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An analysis of rhyme in poetry for children Harley, Avis Valerie 1992-09-16

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to the requi ed andardAN ANALYSIS OF RHYME IN POETRY FOR CHILDRENbyAVIS VALERIE HARLEYB.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1965A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESDepartment of Language EducationWe accept this thesis as conformingTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAApril 1992© Avis Valerie Harley, 1992In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of  Language EducationThe University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate  March 31st, 1992 DE-6 (2/88)iiABSTRACTThis thesis attempts to provide an insight into howrhyming devices and rhyme forms have been used in poetrywritten specifically for children. It looks at words thathave been selected by children's poets for their acousticaleffect as well as their literary meaning and explores howthe placement of each rhyming word affects the poem. Inorder to illustrate the context from which children's poetryhas evolved, an overview of what is known in general aboutthe historical roots of rhyme in the English language isreviewed through the works of the following scholars:Saintsbury, Lanz, Reeves, Fraser, Woods, Hollander, Wimsatt,and Pendlebury.Such widely differing poets as Isaac Watts (1674-1748), William Blake (1757-1827), Edward Lear (1812-1888),Lewis Carroll (1831-1898), Christina Rossetti (1830-1898),Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), Walter de la Mare (1873-1956), A.A. Milne (1882-1956), David McCord (1897- ), JohnCiardi (1916-1986), Eve Merriam (1916- ), and Valerie Worth(1933- ) have contributed significantly to the developmentand shaping of children's poetry. This paper examines howrhyme has been used by these twelve poets. 164 poems havebeen analyzed, totalling 2671 lines.iiiAlthough basically a descriptive, historical study,some quantitative data are included in the second chapter toillustrate the following:--frequency of rhyme patterns (couplet, triplet,quatrain, etc.)--preferred stanzaic forms--percentage of stressed or unstressed line-endings.The analysis offers statistical proof that wideexperimentation with all forms of children's poetry,especially free verse, has occurred in the twentiethcentury. Use of near-rhyme appears to have increased in thelast few decades. Poets' preferences for rhyme patternshave altered over the past three hundred years, buttraditional forms such as the couplet and quatrain continueto be popular choices of contemporary poets.The main purpose of this thesis is to illustrate theflexibility of rhyme by emphasizing the variety of devicesand forms in which rhyme has been successfully employed inchildren's poetry.TABLE OF CONTENTSPageAbstract ^  iiAcknowledgements ^  vIntroduction: The History of Rhyme ^  1Analysis of Rhyme Patterns and Line Endings ^ 19Rhyme Forms ^  33The Rhyming Device ^  51A Study of Poems by:William Blake ^  70Edward Lear  82Christina Rossetti ^  93Eve Merriam ^ 104Conclusions 114Bibliography ^ 122Appendix: Children's Poets ^ 127ivVACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to thank Dr. Wendy Sutton for herguidance, encouragement, and invaluable assistancethroughout the preparation of this thesis.My sincere gratitude also goes to Dr. Lee Johnson forgiving generously of his time. His comments and suggestionswere greatly appreciated.For a detailed critique of this paper in its finalstage, I am indebted to Dr. Carl Leggo.A special thank you also goes to my husband Frank forhis support and extraordinary patience.INTRODUCTION--THE HISTORY OF RHYMEInitially, rhyme in poetry appears to be the mostobvious of features involving sound identity. There are,however, other aspects of rhyme less obvious than theregular chime of identical word endings. John Hollanderviews rhyme as having the power to:...compel notice, to attune and even orchestrate,as it were, the attention of the scanning andlistening reader as it moves over the totality ofthe text, sometimes displaying its innerlinguistic workings on its surface, sometimessubmerging them, echoing in the memory, orlighting up expectation and hope. 1Henry Lanz describes rhyme as:...one of those irrational satellites thatrevolve around reason...it belongs to the form, tothe external appearance--poets call it the'dress'--of a poem which is at the same time theinherent substance of poetry. 2Wimsatt states:The words of a rhyme, with their curious harmonyof sound and distinction of sense, are an amalgamof the sensory and the logical, or an arrest andprecipitation of the logical in sensory form; theyare the icon in which the idea is caught. 3This paper attempts to describe rhyme and how poetshave used this poetic device in verse written specificallyfor children.The introductory chapter gives a review of the historyof rhyme and includes a summary of the influential debate1over rhyme which took place in the late sixteenth century.The second chapter presents a statistical analysis of aselection of poems by twelve major children's poets. Thethird and fourth chapters contain definitions of rhyme formsand rhyming devices respectively, illustrated through aseries of selected passages by children's poets from thefourteenth century to the present. The fifth chapterclosely examines four poets who have influenced thedevelopment of children's poetry: Blake, Lear, Rossetti, andMerriam. The final chapter provides a summary with commentson the findings in this thesis. It also looks at researchthat has been conducted on children's reactions to poetry:Kyte (1947), Avegno (1956), Norvell (1958), Nelson (1966),Terry (1972), Fisher/Natarella (1979), and Anderson (1990).These studies consistently revealed that children identifiedrhyme as being the most preferred poetic device. There is aneed for educators to have a deeper understanding of thisdynamic in poetry that arouses such a positive response inchildren. Judith Saltman states:A knowledge of the techniques poets choose, of theconnotations and denotations of words, of thenaming of parts--these add another dimensionfor those who already delight in poetry."Before examining rhyme in children's poetry, it isnecessary to look at its historical roots in the Englishlanguage and thus be able to consider the context from whichchildren's poetry has evolved. Poetry written for the youngshares many characteristics of adult poetry.2Rhyme comes from the Latin word rithmus and the Greekword rhythmos meaning "measured motion." 5 Rithmus laterreferred to end-word identity. In English, this word mergedwith the Saxon rime, meaning "a number" or "counting."Rhyme was established as distinct from rhythm during theEnglish Renaissance period. The modern spelling of rhymewas first introduced in the seventeenth century, and nowthis spelling is used more frequently than rime. The maindefinition of rhyme in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetryand Poetics is: "a metrical rhetorical device based on thesound-identities of words."Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) in his OpgrA,_Rbetorlc_IU,provided the first mention of what today is considered to betrue rhyme. Rhyme is discussed under the name"homoeoteleuton." The term "homoeoteleuton" is of Greekderivation, and means "the similarity of endings,"referring to the same case-endings in proximity.' Rhyme isused more frequently in Latin than in Greek because Latin isheavier in case-endings. Aristotle described rhyme as:...making the extreme words of both members of aperiod like each other. This must happen eitherat the beginning or at the end of each member. Ifat the beginning, the resemblance must always bebetween whole words; if at the end, between finalsyllables or inflections of the same word or thesame word repeated.°Aristotle was the first to acknowledge the power of wordbeginnings and endings that contained identical sounds, andhe recognized the artistic effect of "two contrasting ideas3under the control of one sound." 9 He recognized rhyme as away of helping "devise lively and taking sayings," thuspresenting the idea of rhyme as a mnemonic device. 3-° Thisidea has been considered by many to be one of rhyme'sfundamental functions.Quintilian (35-100 A.D.) in his IRPtintlktA9 Q4Wt.Q.11.3.7.Book IX, described different "forms of play upon verbalresemblances...words selected will be of equal length andwill have similar terminations...when clauses concludealike, the same syllables being placed at the end of each;this correspondence in the ending of two or more sentencesis called homoeoteleuton."-- Words with similar case-endings, tense indicators, etc. employ homoeoteleuton.Neither Aristotle or Quintilian includes personal opinionsregarding the effectiveness of this rhetorical device.Evidence as to when and how rhyme entered the Englishlanguage is inconclusive, but according to Henry Webb,English rhyming can be divided into four periods: OldEnglish, Middle English, Early Modern English, and LateModern English. 12Old English was spoken in the latter part of the firstmillennium and is barely recognizable as the language weknow today. End rhyming was somewhat difficult in thisinflectional system, and alliteration was the favoureddevice. Alliteration was also a strongly developed elementin the Welsh language. Intricate rhyming patternscontaining end rhyme and initial rhyme were found in Ireland4as early as 433 A.D. Early in the fifth century, a Scottishbishop, Coelius Sedulius, was writing Latin hymns in rhyme.In 1838, Guest published A History of_English_Rhythms, wherehe indicated end rhyme could be traced to the Old Celtic.In the History of English Poetry, Courthope suggests thatrhyme probably came from Arabic sources. Saintsbury statesin his Short History of English Literature that no one knowsexactly how rhyme first appeared in English literature.However, many scholars such as Arthur M. Clark andHenry W. Wells are of the opinion that Ireland seems to havebeen the centre where full rhyme first appeared in WesternEurope. Early hymns and poems being written in both Latinand Greek contained initial inflection as well as endstress. Twenty-eight examples of initial rhyme combinedwith end rhyme have been discovered by Friedrich Klaeber inthe Old English epic of Beowulf. 13Rhymed verse occurred in Middle English in the latterpart of the twelfth century and is found in a work entitledOwl 4.0 the Nightinga1g. Early lyrics sung by troubadoursprobably were influenced by the rhymes of travellingscholars.The inflectional system of Old English graduallychanged, and the alliterative line fell out of favour.French disyllabic and polysyllabic words were introducedinto Middle English verse, and the stress placed on thefinal syllable(s) allowed for easy accessibility to endrhyme. The language called Middle English was spoken from5around 1100 to 1500. End rhyme replaced alliteration as themost popular poetic device during this period.The French influence is strongly felt in Chaucer'spoetry. Although Chaucer complained about the "scarcitee ofrym" in England, he composed some 16,000 lines using theheroic couplet form (especially open couplets, where theidea is carried over from the sound-rhyme into thesucceeding line). He also displayed prodigious talent inthe use of the English Rime Royal (a seven-line stanza ofiambic pentameter and rhyming a-b-a-b-b-c-c).Chaucer (c 1343-1400) did not write poetry specificallyfor children, but the Manciple's passage from CADtQr_WIKYTales contained advice intended for the young, andemphasized the virtues of children controlling theirtongues:My son, thy tongue shouldst thou restrainAt all time, but when thou dost thy painTo speak of God, in honour and prayer.The first virtue, son, if thou wilt lere,Is to restrain and keep well thy tongue;Thus learn children when that they been young.- 4This excerpt was written in one of the most importantEnglish meters--the heroic couplet. The English form of theheroic couplet "is often thought to have developed withChaucer under the influence from the Old French decasyllablerhymed in couplets."-5John Lydgate (1370?-1450) published a populardescription in verse form on how a boy should behave when6serving at table. This was widely circulated in thesixteenth century:My dear child, first thyself enableWith all thine heart to virtuous discipline;Afore thy sovereign, standing at the table,Dispose thou thee after my doctrineTo all nurture thy courage to incline.First, when thou speakest be not reckless,Keep feet and fingers still in peace... 3-6Lydgate composed it using the seven-line Rhyme Royal stanzaform: a-b-a-b-b-c-c.Peter Idley (d. 1473?) published a treatise entitled"Instructions to his Son." It was also composed in RhymeRoyal and was 7,500 lines in length. It "stands as apleasing monument to a father's concern for his child'swelfare at the close of the Middle Ages."'-'According to Harvey Darton, there were no booksostensibly written to give children pleasure during thisperiod. Moral, didactic schoolbooks were plentiful, as weretreatises on good conduct (called courtesy books).Old courtesy books were usually written in rhyme toassist the child in memorizing. In situations wherechildren would not have been able to possess their own copyof a book, rhyme as a mnemonic device was particularlyhelpful.A surprising and refreshing diversion from theinstructional publications on manners and morals appeared in1563. Thomas Newbery (who was most likely related to thefamous Newbery publishing family) wrote the "Hooke in7Englyssh Metre of the great marchaunt man called DyvesPragmaticus, very pretye for chyldren to rede." Althoughnot written for pleasure or entertainment, it was meant tohelp children "rede and write Wares and Implements in thisworlde contayned." This seventy-four verse poem wascomposed in the most popular of English lyric forms--thequatrain--with a rhyme scheme of a-a-a-b:I have here to sell fine Needells and Thimbels,Nayle pearsers, smalle podde Chyselles and Wimbels,Blades, and for weavers fine Shuttells and Brembils,What do you lacke, friend? come hether to me. 3-8Shortly after Newbery's publication, the famouscontroversy over rhyme erupted in England. This took placeduring the Early Modern English period, which had begunapproximately 1500 A.D. This period was strongly influencedby The Great Vowel Shift, which facilitated rhyming throughthe shifting of the seven long, or tense, vowels.Susanne Woods stated that the controversy over rhyme"is the first debate to enunciate certain assumptions aboutverse generally and English verse particularly...admirationof the classics and an attempt to 'overgo' foreign models,on the one hand, and patriotism on the other." 3-9This debate was sparked by a publication by RogerAscham (1515-1568) who was a Fellow of St. John's College,Cambridge, and a tutor to Princess Elizabeth. His book, The.Scholemaster, was published in 1570, two years after hisdeath. In it, he denounced the use of rhyme and introducedEngland to the idea that rhyme was "brought first into Italy8by Goths and Huns, when all good learning too was destroyedby them, and after carried into France and Germany, and atlast received in England by men of excellent wit indeed, butof small learning and less judgement in that behalf.... 120In Ascham's opinion, anything that stemmed from such a"barbarous" origin could not possibly contain any artisticmerit. He believed that rhymeless quantitative verse basedon classical culture was far superior to the popular rhymingsystem of English poetry.Ascham's comments sparked the long and influentialliterary controversy over rhymeless verse (using theclassics as models) versus rhymed poetry (Englishversemaking, using popular, contemporary, continentalmodels).William Webbe, also a member of St. John's College,Cambridge, published in 1586 his pisurpe_pf_EnglishPoetrift. He was an important participant in the debatebetween the advocates and the non-advocates of rhyme.According to Lanz, Webbe was the first English prosodist whotheoretically proclaimed "the union between rime and sense"and recommended in his rules for successful rhyming "not tomake violence to grammatical order for the sake of rime./ 21He endorsed the regular forms found in classical metres and,like Ascham, denounced rhyme as a "rude kinde of verse" and"brutish poetry" that had been introduced by the barbarians.Webbe viewed rhyme as being of a rhythmical nature. Hedefined rhyme as "the falling out of verses together in one9like sound," advocating Aristotle's theory that stressed theacoustics rather than the printed image.George Puttenham published The Art of English Poesie in1589. He maintained that:We make in th' ends of our verses a certainetunable sound: which anon after with another versereasonably distant we accord together in the lastfall or cadence: the eare taking pleasure to hearethe like tune reported, and to feele his returne.And for this purpose serve the monosillables ofour English Saxons excellently well.... 22Puttenham expressed a distaste for classical versing. Herecognized the power of the rhyme scheme and how rhyme couldmanipulate emotional effects.Stephen Gosson dedicated his Puritanical diatribeagainst poetry in Theaghoql_gf_Ab.ut (1579) to Sir PhilipSidney (without his permission), and this work probablyprompted Sir Philip Sidney to begin composing his Defencepoesje. This treatise was published in 1595, seven yearsafter Sidney's death. Sidney was also aware of the power ofrhyme and linked it with memory: "Now that verse farexceedeth Prose, in the knitting up of the memorie, thereason is manifest, the words...being so set as one cannotbe lost, but the whole woorke failes: which accusing itselfe, calleth the remembrance back to it selfe, and so moststrongly confirmeth it....It must be in jest that any mancan speak against it." 23Thomas Campion (1567-1620), in his Observations in the1 011Art of English^Poesie (1602), strongly objected to rhyme,labelling it a "childish titilation" and denouncing the"Fatness of Rhyme." 24 He noted that it interfered with thereader's attention to the internal aspects of a line ofpoetry. However, Campion's theories on quantitative verseand his expressed distaste of rhyme do not override the factthat he was a fine writer of rhymed verse.Samuel Daniel (1562-1619) responded to Campion with thepublication in 1603 of his Defence^Rhyme: "We could wellhave allowed of [Campion] his numbers had he not disgracedour Ryme: Which bothe Custome and Nature doth mostpowerfully defend...." 25 Daniel argued strongly in favourof the virtues of the rhyming device: "Ryme...is likewisenumber and harmonie of words, consisting of an agreeingsound in the last silables of severall verses, giving bothto the Eare an Eccho of a delightful report & to the Memoriea deeper impression of what is delivered therein."'However, Daniel objected to the use of couplets, preferringinstead stanzas of alternate rhyme.Ben Jonson (1572-1637) responded to this treatise withA Fit of^Rhyme Against  Rhyme and denounced both Campion andDaniel, especially the latter, as Daniel had condemnedJonson's beloved couplet. Jonson enthusiastically describedcouplets as being "the bravest sort of verses" and spokeagainst "cross-rhymes and stanzas." 27 In the concludingsection of A Fit of Rhyme  Against Rhyme, he inserted a senseof humour into this literary battle when he addressedrhyme's inventor:He that first invented theeMay his joints tormented be,Cramped forever;Still may syllables jar with time,Still may reason war with rhyme,Resting never!May his sense when it would meetThe cold tumor of his feetGrow unsounder;And his title be long Fool,That in rearing such a SchoolWas the founder."Milton (1608-1674) referred to rhyme in "The Verse,"his opening advertisement to Paradise_Lost, as the"invention of a barbarous age to set off wretched matter andlame metre" and "a troublesome and modern bondage."" Hefelt that rhyme imposed literary chains on the writer. In asense, Milton rescued blank verse from the poetic turmoilthat was raging at the time.Dryden (1630-1700), in his Essay op Dramatic Poesy(1668), reiterated Jonson's viewpoints on the use of thecouplet, and established the heroic couplet as the mostimportant metre in English poetry. Dryden was a majordefender of rhyme, and attempted to justify it by suggestingthat rhyme controlled the poet's imagination. In theDedication to Tbe_RiVal.L4Oles, he stated that blank verseallowed the poet too much freedom; therefore:...he is tempted to say many things which mightbetter be omitted, or at least shut up in fewerwords; but when the difficulty of artful rhymingis interposed, where the poet commonly confines12his sense to the couplet...rhyme cuts off allunnecessary expenses...and is like to bring forththe richest and clearest thoughts. 