fromthe rest; a breakfast the dolls make for their owner beforeinforming her that they have become real.Over the years, parents would often remark aboutinstances that they felt were directly related to thechild's experience in the class. I have collected many ofthese and found that the children were taking more home withthem than just a solid preparation for the study of aninstrument.Therefore, this study is concerned with describing howenriched, artistic experiences affect children and how thisis manifested. Observing children transfer theirexperiences from one activity to another, or use their14experiences in play, might give insight into the process ofthe development of aesthetic awareness.More specifically this study will address the followingquestions:What are the perceptions of this program from theperspective of the people directly involved in the program:the students, their parents, and the teacher?How do these perceptions compare with respect to:- the students' growing awareness of music,movement, drama, and literature- their learning of listening skills, musicalconcepts, movement concepts- their knowledge of books and pieces of musicexperienced in the program- their ways of thinking- their self concept- their transfer of the experiences in the program toother areas of daily living- their transfer of these experiences to a musicalinstrument or dance or other activities- their social skills?15CHAPTER TWOBACKGROUND TO THE STUDYMy review of the background literature explores theconcept that a positive attitude towards learning andintrinsic motivation are inherent in young children (Maslow,1964, Bruner, 1966, Elkind 1981), but it is theresponsibility of those in control of the child'senvironment to cultivate it. According to Bruner (1966),this internal push seems to be dependant on an external pull- an external supply of stimulation .Healthy children are born with a creative potential(Steinberg 1964), that properly nurtured, will enable themto grow and develop "to the full stature of which they arecapable" (Maslow 1964,p.126). Proper nurturing involvesproviding children at an early age with an environment thatincludes enriched experiences (Fowler 1968, Reaney 1927,Bloom 1964, McVicker Hunt 1961, Bruner 1966), that aredevelopmentally appropriate (Bruner 1966, Weininger 1982,Elkind 1981), and that foster a positive self concept.Early exposure to positive experiences along with theopportunity to develop a good self concept may well bethe proper conditions needed for a child to actualizehimself and become his potentialities.(Rogers,1954,p.72)Building on what children already know (Bruner 1966,McVicker Hunt 1961, Elkind 1970, Bloom 1964) and what theylike to do in areas that naturally interest them is animportant aspect of proper nurturing.16In the young child we find a natural poet, a naturalmusician, a person who is accustomed to responding toaesthetic values by his very nature (Taylor 1964).Children love to play, sing, move; do art work; listento and recite nursery rhymes, poetry and stories; clap andmove to different rhythms. It is these areas of thechildrens' interests that should be cultivated.CREATIVE POTENTIALThe nature of children.The mainspring of creativity appears to be man'stendency to actualize himself -- to become hispotential. It exists in every individual and awaitsonly the proper conditions to be released andexpressed (Rogers 1954 p.72).Children have the potential to develop and excel inmany areas given the proper conditions. Offeringconfirmation of this idea, Steinberg (1964) states thatthere is a growing realization that creativepotential is not confined to a gifted few anddetermined at birth. Evidence seems to supportthe view that children are born with the capacityto respond perceptively and in very original ways;a creativity is built into the species and is amanifestation of an innate orientation of theorganism(p.124).If everyone is born with creative potential, what thenis giftedness or talent? Gilford (1970) explains,there can be varying degrees of a qualitypossessed by different individuals; in otherwords, we can think not only of a few particularlygifted persons but that individuals in generalpossess some degree of the same degree of trait ortraits (p.100).Heredity only establishes the limits of development andwe can conjecture that it is the responsibility of the17environment to cultivate it. It is the environment thatgoverns to what extent those limits are reached (McVickerHunt, 1961).Maslow sees the satisfaction of sheer curiosity, sheerinquisitiveness, and the craving for understanding as forceswhich propel the individual towards greater knowledge andunderstanding. Inquiry appears to be a natural andrewarding activity. "Man is born with the need to know; theneed to understand is profoundly rooted in man's biologicalnature" (Maslow, 1962 p.21). Bruner comments, "The will tolearn is an intrinsic motive, one that finds its source andits reward in its own exercise" (Bruner, 1966, p.127).Bruner points out that the most lasting satisfactions lie inlearning itself, not in extrinsic rewards.Steinberg quotes Maslow's statement that the need toknow is "what propels the individual toward growth andtoward developing to the full stature of which one iscapable" (1964, p.126). Steinberg uses the term "thecreative attitude" for this "need to know" and says that itseems to be built into the species.Creativity - a characteristic of young children.Fromm (1959) considers the creative attitude to becharacterized by the same descriptors used to describe happyand secure young children. When we consider the essentialnature of these children, we see their curiosity, and open-18mindedness, their capacity for wonder and puzzlement, andtheir ability to be imaginative.Rogers (1959) may as well be describing childrenin his definition of a creative personality. He says acreative personality can be characterized by threeconditions. Firstly, the creative personality is open toexperience. In other words it means a lack of rigidity anda tolerance for ambiguity, in essence the opposite ofpsychological defensiveness. Secondly, the source or locusof evaluation is internal. The value of the product of hisor her efforts is established by the individual and not byothers. And lastly, associated with the openness and lack ofrigidity is the ability to play spontaneously with ideas,colours, shapes and relationships. The creative seeing oflife in new ways arises from the examination of countlesspossibilities.Hallman (1963) considers this ability to playspontaneously with ideas, colours, shapes and relationshipsas being the condition of connectedness. It is the abilityto bring already existing elements into a distinctiverelation to each other. He quotes Bruner who says "All formsof creativity grow out of a combinatorial activity, aplacing of things in a new perspective" (1963, p.74).Hallman expands this view by stating that creativity is notmerely the capacity to connect elements in a new way but totransplant these new combinations onto previously unrelated19materials. Creativity is also the capacity to regard lifemetaphorically, and as Carl Rogers says, to discoverstructure in experience instead of imposing structure onexperience.Gowan writes about Maslow's distinction between"primary" and "secondary" creativity. Primary creativity isthat "which comes out of the unconscious; which is the forceof new discovery", like the creativeness of children.Secondary creativity is the type of rational logicalproductivity demonstrated by capable, well adjusted,successful people. "True creativity depends on theintegration of both primary and secondary processes in thepersonality" (1965, p.12 ).Maslow points out that healthy creative people have achild-like quality. Creativity is seen in terms of completecharacter integration or lack of barriers between theconscious mind and its unconscious areas. Gowan quotesMaslow's statement that "The ability to regress in theservice of the ego, retrieve material from the preconsciousand return it to the world of reality is a vital aspect ofcreative production" (1965, p.10).Elkind (1970) uses the terms emotions and intelligencefor these same concepts. Elkind believes that the reasonthat young children are so responsive to learning is becausethere are no barriers between their emotions and theirintelligence. Concepts become absorbed as part of thechild's total being.20The conscious mind is traditionally associated with theleft hemisphere of the brain. Here, cognition specializesin data whose significance is based on relationships thatare sequential and analytical in nature. The cognitiveprocess concerns itself with academic achievements and skillacquisition. It is a process that operates from outsideinward, concerning itself primarily with externalmanifestations.The unconscious areas are associated with the rightside of the brain. "It is the seat of one's emotions andintuition" (Andrews 1980-1981, p.77). The affective processperceives how things exist in space, how parts go togetherto make up a whole, how to understand metaphors, images, anddreams and creates combinations of ideas. This processcontains intrinsic forces which operate from inside outward,motivating action towards the realizations of one's ownpotential and allowing for personal idioms to emerge. Theright hemisphere concerns itself with discovery, finding joyand satisfaction in the continuous process of searching. Itis this definition of unconscious that Maslow refers to asthe "primary creativity" - like the creativeness ofchildren.For a person to best reach his potential, the twoprocesses -- cognitive and affective -- must be inseparableand "their extrinsic and intrinsic forces symbioticallysynchronistically blended" (Andrews 1980-1981, p.80). Anindividual who expects to develop his creative potential21must operate on intuition as well as reason. When these twoforces are integrated there seems to be an openness tosubconscious thinking. Hallman (1963) says, "one must beable to relax conscious thinking and operations and inhibitlogical controls" to allow for the creative process tooccur.Simon (1965) describes the creative process in fourstages. The first stage deals with learning a great dealabout the environment. The second stage is the incubationperiod. This is the stage when the subconscious mind,unhampered by conscious restrictions, puts togetherseemingly unrelated bits of information absorbed in the formof sensory impressions. One is not conscious of puttingthings together,it is the process to which the advice "sleepon it" applies.The third stage is the illumination. This stage isoften accompanied by a feeling of euphoria resulting from a"dramatic flash" of insight. This feeling is caused by theshifting of activities from the subconscious to theconscious (Simon 1965). Hallman refers to this stage as oneof surprise. The excitement that results in the sudden andunexpected recognition of these novel combinations is whatmotivates individuals to appreciate or produce creativeworks. Bruner (1966) regards this effective surprise as theessence of creativity itself. The fourth stage isconsolidation. This is when the conscious mind takes over22and cleans up the details and works out the implications ofthe solution.Rogers (1954) gives a summary of the process ofcreativity in his definition. It is "the emergence inaction of a novel relational product, growing out of theuniqueness of the individual, on the one hand, and thematerials, events, people, or circumstances of his life onthe other"(p.71).Simon (1965) postulates that the creative process inscience and art are substantially identical. They arebasically the same kind of thinking processes.It is most important to encourage children to maintainthis creativity, which is an expression of theirindividuality and uniqueness so they will grow to becomecreative and critical thinkers.Fostering creative potential.Many educators and psychologists believe that in orderfor a person to reach his or her fullest potential, theearly years of childhood (when the "will to learn" is sostrong), are critical to the future development of theindividual. But this internal push seems to be dependant onan external pull: an external supply of stimulation (Bruner,1966). It is at this young age when children's minds are soreceptive to learning new material that it is imperative totake advantage of it.23Fowler (1968) argues this point most forcibly:Accordingly, the role of early stimulationemerges as more than of fleeting interest.In no instance (where documentation exists)have I found an individual of high abilitywho did not experience early stimulation as acentral component of his development. It is,therefore, essential not to write off thestudies of "giftedness" as of no relevance toearly education because it is biasedevidence. The unvarying coincidence of extensiveearly stimulation with cognitive precocity andsubsequent superior competence in adulthoodsuggests that stimulation is a necessary if notsufficient condition for the development of hisabilities(p. 17).Reaney (1927) feels that early experience remains thefoundation for the rest of one's life and shapes the personyou will be in later years. Therefore habits formed in thefirst years of life govern the individual's future to suchan extent that happiness in life, and power as a member ofthe community, depend largely upon a person's training inearly years.There is no doubt