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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The role of journal writing in initiating reflection on practice of tutors in a college learning centre Robinson, Julia Margaret 1995

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THE ROLE OF JOURNAL WRITING IN INITIATING  REFLECTION ON  PRACTICE OF TUTORS IN A COLLEGE LEARNING CENTRE by JULIA MARGARET ROBINSON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Language Education)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (c) J u l i a Margaret Robinson, 1995  In  presenting  this  thesis in  degree at the University of  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  for  an advanced  British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for department  or  by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be granted her  representatives.  It  is  by the head of  understood  that  copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of Language E d u c a t i o n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  J u l y 19, 1995  11  Abstract A d i s c r e p a n c y appears t o e x i s t between the v a l u e p l a c e d r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g by the w r i t e r s of j o u r n a l s and  on  the  v a l u e seen by e d u c a t o r s of t h a t same j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . I n t h i s s t u d y , I e x p l o r e d the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g of s i x t u t o r s w o r k i n g i n a l e a r n i n g c e n t r e at a two-year community c o l l e g e i n w e s t e r n Canada. I examined: (1) t u t o r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s w r i t i n g task; j o u r n a l s ; and,  (2) the c o n t e n t and  on the  r e f l e c t i v i t y of  (3) the a c c u r a c y of the j o u r n a l s i n  t u t o r t h i n k i n g i n i t i a t e d by the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g The  i n i t i a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n f o r the s t u d y  observation  tutors' representing  task. included  of weekly i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s  e x a m i n a t i o n of t u t o r j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . T u t o r s were about t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and  journal  and interviewed  their thinking  around i s s u e s they wrote about i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . The t r a i n e r was  interviewed  w r i t i n g , his reactions  tutor  about h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s of t u t o r t o t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s and  journal  his perceptions  of the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k . A f t e r the i n i t i a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n summaries of d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n i n i t i a l phase. T u t o r s r e a d the summaries and discussed  as a group  i s s u e s r a i s e d by the d a t a . I i n t e r v i e w e d  about i n s i g h t s he had  the  trainer  l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i v i t y i n the  tutors'  g a i n e d from the  Content c h o i c e s and journals varied widely.  the  Factors  summaries.  a f f e c t i n g the c o n t e n t  and  l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n i n the t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s were a f f e c t e d t u t o r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k ,  their  by  motivation  f o r journal w r i t i n g , t h e i r feelings of  v u l n e r a b i l i t y , t h e i r personal h i s t o r i e s , t h e i r t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e , t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r w r i t i n g as a mode o f l e a r n i n g , and  t h e i r purposes f o r w r i t i n g j o u r n a l s . Most t u t o r s  perceived  t h e i r j o u r n a l s as u s e f u l t o them, but t h e t u t o r t r a i n e r r e g a r d e d t h e j o u r n a l s as l e s s u s e f u l . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n perception  o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g can be  a t t r i b u t e d , a t l e a s t i n part, t o the d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of access of t h e t r a i n e r and t h e t u t o r s t o t h e b e n e f i t s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . The t r a i n e r based h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g on t h e j o u r n a l s themselves whereas t h e t u t o r s were aware o f b e n e f i t s t h a t were not apparent from s t u d y i n g t h e j o u r n a l s . . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e t u t o r s showed.that t u t o r s r e f l e c t e d more as a r e s u l t o f t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k t h a n was e v i d e n t from t h e i r j o u r n a l s . The t r a i n e r ' s v i e w o f t h e r e f l e c t i o n i n i t i a t e d by the. j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k was o b s c u r e d i n t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s . d u e t o t h e fact, t h a t t u t o r s r e p o r t e d r e f l e c t i o n , provided incomplete representation  prior  of t h e i r  r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g , made r h e t o r i c a l c h o i c e s w h i c h masked t h e i r l e v e l s o f r e f l e c t i o n , and c o n t i n u e d t o r e f l e c t a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . Implications  o f t h e study f o r e d u c a t o r s i n c l u d e t h e  i m p o r t a n c e o f a p r o c e s s approach t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , t h e r i s k s of assuming t h a t j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f t h e r e f l e c t i o n t h e t a s k i n i t i a t e s , and f a c t o r s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f t h e prompt f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g .  iv I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r researchers that journals provide  focus on t h e r i s k s o f assuming  an a c c u r a t e measure o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f  the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k . C o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t e r s i s seen as e s s e n t i a l f o r any such measure t o be  achieved.  V  Table of Contents  Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  v  L i s t of F i g u r e s  x  Acknowledgements  xi  Chapter One - I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  Background t o t h e study  1  Purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t study  4  D e f i n i t i o n of terms.  '  S i g n i f i c a n c e of "the study.  5 6  Practical significance  6  S i g n i f i c a n c e t o .research. ......  7  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the t h e s i s Chapter Two - Review of t h e L i t e r a t u r e  8 9  Introduction  9  R e f l e c t i o n i n teacher education  9  Arenas o f the p r o b l e m a t i c  11  R e f l e c t i v e teaching defined  13  Factors a f f e c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l implementation of r e f l e c t i v e teacher education  16  I n d i v i d u a l student d i f f e r e n c e s  16  Teacher e d u c a t i o n programs  17  School c u l t u r e  20  S t r a t e g i e s used i n r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g programs Writing to learn  20 20  vi Journal w r i t i n g i n teaching r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e  22  Purposes of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  22  Approaches t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . .  25  Problems w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  27  A n a l y s i s of r e f l e c t i o n i n j o u r n a l s  32  J o u r n a l s as evidence of r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g  33  The Need t o access student p e r s p e c t i v e s  37  C h a p t e r Three - The Study. The C o n t e x t of the Study. Beginnings S e c t i o n One:  Data c o l l e c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s  39 40 41 44  Tutor journals  44  Tutor' I n t e r v i e w s  44  Trainer interviews  47  S t a f f meetings . . . .  48  C i t a t i o n of d a t a s o u r c e s .  49  My r o l e i n the r e s e a r c h  49  S e c t i o n Two:  The P a r t i c i p a n t s  The Peer t u t o r s . .  52 52  Felicia  53  Krista'. ."  55  Christopher  57  Billy  59  Paul  60  The S t a f f t u t o r : Ann  62  The T u t o r t r a i n e r : Tom  63  Vll  S e c t i o n Three: The J o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k  65  Trainer guidelines  65  T r a i n e r purpose i n a s s i g n i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  67  T r a i n e r feedback on j o u r n a l s  68  T u t o r p e r s p e c t i v e s on the purpose of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . 7 0 T u t o r p e r s p e c t i v e s on j o u r n a l feedback  74  Tutor a t t i t u d e s to j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  76  Problems w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  76  B e n e f i t s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g '  80  E f f e c t s of the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s on' t u t o r a t t i t u d e s to j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  84  T r a i n e r p e r c e p t i o n of t u t o r a t t i t u d e s t o j o u r n a l writing  ,  '  The J o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r o c e s s S e c t i o n Four: Contents of t u t o r j o u r n a l s  87 87 91  Content c a t e g o r i e s  91  C h o i c e of what t o w r i t e about  97  E f f e c t s of the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s on c o n t e n t i n tutor journals  101  T r a i n e r p e r s p e c t i v e on d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h j o u r n a l content S e c t i o n F i v e : L e v e l s of t h i n k i n g i n j o u r n a l s T r a i n e r p e r s p e c t i v e on l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n  103 108 104  T h i n k i n g i n t u t o r j o u r n a l s by l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n . . 1 1 0 Level I: Reporting Level I I : I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  I l l 113  Vlll  Level I I I : Elaboration  116  L e v e l TV: P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n  120  T h i n k i n g i n t u t o r j o u r n a l s : Overview  12 5  T r a i n e r p e r s p e c t i v e on l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n i n tutor journals  128  T r a i n e r p e r s p e c t i v e on the v a l u e of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . 1 3 1 T r a i n e r p l a n s f o r f u t u r e use of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g S e c t i o n S i x : T u t o r t h i n k i n g around j o u r n a l w r i t i n g F a c t o r s confounding a c c u r a t e  representation  thinking i n tutor journals  132 134  of 135  T u t o r r e p o r t i n g of p r i o r r e f l e c t i o n  135  Incomplete r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n  138  Thinking a f t e r journal w r i t i n g  148  E f f e c t s of the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s on t u t o r  thinking...153  S e c t i o n Seven: C o l l a b o r a t i v e a n a l y s i s  157  Writing individual profiles  157  P a r t i c i p a n t responses t o i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s  159  T u t o r c o l l a b o r a t i v e meeting T u t o r c o l l a b o r a t i v e meeting: F i n d i n g s Final t r a i n e r interview F i n a l t r a i n e r interview: Findings  159 161 166 166  W r i t i n g the study  169  Conclusion  170  C h a p t e r Four - D i s c u s s i o n Findings Content and l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n of j o u r n a l s  172 172 172  ix R o l e of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n r e f l e c t i o n  177  I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e study I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t u t o r t r a i n e r s and  179 teacher  educators  179  Implications for research  182  Conclusion  186  References  187  Appendix 1: S u b j e c t Consent Form  194  X  L i s t of F i g u r e s  F i g u r e 1: Content c a t e g o r i e s i n t u t o r j o u r n a l s F i g u r e 2: L e v e l s of t h i n k i n g  92 109  xi Acknowledgements I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to the s t a f f of the learning Without  centre them,  for their this  time and  research  would  interest not  i n my  research.  been  possible.  have  Although c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y r e q u i r e s that they remain nameless, my thanks i s no  less.  I would a l s o l i k e to thank my a d v i s o r y committee i n Language Education  at the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia: G l o r i a  Tang,  Margaret E a r l y and Jim Anderson. T h e i r feedback on my e a r l y ideas for  the r e s e a r c h  as w e l l  as on  earlier  drafts  of  the  thesis  enabled me to improve both the process and product of the study. Finally,  I would l i k e to d e d i c a t e t h i s work to my  husband,  P a t r i c k Robinson, who h e l d the f o r t on the home-front throughout the r e s e a r c h process, their  patience  with  and to my  children,  the endless  litany,  Gordon and Anna, f o r "I can't,  I have  to  work" . Without them too, t h i s study would not have been p o s s i b l e .  1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background t o t h e StudyI n 1993, I began d e v e l o p i n g a l e a r n i n g c e n t r e f o r a twoy e a r community c o l l e g e i n w e s t e r n Canada. The purpose o f t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e was t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n c o u r s e s across the c o l l e g e with reading, and  w r i t i n g , word p r o c e s s i n g ,  s t u d y s k i l l s which they needed t o be s u c c e s s f u l  courses.  math  i n their  -  S t u d e n t s were r e f e r r e d t o t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e by t h e i r c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s . Each student then met w i t h me; we d i d needs assessment and developed a l e a r n i n g p l a n w h i c h u t i l i z e d t h e resources of the learning centre'.  I assigned students a t u t o r  t o a s s i s t them i n c a r r y i n g out t h a t p l a n . The s t u d e n t s o r t h e i r t u t o r s came back t o me f o r f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e  as needed.  P a r t o f my j o b was t o t r a i n t h e s t a f f and p e e r t u t o r s . The t r a i n i n g i n v o l v e d 12 hours o f p r e - s e r v i c e  t r a i n i n g designed to  g i v e t u t o r s t h e b a s i c s needed t o s t a r t work. T h i s was augmented by h o u r - l o n g weekly i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . described  I have  t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e model and t u t o r t r a i n i n g i n more  d e t a i l e l s e w h e r e (Robinson, 1994). I n t h e second semester o f t h e c e n t r e ' s o p e r a t i o n ,  I began  t o r e q u i r e peer t u t o r s w o r k i n g i n t h e c e n t r e t o complete weekly j o u r n a l s r e f l e c t i n g on t h e i r t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e . I d i d so i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e would encourage t u t o r s t o l e a r n from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and i n c r e a s e  t h e i r competence.  2  L i k e many t e a c h e r  educators,  and e d u c a t o r s i n g e n e r a l ,  I was  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e work o f Schon (1983) who emphasized t h e l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l o f r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e . I was a l s o f o l l o w i n g a current trend favouring action research  as a mode  of i n q u i r y aimed a t i m p r o v i n g p r a c t i c e (Carr & Kemmis, 1986) . My background i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  l e d me t o b e l i e v e t h a t  adult  l e a r n e r s a r e c a p a b l e people who can and s h o u l d be a c t i v e partners  i n developing  t h e i r own l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Making  use o f e x p e r i e n c e i s a c r u c i a l aspect o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g . My t e n y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e as b o t h a w r i t e r and an E n g l i s h as a Second Language (ESL)  w r i t i n g t e a c h e r had a l s o l e d me t o b e l i e v e  that  w r i t i n g a i d s t h i n k i n g and c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n . I approached my own t e a c h i n g  from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e  that theory  and e x p e r i e n c e  work j o i n t l y t o i n f o r m p r a c t i c e . Beyond t h e s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l reasons, p r a c t i c a l considerations  c o n t r i b u t e d t o my d e c i s i o n . I had v e r y l i m i t e d  t i m e f o r t h e p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o f t u t o r s . As a r e s u l t , I b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g o f t u t o r s needed t o be h i g h l y p r a c t i c a l . P a r t i c u l a r l y because t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e was new, I had  l i t t l e e v i d e n c e on which t o base d e c i s i o n s about what  p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g was needed. I r e g a r d e d j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as p r o v i d i n g me w i t h d a t a f o r needs assessment as w e l l as h e l p i n g t u t o r s t a c k l e i s s u e s which were p e r t i n e n t t o t h e i r t u t o r i n g work. I was a l s o concerned t o c r e a t e w i t h i n t h e l e a r n i n g the atmosphere o f a l e a r n i n g community i n which everyone, students,  t u t o r s and f a c u l t y members, l e a r n e d  together.  centre  3 When I began t o r e c e i v e weekly j o u r n a l s  from t h e t h r e e  t u t o r s I had w o r k i n g f o r me, I was g r e a t l y d i s a p p o i n t e d .  Their  j o u r n a l s appeared t o be n o t h i n g more than s u p e r f i c i a l l o g s o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s during  t h e week. I encouraged t h e t u t o r s t o  make j o u r n a l s more r e f l e c t i v e by d i s c u s s i n g t h e purpose o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , by m o d e l l i n g r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g based on my own work i n t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e ,  by a s k i n g  f o c u s on o n l y one o r two t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s  tutors to  each week and by  g i v i n g feedback on t h e i r j o u r n a l s which encouraged r e f l e c t i o n . All  my e f f o r t s seemed t o have l i t t l e l a s t i n g e f f e c t . I l o o k e d t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r some answers but found  l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s i n g on t u t o r t r a i n i n g and j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . As a r e s u l t , I reviewed some o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . I found much o p t i m i s m about j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l ( W e l l i n g t o n , 1991; Robinson-Armstrong, 1991; Surbeck, Park Han, & Moyer, 1991), but  a number o f w r i t e r s e x p r e s s e d concern about t h e r e s u l t s o f  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g (Anderson, 1993; Ho & R i c h a r d s , 1993). These t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s had examined of t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g and found t h a t t h e r e was  journals  little  e v i d e n c e o f r e f l e c t i o n i n those j o u r n a l s . I began t o q u e s t i o n whether j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was good i n t h e o r y but f o r some r e a s o n not  u s e f u l i n p r a c t i c e . I was concerned t h a t t h e t u t o r s were  s p e n d i n g time on what appeared t o be an u n p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y , but  I c o n t i n u e d t o r e q u i r e t u t o r j o u r n a l s u n t i l t h e end o f t h e  year.  ' 4  At t h e end o f t h e y e a r , I i n t e r v i e w e d  the t u t o r s  i n d i v i d u a l l y about t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n an attempt t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f a c t o r s which had l e d t o t h e j o u r n a l s ' l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Much t o my s u r p r i s e , a l l t h r e e tutors reported  t h a t they had found j o u r n a l w r i t i n g a v e r y  u s e f u l e x p e r i e n c e . They f e l t t h a t they had l e a r n e d  a great  deal  about t u t o r i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l s and t h a t i t had p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e . The d i s c r e p a n c y between my p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e l a c k o f u s e f u l n e s s o f the t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s and the t u t o r s ' • p e r c e p t i o n s  of the  u s e f u l n e s s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g l e d me t o u n d e r t a k i n g t h e c u r r e n t study. Purpose o f t h e Present Study The  purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t study was t o e x p l o r e t h e  perspectives  on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g o f t u t o r s w o r k i n g i n t h e  learning centre.  Three q u e s t i o n s were used t o g u i d e t h e  research: 1.  How do t u t o r s p e r c e i v e  2.  What do t u t o r s w r i t e about?  3 . How a c c u r a t e l y  the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k ?  do t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s r e p r e s e n t t h e  t h i n k i n g i n i t i a t e d by the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k ? The  perspectives  o f t u t o r s on t h e i r j o u r n a l s and t h e i r  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g would have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e use o f journals  i n the context of the l e a r n i n g centre.  The s t u d y would  a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r how j o u r n a l w r i t i n g s h o u l d be s t u d i e d by  researchers.  5  The  study, based on i n t e r v i e w s ,  tutor  journals,  observations of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g sessions documents, d e s c r i b e s tutors reported w r i t i n g during  and  training  b o t h t u t o r j o u r n a l s and t h e t h i n k i n g  they had done i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r j o u r n a l a one-semester p e r i o d .  S i xtutors participated  i n t h e s t u d y i n c l u d i n g one s t a f f t u t o r and f i v e peer t u t o r s . The  t u t o r t r a i n e r was a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d  understanding his perspectives his  with the aim of  on t h e j o u r n a l s he r e c e i v e d and  e f f o r t s to e l i c i t useful tutor Journal  writing.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms This section defines  terms as they a r e used i n t h e s t u d y .  A t u t o r i s someone engaged i n a s s i s t i n g a c o l l e g e s t u d e n t  with  academic s k i l l s needed f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f a c o l l e g e c o u r s e o r c o u r s e s . T u t o r s i n t h e study were o f two k i n d s : t u t o r s , who were a c a d e m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l  full-time college  s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g p a r t - t i m e as t u t o r s i n t h e l e a r n i n g and  peer  centre,  a s t a f f t u t o r , a unionized'employee o f t h e c o l l e g e who had  some t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e . A l l t u t o r s worked under the s u p e r v i s i o n  o f a c o l l e g e f a c u l t y member who was t h e  c e n t r e ' s D i r e c t o r . T h i s f a c u l t y member was . r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t u t o r t r a i n i n g , needs a n a l y s i s and program p l a n n i n g f o r s t u d e n t s , and development o f c e n t r e p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s . For t h e purposes o f t h i s study, t h e D i r e c t o r w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e t u t o r t r a i n e r . Students were r e f e r r e d by an i n s t r u c t o r i n the college to the learning centre f o r  assistance  because o f weakness i n one o r more o f t h e i r academic s k i l l s .  6  I n s t r u c t o r r e f e r s t o a c o l l e g e f a c u l t y member o u t s i d e learning centre.  These i n s t r u c t o r s taught academic, a p p l i e d  d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o u r s e s i n the  or  college.  R e f l e c t i o n i s used as d e f i n e d r e f l e c t i o n as  the  by Lucas (1991). He  " s y s t e m a t i c i n q u i r y i n t o one's own  defines  practice  to  improve t h a t p r a c t i c e and  t o deepen one's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i t "  (cited i n Mclntyre,  p. 42-43). J o u r n a l s  1993,  are  unstructured  r e f l e c t i v e w r i t i n g done by t u t o r s about t h e i r t u t o r i n g practices. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Practical  Study  Significance  I hoped the r e s e a r c h would have p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , b o t h f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study and  f o r t u t o r and  teacher  trainers. I hoped t h a t the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s would be b e n e f i c i a l t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a number of ways. F i r s t ,  I f e l t that  the  i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s would improve t u t o r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of constraining  f a c t o r s i n t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and  thereby  r e l i e v e them of f e e l i n g s of inadequacy engendered by  trainer  e f f o r t s t o e l i c i t more r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r p r a c t i c e i n j o u r n a l s . Second, I was  h o p e f u l t h a t by d i s c u s s i n g  their  t h i n k i n g around j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s s u e s , t u t o r s would r e f l e c t more on t h e i r p r a c t i c e w i t h a r e s u l t i n g improvement of t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t u t o r i n g . F i n a l l y , I f e l t t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s t u d y would g i v e them an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o academic research.  The  peer t u t o r s were good s t u d e n t s who  I assumed  7  would be i n t e n d i n g studies  t o go on t o u n i v e r s i t y and  graduate-level  i n the future.  From s t u d y i n g  the perspectives  w r i t i n g i n the l e a r n i n g centre,  o f t u t o r s toward j o u r n a l  I hoped t h a t f a c u l t y  involved  i n t u t o r t r a i n i n g i n t h e c e n t r e would l e a r n how t o use j o u r n a l w r i t i n g more e f f e c t i v e l y as an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g t o o l i n t h e f u t u r e . I a l s o f e l t that the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p e r s p e c t i v e s of t h e t u t o r s c o u l d a s s i s t t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s i n a p p r o a c h i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g when u s i n g i t t o encourage r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e of t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g . A l t h o u g h i n - s e r v i c e t u t o r t r a i n i n g i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from p r e - s e r v i c e  t r a i n i n g of teachers,  f e l t t h a t t h e r e were s u f f i c i e n t p a r a l l e l s t h a t i m p l i c a t i o n s would be u s e f u l i n t h a t  I  these  context.  S i g n i f i c a n c e t o Research Although research i n t o journal w r i t i n g t y p i c a l l y  regards  i t as p a r t o f t h e r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s , I had seen e v i d e n c e (Anderson, 1 9 9 3 ; Ho & R i c h a r d s , 1 9 9 3 ) t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s were e x a m i n i n g j o u r n a l s as p r o d u c t s i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o r e f l e c t i o n . I suspected, from my  short  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , t h a t t h e assumption t h a t an a n a l y s i s o f j o u r n a l s l e a d s t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e they i n i t i a t e d was e r r o n e o u s . I hoped t h a t my r e s e a r c h would c l a r i f y d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n examining j o u r n a l s  f o r such a n a l y s i s . I was concerned  r e s e a r c h based on j o u r n a l s as p r o d u c t s c o u l d  that  discourage  p r a c t i t i o n e r s from u s i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n t r a i n i n g t u t o r s and  8  t e a c h e r s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of t u t o r p e r s p e c t i v e s might t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g w i t h i n  contribute the  r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s . I a l s o hoped the study would h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h a l i t e r a t u r e on the use of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n t u t o r training. O r g a n i z a t i o n of the T h e s i s The  t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d as f o l l o w s . Chapter  the t h e s i s . Chapter s t u d y . Chapter  Two  Three d e s c r i b e s the r e s e a r c h methodology and Four l i n k s f i n d i n g s of the  t o f i n d i n g s of o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s and suggests study.  introduces  reviews l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o the  f i n d i n g s of the study. Chapter  the  One  the  study  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  9  CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction The d e a r t h o f r e s e a r c h on r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e and j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n t u t o r t r a i n i n g l e d me t o t u r n t o a cognate f i e l d f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f t h e i s s u e s o f r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e and  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . L i k e Mann ( 1 9 9 4 ) , teacher The  I turned t o the f i e l d of  education. s i m i l a r i t i e s between t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n and t u t o r  t r a i n i n g a r e many. The t r a i n e e s a r e t y p i c a l l y young c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s engaged i n e a r l y attempts working  t o . f a c i l i t a t e learning. In  i n t h e i r new r o l e , they a r e f a c i n g many s i m i l a r i s s u e s  such as time management, i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s ,  assessment  and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . They a r e o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r c o n c u r r e n t t r a i n i n g , and t h e i r work w i t h s t u d e n t s i s s u p e r v i s e d by  trainers. In  t h i s c h a p t e r , I e x p l o r e f i n d i n g s from t e a c h e r  education  r e s e a r c h about r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e . I then examine t h e p o t e n t i a l o f w r i t i n g . a s a l e a r n i n g t o o l . The c h a p t e r ends w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f i s s u e s around j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n t e a c h e r education research. R e f l e c t i o n i n Teacher E d u c a t i o n Teaching  student t e a c h e r s t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r a c t i c e i s  a c u r r e n t t r e n d i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs.  Researchers  (e.g. H a t t o n & Smith, 1 9 9 5 ; B a r t l e t t , 1 9 9 0 ; B o l i n , 1 9 8 8 ; Copeland, Birmingham, De La Cruz, & Lewin,  1 9 9 3 ; Ho & R i c h a r d s ,  10 1993)  a s c r i b e t o Dewey (1933) t h e i d e a t h a t r e f l e c t i o n i s  c r u c i a l t o t h e a b i l i t y t o l e a r n from e x p e r i e n c e . The c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t i n r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g , however, was s p a r k e d by Schon (1983) who a s s e r t e d t h a t a key p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t r i b u t e was t h e a b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t on p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n s . S i n c e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Schon's seminal 1983 work The Practitioner,  Reflective  r e f l e c t i o n i n v a r i o u s forms has been t h e f o c u s o f  a l a r g e body o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n and has become a g o a l of.many t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs ( V a l l i ,  1993) .  T h i s t r e n d i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n has been prompted by a number o f f a c t o r s . F i r s t , r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g has been seen by some t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s as a way o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s theory t o p r a c t i c e  ( J a r v i s , 1992; Pape & Smith,  has a l s o been growing a s s e r t i o n s "proven"  relate  1991). There  t e a c h e r disenchantment w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l  i n s t u d i e s which appear t o have l i t t l e i n  common w i t h r e a l t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s ( E i s n e r , 1988); t h i s has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e move i n s o c i a l  science  away from l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s m t o t h e view t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena a r e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d (Tom, 1985). A n o t h e r  reason  that teacher educators are teaching t h e i r students t o r e f l e c t and t o r e g a r d l e a r n i n g . a n d t e a c h i n g as a c r i t i c a l p r o c e s s i s t h a t i t e n a b l e s t e a c h e r educators t o model t h e t e a c h i n g behaviours  they hope p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s w i l l employ i n t h e i r  own c l a s s r o o m s The ongoing  (Anderson,  1993).  e f f o r t s o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s and academics t o have  t e a c h i n g r e c o g n i z e d as a p r o f e s s i o n i s another major r e a s o n f o r  11 the i n t e r e s t i n r e f l e c t i o n . I n p a r t , r e f l e c t i o n i s seen as a r e a c t i o n t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g tendency o f e d u c a t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s t o r e g a r d t e a c h e r s as t e c h n i c i a n s who s h o u l d have l i t t l e c o n t r o l over t h e g o a l s and c o n t e x t s o f e d u c a t i o n . Researchers  see r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g as a way o f t e a c h e r s  g a i n i n g l e g i t i m a c y i n t a k i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e g o a l s and means o f e d u c a t i o n . Many t e a c h e r educators  ( Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n , 1987;  Smyth, 1989; W e l l i n g t o n , 1991), f o l l o w i n g F r e i r e  (1970),  regard  t e a c h i n g r e f l e c t i o n as a l i b e r a t o r y pedagogy l e a d i n g t o t h e empowerment o f t e a c h e r s . Arenas o f t h e P r o b l e m a t i c Not  s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h i s range o f purposes f o r r e f l e c t i v e  p r a c t i c e leads t o s i m i l a r l y v a r i e d understandings  of the things  about w h i c h t e a c h e r s and p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s s h o u l d l e a r n t o r e f l e c t . Tom (1985) i d e n t i f i e d what he c a l l e d "arenas p r o b l e m a t i c " . F o l l o w i n g Habermas (1973) and Van Manen many r e s e a r c h e r s H a t t o n & Smith,  (LaBoskey,  of the (1977),  1993; Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n , 1987;  1995) have accepted t h r e e arenas o r a r e a s f o r  r e f l e c t i o n by t e a c h e r s . The d e f i n i t i o n o f these a r e a s v a r i e s but t h e r e a r e c r u c i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s among t h e c o n c e p t i o n s . The  f i r s t l e v e l h a s been c a l l e d t h e t e c h n i c a l  (Hatton & Smith, (LaBoskey,  1995), t h e p r a c t i c a l / t e c h n i c a l  1993) and t e c h n i c a l / r a t i o n a l i t y  level  level  (Zeichner & L i s t o n ,  1987). T h i s l e v e l focuses on t h e means o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . I t p r o b l e m a t i z e s t h e t e c h n i q u e s and approaches o f t e a c h i n g and t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o c e s s e s w h i c h l e a d t o  12 specific  l e a r n i n g outcomes ( B o l i n ,  1988). At t h i s l e v e l , t h e  ends o r g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n a r e regarded as g i v e n . The level  second l e v e l has been r e f e r r e d t o as t h e p r a c t i c a l  (Hatton & Smith, 1995; Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n ,  social/political level p o l i t i c a l / e t h i c a l level  (LaBoskey,  1987), t h e  1993), and t h e  (Tom, 1985). T h i s l e v e l  problematizes  not o n l y t h e means o f t e a c h i n g but a l s o i t s g o a l s . Z e i c h n e r and L i s t o n d e s c r i b e t h e problem a t t h i s l e v e l as "one o f explicating  and c l a r i f y i n g t h e assumptions and p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s  underlying practical  a f f a i r s and.assessing t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  consequences toward which an . a c t i o n l e a d s " ( Z e i c h n e r & 1987,  Liston,  p. 2 4 ) . Teachers a r e engaged i n v a l u e judgements  (Zeichner & Liston,  1987) and i n r e l a t i n g t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e .  They q u e s t i o n assumptions about t h e g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n . The  t h i r d l e v e l , which has been c a l l e d c r i t i c a l  (Hatton & Smith,  1995; Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n ,  moral/ethical level (Tom,  (LaBoskey,  reflection  1987), t h e  1993) and t h e s o c i e t a l  level  1985), p r o b l e m a t i z e s t h e means and g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n by  examining  m o r a l and e t h i c a l c r i t e r i a as w e l l as t h e w i d e r  socio-historical  and p o l i t i c o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s o f e d u c a t i o n .  At t h i s l e v e l , t e a c h e r s r e f l e c t about t h e e f f e c t s o f activities,  e x p e r i e n c e and g o a l s on t h e achievement o f s o c i a l  j u s t i c e . Many t h e o r i s t s  (e.g. Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n ,  1987; Van  Manen, 1977; Tom, 1985; Smyth, 1989) r e g a r d t h e s e t h r e e as i n h i e r a r c h i c a l  relationship  and b e l i e v e t h i s t h i r d  s h o u l d be t h e g o a l o f t e a c h i n g t e a c h e r s t o r e f l e c t .  levels level  13 O t h e r s , however, q u e s t i o n t h i s p o s i t i o n . Recent s t u d i e s by Valli  (1993), LaBoskey (1993), P u l t o r a k (1993) and  Hatton  Smith  (1995) suggest, t h a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s a r e e q u a l l y  and  i m p o r t a n t t o the development of r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . LaBoskey (1993) argues t h a t c o n c e p t i o n of the t h r e e arenas as l e v e l s i n h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p "devalues the p r a c t i c a l " , and they s h o u l d be regarded as " p o t e n t i a l f o c i o r c o n t e n t r e f l e c t i o n r a t h e r than l e v e l s "  that  of  (p. 26). A f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n  t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n need not be the s o l e f o c u s o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs i s the d i f f i c u l t y e d u c a t o r s have had i n engaging pre-se'rvice and t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e r l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n 1986;  H a t t o n & Smith,  teacher  in-service  (Wedman & M a r t i n ,  1995). These s t u d i e s suggest  that  p r o g r e s s i o n through the t h r e e l e v e l s i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l ;  one  l e v e l must be a c h i e v e d b e f o r e p r o g r e s s i o n t o h i g h e r l e v e l s i s possible. R e f l e c t i v e Teaching  Defined  These d i f f e r i n g p o s i t i o n s on the v a l u e and v i a b i l i t y engendering  t e a c h e r r e f l e c t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t arenas  p r o b l e m a t i c a r e echoed i n r e s e a r c h e r s ' attempts r e f l e c t i v e teaching. B a r t l e t t  of the  to define  (1990) i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the  l i t e r a t u r e two v a s t l y d i f f e r i n g p o s i t i o n s on how  reflective  t e a c h i n g s h o u l d be d e f i n e d . He noted t h a t C r u i c k s h a n k Applegate  of  (1981) d e f i n e r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g as  and  teachers  t h i n k i n g about what happens i n the c l a s s r o o m and  alternative  means of a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l s . Z e i c h n e r and L i s t o n  (1985;  14 c i t e d i n B a r t l e t t , 1990), on the other.hand, r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h e r as "one who  d e f i n e the  a s s e s s e s the o r i g i n s ,  and consequences of h i s or her work a t a l l l e v e l s " These d e f i n i t i o n s  purposes (p. 202) .  are dependent upon the p o s i t i o n s of  r e s p e c t i v e r e s e a r c h e r s toward a p p r o p r i a t e arenas of  the  the  problematic. Lucas (1991; c i t e d i n M c l n t y r e , 1993)  has p r o v i d e d a more  g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n which a v o i d s commitment t o a particular  v i e w of a p p r o p r i a t e arenas of the p r o b l e m a t i c .  d e f i n e s r e f l e c t i o n as " s y s t e m a t i c i n q u i r y  into-one's  He  own  p r a c t i c e t o improve t h a t p r a c t i c e and t o deepen one's understanding  of i t " (p. 42-43). Lucas' d e f i n i t i o n n e i t h e r  r e q u i r e s nor p r e c l u d e s a focus on any p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m a t i c . The  a r e n a of  the  s t r e n g t h of Lucas' d e f i n i t i o n i s t h a t i t  l e a v e s the q u e s t i o n of arenas of the p r o b l e m a t i c open but f o c u s e s on a number of key a s p e c t s of r e f l e c t i o n . f o l l o w i n g Dewey (1933), r e f l e c t i o n i s a p r o c e s s of inquiry,  systematic  not random musings. Second, r e f l e c t i o n i s f o c u s e d  the r e f l e c t o r ' s  p r a c t i c e but c o u l d i n c l u d e examining b o t h  the s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l practice, practice.  First,  and  on (a)  and p o l i t i c o - c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s on t h a t  (b) the moral and e t h i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of t h a t  T h i r d , r e f l e c t i o n l e a d s t o both a c t i o n and  knowledge.  Outcomes of b o t h a c t i o n and knowledge are seen as under the reflector's  control.  A more r e c e n t d e f i n i t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n by H a t t o n and (1995) a s s e r t s t h a t r e f l e c t i o n i s " d e l i b e r a t i v e  Smith  t h i n k i n g about  15  a c t i o n w i t h a view t o i t s improvement" (p. 4 0 ) .  This  d e f i n i t i o n , a l t h o u g h w i s e l y a v o i d i n g attachment t o p a r t i c u l a r arenas of the p r o b l e m a t i c ,  does not a t t a i n the power of Lucas'  d e f i n i t i o n i n t h a t i t f a i l s t o acknowledge the c e n t r a l r o l e o f the r e f l e c t o r .  A s t r e n g t h of the H a t t o n and Smith d e f i n i t i o n  i s i t s focus on " d e l i b e r a t i v e t h i n k i n g " as opposed t o "systematic teacher  i n q u i r y " . Much of the r e f l e c t i o n p r a c t i s e d i n  education  programs i s more a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d as  " d e l i b e r a t i v e t h i n k i n g " . D e l i b e r a t i v e t h i n k i n g can systematic  i n q u i r y but does not p r e c l u d e  include  l e s s s t r u c t u r e d forms  of t h i n k i n g . These d e f i n i t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o our of  Lucas'  understanding  reflection. One  problematic  issue for researchers  and  teacher  e d u c a t o r s i s how a r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h e r can be i d e n t i f i e d . and  Smith  (1995)  a s s e r t t h a t t h e r e i s "a c o n s i d e r a b l e  Hatton  challenge  t o d e v e l o p means f o r g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y z i n g d a t a so t h a t e v i d e n c e shows u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t r e f l e c t i o n has (p.  39).  Copeland et a l .  (1993)  suggest t h a t  p r a c t i c e i n teaching i s manifested (p. 3 4 9 ) . process,  taken place"  "reflective  as a stance  toward i n q u i r y "  R e f l e c t i o n i s a highly personal, often  internal  t h a t cannot be measured e a s i l y i n b e h a v i o r a l  Copeland et a l .  (1993)  terms.  a s s e r t " i t i s the thought b e h i n d  the  a c t i o n s of t e a c h i n g , not the a c t i o n s themselves, t h a t i s c r u c i a l to r e f l e c t i o n "  ( p . 3 5 4 ) . Thus, a l t h o u g h  s k i l l s of  r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g may be measurable, the i n c l i n a t i o n t o them i s a r e s u l t of a t t i t u d e r a t h e r than  skill.  use  16  LaBoskey (1993) p o i n t s out t h a t Dewey's s t a g e s  of  r e f l e c t i o n - - p r o b l e m d e f i n i t i o n , means/ends a n a l y s i s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n - - f a i l because of t h e i r over-emphasis on  logical  t h i n k i n g . She b e l i e v e s t h a t a t t i t u d e s suggested by Dewey of open-mindedness, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and w h o l e - h e a r t e d n e s s a r e more c r u c i a l t o the r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s t h a n any  s p e c i f i c steps  of  r e f l e c t i o n . She agrees w i t h Boud, Keogh and Walker (1985) t h a t r e f l e c t i o n i s a complex p r o c e s s which i n v o l v e s i n t e r a c t i o n between c o g n i t i o n and  feelings.  • ••'  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g S u c c e s s f u l Implementation of R e f l e c t i v e Teacher  Education  F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t e a c h e r programs can be grouped i n t o t h r e e a r e a s : student  reflective  individual  d i f f e r e n c e s , t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programs and  school  culture. I n d i v i d u a l Student D i f f e r e n c e s T e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g have been found t o r e a c t v a r i o u s l y t o a t t e m p t s t o t e a c h them r e f l e c t i v i t y . One  cause of t h e s e v a r i e d  r e a c t i o n s has been a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r range of experience  previous  o r l i f e h i s t o r y (Boud, Keogh & Walker, 1985a;  LaBoskey, 1 9 9 3 ;  Z u l i c h , Bean, and H e r r i c k , 1 9 9 2 ;  Freeman,  1 9 9 3 ) . S t u d e n t s come t o p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n w i t h v a r i e d experiences  of t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g and v a r i o u s  conceptions  of what i t means t o be a  Zeichner  pre-  teacher.  (1987) notes t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e i n the  l i t e r a t u r e t h a t r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g programs "are more  17 f r e q u e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l w i t h those s t u d e n t s who a r e a l r e a d y r e f l e c t i v e and l e s s s u c c e s s f u l and more f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d by t h o s e s t u d e n t  ( s i c ) who a r e not p r e d i s p o s e d t o r e f l e c t about  t h e i r t e a c h i n g " (p.573) LaBoskey (1993) grouped  incoming  s t u d e n t s t o a t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n program i n " A l e r t N o v i c e " and "Common-sense T h i n k e r " c a t e g o r i e s . A l e r t N o v i c e s w r o t e more r e f l e c t i v e l y than Common-sense T h i n k e r s . D i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups i n c l u d e d l e v e l s o f c o g n i t i v e development, s t r e n g t h o f p r i o r b e l i e f s , impact o f emotions,  view of l e a r n i n g  as s h o r t o r l o n g term, o r i e n t a t i o n t o s e l f o r s t u d e n t s , c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r r o l e , awareness o f a need t o l e a r n and l o c u s o f m o t i v a t i o n . Teacher E d u c a t i o n Programs •• Teacher e d u c a t i o n programs have had a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n implementing major problem  r e f l e c t i v e teacher education. A  seems t o be the l a c k o f comprehensiveness o f many  r e f l e c t i v e programs (Hatton & Smith, 1995; Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n , 1987). Encouragement of t e a c h e r r e f l e c t i o n i s o f t e n l o c a l i z e d i n one o r a few c o u r s e s ; o t h e r courses i n t h e program do n o t t a k e a r e f l e c t i v e approach.  A comprehensive approach  which  supports r e f l e c t i o n i n a l l aspects of teacher.education i s recommended ( V a l l i ,  1993 ; Hatton & Smith, 1995) . Another  c o n c e r n w i t h comprehensiveness i s a p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f commitment t o t h e r e f l e c t i v e approach  by some program s t a f f .  T h i s problem has been noted w i t h some p r a c t i c u m s u p e r v i s o r s ( Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n , 1987). These s u p e r v i s o r s a r e t y p i c a l l y  18 graduate  s t u d e n t s who work i n t h a t c a p a c i t y t e m p o r a r i l y and  have heavy  workloads.  The r o l e of the t e a c h e r educator i n r e f l e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n has been seen as t h a t of a f a c i l i t a t o r L i s t o n , 1987;  Calderhead & Gates, 1993)  teacher  (Zeichner &  and a mentor  (McAlpine,  1992). C a l d e r h e a d and Gates (1993) suggest t h a t "a c u l t u r e of collaboration"  (p. 5) may  be needed i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i f  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a r e t o become r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h e r s .  Calderhead  and Gates (1993) a l s o ' note t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs, t h a t of a s s e s s o r and keeper, may facilitative  make i t  gate-  d i f f i c u l t f o r program s t a f f t o t a k e a  role.  In s h i f t i n g t o t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n - w h i c h ' f o c u s e s  on  r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g , program s t a f f need t o l e a r n new d e v e l o p new  skills  difficulty  i s the  of a s s e s s i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e a c h i n g r e f l e c t i o n .  Copeland  et a l . (1993) a s s e r t , "An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e  l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a g e n e r a l assumption  that r e f l e c t i o n i n  p r o f e s s i o n a l b e h a v i o r i s d e s i r a b l e but v e r y l i t t l e guidance t o how  and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of the r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s . However,  t h i s has not proven t o be a s i m p l e t a s k . One problem  staff  c o n f i d e n t l y t o determine  actually exists"  that r e f l e c t i v e  as  behavior  (p. 348). T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s e s s i n g t h e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e c h n i q u e s i s e x p l a i n e d by Boud et a l . (1985) : . . . o n l y l e a r n e r s themselves r e f l e c t on t h e i r own  can l e a r n and o n l y t h e y  e x p e r i e n c e s . Teachers  can  can i n t e r v e n e  i n v a r i o u s ways t o a s s i s t , but they o n l y have a c c e s s t o  19 i n d i v i d u a l s ' thoughts and f e e l i n g s through what i n d i v i d u a l s choose t o r e v e a l about themselves. A t t h i s basic l e v e l the learner i s i n t o t a l 'control.  (p. 11)  Thus, t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s a r e not o n l y s e e k i n g new s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g b u t they a r e a l s o e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y  i nassessing  t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s they develop. The l i t e r a t u r e i s r e p l e t e w i t h attempts by t e a c h e r educators t o a s s e s s t h e usefulness of s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s in.prompting a r e f l e c t i v e approach 1993;  t o t e a c h i n g (e.g. Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n , 1987; Freeman,  Hoover, 1994;  Ho & R i c h a r d s , 1993). Some t e a c h e r  e d u c a t o r s a t t r i b u t e t h e i r l i m i t e d - success, w i t h s p e c i f i c techniques t o f a i l u r e to provide e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e f l e c t i o n and o p t i m a l r e f l e c t i v e t a s k s . ( H o & R i c h a r d s , 1993 ; Hoover, 1994) . A f i n a l f a c t o r worthy o f note i s t h e importance learning to reflect  of time i n  (Hatton & Smith, 1995; Wedman, M a r t i n , &  M a h l i o s , 1990; Surbeck,  Park Han,  & Moyer, 1991).  Reflection  t a k e s t i m e , b u t student t e a c h e r s o f t e n l a c k time f o r r e f l e c t i o n . As Wedman e t a l . (1990) note, for  "A p e r s o n needs time  r e f l e c t i o n and t h e n e c e s s a r y time i s u s u a l l y n o t a v a i l a b l e  d u r i n g i n i t i a l phases o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g " (p. 2 3 ) . Furthermore,  t h e development o f r e f l e c t i v e s k i l l s and a  r e f l e c t i v e s t a n c e t a k e s time and programs o f t e n do n o t have t h e d u r a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o make s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t e a c h e r s ' reflectivity  (Ho & R i c h a r d s ,  1993).  20  School C u l t u r e S c h o o l c u l t u r e has been seen as a c o n s e r v a t i v e f o r c e w h i c h o f t e n d i s c o u r a g e s t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g from r e f l e c t i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e g o a l s of e d u c a t i o n  (Hatton & Smith, 1995;  Wedman e t a l . , 1990; Z e i c h n e r & Liston,. 1987; 1992). As Wedman e t a l . (1990) note,  Z u l i c h et a l . ,  "Clearly i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to develop a r e f l e c t i v e teacher i n a n o n - r e f l e c t i v e environment"  (p. 17). Calderhead  & Gates (1993) suggest  " r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s a s u p p o r t i v e environment"  that (p. 5 ) .  P r a c t i c u m and o t h e r e a r l y t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t y p i c a l l y work against e f f o r t s t o foster, r e f l e c t i v i t y i n novice teachers. S t r a t e g i e s Used i n R e f l e c t i v e Teaching H a t t o n & Smith  Programs  (1995) i d e n t i f y f o u r b r o a d s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h  a r e c l a i m e d t o promote r e f l e c t i o n : a c t i o n r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s ; case s t u d i e s and e t h n o g r a p h i c  studies;  m i c r o t e a c h i n g and o t h e r  s u p e r v i s e d p r a c t i c u m e x p e r i e n c e s ; and, s t r u c t u r e d c u r r i c u l u m t a s k s . They note t h a t " w r i t i n g t a s k s a r e o f t e n employed" (p. 36), and they suggest the most f r e q u e n t l y used w r i t i n g t a s k i s journal writing. W r i t i n g t o Learn W r i t i n g has been acknowledged as a p o w e r f u l l e a r n i n g t o o l (Emig,  1977; Y i n g e r & C l a r k , 1981;  based on t h e works o f Vygotsky,  Hoover, 1994). Emig  (1977),  Bruner and B r i t t o n , has  i d e n t i f i e d f o u r key p a r a l l e l s between s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o Emig, one  21 r e a s o n t h a t w r i t i n g i s such a p o w e r f u l is  learning tool i s that i t  " m u l t i - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and i n t e g r a t i v e " (p. 1 2 4 ) . I t  i n c o r p o r a t e s t h r e e modes o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p o s i t e d by Bruner (1966; c i t e d i n Emig, 1977): t h e e n a c t i v e mode ( d o i n g ) , t h e i k o n i c mode ( p i c t u r i n g ) and t h e symbolic w i t h symbolic  code).  Representing  mode  i n f o r m a t i o n i n more t h a n one  mode has been found t o " c r e a t e r i c h e r memories representations (code) a l o n e "  (representing  and  than through e i t h e r mode o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  (Yinger & C l a r k , 1981,' p. 4 ) .  W r i t i n g i s also a successful' learning strategy i n that i t provides  a record of the w r i t e r ' s t h i n k i n g . This record i s  u s e f u l b o t h d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s and a f t e r t h e w r i t i n g i s c o m p l e t e . During' t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s , evaluated,  p o t e n t i a l l y l e a d i n g t o f u r t h e r development o f those  ideas. Eisner provides  i d e a s a r e r e v i e w e d and  (1988) suggests,  the occasion  "the a c t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ...  f o r discovery"  (p. 1 6 ) . A f t e r t h e w r i t i n g  i s complete, t h e w r i t t e n product p r o v i d e s a r e s o u r c e f o r r e a d i n g and f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g (Richards & L o c k h a r t , The  1994) .  t h i r d way t h a t w r i t i n g i s seen by Emig as s h a r i n g t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a r n i n g i s t h a t w r i t i n g d e v e l o p s awareness of t h e c o n n e c t i o n s r h e t o r i c a l devices  between i d e a s . L e x i c a l , s y n t a c t i c and a r e used t o e s t a b l i s h e x p l i c i t  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i d e a s . W r i t i n g a l l o w s t h e r e a d e r on  " r e l e v a n t knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e  as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r new  l e a r n i n g . . . , r e f o r m u l a t i n g o r extending (Hoover, 1994, p. 8 4 ) .  t o draw  e x i s t i n g knowledge"  22 F i n a l l y , Emig suggests t h a t w r i t i n g , l i k e s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g , i s a c t i v e , engaged and p e r s o n a l . W r i t e r s n e g o t i a t e meaning, b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t  actively  understandings  and p r o g r e s s i n g a t a speed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them. The  acknowledged s t r e n g t h s o f w r i t i n g as a l e a r n i n g t o o l  have encouraged many t e a c h e r educators to d e v e l o p student  to u t i l i z e w r i t i n g tasks  teachers' r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g s k i l l s (e.g.  Smyth, 1989; Hoover, 1994; Y i n g e r & C l a r k , 1987; Anderson, 1993;  Robinson-Armstrong, 1991). J o u r n a l w r i t i n g has been used  e x t e n s i v e l y , i n r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g programs; t h e e x p r e s s i v e n a t u r e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g takes advantage o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f " w r i t i n g as a mode o f l e a r n i n g " (Emig, 1977). J o u r n a l W r i t i n g i n Teaching, R e f l e c t i v e P r a c t i c e Purposes o f J o u r n a l W r i t i n g J o u r n a l w r i t i n g has been used i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t e a c h i n g r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e w i t h t h r e e main g o a l s : reflection; research  (1) as a v e h i c l e f o r  (2) as a mode o f communication; and, (3) as a  tool.  J o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s w i d e l y accepted  as a u s e f u l t a s k f o r  e n c o u r a g i n g r e f l e c t i o n among t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g (e.g. Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n , 1987; '"Gipe' & R i c h a r d s , 1992;  1992 ; Z u l i c h e t a l . ,  J a r v i s , 1992; B o l i n , 1988). Z e i c h n e r and L i s t o n (1987)  suggest t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r o v i d e s  "student  teachers with a  v e h i c l e f o r s y s t e m a t i c r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r development as t e a c h e r s and on t h e i r a c t i o n s i n c l a s s r o o m  and work c o n t e x t s "  (p. 33). I m p l i e d i n Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n ' s a s s e r t i o n i s t h e r o l e  23 of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n h e l p i n g student t e a c h e r s make c o n n e c t i o n s between t h i n g s . One f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d c o n n e c t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d by j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge and t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e  (e.g. Ho & R i c h a r d s , 1993; J a r v i s , 1992;  Y i n g e r & C l a r k , 1981; Wedman & M a r t i n , 1986) . Other  connections  f a c i l i t a t e d by j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n c l u d e c o n n e c t i o n s between s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g situations  ( Y i n g e r & C l a r k , 1981), c o n n e c t i o n s between s e l f and  institution  (Wedman & M a r t i n , 1986), c o n n e c t i o n s between d a i l y  r o u t i n e s and t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s (Wedman & M a r t i n , and c o n n e c t i o n s between l i f e experience' and t e a c h i n g  1986), (Anderson,  1993). By g i v i n g p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s p r a c t i c e i n making t h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s , j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s seen t o improve t h e i r  thinking  s k i l l s and t o s t i m u l a t e " c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and reconceptualization"  ( C a r s w e l l , 1988, p. 12) o f i d e a s about  teaching. Another b e n e f i t o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e is i t srole i n individualizing instruction  (Robinson-Armstrong,  1991; F u l w i l e r , 1980). Not o n l y can p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s work w i t h i d e a s a t t h e i r own l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , b u t they can a l s o e x p l o r e those i d e a s a t t h e i r own pace. S t u d e n t s can e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r own l e a r n i n g and t h e i r daily lives  (Robinson-Armstrong,  (Zulich et a l . ,  1991) and p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s  1992). Through j o u r n a l w r i t i n g they c a n d e v e l o p  t h e i r own v o i c e (Wedman e t a l . ,  1989; c i t e d i n H a t t o n & Smith,  1995) and a p e r s o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n c e  (McAlpine,  1992).  24 J o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s a l s o seen t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r " a t t a i n i n g new depths o f p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h may i n t u r n f a c i l i t a t e i n c r e a s e d p e r s o n a l development"  (Wedman &  M a r t i n , 1986, p. 6 9 ) . Robinson-Armstrong (1991) suggests  that  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g can be " t h e r a p e u t i c " as i t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s " t o e x p l o r e t h e i r emotions and attitudes"  (p. 8 ) . McAlpine  (1992) a s s e r t s t h a t t h i s  e x p l o r a t i o n o f emotions can serve a " c a t h a r t i c " f u n c t i o n (p. 24) . J o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s v a l u e d as a communication t o o l , p r i m a r i l y between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s , and s e c o n d a r i l y between s t u d e n t s and o t h e r s t u d e n t s . B o l i n  (1988) p o s i t s t h a t " j o u r n a l s  s e r v e as t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s l i n k t o t h e c l a s s r o o m " Z e i c h n e r and L i s t o n  (p. 5 0 ) .  (1987) a s s e r t t h a t j o u r n a l s a r e i n t e n d e d t o  f u r n i s h i n s t r u c t o r s " w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e i r s t u d e n t s t h i n k about t h e i r t e a c h i n g and about t h e i r development as teachers,' w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about  classroom,  s c h o o l , and community c o n t e x t s " (p. 3 3 ) . Z u l i c h e t a l . (1992) note t h a t they used j o u r n a l e n t r i e s t o g a i n a c c e s s t o s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l b i o g r a p h i e s and p r o g r e s s i n t h e program. I n t h i s way, j o u r n a l s become an important needs assessment t o o l . The communication a c h i e v e d through j o u r n a l w r i t i n g between s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s has been seen as i m p r o v i n g t h e i r  rapport  ( C a r s w e l l , 1988), p a r t i c u l a r l y when i n s t r u c t o r s p r o v i d e e x t e n s i v e feedback  on j o u r n a l s o r when d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l s a r e  used. When j o u r n a l s a r e shared, they have a l s o been found t o  25 " s t i m u l a t e more p r o d u c t i v e Goldstein,  class discussions"  Leatherman, & Conrad, 1990,  (Porter,  p. 235)  and  "create  i n t e r a c t i o n beyond the c l a s s r o o m , b o t h between t e a c h e r s t u d e n t , and Journals  among s t u d e n t s "  ( P o r t e r et a l . , 1990,  have been used as a r e s e a r c h  e x a m i n i n g t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g and  and  p.236).  t o o l both f o r  for assessing  the e f f i c a c y of  s t r a t e g i e s and programs aimed at e n c o u r a g i n g r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e . Y i n g e r and C l a r k  (1985) found t h a t j o u r n a l s c o u l d  be  a u s e f u l t o o l f o r examining t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g . They w r o t e , "personal  documents i n g e n e r a l ,  and  j o u r n a l s i n p a r t i c u l a r , can  be a window through which t o view some of the w o r k i n g s of human mind"  the  (p. 27). They used j o u r n a l s t o h e l p them u n d e r s t a n d  t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g around l e s s o n p l a n n i n g .  Mann (1994) used  j o u r n a l s as a window t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g f a c t o r s impeding  the  development of peer t u t o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g . Surbeck et a l . (1991) used j o u r n a l s as a means t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g how " t y p i c a l l y organize t h e i r thinking" Journals assessing  students  (p.25).  have a l s o been used e x t e n s i v e l y as a means of  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e a c h i n g  aimed a t e n c o u r a g i n g r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g  s t r a t e g i e s and (Gipe &  programs  Richards,  1992). B o l i n (1988) suggests t h a t j o u r n a l s a r e u s e f u l " i n assessing goals"  how  w e l l our s t u d e n t s meet p e r s o n a l  and  program  (p. 51) . Approaches t o J o u r n a l  Journals  Writing  are r e f e r r e d t o i n the l i t e r a t u r e w i t h a v a r i e t y  of terms. Terms such as  "learning logs"  ( P o r t e r et a l . , 1990),  26 "learning diaries"  ( J a r v i s , 1992) and " l e a r n i n g r e c o r d s "  ( J a r v i s , 1992) appear t o be i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e w i t h t h e term j o u r n a l . There i s some evidence t h a t p a r t i c u l a r terms a r e chosen by e d u c a t o r s writers journal"  f o r t h e i m p r e s s i o n s they c r e a t e f o r j o u r n a l  ( J a r v i s , 1992; C a r s w e l l , 1988). The term  "dialogue  ( B o l i n , 1988; Newman, 1988; Z u l i c h e t a l . ,  1992) i s  a l s o used; t h e d i a l o g u e aspect o f t h e s e ' j o u r n a l s t y p i c a l l y r e l a t e s t o t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f feedback  g i v e n by  i n s t r u c t o r s and o t h e r s t o s t u d e n t s ' j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . However, the feedback  g i v e n by many' who d e s c r i b e t h e t a s k as s i m p l y  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g appears t o be s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p r o p o n e n t s o f d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l s . S p e c i f i c types o f j o u r n a l s w h i c h f o c u s on p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f t h e student t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e a r e a l s o mentioned i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e : p r a c t i c u m j o u r n a l s (Wedman & M a r t i n , 1986); v i s i t a t i o n j o u r n a l s ( P u l t o r a k , 1993); and, academic j o u r n a l s (Robinson-Armstrong,  1991).  B e s i d e s changes i n name and f o c u s , j o u r n a l assignments a l s o v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o frequency of w r i t i n g and a c c o r d i n g t o degree o f s t r u c t u r e i n t h e t a s k . J o u r n a l s a r e a s s i g n e d on v a r i o u s time frames i n c l u d i n g d a i l y j o u r n a l s , b i - d a i l y j o u r n a l s , weekly j o u r n a l s , b i - w e e k l y j o u r n a l s and j o u r n a l s t i m e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r course assignments.  Journals are  a l s o g i v e n v a r y i n g degrees o f s t r u c t u r e . Many t e a c h e r  educators  a s s i g n u n s t r u c t u r e d j o u r n a l s i n which s t u d e n t s may w r i t e about any e x p e r i e n c e s o r i n s i g h t s they g a i n i n t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g (e.g. C a r s w e l l , 1988; Gipe & R i c h a r d s , 1992; Anderson, 1993).  27 Such u n s t r u c t u r e d questions  journals are often presented with a l i s t of  aimed a t h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f  the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k  (e.g. Ho & R i c h a r d s ,  1993). Other  j o u r n a l s a r e more s t r u c t u r e d ; e d u c a t o r s pose s p e c i f i c i s s u e s t o be e x p l o r e d  i n each j o u r n a l (e.g. Pape & Smith, 1991), o r they  incorporate  s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s i n t o each j o u r n a l e n t r y ( e . g .  Yinger  & C l a r k , 1981) .  Feedback g i v e n on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g by s u p e r v i s o r s v a r i e s i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y ; however, g e n e r a l l y feedback f o c u s e s on the c o n t e n t r a t h e r than the,form o f student w r i t i n g ( e . g . Anderson, 1993) . W r i t t e n feedback on j o u r n a l s can v a r y  from a  few w r i t t e n comments on what s t u d e n t s have w r i t t e n t o e x t e n s i v e w r i t t e n feedback e q u a l l i n g t h e O r i g i n a l , j o u r n a l i n l e n g t h . Most e d u c a t o r s use a t l e a s t some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n g i v i n g s t u d e n t s feedback; they p r o v i d e : reinforcement  (1) p o s i t i v e  and encouragement (e.g. Anderson, 1993; J a r v i s ,  1992); (2) q u e s t i o n s  d e s i g n e d t o encourage s t u d e n t s t o probe  i s s u e s more d e e p l y (e.g. Pape & Smith, 1991; Newman, 1988); (3) models o f h i g h e r  level thinking i n r e l a t i o n to issues  discussed  by t h e j o u r n a l w r i t e r (e.g. M c A l p i n e , 1992; Newman, 1988); and, (4) c h a l l e n g e  t o student assumptions (e.g. M c A l p i n e , 1992;  Newman, 1988) . Some i n s t r u c t o r s a l s o use j o u r n a l s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m by s h a r i n g e x c e r p t s  from student j o u r n a l s and by  r e s p o n d i n g t o common concerns (e.g. J a r v i s , Problems w i t h J o u r n a l Despite  the laudable  1992).  Writing  t h e o r e t i c a l benefits of j o u r n a l  28 w r i t i n g , implementation of j o u r n a l s i n teacher education programs has been p r o b l e m a t i c . S t u d i e s suggest a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s which appear t o reduce t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l . Some o f t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s echo t h e problems e x p e r i e n c e d i n e n c o u r a g i n g r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g as a whole whereas o t h e r s appear t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y problematic with journal w r i t i n g . As i n r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l , t e a c h e r  educators  have had d i f f i c u l t y t e a c h i n g student t e a c h e r s t o r e f l e c t in journals. Jarvis  deeply  (1992) found t h a t many s t u d e n t s s i m p l y made  l i s t s o f c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . Anderson (1993) attempts t o q u a n t i f y t h e problem: . A t l e a s t one t h i r d o f t h e j o u r n a l s which I have r e a d i n the l a s t 5 y e a r s have been m o s t l y summaries o f a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g s o r i n - c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s and w i t h no e v i d e n c e o f analysis, synthesis, deliberation, or r e f l e c t i o n ,  (p. 307)  Other s t u d i e s have found t h a t many s t u d e n t s who r e f l e c t i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s l i m i t those r e f l e c t i o n s t o t h e means o f t e a c h i n g (Gipe & R i c h a r d s , 1992; Wedman & M a r t i n , 1986), what has been called a technocratic orientation Furthermore,  (Zeichner & L i s t o n ,  1987).  t e a c h e r educators have been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n  i n c r e a s i n g s t u d e n t r e f l e c t i o n i n j o u r n a l s over time Smith, 1991; Ho & R i c h a r d s ,  (Pape &  1993).  I t appears t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , l i k e o t h e r e f f o r t s t o improve r e f l e c t i v i t y , does not work f o r some s t u d e n t s . Newman (1988) notes t h a t many s t u d e n t s have no e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e  29 genre o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . T h i s i s borne out by C a r s w e l l (1988) who c i t e s e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h showing t h a t most w r i t i n g done by s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y " i s done i n a f o r m a l t r a n s a c t i o n a l mode which i s produced  f o r t h e purpose o f  grading"  (1987) note t h a t w r i t i n g  (p. 1 0 5 ) . Z e i c h n e r & L i s t o n  i s not t h e p r e f e r r e d r e f l e c t i v e mode o f some s t u d e n t s . F u l w i l e r (1982; c i t e d i n C a r s w e l l , 1988) suggests t h a t some s t u d e n t s p r e f e r v e r b a l i z i n g t o w r i t i n g t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s . LaBoskey's study  (1993) which i d e n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r i e n t a t i o n  between r e f l e c t i v e and n o n - r e f l e c t i v e groups o f s t u d e n t s may a l s o suggest  f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i v i t y  evidenced  i n t h e j o u r n a l s o f some s t u d e n t s . N o n - r e f l e c t i v e s t u d e n t s , whom she c a l l e d "Common-sense T h i n k e r s " , seemed t o be u n a b l e t o H  engage i n t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s o f r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g " o r they "seemed t o have b e l i e f s , , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s o r emotions t h a t prevented or d i s t o r t e d the r e f l e c t i v e process"  (p. 3 0 ) . They  f o c u s e d on "how t o " and "what works" q u e s t i o n s as opposed t o "why" q u e s t i o n s  (p. 3 0 ) . The "impetus"  f o r "acts of r e f l e c t i o n "  (p. 31) by t h e s e s t u d e n t s was from e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . She a l s o found t h a t some o f these s t u d e n t s were "overwhelmed and d i s t r a c t e d " by o t h e r The  concerns.  i s s u e o f time c o n s t r a i n t s seems t o a f f e c t  journal  w r i t i n g as i t does r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n g e n e r a l . One o f Gipe and R i c h a r d s ' (1992) s t u d e n t s summed i t up, " I do r e f l e c t . But, I do i t n a t u r a l l y . . . l i k e i n t h e shower o r d r i v i n g o r g o i n g t o s l e e p . You've got t o have time t o w r i t e and I'm w o r k i n g 32  30 hours p e r week" (p. 5 5 ) . Some problems seem t o be more s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g than w i t h o t h e r r e f l e c t i v e t a s k s . One such p r o b l e m i s t h a t some students make i n a p p r o p r i a t e comments i n j o u r n a l s t h a t they do not make i n o t h e r program forums. Anderson (1993) found t h a t some s t u d e n t s bigotry" Jarvis  expressed "blatant  (p. 306) and made p e r s o n a l a t t a c k s on o t h e r  (1992) found t h a t many students  students.  used j o u r n a l s t o make  comments w h i c h she regarded as c o m p e t i t i v e . These comments denigrated  t h e work o f o t h e r students  suggests that t h i s competitiveness  i n the c l a s s . J a r v i s  i n t e r f e r e s w i t h some  individuals' a b i l i t i e s to reflect. Some s t u d e n t s  seem t o e x p e r i e n c e  resistance to journal  w r i t i n g . One cause o f t h i s may be over-use o f t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k , a p o i n t made by one o f Anderson's (1993) who r e p o r t e d ,  "We have been j o u r n a l e d t o death"  students  (p. 306).  This  would suggest t h a t i n s t r u c t o r s i n r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g programs need t o c o o r d i n a t e  t h e i r use o f common r e f l e c t i v e  techniques.  A n o t h e r f a c t o r which c o u l d p l a y a r o l e i n t h i s r e s i s t a n c e has been s u g g e s t e d by J a r v i s (1992).  She suggests t h a t a t e n s i o n i s  c r e a t e d by t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k because s t u d e n t s t o c r e a t e "a r e c o r d of p e r s o n a l r e l e v a n c e "  a r e asked  and y e t t h a t same  r e c o r d i s b e i n g read by t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r (p. 1 3 5 ) . J a r v i s ' comment r a i s e s an important  problem w i t h j o u r n a l  w r i t i n g - - i t i s a t h r e a t e n i n g t a s k . B o l i n (1988) a s s e r t s , "student  j o u r n a l s may not be as p o w e r f u l  a tool for self-  31 r e v e l a t i o n as a p e r s o n a l d i a r y o r j o u r n a l s i n c e t h e j o u r n a l i s r e q u i r e d and s t u d e n t s know t h a t a C o l l e g e S u p e r v i s o r w i l l and respond  to their entries"  (p.50). Hatton & Smith  read  (1995)  note t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g may i n c r e a s e f e e l i n g s o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y i n s t u d e n t s because o f t h e r i s k o f "exposing one's p e r c e p t i o n s and b e l i e f s t o o t h e r s " (p. 3 7 ) . They see t h i s as p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o b l e m a t i c " i f t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i s n o t seen t o be w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l , who may tend t o s e l f - b l a m e f o r any p e r c e i v e d weaknesses uncovered t h r o u g h . r e f l e c t i o n " Lather  (1991; c i t e d i n M i d d l e t o n , 1993) suggests  (p. 37) .  t h a t "an  i n t e n d e d l i b e r a t o r y pedagogy might f u n c t i o n as p a r t o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f s u r v e i l l a n c e and n o r m a l i z a t i o n " (p. 1 7 8 ) . Whether o r n o t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s used by t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f c a r r y i n g out s u r v e i l l a n c e , s t u d e n t s may p e r c e i v e s u r v e i l l a n c e as t h e e d u c a t o r s ' g o a l . One way i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s respond  t o t h e t h r e a t o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s by w r i t i n g t o  please the teacher  ( J a r v i s , 1992; Anderson, 1993; Newman, 1988)  r a t h e r than f o r t h e i r own purposes. The  i s s u e o f t h r e a t i s e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e use o f j o u r n a l s  i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f student t e a c h e r s . H a t t o n and Smith  (1995)  q u e s t i o n "the v e r a c i t y and e t h i c s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g w h i c h i s t o be a s s e s s e d "  (p. 3 6 ) . Newman (1988) r e p o r t s , "The p r o b l e m i s  f o r me t o h e l p those who a r e w r i t i n g f o r me as t e a c h e r - a s examiner t o assume some r e a l purpose o f t h e i r own" i n w r i t i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l s (p. 151). Anderson (1993) q u e s t i o n s whether j o u r n a l s s h o u l d be graded.  He notes t h a t when he has graded  32  j o u r n a l s , s t u d e n t s who a r e p r o l i f i c b u t ' r e l a t i v e l y u n r e f l e c t i v e have c o m p l a i n e d about t h e grades he has g i v e n them. On t h e o t h e r hand, he f i n d s "when t h e r e i s no attempt a t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , t h e r e i s an o b s e r v a b l e d e c r e a s e i n t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f t h e e n t r i e s o f a l l s t u d e n t s "  (p. 3 0 7 ) .  Newman's p o i n t suggests t h a t s t u d e n t s must be h e l p e d t o f i n d internal motivation motivation  for journal w r i t i n g to replace the external  o f grades. A n a l y s i s of R e f l e c t i o n i n Journals  The analyzed  t h i n k i n g e v i d e n c e d i n student j o u r n a l s has been f o r • r e f l e c t i v i t y i n a number o f ways. One common  approach i s t o a s s e s s r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g i n j o u r n a l s  according  t o arenas o f t h e p r o b l e m a t i c . - Wedman and M a r t i n  and  Pultorak Van and  (1993)  (1986)  c l a s s i f y thought u n i t s i n j o u r n a l s a c c o r d i n g t o  Manen's t h r e e l e v e l s o f r e f l e c t i v i t y : t e c h n i c a l , p r a c t i c a l critical. A n o t h e r approach i s t o c a t e g o r i z e thought u n i t s i n  j o u r n a l s as e i t h e r r o u t i n e o r r e f l e c t i v e  (Wedman e t a l . ,  These terms a r e based on t h e work o f Dewey  (1933)  1990).  who p o s i t e d  t h a t r o u t i n e p r a c t i c e i s t h e r e s u l t of i m p u l s e , t r a d i t i o n and a u t h o r i t y whereas r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e s " a c t i v e , p e r s i s t e n t , and c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s and t h e p o s s i b l e consequences which may r e s u l t from them" (Wedman e t a l . , 1 9 9 0 , p. 1 6 ) . Thus, r o u t i n e w r i t i n g r e p o r t s on a c t i o n s o r summarizes t h e o r e t i c a l s t a n c e s whereas r e f l e c t i v e w r i t i n g explores actions or t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s .  33 A n a l y s i s o f thought u n i t s as r o u t i n e o r r e f l e c t i v e i s o f t e n used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h content  categories.  Surbeck e t a l . (1991) take a d i f f e r e n t approach. They i d e n t i f y a framework o f c a t e g o r i e s and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s i n s t u d e n t j o u r n a l s . They do not e x p l i c i t l y focus on t h e i s s u e o f r e f l e c t i v e and n o n - r e f l e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s , b u t i d e n t i f y  patterns  of r e f l e c t i v e thought. T h e i r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s a r e r e a c t i o n , e l a b o r a t i o n and c o n t e m p l a t i o n . r e p o r t i n g and e x p r e s s i n g  The r e a c t i o n c a t e g o r y  feelings. The•elaboration  includes  category  i n c l u d e s more d e t a i l e d r e p o r t i n g as w e l l as c o m p a r a t i v e and g e n e r a l i z e d e l a b o r a t i o n . The c o n t e m p l a t i o n c a t e g o r y has t h r e e f o c i : personal,  p r o f e s s i o n a l and s o c i a l / e t h i c a l . These  c a t e g o r i e s a r e s e q u e n t i a l i n t h e sense t h a t f o r a thought u n i t t o be p u t i n t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n category,  i t must be p r e c e d e d by  r e a c t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n . Surbeck e t a l . found t h a t t h e sequence was a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y developed i n most j o u r n a l entries. J o u r n a l s as Evidence o f R e f l e c t i v e T h i n k i n g When j o u r n a l s a r e a s s e s s e d f o r r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g t h e r e s u l t s t e n d t o be d i s c o u r a g i n g . t h a t few o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' category. one  Surbeck e t a l . (1991) found  journals included the contemplation  L i k e w i s e , Wedman and M a r t i n  (1986) found t h a t a l l but  o f t h e j o u r n a l e n t r i e s they examined e x h i b i t e d o n l y t h e low  l e v e l o f r e f l e c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t e c h n i c a l r e f l e c t i o n . Pultorak  (1993) a l s o found t h a t most b i - w e e k l y and v i s i t a t i o n  j o u r n a l s he examined were t e c h n i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i n  34 o r i e n t a t i o n . Wedman et a l . (1990) found most r e f l e c t i v e  thought  u n i t s i n j o u r n a l s i n t h e i r study were t e c h n i c a l i n n a t u r e . Gipe and R i c h a r d s  (1992) found t h a t i n s t u d e n t s ' 15  e n t r i e s , t h e number of r e f l e c t i v e statements  ranged  42, w i t h most s t u d e n t s i n c l u d i n g fewer than 20 statements  journal from 4 t o  reflective  i n t h e i r 15 e n t r i e s . In a case study of a p r a c t i c u m  s t u d e n t she c a l l s Lou, B o l i n Out of 158 paragraphs,  (1988) r e p o r t e d : 111 are d e s c r i p t i o n s of what  has happened w i t h l i t t l e a n a l y s i s . Of the 47 paragraphs  t h a t are more r e f l e c t i v e , most a r e b r i e f  s t a t e m e n t s of about seven l i n e s each, d e a l i n g w i t h f e e l i n g s o r concerns. Seldom does Lou e x p l o r e i s s u e s t h o u g h t f u l l y or weigh a l t e r n a t i v e s , Ho and R i c h a r d s  (p. 51)  (1993) found t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e was  wide  v a r i a t i o n i n the l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i v i t y and t h e c o n t e n t s t u d e n t s r e f l e c t e d on i n t h e i r program, o n l y 3 of 10  areas  students  w r o t e r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l s . Four were somewhat r e f l e c t i v e and 3 w r o t e " i n a l a r g e l y n o n - r e f l e c t i v e manner" (p. 2 0 ) . They a l s o n o t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s showed no' s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n r e f l e c t i v i t y over time. Anderson (1993), i n a more s u b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n h i s c o u r s e s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g of some s t u d e n t s was  reflective,  as many as one t h i r d of h i s s t u d e n t s showed no s i g n s of r e f l e c t i v i t y a t a l l i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . T h i s e v i d e n c e must r a i s e s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s about the u s e f u l n e s s of j o u r n a l s as a r e f l e c t i v e task.  35 D e s p i t e t h i s n e g a t i v e evidence on t h e l e v e l s o f r e f l e c t i o n evidenced i n j o u r n a l s , teacher educators continue t o f e e l that j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s a u s e f u l t a s k . Anderson (1993),  after  p r e s e n t i n g a damning p o r t r a y a l o f t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h journal writing, states,  " I do not w i s h t o suggest t h a t  j o u r n a l s do not have a v a l i d p e d a g o g i c a l r o l e t o p l a y i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs. I support t h e v a l u e o f j o u r n a l s " (p.  307-308) . B e s i d e s t h e f a c t t h a t j o u r n a l s seem t o work w e l l  for  some s t u d e n t s , Anderson p r e s e n t s no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t h i s  c o n t i n u i n g a l l e g i a n c e t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . Ho and R i c h a r d s (1993) a l s o ' i m p l y t h a t they w i l l c o n t i n u e t o use j o u r n a l w r i t i n g d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t they found t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g "does not n e c e s s a r i l y promote c r i t i c a l  reflection"  (p. 2 0 ) .  T h e i r r a t i o n a l e i s based on t h e v a l u e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a communicative t o o l ; they v a l u e i t s r o l e i n g i v i n g  instructors  a c c e s s t o t h e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Wedman and M a r t i n (1986) take another approach. They r e g a r d t h e low l e v e l o f r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g i n t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' j o u r n a l s as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s they use t o prompt j o u r n a l w r i t i n g need r e f i n e m e n t , not t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s an i n e f f e c t i v e way o f encouraging r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g . They c o n t i n u e t o a s s e r t t h a t "the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g component o f an i n q u i r y - o r i e n t e d student t e a c h i n g c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s a means for  s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t o r e f l e c t on and p r o c e s s t e a c h i n g and  schooling experiences"  (p. 7 1 ) . Surbeck e t a l . (1991), d e s p i t e  t h e i r f i n d i n g s of l i m i t e d r e f l e c t i o n i n journals,  assert,  36 " u s i n g j o u r n a l s . . . t a k e s time but a s s i s t s p r o s p e c t i v e i n becoming b e t t e r t h i n k e r s who  teachers  probe deeper i n t o b o t h  p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and t h e i r own  teaching/learning"  (p.  27) . T h i s a l l e g i a n c e t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a r e f l e c t i v e can be e x p l a i n e d  task  i n a number of ways. Perhaps the t h e o r e t i c a l  b e n e f i t s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g are so c o n v i n c i n g  that  educators  p e r s i s t i n t r y i n g t o develop approaches t h a t can make them more productive Carswell  d e s p i t e r e p e a t e d evidence of f a i l u r e . They may,  like  (1988), "have an i n t u i t i v e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e y  [ j o u r n a l s ] are a u s e f u l d e v i c e " l i k e Ho and R i c h a r d s  (p. 107).  (1993), t e a c h e r  Then a g a i n  educators f i n d  perhaps, the  b e n e f i t s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a communication t o o l g r e a t enough t o outweigh t h e i r seemingly l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y e n g e n d e r i n g r e f l e c t i v e thought. A f u r t h e r and  less  for flattering  p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t u s i n g j o u r n a l s a l l o w s e d u c a t o r s t o pay l i p service to teaching l i t t l e c l a s s time p o s s i b i l i t i e s may  r e f l e c t i v e practice with l i t t l e e f f o r t  and  r e q u i r e d . A l t h o u g h a l l of t h e s e be t r u e f o r some e d u c a t o r s ,  the main r e a s o n f o r the c o n t i n u e d  I believe  that  use of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s the  f a c t t h a t e d u c a t o r s assume t h a t j o u r n a l s engender more r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g than s t u d i e s e v i d e n c e . Studies  suggest t h a t j o u r n a l s do not g i v e e v i d e n c e of a l l  the r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g they engender. Student e v a l u a t i o n s the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k r e p o r t e d  of  i n the l i t e r a t u r e t e n d t o  o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p o s i t i v e . Surbeck et a l . (1991) found t h a t  be  their  37 s t u d e n t s r e g a r d e d j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a u s e f u l r e f l e c t i v e and l e a r n i n g t o o l . Ho and R i c h a r d s (1993) r e p o r t t h e i r s t u d e n t s found j o u r n a l w r i t i n g "not found i t " u s e f u l " and Jarvis  25%  t h a t o n l y 4%  useful" while  found i t " f a i r l y u s e f u l "  (1992) a l s o found t h a t the m a j o r i t y  of her  t h a t a l l but  two  71%  (p. 20) . s t u d e n t s were  v e r y p o s i t i v e about the outcomes of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . (1988) r e p o r t s  of  Carswell  of h i s s t u d e n t s found j o u r n a l  w r i t i n g a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . He n o t e s , "the comments j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ] were more p o s i t i v e than I e x p e c t e d "  [on  (p. 107) .  