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Voice and learning in drama Bolton Robinson, Lee 1992

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VOICE AND LEARNING IN DRAMAbyLEE BOLTON ROBINSONB. A. (Hon.), York University, 1969.A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Language Education-Drama)We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA© Lee Bolton Robinson, 1992In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(SignaturDepartment of Learning and Language EducationThe University f British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate DE-6 (2/88)AbstractThis case study investigated the nature of the learning that was theoutcome of a dramatic experience in which a class of grade 9 studentsand their teacher, created, developed and produced a collective dramaon the subject of the elderly. The findings of this study present evidencein support of the idea that when students engage in dramatic behaviours,they are able to give voice to their learning.Using ethnographic methodology, the teacher-researcherconducted the study in her own classroom during the final twelve weeks(April to June) of the school year in 1989.Student subjects were chosen randomly from a class of twenty-nine students in a comprehensive high-school setting in a westernCanadian city. Detailed observation of student responses both withinand after the drama experience was undertaken using data collectedthrough a wide range of ethnographic techniques. These included:student and teacher journals, video data, audio recordings, photographicrecords and a document collection. A content analysis of the datarevealed that student learning took place in five learning areas. Thesewere learnings (1) about the elderly (2) about the self (3) about othersand (4) about dramatic and language forms.By using Gavin Bolton's theory of learning in drama to frame theinvestigation, the researcher indicated that learning was given voice inthe drama process. This is known as "voiced learning" and a scheme forassessing student learnings in drama learnings based on the types ofvoice is proposed.iiTable of ContentsAbstract^ iiTable of Contents^ ii iAcknowledgments vCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTIONIntroduction^ 1Impetus for the study^ 3The Research Purpose 8Definition of Terms 9CHAPTER TWO: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDYOverview^ 14Drama Education and Learning^ 14Research in Drama Education 26Reflection in Drama Education 30The Journal in Education^ 32Voice in Drama Education 37Voice and Theatre 43Summary^ 48CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGYOverview^ 50Method 50Setting and Subjects^ 54Time^ 57Data Collection 57General Procedures^ 61Analysis of Data 66iiiCompliance with Ethical Standards^ 67Summary^ 68CHAPTER FOUR: LEARNING THROUGH THE DRAMA PROCESS^70Overview^ 70Introduction 70Tanya 73Jim^ 93Judy 99Wayne 110Luke^ 116Summary 129Being Heard-Types of Voice^ 130Enabling Voice Through Program Design^ 138CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS^142Overview^ 142Voice Channels 142Recommendations^ 149Suggestions for Further Research^ 150Conclusions 151REFERENCES^ 153ivAcknowledgmentsTo Douglas Robinson and to those friends, family, colleagues andmentors who supported me in the reaching of this goal.O what is it that makes me tremble so at voices?Surely whoever speaks to me in the right voice,Him or her I shall follow,As the water follows the moon,Silently with fluid steps,Anywhere around the globe.All waits for the right voices.Walt Whitman.v1Chapter IINTRODUCTIONOn one level or another, most drama educators believe that whenstudents are engaged in dramatic activity, some kind of learning is takingplace. Upon observing the quality of interactions in a drama class, mostof these educators are content to accept this assumption.Being among the group engaged in the everyday practice ofteaching drama and convinced that learning is inherent to the dramaprocess, there were many times during reflection and study of mypractice that I questioned my beliefs. Soon I found myself inquiring froman educational perspective that required me to examine, explain andclarify the exact nature and validity of the learning that occurs in drama. Ifound myself then, among those educators who seek to uncover themeaning and purpose of the learning that occurs in the lives of thestudents in the drama class.This study is driven by a commitment to the idea that articulation ofthe learning that occurs in the drama classroom is possible. This study isinformed also by the developing theory of drama education thatmaintains that learning across a broad range of areas is possible andprobable during the process of engagement in dramatic activity.The widely held position that this learning occurs, not only as aresult of the drama experience itself, but also in the act of reflecting onthis experience is central to this investigation. I believe that throughengagement in and reflection on the unique and distinctive process that2is drama, participants not only learn, but are able to find a voice for theirlearnings.This capacity for voice in drama arises from the inter-disciplinarynature of drama education that furnishes a wide range of areas forlearning about life as well as curricular areas. Drama education providesa rich opportunity for understanding and for the shaping of and theexpression of an individual voice that can articulate that understanding.The potential for learning and the voicing of that learning is explored inthis study, and voice is revealed as an outcome of dramatic experienceand as evidence of learning.For the purpose of this investigation the term "voice" is defined as,The individual or collective articulation of meaning that isderived from a dramatic learning experience, that isnegotiated through reflection in and on that experience, andis received by an audience of self or other.The study was conducted to ascertain the nature of the learningthat occurred during a twelve week case study in which I, acting asteacher- researcher, along with one class of grade nine drama studentscreated and developed a collective drama on a theme of the elderly. Thereport outlines the genesis, development, reflective aspects and theproduction of a collaborative dramatic project and discloses both theessential character of the learning that resulted, and the ways in whichthis learning was given voice.In keeping with the traditions of qualitative research, a frameworkfor the study was provided by Gavin Bolton's (1990) description oflearning areas in drama. Data was collected by employing a variety of3ethnographic techniques, analyzed by means of content analysis andinterpreted according to evidence of voiced learning.Impetus for the StudyMy twenty-two years of teaching experience had been profoundlyinfluenced by my personal study of the principles of learning andteaching. Whenever possible, I was able to keep abreast of the mostrecent trends and the significance of research in education. My goodfortune in becoming involved in numerous local and provincialcurriculum development teams in both Ontario and Alberta enabled meto assess my own practice against other developing and acceptedprinciples of education.Throughout this period, the developing theory in regard to thelearning potential of drama education also had a vital impact on mypractice. The growing theory behind drama education formed part of aconstellation of influences and experience that led me to a point at whichI found myself searching for assurances about what I had come to knowas the dialectical relationship (Connelly and Clandinin, 1988) betweentheory and practice. That is, to what extent did theory inform practice orpractice inform theory in my own particular teaching act--and how dothese influences work separately and together to change and influencemy curriculum decisions? More specifically, how did this relationshipenable and ensure that learning was indeed taking place in the lives ofthe students in my drama classes?Thus, I began to question the nature and claims of the influenceson my thinking and to examine their role with a view to understanding myown practice. I was interested in uncovering and identifying the effects4these beliefs had on my practice of drama education, as well asidentifying the actual nature of the learning that resulted. A closeexamination of the history and development of drama education resulted,and I found that what I believed and practiced had been influenced subtlyand consistently by the changing trends, theories and philosophies ofdrama education.I discovered that I had been influenced early on by Peter Slade's(1954) conviction that drama enabled learning by placing the child at thecentre of the curriculum, thereby harnessing the active and spontaneous"doing of life" that characterized the child. Later, Brian Way's claim (1967)that learning in drama emphasized the development of the individualprovided me with a related, but more focused, set of goals. Soon after,the artistic vision of Dorothy Heathcote (in Wagner, 1978), and herdescription of drama as an "art form" and a "method" of teaching,provided me with new strategies for using drama to enhance learning.Subsequently, the contributions of Gavin Bolton (1979, 1984) provided aspeculative base that fed my developing interest in better articulating andunderscoring the importance of the learnings that were taking placewithin, and as a result of, the drama experience.Other developments in language arts contributed to furthermodification in my teaching. Theory that presented drama as a teachingstrategy in the English class and which advocated student journals as areflective device in language arts (Moffett, 1969,1976) formed therationale for adopting drama strategies in my practice. It was furthersubstantiated by the notion that writing and reflecting encourages theprocessing of thought (Britton, 1975 and Graves, 1983).5During the period that I began to adopt the above recommendedreflective practices in my English teaching, I found also in DorothyHeathcote's "guarantees" or promises about the validity of drama as alearning medium a remarkable source of inspiration. Among theseguarantees is the idea that by reflecting on experience, students wouldcome to understand what they hold in common with all people (inWagner, 1978). This further fueled my conviction that the personaljournal was an effective strategy for reflection in the drama class.Consequently an effective link was formed in my practice betweenreflective writing and drama activities. In my classrooms, regardless ofsubject matter or grade level, I provided opportunities for reflection andas a result began to understand what my students were taking from thelearning experiences.I found the journal more useful than individual conferences orinterviews as soon as I began to enter into a dialogue with the studentson whatever matter was at hand. That is not to say that interviews andconferences or regular discourse did not take place, but rather thedialogue process in the journal afforded me a very close view of thelearning that was taking place for each student. The exchange of ideasin the journals provided a place where a non-threatening dialoguebetween the students and myself was possible. In the act of reflectivewriting I discovered that students were able to make connectionsbetween new information and that which was already known. As a result,the quality of the learning appeared to be deeper and to resonate moreprofoundly with their own lived experiences.In the high school setting the dialogue journal became anespecially compelling method for discovering what was being learned bystudents. This was true in both the English and drama class where time6constraints often interfered with effective individual communication. I wasable to learn what was being learned, as well as some of the context ofthe students' lives that led to those learnings or, alternatively, todeficiencies in the learning process. The dialogue journal processenabled me to make curriculum decisions on an on-going basis. As aresult, I could design new strategies for the whole class or createindividualized remedial and/or enrichment experiences. In this way thejournals served as a formative assessment tool and a diagnosticinstrument.By the time I became a full time drama teacher, I was using thejournal as described above. In most instances, evidence of learning indrama was apparent in the journals when students were willing to write.In most cases I knew, in a tacit sense, that students were learning aboutthemselves and about drama; they said sol Their journals expressedtheir enthusiasm. So, also, did their parents who would speak reverentlyabout the breadth of understanding of issues, the personal growth,increasing maturity and confidence that they had witnessed over the timetheir child was in the drama programme. The students were engagedand increasingly committed. Most of these stakeholders becameincreasingly supportive as my experience in designing and assessinglearning and reflective experiences improved.The literature of the field continued to support the importance ofreflection as a powerful tool in learning. Bolton (1979) outlined threetypes of reflection that lead to change in personal and contextualunderstandings. He claimed that significant learning in a Dramaexperience is to be found not only in the experience itself but also in theways upon which it is reflected. However, I felt that there was more to bedone with this strategy as a tool for personal and artistic expression.7Moreover, I wanted clarity as to the exact nature of this "learning"because I found that the origins, expressions, and significance of the"learning" that was occurring in the drama process remained obscureand difficult for me to articulate.Even though I employed student assessment strategies based onobjective criteria of skills and concepts, student journals and selfevaluations, I found my self driven to ask such questions as: Whatexactly is being learned? What is important to know in drama? Whichaspects of drama learning are most significant? How can one know iflearning is taking place? How is that learning expressed? How canlearning in drama be assessed? How does drama enable voice?However, the curriculum decisions that I made continued to beinformed by a broader view that embodied a synthesis of beliefs,assumptions, theories and hunches that much more learning was goingon. My intuitive knowledge suggested that learning that went wellbeyond the skills and concepts of the program of studies in drama, wasoccurring. Ultimately, it was this conviction that motivated me to findother strategies to assess learning in the drama programme. Theusefulness of reflective tools, such as the personal journal, supplied astarting point for this investigation.8The Research PurposeThe effect of research and scholarship on my continuallydeveloping practice made me aware that students can learn about, findmeaning in and come to understand themselves and aspects of theirworld through drama. The possibility that the voicing of learning ispossible, and indeed enhanced by the drama process, led to the presenttask of exploring these questions. This, in turn, led to the presentresearch of my own practice.Several problems provided the direction for this study:1. What is the nature of learning in drama?2. In what ways is the use of journals for reflection on learning aneffective strategy for students to give voice to their learning?3. To what extent can other ethnographic data sources provide evidenceof learning and in the voicing of that learning?4. How does the drama process enable student voice?These questions are posed from the perspective of a teacherwanting to know and a researcher seeking evidence. The principalproblem of the research resides in finding evidence of learning in dramaand the voicing of that learning.Directly concerned with the individual's relationship to the worldas experienced through the enactment implicit in the drama process, this9research describes the range of learning that can result from the dramaexperience. By focusing through a new lens and listening with a new"ear to a range of voices, it provides the drama educator with anotherway to assess the nature and expression of learning in Drama.The purpose of this research is to provide, through the use of arange of ethnographic data collecting techniques, documentation of thelearning that occurred when grade nine students and their teachercreated, developed and reflected on a sustained drama project. As anoutcome of this particular dramatic experience, instances of voicedlearning were sought and found to be evidence of that learning.Definition of TermsSeveral terms in this study are either general or specific to theparticular curriculum situation that is described. For the purposes ofclarification, the following definitions are offered.Constructive Rest: A series of teacher-led activities designed to alignand relax the body, enhance breath capacity, focus the mind andstimulate the imagination of the participants preparing to take a dramaclass.Dialogue Journal: An individual notebook in which participants writepersonal responses about the ongoing process of the drama class andthen have the opportunity to engage in dialogue with the teacher aboutthat process.10Drama Collective: The process by which a group of individualscollectively creates and produces a dramatic work. It requires anextended period of time, commitment of the group, and an ongoingnegotiation of meaning and significance within each of the followingstages:1. Choosing the Topic. This occurs through consensus ofgroup or by selection of teacher.2. Researching. This involves the use of creative andinvestigative activities in order to explore the topic.3. Synthesis: Refers to the grouping, organizing, and selectingof relevant material.4. Exploration: The exploration of the selected material usingdramatic playing strategies and techniques.5. Refining: The making of choices, deletions, inclusions andexclusions by consensus of the group.6. Scripting: The writing of the script by teams of studentwriters or an elected student playwright.7. Casting: The assignment of roles by group consensus or bya student director.8. Rehearsal: The preparation of the play for performancebefore a non-participating audience.119. Production: The technical, promotional and businessaspects of putting the play before an audience.10. Performance: The presentation of the play in theperformance mode.The collective can take many forms among which are:Docudrama: A play written by a group of people, which"documents" actual or historical events. For example, the livesand experiences of pioneer women in the West might providethe content for a collective play.Theme Collage: A series of small group scenes of a theme,threaded together by a transitional device such as music,movement or media. E.g., Drugs, Elderly, Remembrance Day.Episodic Collective: A sequential story, either comedy orserious, written by a group of people rather than oneplaywright.Drama Education: As an art form and a medium for teaching andlearning, drama education develops the whole person, physically,emotionally, intellectually, spiritually and aesthetically. It contributes tolearning through engagement with the meaning and is significant to bothcurriculum and life experiences.Dramatic Playing: The classification given to those kinds of dramaticbehaviours that are characterized by the following. (1) Spontaneity (2) adependence upon tacit agreement by the members of the group to1 2manage and sustain the fictitious social context and (3) a furtherdependence on a sufficient degree of clarity of communication within thegroup (as opposed to 'performance' mode of dramatic behaviour inconnection with which communication must be of a sufficient degreeoutside the group to a non-participating audience...(Bolton 1990).Ensemble: A company or group of actors that works as a group ratherthan as individual performers.Ethnography: A research method that provides thick, descriptive dataabout the context, activities and beliefs of participants in educationalsettings.Improvisation: A dramatic strategy in which participants spontaneouslydevelop scenes and dramatic moments letting action and dialoguespring from the context of the situation being explored.Imaging. A teacher-led activity intended to relax, focus and stimulate theimagination of the participants. It is sometimes known as guidedimagery.Learning. An expression of or change in understanding.Mantle-of-the-expert: A dramatic strategy created by Dorothy Heathcotein which the participants are set to a problem solving task arising from thecontext of the drama and are endowed with the commitment to functionas experts in the situation.Teacher in Role: A dramatic strategy that entails the taking of a role bythe teacher from the context of the drama situation in order to enable13participants to interact with each other in the "as if" situation beingexplored.Performance Mode: The term used to describe those dramaticbehaviours that are oriented more towards the explicit, representational,depiction of the meaning for an audience rather than those orientedtowards the implicit, existential or "lived through" expression of meaningas found in the dramatic playing mode.Reflection: The strategy through which students are taken out ofinvolvement in the action of the drama and into enterprises that engagethe student with the meaning and significance of the dramatic events.Role Taking: The agreement of a participant to assume the personality,actions, feelings of another human in response to the "as if" situation. Itrequires a commitment to maintain the role in a sustained dramaticsituation and a variety of dramatic moments. It differs from what iscommonly known as "role-playing" by virtue of this commitment and therequirement of concentrated, sustained and spontaneous action.Voice: The individual or collective articulation of meaning that is derivedfrom a dramatic learning experience, that is negotiated through reflectionin and on that experience, and is received by an audience of self orother.Warm Up: Exercises and activities designed to prepare participants inone or a combination of intellectual, emotional, imaginative, physical orvocal areas for the upcoming lesson.14Chapter 2BACKGROUND TO THE STUDYOverviewThere are five areas of research and theory in the reviewedliterature that are applicable to this research. These are (1) DramaEducation and Learning (2) Reflection in Drama Education (3) TheJournal in Education (4) Voice in Drama Education (5) Voice andTheatre. Some of the content of this literature overlaps and that is to beexpected because the interdisciplinary nature of drama education allowsit to draw from and cross many subject matter boundaries. Therefore,research findings and theory from a wide base of literature are required.For the purposes of this study the above areas will be reviewedseparately where possible.Drama Education and LearningDrama education is a synthesis of both an art form and a learningmedium. With its own body of content, drama education embraceslearning across a broad spectrum of human knowledge andunderstandings. Gavin Bolton (1984) explains that the purpose of dramaeducation is to develop "the powers of the mind" so that a "common"understanding of essential truths of life can be mastered (p. 163). Hestates that this purpose is accomplished through a form of dramapedagogy that is not constrained by forms, conventions or skills. Rather itis a form of drama that addresses the meaning and significance thatgives rise to the dramatic action and aims to find the knowledge or truththat underlies the event. Bolton calls this "common understanding" anddescribes its functions as follows:15Common understanding cuts across the "forms" ofknowledge and is a rigorous way of approaching schoolsubjects from the "inside", rather than from the more normalview of a subject as a collection of 'given' knowledge.