that the early environment is crucialto the child's potential development but it is the qualityof the environment that counts. The following section willexplore the ways in which young children learn throughdiscussion of the importance of an enriched earlyenvironment, factors which affect learning and finally modesof learning.24TH IMPORTANCE OF AN ENRICHED EARLY ENVIRONMENTSome Theories.The work of Bloom (1964), McVicker Hunt (1961), andBruner (1966) have contributed significantly to the area ofearly learning and child development. Bloom documented thatthe ages between birth and four were periods of rapid growthand development for human characteristics. Bloom suggeststhat fifty percent of the mature capacities of intellectual,physical, social and emotional development were establishedbefore four years of age. By age eight, eighty percent ofmature intelligence has been established, so variations inthe environment would have less affect after this age. Thegreatest effect of environment would be exhibited betweenone and five years of age. According to Bloom, the effectof environment on the child's development during these earlyyears was twenty to twenty-five percent.Bloom emphasizes the importance of providing anenriched early environment for three reasons.a.Learning theory has noted that it is easier to learnsomething new than change existing behaviors.b.Since development of human characteristics was foundto be sequential in nature, each characteristic wasbuilt on an earlier one.c.Since there is such rapid growth for selectedcharacteristics in the early years, the environment25would shape these characteristics the most during theperiods of rapid change.McVicker Hunt (1961) expands on this saying thatbecause the most rapid growth of intellectual developmenttakes place before eight, both enriched home environment andearlier schooling should be considered. He maintains thatthe greatest need for an enriched home environment,including good nutrition, is in these years of rapid growth.Those children whose environment is lacking in variousenrichments may be handicapped throughout life, whilechildren whose home enrichment is intellectually stimulatingare very likely to do well in the classroom.Bruner (1966) has stated three ways by which peopletranslate experiences -- ways of processing and representinginformation from the environment. They are used insequential stages.a. Enactive --A child knows many things for which thereare no imagery-words; thus, we cannot teach using onlypicture diagrams or descriptive language. The childmust be taught through action and the senses --touching, feeling, manipulating, visually examining,using the body and muscles in rhythmic interpretations,chanting and singing.b. Iconic -- This stage depends upon visual or othersensory organization and upon summarizing images. Thisis a stage of internalization: the individual canretain the image when it is no longer present -- learn26through imitating sounds, moods, movements of animalspeople, machines, and plants.c. Symbolic -- communication of thought takes placethrough language and other symbols to explain andinterpret experiences. Certain images and words standfor an idea or object.McVicker Hunt (1961) sees intelligence to be built ona base of motor data. When young children are exposed toconcepts at the enactive stage they have a strongerfoundation than if they were to begin at the symbolic stageat a later age. When children begin learning musicalconcepts at the age of two (in the enactive stage): throughfeeling it in their bodies in rhythmic interpretations, bychanting and singing, by touching, feeling and visuallyexamining, they acquire a much deeper understanding thanwhen they learn these same concepts sitting at the piano (atthe symbolic stage). By the time these children are oldenough to study the piano, they not only acquire newconcepts with ease, but their efforts are rewarded by a muchquicker rate of success. This in itself motivates them tocontinue to study.For years, there has been evidence to support the factthat children who experienced being read to at an early agedisplayed good attitudes towards reading, if not earlyreading abilities (Durkin,1961). Bruner explains this bysaying that readiness can be taught, or at least nurtured,by the mastery of simple skills that in turn prepare the27child for more complicated ones. Unless these basic skillsare mastered, later and more elaborate skills becomeincreasingly inaccessible. In McVicker Hunt's view, none ofthe systems for processing information can be bypassedwithout a resulting detriment to intelligence.McVicker Hunt wrote in 1961It is no longer unreasonable to consider that itmight be feasible to discover ways to govern theencounters that children have with theirenvironments, especially during early years oftheir development, to achieve a substantiallyfaster rate of intellectual development, and asubstantially higher adult level of intellectualcapacity.Children need not wait to be ready to learn. Bruner(1971) writes,"One teaches readiness or provides opportunityfor its nurture; one does not simply wait for it" (p.29).Learning Concepts.Children can learn many concepts if they are introducedat a suitable level. A concept is a generalized idea orunderstanding embodying many images and memories which havebeen blended into a meaningful whole.The acquisition of concepts is viewed as a process of"seeing relationships, categorizing, discriminating andgeneralizing about those things a child sees, hears andfeels in his environment" (Wann 1962, p. 10).Children find their own meanings in the world around them.Elkind (1970) agrees with Bloom, McVicker Hunt, andBruner that mental growth is cumulative and depends on whathas gone before. He adds that the attainment of concepts28will not only prepare children for furthering theirknowledge in that subject alone but can be transferred toacquiring skills in other areas. For example, a child wholearns to recognize patterns in musical compositions canlater apply this knowledge to understanding mathematicalconcepts.It is because concepts become absorbed as part of thechild's total being (Elkind 1970) that expanding orelaborating on these concepts at a later date can be donewith considerable ease. This gives the child confidence toapproach new learning situations with a positive attitude.As with any conditional response, success is reinforcing andthis positive experience seems to increase motivation(Gottfried 1983).FACTMS WHICH AFFECT LEARNINGAppropriate Learning Experiences Although the importance of environment cannot be under-estimated, one must be selective in choosing the kind ofstimulation that would best suit the child's level ofdevelopment.Elkind (1981) believes that true education iscoincident with life. He says that true education is notlimited to special skills or concepts and particularly notto test scores. "Much of it is spontaneous, an outgrowth ofopenness and curiosity" (p.67).29Bruner (1966) stresses the power of spontaneouslearning because it supplies reinforcement in its ownactivities. He refers to this as discovery learning. It isin this kind of learning situation that the child is mostattentive. What he is doing holds relevance and purpose forhim because he is involved in a spontaneous, original, andcreative activity which is directed from within. Conceptsexperienced for themselves in this discovery-exploratoryenvironment are readily retained and used to learn higherlevel concepts than those learned through rote learning.When a child is educated in a way that suits hisinterests and his level of development it "sticks to him"(Weininger, 1982) because it is so meaningful. Not onlywill it be easy for him to expand and elaborate on theseconcepts at a later date, but he will probably cultivateinterests that will influence the rest of his life.Positive Attitude and Motivation.Fostering a positive attitude towards learning andmaintaining the child's natural intrinsic motivation,openness to questioning and curiosity should be theeducators' greatest concern.Bruner (1966) feels that when children are exposed toworthwhile and relevant experiences their curiosity andinterests are piqued and they are motivated. Bruner definesmotivation as that which originates from within theindividual and nurtures the desire to learn. Some of thestrongest motivations are the urge toward mastery and the30satisfaction that comes from performing with skill(Read,1980). We see these motivations in a young child ashe persists in working on a fastening until he succeeds inclosing it, how ever long it may take.Motivation is a vital component for without it a personwould never have the discipline to apply himself in the waythat is necessary in order to acquire new skills. He then,would be unable to reach his potential no matter howtalented he may be. So under the most conducive conditions achild who may not necessarily possess the inheritedpotential for certain kinds of achievements may develop theattitude towards learning that will allow him to succeedwhere he may not have under other circumstances. It is theenvironment that evens out the odds.For a child to enjoy, value and be motivated by what heis learning, his learning experience must fit with his levelof development and interest. McVicker Hunt (1961) describesthis as the optimal match. The experience must be balanced.There should be sufficient novelty to interest the child andto broaden knowledge of the object, concept or event,without danger of overwhelming the child with something thatcannot be grasped because of a lack of prior experience; atthe same time the learning experience should not be toorepetitive or it will fail to stimulate the child to learn.To explore teachable moments in what the childnaturally does would be making the best kind of optimalmatch. A child loves to learn more about what he already31knows. When I sing the notes of a scale and stop at thepenultimate note, my class loves to be able to answer to"have I come to the end yet?" The children enjoy beingable to tell me whether they are hearing a complete cadenceor an incomplete cadence,or how many rests there are in thesong "Hot cross buns". They know the answers to thesequestions even though they have never formally been taughtthe right answers. It is just a matter of extending andgiving names to what they naturally perceive. When childrenare involved in these kinds of experiences,they have longerattention spans and are able to concentrate for long periodsof time.^Piontkowski and Calfee's (1979) review of theliterature reveals teachers' use of direct questions ispositively correlated with achievement.Consequences of Inappropriate Stimulation.Too much inappropriate stimulation may be as damagingas the lack of stimulation. To force a child to learn byrote learning and drill rather than by guiding sensoryexperiences results in premature concept formation andclosed thinking (Weininger, 1982). Children are sometimesencouraged to recite the alphabet or count, repeat difficultwords in answer to complex questions, in short, perform forthe adults' gratification. This mere parroting of wordslacks concrete reference, and according to Weininger, canimpair learning (Weininger, 1982).32An example of this can be seen in the Suzuki method ofinstruction. Children learn by rote to play an instrument atthe age of three. It is very impressive to see these tinychildren perform but to be able to do so, they have spenthours listening to the same pieces over and over, and hoursplaying the same bar over and over again.With this method we get a very presentable product, butthe actual learning process appears to be neglected. Is itmore important that children will be able to perform musicat an early age or should they learn to love music and wantto continue with it throughout their life? To teach youngchildren concepts that they can relate to, and to teach themin ways that correspond to their natural behavior is a majorpriority. For example, rather than have children learn theconcepts of music through structured piano lessons at agethree, let them learn these concepts through movement,playing percussion instruments and singing.Similarly, when very young children are taught instructured lessons how to read, the product again becomesthe priority. This discussion does not deal with thosechildren who learn to read spontaneously at a young age withlittle fuss or bother. Elkind (1981) writes that teachingchildren to read as infants and toddlers is a good exampleof parental pressure to have their children grow up fast,"This pressure reflects the parental need, not the child'sneed or inclination" (p.32). These parents are missing thepoint. It is not how these children read at three, but how33much they enjoy reading at fifteen, and for the rest oftheir lives.Elkind says that when a child has become so specializedat an early age in either a sport or a performing art, otherparts of his personality may be somewhat underdeveloped. Herefers to this as premature structuring. The characters ofthe children therefore become structured so early that thereis little room for further growth and differentiation ofpersonality.McVicker Hunt (1961) agrees that when children arepressured to grow up fast, important achievements areskipped or bypassed, which can give rise to serious problemslater. The exclusive preoccupation with a single field ofinterest can lead to superior performance if the child hasthe native talent, but it can also lead to narrowspecialization, social and vocational maladjustment, andpersonal unhappiness. The most productive people have avariety of interests and avocations. Indeed, majorcontributions are often made by individuals from outsidetheir own field. For example, Freud was a neurologist,Einstein was a mathematician, and Piaget was trained as abiologist.