Many r e s e a r c h e r s a s s e r t t h a t j o u r n a l s cannot.be assumed t o accurately 1985;  r e p r e s e n t the t h i n k i n g of j o u r n a l w r i t e r s  G i p e & R i c h a r d s , 1992 ; Boud et a l . , 1985;  J a r v i s , 1992;  Yinger & Clark,  suggest t h a t t h i s may privacy  and  Fulwiler,  1981). Gipe & R i c h a r d s  be because of  (Powell, 1980;  (1992)  "personal preferences f o r  i n d i v i d u a l choices for r e f l e c t i v e m o d a l i t i e s "  (p.  55). F u r t h e r m o r e , the p r o c e s s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g may  initiate  f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g t h a t does hot appear i n the j o u r n a l  (Hatton &  Smith, 1995; assert,  R i c h a r d s & L o c k h a r t , 1994). H a t t o n & Smith (1995)  "many of the  r e a c t i v e , emotive, and  [ j o u r n a l ] e n t r i e s may  be  personal,  at the time of w r i t i n g not  at a l l  r e f l e c t i v e . However, those e n t r i e s can p r o v i d e i d e a l s u b s t a n c e for  l a t e r r e f l e c t i n g upon a c t i o n " The The  (p.  Need t o Access Student  43). Perspectives  assumption of many t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s appears t o  t h a t a l t h o u g h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g does not  be  show much e v i d e n c e of  r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g , t h e r e i s a l o t more r e f l e c t i o n g o i n g  on  38 t h a n meets the eye.  Copeland et a l . (1993) a s s e r t ,  "we  i n danger of b e i n g drawn beyond our knowledge base t o  are  now  the  employment of p r a c t i c e s t h a t are founded o n l y i n assumptions" (p. 347).  I suggest t h a t . e d u c a t o r s are u s i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  based on assumptions t h a t j o u r n a l s are more u s e f u l t h a n  the  e x t a n t e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s . To c l a r i f y the v a l i d i t y of t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , we must approach j o u r n a l w r i t i n g from perspective perspectives  of j o u r n a l w r i t e r s . We  the  must u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r  on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and-the r o l e i t t a k e s i n t h e i r  r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s . In t h i s study .1 examine the  perspectives  on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g of j o u r n a l w r i t e r s , i d e n t i f y i n g b o t h what t h e y w r i t e about and what evidence of r e f l e c t i o n e x i s t s i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s as w e l l as the r o l e of t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n t h e i r ongoing t h i n k i n g about i s s u e s .  39  CHAPTER THREE THE STUDY  In  t h i s c h a p t e r , I d e s c r i b e t h e r e s e a r c h methodology and  the f i n d i n g s o f t h e study. F i r s t , I g i v e an o v e r v i e w  of the  c h a p t e r and i n t r o d u c e t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e c o n t e x t and my e n t r y i n t o t h e f i e l d . I d i v i d e t h e r e s t o f t h e c h a p t e r i n t o seven s e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n s One-and Two d e s c r i b e t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e study. S e c t i o n s Three, Four, Six  F i v e and  f o c u s on answering' t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . S e c t i o n Seven  d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s and outcomes o f t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e a n a l y s i s u t i l i z e d i n t h e study. My approach i n t h e c h a p t e r i s t o draw on t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s of t h e t u t o r s and t r a i n e r t o t e l l t h e s t o r y o f t h e use o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n a c o l l e g e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e d u r i n g a one semester p e r i o d . C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n (1990) a s s e r t t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l importance o f u s i n g n a r r a t i v e i n q u i r y i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s t h a t " i t b r i n g s t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s about the n a t u r e o f human l i f e as l i v e d t o bear on e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as l i v e d "  (p. 3)'. They suggest t h a t those  being  s t u d i e d need t o be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e l l t h e i r  stories  so t h a t those s t o r i e s g a i n "the a u t h o r i t y and v a l i d i t y t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h s t o r y has l o n g had" (p.' 4 ) . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , i n t e l l i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e o f my r e s e a r c h , I attempt t o h i g h l i g h t the v o i c e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .  40  The Context o f t h e Study The c o n t e x t f o r t h e study was a l e a r n i n g c e n t r e i n a twoy e a r community c o l l e g e i n western Canada. The l e a r n i n g c e n t r e , w h i c h I had s t a r t e d a y e a r and a h a l f e a r l i e r , was aimed a t a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n courses a c r o s s t h e c o l l e g e t o improve weak academic s k i l l s which were h i n d e r i n g t h e i r  success  i n t h o s e c o u r s e s . The l e a r n i n g c e n t r e was o v e r s e e n by t h e developmental  e d u c a t i o n department o f t h e c o l l e g e , and t h e  D i r e c t o r o f t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e was a f a c u l t y member w i t h i n t h a t department. The l e a r n i n g c e n t r e was a c o n v e r t e d i n the' developmental The  classroom  e d u c a t i o n a r e a o f the' c o l l e g e .  s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d e d t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e v a r i e d  w i d e l y . They i n c l u d e d r e c e n t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s as w e l l as o l d e r a d u l t s who had been out o f s c h o o l f o r some t i m e . They i n c l u d e d s t u d e n t s who spoke E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t w e l l as s t u d e n t s who spoke E n g l i s h as a second  language as  language.  The  s t u d e n t s were e n r o l l e d i n programs i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e c o l l e g e : academic, a p p l i e d and developmental. s t u d e n t s worked on a range o f s k i l l s ,  In the centre, the including: writing,  r e a d i n g , s t u d y s k i l l s , mathematics and word p r o c e s s i n g . The b i g g e s t demand, however./ was f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h w r i t i n g . The  l e a r n i n g c e n t r e had been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r o n l y a y e a r  and a h a l f p r i o r t o my u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s s t u d y . Up u n t i l t h a t t i m e , I had been t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e c e n t r e . When I took e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e t o work on my t h e s i s , a new D i r e c t o r r e p l a c e d me. Tom, t h e new D i r e c t o r , gave me p e r m i s s i o n t o approach  41 l e a r n i n g c e n t r e s t a f f about p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s t u d y . by t e l l i n g the s t o r y of my  e n t r y i n t o the  I begin  field.  Beginnings Tom  suggested I a t t e n d the y e a r ' s  f i r s t weekly s t a f f  m e e t i n g a t the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e t o ask t u t o r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . I knew who but I was  would be t h e r e . They were a l l f a m i l i a r ,  a p p r o a c h i n g them i n a d i f f e r e n t r o l e - - t h a t of  r e s e a r c h e r , not D i r e c t o r and t u t o r t r a i n e r . Tom  would be  there,  l o n g time c o l l e a g u e . K r i s t a and F e l i c i a , p e e r t u t o r s who  had  worked w i t h me  staff  t u t o r , had  the y e a r b e f o r e , would be t h e r e . Ann,  s t a r t e d w o r k i n g i n the c e n t r e f o r me  the  the  previous  J a n u a r y . C h r i s t o p h e r would be t h e r e ; he hadn't worked w i t h l a s t y e a r , but the y e a r b e f o r e T  me  had h i r e d him t o t e a c h word  p r o c e s s i n g i n the c e n t r e . I a r r i v e d at the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e e a r l y ; i t was t e n t o n i n e . I got out my key and u n l o c k e d  still  only  the door. T u r n i n g  on  the l i g h t s , I l o o k e d around what had been my w o r k p l a c e f o r a y e a r and a h a l f and was  no l o n g e r . Most t h i n g s were the same:  the computers humming under the windows; the book s h e l v e s  with  t h e i r worn books on r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and study s k i l l s ;  the  b l a c k b o a r d w i t h i t s fragments of thoughts;  and  c h a i r s awry, as abandoned l a s t evening. d i f f e r e n t from memory. A new  the t a b l e s  Some t h i n g s were  b u l l e t i n board was  looking very  smart w i t h n e a t l y o r d e r e d n o t i c e s and announcements. Two  fancy-  l o o k i n g computers behind a room d i v i d e r crowded the t a b l e s c h a i r s more than ever.  and  42 People began t o a r r i v e . Ann came i n , f u l l o f humour. She r e g a l e d me w i t h t h e t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s o f g e t t i n g t h e centre going at the beginning tired,  f u l l o f t h e new courses  of term. K r i s t a a r r i v e d l o o k i n g she was t a k i n g . We began t o s e t  up a t a b l e f o r t h e meeting. Tom came i n , f i l e f o l d e r i n hand. He asked me how l o n g I needed i n t h e meeting.  Christopher  a r r i v e d l o o k i n g a l i t t l e l e s s c o n f i d e n t than t h e o t h e r s . Tom began t h e m e e t i n g ; F e l i c i a  arrived i n a flurry,  waving t o me as  she s a t down. Tom began by t a l k i n g about t h e purpose o f s t a f f m e e t i n g s , to  s o l v e o p e r a t i o n a l g l i t c h e s and l e a r n t o do a b e t t e r j o b . He  asked t h e t u t o r s what they had l e a r n e d i n t h e i r t u t o r i n g . The t h r e e women suggested some t h i n g s : speaking  s k i l l s , problem-solving  composition.  experience confidence,  s k i l l s , grammar and  Tom gave out a handout, t i t l e d " S t a f f L e a r n i n g  (The Development o f Knowledge, S k i l l s and A t t i t u d e s ) " (MOct.12) . The group worked p a r t way through t h e handout, Tom f r e q u e n t l y a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s . The t u t o r s p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y , except f o r C h r i s t o p h e r who m a i n l y  j u s t spoke when asked a  d i r e c t q u e s t i o n . Tom p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e handout c o u l d g i v e t u t o r s some i d e a s f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . He gave out a n o t h e r handout, "Don't Help Too Much (a s t r a t e g y f o r w o r k i n g w i t h w r i t i n g assignments)"  (M-Oct.12). He s a i d ,  "Here's some i d e a s ;  t r y them out and see what works f o r you" (M-Oct.12). Then t h e m e e t i n g moved on t o o p e r a t i o n a l i s s u e s : meeting t i m e s ,  computer  o r i e n t a t i o n s c h e d u l i n g , and d i f f i c u l t i e s about s h a r i n g t h e  43  space w i t h a n o t h e r program. Then Tom  r a i s e d an i s s u e t u t o r s had  i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s - - t h e problem of s t u d e n t s not showing up f o r appointments. T u t o r s made s u g g e s t i o n s of t h i n g s t h e y c o u l d do t o r e s o l v e the problem. Tom  then t o l d the t u t o r s  t h a t I was t h e r e t o t a l k t o them about my r e s e a r c h and t h a t he would t u r n t h e meeting over t o me. A f t e r Tom  left,  I e x p l a i n e d the background t o my  research,  and my purpose i n d o i n g i t . I d i s c u s s e d the uses of the r e s e a r c h and the time commitment i t w o u l d ' e n t a i l on  their  p a r t s . I t r i e d not t o l e t my keenness show because I d i d not want them t o f e e l they would be l e t t i n g me down i f t h e y d i d not agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e . They asked q u e s t i o n s and I gave them the consent form. I t o l d them they s h o u l d t h i n k about i t , but s i g n e d h e r s r i g h t away and gave i t back t o me.  Krista  Ann  and  F e l i c i a f o l l o w e d s u i t . C h r i s t o p h e r was busy p u t t i n g papers away. He had a t e n o ' c l o c k c l a s s ; he had t o r u n . We a g r e e d t h a t I would c a l l him as he h u s t l e d out the door. I s e t up  interview  t i m e s w i t h F e l i c i a and Ann. I had t o w a i t t o s e t up a  first  i n t e r v i e w w i t h K r i s t a ; the c e n t r e was now open and one of h e r s t u d e n t s had a r r i v e d f o r an appointment. K r i s t a and h e r s t u d e n t were c o n f e r r i n g q u i e t l y i n one-corner, huddled o v e r a book. That was the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e m e s t e r - l o n g s t u d y of the p e r s p e c t i v e s on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g of t u t o r s w o r k i n g i n t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e . C h r i s t o p h e r d i d agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y as d i d two o t h e r peer t u t o r s , P a u l and B i l l y , h i r e d l a t e r i n the semester.  who  were  44  S e c t i o n One: Data C o l l e c t i o n  The  Strategies  f i r s t phase o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y  examining t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s , i n t e r v i e w i n g about j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , and a t t e n d i n g Tutor  involved  t h e t u t o r s and Tom  weekly s t a f f m e e t i n g s .  Journals  When t u t o r s handed i n t h e i r weekly j o u r n a l e n t r i e s t o Tom, t h e y made a copy o f them and put them i n my m a i l b o x . On t h e day of my i n t e r v i e w w i t h them, I would go t o t h e l e a r n i n g  centre  ahead o f time and read t h e i r j o u r n a l s . I would n o t e e v i d e n c e o f r e f l e c t i o n and i s s u e s f o r d i s c u s s i o n The  i n the interviews.  number of j o u r n a l e n t r i e s handed i n by t h e s t u d e n t s  v a r i e d . Two t u t o r s , B i l l y .and  Paul./ were h i r e d l a t e r than t h e  o t h e r s and as a r e s u l t d i d fewer e n t r i e s . P a u l was i n a c a r accident  near t h e end o f term and as a r e s u l t handed i n fewer  a g a i n . Because o f t h e few e n t r i e s P a u l handed i n , I g o t one more j o u r n a l from him a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e semester f o l l o w i n g t h e one under study. I r e c e i v e d from P a u l , Christopher,  5 from B i l l y ,  4 journal  entries  6 from F e l i c i a and 7 each from  Ann and. K r i s t a . -  At my r e q u e s t , a f t e r Tom had w r i t t e n feedback on t h e j o u r n a l s he o f t e n p h o t o c o p i e d them f o r me. Tutor Interviews My g o a l was t o i n t e r v i e w s t u d e n t s two o r t h r e e days a f t e r t h e y had completed a j o u r n a l e n t r y . T h i s was l o n g enough a f t e r t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t o a l l o w more r e f l e c t i o n t o have t a k e n  45 p l a c e , b u t not so l o n g t h a t they would not remember t h e i r t h i n k i n g p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . E s t a b l i s h i n g , i n t e r v i e w s on t h a t time frame, however, proved t o be more difficult  than I had a n t i c i p a t e d .  B e s i d e s w o r k i n g 10 t o 15  hours p e r week i n t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e , t h e t u t o r s were  full-  time s t u d e n t s . Busy times f o r t u t o r s and busy t i m e s f o r s t u d e n t s c o i n c i d e d , so i t was d i f f i c u l t t o s c h e d u l e appointments.  Furthermore,  Tom was not s t r i c t about when t u t o r s  handed i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s , so. t h e j o u r n a l s came i n a t v a r i e d t i m e s . These f a c t o r s made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o s c h e d u l e i n t e r v i e w s s t r i c t l y i n r e l a t i o n t o when j o u r n a l s were  completed.  As a r e s u l t , I i n t e r v i e w e d t u t o r s a t a range o f t i m e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r completion of j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . Although did  this  n o t p r o v i d e t h e t i d y d a t a I had l o o k e d f o r , i t d i d g i v e me  a c c e s s t o t h e i r t h i n k i n g about t h e i r j o u r n a l s b e f o r e , d u r i n g and a f t e r w r i t i n g . I d i d not, however, get a c c u r a t e d a t a on a l l t h r e e time p e r i o d s f o r every j o u r n a l they wrote. Sometimes I i n t e r v i e w e d t u t o r s t h e same day they wrote t h e i r e n t r i e s ; i n those cases, l i t t l e  journal  time had p a s s e d t o a l l o w f o r  f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n . At o t h e r times, I i n t e r v i e w e d them a week or more a f t e r they had completed t h e i r e n t r i e s . I n t h o s e c a s e s , I d i d n o t attempt t o e x p l o r e t h e i r t h i n k i n g p r i o r t o j o u r n a l writing. I conducted  "moderately s c h e d u l e d i n t e r v i e w s "  (Gorden,  1975). I n each i n t e r v i e w , a f t e r an i n i t i a l c h a t , I began by asking the tutor general questions p o t e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d to the  46  tutor's perspective  on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . Such i s s u e s  t h e i r employment and e d u c a t i o n a l current  included:  backgrounds and g o a l s ;  l i f e s i t u a t i o n s both i n and o u t s i d e  their  the c o l l e g e ; t h e i r  a t t i t u d e s t o t u t o r i n g , w r i t i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ; interpersonal  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the centre;  t h e feedback Tom  gave them on t h e i r j o u r n a l s ; and, t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k . We spent t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w d i s c u s s i n g one o r two such i s s u e s . We r e t u r n e d t o most o f t h e s e i s s u e s more than once over the p e r i o d of t h e s t u d y . A f t e r d e a l i n g w i t h these general; i s s u e s , we would s h i f t our  f o c u s and b e g i n t o look a t t h e j o u r n a l . T y p i c a l l y , I would  ask  t u t o r s t o t h i n k back t o w r i t i n g t h e j o u r n a l . I asked where  t h e y were and what e l s e was g o i n g on a t t h e t i m e . I asked them about t h e i r w r i t i n g p r o c e s s and whether'they were during  interrupted  t h a t p r o c e s s . T h i s was p r i m a r i l y an attempt t o h e l p t h e  t u t o r s r e t u r n t o t h e time of w r i t i n g t h e j o u r n a l s and t h e r e b y a c t i v a t e t h e i r memories of t h e i r t h i n k i n g p r i o r t o and  during  the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . I t a l s o p r o v i d e d d a t a f o r t h e s t u d y . I would t h e n ask t u t o r s t o read through t h e i r j o u r n a l e n t r y and t e l l me about t h e i r t h i n k i n g on t h e i s s u e s t h e y w r o t e about. I p a r t i c u l a r l y asked them t o - i d e n t i f y : (1) t h e i r t h i n k i n g on t h e i s s u e s p r i o r t o f o c u s i n g on w r i t i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l e n t r y ; ( 2 ) any  new t h i n k i n g they d i d w h i l e p l a n n i n g o r w r i t i n g t h e j o u r n a l  entry;  and, ( 3 ) any f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g they had done on t h e  issues  since w r i t i n g t h e i r journals.  A f t e r w o r k i n g through the j o u r n a l i n t h i s way, I would ask  47 t u t o r s about t h e i r reasons f o r c h o o s i n g t o w r i t e about We  issues.  a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y r e t u r n e d t o i s s u e s w r i t t e n about i n  previous journals to discuss  any  f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g they had  done  about t h o s e i s s u e s . The  interviews  ranged i n l e n g t h  from 2 0 minutes t o  hour. T h i s v a r i a t i o n depended on a number of f a c t o r s : time t u t o r s had  (1)  the  a v a i l a b l e ; (2) the amount of t h i n k i n g t h e y  done; (3) the number and asked; and,  one  (4) how  had  type of g e n e r a l i s s u e q u e s t i o n s I  t a l k a t i v e the p a r t i c i p a n t was.  At  times  d i s c u s s i o n of a j o u r n a l i s s u e would l e a d t o w i d e - r a n g i n g discussions  i n which we both p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y . At  times, tutors b r i e f l y reported  t h e i r t h i n k i n g and we  other  l e f t i t at  that. I interviewed  each t u t o r f o l l o w i n g every time t h e y handed  i n a journal entry.  I a u d i o t a p e d and  later transcribed  the  interviews. Trainer I interviewed  Tom,  Interviews  the t u t o r t r a i n e r , 6 t i m e s d u r i n g  semester under s t u d y . Our  i n t e r v i e w s were t y p i c a l l y about  hour l o n g .  Tom  I  interviewed  his perspectives  an  w i t h the g o a l of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  on the j o u r n a l s t u t o r s handed i n t o him.  our m o d e r a t e l y s c h e d u l e d i n t e r v i e w s discussed  the  Tom's purpose f o r a s s i g n i n g  In  (Gorden,, 1975) , we journal writing,  the  g u i d e l i n e s he gave t u t o r s as the prompt f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , h i s feedback on t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s , the v a l u e of the  journal  w r i t i n g t u t o r s d i d , problems he encountered w i t h t u t o r w r i t i n g , and  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s e x p e r i e n c e u s i n g  journal journals  48  f o r f u t u r e use  of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e .  spent p a r t of every i n t e r v i e w examining and perception  We  d i s c u s s i n g Tom's  of the u s e f u l n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l t u t o r  journal  e n t r i e s t o the t u t o r ' s development. I a l s o a u d i o t a p e d and t r a n s c r i b e d these  later  interviews. S t a f f Meetings  The  s t a f f meetings were m a i n l y geared toward t u t o r i n -  s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . Tom  planned and  chaired  these meetings,  g i v i n g out 'handouts on a s p e c t s of t u t o r i n g and discussions  of t u t o r i n g ' i s s u e s . The  leading  meetings were f o r one  once a week. I a t t e n d e d the meetings as an o b s e r v e r and n o t e s on what p e o p l e d i d and  often  hour  took  said.  I a t t e n d e d the. meetings f o r a number of r e a s o n s .  First,  t h e s e meetings were the o n l y time i n the week t h a t a l l c e n t r e s t a f f were t o g e t h e r . T h i s gave me  an o p p o r t u n i t y  staff interactions. I believed interpersonal  to observe  relations  could  a f f e c t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . Second, I wanted t o be aware of  any  d i s c u s s i o n of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the group: might g i v e guidance or feedback on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ; might comment on the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; and, use  the j o u r n a l s  Tom  tutors Tom  might  i n c h o o s i n g what t o i n c l u d e i n i n - s e r v i c e  t r a i n i n g . F i n a l l y , I wanted t o be aware of o t h e r t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s g o i n g on i n o r d e r t o r e c o g n i z e the impact of t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s on t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . I took n o t e s d u r i n g meetings and  c o l l e c t e d handouts Tom  gave the  tutors.  the  49 C i t a t i o n . o f Data Sources i n the  Thesis  I n c i t i n g d a t a from j o u r n a l s , i n t e r v i e w s and  staff  meetings i n the study, I have used n o t a t i o n such as Nov.3)". The  f i r s t l e t t e r i n the n o t a t i o n i d e n t i f i e s the  of d a t a s o u r c e : " J " f o r j o u r n a l e n t r y , "M"  "(J-Ktype  " I " for interview,  f o r s t a f f meeting. In the case of j o u r n a l s and  and  interviews,  t h e r e i s a second l e t t e r i n the n o t a t i o n which i n d i c a t e s the first  i n i t i a l of the j o u r n a l w r i t e r or i n t e r v i e w e e .  The  end  of  the n o t a t i o n i s the date of the j o u r n a l e n t r y , i n t e r v i e w o r m e e t i n g . Thus, an i n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l y i d e n t i f i e d by  "(I-B-Nov.18)".  on•November 18 i s  •  My Role i n the Research I began the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s w i t h the n a i v e t r y i n g t o s t u d y the p e r s p e c t i v e s  i n t e n t i o n of  of t u t o r s on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s t a t e . As an o b s e r v e r ,  I wanted t o have as  l i t t l e impact on the d a t a as p o s s i b l e . I t soon became c l e a r t o me  that being  desirable  "a f l y on the w a l l " was  (Roman & Apple, 1990,  neither possible  p. 47). F i r s t ,  I had  a  nor personal  h i s t o r y w i t h the m a j o r i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s t u d y w i t h the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e program. I was,  to a l a r g e extent,  and an  i n s i d e r . Second, t o engage the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n m e a n i n g f u l , d i s c u s s i o n about j o u r n a l s , I had t o ask q u e s t i o n s . questions  c l e a r l y a f f e c t e d the " n a t u r a l " s t a t e of  (Hammersley & A t k i n s o n ,  These things  1983). T h i r d , I began t o see  evidence  t h a t I c o u l d improve the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study. As a r e s u l t , I began t o c o n c e i v e of  50  the r e s e a r c h more as an a c t i o n r e s e a r c h study 1986)  ( C a r r & Kemmis,  than a n a t u r a l i s t i c study. I began t o r e c o g n i z e  and  r e c o r d the impact  I was  h a v i n g on the c o u r s e of e v e n t s .  i n e v i t a b l e impact  on the s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d s e t t i n g meant  t h a t i t would be i m p o r t a n t t o l o c a t e m y s e l f r e l a t i o n t o the r e s e a r c h (Opie,  i n the s t u d y i n  1992).  T h i s changed p e r s p e c t i v e on my me  My  r o l e i n the study  allowed  t o c o n c e i v e of the r e s e a r c h as a more c o l l a b o r a t i v e  venture  i n w h i c h the p a r t i c i p a n t s and I would work t o g e t h e r t o b u i l d d e s c r i p t i o n s and t h e o r i z e about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s .  This  a p p r o a c h t o the study had a number of a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h f i t w i t h my  g o a l s f o r the r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  p a r t i c i p a n t p e r s p e c t i v e s c l e a r l y c o u l d be g a i n e d i f p a r t i c i p a n t s not o n l y p r o v i d e d d a t a but a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s of t h a t d a t a . Second, as t u t o r t r a i n e r I had attempted  t o c r e a t e an e g a l i t a r i a n approach t o s u p e r v i s i o n  based on my  own  political  and p e d a g o g i c a l b e l i e f s .  I t seemed  i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o attempt t o change t h i s approach w i t h t u t o r s i n the s t u d y , many of whom were the same t u t o r s I had worked w i t h . T h i r d , I hoped t h a t a c o l l a b o r a t i v e approach would be empowering (Roman &'Apple, 1990). Peer t u t o r s were i n t h e v u l n e r a b l e r o l e of student workers i n f i n a n c i a l need. J o u r n a l w r i t i n g , an i s o l a t i n g t a s k , asked them t o expose t h e i r to  t h e t r a i n e r . The  thinking  t r a i n e r had the power not o n l y t o f i r e them  but a l s o t o a f f e c t t h e i r w o r k i n g  conditions. I believed that  c o l l a b o r a t i o n among the t u t o r s which a l l o w e d them t o  share  51 t h e i r experiences  of s u b o r d i n a t i o n  ( F r e i r e , 1970)  would h e l p  them t o see the s t r u c t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s on t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e s . As L a t h e r emancipatory powerful process  (1986) suggests,  "For r e s e a r c h e r s  with  a s p i r a t i o n s , doing e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h o f f e r s a  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r a x i s t o the e x t e n t t h a t the e n a b l e s p e o p l e t o change by e n c o u r a g i n g  and a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g  research  self-reflection  of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s "  (p.  263) . My  r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the study as a form of a c t i o n  r e s e a r c h a l l o w e d me  t o accept a more a u t h e n t i c r o l e .  As  p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r , I c o u l d q u e s t i o n not o n l y p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g but a l s o the e f f e c t s of research process  on the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the  52 S e c t i o n Two:  In  The  t h i s s e c t i o n , I d e s c r i b e the peer t u t o r s , the  t u t o r and the t u t o r t r a i n e r who my  Participants  staff  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . In  i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s , I asked them t o  suggest a pseudonym they would l i k e me to. use f o r them i n the s t u d y . Those names are used throughout  the s t u d y .  The Peer T u t o r s The peer t u t o r s were h i r e d on a government work/study  sponsored  program aimed at a s s i s t i n g f i n a n c i a l l y needy  s t u d e n t s by g i v i n g them work w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  The  program p a i d s t u d e n t s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l f o r p a r t - t i m e work. g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h i s work/study  The  program r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s t o  show f i n a n c i a l need and t o be e n r o l e d at a  post-secondary  i n s t i t u t i o n f u l l - t i m e . Students c o u l d work up t o a maximum of 15 hours p e r week. A l l peer t u t o r s were a c a d e m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s  who  exhibited strong w r i t i n g s k i l l s ,  e f f e c t i v e o r a l communication  s k i l l s and a r e f l e c t i v e approach  to problem-solving.  T h e i r p r i m a r y r o l e i n the c e n t r e was  to a s s i s t  students  h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y w i t h academic s k i l l s t o improve t h e i r  skills.  They d i d t h i s w i t h the guidance and s u p e r v i s i o n of the t u t o r t r a i n e r . The t r a i n e r would meet w i t h a s t u d e n t who  was  new  to  the c e n t r e , do needs assessment,' recommend a program of s t u d y , and a s s i g n the s t u d e n t a t u t o r . The t u t o r would a s s i s t  the  s t u d e n t i n c a r r y i n g out the recommended program, sometimes  53 m o d i f y i n g i t as new needs a r o s e . The t r a i n e r was a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o u l d see s t u d e n t s a g a i n as needed. The  t u t o r s a l s o d i d o t h e r jobs i n t h e c e n t r e . They d e a l t  w i t h t e l e p h o n e and i n - p e r s o n i n q u i r i e s by s t u d e n t s , made appointments f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h Tom and t h e t u t o r s ,  assisted  w i t h m a t e r i a l s p r e p a r a t i o n and p r o v i d e d t r o u b l e - s h o o t i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o s t u d e n t s doing word p r o c e s s i n g . Some t u t o r s a l s o taught b a s i c word p r o c e s s i n g t o s m a l l groups o f s t u d e n t s . Felicia F e l i c i a was i n h e r t h i r d semester w o r k i n g as a p e e r t u t o r . I had h i r e d , t r a i n e d and s u p e r v i s e d h e r t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . When she began t o w r i t e j o u r n a l s f o r me, she had never kept a j o u r n a l b e f o r e . F e l i c i a was i n h e r e a r l y t w e n t i e s , s t u d y i n g C r i m i n o l o g y and Psychology. her l a s t working  The semester under study was t o be  i n t h e c e n t r e because she was moving t o t h e  l o c a l u n i v e r s i t y f u l l - t i m e t h e f o l l o w i n g semester.  She i n t e n d e d  t o f i n i s h h e r B a c h e l o r ' s degree a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y , and, a f t e r working  f o r a c o u p l e o f y e a r s , go on t o do a M a s t e r ' s  degree i n  Psychology. F e l i c i a had a v e r y heavy w o r k l o a d . d u r i n g  t h e s t u d y . She  began t h e semester t a k i n g 3' courses a t t h e c o l l e g e and 2 c o u r s e s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y as w e l l as w o r k i n g at a n o t h e r  16 hours p e r week  j o b and 12 hours p e r week a t t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e .  E a r l y i n t h e semester,  because she found t h e w o r k l o a d t o o  heavy, she dropped one o f h e r courses a t t h e c o l l e g e and reduced  t h e hours of h e r o t h e r j o b from 16 t o 8 hours p e r week.  54  Even so, she was over-burdened by h e r w o r k l o a d . S h o r t l y a f t e r mid-term exams, she s a i d , "two weeks ago, I broke down and c r i e d because I c o u l d n ' t  handle i t " (I-F-Nov.23). A l t h o u g h she  was d o i n g h e r work and g e t t i n g good grades, she found t h e l a c k of time t o r e l a x d i f f i c u l t . F e l i c i a had a l o n g h i s t o r y o f work, b o t h f u l l and p a r t t i m e . Because h e r f a m i l y was unable t o h e l p h e r f i n a n c i a l l y , she was p u t t i n g h e r s e l f through s c h o o l .  P r i o r to attending the  c o l l e g e f u l l - t i m e , she worked f u l l - t i m e as a l e g a l r e c e p t i o n i s t for  a y e a r . D u r i n g t h a t time, she a l s o s t u d i e d a t t h e c o l l e g e  part-time. An reported  i m p o r t a n t i s s u e f o r F e l i c i a was h e r c o n f i d e n c e .  She  t h a t u n t i l h e r l a t e teens she had been unsure o f  h e r s e l f and t h a t i t was o n l y r e c e n t l y t h a t she had begun t o develop confidence i n her a b i l i t i e s . Despite her f l e d g l i n g confidence,  she a c t e d c o n f i d e n t w i t h b o t h s t u d e n t s and  colleagues. F e l i c i a l i k e d t h e t u t o r i n g j o b , but she f e l t t h a t i t c o n t r i b u t e d a l o t o f s t r e s s t o an a l r e a d y at t i m e s d i s c u s s e d but  s t r e s s f u l l i f e . She  a f e a r o f b e i n g f i r e d from t h e t u t o r i n g j o b ,  she a l s o noted t h a t she had never had any t r o u b l e f i n d i n g  j o b s when she needed them. Due t o h e r s t r o n g background i n E n g l i s h and t h e S o c i a l Sciences,  F e l i c i a p r i m a r i l y tutored students i n essay w r i t i n g .  Many o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s were t a k i n g a u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r E n g l i s h composition course. For the f i r s t two-thirds  of the  55 semester, she a l s o taught weekly h o u r - l o n g o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n s i n u s i n g a word p r o c e s s i n g program t o s m a l l groups o f s t u d e n t s . Krista Krista, like Felicia,  was i n h e r t h i r d semester as a peer  t u t o r . She had been t r a i n e d by me and had handed j o u r n a l s i n t o me t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . K r i s t a was i n h e r e a r l y t w e n t i e s , and had been s t u d y i n g a t t h e c o l l e g e f o r two and a h a l f y e a r s , m o s t l y i n S c i e n c e and Mathematics. D u r i n g t h e semester under s t u d y , she had branched•out  and wds t a k i n g -mostly S o c i a l S c i e n c e  courses. K r i s t a had a heavy w o r k l o a d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . She was t a k i n g f o u r c o u r s e s but because o f h e r s w i t c h t o t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , she found h e r courses demanding, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e essay w r i t i n g component. B e s i d e s w o r k i n g 15 hours a week i n t h e c e n t r e , she a l s o worked a t a v o l u n t e e r j o b 2 hours a week and, b e g i n n i n g e a r l y i n November, worked 10 hours a week a t a r e t a i l s a l e s j o b . K r i s t a was a person who l i k e d t o s t a y busy. However, she found t h a t she was too busy. L o o k i n g back a t t h e end o f t h e semester, she s a i d ,  " t h i s semester I had t o o much on t h e go,  and I f e l t t h a t was t a k i n g away from my t u t o r i n g , I c o u l d n ' t c o n c e n t r a t e as l o n g o r do as much" (I-K-Dec. 8 ) . An i m p o r t a n t i s s u e f o r K r i s t a was t o have a good j o b i n w h i c h she was independent and v a l u e d . P r i o r t o w o r k i n g i n t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e , she had had many w a i t r e s s i n g and c a s h i e r j o b s . In  t h o s e j o b s , she had f e l t e x p l o i t e d . She f e l t t h a t she was  p a i d and r e s p e c t e d t o o l i t t l e and asked t o t a k e on t o o much  56  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and work t o o hard. She l i k e d t h e t u t o r i n g j o b because she d i d not f e e l e x p l o i t e d , i t was c o n v e n i e n t t o s c h o o l , i t gave h e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n new t h i n g s , and i t p r o v i d e d money she b a d l y needed. Her g o a l was t o s t u d y Physiotherapy  or Occupational  Therapy i n f u t u r e . She f e l t t h e  t u t o r i n g j o b gave h e r good e x p e r i e n c e She  f o r these p r o f e s s i o n s .  said: In  t h i s j o b I have t o t h i n k . A c t u a l l y , i t a p p l i e s t o  my f u t u r e work,, because you're always t r y i n g t o t h i n k o f . c r e a t i v e ways t o d e a l w i t h problems ... y o u have to  p u t y o u r s e l f - i n o t h e r people's  them. In  s i t u a t i o n s - and h e l p  (I-K-Nov.9)  t h e semester under study, K r i s t a was i n v o l v e d i n t h e  l e a r n i n g c e n t r e beyond h e r t u t o r i n g d u t i e s . She s a t on t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e a d v i s o r y committee and a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a college-wide  " t h i n k tank"  l e a r n i n g support  l o o k i n g a t p o s s i b l e f u t u r e models f o r  s e r v i c e s at the c o l l e g e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  t h e s e committees was p a r t o f h e r work time, so t h e amount o f time she spent t u t o r i n g was reduced. K r i s t a t u t o r e d s t u d e n t s w i t h a wide range o f needs. She t u t o r e d some s t u d e n t s i n Math, h e l p e d some ESL s t u d e n t s  with  t h e i r g e n e r a l language development, t u t o r e d some s t u d e n t s i n r e a d i n g and study s k i l l s ,  and h e l p e d some s t u d e n t s w i t h grammar  and essay w r i t i n g . F o r t h e f i r s t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e semester, she a l s o taught weekly h o u r - l o n g  o r i e n t a t i o n sessions i n using  a word p r o c e s s i n g program t o s m a l l groups o f s t u d e n t s .  57 Christopher C h r i s t o p h e r was  working  i n the c e n t r e f o r the second time,  but t h e r e had been a gap of a y e a r s i n c e he had worked t h e r e b e f o r e and the j o b had changed c o n s i d e r a b l y over t h a t t i m e . When he f i r s t worked at the c e n t r e , he o n l y taught word p r o c e s s i n g . He had not w r i t t e n j o u r n a l s , but he was t r a i n e d by me.  h i r e d and  In the semester under study, he s t a r t e d w o r k i n g  i n e a r l y October and h i s d u t i e s were the same as t h o s e of other  the  tutors. C h r i s t o p h e r had a heavy workload  d u r i n g the s t u d y .  Besides  t a k i n g f o u r c o u r s e s , he worked 10 hours a. week i n the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e and two t o t h r e e evenings  per week a t h i s u n c l e ' s watch  r e p a i r company. C h r i s t o p h e r was  about 3 0 y e a r s o l d and had been a j u n i o r  h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r f o r f o u r y e a r s i n Hong Kong. The had worked a t used E n g l i s h as the language of  school  he  instruction.  W h i l e t e a c h i n g , he took an e d u c a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . H i s t r a i n i n g focused on p l a n n i n g , methodology  and  t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s w h i l e the methodology f o r language t e a c h i n g was  based on a t h e o r y of "maximum exposure t o the language  environment" experience  (I-C-Oct.27). Much of h i s t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g  i n Hong Kong was  C h r i s t o p h e r enjoyed workload  i n teacher-centred  classrooms.  t e a c h i n g i n Hong Kong but found the heavy  t h e r e a problem.  C h r i s t o p h e r had come t o Canada two and a h a l f y e a r s the s t u d y .  before  He took the c o l l e g e ' s B u s i n e s s Diploma as w e l l as  58  some e x t r a Math c o u r s e s . He would f i n i s h h i s d i p l o m a t h e semester f o l l o w i n g t h a t o f t h e study. He i n t e n d e d t o go on t o u n i v e r s i t y and major i n A c c o u n t i n g . He d i d not i n t e n d t o go back i n t o t e a c h i n g ;  he saw t h a t as t o o d i f f i c u l t because o f h i s  E n g l i s h a b i l i t y and h i s l a c k of Canadian c r e d e n t i a l s . Christopher  had never w r i t t e n j o u r n a l s p r i o r t o t h e s t u d y .  He l i k e d w r i t i n g i n Chinese and had completed a C h i n e s e Language Honours Diploma p r i o r t o h i s t e a c h i n g .  The p r o c e s s he  used f o r w r i t i n g i n b o t h Chinese and E n g l i s h r e l i e d h e a v i l y on d e t a i l e d o u t l i n i n g p r i o r t o composing. C h r i s t o p h e r " i f I've g o t time t o p r e p a r e . . . I can w r i t e w e l l " I n E n g l i s h , h i s w r i t i n g was c l e a r but i n c l u d e d  reported, (I-C-Oct.27).  non-standard  grammar and' d i c t i o n . Christopher's  spoken E n g l i s h was f l u e n t and c l e a r . Only  o c c a s i o n a l l y were t h e r e s p e c i f i c v o c a b u l a r y items w h i c h he used d i f f e r e n t l y from s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h . F o r example, he used t h e word " f e e l i n g " o f t e n i n our i n t e r v i e w s . By f e e l i n g , he meant "idea",  "a b i g i m p r e s s i o n "  Nov.10). He r e p o r t e d  and " I n o t i c e d i t a l o t "  (I-C-  t h a t t h e word " f e e l i n g " has a l l t h e s e  meanings i n Cantonese..Although such problems sometimes caused a b i t of confusion  i n the interview process,  Christopher's  E n g l i s h was s u f f i c i e n t f o r him t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n the i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s . Christopher  enjoyed t h e j o b i n t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e and  found i t v e r y b e n e f i c i a l t o h i s own E n g l i s h s k i l l s . He improved h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f E n g l i s h grammar and r e s o l v e d some of. h i s  59 d i c t i o n problems.  He a l s o found t h a t the i n c r e a s e d exposure  to  E n g l i s h and t o E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g peers i n c r e a s e d h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r a l l y i n h i s courses. D u r i n g the semester  under study, C h r i s t o p h e r m a i n l y  t u t o r e d s t u d e n t s i n Math and Computer. However, he a l s o worked w i t h a few s t u d e n t s , m a i n l y ESL s t u d e n t s , on w r i t i n g and  study  skills. Billy B i l l y was was  h i r e d as a peer t u t o r i n e a r l y November and  h i s f i r s t semester  at the c o l l e g e . He was  this  s t u d y i n g Commerce  and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and g e t t i n g good grades. He had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . B i l l y was e a r l y t w e n t i e s . He was  no  in his  t a k i n g 5 courses and w o r k i n g a t t h e  l e a r n i n g c e n t r e 10 hours per week. :  B i l l y ' s c o u r s e s had a heavy w r i t i n g component. He was good w r i t e r who  a  l i k e d w r i t i n g . Most of h i s academic w r i t i n g  e x p e r i e n c e came "from d o i n g l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s e s s a y s " 1 6 ) . H i s p r e f e r r e d way down" (I-B-Nov.16).  of studying- was  (I-B-Nov.  to "write everything  He found t h a t i t h e l p e d him remember t h i n g s  and see c o n n e c t i o n s between i d e a s . B i l l y had not t u t o r e d f o r m a l l y b e f o r e , but he had p r o v i d e d feedback  on papers  for friends i n high school. After  h i g h s c h o o l , he had worked at a convenience  finishing  s t o r e and  gas  s t a t i o n f o r a y e a r , ending up as A s s i s t a n t Manager. D u r i n g t h a t y e a r he had a l s o taken a d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n c o l l e g e Math c o u r s e , an e x p e r i e n c e which taught him  "a l o t about how  t o do •  60 i t y o u r s e l f w i t h o u t h a v i n g someone t e a c h i t t o you"  (I-B-  Nov.16). B i l l y l i k e d the c h a l l e n g e of the t u t o r i n g j o b . He  noted,  " j u s t f i n d i n g ways t o h e l p people i s v e r y c h a l l e n g i n g I f i n d " (I-B-Nov.23).  