3°Edward Bysshe published The Art of Poetry in 1702.Although he did not fully deal with rhyme in this book,Bysshe claimed that stanzas of "intermixed rhyme...are nowwholly laid aside" and that Shakespeare used blank verse toavoid "the tiresome constraint of rhyme." Although Byssheappears to have been an obscure person, his viewpoints areconsidered to be representative of the eighteenth-centurymind. 32-However, Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) was devoted to therhyming couplet and disapproved of blank verse, preferringlines and rhymes to be regularly patterned.While this controversy over rhyme was raging, verse wasbeing written for children in the traditional iambictrimeter or tetrameter, and invariably contained predictableend rhymes (in couplets or alternating unrhymed and rhymedlines).A verse by Abraham Chear appeared in 1672 in hispublication A Looking-Glass for Children, in which he usedthe common meter (4/3/4/3 metric arrangement) with a rhymingpattern of a-b-a-b:When by spectators I am toldWhat beauty doth adorn me,Or in a glass when I beholdHow sweetly God did form me--Hath God such comeliness bestowedAnd on me made to dwell.What pity such a pretty maidAs I should go to He111 3213This verse reflected the Puritan outlook on children:"young souls to be saved, or, more probably, damned." 33Poetry written for children before the 1700's alwaysstressed civilized conduct and good morals.However, in 1686, John Bunyan (1628-1688) published aBook  for Boys and Girls: or„ Country_Rhimes for Childrenwhere he wrote about homely objects and familiar activitiesin a child's life. He used either couplets or thealternating rhyme scheme throughout this book.Dr. Isaac Watts (1674-1748), according to John RoweTownsend, can be identified as "the first children's poet."His book of Divine Songs Attempted ^in EasyLanguage for theUse of Children was enormously popular in England andAmerica, where six to seven hundred editions were producedbetween 1715 and 1915. Copies of his poems were to be foundin every 'proper' eighteenth and nineteenth-century nursery.In his preface to the Diyine_Songs, Watts emphasized theusefulness of learning through rhyme:There is a greater Delight in the very Learning ofTruths and Duties this way. There is something soamusing and entertaining in Rhymes and metre, thatwill incline Children to make this part of theirBusiness a Diversion....What is learnt in verse islonger retain'd in Memory, and soon recollected.The like Sounds and the like number of Syllablesexceedingly assist the remembrance. 34Isaac Watts, like Milton, claimed to be sensitive to themonotony of the rhyming couplet (although frequentlyemployed it in his poetry for children). Watts is an14important figure in the history of children's poetry. Upuntil his time, most verse for the young was exhortation,but Watts recommended that:...authors should write for children, and thattheir verses should be 'flowing with cheerfulness,and without the solemnities of religion, or thesacred names of God and holy things; that childrenmight find delight and profit together.' 35Blake, who referred to rhyme as "modern bondage" and"Poetry Fetter'd Fetters the Human Race," would certainlyhave been familiar with the poems of Isaac Watts. 36 Thelyrical joy heard in Blake's Songs of  Innocence is not onlyfor children but for the innocence in all humanity.The death of Blake in 1827 coincided with theapproximate beginning of The Late Modern English period.A new sense of freedom entered children's poetry, perhaps asa reaction to the severity of Puritanical restrictions.Lear and Carroll introduced nonsense verse to the Victorianworld. Rossetti and Stevenson were strong lyrical voices inthe nineteenth century, as were de la Mare, Milne, andMcCord for the early twentieth century. Saitman states that"De la Mare's roots go back to Blake's intense lyricism, anda profound identification with children illuminates hiswork." 37An explosion of creative talent has appeared in thelast forty years, and names such as Ciardi, Merriam, andWorth leap forward. These innovative contemporary poetsdisplay enormous flexibility in their writing.15An historical viewpoint and a clear understanding ofthe thought behind such ideas as the development of initialinflection in a word, the concept of accented line endings,the introduction of end rhyme, the increasing frequency ofstructural full rhyme, and the growing popularity of freeverse help to explain the poetic experimentation in thetwentieth century that has allowed readers to becomeaccustomed to the sound of rhymes which do not followtraditional measures.The sound of rhymes will be analyzed in the followingchapter through a close examination of a selection of poemsby twelve of the children's writers mentioned in thisoverview.NOTES3- John Hollander, Vision a d Resonance (New Haven: YaleUniv. Press, 1985) 134.2 Henry Lanz, Physical Basis of Rime (California:Stanford Univ. Press, 1931) 293.3 W.K. Wimsatt, The  Verbal Icon (Kentucky: Univ. Pressof Kentucky, 1954) 165.4 Judith Saltman, The Riverside Anthology of Children'sLiterature (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1985) 89.165 Joseph Shipley, In Praise of English (New York: TimesBooks, 1977) 200.6 Arthur Melville Clark in The Princeton Encyclopediaof Poetry_. and Poeticq, ed. Alex Preminger (New Jersey:Princeton Univ. Press, 1990) 705.' Preminger 353.6 Aristotle in Henry Lanz's The Physical Basis of Rime(California: Stanford Univ. Press, 1931) 152.9 Lanz 152.1° Lanz 152.Quintilian, The Institutio Oratoria, trans. H.E.Butler (London: William Heinemann, 1921) III, ix, 491.2 Henry Webb in Preminger, 709.19 Alexander M. Witherspoon, ed. The College Survey of English Literature (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1951)14.14 Geoffrey Chaucer, "Controlling the Tongue," TheOxford Book of  Children's Verse, ed. Iona and Peter Opie(London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1975) 3.Preminger 345.Opie 4.17 Opie 368.le Thomas Newbery in John Rowe Townsend's Written forChildren (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Kestrel Books, 1974)132.19 Susanne Woods, Natural Emphasis (San Marino: TheHuntington Library, 1984) 124.1720 Ascham in Lanz, 308.Zi Webbe in Lanz, 167.22 George Puttenham, The Arte of English Poesie (1589;Menston, England: Scolar Press, 1968) 63.23 Sir Philip Sidney, The Defence of Poesie (1595;Menston, England: Scolar Press Ltd., 1968) 38-39.24 Campion in Lanz, 309-10.25 Samuel Daniel, A Defence of Ryme, ed. Arthur ColbySprague (1603; Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1930) 131.26 Daniel 132.27 Ben Jonson in George Saintsbury's Historical Manualof English Prosody (London: MacMillan and Co., 1910) 239.28 Jonson in Lanz, 310.29 Milton in Witherspoon, 394.30 Dryden in Lanz, 182-83.32" Saintsbury 245.32 Chear in Townsend, 20-21.33 Townsend 20.34 Townsend 132.35 Opie 386.36 Blake in Hollander, 208.37 Saltman 91.18ANALYSIS OF RHYME PATTERNS AND LINE ENDINGSThis chapter is devoted to the analysis of rhyme inchildren's poetry from the eighteenth century to thepresent. In this study, an effort has been made to adaptJames Bailey's investigative techniques of ten Englishpoets' use of iambic tetrameter to an examination of twelvechildren's poets' use of rhyme. 1The verse of the twelve selected poets offers a randomsampling of rhyme forms used in children's poetry over aspan of three centuries. 164 poems were considered in thisstudy, totalling 2671 lines. An average of 223 lines perpoet was examined. Poems were taken in the chronologicalorder in which they appeared in single-author collections oranthologies.Only a few poems of each of the twelve children's poetswere analyzed, thus presenting only a sampling of thewritings of an individual. There may be other uses of rhymewhich an examination of the complete works of one poet wouldreveal. Since all the poems of one writer are not beingexamined, there is a chance that some uses of rhyme will notbe identified. The final conclusions are based on only thepoems being considered in this study. The poems have beenidentified by numbers.The following aspects of rhyme will be considered:--frequency of rhyme patterns (couplet, triplet,quatrain, etc.)19--the preferred stanzaic forms--frequency of each type of line ending (stressedor unstressed)The following poets have been selected because of thestrong influence they have had on the development ofchildren's poetry and the effect they have had on singleauthors (Watts on Blake, Blake on de la Mare, Lear onCiardi, Stevenson on McCord):The Eighteenth CenturyIsaac Watts (1674-1748)William Blake (1757-1827)The Nineteenth Century (nonsense verse)Edward Lear (1812-1888)Lewis Carroll (1831-1898)The Nineteenth Century (lyric poetry)Christina Rossetti (1830-1898)Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894)Early Twentieth CenturyWalter de la Mare (1873-1956)A.A. Milne (1882-1956)David McCord (1897- )Last Forty YearsJohn Ciardi (1916-1986)Eve Merriam (1916- )Valerie Worth (1933- )20SUMMARY OF RHYME PATTERNS USED BY:Couplet Triplet Quatrain Quintet Sixain OtherWatts 35.7 64.3 -- --Blake 52.1 36.9 11.0Lear 27.8 10.9 24.8 36.5Carroll 28.2 25.6 46.2Rossetti 22.3 54.8 5.1 6.1 11.7Stevenson 70.7 20.2 9.1De la Mare 9.8 76.5 13.7Milne 15.8 1.5 39.4 17.2 26.1McCord 37.3 6.9 21.0 34.8Ciardi 12.2 80.8 2.3 4.7Merriam 10.2 2.4 15.7 13.8 7.1 50.8Worth 6.9 16.2 13.8 3.9 4.6 54.6The quatrain is the major scheme employed by Ciardi(81%), de la Mare (77%), Rossetti (55%), Watts (64%), andMilne (40%). The couplet is the favoured form for thefollowing poets: Stevenson (71%), Blake (52%), and McCord(37%).Except for Ciardi (5%), free verse shows asignificantly steady increase in popularity, beginning withRossetti (12%) through Worth (55%). Free verse was notemployed by Watts, Blake, Lear, and Carroll. Rossetti wasthe first to experiment with this form. Rossetti alsoexperimented widely with other verse forms, as did Milne.Free verse is the dominant rhyme pattern for Merriam (51%)and Worth (55%). However, their work reflects aninteresting distribution throughout all forms, suggesting adesire to experiment with many different patterns.The random sampling of Worth's poems (19 in total),taken to ascertain her stanzaic preferences, was compared toa close examination of her complete works (99 poems) in21order to make a comparison between the random sampling ofone poet's work and the complete writings of thatindividual. It revealed the following comparisons:MOST COMMON RHYME FORMS IN THE COMPLETE WORKS OF WORTHCouplet Triplet Quatrain Quintet Sixain Other19 poems^6.9^16.2^13.8^3.9^4.6^54.699 poems^5.0 15.2 18.2 12.1 5.0^44.5A strong similarity appeared in the two samplings.Free verse was the dominant pattern in both, although itoccurred slightly less frequently in the analysis of hercomplete works. The five-line scheme appeared infrequentlyin the random sampling of Worth's poems (4%).All twelve poets in this study used the couplet andquatrain. The most preferred verse form among these poetswas the quatrain (976 lines out of a total of 2671; or 37%),followed by the couplet (27%), followed by the categorydefined as "other" (18%). "Other" is predominantly freeverse, but does include a few isolated examples of theseptet (Milne-20), the octet (Rossetti-18, de la Mare-3),and the decima (de la Mare-12).STANZAIC FORMS IN ORDER OF OCCURRENCEQuatrain 36.6%Couplet^26.8Other^18.3Quintet^7.2Sixain 7.2Triplet^3.822The quintet score (7%) was inflated by Lear's prolificuse of the limerick form.LINE ENDINGSLine endings have been divided into two generalcategories according to the position of the final stress:a stressed ending has the stress on the last (or single)syllable and an unstressed ending has the final stress onthe penultimate (or the antepenultimate) syllable.Different degrees of stress are sometimes discriminated:strong, secondary, tertiary, and weak. Only the termsstressed (strong) and unstressed (weak) are used here.PERCENTAGE OF EACH TYPE OF LINE ENDINGStressed UnstressedWatts^78.6 21.4Blake 84.8 15.2Lear^89.1 10.9Carroll^91.0 9.0Rossetti^79.7 20.3Stevenson^88.1 11.9De la Mare^74.5 25.5Milne^69.5 30.5McCord 89.8 10.2Ciardi^87.7 12.3Merriam 78.7 21.3Worth^81.2 18.8Stressed endings are more common (70 to 91%) thanunstressed endings.^A significant number of unstressedendings are used by Milne^(31%), de la Mare (26%), Merriam(21%), Watts (21%), and Rossetti (20%).There are three pairs of rhymes occurring at the endsof lines which have an uncertain number of syllables:2324Watts^ 2 "flower" : "hour"n ^5 "brier" : "higher"Blake^ 10 "flower" : "bower"It is unclear whether Watts and Blake intended these wordsto be elided. Poetic contractions occurred most often inverse written between the Restoration period and the end ofthe eighteenth century. Contractions were...observed by the reader even if the word wasprinted in full, for the aesthetic of eighteenthcentury poetry assumes that each line will besyllabically regular....The contemporary reader ofeighteenth century poetry derived much of hisaesthetic delight from his deliberate andconscious 'regularizing,' through contraction, ofnormally irregular phonetic materials. 2Therefore, if the contractions were considered evenwhen the word appeared in full, "flower" : "hour" would bemonosyllabic. All other end rhymes in this poem are clearlyof one syllable, and the iambic rhyme is used throughout.It is not evident that "brier" : "higher" would beelided, although this pair of words is contained in a poem(Watts-5) of anapestic tetrameter, which would indicate amonosyllabic ending. However, in this same poem Wattsincluded three other instances of the hypermetrical line(where an extra syllable has been added to the end of aline):Watts^5 "slumber" : "number"If ^5 "drinking" : "thinking"II ^5 "breeding" : "reading"Blake was explicit in indicating the number ofsyllables in the poem containing "flower" : "bower" (#10).In the final verse, he elided "wash'd" and "o'er,"suggesting words without a marked contraction were to beread as disyllabic.Most rhymes have a heavily stressed vowel related tothe final ictus, but unstressed rhyme also occurs. In thisstudy, there are many examples of the pairing of oneunstressed rhyme with another unstressed rhyme.EXAMELES.A)F.UNSTRESSED:-UNSTRES.SED_RHYME:Within this category, there were a number of cases inwhich only the final unstressed syllables created rhyme:25Blake ^5^210101010Rossetti----12Stevenson---14De la Mare--10Merriam^24101718"blossom" : "bosom""weary" : "merry""blessing" : "ceasing""dreadful" : "heedful""meekness " : "sickness""spirit" : "inherit""wither" : "together""river" : "ever""whistling" : "knocking""moonday" : "whensday" : "freeday""living" : "dying""standing" : "spouting""hedges" : "plunges""gently" : "happily"WorthMerriam used one stressed -unstressed-unstressed pair (theonly example in this study):Merriam 13 "quote-throated" : "footnoted"Near rhymes appeared in the following instances:2 "weary" : "merry"Blake26Blake^5 "robin" : "sobbing"Rossetti----14 "violet" : "twilight"Milne^1 "nurse's" : "Percy's"Nonsense rhyme also was used:Lear^2 "Churtsey" : "curtsy"6 "Etna" : "Gretna"^12 "sniffle-snuffle" : "ruffle"Milne 4 "dormouse" : "e-nor-mous"Ciardi ^10 "Yuma" : "puma"11 "jingle-jangle" : "a-dangle"Merriam^2 "moonday" : "whensday" : "freeday"The placement of function words created rhymes withunstressed-unstressed endings:Lear^12 "bonnet" : "on it"12 "fashion" : "sash on"Carroll ^1 "suet" : "do it"Rossetti----17 "looked at" : "crooked a t"----19 "lambkin" : "shelter him"Ciardi ^4 "popper" : "stop her"McCord 2 "out of" : "doubt pt"EXAKPLES.OF_STRESSED7UNSTRESUP RHYBE:There were a number of cases of stressed endingsrhyming with unstressed endings with 43% of these instancesoccurring in poetry by Merriam:Lear ^12 "went" : "monument"5 "size" : "sympathize"^Stevenson^4 "man" : "caravan"7 "star" : "Malabar"---10 "set" : "minaret"---10 "Nile" : "crocodile"De la Mare--17 "say" : "caraway"Merriam^10 "create" : "annihilate"3 "sea" : "memory"^4 "tree" : "seriously"7 "telephone" : "alone"^9 "go" : "radio"^14 "me" : "hesitancy"27Worth^12 "tree" : "heavy"Within this category of stressed-unstressed rhymes, thesecond part of a compound word makes up the unstressedsyllable:Blake^7Stevenson^1If^---16McCord^5Merriam 1"away" : "noonday""night" : "candlelight""plain" : "counterpane""wing" : "wellearing""sing" : "everything"gtressed=unetressed rhymes appeared in nonsense words:Carroll 4 "catch" : "Bandersnatch"and a few near rhymes also occurred:Stevenson----10 "walla," : "festivals"Milne^10 "gpn." : "Amazon"Worth 2 "stone : "hipbones".This chapter has attempted to gain an insight into howrhyme forms and line endings have been used by twelvechildren's poets. It seems possible to conclude that thepreferences of twentieth century children's poets differfrom those of the eighteenth century in the followingrespects:--wider experimentation with all forms of poetry--significant increase in free verse (0% to 57%)--greater usage of line endings containing nearrhymes, as opposed to full rhymes--an increase in the use of polysyllabic"nonsense" words--fewer colloquial contractions.However, two similarities appeared throughout:--stable preference for stressed line endings(Watts-78.6%; Rossetti-79.7%; Merriam-78.7%)--use of the couplet and quatrain by all poets.Although free verse has increased in popularity in thelast few decades, the couplet and quatrain continue to bewell used by poets. The quatrain was the most common rhymepattern for Ciardi (81%).Only a few poets and a limited number of lines havebeen examined in this study but the analysis offersquantitative evidence leading to the conclusion that poets'uses of rhyme forms have altered appreciably over the pastthree centuries.NOTES1 James Bailey, T0WAXd a $_tatig_tical...Artaly4ig...at(Lisse, Netherlands: The Peter de RidderPress, 1975) 66-70.2 Alex Preminger, ed., The  Princeton  Encyclopedia ofPoetry and  Poetics (New Jersy: Princeton Univ. Press, 1990)628.28pOEMS.USED_IN_THE_STUDyIsaac Watts, The Oxford Book of Children's Verse, Iona andPeter Opie, ed. (London: Oxford University Press, 1975): (1)"Against Quarrelling and Fighting", (2) "Against Idlenessand Mischief", (3) "For the Lord's Day Evening",(4) "Our Saviour's Golden Rule", (5) "The Sluggard", (6)"Cradle Hymn".William Blake, Songs of  Innocence (London: Faber & Faber,1958): (1) "Introduction", (2) "The Echoing Green", (3)"Infant Joy", (4) "The Shepherd", (5) "The Blossom", (6)"The Lamb", (7) "The Little Black Boy", (8) "Laughing Song",(9) "Spring", (10) "Night".Edward Lear, The_gxford pook_of_gbildre_pLs_VeIsq: (1) "Therewas an Old Man with a beard", (2) "There was an Old Lady ofChertsey", (3) "There was an Old Man in a tree", (4) "Therewas an Old Man who said, 'How...", (5) "There was an Old Manwho said, 'Hush!...", (6) "There was an Old Person ofGretna", (7) "There is a Young Lady, whose nose",(8) "Therewas an Old Man of Dumbree", (9) "The Owl and the Pussy-Cat",(10) "The Duck and the Kangaroo", (11) "The Jumblies", (12)"Mr. and Mrs. Spikky Sparrow".Lewis Carroll, Oxford Book of Children's Verse: (1) "You areold, Father William", (2) "The Lobster Quadrille", (3) "The29Lobster", (4) "Jabberwocky", (5) "The Walrus and theCarpenter", (6) "Humpty Dumpty's Song".Christina Rossetti, Oxfprd Book of Children's Verse: (1) "ACrown of Windflowers", (2) "Comparisons", (3) "Ferry meacross the Water", (4) "Flint", (5) "Lady Moon", (6) "TheWind", (7) What are Heavy?", (8) "The Rainbow", (9) "Whatdoes the Bee do?", (10) "A Riddle", (11) "Caterpillar", (12)"Hope and Joy", (13) "Last Rites", (14) "What is Pink?",Doves  and , Pomegranates, David Powell, ed. (London: TheBodley Head, 1969): (15) "Lambs at Play", (16) "The Frog andthe Toad", (17) "The City Mouse and the Garden Mouse", (18)"A Motherless Soft Lambkin", (19) "Horses", (20) "Hurt NoLiving Thing", (21) "The Sound of the Wind", (22) "Coral",(23) "The Moon".Robert Louis Stevenson, A Child's Garden of Verses (London:Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1985): (1) "Bed in Summer", (2) "AThought", (3) "At the Seaside", (4) "Young Night Thought",(5) "Whole Duty of Children", (6) "Rain", (7) "PirateStory", (8) "Foreign Lands", (9) "Windy Nights", (10)"Travel", (11) "Singing", (12) "Looking Forward", (13) "AGood Play", (14) "Where Go the Boats?", (15) "Auntie'sSkirts", (16) "The Land of Counterpane".Walter de la Mare, Peacock Pie (London: Faber and Faber,1989):^(1) "The Horseman", (2) "Alas, Alacki", (3) "Tired30Tim", (4) "Mima", (5) "The Huntsmen", (6) "The Bandog", (7)"I Can't Abear", (8) "The Dunce", (9) "Chicken", (10) "SomeOne", (11) "Bread and Cherries", (12) "Old Shellover", (13)"Hapless", (14) "The Little Bird", (15) "Mr Alacadacca",(16) "Not II", (17) "Cake and Sack", (18) "Groat norTester".A.A. Milne, The_World of_ChrlAtoRber Robin (New York: E.P.Dutton, 1955): (1) "Corner-of-the-Street", (2) "BuckinghamPalace", (3) "Happiness", (4) "The Christening", (5) "Puppyand I", (6) "Twinkletoes", (7) "The Four Friends", (8)"Brownie", (9) "Independence", (10) "Nursery Chairs", (11)"Lines and Squares".John Ciardi, Mummy_Took Cooking_Lessons (Boston: HoughtonMifflin Co., 1990): (1) "Mummy Took Cooking Lessons and...",(2) "In Copenhagen by the Sea", (3) "Hi", (4) "BettyBopper", (5) "The Milkman Comes at Four in the Morning", (6)"Lemonade for Sale", (7) "Who?", (8) "The Boy Who Knew HeWas Good", (9) "Do You Suppose?", (10) "Dirty Dan Ploof",(11) "Jerry", (12) "Mike (or Joe)", (13) "The Flier", (14)"Ode", (15) "The Man with Nothing to Say".David McCord, One at a Time (Boston: Little, Brown and Co.,1980): (1) "Joe", (2) "Five Little Bats", (3) "Five Chants",(4) "The Rainbow", (5) "The Star in the Pail", (6) "At theGarden Gate", (7) "The Fisherman", (8) "Something Better",31(9) "The Newt", (10) "Tim", (11) "Father and I in theWoods".Eve Merriam, Finding a_poem (New York: Atheneum, 1970): (1)"The Wholly Family", (2) "Calendar", (3) "Sandwriting", (4)"Interview", (5) "Umbilical", (6) "Some Little Poems Withoutthe Word Love", (7) "Neuteronomy", (8) "Alarm Clock", (9)"Witness", (10) The Measure of Man", (11) "Fantasia", (12)"Cult", (13) "Word Bird", (14) "Markings: The Period", (15)"Markings: The Exclamation", (16) "Markings: The Comma",(17) "Markings: The Semicolon".Valerie Worth, ll_the small_ppems. (Farrar, Straus andGiroux, 1987): (1) "porches", (2) "cow", (3) "zinnias", (4)"chairs", (5) "sun", (6) "coins", (7) "aquarium", (8) "pig",(9) "jewels", (10) "tractor", (11) "grass", (12) "dog", (13)"raw carrots", (14) "marbles", (15) "clock", (16) "duck",(17) "daisies", (18) "pie", (19), "frog".32RHYME FORMSThis chapter explains what the rhyme form is, what itcan do, and how it has been used in children's poetry. Theform is not what the poem is about, but the way in which itis written. It is the structure of the poem and has avariety of patterns. These patterns are derived from manydifferent literary periods and cultures: "...Greek andLatin, early English, French, Italian, German, and othermodern European languages, and from Japanese."