^True innovation comes from broadened, notnarrow, perspectives (Elkind, 1981).Parents who love learning will create a stimulatingenvironment for their children which will be far morebeneficial to them than specific instruction. Parentswho fill the house with books, paintings, and music,have interesting friends and discussions, who arecurious and ask questions provide the children with allthe intellectual stimulation they need (Elkind1981,p.65).34The Importance of Fostering a Positive Self Concept.Early exposure to positive experiences along with theopportunity to develop a good self concept may well bethe proper conditions needed for a child to actualizehimself and become his potentialities.(Rogers,1954,p.72)For years, students of creative development haveobserved that 5-year-olds lose much of their curiosity andexcitement about learning and 9-year-olds become greatlyconcerned about conformity to peer pressures and give uptheir creative activities. The early researchers in thisarea have assumed this was purely a developmentalphenomenon. Pulsifer (1960) supports Torrance's view thatthis is not a natural developmental change. She feels it isbecause of the sharp man-made change which confronts the 5-year-old and compels him by its rules and regulations whenhe starts school. In his studies, Torrance found thatcertain classes did not display a decline in creativethinking abilities or creative behavior. This is due to thefact that these teachers established creative relationshipswith their pupils and gave them many opportunities toacquire information and skills in creative ways.Parents and teachers play a critical role in fosteringa child's creative potential.There is clear evidence from the studies of McKinnon(1967) that a close relationship exists between what aperson thinks and does and the image he has of himself. Thebasis for the fulfillment of one's potential exists in one'sself concept. The following studies demonstrate this.35Combs and Snygg (1959) noted that children can onlydevelop perceptions about themselves in terms of theirexperience and the treatment they receive from thoseresponsible for their development.Davidson and Lang (1960) found that children whoperceived their teacher's feelings toward them as beingfavourable saw themselves positively and the more positivelythese pupils perceived their teacher's feelings toward them,the better was their academic achievement. Similar resultswere presented by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968). In theirstudy, teachers were told that an experimental group ofchildren actually chosen at random were "spurters." Thechildren so designated, when compared to a control group,were found to show higher achievement at the end of theyear. In reality there was no difference between the twogroups at the beginning of the experiment.It was found that measurements of self concept and egostrength of kindergarten children were more predictive ofreading achievement two and a half years later thanmeasurements of intelligence. In other words, the selfconcepts of kindergarten children were a more accurateindication of their potential reading skills thanintelligence test scores (Wattenberg and Clifford 1964).The first five years of life are accepted by mostpsychologists as the ones in which the basic framework ofpersonality and self-conception are laid down (Coopersmith,361967). Since positive self concept is crucial to laterachievement it is important to nurture it from an early age.The following is a list of characteristics displayed byparents of children with high self esteem. These children:1. had parents who reported affectionate warmthtoward their children (Shwartz, 1966);2. had parents who were notably firm, loving,demanding and understanding (Baumkind, 1967);3.^had parents who had high expectations of them, andgave them consistent support and encouragement.These parents seemed to provide a balance betweenprotectiveness and encouragement of autonomy inthat the children were not allowed to try morethan they were capable of doing. The fathers inthis study were seen to take an active andsupportive role in child rearing.(Coopersmith, 1967).Parental love, manifested by warmth, supportiveencouragement, consistency, realistic expectation and abalance between protectiveness and reward, rather thanpunishment, is more likely to result in a positive selfconcept.Teachers can use many of the same techniques as parentsin fostering positive self concept. Parents and teacherscould also:1.^Provide experiences in which children have anoticeable effect on the environment.37382. Treat imaginative ideas with respect.3. Provide an environment that is responsive to thechild's actions.4. Treat childrens' questions with respect andencourage children to find their own solutions toproblems.5. Reward children with praise which gives them afeeling of competence.6. Show children that their ideas have value.7. Provide children with the opportunity toinvestigate new areas of interest and curiosity.8. Give children choices.9. Establish an atmosphere of trust so children arenot anxious about asking questions or makingmistakes.10. Give children the feeling that they are capableand competent and their unique expression is ofutmost value.MODES OF LEARNINGJust as the most beneficial starting point forinstruction is to enhance what children already know, thebest resource to use is what children already do.In the young child we find a natural poet, a naturalmusician, a person who is accustomed to responding toaesthetic values by his very nature (Taylor,1964 p.36).Children love to play, sing, move, do art work, listen toand recite nursery rhymes, poetry and stories, and clap andmove to different rhythms. Although play encompasses manyaspects of a child's learning and development, the followingdiscussion with be organized into these subsections: Play,Creative Expression, Art, Music and Movement and Poetry.I will first discuss some ways in which children liketo learn. At a young age children are fascinated by binaryopposites (Egan, 1986). In teaching concepts one should notonly discuss what something is, but also contrast it withwhat it is not. In this way, the children form a solidunderstanding of such concepts as: high-low; fast-slow;loud-soft. Their awareness becomes more and more refined asthey advance from knowing the extremes of high and lowsounds to recognizing the difference between two adjacentnotes.Teaching in this way can elicit a lot of humour and thechildren just love it. There is a song which I use to maketwo year old children aware of what they listen with andwhere the song comes from. "We listen to music with ournoses?" The children all laugh and respond "No!", after afew more questions along the same lines, they answer "ourears". Many children are convinced though, that the answerto where does the song come from is "our teeth".Play.Playing and learning go hand in hand.39Play is the natural avocation of childhood: Aschildren cannot be forced to play, neither canthey be taught to do so. Play is intrinsicallymotivated and intrinsically reinforced, a self-generating and extremely satisfying mode ofbehavior for the young human being. It is both asnecessary to the young child as the bodily andemotional needs which sustain life itself.(Otto Weininger, 1979, p.26).In play the child learns through exploration and openended experiences. He attends to material that is meaningfulto him and if it cannot be assimilated and integrated intowhat is important or useful to him, it is not likely to beretained.At play a child is learning through peer groupinteraction, self selected activities, and by sensorylearning. He is constantly moving, touching, listening andlooking. He practises and learns physical skills andsensory discrimination and since he is constantly talking,he practises his vocabulary and concepts. At the same timehe practises ways to relate to people, and learns thecomplicated business of human relations (Weininger,1979).A good self concept is crucial to the child'sacquisition of knowledge. Weininger (1982) reports alongitudinal study that looked at children from a playingvs. a non-playing environment. It was found that thechildren from the play based program had higher selfconcepts. They also achieved higher in math, reading,comprehension and spelling than the children from the non-play based program.40Reed (1980) says that play brings the inner world offeeling in touch with the outer world of "shared reality".She quotes Winnicott who writes, "It is only in playing thatthe individual child or adult is able to be creative and touse the whole personality and it is only in being creativethat the individual discovers the self". This is becausewhen the child is playing, he is in control and it is hisinternal reality that is being expressed.Creative Expression.Creative expression through the arts, whether inlanguage, music or dance, or visual arts is very importantfor the young child. Through the arts the child isexpressing ideas and thoughts, as well as feelings. (S)hederives satisfaction, fulfillment and gains increasedawareness in the expression of feeling. By keeping manyavenues of expression open, the child is freer to grow as aperson. (S)he is protected against the effects of blockingand inhibitions which result when few avenues of expressionare open (Nixon, 1969).When expression through art is blocked, the blockinglimits personality growth. Creative expression can serve asa safety valve, draining off destructive feelings that mightotherwise pile up to be disturbing in unrecognized ways. Inproviding children access to many forms of the expressivearts we help them find the satisfactions which comes fromexpressing themselves freely as a person, without fear and41with confidence (Read, 1976). The primary goal for childrenis not to train them as artists but to assist them inexpressing what is theirs to express.There have been studies that state engaging withchildren in their play activities broadens theirsensitivities and increases many of their skills.(Dixon, 1985). Entering into the imaginary world of childrenencourages them to express their ideas which in turninspires them to use language that they probably never usedbefore in their lives. Lark-Horovitz (1973) reports thatshe has found some evidence for the relationship betweenexpression in art and language. The children whose home artwas creative and abundant were later rated by their schoolsas superior in language and vocabulary. It was as if thechildren's spontaneous expression in creating pictures hadcontributed to later expression in language.I wonder if spontaneous expression in other art forms, forexample, dance, music or drama, have similar ramifications.Art.There appears to be an uncanny similarity throughouthistory and the world in the ways that children develop intheir means of artistic expression. Growing evidencesupports the belief that all children progress throughcomparable and sequential stages of artistic development andthat willful interference with this developmental processmay cause emotional problems and disturbances (Nixon, 1969).42Kellog believes that the unfolding of pictorial art in thechild most closely parallels that of biological phenomena.If the child is left alone to develop art, he should evolvehis own individual expression of concepts found in the worksof all children (Gardner, 1973).Poetry.Children are naturally fascinated with stories andrhyming patterns. All children derive untold pleasure fromprimitive repetition, chanting, and suggestions for bodyaction which these rhymes afford. The memorable language ofthe Mother Goose or nursery rhyme has its appeal in rhythm,imagination, humor, surprise and nonsense (Bayless 1982,quotes Scott). According to Chukovsky (1968), the preschoolchild's own verse making and his irresistible attraction topoetry, his need to hear and memorize it are strong spurs inhis mental growth. He writes, "Under the influence ofbeautiful word sequences, shifted by a pliable musicalrhythm and richly melodic rhymes, the child playfully,without the least effort, strengthens his vocabulary and hissense of the structure of his native language".Gardner (1973), writes about Burling who analyzesnursery rhymes in a variety of languages and finds that theyconsist of four lines, and four major evenly spaced beats oneach line. The verses are marked by stressed syllables andrests occur at regular intervals.Children from about their fourth year on becomecapable of learning poetic texts and it can afford them43the greatest pleasure to tattle out the verses attachedto the illustration in their picture books, tosing...to learn poems. (Stern 1926, p.229)Chukovsky (1968), verifies that Stern's findings seem to beconfirmed across cultures.The use of nursery rhymes and poetry are excellenttools in developing childrens' awareness of phrasing, rests,beats, and listening skills. This understanding of phrasingand resting can be helpful to the beginner reader.Music and Movement.Music and movement seem to be an essential, almostmagical element