The j o b h e l p e d him f i n a n c i a l l y but he was  not  dependent on h i s income from i t . Rather, i t a l l o w e d him t o conserve h i s savings. In  the semester  under study, B i l l y m a i n l y t u t o r e d s t u d e n t s  i n w r i t i n g and study s k i l l s . Paul  ... Like B i l l y ,  November. He was  P a u l was h i r e d as a peer t u t o r i n e a r l y i n h i s t h i r d semester  at the c o l l e g e , t a k i n g a  w r i t i n g - f o r - p u b l i c a t i o n program. P a u l , who. .was  i n h i s mid-  f o r t i e s , had a v a r i e d background. He had worked i n t h e h o t e l and r e s t a u r a n t b u s i n e s s , and had owned h i s own b a r and h i s b o o k s t o r e . I n h i s bar days, Paul had had a s u b s t a n c e problem  and spent time i n a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e . He  a t t e n d e d a micro-computer p r o c e s s i n g program and was  own  abuse then  subsequently  a c a p t i o n s e d i t o r and a t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t f o r a computer  c o u r s e . Most r e c e n t l y , as a s t u d e n t , he had had a p a r t - t i m e n i g h t j o b as a s e c u r i t y guard. P a u l ' s g o a l was  t o become "a  f r e e - l a n c e , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , marketing s p i n doctor" (I-PNov.10). He was complete  d o i n g w e l l i n h i s s t u d i e s and i n t e n d e d t o  h i s program the f o l l o w i n g y e a r .  P a u l had a heavy workload d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h p e r i o d . H i s s t u d i e s were demanding; he t y p i c a l l y had 16 hours of c l a s s each  61 week and 2 5 t o 3 0 hours of homework. B e s i d e s w o r k i n g l e a r n i n g c e n t r e 12 hours per week, he a l s o had h i s  i n the own  t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g company which took about 15 hours p e r week of his  time. P a u l was  was  an a v i d w r i t e r . He l o v e d a l l k i n d s of w r i t i n g  p a r t i c u l a r l y keen on c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g . He had kept h i s  p e r s o n a l j o u r n a l s f o r 22 y e a r s and d u r i n g the s t u d y kept  but own  not  o n l y h i s l e a r n i n g c e n t r e j o u r n a l but a l s o h i s p e r s o n a l j o u r n a l and s e p a r a t e j o u r n a l s f o r two courses he was  t a k i n g . Paul  d e s c r i b e d the v a l u e of h i s j o u r n a l w r i t i n g : I f i n d t h a t i t ' s r e a l l y good because i t h e l p s me go back and r e f l e c t . . . [ j o u r n a l s ] t h e y ' r e t o o l s t o h e l p me I'm  g o i n g and how  happened t o me  to  wonderful  f i n d out where I've been and where I've g o t t e n t h e r e and what's  i n the i n t e r i m .  P a u l l i k e d t u t o r i n g . He  (I-P-Nov.24)  said:  T h i s i s one of the most e n j o y a b l e j o b s I've ever  had  because I get t o h e l p people and make a d i f f e r e n c e . . . and use my  skills  ... most important i s the f a c t t h a t  i t t i e s i n [to my course work]. One  (I-P-Nov.24)  of the key f a c t o r s i n P a u l ' s enjoyment of the j o b was  b e n e f i t he saw  the  i n i t f o r h i m s e l f . He r e p o r t e d , " i t ' s r e a l l y a  g r e a t s o u r c e of goodness . . . f o r me"  (I-P-Nov.17).  He was  able  to use many s k i l l s he had a c q u i r e d i n h i s v a r i e d background. said,  "I'm  He  f i n d i n g t h i s j o b i s h e l p i n g me g r e a t l y , I'm g e t t i n g  to use a l l s o r t s of p a s t t r a i n i n g from grammar t o c o u n s e l l i n g ,  62 I use i t a l l " (I-P-Nov.17).  He a l s o f e l t t h a t i t was  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y good f o r him and commented, " I t [the job] h e l p s my h u m i l i t y and i t ' s ego g r a t i f y i n g t h a t I have the s k i l l s t o h e l p p e o p l e and t h a t ' s g r e a t f o r my  self-esteem"  (I-P-Nov.24).  A l l the s t u d e n t s a s s i g n e d t o P a u l were r e f e r r e d t o the centre f o r help with w r i t i n g . The S t a f f T u t o r : Ann,  Ann  the s t a f f t u t o r i n the c e n t r e , was  semester i n t h a t j o b . A t r a i n e d t e a c h e r who elementary  i n her second had  taught  s c h o o l f o r 7 y e a r s , she had l e f t t e a c h i n g because  she and her husband moved from another p r o v i n c e and she was q u a l i f i e d t o t e a c h i n her new p r o v i n c e . A f t e r moving,  not  she  worked a t the c o l l e g e i n a c c o u n t i n g . f o r many y e a r s . L a t e r , she worked as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t f o r the c o l l e g e ' s l i t e r a c y t u t o r i n g program. During her 19 y e a r s of w o r k i n g  at  the c o l l e g e , she a l s o s t u d i e d , c o m p l e t i n g most of h e r A c c o u n t i n g Diploma at the c o l l e g e . She came t o the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e i n o r d e r t o have a change and t o reduce h e r  working  h o u r s . She worked i n ' the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e 25 hours a week. was  She  i n h e r l a t e f i f t i e s and a n t i c i p a t i n g e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t . I n  f a c t , she r e t i r e d at the end of the semester under s t u d y . Ann  r e a l l y enjoyed the j o b and d e s c r i b e d i t as "an i n  depth l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e " g l a d t h a t I'm  (I-A-Nov.24).  She s a i d ,  a b l e t o go out of my working  t h a t I've enjoyed doing"  "I'm  really  l i f e w i t h something  (I-A-Nov.24).  She worked w i t h a l l k i n d s of s t u d e n t s on a wide v a r i e t y of  63 needs. She worked most w i t h mature s t u d e n t s and w i t h s t u d e n t s i n t e c h n i c a l programs and communications c o u r s e s . However, she a l s o worked w i t h , many s t u d e n t s on academic programs. B e s i d e s h e r t u t o r i n g work, she was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e c e n t r e w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support. The Tutor T r a i n e r : Tom Tom was t h e f a c u l t y member i n charge o f t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e . T h i s was a h a l f - t i m e p o s i t i o n . B e s i d e s r u n n i n g t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e , he taught.ESL  h a l f - t i m e . Tom's background  i n c l u d e d e x t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g o f c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y ESL, some l i t e r a c y t e a c h i n g , a Masters degree i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g a u n i v e r s i t y TESL c o u r s e . As p a r t o f h i s ESL t e a c h i n g a t t h e c o l l e g e , he had f r e q u e n t l y taught an adjunct course t o the c o l l e g e ' s u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r E n g l i s h composition course. The  semester under study was Tom's f i r s t  semester  running  the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e . H i s d u t i e s i n c l u d e d : h i r i n g , t r a i n i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g t u t o r s ; a s s e s s i n g and d e v e l o p i n g l e a r n i n g p l a n s f o r s t u d e n t s ; e s t a b l i s h i n g C e n t r e p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s ; and, l i a i s i n g w i t h c o l l e g e f a c u l t y and t h e department head about l e a r n i n g c e n t r e m a t t e r s . Tom's approach  to his f i r s t  semester  i n t h e c e n t r e was t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s quo, w o r k i n g on t h e assumption  t h a t he s h o u l d l e a r n how t h e c e n t r e had been  o p e r a t i n g p r i o r t o making any changes. Tom and I had been c o l l e a g u e s f o r 6 y e a r s and had s h a r e d an o f f i c e f o r t h e l a s t 3 y e a r s . Two y e a r s e a r l i e r we had worked  64  t o g e t h e r on a c u r r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t and had c o l l a b o r a t e d on w r i t i n g a handbook on a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t  needs  f o r l i t e r a c y t u t o r i n g . We got a l o n g w e l l t o g e t h e r and had common p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions about s t u d e n t s and about t e a c h i n g . I encouraged him t o a p p l y f o r t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e j o b , and I was v e r y p l e a s e d when he was s e l e c t e d t o r e p l a c e me.  65  S e c t i o n Three: The  Journal Writing  Task  In t h i s s e c t i o n , I explore t u t o r s ' perspectives j o u r n a l w r i t i n g task, First, his  I describe  the focus of my  f i r s t research  the t r a i n e r ' s g u i d e l i n e s  purpose i n a s s i g n i n g  on  the  question.  for journal writing,  the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k and  the  feedback he gave t u t o r s on t h e i r j o u r n a l s . Next, I d e s c r i b e  the  tutors' perspectives  the  on the purpose f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and  feedback t h e y r e c e i v e d .  I then d e s c r i b e  journal w r i t i n g . After that,.1 discuss  tutors' attitudes the t r a i n e r ' s  to  perception  of t u t o r a t t i t u d e s t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . F i n a l l y , I d e s c r i b e  the  w r i t i n g p r o c e s s e s employed by t u t o r s i n w r i t i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l s . Trainer When Tom  began the semester, he asked t u t o r s t o  j o u r n a l s . He d i d not g i v e any had  Guidelines write  s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s . The  tutors  done j o u r n a l s the y e a r b e f o r e and he s i m p l y asked them t o  c o n t i n u e , r e l y i n g on t h e i r knowledge of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g from the p r e v i o u s y e a r . T h i s was Christopher  somewhat p r o b l e m a t i c when  j o i n e d the c e n t r e as he had  not done j o u r n a l s  before. I n the f i r s t s t a f f meeting of the y e a r , Tom  suggested  that  t u t o r s c o u l d w r i t e about s t r a t e g i e s , a t t i t u d e s and  skills  Oct.12) . The  developed  guidelines The  f o l l o w i n g week, at my  s u g g e s t i o n , Tom  for journal writing.  handout he gave t u t o r s began l i k e  this:  To h e l p you w i t h y o u r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , here a r e a  few  (M-  66  suggestions: 1)  remember t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g has  a purpose -- t o  you  become a b e t t e r t u t o r by r e f l e c t i n g c r i t i c a l l y  help  on y o u r  t u t o r i n g . T h i s means a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h h e l p you  to  r e f l e c t about y o u r t u t o r i n g : -What are you -What do you -How  do you  learning  (past, p r e s e n t )  need or want t o l e a r n or don't you  2) t o be u s e f u l f o r you,  learn? learn best?  t h i s k i n d of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  needs t o be much moire than r e p o r t i n g what happened during  the week; i t needs t o have an a n a l y t i c a l o r  critical  focus which asks q u e s t i o n s about s p e c i f i c  s i t u a t i o n s t h a t you  encountered d u r i n g the week.  (M-  Oct.19) The  r e s t of the handout c o n s i s t e d of more d i s c u s s i o n and  l i s t of p o s s i b l e q u e s t i o n s t u t o r s c o u l d use r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r a c t i c e . The  to help  a  long  them  q u e s t i o n s suggest t h a t  the  t r a i n e r i n t e n d e d the t u t o r s t o focus on the p r a c t i c a l arena of the p r o b l e m a t i c t e c h n i q u e s and  (Tom,  1985). The  questions problematized  the  approaches tutors, used; the q u e s t i o n s d i d  not  suggest t h a t t u t o r s q u e s t i o n  the g o a l s of t h e i r work.  I n t h a t week's s t a f f meeting (M-Oct.19), Tom the g u i d e l i n e s , summarizing what he saw noted that,  introduced  as the key p o i n t s .  " r e f l e c t i n g r a t h e r than r e p o r t i n g i s the g o a l "  t h a t t u t o r s s h o u l d " t h i n k about a s i t u a t i o n and  consider,  do I need t o do b e t t e r ? " . He suggested t h a t t u t o r s " t e a r  He and what  apart  67  a s i t u a t i o n and l o o k at i t from many a n g l e s " . He ended by saying,  " j u s t f o l l o w these q u e s t i o n s " . T r a i n e r Purpose i n A s s i g n i n g J o u r n a l W r i t i n g  I n i t i a l l y , Tom  asked t u t o r s t o w r i t e j o u r n a l s m a i n l y  because the t u t o r s had done j o u r n a l s the y e a r b e f o r e . T h i s  was  i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s p o l i c y of m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo i n h i s f i r s t semester  i n the j o b . A f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r  t h a t he knew I was  was  i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g j o u r n a l s . By mid-way  t h r o u g h the semester,  however,' he had a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the  purpose of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n h i s t u t o r • t r a i n i n g scheme. He said: T: I t s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r l e a r n i n g on the j o b by h e l p i n g them r e f l e c t about what t h e y ' r e d o i n g . . . the word r e f l e c t i s important because i n s t e a d of j u s t s i t t i n g down and d o i n g i t w i t h o u t even t h i n k i n g about it,  and always d o i n g the same t h i n g over and  i t ' s t o s i t back and say why, how  why  over,  d i d i t go t h a t way?  c o u l d I do i t b e t t e r n e x t • t i m e ? what i s t o o  d i f f i c u l t ? what i s n ' t d i f f i c u l t any more? and what has changed? I guess some t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , because I t h i n k one of the major i s s u e s t h a t we're r u n n i n g  into  here i s , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t u t o r i n g i s not i n any way  d e v e l o p i n g i n the person's mind, t h e y ' r e not  r e a l l y d e v e l o p i n g as t u t o r s , t h e y ' r e t h e r e t o do a job  and do the same t h i n g every time, i t ' s not as i f  they want t o develop. Or t h e y ' r e too busy d o i n g t h e  68  t u t o r i n g t o s i t back and have time t o t h i n k about what works and what doesn't and  so t h e y ' r e j u s t  p u t t i n g i n the time d o i n g i t w i t h o u t r e f l e c t i n g a l o t about i t whereas o t h e r s do t h i n k about, w e l l , how they d o i n g i t ,  um,  so I t h i n k t h e r e ' s  are  a spectrum  there. J : So a r e you  s a y i n g then t h a t you  think that  the  j o u r n a l s s o r t of e n f o r c e people t a k i n g the time t o s t o p and  t h i n k about i t ?  T: T h a t ' s , yes,  i t s t r u c t u r e s i t i n . That's  purpose of s t r u c t u r i n g i n an o p p o r t u n i t y ; r e q u i r e m e n t maybe, t o t o r e f l e c t on how  the  or i t ' s going  and what i s n ' t g o i n g w e l l and what i s g o i n g w e l l . ( I T-Nov.17) So,  Tom's purpose f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was  to provide  a  s t r u c t u r e w h i c h pushed t u t o r s t o l e a r n from t h e i r t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and  t h e r e b y develop as t u t o r s . T r a i n e r Feedback on  Tom  Journals  r e q u i r e d t u t o r s as p a r t of t h e i r j o b t o w r i t e weekly  journals. I n i t i a l l y ,  due  t o h i s heavy w o r k l o a d at the  of the semester, Tom  was  slow "to r e t u r n t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s  them. However, a f t e r t h r e e or f o u r weeks he r e t u r n e d  beginning to  a l l their  j o u r n a l s t o them w i t h feedback. A f t e r t h a t , he r e t u r n e d  tutors'  j o u r n a l s more q u i c k l y . The  feedback Tom  main t y p e s .  One  wrote on t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s was  of  four  type c o u l d be c a l l e d e n c o u r a g i n g comments. He  69 wrote t h i n g s such as "good i d e a "  (J-A-Nov.16),  Nov.15) and "you're a b s o l u t e l y r i g h t ! "  "yes!"  (J-B-  (J-B-Nov.15). T h i s  approach t o feedback has a l s o been employed by Anderson and J a r v i s  (19 93)  (1992) . Another type Tom used was p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s .  He wrote t h i n g s l i k e ,  "Did t h i s approach work w i t h him?" ( J - A -  Nov.16). He a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y r e s t a t e d what he u n d e r s t o o d from a t u t o r ' s w r i t i n g and asked i f t h a t was what t h e t u t o r meant. P r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s have a l s o been used by Pape and Smith  (1991)  and Newman (1988). A t h i r d type o f feedback was i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r example, when a t u t o r d e s c r i b e d a problem he had i n h e l p i n g a student,' Tom responded w i t h s t e p - b y - s t e p i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r how t o work t h r o u g h t h e problem. As v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s t y p e , Tom would sometimes r e f e r t u t o r s t o handouts he had g i v e n o r d i s c u s s i o n s they had had i n s t a f f meetings, o r he would ask t u t o r s t o p r o v i d e him w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t he c o u l d h e l p them. The f i n a l type c o u l d be c a l l e d drawing p r i n c i p l e s from e x p e r i e n c e . He would take what t u t o r s wrote and n o t e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h they had i m p l i e d but not s t a t e d . F o r example, when one t u t o r wrote about how a s t u d e n t ' s e n t h u s i a s m had made him f e e l , Tom responded, learning"  " M o t i v a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n  (J-B-Dec.7).  Tom's feedback was w r i t t e n on t h e j o u r n a l s w h i c h t u t o r s handed i n . He made e x t e n s i v e use o f margins, o f t e n u n d e r l i n i n g segments o f t h e j o u r n a l s and drawing arrows t o h i s comments on t h o s e segments.  H i s comments were b r i e f and c l e a r .  Tom gave t u t o r s feedback on' i s s u e s they r a i s e d i n t h e i r  70 j o u r n a l s i n two i s s u e s and  o t h e r ways. In meetings, he o f t e n brought  f o c u s e d on problems t h a t t u t o r s had  up  raised in their  j o u r n a l s . He used j o u r n a l s as data f o r h i s needs assessment of t u t o r s and p l a n n e d s t a f f meetings, i n p a r t , based on  those  needs. T h i s approach t o j o u r n a l feedback i s a l s o c i t e d Jarvis  (1992). Tom  also occasionally discussed  by  issues raised i n  j o u r n a l s w i t h t u t o r s on a one-to-one b a s i s . T h i s d i d not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and  I d i d not have access t o t h e s e  but o c c a s i o n a l l y t u t o r s r e p o r t e d an i s s u e w i t h Tom.  '  Tutor Perspectives B e f o r e Tom  to me  discussions,  t h a t they had  discussed  • on the Purpose of J o u r n a l  Writing  p r e s e n t e d the g u i d e l i n e s f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ,  the f o u r t u t o r s then w o r k i n g tended-to r e g a r d m a i n l y as a means of communication. Ann as  occur  journal writing  described  her  journals  "a d i a r y , l i k e a r u n n i n g commentary of what happened over  the week" (I-A-Nov.10). Ann g i v e Tom  also described  u s i n g her  to  "messages" (I-A-Oct.13). Sometimes t h e s e messages  c o n s i s t e d of comments from which she hoped Tom about how  journal  he might do t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y . She  don't want t o t r e a d on anybody's toes or h u r t f e e l i n g s so you  would t a k e h i n t s noted that anybody's  t r y t o suggest t h i n g s by say b e i n g  (I-A-Oct. 13). F e l i c i a d e s c r i b e d  diplomatic"  u s i n g her j o u r n a l t o ask Tom's  a d v i c e about t u t o r i n g i s s u e s she was  facing. Christopher  h i s e a r l y j o u r n a l s t o e x p l a i n t o Tom  what he saw  l i m i t a t i o n s and  "you  as  used  his  a b i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to t u t o r i n g .  T u t o r s a l s o used t h e i r j o u r n a l s at t h a t s t a g e t o c r e a t e  a  71 p o s i t i v e impression  on Tom, t h e i r new boss. K r i s t a  the purpose b e h i n d one j o u r n a l e n t r y ;  described  "I wanted him t o t h i n k  t h a t I'm a c t u a l l y t h i n k i n g about t h i n g s , l i k e , and I'm t r y i n g t o f i n d new ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s " u s i n g h e r j o u r n a l t o "cover"  (I-K-Oct.19).  h e r s e l f when she had n o t had time  t o do a l l t h e t a s k s which were p a r t o f h e r j o b Christopher  Ann r e p o r t e d  t r i e d t o make a good i m p r e s s i o n  (I-A-Oct.27).  by showing Tom t h a t  he e n j o y e d h i s j o b , t h a t he was g a i n i n g i n c o n f i d e n c e , he was a team p l a y e r . Other r e s e a r c h e r s  have a l s o  t h i s tendency t o t r y t o p l e a s e t h e t e a c h e r  and t h a t  identified  ( J a r v i s , 1992;  Anderson, 1993; Newman, 1988). W i t h i n a few weeks o f r e c e i v i n g t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g g u i d e l i n e s , t h e t u t o r s had"'changed t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s  on t h e  purpose o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . F e l i c i a ' s comment was t y p i c a l o f t h i s new u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; she s a i d : He asks us t o w r i t e s t u f f down i n o r d e r  t o t h i n k about i t  more. 'Cause i f you w r i t e i t down, y o u ' r e  obviously  t h i n k i n g about what happened.or how t o b e t t e r y o u r s e l f more when you're w r i t i n g i t down. O t h e r w i s e y o u wouldn't have t o t h i n k about i t , so I t h i n k he does i t i n t h a t aspect,  j u s t t o make us t h i n k more and t o b e t t e r o u r  a b i l i t y t o help people. Christopher  (I-F-Nov.16)  made a s i m i l a r comment but he a l s o found t h a t  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f a c i l i t a t e d communication between h i m and Tom. He n o t e d t h a t w r i t i n g down ideas was a good .way o f communicating w i t h Tom because " i t ' s not t o o good t o r e f l e c t  72  our f e e l i n g i n o r a l speech so b e t t e r w r i t e i t down and t h e n I t h i n k i t a v o i d s an e m b a r r a s s i n g environment"  (I-C-Nov.10).  C h r i s t o p h e r saw t h i s communicative purpose as an i m p o r t a n t byproduct of the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g task. K r i s t a seemed t o have some d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g Tom's purpose f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . She s a i d she had " t r i e d t o " use the g u i d e l i n e s i n w r i t i n g h e r j o u r n a l  (I-K-Nov.3). When asked  about t h e g u i d e l i n e s she c o u l d remember a few s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s b u t not t h e i r o v e r a l l t h r u s t . She s a i d she'd have t o r e f e r back t o them a g a i n when she d i d h e r next j o u r n a l . Two weeks l a t e r , she was s t i l l confused about t h e g u i d e l i n e s . I n the s t a f f meeting she complained t o Tom about always h a v i n g t o l o o k a t t h e n e g a t i v e o f what she d i d (M-Nov.16). I n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h me l a t e r t h a t day, she s a i d : K:...1 thought they [ j o u r n a l s ] had t o be ... j u s t about problems, t r y i n g t o f i n d a problem, t o make y o u r s e l f a b e t t e r t u t o r , l i k e t o always, um, have t o t h i n k about ways o f i m p r o v i n g y o u r s e l f , w h i c h i s good but  (pause)  J : I s t h a t what t h e purpose of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s ? K: Um, yeah, I t h i n k so....But I always thought i t was a n e g a t i v e way o f , l i k e today t h a t i t out f o r me when we were s a y i n g , about l i k e good t h i n g s  straightened  oh no y o u can t a l k  ... but then e x p l a i n why y o u  f e l t they were good ... i n s t e a d o f j u s t l i s t i n g  like  we used t o do, expanding on why you f e e l they work.  73 (I-K-Nov.16) The  new  t u t o r s , h i r e d i n e a r l y November, were g i v e n  the  g u i d e l i n e s f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and asked t o w r i t e j o u r n a l s . A f t e r w r i t i n g j o u r n a l s f o r s e v e r a l weeks, B i l l y saw  journal  w r i t i n g as h a v i n g two purposes. He r e p o r t e d t h a t Tom  wanted the  t u t o r s t o w r i t e "a k i n d of c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . . . so you so y o u ' r e c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g t o improve y o u r s e l f " A l t h o u g h t h i s was  the purpose Tom  had  (I-B-Nov.30).  stated for journal  w r i t i n g , B i l l y f e l t t h a t Tom's p r i m a r y purpose was where everyone i s " (I-B-Nov.30). He s a i d t h a t Tom j o u r n a l s " j u s t t o see what's g o i n g on,  so he has  what's g o i n g on so he can t r y and h e l p us out" B i l l y saw  c l e a r outcomes of t h i s use  m e e t i n g s . He s a i d , "he the j o u r n a l and  [Tom]  reflect,  "to  see  used  the  an i d e a of (I-B-Nov.30).  f o r j o u r n a l s i n the  staff  seems t o t a k e i n f o r m a t i o n out  j u s t k i n d of develop the meetings around them"  (I-B-Nov.30). Paul regarded j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as h a v i n g "a pronged purpose"  (I-P-Jan.27).  The  meetings and  u s e f u l both f o r r e f e r e n c e  He  in staff  someone t h a t put a c o m p l a i n t i n ...  would have some way  s a y i n g w e l l t h i s was  t h i s student.  against  us  of g o i n g back r a t h e r than j u s t  t r y i n g t o r e l y on memory, we'd and  to  f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . He s a i d ,  I f we had ...we  t h i r d purpose was  a r e c o r d of what happened i n t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s .  f e l t t h i s r e c o r d was  three-  f i r s t two purposes were  s i m i l a r t o those d e s c r i b e d by B i l l y . The maintain  of  have some way  of g o i n g back  the e n t r y t h a t I made c o n c e r n i n g  (I-P-Jan.27)  74 Eventually,  a l l of t h e t u t o r s came t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  Tom's s t a t e d purpose f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ; i n K r i s t a ' s case, however, t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g took time. I t must a l s o be n o t e d t h a t they r e c o g n i z e d o t h e r purposes f o r t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k w h i c h Tom d i d not s t a t e . Tutor Perspectives  on J o u r n a l  Feedback  When asked about t h e k i n d s o f feedback Tom gave, most t u t o r s i d e n t i f i e d a t l e a s t some o f t h e f o u r t y p e s o f feedback I o b s e r v e d on t u t o r j o u r n a l s . Most t u t o r s r e p o r t e d  t h a t Tom wrote  p o s i t i v e comments on t h e i r j o u r n a l s and responded t o t h e i r questions.  B i l l y , Ann and F e l i c i a a l s o n o t e d t h a t Tom w r o t e  p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s which made them t h i n k more about i s s u e s . Most tutors also pointed  out t h a t s t a f f meetings o f t e n  included  feedback on i s s u e s they had r a i s e d i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . K r i s t a n o t e d t h a t she o f t e n got o r a l feedback from Tom on h e r j o u r n a l s . However, t h i s d i d not appear t o o c c u r w i t h a l l tutors. The  tutors reported  As C h r i s t o p h e r  reported,  t h a t they, found Tom's feedback u s e f u l . "he's showing a p o s i t i v e way i n  r e a d i n g o u r j o u r n a l . . . he t r e a t s t h i s j o u r n a l and o u r f e e l i n g s very s e r i o u s l y " appreciated  (I-C-Oc't. 27) . B i l l y r e p o r t e d  t h a t he  b e n e f i t t i n g from Tom's e x p e r i e n c e . He s a i d , " I t ' s  j u s t a d i f f e r e n t view o f what I'm s a y i n g o r t h i n k i n g , so i t h e l p s j u s t t o see a d i f f e r e n t view and t o see what he t h i n k s . He's  been here a l o t l o n g e r than I have"  (I-B-Nov.23). He a l s o  n o t e d t h a t he found t h e p o s i t i v e comments good " r e i n f o r c e m e n t "  75  (I-B-Nov.23).  Ann r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e was p o t e n t i a l i n  f o l l o w i n g up on Tom's comments. On one o c c a s i o n she s a i d , " I was  t h i n k i n g t h a t I'm g o i n g t o focus my next j o u r n a l on  a n s w e r i n g h i s q u e s t i o n s and comments t h a t he p u t on, maybe go back and t a l k more about t h a t "  (I-A-Nov.10).  She d i d n o t ,  however, f o l l o w up on t h a t i d e a . C h r i s t o p h e r d i d f o l l o w up on one o f Tom's p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s by w r i t i n g a p a r a g r a p h i n h i s next j o u r n a l which attempted t o answer a q u e s t i o n Tom had posed. F e l i c i a noted t h a t Tom's q u e s t i o n s "help us t o a n a l y z e o u r s e l v e s more" . (I-F-Oct.24) . D e s p i t e t h e t u t o r s ' views o f t h e ;  u s e f u l n e s s o f Tom's feedback, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i n t e r v i e w s and j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e d l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f t h e impact of Tom's feedback; on t u t o r s '  thinking.  Near t h e end o f t h e semester, Ann made t h r e e s u g g e s t i o n s of t h e k i n d s o f feedback she thought would be more u s e f u l . She n o t e d " I t h i n k i f he gave me some n e g a t i v e comments about t h i n g s , some c r i t i c i s m , then t h a t would spur me on t o improve i n t h a t a r e a " (I-A-Nov.24).  R e s e a r c h e r s (McAlpine, 1992 ;  Newman, 1988) have a l s o suggested t h a t j o u r n a l feedback s h o u l d c h a l l e n g e t h e w r i t e r s ' assumptions. Another p r o b l e m she saw w i t h t h e feedback was t h a t t h e r e was "never any f o l l o w - u p t o t h a t feedback"  (I-A-Nov.24). She suggested t h a t she would g a i n  from d i s c u s s i n g t h e i s s u e s w i t h Tom o r w i t h t h e o t h e r t u t o r s . She a l s o n o t e d t h a t she would l i k e t h e t u t o r s t o r e a d each o t h e r s ' j o u r n a l s and w r i t e feedback on them. Newman employed t h i s s t r a t e g y w i t h s t u d e n t s i n h e r s t u d y .  (1988)  76 Because of the feedback they r e c e i v e d , F e l i c i a and  Krista  sometimes d e a l t w i t h i s s u e s i n o t h e r ways i n s t e a d of w r i t i n g about them i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . F e l i c i a p o i n t e d out t h a t o f t e n wrote questions i n her j o u r n a l . She way.  i n notes t o Tom  she  i n s t e a d of i n c l u d i n g them  found t h a t she got f a s t e r feedback t h a t  K r i s t a o f t e n spoke t o Tom  about i s s u e s she was  i n s t e a d of w r i t i n g about them i n her j o u r n a l . She  facing preferred  o r a l i n t e r a c t i o n to w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i o n . Tutor A t t i t u d e s to Journal  Writing  Most t u t o r s were v e r y p o s i t i v e ' about the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g experience.  Ann  e x p r e s s e d her p e r s p e c t i v e  semester i n her. j o u r n a l . She  at the end of  the  said:  I know that I have evolved  from a mediocre  tutor  pretty  this  I kept an open  good tutor.  mind, I was  willing  each experience. in  this  Christopher  evolution.  Mainly,  is because  to adapt, and I ... believe  I learned  my journal  to a  something has  from  assisted  me  (J-A-Dec.6)  a l s o regarded j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as b e n e f i c i a l because  of i t s impact over time. He i d e n t i f i e d j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as of the way and  ( s i c ) t o become a mature t u t o r " (I-C-Nov.10).  Paul reported  "one Billy  t h a t f o r them j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f u l f i l l e d i t s  purposes w e l l . Problems w i t h J o u r n a l  Writing  K r i s t a and F e l i c i a were l e s s c o n f i d e n t  about the v a l u e  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . A l t h o u g h they both d e s c r i b e d b e n e f i t s t h e y i n j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , they a l s o had  r e s e r v a t i o n s . Both made  of saw  77  negative  comments about t h e v a l u e o f i n d i v i d u a l j o u r n a l s they  had w r i t t e n . F o r example, K r i s t a s a i d about one j o u r n a l she had written,  " t h i s j o u r n a l i s dumb"  (I-K-Nov.16).  K r i s t a a s c r i b e d h e r r e s e r v a t i o n s about j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t o her l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e She  i n her a b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t i n w r i t i n g .  d i d not t h i n k w r i t i n g was a good way f o r h e r t o e x p l o r e  ideas. She  also repeatedly  expressed confusion  about t h e r o l e j o u r n a l  w r i t i n g took i n h e l p i n g h e r t h i n k about t u t o r i n g . She s a i d : I don't know i f i t ' s h a v i n g t o w r i t e t h e j o u r n a l o r if  i t ' s j u s t because, maybe i t ' s making me t h i n k more  a l o n g t h e l i n e s , maybe by making me do i t i t ' s making me t h i n k ... but I'm j u s t not r e a l i z i n g , do y o u know? t h a t i t ' s connected. L i k e , because I've had t o t h i n k about t h a t maybe i t ' s t h i s whole t h i n g l i k e maybe i t ' s not j u s t , maybe t h e j o u r n a l does promote i t b u t i t ' s j u s t everything  t h a t promotes l i k e t h i n k i n g o f  new i d e a s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . The j o u r n a l does, b u t t h a t ' s one a r e a t h a t h e l p s me t o t h i n k  and  meetings and j u s t concerns and concerns o f o t h e r p e o p l e and h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h i t . b a s i c a l l y and w a n t i n g t o h e l p t h e people and w a n t i n g t o g i v e them the b e s t t h a t you can and n o t . . . so I'm always t r y i n g to think.  (I-K-Oct.19)  F e l i c i a f e l t the pressure damaged h e r c o n f i d e n c e .  t o be a n a l y t i c i n j o u r n a l s  She d e s c r i b e d  t h e problem t h i s way:  78 It  [ j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ] puts p r e s s u r e on you t o keep  l e a r n i n g , keep a d v a n c i n g , you have t o keep f i n d i n g  new  ways t o f i g u r e out problems, l i k e I don't know, l i k e I t h i n k i t d e f i n i t e l y h e l p s but i f you're a n a l y z i n g a l l the t i m e , l i k e  u s u a l l y i n everyday l i f e  yourself  you're  a n a l y z i n g y o u r s e l f because you're d o i n g something wrong, you don't r e a l l y a n a l y z e the good as much as you do t h e bad, so i f you a n a l y z e y o u r s e l f , you see more of the problems, you see t h a t you have t o improve w h i c h i s good, but i t does, s e t the stage f o r f e e l i n g not as competent you p r o b a b l y would have  as  (I-F-Dec.7)  F e l i c i a f e l t h e r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was more v a l u a b l e t o h e r when i t was  s i m p l y r e p o r t i n g what she had done i n the week t h a n when  she a t t e m p t e d t o meet Tom's g o a l of more a n a l y t i c j o u r n a l s . I n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n she c o n t r a s t e d w r i t i n g a n a l y t i c j o u r n a l s f o r Tom w i t h w r i t i n g j o u r n a l s the p r e v i o u s y e a r : F: When I w r i t e about an appointment... l i k e  last  y e a r , r e p o r t i n g back t o you about what happened i n my appointments, I ' l l go through and I ' l l t h i n k  about  the appointments, and t h a t h e l p e d me t h i n k more about my  appointments...  J : Than when you're supposed t o be a n a l y z i n g  them?  F: Yeah ( w i t h f e e l i n g ) , d e f i n i t e l y , l i k e l a s t y e a r the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g h e l p e d me a l o t more, but t h i s y e a r we're not supposed t o r e p o r t on what happened i n our appointments, j u s t what worked, what d i d n ' t ,  the  79 t e c h n i q u e s and why, and I can't w r i t e about s t u f f l i k e t h a t , t h a t doesn't h e l p me as much. J : But g i v i n g an o v e r v i e w o f y o u r appointments s t a r t s you  t h i n k i n g about some t h i n g s ?  F: Yeah, i t does.  (I-F-Dec.7)  H a t t o n and Smith (1995) suggest t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g may increase  f e e l i n g s o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y i n j o u r n a l w r i t e r s . They  suggest t h a t , t h i s is e s p e c i a l l y ..likely • when t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i s not seen t o be w i t h t h e j o u r n a l w r i t e r . The p r o v i s i o n o f g u i d e l i n e s f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g may have caused Felicia  t o f e e l t h a t she had t o g i v e up c o n t r o l o f h e r j o u r n a l  writing. Ann  f e l t t h a t j o u r n a l writing,, was a v a l u a b l e  learning  t o o l , but she f e l t i t c o u l d have been more v a l u a b l e . She f r e q u e n t l y mentioned t h e i d e a t h a t j o u r n a l s would be more valuable  i f they were shared among.tutors. One r e a s o n f o r t h i s  was h e r c o n c e r n t h a t she d i d n ' t know i f h e r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was "off  base"  others  (I-A-Dec . 8) . •• She wanted t o see t h e j o u r n a l s o f  t o c o n f i r m t h a t she was d o i n g what was e x p e c t e d . Another  r e a s o n was t h a t she wanted access t o d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s t u t o r i n g . She thought s e e i n g t h e j o u r n a l s o f o t h e r s i n t r o d u c e h e r t o some new ways of l o o k i n g a t t h i n g s . the main p o i n t which Ann r e t u r n e d  on  would However,  t o a g a i n and a g a i n was h e r  d e s i r e t o share h e r own j o u r n a l w i t h o t h e r s . She saw t h i s as a way t o g e t feedback on h e r i d e a s and t o e n t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n about i s s u e s w i t h o t h e r t u t o r s . She s a i d , " i t would h e l p us a l l  80 be b e t t e r t u t o r s "  (I-A-Dec. 8 ) . Ann's s u g g e s t i o n was i n k e e p i n g  w i t h Mann (1994) who a s s e r t s t h a t an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f t u t o r t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be t o encourage t u t o r s t o share and discuss  tutoring strategies.  B e n e f i t s of Journal  Writing  A l l tutors described  some b e n e f i t s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g .  Many o f t h e s e b e n e f i t s r e l a t e d t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l . The t u t o r s f e l t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g h e l p e d them f o c u s on i s s u e s i n a way they might not have w i t h o u t t h e j o u r n a l s . P a u l and K r i s t a d e s c r i b e d providing  t h i s as t h e j o u r n a l  a " t r i g g e r " (I-P-Jan.27) o r "spark"  f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g . Tutors a l s o described helping  (I-K-Oct.19) f o r  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as  them c l a r i f y - t h e i r i d e a s . O f t e n w r i t i n g j o u r n a l s l e d  t u t o r s t o r e c o g n i z e new c o n n e c t i o n s between e x p e r i e n c e s . T u t o r s s u g g e s t e d j o u r n a l w r i t i n g a l s o had o t h e r b e n e f i t s : an opportunity  t o view the " g e s t a l t " of t u t o r i n g sessions  Nov.24); r e d u c t i o n  (I-P-  i n p l a n n i n g time ( I - C - O c t . 2 7 ) ; and  h e i g h t e n e d awareness of t u t o r l e a r n i n g  (I-F-Nov.2). B i l l y  noted  t h a t he thought j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was "an e x c e l l e n t t o o l f o r reflecting"  (I-B-Dec.7). He f e l t t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  requirement  " r e i n f o r c e d " t h e p r e s s u r e he a l r e a d y  p u t on h i m s e l f  t o improve h i s t u t o r i n g . He s a i d , " I f you don't t h i n k back, y o u ' r e not g o i n g t o improve r e a l l y . I f you don't t r y and see what y o u ' r e d o i n g wrong o r o r see what you're d o i n g r i g h t , y o u ' r e n o t g o i n g t o improve y o u r s e l f " A few t u t o r s a l s o mentioned  (I-B-Dec.7).  the b e n e f i t s of j o u r n a l  81 writing in facilitating Tom.  communication between themselves  and  K r i s t a r e g a r d e d j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a good forum f o r making  s u g g e s t i o n s t o Tom.  She  said:  Because I have the j o u r n a l t o w r i t e , I f e l t oh good, t h i s i s a great  time t o express those concerns and  i t down, h o p e f u l l y not i n a way or anything  but,  t h a t would upset him  t o express i t , yeah at the time,  t h i s on paper b e f o r e you  j u s t get  f o r g e t what y o u ' r e t h i n k i n g  (I-K-Ocf.19)  P a u l f e l t t h a t one b e n e f i t of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was e n a b l e d him work on  [Tom]  so I t h i n k t h a t r e a l l y h e l p e d , t o know I  would have a way  about.  t r y to w r i t e  the way  t o t e l l . T o m about problems t h a t they c o u l d  it  then  together.  A number of t u t o r s d e s c r i b e d a f f e c t i v e b e n e f i t s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . Although F e l i c i a f e l t that a n a l y t i c j o u r n a l w r i t i n g reduced her c o n f i d e n c e , b u i l t her c o n f i d e n c e . did  i n o t h e r ways she She  felt journal writing  s a i d , " i f you w r i t e i t down t h a t  a good j o b , y o u ' l l b e l i e v e you d i d a good j o b "  O c t . l l ) . Christopher Christopher  ability valued  (I-F-  Both F e l i c i a  f e l t t h a t s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was  tutor. Christopher confidence  f e l t the same way.  you  and  very important f o r a  explained h i s reasoning  t h i s way:  "self-  i s the most c r u c i a l f a c t o r t o d e t e r m i n e one's  t o s o l v e problems"  (I-C-Nov.24). Some t u t o r s a l s o  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as an o u t l e t f o r t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s . For  example, Ann  d e s c r i b e d u s i n g one  j o u r n a l as an o p p o r t u n i t y  " r e l e a s e a l i t t l e f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t I was  holding within. I  to  82 needed t o get  i t out  I guess"  (I-A-Oct.13). T h i s would seem t o  s u p p o r t M c A l p i n e ' s (1992) a s s e r t i o n t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g perform a c a t h a r t i c  function.  P a u l i d e n t i f i e d a v a l u e of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f o r him o t h e r t u t o r mentioned. He b e l i e v e d t h a t the purpose he had He  can  that  no  three-pronged  i d e n t i f i e d f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was  a valid  one.  said: I t h i n k i t [ j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ] i s p r o b a b l y the b e s t way do t h a t  [ f u l f i l those p u r p o s e s ] . T h i n k i n g about i t any  o t h e r way,would i n v o l v e the n e c e s s i t y out  to  forms and  in place.  of s o r t of  f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s and h a v i n g  filling  structures  I t h i n k t h i s [ j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ] a l l o w s you  a bit  of freedom and .I t h i n k i t does the j o b of k e e p i n g t h o s e three points  i n focus.  (I-P-Jan.27)  Thus, f o r P a u l , j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y needs of r e f l e c t i o n , communication and maintaining  record keeping  some freedom of c h o i c e i n how  t o meet while  those needs s h o u l d  be  met. Most t u t o r s a l s o , s a w v a l u e i n j o u r n a l w r i t i n g beyond i t s d i r e c t impact on t h e i r t h i n k i n g about i s s u e s they w r o t e about. Some t u t o r s n o t e d t h a t they thought a g r e a t d e a l more about t h e i r t u t o r i n g i n the p r o c e s s of w r i t i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l s was this  evident i n t h e i r w r i t t e n products. Christopher  than  described  it  way: W h i l e I'm during  w r i t i n g the j o u r n a l , i t ' s a f i l t e r i n g  the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s I may  process...  t h i n k more than what  83 I've  w r i t t e n down... I mean t h e t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s  the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e a c t u a l  during journal.  (I-C-Dec.8) B i l l y a l s o n o t e d t h a t w r i t i n g h i s j o u r n a l caused him t o r e v i e w his  whole week o f t u t o r i n g and t h a t t h i s l e d t o more r e f l e c t i o n  than what he a c t u a l l y wrote i n h i s j o u r n a l . Ann n o t e d  that  w r i t i n g h e r j o u r n a l encouraged h e r t o t h i n k about h e r i d e a s a f t e r t h e w r i t i n g was complete; sometimes t h i s f u r t h e r  thinking  was i n a r e a s not touched on i n t h e j o u r n a l . Paul noted that j o u r n a l w r i t i n g created  a record of  e x p e r i e n c e s and t h a t t h e r e c o r d a l l o w e d f o r l a t e r r e a d i n g and r e f l e c t i o n . Ann found that' r e - r e a d i n g  o l d j o u r n a l s had l e d h e r  t o i m p o r t a n t new u n d e r s t a n d i n g s ; these u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  included  r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e improvement she had made i n h e r t u t o r i n g o v e r time and r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e importance o f r e a d i n g  skills  i n b e i n g an e f f e c t i v e w r i t e r . Paul and Ann were t h e o n l y who r e p o r t e d  tutors  h a v i n g r e - r e a d j o u r n a l s they had w r i t t e n i n t h e  past. Christopher  and F e l i c i a both'noted t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  s e t a tone f o r w o r k i n g i n t h e c e n t r e t h a t v a l u e d ongoing l e a r n i n g . When asked about whether he would do h i s j o b d i f f e r e n t l y i f i t d i d not i n c l u d e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ,  Christopher  replied: I t would be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g g i v e me a deeper thought, a deeper t h i n k i n g i n my work a t t i t u d e i n general,  but w i t h o u t w r i t i n g j o u r n a l I w i l l , yeah you  84 might say, I w i l l be q u i t e absent-minded about what happens around us, I mean t h e w o r k i n g environment... I won't concern so much about i t , j u s t f i n i s h day by day okay w i l l be f i n e .  (I-C-Dec.8)  F e l i c i a a l s o f e l t t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g encouraged an atmosphere v a l u i n g ongoing l e a r n i n g f o r c e n t r e s t a f f . However, as n o t e d above, t h i s was a double-edged sword. She f e l t t h a t i t encouraged h e r t o s t r i v e f o r improvement i n h e r t u t o r i n g abilities  b u t t h a t i t a l s o sometimes made h e r f e e l l i k e she was  on a t r e a d m i l l - t h a t was g o i n g a l i t t l e t o o f a s t . Because she didn't  improve h e r t u t o r i n g as much as she f e l t she s h o u l d , i t  reduced h e r c o n f i d e n c e . .  -  I n summary, a l t h o u g h most t u t o r s f e l t j o u r n a l s were v e r y b e n e f i c i a l , two t u t o r s e x p r e s s e d concerns about t h e i r usefulness.  These concerns focused on d i s c o m f o r t  r e f l e c t i v e w r i t i n g and d e t r i m e n t a l confidence.  e f f e c t s on t u t o r  D e s p i t e these concerns, a l l t u t o r s  t h e m s e l v e s as h a v i n g b e n e f i t e d  with self-  described  from j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . The  b e n e f i t s c i t e d by t u t o r s i n c l u d e d i n c r e a s e d  r e f l e c t i o n on  t u t o r i n g and t u t o r l e a r n i n g / improved communication w i t h Tom, a f f e c t i v e b e n e f i t s , freedom t o choose i s s u e s and f o r m a t s f o r r e f l e c t i o n , and c r e a t i o n o f an atmosphere v a l u i n g o n g o i n g l e a r n i n g of centre  staff.  E f f e c t s o f t h e Research Process on T u t o r A t t i t u d e s t o Journal  Writing  T u t o r s suggested t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t I was s t u d y i n g  their  85  j o u r n a l s i n c r e a s e d the importance of the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k . As B i l l y s a i d , "Just the f a c t t h a t you're d o i n g t h i s [ i n t e r v i e w i n g t u t o r s about t h e i r j o u r n a l s ] , k i n d of j u s t r e i n f o r c e s the j o u r n a l s ' , um,  importance or u s e f u l n e s s ,  j u s t t o us, but even t o you"  ( I - B - D e c . 7 ) . E a r l y i n the  not  f o l l o w i n g semester, Paul echoed B i l l y ' s s e n t i m e n t , n o t i n g j o u r n a l s d i d n ' t seem as important anymore because I was longer studying The  that  no  them.  importance g i v e n to j o u r n a l w r i t i n g by the  p r o c e s s had a n e g a t i v e  e f f e c t f o r F e l i c i a . We  research  discussed  i t as  follows: F: I t h i n k about my  t u t o r i n g more now  than I d i d l a s t  semester when you weren't t a l k i n g t o me l i k e when you weren't d o i n g i t , w r o t e i n my  about my  journals,  i t d i d n ' t m a t t e r what I  j o u r n a l s / I d i d n ' t t h i n k about i t as much and  t h e r e f o r e I c o u l d w r i t e about  anything.  J : You weren't g o i n g t o have t o face i t i n p u b l i c a g a i n ? F: E x a c t l y , but now b i t more, now  when t h e y ' r e b e i n g a n a l y z e d  i t ' s r e a l l y hard t o w r i t e about  a  little  anything.  L i k e t h a t , a l o n g w i t h d o i n g the same t h i n g over and again why  f o r the p a s t y e a r ,  a l l t h a t combines i n t o ,  over  that's  I haven't been a b l e t o w r i t e many j o u r n a l s . . . ( I - F -  Dec.7)  However, F e l i c i a seemed w i l l i n g to d i s c u s s some d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s w i t h me  i n the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n t h a t she  was  r e l u c t a n t t o w r i t e about i n her j o u r n a l . For example, she  told  86 me about a s i t u a t i o n i n which she f e l t v e r y b a d l y about the poor grade a s t u d e n t was g i v e n on a paper she had h e l p e d w i t h . F e l i c i a e x p r e s s e d g r e a t a n x i e t y about Tom  f i n d i n g out about  what had happened. I n the i n t e r v i e w , we d i s c u s s e d the reasons t h e s t u d e n t might have got a poor grade and the l i m i t s of F e l i c i a ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t (I-F-Oct.24). In the f o l l o w i n g s t a f f meeting, she brought up the s i t u a t i o n and t o l d  everyone  about what had happened and how she had f e l t - (M-Oct.26).  The  i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s seemed t o have g i v e n her more c o n f i d e n c e about r e v e a l i n g the problem she had faced.' When t u t o r s d e s c r i b e d problems they had w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n p e r s o n a l terms, I t r i e d t o h e l p them r e a c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e • s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g them. T h i s happened most o f t e n w i t h F e l i c i a . I n one i n t e r v i e w , I suggested: You have t o l o o k " a t the s i t u a t i o n , l i k e I t h i n k I wouldn't t a k e i t v e r y p e r s o n a l l y , t h a t t h i s i s some g r e a t f l a w i n you t h a t you can't w r i t e t h i s j o u r n a l , r i g h t ? I t sounds l i k e t h e r e a r e a number of f a c t o r s t h a t have made i t difficult  f o r you t o w r i t e a j o u r n a l , not t h a t you a r e  somehow d e f e c t i v e , r i g h t ? But r a t h e r t h a t t h e s e f a c t o r s , w h i c h i s what I'm t r y i n g t o understand, what t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e , you know? (I-F-Dec.7) As a r e s u l t , she would t a l k t o me about such f a c t o r s .  My  purpose i n t a k i n g t h i s approach was d i r e c t l y t i e d t o my g o a l of making t h e r e s e a r c h emancipatory. I f e l t i f t u t o r s u n d e r s t o o d  87  the e f f e c t s of s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s i n the s i t u a t i o n on  their  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , they would f e e l l e s s p e r s o n a l l y at f a u l t when t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g d i d not meet t h e i r own  or  others'  expectations. T r a i n e r P e r c e p t i o n of T u t o r A t t i t u d e s t o J o u r n a l Tom  Writing  f e l t t h a t t u t o r s u n d e r - v a l u e d j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . We  discussed  i t this  T: The  way:  d i f f i c u l t y i s i n g e t t i n g tutors to  appreciate  the f a c t t h a t i t ' s a u s e f u l a c t i v i t y r a t h e r t h a n j u s t something they have t o do f o r J : Why  do you  me.  say t h a t ? Have you  found p e o p l e  r e l u c t a n t t o do them [ j o u r n a l s ] ? T: Yeah, t h e y ' r e . t o o and  busy and.comments from K r i s t a  F e l i c i a t h a t they can't t h i n k of a n y t h i n g  w r i t e and  to  f r o m . K r i s t a s a y i n g t h a t she j u s t doesn't  l i k e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , and t h a t makes me  realize  that  to a l a r g e extent  t h e y ' r e d o i n g i t o n l y because I  want them t o . And  so they see i t as an assignment  t h a t b e n e f i t s me but they don't q u i t e see how b e n e f i t s them, or they haven't a l l o w e d t h i n k about t h a t . The  it  themselves t o  (I-T-Dec.l) J o u r n a l W r i t i n g Process  T u t o r s wrote t h e i r  j o u r n a l s under v a r i e d c o n d i t i o n s . Some  t u t o r s w r o t e t h e i r j o u r n a l s on t h e i r work time whereas o t h e r s d i d them on t h e i r own  time. Ann  and Paul d i d t h e i r j o u r n a l s a t home.  C h r i s t o p h e r g e n e r a l l y planned h i s j o u r n a l at home and composed i t  88 on  a  computer  i n the  learning  centre  outside  of  his  working  h o u r s . For P a u l , d o i n g h i s j o u r n a l i n the evenings at home seemed to  f i t with  Christopher there  was  properly. during  h i s previous  habits  s a i d they worked on not  of  time  d i f f e r e n t ways. B i l l y  o f t e n and when he was managed t o f i n d much  to  do  them  journals  reported  of  i t seemed t o a f f e c t them  t h a t he  was  not  interrupted  i t d i d n ' t seem t o be a problem. K r i s t a a l s o  quiet  interruption.  interrupted  work  They e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f e r e n t amounts  i n t e r r u p t i o n w h i l e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and in  at  F e l i c i a . a n d K r i s t a usually did, t h e i r  t h e i r work time.  and  t h e i r j o u r n a l s at home because  enough u n i n t e r r u p t e d  Billy,  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . Ann  times t o w r i t e her Felicia,  constantly  and  journals  however, . found that  this  and  that  adversely  avoided she  was  affected  her  journal writing. T u t o r s spent between h a l f an hour and writing  their  journals.  Billy  spent  only  two  hours each week  about  half  an  hour  w o r k i n g on h i s j o u r n a l s , w h i l e F e l i c i a spent about an hour, K r i s t a and Ann t h a t much of  spent an hour to-an hour and a h a l f . K r i s t a n o t e d t h a t time was  w r i t e about. C h r i s t o p h e r  spent t r y i n g t o t h i n k of  spent one  t o two  things  hours w o r k i n g on  j o u r n a l each week. Paul d e a l t w i t h h i s j o u r n a l s d i f f e r e n t l y . would spend some time a f t e r each s h i f t he worked i n the w r i t i n g up h i s j o u r n a l f o r t h a t s h i f t . The Paul's  and  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r o c e s s was  to his He  centre  time he spent v a r i e d .  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t  of  the o t h e r t u t o r s . On each of h i s work s h i f t s he would make notes of s t u d e n t s he worked w i t h , i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r names and a few  key  89 words t o h e l p him remember what they d i d t o g e t h e r . I n t h e e v e n i n g at  home, he would use t h e s e notes t o w r i t e up h i s j o u r n a l f o r  that  shift.  Unlike  the  other  tutors,  he  wrote  about  every  t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n he had w i t h a s t u d e n t . The o t h e r t u t o r s were more s e l e c t i v e about t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e i r j o u r n a l s . B i l l y , C h r i s t o p h e r , F e l i c i a and Ann used v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s t o r e v i e w the s e s s i o n s they had had d u r i n g t h e week. Felicia  would r e v i e w the appointment book t o remind h e r s e l f of  the  s e s s i o n s she had had over the week. Ann would o f t e n n o t e down  all  t h e s t u d e n t s she had worked w i t h d u r i n g t h e week and make a  few n o t e s on each. Then she would choose one o r a few t o w r i t e about. C h r i s t o p h e r and B i l l y would, as B i l l y put i t , "run a l l the e v e n t s t h r o u g h y o u r head, j u s t t h i n k i n g about them"  (I-B-Dec.7).  A d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two was t h a t C h r i s t o p h e r would do i t a day o r two p r i o r t o a c t u a l l y w r i t i n g the j o u r n a l whereas  Billy  would do i t when he s a t down t o w r i t e the j o u r n a l . C h r i s t o p h e r and Ann o f t e n d i d a l o t of p l a n n i n g f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . C h r i s t o p h e r would spend a day or two m u l l i n g o v e r what to w r i t e . He would d e v e l o p an o u t l i n e , sometimes i n h i s head and sometimes  on  figuring  out  paper. how  Chinese-English  Part  to write  of  h i s planning  h i s ideas  and  was avoid  geared  toward  "Chenglish",  (I-C-Nov.10). Ann would keep a r u n n i n g l i s t  s t u d e n t s she worked w i t h and then a day o r two b e f o r e  of  journal  w r i t i n g would s t a r t t o p l a n the j o u r n a l . Sometimes she w r o t e an o u t l i n e . O f t e n , whether o r not she wrote an o u t l i n e ,  she would  have h e r j o u r n a l p l a n n e d i n some d e t a i l b e f o r e a c t u a l l y  sitting  90  down t o w r i t e i t . At o t h e r times when she had no p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e she wanted t o w r i t e about, she d i d much l e s s p l a n n i n g . Krista, writing,  and sometimes Ann, would j u s t  one t h i n g l e a d i n g t o another.  s i t down and s t a r t  Ann a l s o ,  particularly  near t h e end o f t h e semester, would s i m p l y s t a r t w r i t i n g something process  " i n the f o r e - f r o n t "  of w r i t i n g  other  o f h e r mind  issues  "would  (I-A-Nov.3). come  about In the  t o mind" ( I - A -  Nov.24). I n these s i t u a t i o n s she. would o f t e n see t h e c o n n e c t i o n between one i d e a and t h e next as o f importance i n t h e development of h e r t h i n k i n g . C h r i s t o p h e r and Ann, d e s p i t e sometimes e l a b o r a t e p l a n n i n g , would  often  modify  their  ideas  had d e c i d e d  while  actually  writing  their  journals.  Once B i l l y  what t o w r i t e about he would  "scribble  o u t " t h e j o u r n a l (I-B-Nov.23). He would e x p l o r e t h e  i s s u e s he had chosen t o w r i t e about w h i l e w r i t i n g . F o r example, he r e p o r t e d ,  " I knew t h e t h i n g I was g o i n g  hadn't thought about what I was g o i n g  t o t a l k about b u t I  to gain  from i t "  (I-B-  Nov.16). P a u l d e s c r i b e d w r i t i n g w i t h a "stream o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " approach  ( I - P - J a n . 27) , m a i n l y  f o c u s i n g on what he d i d w i t h h i s  students. The e d i t i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t u t o r s a l s o v a r i e d w i d e l y . K r i s t a , B i l l y and F e l i c i a d i d l i t t l e e d i t i n g . C h r i s t o p h e r and Ann e d i t e d for  c l a r i t y . P a u l p r o o f r e a d h i s j o u r n a l s c a r e f u l l y and r e f l e c t e d  on t h e i r c o n t e n t s as he d i d so.  91 S e c t i o n Four: Contents of Tutor  Journals  I n S e c t i o n s Four and F i v e , I d e s c r i b e what t u t o r s w r o t e about i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s , t h e focus of my second  research  q u e s t i o n . S e c t i o n Four focuses on t h e content o f t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s and S e c t i o n F i v e d e s c r i b e s l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i v i t y i n the j o u r n a l s . In t h i s s e c t i o n , I f i r s t describe content  categories i n  t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s and i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r c h o i c e s o f what t o w r i t e about i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . Next, I d i s c u s s t h e e f f e c t s of t h e r e s e a r c h process  on t u t o r s ' content  choices. F i n a l l y , I  d e s c r i b e t h e t r a i n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t u t o r s ' choices of content  for.their journals. ' Content  Categories  I used a c o n s t a n t - c o m p a r a t i v e  method ( G l a s e r & S t r a u s s ,  1967) t o d e v e l o p c a t e g o r i e s f o r t h e c o n t e n t s of., t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s . F i g u r e 1 shows t h e c a t e g o r i e s which t u t o r s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . The numbers i n t h e c h a r t r e p r e s e n t  a ranking  of t h e r e l a t i v e amounts of t u t o r j o u r n a l s f o c u s e d on t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . F o r example, Ann d i s c u s s e d 10 d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . The number "1" under "A" i n t h e f i g u r e s i g n i f i e s t h a t she spent more of h e r j o u r n a l s d i s c u s s i n g w r i t i n g t u t o r i n g than she spent on any o t h e r c a t e g o r y . The number "10" s i g n i f i e s t h a t she devoted l e s s of h e r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t o d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s o f student m o t i v a t i o n than she devoted t o any o t h e r category.  92  F i g u r e 1: Content C a t e g o r i e s i n Tutor  Journals  A  B  C  F  K  p  1  3  7  1  1  1  2  2  3  2  2  6  4  8  4  4  3  4  1  1  X  8  2  8  5  6  X  5  7  3  -7  10  3  X  8  S t a f f Meetings  X  9  11  9  X  4  Journal Writing  5  X  X  7  6  10  E f f e c t on S e l f of T u t o r i n g  X  6  4  X  X  5  Computer T u t o r i n g  9  X  5  5  X  11  C e n t r e Role & P o l i c y  X  X  9  X  9  X  Personal  X  8  X  8  7  X  X  6  3  X  Writing  Tutoring  S e l f Assessment as  Tutor  Student M o t i v a t i o n R o l e of  Tutors  Study S k i l l s The  •10  Tutoring  Job  '  '  Operations  7  Language L e a r n i n g  X  X  .2  X  X  X  Reading T u t o r i n g ,  6  X  X  X  X  X  College  X  X  X  X  X  9  Centre  Policy  . x- •  (Numbers r e p r e s e n t a r a n k i n g of the r e l a t i v e amounts of j o u r n a l s spent d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s i n the c a t e g o r y ; x = not p r e s e n t )  Below, I d i s c u s s the types of i s s u e s t u t o r s d i s c u s s e d i n each of the c a t e g o r i e s . W r i t i n g t u t o r i n g . In t h i s c a t e g o r y , discussed techniques  t u t o r s mainly  f o r t u t o r i n g w r i t i n g , assessment of needs  93 and  p r o g r e s s i n w r i t i n g , a f f e c t i v e responses of themselves  t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o w r i t i n g t u t o r i n g , and  problems u n d e r l y i n g  d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h w r i t i n g . T h i s c a t e g o r y r e p r e s e n t s the portion  and  largest  of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f o r most t u t o r s . C h r i s t o p h e r d i d  w r i t e a g r e a t d e a l about t u t o r i n g w r i t i n g , l a r g e l y because d i d l i t t l e w r i t i n g t u t o r i n g . Some'of what l i t t l e he d i d on the  s u b j e c t was  meetings r a t h e r  write  than i n response to t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e . K r i s t a  t h a t she had  s t u d e n t on a paper or  met  w i t h a student and  simply  worked w i t h  the  exercise.  S e l f - a s s e s s m e n t as t u t o r . In t h i s c a t e g o r y , a s s e s s e d t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and  tutors  l i m i t a t i o n s , described t h e i r  a f f e c t i v e responses to success or f a i l u r e i n t u t o r i n g , i d e n t i f i e d techniques for learning c a t e g o r y was  he  c l e a r l y i n response to a c t i v i t i e s i n s t a f f  w r o t e q u i t e a l o t about w r i t i n g but most of t h i s was reporting  not  tutoring s k i l l s .  w r i t t e n about a l o t by a l l t u t o r s but  and  This Paul.  Student m o t i v a t i o n . T u t o r s wrote about a t t e n d a n c e , causes of l a c k , o f  a t t e n d a n c e , e f f e c t s o f h i g h and  t u t o r i n g , and  low m o t i v a t i o n  on  t e c h n i q u e s f o r f o s t e r i n g m o t i v a t i o n . T h i s was  i m p o r t a n t f o c u s f o r B i l l y , F e l i c i a , K r i s t a and C h r i s t o p h e r and  Ann  put  Paul,  an  but  l i t t l e emphasis on t h i s a r e a .  R o l e of t u t o r s . T u t o r s d e s c r i b e d a s p e c t s of good t u t o r i n g , the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the t u t o r i n g r o l e to more f a m i l i a r r o l e s ,  and  issues  of peer r e l a t i o n s . F e l i c i a and  K r i s t a , two  more e x p e r i e n c e d t u t o r s , d i s c u s s e d the i s s u e of t u t o r l i t t l e or not  at a l l . However, Ann,  of  the  role  the o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e d  94  t u t o r , devoted a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of her j o u r n a l s t o d e s c r i b i n g a s p e c t s of good t u t o r i n g . Study s k i l l s t u t o r i n g . T u t o r s wrote about t e c h n i q u e s f o r t u t o r i n g s t u d y s k i l l s , assessment  of s t u d e n t needs and p r o g r e s s  i n t h e s t u d y s k i l l s a r e a , causes of study s k i l l s problems, s t u d y s k i l l s as a problem u n d e r l y i n g w r i t i n g F e l i c i a d i d not w r i t e about"study s k i l l s  difficulties.  tutoring.  The j o b . T u t o r s d i s c u s s e d how busy the c e n t r e was they f e l t  and  and  how  about the j o b . Busyness was o f t e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h e  opening l i n e s of the j o u r n a l s and' s e r v e d as a k i n d of i n t r o d u c t i o n . Ann and F e l i c i a , of  those t u t o r s l e a v i n g a t t h e end  the semester, devoted a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of t h e i r  j o u r n a l s t o d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b and t h e i r f e e l i n g s about l e a v i n g the j o b . S t a f f meetings. Most t u t o r s wrote l i t t l e i f a n y t h i n g about the  s t a f f m e e t i n g s . P a u l was the e x c e p t i o n . I n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s  more log-book approach t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , he'mentioned  every  meeting, o f t e n summarizing what happened i n the. m e e t i n g  and  e x p r e s s i n g o p i n i o n s about t h i n g s t h a t went on. A few o t h e r t u t o r s a l s o mentioned the s t a f f meetings. T h e i r main f o c i were the  b e n e f i t s of the meetings and of the t e c h n i q u e s s u g g e s t e d i n  the  meetings. J o u r n a l w r i t i n g . Some t u t o r s d e s c r i b e d problems t h e y f a c e d  i n w r i t i n g j o u r n a l s , m a i n l y the d i f f i c u l t y  of coming up w i t h  t h i n g s t o w r i t e about. The t u t o r s who d i d t h i s were Ann, and F e l i c i a ,  t h o s e who had been w r i t i n g l e a r n i n g c e n t r e  Krista  95  j o u r n a l s f o r t h e l o n g e s t time. Paul and K r i s t a made comments about t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r j o u r n a l s , and Ann d i s c u s s e d t h e b e n e f i t s and p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . E f f e c t on s e l f o f t u t o r i n g . T u t o r s d e s c r i b e d l e a r n i n g i n a number o f areas w i t h a focus on t h e e f f e c t s o f t u t o r i n g on t h e i r own p e r s o n a l knowledge and s k i l l s : skills,  l e a r n i n g o f academic  l e a r n i n g o f language, l e a r n i n g o f c o n t e n t , and l e a r n i n g  about t h e c o l l e g e . K r i s t a , F e l i c i a and Ann, experienced  t h e most  t u t o r s , d i d not w r i t e a n y t h i n g i n t h i s  category.  Computer t u t o r i n g . D i s c u s s i o n s o f computer t u t o r i n g by C h r i s t o p h e r and F e l i c i a m a i n l y focused on t h e i r own and t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' a f f e c t i v e responses t o . t h e i r computer t u t o r i n g . Ann d i s c u s s e d equipment problems and needs assessment.  Although  K r i s t a , F e l i c i a and C h r i s t o p h e r a l l conducted word p r o c e s s i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n s on a weekly b a s i s , K r i s t a d i d n o t d i s c u s s t h i s a c t i v i t y i n her journals. C e n t r e p o l i c y . K r i s t a and C h r i s t o p h e r b o t h  briefly  d i s c u s s e d problems they had i n c a r r y i n g out s p e c i f i c  centre  p o l i c i e s . W i t h C h r i s t o p h e r , t h i s took t h e form o f q u e s t i o n i n g the p o l i c y . P e r s o n a l . K r i s t a f r e q u e n t l y began o r ended h e r j o u r n a l s by mentioning  p e r s o n a l i s s u e s . I n some cases, she d e s c r i b e d i s s u e s  of i m p o r t a n c e t o h e r s e l f such as v i s i t s home on t h e weekend. I n o t h e r c a s e s , she focused on Tom, h e r r e a d e r . F o r example, she w i s h e d h i m w e l l over t h e h o l i d a y s . T h i s p e r s o n a l focus may be the r e s u l t o f t h e format K r i s t a chose f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . She  96  w r o t e h e r j o u r n a l s i n t h e form o f l e t t e r s t o Tom. Billy  F e l i c i a and  a l s o mentioned p e r s o n a l i s s u e s ; however, t h e i r  d i s c u s s i o n s were more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t u t o r i n g . F o r example, F e l i c i a d e s c r i b e d h e r s t r e s s f u l weekend and r e l a t e d i t t o h e r t u t o r i n g on Monday. C e n t r e o p e r a t i o n s . E a r l y i n t h e semester, K r i s t a , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t Ann, d i s c u s s e d s c h e d u l i n g i s s u e s . F e l i c i a w r o t e one  l o n g segment about an upset student who had m i s t a k e n l y  thought t h a t t h e c e n t r e would c o n t a c t h e r t o make an appointment. Language l e a r n i n g . C h r i s t o p h e r , ' t h e o n l y member o f t h e s t a f f who d i d n o t speak E n g l i s h as a f i r s t  language, d e v o t e d  much o f h i s j o u r n a l s t o i s s u e s o f how people  l e a r n language and  how language s h o u l d be taught. No o t h e r t u t o r s d i s c u s s e d  this  issue. Reading t u t o r i n g . A l t h o u g h  few student's were r e f e r r e d t o  the c e n t r e f o r h e l p w i t h r e a d i n g s k i l l s , Ann f e l t  t h a t many o f  s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g problems were caused by r e a d i n g problems. As a r e s u l t , she devoted some o f h e r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t o d i s c u s s i n g techniques reading  f o r t u t o r i n g r e a d i n g . No o t h e r t u t o r s w r o t e about  tutoring.  C o l l e g e p o l i c y . I n one j o u r n a l , P a u l d i s c u s s e d t h e c o l l e g e ' s p o l i c y o f open access t o c o u r s e s . He concern  expressed  about t h e p e r c e i v e d d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f t h i s  policy  on s t u d e n t s , i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e community a t l a r g e . No o t h e r tutors discussed college policy.  97  C h o i c e of What t o W r i t e About K r i s t a r e p o r t e d e a r l y i n the semester t h a t " b a s i c a l l y f o r me  the j o u r n a l r e c o u n t s  e v e r y t h i n g I've done"  (I-K-Oct.12).  However, a f t e r r e c e i v i n g the g u i d e l i n e s t u t o r s a t t e m p t e d t o meet Tom's e x p e c t a t i o n s . As C h r i s t o p h e r r e p o r t e d ,  "you  can  w r i t e about problems you have or about what you've l e a r n e d d u r i n g the week" (I-C-Nov.24).. A f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of g u i d e l i n e s , t u t o r s chose e x p e r i e n c e s experiences  d u r i n g the week. The  the  t o w r i t e about from t h e i r  e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s was  Paul  who  t h r o u g h o u t the study wrote about a l l h i s t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s . However, he chose t o r e f l e c t more about some s e s s i o n s  than  about o t h e r s . The  t u t o r s t y p i c a l l y chose t o w r i t e about i s s u e s t h a t were  "foremost"  i n t h e i r minds (I-A-Nov.3) or "stuck out"  Nov.23). C h r i s t o p h e r noted t h a t the c e n t r e was  (I-B-  so busy i t was  h a r d t o remember i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . As a r e s u l t he w r o t e about the s t u d e n t s he c o u l d remember. T u t o r s d e s c r i b e d a number of f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d make a t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s t i c k o u t . important  f a c t o r was  time. G e n e r a l l y t u t o r s would w r i t e about  more r e c e n t t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s remembered. Another f a c t o r was  because they were most e a s i l y  their f a m i l i a r i t y with a  s t u d e n t . T u t o r s would w r i t e about s t u d e n t s  they saw  o r w i t h whom they shared a common bond. C h r i s t o p h e r , example, n o t e d t h a t one she shared  One  student was  frequently for  memorable because he  and  the same c u l t u r a l background. A t h i r d f a c t o r was  degree of d i f f i c u l t y they e x p e r i e n c e d  i n a tutoring session.  the  98  Both B i l l y and Ann  noted t h a t they were more l i k e l y t o w r i t e  about s e s s i o n s t h e y - f o u n d c h a l l e n g i n g . K r i s t a n o t e d t h a t  she  would o f t e n w r i t e about new  the  s t u d e n t s . Another f a c t o r was  a f f e c t i v e impact of a t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n . T u t o r s choosing  described  t o w r i t e about s e s s i o n s they enjoyed. They a l s o chose  t o w r i t e about s e s s i o n s w i t h students who  showed t h e i r  a p p r e c i a t i o n , seemed d e s p e r a t e f o r h e l p or were  emotionally  distressed. T u t o r s a l s o d e s c r i b e d o t h e r reasons f o r w r i t i n g about s p e c i f i c i s s u e s or t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s . C h r i s t o p h e r o f t e n w r o t e about s e s s i o n s or i s s u e s because he had w r i t t e n about them b e f o r e . T h i s was  i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o most t u t o r s , as we  see l a t e r . C h r i s t o p h e r had a sense of needing t o  will  maintain  c o n t i n u i t y i n h i s j o u r n a l s f o r the r e a d e r s ' b e n e f i t , b o t h mine and Tom's, and thus, i n p a r t , t h i s i s an e f f e c t of the process.  Christopher  research  f e l t he s h o u l d w r i t e t h i n g s t h a t I  was  i n t e r e s t e d i n . ' B e c a u s e . I had been i n t e r e s t e d i n what he  had  w r i t t e n i n the. p a s t , he f e l t he s h o u l d f o l l o w up on  those  issues.  F e l i c i a suggested another f a c t o r she employed i n  choosing  what t o w r i t e about i n her journal.- She w r o t e about  t h i n g s she found e a s i e s t t o w r i t e about. She  s a i d , "I f i n d i t  e a s i e r t o t a l k about the good t h i n g s and how  I build  confidence,  my  i t ' s a l o t e a s i e r to w r i t e about than i t i s t o  w r i t e about how  I h e l p e d a student,  the t e c h n i q u e s  I used" ( I -  F - D e c . 7 ) . C o n t r i b u t i n g t o F e l i c i a ' s emphasis on w r i t i n g about p o s i t i v e t h i n g s was  her concern about Tom's a t t i t u d e towards  99  her.  E a r l y i n t h e semester we had t h i s  conversation:  J : Do you f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e about t e l l i n g him [Tom] t h e r e a l honest t r u t h o r do you sometimes f e e l l i k e you k i n d of want t o put y o u r best f o o t f o r w a r d , i f you know what I mean? F: I t h i n k i t ' s more l i k e I , i t ' s not t h a t I don't f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e , l i k e i t took a w h i l e w i t h you... J u s t l i k e w i t h you t h e f i r s t semester i s k i n d o f iffy,  l i k e I don't know what t o expect from him and  um, but t h e second semester I found w i t h you I was fine,  I c o u l d t e l l y o u ' a n y t h i n g i n my j o u r n a l , and I  wouldn't f e e l l i k e you were g o i n g t o get angry o r get mad t h a t I d i d something wrong, but w i t h him I don't know. (I-F-Oct .24), Another f e a t u r e o f c h o o s i n g what t o w r i t e about was r e l a t e d t o t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g process.' W r i t i n g about one i s s u e would t r i g g e r thoughts about another i s s u e . Ann d e s c r i b e d such a p r o c e s s as "a p r o g r e s s i o n of t h i n k i n g "  (I-A-Nov.24). F o r  example, she s a i d : I s t a r t e d out w i t h t h i s one and i t was funny 'cause I s t a r t e d out w i t h t h i s week I've been t h i n k i n g about how seldom I get feedback about v a r i o u s s t u d e n t s and how t h e y ' v e gone o f f and l e f t me. I've h e l p e d them w i t h a paper o r they d i s a p p e a r e d and I never f e e l l i k e I get any feedback. And f o r some reason a l l o f a sudden I'm d o i n g t h i s and t h i n k o f i t and then a p i c t u r e o f H i d e a k i came  100  i n t o mind and so t h a t ' s why t h i s jumped i n i n t h e m i d d l e of t h e p a r a g r a p h . I got i t i n and I thought w e l l he was p o s i t i v e , you know, and so I had t o w r i t e about him .. . and  a l l o f a sudden I thought oh, y e s and t h e n t h e r e was  Y i n Wing, you know, and then I got i n t o him...(I-A-Nov. 24) . T u t o r s a l s o d e l i b e r a t e l y chose not t o w r i t e about some i s s u e s . The most common reason f o r c h o o s i n g not t o w r i t e about an i s s u e o r s e s s i o n was t h a t t u t o r s had w r i t t e n about t h e same o r a s i m i l a r t h i n g b e f o r e . They t r i e d t o a v o i d  repetition.  A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r a v o i d i n g w r i t i n g about some i s s u e s was because Tom would read t h e j o u r n a l s . Ann, f o r i n s t a n c e , sometimes chose not t o w r i t e about an i s s u e she had on h e r mind because she was not ready t o share h e r i d e a s . She a l s o would a v o i d making some s u g g e s t i o n s about c e n t r e o p e r a t i o n s  because  she d i d n ' t know how Tom would r e a c t . : She s a i d : S i n c e he [Tom] g e t s i t [the j o u r n a l ] then he's l i a b l e t o s o l v e i t [the problem] b e f o r e  I get a chance,.do y o u  u n d e r s t a n d what I'm s a y i n g ? So I'd r a t h e r back o f f sometimes on t h e way I put t h i n g s o r t h e way I say t h i n g s because he's ... g e t t i n g i t . Ann  (I-A-Dec.8).  a l s o a v o i d e d d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s t h a t she thought would  r e f l e c t b a d l y on o t h e r t u t o r s . C h r i s t o p h e r  and P a u l b o t h t r i e d  t o tone down t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e responses. F o r example, i d e n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n c e s between h i s p e r s o n a l  Paul  j o u r n a l s and t h o s e  he handed i n t o Tom. He found t h a t i n h i s p e r s o n a l  j o u r n a l s he  101 c o u l d be " s l i g h t l y more honest, s l i g h t l y .less benign" ( I - P Jan.27).  C h r i s t o p h e r r e p o r t e d w r i t i n g and then removing one  comment because he f e l t i t was t o o s u b j e c t i v e . F e l i c i a a v o i d e d w r i t i n g t h i n g s i n h e r j o u r n a l w h i c h she f e l t r e f l e c t e d b a d l y on h e r t u t o r i n g a b i l i t y . She r e p o r t e d : I don't f e e l l i k e I c o u l d say e v e r y t h i n g  'cause i f I have  a r e a l l y bad experience' l i k e something, l i k e I don't know, i t l o o k s l i k e my t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y o r my t u t o r i n g a b i l i t y i s n ' t t h a t g r e a t , i t makes me f e e l l i k e I c o u l d l o s e my job.  So I'm s c a r e d t o say something t o him. (I-F-Oct.24)  She went on t o speak v e r y e m o t i o n a l l y about one such s i t u a t i o n . She  said: When a p e r s o n comes back w i t h t h e i r e s s a y and they d i d n ' t get a good mark on i t , I j u s t f e e l l i k e i t ' s a l l my f a u l t  (quavering v o i c e ) , and I f e e l l i k e i f  Tom f i n d s out t h a t t h i s person d i d n ' t get a good grade i t ' s on my s h o u l d e r s . L i k e I know t h a t ' s ' not t r u e , l i k e t h e r e ' s o n l y so much you can h e l p a s t u d e n t w i t h but i t f e e l s r e a l l y bad. (I-F-Oct.24) Tutors expressed  concerns not o n l y about l o s i n g t h e i r j o b s but  a l s o about m a i n t a i n i n g Tom's r e s p e c t . E f f e c t s o f t h e Research Process on Content i n T u t o r Most t u t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s  Journals  had not  a f f e c t e d what they chose t o w r i t e about i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . They s a i d t h a t when they wrote t h e i r j o u r n a l s they thought o f Tom as their  audience.  102 There were, however,  some e x c e p t i o n s .  F e l i c i a noted that  she i n c l u d e d more i n f o r m a t i o n because I was s t u d y i n g h e r journals, Christopher  "so t h a t t h e r e ' s more t o d i s c u s s "  (I-F-Oct.24).  r e p o r t e d t h a t my i n t e r e s t i n h i s j o u r n a l s a f f e c t e d  b o t h what he chose t o w r i t e about and t h e k i n d s o f t h i n k i n g he chose t o r e p o r t . We d i s c u s s e d  it:' •  C: I have t o w r i t e something t h a t you a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n too, l i k e say t h e l i n e o f t h i n k i n g and a l s o some e v e n t s . . . J : So i t encourages you t o s o r t of f o l l o w t h r o u g h on i s s u e s . I s t h a t what you mean? C: Yeah.  ... You see, j o u r n a l a f t e r j o u r n a l I w i l l  continue  t o t e l l about the p e r s o n I have mentioned.  J : And t h a t ' s because o f my i n t e r e s t ? C: Yeah. F o r y o u r i n t e r e s t , and a l s o you a r e one o f the r e a d e r s i n r e a d i n g  the j o u r n a l , you know. So you  know much about what I'm w r i t i n g . So I continue' t o w r i t e t h e p e r s o n I have m e n t i o n • b e f o r e . J : Okay, i f I wasn't r e a d i n g them do you t h i n k you would do t h a t f o r Tom as w e l l ? C: Not r e a l l y , aspects,  I w i l l w r i t e something i n more  b e s i d e s w r i t i n g t h e p e r s o n you a r e  c o n c e r n i n g w i t h . L e t ' s say, my a t t i t u d e t o work o r the problems I am now encounter... J : I would encourage you as much as p o s s i b l e t o do the j o u r n a l however you would do i t f o r Tom and t r y not t o change i t f o r my sake, because I want t o see  103 about how j o u r n a l s r e a l l y a r e , not how they a r e f o r me, you know? C: Okay.  (I-C-Nov.17)  So i t would appear t h a t indeed the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s had some e f f e c t on what t u t o r s chose t o w r i t e about i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . T r a i n e r P e r s p e c t i v e on D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h J o u r n a l Content Tom r e g a r d e d some of. what t u t o r s chose t o w r i t e about as not  s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l a t e d t o t u t o r i n g t o be u s e f u l . Tom's  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s problem changed over time, p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of the i n t e r v i e w Christopher's  process.  journals contained  the m a j o r i t y of m a t e r i a l  w h i c h Tom r e g a r d e d as not s u f f i c i e n t l y f o c u s e d on t u t o r i n g . Christopher  w r o t e a t l e n g t h about how ESL s t u d e n t s l e a r n and  about h i s own improvements w i t h E n g l i s h . Tom saw t h e s e c o n t e n t a r e a s as u n p r o d u c t i v e because C h r i s t o p h e r  d i d not r e l a t e t h e s e  r e f l e c t i o n s t o . h i s t u t o r i n g s t r a t e g i e s . P a r t way t h r o u g h t h e semester, Tom and I d i s c u s s e d language l e a r n i n g : ' '.  the i s s u e of w r i t i n g about 1  • ;  . J : Do you t h i n k t h a t r e f l e c t i o n on l e a r n i n g i n general  i s useful f o r a tutor?  T: Only i f i t h e l p s t h e t u t o r somehow b r i n g i t back t o t h e i r own p r a c t i c e . How am I then a p p l y i n g p r i n c i p l e ? The o n l y way he [ C h r i s t o p h e r ] it  this  i s implying  i s by t a l k i n g about how Chinese students, by coming  t o t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e and even d e a l i n g w i t h are being  tutors  exposed more t o E n g l i s h and t h e r e f o r e  104 h a v i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y  t o l e a r n E n g l i s h by  exposure.... J : Do you his  t h i n k t h a t s e r v e s any u s e f u l f u n c t i o n f o r  development as a t u t o r ?  T: No.  He seems, I mean I don't t h i n k so. Because I  t h i n k he's h e l p s ESL  too broad, he's  f o c u s i n g more on what  s t u d e n t s l e a r n , t o get exposure, not on  how  can we h e l p them as t u t o r s . (I-T-Nov.17) Other t u t o r s b e s i d e s C h r i s t o p h e r  wrote about t h e i r  l e a r n i n g as a r e s u l t of t u t o r i n g . However, Tom t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s as o f f t o p i c . I q u e s t i o n e d Tom content. J:  We  d i d not  Near'the end of the  about h i s approach t o the i s s u e of  discussed  I guess my  i t this  see  semester, appropriate  way:  o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n was  l i k e , obviously  own  about  content,  i t m a t t e r s what t h e y ' r e w r i t i n g  about, l i k e i f K r i s t a w r i t e s about the reasons  why  she h a s n ' t got her b a k i n g done, t h a t ' s o b v i o u s l y seen as u s e f u l r e f l e c t i o n i n a j o u r n a l . W e l l  not  that's  o b v i o u s l y an extreme case, but then t h e r e ' s a l l t h e s e o t h e r t h i n g s i n between. L i k e C h r i s t o p h e r on l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l , on how It's  not d i r e c t e d at how  ESL  students l e a r n .  can I be a b e t t e r t u t o r , i t  l o o k s a t , okay, s i d e e f f e c t s i f you c e n t r e , h i s own  reflecting  like,  of  the  l e a r n i n g . U n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s  own  l e a r n i n g presumably h e l p s him be a b e t t e r t u t o r , but i t ' s k i n d of l i k e these t h i n g s , you have t o s t r e t c h  105 i t a b i t as opposed t o somebody t a l k i n g about what I did  w i t h t h i s student  and how  on t h i s day and how  i t worked  i t d i d n ' t l i k e Paul i s doing h e r e . One  s t r u g g l e s i s how  do I l o o k at t h a t  stuff?  W e l l , anybody's s t u f f t h a t doesn't r e a l l y seem t o  be t a l k i n g about t u t o r i n g , um,  you know, and maybe i f  they say a l i t t l e b i t about i t , Paul s a y i n g a bit  my  stuff.  T: Which s t u f f Paul's s t u f f or C h r i s t o p h e r ' s J:  of  about how  i t ' s h e l p i n g h i s own  little  w r i t i n g , but maybe  i f he spent t h r e e weeks j o u r n a l s on i t i t would be problem. So I'm  a  j u s t t r y i n g to, get a h a n d l e on i t .  T: Yeah, because B i l l y s a i d the same t h i n g , d i d n ' t he,  t h a t t h i s h e l p s him become aware t h a t h i s  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s a r e n ' t what they c o u l d be.... But  I t h i n k you've r a i s e d a v e r y good p o i n t and i t ' s  made me  r e c o n s i d e r a l i t t l e b i t about  because I do agree w i t h you  t h a t what P a u l i s d o i n g  here i s the same as what C h r i s t o p h e r t h a t P a u l d i d i t j u s t i n one Christopher  Christopher,  i s doing  except  sentence, whereas  spread i t out i n 2 or 3 j o u r n a l s . So i t ' s  a  m a t t e r of degree r a t h e r than the q u a l i t y of i t .  J:  So i t ' s more l i k e the o v e r a l l emphasis i n the  j ournals. T: Yeah. The  (I-T-Dec.l)  d i f f i c u l t y of content  a n o t h e r way  concerning  not focused on t u t o r i n g r o s e i n  j o u r n a l s of K r i s t a and F e l i c i a .  In t h e i r  106 j o u r n a l s they put a l o t o f emphasis on how t h e i r t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s made them f e e l . Tom regarded these j o u r n a l s as l e s s u s e f u l than j o u r n a l s focused on l e a r n i n g , a g a i n because o f t h e amount o f focus on t h e i s s u e . He s a i d : Both F e l i c i a and K r i s t a tend t o g i v e a l o t o f s o r t o f i t made me f e e l good o r i t d i d n ' t , i t made me comfortable or i t didn't, or uncomfortable,  i t made  me f e e l good as a t u t o r , um. But t h a t ' s more an e v a l u a t i o n o f how d i d i t make me f e e l , n o t what d i d i t make me l e a r n . (I-T-Nov. 1-7) • Thus, what appeared as content problems i n i t i a l l y were more problems o f t h e amount o f j o u r n a l space devoted t o i s s u e s t h a t were n o t e x p l i c i t l y focused on t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e . When t u t o r s touched on these i s s u e s b r i e f l y , Tom found i t a c c e p t a b l e and a t t i m e s even d e s i r a b l e . However, when j o u r n a l s f o c u s e d on t h e s e i s s u e s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r c o n t e n t more s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s e d on t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e , Tom f e l t t h e j o u r n a l s were l e s s u s e f u l . Tom was a l s o aware t h a t t u t o r s sometimes tended t o w r i t e about p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r than t a c k l e a r e a s o f difficulty  (I-T-Nov.3). He noted:  I t h i n k t h i s may be a l i t t l e b i t o f what's g o i n g on, I'm n o t s u r e , i s t h a t t h e y ' r e a f r a i d t o t e l l me about problems because i t w i l l suggest t h a t t h e y ' r e f a i l u r e s . And so they end up r e p o r t i n g t h e way an employee r e p o r t s t o a boss, t o make i t l o o k l i k e  e v e r y t h i n g ' s okay. Even i f i t ' s n o t . So i t doesn't r e f l e c t back on them t h a t they d i d n ' t do i t r i g h t o r t h e y f a i l e d , and I mean t h a t ' s b u i l t i n t o t h e situation....  So i t ' s not so much a l e a r n i n g  tool  when i t ' s done t h a t way. I t ' s l e t ' s t r y and keep t h e boss happy because he wants i t t o go r i g h t t o o , because they know I want e v e r y t h i n g t o go w e l l . And of c o u r s e they don't, want t o be put i n a p o s i t i o n w h i c h makes i t l o o k l i k e something's g o i n g wrong. ( I T-Nov.3)  108  Section Five: Levels of Thinking  i n Journals  I b e g i n t h i s s e c t i o n by d e s c r i b i n g t h e t r a i n e r ' s perspective  on l e v e l s o f r e f l e c t i o n . Next, I d e s c r i b e  journals according  tutor  t o those l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n . F i n a l l y , I  g i v e an o v e r v i e w o f i n d i v i d u a l t u t o r s ' . r e f l e c t i v i t y i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s and d i s c u s s t h e t r a i n e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e  on l e v e l s o f  r e f l e c t i o n i n the tutors' journals. Trainer Perspective When Tom and I d i s c u s s e d  on L e v e l s o f R e f l e c t i o n t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s , I asked h i m  what k i n d s o f t h i n k i n g he found.more, and l e s s u s e f u l i n t h e j o u r n a l s t u t o r s wrote. From t h e i n f o r m a t i o n developed a hierarchy discussed  he gave me, I  o f l e v e l s o f t h i n k i n g i n t h e j o u r n a l s . We  t h i s h i e r a r c h y and, a t h i s s u g g e s t i o n ,  modifications.  