-Throughout this study, rhyme form is presumed toinclude the acrostic, ballad, ballade, blank verse,cinquain, clerihew, couplet, free verse, haiku, limerick,octet, quatrain, quintet, rhyme royal, sixain, septet,sonnet, triolet, triplet, and villanelle.ACROSTICAcrostic comes from the Greek word "akros" (at the end)and "stichos" (line or verse). The initial, middle, and/orfinal letters of each line are arranged in vertical order tocomprise a word, phrase, or successive letters of thealphabet. Ancient Greek and Latin writers frequently usedthis form, and it probably served as a mnemonic device.The initial letters are used in most acrostics. A"telestich" is when the final letters are used, and a"mesostich" is when the middle letters appear vertically inthe center of the poem.33Acrostics belonging to the alphabetical type are calledabecedarians. Abecedarians (alphabet verse) date back toantiquity. This form has been used frequently in children'salphabet books. The letters of the alphabet are arranged intheir correct order and form the initial letters of eachline (and in the case of the following anonymous seventeenthcentury example, also the medial letters).A was an Archer, and shot at a frog,B was a Blindman, and led by a dog.C was a Cutpurse, and lived in disgrace,D was a Drunkard, and had a red face.E was an Eater, a glutton was he,F was a Fighter, and fought with a flea.G was a Giant, and pulled down a house,H was a Hunter, and hunted a mouse.I was an Ill man, and hated by all,K was a Knave, and he robbed great and small.L was a Liar, and told many lies,M was a Madman, and beat out his eyes.N was a Nobleman, nobly born,O was an Ostler, and stole horses' corn.P was a Pedlar, and sold many pins,Q was a Quarreller, and broke both his shins.R was a Rogue, and ran about town,S was a Sailor, a man of renown.T was a Tailor, and knavishly bent,U was a Usurer, took ten per cent.W was a Writer, and money he earned,X was one Xenophon, prudent and learn'd.Y was a Yoeman, and worked for his bread,Z was one Zeno the Great, but he's dead. 2This verse is the most well-known of children's rhymingalphabets and is written in the traditional couplet form.The letters "I" and "V" are not included, reflecting theearly English tradition of using "I"--"J" and "U"--"V" assingle letters.3413.ALLAl2Documented evidence of the origin of the ballad hasbeen in dispute for a long time, but most sources claim thatits origins lie in the folk song. Ballads were initiallypassed down orally through traditions that existed hundredsof years ago.Ballads focus on a single dramatic event. Thenarrator's point of view is impersonal, whereas the folksong expresses the author's/composer's emotions.According to Ethel Eikel Harvey "...the true balladstanza is a quatrain, a four-line verse. The rhyme schemeis a-b-c-b. The first and third lines are tetrameter--fourfeet; the second and fourth lines are trimeter--three feet.There are no definite restrictions for the number ofquatrains needed for any ballad. For this reason we haveballads of varying lengths." 3Parallelism and repetition allow important facts to beclearly understood by the listener. Assonance is frequentlyemployed, as is demonstrated in the opening verse of thetraditional ballad "Sir Patrick Spens":The king sits in Dumferling town,Drinking the blood-red wine:"0 where will I get a good sailor,To sail this ship of mine?" 4BALLADEThe ballade has a rigid rhyme scheme and is acomplicated and exacting form of poetry. It is composed ofthree eight-line stanzas with a rhyming scheme of a-b-a-b-b-c-b-C, finishing with a four-line envoy (b-c-b-C). David35McCord explains and illustrates this form in "Ballade: AnEasy One":Of course I find it fun to writeBallades. Some people don't, alas!The best ones gallop swift and lightOn anapestic feet. In classYou'll learn that, like wind over grass,An anapest goes ta, ta, tee;Or you can say it: trout, trout, bass.It doesn't matter much to me.In this ballade the line is tightAnd short and glitters some, like brass:Iambic--four feet. Let me biteIt out / for you. / As clear / as glass,We're not deep down in some morassOf verse; we're sailing smooth and free.If our next rhyme is sassafras,It doesn't matter much to me.And yet it should because, in spiteOf all your skill, you must amassA lot of rhyme words--sprite, might, kite--And juicy ones like this--crevasse;And you can feel now, as I passFrom class to grass to bass, I seeThe end in sight. But I am crass:It doesn't matter much to me.EnvoyPrince, am I finished? Lad or lass,Ballades may run you up a tree.If my balloon is filled with gas,It doesn't matter much to me.'BLANK VERSEBlank verse (blank implying that the end of the line isbare of rhyme) appeared in English poetry as early as thesixteenth century. Louis Untermeyer stated:Although to most English readers the term hasbecome synonymous with Shakespeare's plays, blankverse is by no means confined to the long unrhymedline of ten syllables and five accents. Any versewhich is without end-rhyme and which usually isnot divided into stanzas might be called blank36verse--no matter how short the lines or how longthe poem itself may be....The themes generallythought to be appropriate for the form aremeditative and dramatic movements.°However, the most common definition of blank verse isby Jaye Giammarino: "Blank verse is a very specific meter:iambic pentameter, unrhymed...with the caesure alwaysappearing within the line...least often of all, at the endof the line."'Next to free verse, blank verse most resembles theEnglish speech stresses. It is not considered to be apopular form with contemporary poets, and is seldom used inpoetry for children. But Ralph Waldo Emerson, in his poemon "Snow," employed it most effectively:Announced by all the trumpets of the sky,Arrives the snow, and, driving o'er the fields,Seems nowhere to alight: the whited airHides hills and woods, the river and the heaven,And veils the farm-house at the garden's end.The sled and traveller stopped, the courier's feetDelayed, all friends shut out, the housemates sitAround the radiant fireplace, enclosedIn a tumultuous privacy of storm.°CINQUAINThe cinquain is a stanza composed of five lines, itsorigin probably dating back to medieval times. The precise,modern form of the cinquain was invented by an American,Adelaide Crapsey, in the early part of the twentiethcentury. "It is a product of the Imagist movement whoseroots are found in classical Greek poetry, Japanese haikuand 'vers libre' of French Symbolists."937This form is made up of five unrhymed lines and twenty-two syllables, with the following pattern of syllables perline: 2-4-6-8-2. David McCord's cinquain illustrates thispattern:Who seesThe redwoods forThe first time won't forgetTheir tallness^ageless look^sayingAlways3-°CLERIHEWThe Oxford Dictionary describes a clerihew as a "short,witty, comic, or nonsensical verse, usually in four lines ofvarying length." It was named after its inventor, EdmundClerihew Bentley (1875-1956) who wrote his first clerihew atage sixteen.The clerihew is made up of two couplets of unequallength with outrageous rhymes. It usually containsbiographical notes about a famous personality, and theperson's name should appear in the first line. "The humourconsists in concentrating on the trivial, the fantastic, orthe ridiculous and presenting it with dead-pan solemnity asthe characteristic, the significant, or the essential." --When a rooster crowsEverybody knowsThe dawn made him do it.That's all there is to it.- 2COUPLETSOver the centuries, the rhymed couplet has been a basicform in poetry, one from which many other forms have been38generated. It is two linked lines of verse, usually withthe same rhythm and rhyme, although not all couplets employregular line length.The classical (heroic) form uses iambic pentameter.The line used most frequently in light and/or romantic verseis iambic tetrameter, as in Harry Behn's "Adventure":It's not very far to the edge of townWhere trees look up and hills look down,We go there almost every dayTo climb and swing and paddle and play.It's not very far to the edge of town,Just up one little hill and down,And through one gate, and over two stiles--But coming home it's miles and miles.-3FREE_ VERSEFree verse has developed over the last hundred years tosuch an extent as to be thought of as the characteristicpoetry form of the twentieth century. Poets searched forways to avoid rigid organization and regular rhythms. WaltWhitman (1819-1892) felt that rhyme was an inadequatevehicle for expressing logical and intellectual themes. Infact, he felt that it would be somewhat cynical and improperto use rhyme to attempt to "comprehend the size of the wholepeople...the modern, the busy nineteenth century...withsteamships, railroads, factories, electric telegraphs,cylinder press...."'- 4Whitman's attack on rhyme is taken from The Notes--Complete Works:39If rhyme and those measurements continue tofurnish the medium for inferior writers andthemes (as there seems...something inevitablycomic in rhyme), the truest and greatestpoetry...can never again, in the Englishlanguage, be expressed in arbitrary and rhymingmeter...m5Free verse has no mechanical syllable count, but uses aunit called "the variable foot." Its rhythm relies oncadence. Jean R. Jenkins states that "Free verse is notlacking in form and discipline...free verse is really onlyfreed verse." 16 It treats the rhyming device and metricalpatterning with a sense of freedom and irregularity, as seenin Valerie Worth's poem "Magnet":This smallFlat horseshoeIs sold forA toy: we areTold that itWill pick up pinsAnd it does, timeAfter time; laterIt lies about,Getting chipped, beingOffered pins lessOften, until atLast we leave itAlone: thenIt leads its ownLife, tradingSecrets withThe North Pole,ReadingInvisible messagesFrom the sun. 17HAIKUHaiku is a poem of Japanese ancestry that in theJapanese language consists of three lines with a total ofseventeen syllables. The syllables are divided into a 5-7-540pattern although translations from Japanese to Englishfrequently do not retain this syllable pattern. The contentof haiku is very closely linked to nature. It is delicate,tranquil, and perceptive poetry that describes the miraclesof the natural world. Always written in the present tense,haiku does not have to be grammatically perfect, nor does itrhyme. It is untitled, as a title is felt to impose thepoet's interpretation upon the reader:Wind ripples the grass,Waves rock the boat, but clouds haveTo drag their shadows.- 8LIMERICKNo one is certain where or how the limerick began, butthere are many theories as to its origin. A few examplesare:-the war veterans in 1700 brought it back toIreland from France-it was popular with Mother Goose's Melodies forChildren, published in 1719-it began with an old Irish habit of pub-crawlingand shouting out lines in turn. After four lineswere finished, everyone would yell, "Will you allcome up to Limerick!"The limerick is a nonsense poem. It contains fiveanapestic lines with a rhyme scheme of a-a-b-b-a. Thefirst, second, and fifth lines have three stresses, and thethird and fourth have two. Edward Lear's BookpfNpnsense41was published in 1846 and contained many limericks--including the following--although he was anxious not to beknown as the originator of this form:There was an Old Man with a beard,Who said, "It is Just as I feared!--Two Owls and a Hen,Four Larks and a Wren,Have all built their nests in my beard!" 1"OCTETThe octet is an eight-line grouping of words. It canbe a complete stanza, or a portion of a longer scheme, suchas a sonnet. It appears as a complete stanza in Rossetti'spoem "A Motherless Soft Lambkin":A motherless soft lambkinAlone upon a hill;No mother's fleece to shelter himAnd wrap him from the cold:--I'll run to him and comfort him,I'll fetch him, that I will;I'll care for him and feed himUntil he's strong and bold. 2°QUATRAINThe quatrain is thought to be the oldest (and still themost widely used) form of verse in the English language.There are four lines in each stanza. The metric foot is thepoet's choice but, once chosen, is usually strictly followedand consistent throughout. Quatrains may stand on theirown, or they may be put together to create a longer poem. Avariety of rhyming patterns may be used:1. a-b-c-b (the most popular pattern, and used byRossetti in her poem "Flint"):42An emerald is as green as grass,A ruby red as blood;A sapphire shines as blue as heaven;A flint lies in the mud.A diamond is a brilliant stone,To catch the world's desire;An opal holds a fiery spark;But a flint holds fire. 22-2. a-b-a-b (used by Blake in his introductory poemto Aongs_oLInnoseace.):Piping down the valleys wild,Piping songs of pleasant glee,On a cloud I saw a child,And he laughing said to me... 223. a-a-a-b (used by Newbery in "The Great Merchant,Dives Pragmaticus, Cries his Wares"):I have ornaments, implements, fit for the church,Fine rods for children, of willow and birch;If I have not quick sale, I shall have a lurch,What do you lack, sir? Come hither to me. 23QUINTETA quintet is composed of five lines. Poets may deviseany rhyme scheme (a-b-a-b-b is the most common pattern) orhave no rhyme scheme at all. The meter and line length arenot fixed. Poets often combine short and long lines tocreate the desired effect. Valerie Worth employed this formin "toad":When the flowersTurned clever, andEarned wideTender red petalsFor themselves,43When the birdsLearned about feathers,Spread green tails,Grew cockadesOn their heads,The toad said:Someone has gotTo rememberThe mud, andI'm not proud. 24RHYME ROYALRhyme Royal is a seven-line stanza of iambicpentameter. Its rhyme scheme is a-b-a-b-b-c-c. Chaucerused Rhyme Royal extensively and this form continued toflourish in the century after his death. John Lydgate(1370-1450) used two stanzas of Rhyme Royal in his poem "TheBoy Serving at Table":My dear child, first thyself enableWith all thine heart to virtuous discipline;Afore thy sovereign, standing at the table,Dispose thou thee after my doctrineTo all nurture thy courage to incline.First, when thou speakest be not reckless,Keep feet and finger still in peace.Be simple of cheer, cast not thine eye aside,Gaze not about, turning thy sight over all.Against the post let not thy back abide,Neither make thy mirror of the wall.Pick not thy nose, and, most especial,Be well ware, and set hereon thy thought,Before thy sovereign scratch nor rub thee nought.25SEPTETThe septet is a stanza composed of seven lines. Itsmeter and rhyme pattern may vary. It was used in A.A.Milne's poem "Independence":44I never did, I never did, I never did like"Now take care, dear!"I never did, I never did, I never did want"Hold-my-hand";I never did, I never did, I never did think much of"Not up there, dear!"It's no good saying it. They don't understand."SInINThe six-line stanza is called a sixain, or sestet,although sestet usually refers to the final six lines ofcertain sonnet forms. Blake's poem "Infant Joy" is composedof two sixains:"I have no name:I am but two days old."What shall I call thee?"I happy am,Joy is my name."Sweet joy befall thee!Pretty joy!Sweet joy, but two days old.Sweet joy I call thee:Thou dost smile,I sing the while,Sweet joy befall thee! 27SHAKESPEAREAN SONNETA Shakespearean sonnet has three quatrains and acouplet, or one octave and a sestet. Its rhyme scheme is:a-b-a-b^c-d-c-d^e-f-e-f^g-gIt is written in iambic pentameter. Slight variations arepermitted:-near rhyme ("come" : "home")-opening a line with a trochee and balancing itwith an iamb45-using a run-on line if needed-using unaccented syllables as end rhymes("garden" : "harden").TRIQ4BTA triolet is a popular French form that has beenadopted by the English. It has eight lines and can bewritten in dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, or pentameter. Itis founded on a very strict rhyme scheme:-lines 1, 4, 7--identical^(but a slight variationin words may occur)-lines 2 and 8--identical-lines-line 63 and 5--must rhyme with 1,^4, and 7must rhyme with 2 and 8.Phyllis McGinley used this form in "Triolet AgainstSisters":Sisters are always drying their hair.Locked into rooms, alone,They pose at the mirror, shoulders bare,Trying this way and that with their hair,Or fly importunate down the stairTo answer a telephone.Sisters are always drying their hair,Locked into rooms, alone. 28TFI_pLETThe triplet developed as an extension and a variationof the couplet. It is composed of three successive lines,usually containing rhyme, and nearly always has the samerhythm throughout. Langston Hughes's "Winter Moon"illustrates the triplet:46How thin and sharp is the moon tonight!How thin and sharp and ghostly whiteIs the slim curved crook of the moon tonight! 29VILLANELLE:A villanelle is a French verse form consisting of fivetercets with a rhyming a-b-a pattern, rounded off by aquatrain (rhyming a-b-a-a). "The first line of the initialtercet serves as the last line of the second and fourthtercets and the third line of the initial tercet serves asthe last line of the third and fifth tercets, these tworefrain-lines follow each other to constitute the last twolines of the closing quatrain." 