(p.163)The fact that Drama is useful as a teaching and learning mediumacross the curriculum while at the same time residing in the realm oftheatre and the performing arts has led to a highly charged debate(Hornbrook,1989) over the implementation of Drama in educationalsettings. Misunderstandings about the potential for learning throughDrama have resulted. As a consequence, Drama is generally relegatedto the exclusive domain of the specialist in "theatre", or it is used in aperfunctory manner as "role playing" in social studies, language arts andcounselling. All too often it is dismissed as too mysterious and difficult forthe ordinary classroom teacher.Yet, when the literature of Drama education in the western world isviewed historically, claims as to its power as a medium for learning aswell as an art form are extensive. This history is brief--less than a centurynow--and implicit in this history is a continuing debate as to Drama'snature and its role in learning and teaching. As a result, the view ofdrama education as an art form and as an educational medium iscontinually changing and growing.In spite of this constant change, drama educators continue tobelieve that when students are taking part in dramatic activity learning isoccurring. It serves them well to accept the claims of the literature thatlearning and growth do take place and to acknowledge also the effect of16this theory on their curriculum decisions. Such awareness of theaccumulating body of knowledge in the field of Drama becomes critical injurisdictions in which drama educators are required to assess andevaluate the students according to prescribed objective criteria. Thisincreasing need for evaluation and accountability, has given rise to ademand for theoretical constructs and objective criteria by which dramaeducation is assessed. Therefore, research in drama education hasdeveloped in order to substantiate the long history of theories and claimsthat support the positive role of drama endeavours in student learning.The Early Years.The origin of the idea that Drama enhances learning is found inthe body of literature that began in Britain at the end of the 19th century.The early work by Harriet Findlay-Johnson (undated) and Caldwell Cook(1917) provided a foundation on which later theoretical principles ofdrama education were built. Their approaches to the teaching of Dramawere widely divergent and foreshadowed some of the most currentdebate among drama educators.Finlay-Johnson advocated the use of Drama as a teaching methodin all subjects of the curriculum. She prized the child's natural instinctsand commitment to play and she rejected the idea of performing for anaudience. Instead the knowledge acquired during the process of Dramawas of utmost importance. She asserted that "It may not be the factsthemselves which are so valuable. It is the habit of mind formed whilelearning them which makes their worth." (p.97)17Finlay-Johnson's approach pre-dated Bolton (1984) andHeathcote (1984) who placed Drama firmly at the centre of the curriculumand emphasized drama as a natural learning medium for young people.For Cook, on the other hand, involvement in the plays ofShakespeare and the choral speaking of poetry by the boys he taught atthe Perse School, provided the key to the learning power of Drama. InThe Play Wait he advocated the immersion of his students in the life ofShakespeare's plays. He developed a process by which the boys wouldbe involved in a play-like exploration of the life of the plays andeventually become responsible for all aspects of their production. Cookalso encouraged the boys to study and speak great poetry as well as tocreate and speak their own poetry. His method of working was fueled bythe current tenets of teaching literature. As Verriour (1990) recounts inhis discussion of Cook's method,Drama was regarded as part of the English programme, aposition it would occupy in many schools includingsecondary school, until the late 1960's. (p.6)In spite of their differences, particularly as regards the role of theaudience in drama education, both Cook and Findlay-Johnson basedtheir approaches on the essential nature of the child. They both createda child-centered approach that profoundly influenced later dramamethods.Theories in drama education continued to evolve and change dueto a continuing effort by its advocates to explore, expand, define andauthenticate itself in the educational context. Although much has beenwritten and reflected on in drama curricula in the past fifty years, the18expected learning outcomes were defined by the limits of the particulartraditions that informed those curricula.For example, in the twenties and thirties the value of speech-training and elocution was accepted as the primary role of dramaeducation. The work of Elsie Fogerty (1920) formed a powerful set ofgoals for drama and under her influence institutions such as the CentralSchool of Speech Training and Dramatic Art and Trinity College wereestablished. The main outcome in this tradition was the cultivation of thespeaking voice and the attendant spiritual and intellectual developmentthat the study of vocal techniques and great literature could produce. Asdescribed by Gavin Bolton (1984), Elsie Fogerty and her closesupporters began a tradition of speech training that proliferated and isstill going strong in Britain and the commonwealth.These early theories and those born of the amateur theatremovement such as those described by Bolton (1984) represented a pointof view which connected drama education to a particular set of goals.These goals referred to the acquisition of facts, the work of the playwrightas artist and the value of speech arts, elocution and formal theatricalskills. However, even though the words spoken by the children wereexquisitely beautiful and edifying in their meaning, the children werespeaking the words of others. As yet the authentic voice of the child hadnot been heard.Peter SladePeter Slade (1954), influenced by the Cook and Findlay-Johnsonapproaches, created a method of working in Drama which embraced the19child's natural movements and spontaneous play behaviours. On thebasis of on a Rousseauean view of the natural child, Slade favoured achild-centered, improvisational approach. This approach wascharacterized by the absorption and spontaneity of the child as he/sheworked in an effortlessly artistic and expressive manner. Theculmination of this approach could be performance for an audience of aparticular art form that Slade termed "Child Drama" (1954). Slade isconsidered one the first advocates of drama education in the schools.He considered the naturally occurring words and movement of the childas a valid and cherished expression of feeling and understanding.Brian WayWorking closely with Slade towards acceptance of Drama inschools, was Brian Way. While Slade's work advocated the expressionof the child's own art form, Way emphasized the use of Drama forlearning in the personal and social domain. He was concerned with theexploration of the individual, relationships with others as well as socialand philosophical issues in the world. He dismissed performance beforean audience as unimportant in comparison to the profound outlet forpersonal and creative expression that is enhanced by dramatic methods.So, not only did he have a profound influence on children's theatre, butalso, he invented the idea of audience participation in theatricalperformances.In the classroom he designed a method of working in Drama inwhich the student came to rely on personal resources. He described thelearning that results from this method as a kind of "knowing" thattranscends information and ideas. This knowing is intuitive and, in hisview, contributes to the expressive capabilities of the student. His20Development Through Drama (1967) provided a series of exercises andactivities that comprised a fundamental approach to Drama. However,little reference was made to a method of assessing whether learning orthe articulation of the personal and social knowledge had taken place.Nevertheless, for drama educators who favour learning in the personaland social domains, Way's book is still a recognized resource.Dorothy HeathcoteWhile Way focused on self-discovery through dramatic activity, bythe early seventies Dorothy Heathcote was working in a manner thatturned the focus of learning in Drama from the individual to learning thatwent well beyond the self into the domain of knowledge that is commonto all human beings. She was, and still is, less interested in a series ofexercises designed for the expression of learning about oneself butremains more interested in what a group of participants can learn abouthumanity. She requires the commitment of participants to live at "liferate" (1984) and to explore a fictitious context in order to discover themeaning of the drama and its "universal truths" about mankind. Using avariety of innovative strategies Dorothy Heathcote began to gainnotoriety and acceptance as the creator of a learning medium that wasapplicable to all subject areas. This enabled those teachers, especiallythose elementary teachers who were not trained in theatre or dramaticmethods, to use dramatic strategies to enhance learning in theirclassrooms.Heathcote (1984) presents the idea that drama proceeds from theinside of a fictionally created human situation or what she calls a "no-penalty zone of agreed depiction" (p. 197). During the act of playingdramatically young people will "stumble upon authenticity in their work21and be able to experience and reflect on their experience at the sametime: simultaneously understanding their journey while being both thecause and the medium of the work." (p.106). They would come tounderstand and know a great deal more than factual knowledge.By engaging in the forms of communication and inter-actions fromsociety that are mirrored in the "truthful artificial environment" (p. 197),young people have opportunities to "face up to emotional, affective,people responses before finally having to practise in society (p. 197).That is, through dramatic enactment, young people can explore differentways of expressing their understanding of the human situation.Heathcote's profound contributions to the process of learning throughengaging in and reflecting on an experience, as well as heracknowledgment of the voice that springs from learning and reflection,are further discussed in this review.Heathcote was not without critics and skeptics. Even though hermethod was carefully documented by Betty Jane Wagner (1976) andgained some acceptance among educators in both Britain and NorthAmerica, it remained elusive and was considered a rather eccentricapproach to education. Learning was viewed as difficult to ensure as anoutcome of what was perceived as a difficult teaching method. Theabsence of research support rendered the Heathcote Method even lesscreditable.Consequently Heathcote's method was deemed more suitable forelementary teachers or for those who were experienced enough to workin this manner. Her work was seen as valuable and exciting butunapproachable for most teachers. This position is clearly articulated inthe province of British Columbia's Curriculum Guide and Resource Book22Performance One: Acting 11 (1988) that acknowledges the value of theHeathcote system but provides caveats to its use. This guide allows thateven though the Heathcote system may have its uses across suchsubject areas such as English and history in the Secondary School, itrecommends that the method may be more suited to the elementarymilieu. The authors suggest that teachers interested in trying it would bewell advised to take a practical workshop on the subject because"teachers must have enough teaching experiences to feel secure inattempting this challenging approach" (p. 179).Gavin BoltonDorothy Heathcote began to publish her ideas in the early eightiesbut it was not until the work of Gavin Bolton that her work found anadvocate and a complement in the educational community. One of themost prolific theorists of drama education, Bolton has developed andarticulated the theories of Heathcote and has created a comprehensivetheory of his own that places Drama at the centre of curriculum.In the fifties, Bolton had entered the field, and the debate on thevalue and place of Drama. He continued to study and articulate his ownand the work of others. His current findings track the historicaldevelopment of the field as well as offer new perceptions and clarity. Twotheoretical constructs which Bolton developed are pertinent to thisresearch. The first is his theory of learning potential in drama and thesecond is his construct for describing the relationship between dramaticplaying and performance.23Bolton (1984) presented an argument for placing drama at thecentre of the curriculum. As part of the explanation for how drama worksin the educational milieu, Bolton provides a construct that articulates thepreviously unresolved and sometimes antagonistic relationship betweenspontaneous, improvised dramatic playing and the theatricalperformance mode. He places drama on a continuum that presents"dramatic playing" extending from the left and "performance mode"tending to the right. His diagram (p. 124) is represented below.Dramatic Playing Mode Performance Mode^(Expression)^(Representation)Play^Intention.^ Intention^TechniqueTo Be To DescribeDramatic playing is defined as the classification given to thosekinds of dramatic behaviours that are characterized by (1) spontaneity (2)a dependence upon tacit agreement by the members of the group tomanage and sustain the fictitious social context and (3) a furtherdependence on a sufficient degree of clarity of communication within thegroup.Performance Mode is the term used to describe those dramaticbehaviours that are oriented more towards the explicit, representationaldepiction of the meaning for an audience rather than those orientedtowards the implicit, existential or "lived through" expression of meaningas found in the dramatic playing mode.Bolton asserts that his continuum of dramatic behaviours does notimply a polarisation between the two modes. Rather there is a dialectical24relationship between them because each contains the elements of theother. He uses the metaphor of a "Chinese Box" (p. 125) to elaborate onthe idea of each mode containing the other as preferable to a polarizedcontinuum.Bolton advocates a theory of drama education that findsacceptable the notion of fluidity between these two modes wherein thereis no need to create programmes that emphasize, say, creative dramaticsover theatrical performance. He suggests that one mode is within theother and that a sound drama curriculum moves back and forth, or in andout to provide opportunities for participants to engage in both kinds anddegrees of dramatic playing and performance mode. When a projectsuch as the one described in this research is considered, it was importantfor me to be aware of this underlying concept. Even though the play wasbuilt to be performed for an audience, it was in the vast range of activitiesalong the continuum of dramatic behaviours that substantial learningtook place.In addition to his work above which describes where learning cantake place in the dramatic process Bolton also indicates which types oflearning are enabled. His current view (1990) discloses five areas inwhich learning can occur in Drama. These are:Common Knowledge: This refers to changes inunderstanding about the human themes, concepts, valuesand sustaining generalities that cross disciplineboundaries. These are found in the particular context, topicor subject matter of the Drama and have universalsignificance. Bolton (1986) says,Drama is, in my view, not so much concerned withthe uniqueness of the individual as with the meaningcreated when a participant aligns his individualitywith whatever is universal in the subject matter, topicor theme. Drama perhaps more than any other artform celebrates what man has in common with man.(p. 276)Learning about Oneself: This encompasses changes inunderstanding and/or clarification about one's uniquenessand individual responses of a physical, emotional,cognitive, spiritual and aesthetic nature to both the dramaticart experience and the context of the drama.Learning about Others: This refers to the acquisition andrefinement of the social skills that result from thecollaborative nature of drama interactions. Included hereare the social interactions that occur in of the learningenvironment of a drama class as well as the interactionsthat occur in the dramatic or "as if situation.Learning about Dramatic Form: This refers to theacquisition and refinement of facts, skills, techniquesrelated to theatre. It includes the use of dramatic elementssuch as time, space, gesture, focus, tension, symbolizationin the context of dramatic playing. Once integrated into theparticipants' understanding of how drama works these canbe applied to the performance mode to provide form indramatic playing.2526Learning about Language: This is the development andincreased fluency of communication skills enabled by thewritten and spoken interactions in the dramatic activity itsattendant reflective undertakings.G. Bolton (1990)Bolton addresses learning outcomes in drama education and indoing so provides a framework in this study for examining dramasituations for their learning potential.Research In Drama EducationWhile Bolton and Heathcote continued to present their views andto challenge assumptions that narrowly defined the nature and functionof Drama as a medium for learning, the call for research to support theseclaims was heeded. By the late seventies numerous empirical studieshad attested to the value of Drama in the learning of skills and conceptsfrom other subject areas. The focus of this research was on learning inthe elementary and intermediate years with some attention to the highschool years. However, only a limited number of these studiesexamined the potential of Drama as a comprehensive andinterdisciplinary learning medium.Kardish and Wright's (1987) meta-analysis of sixteen studiesindicate that Drama has a moderate, positive effect (mean size of .67) onachievement in reading, communication, person perception and Dramaskills. Other studies such as Huntsman's (1982) study of self-actualization through improvisational dramatic activities revealssignificant increases in self-confidence (.05 level), spontaneity (.005level) and a trend toward greater self-worth (.10) but no significant27differences in ability to relate with others. R. Cliff's (1984) study of theuse of dramatic enactment in high school content areas revealed thatalthough concept acquisition and retention of geometry, English literatureand biology were equivalent during regular and dramatic instruction,students preferred dramatic enactment as an instructional form.Much of this research is criticized as methodologicallyquestionable and lacking in clear-cut empirical results (Kardash andWright, 1987). Sometimes the research is dismissed as being too narrowan examination of the comprehensive nature of learning that occurs inthe drama process. This may be accounted for by the reflective andcross-disciplinary nature of Drama that makes it difficult to quantify effectsor to isolate variables. Perhaps because Drama addresses multiplelearning goals that refer to both the cognitive and affective domains, itmay be that results are difficult to quantify. For as Kardash and Wright(1987) suggest, the use of quantitative measures is questionable inDrama research where categories are difficult to determine,characteristics of variables are often undefinable, observers and ratersare difficult to train, samples are hard to isolate and where researchersare not specialists in Drama.Such research may also reflect the cumulative effect of thechanges in perception about the goals of drama. By the eighties BrianWay's philosophy in regard to the potential of drama for the developmentof the individual had permeated the thinking of many educators to theextent that research into learning in the affective domain was thepredominate focus of research. Rarely did the research attend to thebroader goals of drama as reflected in the changes in perspective aboutdrama as both a teaching method and a learning medium.28Recent thinking about drama education advocates a change inresearch perspective. Richard Courtney (1987) presents a view that laysthe blame for the attacks on educational drama and theatre in theWestern world squarely on educators who have not kept pace with thechanges in contemporary society. He admonishes educators for theirshortsightedness and continued reliance on outdated philosophies. Hecharges that,Our assumptions about children, learning, education, performanceand the like [have] not adjusted to the continuous change ofsociety. Relying on idealistic universals or deterministic laws in anEinsteinian world we were...like moths stuck to a collector's boardwhile the life process went on without us. (p.5)Courtney argues for an examination of the nature of dramaeducation through "new lenses" (p.5). He proposes a researchperspective that reflects the emergent and changing views of knowledgeand knowing. Citing Barthes and Derrida (p.5) he states that becauseNo event can be accurately examined simultaneously fromboth time and space, scientific research results are partial:they depend upon the specific stance of the observer who ispart of the experiment. The results can be viewed forthemselves, or compared and contrasted with those from adifferent perspective. In either case, they can be testedagainst experience (p. 5).By applying contemporary epistemology to the examination ofdrama education, Courtney characterizes Drama as the purveyor of"generic skills": human skills that are fundamental to both education and29adult life. These are skills that extend well beyond vocational andacademic skills into the domain that underlies all aspects of humanexistence and learning and has ramifications in the marketplace, theworkplace and the home.Courtney's views are astoundingly resonant when the recentevents in world history, economy and human rights are considered. Setagainst this fast-changing background his research underscores the useof drama education for providing creative leadership, and for producinginformed and responsible members of society that will shape a worldvery different from today. According to Courtney, there is no time fordrama educators to harbour romantic notions about drama education. Inthe face of increasing demands by government and business for utilityand accountability in education, the task of drama educators is to provideresearch that reflects contemporary views of knowledge and ratifies thecentrality of drama in the preparation of students for participation in aviable economy in the future.From a less politico-educational perspective than Courtney, BettyJane Wagner also recommends a change in the drama researchperspective. In her research update (1988) she notes that while there isa long history of claims supporting the positive effects of drama on orallanguage and literacy, convincing empirical research to support thesegeneral claims is sparse and unreliable. The main weakness of the vastamount of research into drama and language learning is, she argues,The lack of qualitative--as opposed to quantitative--analysis. Research on drama has not reflected the tilt inboth oral language and literacy research toward qualitativeand hypothesis generating studies. (p. 52)30Concurrent with this need is Wagner's call for research whichprovides "more richly detailed observation of teacher-led classroomdrama [and] descriptions that capture the immediacy and power of thechild's struggle to make meaning". (p. 52)While Wagner's concern is with the elementary child and theacquisition of language, her thoughts on research bear weight in anydrama research situation. She advises a more expansive approach toresearch in Drama. She argues that quantitative research in drama hasprovided an unpersuasively narrow view of the effects of alternativeteaching strategies, such as those that occur both within and as a resultof the ongoing process of Drama She maintains that this dilemma canbe resolved through a change in research that documents qualitativedifferences in learning.Reflection In Drama EducationIn her work on Drama and learning, Dorothy Heathcote (1984)writes,Without the development of the power of reflection wehave very little. It is reflection that permits the storing ofknowledge, the recalling of power of feeling, and memoryof past feelings. (p.97)She maintains that in the reflective process that characterizesDrama many opportunities for the articulation of learning take place.Concurring with Bolton (1979) that the significance of the drama31experience is to be found in the act of reflecting both within and on thedrama she quotes him as saying,Perhaps the most powerful form is the reflection that goeson at the same time as the drama, that is from within thedrama, so that as things are happening and as words arespoken, their implications and applications can bearticulated legitimately as part of the drama itself. (p. 127)Fleming (1982) also illustrates the reflective power of Drama. Heindicates three ways in which Drama is reflective and can promotelanguage learning. The first occurs during the process of the drama, thesecond during the taking of roles and the third after the drama iscompleted and the experience is discussed. Each of these serves a rolein Drama for developing a reflective awareness and for enablingstudents to talk independently about the drama experience.As well, Verriour (1985) suggests that Drama that emphasizes thespontaneous engagement in verbal and physical action while neglectingthe significance of reflective thought is less useful if languagedevelopment and language awareness are to be a central outcome ofclassroom drama.These writers focus on the power of Drama as significant in thelearning of language through Drama. This supports Bolton's (1990) ideafor potential learning areas, and promotes Wagner's call for research thatcaptures the details of the process of drama of which reflection is one.Yet, as the previous review of the research in Drama indicates, littlereliable evidence exists about the connection between reflection andlearning--either of self, others, Drama, language or common knowledge.32Those who regard reflection in Drama as essential to the dramaprocess suggest that it is in the reflective moment that changes ofunderstanding occur. Research then, which regards reflection as astrategy that enables learning could provide a potential source ofevidence that learning and the articulation of that learning takes place indrama process. In order to accomplish such goals, research would needto employ a wide range of reflective strategies in the practice of dramaeducation.The Journal in EducationTheories of reflective practice recommend research that is carriedout by a teacher in the role of researcher (Connelly and Clandinin, 1988)for the purpose of finding meaning in one's curriculum decisions andthereby improving curriculum. This work is rooted in Donald SchOn's(1982) study of the reflective thinking by professionals in action. Basedon this work, Connelly and Clandinin recommend a type of reflectiveresearch by educators that advocates the use of a range of reflectivetools such as journals, biographies, interviews, and letters betweenprofessionals. These are employed in order to capture the immediacy ofthe curriculum moment and present a comprehensive view that includesthe perspectives of all participants in the learning situation.Of these recommended reflective tools, the journal has found aplace in the practice of many subject disciplines (Moffett, 1974, Fulwileret al., 1987). Notably, in the realm of drama education, the use of thepersonal journal by students has gained a great deal of currency.Journals or logbooks are highly recommended in current works outliningdrama methodology (Booth, 1985). The use of journals is also33advocated in the curriculum materials in many jurisdictions such as in theAlberta senior High School Drama Curriculum (1989 p. 241).The power of the personal journal as a vehicle for reflection andlearning is recognized by drama educators who also recommend its usein the assessment of learning. As reported in 2a kAutumn 1987) onevaluation and assessment in Drama, the Wigan Educational Authorityadvocates the use of "The Notebook" as more than a diary that merelyrecords the events that occurred in the drama class. It is recommendedthat this be:A personal, private record of responses pertinent to thepupil. It is the vehicle for them to record reflectiveresponses; problems encountered and strategies employedfor their solution; successes, whether as an individual orgroup, and particular contributions made by them to thedevelopment of the idea. It encompasses any thoughts,feelings and learning encountered within the Drama if thepupil is encouraged to view the notebook as an ongoingrecord and is given every opportunity to make it relevant.