in a child's life. Children all over theworld have the same innate affinity towards singing similarnotes and moving to rhythms. It has often been stated thatall young children sing the descending minor third of thepentatonic scale. It is the sound of a child calling "Mommy". All children move at a quick pace. When the child'smusical education begins with highlighting what they arealready doing, the children develop a very strongfoundation.There is so much a child can learn from music andmovement. Listening and attending which is fundamental tomusic carries over into every part of our lives. Listeningis perceiving and requires thought and reasoning. One mustbe able to attend and be selective, focusing only on what isnecessary. This takes a lot of concentration. Listeningskills originate from the simple beginnings of knowing the44difference between silence and sound, to the more refinedauditory discriminations, such as hearing subtle likenessesand differences of sounds, instruments and tonal qualities.Children can have lots of fun learning through playing manydifferent kinds of listening games.Music is made up of rhythmic patterns. Children at avery young age can discern what is the same and what isdifferent in pieces of music. As they grow older, they candiscern patterns that are more complex. When children areable to recognize patterns it speeds up their comprehension.Knowing that a piece which looks so long and foreboding ismade up of so many repeated patterns, makes it much easierto learn. Rhythmic patterns also aid in memory. We storein our minds the patterns of things seen and heard, likefaces, buildings, numbers, familiar footsteps. Many mnemonicdevices lean heavily on rhythmic patterns for theireffectiveness. For example, the natural incorporation ofsingle notes into grouped patterns facilitates sight readingand recall. This is the same in dance, single steps groupedinto patterns are recalled very easily.Rhythm is a great source of pleasure, not only as abasic element in the arts but in our daily lives. Our everyday activities when performed with efficiency are rhythmic.All motor skills whether in work or in play are dependant onwell developed rhythms. To be able to conform rhythmicallyis the ultimate test of motor efficiency. This in turn doeswonders for ones' self image.45Rhythm and movement is an invaluable aid in learning.Memory of a rhythmic experience persists in the musclegroups long after the original motor experience is past.These memories condition the individual so that he would beable to recall them quickly whenever necessary. Musclesrehearsed well ahead of the mind enables one to think aheadwithout being concerned about what is happening in the body.The self-confidence, discipline, accuracy and the quickco-ordination between the mind and the body which oneacquires in the study of music and movement can be assets inmany other areas of learning. Quoting Frigyes Bandar, Cass-Beggs (1974) writes,It has been found that the academic record of childrenattending the private music schools is much higherthan that of children attending regular primaryschools. The reason for this lies in music's power tocommunicate, and in the fact that it can be used tomaster other branches of knowledge.Children learn so well through the use of music and movementthat introductory math is now being taught using suchdevices as rhythmic clapping, snap and clap patterns and thebook that is being used is "Mathematics Their Way" by MaryBaratta-Lorton.CONCLUSION.This chapter has set forth the notion that creativepotential is inherent in every child, and the impetus forits fulfillment lies within the child's natural desire tolearn, borne out of his "need to know". The child by hisvery nature characterizes definitions of 'the creative46attitude' and the 'creative personality'. There is noseparation between his emotions and his intelligence; bothhis left and his right hemispheres work together. Thechild's capacity to respond to life has not yet been dulledor tarnished by a set of imposed verbal symbols in which itis customary to find his expression (Taylor,1964).It is necessary to tap this tremendous resource at anearly age in order to nurture it to fruition. Theenvironment must be sensitive to the child's stage ofdevelopment and provide suitable experiences that willenhance his natural inclinations -- allow for the conceptsto be built in areas that naturally interest him.All around the world and throughout human historychildren derive pleasure from the same kinds of activities.In art, they evolve their individual expression of conceptsfound in the works of all children. In music and movement,they have the same affinity towards singing and moving aschildren of other cultures. All children derive untoldpleasures from primitive repetition, chanting and rhyme.An optimum resource for curriculum planning builds uponwhat children already know and on what they like to do inthe areas that naturally interest them. This will not onlyresult in a strong foundation for later learning but thereis a good possibility that children will be excited to learnand that they will do so with greater ease.In this chapter it has been seen that a child'spredisposition towards being creative need not diminish as47he matures. He may preserve and maintain this child-likequality throughout his life and thereby personify Maslow'sdescription of a self-actualized individual: an adult whohas developed creative potential to the fullest.48CHAPTER THREEDESIGN OF THE STUDY In this chapter, I shall describe the ways in which Icollected the data for the study. First of all, along withmy own personal observations, thoughts and reflections basedon the 18 years that I have been teaching, I took notes thatincluded students' responses to particular activities, theircomments, ideas and behavior in class. I also documentedmany of my classes over the last three years with videotapes.The parents were selected on the basis of those whowere interested in participating in the study and werewilling to attend a group interview session. They wereencouraged to keep notes of their observations aboutanything that might seem to be related to their child'sexperience in the class.The students selected for this study were the childrenof these parents. Their ages ranged from two years old toten years old. There were three 2 year olds, thirteen 3 to 4year olds, ten 5 to 6 year olds, and nine 7 to 10 year olds.49Parents.Thirty-one parents were interested in participating inthe study. On eight separate occasions we met over lunch atmy home in small groups of two to four persons. There weretwo groups of four parents, three groups of three, and threegroups of two. Eight parents were interviewed individuallybecause their schedules prevented them from attending thegroup meeting. The small groups were made up of parentswhose children attended the same classes. Since the parentsknew one another from meeting each other weekly at theirchild's class, the interview had an informal, comfortableatmosphere.Prior to attending the meeting, the parents were giventhe following letter to think about:This study is concerned with describing how enrichedartistic experiences affect the children and how thisis manifested? Observing children transfer theirexperiences from one activity to another, or use theirexperiences in play, might give insight into theprocess of the development of aesthetic awareness.What do you see that your child has taken home fromtheir experience in these classes?Each meeting began with watching a video tape of theirchildren in the class. The following tapes were viewed: theparents of 3 year olds watched a class taped in May 1990;the parents of 4 year olds watched a class taped in May1990; the parents of 5 year olds watched classes taped in50May 1988 and May 1990; the parents of 10 year olds watchedpiano classes taped in May 1987 and May 1990. The parents of2 years olds did not have a video tape to view since thiswas their first year in the class, but had recently observedclasses their children were attending.The video tapes were useful in that they helped triggermemories that parents had not recalled when making up theirlist of observations.After watching the video of their children, the parentsspent the rest of the meeting discussing their ideas and theobservations they had made. I recorded this with a videocamera set up on a tripod in the corner of the room.The group discussions differed from the individualinterviews in that the group exchanged views on a widerrange of ideas, while the individual interviews were morefocused on the individual family and the particular childthat attended the class.During the group meetings the parents would often say"but this is getting off the subject", only to be reassuredthat anything they had to say was of value.Since this study deals mainly with the themes that havecome from these discussions, it is not necessary to providean in depth profile of the parents.All the parents that attended were mothers who were intheir thirties. All but three parents were universitygraduates, ten were professionals in law, medicine and51engineering; eight others had studied beyond theirundergraduate degrees.Students.After interviewing five pre-school studentsindividually, it became clear that it would be morebeneficial to interview in groups. The group interviewswere video taped.The children were very shy and contributed very littlewhen asked:"When you think about the music class, what ideas cometo your mind?""What happens in music class?""What do you learn in music class?"When the children were asked the same questions in theirclass environment they were more comfortable about answeringthe questions but still it was difficult to elicit very muchinformation.It was necessary to add the following questions to getmore of a response:"What do you do in music class?""What do you take home with you from music class?""Can music teach you anything?""What do you know now that you didn't know before youcame to these classes?"The piano students were very quick to respond to thequestions with many ideas. They were interviewed52individually, in small groups of two or three, as well as inone large group of all piano students together. Along withthe questions above they were asked the following questions:"Is taking piano lessons important for somethingbesides learning to play the instrument?""What do you learn from practicing an instrumentbesides being able to play piano?""What do you learn about yourself?"53CHAPTER FOURTHE EMERGENCE OF ARTISTIC AWARENESS In order to present the reader with a comprehensive andmulti-faceted picture of the ways in which the children havebeen influenced by my program, I will introduce this chapterwith anecdotes of children absorbing experiences. This willbe followed by sections on: parental observations ofchildren, ages two to six; children's perceptions, ages twoto six; children's perceptions, ages seven to ten; parentalobservations of children, ages seven to ten; background,class examples and the use of drama; social development;parental perspectives; and finally a recapitulation of thischapter with a summary of my beliefs.Children Absorbing Experiences.The other day my three daughters and my niece went outfor lunch with my sister. I could imagine what a time theyhad by what I overheard while they were playing in theirroom."Do you want relish on your hotdogs?" said the sevenyear old."No thank you," said the two year old. " I just likeketchup.""Would you like some fries?" said the five year old.54"Come on, put your napkins on your lap so that youdon't get your clothes messy," said the eleven yearold, pretending to be my sister.I am intrigued by how children absorb experiences andlater use them in another form, whether it is in play likethe illustration above, or in the way their experiences orwhat they know shape their perceptions and expression.My two year old daughter wanted to tell me somethingabout the new toy car in which she was riding. She said"Mommy, look at this helmet," referring to the roof of thecar, "and I can put things into this pocket," she saidreferring to the rear compartment. She had no troublefinding the words to express what she wanted to say. Sheloves putting things into the pockets in her clothes, so itwould naturally follow that any compartment that one wouldput things in would be called a pocket. She knows abouthelmets from her skating experience and has an invisiblehelmet attached to her tricycle that she always remembers toput on before she goes for a ride. I guess I can see theresemblance of her skating helmet to the roof of her littlecar although I never would have made similar connections.When I listen to the words that she has chosen, it gives meinsight into her world and I can reflect on why she haschosen to express herself in this way.I have noticed that children take in experiences, butthey will not reveal what they have absorbed until later. Iremember when my children were just infants I would teach55them how to clap or do an action or how to say something andit might take perhaps a week before they would incorporateit into their play. Older children seem to use theirexperiences more immediately.A number of years ago I was teaching my middle daughterwho was then three, how to take a breath and blow bubbles inthe water. She was very hesitant to do so, but sat on thefirst step and played with her dolly in the water. After afew