9° David McCord demonstratesthe villanelle form in "Turtle":This turtle moved his house across the street.I met him here about an hour ago.It is so hot, I guess he feels the heat.Outside, at least, his house looks very neat;But what goes on inside I do not know.This turtle moved his house across the street.No windows, just the four doors for his feet,Two more for head and tail. Now they don't show.It is so hot, I guess he feels the heat.He must be tired. I don't know what he'll eat.Does he grow big? Or does his house just grow?This turtle moved his house across the street.I'll put him near the pond. The grass is sweet.The dragonflies are fast, but he is slow.It is so hot! I guess he feels the heat.It's nice to have a house like that, completeTo walk in, float in, sink in mud below.This turtle moved his house across the street.It is so hot! I guess he feels the heat. 9147The examples included in this chapter show that poeticform is the manner in which the poem is written. Any writermay create an original stanzaic form. Form is the way apoem is composed as distinct from the poetic devices usedwithin a poem. Rhyming devices and how they have beenemployed in poetry for children are examined closely in thefollowing chapter.NOTES1 Frances Stillman, The  Poet's. Mapugl_And_RhymingDictionary (London: Thames and Hudson, 1966) 41.2 Anonymous, "A Was an Archer," Tbe.QN.fgrd_PQ9k_ofChildren's Verse, ed. Iona and Peter Opie (London: OxfordUniversity Press, 1975) 43-44.3 Wauneta Hackleman, ed., The Study.  and Writing. ofPoetry:  American Women Poets Discuss Their Craft (New York:Whitson Pub. Co., 1983) 9.4 Anonymous, "Sir Patrick Spens," Time for Poetry, ed.May Hill Arbuthnot and Shelton L Root, Jr. (Illinois: Scott,Foresman and Co., 1968) 19.5 David McCord, "Ballade: An Easy One," One At A Time(Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1980) 472-73.486 Louis Untermeyer, The Forms_of.Poetry (New York:Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1926) 50.7 Hackleman 19.Arbuthnot 191.5 Hackleman 31.2-° McCord 480.11 Alex Preminger, ed., Theyrinceton_EncyclopedAa_ofpoetry. and_Poetics. (New Jersy: Princeton Univ. Press, 1990)141.12 McCord 476.19 Arbuthnot 9514 Whitman in Henry Lanz's The_PilYSilqa.1_11a41s.Qt_RJPIP(California: Stanford Univ. Press, 1931) 321-22.15 Whitman in Lanz 322.16 Hackleman 73.17 Valerie Worth, "magnet," all the smalj.poems(U.S.A.: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1987) 54-55.3-8 McCord 484.19 Edward Lear, The Nonsense Verse of Edward Lear (NewYork: Harmony Books, 1984) 27.25 Christina Rossetti, Doves and Pomegranates (London:Bodley Head, 1969) 30.21 Opie 277.22 William Blake, "Introduction," Blakes!s. Innocenceand Experience, ed. Joseph H. Wicksteed (New York: E.P.Dutton, 1928) 82-83.23 Opie 15.49" Worth 78.25 Opie 4.26 A.A. Milne, The World of  Christopher Robin (NewYork: E.P. Dutton, 1958) 20.27 Blake 122-23.28 Phyllis McGinley, "Triolet Against Sisters," TheOxford Book of Children's Verse in America, ed. Donald Hall(New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1985) 255.25 Langston Hughes, "Winter Moon," Knock at a Star, ed.X.J. Kennedy (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1982) 47.30 Preminger 893.91 McCord 469.50THE RHYMING DEVICEThe rhyming device, illustrated in this section througha series of selected passages by children's poets from thefourteenth century to the present, includes the followingterms: alliteration (initial-consonantal, initial-vocalic,medial, final, parallel, suspended, submerged), anaphora,ascending rhyme, assonance, consonance, descending rhyme,end rhyme, eye rhyme, full rhyme, homoeoteleuton, internalrhyme, identical rhyme, medial rhyme, mosaic rhyme, nearrhyme, ploce, and tame rhyme.ALLAchieving a musical effect through alliteration is anancient and persuasive technique. Alliteration is therepetition of the same letters or sounds in two or morewords. There are many different forms, the most commonbeing initial-consonantal. It was used very persuasively byJohn Lydgate, a friend of Geoffrey Chaucer's son. Lydgate's"Stans Puer ad Mensam" was published by Caxton and waswidely read in the fifteenth century. An example ofinitial-consonantal alliteration is found in his poem "TheBoy Serving at Table," containing advice for a young boy onhow to conduct himself appropriately:Neither make thy mirror of the wall,Pick not thy nose, and, most especial,Be well ware, and set hereon thy thought,Before thy sovereign scratch nor rub thee nought.'-51The following table indicates how frequently theseinitial-consonantal sounds were repeated within the fourlines:LINE:"b" 1 1tiro2 1"n" 1 2 2fist,1 2"th" 2 1 2 21 2Alliteration using single consonants, consonantalblends, and consonants with succeeding vowel repetition haveall been included in the final three lines of ValerieWorth's "Fireworks":Breaks and billows into bloom,Spilling down clear green sparks, gold apears,Silent sliding silver waterfalls and stars. 2Twelve of the eighteen words in this excerpt containalliterative initial consonants, seven involving thefricative "s" and three involving the plosive "b." Theseare carefully chosen consonants that combine to evoke thesounds made by a rocket hissing and exploding in a fireworksdisplay, just as the air in the mouth "explodes" when the"b" sound is released. Effective use of the plosive "d"occurs in the opening lines of Worth's poem "Dinosaurs":DinosaursDo not count,BecauseThey are allDead. 352The "d" is also echoed in the last sound of "dead," giving aheavy finality to the whole verse.A less common type of alliteration is initial-vocalic.Hilaire Belloc combined it with initial-consonantal in theclosing couplet of "Jim, Who ran away from his Nurse, andwas eaten by a lion":And always keep a-hold of NurseFor fear of finding something worse. 4The acoustical effect is somewhat different with initialvowels, and this form is used less frequently. LewisCarroll employed it in "You are old, Father William":"In my youth," Father William replied to his son,"I. feared it might injure the brain..."Initial alliteration has coursed through innumerablechildren's alphabet books to the extent of being almost avice, although some alphabet books have survived andendured, two well-known examples being Edward Lear's ARAlphabet (1871) and Kate Greenaway's A-Apple Pie (1886).Alliteration may occur in an internal position and isthen referred to as medial-alliteration, as seen inChristina Rossetti's "Comparisons":Hope is like a harebell trembling from its birth.aand also in Thomas Newbery's "The Great Merchant, DivesPragmaticus, Cries His Wares":53I have fine gowns, cloaks, jackets and coatsFine jerkins, doublets, and hose without motes.'The following example of final alliteration is from a poemby Isaac Watts entitled "The Sluggard":As the door on its, hinges, so he on his bedTurns his sides and his shoulder and his heavy head°Alliteration in the medial and final position is also a formof consonance. Consonant rhyme is especially effective indisyllabic end-rhyming, as found in Theodore Roethke's "MyPapa's Waltz":The whiskey on your breathCould make a small boy dizzy;But I hung on like death:Such waltzing was not ga.sy. 9Parallel or crossed alliteration is produced whenalliterative sounds are intricately arranged throughouteither a section or a whole poem creating a sound pattern.In the following example, Geoffrey Chaucer created adelicate interplay between the voiced nasal consonants m andin the first two lines, then formed a new design in thethird line by alternating the y and t:My son, from a fiend men may them bless.My son, God of his endless goodnessWalled a tongue with teeth and lips eke... 1°An unusual form of alliteration called suspendedalliteration is where the consonant and the succeeding vowelare placed in reverse order, as in Lewis Carroll's "TheWhite Queen's Riddle":54For it holds it like glue--Holds the lid to the dish, while it lies in themiddle:Which is easiest to do,Un-dish-cover the fish, or dishcover the riddle?'-1==::Alliteration is not necessarily restricted to thestressed syllables. When it appears on the unstressedsyllables, it is referred to as submerged alliteration.A.A. Milne used it in "Us Two":"I'm never afraid with you."So wherever I am, there's always Pooh... 3-2ANAPHORAWhen successive sentences or sentence parts begin withthe same word or words, it is called anaphora. "Demetriusand virtually all post classical authorities treat anaphoraas its exact synonym."- 3 John Ciardi's poem "Wouldn't You?"contains an example of anaphora in the repetition of the "w"glide, where no obstruction of the airstream is produced andthus a "wind" effect is created:If ICould goAs highAnd lowAs the windAs the wind As the windCan blow--I'd go! 14ASCENDING RHYMECiardi's "Wouldn't You?" is said to be written inascending rhyme, which occurs when the lines are composed55predominantly in iambic (unstressed/stressed) or anapestic(unstressed/unstressed/stressed). Ascending rhyme is notthought to have any uplifting, symbolic meaning suggestinghappiness, hope, or levity. Consider the exquisite sadnessof "Poem" by Langston Hughes, also written in ascendingrhyme:I loved my friend,He went away from me.There's nothing more to say.The poem ends,Soft as it began--I loved my friend. -5Ascending rhyme also appears in the iambic rhythm of R.L.Stevenson's "My Shadow":I have a little shadowthat goes in and out with me,And what can be the use of himis more than I can see.l."and in the anapestic rhythm of "The Sluggard" by IsaacWatts:'Tis the voice of the Sluggard:I heard him complain,"You have waked me too soon,I must slumber again."-7ASSONANCEAssonance is also referred to as vowel or vocalicrhyme. It is usually echoed in the same line, but canappear in a different section of a poem. It occurs whenvowels (usually stressed syllables) are repeated in words56whose consonants are not the same, as in "The Lamb" byWilliam Blake:Gave thee life, and bid thee feedBy the stream and o'er the mead. 18or, in a lighter vein, where Eve Merriam plays with thespelling of the first word in the English dictionary in herpoem "AA Couple of Doublles":If the aardvarkhaad as caaraand went out aafter daark,he might find it haardto paark.."Edward Lear created parallel assonance when he wove anintricate "e" and "i" pattern throughout the opening linesof "The Jumblies":They went to sea, in a Sieve, they did,a Sieve they went to sga; 2°Internal assonance occurs when the echoing vowelsappear in the opening and the final words of a line, or areplaced in close proximity. The long "o" is repeated in thelast three lines of Valerie Worth's "hose", and this soundalso reflects back on the poem's title:A silkRainbowHaloOver soft fog. 21-Worth created a pleasing double assonance in the"Rainbow" : "Halo" combination, with both words suggesting57curved, circular shapes. The final short "o" repetitionenhances the quiet mood of the closing lines.Another type of assonance serves as a link betweenlines or line parts. It is found at the end of lines(either successive of alternating) that do not contain apure rhyme. This form sometimes acts in place of rhyme.Three verses in Valerie Worth's poem "duck" end in wordsthat are not pure rhymes, yet "feet" : "beak" : "keep" arelinked together through the "ee" sound:When the neat whiteDuck walks like a toyOut of the waterOn yellow rubber-skinned feet,And speaks wet sounds,Hardly openingHis round-tipped woodenYellow-painted beak,• • •Then we would likeTo pick him up, takeHim home with us, put himAway, on a shelf, to keep. 22The opening line of each verse also contains this "ee"sound. "Neat" : "speaks" : "we" creates an effectiveacoustical connection with the last word of each verse.Another interesting link is found between "neat" : "feet"and "speaks" : "beak," as each rhyming vowel-pair has anidentical succeeding consonant.CONSONANCE Consonance or pararhyme is the similarity of partial ortotal consonants in syllables or words whose stressed vowels58are not the same. An example of this form is found in"Mother to Son," a poem written by Langston Hughes:I's been. a-climbip' on,And reachin' landin'sAnd turnip' cornersAnd sometimes goin' the dark. 25Rich consonance is total consonantal sound repetitionbetween words where the corresponding vowels are different.Thomas Newbery used it in "The Great Merchant":I have ladles, skimmers, and irons and spits,Dripping pans, pot hooks, old gatg and kttg. 24William Blake also used rich consonance in "Piping Down theValleys Wild":Slag thy gongs of happy cheerSo I sung the same again... 25Sometimes consonance takes the place of end rhyme,creating an impure rhyme, as in Walter de la Mare's "SomeOne":Some one came knockingAt my wee, small door.;Some one came knocking,I'm sure - sure - sure."DES.CENDING.RHYNKDescending rhyme, like ascending rhyme, carries nosymbolic meaning. It is referred to as the falling rhymewhen the trochaic and dactylic rhythms are used:(Trochaic--stressed/unstressed)59Garden darkened, daisy shut,Child in bed, they slumber--Glow-worm in the highway rut,Mice among the lumber. 27(R.L. Stevenson)(Dactylic--stressed/unstressed/unstressed)What are you able to build with your blocks?Castles and palaces, temples and docks.Rain may keep raining, and others go roam,but I can be happy and building at home. 28(R.L. Stevenson)END RHYMEEnd rhyme is the most common position of rhymed words:Ages and ages have fallen on me.--On the wood and the pool and the elder tre.e. 28(Walter de la Mare)End rhyme that matches with a word in the middle of the nextline (or vice versa) is called cross rhyme, an example beingfound in David McCord's "How to Draw a Monkey":To draw a monkey, don't beginWith him, but what he's on or in,He's in a tree, he's on a Umb... 2°EYE RHYMEEye rhyme, also referred to as visual or sight rhyme,depends on spelling rather than pronunciation. The wordslook alike but are pronounced differently:"A little too well done? Oh well,I'll have to start all over."That time what landed on my plateLooked like a manhole cgver. 23-60This excerpt was taken from John Ciardi's "Mommy Slept Lateand Daddy Cooked Breakfast," the poem rated as most popularby students in Ann Terry's National Survey of Children'sPoetry Preferences. 32Many of today's eye rhymes are classed as historicalrhymes. Alterations in the pronunciation of vowels resultedin pairs of words that once rhymed perfectly in theeighteenth century appearing as near rhymes, as found in"For the Lord's Day Evening" by Isaac Watts:0 write upon my memory, Lpid,The text and doctrines of thy WArd. 33FULL_REUMEFull rhyme is the same as perfect, exact, or truerhyme. It is the correspondence of vowel sounds in theaccented syllables, which are followed by similar consonantsounds. The consonant sounds preceding the vowel aredifferent. Eve Merriam employed full rhyme in"Portmanteaux":...so coin new wordsand spend and lendas syllables wander, waft and wendand blend and bend and never end. 34Full rhyme can be monosyllabic (single), disyllabic(double), or trisyllabic (triple). When the rhymingsyllables are monosyllabic, it is called single, male, ormasculine rhyme. David McCord used it in "Frog in a Bog":61Give him a hot bright sun--A June one, an August one,Or any of July's.Flies, are his prize.:Any kind, any size.He is all eyes, for flles. 35When the rhyming sound-identities are disyllabic andthe stress is not on the last syllable, it is referred to asdouble, unstressed, female, or feminine rhyme. Thedisyllabic rhyme has been used imaginatively in A.A. Milne's"Sneezles":They said, "If you teazleA sneezleOr wheezje,A measle,May easily grow.But humour or pleazle.The wheezlgor sneezle,The measleWill certainly go." 36Trisyllabic rhyming involves three syllables and iscalled triple, treble, or sdrucciolo rhyme with the accentedsyllable followed by two unaccented syllables. An excellentexample of this type of rhyming is David McCord's "Mr.Bidery's Spidery Garden" where this feeling of three isenhanced by having the poem written in triplets and havingeach line end in a trisyllabic rhyme:With cabbages so odory,Snapdragon soon explodery,At twilight all is toadary. 3762Rhymes involving four syllables are extremely uncommonin English and have not been given special names. Theymostly appear in nonsense verse.HOMOEOTELEUTONHomoeoteleuton first appeared in Aristotle's Rhetoric--Book 3.9.9. It means "similarity of endings" and usuallyinvolves suffix repetition, where the same or similar case-endings are close together, as in Geoffrey Chaucer's"Controlling the Tongue":Wost thou whereof a rakel tongue serveth?Right as a sword forcutteth and forcarveth."IDENTUAL RHYMEIdentical rhyme, also called right rhyme, appears whentwo words have the same sound but are spelled differently:"Piper, sit thee down and writeIn a book that all may read."So he vanished from my sight,And I plucked a hollow Kee0. 4°(William Blake)INTERNAL_RHYMERhyme is not restricted to just the final word of aline or half-line of poetry. A word echoing anotheranywhere in close proximity is called internal or innerrhyme. Eve Merriam created internal rhyme in her poem"Serendipity":Or if you are Adam adamantly out to do your duty,and along your macadam route you encounter abeauty... 3'63MEDIAL RHYMEMedial or middle rhyme occurs when the word precedingthe caesura rhymes with the end word. This device is calledleonine rhyme when used in a pentameter or hexameter line.Middle-and-end rhyme indicates the two halves of a line ofpoetry:A simple chime, that served to ttme.,The rhythm of our rowing... 41(Lewis Carroll)MOSAIC RHYMEWhen two or more words in the rhyming pair are used, itis referred to as mosaic rhyme. Both of the lines maycontain the mosaic rhyme, or only one, as in Edward Lear's"Eclogue":What boots it that we orange trees or lemons see,If we must suffer from such vile inclempAgy7 42NEAR RHYMENear rhyme is a form of consonance. It is also calledpartial, half, off, oblique, slant, or imperfect rhyme. Thefinal consonant-sound is repeated without a similarcorrespondence between preceding vowels or consonants.Stephen L. Mooney describes near rhyme:Once considered an oddity in the work of suchpoets as Emerson and Emily Dickinson, near rhymeis now accepted and used by nearly all 20thcentury poets, not to supplant perfect rhyme butto supplement it, so as to provide a greater rangeand freedom for the poet. 4364In the poem entitled "bell," Valerie Worth has used thephonetic properties of the voiced nasal "ng" to recreate thesound of a bell ringing, and this near rhyme has echoedthree times in each verse.By flat tinkOf tin, or thinCopper tong,Brass clang,Bronze bong,The bell givesMetal a tongue--To singIn one soundIts whole song. 44PLOCEMost postclassical authorities apply the termanadiplosis to "only the word repetition that serves to linktwo units of discourse such as consecutive stanzas orsentences." 45 Ploce or anadiplosis is verbatim wordrepetition that links sections of poetry together:The Dong!--The Dong!The Wandering Dong through the forest goes!The Dong! the Dong!The Dong with a luminous Nose!"(Edward Lear)TAME RHYMETame rhyme uses similar parts of speech incorresponding functions:"Well, dogtooth violet, and how's that toot?""It aches a bit, to tell the truth."Now you heard that: he says it aches,Let's ask wake-robin when robin wakes. 4765In this poem "Spring Talk" by David McCord, the same partsof speech appear in the end rhymes: "tooth" : "truth" areboth singular nouns and "aches" : "wakes" are both verbs(third person singular) in the present tense.The examples above reveal the complex variety ofrhyming devices found in children's poetry. It is importantto understand the technical resources of the poet's art.These linkages of rhyme help to "form a positive structurefor the poetic act." 48NOTES_1 John Lydgate, "The Boy Serving at Table," ThP_PxfusiBook.