(p.32)Substantial claims are also made for the appropriateness ofjournals across the curriculum. Fulwiler (1987) asserts that recentresearch and scholarship suggest that informal language is just tooimportant to ignore. Among others, he cites Vygotsky (1962), Moffett(1968, 1982), Britton (1970, 1975), Emig (1971, 1972), Elbow(1973,1982), in support of the use of the journal as a medium throughwhich student language that is speculative, personal and "easy talky" (p.1) has legitimacy. He maintains that by exploring their own informal34talking and language, rather than language of the textbook and teacher,students can find meaning in the world. He explains that:Such language explorations may be oral as well as writtenand are often expressed in language characterized as quitepersonal and colloquial. The skillful educator makes use ofsuch language for learning wherever she finds it--and thejournal is one of the handiest places. Such journals havebecome recognized useful pedagogical tools in otherdisciplines--not just English--where critical, independentthought, speculation or exploration is important. (p 3 )J. Staton (1987) focuses on the power of response in dialoguejournals. In her view the teacher engages with the student in dialogueabout what they are learning. Inherent in this process is an implicitcommitment of self and engagement with the other. This type ofinteractive response by the teacher and by the student is first an act of"listening" to the student's voice as it comes through on the page itself,and then an act of making a commitment of self in written response.Throughout this dialogue process, Staton maintains:The closeness of the writing to one's thoughts isretained. There is time for the student and teacher toelaborate on and spin out the web of meaning whichan event or experience holds. (p.56)The idea of journals giving voice to student writing is discussed byElbow and Clarke (1987). For them, journals are a powerful tool formaking meaning out of experience and for producing good writing that is35derived from a writing context. In their view the writing that results in thejournals is:...on fire with its meaning: consciousness of readersis burned away; involvement in subject determinesall. Such writing is analogous to the performance ofthe actor who has managed to stop thinking aboutthe audience watching her. The writer is not leakingattention away from her meaning or her languageinto awareness of the audience. (p.24)These, and many other writers, attest to the value of journals in thecurriculum for the purposes of finding personal connections to thematerial that is being learned and for providing a powerful means ofgenerating new dimension of inquiry and understanding. However, thereis little empirical evidence to back these claims.Nevertheless, strategies for the effective use of reflection throughthe personal journal continue to be found in the work of many theorists infields related education. One of these appears in the work ofpsychologist Ira Progoff (1975) and (1988) where he suggests thatdialogue need not occur only with an external agency or other person.Opportunities for dialogue with one's self, aspects of one's personality aswell as with persons or events in one's personal experience are alsoavailable in the journal. These ideas can be used in order to enrich andbroaden the reflective journal experiences. Progoff's theory andsuggestions for reflection form the basis of many of the journal exercisesthat can be applied to the reflective aspects of drama experiences.36A notable interpretation of Progoff's strategies occurs in the workof Sr. Therese Craig. A drama educator at The University of Alberta andinstructor in the Progoff journal method, Sr. Craig advocates the journalas a reflective teaching and learning tool. In an interview with Dillon(1983) she describes the journal as a way of "tale-keeping that broadensthe scope of my understanding and helps me through the energy that isgenerated" (p. 374). For Craig the journal differs from a diary or log.Whereas a diary or log records the linear progression of events, thepersonal journal has the potential for integrating the past, present andfuture of an event or experience in order to find its meaning. Sheexplains the integration as a telescoped process in which:I'm living at this moment now. There's a past into which Ican tap and which I can better understand if I reconstructmoments of the past. By reconstructing moment of the past, Iunderstand living now. Even more so, I begin to understandsome of the goals that I've set for myself and am workingtoward in the future...(p. 374)Craig refers to Dorothy Heathcote's phrase "finding one's voice"and suggests that one outcome of the journal process is "voice". Shewrites:I call it finding a voice of one's own because one is writingin a more holistic way. The total self is expressing ratherthan polishing for another reader. The journal entry tapsthe reality of the lived experience and it does find a voice ofits own. It's only when we try to find a voice that we think isproper to share with other people that we often lose ourown voice...(p. 375)37While the journal takes as many forms as the educationalsituations in which it is used, its power as a reflective tool for teachingand learning is gaining acceptance. For those who have workedextensively with the personal journal in the classroom, the journalprovides a forum for personal and curricular learning, and an opportunityto find a voice for the expression of that learning through integration bornof reflection.Voice in Drama EducationThe value of reflection in learning, and the personal journal as atool for the expression of that learning or the "voicing" of learning isevident in the above cited literature. Yet the word voice is rarely definedand is not generally viewed as an outcome of learning.An examination of a broad base of literature reveals thatfrequently, in modern parlance, the term voice is used in a wide variety ofcontexts and usually means the expression of a point of view. Thepolitical structure "gives voice" to particular interest groups, students "finda voice" and individuals are driven to "voice their claims" in regard tomatters of significance to them. The roots of this term are found in bothimplicit and explicit references in the fields of literature, anthropology,politics, psychology and philosophy. There appear to be as manydefinitions of the term "voice" as there are sources. Relevant literaturefrom fields related to learning and to Drama provides useful insights.For example, discussions of fiction from ancient to modern timesdescribe the wide variety of voices than an author may choose to use in38order to make meaning of the past events and then link this meaning tothe present experience. Auerbach (1953) traces the literature of WesternEurope in its development from a single voice to the multi- voice that trulyrepresents the random moments that make up daily life. He designatesthese methods of representing consciousness as the "unipersonalsubjective method and the multi-personal objective method" (p. 537).Auerbach asserts that the aim of the artist is the careful construction ofthese voices so that meaning can be conveyed and that "...always goingon within us [is] a process of formulation and interpretation whose subjectmatter is our own self" (p. 549).Woolf (1929) points out in her discussion of nineteenth centurynovels written by women that developed theories of expression relateonly to the male voice. She writes, "It is obvious that the values ofwomen differ very often from the values which have been made by theother sex." In Woolf's view, women writers of her time exhibited aperspective "that was slightly pulled from the straight and made to alter itsclear vision in deference to external authority" (p. 76).Similarly, in reference to women in the twentieth century,psychologist Gilligan (1982) reveals that:As we have listened for centuries to the voices of men andtheories of development that their experience informs, sowe have come more recently to notice not only the silenceof women but the difficulty in hearing what they say whenthey speak. (p. 173)It is germane to this discussion of drama education to note that thevoices of children and adolescents in the school are often as silenced by39the centuries of voices and decrees about discourse as are those of thewomen cited by Gilligan and Woolf. It is never clear in the literature as towhich, if any, voices other than adult, white, western males areconsidered.In a similar vein, Britzman (1987) reveals the subtle nature of thesilencing of authentic voices that occurs as a result of the political andsocial agenda of schools as institutions. Her ethnographic investigationof the secondary student teaching experience, reveals that the problemof learning and teaching is rooted in the struggle for voice. She states,The struggle for voice begins when a person attempts tocommunicate meaning to someone else. Finding thewords, speaking for oneself, and feeling heard by othersare all a part of this process...The struggle originates withthe individual, is shaped through social interaction, andmediated by language (p.3).Britzman defines voice as "the meaning that resides in theindividual and enables that individual to participate in a community" (p.2).She explores the problem of the way in which curriculum comes to orderknowledge, experience, and voice. In order to do this she analyzes thecircumstances of one pre-service English teacher as she begins to cometo terms with her own intentions, the voices of her students and therequirements of the curriculum as situated in the high school milieu. Thiswork endorses the idea that teachers have the opportunity in theinstitutional milieu to create significant curriculum moments in whichstudents' voices are heard rather than silenced.40Further, Britzman finds voice in the Eisner's (1985) tripartitecurriculum. She refers to Eisner's point that all schools teach threecurricula: the explicit, the implicit (i.e., the hidden) and the null. Theexplicit curriculum is the one that is stated in terms of the intention of itsdevelopers and prescribes outcomes, content and suggestedmethodology. The implicit or "hidden" curriculum underlies what isprescribed and includes all things that are taught even though theteacher may not have intended to do so. The null curriculum refers tothose things that are intentionally excluded in the act of deciding whatmust be taught. That is, when something is taught, other things must notbe taught.It is Britzman's belief that "voice" resides in the null curriculum. Inher view the making of curriculum decisions on a policy level thatdeliberately excludes learning opportunities which enable thearticulation of both student and teacher voices. Therefore, she advocatesa curriculum approach that,channels the inevitable undercurrents of student discourseto make relevant and to enliven the explicit curriculum and,in doing so, challenge the implicit curriculum's rules andgive voice to the null curriculum. (p. 11)In order for these voices to become authentic responses tolearning and teaching experiences, Britzman also argues for acurriculum approach that "challenges students' engagement in reflectiveactivity" (p. 32). Such an approach would reform conventional notions ofthe curriculum as a course of study that neither accounts for norrecognizes the process whereby classroom participants struggle forvoice (p.5).41Another related theory that is relevant to this research on voice isthat of Belenky et al. (1986) on the philosophical perspectives of womanwho are struggling to express their ethical and moral views in a worldthat will not hear them. In Woman's Ways of Knowing  the authorspresent findings from a study of 135 women designed to "explore theirexperience and problems as learners and knowers" (p.11). While theresearch is flawed and uneven, the creation of five categories, "ways ofknowing", or epistemological perspectives "from which women know andview the world" (p. 15), articulates the idea of voice and learning that canbe applied to this study. These categories are:Silence: A position in which women experiencethemselves as mindless and voiceless and subject to thewhims of external authority.Received Knowledge: A perspective from which womenconceive of themselves as capable of receiving, evenreproducing, knowledge from the all-knowing externalauthorities but not capable of creating knowledge on theirown.Subjective Knowledge: A perspective from which truth andknowledge are conceived of as personal, private, andsubjectively known or intuited.Procedural Knowledge: A position in which women areinvested in learning and applying objective procedures forobtaining and communicating knowledge.42Constructed Knowledge: A position in which women viewall knowledge as contextual, experience themselves ascreators of knowledge, and value both subjective andobjective strategies for knowing. (Belenky et al. p.15).The authors acknowledge that these pure or abstract categoriesare not fixed or hierarchical and that similar categories can be found inmen's thinking. Nevertheless, these categories provide a basis forindicating that when students are given the opportunities in Drama tolearn and to voice that learning, it may be in a voice type that reflects aparticular learning perspective.Further exploration into the ways in which voice is impeded orenhanced in society and in education might provide an understanding ofwhich voices speak or are silenced and under what circumstances theyare expressed or deflected. However, a consideration of the potential forauthentic voice expression through dramatic experiences is also relevantto this research. For, as Dorothy Heathcote (1984) maintains:Every child I meet understands deep, basic matters worthyof exploration but they may as yet have no language forthem. One of the languages they may develop is throughdramatic work. As yet we do not give this grace freely to allour students. (p. 103)Betty Jane Wagner (1985) documents this potential of Drama togive voice during a drama conducted by Dorothy Heathcote wherestudents were in role as modern-day monks. Wagner was struck by the"authenticity of voice, clarity of image, and richness of sensory detail thatcharacterized the children's accounts of their experience" (p.166).43Illustrated here is the idea that dramatic playing can provide experienceswhere student and teacher are engaged in making meaning and voicingtheir understandings of that meaning.Clearly the fostering of voice through drama education is aworthwhile goal even though it is not always explicitly stated. That isbecause implicit to all curricula is the belief that students will beempowered to express their understanding of meaning. However, ashas been pointed out, there are many obstacles to the articulation ofvoice within the school and society that have subtle silencing effects onstudents.Voice and TheatreWhile a search for the meaning of the term voice can be found inwriting and language theory, psychology, educational and drama theoryit is in the recent literature of the theatre that some of the most resonantdirect and indirect references to the idea of the theatre as enabling voiceare provided. Three relevant sources are considered here.First Augusto Boal (1985), whose experiments in finding a form oftheatre for social revolution in Brazil are documented in Theatre of theOppressed, claims that theatre is in itself a "language" (p. 121). Bymeans of harnessing and utilizing the various innovative forms of theatrethat he developed with his company of actors, he maintains that theatrecan be used as a weapon to free humanity from political and socialoppression. This view is premised on the notion that the arts as theyexist presently originate in an Aristotelian system of tragedy that is"designed to bridle the individual, to adjust him to what pre-exists" (p. 47).44In order to combat this political and social oppression Boal and hiscompany traveled to the cities and villages throughout Brazil and createdtheir plays by using the "people" as participants. A variety of forms oftheatre were developed that provided opportunities for the people to givevoice to their problems and to seek solutions to social injustice andoppression. Through this type of theatre, which is a revolutionarymedium, Boal claims that another poetics, the "poetics of the oppressed"(p. 154) can emerge.Among the many characteristics of the new poetics is the fact thatBoal's new type of theatre is a language. He says:There are many languages besides those that are written orspoken. By learning a new language, a person acquires anew way of knowing reality and of passing that knowledgeon to others. Each language is absolutely irreplaceable.All languages complement each other in achieving thewidest, most complete knowledge of what is real. (p. 121)Boal provides a "Chart of the Various Languages" through whichreality can be communicated. He includes "Spoken-written, music,painting, cinema, and theatre" as major categories and indicates themethod through which each of these "substantiates reality". In Boal'sview, theatre is credited with being the "sum of all imaginable languages:words, colors, forms, movements, sounds, etc.". (p. 156).Boal's theory, although often interpreted as more Marxist thanintended, provides substantial support for the idea that theatre forms, ofwhich educational drama is one, provide opportunities for the expressionof knowledge and understanding through "dramatic action" (p. 156). I45suggest that this outcome of theatre may be called "voice" and I find thebasis for its existence in Boal's new poetics. The research recountedhere intends to describe the dramatic activity through which the voice oflearners can be heard.Second, the idea of theatre as a medium through whichunderstanding can be heard is also found in the work of Anthony Sher.In his book, Year of the Kirig. An Actors Diary and Sketchbook (1985) heprovides a detailed record of the entire year during which he laboured tofind what became his award- winning interpretation of role of Richard IIIfor the Royal Shakespeare Company. The journey that the bookrecounts is one in which Sher searched to find "how to play the part" (p.18) and give voice to his notion that Richard's personality had been"deeply and dangerously affected by his deformity" (p. 30).A journal of the process whereby Sher's waking and dreamingmoments are filled with his growing understanding of the role and theagony of its research and creative exploration is the substance of Sher'sbook. It recounts the exploration of his dreams and images, which arefed by rigourous research into physical deformity, psychopathicbehaviour, bull fighting, sharks, the world of the disabled and thenattendant experiments with crutches, humps, wheelchairs and variousother physical challenges. In addition, descriptions of his closeexamination of the text, and the committed rehearsal process whereby heexplores images with his director and the rest of the company, give cluesto the growth of the role.Sher remains insecure about this process and even at the end ofthe first performance he modesty admits, "It does become apparent thatwe have a success on our hands, perhaps even a big success".46However, a close reading indicates that it was in the early mental imagesand resulting drawings that sprang from close attention to the text thatSher came to understand what the role required. His struggle to find avoice, or a personal expression of this role, is painfully documented.Early in the process he reports a moment in which he became veryinspired. He says, "It is more than just a notion that I could play the part. Iknow that I could do something special with it." (p. 49).Sher's "knowing" is expressed soon after in an image whichinforms his final creation of the role. He writes:I feel very energetic and dance around the room, Richardideas tumbling out. It seems to me his face should lookquite monstrous. Build a massive forehead and flat brokennose. To look at him should fill you with pity and horror.Karloff's monster in Frankenstein. Is there a way of makinghis head appear too big for his body? Also, Margaret callshim a "bottled spider--a striking image, whatever it means.The crutches could help to create the spider image. (p. 75)Much later, this "Bottled spider appears later in Sher's journal in adrawing. This image only occurs after numerous explorations into thephysical impediments to movement that would result from the use of thecrutches and the psychological implications of the idea of a spidertrapped in a bottle. The image and the physical gestures implied by thecrutches enabled Sher to find and give voice to the character of Richard47Sher's exploration reinforces the Boal's idea that theatre is a richlanguage for the expression of meaning. The word, the image, thephysical gestures and dramatic action that are to be found in theatre arealso the stuff of drama education. Indeed they may provide youngpeople with a theatrical vocabulary or a theatrical clay through whichthey can form, express and voice the resultant learning.Like Boal and Sher, Peter Brooks offers a third view of theatre thathas applications to education drama and the idea of voice. His argumentfor a type of theatre that has existential energy and immediacy is set outin The Empty Space (1968). Among his many profound assertions aboutthe kind of theatre that is needed to engage and captivate contemporaryaudiences is the idea that the theatre can embody a language thatcorresponds to our age and rebuilds the trust that has been lost betweenaudience and players.Such trust and the power of the theatre to communicate andcapture what is essential and true in life and society can beaccomplished partially, in Brooks view, through improvisation. He says,The aim of improvisation in training actors in rehearsal...isalways the same...lt is not just a matter of splashing about inself-indulgent euphoria as outsiders often suspect; for itaims at bringing the actor again and again to his ownbarriers, to the points where in place of new-found truth henormally substitutes a lie. (p. 126)Brooks' ideas about improvisation and theatre find application inthe tenets of educational drama that claim, that through spontaneousplay and dramatic presentation, young people can confront truths about48themselves and their world. Consequently, by working through themedium of drama, a voice for those truths can be found and expressed.The potential for hearing these voices is inherent in the process ofexploration as well as in the momentary truths that the completed work ofart voices.SummaryFive areas of research and theory have been discussed in terms ofthis research. These are (1) Drama Education and Learning (2)Reflection in Drama Education (3) The Journal in Education (4) Voice inDrama Education and (5) Voice and Theatre.It has been noted that where research has been effective in dramaeducation it has revealed positive effects on particular learning and someuse as a teaching and learning method. However, drama education,which is rooted in theatrical and artistic expression, resists a researchperspective that does not account for its broad learning potential, itsinterdisciplinary strength, its reflective qualities and its potential for thevoicing of learning. An increasing need for research that seeks newhypotheses and can contribute to a rationale for drama education hasbeen proposed in this reviewed literature.Other research described in this chapter is aligned with these newresearch perspectives and advocates the examination of dramaeducation in a new way. To this end, support for the use of reflectivepractices and the use of the journal as a powerful tool of reflectivepractice has been discussed in the literature of drama education and ingeneral education.49The concept of voice was explored both as a general descriptor ofepistemological perspective and as an outcome of drama education. Itsnature and its multidimensional origins in theatre were outlined and theneed to view voice as an expression of the truths that are yielded up bythe dramatic and theatrical experience is addressed.50Chapter 3METHODOLOGYOverviewThis chapter outlines the method by which the research wasconducted. It describes the method, setting and subjects, time, datacollection and analysis strategies and compliance with ethical standardsthat were necessary for undertaking and completing the research project.MethodIn the interests of observing and interpreting phenomena in anaturalistic setting, this case study was carried out by me as teacher-researcher in my own grade-nine drama classroom. Access to the siteand the subjects was inherent in the fact that I was the designatedteacher of the class during the time of the study. I functioned as aparticipant-observer in the process of the drama project by (1) fullyengaging in the events of the drama as required by the demands of theteaching situation (2) comprehensively observing the events of theproject (3) collecting data that documented those events and (4)attending to the ongoing interpretation of those events as they occurredwithin the context of the study.At the time of the research, I was a full time drama teacher andwas head of the Fine and Performing Arts Department in a grade 3 to 12school. Thus I had a full course load and chose to focus on one class forthis research about learning and voice in drama. This class wasundertaking a study of playmaking through the collective process at the51time the study was conducted. The objective of the project was to create,develop and present an original drama on the theme of the elderly. Thisprocess, by which a group of individuals work together to create