minutes of playing she said, " Mommy, look at this". Shebreathed in deeply as she made her dolly jump off the edge,and blew out when her dolly entered the water. Afterplaying for a short while she said that she was ready totry. Now her breathing was much more coordinated afterhaving had time to play like this with her doll.Parents often tell me how their children have used theexperiences from my classes in their play, but some parentsare concerned when they don't see their child participate inthe class. They feel that if their children are notparticipating, then they are not learning anything.Children have different learning styles, and some need timeto observe before they join in actively. Other children maynot appear to be actively participating, but really areabsorbed in the experience.I try to explain that participation is not as importantas whether the children make use of the experiences from theclass in other areas of their daily life. I have hadchildren come and watch the class without participating for56years, but their parents tell me that they are alwaysplaying at home with what they have experienced in theclass.We can learn, from the way children play or by the waythey express themselves, about what they know and what hasimpressed them. We can also learn about how certainexperiences can shape the way that children see the world.The following are some glimpses of what the childrenare doing with their experiences from this program accordingto the parents' observations.Parental Observations of Children: Ages Two to Six.Many parents have noticed that their children speakabout music in terms of imagery. This may be related toactivities that involve creating stories out of listeningcarefully to the form of classical pieces in which thechildren are asked to tell me what they imagine at differentparts of the music. Here are some examples:There is always classical music being played on thepiano in Carina's home. Her mother says that she is alwaysasking "Mommy, what's happening now. Tell me the story."Two year old Joni was listening to a piece of music andtold her mother to look at the music hopping. It is asthough she sees the images in her head and then instead oftelling her mother to listen she tells her to "look"!Four year old Ally's mother says that she describesmusic in imagery and attaches emotion to what she hears. She57was listening to a piece of music and told her mother, "Yousee it's like this, everyone is chasing each other." Anothertime she was listening to pizzicato on the violin and said," What is this instrument? It doesn't sound like a violin".In the class the children have been taught todifferentiate between the sound of music written in minor orin major keys. Many parents have commented that theirchildren refer to what they hear as lonely and sad, spookyor happy music.One mother of a two year old said, that when her childwas listening to music in the low range she said "I don'tlike it here, it scares me."A mother of a three year old said that her son likes towalk like a monster when he hears music in the low range.One day five year old Mickey and his mom were listeningto a thunder storm and Mickey said, "The thunder andlightning is the low notes and the rain is the high notes. Ineed to try it on the piano."Jill's mother says that her daughter who is five triesto play growing flowers, and thunder and rain on the piano.Three year old Sam heard music played in the high rangeand said "That's a butterfly!Another child in Sam's class goes to the low side of thepiano and plays "caterpillars," then goes to the high sideand plays "butterflies."Five year old Jamie's mother told me that he likes tosit at the piano and find sounds that he likes. One day he58found a card that could fit between two sounds that he likedto play together so that he would be able to find the notesagain the next day.Joey's mother has noticed that her five year old'sbehavior changed dramatically since he began to attend theclass. He listens and moves to his sister's piano playingand other music rather than sing above it like he used to.The following are some activities that might haveinfluenced his behavior. In the class, the emphasis isplaced on listening carefully to one another, practisingmatching pitches in singing, and being taught that music ismade of silences and sounds, both equally important, in thesame way as paintings have negative shapes around thepictures. The children practice controlling their soundmaking by playing their band instruments loudly on thenumber one count and softly for counts two three four. Theyalso practice balancing the sound of their band instrumentsagainst the melody instrument as though they were in anorchestra.Jenny and Jamie are both in a five year old class wherewe have been writing the rhythms of the songs that we makeup about each individual child on the board. I then make upa melody on the piano using each child's rhythm and theyhave to be able to identify their rhythm. Jenny and Jamie'smothers both tell me that their children are drawing notesand clapping rhythms all the time. They even ask their59mothers to repeat a rhythm that they have made up oridentify the rhythm with rhythm names.Many parents have told me that they have noticed theirchildren playing with the stories that occur in the class.Here are a few examples. They have found their childrenteaching their friends how to be growing flowers like theydo in class. They tell them to grow up slowly talking abouttypes of flowers and the need for sun and water. They alsoplay bell horses talking about sleeping in the barn andgalloping in the field. Another child was found teaching hissibling how to march with big steps like papa bear, skiplike mama bear and tippy toe run like baby bear.Five year old Shaun likes to get together with hisfriends and have band parades getting louder and quieter asthey march around the house, much like we do in our musicclass.A mother of a six year old noticed that at herdaughter's swimming class she was swimming very rhythmicallyand asked her daughter about it. The daughter replied thatshe was counting 1 2 1 2 in time to her strokes.Two year old Lucy walks about the house chanting, Onetwo three four One two three four, emphasizing the numberOne count.Max likes to make up a rhythm pattern and ask hismother to copy it. He loves to be able to teach her therhythm names. He also writes out rhythms and then places iton the piano and plays it.60Four year old Alice heard her father say a word thatshe couldn't pronounce, so she said, "Say it slowly and Iwill clap out the rhythms so then I will be able to say it".Stewart is always clapping out the rhythms of words andnames and giving the rhythm names.One of my students has a language memory problem, buther mother says that she uses rhythms to help her with herspelling. She can remember the rhythm and this aids hermemory for the spelling.Judy is singing now all the time. She uses FriendlyBear tune to sing about things that she's doing in her life.She prefers to sing her books instead of read them.Lately in the class we have been working on saying ONEtwo three, ONE two three, and calling it a waltz. My twoyear old daughter was chanting to a galloping rhythm and Iasked her, "What is this you are singing? A waltz?""No," she said, looking at me as though I shouldn't have toask her, I should know that simple answer."Is it a march?", I asked."No, it's a gallop, see," and she showed me how she couldmove to the rhythm that she was chanting.All the examples above could be traced to someexperience in the class, and it could be expected that thechildren would use the experiences in the way they did.Sometimes, however, there are hidden influences thatchildren pick up which would never even be considered to bea possibility. The following is one such example.61Three year old Rachelle loves to put all her teddiesand dollies in a circle and pretend to be me, her mothersays. She sings the Cuckoo Song with her hand signs andtalks to her toy students. Besides pretending to be Anita,Rachelle has chosen to play with the circle time of theclass. This is the time at the beginning and the end of theclass when the children come together and each have time totell everyone something that we can use to sing about. Thisis the time that the puppets come out to sing with thechildren at the beginning of the class, or at the end of theclass to kiss the children goodbye, or reflect on what theyhad done that class. This is also the time when the puppetsput on little scenes. The following is the kind of thingthat happens at circle time which might have impressedRachelle enough to be playing with it at home.Friendly Bear, who is usually warm and affectionate andjust kisses the children goodbye after the children call himout by singing his song, appeared to be different. When Iasked him what was the matter, he said that he listened toour class that day, and we were changing the rhythm ofeverything. We were making some songs faster and othersslower, and we were calling out the names of the rhythmchanges, like ti ti to changed to tiri ti etc."So why should you be disturbed by that?" I asked."Well", said Friendly Bear shyly, "do you think thatmaybe the children could also do that with my song?"62"Sure we can", said the children and even the ones whowere not participating in the changing of rhythms activitiesearlier were totally involved in trying to please FriendlyBear. The children were successful in changing his song tofaster rhythms and singing the rhythm names which they didall by themselves, and this made Friendly Bear very happyand proud.The children have been used to the same teacher forabout four or five years, the same group of children, and asimilar routine, but the routine often changes and this addsan element of surprise and excitement to the class.Cuckoo Bird is one of the puppets that the childrendevelop a relationship with. When they see Cuckoo Bird theyexpect to hear his special song and to be encouraged to singalong. The song is made up of the pitches "sol mi". Thechildren learn the corresponding hand signs and this istheir first introduction to learning about pitches and handsigns.The children learn Cuckoo Bird's song within the firstfew classes when they are two years old. At the end of thesong is the word 'cuckoo' sung three times with the "sol mi"hand signs. Cuckoo Bird gets very excited when each childattempts to sing cuckoo with the hand signs by himself.Every so often Cuckoo does something that is out of theordinary. He is usually ready when he has to come out tosing his song, but this day he just slept in. There was63nothing the children could do to wake him up. They calledto him, and sang his song very loudly, but to no avail.We then decided a new approach to the problem. We sangquietly and got louder and louder, and that seemed to work,but when not all the children were singing he fell backasleep. Finally the children discovered that they all hadto sing with a crescendo and they would succeed in wakingCuckoo Bird. Not one child was reluctant to join in and soCuckoo Bird was elated to wake up to such beautiful singing.He was a little confused as to the day and the time and thefact that he was supposed to have been singing already, buthe apologized, and kissed each child as they individuallysang cuckoo to him, with the hand signs.Children's Perceptions: Ages Two to Six.One day a five year old child came up to me before theclass and told me "I am ready to start taking musiclessons".I asked, "What do you mean? What do you think you are doingin these classes now?""We're just having fun," he said, "Making up stories,galloping and counting the phrases, marching, singing withhand signs, reading books and listening to music on thepiano."I never pursued what he meant by taking music lessonsbut to him it certainly must be something quite differentfrom "just having fun." What he said was verified by the64answers the other students aged two to six gave to myquestions.Younger students appeared to have difficulty telling mewhat they were learning in music class. I would sometimeshave to ask three or four questions before getting anyanswer.The following questions were asked,What do you do in music class?What happens in music class?When you think about music class, what ideas come toyour mind?What do you learn in music class?Can music teach you anything?What do you know now that you didn't know before youcame to these classes?The children replied,"We have fun, we hop run and skip.""We like to pretend.""It's a really short class.""We have so much fun that it seems short.""Be good.""Bears. Get to be baby Mama and Papa bear."Butterflies and caterpillars. Music is high and low.""We play instruments loud and soft, fast and slow andwe count.""It lasts for a short time. It really should belonger."65"Hand signs teach you up and down of music.""We're getting ready to learn piano.""It's fun because we can play.""We can use our imagination to know what is happeningin the music, animals or something.""There is jumping music and ballet music and sadmusic.""We are having fun and learning music.""Staccato and legato.""Different ways to walk and move.""Dancing.""Marching and skipping and galloping."I asked "Would you like to do that movement withoutmusic?""No, it is more fun with music."These questions appeared to be too general for thechildren. They were better able to answer more specificquestions like, "Why is