__ of.Children's Verse, ed. Iona and Peter Opie (London:Oxford University Press, 1975) 4.2 Valerie Worth, all the small  poems (Farrar, Strausand Giroux,3 Worth4 Opie5 Opie6 OpieOpieOpie1987)83.312.239.176.15.51.63.669 Theodore Roethke, The Riverside AntholgAY, ofChildren'sjdterature, ed. Saltman (Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1985) 124.1° Opie 3.11 Lewis Carroll, "The White Queen's Riddle,"Jabberwockyand Other Poems (London: Macmillan, 1980) 45.12 A.A. Milne, "Us Two," Thg_WOrld_Qt_ghX.iPtQpherRobin: Now We Are Six (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1958) 140.13 Harold Bloom, "Anaphora," The_ghgycloppOlg.o.f_ppgtryand Poetic, ed. Alex Preminger (New Jersy: Princeton Univ.Press, 1990) 37.14 John Ciardi, "Wouldn't You?" You read to me, I'llread to you (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1962) 14.15 Saltman 151.16 R.L. Stevenson, "My Shadow," A Child's Garden ofVerses (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1985) 34.3-7 Opie 51.19 William Blake, "The Lamb," Blake'A_SpAgs_otInnocence and Experience, ed. Joseph H. Wicksteed (New York:E.P. Dutton, 1928) 90.19 Eve Merriam, "AA Couple of Doublles," Chortles (NewYork: Morrow Junior Books, 1989) 5.2° Edward Lear, "The Jumblies," The Nonsense Verse ofEdward Lear (New York: Harmony Books, 1984) 100.21 Worth 67.22 Worth 27.23 Langston Hughes, "Mother to Son," The_Oxford_Boojcof67Children's Verse in  America, ed. Donald Hall (New York:Oxford University Press, 1985) 247.24 Opie 15.25 Blake 82-83.26 Walter de la Mare, "Some One," peacock_ple. (London:Faber and Faber, 1989) 17.27 Stevenson 93.28 Stevenson 81.29 de la Mare 106.3° David McCord, "How to Draw a Monkey," One at_a Time(Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1980) 393.31 Ciardi 18.32 Ann Terry, Children's Poetry Preferences (Illinois:NCTE, 1972)." Opie 50.34 Merriam 53.35 McCord 275.36 Milne 15.37 McCord 381.38 Opie 3.39 Merriam 23.40 Blake 82-83.41 Carroll 26.42 Lear 126.43 Mooney in Preminger, 556.44 Worth 95.45 Preminger 33.6846 Lear 12.47 McCord 247.48 John Hollander, Vision and Resonance (New Haven:Yale Univ. Press, 1985) 118.69A STUDY OF POEMS BY BLAKE, LEAR, ROSSETTI, AND MERRIAMIn the Introduction to How Does a Poem Mean? JohnCiardi states that "To look technically at a poem, they[appreciators] argue, is like picking the wings off abutterfly. But what poem ever ceased to be good becausesomeone had analyzedThis chapter analyzes how four poets managed aparticular aspect of their art--specifically, how Blake,Lear, Rossetti, and Merriam managed the technique of rhyme.The available wealth of children's poets made itsomewhat difficult to narrow the selection down to onlyBlake, Lear, Rossetti, and Merriam. However, in thenumerous anthologies and scholarly criticisms reviewed(Opie, Darton, Hall, Sutherland, Saltman, and Huck) thesefour poets consistently appeared as writers who have made,or are making, significant contributions to the world ofchildren's poetry. The eighteenth century's emergingawareness of humanity appears in the work of Blake; theearly nineteenth century's reaction to didactic poetrysurfaces in Lear's nonsense verse; the Victorian'ssensitivity to the day-to-day interests of the childinfluences the lyrical poetry of Rossetti; and the latetwentieth century's desire to experiment with languageemerges in the innovative poetry of Merriam.70WILLIAM BLAKE (1757-1827)Very little imaginative poetry was written for childrenbetween the time of Isaac Watts's Qivine_gongs.Attemptgd.inEasy Language for the Use of Children (1715) and WilliamBlake's Songs of Innocence (1789). Blake, the greatimaginative writer and solitary genius, had "...broken intothis narrow library that others were toiling so laboriouslyto fill for children." 2Blake was well acquainted with the world of juvenileliterature and lived in an environment which took this genreseriously. He did not agree with the theories upon whichmost of the children's books of his time were based, and sohe produced his own "epoch-making" children's book:The deceptively simple and reassuring rhythms ofnursery rhyme, folk-song, jingle, lullaby, ballad,and hymn, when combined with an equally child-likepictorial style (the primitiveness of which mayhave appealed to Blake for other reasons as well),would lull the reader into expecting conventionalthemes--laziness, for instance, or disobedience--to be conventionally treated. When expectationswere then subtly undermined, the largerimplications of the themes and conventions oftraditional children's books would be thrown intorelief. 3Blake built his poetry on vision: The Songs ofInnocence describe Blake's vision of what is naturally good,and the Songs of Experience show how this innocence can bedestroyed. Blake was concerned over the loss of the "child-like vision of existence...which may still exist inmaturity." 471The symbols in Innocence offer a special meaning andrepresent a state of security found in the watched-over lamband child. The link between the Innocence and ExperAengeportions of the book is the need for humans to be tested inorder to reach another necessary state of development.The image of children (imagination) allowed to runfree, unfettered by conventional restrictions, revealsBlake's passion for the "highest state of the activeimagination which he calls Eden." 5 This passion is mostevident in the poem "Nurses's Song":When the voices of children are heard on the greenAnd laughing is heard on the hill,My heart is at rest within my breastAnd everything else is stillThen come home my children, the sun is gone downAnd the dews of night ariseCome come leave off play, and let us awayTill the morning appears in the skiesNo no let us play, for it is yet dayAnd we cannot go to sleepBesides in the sky, the little birds flyAnd the hills are all coverd with sheepWell well go & play till the light fades awayAnd then go home to bedThe little ones leaped & shouted & laugh'dAnd all the hills ecchoed[This punctuation has been copied from Blake's 1794 engravededition, and it differs from most editions produced today.]Blake's original Manuscript version used the word "tongues"instead of "voices" in the first stanza. 6The plate for "Nurses's Song" reveals seven childrendancing in a circle. They are moving in a clockwise motion,72"always significant for Blake of the passage through life-experience to beautitude." 7 Groupings of seven appearelsewhere in aongs_of_Innocence. Seven cherubs (fivewinged, two without) are depicted in "The Blossom", andWicksteed referred to these as the seven angels on thetitle-page of the "Job." 8 Wicksteed also suggested that inthe poem immediately preceding "The Blossom" ("Infant Joy"),the mother holds in her lap the second of the seven cherubsand that the seven spirits trace "the current ofcreation...the six days culminating in the Sabbath orseventh day would then be represented by the cherubs."Many of Blake's principal symbols of Innocence,according to F.W. Bateson, appear in the "Nurse's Song":children (lines 1, 5, 15)sheep (line 12)wild birds (line 11)green fields (line 1)dew (line 6)hills (line 2, 12, 16)Blake omitted any jarring voices throughout 5ongs_ofInnocence, but the "Nurse's Song" in Experience offers acounterpart:When the voices of children, are heard on the green,And whisperings are in the dale:The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind,My face turns green and pale.Then come home my children, the sun is gone downAnd the dews of night ariseYour spring & your day, are wasted in playAnd your winter and night in disguise.73This is in contrast to the symbols introduced in the first"Nurses's Song." Here, "laughing" becomes "whispering"(suggesting secrecy and deceit); "hill" becomes "dale"(suggesting shadow and darkness); "morning" becomes "winterand night" (suggesting oppression and loss of innocence).Thus, experience darkens the second "Nurse's Song", and acontrasting situation is presented. Anger and bitterresentment have entered the speaker, who now warns thechildren of the folly of play and the dangers of night.The vocabulary in these poems is purposely simple.Blake's "childlikeness was partly self-imposed," resultingin poetry of childlike innocence. 3-° 86% of the words usedin these two poems are monosyllabic. "Ed" endings wouldhave been sounded in Blake's time unless they were elided.Thus, "laugh'd" has been counted as monosyllabic, "leaped"and "shouted" as disyllabic, and "ecchoed" as trisyllabic--(all examples of homoeoteleuton). The consonantal rhymesfound in "bed" : "laugh'd" : "ecchoed" altered the rhymescheme from a-b-c-b to a-b-b-b in the final stanza."Ecchoed" is an historical rhyme and provides a fullrhyme for "bed." The three syllables of this word have astrange effect on the poem and suggest that the joyfulsounds of the children will recede. Echoes fade and die outas will the laughter and voices heard on the hill. Thesesounds echo in the Nurse's thoughts, reminding her of herown lost youth and innocence. "Ecchoed" hints at the voices74to be heard in the later "Nurse's Song" where the tone ofthe poem has altered completely.Blake frequently used ploce in his poems. Words arerepeated throughout the "Nurse's Song" and provide linksbetween the lines and the stanzas:75stanza 12VI/V 34If 24If 1If 4hear.4 on the greenheard, on the hillThen come coP.Meleave off playlet us 21AYgo and alaycome homggo homeand laughingand laugh'dThis repetition highlights the fact that these images areclosely related.These four In4Pge.hcg and two Experience stanzas arewritten in quatrain form. The rhyme scheme is a-b-c-b (withone previously mentioned exception), and includes an endrhyme linking consecutive stanzas: the first two with"green" : "down" and the last two with "day" : "away." Infive out of the six stanzas, medial rhyme occurs in thethird line :rest: breast (full rhyme)play: away (full)sky: fly (full)leaped: laugh'd (consonantal)day: play (full).The exception is found in the opening stanza (3rd line) ofExperience:The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind.This lack of an anticipated rhyme startles the ear and warnsthe reader that the tone has shifted and darkened and thenurses's voice is no longer that of a loving guardian, butof a bitter and jealous person.The use of anaphora in the opening word ("And") on thealternate lines (but one) gives the poem the regulatedmovement of a time-piece. Each image passes by anew and yetswings back to connect with the poem as a whole.Although the tone in the "Nurse's Song" is differentfrom the tone in "Spring," the former contains a referenceto birds ("Besides in the sky, the little birds fly")similar to references in the following poem "Spring":Sound the Flute!Now it's mute.Birds delightDay and Night.Nightingale In the_daleLariLin_SkyMerrilyMerrily Merrily to welcome in the YearLittle BoyFull of joy.Little GirlSweet and small.Cock does crowSo do you.Merry voiceInfant noiseMerrily Merrily to welcome in the YearLittle Lamb76Here I am,Come and lickMy white neck.Let me pullYour soft Wool.Let me kissYour soft face.Merrily Merrily we welcome in the YearThese references act as links between the poems. Otherfrequently recurring images in the Songs of Innocence arethe child and lamb. The poems revolve around the initialstage of innocent love found in the lines from "Spring":Little LambHere I am..."Spring" is the most high-spirited of all the poems. Alyrical quality echoes throughout, and many critics feelthat Blake especially intended this poem to be sung. Theauthentic child-like ring to the lines is partly a result ofthe unusual rhymes Blake used. Blake shared Milton's viewson rhyme as "a modern bondage." He was a verbalexperimenter who broke away from the restrictions of thetraditional rhymes of the purist. There are many examplesof near rhyme in his poetry, especially in the poem"Spring." Two examples occur when an accented monosyllabicword is rhymed with an unaccented syllable of a trisyllabicword. It is not unusual to find a final consonant blendrhyming with a different consonant blend (or a singleconsonant). An analysis of the variety of end rhymes inthese three verses reveals that a number of the rhymes arebarely shadows of their original sound ("sky" : "merrily";77"kiss" : "face"; "crow" : "you") and yet a song-like qualitystill echoes throughout the poem:(monosyllabic--FULL)Flute: muteBoy: joyLamb: ampull: Wool(disyllabic: monosyllabic--FULL)delight: Night(trisyllabic: monosyllabic--FULL)Nightingale: dale(monosyllabic: trisyllabic--NEAR; VOCALIC)Sky: Merrily(monosyllabic--NEAR; CONSONANTAL)Girl: smalllick: neckkiss: faceBlake often used auxiliaries such as "do" when theywere not needed grammatically ("Cock does crow"), and healso omitted articles ("Lark in Sky"). However, mostreaders "...will feel that he has a nearly infallible earfor the music of his verse." 1 - His punctuation, especiallythe insertion of capitals, is unusual and indicates adesired emphasis. According to Wicksteed, the fully written"and," if it appears in the middle of a line, suggests aslight pause on the preceding word:day and NightSweet and smallCome and lickBlake altered his texts many times before he approvedof each final version. He completely omitted a fifth verse78to "A Cradle Song" in Songs_of_..Innocence . , thus eliminatingall suggestions that this state of innocence could betainted or marred in any way:Sweet dreams, form a shadeO'er my lovely infant's head;Sweet dreams of pleasant streamsBy happy, silent, moony beams.Sweet sleep, with soft downWeave thy brows an infant crown.Sweet sleep, Angel mild,Hover o'er my happy child.Sweet smiles, in the nightHover over my delight;Sweet smiles, Mother's smiles,All the livelong night beguiles.Sweet moans, dovelike sighs,Chase not slumber from thy eyes.Sweet moans, sweeter smiles,All the dovelike moans beguiles.(0, the cunning wiles that creepIn thy little heart asleep.When thy little heart does wake,Then the dreadful lightnings break.)There is a passion beyond analysis in the Songs_gfInnocence and Experience, and, although Blake was an obscurewriter in his lifetime, he was also a visionary artist whoknew that "poetry alone could make others share his centralexperience."12 His poetry reflected the emerging concern inthe eighteenth century for the condition of the child.Songs is a unique creation--written, illustrated,engraved, and hand-coloured by Blake. In this poetry Blaketurned to the metres and rhymes of traditional hymns to givehim the form needed for song. His words were deliberatelysimple and yet exquisitely lyrical. Despite the intense79emotion underlying the poems, particularly in Experience,Blake kept this form melodious.His influence on the shaping of children's poetryshould not be underestimated. Blake's voice is theprecursor of lyrical poets such as Rossetti, Stevenson, dela Mare and Worth.NOTES2. John Ciardi, How Does a Poem Mean? (Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1975) xx.2 F.J. Harvey Darton, Children's Books in England(Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982) 179.3 Zachary Leader, Readins..Blake!..s.Songs (London:Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1981) 33.4 C.M. Bowra in Bottrall, William  Blake: Songs ofInucencg_and Experience—a Casebook (London: MacMillan,1970) 140." Bowra in Bottrall, 146.6 Joseph H. Wicksteed, Blake's Innocence and Experience(New York: E.P. Dutton, 1928) 208.• Wicksteed 127.• Wicksteed 127.• Wicksteed 124.803-° Wicksteed 63.Wicksteed 66.12 Bowra in Bottrall, 158.81EDWARD LEAR (1812-1888)Walter de la Mare referred to nonsense verse as "thislaughing heartsease."2- Nonsense verse emerged as anantidote to the predominantly didactic (and often morbid)poetry that had been written for children up until the1800's. Children delighted in the absurdities and livelyrhymes found in nonsense poetry. "Mischief...smashes the'great folk' and the 'big folk' who are always sure of theirresponsibilities." 2Edward Lear was a true nonsense writer. He excelled inthe invention of nonsense words. "This is no meanachievement, for the word must appear, to both the ear andthe eye, to come of a long and legitimate lineage; it mustseem authentic."Lear began his professional career as an artist, not awriter, and, like William Blake, illustrated books for otherpeople. He earned the patronage of the Derby family, and itwas to the Derby grandchildren, nieces and nephews, hisfirst Book of Nonsense was dedicated.Logical absurdity coursed through his writing. Heproduced word-inversions (later labelled spoonerisms) suchas "Mary Squeen of Cots"; portmanteau words-- "splendidoph-oropherostiphongious"; the joining of one letter withanother word--"a noppertunity"; phonetic spellings--"pollygise" (apologize); puns--a reference to the city ofNice: "Nice is so wonderfully dry....Dryden is the only book82read"; regional accent mispronunciations--"chimbly"(chimney); and nonsense spelling--"I gnoo how bizzy uwere."4Lear laced his lines with alliteration, and theneologisms contained in his poetry created worlds whereanything might happen, as in "The Scroobious Pip":The Scroobious Pip can sit under a treeBy the silent shores of Jellyboleeor in "Mr. and Mrs. Spikky Sparrow," where Mrs. Sparrow willbe made to feel "gallgobique when Mr. Sparrow buys her a"satin sash of Cloxam blue.""Mr. and Mrs. Spikky Sparrow" is the only one of Lear'slonger poems where he created a loving domestic scene withfather, mother, and children all living happily together (asituation unfamiliar to Lear). Critics have mixed views onthis poem with its variations on the "ikky" refrain:Twikky wikky wikky wee,Wikky bikky twikky tee,Spikky bikky bee!Thomas Byrom stated that it is "a bright, flinty poem, madeof tough, trochaic, tetrameter couplets." Ina Rae Harknoted that it is the only "Lear poem that is cloying in thesame way as much inferior Victorian children's literature...The tetrameter couplets are technically uninspired." 6 MyraCohn Livingston referred to the "marvellous choruses sung byMr. and Mrs. Spikky Sparrow."'83This poem touches on a favourite topic of Lear's--adisapproval of what "they" consider to be socially proper.Mr. and Mrs. Spikky Sparrow must buy new clothes, not justto keep out the cold, but to dress according to fashion'sconforming rules. Their children are ecstatic over thechange in their parents when they return "completely drest"(quite unlike Lear's flamboyant characters found in otherpoems).Said they, "We trust that cold or painWe shall never feel again!While, perched on tree, or house, or steeple,We now shall look like other people."There is an interesting shift in emphasis on the three "we"words so that each one will conform to the tetrameter. Aneffective vocalic echo sounds through these lines. Learmade wonderful use of mosaic rhyme in the fourth and fifthstanzas of this poem:There they bought a hat and bonnet,And a gown with spots upon_it.Which, completely in the fashion,You shall tie a sky-blue saph_pn."Bonnet" : "upon it" is an example of rich-consonance, wherethere is consonantal repetition but the corresponding vowelsare not the same. His use of the plosives "b" and "p" arean added bonus to the "bonnet" : "upon it" pair. "Tie" :"sky-blue" creates an internal rhyme. The "sh" blend isrepeated three times in this couplet.84The type of nonsense bird-talk Lear utilized in thechorus of "Mr. and Mrs. Spikky Sparrow" also appeared in analphabet poem. Lear played with sound and meaning, thuscreating imaginative rhymes. He used rhyming adjectives(adding the suffix-y to the chosen item) then completed eachverse with a rhyming two-word phrase and a final apostrophe.This alphabet poem used chiming patterns common to nurseryrhymes:A was once an apple-pie,PidyWidyTidyPidyNice insidyApple-Pie.Like most nonsense writers, Lear coined new words andemployed the full potential of alliteration, as seen in hispoem "The Pelican Chorus":Ploffskin, Pluffskin, Pelican jee!We think no Birds so happy as we!Plumpskin, Ploshkin, Pelican fill!We think so then, and we thought so still!Lear's interest in the limerick began when hediscovered a volume entitled Anecdotes and Adventures ofFifteen Gentlemen (published in the early 1820's) which,among others, contained the following verse:As a little fat man of BombayWas smoking one very hot day,A bird called a snipe flew away with his pipe,Which vexed the fat man of Bombay.85The exact origins of this verse form are unclear but it cameto be known as the limerick. Lear described this verse ashaving "a form lending itself to limitless variety forRhymes and Pictures." 8 Over his lifetime, Lear producedhundreds of limericks and was the first poet to earn fame inthe limerick field.A criticism of Lear's limericks is that they "arethought by some to be feeble, on the grounds that therhyming word in the last line repeats the rhyme in the firstor second line." Only a few of his limericks (5 out of atotal of 236 in the book Nonsense^Verse of Edward Lear) useda different rhyme in the final word. It is quite unusualfor the a-a-b-b-a rhyme pattern to contain three differentrhyming "a" words, as in the following:There was an Old Man who made bold,To affirm that the weather wasSo he ran up and down, in his grandmother's gownWhich was woollen, and not very old."The inevitability of Lear's final rhymes fittinglycomplements the whole tendency of his versification in thesepoems."'