andproduce a dramatic work, is a drama collective. It required an extendedperiod of time, commitment of the group, and the ongoing negotiation ofmeaning and significance during ten stages (see definition of dramacollective, p. 10).These stages provided an organizational structure for the dramaproject that comprised the entire programme for this class for the lasttwelve weeks of the second semester. Topics drawn from both theperformance and dramatic playing modes were integrated into the themeof the elderly and into the creation of the project.I suggested the topic of the elderly as the subject matter for thecollective. The students did not participate in this selection because ofthe limited time and the fact that consensus around a theme selectionwould have required a great deal of time. I made this decision based onmy responsibility, as educational leader, for the organization of time andresources so that maximum learning could take place and for assistancein shaping the work into theatrical form. I explained to the students that,given the fairly broad parameters of the idea of "The Elderly", they wouldhave many opportunities to explore within this context. Consequently,before the project began, it was agreed to accept my topic suggestionrather than spending time developing an idea that would satisfy 29strongly opinionated students.Learning objectives for the project were set within Bolton's five areas oflearning in Drama. Intentions under each area were,52A. Learning based in Common Knowledge: For the purposes of thisproject, learning about the elderly was addressed In considering thequestion "To what extent are there commonalities in the life ofteenagers and the elderly?", the project aimed to create changes inthe students' understanding about the world of the elderly and to findfeelings and experiences that were common to both social groups.B. Learning about Oneself: The project aimed to enable changes inunderstanding and/or clarification, in each student, of their ownphysical, emotional, cognitive, spiritual and aesthetic domainsthrough the experience of creating, developing and producing acollective drama on the theme of the elderly. Skills addressed werethose that dealt with increased self-confidence, concentration, controland expression of emotions, ability to make imaginative and creativechoices, and to use the body as a tool of communication.C. Learning about Others: In was the intention of the project that thestudents would acquire and/or refine the social skills resulting fromthe collaborative nature of the drama experience. This included boththe social interactions of the learning environment of the dramaclasses and the interactions of a number of dramatic or "as if"situations that arose during the exploration of the topic the elderly.Included here are skills in cooperation, communication, trust,teamwork, mutual respect for the rights, ideas and differences ofothers, positive support of others, the ability to accept constructivecriticism and the recognition that values are shared through the arts.D. Learning about Dramatic Form: The project was designed so thatstudents could acquire and refine a broad set of concepts, facts, skills,theatre techniques and dramatic elements. These included the ability53to take and maintain a role; manipulation of elements in dramaticplaying such as focus, tension, symbolization, dramatic imagery, time,space, mood, movement/ stillness, and darkness/light. Alsoemployed were dramatic playing strategies such as improvisation,mantle of the expert, teacher in role and role taking. Performancemode forms such as scene work, storytelling, speaking poetry, wereaddressed along with an exploration of dramatic conventions andskills in,Play Writing: The project was intended to developcreative, interpretative and exploratory skills throughthe use of varying drama styles, the collective playwriting process, writing and directing the script with aview to understanding the role of the director and thecontributions that each participant can make to thefinal script.Introductory Acting: This included the teaching ofskills in scene work, movement and dance, vocalskills, improvisation, character development, staging,rehearsal, production and theatre criticism.Movement: Both informal gesture and formallyorganized dance sequences.Music: As a stimulus to imaging and relaxation andas a theatrical element.54E. Learning about Language: Skills in communication were intended tobe developed and refined and were integrated into the collectiveprocess. These included:Skills in Speaking: Exploration, discussion, reflection onissues, ideas and experiences both during and after thedrama project; interviewing; role taking in dramatic playing;acting and vocal care in the performance mode.Skills in Writing: Through writing in journals, letters, stories,poetry, scripts, newspaper articles, invitations, posters,flyers, production documents, exploration charts.Skills in Reading and Viewing: Of the above as well asresource material and film used for research andexploration of the topic.Each of the five learning areas, as described above, wasconsidered as areas in which evidence of voice or the expression oflearning could be found. These five areas of learning provided a startingpoint for the investigation and a framework for organizing findings.Setting and SubjectsThe drama class that provided the subjects for this research waslocated in a Grade 3 to 12 public school in a medium-sized westernCanadian city. Four programs (Traditional Academic, Gifted andTalented, Hearing Impaired, English as a Second Language) wereoffered in this school at the time of the research. The twenty-nine grade55nine students who made up the class represented two of the programs(Traditional Academic and Gifted and Talented) because no studentsfrom the other two programs registered for the Drama option during thesemester of the study. The students who did register in the class hadelected to take Drama as an option for the second semester session.The entire class was involved in the study and permission for eachto do so was obtained. From this class, eight students were initiallychosen as the subjects for the case study and as focus for the gatheringof data. Selection for these case studies was based on the categories ofgender, program and the number of years the student had been in mydrama classes. The eight students subjects knew that they had beenselected and the required permission to be in the study was granted.In order to make the selection, I separated the class list into fourcategories. These were 1) male gifted 2) female gifted 3) male traditionalprogram 4) female traditional program. I divided each of these fourcategories into two groups. Those students who had less than two yearsin my drama classes were in one subgroup and those who had been mydrama students for over two consecutive years were in another. Fromeach of these eight subgroups I selected, by means of a random draw,one student. These eight students provided the subjects for theinvestigation.Consideration of number of years in my classes was important dueto the fact that the students in the gifted program had been transferredfrom a congregated gifted programme (Grades 3-9) which had been inoperation for six years. During the preceding year this program hadbeen transferred into the high school setting as a result of a senioradministrative decision. During the operation of the gifted programme in56the congregated setting, the drama department had grown to the extentthat all students experienced drama twice per week in grades 3,4,5 and 6and many continued in grades 7 and 8. Some of the students in theresearched class had a long history of drama experience. During thosesix years, I had been the teacher for most of these students.A history of drama experience for the students from the TraditionalAcademic setting varied widely. Some students had been in my classesin grade eight (when the two programmes where brought together),others had taken the option since grade 7 and others were experiencingdrama for the first time. There had been some drama in the elementaryyears for these students but not as a consistent part of the curriculum.By the end of the study one of the regular academic females hadwithdrawn from the study. After analyzing the vast amount of dataderived from the remaining seven student journals, my journal, audio andvideo transcripts, documents and photographs, I found that much of thelearning in each of the categories of students, although individuallyinteresting, was somewhat similar. I also discovered that not only wereindividual voices evident in the data, but there was a difference in thetype of voices that I heard. Initially I thought that these voices were moreor less strong and when making the final report I decided to account forthis in the selection of students on whom I reported.Therefore, for the purposes of the report, I have selected onegifted female with what might be described as a strong voice, one giftedmale with a very tentative voice, one regular academic male with a strongvoice and one with a more tentative voice, and one regular academicfemale with a somewhat tentative voice. Thus the initial dimensions ofgender, program and dramatic experience as well as an initial57consideration type of voice are represented in the five students describedin the report of the study.TimeThis study, conducted during the final twelve weeks of the secondsemester--April 1989 to June 1989, commenced with the natural onset ofthe last part of scheduled semester after the Spring Break and concludedat the end of the semester on June 30.The regularly scheduled classes occurred in three one hoursessions per week. Loss of time due to student absence, administrativeevents (assemblies, testing, holidays, field trips, etc.) is a factor to beconsidered as a realistic part of school life, and would not be any moresignificant a factor in this school setting than any other.In order to reflect these naturally occurring time constraints, noadditional time commitment other than the regular class time and itsresulting journal reflections and homework/rehearsal assignments wasexpected from the students. However, extra curricular time was requiredby the two students who volunteered to write and polish the script as theclass developed it.Data CollectionA range of data collection techniques was employed in order toverify the learning and the voice that was the outcome of the extendeddrama experience. These include six sources of data. They are 1)student journals 2) teacher journal 3) video tapes of twelve class58sessions 4) audio tapes of each class session 5) photographs taken bythe teacher and 6) document collection.Student JournalsJournals were kept by each student in the class as a regularreflection and learning tool. All students in the class had experience withthe journal. Expectations about journals had been negotiated by mystudents and me over the course of using journals in the drama class formany years. These included the following guidelines:(a) Each student was required to write at least two pages of writtenentries per week for which they would receive 10 points per month.(b) Journals would be assessed and responded to at the end of eachweek, but students wishing daily responses from the teacher could handin the journal at any time.(c) The type of notebook to be used was decided by the student. Anytype of notebook could be used provided that it was bound or in alooseleaf binder or duotang.(d) Time would be given (usually ten minutes) during each class for thepurpose of journal writing. This would occur at differing times dependingon the content and flow of the lesson.(e) The drama journal, borrowing features from the diary and thenotebook was to be written in the first person and focus on the content ofthe course. While free writing was encouraged, students were advised to59focus on writing personally and frankly about subjects that arose as theyreflected on the drama work under consideration.(f) To ensure privacy, a locked cupboard was available in the classroomfor storage of journals if students did not wish to retain them.(g) Privacy of the journal and respect for the right of each student to thesecurity of their own journal was not to be threatened by anyone.(h) A proviso ensured the privacy of individual student entries. Theteacher would read and respond to all writing unless a page was foldedin half lengthwise. This signaled a private entry and that the page was tobe counted and not read.Journal of the Teacher-ResearcherAs teacher-researcher, I kept a journal of my reflections on theongoing progress of the project. This required notes on (1) observationsof the learning that the students were engaged in (2) the development ofthe project. (3) the mechanics and logistics of the study (4) my role as theteacher researcher (4) incidents of voiced learning. These notes weretaken in abbreviated form during lessons wherever possible but weregenerally written during preparation and reflection times in the evenings.Audio TapesAudio tapes of each class conducted in the drama classroomspace. A tape recorder was situated in the centre of the classroom andwas allowed to run during each class and one member of the class wasgiven the task of tending to its operation.60Video TapesVideo footage was taken once per week by a grade twelveteaching assistant who had no specific training with video cameras. Thecamera was set in the same place each time and raw footageaccumulated during the course of each class. The student was instructedonly on the basic operation of the camera and was told to keep thecamera focused as much as possible on the students who, had beeninstructed to ignore the camera.Video footage of one of the two performances of the play was alsotaken.PhotographsStill photographs included those of the students during theprocess of the project, charts produced during planning sessions, as wellas photographs of the students on trips to the care home.Document CollectionThis included administrative records; class schedules; exploratory,development and planning charts; other student writing such as letters,poetry and stories; as well as the script and other documents thatoccurred in the context of the project.61General ProceduresData was collected during the development of the collective, whichin this drama project turned out to be an episodic collective (seedefinition p. 11) during each of the classroom sessions and the carehome sessions under the following conditions and time frames.Classroom LessonsEach of the classroom lessons contained seven elements thatgenerally occurred in sequence except that for the reflection sectionwhich varied in placement according to the type of reflection called for bythe lesson. (See Chapter 2. Reflection in Drama). These elementsprovided a shape and structure for each lesson and included:1. Introduction and Business. While sitting in a large circle on the floorthe students and teacher met to discuss administrative and logisticalbusiness (attendance, announcements, etc.). The outline for the learningobjectives or performance target for that particular class lesson waspresented to the students.2. Warm Up. This varied according to the objective of the lesson and thestage of development in the collective that had been reached. It includedseparate sessions of about 10 minutes each of one of, or a combinationof, the three following types of warm up activity:(a) Physical Warm Up. A non-threatening workout style set ofmovements to music led by the teacher or a dance or aerobics trainedstudent. Movement and body response exercises such as "Move andFreeze in character (eg. "The doctor, "the head nurse", "the patient", "the62escapee") or in response to concrete and abstract words ("pain", "aged","youth", "supplicant", "authority", "remembering") might also be used toprepare the students for the lesson.(b) Constructive Rest. A ten minute session of relaxation, breathawareness and control as well as imaginative exploration, done alongwith relaxation music designed to allow students to clear their minds ofthe influences and stresses of the day and to concentrate on the lessonat hand. Created by the teacher, this procedure is an amalgam of Yoga,actor's training and the Feldenkrais Method (1977) and included thefollowing steps:(i) Posture and Alignment. Students lie supine on the floorand adjust the body according to principles of good postureand body awareness.(ii) Breath Awareness. One of a sequentially developingseries of breath control and awareness exercises designed topromoted diaphragmatic breathing for relaxation and vocalstrength.^The work of Kristen Linklater (1976) wasincorporated here.(iii) ImaginingNisualization. One of a series of exploratoryexercises chosen to reflect the content of the upcoming lesson.For example, students might be asked to remember or create atime that they spent building a sand castle with a grandparentor another time when they were happily involved with anelderly person. Often students were guided through exercisesdesigned to recall emotions or to recall textures, smells, tastesand images of a particular time in the past, present or future. It63is essential to note that these exercises were always designedto recall positive, secure and esteem building situations.(iv) Reviving. The slow regaining of the awareness of thepresent time and space, guided stretching and a return tositting position in readiness for reflection in a journal responseor discussion or dramatic activity.3. Reflection/Exploration. If emotional or imaginative preparation hadbeen included, then time in the journals for reflection and explorationwas included.4. Dramatic Activity. The activities or dramatic playing sessions variedgreatly from class to class. Early in the project it involved whole classexploration and improvisation on ideas about the elderly as garneredfrom poetry, stories, films and television, music, field trips to a local eldercare facility and discussions about aging and attitudes to the elderly.This included teacher designed dramatic playing and performance modeactivities as well as student initiated activities. Later in the project,groups of students worked together to develop original scenes,movement sequences, original and adapted poetry responses or danceroutines. During the last two weeks, class time was devoted torehearsing and polishing the developed script for performance.5. Reflection/Contemplation. This occurred at the end of class andincluded discussion or journal response to the progress or content of theparticular lesson.646. Closure. Summing up remarks by the teacher and students as to theprogress of the lesson, the direction of the project, and the plans for thenext class.7. Dismissal/Clean up. The clearing of belongings and equipment andthe cleaning of the drama space. This also included the securing or thecollecting of journals.Care Centre SessionsOther lessons during which data was collected included the off-campus research gathering trips for the students that occurred during thethird, fourth, fifth and sixth week to a local care centre that was locatedwithin walking distance of the school.In working with the co-ordinators of community affairs at the centreI had arranged a series of five one hour visits to the care centre. With theenthusiastic help of two administrators, the following events weredesigned towards making meaningful contact between students and their"long-lived" friends (as we began to call them) occurred.(a) A list of twenty-two candidates from the minimum and medium careunits was created by the administrators.(b) I met with the enthusiastic group of elderly citizens to explain that thestudents would be coming to spend time, to find and listen to a "buddy"and to get to know what it is like to be their age. I also showed a touchingfilm "Close Harmony" (1981) which describes a similar project betweenchildren in a youth choir and an elderly in a Seniors Choir.65(c) The same film was shown to the students. Afterwards they drewnames of their new long-lived friend from a hat.(d) Before the initial visit, each student wrote a letter introducing him orherself to their buddy. (Three pairs of students shared a buddy so thateach student could be involved).(e) I hand-delivered the student letters to the long-lived friends.(f) The Care Home administrators collected return letters to the studentsand I delivered these to the students. Most students received a letter oran apology for the inability to write at their advanced age and a promiseto share some stories when they met for the first time.(g) One visit during class time per week for five weeks ensued. Duringthis time students sought answers to prepared questions that had arisenfrom discussions and exploration of issues in our other drama classesand they gathered anecdotes and stories from the long-lived friends.(h) Exchanges by letter continued between buddies during the time ofthe project.(i) Further visits on the weekends and after school although not initiallyplanned for were initiated by some of the students.(j) Our long-lived friends were invited to and attended the afternoonperformance of the play in the school theatre.66Analysis of DataThe initial theoretical framework for this study was found in thework of Gavin Bolton (1990). His five areas of learning provided theinitial categories for organization of the data. From this foundationthemes and patterns related to types of voice emerged and providedevidence of voiced learning. In this way, verification of and extension oftheory is provided.Data, collected from several sources, documented the intentions,reactions to, and outcomes of the learning experiences that occurred andprovided triangulation of sources. Although the analysis of data hadbeen ongoing throughout the duration of the study, final analysisoccurred after the project was completed. The data was thereforeconsidered in totality before the conclusions were drawn.Evidence of learning and voice was drawn from the data by meansof content analysis. For each student, samples voiced learnings wereextracted from the six data sources: student journals, teacher journal,video tapes, audio tapes, still photographs and classroom documents.These samples were coded as to Bolton's (1990) area of learnings. Thesamples were subsequently coded according to voice type under thenewly emerged categories of "strong" and "tentative".Conclusions for the study were drawn from the pattern ofrelationships and connections between intentions and outcomes of theteaching and learning.67Compliance with Ethical StandardsConsent to undertake the proposed research was granted by thesupervisor of Research and Testing for the school board and from theprincipal of the school.Along with their parents, the entire class that participated in thestudy were informed by letter of permission as to:1. The aims and methods of the study.2. The details of the involvement required of the student.3. Access to information about the process of the study.4. The anonymity of the subjects.5. The assurance that all identifying video and audio records of the studywould be erased upon its completion.6. The fact that no records would be traceable to a given subject.7. That the teacher-researcher would guarantee such trusts as developbetween teacher and student in accordance with the tenets ofprofessional conduct for a teacher under provincial law.Permission for each student in the class to be involved in the studywas obtained by the teacher researcher.The eight students who were the subjects of the case study andwhose journals were used as a data source, gave additional permissionfor their journals to be used.A consent form also indicated the right of the subject to withdrawfrom the research at any time without penalty and the corresponding rightof the researcher to terminate the subject's involvement.68Twenty-two elderly citizens of the Care centre agreed to take partin the research component of the collective. During the process they alsoagreed to attend the final performance of the created production.SummaryThis case study investigated the nature of the learning that wasgiven voice during, and as a result of, the creation of a grade nine dramacollective The research was naturalistic and phenomenologically based,reflecting the naturally occurring stages and rhythms of three regularlyscheduled drama hours per week.Acting as teacher researcher, I employed a variety of datacollection procedures in order to find evidence of learning and thevoicing of that learning. These included (1) student journals (2) teacherjournal (3) video tapes of twelve classroom sessions and the finalperformances (4) audiotapes of all 24 classroom sessions (4) randomphotographs and (6) a collection of documents that emerged from theproject.The specific learning outcomes sought during and as a result ofthe drama project were those related to learnings by the students about(1) the elderly (2) oneself (3) others in the class and in society (4)dramatic /theatrical form (5) written and spoken language as anexpressive medium. While these learning outcomes were sought duringthe research, the expression or articulation of these learnings, or voicedlearning, was the principal focus for the study.69Permission for the entire class to participate in all phases of thestudy was obtained from parents, school administration and school boardresearch department.70Chapter 4LEARNING THROUGH THE DRAMA PROCESSOverviewThis chapter summarizes the purpose and method of the researchand presents evidence of voiced learning for each of five students underthe five possible learning areas of (1) the elderly (2) oneself (3) others inthe class and society (4) dramatic/theatrical form and (5) written andspoken language as a medium of expression. It also reconsiders theproblems of the research and offers a scheme through which dramaprograms may be examined according to their ability to enhance andfoster student voice.IntroductionThis study was conducted to support the claim that as a result ofthe processes inherent in the drama experience, student learning occursacross a range of areas and opportunities for students to voice to thoselearnings are generated.The findings were drawn from data that I collected as teacherresearcher during