it important to listen?" To thisthey answered, "It is more fun to listen so that you can dothe activity otherwise you won't be able to do it."The only question to which dead silence was not the initialresponse was, "Do you like talking about what you do in thisclass?" They chimed in with the following answers:"No, we like doing it.""I want the class to be longer.""I want to show my story about a caterpillar race.""I want to be a crab."66Children's  Perceptions: Ages Seven to Ten.I asked the following questions to the children whotake group music classes with three children to a class,ranging in age from seven to ten:Is taking piano lessons important for something besideslearning to play an instrument?What do you learn from practicing an instrument besidesbeing able to play the piano?What do you learn about yourself?These children had no difficulty in answering thequestions. Here are a sample of the children's replies,"Practicing teaches me that if I keep working and do abit every day I will get it. Like studying for a testI should do a bit every day.""I learn about co-operation with partners in school.If I don't practice and get my work done before pianoclass I will let down my partners in my piano classbecause I will not know my work. It is the same atschool.""I learn that if I put my mind to it I can do it. Ithelps my confidence.""Piano lessons take hard work, discipline, andconcentration you have to put in the time.""It is training your brain."67"It is training your body, like dance, your hand willjust go to the right notes if you practice right. Youdon't have to worry about it.""Music is art.""It is expressing yourself, I enjoy putting my feelingsinto the music.""We learn to listen carefully to the little detailsthat we can add, it is just like looking at art andseeing the little details.""We can create an atmosphere with music.""When you learn music you can play anything you want,and you know that you will be able to do it.""It is easier to play other instruments.""You learn how to concentrate just like when you playthe penalty shot in soccer or hockey, you have toconcentrate just like piano.""You have to watch out for the tiny details and be neatand tidy about your work, you can't be sloppy. Justlike in art or in printing.""Learn how to tell the difference between what soundsgood and what sounds bad, even if the differences arevery small. It teaches you to appreciate what looksgood and bad also.""Trains you how to learn things.""If you work in the proper way, you can do well, andthen I feel good about myself."68"When you practice piano you find something new aboutthe piece, or something that will help you remember,that makes it the best practice session.""You can enjoy yourself.""It makes you smarter because you train your brain.""You can make up songs and be creative.""It is fun because you can take things that you learnand use it to make up other things."Parental Observations of Children: Ages Seven to Ten.I have been teaching these children since they were twoyears old. The following are some observations theirparents have made regarding what they do at home with theirmusic experience now that they are in the piano program.As a child, Maggie would go to the swing set for itsrhythm used to relax her, now she goes to the piano to besoothed when she is in a sad mood. She likes to be creativewith her piano playing and changes rhythms of her songs orsometimes even plays her bass notes in the treble clef withher right hand, and the treble notes in the bass clef withher left hand.Jennifer likes to compose pieces to reflect her ideas.Rick often asks his mother to describe how the musicthat he is playing makes her feel.Christopher makes up stories for all his piano pieces.Neil told his mother that reading something word toword is like playing something note to note, it does not69have the whole meaning. You must see the whole idea orwhole picture as you would in understanding how sentencesmake up a paragraph. It is the same for music phrases makingup the whole piece.Tommy writes out his own compositions quite accurately.Eight year old Sammi was writing a poem for school andtold her mother the rhythm names she needed to finish herpoem.Christine's mother tells me that she does very well inschool with a very little amount of work. Things just comeeasily to her. Piano is the only thing that she has to workat, and it is good for her to learn good practice and studyhabits for when the time will come that she will have towork at something.Geoff has a very low frustration level. If he can'tsucceed at first, like he usually does, then he would preferto abandon what he is attempting. His mother feels that dueto his experiences in the integrated arts classes, he issufficiently motivated to put in the sometimes veryfrustrating practice necessary, in order to learn to playthe piano.Walter's mother says that the discipline he gets fromhis study of the piano carries over into his school work.He is quite precise, and when he starts something hefinishes it with attention to detail.Vanessa's mother said that being able to play the pianois already part of her daughter's self image. Vanessa says70that if she didn't study piano she would miss it and shewouldn't feel the same about herself. She is proud that shecan play.Alexandra's mom says that she sees Alexandra handle theexpectations of piano practice and that translates into herschool work. When she first starts to study a piece it isfrustrating but if she steadily works at it she is able toaccomplish it and in the end feels very gratified. She thenknows how to deal with the pressure and expectations of herschool work. She can see that hard work pays off. Hermother sees this as having a positive effect on her selfconfidence.Oliver's mother has noticed that piano lessons havetrained her son to follow directions, pay attention todetails, and concentrate so that he is able to anticipatewell. His attention span has increased, and she says thatshe can see how all of this can affect other areas of hislife.Background. Class Examples and the Use of Drama When I first started to teach these classes I would useideas from literature or drama or movement to illustratemusical concepts. I was mainly concerned that the childrenlearn about rhythms, phrasing, pitch, form, and so forth.Learning the other fine arts was secondary since as a musicteacher my priority should be just music.71I learned very quickly that children preferredexperiences that integrated elements of stories, movement,drama and music to experiences that emphasized only musicalconcepts. It was the childrens' response to the activitycalled The Three Little Pigs that enlightened me.Since it was the first story that I did with my littlestudents, it is where I discovered the need to learn moreabout creating stories and dramas out of all the othermusical activities. This is why I decided to return to studyat the university. My background was in literature, musicand dance, and I needed to learn more about drama.The activities were based on the story of the threepigs. The children learned about the rondo form when afterevery house they visited they sang "Who's afraid of the bigbad wolf?". They learned about phrasing by changingdirection for every phrase in the song as they were holdinghands in a circle. They learned about chanting togetherloudly and in staccato, "NO, not by the hair of my chinnychin chin."What impressed me most was that all the children werecompletely committed to creating the story, to chantingloudly in unison or whatever they had to do, and they pickedup on the musical concepts immediately. What motivationthey seemed to have. Using the musical concepts was only apart of what the children were doing.I reflected that this was similar to playing a piece ofmusic beautifully or dancing very expressively. If the72musician or the dancer is involved imaginatively, then theirtechnique is only a part of their expression and the totalexperience is very inspired. In this same way, the childrenused the musical concepts as the artists used theirtechnique, just as a means to creating a greater picture.Learning these musical concepts never presented an obstacle.They learned very quickly because they needed to use them inthe story.This is the way children naturally like to learn andthis is the way they learn best. It is more meaningful tothem when they are working within a context, such as thestory of The Three Pigs. This is why the children wouldoften ask to do this activity over and over again. Now allmy classes have stories that are derived from the musicalconcepts or other stories that happen spontaneously. Thechildren just expect something will happen in the class. Thefollowing are some examples.One day I played a piece which sounded like flowingwater. After listening to the piece, we decided that thewhole studio was a place in the middle of the sea and therewas water up to the ceiling. The children immediatelybecame sea creatures, sea plants, mermaids, turtles,dolphins and whales. After the piece was played again thechildren were still very absorbed in the mood the music hadcreated and they didn't want it to stop. We divided thegroup into the creatures of the sea and the audience, andthe children had the opportunity to watch each other and to73show each other their ideas. When everyone had a turn toportray their choice, we had a discussion about theexperience. We talked about mood and atmosphere, and thechildren tried to define it and figure out what those termsmeant. Then we discussed what a wonderful experience it wasto create an atmosphere through movement, music andimagination. We also talked about what it meant to beinspired.There was a very calm, peaceful quality about thatactivity. I had played the piece very softly with abackground harmony of legato flowing music. The childrenasked if we could do it again, and posed as animals of thesea, ready to express their ideas. I suddenly changed themusic to staccato and the children were startled. Theycouldn't believe it. They said, "You lost the mood, youchanged it." They begged me to bring back the music withthe same quality that we had before, and I did. After movingto it once again we had a talk about the magic of being ableto create moods and atmospheres and how feelings can beexpressed in movement and music. We also discussed thecontrast in the music and how the mood was destroyed byplaying it in staccato.Another day, it was the birthday of one of thechildren. After singing to him, they made a unanimousdecision to be candles on a cake. The children spontaneouslypositioned themselves in a package waiting excitedly to beplaced on the cake. I took them out one by one and very74ceremoniously lit the candles. I played Happy Birthday onthe piano, and the children slowly melted as the song cameto an end. The packaging and melting of the candleshappened completely extemporaneously, without any planningor discussion. Afterwards, the children commented on how itall felt like magic.When the children are involved in this kind of activitythey are completely motivated. They have a wonderfulattitude and they want to learn. For children to experiencethis kind of excitement about the fine arts is my mainobjective. In this way they will have the positive attitudeand intrinsic motivation necessary to continue studying asthey grow up.It is interesting to see how the children use themusical concepts and play with them as though it is a verycommonplace thing to do. "I know," said Michael, "let's allget into four groups and each take a phrase and make up adifferent movement to it." The children are keen to learnnew concepts because the more they learn, the more they canuse to play with.Social Development.Many parents have commented that their children havebenefitted from the group experience in the class. Theyhave noticed that although their children were once shy andtimid, they now do very well socially in their groups atschool or in other activities.75When the children are with the same teacher and withthe same group of children for many years, they not onlylearn many social skills that are necessary forparticipation in a group, but they also gain self-confidence.In my classes there is a set protocol for co-operationand respect for one another, listening to each other and tothe teacher, knowing that everyone will have a turn, andknowing when to sit quietly and patiently and when it istime to move, jump and run. The children know that thereare expectations made of them by the teacher and by theirclassmates, and they quickly learn the kind of behavior thatis appropriate.The limits and discipline expected of the children onlyenhance the quality of the atmosphere and as one parentsaid, "The children are having fun and that is all theyknow." When studying any art one learns that they mustoperate within certain parameters and it takes discipline toachieve one's goal. Although these children will not seethis correlation for many years, they will experience it forit is in this same way that the children enjoy a more funfilled class when they co-operate and stay within thelimits.When the children are encouraged and rewarded forexpressing their thoughts and ideas, they learn to be proudof who they are and what they know. In this way the alreadyacquired knowledge and background that students bring with76them to class is acknowledged, and this increases theirconfidence and their awareness about who they are and