-° This characteristic of word repetition may havebeen due to the fact that Lear wrote the limerick with theintention that children would join in with a final rhymingword that was familiar to them. "The echoing effect ofLear's repeated rhyme-words often maintains and enhances thefeeling of non-sense, leaving the limerick subjects in aperpetual state of suspended animation.""86Lear apparently wrote many of his limericks in two orthree lines, although published editions usually presentthese verses in stanzas of four lines (thus creating amedial rhyme in the third line). Predictable forms are partof Lear's limerick world. The nonsense element is containedin a tight rhyme pattern which seems to highlight thefantasy or comic absurdities of the verses.However, in spite of Lear's brilliant success andacquired fame as the author of the "fantastic collection ofrhymes-without-reason," he was seen as a wandering eccentricand considered by many to be a lonely man. 3-2 He sufferedfrom frequent depressions which he termed "the Morbids" or"knownothingatallaboutwhatoneisgoingtodo-ness." 3-3 Thismelancholy side of his personality appeared in his longerpoems along with two recurrent themes--"wandering" and"loss."The underlying symbolism in "The Courtship of theYonghy-Bonghy-Bo" reveals this sense of personal isolation:'Lady Jingly! Lady Jingly!Sitting where the pumpkins blow,Will you come and be my wife?'Said the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo.'I am tired of living singly,--On this coast so wild and shingly,--I'm a-weary of my life:If you'll come and be my wife,Quite serene would be my life!'--Said the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo,Said the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo.Lady Jingly's refusal leaves the jilted author to wander,ever in search of his Jumbly girl:87Lady Jingly answered sadly,And her tears began to flow,--'Your proposal comes too late,Mr. Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo!I would be your wife most gladly!'(Here she twirled her fingers madly)'But in England I've a mate!Yes! you've asked me far too late,For in England I've a mate,Mr. Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo!Mr. Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo!'The name of her mate, "Handel Jones," is an alliterative punon the possessions owned by Mr. Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo, namely his"old jug without a handle." The eleven lines in each of theten verses of this poem are written in descending rhyme andfollow an identical rhyme pattern (a b c b a a c c c b b)with three exceptions: in the sixth verse, Lear used theabbreviation "Co." to create an eye rhyme for "Bo," in theseventh verse he divided the trisyllabic word "modify" tocreate the disyllabic "modi-" to rhyme with "body" and"Doddy" (moving the last syllable ahead to the next line),and in the final verse he used a consonantal blend to createa near rhyme in "mourns-moans.":From the Coast of Coromandel,Did that Lady never go;On the heap of stones she mournsFor the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo.On that Coast of Coromandel,In his jug without a handleStill she weeps, and daily moans;On that little heap of stones.To her Dorkling Hens she moans,For the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo,For the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo.88"Mourns" is a significant example of near rhyme, as itis the only rhyme in the 110-line poem that is not a fullone, and it is this word "mourns" that carries the mood ofthe poem. It is a word set apart from the others, just asthe Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo is set apart from his beloved LadyJingly.There is also another aspect to be considered overLear's use of the near rhyme "mourns." Near rhymes aresometimes associated with themes of sadness and mystery.Susan Miles believes near rhymes to be a way of suggesting"defeat, incongruity, suspense, failure, struggle,frustration, disillusion, thwarting, disruption, orescape." 14 Henry Wells stated (in reference to EmilyDickinson's use of near rhyme) that "full rhyme may becompared to the musician's major mode, half rhyme to theminor mode. The latter connotes indecision, pensiveness,quiet grief, or spiritual numbness." 15 Although thesestatements can be readily disproved by poems containing nearrhyme that express feelings of elevation or aspiration, theconcept of major and minor modes is nevertheless anintriguing one, and is perhaps applicable to Lear's single,lonely "mourns."To Lear, moonlight "may suggest magic or melancholy." 3-5It seems to suggest the former in "The Owl and the Pussy-cat." This poem appears to be free of trouble and sadness.The owl and the pussy-cat go on a magical journey, find aturkey to marry them and a pig to supply the ring:89"Dear Pig, are you willing to sell for one shillingYour ring?" Said the Piggy, "I wi.11."As the underlined examples illustrate, assonance andconsonance are frequently employed. Nine instances ofmedial rhyme occur in this three-verse narrative:honey: moneyowl: fowlmarried: tarriedaway: day (2)wood: stoodwilling: shillingmince: quincehand: sand"Since the sharing of food always cements lovingrelationships in Lear..." 17They dined on mince, and slices of quinceWhich they ate with a runcible spoon.("Runcible" is one of Lear's most famous neologisms.)Much has been published on the subject of theunderlying meanings in the limericks and narrative poems ofthis English "Laureate of Nonsense," but quite apart fromthe interpretive aspects of his writing, Lear's poetrycontinues to serve as an example of true nonsense. His Bookof Nonsense was "one of the few children's books to start atradition rather than follow one. Like a towering old oaktree in a grove of saplings, it remains a most impressivelandmark. 11890NOTES1 Walter de la Mare, Lewis Carroll (London: Faber andFaber, 1932) 8.2 Myra Cohn Livingston, Climb  Into the Bell Tower(Boston: Harper and Row, 1990) 50.3 Judith Saltman, ed., The Riverside Anthology ofChildren's Literature (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1985) 66.4 Holbrook Jackson, The Complete Nonsense of EdwardLear (New York: Dover Pub., 1951) xxv-xxvi.5 Thomas Byrom, Nonsense and Wonder: The Poems andCartoons of Edward_Lear (New York: Dutton, 1977) 194.6 Ina Rae Hark, Edward Lear (Boston: Twayne Pub., 1982)69.7 Livingston 52.• John Vernon Lord, The Nonsense Verse of Edward Lear(New York: Harmony Books, 1984) xii.' Lord xv.1° Hark 29.11 Lord xvi.12 Jackson ix.13 Lord xii.14 Susan Miles in Judy Jo Small's Full as  Opera: EmilyDickinson's Rhyme (University of N. Carolina, 1986) 3.15 Henry M. Wells, Introduction  to Emily Dickinson(Chicago: Packard, 1947) 267.16 Hark 57.9117 Hark 56.18 Mark I. West in Touchstones: Reflections on the Bestin Children's Literature, ed. Perry Nodelman (WestLafayette: Children's Literature Assoc., 1986) 156.92CHRISTINA ROSSETTI (1830-1898)Comparisons have been made between William Blake'sSongs of Innocence and Christina Rossetti's .lag..7Qag:Rossetti, in the Blake tradition, showsher love and veneration for innocence--children, lambs, birds, dogs, cats,rabbits, caterpillars, flowers, and seabeasts. 3-When Christina Rossetti's Sing:Songi_A Nursery_RhymeBook was published in 1872, it was received favourably bycritics and reviewers, although most felt the poems wereintended for children above nursery age.Sing:Song is considered to be historically significant.It reflected the new approach to children's poetry, as itincluded many nondidactic poems as well as the traditional,instructive verses. Among the instructional rhymes aimed atteaching children such things as measurement, seasons, andcolours, the poem "What is Pink?" stands out:What is pink? A rose is pinkBy the fountain's brink.What is red? A poppy's redIn its barley bed.What is blue? The sky is blueWhere the clouds float through.What is white? A swan is whiteSailing in the light.What is yellow? Pears are yellow,Rich and ripe and mellow.What is green? The grass is green,With small flowers between.What is violet? Clouds are violetIn the summer twilight.What is orange? Why, an orange,Just an orange!93A certain cohesiveness is achieved in this poem byRossetti's use of anaphora. Every other line begins withthe question "What is...?" and this repetition effectivelyimitates the endless flow of questions a curious child mightask.Rossetti is noted for her simple diction and briefstatements, as seen in the above poem where 81% of the wordsare monosyllabic. One-syllable rhyming couplets are usedthroughout, with the exception of "yellow" : "mellow,""violet" : "twilight," and "orange." "Violet" : "twilight"is a rhyme that matches a trisyllabic with a disyllabicending. It is also an example of rich-consonance, where theconsonantal repetition between words has differentcorresponding vowels ("violet" : "twilight"). Perhaps thisunusual rhyming couplet was placed near the end of the poemto prepare the ear for the musical irregularity of the final"Just an orange!" Orange is a word that cannot be rhymed atall in the English language, and the sudden insertion ofthis exclamatory couplet breaks the predicted rhythm andsurprises the reader. Though poets vary greatly in thenumber and kinds of easements they discover from rhymingrigor, they all "allow themselves more merely approximaterhymes than is generally realized." 2In contrast to "What is Pink?" the poem "Lullaby, ohlullaby!" does not have such a high proportion of clipped,one-syllable words. Soft consonants and long, soothing94vowels slow down the pace of the poem. The lines moveeasily with smooth, liquid "1" sounds:Lullaby, oh lullaby!Flowers are closed and lambs are sleeping;Lullaby, oh lullaby!Stars are up, the moon is peeping;Lullaby, oh lullaby!While the birds are silence keeping,(Lullaby, oh lullaby!)Sleep, my baby, fall a-sleeping,Lullaby, oh lullaby!Excluding the refrain, each line closes with an unstressedending, which flows into the accented syllable of thefollowing line. It is a carefully regulated tempo, composedto compliment the internal echoes within the poem and tocreate a soporific feeling.Specific themes continued to capture Rossetti'sattention: "a preoccupation with death, a yearning for rest,a regret for the transience of beauty, and a sometimesconsoling hope of salvation." 3 These themes are exquisitelywoven into the five short lines of her poem "Last Rites":Dead in the cold, a song-singing thrush,Dead at the foot of a snowberry bush--Weave him a coffin of rush,Dig him a grave where the soft mosses grow,Raise him a tombstone of snow.All but five words in the above poem are monosyllabic.Arthur Symons wrote in the London Quarterly Review (1887)that Christina Rossetti's "most haunting rhyme-effects arein words of one syllable." 4 E.K. Charles notes in Chri.stinaRossetti=Critical_perspectiyes_1,862711982 that "the more95serious she is, the less she decorates her verse, the fewerand more traditional her images, the more unpretentious herwords." 5Perhaps she was filled with her own sense ofvulnerability and mortality when she penned "Last Rites."The year before this poem was published in Skng7Sono,Rossetti suffered a severe attack of Graves' disease. Theillness left her health permanently impaired, and it wasundoubtedly a difficult time in her life.Rossetti's sensitivity to the finality of the "d" soundin line 1 with the initial and final consonants in "dead" iseffectively repeated in line 2. The intensity of the poemis heightened by this repetition.Rossetti played with the sounds of the language. Ofspecial note is her abundant use of initial, medial, andfinal alliteration in this five-line poem:Initial consonance^song-singingdeadMedial alliteration snowherry hushcoffin ofhim a tombstoneFinal consonance^song-singingthrush, bush, rush.Assonance^dig himsoft-mossesAssonance with suspended alliteration (where thealliterating consonant and the succeeding vowel arereversed) is also used:96soft-mossestombstone of snowThese internal vocalic echoes give the poem a deep feelingof sadness.The functions of the last two rhymes "grow" : "snow"are not the same grammatically and are also different in thecontext of the poem. The hint of life and renewal in theverb "grow" is killed by the cold image in the noun "snow."Living, vibrant images appear in the last words of the firstfour lines:song-sing thrushsnowberry bushrushsoft mosses growand change suddenly to the cold silence of "a tombstone ofsnow" in the final line.Although this poem is written in falling, dactylicrhyme, each line ends on an accented syllable. Rossettijolts the reader in the third line with her skilful use ofrhyme counterpoint. The first two lines have been writtenin tetrameter and the reader is expecting a similar lengthin line 3. But this line is written in trimeter and is notthe anticipated pattern.There is a parallelism in the first two lines:Dead in the cold...Dead at the foot...97and also in the last three lines:Weave him...Dig him...Raise him...reflecting perhaps on the burial rites of Rossetti's ownreligious persuasions, and the Christian "risen from thedead" belief."Thrush" and "rush" are full rhymes, and the insertionof the near rhyme "bush" comes as an acoustical surprise.It brings out a feeling of tension in the poem. It isunclear whether "bush" is an eye rhyme or an historicalrhyme. Many of today's consonantal rhymes were onceconsidered to be full rhymes, but the vowel pronunciationhas altered, and they now appear as near rhymes. Shiftingpronunciation is a very complex issue, especially in thematter of vowel analysis. Consonant sounds have remainedrelatively stable over time, but such has not been the casewith vowel sounds. Henry Lanz stated that "in the historyof languages consonants reveal considerably more constancythan vowels; they form the solid skeleton of words whichidentically persists throughout the ages of evolution, whilethe vowels change from generation to generation, from onedialect to another."It is difficult to ascertain how the word "bush" wouldhave been pronounced in Rossetti's London area in 1872.This word also occurred in the following poems by Rossetti("Spring Quiet"); Blake ("The Echoing Green"); and Lear("There was an Old Man who said, 'Hush!'"). In each of98these examples it would appear that "bush" was intended as afull rhyme:Where in the white-thornSingeth a thrush And a robin singsIn the holly-blksh.(Rossetti)The skylark and thrush.The birds of the latishSing louder aroundTo the bells' cheerful sound.(Blake)There was an Old Man who said, "Hush!I perceive a young bird in the bush!"When they said, "Is it small?"He replied, "Not at all!It is four times as big as the bush!"(Lear)Rossetti pushed back poetical boundaries. John Ruskincommented in 1861 that her poems were full of "quaintnessand offences...irregular measure is the calamity of modernpoetry." He suggested that she should "exercise herself inthe severest commonplace of metre until she can write as thepublic like. Then if she puts in her observation andpassion all will become precious. But she must have theForm first."'The poem "A Crown of Windflowers" parallels her ownsituation where "she continued to grieve over the emptinessin her life....There is always the melancholy note thatcannot be suppressed of the unlikelihood of ever trulyloving." 899"Twist me a crown of windflowersThat I may fly awayTo hear the singers at their song,And players at their play.""Put on your crown of windflowers;But whither would you go?""Beyond the surging seaAnd the storms that blow.""Alas! your crown of windflowersCan never make you fly;I twist them in a crown today,And tonight they die."The sadness in the poem is heightened by her skilfuluse of ploce in the repetition of the phrase "a crown ofwindflowers." The windflower (lily-of-the-field) flourishesin shady areas, and its colourful bloom is very short-lived.This brief-bloom idea is subtly hinted at in her choice ofthe word "whither." "Fly" : "die" are tame rhymes in thatthey both use similar parts of speech in correspondingfunctions.Critics over the past century have not always agreed ontheir responses to Rossetti's use of rhyme. Green-Armytageremarked in Maids_of_Honour (1906) that the reader willoften find "'rhymes which can only be regarded asimpossible--poetic freedom in the use of word-sounds whichexceeds...poetic licence.' Rossetti's lines he says, arenot only 'imperfect,' but beyond all bounds of 'allowable-ness,' actually 'unscannable.'" 9In the regulated verse structure so predominant in thepoetry of that period, perhaps Rossetti's "Caterpillar"would have seemed 'unscannable' to Green-Armytage:100Brown and furryCaterpillar in a hurry,Take your walkTo the shady leaf, or stalk,Or what not,Which may be the chosen spot.No toad spy you,Hovering bird of prey pass by you;Spin and die,To live again a butterfly.A variety of end rhyme appears in these five couplets:furry : hurry (disyllabic)walk : stalk (monosyllabic)not : spot (monosyllabic)spy you : by you (mosaic)die : butterfly (monosyllabic--trisyllabic)This poem also contains a variety of rhythmic feet:line 1--trochee (strong-weak)line 2--trocheeline 3--amphimacer (strong-weak-strong)line 4--trocheeline 5--amphibrach (weak-strong-weak)line 6--trocheeline 7--spondee (strong-strong)line 8--trochee (although it opens with a dactyl[strong-weak-weak] if "hovering" is notelided)line 9--amphimacerline 10-iamb (weak-strong)There is a clever, subtle switch in rhythm in the lastline. This is the only line written in iambic (orascending) rhythm, and it leaves the reader with the finalimage of a butterfly--delicately rising and breaking free.There are deeper connotations within this poem. Thefinal two lines perhaps also reflect Rossetti's religiousbelief that the soul rises to live again in heaven.C.M. Bowra's description of her poetic use of words andphrases seems especially applicable to this poem: "But each101word expresses exactly what she feels, and her sense ofrhythm is so subtle that even in her darkest moments she canbreak into pure song." 1°Rossetti's name is secure in the historical survey ofchildren's poetry. Sing7Song was an extremely importantcontribution, for it looked back to traditional styles andahead to progressive ones. Her moralistic verse that was soattractive to nineteenth century readers is not appealing tomodern tastes, but her experimental poems (where she movedaway from the didactic) are "a link with the artisticmasterpieces in Songs of Innocence by William Blake and ofthose by Walter de la Mare and other modern authors whosepoetry displays childlike gualities." 13-NOTES.Fredegond Shove in E.K. Charles's Cbristina • Rossetti:Critical Perspectives  1862-1982 (London: Associated Univ.Press, 1985) 103.2 Arthur Melville Clark in The. ^Encyclue.diaof Poetry and Poetics, ed. Alex Preminger (New Jersy:Princeton Univ. Press, 1990) 707.3 Ralph A. Bellas, Christina_Rossetti (Boston: TwaynePub., 1977) 25.1024 Arthur Symons in Charles, 56.5 Charles 154.6 Henry Lanz, Tie phisical_Basf_Rime (California:Stanford Univ. Press, 1931) 197.Ruskin in Bellas, 32.Bellas 68.9 A.J. Green-Armytage in Charles, 92.1° C.M. Bowra, The Romantic Imagination (New York:Oxford Univ. Press, 1961) 264.11 Bellas 118.103EVE MERRIAM (1916- )Poems by contemporary writers such as Eve Merriamexplode with rich varieties of rhyme and form. She is oneof the "practitioners of stylistic change whose workinvolves spontaneous improvisation of forms...she recognizesthat children are not bound rigidly to neat, regular meterand rhyme...."'