a twelve week drama experience in a high schoolsetting with one of my own classes of grade nine drama students. Thegoal of the project was to provide an opportunity for the class to create,develop and produce a collective play on the subject of the elderly.Twenty-nine students participated in the field study. Of these, fivestudents were selected according to gender, program, drama experience71and type of voice as the subjects of the study. Data was analyzed inorder to ascertain the nature of the learning for the five students in fivepossible learning areas in drama. Data was also analyzed to determinethe extent to which the drama experience provided opportunities for thevoicing of learning in the areas of (1) the elderly (2) oneself (3) others inthe class and society (4) dramatic/theatrical form and (5) written andspoken language as a medium of expression. This evidence was soughtboth during the project and after the drama experience. A furtherinterpretation of the extent to which students gave voice to thoselearnings was also determined at the conclusion of the field study.Several collection procedures were used to collect data thatprovided evidence of learning and voice. These are described as the"sources" through which learning was voiced during and after the project.These sources as outlined in Chapter 3 were (1) student journals (2)teacher journal (3) video tapes of twelve classroom sessions and thefinal performances (4) audiotapes of all 24 classroom sessions (4)random photographs and (6) a collection of documents that emergedfrom the project.By means of content analysis of these data, I extracted evidenceof learning. Specifically, I searched the data and extracted samples ofstudents' written words in journals and documents and their spokenwords in transcripts of video footage and audiotapes. I also extractedsamples of their written and spoken images, their gestures and theirdrawings from the journals, documents, video and audio transcripts thatgave voice to the students' understanding of the meaning of his or herduring the process of the drama project. In addition, I extracted samplesfrom my own journals that indicated that learning or reflection towardslearnings was occurring. I took all of these above samples to be72evidence that learning had taken place and described them as voiced!earnings.Findings are reported around each of the five student subjects.Biographical and historical information about each student and thatwhich is relevant to the project is presented. Samples drawn from the sixdata sources are presented to describe learning that occurred in thelearning areas for each of the students. These samples are reportedseparately wherever possible. However, due to the inherent overlap inlearning through an integrated curricular approach such as is afforded bydrama, learning areas are sometimes reported together. These samplesprovide evidence of the voicing of learning in the five learning areas andwhile the data origin of each sample is indicated, not all learning areasare reported for each student.Students are given pseudonyms and place names are assignedletters so as to assure the anonymity of the subjects. Data from studentjournals or student writing are presented verbatim. The report on the firststudent serves to describe the process of the project as she was centralto its development.Further, I describe myself as "Teacher" and Teacher-Researcherin the report.73TanyaAt the time of the study Tanya had been in my drama classes forfive years in a congregated setting for gifted and talented students. Thiswas a school to which gifted and talented students were bused from allover the city in order to meet their learning needs. After six years ofautonomy, the school was moved into a junior/senior high school setting.Tanya was among those students who had been moved with the giftedprogramme when it changed location.Tanya was very bright, articulate and accomplished. She broughta high level of self-discipline and commitment to all of her endeavours aswell as a personal need for achievement and an impatience with herpeers who did not take projects or commitments seriously. At the time ofthe project Tanya was a high achiever who was also deeply involved indebate, public speaking and student government. She was also anaccomplished pianist who devoted two hours at day to practice andduring the time of the research was also writing a novel. From time totime she would provide excerpts from the novel in her drama journal andwould keep me informed as to progress of the work. She writes,Lush green grass swayed gently as the wind blew acrossthe meadow. It went up the hills and down the valleys andthrough a small mountain range, and then, as if saving thebest for last, it blew into Nedar. The first trees it swept bybent back like a welcome to royalty. A brief moment of calmensued, and, had there been a pair of eyes to see it, thispause would have taken in the exquisite rainbow of coloreverywhere. But unconcerned the wind went on.74Well, Ms Bolton, what do you think? That (in case youhaven't guessed) is the prologue to my big long story. Tobe given to you in short installments (Tanya, journalundated).Tanya believed that I respected her writing ability and that I wouldbe responsive to this idea. For many years I had encouraged Tanya'swriting and this proved to be a valuable asset to the drama projectbecause as a script was required for the project, it was Tanya who tookthe responsibility for incorporating the ideas and suggestions of othersand for actually "writing down" the script.By the end of the first week of the project, during which the classwas engaged in introductory activities designed to explore attitudes andbeliefs about the elderly (See The Elderly pp. 1-2), she had alreadystarted to write a playscript.Guess what Ms Bolton, we won! On Saturday we went outto C. for the regional speech competition. In my category Icame in first and now I get to go to C. on the 22nd for theProvincials. Have you been having a good week? I hopeso. I just got a great idea for the play. Do you want to hearit? (I assume the answer is yes).Opening Song.What would you think if I sang out of tune?Would you stand up and walk out on me?Lend me your ears and I'll sing you a song,And I'll try not to sing out of key.Oh, I get by with a little help from my friends,Oh, I'm gonna try with a little help from my friends,Oh, I'm gonna try with a little help from my friends.With a little help from my friends.(Words stop but muted music goes on. Lights come up on asmall kitchen on half a stage (partition in between} wherean old lady hums to that music that is now comes fromradio. She stands at stove {B.T.A.} and comes to life aslights come on. She turns off element and takes off potbefore flicking off radio. Once pot is on table with a hotmatunder she calls her husband.Lady: Gerald. Eggs are ready!(Old man comes in from side of stage in dressing gown,grumbling).Lady: (Briskly getting meal going) Good morning dear, wasthere anything in the mail?Man: Mail? (Looks surprised, then relaxes as he figures outwhat's going on) On yeah. Let's see. (Pulls from pocket ofdressing gown and leafs through envelopes) Bill, junk mail,more bills. Why can't that darn son of ours learn to write aletter?75Lady: We got one just three days ago (gentle reminder).76Man: Oh yeah. (Gruffly, as if embarrassed. Still riflesthrough mail) Hey look, here's one from Toronto. Who dowe know in Toronto?Lady: (Taking it delightedly) Why it's from Audrey ofcourse. (Open letter) Listen to this Gerald. (reading) "DearVictoria and Gerald".Sorry Ms Bolton, but that's all I have so far. Let me knowwhat you think but don't show anyone (Tanya, Journal April1 0)I respond in Tanya's journal with,I think this has definite possibilities Tanya. Let's keepdeveloping scenes between ourselves and then springthem on the group as if they emerged fully born from thehead of Zeus. (Teacher in Tanya Journal, April 10)In my own journal I write,In an attempt to "lighten up" and to bring focus to the work (Ispoke with Tanya who feels that the discoveries ofcharacter are not evident yet and who has written the firstpart of a scene for the play). I'm going to try anotherapproach on Tuesday. (Teacher, Journal April 10)A significant level of trust had developed between Tanya and meby the time the project began. She was aware that I would respondopenly to her discoveries and considerations and she wrote in her77journal in the identical voice to which she spoke to me in private. Yet shewas aware of peer judgment and hesitated to speak with the sameopenness and confidence in the classroom situation where her voicewas often guarded and cautious. Nevertheless, as the project developedTanya remained as the only student who was truly interested in creatingthe full script. She attended extra sessions on her lunch hour and wrotethe entire script herself after taking into consideration the writings andcreation of scenes and characters that emerged from the class work.For example, after the class had responded improvisationally andin a movement exercise to the poem "An Old Man's Lark" (in Booth, p. 63)the character of an elderly gentleman who escapes from an old agehome began to emerge. By means of further improvisational exercises,mantle of the expert exercises and dramatic playing the students createda variety of situations and escapades that this old man might haveexperienced on his night out from the home. A wide variety of charactersand situations developed. Among these were the old man, his friends inthe home, nurses, doctors and a home director.One group of students developed a scene in which the old manescaped to a park and met a "bag lady". A relationship began to developbetween these two characters and formed the germ of an idea for Tanya.Using these and other ideas created by students, Tanya wrote whatbecame the opening scene for the play. The play, at this point, becamestructured around the developing relationship between these twocharacters.All this was incubating in Tanya's mind as we explored poetry,viewed films, researched with our "long-lived friends" at the local carecentre and continued to explore the issue of the elderly in today's society78from inside the context of what it meant to be elderly. When it came timeto bring form to the explorations and begin creating a structure for theplay I suggested the theme collage (see collective-types of underdefinitions, p. 11) as a presentation style. To this, Tanya objectedfuriously.I don't want to be part of a collective. I will costume, direct,do make-up, stage manage, stage hand, build and paintsets, make coffee, tape electrical cords to the floor, make tea,phone for flowers, do sound, light, choreography, paintwalls, find props, check spelling on scripts, brush hair, hangposters, sell tickets, sweep floors, wash windows, usher,publicize or anything else you want but I will na go on stagein a collective (Tanya, Journal May 8)I explained to Tanya, by way of response in her journal, thatworking together towards shared goals was the aim of a collective. I alsoasked her what it was about the collective process that she found sooffensive. She replied,Because I've been working on the script. I haven't writtenmuch in here recently (sorry). I'd rectify that but I think it'smore important we have a script so I'm sure you'llunderstand the lack of writing here. (Tanya, Journal May15)Tanya was clearly set on having her script idea accepted andalthough the ideas were viable and useful she had not yet seen the needfor consulting the others in the class. However, she did find support in aclose friend Kate who began to join her in the writing process. My own79journal of two weeks earlier indicates that I had foreseen this difficultyand was attempting to harness the drama process in order to facilitatelearning.Clearly Tanya wants is her way and wants to write thescript...she is not good at compromise and I see it as part ofthe aim of this project to help her see this. She has to behandled firmly now as she used up two classes inprecipitating squabbling. I do love her ideas and herenergy but this may be a learning opportunity for her. TheTAS (Traditional Academic Setting) kids are trusting andgenerally open to any suggestion. The Gifted kids aregenerally less amenable to the group. That is their charmand their curse. Coming to a livable compromise is notsomething they do well. And they often-as Tanya is doing-alienate themselves from others in the process. (Teacher,Journal April 30).Tanya's journal also began to voice concern about the lack ofprogress towards a finished and polished play. At the end of the fourthweek she wrote,I'm really beginning to get worried about this play. If wespend 2/3 of our time at the care centre how are we going toget a plot, script, cast and rehearsals together? Someserious thinking needs to be done. A collective would be adisaster. We need to, as a class, discuss this, and get itgoing. We also need to rethink these trips to the Carecentre. Penpals is a find idea but we can't afford the timethe visits take. WE'VE GOT TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT80THIS BEFORE IT BLOWS UP IN OUR COLLECTIVEFACES. (Tanya, Journal April 12)Nevertheless the class continued to develop scenes, andmovement sequences to the popular songs  Old Friends (Simon andGarfunkel 1966) and When I'm Sixty Four (Lennon, 1967). As well, twoother students, Allan and Chad, developed another script idea thatinvolved structuring the play around a series of flashbacks from the livesof the two characters who tell stories of their pasts while waiting for a bus.I suggested that both ideas be presented to the class. Since Tanyaand Kate's idea was more fully developed and time constraints hadbegun to be felt by the group, it was decided that Tanya and Kate's ideaabout the relationship between Gerald and Mathilde would be used. Theclass also agreed to incorporate Chad and Allan's idea about characterswho exchange stories about their pasts but to situate Tanya's charactersin a park rather than at a bus stop.This was acceptable to all and especially to Tanya and Kate whocame up with the idea for staging in the school theatre space. Theyconceived the idea that scenes based in the park in the present beplaced in the auditorium at audience level and those from the past beplaced up on the stage behind the proscenium. After that moment Tanyaand Kate continued to write the complete script incorporating most of theideas that had been explored along with the characters and situationsthat continued to develop.As the class began to understand the flashback process and thestructure of the play they began to create further scenes and transitionscenes that could deepen the lives of Gerald and Mathilde and round out81their characters. These hinted at a developing friendship and possibleromance. All these ideas were considered as additions to thedeveloping script.Students began to find other material that would fit into theconvention of flashback that had been established. For example onestudent suggested the use of the Robert Munsch (1986) story Love YouForever  . I suggested a folk tale called The Old Man and His Grandson (undated) Both of these suggestions were incorporated into thedeveloping script. Links and transitions were provided by Tanya andKate who created the full script The Passing Years that was ready forproduction by the end of May.By this time Tanya had also been elected as director and inconsultation with the class and myself had cast the play according to theimprovised work or the incorporated ideas that had developed in class.That is, the students who had created the roles or suggested sourcesduring exploration and development of dramatic moments and sceneswere cast in those roles so as to bring authenticity to their acting and toeliminate the time that traditional theatre rehearsal required.Unfortunately, at the last moment the student taking the role of Mathildewas unable to complete it due to family problems. She remained in theplay in a variety of smaller roles, and Tanya was convinced by the classto take the role of Mathilde.Thus Tanya took a dominant role in the writing and presentation ofthe play, and was satisfied with her contribution to the project. Shewrote, directed, and took a major role. She was encouraged to do so bythe others in the class who began to recognize her abilities. Here aresome of Tanya's voiced learnings.82Learnings About the ElderlyIn the following journal excerpt Tanya responds to a Progoffvisualization exercise in which I asked students to imagine a dialoguewith an elderly person and then record in their journal the images thatemerged In this passage the journal serves as a channel through whichTanya remembered and learned about her relationship with hergrandmother. She wrote,My grandmother was the elderly person I had my dialoguewith. I didn't know how to start or what to talk about so I justsaid hi and talked of ordinary, everyday things. I told herhow school was going and she showed me her most recentcryptic crossword. We sat together and talked. I have neverfelt uncomfortable with her. (Tanya, Journal April 5)In response to a reading and discussion of the poem T h e Forsaken (1934) by Duncan Campbell Scott, Tanya reflected in herjournal on the treatment of an elderly Inuit woman and concludes that thetreatment of the old can sometimes be cruel. She wrote,A very interesting although sad poem. It is really a pity thatin a survival culture like the Inuit have, the old must be dealtwith like that. (Tanya, Journal May 23)Tanya's journal also contains a number of poems that she wrotelater in the project. These are powerful expressions of her change inunderstanding about elderly. While she had previously viewed the visits83to the care centre as interfering with her concept of the play, she wasable to write with empathy and sensitivity the following,What is Old?I look in the mirror,See tight skin, strong limbs,All teeth, sharp eyes,Energy, vitality, youth.What do you see?You look in the mirror,See loose wrinkled skin,Fragile, weak limbs,Old or missing teethDim and forgetful eyes,Old, dull, gray.Yet how can you, who, in a mirror,See the loss of all I still have,Point at me and sayI have no life.What is old?Is it hearing, seeingTouching, smelling,Or simply the bones.How can I know?..(Tanya, Journal May 28)84Evidence of the degree to which Tanya began to understand theissues of the elderly is evident in the script that she created for theproject. Early in the first scene Gerald, having escaped from the old agehome meets the bag lady Mathilde in the park. After the first few tentativemoments we learn that Gerald has been placed in the home by his sonwho lives with his family in Toronto. By way of more than simpleconversation Gerald tries to make contact with Mathilde in this wrypassage.Gerald: Have you ever been in one of those places they putyou when you get too old? (HE SHUDDERSTHEATRICALLY AND THEN JUMPS UP). You wouldn'tbelieve what it's like! They paste on their plastic smilesevery morning and say (FALSETTO) "Good morning Mr.Burgelschmurf." One of them even had the nerve to try andfeed me. Can you imagine! Fed like a baby. They put methere when they moved to Toronto. Said they wanted tomake sure I was properly cared for. My own son! To be fair,I don't think he realized how much I would hate it. I want tosee the world. To go to Hawaii, to see the sun set inFrance, the moon in England. I want to say "Ciao" when I'min Italy and "Adios" when I'm in Mexico. I want to feel formyself that the Great Wall of China still stands and standnext to the Berlin Wall. I want to cuddle a koala and go toAfrica on safari with elephants, lions and tigers and bears...Mathilde: There's no bears in Africa. (The Passing Years,p. 4)85This passage continues with Gerald recounting his escape andthe flashback to the actual event and its discovery forms the next scene.The content of the scene indicates Tanya's keen observation of theemotional content of the elderly. She has established the loneliness andisolation of the two characters and begins the process through which arelationship between these two characters can develop. It is based ontheir need for meaningful contact and a forum for sharing commonexperiences. After much sharing of painful memories, family difficultiesand humourous anecdotes and ideas these two characters begin tomake decisions about their lives. Gerald is going to travel and not spendhis time "moping about having to live in a retirement home" (Script. p.35.) He will stop to see his son in Toronto and "live life as it was meantfor me". Mathilde thinks that sounds wonderful, and suggests that shemight make contact with the daughter who had rejected her and fromwhom she ran away years ago. Finding that the daughter was last knownin Chicago, Gerald continues,Gerald. Why don't you...that is, I...1 mean we could extendour trip to take in Chicago so that you could tell herpersonally.Mathilde: Extend our trip...but...you mean, you'd let mecome with you?Gerald: Let you? Why in a moment I'm going to insist!Mathilde:^Seeing the world, what an adventure(Mischievously). And of course I'll also be able to prove toyou once and for all that there are no bears in Africa! (ThePassing Years, p. 5)Learnings About Self and OthersIn Tanya's play Gerald and Mathilde make an emotionalconnection and leave together pushing her grocery cart. This poignantmoment parallels the yearning for emotional contact that was evident inTanya's life--and indeed, for most of the adolescents in the class. Shelonged for approval and at the same time was constrained by her talentand her drive not to suffer fools gladly. She often stood apart from thegroup and often found herself defending a point of view in isolation andto an extent that became tiresome for the rest of the group who were notas emotionally and intellectually caught up in the project.Audio data from April 19 indicates that Tanya was also looking forassurance. By this time she had taken a strong role in the shaping of theplay, and had made her opinions known in class discussion. She hadfirm ideas on keeping the play a purely class play rather than includingour elderly friends or even elementary children to take parts. To thesuggestion that others be included she responded logically butnegatively. At the end of a long class discussion, she tells the class thatshe feels betrayed.Tanya: The reason is, of course, because...I was...Iwas given to understand that this was going to be aclass play. All of sudden it's no longer a class play.(Tanya, audiotape, April 19)The students and I continued to negotiate with Tanya and sheagreed that is might be artistically necessary to put others in the play.8687She continued to state her point of view seeking the support of the groupuntil she got it.Tanya: Well...I don't want to ruin the play because ofone person...my opinion. 