I made  The main r e s u l t of t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s was t h e  development o f f o u r r a t h e r than t h e o r i g i n a l t h r e e  l e v e l s . He  a c c e p t e d t h e second v e r s i o n w i t h a.few minor changes-. • The h i e r a r c h y w h i c h he d e c i d e d o n , i s l i s t e d i n F i g u r e 2 . Tom's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e h i e r a r c h y was t h a t i t represented d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g which t u t o r s d i d i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . He regarded L e v e l I as t h e l e a s t d e s i r a b l e and l e a s t u s e f u l t h i n k i n g i n j o u r n a l s . He r e g a r d e d L e v e l s and  IV as p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d e s i r a b l e and more u s e f u l  thinking.  II, III  109  F i g u r e 2: L e v e l s of T h i n k i n g Level I: Reporting a) t e l l what happened b) d e s c r i b e t u t o r f e e l i n g s c) d e s c r i b e student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d) d e s c r i b e student needs Level I I : I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a) i d e n t i f y success of a s t r a t e g y b) i d e n t i f y f a i l u r e of a s t r a t e g y c) i d e n t i f y an area of weakness as a t u t o r d) i d e n t i f y g o a l s e) i d e n t i f y p r i n c i p l e s f) i d e n t i f y e f f e c t s Level I I I : Elaboration a) compare t o o t h e r s i t u a t i o n b) r e l a t e g e n e r a l statement o r p r i n c i p l e t o a s p e c i f i c case c) r e l a t e a s p e c i f i c case t o o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s d) e x p l o r e student needs o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n detail e) e x p l a i n purpose of a s t r a t e g y L e v e l IV: P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and A p p l i c a t i o n a) e x p l o r e why something worked b) e x p l o r e why something d i d n ' t work c) suggest s t r a t e g i e s which might r e s o l v e a problem d) suggest i m p l i c a t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e f o r practice  Tom  saw the development of t h i s h i e r a r c h y as c r u c i a l t o  h i s understanding  of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and h i s a b i l i t y t o a s s e s s  j o u r n a l s and p r o v i d e u s e f u l feedback.  He s a i d that, w i t h o u t  interviews: I wouldn't have p r o b a b l y been q u i t e so c l e a r o r e x p l i c i t about u n d e r s t a n d i n g  these d i f f e r e n t  levels.  I t would have been more of a mushy mess, not a mess.  our  110 but  i t wouldn't have been so c l e a r l y d i v i d e d  w e l l t h e r e ' s t h i s , t h i s , t h i s , and  t h i s . I t would  have been a b i t more, w e l l t h e r e ' s t h i s end continuum and  t h e r e ' s t h i s end  into  of  the  of the continuum,  but  what's i n the m i d d l e , I wouldn't have thought v e r y c l e a r l y about t h a t . So I guess y o u r h i e r a r c h y and y o u r probe q u e s t i o n s and t o s i t here and  j u s t the f a c t of h a v i n g  t a l k about i t h e l p e d .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t Tom "your h i e r a r c h y " .  helped  (I-T-Dec.8)  frequently  I had p r e s e n t e d i t as what I had  from h i s comments on t u t o r j o u r n a l s , and  referred put  to  together  I had m o d i f i e d i t  under h i s d i r e c t i o n , but he c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o i t as mine. I t s h o u l d be noted, however, t h a t a l t h o u g h I h e l p e d construct hierarchy.  the h i e r a r c h y , ' I  him  regarded i t as v e r y much h i s  I agreed w i t h the h i e r a r c h y  to a large extent  but  t h e r e were some d e t a i l s w i t h which I d i s a g r e e d . For example, I f e l t t h a t when t u t o r s r e c o g n i z e d t h e i r a f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e i r t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i t was. more u s e f u l than he it  thought  was. Thinking i n Tutor Journals Next, I d e s c r i b e  by L e v e l s  of  Reflection  l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g e v i d e n c e d i n t u t o r s '  j o u r n a l s . I base t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n on the h i e r a r c h y t h i n k i n g w h i c h Tom  and  of l e v e l s of  I developed.  I n d o i n g t h i s a n a l y s i s , I r e f e r t o " j o u r n a l segments". A j o u r n a l segment i s a s e c t i o n of a j o u r n a l , o f t e n a p a r a g r a p h , w h i c h appears t o focus on one  i s s u e or t o be based on one  major  Ill i d e a . For example, a segment might be a d i s c u s s i o n of a tutoring session with a particular  s t u d e n t , o r a d i s c u s s i o n of  a s p e c i f i c problem w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the s i t u a t i o n s of one more s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l segments ranged from as s h o r t as sentence  or  one  t o as l o n g as a t y p e w r i t t e n page. Many segments  i n c l u d e d t h i n k i n g at more than one l e v e l of  reflection.  Level I: Reporting K r i s t a m a i n l y wrote j o u r n a l s at t h i s l e v e l . A l t h o u g h the end of the semester she began t o r e f l e c t a t h i g h e r  near  levels,  the m a j o r i t y of her j o u r n a l segments f i t i n t o t h i s r e p o r t i n g c a t e g o r y . She o f t e n r e p o r t e d v e r y g e n e r a l l y on her s e s s i o n s . For example, she wrote, ironing sessions"  out  what it is we should  "Marek  1  get  (J-K-Oct.18). I f t h e r e was  and  tutoring  I are  together  and  still do during  our  any d i s c u s s i o n beyond t h i s  s i m p l e r e p o r t i n g , i t u s u a l l y focused on how  the s i t u a t i o n made  h e r f e e l o r what her i n t e n t i o n s were c o n c e r n i n g appointment t i m e s . For example, she  wrote:  F e l i c i a gave one of her Florence work with. a regular  Schmidt.  students  She seems like  I have only  met  her  to me.. Her'name is she will  be alright  once though.  We have set  time to come in on Wednesdays. I think  about- the only  time we could  schedule  to  together.  this  up is  (J-K-  Oct .3) When K r i s t a mentioned approaches t o working w i t h s t u d e n t s , made e v a l u a t i v e comments o r examined reasons 1  f o r t h i n g s , i t seemed  I have r e p l a c e d a l l student names w i t h pseudonyms.  112 s u p e r f i c i a l . She noted: Everything  seems to be going  Florence.  with  because  read a paper  appointment  times  during  the  We only meet once a week even  they want more. I said  a classmate  proof  with Amanda and  We have set up permanent  week to get together. though  fine  to Florence  to buddy up  one time she wanted me to  of hers, but she didn't  have an  and I was all booked up. So she said  was a good idea.  that  (J-K-Oct.18) •  Because o f P a u l ' s log-book approach t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , he a l s o d i d a l o t o f r e p o r t i n g . H i s r e p o r t i n g , however, was veryd i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f K r i s t a i n t h e l e v e l o f d e t a i l he i n c l u d e d . Furthermore, because P a u l wrote about e v e r y t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n , t h e j o u r n a l p r o v i d e d ongoing r e p o r t i n g o f h i s s e s s i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . I n most c a s e s , P a u l ' s r e p o r t i n g was accompanied  by some form o f h i g h e r l e v e l t h i n k i n g , b u t t h e  m a j o r i t y o f h i s w r i t i n g was r e p o r t i n g . F o r example, A student paper. paper  'B' came in.and  Basically  was a comparison/contrast  on her  track.  the help.  errors  what she was trying  I  to do and then I Xed a  and she seemed to be buoyed by  As much from the fact and understood  she received.  The  on Jamaica/England.  her around some minor constructions.  few spelling  writing  help  she was on the right  got her to explain steered  requested  he w r o t e :  that someone read her  it, as from constructive  (J-P-Nov.8)  help  113 I n t h i s segment, t y p i c a l l y , he not o n l y r e p o r t e d w i t h a s t u d e n t but a l s o noted her needs and  on what he  progress.  F e l i c i a a l s o d i d q u i t e a l o t of r e p o r t i n g i n her I n her r e p o r t i n g segments, l i k e K r i s t a ' s , t h e r e was  journals. little  i n d i c a t i o n of what she d i d w i t h s t u d e n t s i n her s e s s i o n s f r e q u e n t mention of how  did  t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s made her  and  feel.  However, l i k e P a u l , she put a l o t of emphasis on s t u d e n t needs and  progress. R e p o r t i n g was  a f e a t u r e of the j o u r n a l s of a l l t u t o r s i n  the s t u d y . However, o n l y these t h r e e t u t o r s had  e n t i r e segments  w h i c h f i t c l e a r l y i n t o the r e p o r t i n g c a t e g o r y . Level I I : I d e n t i f i c a t i o n I d e n t i f i c a t i o n was t u t o r s . However, Ann  a l s o a f e a t u r e of the j o u r n a l s of a l l  always moved from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o  l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n w i t h i n a segment. The  higher  o t h e r t u t o r s , at  t i m e s , stopped at the l e v e l of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . F e l i c i a and d i d so most' f r e q u e n t l y . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n t u t o r  Paul  journals  i n c l u d e d i d e n t i f y i n g s u c c e s s e s , i d e n t i f y i n g problems  and  i d e n t i f y i n g e f f e c t s of t u t o r i n g . T u t o r s o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d the success of s t r a t e g i e s t h e y used. F e l i c i a and s t r a t e g y and  K r i s t a would i d e n t i f y the s u c c e s s of a  then i d e n t i f y i t s e f f e c t s i n terms of how  i t made  them f e e l . For example, K r i s t a wrote: Well,  I tried  out my  idea  it,  because  I knew exactly  the  student  was  talking  from my  last  where the  about. It was  journal. student nice,  I was  liked and  because  what I  114 didn't  feel  like  I was being  put  on the spot.  (J-K-Nov.16)  B i l l y ' s approach t o d e s c r i b i n g successes put more emphasis on the e f f e c t s of the t e c h n i q u e s on student l e a r n i n g . For example, he w r o t e : I found this .students  week that I was better  in a way  that did not imply  questions  I found I could  thinking.  This but  than pure  to question  that made them do the thinking.  questions  silence,  able  I feel  dictation  do their  these  are better  on. my part.  learning  f o r o r i m p l i e d a r e q u e s t f o r h e l p from Tom  believe  in their  throughout  the week to look  seems to understand  slowly  things  to him.  explaining  things  to him he tends  to write  I just  things  what I have said.  to write  The only problem  tell  him  him  copying  at  down  his  but trying  is that  if I am  exactly  as an example  it in his own words, but he  down my words. I do not know how  example without  asked  me when I am  to explain  writes  and  as the f o l l o w i n g  that he is coming along  He really  then I say  experiences  demonstrates.  I saw Ali many times  surely.  own  (J-B-Nov.15)  j o u r n a l s . Sometimes they s i m p l y d e s c r i b e d problems  essay.•I  using  for some awkward moments of  T u t o r s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d problems  example from F e l i c i a  By  the answer or open ended  make my students  did provide  my  to give  what I say directly.  and  still him  an  (J-F-  Nov.4) At o t h e r times t u t o r s would more e x p l i c i t l y ask f o r h e l p w i t h  115 problems they d e s c r i b e d . Tutors a l s o discussed the e f f e c t s of t h e i r t u t o r i n g . I n some cases they e x p l o r e d t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e i r t u t o r i n g on s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . F o r example, I had a very with  good experience  a student  writer, thing  there  week as well.  She is a really  has difficulty  with  her essay is another  The only  is with  She can spot them herself  I worked good  needs a push and confidence.  she really  reading  this  named Jennifer.  she just  sentences.  F e l i c i a wrote:  run-on  now. She will  be  with me, and then she would say uh-oh run-on.  It is great  do it on her own now without  to see that  me saying  makes me feel good about my tutoring  she can  anything ability.  to her. It (J-F-Oct.19)  In other cases, t u t o r s explored t h e . e f f e c t s of t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s on themselves. F o r example, My first  appointment  Paul wrote:  was another  Iranian,  Reza. He needs a lot of sentence  structure  the lessons  the drift  eager  to master  of the exercise. his problems.  a number of ways. First,  secure  to make the effort  cares  as possible. translate,  but he did  then I will Fourth,  interpret,  He strikes  me as  being  This makes my job easier  it helps  in  to have someone who is  to improve.  when I know what the student  student  help  Tom gave him and for the-most he seems to have  gotten  willing  a chap named  Second, I feel more  wants. Third,  make the effort  to help  and finally,  I find  decipher  et al. , that  when a as much  that having I am  to  becoming  116 more careful utilize  and less  the language.  sloppy  in my own efforts  Reciprocal  help  to best  if you will.  (J-P-  Nov.22)  Level I I I :  Elaboration  A l l t u t o r s wrote some j o u r n a l segments w h i c h r e a c h e d t h e l e v e l o f e l a b o r a t i o n . However, K r i s t a wrote few e l a b o r a t i v e segments. T u t o r s e l a b o r a t e d by comparing o r c o n t r a s t i n g , by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e purpose of s t r a t e g i e s , by e x p l o r i n g  problems,  by r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s t o g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , and by d e s c r i b i n g s t u d e n t needs i n d e t a i l . T u t o r s o f t e n compared o r c o n t r a s t e d s t u d e n t s o r groups o f s t u d e n t s w i t h one a n o t h e r . F o r example,  i n h i s f i r s t week o f  t u t o r i n g , B i l l y c o n t r a s t e d h i s p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e t u t o r i n g experiences:  '  During  the week I had several  as experiences experiences emphasis  which I felt I felt  how to do something.  as backup. situation ideas.  to help  learning,  I found that  the person  not me telling  these people  However, in another  case  I was expected  This man came to me with no ideas, and apparently  no desire  out of this  man and juggling  them  knew what  I was faced  using with  to supply  me  a  all the  no work  to generate  ' seemed to spend most of the appointment ideas  and the  with and did the work themselves  in which I felt  completed  as well  were•awkward. In the p o s i t i v e  I was able  was on that person  they needed help  p o s i t i v e experiences  time  either. trying  in my head the  I to pry-  balance  117 between his work and my work. Although I learned  why my other  therefore  why I might be able  experiences.  experiences  I was  disappointed,  were positive  to react  better  and in  future  (J-B-Nov.9)  T u t o r s a l s o compared  t h e i r p r e v i o u s knowledge w i t h  their  c u r r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s as peer t u t o r s . Both C h r i s t o p h e r and P a u l c o n t r a s t e d r o l e s t h a t were more f a m i l i a r t o them w i t h  their  r o l e s as p e e r t u t o r s . For example, i n t h i s segment P a u l c o n t r a s t e d t h e f a m i l i a r r o l e of e d i t o r . w i t h h i s new r o l e o f peer t u t o r : My last quite  tutoree(?) good paper  psychological  (every  my editor's the  about sexual "it".possessive  some jumping  a new character,  job. A student  had ah  apostrophe)  around, and the odd i n t e r j e c t i o n of  but otherwise  shuffle".  a  abuse. Some  OK. I found  myself  "hat" & I had to r e s t r a i n myself  "redline  did a  for CREATIVE WRITING. She wrote  thriller  punctuation problems,  was an editing  wearing  from  doing  (J-P-Nov.8);  C h r i s t o p h e r e l a b o r a t e d on a s t u d e n t ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s by comparing her  t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s he knew: Similarly, students,  some of my friends,  who are also  have the same problems  as Cathy's.  don't want to spend time in studying find  that  these  courses  Chinese  movies  Chinese  newspaper,  in either  college  But  they  ESL courses,  for  are not transferable.  and T.V., make Chinese talk  the  They watch  friends,  Cantonese  they  read or  Mandarin.  118 Therefore,  they can hardly  improve  make them hard to get into  their  English.  the main stream  They may need a change for their  living  This  of the  style.  society.  (J-C-Nov.l)  B i l l y and C h r i s t o p h e r sometimes e l a b o r a t e d on t h e i r purposes i n u s i n g s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g segment, C h r i s t o p h e r i d e n t i f i e d the-purpose o f s p e c i f i c  tasks  he gave a s t u d e n t and then r e p o r t e d on what those t a s k s were: Cathy is the only Last  Friday,  student  I am now regularly  she finally  which she has problems take an English  dropped with.  assessment  needs to take any ESL courses may have the result is  to maximize  within  e.g. read two newspaper questions short  composition  work last she  English Ann  standard.  in order  to see if she  week. What I am now  part  She doing  environment,  in a week, attempt of. the TOEFL Test,  to me every week. She really  time and this  would finally  course. . .  recommended her to  to the English  cuttings  of the Listening  with.  in the coming semester.  this  her exposure  the Marketing  I. also test  dealing  made me feel  fifty write  did her  happy. I do hope  take her own initiative  to improve  that her  (J-C-Nov.17)  and F e l i c i a sometimes d e s c r i b e d a problem and then  explored t h e i r understandings  o f t h e problem. F o r example, i n  the f o l l o w i n g segment, Ann d e s c r i b e d a problem. She e x p l o r e d the p r o b l e m and d e s c r i b e d how t h e s i t u a t i o n made h e r f e e l . The  repeating  repeating  question,  answerer,  "Do I have a thesis?"  a  the  "I don't know, what is your  thesis  119 statement?"  Question:  "I am asking  you,  if I have one?"  Answer:  "What is it that you  are writing  about in  this  paper?"  And on it goes until  the original  question  is  answered.  Often  is  all  it  is difficult  the thesis  the student  this  (and the  wants to be verified.  to find  know whether  statement  their  thesis  is because-so  conclusion)  Quite  frequently  statement.  many papers  I don't  pass  under  eyes that it becomes hard to focus  on what each student  writing  about, or i f the statement  itself  written  that it becomes unrecognizable.  them that  this  one. Also,  I feel,  to recognize write  is your  this  a paper  supporting. me feel  very  strongly,  if'they  How else  didn't trying  of myself  that  sure  they  say  that  should  to it is  be  were they able  know what they to answer this  is  poorly  I cannot  if I am not  themselves.  At times  unsure  thesis  is so  my  able to  were question  and my own competence.  makes  (J-A-  Nov.2) T u t o r s a l s o e l a b o r a t e d by drawing, p r i n c i p l e s from s p e c i f i c c a s e s . F o r example, I worked with  Felicia  wrote:  2 different  when more than one student it  helps  me better  students  on articles.  I like  works on the same thing  understand  it myself.  it  because  (J-F-Nov.14)  P a u l , C h r i s t o p h e r and Ann a l s o e x p l o r e d s t u d e n t needs i n detail,  i d e n t i f y i n g problems u n d e r l y i n g the s t u d e n t s ' most  o b v i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s . For example,  a f t e r t e l l i n g about a  s e s s i o n w i t h a s t u d e n t and the d i f f i c u l t i e s she was h a v i n g w i t h  120 h e r w r i t i n g , P a u l wrote, "I think part her  outside  life.  of her problem  She commutes to Victoria  twice  might  be  a week" ( J - P -  Nov.16). L e v e l IV: P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and A p p l i c a t i o n The m a j o r i t y of the j o u r n a l segments of B i l l y and  Ann  r e a c h e d t h i s f o u r t h l e v e l , as d i d some of C h r i s t o p h e r ' s . I n c o n t r a s t , K r i s t a , F e l i c i a and P a u l r a r e l y r e f l e c t e d t o t h i s d e p t h . O f t e n segments a t t h i s l e v e l i n c l u d e d use of a l l f o u r l e v e l s . The most common approaches  t u t o r s took a t t h i s  i n c l u d e d i d e n t i f y i n g problems and e x p l o r i n g e x p l o r i n g why  level  solutions,  something d i d or d i d not work and e x p l o r i n g a  range of i s s u e s c u l m i n a t i n g i n d e c i s i o n s about f u t u r e p r a c t i c e . C h r i s t o p h e r and K r i s t a sometimes r e f l e c t e d a t t h i s  level  about s e e m i n g l y mundane i s s u e s , as d i d B i l l y on one o c c a s i o n . In  t h e f o l l o w i n g example, C h r i s t o p h e r r e f l e c t e d about h i s  f u t u r e i n t e n t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g a student who  had  missed  appointments:,. Since  October,  I have been working, with  2 weeks, he didn't I phoned him couldn't  show up in the Learning  two times  find him.  during  test shortly,  do more exercises  before  happening  working  but  he takes  I think  the test.  I  still a  that he So  last  Though  to take  to phone him in the coming weeks to see to him.  for  Centre.  hours,  I know that he is going  Maths, assessment  continue  Kent. But  should  I'll what's  (J-C-Nov.10)  However, t u t o r s r e f l e c t i n g at t h i s l e v e l t y p i c a l l y  dealt  121 w i t h i s s u e s o f more substance. Ann, B i l l y ,  F e l i c i a and K r i s t a  sometimes i d e n t i f i e d a problem and e x p l o r e d t h e causes o f t h e problem. I n some c a s e s , they l o o k e d a t t h e r o o t s o f t h e problem as Ann d i d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g I have only is  trying  and/or  the main idea.  himself,  it  together.  I think  generalities  him  saying,  usually about.  week and that  the topic  sentence  that he cannot do when we are  I find  He is afraid I tried  he lacks  the  for  confidence  that what he chooses  in  as the  to get him to speak in  terms what is this  article  pointed  out the title  and sub-headings  he missed)  and explained  that  these  give you an idea of what the story Speculate!  doing  too hard and misses  "You can't see the forest  ie: in.simple  Also,  (which  this  He keeps saying  he is looking  is not correct.  saying.  to find  Never the less,  own ability.  topic  one difficulty  that he .only sees the topic  It is like  the trees!" his  encountered  to get a student  it  point.  example.  You may be fight;  to  will  is going  to be  you may be wrong.  (J-  A-Nov.16) In many c a s e s , t u t o r s not o n l y e x p l o r e d t h e problem b u t also i d e n t i f i e d intentions f o r future tutoring. In t h i s example,  B i l l y e x p l o r e d a problem and i d e n t i f i e d how he would  d e a l w i t h s i m i l a r problems i n f u t u r e : One of the students her  teacher  in  a difficult  I had this  for the difficulty spot;  I could  week insisted  on  she was having. either  stick  blaming It put me  up for her  122  teacher  and risk  the peer relationship  and irrationally found that  blame her  tricky.  neither  agreeing  explain  to her  her problems  that  always that  found a scapegoat  relate  provide  the best  think  I didn't  the best  solve  situation  teachers  the way I did.  her and not  thought  twice  not  situation  is to  I explain  but you  have  your problem)  by the  I may  don't  In the future  perfect  I was frustrated  As  possible;  if I had not been in the Learning  not have acted  problems.  the problem  aren't  all  convince  are only human. In that  your own-hands (it' being  it yourself.  because  with  learning  do as well as I could.  that  to take it into  to  for their  way to get around  to the student  to  to her in some ways. Teachers  I blame them--they  I think  I tried  difficult  very  and  experience Centre  well  about it.  I  neutral,  wasn't the cause of  but it is extremely  I could  to be very  with her.  the teacher  agree  for all her problems.  In the end I tried nor disagreeing  someone who has well,  teacher  • or I could  I might  have  agreed  (J-B-Nov.30)  In a few o t h e r cases, t u t o r s i d e n t i f i e d s o l u t i o n s t o problems w i t h o u t d e s c r i b i n g the problems t h e m s e l v e s . F o r example, After  P a u l wrote: only  three  shifts  make a recommendation universal  test  comprehensive instructor  at the L.C.  myself  (only in these pages).,  to determine English.  I find  level  of oral,  It seems unfair  and society-at-large  ready  to have a  written  and  to the student,  (in terms of  to  the  competency).  123 (J-P-Nov.8) In o t h e r c a s e s , t u t o r s d e s c r i b e d problems  they were  f a c i n g , i d e n t i f i e d a s o l u t i o n and went on t o e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e p i t f a l l s w i t h t h e i r s o l u t i o n . For example, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g segment, K r i s t a i d e n t i f i e d p o t e n t i a l p i t f a l l s of a t e c h n i q u e she had not y e t t r i e d : I feel  that  non-ESL  the paper  students  identify  •'  just  the problems,  them. One problem the noise being  level  because  they would be able  I also  reads  her on  actually  on the paper. I'll  work better  and have an easier arise  in the learning  bothersome.  reading.  idea may  that may  Florence  is  reading  just  is that centre  with to  time  solving  it might  raise  to the point  of  remembered that when  (sic) words she changes So, I guess follow  try it and see how  what is  along  while  it goes. I'll  she  let  you  know. (J-K-Nov.22) Tutors, a l s o e x p l o r e d the reasons f o r s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s . I n the f o l l o w i n g example, B i l l y e x p l o r e d t h e r e a s o n for  h i s success w i t h a student: J had  the i n t e r e s t i n g experience  work with fact,  a student  d i f f i c u l t y and awkwardness was a productive  l i k e l y because  I was able  what the assignment  week of having  who was in the same course  she was in the same class.  experience  this  Although  initially, one. to help  as me.  In  I found some  I thought  It was productive her  to  the most  s p e c i f i c a l l y . I knew  was and what the teacher  was  looking  124 for.  I would suggest  student  that it must be comforting  to have someone to talk  specifically.  I would also  to who can r e l a t e  suggest  situation  works best because  a teacher  or tutor  for a  that  the peer  and more like  this  tutor  a peer.  type of acts  less  like  (J-B-Nov.23)  A few t u t o r s a l s o wrote j o u r n a l - segments w h i c h  included  t h i n k i n g a t a l l f o u r l e v e l s o f t h e h i e r a r c h y . The tendency f o r j o u r n a l w r i t e r s t o r e f l e c t a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s w i t h i n one j o u r n a l segment has a l s o been noted by H a t t o n and Smith  (1995)  and Surbeck e t a l . (1991). Ann d i d t h i s most f r e q u e n t l y , b u t B i l l y and C h r i s t o p h e r a l s o i n c l u d e d segments o f t h i s t y p e . I n t h i s example, Ann r e p o r t e d on a s t u d e n t ' s need, e x p l o r e d t h a t need i n more d e t a i l , r e l a t e d t h e s t u d e n t ' s needs t o t h o s e o f o t h e r s t u d e n t s , r e p o r t e d on what happened i n t h e s e s s i o n , i d e n t i f i e d h e r i n t e n t i o n f o r f u t u r e s e s s i o n s and r e f l e c t e d on h e r f e e l i n g s about w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s t u d e n t . One of-my new students go about answering the content  essay  efforts  questions.) had failed.  the process points cases  how to  an exam. He knew  and really  blew it  form for his choice  brainstorming,  so many students  of how to outline  and develop  during  more multiple  He tried  Like  understanding  nervous  to use essay  he had expected  true/false  questions  but became quite  when he was required (Actually  has difficulty  answers. and but his  he did not know  or how to jot down the main  his answer from this.  He also  did not answer what was asked. I have  in some  encountered  125 t h i s problem  a few times over  were required sticking  to do a summary and had  to the main ideas.  went through procedure  for answering  exam questions  for  his next  session  them in essay him,  week; when trouble  Anyway, this  his exam questions  old  with  the past  and we developed  form. .As well,' I have decided  the key words that could  should  to search  so that we would work on  and I  for questions  answering  to  discuss,  be used in questions  help him and I am looking  him some encouragement.  or  a  some of his own  that he is aware of what would be required This  finding  new student  them. I asked him  or to develop  students  in the  forward  so  answer.  to  giving  (J-A-Nov.2)  Thinking i n Tutor Journals:  Overview  T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g i n t u t o r j o u r n a l s o b s c u r e s some of the i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l t u t o r s . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , I p r o v i d e ' a n o v e r v i e w of l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n , i n the j o u r n a l s of i n d i v i d u a l t u t o r s and l i n k  their  r e f l e c t i v i t y t o o t h e r i s s u e s . d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r in. the paper. K r i s t a wrote m i n i m a l l y r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l s . T h i s  was  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of her e n t r i e s e a r l y i n the semester. However, near the end of the semester, as she began t o u n d e r s t a n d Tom's purpose f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , she w r o t e one j o u r n a l w h i c h was  f a r more r e f l e c t i v e than any of h e r p r e v i o u s  j o u r n a l s . The o n l y j o u r n a l she wrote a f t e r the r e f l e c t i v e  one  was h e r f i n a l j o u r n a l of the semester and i t d i d not show a s i m i l a r l e v e l of r e f l e c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , i t i s u n c l e a r whether  126 her new-found u n d e r s t a n d i n g would have l a s t i n g r e s u l t s i n terms of the l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n i n her  journals.  F e l i c i a , on the o t h e r hand, a f t e r r e c e i v i n g the  journal  w r i t i n g g u i d e l i n e s , began t o w r i t e more r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l s t h a n she had  previously.  f o c u s e d on a s s e s s i n g  In her j o u r n a l s , she most  often  student needs and p r o g r e s s and  the e f f e c t s of t e c h n i q u e s on her own  describing  f e e l i n g s . As the  semester  p r o g r e s s e d her j o u r n a l w r i t i n g decreased i n r e f l e c t i v i t y . main d i f f i c u l t y seemed t o be the problem of t h i n k i n g of things  Her new  t o w r i t e about and- her d i s l i k e of r e f l e c t i n g about  t u t o r i n g t e c h n i q u e s . By the end of the semester her showed l i t t l e e v i d e n c e of r e f l e c t i o n . O v e r a l l , her w r i t i n g c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  journals journal  as m o d e r a t e l y r e f l e c t i v e .  P a u l ' s e a r l i e s t j o u r n a l was  least reflective.  subsequent j o u r n a l s , i n p a r t at my  urging,  In  he began t o r e f l e c t  more. Because of h i s • a p p r o a c h t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , h i s r e f l e c t i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o be c o n c r e t e , f o c u s i n g t u t o r i n g sessions. abstract  on i n d i v i d u a l  H i s j o u r n a l s gave l i t t l e e v i d e n c e of  t h e o r i z i n g about t u t o r i n g . However, h i s approach t o  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g a l l o w e d him students', s k i l l s and w r o t e so few  t o r e f l e c t on the development of  of h i s t u t o r i n g over time. Because  j o u r n a l s i n the study, i t was  he  d i f f i c u l t to assess  the v a l u e of t h i s documentation f e a t u r e of h i s j o u r n a l w r i t i n g in  terms of r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g . P a u l ' s l a t e r j o u r n a l s c o u l d  described  as m o d e r a t e l y r e f l e c t i v e .  Christopher's  j o u r n a l s were d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s f o r  be  127 r e f l e c t i v i t y . I n p a r t , t h i s may have been a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t he d i d l e s s t u t o r i n g than t h e o t h e r t u t o r s . H i s j o u r n a l s tended t o be more a b s t r a c t , f o c u s i n g on i s s u e s l e s s  explicitly  t i e d t o h i s t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e . Another i s s u e may have been h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c background. H i s r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s d i f f e r e d from those o f t h e o t h e r t u t o r s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may have a f f e c t e d the way he o r d e r e d h i s i d e a s , the l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t n e s s  he employed and t h e l o g i c a l  development o f h i s i d e a s . A f u r t h e r f a c t o r i s t h e degree t o w h i c h j o u r n a l segments C h r i s t o p h e r Christopher  wrote were i n t e r r e l a t e d .  f o l l o w e d i d e a s ' f r o m one j o u r n a l t o t h e n e x t ,  often  w i t h o u t r e f e r r i n g t o h i s p r e v i o u s t h i n k i n g . As a r e s u l t , h i s j o u r n a l s l o o k e d more r e f l e c t i v e when examined i n a group than t h e y d i d when examined i n d i v i d u a l l y . An attempt t o see beyond these complicating were q u i t e  f a c t o r s suggests t h a t C h r i s t o p h e r ' s  journals  reflective.  B i l l y ' s j o u r n a l s were v e r y r e f l e c t i v e . There was no e v i d e n c e o f change i n t h e i r l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i v i t y , d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . H i s j o u r n a l e n t r i e s were the s h o r t e s t  i n the study,  a v e r a g i n g 2 63 words p e r e n t r y . When he wrote he a n a l y z e d reasons f o r h i s s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s and e i t h e r s u g g e s t e d f u t u r e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n , r e f l e c t e d on t h e impact o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e on h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r o l e o f t u t o r o r i n f e r r e d a r e q u e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e from.the t r a i n e r . Ann's j o u r n a l s were a l s o v e r y r e f l e c t i v e . They were a l s o the l o n g e s t  j o u r n a l s i n the study w i t h h e r e n t r i e s a v e r a g i n g  128 73 9 words i n l e n g t h . She e x p l o r e d student needs, t u t o r i n g t e c h n i q u e s , reasons  f o r successes and f a i l u r e s , and  her  i n t e n t i o n s f o r f u t u r e t u t o r i n g . She r e l a t e d .her t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t o one another as w e l l as t o her p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s of t e a c h i n g and t o her g e n e r a l approach t o t u t o r i n g . Ann's c h o i c e not t o w r i t e about some i s s u e s u n t i l had t h o r o u g h l y thought  she  them through i s e v i d e n t i n h e r j o u r n a l s .  T r a i n e r P e r s p e c t i v e on L e v e l s of R e f l e c t i o n i n T u t o r J o u r n a l s Tom  e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the depth of t u t o r s '  r e f l e c t i o n s i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . He used, two s t r a t e g i e s t o t r y t o i n c r e a s e the amount of r e f l e c t i o n t u t o r s d i d . F i r s t , developed  he  the g u i d e l i n e s . Second, he made comments on  their  j o u r n a l s w h i c h he hoped would encourage the w r i t e r s t o r e f l e c t more on i s s u e s they had  raised.  Of the two s t r a t e g i e s , the g u i d e l i n e s had the most e v i d e n t impact. Tom,  however, had some concerns  of the g u i d e l i n e s . He I thought  about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  said:  the handout [ g u i d e l i n e s ] I gave'them  e a r l i e r c o u l d g i v e them a l o t of q u e s t i o n s they c o u l d j u s t go back t o and ask themselves. t h a t they don't q u i t e understand  it,  But I'm  finding  or i t  i n t i m i d a t e s them so they don't want t o d e a l w i t h And  I'm  it.  not sure i f t h a t ' s j u s t because I made i t too  c o m p l i c a t e d f o r them, and i f I would have made i t somehow e a s i e r they c o u l d have done i t more e a s i l y , o r i f the concept  i t s e l f of a n a l y t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n i s  129 more t h e graduate l e v e l k i n d o f s k i l l t h a t at t h i s l e v e l j u s t a r e n ' t used t o d e a l i n g  students with,  r e f l e c t i n g on t h e i r own p r a c t i c e , and so i n a sense I'm a s k i n g more of them than I s h o u l d be.  (I-T-  Nov.17) Later  i n t h e semester, Tom was more p o s i t i v e about t h e a b i l i t y  of t u t o r s t o w r i t e r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l s . B e s i d e s t h e f a c t t h e r e was i n c r e a s e d  that  r e f l e c t i o n i n many t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s , t h e  h i r i n g o f new tutor's who began j o u r n a l w r i t i n g from a f a i r l y r e f l e c t i v e perspective,  encouraged him t o b e l i e v e t h a t  tutors  could write useful r e f l e c t i v e journals. D e s p i t e t h e improvements i n t h e r e f l e c t i v i t y o f t u t o r j o u r n a l s , Tom c o n t i n u e d t o t h i n k t h a t i f t u t o r s r e f l e c t e d more d e e p l y , they would gain'more from j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y true of K r i s t a , F e l i c i a , Christopher A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y Tom had i n a s s e s s i n g  and P a u l .  the u s e f u l n e s s of  t u t o r j o u r n a l s was the degree t o which he found i t n e c e s s a r y t o make i n f e r e n c e s  about t u t o r t h i n k i n g .as he r e a d t h e i r j o u r n a l s .  Because t u t o r s ' l i n e s of t h i n k i n g were o f t e n not e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , Tom o f t e n found i t n e c e s s a r y t o i n f e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i d e a s t u t o r s expressed. Thus, Tom would i n f e r , f o r example, t h a t two segments i n a j o u r n a l e n t r y were r e l a t e d and t o g e t h e r showed some new u n d e r s t a n d i n g . He was a l s o aware, however, t h a t h i s i n f e r e n c e s  were not n e c e s s a r i l y  accurate.  Tom found t h e r o l e of t h e t u t o r , t r a i n e r a d i f f i c u l t one because i t was i n f o r m a l , g i v i n g him o n l y l i m i t e d power t o  130 a f f e c t t u t o r b e h a v i o u r s . A l t h o u g h he d i d have t h e power t o f i r e t u t o r s , he would o n l y have done so f o r g r o s s incompetence, not f o r i s s u e s around j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . He d e s c r i b e d h i s dilemma this  way: I can't g i v e marks, and the o n l y way I e v a l u a t e o r have a k i n d of e v a l u a t i o n of these and how  they're  d o i n g i s comments I make on them, but I can't g i v e t u t o r s a grade, so i t ' s not a p a s s / f a i l k i n d o f t h i n g , and so t h i s k i n d of t u t o r t r a i n i n g , because i t ' s not i n , i t ' s not s e t i n a f o r m a l s o r t o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n , where they e i t h e r pass o r f a i l , t h e r e ' s not the same f o r m a l power and c l o u t i n p r o d u c t s t h a t . . . t u t o r s g i v e me.  (I-T-Nov.17)  He went on t o describe'some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s he f a c e d i n t r y i n g t o encourage t u t o r s t o w r i t e more r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l s w i t h o u t damaging t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m o r h i s c o l l e g i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them. He s a i d : I guess I don't f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e i n , s o r t o f g i v i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l s back t o them and s a y i n g , no t h i s  isn't  what I wanted, do i t a g a i n , o r because I know t h e y ' r e busy p e o p l e , I don't want t o keep coming back a t them, r e i n f o r c i n g the f a c t t h a t t h e y ' r e not g i v i n g  me  what I want, because t h e r e ' s no p a s s / f a i l i s s u e h e r e . . . . Because we want t o keep a s o r t of c o l l e g i a l f e e l i n g , I don't want t o keep coming back a t them, g i v i n g them t h a t s o r t of n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t  that  131 you  guys a r e n ' t g i v i n g me what I want. Um, so t h a t  l e a v e s me w i t h a l i t t l e b i t of a dilemma o f how can I encourage them t o make t h i s u s e f u l f o r themselves as l e a r n i n g e x e r c i s e s r a t h e r than j u s t busy work because Tom wants i t . (I-T-Nov.17) T r a i n e r P e r s p e c t i v e on t h e V a l u e o f J o u r n a l  Writing  At t h e semester's end, Tom f e l t t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was w o r t h w h i l e and i n t e n d e d  to continue  u s i n g i t as an i n - s e r v i c e  t r a i n i n g t a s k t h e f o l l o w i n g semester ( I - T - D e c . l ) . The v a l u e he saw  i n j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was t h a t i t t o some degree f u l f i l l e d i t s  p u r p o s e s . The t a s k p r o v i d e d  a s t r u c t u r e whereby t u t o r s  r e f l e c t e d on t h e i r t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e s and e x p e r i e n c e s and learned  from them. The.task a l s o gave him i n f o r m a t i o n  about  what t u t o r s were d o i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s and what t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s would be most  other  appropriate.  He f e l t t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g had v a r y i n g degrees o f b e n e f i t f o r i n d i v i d u a l t u t o r s but t h a t a l l t u t o r s b e n e f i t t e d t o some degree. He saw Ann's and B i l l y ' s j o u r n a l s as v e r y for  useful  them. He f e l t they were a b l e t o t a c k l e i s s u e s and d e v e l o p  t h e i r t u t o r i n g s k i l l s through t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k . He saw Paul's and  and C h r i s ' s j o u r n a l s as m o d e r a t e l y u s e f u l and K r i s t a ' s  F e l i c i a ' s j o u r n a l s as l e s s u s e f u l . However, he f e l t  that  a l l t u t o r s b e n e f i t t e d from t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and t h a t  there  were some s i g n s t h a t what t u t o r s g a i n e d from j o u r n a l w r i t i n g c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d over time. He f e l t t h a t t h e v a l u e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f o r t u t o r s i n t h e c e n t r e c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d by him  132 m o d i f y i n g h i s approach t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and o t h e r  training  a c t i v i t i e s . The m o d i f i c a t i o n s he i n t e n d e d t o put i n t o p l a c e a r e d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . T r a i n e r Plans f o r Future Use of J o u r n a l W r i t i n g At t h e end o f t h e semester, Tom noted t h a t t h e r e were a number o f t h i n g s he i n t e n d e d t o do the f o l l o w i n g semester t o h e l p t u t o r s b e n e f i t more from t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k . He p l a n n e d t o : (1) change the feedback he wrote on j o u r n a l s ; (2) p r o v i d e t u t o r s w i t h more t h e o r e t i c a l background about i s s u e s o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g ; and, (3) h e l p t u t o r s r e c o g n i z e t h e l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . He a l s o p l a n n e d t o i n s t i t u t e a p r o c e d u r e which a l l o w e d t u t o r s t o s h a r e t h e i r j o u r n a l s w i t h one another. He i n t e n d e d t o modify h i s feedback on j o u r n a l s by u s i n g more p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s and by modeling h i g h e r l e v e l s o f t h i n k i n g . M o d e l i n g of h i g h e r l e v e l t h i n k i n g i s seen by M c A l p i n e (1992) and Newman- (1988) as an e f f e c t i v e form o f feedback. I n t h e s t a f f meetings., he i n t e n d e d t o i n t r o d u c e more t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s about l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g . He saw t h i s as g i v i n g "them more o f an a n a l y t i c a l frame o r schema, almost, t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r t u t o r i n g " (I-T-Dec.8).  He hoped t h a t p r o v i d i n g  t u t o r s w i t h more p e r s p e c t i v e s from which t o examine t h e i r t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e would a s s i s t them i n r e f l e c t i o n . H a t t o n and Smith (1995) suggest t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e knowledge base i s needed i f t e a c h e r s a r e t o r e f l e c t m e a n i n g f u l l y .  P r o v i s i o n of  d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s c o u l d a l s o be seen as an i n d i r e c t way o f  133 c h a l l e n g i n g t u t o r s ' p r i o r assumptions, a s t r a t e g y recommended by M c A l p i n e  (1992) and Newman (1988).  Tom hoped t o h e l p t u t o r s r e c o g n i z e t h e l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g by r a i s i n g t h e i r awareness  of that  p o t e n t i a l . I n a s t a f f meeting, he i n t e n d e d t o "get them t o t a l k about what they see as t h e b e n e f i t o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , and g e t them t o . . . almost own i t themselves"  ( I - T - D e c . l ) . T h i s echoes  Newman's (1988) a s s e r t i o n t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t e r s need t o have purposes o f t h e i r own f o r w r i t i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l s . Another change which Tom p l a n n e d t o make was t o p r o v i d e an opportunity  f o r t u t o r s t o t a l k about t h e i r j o u r n a l s w i t h one  a n o t h e r . Through t h e semester he came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n " f o r j o u r n a l s t o be most u s e f u l f o r s t u d e n t s [ t u t o r s ] , have t o t a l k about them w i t h somebody"  (I-T-Nov.24).  