abouthow much they know.Every person sees the world in his own unique way foreven children brought up in the same family with the samebackground have experiences that are distinct from oneanother. This uniqueness of seeing things in new ways andexpressing it without inhibition is inherent in every child.When children are in an environment where they feelcomfortable, they have no trouble expressing themselves. Itis fascinating to be privy to their perceptions.Children have the ability to take experiences and makenew connections, place things in new perspectives, andjuxtapose these new combinations on previously unrelatedmaterials. This sums up Haliman's (1963) definition ofcreativity. He states that creativity is not only theability to bring already existing elements into adistinctive relation to each other but also to transplantthese new combinations onto previously unrelated materials.What the children do naturally is the source of all theinnovative and original ideas.When children have been in a class where they feeltheir contributions are valuable and necessary and they feelrespected by their peers, they will have the confidence toexpress their ideas and thoughts in other group situations.Having confidence will not only enable them to trust theirown abilities and try out new things but it will also enable77them to maintain this creative way of being into their adultlives.At a young age children are not too concerned aboutbeing the same as everyone else, but there comes a time intheir development when being different or thinkingdifferently is not acceptable. When they have had positiveexperiences and have been encouraged to state their ownopinions for as long as they can remember, it will only benatural that they stand up for themselves and express whatthey think or feel despite opposing points of view.Parental Perspectives.In my interviews with the parents, they were worriedabout "getting off the subject". It was important that thediscussion flow from the initial questions without anyprompting, so the parents were encouraged to talk aboutanything that came to mind. It was interesting that theconversation drifted from their observations about theirchildren to their aspirations for their children, theirattitudes about education, and their attitudes about art.Parents' aspirations have a strong influence on whatwill become of their children. It has been my experiencewith teaching for the past 18 years that parents create thecontext and climate for how their children will develop.Just the same as children absorb information from theirenvironment and use it as part of their life, they alsointegrate their family values.78Values are reflected in the choices that parents makefor their children's education. In every group discussionthe parents spoke of their reasons for choosing this kind ofexperience for their children. Their main concern was thattheir children become inspired, motivated and develop agood attitude about learning. They feel that in theseintegrated arts classes the children are able to extend whatthey enjoy doing naturally. They develop listening skills,have the opportunity to express themselves and beimaginative in a group environment that encouragesuniqueness and individuality. Parents feel that havingpositive experiences at a young age, with music, movement,drama and literature, may lead to a life long commitment tothe creative arts. As one parent said, "I want my childrento learn in a very gentle way that music and the arts havemeaning and are important".Learning any one of the arts takes discipline,concentration and a certain level of motivation but unlessthe desire comes from the individual, chances are it willonly last as long as the children are pushed to do it.These parents want their children to develop a love formusic and experience how much enjoyment can come from thearts, so the motivation to continue to study will come fromwithin the child.The study of any art can be an important part of achild's self concept. Besides the gratification and feelingof accomplishment, and inspiration that comes from the79necessary concentration, hard work and attention to detail,the child's image of himself is closely tied to the artthrough which he expresses himself.Even though children have had a wonderful introductionto the arts, there are few that can be successful atstudying an instrument without the involvement of theirparents. It is necessary for parents to set standardsbecause children need discipline and encouragement in theirevery day routine, so that they will succeed in learning theinstrument with the least amount of frustration. Whenlearning an instrument is one of the expectations in afamily and quitting is not even an option, children inferthe message of their family values and it becomes a naturalpart of their lives. They learn that discipline is animportant part of accomplishment and these values reflect onother areas of their lives.At the interviews the parents spoke about how they wanttheir children to have something else that is part of theirlives besides school. Making the right choices for extracurricula activities is a great responsibility because theserious pursuit of any of the arts is a lifestylecommitment. Although the choices are made so that thechildren will have a different activity apart from school,the development of the skills for practising in any of thearts can be influential in how the children will tackletheir school work as well as other areas of their lives.Children often begin to study an instrument when they80are in grade one or two and at this time they don't usuallyhave much school homework. The only thing that they must beconsistent about working on after school is theirinstrument. In order for this to be a positive experience,the time spent at practising should grow out of working onthe pieces the child must study rather than the oftenimposed half hour timer.^There should be a smoothtransition from the pre-piano classes into the piano classesand the children should not be burdened with theresponsibility of too much music homework. A child in thebeginning of grade one is not emotionally ready to take onthe long practises necessary for playing at a higher level.Practise time should be reasonable and comfortable for asthe child progresses the pieces will get longer and thepractise time will naturally increase. If the focus isplaced on nurturing motivation and a good attitude aboutpractising the child will progress quickly enough and staymore interested in studying than if the focus is on movingquickly to get to a higher level.During my interviews with them, the parents deliberatedover the issue of pushing children to progress quicklyversus being too lax and concluded that they are bothequally detrimental. If parents are too lax then thechildren will probably not achieve as much as they possiblycould, and if they are too overly ambitious then thechildren will eventually lose interest or focus on the wrongpriorities. There is a difference between setting reasonable81standards and expectations so that the children can developto their potential and become as good as they can be, andpushing them so that they will hurry and get to a highergrade level or perform better than the next child.The parents categorized those parents who pressuredtheir children into two groups. The first group wascomprised of the many parents that are misinformed and havetheir children's best interest at heart but don't know theoptimum way to go about it. They know that exposing theirchildren to music at an early age is important and theythink that giving them lessons on an instrument at the ageof three is the way to do so. Little do they know that for achild to play an instrument at that young an age couldhinder rather than augment their development.The second group encompassed those parents who haveselfish motives for pushing their children. These parentsuse their children's accomplishments to elevate their ownstatus among their peers. It is the product that intereststhem, not the process. The priority for these parents iseither that their children be more advanced than the othersor that their children be in the classes that are consideredthe "in" ones to take. Competitiveness, or followingfashionable trends is the underlying message behind thestandards, limits and expectations that these parents placeon their children.It was stated by one of those who were interviewed that"Some parents have an agenda for their kids. They want them82to be better than the others, be brilliant academics, or bewhat they themselves were not. These parents feel that it isa status symbol to say they have a child who is gifted."Another perceptive comment was that "When the children ofthese parents reach adolescence the parents tend to placeless emphasis on extra curricula activities and focus moreon encouraging their children's social popularity. Thisinadvertently reinforces the parents' own values for socialstatus".The approach of both these groups will frequently havethe same end result in that the children will probablyterminate their study of the arts by the time they reach theend of their elementary school years. It is unfortunatethat encouraging children in the wrong way often leads tothe child's inability to discover the beauty and the innersatisfaction that is derived from the pursuit of an artform.It is interesting to note that the children who comefrom these two groups and continue to pursue their art oftenfocus on the wrong priorities. They will be more interestedin the audience's reaction or in playing at a high gradelevel just so that they can show off, rather than thequality of how they are playing or the pure inspired feelingof doing their very best to express themselves in their art.When children have been genuinely encouraged to be intouch with their emotions and feelings and have experiencedthe magic of being inspired, they will not only be more able83to express themselves but will appreciate having a vehicleto do so. In that way using their creativity will become anessential part of their lives.SUMMARY.In this chapter I have looked at what could be termedthe beginnings of artistic awareness in children from theviewpoints of the parents, the students and the teacher. Ihave described how children absorb experiences from theirenvironment and use it in their play or transfer it from oneactivity to another. Evidence of what the children havetaken home with them from their experiences in my classes isportrayed through the parents' observations of theirchildren aged two to six; these childrens' perceptions ofwhat they thought they were doing; parental observations ofthe older children aged seven to ten and the olderchildrens' understanding of what else they were learningalong with their study of an instrument.I believe that instruction is more meaningful, andchildren develop a positive attitude and are motivated tolearn, when the emphasis is placed on what children donaturally, what interests them and what they enjoy. Ireviewed how I discovered that children enjoy learning bestwhen drama and stories are integrated into the musicclasses. I illustrated this with examples of the ways inwhich the children interact with the stories, music,movement and drama during class time.84I believe that the development of social, emotional andintellectual skills are a fundamental part of the evolvingaesthetic awareness in children. These three areas wereexplored throughout the chapter. Under social skills Iconsidered the following: co-operation; respect for oneanother; communication and listening; and group protocol.Under emotional skills I considered the following:discipline; attention to detail; self concept; attitude;motivation; and expression. Under intellectual skills Iconsidered the following: listening skills; musicalconcepts; movement concepts; creative play with concepts;ways of thinking; and problem solving.I believe that positive parental involvement is centralto the development of aesthetic awareness in children. Inthis study, I have discussed parental values, expectations,and attitudes towards learning along with the resultingconsequences.85CHAPTER FIVEIMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONSThis study has concerned itself mainly with teachingthe fine arts to young children through means that best suittheir interests and their developmental levels. Although theprocess was the major focus, the product is just asimportant but should not be the emphasis when the child isvery young.The child must absorb many patterns and ideas, ways toapproach his work with discipline and attention to detailsfor the resulting product to be as good as it can be. Hemust find in himself the confidence to tackle his interestand the knowledge of his own personal style and the way hebest expresses himself.At first there are many elements that go into learninga dance or a piece of music. Soon these steps or notesbecome incorporated into patterns that are a natural part ofthe students' vocabulary. Young children are able toquickly assimilate these patterns and when they get older,as their training becomes more complex, they have a languageof choreography, or of chords and phrases that they can usewith ease. They no longer have to be concerned with note tonote or step to step, they understand the different patternsand now just have to concentrate on projecting their ownexpression of it. The negotiation of these patterns