0.K? If everyone elsethinks that we should have elderly people acting inour play that's fine and dandy, I'm just telling youwhat I feel.Teacher : And we want to know that. We want toknow how you feel. We really do.Judy: Yes...because your opinion counts with us too.Steve: You're part of the class as well as us.Judy: Yeah, like it's not just our opinion, it's yourstoo.Try as they might Tanya still is not satisfied and says,Tanya: If we let them in we can't change it. (Tanya,audiotape, April 19)Tanya was not saying what she meant. As a result of the dialoguein her journal, I knew that she had a play in mind and had started to writeit. I also knew that Tanya was afraid to risk her ideas before her peersbecause they were often perceived as too unusual or as coming from a"know-it-all". Therefore, I facilitated the negotiation amongst the classmembers hoping to structure the process of the collective to a point at88which Tanya might feel natural and safe in presenting her ideas. Thisday she was not forthcoming, and maintained her position of isolation.At this point, Tanya's commitment to her creative vision was beinginterpreted as uncooperative stubbornness by the rest of the members ofthe class. Nevertheless, sensing that she was feeling rejected, as theprevious sample indicates, they tried to assure her that her ideas wereimportant. As yet Tanya did not wish to reach out any more than to besure that at least her opinion counted with the group for whom she waswriting the play.In general, Tanya's relationship with others in the class wascharacterized by ambivalence. On one hand she was impatient andnegatively critical and on the other she sought their approval. During theprocess of this project she learned that she could compromise towards ashared goal, and that her desire for peer approval could temper herimpatience.Around the end of April, Kate and I realized that this thingwas going nowhere fast. It was very frustrating to sit andwatch a class take half and hour to decide how to decide.We decided that we would write the script unfortunately theclass had other ideas. Ms. B, this was probably the mostdifficult cast I could've gotten. I remember Shelley askedme why I wasn't going on stage after I'd sort of toldeverybody that I replied "stage fright". Well, I hope shedoesn't remember that 'cause if she does she's probablyhating me now. (Tanya, Journal, June)89When reflecting on what others had learned she realized that shehad, in fact, been supported. She writes,I guess I can't take too much away from the rest of the girlsin our class; by the end they had all improved more than meand some of them were especially supportive. I really thinkthat they could be really good with a bit of work. (Tanya,Journal, June)However Tanya reflects on what she perceives as the other students'lack of commitment.That's what it came down to, didn't it? Work. No oneseemed to be willing to put any time or effort out of classand that really hurt the final quality. I guess I'm being harsh,but my memories aren't as great as they could be. (Tanya,Journal June)Learnings About Dramatic and Language FormTanya's changes in understanding and learning in dramatic formand language are reported together since they were so closelyassociated during this project. Tanya possessed high levels of writtenand language ability. As yet she had not written a play. She describesthe process of writing the playscript as follows,If you flip to the next section of this book you'll find bits andpieces of script and I guess that really is typical of how thisthing went together. (Tanya. Journal, June)90As the project unfolded it was Tanya who maintained thecommitment that she sought in others. She and Kate wrote the playscriptfrom the material presented and developed by the class. She ultimatelytook a huge role in the final production and when asked two weeks laterabout the learning that she derived from the experience wrote as follows,A fulfulling experience? Well, certainly and experience. Ilearned more than I wanted to, worked my butt off andKate's too. I guess anytime anyone writes, directs and starsin a play you chalk it up as an experience. If you'd askedme right after the second show I'd have said no, and now,I'd say somewhat. But enough about that, suffice to say thatoverall it was a good experience. (Tanya. Journal, June)About the experience of directing a typical grade nine class she wrote,I remember crying from frustration, laughing because if Ididn't I'd yell, giving notes to blank, uncomprehendingstares, patiently explaining again which door is which,prompting people who only had three lines. Saying oncemore "please leave the costumes and props alone." etc. etc.etc. (Tanya, Journal June)This passage indicates the difficulties that arose for Tanya whenher desire to explore the play as form and the production as expressionof form clashed significantly with the goals of most of the others in theclass. She was passionately committed to the production of the play andfound it frustrating that others were not. Tanya's advancedcomprehension of theatre form and her heightened aesthetic sense set91her apart and often alienated her from the group. She exhibited morethan a few of the characteristics of gifted students (Clark, 1988) andrequired a differentiated learning experience. This was difficult toaccomplish in the comprehensive setting and was one of the issues that Ihad to address in drama classes where students from what had beencongregated settings were integrated. Many times I found myselffacilitating communication when it had broken down, and many times Ihad to counsel Tanya to lower her expectations of both herself andothers.Tanya had a highly developed sense of theatre and perfectionisttendencies that were not shared by the majority of the class. Iconsistently reminded Tanya that the goal of the project was not theproduction of a professional piece of theatre, but rather a sharing of newattitudes and findings. However, Tanya was not only ready to take on thechallenge but required it. A conversation with Tanya, to which I referredin my journal, indicates the degree to which I was able to discuss theconflict between her vision of the play and the expressive needs of thegroup.On Monday I called Tanya to come by and chat. She and Icame to a wonderful understanding...and we found wecould communicate about her difficulties in "seeing thewhole play" and "wanting to do it her way".Me too, I said--but we have to hold back for the group toengage in the process. Both of us--with strong ideas--hadto get out of the way of the process. (Teacher, Journal May10)92The fact that Tanya's goals and those of the rest of the class didnot meet provided me with the challenge of integrating the needs of thegifted and the traditional academic students in the same drama class. Adelicate balance had to be struck so that enough of a compromise couldbe negotiated. This could not have been accomplished without openlines of communication and a hearing of the voices through manysources.Nevertheless, Tanya's abilities and her drive were appreciated bythe class in the end. The video of the last show, that was to an audienceof parents and friends, documents their appreciation through one of therituals of theatre. The students decided to take their final curtain call ingroups. After doing so, they seated themselves on the stage. Theyinsisted that Tanya enter last. As she did so, the class and the audiencerose to their feet in a standing ovation and proffered flowers and hugs toTanya. She was overwhelmed with embarrassment, but her eyessparkled and glistened with tears. This teacher was also overcome withemotion as the appreciation and beauty of the learning experienceunfolded.93JimI had taught Jim in drama for two years by the time we workedtogether in this drama project. He was in the traditional academicprogramme and had taken drama in grade 7 and grade 8. An attractiveand popular young man, Jim was equally at home as a basketball starand as a counselor to his friends. Many people sought Jim's opinionwhen they had personal problems and Jim was always willing to taketime to listen. Jim did not easily express himself through the written wordand although he did not make extensive entries in his journal therequired quotas were met and did reflect his insights into his ownchallenges and problems.Jim's preference, however, was to discuss and reflect on ideasand to seek solutions to problems. He did not dominate the conversationbut tended, rather, to encourage other people to talk by dropping in anidea and then listening to other's ideas and reflecting them back to them.He had a natural gift for this type of counselling and often used this skillin his work in student government.Evidence of voiced learning for Jim is as follows.Learnings About the ElderlyIn spite of Jim's tendency to avoid conflict and to listen andencourage others, when it came to communicating on matters ofimportance to him, Jim found a clear voice. After viewing the very movingfilm Close Harmony about children in a youth choir who had beenteamed on a one to one basis with a seniors choir, Jim expressed a94connection to his grandmother. Referring to an incident in which one ofthe elderly buddies died just before a joint final concert, Jim spoke withtears breaking through his words. He said,I think it kinda reminded me of my late grandma...'causeuh...she uh...When you looked at her, she looks like an oldlady...like you'd never talk to her or anything but when youuh, when you get to meet her ...she uh... [starts to breakemotionally]...well, she uh, was a big fan, of, of StampedeWrestling...[continues] and she was so fine...[breaks] she'duh...They bring her down to Calgary [hardly able to talk] togo to wrestling with and get her autographs and stuff. Andshe was so happy...just you can't look at 'em from theoutside [breaks] you gotta get on the inside of 'em and seewhat they're like...they might look old [breaks] and theirbodies may not work [breaks] They're people too. You gottarealize that. [sniffs]. (Jim, audiotape, April 19)When it was decided by the students to include a scene in whichthe poetry that students had written would be spoken, Jim (who did notbelieve that he could write poetry) found a voice. Through imagery andfigurative language, he finds expression for his understanding of theelderly. He wrote,It seems that age has no effect on Grandpa.Oh sure he looks oldBut he's not like you other elderly peopleThey are quietBut he is boldTaking everything he can out of life95Like flying all over the world with his wife.He seems like a person that does not grow old.I'm not sureBut maybe people do not have to accept the realityOf having to be over seventy. (Jim, audiotape May 30)This poem, along with others, was read for the class. Although itwas not included in the final scene, it was well received by the class andprovided an outlet for Jim to voice his feelings and thoughts about hisgrandfather.Learnings About Self and OthersOf his athletic endeavours and his sensitivity to his own body andthe stresses he was under, Jim wrote,My body is shot. I have intense basketball practices twice aweek which are two to three hours long. Then there is mydaily workout and recreational basketball and then I don'tget much sleep because after basketball I have to dohomework. (Jim, Journal, April)Jim was as sensitive with himself as he was with others enablinghim to approach any human interaction with confidence and care.During the initial planning for the play Jim listened intently did not getinvolved in the conflicts regardless of his own opinion. When the idea offlashbacks was first suggested, Jim offered an opinion that becamecentral to the structuring of the play. He also viewed the elderly as96important to the development of the play and urged more consultationwith them The discussion went as follows,Jim: I think the flashback idea is pretty good one. Maybethat...I think some of the old people should...ah...have...someinput on what were gonna do.Teacher: Yup.Jim: So maybe we should talk to them too.Teacher: OK. Good point.Steve: They'd have basically the whole story line for us.Jim: Yeah...Teacher: How do see that they would have the story lineSteve?Steve: Well, they have a lot of past experiences and theirexperiences could give us flashback ideas. Like they'reflashing back right there when they're talking about it. Well,they're bringing it to life.Jim: Yeah...(Jim, audiotape, April 19)97Learnings About Language and Dramatic FormsOf his ability to write a journal he wrote,When I have to write in my journal I really don't know whatto write because I basically go through the same things dayafter day until summer, because that's when lots of thingshappen. But I don't write a personal journal because I don'treally have time and as you can see my penmanship sucksso I just don't bother. I know I should but I don't. (Jim,Journal, April)In spite of the fact that I encouraged Jim to reflect in his journal, theentries were perfunctory, sometimes scribbles and sometimes non-existent. He preferred to think about and discuss the exercises given forreflection rather than writing them down on paper. He decided to foregoany journal mark credit in favour of his participation and involvement inthe discussion.The truth of Jim's self understanding and expression of hisunderstanding of the process of the project is evident in an audiotapeddiscussion about the progress of the work early in May when thediscussions about the form that the play would take were most animated.Knowing that some resolution had to be achieved I had thought thingsthrough and knowing that I was responsible for helping shape and formthe work that the students had created, I opened the discussion with apresentation of the types of collectives that are available for shaping thework and included a review of the goals for the project. Describing apossible style of presentation as "ensemble*, I asked for a definition andJim voices his understanding with clarity.98Teacher: Does anyone know what ensemble playing is inDrama? Ensemble acting?(031)Jim: Everyone is as important as everyone else. Youknow...everyone is a star?Teacher: Yes. All stars and no stars. (Jim, audiotape, May8)Jim's clarity in this discussion helped me to begin to shape the work andreach the goals for the class that I clarified for myself in my own journalwhen reflecting on this crucial point in the development of the project. Iwrote,I was quite firm in expressing the need to get on and theyhad begged me to decide. These reasons I gave were:-to resolve the disagreements among strong personalities-to take personalities out and act on the principles of groupcooperation-operation- to save time- to focus on the work.They agreed and we finished the dance.I opened up Wednesday lunch as a first writing session tothose interested. (Teacher, Journal, May 10)99Jim's maturity and clarity of expression about what was importantin the project enabled the group to continue the discussion during thatclass. They were able to reach the critical consensus point, and agree tothe idea of the two main characters of the old man and the bag lady whowould tell stories that would flashback to scenes from their lives.In spite of Jim's preference to discuss rather than write, whenasked for an assessment of his own learning he wrote in his journal,I think drama is a very useful course. It gives a giant boostto your self confidence and it shows you the skill you needfor public speech, such a preparation, volume, and showingemotion in your voice production and face. With somepeople they a have great lack of these skills and need thedrama course if they want to have any change in a job thathas to do with communicating with people. (Jim, Journal,June)JudyI had known Judy for two school years as she had been in mygrade eight class the year prior to the study. She was in the traditionalacademic programme and her grade nine year had been difficult due tothe aftershock of the unpleasant divorce of her parents. Judy felt deeprejection from her father, and as a result transferred feelings of rejectionand guilt to onto herself. Her journal provided a much needed releasefor her emotions. While I continued to emphasize the need to reflect onthe drama experience, most of Judy's entries were coloured by thedevastating effects that the divorce was having on her self-concept.100Audio and video evidence indicate that Judy also voiced herunderstandings through discussion, improvisation and in the images andgestures that were part of her involvement in the project.Evidence of voiced learning for Judy is as follows.Learnings About the ElderlyDuring a discussion of the film, Close Harmony  (1982), Judyvoiced a new understanding of the relationship that was possiblebetween young people and the elderly. In the film, in which a youth choirand an elderly choir were brought together over a six month periodthrough a penpal system and through rehearsals for a concert theyestablished very close friendships. In response to one of the moments inthe film that showed the old people and their young friends being "torn"from deep discussion in order to begin rehearsals, Judy remarked,Judy: Well, I thought it was like...sort of like...you shouldlike...if you're like looking at it pretty closely...When that ladywas, like, taking the penpals apart when they had to,like...start rehearsing? I thought that was pretty sad 'cause,like, like, all the elderly people were just sitting there going"No. I want to talk some morel" And all the little kids werejust sitting there going, "Oooh. Just a few more minutesplease."...type of thing? (Judy, audiotape, April 12)Later in the same discussion, when Jim became so emotional inrecalling the death of his grandmother, Judy made an emotionalconnection with him and verified her own and Jim's feeling about theirgrandmothers.101Judy: Um...well...um...it's sort of hard to say but...I...l knowhow Jim is feeling because, like my grandmother...sheum...um...she just about died? And I felt really bad [breaks]because I couldn't do anything about it...and like she's myfavourite grandmother and like in our family informed usabout it. [gasps] And I just feel really bad because like ourfamily didn't even care...like them...that side of the familydidn't care about me and how I felt about...the way she wasfeeling. And so I'd just like to say that...if your grandparentsor something are in the hospital (breaking) go see thembecause they'd probably appreciate it...and mygrandmother was really mad...because nobody informedme about it...and I couldn't go see her because I didn'tknow...so...That's all I've got to say. (Judy, audiotape, April1 2)Learnings About Self and OthersAt the end of the first month of the project, Judy voiced a sense ofisolation and insecurity that pervaded all her relationships. She wrote,This month in Drama I have learned that this is going to bea hard class not because of the learning stuff, its the kids I'malways left out I go off by myself most of the time, people inthis class don't really like me probably because they are inmy class and they usually get me pretty perturbed most ofthe time, and others just don't like me. (Judy, Journal,undated.)102A photograph taken at this time showed Judy curled in the cornerof the room writing in her journal. Videotapes of the same time periodindicated that Judy often sat alone outside the discussion circle. Latertapes and photographs show Judy completely involved in the process ofthe project as her confidence began to increase.Throughout the study Judy filled her journal more and more withresponses to the drama experiences and interspersed them with herpersonal problems and concerns. She clearly required the medium forself-exploration that the journal provided because the self denigratingwriting of the early part of the semester, as above, soon turned to writingthe served to bring clarity to some of her problems and to share some ofthe pleasures in her life. For instance she declared,I have a problem I am sort of confused all my friends haveboy friends but not me or else my friends like people I likesomeone but he doesn't even know I'm alive nobody reallikes him but I do what should I do. (Judy, Journal,undated.)and she reported,I got a new pair of shoes there keds and their black and Ialso got my grad dress its simple but I love it its black fullsleeves or long sleeves its a miny dress and in the backthere is a peace cut in the back. its really wicked I love it somuch and I will were it again thats for sure. (Judy, journal,undated.)103and of her growing self-confidence in her relationships with others shewrote,My friends really trust me with secrets because I'm good totalk to I just though I would share that because I'm proud ofmyself. (Judy, Journal, undated.)Early in the development of the play, when negotiations aroundwhether or not to include the elderly in our play Judy found herself inconflict with Tanya. Tanya represented the view that our long-livedfriends should not be asked to participate in the play because onceinvited the play would have to function around them. She felt that oncewe had invited them in we could not "un-invite" them. Judy counteredwith a view that was closest to the goals of the shared drama. Shestruggled in a class discussion with this idea and her understandingemerges as follows.Well, I think that if we did let...um...an elderly person into ourplay and that would be final, but that's exactly the samething in our class. If there's, like, one person in our classthat doesn't fit a role we can't kick them out either. It's thesame thing, you can be elderly or in our class. (Judy,audiotape, April 19)Close to this time she wrote in her journal,I sometimes hate comeing to drama because I hate fightingwith Tanya she's just so hard to get my thought threw herhead. I know I fight with her and debate with her but Idisagree with her actions and her thought. One thing is I104don't know why she gets so defensive. I do too but not asmuch as her. I'm confused. (Judy, Journal April )Below this entry I responded with an assurance that less time fordisagreement would be available in class and that I felt that Tanya coulduse a friend like her.Later when the narrative line of the play was being created anddecided upon a number of ideas other than Tanya and Kate's weresuggested including the bus stop idea from Chad and Allan's, a trial andan audition call. A good deal of discussion and negotiation ensued andit was Judy who clarified the problem. By way of clarifying the discussionabout the two differing play concepts offered by Tanya and Kate andChad and Alan, she said,Well, the way I'm seeing it is that this group [gesturing toTanya and Kate] and this group [gesturing to Chad andAlan] are competing amongst themselves. Like, OK do youunderstand? Like, it's like one group says we have to handin all our stuff and we want you to pick our idea. This group,in my opinion, is getting everyone's idea and than sort ofputting it all together. But this group is just, I mean this isnothing against any of you guys, but I think you should likeget other people's ideas first before you sort of make askeleton. (Judy, audiotape, May 9)105Learnings About Dramatic and Language FormIn response to my question about how I will know what has beenlearned at the end of this unit, it was Judy who responded with "What weproduce" and "our progress in daily class" (Judy, audiotape, May 9)indicating that she had a clear idea of how learning could be indicated indrama.When I presented the final sketch for the plot of the play that tookinto consideration all the ideas suggested by the students, Judy wasmost responsive. She presented an idea that initially created theconvention of flashback that was eventually used as the linking devicebetween past and present in the final play. She presented her idea inthe form of a question that I did not really hear at the time.Teacher: I think that's all I want to say in terms of sketch.What I need you to do now is to say...is to give suggestionsbecause that is the best way for it to go. These aresuggestions. Judy then Chad.Judy: OK, well this is just how I pictured it. Is the mangonna walk in and then he's gonna like think about whathappened to him and then were going to add in thosescenes?Teacher: No. We're going to create dialogue betweenthose two people eventually we come to understand thatthey become friends. (Audiotape, May 9)106In retrospect I see that Judy's idea provided the idea that shapedthe form of the play. The audiotape reveals that I was intent on endingthe conflict and so presented the outline of the play with the introductionof the old man and lady who meet in a park and develop a relationship. Iwas so eager to resolve the difficulties and get on with the project that Ididn't really hear Judy's profound idea.I continued to explain how some of the items such as a dance andother ideas that had already been created could be utilized in this way.Had I been less intent on balancing points of view and moving theprocess along, I would have heard Judy's idea. I had unintentionallydenied Judy her voice, but thankfully the process of discussion and theattitude of acceptance extended by the students in the drama classcreated the situation by which Judy was heard by the students. Thisappeared in the text of the play which Tanya later wrote.The process, and the play itself, provided Judy with an opportunityto voice an understanding about the difficulties the elderly face in carefacilities. During the initial dramatic playing session about the old manwho escapes on a lark, Judy created the role of a very angry nurse. Thediscussion after the improvisation reveals that the class was struck by thetruth of the role she developed. When asked by Tanya if there had beensomething created that should be included in the final play, among otherresponses was the following.[Class is sitting on benches for discussion. Judy sits cross-legged on the floor hugging her knees. I sit at a small deskbehind her.. Tanya is leading the discussion].107Carma: I think Judy should be a nurse. She just makessuch a mean person. [laughter throughout class].[Camera zooms in on Judy who looks exceedingly pleasedat the suggestion and seems to bask in the warmth of theapproval of the class.]Teacher: Yes, I see her as that. And I liked Carma too.(Videotape, May 15)Judy's nurse formed the substance of the character of the nursewho was created for the second scene in the final play. The final script inwhich the students who had created roles took them in the play, appearsbelow with my notations in parentheses. This was performed on June 29with Judy, Jim and Luke taking the roles that they had created throughimprovisation. It was scripted as follows.Unit 2LIGHTS UP ON FLASHBACK STAGE SET AS OLD AGEHOME. MR . JONES AND NURSE ARE S.R. MR. JONESHAS JUST FINISHED RELATING HIS ESCAPE TONURSE WHO ERUPTS.NURSE: You whatIM This is absolutely unheard ofl I'mgoing to go talk to the manager.(Mr. Jones continues to describe his adventures to a smallgroup of friends and then the nurse returns with the managerand the following ensues)NURSE AND MANAGER ENTER TALKING.MR. JONES: ...and then I watched a double feature.ADAM: What movies?CHARLES: How long has it been since I've seen adouble feature?DINO: Did you have popcorn?ED: What were they about?NURSE: That's exactly what I told him, a disgrace to ourhome!MANAGER: OK. Where is he? Jones!ED: (aside to Mr. J.) Watch out, he's on the warpath.MANAGER: Everybody else get out. We have a little talkto have with Mr. Jones here.NURSE: Sit down Mr. Jones.MANAGER: Now, I'd like to know the meaning of thisoutrage.MR. JONES: Well...108109MANAGER: (Cutting him off) No, don't tell me. Let meguess. You didn't know what you were doing.NURSE: You just got...alostm.MANAGER: You forgot what day it was.NURSE: You couldn't remember where you weresupposed to be.MANAGER: You've ruined a reputation we've workedyears to build up...and for what?NURSE: An old man's lark.(BLACKOUT)(The Passing Years, script excerpt, Unit 2).Judy's voice was heard through the script and in the casting of theplay that came from the process of its development. This passageindicates that the collective process was working because the integrity ofthe improvised scene was captured in the scripting, the casting and in theperspective on the elderly that the scene addressed. This sceneprovided these three students as well as all others who contributed to theproject with the opportunity to voice an understanding of the difficulties ofthe elderly and the degree to which they are silenced by theirpredicaments.110My own journal reflects my delight in the idea that the collectiveprocess enabled students to gain a voice for their understanding. I wrote,The process of creating the scene allowed Luke, Judy andJim to declare their interest and to cast the scene. I find thisa wonderful way to avoid the casting nightmare. Whathappens is that kids write themselves into the script andcast themselves, AND learn lines as they create the scene.