- The concept of shaped verse is demonstratedin her poem "The Serpent's Hiss" where the curves of a snakeare recreated:slidtng over stonesa silent spillsleek as silkiridescentappearing anddisappearingslipping soundless out of sunlightto seek dark-wooded sanctuarysequesteredsurreptitiousslithering roundunderground secretive rootsNarcissusspun in uponits sinuous selfancient synonym forsibylltnemysteryMerriam's use of onomatopoeia is obvious. The "s"sound appears thirty-five times. Less noticeable is her use104of the "i" vowel. It subtly works its way through thelines, creating an internal echo within the poem. Althoughend rhymes do not occur, there are internal rhymes:sliding: appearing: disappearing: slippingsound: round: undergroundsleek: seekin: sinuous: synonymParallel alliteration creates a sound pattern by theintricate weaving of the "s" with "1," "e," or "i"sliding: stones: silent: sleek: silk:iridescent: disappearing: slipping: soundless:seek: sequestered: slithering: secretive:narcissus: sinuous: self: sibyllineMerriam also uses suspended alliteration, reversing theconsonant and vowel:sliding: silent: silk: slippingspun: uponsynonymsequesteredSubmerged alliteration occurs in "silent" :"iridescent"where the unaccented syllables rhyme. Consonance also isused:spun in uponsleek as silkdark-wooded: sequestered: roundIn much of her poetry, Merriam makes frequent use ofword repetition, but "The Serpent's Hiss" is unusual in thateach word (even the articles and prepositions) appears onlyonce.105However, in the following poem, anaphora is employedthroughout, as most lines begin with either "from" or "to."This verse demonstrates Merriam's skill in using thestanzaic form to describe itself:DESCENTcome down from the moonfrom mountainsfrom towersfrom treetopsfrom cragsfrom cliffsfrom slopesfrom hillocksfrom hummocksfrom mesasfrom knollsfrom plateausfrom cobblesfrom risesfrom ridgesfrom bushesfrom hedgesto plainsto valleysto trenchesto ditchesto marshesto swampsto fensto pondsto seaweedto planktonto coralto sponge exuding breathingbreathing out bubblesround as the moonThe closing line echoes the opening line:come down from the moon...round as the moonOnly one full rhyme occurs: "hillocks" : "hummocks," but afew near rhymes appear:106treetops: slopescobbles: knollsridges: hedgestrenches: ditchesMerriam again uses anaphora in her poem "The WhollyFamily":Baby's got a plastic bottle,plastic pacifier to chew;plastic pillows on the sofa,plastic curtains frame the view;plastic curlers do up Mama,Mama's hairdo plastic, too.Junior plays with plastic modules,Sister pins on plastic bows;plastic wallet made for Papa,plastic credit cards in rows;plastic ivy in the plantergreener than the real thing grows.Plastic pumpkin for Thanksgiving,plastic beach ball by the sea;plastic snow at Christmastime,plastic manger, star and tree;plastic used so totallykeeps us germproof and dirt-free.Praise of plastic thus we sing,plastic over everythingkeeps us cool and safe and dry;it may not pain us much to die.The word "plastic" appears eighteen times in this poem(twelve of the twenty-two lines begin with it), and thisrepetition hammers home the fact that the readers themselvesare almost "wholly" buried in plastic.In contrast to her free verse, Merriam wrote this poemwithin a deliberately controlled stanzaic pattern. "TheWholly Family" is a tight, rigid form that reflects thetight, plastic forms surrounding the subjects in their daily107lives. Each line is regulated by the tetrameter, and eachverse is contained in six lines--until the last one. Thepoem abruptly stops with the thought of death and theconsistent rhyme scheme changes from alternating-rhyme tocouplets.Merriam employs anaphora for a different reason in thefollowing poem. She repeats the phrase "Is it..." tosuggest the endless flow of questions an imaginative childmight ask:Is it robin o'clock?Is it five after wing?Is it quarter to leaf?Is it nearly time for spring?Is it grass to eleven?Is it flower to eight?Is it half-past snowflake?Do we still have to wait?Along with the basically anapestic rhythm, the echoing ofthe initial alliterative vowels creates a hurried,breathless effect throughout the poem. She also usesanaphora in the poem "Windshield Wiper," this time todemonstrate the actual rhythm of the wiper:108fog smogtissue paperclear the blearfog moresplat splatrubber scraperovershoesbumbershootslosh throughdrying upfog smogtissue paperclear the smearfog moredownpourrubber scrapermacintoshmuddle onslosh throughdrying up109^sky lighter^sky lighternearly clear^nearly clearclearing clearing veerclear here clearAlthough she has varied her choice of rhythmic foot fromtrochee (strong--weak; "fog more^fog more") to dactyl(strong--weak--weak; "overshoes^macintosh") to paean(strong--weak--weak--weak; "tissue paper tissue paper"),each phrase retains a built-in beat that matches the soundof a wiper. The stanzaic form itself illustrates the shapeof the subject.Merriam plays with words and symbols in her poetry.She shares with children "delight in the playful visual,aural, and intellectual concepts of shaped verse, concretepoetry, found poetry, and a host of collage andtypographical verse forms." 2 "Showers, Clearing Later inthe Day" is composed entirely of exclamation marks andasterisks. In the following verse entitled "Markings: TheQuestion" Merriam matches up the shape of an object with theshape of a symbol:A scytheflailing awayat the wandering fieldof why.Who can cut downthe mysterious grainthat rises high againwith secrets unrevealed?The physical appearance of a scythe resembles the questionmark, and acoustically it contains an internal rhyme for theword "why."The lines are subtly linked together by Merriam's fulluse of assonance, alliteration, and homoeoteleuton:Initial vocalic alliterationA scytheflailing awayat the wandering fieldConsonantal alliterationcan cutwandering: whymysterious: rises: secretsAssonancescythe: whyflailing awayrises highgrain: again (full rhyme)fiejd: unreve.aled (full rhyme)Homoeoteleutonflailing.: wanderingAs a child, Merriam stated that she was "captivated bytheir [words] musicality, and by the fact that you couldhave alliteration...that you could hear a whole orchestra inyour voice." 3 Like Edward Lear, Merriam excels in theinvention of nonsense words. She created nonsense words,through a combination of alliteration and assonance, tosimulate the sounds heard in a ping-pong game:PING -PONGChitchatwigwag110rickrackzigzagknickknackgewgawriffraffseesawcrisscrossflip-flopding-dongtiptopsingsongmishmashKing Kongbong."Landscape" is one of Merriam's best known poems:What will you find at the edge of the world?A footprint,a feather,desert sand swirled?A tree of ice,a rain of stars,or a junkyard of cars?What will there be at the rim of the earth?A mollusc,a mammal,a new creature's birth?Eternal sunrise,immortal sleep,or cars piled up in a rusty heap?This is a particularly interesting poem to study becauseMerriam has documented her writing process. When she begancomposing it, she stated: "I felt I wanted a rhyme, a formalpattern to enclose the thought." Later, she sensed some ofthe words were strained and were only there "for the rhyme'ssake." Her mind worked with "images and rhymessimultaneously." She had difficulty with "world" (trying"twirled, swirled, skirled") and even resorted to using the111identical rhyme "whirled." 4 She eventually chose "swirled"and discarded the lines:a cratera canyona new creature's birthas being too alliterative--replacing them with:a mollusca mammala new creature's birth.In the conclusion of her article she stated that she was"still not altogether pleased; as 'desert sand swirled' is alittle too sibilant to read aloud easily."Eve Merriam's concerns about today's issues arereflected in her themes and subjects. "A keen observer ofcontemporary life, she brings to her poetry a fresh outlookon all phases of the modern world, its delights as well asabsurdities." 5 She is extremely versatile and uses anastounding variety of rhymes and verse forms.Merriam, like Blake, Lear, and Rossetti, is a creativeexperimenter who has "managed the technique of rhyme." Thequestion of how children respond to rhyme will be addressedin the following chapter.112NOTES3- Judith Saltman, ed., The_RIverside_Apthology ofChildren's Literature (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1985) 93.2 Saltman 93.3 Eve Merriam in Tbe...9.1.4cg.....NY_Rgxd.U_P_TAPPAITts_Eckx:Wh4t_Poe:tg....q.4.Y_Allt.4n.d_Thro_gab_Their.Wut., ed. Paul B.Janeczko (New York: Bradbury Press, 1990) 65.4 Eve Merriam, Find a Poem (New York: Atheneum, 1970)59-67.5 Myra Cohn Livingston, cltmb_Tpto_the_aell_Tower:Essays on Poetry (New York: Harper and Row, 1990) 89.113CONCLUSIONSWhat are children's reasons for liking a poem? How dochildren react to rhyme?Judith Saltman states that "A child's response topoetry is immediate; young children take delight inrepetition, rhythm, and rhyme, and they seemingly respondwith their very nerves, in confirmation of the widely heldbelief that poetry is the natural language of childhood."-The poet, John Ciardi, commented that "The schoolsystem annually receives into its beginning classes anaudience that overflows with the joy and immediacy ofpoetry. The same system annually graduates from its highschools a horde of adolescents who, with rare exceptions,are either wary of poetry or hostile to it." 2 David Boothsupported this observation with the comment "For certain,something happens to many children, and the love of poetryas part of their life experience begins to wane. Inadulthood, very, very, few people choose to read poems."Earle Birney made the statement that "Virtually all humanbeings are born with the abilities needed to delight in andto make poetry, but unimaginative concepts of education canmuffle and destroy these abilities.""Children's "ability to delight in poetry" is reflectedin their response to rhyme. Key studies in poetrypreferences indicate that rhyme has been, and continues tobe, identified by children as the most popular poetic114device. However, rhyme is a topic given relatively littleattention in most critical studies on prosody. It is rarelydiscussed in any detail in the context of children'sliterature.Sylvia Avegno conducted a study in 1956 withintermediate students and concluded that rhyme was a majorfactor for children liking a poem.' Her research alsoindicated there was only a slight difference in favour ofmodern poems. Louise Hofer researched the preferences ofSixth Graders, also in 1956, and discovered that her pupilspreferred humorous, rhyming poems that contained a beat. 6An extensive study was undertaken by George Norvell andcovered a span of twenty-five years. His findings werepublished in 1958, and indicated, among other points, thatnonsense poems and limericks were extremely popular withchildren in grades four to six.'Ann Terry's 1972 survey entitled Childrep:s_Ppetxypreferences_ indicated that the three poetic elements mostpreferred by children were rhyme, rhythm, and sound. Aninteresting conclusion from this study was that the studentsshowed an overwhelming preference for contemporary poetry,rather than traditional poetry." This finding perhapsreflected the increased variety in poems available sinceAvegno's 1956 study.Carol J. Fisher and Margaret A. Natarella conducted astudy in 1979 where children indicated a strong preferencefor rhymed, metered poetry.'115Michael P. Ford published a study in 1987 that revealedmost young children had a very limited knowledge of poetryconcepts. The most common concept identified was thatpoetry had to have some degree of rhyming. 1°A recent study was published by Philip M. Anderson in1990. He examined the poetic conventions of diction, meter,and rhyme to find out if there were any discernibledifferences in students' responses to these conventions.Response levels at all grades (5, 7, 9, 11) showed a dislikefor poetry that was lacking in rhyme or regular meter."Anderson's research supports a pervasive finding in thestudies of Avegno, Norvell, Terry, Fisher/Natarella, andFord. These studies indicate that certain conventions ofpoetry such as rhyme and meter appear to positivelyinfluence preferences, and that these preferences haveremained relatively unaltered over the years.The choice of poem is a crucial factor in determiningchildren's appreciation in poetry and, therefore, it isvital that their initial experiences with poetry beenjoyable. This is not to suggest that children should beintroduced to verse containing only traditional rhyme. Itis important to increase their repertoire of well-likedpoetry and to extend their tastes. Children need to have asrich and wide an experience as possible. Robert MacNeilnotes that "Unless we hear the language [of poetry] we willhave no ear for it...a habit of listening to words has to becultivated and it is best cultivated young." 12 Children's116ability to respond to good poetry, rhymed or unrhymed,should not be underestimated.A poem is a shared event involving imagination,intellect, emotion, and memory. 3-3"I," says the poem matter-of-factly,"I am a cloud,I am a tree.I am a city,I am the sea,I am a goldenMystery."But, adds the poem silently,I cannot speak until you come.Reader, come, come with me.'- 4Poetry occurs when the child and the words connect, asthis poem by Eve Merriam suggests. But the poem cannot"speak" without the child's willingness to participate. Itis important for those involved in the selection and sharingof children's poetry to be aware of the delight childrenhave in the taste and sound of words.Poetry offers the reader new insights that mayilluminate an everyday event and initiate intense response.Ciardi states that children's sense of life is deepened bythe experience of poetry--they become surer of their ownemotions and wiser than they would have been without theexperience. He also mentions that "No one need assume thattechnique defines a poem. Something in every good work ofart defies definition. Yet close, specific discussion ofthe artist's technique is useful." 3-5117This thesis, through "close, specific discussion of theartist's technique," makes evident the extraordinaryflexibility and diversity of rhyme in children's poetry.The study also illustrates how observant and scrupulous agood poet is when successfully employing the rhyming device.A detailed analysis of the words selected by these writersreveals that each word has been chosen purposefully for itsacoustical effect as well as for its meaning.Analysis of the rhyme patterns of selected poems forchildren used in this research demonstrates that a number ofchanges have taken place over the past three centuries.Poetic boundaries have expanded considerably since "thefirst children's poet," Isaac Watts, wrote his piyine_pongsAttempted_in Easy Language for the Use of Children in 1715.Free verse and experimentation with all forms of poetry havegained in popularity with poets during the latter part ofthis century. Yet, in spite of the growth of free verse,the couplet and quatrain continue to be popular choices.Although the preferences for stressed line endings overunstressed line endings have remained remarkably consistentthrough the centuries, greater use of endings containingnear rhymes has increased appreciably over endings with fullrhymes.The poets mentioned in this study have been importantfigures in the evolution of children's poetry. A closeexamination of their use of rhyme reveals the stronginfluence individual poets have had on subsequent writers.118Lear's profound impact on the world of nonsense verseinfluenced many poets, from Carroll to Merriam. Writerssuch as Blake and Rossetti have been prophetic voices in thedevelopment of children's poetry. Their experimentationswith rhyme and meter helped shape the changes that havetaken place in the twentieth century. Contemporary writerssuch as Merriam and Worth have produced poems that are aslyrical and full of music as any of the past. Creativeexperimentation in poetry that has taken place in thetwentieth century has indeed "unfetter'd" rhyme. Present-day readers are accustomed to the sound of innovativerhymes.Children's poetry offers variety, richness, andexperimentation. This wealth of diversity deserves to beexplored. Today's educator has the opportunity to selectand share the finest from contemporary and traditionalpoetry. Ciardi encourages those involved with children andpoetry to develop a deeper understanding of how poets managethis art. He states that "The purpose of analysis is not todestroy beauty but to identify its sources...if one caresabout the nature of the beautiful object...study necessarilydemands a look at the artists' management of their art." 2-6Rhyme is a dynamic in poetry that has great attractionfor the child and is an integral part of poetry's appeal andpleasure. Fine shadings or dramatic turns in sound areclearer when the reader listens closely to the music ofrhyme. Such reverberations can echo through a lifetime.119NOTES..1 Judith Saltman, ed., The Riverside Anthology  ofChildren's Literature (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1985) 15.2 John Ciardi, Ciardk_Hipself (Fayetteville: TheUniversity of Arkansas Press, 1989) 125.3 David Booth and Bill Moore, Poems Pleasel (Ontario:Pembroke Pub. Ltd., 1988) 23.4 Earle Birney, Tbe_CowAumped_Oyer_the_Mppn:.theWriting  and Reading_of Poetry (Minneapolis: Holt, Rinehart,and Winston, 1971) 3.5 Sylvia T. Avegno, "Intermediate-Grade Choices ofPoetry," Elementary English Nov. 1956: XXXIII, 428-32.6 Louise B. Hofer, "What Do Sixth Graders Really Likein Poetry?" Elementary  English Nov. 1956: XXXIII, 433-38.George W. Norvell, What Boys and Girls Like to Read(New York: Silver Burdett Co., 1958) 65.9 Ann Terry, Children's Poetry Preferences:  A NationalSurvey of Upper Elementary Grades (Illinois: University ofNebraska, 1972) 48, 51.9 Carol J. Fisher and Margaret A. Natarella, PoetryPreferences_of Primary  Graders (Georgia: University ofGeorgia, 1979) 6.1° Michael P. Ford, Young_Children!s Concepts andAttitudes About Poetry (Wisconsin: The University ofWisconsin, 1987) 37.1203-1 Philip M. Anderson, Evaluative Response to PoeticConvention at Four Grade Levels (New York: Queens College ofthe City University, 1990) 16.12 Robert MacNeil, Wordstr_uck (New York: VikingPenguin, 1989) 187.13 John Ciardi, How  Does a Poem Mean? (Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1975) 6.14 Eve Merriam in Children's Literature in theElemen±ary_School, ed. Charlotte Huck (New York: Holt,Rinehart and Winston, 1987) 394.15 Ciardi xx.3-6 Ciardi xx.121BIBLIOGRAPHYAnderson, Philip M. EVakuative_Re.UQns.e.to_PoeticConvention at Four Grade Levels. Diss. New York:Queens College of the City University, 1990.Avegno, T. Sylvia. "Intermediate-Grade Choices of Poetry."Elementary English XXXIII (Nov. 1956): 428-32.Bailey, James. Toward a_Statistical. Analysis_of EnglishVerse. Lisse, Netherlands: The Peter de Ridder Press,1975.Bellas, Ralph A. Christina Rossetti. Boston: Twayne Pub.,1977.Birney, Earle. The_goW_JI4APP.51 OMer_tbe.Mo_on:_the.Writinand Reading of Poetry. Minneapolis: Holt, Rinehart,and Winston, 1971.Booth, David and Bill Moore. Poems Please! Ontario:Pembroke Pub. Ltd., 1988.Bottrall, Margaret, ed. William Blake: Songs of Innocenceand Experience--a Casebook. London: MacMillan, 1970.Bowra, C.M. The_Romantic_Imaqination. New York: OxfordUniv. Press, 1961.Byrom, Thomas. Nonsense and Wonder: The Poems and Cartoonsof_Edward.Lear. New York: Dutton, 1977.Carroll Lewis. The Annotated Alice. Ed. Martin Gardner.New York: Bramhall House, 1960.Charles, E.K. Christina_Rossetti:_Critical_Pers_pectimes,1862-1982. London: Associated Univ. Press, 1985.Ciardi, John. Ciardijilmself. Fayetteville: The Universityof Arkansas Press, 1989.Ciardi, John. How Does a Poem Mean? Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1975.Daniel, Samuel. A Defe_nce_Pf_Ryme. Ed. Arthur ColbySprague. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1930.Darton, F.J. Harvey. Children's_Books in England.Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982.De la Mare, Walter.^is Carroll. London: Faber andFaber, 1932.122Fisher, Carol J. and Margaret A. Natarella. poetryPreferences_ of Primary_ Graders. Diss. Georgia:University of Georgia, May, 1979.Ford, Michael P. Young_Children's_Concepts_and AttttudesAbout Poetry. Diss. Wisconsin: The University ofWisconsin, May, 1987.Fraser, G.S. itetreRhyme_and.Free_Verss. London: Methuenand Co. Ltd., 1970.Fraser, G.S. A Short History of English Poetry. Somerset:Open Books Ltd., 1981.Hackleman, Wauneta, ed. Tilg_S_tUdY...andWritifig_of.11.9etry:American Women Poets Discuss Their Craft. New York:Whitson Pub. Co., 1983.Hall, Donald. TheOxford„ Book_ot_Childrenls_MerseAmertqq. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1985.Hark, Ina Rae. Edward Lear. Boston: Twayne Pub., 1982.Hollander, John. Vision and Resonance. New Haven: YaleUniv. Press, 1985.Huck, Charlotte, et al., eds. Chilaren!.s_Litsraturejn_theElementary_School. New York: Holt, Rinehart andWinston, Inc., 1987.Jackson, Holbrook. The Complete Nonsense of Edward Lear.New York: Dover Pub., 1951.Janeczko, Paul B. The mplace_My Words Are_LookingEpr:__WhatPoets Say About Their Work. New York: Bradbury Press,1990.Keynes, Geoffrey. Blake_Studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press,1971.Lanz, Henry. The Physical Basis of Rime. California:Stanford Univ. Press, 1931.Larrick, Nancy, ed. SomebodY_Turned_on a_TAR_in These_K_ids.New York: Delacorte Press, 1971.Leader, Zachary. Reading Blake's^Poems. London: Routledgeand Kegan Paul Ltd., 1981.Livingston, Myra Cohn. ClimD_Into_the.Be_11Tower. Boston:Harper and Row, 1990.MacNeil, Robert. Wordstruck. New York: Viking Penguin,1989.123Nodelman, Perry, ed. Touchstones: Reflections on the BestIII_Cbildrqn_Litat.P.X.P.. West Lafayette: ChLA Pub.,1986.Opie, Iona and Peter. The Oxford Book of Children's Verse.London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1975.Pendlebury, B.J.The_Art_of_the Rhyme. New York: CharlesScribner's Sons, 1971.Pickering, Samuel. John Locke and Children's Books inEighteenth Century England. Knoxville: Univ. ofTennessee Press, 1981.Preminger, Alex, ed. The_Prjricetom Eng...Y.P.1gpedja_of_PPYand Poetics. New Jersy: Princeton Univ. Press, 1990.Puttenham, George. The Arte of English Poesie--1589.Menston, England: Scolar Press Ltd., 1968.Quintilian. T11. 