isimpressive enough but although it is performed technically86well, the audience will perceive that something is missingif the performer does not use imagination.It is the imagination that elevates one performance orart piece over another. The imagination is the uniquecollection of all experiences, stories, emotions or feelingsthat could be expressed. Learning how to make use of it setsartists apart from technicians.Educators should make it their priority that childrenstay in touch with their feelings and emotions, expressthemselves and make use of their wonderful imaginations, forit is when they are young that there are no barriers betweentheir emotions and their intelligence. Concepts becomeabsorbed as part of the young children's total beings sothey are easily able to "retrieve material from thepreconscious and return it to the world of reality which isa vital aspect of creative production." (Maslow quoted byGowan 1965, p.10)Creativity is this ability to use ones' imagination forthe result is the "emergence in action of a novel relationalproduct, growing out of the uniqueness of the individual, onthe one hand, and the materials, events, people, orcircumstances of his life on the other." (Rogers 1954,p.71)Using the imagination is only one of the secrets thatgoes into making a good product or performance. Another isthe ability to think ahead of an action. This can beapplied to sports as well as art. Practising helps to trainone's muscles and brain to incorporate patterns so they87become automatic. It is important for the student todiscover that this happens so they can trust themselves andlet go and allow the performance to appear on its own asthey are thinking about the next thing.It is like magic. I remember the day my daughterdiscovered it. She had been practising a piece over andover again but when she got to a certain chord she wouldalways stop and fret and feel that she could not do it.Since she put in the proper kind of practising, I told herthat she should just stop thinking about it and let her handmove to the chord and play it on its own. I said she shouldimagine a story about what she was playing and not worryabout that chord, just trust her muscles and her instinctsand let herself go. She did and it was perfect. No problemwith that chord. She could not believe that she had alreadyincorporated enough with her practising so that she couldjust let go and enjoy what she was doing. Her worrying andthinking when she came to her difficult chord onlyinterfered with her performance. This was not only a lessonin how to think but also gave her insight into her ownabilities. She has become more confident from thisexperience.It is a very exciting and surprising experience tolearn that one doesn't and shouldn't always be consciouslyin control. I call it an introduction to the muse. To trustand let it happen by itself is to feel like the muse istaking over.88Trust, knowing how to think, and attention to detailare the other ingredients of a good product or performance.My daughter had to trust that her hand would go to the rightplace and play the chord. In art, there is a saying "drawwhat you see not what you know". It also takes trust todraw such a short line when you know that it really shouldbe longer. It only takes a few times to realize the longline you know looks completely out of proportion. In dance,you must trust that thinking about bending your knees willresult in a higher jump than if you think about jumpinghigh.The audience can be affected by the way the artist isthinking. There are subliminal messages that come across.The audience can usually sense when the performer is pre-occupied with feeling inhibited, self conscious or concernedwith what the audience might be thinking. In a successfulperformance, the artist is occupied with concentrating onprojecting a certain feeling or atmosphere and attending toall the fine details in his work. The ability to bring newinterpretations takes creativity and imagination. It isinspiring to hear a familiar piece performed in a fresh wayas the artist manipulates fine details to bring out somenotes more than others, creating a foreground and backgroundeffect instead of all the notes being played as usual.Although it is important to express ones' feelings,there is a more refined quality in the final product whenthe artist knows how this can be done tastefully. Too much89expression of feeling is as damaging to a performance as notenough. Attending to the fine details of technique helps toproject and channel these feelings into an aestheticallypleasing performance.Other implications that may be derived from this studyare:Teachers should be educated in more of an interdisciplinaryapproach to teaching so the arts can be taught together orwith other subjects. In this way it is more meaningful tothe children for this is their natural way of looking atlife.Teachers should be educated about the process of creativity.Curriculum planning should look at children's interests andwhat they do naturally and gear activities accordingly.Parents should be educated about the study of the arts sothey will have reasonable expectations that will match theirchildren's level of development. They should know how muchtheir values and aspirations affect their children, and whatare the best ways to go about educating their children.They should also be informed that educating their childrenin the arts implies a commitment to a certain life style.90Parents should have some knowledge about what their childrenare learning so they could be available at the right momentsto extend their experiences.Keeping in mind how much children absorb from theirenvironment, it would be beneficial for both parents andteachers to be sensitive to the children's need for playtime. So much can be learned by observing children at playfor they are either using what has impressed them, orintegrating concepts that they have just been taught.Children can express themselves and use their imagination intheir play. As they grow to adulthood they still have thesame need to be able to express themselves. It is importantfor educators and parents to provide many kinds of enrichedexperiences so that children may find an avenue or outletthat is best suited to their own personal expression.When teenagers have interests that they can seriouslypursue, they will be too busy to be influenced by negativepeer pressures.91I believe that the following conditions are necessaryto sustain the natural curiosity, motivation and positiveattitude towards learning that is intrinsic in youngchildren: an environment that includes enriched experiencesthat are developmentally appropriate; activities that matchthe children's interests; encouragement, respect andunderstanding that cultivates a positive self concept; andpositive parental involvement.I believe that nurturing this creative potential,inherent in all children, by providing the properstimulation from the environment, and encouragement to takepride in and make use of their uniqueness and individualitywill result not only in fostering artistic awareness wherecreative expression is an integral part of their lives, butalso in aiding these children to develop their potential toits fullest.The development of the creative potential in childrenhelps them grow to become productive, creative and criticalthinkers as well as sensitive and well-balanced adults, ableto benefit society bringing innovative ideas, and methods ofproblem solving to human relations, industry, technology andthe arts.92Recommendations. _for furthe.KAtMgY-In order to pursue the further development of theartistic process in children, it would be interesting toexplore the following themes:Interview established artists and their families about theirbackgrounds and upbringing to examine what they thinkinfluenced them.Interview parents of grown children about their values andaspirations to assess what influences these might have hadon what has become of their adult children.Initiate a longitudinal study of children enrolled in aprogram similar to the one outlined in this paper toascertain the ways in which these children have beeninfluenced.93Bibl iographyAnderson, H.H. (1959). Creativity gnd Its Cultivation. Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York.Andress, Barbara. (1980). Nusic Experiences in EarlyChildhood. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Andrews, Michael F.(1980,1981). The Consonance Between RightBrain and Effective, Subconscious and Multi-SensoryFunctions. Journal pf Creative Behavior, Vol.14 #2.Aranoff, Frances Webber (1965). Music and Young Children.Holt, Rinehart and Winston,Inc.Aranoff, Frances Webber (1969). Music and Young Children.Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.Bayless, Kathleen M. (1982). Music  The C.V. Mosby Company.Bloom, Benjamin S. (1964). Stability and Change in HumanCharacteristics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Boorman, Joyce (1973). Dance and Language Experiences withChildren. Longman Canada Ltd.Buck, Percy C. (1967). Psychology for Musicians. OxfordUniversity Press.Bruner, Jerome S.(1966). Toward a Theory of Instruction.The Belknap Press of Harvard UniversityBruner J.S. (1966). Studies and Cognitive Growth.John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Cass -Beggs, Barbara (1974). To Listen, To Like, To LearnPeter Martin Associates Ltd.Chukovsky (1968). From Two to Five. Berkeley, University ofCalifornia Press. p.87Durkin, Deloris. (1969). Children Who Read Before Grade 1.The Reading Teacher, 2.f 163-166.Elkind, David (1982). The Hurried Child. Addisson-WesleyPublishing Company.Elkind, David (1970). The Case for the Academic Pre-School:Fact or Fiction. Young Children, 132-140.Findlay, Elsa (1971). Rhythwand,and -Movement. Summy-BirchardCo.94Fowler. W.(1962). Cognitive Learning in Infancy and EarlyChildhood. Psychology Bulletin, 59, 116-152.Fromm, Erich (1959). In Creativity: Its Cultivation.p.44-54. New York: Harper Bros.Gardner, Howard (1973). The Arts and Human Development.John Wiley and Sons.Gilford, J.P. (1964). Factors that Aid and HinderCreativity.^Creativ ty: Its Educational, Implicatipns.p.106-123. New York :John Wiley & Sons.Gottfried, Adele Eskeles (1983). Intrinsic Motivation inYoung Children. Young Children, November, 64-72.Gowan, John Curtis (1965). What Makes a Gifted ChildCreative? Four Theories  Creativity: Its Educational Implications, p,9-15.Gowan, Demos, Torrance (1967). Creativity: Its Educational Implications, John Wiley & Sons.Henson, R A (1977). Music and the Brain. W. HeinemannMedical Books Ltd.Hallman, R.J.(1963). The Necessary and Sufficient Conditionsof Creativity. Creativity: Its EducationalImplications, p.69-82.Hunt, J.McVicker (1961). Intelligence. and Experience New York:RonaldJensen, Larry and Wells, M.G. Ettlinga. Brigham YoungUniversity Press.Kagan, Jerome (1967). Creativi y and Learning. Beacon Press.Khatena, Joe. The CreativeXy Gifted Child. Vantage Press.Lark-Horovitz, Betty (1973). Understanding Children's Art for Better Teaching. Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co.Lytton, Hugh (1972). Creativity and Education. SchockerBook, New York.Malsow, Abraham. (1962). Toward a Theory of Being.New JerseyS. van Nostrand.McKinnon, Donald W. The Study of Creative Persons.Creativity and learning. Beacon Press.9596Myers, John T. Hemisphericity Research: An Overview WithSome Implications for Problem Solving. Journal of .Creative Behavior, Vol. 16, #3, 3rd Quarter.Nixon, Arne J.(1969). The Child's Right to the Expressive Arts.. Assoc. for childhood Education International.Nye, Vernice Trousdale.(1983). Music for Young ChildrenWm. C. Brown Company PublishersO'Brien, James P. (1983). Teaching Music. Holt, Rinehart andWinston, Inc.Piontkowski,D. and Calfee, R. (1979). Attention and Cognitive Development. N.Y.Plenum PressPrimary Program Foundation Document - British ColumbiaMinistry of EducationTheALraexAgholalilimman-Relattonships- and -Learning..Read, Katherine (1980). The Nurs - ,y School and Kindergarten .Holt, Rinehart and WinstonReaney, M. Jane. (1927). Place of Play. in Education.Methuen and Co. Ltd.Rogers, Carl R. (1954). Toward a Theory of Creativity.Creativity: And Its Cultivation, p. 69-82.Samuels, Shirley C. (1977). Enhancing. Self Concept in. EarlyChildhood. Human Science Press.Simon, Herbert A. (1965). Understanding Creativity.Creativity: Its. Educational Implications, p. 43-52.Steinberg, Leonard (1964). Creativity as a Character Trait:an Expanding Concept. Creativity: Its Educational Implications, p. 124-137.Stern, W. (1926) Psychology of Early Childhood to the Sixth Year of Age. N.Y. Holt p.229.Taylor, Harold (1964). Music as a source of Knowledge.Music Educators Journal, Vol.51, Sept. Oct. p.35-38,151-154.Torrance, E.P. (1965). Mental Health and Achievement.Torrance, E. Paul (1962). Must Creative Development be Leftto Chance? Creativity: Its Educational Implications.Read, Katherine (1976).^aW.B. Saunders CompanyWann, Kenneth D. et.al.(1962). Fostgring Intellectual Development in Young Children. N.Y. Teachers CollegePress. p.10.Weininger, Otto (1979). Play and EEducation. Charles C.Thomas.Weininger, Otto (1982). Out of the Minds of Babes. Charles C. Thomas.Wood, Donna. (1982). Move 8# . Llipteno Play. Gordon V.Thompson Ltd.Woodman, Richard W. Creativity as a Construct in PersonalityTheory. Journal of creative 4ehavior, Vol.15 #1.97


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