(Teacher, Journal, May 29)Of this process of the drama class and of her journal, Judy wrote,I feel good. I feel I can express myself more when I write inmy journal. I am glad we have started this play because Ithink it's really starting to get somewhere. (Judy, Journal,early June)WayneWayne was registered in the Gifted programme and had been inmy drama classes for four years. He suffered from a very difficult homelife and had never had much success in school. Wayne lived on anearby reservation and took a taxi to school each day. Often he wouldarrive without books or notes, was often unkempt and appeared to bedistracted, over tired, and insecure. Throughout the years, Wayne hadbecome philosophical about his living conditions, and by time he was ingrade nine he was taking more responsibility for himself.111Wayne had enrolled in drama because I made a promise not tomake him write or read unless it was absolutely necessary to his dramawork. For Wayne did not want to read and write and, in fact, had a"perceptual problem" that was being addressed in his academic classes.In spite of the fact that efforts were made by all staff to accommodate thisfact, Wayne did not write. He could write, but was so fearful that he oftenrefused. For that reason Wayne did not really keep a journal. He wouldspend time with a notebook or a piece of paper and pen while the otherstudents were writing, making only occasional entries.After the completion of the project, Wayne decided not to hand inhis journal. There was very little material in it, and as I had never putpressure on Wayne for the journal I respected his choice. He, like Jim,preferred to avoid the written reflections and base his drama mark on hisactive participation.Wayne provided a challenge for me as assessor of lerning. Hisresistance to the journal initiated my desire to find other ways to assesslearning in drama other than the written response. If Wayne's standing inDrama had been dependent on his written responses, he would not havegained credit. Fortunately, the drama process itself allowed for otheravenues of expression through which I could hear Wayne's voice andattest to the fact that learning had taken place in the following areas.Learnings About the Elderly, Dramatic and Language FormWayne rarely spoke out in class discussions. On one occasion,however, he was moved to voice a change in understanding about the112elderly. After viewing the film Close Harmony, Wayne offered thefollowing in the midst of a lively discussion.It changed my whole...um...feelings for old persons....[hisvoice trails off]. (Wayne, audiotape, April 12)The fact that Wayne was so very shy led me to believe that hemight not feel comfortable with the visits to the care home. In addition, Isuspected that the concept of an elderly care home was not part of hiscultural heritage. My fears were soon allayed, as we set out on a rainy,spring day to our first meeting with our elderly buddies. My journalrecorded his positive response to the situation and his opening to thelearning context.We were greeted by applause--uproarious, and a rush ofwarmth that I could feel. The kids could too, as theyscrambled to find their friends. There was little need tointerject activities as head to head, and hand to hand theychatter began. Soon heads were closer and the chattermore intense and the laughter was like glints of sunshineon the gloomy day. Wayne looked up from his place acrossa table from his buddy Mary, and gave the "high sign" toexpress his pleasure. (Teacher, journal, April 26)Photographs taken during the project also afforded evidence ofWayne's involvement and interest in the project. One in particular showsWayne working in a dramatic playing session about sneaking out of thecare home at night. Wayne had taken the role of the escapee and hadbeen brought before a magistrate to account for his crime. At a crucialpoint in the trial, he breaks his bonds and escapes. The photograph113catches him in motion as he makes a dash for freedom. Wayne wastotally committed to the role and the dramatic situation to such an extentthat the other students reacted in complete surprise and totally incharacter. The moment was powerful and honest.Video footage of the final performance shows Wayne in role as amale nurse in a psychiatric ward created from Mathilde's past. Thescene is a flashback to the time when Mathilde was judged incompetentby her children and placed in a hospital. The scene, played withsensitivity and truth by Wayne, begins with his entering the scenetenderly leading the patient to the family that wished to visit her. Hespoke the line,Nurse: She didn't want to see you but I got her to come forjust a moment. Be careful of what you say. (Script excerpt,Unit 8)After an ugly confrontation in which Mathilde refused to see thefamily, Wayne paused, shook his head sympathetically and gently ledher away. None of this stage business, nor the gestures of sympathy andtenderness were written as stage directions. These were Wayne's owncreation in the role of the nurse and indicated his understanding of whatwas required to make a role come alive on stage.This scene provided Wayne with an opportunity to voice hisunderstanding of the role he had chosen as well as his mature andsensitive comprehension of the impasse in communication that can occurin families.114Another photograph captures Wayne in conversation with hisbuddy, Mary, at the Care Home. They had developed a strongrelationship in the short time that they were together, and a photographnear the end of the project bears witness to the effect that the project hadon Wayne. This day Wayne wrote. He wrote a poem to Mary. In, large,uppercase script the poem is as follows.TO: MARYWHEN I LOOK AT YOUI SEEI SEE WHAT YOU HAVE GONE THROUGHALL THOSE YEARSTHE PAIN, THE JOY, HAPPINESS, SADNESS,GLADNESS.ALL OF THE FEELINGS YOU'VE FELTTHE JOY OF LIFE. THE PAIN OR GRIEFALL OF WHICH YOU HAVE GIVENTO THE WORLD AND ALL THE WORLD HAS GIVEN YOUAND THE JOY YOU'VE BROUGHTTHANK YOU I REMEMBER YOUALWAYS AS A PERSON THAT CHANGED ME.My journal also notes another motivator for Wayne's writing.Referring to observations after reading weekly entries from the student'sjournals, I noted that Wayne had written and mailed a letter of thanks toMary. I reflected on his learning as follows.Wayne: a grateful letter to Mary. (I've seen them hug sooften). He wrote over half a page in three minutes, He115usually writes a line, if anything. (What's that aboutproviding a context for writing??I111). (Teacher, Journal, May1 2)The availability of these photographs and numerous video imagesrecorded Wayne's surprising energy and involvement in the drama class.Upon reflection on these data sources I was able to realize that Waynehad learned about the elderly, about role taking and had given voice tothose !earnings through his writing and the dramatic process. Had Ilimited my assessment of Wayne's learning to written or spoken criteria, Iwould not have heard his voice.116LukeLuke was enrolled in the traditional academic programme and hadbeen one of my drama students in grades 7 and 8. He was also a verytalented mime artist and was a strong member of our extra-curricularMime Company that performed in the school and in the community.Luke, was a very talented actor who was involved in as much extra-curricular drama as was available in the school. He auditioned for afterschool shows that were directed by the senior students and staff, andvolunteered to help coach elementary students in their drama classesand in their performances.At this point in his life, Luke adored drama and it was the mostimportant aspect of his life. He was a willing an open participant in everyaspect of the class and the programme, and found expressive potential inhis journal, discussion, gestures, improvisations and all dramatic activity.Luke had a highly developed voice and a playful sense of humour. Hisjournal was a delight: rich with humour, photographs, cartoon illustrationsand a secret code he had developed for absolute privacy. Often, with thecooperation of his language arts teacher, Luke used ideas from hisdrama journal in his language arts assignments. For example, heincluded the rough draft of a poetry assignment on parody from hislanguage class. He called it "Perodee Assingment" and like many of hisother entries included a cartoon as illustration of the text.SOMEBODY TO CHEW (To the tune of "I Need Somebody")I Need somebodySomebody to chewEverybody needs somebody117Somebody like youI Need somebodyjust a nible or twoeverybody needs somebodyyou'd get hungry tooAR00000000000000111You May call me a were wA lycanthrope, a beast.But all I need is a little,...A little peice, At least.You can come to my cave,Its just at the doorand into your shin I'll sink my teethand chew some more,...some more.OH!I need some bodySomebody to cheweverybody needs somebodysomebody like youI Need somebodyjust a nible or twoeverybody needs somebodyyou'd get hungry too.I need somebodyolf,0118fat, plump, and juicey too.Ar000000000000ll (Luke, Journal, Dec. 14)For particular drama entries he often named himself "Hepcat" andaddressed his writings to me directly or as "Hipster". Luke's voice wasclear and easy to "hear" in his writing, his remarks and his drama work.Evidence of the learnings that he gleaned from the elderly project isremarkably apparent and abundant in the data and Luke's voice, asexpressed in the following data samples, was a pleasure to explore.Learnings About the ElderlyDuring a constructive rest session in which I asked the students torespond to a visualization about building a sand castle with an elderlyperson Luke wrote in his journal,I see and old figure, not my grandfather but he seems likemy grandfather, kind of like the one from "On Golden Pond"he has silvery hair and he makes small careing movementswhen he builds the sand castle not hard ones. He lets medo most of the work because he wants to see what I can do.I am alot younger. I am tring to please him. We are on thebeach, in one place we are in V. and there is a high rockybank right behind us with moss covering it. The Sand iswarm and there is a light house about a km away. It isrelaxing. (Luke, April 10)119Luke clarifies his open and responsive view of the elderly in thispassage but does indicate a certain insecurity about meeting his "long-lived" buddy. He writes,I WONDER if my long lived freind will like me. I mean I am abit unusual at the best of times and I am a bit insecurearound long lived people. I wonder, I don't think he'll likesomething I do. there is such a long generation gap. I evendon't really always understand my parents that way andthey are quite younger. OH well, I don't know. (Luke,Journal, April 25)And then after his first meeting he wrote,Dear Hipster,I have to talk to you about my long lived friend. He's almost95 and is young at heart he is kind of sentimental about it.He said, "you may get aged, but never grow old.". I don'tthink he's old, he's a spring chicken. He was a bit shy andimbarsed so he was more refined. He talked to Jim and Iabout WAR. He HATED the war, there was a war inGermany when he was 4 and he said he saw things nobodyshould see, and in reflecting upon this, he felt for ouryounge people, "Don't have war, he said. "I have seenthings nobody should see." I think he had a hard childhoodbecause he didn't seem to want to dwell upon it. Then helightened up about it and told us some things about hischildren. 6 of them I think...(Luke, Journal, May 3)120When the scene for the "Old Man's Lark" was being developed, itwas Luke who used what he had learned from observing and talking tothe elderly in the care home to create the character of Mr. Jones. Thevideodata reveals the following and can be compared to the actual script.[Luke enters the improvisation space where three studentshave just finished a scene. He has the right to put his handon the shoulder of any participant and take their place.Then he can change the scene to whatever he wishes andthe other actors must respond to his suggestion. Heimmediately takes on the role of Mr. Jones and opens thescene].Luke: Guess what guys?Others: What? [They move closer and lean in to hear him].Luke: Last night ...Old man: Where were ya?Luke: [Checking for supervisors] I went out and had a wildtime. You know I was walking down the street bymyself...just looking around and there was this one little lassand she had her eye on me...yeah...but I went in and I hadtwo cheeseburgers and I went to see a double feature.Others: Wow. Lucky. Gee...(Videotape, May 15)121This scene became the following in the final script and the role ofMr. Jones was taken by Luke.Mr. Jones: Two nights ago, just before wakeup time, Iopened my window and slipped out. I caught a bus atabout 8:00 and went downtown.Charles: Downtown? I haven't been there since my wifedied. Has it changed much?Mr. Jones: Not really. I went to a mall.Adam: A mall? I heard that those things are dirty andmessy and full of punks.Mr. Jones: It wasn't that bad.Ed: What did you do there, shop?Mr. Jones: Not really, I just looked around a bit.Ed: Then what did you do?Mr. Jones: I went to McDonald's.Charles: McDonald's. How long has it been since I'vebeen there?Mr. Jones: And I had two Big Macs and a chocolatemilkshake.122Dino: Two Big Macs?NURSE AND MANAGER ENTER TALKING.MR. JONES: (NODS) and then I watched a doublefeature...(Script excerpt)Luke brought a sensitive, caring nature and a positive spirit to hisencounters with his long-lived buddy and at the end of the project andthe final performance he wrote,I have learned a new perspective on the elderly. I havegained insights into human nature and how people reallyfeel. I felt, in a way, atached to the long lived friends" in theaudience. And I defended them with myself when anybodythough badly of them. I gained a wonderful experiencefrom that. (Luke, Journal, June)Learnings About Self and OthersThrough the dialogue available in his journal, Luke was able tocome to terms with difficulties with his friends. Among his many journalreflections were those which dealt with a specific relationship. Forexample, consider this entry.I am so frusterated. I am so frusterated. Jim, well I guessyou could call him my friend but lately he has been gettingreally insultive to everybody. And especially me. I think123something is bothering him....I have tried every tactic tostraighten things out. Talking calmly at a time of peace.Talking calmly at a time of war, talking excitedly andaggressive during both times, drowning my feelings, writingmy feelings, talking to other people, ignore it. Nothingworks. (Luke, April 9)His cartoon emphasized the frustration Luke was feeling.124My attempt to indicate that I understood and to help him clarify thesituation includes the following....Remember though that you are also changing your goalsand priorities and advancing rather quickly towards somehigh goals. Perhaps your friends aren't as committed tomoving towards goals as you are and you may find themwith less in common with you than previously. (Teacher inLuke Journal, April 10)to which Luke responded,Dear Hipster,Thank you for these wonderful uplifting little notes. I lovethis Idea of a Journal, Put this in your study! I LOVEJOURNALS!  (Luke, Journal, April 11)Luke's journal also provided him with an opportunity to voice hisunderstanding about interpersonal communication. For a number ofdays he had been experimenting with wearing what he called "JohnLennon" sunglasses and reflects in his journal as follows:I love these glasses Hipster. I mean I can hide fromeverybody behind them. I mean their a real block ofcommunication. I'll take them off if you want me to becauseyou know your supposed to communicate in drama. I'm justa real small or rather tiny person and it gives me an extraedge when people can't read me. Because I am veryemotional and am easy to read already. I feel dark,125strange, and unusual. I dwell in the blackness of people'sthought. It's groovin'. (Luke, Journal April 19)I had joked with Luke about his glasses and in his journal respondedwith,At least you understand the power of the eyes. It is said thatthe eyes are the windows of the soul. Waddaya think?(Teacher in Luke's Journal, April 19)When asked to write in his journal about what he learned about himselfLuke wrote,Much. You have helped me to love "the art in my self. Ilove the ARTS! I think I'll go into them. I love Drama. Youhave opened my eyes! I HAVE LEARNED IN DRAMA! IHAVE! My self, my heart, my mind, my soul, my spirit, I havelearned, and found a new LUKE. A new hepcat!About others he writes,I have learned that other people in the class are not myenemies, I can trust them. I have mostly been on thedefensive, but working and learning with people, in a wayyou have to open yourself up to them. I think it also teachesus how to act and behave in society. We can trust eachother. I am happy about the play we did.126Learnings About Dramatic and Language FormDuring the first class discussion about the direction the projectcould take, Luke wrestled with his developing understanding of actingand of dramatic form. He voiced this as,That would be neat because...in all of the (urn) other plays, Ithink everybody has done...they do Santa Claus plays andplays about teens and all this everybody can relate to it. Butin a play where you have to do really...l think its more...Ithink you have to act...you have to act more...in this, youknow, like it'd be more of a...challenge of acting becausewe don't know how...like...because when you do acollective on teens and problems and things it's more likeyou can be yourself or you can act like a lot of people yousee every day but I know myself...l don't see a lot of oldpeople every day. (Luke, audio tape, April 4)In regard to writing in journals, Luke voices his pleasure.Hey Hipster,It's your friendly Hepcat calling from the depths of thestrange and unusual. its dark but interesting down here. Itsalso hard to see through these hip John Lennon glasses.DON'T YOU LIKE THEM. THEY ARE COOL. I loveJOURNALS, I THINK IT IS COOL WHEN YOU WRITE BACKTO ME, HEY NOW THATS COMMUNICATION!!! (Luke,Journal, April 12)127The journal became a vehicle of expression for Luke's uniquevoice. He remained somewhat reserved in class discussion yet had akeen eye for how the project was progressing and a clear sense of hispart in the process. In late April, during the discussions regarding formand content for the play, he wrote and illustrated his thoughts,O.K. NOW! I'm back to the picture if you want to know whatwe are talking about the ELDERLY and how our play isworking. This class is really GROOVIN. I mean all of thesepowerful ideas, meaningful, bombarding my sensitiveLukeness. You know man this is  Networked. TANYA HAS GOOD IDEAS BUT VERY STRONG VEIWS.128Chad is lambasting us with his wonderful ideas. Man kidshave wonderful minds. Now this is community I'm not usedto it. That's probably because I usually dwell within my ownfeelings and don't interact much. Thats why your probablynoticing that I don't talk much. But I did put my hand uponce. (Luke, Journal, April 23)Although Luke continued to be reticent in class discussion he wasloquacious in other areas. In his journal he found a forum for expressionof his new ideas and his new-found connections. His struggles with thevagaries of adolescence were clearly voiced in his journal as well as hisdeveloping understanding of his own and others' natures. Moreover, forthis sensitive and talented young person, the dramatic form itself,involving gesture, images and characterization provided the voice forLuke's understanding of what it means to be elderly.129SummaryThe above reported findings led me to reflect on the problems thatguided this research (see p. 7). The first question concerned the natureof learning which occurred in the drama process. As was indicated in thedata, reflection during and after process by students revealed thatlearning did take place in an array of learning areas. Not only waslearning indicated in regard to the subject matter of the elderly, but it wasalso evident in learnings about self, others, drama and language forms.Each student could be assessed in each of the learning areas by meansof a careful analysis of data gathered from a broad range of sources.The use of a range of data sources as evidence of learning hasimplications for the second problem that probes the use of journals forreflection on learning as an effective strategy for students to give voice totheir learning.While it is apparent in the data that journals were a useful tool bywhich the I could assess the learning that was occurring for the students,this was only true when the student would write. Indeed, when thestudent, as in the cases of Luke, Tanya and Judy felt confident in theirability to voice their thoughts openly in the journal, the journal was veryeffective in the assessment of learning. On the other hand, Wayne andJim resisted the journal as a first choice in communication. In theseinstances, I was compelled to tap the drama process for its potential inproviding alternative sources for the voicing of learning.The need to find other evidence of voice led me to pursue othersources of data besides the written. In this regard the third foreshadowedproblem can be addressed. A consideration of the extent to which130ethnographic data gathering techniques in a drama class can provideevidence of learning and the voicing of that learning reveals that thebroader the range of data sources employed, the more comprehensivethe evidence.The use of audio, video data, document and photographicanalysis provided substantial evidence of voiced learning in this project.Essentially, it was my belief that if I could stop and observe my classescontinuously, instead of being totally involved, then I would surely seeand hear the voiced evidence of learning. In the role of teacher-researcher I was required to do so. Yet, at once I had to be inside theintellectual and emotional content of the project as well as function asobjective observer. This other perspective, enriched by the alternativedata sources, became an invaluable source of verification that supportedthe claim of this research.That learning took place across a wide range of learning areas inthis project is clear and substantiated in the descriptions of each studentinvolved. However, the degree to which this learning was voicedseemed to vary with the learning situation and with the student. For thisreason, it served my purpose to describe the voices I "heard" by means ofa schema that helped me to identify the types of voices that my studentswere using.Being Heard—Types of VoicesEarly in the process of the project I reflected on the amount ofchattering and talking that goes on in a classroom full of adolescents.The audiotapes indicated that before each class was brought to order,131there was great deal of chattering and talking among the students. Iwould call the class to order but only in so far as the talk could be broughtto bear on the drama matters at hand. I clearly viewed my role as ahearer and shaper of that talking rather than a silencer. Reflection on thesocietal silencing of women as presented by Belenky et al. (1986) andGilligan (1982), led me to extrapolate this notion to my students and thelife of my classroom. In my journal I concluded,This is not about lack of talking: it is about not being heard.