that they  134 Section  S i x : T u t o r T h i n k i n g around J o u r n a l  Writing  I n t h i s s e c t i o n , I e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t h i n k i n g r e p r e s e n t e d i n t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s and t h e t h i n k i n g reported  t o me i n i n t e r v i e w s  they  as b e i n g i n i t i a t e d by t h e j o u r n a l  w r i t i n g t a s k . T h i s focuses on my t h i r d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n .  I  i d e n t i f y t h r e e f a c t o r s confounding a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n tutor thinking i n t h e i r journals. I also describe  the e f f e c t s  of t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s on t u t o r s ' t h i n k i n g about T u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s v a r i e d i n how a c c u r a t e l y  of  issues.  they r e p r e s e n t e d  the t h i n k i n g t u t o r s d i d as a r e s u l t o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . B i l l y ' s journals  f a i r l y accurately  r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t h i n k i n g he  d i d about i s s u e s . He was e x p l i c i t about h i s l i n e s o f t h i n k i n g i n h i s j o u r n a l s . He r e p o r t e d  little  further thinking after  w r i t i n g h i s j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . I t s h o u l d be noted, however, due  to scheduling  problems, I f r e q u e n t l y  interviewed  that  B i l l y on  the same day t h a t he had completed h i s j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . The  j o u r n a l s o f t h e o t h e r t u t o r s gave a. much l e s s a c c u r a t e  p i c t u r e o f t h e t h i n k i n g i n i t i a t e d by t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g K r i s t a ' s j o u r n a l s were m a i n l y s i m p l y r e p o r t s  task.  o f t h i n k i n g she  had  done b e f o r e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . The j o u r n a l s r a r e l y a s s i s t e d  her  i n d e v e l o p i n g h e r t h i n k i n g f u r t h e r . The j o u r n a l s o f F e l i c i a  and  P a u l were d e c e i v i n g  i n t h a t two v e r y s i m i l a r segments might  i n one case r e p r e s e n t a g r e a t d e a l more t h i n k i n g t h a n was e v i d e n t i n t h e j o u r n a l s and i n t h e o t h e r case  accurately  represent t h e i r thinking. Interviews with Christopher  showed  135  t h a t he d i d a g r e a t d e a l of r e f l e c t i o n which was h i s j o u r n a l s . The  not e v i d e n t i n  interviews a l s o provided evidence that  he  c o n n e c t e d some of h i s a b s t r a c t d i s c u s s i o n s t o t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e more than was  e v i d e n t i n the j o u r n a l s . Furthermore, he  often  thought a g r e a t d e a l more about i s s u e s a f t e r w r i t i n g j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . Ann's j o u r n a l s were'the t i p of the i c e b e r g . They showed e v i d e n c e of r e f l e c t i o n , but.she a l s o r e f l e c t e d a g r e a t d e a l more on the i s s u e s before,' d u r i n g and a f t e r w r i t i n g her journals. Powell  (1985)  suggests c a u t i o n ' i s needed i n assuming t h a t  w r i t t e n comments a c c u r a t e l y . r e p r e s e n t r e f l e c t i v e t h o u g h t s prompted by a t a s k . The data i n t h i s study s u p p o r t s  the need  f o r c a u t i o n . In f a c t , the study suggests t h a t i t . i s  impossible  f o r a r e a d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e the r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g prompted by the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k based on t h e i r r e a d i n g of the t u t o r s ' j ournals. F a c t o r s Confounding A c c u r a t e R e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of  Thinking i n Journals F a c t o r s w h i c h made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r a r e a d e r t o get  an  a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of t u t o r t h i n k i n g r e s u l t i n g from the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k i n c l u d e d : t u t o r r e p o r t i n g of p r i o r incomplete  reflection,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e f l e c t i o n w h i c h o c c u r r e d ,  and  f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g which o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . T u t o r R e p o r t i n g of P r i o r R e f l e c t i o n .' A l l tutors reported thinking i n t h e i r journals that had done p r i o r t o f o c u s i n g on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . In many of  they these  136 c a s e s , w r i t i n g t h e j o u r n a l s . d i d not f u r t h e r t h e i r l e v e l s o f r e f l e c t i o n . F o r example, K r i s t a r e p o r t e d t h a t what appeared t o be one o f h e r most r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l segments was s i m p l y a r e p o r t o f r e f l e c t i o n she had done anyway. She w r o t e : I would like brought  to start  up at the meeting  that we should appointment is left, in this  on exercises  could  to find  constantly  editing  the  be keeping  papers,  alone.  this  of the  are facing  and allow  but I almost  paper  learning  learning  up on these  if they bring centre  or what  I feel  one stone.  to their  and the tutor.  of the tutors,  that  with  some of the pressure  the student  student's  two birds  the time to.brush  alleviate  rest  part  mentioned,  and then the second half,  the dilemma the tutors  would also  between  Wednesday. I  be used to look at the essay.  way we can kill  would cure  able  last  about the idea I  try to spend the first  would the students it  off by talking  that  Not  only  plans,  but  in  being  exercises. felt  It  from  for more i n t e r a c t i o n I don't know about the  feel  like  I have to  it in. Somehow, I  was not set up for that  edit feel  purpose  (J-K-Nov.22)  Thus, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t K r i s t a d e s c r i b e d a s t r a t e g y , gave a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s t r a t e g y and r e f l e c t e d on t h e purpose o f t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e , h e r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g d i d not encourage h e r t o r e f l e c t any f u r t h e r than she had done a l r e a d y . C h r i s t o p h e r and Ann a l s o r e p o r t e d on p r i o r t h i n k i n g without  r e f l e c t i n g f u r t h e r d u r i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . I n some  137 c a s e s , t h e s e j o u r n a l e n t r i e s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e r e f l e c t i o n . Both C h r i s t o p h e r and Ann r e p o r t e d t h a t they had not d e v e l o p e d t h e i r i d e a s f u r t h e r w h i l e w r i t i n g these segments because they d i d not have a r e f l e c t i v e purpose  i n w r i t i n g them. T y p i c a l l y  t h e s e segments were i n c l u d e d because t u t o r s wanted t o communicate t h i n g s t o Tom, the"segment was s i m p l y p a r t o f t h e introduction or conclusion to a journal, or i n Christopher's case, t h e segment h e l p e d him p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i t y f o r t h e r e a d e r s of h i s j o u r n a l s . F o r example, Ann appeared  t o r e f l e c t about  about t h e causes o f s t u d e n t . a t t e n d a n c e problems i n t h e f o l l o w i n g segment. A few of the new students for  their  sessions.  have cancelled  I think  part  of the problem  they have too much of a work, load done any of the exercises understand avoid putting  given  what, is required.  coming or cancelling  off the inevitable.  and that  is  that  they have not  to them, or do not  Therefore, with  or not shown up  a simple  it is easier excuse  to  and  (J-A-0ct.5)  I n o u r i n t e r v i e w , Ann s t a t e d t h a t t h i s segment d i d n o t i n c l u d e any new t h i n k i n g . Her purpose  i n w r i t i n g t h e segment was t o  g i v e a message t o Tom t h a t he was g i v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o o many t a s k s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r work i n t h e c e n t r e ( I - A O c t . 1 3 ) . Thus, d e s p i t e evidence of r e f l e c t i o n i n t h e j o u r n a l , w r i t i n g t h e segment d i d not c o n t r i b u t e t o Ann's t h i n k i n g on t h e issue.  138 I n c o m p l e t e R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of R e f l e c t i o n O f t e n t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s d i d not show e v i d e n c e of the r e f l e c t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . One  f a c t o r was t h a t t u t o r s sometimes o n l y h i n t e d a t i s s u e s  w h i c h t h e y had thought about e x t e n s i v e l y i n the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . Another f a c t o r was.that they sometimes chose not t o i n c l u d e any s i g n of t h i n k i n g they had done. A t h i r d f a c t o r  was  r h e t o r i c a l f e a t u r e s of t h e i r w r i t i n g . '• F r e q u e n t l y t u t o r s o n l y touched on i s s u e s w h i c h t h e y thought about a l o t d u r i n g the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . I n the f o l l o w i n g j o u r n a l segment, Ann d i s c u s s e d i s s u e s of c o n t e n t i n student papers. In many instances the examples or did not rather  or quotes  support  trying  topic.  should  the paper  doesn't that person  Once  than presume. Also, an explanation,  necessary  relevant  discussion  because  I am  and what is  when I tell quite  them that  frequently because  knows what they mean or their  I get their  instructor  want them to do it that way. My comment is  they should  not be writing  specifically  that  again  to a  about the subject  back the answer that it isn't instructor  this  to students  were not  I switched,  I guess I am doing  give  out  they were using  to get them to think  wanted rather  to point  what they were saying.  than go over  of their  they  I have had  for  usually  one  that someone else may have to read their  The example I can use now is that I was asked by a  writings. student  139  (permission  given  by her instructor)  and give my comments on the writing. show some students audience  (sic).  that their  to evaluate Perhaps  writings  her paper  this  will  .could for a  larger  (J-A-Nov.23)  In o u r d i s c u s s i o n , however, she made c l e a r t h a t t h e most c r u c i a l l e a r n i n g she d i d i n w r i t i n g t h e j o u r n a l was o n l y  hinted  at i n t h e j o u r n a l segment: I guess what I wanted t o say i n t h a t p a r a g r a p h i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e was t h a t I want t o t e a c h them t o t h i n k . I s t a r t e d out d i f f e r e n t l y I guess w i t h t h e problems  that  t h e y have. They don't u n d e r s t a n d what t h e y ' r e d o i n g so i t ' s changing my t a c t i c s o f g o i n g over t h e i r paper  with  them, and I want them t o t h i n k , t h i n k about t h e i r t o p i c and t h i n k about what they have t o say and v e r b a l i z e i t , b r a i n s t o r m i t w i t h somebody, a f r i e n d , me, anybody, b u t f o r goodness it,  sake, get a f e e l i n g , get an e n t h u s i a s m f o r  l i k e Y i n Wing's got, f o r t h e i r work. They j u s t w r i t e a  paper,  'cause ' t h i s i s an a s s i g n m e n t . I ' v e g o t t o do' and  i t shows i n t h e i r work... so t h i s i s something I've l e a r n e d t o do t h i s semester and I t h i n k i t ' s worked  really  w e l l . . . and i f they s t a r t t o t h i n k more about t h e i r papers next semester then I ' l l have a c c o m p l i s h e d something. ( I - A Nov . 2 4 ) She went on t o t e l l me t h a t a b i g g o a l o f h e r work, t h a t she had n o t seen so c l e a r l y b e f o r e w r i t i n g t h e j o u r n a l , was t o h e l p s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o t h i n k about t h e i r p a p e r s .  140 At t i m e s ,  t u t o r s chose not t o i n c l u d e i d e a s  i n journals  w h i c h they had thought about i n t h e p r o c e s s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . T h i s was t y p i c a l o f Ann who p r e f e r r e d not t o w r i t e about  issues  u n t i l she had thought them through. I n one case, Ann p l a n n e d an e n t i r e j o u r n a l i n h e r head about a problem she was experiencing. had  She s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s c a r d e d  t h e i d e a because she  n o t y e t come up w i t h a s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem. She s a i d : My j o u r n a l t h i s week was g o i n g t o s t a r t out w i t h a dialogue  l i k e question,  answer and g o i n g t h r o u g h t h a t  kind  of t h i n g , and l i t e r a l l y go through what I sometimes go t h r o u g h i n t h e f i r s t ten. minutes o f a s e s s i o n  with  somebody who wants t o know i f they've g o t a t h e s i s o r n o t . . . . I dropped t h a t  idea..(I-A-Nov.3)  I n a n o t h e r case,.' i n h e r j o u r n a l K r i s t a s u g g e s t e d a t u t o r i n g t e c h n i q u e and p r o v i d e d  a r a t i o n a l e for using that strategy ( J -  K - N o v . 7 ) . What she d i d not r e p o r t , was t h a t she h a d . a l r e a d y t r i e d out the technique w i t h three students  (I-K-Nov.9).  R h e t o r i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l s r e s u l t e d i n some of t h e d i s c r e p a n c y  between t h e t h i n k i n g e v i d e n c e d i n t h e i r  j o u r n a l s and t h e t h i n k i n g of t h e t u t o r s about i s s u e s . As t h e t r a i n e r recognized,  t u t o r s o f t e n d i d not make t h e i r l i n e s o f  thinking e x p l i c i t i n their journals. Christopher,  f o r example, f r e q u e n t l y wrote h i s j o u r n a l s a t  a f a i r l y a b s t r a c t l e v e l . One o f t h e t r a i n e r ' s c o m p l a i n t s about Christopher's  j o u r n a l s was t h a t he d i d not a p p l y h i s  abstract  t h i n k i n g t o t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e . However, as t h e f o l l o w i n g  141 example shows, t h i s was  i n some cases a m a t t e r  c h o i c e of what t o i n c l u d e i n the j o u r n a l . He Having  been working  have to say  that  I have more chances English.  I also  working I find other  with that  expressing races.  students  build with  idea  I also  months,  In the  up my written  and  different  ethnical  get along feel  in front  spoken while backgrounds.  with my  classmates  more confidence  of my  classmates  I  Centre,  up more self-confidence  I am now.easily  my  a half  more than I give.  to polish  could  than Chinese.  wrote:  for more than two and  I learn  of C h r i s t o p h e r ' s  in of  different  (J-C-Dec.8)  I n our d i s c u s s i o n , C h r i s t o p h e r p r o v i d e d more i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s l e a r n i n g . He a l s o n o t e d . t h a t of w o r k i n g  h i s experiences  i n the  centre  w i t h s t u d e n t s from o t h e r c u l t u r a l backgrounds  had  shown him t h a t he needed t o t u t o r s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds d i f f e r e n t l y . He gave examples of Kent, was  from A f r i c a , and Cathy, who  suggested  was  from Hong Kong. C h r i s t o p h e r  t h a t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s needed t o a f f e c t t h e  of t u t o r i n g and the t u t o r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s of a t t i t u d e s . He s a i d t h i s p o i n t was  who  a new  pacing  students'  i n s i g h t he g a i n e d  while  w r i t i n g the j o u r n a l . Thus, a j o u r n a l segment w h i c h appears t o be an a b s t r a c t d i s c u s s i o n of C h r i s t o p h e r ' s l e a r n i n g as a r e s u l t of t u t o r i n g a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d c o n c r e t e t h i n k i n g about practice.  tutoring  ,  C h r i s t o p h e r ' s i d e a s i n h i s j o u r n a l s a l s o o f t e n appeared t o l a c k l o g i c a l development. For example, he w r o t e :  142 During  the time while  myself  what role  I should  the most effective confused  I was helping  in being  and being  a private  assistance  I offer  help. a peer tutor.  play  in order  to  provide  Sometimes I even get tutor  in the Learning  Genuine  speaking,  to her is very limited,  cannot push her too hard. Probably am facing  Cathy, I asked  is how to make Cathy start  Centre the  and I  the main problem her studying  I on  her own. (J-C-Nov.17) I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , C h r i s t o p h e r d e s c r i b e d some o f h i s t h i n k i n g b e h i n d t h i s i s s u e . The t h i n k i n g shows t h e l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e p o i n t s made i n t h e j o u r n a l . T h i s e x c e r p t b e g i n s near t h e end o f d i s c u s s i n g . a p r e v i o u s segment. J : You say you're w o r r i e d t h a t maybe y o u ' r e h e l p i n g h e r t o o much, t h a t you're s o r t o f g i v i n g h e r t h e s t u d y method and she's j u s t d o i n g i t ' . • C: Yeah, t h a t ' s t h e p o i n t I mention i n t h e next paragraph.- That's t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a p e e r t u t o r i n t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e and a p r i v a t e t u t o r , i n my opinion. J : Yeah, t h a t was something I wondered when y o u s a i d t h i s . What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e ? C: The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t , yeah, f o r t o be a p r i v a t e t u t o r I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y a r o l e o f problem s o l v e r , yeah, whenever a s t u d e n t come t o any problem, he o r she may seek h e l p from you and i t ' s o u r j o b f o r h e r  143 mom  o r her p a r e n t s pay me,  from me,  yeah, i n o r d e r t o get h e l p  yeah. For peer t u t o r our r o l e of c o u r s e a l s o  g i v e h e l p t o student but most of the j o b d u t i e s a r e study s k i l l  i n s t e a d of h e l p her t o s o l v e the  problem.  Yeah. T h e r e f o r e we do hope t h a t she can s o l v e t h e problem by h e r s e l f a f t e r s e e k i n g our a d v i c e . J : So w i t h the peer t u t o r i n g the g o a l i s more t o make them  independent?  C: Yeah, t h a t ' s r i g h t . That's the p o i n t I want t o make....I want t o c l a r i f y . I t ' s a l s o my problem  too,  I f i n d t h a t I got confused i n my r o l e i n h e l p i n g Cathy, yeah. I wonder whether I s h o u l d work i n a d i f f e r e n t way  i n s t e a d of j u s t g i v i n g her  this  p h o t o c o p i e d s t u f f t o l e t her read i t at home and  do  the c o m p o s i t i o n . I t seems t o be a r e a l , g e n e r a l l y a t e a c h e r i n s t e a d of a peer t u t o r . . . . In f a c t I got q u i t e adapted  t o t e a c h o r conduct  s e s s i o n s of word p e r f e c t ,  the o r i e n t a t i o n  ( i n a u d i b l e ) i s my  role  the  same as the r o l e I had i n Hong Kong. J u s t conduct  the  c l a s s . So I f e e l v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e i n d o i n g so. Yeah. But t o g i v e a d v i c e t o student how s t u d y s k i l l o r how  t o develop  t o h e l p them develop t h e i r  their own  method of s t u d y i n g i s maybe a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t . Yeah. J : Yeah. I can see t h a t . T h i s i d e a of the  difficulty  between b e i n g a p r i v a t e t u t o r and b e i n g a l e a r n i n g  144 c e n t r e t u t o r , was t h a t an i s s u e which you thought o f w h i l e you were w r i t i n g o r had you been t h i n k i n g about that before? C: ... I n f a c t , t h i s was a p o i n t I thought o f w h i l e I was making my o u t l i n e l a s t n i g h t . I d e v e l o p e d i t more when I wrote i t today. Christopher  (I-C-Nov.17)  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s was a l l new t h i n k i n g he had done  while planning  and w r i t i n g h i s j o u r n a l .  Another aspect of t h i s l a c k of e x p l i c i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i n e s o f t h i n k i n g i s t h a t sometimes t u t o r s d i d not show t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i d e a s i n d i f f e r e n t j o u r n a l segments. Christopher  o f t e n appeared t o w r i t e about a wide range o f  d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s i n h i s - j o u r n a l . -In t h e i n t e r v i e w s , however, he explained evident  t h a t many o f the i s s u e s were r e l a t e d . T h i s was not  t o t h e r e a d e r b o t h because he d i d not show t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e ideas and because he o f t e n w r o t e about o t h e r  i s s u e s between segments he r e g a r d e d as r e l a t e d .  T h i s l a c k o f e x p l i c i t n e s s about, the c o n n e c t i o n s between a l s o occurred  across  j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . I n Ann's f i r s t  ideas  journal  she w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g segment: I enjoy  working  returning  to school  system.  They bring  and living papers.  with  the matue after  with  experience  Most of these  and a little  help  (sic) students  many years  of being  who are out of the  them a lot of background  that can be applied students  just  knowledge  to their  need some  with how to go about writing  class  reassurance their  145  required  (J-A-Oct.5)  papers.  I n h e r j o u r n a l two weeks l a t e r , Ann mentioned have also  asked them to tell  me what it is that  to work on so that I am helping learn"  (J-A-Oct.18).  i n p a s s i n g , "I  them with  they  would  like  what they need to  I n our i n t e r v i e w , she n o t e d t h a t  this  statement was a d i r e c t outcome of t h e t h i n k i n g she had done about mature s t u d e n t s e a r l i e r i n t h e semester. However, i n h e r l a t e r j o u r n a l she showed no such c o n n e c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e l a t e r statement showed no e v i d e n c e of t h e d e p t h o f t h i n k i n g underlying her a c t i o n s . Another r h e t o r i c a l feature that i n t e r f e r e d w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g t u t o r s a c h i e v e d i n j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was t h e i r c h o i c e of words-. I n one i n t e r v i e w , f o r example, P a u l i m p l i e d . t h a t he regarded a d e s c r i p t i o n o f s t u d e n t need as a statement of what he i n t e n d e d t o do w i t h t h e s t u d e n t i n t h e i r next s e s s i o n . My last  student  seen her I notice  was' Rhonda and in the four times some big changes. She is quite  with  the 'brainstorming'  with  6 pages  Still  having  organization  of notes.  suggestion  Most in progression  a bit of a problem but I feel  s t a r t i n g to pick  and today  with  she is gaining  up speed.  focus  I have taken  she came in (thoughts).  and  confidence  and  (J-P-Nov.22)  I n our d i s c u s s i o n , P a u l r e p o r t e d t h a t he was r e f l e c t i n g b o t h when he i d e n t i f i e d h e r p r o g r e s s and when he n o t e d "what t o f o c u s on n e x t , o r g a n i z a t i o n " . He s a i d ,  "So i t ' s a n o t e t o me  146 when I go back and read i t I can say d i d I do t h a t o r d i d n ' t I do t h a t , d i d i t work o r d i d n ' t i t work" (I-P-Nov.24). Thus, a l t h o u g h i n h i s j o u r n a l he d e s c r i b e d o r g a n i z a t i o n as a need, i n t h e i n t e r v i e w he d e s c r i b e d o r g a n i z a t i o n as what he i n t e n d e d t o work on w i t h h e r n e x t . C o n s i d e r i n g P a u l ' s penchant f o r d i s c u s s i n g s t u d e n t needs i n h i s j o u r n a l , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t he equated h i s d i s c u s s i o n of s t u d e n t need w i t h a statement o f i n t e n t f o r f u t u r e t u t o r i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t . I f , i n examining P a u l ' s j o u r n a l s , one regarded a l l s t a t e m e n t s o f need ( L e v e l I i n t h e h i e r a r c h y ) as statements o f i n t e n t f o r f u t u r e tutoring  ( L e v e l IV i n t h e h i e r a r c h y ) , h i s j o u r n a l s would have  t o be r e g a r d e d as more r e f l e c t i v e than they o t h e r w i s e appear. I n a n o t h e r example, B i l l y made c l e a r t h a t h i s p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f a technique- could-be equated w i t h an i n t e n t i o n t o c o n t i n u e u s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e . He wrote: I found this students  week that I was better  that did not imply  questions  I found I could  thinking.  This  than pure  to question  in a way that made them do the thinking.  questions  silence,  able  did provide  but I feel dictation  these  my  By  using  the answer of open ended  make my students  do their  own  for some awkward moments of are better  on my part.  learning  experiences  (J-B-Nov.15)  P a r t o f o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s segment f o l l o w s : J : Then here, but you f e e l t h a t t h e y ' r e b e t t e r  learning  e x p e r i e n c e s than pure d i c t a t i o n on y o u r p a r t , i s t h a t something you were aware o f f e e l i n g when y o u were d o i n g  147 it? B: No,  I was  more f e e l i n g awkward and  p r o b a b l y when I was  encourage you  afterwards,  w r i t i n g the j o u r n a l , I thought they  were b e t t e r l e a r n i n g J : So would you  then  experiences.  say then t h a t w r i t i n g t h i s j o u r n a l h e l p e d  t o keep working at .'that?  B: Yeah, a l i t t l e b i t , yeah,- 'cause i t j u s t k i n d of r e i n f o r c e s , I mean i t ' s s t i l l awkward a b i t but w r i t i n g the j o u r n a l h e l p e d a l i t t l e b i t , yeah. J : Do you  t h i n k i f you hadn't w r i t t e n the j o u r n a l , t h a t  you would have a c t e d any d i f f e r e n t l y ? B: Um,  I may  have, I may  o r no q u e s t i o n s .  have j u s t f e l l back t o a s k i n g  yes  (I-B-Nov.16)  R h e t o r i c a l i s s u e s have a l s o been suggested by H a t t o n  and  Smith (1995) as a f a c t o r confounding the assessment of r e f l e c t i o n i n j o u r n a l s . They suggest t h a t , " I t may case t h a t i n any  research,  d i s t o r t e d by s t u d e n t s ' constructions"  w e l l be  the  the evidence f o r r e f l e c t i o n i s b e i n g  l a c k of a b i l i t y t o use p a r t i c u l a r genre  (p. 42). I would suggest t h a t e v i d e n c e f o r  r e f l e c t i o n can be d i s t o r t e d not o n l y through w r i t e r s ' i n a b i l i t i e s t o use p a r t i c u l a r r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s but through t h e i r preferences  for p a r t i c u l a r devices.  s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s s u e may assessing  The  also evidence  be p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n  the j o u r n a l s of those whose f i r s t language i s not  E n g l i s h . However, i t a l s o shows t h a t r h e t o r i c a l c h o i c e s  affect  the assessment of n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s ' r e f l e c t i v e w r i t i n g .  148 Thinking a f t e r Journal  Writing  Most t u t o r s r e p o r t e d  t h i n k i n g f u r t h e r about i s s u e s  after  w r i t i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l s . I n some cases, s i m p l y r e p o r t i n g on t u t o r i n g sessions  l e d t o f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n . I n other, c a s e s ,  new i n s i g h t s g a i n e d w h i l e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n i t i a t e d  further  reflection. I n many cases when t u t o r s s i m p l y r e p o r t e d session  on a t u t o r i n g  i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s , they s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f l e c t e d f u r t h e r  on t h e s e s s i o n . As F e l i c i a noted i n one i n t e r v i e w , w r i t e i t down then i t might c l i c k i n y o u r head"  " i f you  (I-F-Oct.11).  F o c u s i n g on i s s u e s and c l a r i f y i n g t h e i r i d e a s w h i l e  writing  j o u r n a l s may have enabled t u t o r s .to r e f l e c t . F o r example, P a u l wrote: The next hour of tutoring I did a Level exercises,  was on WP [word processing].  2 with a student,  showed-him a couple  recommended a couple  of texts  got him to do some of quick  steps  So simple  and  for him to check. ( J - P -  Nov.8) In d i s c u s s i n g  t h i s segment, P a u l s a i d , " A f t e r I had w r i t t e n  t h i s and I was t h i n k i n g about what Tom had s a i d i n t h e meeting, I r e a l i z e d t h a t I had done too much and he p r o b a b l y l e a r n much. I t was more a d i s p l a y of my s k i l l s "  (I-P-Nov.10).  I n t h i s case, P a u l d i d not p r o b l e m a t i z e t h e t u t o r i n g u n t i l a f t e r completion of the j o u r n a l  didn't  session  entry.  In o t h e r cases a f t e r w r i t i n g about problems i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s , t u t o r s r e f l e c t e d on s o l u t i o n s t o those problems. I n  149 the  f o l l o w i n g example, a f t e r w r i t i n g her  j o u r n a l Ann  focused  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the i s s u e f o r f u t u r e t u t o r i n g . She One  concern  returned  that I have, is regarding  by an instructor  corrections  grammar errors,  returned  like  this  student.  The  student  but  looked  we  used this  etc.,  the paper  and  discussed  to apply for  this  not  why  to future  correcting  she  handed it in to her  the  contents  a paper  and  logic  original  these  things  writings.  and  for  a this  Therefore,  We went over were wrong  Later,  I  and  chastised  paper more thoroughly  instructor.  I was  work and  errors.  the' scarred, paper as  to  graded  to improve. learning.  of her  with  unhappy about  for  her  the more noticeable.grammar have had  but  seem too  as a. tool  is  an instructor  at it as an opportunity paper  marked  must be very discouraging didn't  wrote:  that  to read the  it is necessary"for  indicate  myself  is so badly  that it is difficult  work. I realize  how  and  a paper  But  the. basis  on  before  more intent  on  only pointed  out  then, we would for. learning.  not (J-  A-Oct.25) Ann  t o l d me  t h a t o n l y the l a s t sentence of t h i s segment was  t h i n k i n g r e s u l t i n g from w r i t i n g the j o u r n a l . She about a l l the r e s t p r i o r t o t h i n k i n g about her However, she  also reported  had  thought  journal.  f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g she had  done as  r e s u l t of c l a r i f y i n g her t h i n k i n g about the s i t u a t i o n . She d e c i d e d what t o work on i n f u t u r e w i t h the s t u d e n t . She t h a t t h e y needed t o pay  new  more a t t e n t i o n t o word c h o i c e i n  a had  felt the  150 s t u d e n t ' s w r i t i n g . She  had  a l s o thought about the  of the problem i n a broader sense. She she would encourage s t u d e n t s t o get p a p e r s , once on content and c h o i c e and  grammar i s s u e s  ramifications  decided that i n  future  feedback t w i c e on t h e i r  organization  and  (I-A-Oct.27). The  once on word journal writing  had  s e r v e d as a c a t a l y s t f o r f u r t h e r h i g h l e v e l r e f l e c t i o n . I n o t h e r cases, new  t h i n k i n g done i n the p r o c e s s of  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n i t i a t e d f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g about  issues.  Sometimes, t h i s seemed t o o c c u r as a r e s u l t of the f u n c t i o n of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g d e s c r i b e d example, i n one Last  journal Christopher  week, Cathy was  I did  feel  a bit  care  what she  last  warning  has  late  for  disappointed promised  before  I put  by M c A l p i n e (1992) . For  wrote: her  appointments  with her, to me.  her  "cathartic"  I'd  for  better  name on the  two she give  times.  didn't her  a  blacklist.  (J-C-  Nov.10) Christopher The  described' the f u n c t i o n w r i t i n g - t h i s segment s e r v e d .  time when I was  disappointed, why  not  w r i t i n g .this I f e l t a l i t t l e b i t  r e a l l y angry, but d i s a p p o i n t e d  I w r o t e a l a s t warning... but  w r i t i n g the j o u r n a l . . . moderate w a r n i n g . He had  I modified i t a  r e a l l y h e l p e d me  so  that's  lot,...  t o g i v e her  a  (I-C-Nov.10)  got out h i s f e e l i n g s on paper and  then m o d i f i e d h i s  i n t e n t i o n t o a l e s s extreme a c t i o n . Often f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g a f t e r journal w r i t i n g r e l a t e d to i m p l i c a t i o n s of r e f l e c t i o n s i n j o u r n a l s f o r t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e .  151 I n t h e f o l l o w i n g example, P a u l d e s c r i b e d r e f l e c t i n g  further  about a new i n s i g h t he had g a i n e d w h i l e w r i t i n g h i s j o u r n a l and as a r e s u l t changing h i s approach t o a s t u d e n t . I n h i s he  journal,  wrote: One [student]  forgot  no questions,  just  real  clear  exercises she help  her referral.  on the concept that coincided  come prepared with.  to bring  with  anything  with her. No  It looks  like  notes,  she was not  of what we do. I gave her some with  Tom's notes  some problems  and  she felt  suggested she needed  (J-P-Jan.27)  P a u l s a i d t h a t t h e o n l y new t h i n k i n g which he d i d i n w r i t i n g t h i s segment was t o note t h a t perhaps the' s t u d e n t was n o t c l e a r on t h e concept o f g e t t i n g t u t o r i n g . He s a i d t h a t p r i o r t o w r i t i n g t h e j o u r n a l he had s i m p l y regarded h e r as an "empty vessel".  A f t e r w r i t i n g t h e j o u r n a l , w h i l e he was p r o o f r e a d i n g  i t i n f a c t , he thought f u r t h e r about t h e s i t u a t i o n . He f e l t t h a t he had been c o r r e c t  about h e r not b e i n g c l e a r on t h e  concept and t h a t he would need t o " l e a d h e r s t e p by s t e p " t o h e l p h e r l e a r n how t o use t h e c e n t r e e f f e c t i v e l y . He f e l t  that  h i s i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n had been "a l i t t l e t o o h a r s h " and reassessed the s i t u a t i o n a f t e r w r i t i n g his journal Jan.27). Paul's recognition  (I-P-  while journal w r i t i n g of the  s t u d e n t ' s l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g caused him t o r e f l e c t about t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n  further  a f t e r w r i t i n g the  j ournal. At o t h e r t i m e s , j o u r n a l w r i t i n g seemed t o s p a r k l a t e r  152 t h i n k i n g about i s s u e s not touched on i n the j o u r n a l s t h e m s e l v e s . I n the f o l l o w i n g example, Ann wrote about one  issue  i n d e a l i n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t s and saw t h i s as a c a t a l y s t f o r t h i n k i n g about a n o t h e r i s s u e i n r e l a t i o n t o some of t h e same s t u d e n t s . With  [one group  them develop recognize  of] students  their  thesis  (and for them to be able  that they have a thesis.statement)  can continue the over  with  their  use of quotes.  in her paragraphs. only  paper.  she should  Once again,  One student  to  I  they  encountered but  quotes  that quotes  what she was saying,  were  and  that  not use too many of them in each paragraph. consisted  of approx.  five  all of  and quotes.  think  got the idea and went away to do a  she finally She will  After  sentences  were paraphrasing  rewrite.  help  to  before  had nothing  She did not understand  to be used to support  paragraph  it has been necessary  our discussion,  drop it off for me to proof  read.  One which  I  (J-A-  Nov.16) Our d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s segment went l i k e A: A f t e r I f i n i s h e d  this:  [ w r i t i n g the j o u r n a l ] , I r e a l i z e d  something t h a t happened w i t h r e g a r d t o one of t h e s e i n c i d e n t s t h a t I s h o u l d have c o n t i n u e d on about. And  that  was t h e f a c t t h a t b e f o r e I came t o t h i s p o i n t about quotes t h a t I had a l r e a d y met w i t h two of t h e s e s t u d e n t s and I'd a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h e i r t h e s i s and how they would o u t l i n e i t and e v e r y t h i n g . And they went away and were p l e a s e d  153 about i t and I was r e a l l y p l e a s e d about how t h a t  session  had gone. And then they came back w i t h t h i s and t h i s  was  on my mind r a t h e r than, I guess I s h o u l d have l o o k e d a t t h i s and why, why d i d t h i s happen? And I'm t r y i n g t o f i g u r e out why i t happened. And I s t i l l haven't come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n why one week they were s e t w i t h t h e i r mind what t h e y had t o do and then c o m p l e t e l y r e v e r s e d back t o what t h e y d i d b e f o r e anyway. So w r i t i n g t h i s down, w e l l , j u s t made me t h i n k about i t and I guess t h e o n l y t h i n g I can do about i t i s send them away and make them r e w r i t e i t so t h a t I can have something t o work w i t h and t h a t ' s about it.  .  J : Yeah, so t h a t t h i n k i n g about how t h i s f i t w i t h what you'd done p r e v i o u s l y , you .thought about a f t e r w r i t i n g this? A: That's c o r r e c t .  • .•  J : So i t s p a r k e d some t h i n k i n g t h a t was A: Yeah. Yeah. D e f i n i t e l y .  useful?  (I-A-Nov.17) .  W r i t i n g about one problem l e d t o t h i n k i n g about a n o t h e r r e l a t e d problem. E f f e c t s o f the Research P r o c e s s on T u t o r T h i n k i n g The i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s l e d t o f u r t h e r t u t o r t h i n k i n g about i s s u e s . F e l i c i a noted, "when we t a l k about i t [an i s s u e ] , I t h i n k about i t a l o t more than u s u a l , and i t s t i c k s i n my head a l o t more when we t a l k about i t "  (I-F-Dec.7). T u t o r s  r e c o g n i z e d t h a t I a f f e c t e d t h e i r t h i n k i n g i n t h r e e ways: by  154 focusing  them a g a i n on the i s s u e s they wrote about; by  p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r t h i n k i n g ; and, s h a r i n g my One  perspectives  on  by  asking  occasionally  issues.  d i f f i c u l t y i n assessing  the e f f e c t s of the  research  p r o c e s s on t h i s i s s u e i s t h a t I d i d not at the o u t s e t of data c o l l e c t i o n  focus on the i s s u e of the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of  the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s on t u t o r t h i n k i n g . A f t e r the s t u d y as a form of a c t i o n r e s e a r c h , and  q u e s t i o n the e f f e c t s of my  However, i n my  the  reconceptualizing  I began t o acknowledge  i n t e r v i e w i n g on t u t o r  e a r l i e r interviews  I d i d not  t u t o r s about the e f f e c t s of those, i n t e r v i e w s  t y p i c a l l y question on t h e i r  Many of the t r a n s c r i p t s of those e a r l i e r i n t e r v i e w s c l a r i f y whether f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g r e p o r t e d p r i o r to or during  the i n t e r v i e w . The  thinking.  do  thinking. not  by t u t o r s o c c u r r e d  examples w h i c h f o l l o w ,  however, show t u t o r r e c o g n i t i o n of the e f f e c t s of the  interview  process. The  s t r u c t u r e of t u t o r i n t e r v i e w s  encouraged t u t o r s  t h i n k about i s s u e s a g a i n . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a  considerable  amount of f u r t h e r t u t o r t h i n k i n g on those i s s u e s . In f o l l o w i n g example from an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Ann, new  u n d e r s t a n d i n g t r i g g e r e d by the i n t e r v i e w I s t a r t e d t o t h i n k about t h i s boy and  from t h i s p o i n t  week who  she  process:  and what he was  doing  mind about  I'd been w o r k i n g w i t h d u r i n g  were d e v e l o p i n g summaries. T h i s was  reverse...!  the  identified a  i t k i n d of t r i g g e r e d i n my  some o t h e r s t u d e n t s who  to  the  the  d i d n ' t make the c o n n e c t i o n when I w r o t e t h i s  155 but I d i d j u s t now him,  t a l k i n g about i t . What I was  I c o u l d do w i t h them too.  My q u e s t i o n s  doing  with  (I-A-Nov.3)  i n interviews also affected tutor thinking.  For example, F e l i c i a wrote a j o u r n a l e n t r y about u s i n g a technique  f o r the f i r s t time (J-F-Oct.28).  In the i n t e r v i e w ,  she r e p o r t e d t h a t she would use the t e c h n i q u e  again with  the  s t u d e n t . When I asked her i f the t e c h n i q u e would work w i t h other students,  she s a i d i t p r o b a b l y would but t h a t she had  thought about t h a t u n t i l I asked the q u e s t i o n I n some cases,  (I-F-Nov.2).  I took a more a c t i v e r o l e i n a f f e c t i n g  t u t o r t h i n k i n g . For example, Ann wrote about a p r o b l e m she h e l p i n g a student  not  r e c o g n i z e main i d e a s i n r e a d i n g  had  (J-A-Nov.16).  I n our i n t e r v i e w , we had a l o n g d i s c u s s i o n about t h i s i s s u e w h i c h changed Ann's p e r s p e c t i v e . I suggested a number of p o s s i b l e s t r a t e g i e s f o r h e l p i n g him w i t h the problem. expressed  c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n one of my  ideas  Ann  and  s u g g e s t e d a m o d i f i c a t i o n t o i t t h a t she thought might work w i t h the s t u d e n t  (I-A-Nov.17).  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t a l t h o u g h I o c c a s i o n a l l y took an a c t i v e r o l e i n i n t e r v i e w s by s u g g e s t i n g use,  techniques  they might  I g e n e r a l l y o n l y d i d so when t u t o r s seemed s t u c k  somewhat d e s p e r a t e f o r two  reasons.  t o come up w i t h new  F i r s t , Tom  meetings and I regarded  and  ideas. I avoided  suggested t e c h n i q u e s  this  in staff  t h i s as h i s r o l e . Furthermore, I d i d  not have time i n i n t e r v i e w s t o conduct i n d i v i d u a l t u t o r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . Second, I f e l t t h a t . i d e a s d e v e l o p e d by  the  156  t u t o r s themselves would be most u s e f u l t o them. I d i d not want them t o t u r n t o me f o r i d e a s .  I wanted them t o use t h e i r  e x p e r i e n c e t o develop i d e a s of t h e i r  own.  157  S e c t i o n Seven: C o l l a b o r a t i v e A n a l y s i s  I n t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n o f Chapter Three, I d e s c r i b e t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e data and t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e thesis. First, and  I d i s c u s s my w r i t i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l case s t u d i e s  t h e r e a c t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s t o those s t u d i e s . Next, I  d e s c r i b e how I i n v o l v e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c o l l a b o r a t i n g on t h e a n a l y s i s of • t h e data and the ' outcomes' "of those e f f o r t s . Finally,  I d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s of w r i t i n g t h e t h e s i s and r a i s e  some i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g  validity.  Writing Individual Profiles A f t e r completion  of t h e f i r s t phase o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , I  w r o t e case s t u d i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e study. I c a l l e d t h e s e case s t u d i e s  "profiles".  W r i t i n g t h e p r o f i l e s had two purposes. F i r s t , Middleton  (1993),  following  I wanted p a r t i c i p a n t s t o have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  t o v e t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would be i n c l u d e d about them i n t h e study b e f o r e o t h e r s had access t o t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . The s m a l l number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e study and t h e p e r s o n a l n a t u r e o f some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n made me f e e l i t was n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o remove data from t h e s t u d y . I t o l d them about t h i s step a t t h e o u t s e t . I hoped t h i s would reassure  them t h a t they c o u l d say what they l i k e d i n o u r  i n t e r v i e w s , s e c u r e i n t h e knowledge t h a t I would not make i n f o r m a t i o n about them p u b l i c w i t h o u t  t h e i r permission.  I wanted t o g i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  Second,  to contribute to  158 the t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g of the study. I hoped t h e p r o f i l e s would a l l o w me t o t r y out my a n a l y s i s of the data about each p a r t i c i p a n t on t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t . I d i d so w i t h t h e g o a l of a v o i d i n g what S a i d (1979) c a l l s  "appropriation". Appropriation  i s t h e tendency on the p a r t of r e s e a r c h e r s t o i n t e r p r e t meanings of s u b o r d i n a t e  groups f o r the r e s e a r c h e r s '  own  p u r p o s e s . I a l s o wanted t o put the data i n a form w h i c h a l l o w e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o access  information about'the other  p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s access would enable them t o t h e o r i z e about d a t a c o l l e c t e d on, a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n w r i t i n g t h e p r o f i l e s , I d i d not attempt t o c r e a t e a t i g h t a n a l y s i s of the d a t a . My g o a l was t o c r e a t e an account w h i c h a l l o w e d f o r v a r i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e d a t a . I d i d s i m p l e d e d u c t i v e a n a l y s i s of each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s j o u r n a l s and p e r s p e c t i v e s , and i n c l u d e d e x t e n s i v e e x c e r p t s from j o u r n a l s and i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s . Because each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p r o f i l e had to stand alone,  I d i d not use data c o l l e c t e d about t h e  t r a i n e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s i n the p r o f i l e s of t u t o r s . T h i s meant, t h a t d i s c u s s i o n s of r e f l e c t i o n d i d not focus on t h e t r a i n e r ' s l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n . I n s t e a d , I d e s c r i b e d p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e f l e c t i o n s i n more g e n e r a l terms. Each p r o f i l e c o n s i s t e d of g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about p a r t i c i p a n t p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k as w e l l as i n f o r m a t i o n about c o n t e n t  and  r e f l e c t i o n s i n j o u r n a l s and about t h i n k i n g around j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . The p r o f i l e s were w r i t t e n u s i n g language I f e l t would be a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The development of t h e  159  p r o f i l e s a l l o w e d me t o c r e a t e an i n d i v i d u a l p o r t r a i t o f each t u t o r s ' j o u r n a l w r i t i n g b e h a v i o u r s and p e r s p e c t i v e s . P a r t i c i p a n t Responses t o I n d i v i d u a l  Profiles  A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e p r o f i l e s , I gave p a r t i c i p a n t s own  their  p r o f i l e s f o r a p e r i o d of two t o t h r e e weeks. I asked  p a r t i c i p a n t s t o do two t h i n g s . F i r s t , I wanted them t o i d e n t i f y any a s p e c t s o f my a n a l y s i s w i t h which they d i s a g r e e d . Second, I asked them t o i d e n t i f y any data which they d i d n o t want made p u b l i c . Three o f t h e t u t o r s responded t h a t t h e p r o f i l e s were a c c u r a t e from t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s and t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be made p u b l i c . Four p a r t i c i p a n t s , Ann, C h r i s t o p h e r , Tom and K r i s t a , agreed w i t h the o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y o f t h e p r o f i l e s b u t asked  f o r minor changes i n wording.  