1.4qtitgIjoOratoria. Trans. H.E. Butler.London: William Heinemann, 1921. Vol. III.Reeves, James. grderstanding_poetry. London: Heinemann,1965.Rosenfeld, Alvin, ed. William Blake. Providence: BrownUniv. Press, 1969.Saintsbury, George. gisIorjcal_Manual_gf_EDallail.F.X.0.s.gdY.London: MacMillan and Co., 1910.Saintsbury, George. Short_History.of_English_Li&er.ature.London: Macmillan and Co., 1913.Saltman, Judith, ed. The Riverside Anthology of Children2sUterature. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1985.Shipley, Joseph. In Prajse of English. New York: TimesBooks, 1977.Sidney, Sir Philip. Tkg_10fPrage ot_Pgesle=1595. Menston,England: Scolar Press Ltd., 1968.Small, Judy Jo. Full as Opera: Emily_Dickinson's_Rhyme.North Carolina: Univ. of North Carolina, 1986.Smith, Lilian H. The Unreluctant Years. Chicago: AmericanLibrary Association, 1953.Stillman, Frances. The Poet's Manual and RhymingDjctionary. London: Thames and Hudson, 1966.124Sutherland, Zena, et al., eds. Children and Books.Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Co., 1981.Terry, Ann. Childrenlp_PoQtr.L.P.KefPXeng@s_. Illinois:National Council of Teachers of English, 1974.Townsend, John Rowe. Written_for_Children. Middlesex:Kestrel Books, 1974.Untermeyer, Louis. The Forms of_poetry. New York:Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1926.Wells, Henry M. Introduction to  Emily. Dickinson. Chicago:Packard, 1947.Wicksteed, Joseph H. Blake's Innocence and Experience.New York: E.P. Dutton, 1928.Wimsatt, W.K. The Verbal Icon. Kentucky: Kentucky Univ.Press, 1954.Witherspoon, Alexander M., ed. The College Survey ofFriglish_bitftTature. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.,1951.Woods, Susanne. Nat21K41.EMOsasi4. San Marino: TheHungington Library, 1984.POETRY BOOKS:Arbuthnot, May Hill, ed. Time for_Poetry. Illinois: Scott,Foresman and Co., 1968.Blake, William. Spngs_of Innoce.pqg arid.Experi.ence. NorwoodEditions, 1977.Blake, William. Songs of Innocence. London: Faber andFaber Ltd., 1958.Carroll, Lewis. Jabberwocky and Other  Poems. London:Macmillan, 1980.Ciardi, John. Mummy_Took Cooking Lessons. Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1990.Ciardi, John. You read to  me,  I'll read to you.Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1962.De la Mare, Walter. Peacock Pie. London: Faber and Faber,1989.125Kennedy, X.J., ed. Knocjc. at a_Star. Boston: Little, Brownand Co., 1982.Lear, Edward. Complete Nonsense of Edward Lear. Ed.Holbrook Jackson. New York: Dover Pub., 1951.Lear, Edward. The Nonsense Verse of Edward Lear. Ed. JohnVernon Lord. New York: Harmony Books, 1984.McCord, David. One at  a Time. Boston: Little, Brown andCo., 1980.Merriam, Eve. Blackbery_Ink. New York: William Morrow andCo., 1985.Merriam, Eve. Chortles.. New York: Morrow Junior Books,1989.Merriam, Eve. Find_ Poem. New York: Atheneum, 1970.Merriam, Eve. Fresh Paint. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co.,1986.Merriam, Eve. Out_Loud. New York: Atheneum, 1973.Merriam, Eve. A_PQ.Pm.fAr_.4PICkle_. New York: Morrow JuniorBooks, 1989.Milne, A.A. The_World_ot_ghTiqt(Vher.Robint_NoY.Wq_AT.P....§14..New York: E.P. Dutton, 1958.Rossetti, Christina. Doyes_and_Pomegranate.s. London:Bodley Head, 1969.Stevenson, Robert Louis. A Child's Garden of Verses.London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1985.Stevenson, Robert Louis. Collegted_ppems. London: RupertHart-Davis, 1971.Worth, Valerie. all the small poems. Farrar, Straus andGiroux, 1987.126APPENDIX: CHILDREN'S POETSArnold Adoff (1935- )Make a Circle, Keep Us In: Poems for a Good DayBig Sister Tells Me That I'm BlackOUTside INside PoemsAll the Colors of the RaceEats: PoemsI Am the Running GirlBlack Is Brown Is TanTornado!Under the Early Morning TreesFriend DogBirdsThe Cabbages Are Chasing RabbitsSports PagesFlamboyanGreensConrad Aiken (1889-1973)Tom, Sue, and the ClockA Little Who's Zoo of Mild AnimalsCats and Bats and Things with WingsJoan Aiken (1924- )The Skin Spinners: PoemsLucy Aiken (1781-1864)Poetry for Children: Consisting of Short Pieces to beCommitted to MemoryDorothy Aldis (1896-1966)All Together: A Child's Treasury of VerseQuick as a WinkHello DayIs Anybody Hungry?Richard Armour (1906-1989)All Sizes and Shapes of Monkeys and ApesA Dozen DinosaursOdd Old Mammals: Animals After the DinosaursHarry Behn (1898-1973)The Golden HiveThe Little HillAll Kinds of TimeWindy MorningCrickets and Bullfrogs and Whispers of ThunderThe Wizard in the WellWhat a Beautiful NoiseThe House Beyond the MeadowsHilaire Belloc (1870-1953)127The Bad Child's Book of BeastsMore Beasts for Worse ChildrenCautionary Tales for ChildrenNew Cautionary TalesA Moral AlphabetCautionary VersesSelected Cautionary VersesRosemary Carr Benet (1898-1962) and Stephen Vincent Benet(1898-1943)A Book of AmericansWilliam Blake (1757-1827)Songs of InnocenceN.M. Bodecker (1922-1988)Let's Marry Said the Cherry and Other Nonsense PoemsHurry, Hurry, Mary Dear! and Other Nonsense PoemsSnowman Sniffles, and Other VerseA Person from Britain and Other LimericksPigeon Cubes and Other VerseLeslie L. Brooke (1862-1940)Crow's GardenJohnny Crow's New GardenJohnny Crow's PartyRing o' RosesGwendolyn Brooks (1917- )Bronzeville Boys and GirlsMargaret Wise Brown (1910-1952)Big Dog, Little DogThe Little IslandWait till the Moon Is FullNibble NibbleThe Dark Wood of the Golden BirdsA Child's Good MorningWhere Have You Been?Robert Browning (1812-1889)Pied Piper of HamelinJohn Bunyan (1628-1688)A Book for Boys and Girls: or, Country Rhimes forChildrenLewis Carroll (1832-1898) Poems from:Alice's Adventures in WonderlandThrough the Looking GlassCharles Causley (1917- )Figgie HobbinHill of the Fairy Calf128The Tail of the TrinosaurBring in the HollyEarly in the Morning: A Collection of New PoemsHere We Go Round the Round HouseJack the Treacle Eater and Other PoemsAs I Went Down Zig ZagAbraham Chear (died 1668)A Looking-Glass for ChildrenJohn Ciardi (1916-1986)The Man Who Sang the SilliesYou Read to Me, I'll Read to YouFast and SlowI Met a ManThe Reason for the PelicanMonster Den or Look What Happened at My House and to ItScrappy the PupDoodle SoupThe Hopeful Trout and Other LimericksJohn J. Plenty and The Fiddler DanYou Know WhoThe King Who Saved Himself From Being SavedMommy Took Cooking LessonsLucille Clifton (1936- )The Black BC'sSome of the Days of Everett AndersonGood, Says JeromeEverett Anderson's YearEverett Anderson's GoodbyeEverett Anderson's FriendElizabeth Coatsworth (1893-1986)The Sparrow BushDown Half the WorldNight and the CatMouse ChorusThe Peaceable Kingdom and Other PoemsThe Children Come RunningSara Coleridge (1802-1852)Pretty Lessons in Verse for Good ChildrenNathaniel Cotton (1705-1788)Visions in Verse, for the Entertainment and Instructionof Younger MindsRoald Dahl (1916-1990)Revolting RhymesDirty BeastsWalter de la Mare (1873-1956)Songs of Childhood129Peacock PieCome HitherRhymes and VersesA Child's DayStuff and Nonsense and So OnDown-Adown-DerryBells and GrassPoems for ChildrenThis Year, Next YearThe VoiceBeatrice Schenk de Regniers (1914- )A Bunch of Poems and VersesMay I Bring a Friend?Something SpecialSo Many Cats!CircusWas It a Good Trade?Cats Cats Cats Cats CatsIt Does Not Say Meow, and Other Animal Riddle RhymesA Week in the Life of Best FriendsThe Way I Feel, SometimesEmily Dickinson (1830-1886)Letter to the WorldPoemsPoems for YouthCatherine Ann Dorset (1750-1817)The Peacock 'At Home'Barbara Juster Esbensen (1925- )Words With Wrinkled KneesCold Stars and Fireflies: Poems of the Four SeasonsNorma Farber (1909-1984)Small WondersNever Say Ugh to a BugAs I Was Crossing Boston CommonHow Does It Feel to be Old?Did You Know It Was the Narwhale?Where's Gomer?A Ship in a Storm on the Way to TarshishHow to Ride a TigerEleanor Farjeon (1881-1965)--numerous publications,including:Nursery Rhymes of London TownTunes of a Penny PiperThe New Books of DaysCherrystonesThen There Were ThreeThe Mulberry BushThe Starry Floor130The Children's BellsKings and QueensPoems for ChildrenHeroes and HeroinesOver the Garden WallMrs. MaloneSilver-Sand and SnowMorning Has BrokenInvitation to a MouseSomething I RememberEugene Field (1850-1895)Wynken, Blynken and Nod, and Other Child VersesRachel Field (1894-1942)PoemsThe Pointed PeopleTaxis and ToadstoolsAn Alphabet for Boys and GirlsPoems for ChildrenA Little Book of DaysA Circus GarlandAileen Fisher (1906- )Feathered Ones and FurryOut in the Dark and DaylightCricket in a ThicketI Like WeatherIn One Door and Out the OtherIn the Middle of the NightIn the Woods, in the Meadow, in the SkyLike Nothing at AllListen, RabbitWhere Does Everyone Go?Do Bears Have Mothers, Too?Up the Windy HillWe Went LookingThe Coffee-Pot FaceSing Little MouseThe House of a MouseBest Little HouseAnybody Home?Rabbits, RabbitsIn SummerPaul Fleishman (1952- )I Am Phoenix: Poems for Two VoicesJoyful Noise: Poems for Two VoicesSiv Cedering Fox (1939- )Blue Horse and Other Night PoemsRobert Froman (1917- )Seeing Things: A Book of Poems131Street PoemsRobert Frost (1874-1963)Stopping by Woods on a Snowy EveningYou Come TooComplete PoemsIn the ClearingA Swinger of BirchesRose Amy Fyleman (1877-1957)Fairies and ChimneysThe Fairy GreenThe Fairy FluteThe Sunny BookJoy Street PoemsRunabout RhymesRhyme Book for AdamNikki Giovanni (1943- )Spin a Soft Black Song: Poems for ChildrenEgo-Tripping and Other Poems for Young PeopleVacation Time: Poems for ChildrenRobert Graves (1895-1985)The Penny Fiddle: Poems for ChildrenAnn at Highwood Hall: Poems for ChildrenKate Greenaway (1846-1901)Marigold GardenUnder the WindowEloise Greenfield (1929- )Honey, I Love and Other Love PoemsUnder the Honey TreeRobert Heidbreder (1947- )Don't Eat SpidersMargaret Hillert (1920- )Farther Than FarI Like to Live in the CityWho Comes to Your House?The Sleeptime BookWhat Is It?I'm Special...So Are You!Doing ThingsFun DaysRabbits and RainbowsRussel Hoban (1925- )GoodnightThe Pedaling Man, and Other PoemsEgg Thoughts and Other Frances Songs132Mary Ann Hoberman (1930- )BugsA House Is a House for MeYellow Butter Purple Jelly Red Jam Black BreadHello and Good-ByNot Enough Beds for the BabiesAll My Shoes Come in Two'sHeinrich Hoffman (1809-1894)The English StruwwelpeterFelice Holman (1919- )At the Top of My Voice: and Other PoemsI Hear You Smiling and Other PoemsThe Song in My Head and Other PoemsLee Bennett Hopkins (1938- )The Street's for MeFaces and Places: Poems for YouWhen I Am All Alone: A Book of PoemsCharlie's World: A Book of PoemsKim's Place and Other PoemsMary Howitt (1799-1888)Sketches of Natural HistoryPatricia Hubbell (1928- )Catch Me a WindLangston Hughes (1902-1967)Don't You Turn BackBlack MiseryFields of WonderSelected Poems of Langston HughesTed Hughes (1930- )Season SongsMoon-Bells and Other PoemsUnder the North StarMoon-Whales and Other Moon PoemsMeet My Folks!Nessie, the Mannerless MonsterWhat Is Truth?: A Farmyard Fable for the YoungPeter Idley (died 1473?)Peter Idley's Instructions to his SonRandall Jarrell (1914-1965)The Bat PoetBobbi Katz (1933- )Bedtime Bear's Book of Bedtime PoemsBirthday Bear's Book of Birthday Poems133X.J. Kennedy (1929- )One Winter Night in August and Other Nonsense JinglesThe Forgetful Wishing Well: Poems for Young PeopleThe Phanton Ice Cream ManBratsDid Adam Name the Vinegarroon?Ghastlies, Goops, and Pincushions: Nonsense VerseRudyard Kipling (1865-1936)Rewards and FairiesKipling Stories and Poems Every Child Should KnowRudyard Kipling's Verse: Definitive EditionKarla Kuskin (1932- )Dogs & Dragons Trees & Dreams: A Collection of PoemsNear the Window Tree: Poems and NotesAlexander Soames, His PoemsAny Me I Want to BeIn the Middle of the TreesThe Rose on My CakeSomething Sleeping in the HallThe Bear Who Saw the SpringNight AgainHerbert Hated Being SmallRoar and MoreJames and the RainSquare as a HouseAll Sizes of NoisesHow Do You Get From Here to There?Sand and SnowIn the Flaky Frosty MorningA Boy Had a Mother Who Bought Him a HatMary (1764-1847) and Charles (1775-1834) LambPoetry for Children, entirely originalEdward Lear (1812-1888)Book of NonsenseMore NonsenseNonsense Songs, Stories, Botany, and AlphabetsLaughable LyricsDennis Lee (1939- )Alligator PieNicholas Knock and Other People: PoemsGarbage DelightJelly BellyWiggle to the LaundromatLizzy's LionVachel Lindsay (1879-1931)Johnny Appleseed, and Other PoemsGoing-to-the-StarsCollected Poems134Jean Little (1932- )It's a Wonderful World (printed privately, 1947)When the Pie Was OpenedHey World, Here I Am!Myra Cohn Livingston (1926- )Whispers and Other PoemsWide Awake and Other PoemsI'm HidingHappy Birthday!The Moon and a Star and Other PoemsCelebrationsA Circle of Seasons4-Way Stop and Other PoemsLollygag of LimericksThe Malibu and Other PoemsMonkey Puzzle and Other PoemsA Sliver of LiverA Song I Sang to You: A Selection of PoemsSky SongsThe Way Things Are and Other PoemsA Crazy Flight and Other PoemsSee What I FoundI'm Not MeI'm Waiting!Worlds I Know and Other PoemsEarth SongsSea SongsPoems for MotherSpace SongsUp in the AirThere Was a Place and Other PoemsRemembering and Other PoemsMy Head Is Red and Other Riddle RhymesArnold Lobel (1933-1987)The Book of Pigericks: Pig LimericksMartha, the Movie MouseThe Ice-Cream Cone Coot and Other Rare BirdsThe Man Who Took the Indoors OutThe Rose in My GardenWhiskers and RhymesThe Turnaround WindHenry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)HiawathaEvangelinePaul Revere's RideJohn Lydgate (1370-1450)Stans Puer ad MensamJohn Marchant (fl. 1751)135Puerilia; or, Amusements for the YoungLusus Juveniles; or, Youth's RecreationDavid McCord (1897- )Far and Few, Rhymes of Never Was and Always IsTake SkyAll Day LongEvery Time I Climb a TreeFor Me to SayPen, Paper, and PoemMr. Bidery's Spidery GardenAway and AgoThe Star in the PailOne at a TimeEve Merriam (1916- )It Doesn't Always Have to RhymeThere Is No Rhyme for SilverCatch a Little RhymeOut LoudRainbow WritingA Word or Two with YouBlackberry InkFinding a PoemFresh PaintI Am a Man: Ode to Martin Luther King, Jr.Independent VoicesJamboree: Rhymes for All TimesA Poem for a PickleFunny TownIf Only I Could Tell YouDon't Think About a White BearA Sky Full of PoemsA Book of Wishes for YouChortles: New and Selected Wordplay PoemsEdna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950)Collected PoemsThomas Miller (1807-1874)Original Poems for My ChildrenAlan Alexander Milne (1882-1956)When We Were Very YoungNow We Are SixClarke Clement Moore (1779-1863)A Visit from St. Nicholas (The Night Before Christmas)Lilian Moore (1909- )See My Lovely Poison IvyI Feel the Same WayI Thought I Heard the CitySam's Place: Poems from the Country136Go With the PoemSomething New BeginsLillian Morrison (1917- )Sprints and DistancesThe Sidewalk Racer and Other Poems of Sports and MotionWho Would Marry a Mineral?Overheard in a Bubble ChamberThe Break Dance KidsRhythm Road: An Anthology of Poems to Move ToOgden Nash (1902-1971)The New Nutcracker Suite and Other Innocent VersesCustard & CompanyThomas Newbery (fl. 1563)A Booke in Englysh metre, of the great Marchaunt mancalled Dives Pragmataicus, very preaty for childrenAlfred Noyes (1880-1958)The HighwaymanSean O'Huigin (1942- )AtmosfearThe Ghost Horse of the MountiesScary Poems for Rotten KidsPoe-Tree: A Simple Introduction to Experimental PoetryPickles, Street Dog of WindsorPickles and the Dog NapperMary O'Neill (1908-1990)Hailstones and Halibut Bones: Adventures in ColorWhat Is That Sound!Take a NumberFingers Are Always Bringing Me NewsWords Words WordsJack Prelutsky (1940- )The Queen of EeeneNightmares: Poems to Trouble Your SleepThe Baby Uggs Are HatchingThe Headless Horseman Rides TonightIt's HalloweenIt's Snowing! It's Snowing!The New Kid on the BlockRainy, Rainy SaturdayThe Snopp on the Sidewalk and Other PoemsWhat I Did Last SummerThe Sheriff of RottenshotA Gopher in the Garden: And Other Animal PoemsRide a Purple PelicanTyrannosaurus Was a BeastThe Mean Old Mean HyenaRolling Harvey Down the Hill137My Parents Think I'm SleepingJames Reeves (1909-1978)The Blackbird in the Lilac: VersesThe Wandering MoonThe Story of Jackie ThimbleComplete Poems for ChildrenPrefabulous AnimilesMore Prefabulous AnimilesRagged RobinLaura Richards (1850-1943)Tirra Lirra: Rhymes Old and NewJolly JinglesSketches and ScrapsTell-Tale from Hill and DaleIn My NurserySundown SongsThe Hurdy-GurdyThe PiccoloI Have a Song to Sing to YouMerry-Go-Round: New Rhymes and OldJames Whitcomb Riley (1849-1916)Joyful Poems for ChildrenSelected PoemsThe Best Loved Poems of James Whitcomb RileyThe Complete Poetical Works of James Whitcomb RileyElizabeth Madox Roberts (1886-1941)Under the TreeTheodore Roethke (1908-1963)I Am! Says the LambDirty Dinky and Other Creatures: Poems for ChildrenThe Collected Poems of Theodore RoethkeWilliam Roscoe (1753-1831)The Butterfly's BallMichael Rosen (1946- )You Can't Catch Me!Quick, Let's Get Out of HereMind Your Own BusinessWouldn't You Like to KnowYou Tell MeWe're Going on a Bear HuntA Spider Bought a Bicycle and Other PoemsThe HypnotiserChristina Georgina Rossetti (1830-1894)Sing-Song: A Nursery Rhyme BookSusan Russo (1947- )138The Moon's the North Wind's Cooky: Night PoemsCynthia Rylant (1954- )Waiting to Waltz: A ChildhoodCarl Sandburg (1878-1967)Wind SongEarly MoonThe Sandburg TreasuryRainbows Are MadeThe People, YesDr. Seuss (Theodore Seuss Geisel) (1904-1991)--numerouspublications illustrated by the author, including:And To Think That I Saw It on Mulberry StreetThe Cat in the HatYertle the TurtleGreen Eggs and HamIf I Ran the ZooFox in SocksThe Sneetches and Other StoriesFrank Dempster Sherman (1860-1916)Little-Folk LyricsShel Silverstein (1932- )Where the Sidewalk EndsA Light in the AtticUncle Shelby's Zoo: Don't Bump the Glump!Uncle Shelby's A Giraffe and a HalfLois Simmie (1932- )Auntie's Knitting a BabyAn Armadillo Is Not a PillowWhat Holds Up the Moon?Charlotte Smith (1749-1806)Conversations Introducing Poetry, for the Use ofChildrenWilliam Jay Smith (1918- )Mr. Smith and Other NonsenseLaughing Time: Nonsense PoemsHo For a Hat!If I Had a BoatBoy Blue's Book of BeastsPuptents and Pebbles: A Nonsense ABCTypewriter TownWhat Did I See?Around My Room and Other PoemsKaye Starbird (1916- )A Snail's a Failure Socially and Other PoemsSpeaking of Cows and Other Poems139Don't Ever Cross a CrocodileThe Pheasant on Route SevenThe Covered Bridge HouseRobert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894)A Child's Garden of VersesGeorge Swede (1940- )Tick BirdHoles in my CageMay Swenson (1927- )Poems to SolveMore Poems to SolveNew and Selected Things Taking PlaceAnn Taylor (1782-1866) and Jane Taylor (1783-1824)Original Poems for Infant MindsRhymes for the NurserySara Teasdale (1884-1933)Stars To-Night: Verses New and Old for Boys and GirlsCollected PoemsCelia Thaxter (1835-1894)PoemsPoems for ChildrenErnest Lawrence Thayer (1863-1940)Casey at the BatJudith Thurman (1946- )Flashlight and Other PoemsPutting My Coat OnElizabeth Turner (17757-1846)The Daisy; or, Cautionary Stories in VerseThe CowslipThe PinkThe Blue-BellThe CrocusJohn Updike (1932- )A Child's CalendarJudith Viorst (1931- )If I Were in Charge of the World and Other WorriesIsaac Watts (1674-1748)Divine Songs Attempted in Easy Language for the Use ofChildrenCharles Wesley (1707-1788)Hymns for Children140Walt Whitman (1819-1892)Leaves of GrassValerie Worth (1933- )Small PoemsMore Small PoemsStill More Small PoemsSmall Poems Againall the small poemsJane Yolen (1939- )Dinosaur DanceBird WatchBest WitchesAll in the Woodland Early: An ABC BookHow Beastly! A Menagerie of Nonsense PoemsDragon Night and Other LullabiesRing of Earth: A Child's Book of SeasonsSee This Little Line?It All DependsAn Invitation to the Butterfly Ball: A Counting RhymeCharlotte Zolotow (1915- )All That SunlightSome Things Go TogetherRiver WindingWake Up and GoodnightEverything Glistens and Everything Sings141

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