(Teacher, Journal, April 27)I was then lead to consider the possibility that voice may beexpressed through a number of perspectives, or types, in the dramaexperience. By adapting the Belenky et al. (1986) model ofepistemological categories, I began to construct a schema forrepresenting types of voices that may be present and could be furtherenabled in the drama process. Five types of voice can be heard in thedrama process. These are:The Silent Voice.This is a perspective from which students may begin in drama.They may believe that they are unable to verbalize and/or gesture aresponse to dramatic stimuli, and they may believe themselves to bewithout thought, voice, or the ability to create images in their own minds.Severely abused, emotionally disturbed, some hearing impairedstudents and those with extremely low core self-concepts (many female)would comprise some of these silenced students.132Among the students cited in this research there are none whowere entirely silent. That is due to the fact that the very first dramaexperience in which a student engages places him or her into an "as if"context in which exploration in the context of someone else's life isessential. This characteristic of drama immediately enables students tospeak in a voice that can find a medium of expression. Each student inthis study had a voice that was unique and audible. Provided I listenedfor these voices and continued to provide learning opportunities thatenabled a wide range of voice opportunities I could hear them.This type of voice may be characterized as the "I cannot or do notwish to speak" perspective.The Received Voice.Students exhibiting this type of voice may believe that they canvoice only what is presented to them from external authority. They find itdifficult to speak with their own authority in a voice that springs fromknowledge of their own experience. Many students are somewhatuncomfortable initially when they are urged away from this traditionalperspective due to their involvement in the drama experience..In the findings of the study Judy's response to my question aboutwhat they would have learned by the time the project was completed,provides an example of a student speaking from the received voice. Herresponse of "What we produce" and "Our progress in daily class" (Judy,audiotape, May 9) was in line with curriculum goals and traditionaleducational aims. That is not to say that the response has no value.Indeed, her response was exactly what a teacher would wish to hear and133in this instance I was surprised to receive such a direct reflection ofcurriculum goals in this answer. Judy spoke with sincerity and theconviction that what she was saying was true because she guessed itwas what I wanted to hear.The danger here, though, is for the teacher to be satisfied with thereceived voice of the students. The received voice can only be viewedas a starting point for further exploration into the context at hand. Thereceived voice unfortunately provides the substance of curriculumassessment, but I found that it satisfies only the most basic expressiveneeds.This may be characterized as the "I speak to tell you what youwant to hear."The Subjective Voice.This position may find participants believing that their ownpersonal knowledge is the authentic truth. These students often resistthe views of others and prefer to keep their understandings private.Many of Tanya's journal entries are written in the subjective voice.Particularly those instances in which she communicated her earlycreation of a script and her concept of the play to me asking that they bekept confidential. At this point Tanya did not wish to risk exposure of herideas to what she perceived as an unreceptive audience. In this case,Tanya exhibited the fear that many bright students possess. She did notwant to be perceived as odd or unusual as a result of her ideas.134While this fear is common to most adolescents, Tanya's fear wasthe rejection of herself on the basis of her ideas, rather than on the morecommon fear of rejection based on social behaviour or appearance.Luke too spoke in the subjective voice in his journal when he declaredthat he often kept to himself in dark places. He rarely offered his ideas inpublic except for rare improvisational moments. In addition, Judy oftenspoke in her journal of her feelings negative feelings towards her father.She rejected him outright because she felt rejected by him. She spokefrom the subjective pain of the experience and could not, as yet,understand the complete context of the adult situation that was affectingher life.This may be characterized as the "I speak from what I haveexperienced" voice.The Procedural Voice.This participant might speak in a voice full of authority from truthsdiscovered in objective study of the drama experiences. Here, meaningin drama experiences lies in an analysis of external issues and does notinclude consideration of their own subjective experience. This languagetends to be formal and lacking in emotional awareness of oneself orothers.The objective truth about the production of a script for performancewas knowledge that informed some of Tanya's journal writing. Shespoke in a procedural voice when describing the blank,uncomprehending stares that she got when trying to give stage directionsto students who had little knowledge of such conventions. Had she been135willing to use less technical terms and had perhaps drawn on her ownfirst experiences of following a director, she might have not have had asmuch difficulty in communicating.While the study of drama conventions, theory and technique is notnecessary offered at the grade nine level, Tanya did provide some of thestudents a new drama experience in production. While her knowledgeand analysis of the external issues of production enabled Tanya to speakwith authority, she was not melding her intellectual knowledge with hersubjective understanding. She found herself in most difficulty in thesemoments.The implications of this type of voice for my role as teacherbecame clear. I had to understand that if I allowed learners to stop at thepoint that theory and objective knowledge could provide, then they wouldcontinue to speak without integrating their personal knowledge into theirvoice. They might begin to rely on the formal voice of theatre conventionrather than allowing the conventions to serve their own voice. And evenmore troublesome might be the situation in which, as in Tanya's case,she used the procedural voice as a barrier to really open and honestcommunications with her peers. I conjectured that may be true of boththe intellectual and emotional domains. Had Judy, for instance,expressed an intellectual understanding of her parents difficulties andthe sociology of divorce without acknowledging her own pain, then shewould have been speaking in the procedural voice. This may bedescribed as the "I will speak with the authority of theory," voice.136The Constructed Voice.From this perspective a voice is heard that springs from both theobjective truth of an experience as well as the subjective experience.Unique to the individual, this voice is confident, clear and sustainable,regardless of the external situation.Many instances of constructed voice are evident in this research.It is my belief that due to its varied nature, the drama process itself canprovide many opportunities for the production of the constructed voice.In this research each student spoke in a constructed voice at sometime in the project. Judy, when she warmed to the comment about hercreation of the nurse; Wayne, in his poem to his elderly buddy Mary;Luke, in his characterization of Mr. Jones; Jim, in his description of hisgrandmother and Tanya, in her gracious acceptance of hugs and flowersat the end of the show, each articulated their learning through theconstructed voice.I reflected that it was important for me to recognize that these voicetypes did not represent a hierarchy, but rather stages of voicedevelopment that are exhibited by students at various times in a dramaexperience and in their lives. A drama experience could provide for alltypes of voice, if I recognized that these voice types are useful descriptorsrather than evaluative criteria. That is, while it may be preferable forstudents to speak in a constructed voice, it is not always possible giventhe degree to which they are continually growing and changing. Thecomplete confidence of the constructed voice could only be attained if allthe other stages of voice had been experienced. It might be that each ofthese voice stages had its own authenticity because it reflected the137knowledge and expressive ability of the student at that particular time, inthat situated learning event.As a consequence of viewing my classroom from this newperspective, I realized that I may have missed some of the most profoundlearning that was taking place in my classroom. Had I been intent onlooking for what could be traditionally observable behaviours andlearning outcomes in drama, I might not have heard the lovely chorus ofconstructed voices that greeted me in this project. I required a new set ofeyes and ears to both hear and see that learning was taking place.I also found substantiation of my belief that a great deal of learningwas occurring in the drama class, and that inherent in the drama processitself there was a vast potential for the production of authentic voices thatexpressed those (earnings.138Enabling Voice Through Program Design.When I combined my reflections on voice types with myunderstanding of the drama process, I developed a design that helpedme to articulate the way in which drama could enable voice through theoverall design of a drama program.First, it was necessary to describe the type of dramatic behavioursthat take place in the drama situation. Gavin Bolton's (1984) constructmost clearly outlines the orientations, behaviours that drama contains. Itplaces drama on a continuum from "dramatic playing" to "performancemode"(p. 124). It may be represented in the following diagram as ahorizontal axis.Dramatic Playing Mode Performance Mode^(Expression)^(Representation)^Play 4-- Intention.^ Intention -- TechniqueTo Be To DescribeOver this construct I overlaid my schema for voice types,intersecting the horizontal axis with a vertical axis representing the typesof voice producing a grid on which types of voice could be plotted. Theconstruct can be expressed in the following diagram:4321^^•Voice Analysis Grid139Constructed VoiceProcedural VoiceSubjective VoiceReceived VoiceSilent VoiceDRAMATIC PLAYING^PERFORMANCE MODENeither of these axes is closed, and a position in any of the quadrantsserved to describe the type and location of the position relative to voiceand dramatic behaviour. It was possible, for the purposes of curriculumplanning for me to plot dramatic activities and strategies on this grid.For example, in this research, voices produced in sustaineddramatic playing in which the students individually created the day in thelife of an old person, could be graphed in quadrant 1. It was placed herebecause students received guidance from the teacher only in the form ofmusic played in the background and suggestions of the progressions oftime. The students were free to experience the drama very personallyand without an audience. Many of the Progoff journal exercises (see p.35) could be placed in this quadrant as well. Voices produced in thisquadrant could range from the silence of non-participation to the creationof a piece of poetry, or a drawing that might capture the content of theimagined experience.140Quadrant two was comprised of activities in which the studentsresponded to poetry, films, visits to the care centre that were led by me. Italso included the development of scenes that were based on thesestimuli. Quadrant 3 would include the shaping of scenes into dramaticform and the fully produced theatre piece would appear in quadrant 4.In each of these quadrants a range of voice types was possible.The exercise of plotting of the activities that comprised any drama projectserved only to tell me the type of voice that was favoured in that dramaticactivity. The plotting also indicates that activities can reflect a variety ofdramatic behaviours. Both those from the spontaneously improvised tothe fully produced theatre piece find a place on the chart.The purpose of this schema was to clarify for myself the fact that,as a teacher of drama, I needed to become aware of the differing types ofvoice that could be enabled by the drama process. I needed also toconsider that the individual student may speak in a predominate voiceand may show a preference for voicing his or her learning through aparticular data source. For example, of the nineteen data samples forTanya as described in this study, fourteen were taken from her journal.Most of these could be considered in the constructed voice type. Threevoiced learnings were expressed through audio samples and were of theprocedural type and two documents (poetry and the script) were in theconstructed voice.Once I became aware of these differences and preferences invoice, I could be sure to develop a program that provided expression inall four quadrants, and a full range of channels of expression rather thanproviding a predominance of experiences that tend to reside in quadrant4 and reflect only one voice type or serve the voices of others.141Consequently I would be assured that I was developing a balanceddrama programme that reflected a range of voices and a variety ofdramatic behaviours.142Chapter 5.Conclusions and RecommendationsOverviewThis chapter contains a method for seeing and listening to thevoices that are enabled by the drama process. It proposes a set of"channels" through which voice may be expressed and finds examples ofthese channels in the student voices. Recommendations for the kind ofresearch undertaken by this study are presented along with suggestionsfor further research arising from this study.Voice Channels"What are you looking at when you observe your students in adrama class?" was the question with which Gavin Bolton began hisopening address at the fall 1991 conference of the Association of BritishColumbia Drama Educators (Bolton, 1991)Bolton challenged drama educators to take special care to widenthe lens of their observations about the outcomes of drama. If drama isnot to be marginalized in the curriculum and if it is to address more than anarrow range of facts and skills, then the "teacher's eyes have to beeverywhere". He instructed that the teacher must widen her gaze so asto see more than the selective and specified outcomes that vested andnarrow interests perceive. This gaze must consider the broad range oflearning that can occur through drama when students are givenopportunities "so that connections might be made". (Bolton, 1991).143It is not the facts and skills that are important", Bolton says, "butrather what the facts amount to that is the domain of drama" (Bolton,1991). It is the meaning and the understanding that is extracted from thedrama experience that provides its true value in the learning process. Heasked the teacher "In your drama classroom, do you know what you arestaring at?".As a result of this question, I found myself applying Bolton'smetaphor in its broadest sense to this research. I might well have askedmyself, "Do you know what you are listening for?", when I began thisstudy to investigate the potential for drama to enable learning and voice.An examination of the findings indicates that learning occurredacross a broad range of areas and that learning was voiced at a varietyof levels. However, I found it most useful to take up Bolton's challengeand to specify what I was listening for in the drama process. Certainlyevidence of voiced learning could be considered a goal for listening, but Ifound it necessary to delve into the elements that comprised that voicing.I found in the most basic elements of human expression a usefultool to guide this thinking. That is, when the context of the dramaexperience is given expression, it is done so through the five most basicforms of human expression. These, as first described by MacLeod(1986) are (1) Written and spoken words (2) Images (3) Gestures (4)Numerical Concepts and (5) Sounds. For the purposes of this work, Idesignated these forms "voice channels" and used them to describe thevariety of ways in which voice might be expressed. In doing so, I wasable to consider a broader range of channels when "listening" in ametaphoric sense to the voices of students as they express their struggletowards understanding and learning.144I discovered that once a student has learned in any of the fivelearning areas in drama, he or she has the opportunity to voice thatlearning through one or a combination of the above channels. I foundthat in my role as teacher/assessor, I needed to be sensitive to thepotential of these channels if I were to make accurate and relevantassessments of the learning that was taking place. Therefore I foundthat it was necessary for me to make two adjustments in my approach toassessment strategies.First, I had to extend the range of my assessment focus beyondthose traditionally concerned with the observation of concept and skillacquisition. This required the expansion to a broader range of learningareas and inclusion of the hearing of voice channels that would expressthe learning in those areas. Second, I had to be sure to create a learningenvironment in which students would know that the voicing of learningacross broader range of learning areas and through differing channelswould have currency.When I reflected on the project on the elderly, I discovered thatthrough participation in it, students had come to understand the meaningwhat it was to be old, or to create a play, or to produce a play or to giveup an idea to have it replaced with someone else's, etc. I began to seethat my assessment of that learning would have to be different in order toaddress the depth and scope of learning that the drama process wasaffording.I determined that an essential characteristic of this drama processis its capacity to enable and allow for all channels of human expressionthrough which participants can give voice to learnings. These can then145be heard by an audience of teacher, peers and the community whobecome even more sensitive to the expression of understanding throughdrama. The voice channels that I found to describe the expanding rangeand scope of what I was seeing and hearing when I watched my dramaclasses are as follows.The Written or Spoken WordThis includes the written and/or spoken word that expresses alearner's understandings in any of the above the five learning areas ((1)about the elderly (2) about the self (3) about others and (4) aboutdramatic and language forms ) that frame this study. For example "voice"was found in the personal reflections in the student's journals, in diariesor journals written in role or as a result of imaging exercises or afterdrama activities. Word occurred in the poetry written in and out of role,and in the script that was created and in the interpretation of this script inperformance. Word was the channel through which group discussionswere heard, characters and situations were improvised and negotiationsand reflections that were instrumental to the new understandings werevoiced.ImageThese are the actual and metaphoric images that were created inresponse to the dramatic activities in the project. It involved the creationof images that are explicit elements of technical theatre such as thestaging, make-up and costume design. It also entailed the implicitimages such as those created by the characters as they told their stories.It occurred in the creation of those images in constructive rest andimaging exercises. In this case, both conscious and subconsciousimaginative capabilities were drawn on in the creation of images.146Gano Haine's (1985) work on archetypal imagery in drama impliesthat more than simply visual or sensory impressions must be included asimages. Drama has the ability to move students towards understandingand enables them to become involved in images on many levels. Hainesuggests that,Drama becomes an overarching kind of learning, teachingnot only the content area of the conscious mind (i.e., what Iremember of the characters, themes, and events of thestory) but also moving into the unknown, the shadow areaof the story which cannot reveal itself until we engage withit. (p. 191)This involvement with the imaginal life of the participants may bethe reason that drama is so often excluded from the curriculum. Itrequires bold ventures into the generally avoided realm of the null ornever-spoken curriculum. It is the reality of the interior imaginaryexperience that is craved by young people. It accounts for theirfascination with fantasy worlds and sometimes their inability todistinguish between fantasy and reality. Through enabling the voicing ofthis null curriculum, drama helps young people find meaning in theirimagery.GestureIncluded here is all movement expression that extends from basicmovement education elements such as "stillness", "levels", "directions","force", "speed" to the most extensive theories of dance andchoreography. The reading of gestures was essential to thisinvestigation. Those gestures recorded on video, and those inphotographs that stopped the flow of the action so that the impact of the147moment on the student could be observed, provided unequivocalevidence of voice.NumberI used number as a voice channel because in was inherent inmuch of the work of drama. Students may use numbers to express theirunderstanding of the organizational and technical aspects of drama.Few productions or even the smallest dramatic moment can be createdwithout numerical concepts. It is a necessary component of humancommunication and it became evident to me that the number conceptsthat were employed as the structure behind natural and designedrhythms in all dramatic behaviours could be used to indicate a student'sunderstanding of the meaning of the dramatic experience. When Iconsidered the application of number in the technical theatre (stage,costume design and construction) aspects of the final production of theplay, the business of performance of the created piece, and in theelements of number in the dance created for the final performance, I wasassured that numerical concepts were channels through whichunderstanding is expressed.I was also drawn to consider the aspect of time as a numericalconcept in drama. For example, Wayne's pause before his gesture ofresignation as the male nurse gave emphasis and full expression to hisunderstanding of the dramatic moment. It was a natural expression ofWayne's in-role reaction to the dramatic action that had just occurred,and it indicated that Wayne knew what was needed to express themoment.148SoundAs a channel of expression, sound was present in all of the abovechannels. It was an essential element of the script, music, poetry, dance,movement and images. It was the channel through which I heard first andthen was able to listen to what was being voiced by the studentsindividually and in their collective creation.The play itself spoke with a constructed voice. The day the playwas presented to an audience that included the long-lived buddies wasan instance in which the students knew that their collective voice hadbeen heard.I sat among the long-lived friends during the performance andmore than once heard "That's my story!", "How did she know that?", "Isaid that," and "I told him to put that in". They were very moved by theperformance and exceedingly grateful to have been invited. I wasprepared to share these responses with the students but found that theirconversations with their buddies after the performance accomplishedthis.A letter from the education coordinator of the care home verifiedthat connections had been made and that the students' voices had beenheard through their creation. Addressing her letter to the students andmyself, she wrote,I am really impressed with how much effort you putinto it and how good your acting is. Russell Post and Mrs.Granger and I talked about it afterwards. They reallyenjoyed it too. Your vignettes were so true to life that you149had us laughing and crying and feeling nostalgic. Thankyou so much.RECOMMENDATIONSTwo sets of recommendations arise from this study. The firstconcerns suggestions that may prove useful to another teacher-researcher undertaking this type of study and the second set refers torecommendations for further study.Research SuggestionsReflection on the process of this study led me to consider somestrategies that may have offered fUrther evidence of learning and voice.These are:1. An objective observer given the task of functioning as another pair ofeyes and ears might be included in the method. This might require along time commitment; but if the observer were consistently present, thenhis or her observations might lend validity to the findings of the teacher-researcher.2. A follow-up interview with students, after the completion of the studymight reveal the extent to which learning had been retained. Questionsspecific to the learning areas would be most appropriate in deriving thisinformation.1503. When the video is used for the gathering of data, it is most effectivewhen operated by one technician who films from the same location eachtime. This would improve the quality of the video data and may allow forthe use of high quality edited video data as a research report.4. Greater use of photographic and document data could be made in thistype of investigation if a revision of the anonymity stipulations for subjectscould be accomplished. While this is not always possible, given theconstraints of may school boards, the destruction of video, audio andphotographic records of a teaching moment is wasteful andunproductive. Much of this data could be used for teacher educationpurposes or retained in the private collection of the researcher.Suggestions for Further ResearchSuggestions for further research are also indicated in the findingsof this study. The drama process described enabled the voicing oflearning at various voice levels through a variety of voice channels. Thishas implications for the assessment of students and could provide aschema for the close tracking of the development of an individualstudent's voice throughout a particular drama project or even for theduration of a full year of drama studies.In the interests of interdisciplinary education, the application of thevoice levels and channels to other subject areas might provide usefulinformation in other programmes. In order to increase the range ofstrategies with which to assess student learning, voice might beconsidered an outcome in any subject matter.151Further investigation into the relationship between the tripartitecurriculum, voice types and learning areas may also have implicationsfor curriculum design. In drama, much of the null curriculum is addressedand even sought out as the content of drama investigations. That is, therelationship between what the student is learning about him or herself asa result of the learning about the content and about drama is essential tothe voicing of learning. A study of the extent to which drama builds onthe null and gives voice to the explicit could prove valuable in thecontinuing growth of drama as a learning medium.Finally, the teacher's journal has significant potential forinvestigation into the teacher's learning as a result of the drama process.Not only her learning in regard to the learning areas, but the learning thatwas resulted as she examined the influences that informed hercurriculum decisions. In the process of telling her story in the journal, theteacher's voice also could be heard.CONCLUSIONSVoice is an outcome of the dramatic experience that enablesparticipants to articulate the learning that takes place in and as a result ofthat experience. Drama provides educators with methods of identifyingand planning for the types and channels of voice that are inherent to thedrama process.It is within the power of drama educators, and those educatorswho wish to use dramatic strategies, to develop an "ear" for those voiceperspectives and seek them in all the channels in which they manifestthemselves. It is also possible, that with the inclusion of drama152education, the educational system may cease to serve as an instrumentfor the perpetuation of the voice of authority and the culture of silencing.Instead, it could serve as an enabler of authentic voices.Drama education then, may well become more of an empoweringforce that enables students to engage with the meaning of events andissues in their culture. Through engagement in dramatic activity,students will find their reality substantiated and their voices heard. As aresult of this kind of education students will find the authentic voice thatexpresses their learning, an audience to hear and consequently, theymay act upon and transform their world.It is in the context afforded by Drama that students find theconfidence to fill their language with their own intentions andunderstandings and in doing so find a voice. The continuedinvestigations of this potential will respond to Margaret Wooten's (1982)assertion that,"The opportunities that Drama offers children to find a voiceis only just beginning to be researched." (p. 194).153REFERENCESAuerbach, E. (1953). The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. (w. Trask, Trans.). New Jersey: Princeton University.Bakhtin, M. (1986). The Dialogic Imagination. (C. Emerson and M.Holquist, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas.Belenky, M., Clinchy, B., Goldberger, N., Tarule, J., (1986). Women'sWays of Knowing. The Development of Self. Voice. and Mind. , NewYork: Basic Books.Boal, A. 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