These changes f o c u s e d on  c o n n o t a t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c words o r p h r a s e s .  Some o f t h e  p r o b l e m a t i c terms were terms I had used i n my a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . I n a few cases, terms they had used i n o u r i n t e r v i e w s were t h e problem. I d i s c u s s e d each change w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and we agreed on s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e p r o b l e m a t i c words. I d i d not f e e l t h a t these changes s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d t h e d a t a o r the a n a l y s i s i n t h e study. A f t e r making t h e n e c e s s a r y  changes  to the p r o f i l e s , I d i s t r i b u t e d a l l p r o f i l e s t o a l l participants. Tutor C o l l a b o r a t i v e Meeting As w e l l as t h e p r o f i l e s of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , I gave each t u t o r a memo which c l a r i f i e d t h e purpose o f t h e r e s e a r c h and l i s t e d f o u r t e e n q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Some  160 q u e s t i o n s were g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e . They asked f o r such t h i n g s as a g e n e r a l a p p r a i s a l o f t h e v a l u e o f the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  task.  Other q u e s t i o n s f o c u s e d on more s p e c i f i c i s s u e s r a i s e d by i n d i v i d u a l s . These i n c l u d e d  the t r a i n e r ' s a t t i t u d e s t o l e v e l s  of r e f l e c t i o n and c o n t e n t , t h e e f f e c t o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g on c o n f i d e n c e , t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r o r a l as opposed t o w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i o n and t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r r e p o r t i n g - s t y l e j o u r n a l s . I n preparation  f o r a . c o l l a b o r a t i v e t u t o r meeting, t u t o r s were  asked t o r e a d t h e p r o f i l e s of the t r a i n e r and a t l e a s t one o t h e r t u t o r and t h i n k about t h e i r r e a c t i o n s  to the questions I  posed. Unfortunately, difficult.  scheduling, t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e m e e t i n g was  It- was t h e end of the. f o l l o w i n g semester and t u t o r s  were v e r y busy. Furthermore, some t u t o r s were l e a v i n g town a t semester's end. The b e s t I c o u l d do was s c h e d u l e a m e e t i n g a t a time t h a t f i v e t u t o r s c o u l d manage. U l t i m a t e l y ,  only  four  t u t o r s a t t e n d e d t h e meeting because one t u t o r got h e l d up w i t h w r i t i n g a f i n a l paper f o r a c o u r s e . Ann, B i l l y , C h r i s t o p h e r  and  F e l i c i a a t t e n d e d t h e meeting. At t h e meeting, Ann and B i l l y r e p o r t e d a l l of the p r o f i l e s . Christopher  t h a t t h e y had r e a d  and F e l i c i a had r e a d  only  t h o s e o f one o t h e r t u t o r and t h e t r a i n e r . I began t h e m e e t i n g by a s k i n g  about d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s they saw a c r o s s  the p r o f i l e s . We then d i s c u s s e d  t h e q u e s t i o n s I had p r o v i d e d .  The m e e t i n g was two hours l o n g . A l l t u t o r s p r e s e n t p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y . I a u d i o t a p e d and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d t h e d i s c u s s i o n .  161 Tutor C o l l a b o r a t i v e Meeting: Below,  Findings  I h i g h l i g h t some of the key f i n d i n g s of the  c o l l a b o r a t i v e t u t o r meeting. Differences  a f f e c t i n g l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n . A l l t u t o r s  r e g a r d e d a c r u c i a l i s s u e a f f e c t i n g l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n i n j o u r n a l s t o be the impetus f o r r e f l e c t i o n . They f e l t  that  t u t o r s who wrote j o u r n a l s f o r t h e i r own purposes wrote the most r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l s whereas those who wrote j o u r n a l s t o s a t i s f y Tom's r e q u i r e m e n t wrote the l e a s t r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l s . T h i s s u p p o r t s LaBoskey's  (1993) f i n d i n g t h a t more r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l  w r i t e r s were more i n t e r n a l l y m o t i v a t e d whereas l e s s r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l w r i t e r s r e l i e d on e x t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n .  Felicia  i d e n t i f i e d lack' of time as an i m p o r t a n t . f a c t o r  which  reduced  the r e f l e c t i v e n e s s of her j o u r n a l s . She found t h a t she d i d not have time t o w r i t e her. j o u r n a l o u t s i d e  of her w o r k i n g hours  t h a t d u r i n g her w o r k i n g hours she was c o n s t a n t l y  and  interrupted.  Wedman et a l . (1990) a l s o found time t o be an i m p o r t a n t constraining  factor i n achieving  r e f l e c t i v i t y . LaBoskey  (1993)  found t h a t s t u d e n t s who were overwhelmed and d i s t r a c t e d by o t h e r concerns were r e l a t i v e l y u n r e f l e c t i v e . T u t o r s a l s o discussed  l e v e l s of c o n f i d e n c e i n b o t h t u t o r i n g and  w r i t i n g as p o s s i b l e Levels  journal  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n .  of r e f l e c t i o n . T u t o r s g e n e r a l l y agreed w i t h Tom's  l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n . They f e l t t h a t i n most cases s t a t e m e n t s at L e v e l  IV were most r e f l e c t i v e and most u s e f u l whereas t h o s e  at L e v e l  I were l e a s t r e f l e c t i v e and l e a s t u s e f u l .  Billy  162 pointed  out  t h a t , r a t h e r than a h i e r a r c h y ,  represented a progression,  a progression  these l e v e l s  he o f t e n f o l l o w e d  in  w r i t i n g a j o u r n a l segment. B i l l y a l s o suggested t h a t perhaps L e v e l IV was  not always b e s t . He gave the example of  e x p e r i e n c e d t u t o r who  may  an  o n l y need t o i d e n t i f y a g o a l  w o r k i n g w i t h a s t u d e n t . Once the g o a l i s e s t a b l i s h e d , c o u r s e of a c t i o n may  be obvious t o the t u t o r so any  for the  further  w r i t i n g would not show r e f l e c t i o n . J u d g i n g j o u r n a l s . The  tutors f e l t that journals should  be j u d g e d as l e s s or more u s e f u l by the t r a i n e r . They f e l t i f j o u r n a l s are t o be f o r the t u t o r ' s own  not that  b e n e f i t , they s h o u l d  have f r e e r e i n t o d i s c u s s whatever they choose at whatever l e v e l of r e f l e c t i o n they f e e l comfortable' w i t h . They  discussed  uses f o r j o u r n a l s o u t s i d e  included  personal  the t r a i n e r ' s g o a l s . These  uses f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g such as h e l p i n g  d e v e l o p t h e i r s k i l l s as s t u d e n t s and  tutors  t h e i r confidence.  s u g g e s t e d t h a t such a l t e r n a t e uses were p r o d u c t i v e because they p r o v i d e d  "a .springboard"  t u t o r i n g even i f they d i d not  for tutoring  f o r t h i n k i n g about  focus on t u t o r i n g i t s e l f . She  o t h e r s f e l t t h a t these r e f l e c t i o n s a f f e c t e d t u t o r i n g but the e f f e c t s may  Ann  and  that  be l o n g - t e r m r a t h e r than immediate.  C o n t r o l l i n g journals. Generally,  tutors f e l t that  the  f r e e r j o u r n a l s a r e , the more u s e f u l they a r e . They f e l t t h a t i f the t r a i n e r p l a c e s more d i f f i c u l t  c o n t r o l s on what t u t o r s w r i t e about, i t i s  f o r the t u t o r s t o own  the t a s k . I f the t r a i n e r  does not p l a c e c o n t r o l s on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , i t i s e a s i e r f o r  163 t u t o r s t o see i t as f o r t h e i r own purposes. As a r e s u l t , t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s more p r o d u c t i v e . The  threat of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . A l l t u t o r s f e l t  that  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was t h r e a t e n i n g because i t r e q u i r e d t h e t u t o r t o expose t h e i r weaknesses t o another p e r s o n . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e a d e r was t h e boss made i t doubly t h r e a t e n i n g . Most t u t o r s f e l t t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was most t h r e a t e n i n g  f o r them when  t h e y were new t u t o r s . At that, p o i n t , they were l e s s  confident  about t h e i r s k i l l s and l e s s secure i n t h e j o b . As new t u t o r s , they a l s o d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what was e x p e c t e d i n a j o u r n a l . B i l l y f e l t d i f f e r e n t l y . He found t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g not w o r r i e d was  he was  about e x p o s i n g h i s weaknesses because he f e l t i t  acceptable  t o make m i s t a k e s when he' had. j u s t begun t h e j o b .  As time went on, he f e l t t h a t he s h o u l d n ' t be making m i s t a k e s any more so was more r e l u c t a n t - t o show h i s weaknesses. Emphasis on weaknesses. I n d i s c u s s i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , t h e t u t o r s p u t a l o t o f emphasis on t h e i s s u e o f w r i t i n g about t h e i r weaknesses d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t they r e c o g n i z e d c o u l d l e a r n from w r i t i n g about s t r e n g t h s .  Some f e l t  w r i t i n g about, weaknesses was more p r o d u c t i v e ;  they  that  t h e y l e a r n e d more  from i t . Others f e l t t h a t t h e emphasis on weaknesses made t h e t a s k more t h r e a t e n i n g . When asked what t h e t r a i n e r c o u l d do t o reduce t h e emphasis on weaknesses, they suggested two p o s s i b i l i t i e s . F i r s t , Ann suggested t h a t t h e t r a i n e r ' s use o f the word " c r i t i c a l " and " c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t " i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s may have been t a k e n by t u t o r s w i t h i t s n e g a t i v e  connotation of  164 'find fault with'  as opposed t o a more n e u t r a l o r academic  c o n n o t a t i o n . Others suggested t h a t g i v i n g new t u t o r s examples of t u t o r j o u r n a l s showing r e f l e c t i o n on b o t h s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses would h e l p by b o t h r e d u c i n g t h e t h r e a t o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f o r new t u t o r s and by showing how l o o k i n g a t p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . B e n e f i t s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g worth time s p e n t . I n g e n e r a l , t u t o r s f e l t t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was w e l l w o r t h t h e time spent on i t . Some saw b o t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and a t t e n d i n g  staff  meetings as u s e f u l t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s which complimented one a n o t h e r . Others thought t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was more u s e f u l t h a n s t a f f meetings because j o u r n a l s d e a l t w i t h i s s u e s  that  were i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l t u t o r . They found t h a t t h e i s s u e s d e a l t w i t h i n s t a f f meetings were o f t e n n o t p e r t i n e n t t o t h e i r needs. They d i d not f i n d f a u l t w i t h t h e t r a i n e r i n t h i s . Instead,  they f e l t t h a t l e a r n i n g needs o f t u t o r s were so  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t h a t t h e meetings c o u l d n o t a d d r e s s t h e needs o f a l l t u t o r s . F e l i c i a f e l t t h a t sometimes h e r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was w o r t h t h e time spent on i t . When she used h e r j o u r n a l s f o r h e r own growth they were w e l l worth t h e time, but when she wrote them s i m p l y t o s a t i s f y Tom's requirement they were n o t w o r t h the t i m e . W r i t i n g b e t t e r than d i s c u s s i o n . A l l t u t o r s p r e s e n t p r e f e r r e d w r i t i n g about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s t o d i s c u s s i n g them o r a l l y . They f e l t w r i t i n g h e l p e d them c l a r i f y  t h e i r i d e a s . They  a l s o f e l t w r i t i n g was l e s s a n x i e t y p r o d u c i n g than s p e a k i n g w i t h  165 the t r a i n e r . I n the i n i t i a l data c o l l e c t i o n , o n l y  Christopher  mentioned t h i s b e n e f i t of the t a s k b e i n g w r i t t e n , but a l l t u t o r s at the meeting agreed t h a t i t was  a major b e n e f i t of  the  t a s k . They found w r i t i n g gave them time t o t h i n k t h r o u g h t h e i r i d e a s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t K r i s t a , who  was  u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h r e f l e c t i n g i n w r i t i n g , was  most not p r e s e n t a t  the m e e t i n g . D i a r y w r i t i n g v s . • r e f l e c t i v e w r i t i n g . Some t u t o r s t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g would be e q u a l l y p r o d u c t i v e productive  felt  o r more  i f they were j u s t asked t o w r i t e a l o g o r d i a r y of  t h e i r t u t o r i n g experiences.  They f e l t t h a t i n w r i t i n g a l o g ,  t h e y would n a t u r a l l y r e f l e c t on i s s u e s t h a t came up. the t a s k would be l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g ,  Because  they f e l t t h e y would  be  more f r e e t o r e f l e c t n a t u r a l l y and t h e r e f o r e g a i n more. B i l l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t such an approach might work w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t e r s but t h a t new m e c h a n i c a l one  experienced  t u t o r s ' might s e e ' t h e t a s k as a  and not r e f l e c t on  their.experiences.  T a l k i n g about j o u r n a l s . A l l t u t o r s f e l t t h a t t a l k i n g about t h e i r j o u r n a l s w i t h me had been v e r y u s e f u l . I t had them a g a i n on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s ,  and my  questions  focused  had  prompted  them t o r e f l e c t more d e e p l y . In the semester s i n c e I  had  c o m p l e t e d the i n i t i a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , Tom  tutors  had  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e a d each o t h e r s ' j o u r n a l s and  given  comment on them.  However, t u t o r s f e l t t h a t t a l k i n g about t h e i r own more u s e f u l and  journals  encouraged.more r e f l e c t i o n than r e a d i n g  t a l k i n g about the j o u r n a l s of  others.  and  was  166 F i n a l Trainer Following for  Interview  t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e t u t o r meeting, I met w i t h  a f i n a l interview.  P r i o r to the interview,  Tom  I had p r o v i d e d  him w i t h t h e p r o f i l e s of a l l t u t o r s and a summary o f key f i n d i n g s i n t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e t u t o r meeting. I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the i n t e r v i e w , and  consider  I asked him t o read the p r o f i l e s and t h e summary  what new i n s i g h t s he had g a i n e d c o n c e r n i n g how t o  b e s t approach j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e .  The  i n t e r v i e w , w h i c h l a s t e d f o r about an hour, was f o c u s e d on h i s d e v e l o p i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . However, I a l s o made s u g g e s t i o n s about some o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s I saw i n t h e r e s e a r c h .  I  a u d i o t a p e d and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d the i n t e r v i e w . Final Trainer Below, I d e s c r i b e  Interview:  Tom's p e r s p e c t i v e  Findings on i s s u e s r a i s e d i n  the p r o f i l e s and t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e t u t o r m e e t i n g . Tom's p e r s p e c t i v e  was t h a t j o u r n a l s worked w e l l f o r some  t u t o r s . However, f o r o t h e r t u t o r s they seemed l e s s u s e f u l . He f e l t a key i s s u e was how t o make t h e t a s k more u s e f u l f o r t h o s e who d i d not t a k e t o the approach e a s i l y . N o t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t u t o r s e v i d e n t i n the j o u r n a l p r o f i l e s , Tom f e l t some degree o f i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n was needed. He f e l t  that  tutors  s h o u l d have more c h o i c e o f when t o hand j o u r n a l s i n and how t o do  them. A major concern o f Tom's was how t o g i v e t u t o r s i n t e r n a l  motivation  f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . He suggested t h a t t h i s might be  a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h how j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was i n t r o d u c e d  and how  167 j o u r n a l s were used a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n . Tom  f e l t the g u i d e l i n e s he had  needed a d a p t a t i o n .  He  language t h a t was  "not  guidelines  f e l t they s h o u l d be s i m p l e r  j u s t i d e n t i f y i n g ' a few key  i s s u e was  f e l t would He  suggested  t o r e p r e s e n t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as  opportunity  f o r growth" r a t h e r than "a way  A p r . 2 6 ) . He  f e l t h i s p r e v i o u s emphasis on improvement  encouraged t u t o r s t o focus on weakness and  should  questions.  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n a more f r u i t f u l way.  t h a t a key  use  t h a t an adapted v e r s i o n  He a l s o suggested o t h e r s t r a t e g i e s t h a t he introduce  and  so heavy". He thought t h a t the e x i s t i n g  c o n f u s e d t u t o r s and  be much s h o r t e r ,  used f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  "an  t o improve"  had  (I-Thad  rendered  the  t a s k n e g a t i v e f o r some t u t o r s . Another p o i n t he r a i s e d was i m p o r t a n c e of t r a i n i n g t u t o r s t o do j o u r n a l ' w r i t i n g . He would be u s e f u l t o p r o v i d e new  the  felt i t  t u t o r s w i t h a range of examples  of p r e v i o u s t u t o r j o u r n a l s . These j o u r n a l s c o u l d  show t u t o r s  the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as w e l l as g i v e them models on w h i c h t o base t h e i r i n i t i a l j o u r n a l s . He a l s o t h a t g i v i n g t u t o r s the h i e r a r c h y be u s e f u l . He wanted but own  of l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n would  f e l t t u t o r s s h o u l d w r i t e at whatever l e v e l  t h a t they c o u l d use  the h i e r a r c h y  encourage t u t o r s t o be r e f l e c t i v e about t h e i r own w r i t i n g . Hopefully,  Tom  i t would i n c r e a s e  they  t o measure t h e i r  r e f l e c t i v i t y . T h i s s t r a t e g y would maximize c h o i c e  motivation  felt  and  journal  tutors' internal  for journal writing. f e l t t h a t j o u r n a l s s h o u l d be used a f t e r t h e y were  168 w r i t t e n . One  way  he f e l t they s h o u l d be used was  d i s c u s s i o n between the t u t o r / j o u r n a l w r i t e r and P a r t i c u l a r l y f o r those t u t o r s who  as a f o c u s f o r the  trainer.  seemed t o g a i n l i t t l e  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , he thought i f he i n t e r v i e w e d  from  t u t o r s about  t h e i r j o u r n a l s t h a t he c o u l d push them t o h i g h e r  levels  of  r e f l e c t i o n . He noted the b e n e f i t s t h a t t u t o r s had  g a i n e d from  the p r o c e s s of b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d . f o r my. r e s e a r c h .  One  he had  about t h i s approach was  concern  the heavy demand i t would  place  on h i s t i m e . Tom He had  a l s o f e l t t h a t j o u r n a l s s h o u l d be s h a r e d among t u t o r s .  done a b i t of t h a t the p r e v i o u s semester and he  t h a t i t was  productive.  felt  A l s o , i f i t were done s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  f e l t t h a t t u t o r s c o u l d be m o t i v a t e d by the o p p o r t u n i t y  t o share  t h e i r i d e a s . He d i d have concerns, however, t h a t some t u t o r s might use  t h e i r j o u r n a l s more t o show o f f  I .suggested t o Tom  an i d e a of my  own  than t o r e f l e c t . about how  c o u l d be used e f f e c t i v e l y i n the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e B a s i n g my  argument on the b e n e f i t s of my  journals  context.  interviewing  tutors  about t h e i r j o u r n a l s , I suggested t h a t t u t o r s might b e n e f i t most from t a l k i n g about t h e i r own d i s c u s s i n g t h o s e of o t h e r s . One t r a i n i n g was  teaching  papers i n a way the i d e a s .  j o u r n a l s as opposed t o  of the o t h e r f o c u s e s of  t u t o r s to question  s t u d e n t s about  t h a t the s t u d e n t s and not the t u t o r  tutor their  provided  I suggested t h a t t u t o r s c o u l d t e l l about i s s u e s i n  t h e i r j o u r n a l s and  that other tutors could question  the g o a l of h e l p i n g them t h i n k more d e e p l y about the  he  them w i t h issues.  16 Tom was e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h i s idea.. He s u g g e s t e d t h a t d u r i n g i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i t might be u s e f u l for  t u t o r s t o r e v i s e t h e i r j o u r n a l s a f t e r t a l k i n g about them.  T h i s would g i v e them e x p e r i e n c e b o t h w i t h more r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and w i t h i n c o r p o r a t i n g new i d e a s i n t o a p i e c e of w r i t i n g , something t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s f r e q u e n t l y had t o do f o l l o w i n g t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s . He f e l t t h a t once t h i s  initial  phase was over, t h e r e v i s i o n phase o f t h e t a s k c o u l d be dropped. W r i t i n g t h e Study I wrote t h e study u s i n g the p r o f i l e s i n s t e a d o f t h e complete body o f d a t a . This had b o t h b e n e f i t s and l i m i t a t i o n s . One b e n e f i t was t h a t I was w o r k i n g from an o r g a n i z e d  body o f  d a t a . The p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g the study became one o f amalgamating t h e d a t a from t h e p r o f i l e s and t h e o r i z i n g on t h e b a s i s o f the. amalgamation. • Another b e n e f i t was t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s h e l p e d me t o r e t a i n t h e v o i c e s o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . Opie (1992) a s s e r t s t h a t i n . o r d e r t o a v o i d appropriation: the w r i t e r s h o u l d c o n s c i o u s l y attempt t o move away from a u n i f o r m t e x t u a l s u r f a c e which r e p r e s e n t s researcher's  only the  v o i c e , t o t h e c r e a t i o n of a r e p o r t w h i c h i s  more f i s s u r e d , t h a t i s , one i n which d i f f e r e n t and o f t e n competing v o i c e s w i t h i n a s o c i e t y a r e r e c o g n i z e d , The  (p. 58)  p r o f i l e s h e l p e d me a v o i d the tendency t o l o s e s i g h t o f  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and d i s s e n t i n g d a t a . The major  170 l i m i t a t i o n of the approach was  t h a t some d a t a t h a t would have  a p t l y s u p p o r t e d my l i n e s of t h i n k i n g was u n a v a i l a b l e t o  me.  However, I f e e l t h i s d i d not have a major impact on t h e s t u d y . The c o l l a b o r a t i v e t u t o r meeting and the f i n a l  tutor  i n t e r v i e w a l s o p r o v i d e d d a t a f o r the s t u d y . However, a c r u c i a l a s p e c t of t h e s e meetings was  the d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s they  i n t r o d u c e d t o the d a t a as a whole. These p e r s p e c t i v e s a s s i s t e d me  i n my a n a l y s i s . For example, B i l l y ' s  comment t h a t  perhaps  h i g h e r l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n are not always the most u s e f u l f o r a l l t u t o r s encouraged  me t o r e c o n s i d e r the i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y of  r e f l e c t i o n as opposed t o i t s p o s i t i o n i n g i n terms of l e v e l s of reflection. Conclusion Roman and A p p l e  (1990) a s s e r t t h a t :  v a l i d r e s e a r c h must use a methodology t h a t (1) r e s o n a t e s w i t h t h e l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s of the.group b e i n g r e s e a r c h e d , (2) e n a b l e s members of the group t o comprehend and t r a n s f o r m t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s of s u b o r d i n a t i o n , (3)  reduces  t h e d i v i d e between the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l work and group members' o r d i n a r y ways of d e s c r i b i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , and  and  (4) a l l o w s t h e  r e s e a r c h e r ' s p r i o r t h e o r e t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l  commitments  to be i n f o r m e d and t r a n s f o r m e d by u n d e r s t a n d i n g s d e r i v e d from the group's e x p e r i e n c e s . ( E i s e n h a r t & Howe, 1992,  p.  652-3) A l t h o u g h Roman and Apple work w i t h i n the c r i t i c a l i s t  tradition,  171 t h e i r standards  for v a l i d i t y are appropriate f o r a l l research  w i t h emancipatory attempted  g o a l s . I n doing t h i s r e s e a r c h , I have  t o meet these g o a l s .  E i s e n h a r t and Howe (1992) suggest  t h a t one s t a n d a r d f o r  v a l i d e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l  value  c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . B y - i n t e r n a l v a l u e c o n s t r a i n t s they mean t h e v a l u e o f t h e r e s e a r c h for- i m p r o v i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . T h i s study, by e l u c i d a t i n g t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f j o u r n a l w r i t e r s on t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e s ,  enables  p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o approach j o u r n a l w r i t i n g w i t h a more complete understanding  o f t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e on  t h e i r s t u d e n t s . By i n t e r n a l v a l u e c o n s t r a i n t s , E i s e n h a r t and Howe r e f e r .to r e s e a r c h e t h i c s . I n t h i s study, not o n l y d i d I make e v e r y attempt  to provide p a r t i c i p a n t s with the opportunity  t o r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e study and t o remove d a t a from the s t u d y , b u t I a l s o attempted  t o make t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f  v a l u e t o them. There i s ample evidence i n t h e s t u d y t h a t t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e r e s e a r c h was h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l .  172 CHAPTER FOUR DISCUSSION I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I d i s c u s s some f i n d i n g s of t h e study and l i n k t h o s e f i n d i n g s t o those of o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s . I d i s c u s s the c o n t e n t and l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n i n t u t o r j o u r n a l s and t h e r o l e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n r e f l e c t i o n . From t h e s e , I draw i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e study f o r educators  and r e s e a r c h e r s .  Findings Content and L e v e l s of R e f l e c t i o n o f J o u r n a l s I n t h e study, t u t o r s ' c h o i c e s of content and t y p e s of r e f l e c t i o n were a f f e c t e d by a number of f a c t o r s . These f a c t o r s a r e d i s c u s s e d below. Understanding  of t h e t a s k . T u t o r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  of the  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k a f f e c t e d t h e i r c h o i c e s . F o r example, e a r l y i n t h e study t u t o r s ' u n d e r s t o o d t h e t a s k t o be one o f r e p o r t i n g and so r e f l e c t e d l i t t l e a t h i g h e r l e v e l s . A f t e r Tom had p r o v i d e d t h e g u i d e l i n e s , t u t o r s changed t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the t a s k . S p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e g u i d e l i n e s then seemed t o impact t u t o r s i n t h e i r c h o i c e s of what and how t o w r i t e . F o r example, a key q u e s t i o n i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s was "What have you l e a r n e d ? " . C h r i s t o p h e r took t h i s t o mean he c o u l d d i s c u s s h i s own l e a r n i n g w i t h o u t  s p e c i f i c reference to t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e .  However, t h a t was not t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h e t r a i n e r .  Specific  word c h o i c e s i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s were c i t e d by b o t h t h e t r a i n e r and t h e t u t o r s as e f f e c t i n g a n e g a t i v e ,  weakness-oriented  approach t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . Tom saw "become a b e t t e r t u t o r "  173 and Ann  saw  the term " c r i t i c a l " as e n c o u r a g i n g t u t o r s t o  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a way o r i g i n a l l y f l a w e d . The w r i t i n g prompt may  of mending something t h a t  was  n e g a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n of the  have encouraged t u t o r s t o see  see  journal  journal  w r i t i n g as a r e m e d i a l r a t h e r than a g r o w t h - o r i e n t e d  task.  F u r t h e r m o r e , Tom  guidelines  may  suggested t h a t the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  have been too c o m p l i c a t e d and  t h e r e f o r e were h a r d f o r  t u t o r s t o u n d e r s t a n d . K r i s t a c e r t a i n l y appeared t o have some d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g the prompt. Once she had u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t a s k ,  clarified  she began t o w r i t e more  r e f l e c t i v e l y . These f i n d i n g s would seem t o s u p p o r t contention  her  of Wedman and M a r t i n  on the p a r t of s t u d e n t s may  the  (1986) t h a t l a c k of r e f l e c t i o n  be due  i n p a r t t o weaknesses i n the  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g prompt. Impetus f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . T u t o r s who  found t h e i r  own  purposes f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g seemed t o r e f l e c t more on t h e i r practice and.reflect .only because i t was  at h i g h e r l e v e l s . Those who  d i d the  task  r e q u i r e d by the- t r a i n e r w r o t e l e s s  r e f l e c t i v e l y . T h i s s u p p o r t s LaBoskey's (1993) f i n d i n g t h a t more r e f l e c t i v e s t u d e n t s had  i n t e r n a l motivation  whereas l e s s  r e f l e c t i v e s t u d e n t s were e x t e r n a l l y m o t i v a t e d . One seemed t o a f f e c t some t u t o r s ' m o t i v a t i o n of the l o c u s of c o n t r o l .  At l e a s t one  was  their  f a c t o r which perception  tutor perceived  the  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g g u i d e l i n e s as t a k i n g away her c o n t r o l . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r some t u t o r s a j o u r n a l w r i t i n g prompt w h i c h introduces  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the t r a i n e r may  encourage j o u r n a l  174 w r i t e r s t o see the t a s k as e x t e r n a l l y m o t i v a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d . I t may  a l s o be t h a t t u t o r s who  are new  t o t u t o r i n g have a more  i n s t r u m e n t a l need f o r r e f l e c t i o n whereas some of t h o s e who more e x p e r i e n c e may  f i n d i t more d i f f i c u l t  have  to f i n d i n t e r n a l  motivation for reflection. F e e l i n g s of v u l n e r a b i l i t y . Hatton and Smith t h a t f e e l i n g s of v u l n e r a b i l i t y may for  (1995)  suggest  cause t u t o r s t o s e l f - b l a m e  t h e i r p e r c e i v e d i n a d e q u a c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the l o c u s  of c o n t r o l i s seen as e x t e r n a l t o themselves. s t u d y who  T u t o r s i n the  were most e x t e r n a l l y m o t i v a t e d , a l s o tended t o be  t h o s e t u t o r s who  were anxious t o a v o i d r e v e a l i n g t h e i r  weaknesses t o the t r a i n e r . T h i s l e d them t o a v o i d w r i t i n g about i s s u e s they, saw as r e f l e c t i n g n e g a t i v e l y on t h e i r a b i l i t i e s .  It  a l s o seemed t o l e a d tutor's t o choose what t o w r i t e about w i t h an eye b o t h t o b o l s t e r i n g t h e i r . f l a g g i n g c o n f i d e n c e and  to  making a good i m p r e s s i o n on the t r a i n e r . . ' P e r s o n a l h i s t o r y . T u t o r s ' v a r i e d backgrounds seemed t o a f f e c t c h o i c e s about what t o w r i t e and how  t o w r i t e about i t .  I n C h r i s t o p h e r ' s case, h i s c u l t u r a l background, h i s  own  language l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e and h i s t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e a f f e c t e d h i s c h o i c e s . In K r i s t a ' s case, h e r f e e l i n g s of b e i n g e x p l o i t e d i n her p r e v i o u s work e x p e r i e n c e s encouraged h e r t o f o c u s on i s s u e s of how  t o work w i t h s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t  b e i n g "used" by them. P a r t i c u l a r l y new  t u t o r s who  had  e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a t e d r o l e s such as those of t e a c h e r , p r i v a t e t u t o r , f e l l o w s t u d e n t , language l e a r n e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l  editor  175 tended t o e x p l o r e the t u t o r r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h o s e more f a m i l i a r r o l e s . Kennedy (1991; c i t e d i n Freeman, 1993) t h a t l e a r n e r s " i n t e r p r e t new  content through t h e i r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and modify and r e i n t e r p r e t new b a s i s of what they a l r e a d y know and b e l i e v e "  notes  existing  i d e a s on t h e (p. 495).  Both  c o n t e n t and r e f l e c t i o n are a f f e c t e d by t u t o r s ' p r i o r knowledge and b e l i e f s . As LaBoskey•(1993) shows, these p r i o r understandings undertake  a f f e c t how  r e a d i l y and i n what way  students  r e f l e c t i v e tasks.  T u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T u t o r s ' p r i o r and c u r r e n t e x p e r i e n c e of  t u t o r i n g a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e i r j o u r n a l s . For example,  new  t u t o r s seemed t o focus t h e i r j o u r n a l s more on t h e i r r o l e s as t u t o r s whereas e x p e r i e n c e d t u t o r s tended t o focus more on r e a c t i o n s t o t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . Two  their  of- the more e x p e r i e n c e d  t u t o r s a l s o tended t o have d i f f i c u l t y i n coming up w i t h t h i n g s t o w r i t e about t h a t they f e l t were worthy of r e f l e c t i o n . Some degree of c o g n i t i v e dissonance and a m b i g u i t y has been seen as needed f o r r e f l e c t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a d t o growth (McAlpine, 1992;  Gipe & R i c h a r d s , 1992;  Pape & Smith,  1991).  T h i s s t u d y would seem t o support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . Two  of the  more e x p e r i e n c e d t u t o r s had d i f f i c u l t y d e c i d i n g what t o w r i t e about i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s because e v e r y t h i n g seemed so much t h e same. T h i s was  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of F e l i c i a , many of whose  s t u d e n t s were w o r k i n g on papers  f o r one c o u r s e . She  regarded  h e r t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s as not worthy of r e f l e c t i o n because they were a l l the same. C u r r e n t t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e a l s o a f f e c t e d  176  c h o i c e s of what t o w r i t e and how Christopher,  f o r example, who  t o w r i t e about i t .  did l i t t l e writing tutoring,  w r o t e l e s s about w r i t i n g t u t o r i n g than the o t h e r t u t o r s . Christopher's a f f e c t e d how  case, however, t h i s l a c k of p r a c t i c e  In  also  he wrote about w r i t i n g t u t o r i n g . He w r o t e about  w r i t i n g t u t o r i n g on a more a b s t r a c t  l e v e l than the  other  tutors. Time. Many of the t u t o r s i n the study had The  two  t u t o r s who  had  the most time, Ann  and  heavy w o r k l o a d s . B i l l y , were  the  most r e f l e c t i v e i n t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . T h i s would seem t o s u p p o r t the c o n t e n t i o n  of Wedman et a l . (1990) t h a t time i s a  c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the a b i l i t y to r e f l e c t . LaBoskey (1993)  also  found t h a t h a y i n g a l o t of d i s t r a c t i o n s seemed t o d e t r a c t  from  the a b i l i t y t o  reflect.  P r e f e r e n c e f o r w r i t i n g as a mode of l e a r n i n g . Most t u t o r s i n the s t u d y l i k e d r e f l e c t i n g i n w r i t i n g . I t s h o u l d be however, t h a t t u t o r s were h i r e d i n p a r t on the s t r e n g t h  noted, of  t h e i r w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s . . They found t h a t w r i t i n g a l l o w e d them t o c l a r i f y and  t h i n k through t h e i r i d e a s b e f o r e p a s s i n g them on  t o the t r a i n e r . They found the r e c u r s i v e and  self-paced  of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g h e l p e d them r e f l e c t . These b e n e f i t s  aspects of  r e f l e c t i o n t h r o u g h w r i t i n g support Emig's (1977) d e s c r i p t i o n  of  the ways i n which w r i t i n g f o s t e r s l e a r n i n g w h i c h I d e s c r i b e d  in  C h a p t e r Two.  K r i s t a , however, d i d not  find writing a  c o m f o r t a b l e mode f o r r e f l e c t i o n . T h i s s u p p o r t s F u l w i l e r ' s (1982; c i t e d i n Carswell,  1988)  contention  that j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  177  i s not f o r everyone. M u l t i p l i c i t y of purposes f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . A l t h o u g h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was p o r t r a y e d by the t r a i n e r as h a v i n g the s o l e purpose of h e l p i n g  tutors better t h e i r tutoring practices, a l l  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study used j o u r n a l s f o r o t h e r purposes as w e l l . F o r example, t u t o r s used t h e i r j o u r n a l s t o communicate w i t h the t r a i n e r , t o make a good i m p r e s s i o n on the t r a i n e r and to create  a r e c o r d of t u t o r i n g f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y p u r p o s e s . The  t r a i n e r used j o u r n a l s as a t o o l f o r needs assessment and f o r supervision.  T h i s m u l t i p l i c i t y of purposes had outcomes i n  t u t o r c h o i c e s about what t o put i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s .  Journal  segments t h a t were l e a s t r e f l e c t i v e were o f t e n seen as f u l f i l l i n g purposes o t h e r than r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e . R o l e of J o u r n a l W r i t i n g i n R e f l e c t i o n As i n o t h e r s t u d i e s 1992;  Carswell,  1988),  (e.g. Ho & R i c h a r d s , 1 9 9 3 ;  Jarvis,  most t u t o r s f e l t , t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  a s s i s t e d them i n r e f l e c t i n g on t h e i r p r a c t i c e , K r i s t a was  the  o n l y t u t o r who was ambiguous about the b e n e f i t s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . A l l o t h e r t u t o r s ranged from p o s i t i v e t o v e r y p o s i t i v e about t h e b e n e f i t s of the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k . The t r a i n e r was more s c e p t i c a l . He f e l t t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was  very  b e n e f i c i a l t o B i l l y and Ann but t h a t the b e n e f i t s t o t h e o t h e r t u t o r s were l e s s c l e a r . This difference i n perception  of the b e n e f i t s of j o u r n a l  w r i t i n g between the t r a i n e r and the t u t o r s can be a t t r i b u t e d , at l e a s t i n p a r t , t o the d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of a c c e s s of t h e  178 t r a i n e r and  the t u t o r s t o the b e n e f i t s of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g .  t r a i n e r based h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the b e n e f i t s of  The  journal  w r i t i n g on the j o u r n a l s themselves whereas the t u t o r s were aware of b e n e f i t s t h a t were not apparent from s t u d y i n g  the  journals. The  j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e d i m p e r f e c t e v i d e n c e of the r e f l e c t i o n  the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k i n i t i a t e d . T h i s s t u d y has  identified a  number of f a c t o r s which confounded a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t u t o r t h i n k i n g i n i t i a t e d by j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . These  included  r e p o r t i n g of p r i o r r e f l e c t i o n , i n c o m p l e t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e f l e c t i o n and  use  of  of  of r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s which masked  r e f l e c t i o n . R h e t o r i c a l i s s u e s may factors i n assessing  be p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t  j o u r n a l s w r i t t e n by second language  w r i t e r s . A f u r t h e r confounding f a c t o r was  that t u t o r s  often  continued to r e f l e c t a f t e r completing t h e i r j o u r n a l s .  Continued  r e f l e c t i o n a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was  often  f o c u s e d on the a p p l i c a t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n t o t u t o r i n g p r a c t i c e . This instrumental  impetus f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g seemed t o  be  i m p o r t a n t i n e n c o u r a g i n g f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n . These f i n d i n g s tend to confirm and  the assumption (Hatton & Smith, 1995;  L o c k h a r t , 1994;  J a r v i s , 1992)  Richards  that j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  encourages more r e f l e c t i o n than i s e v i d e n t from the  journals  themselves. B e s i d e s n a t u r a l l y r e f l e c t i n g f u r t h e r on i s s u e s ,  tutors  a l s o r e a c h e d h i g h e r l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n when t h e y  discussed  t h e i r t h i n k i n g about j o u r n a l segments i n i n t e r v i e w s  for  the  179 s t u d y . T h i s outcome suggests  that follow-up to j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  s h o u l d f o c u s on t u t o r s t e l l i n g about t h e i r t h i n k i n g . B e n e f i t s o f r e v i s i t i n g i s s u e s w r i t t e n about i n j o u r n a l s were i n c r e a s e d when t u t o r s were asked p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s geared  t o push them t o  h i g h e r level's of r e f l e c t i o n . Such p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s may  have  p r o v i d e d the moderate l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e w h i c h a r e recommended by r e s e a r c h e r s (McAlpine, 1992; 1992;  Gipe & R i c h a r d s ,  Pape & Smith, 1991). T h i s i s a l s o i n k e e p i n g w i t h  Pultorak's  (1993) f i n d i n g s t h a t s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h an  i n t e r v i e w e r asked q u e s t i o n s geared t o i n c r e a s e h i g h e r o r d e r r e f l e c t i o n pushed s t u d e n t s t o r e f l e c t at h i g h e r  levels.  I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study The g o a l of t h i s study was  t o e x p l o r e the p e r c e p t i o n s of  j o u r n a l w r i t e r s i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r understand  the r o l e of  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n t u t o r s ' r e f l e c t i o n s on t h e i r experiences.. Due context-bound  tutoring  t o the l i m i t e d number of p a r t i c i p a n t s and  the  n a t u r e of the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g .task, c a u t i o n i s  needed i n a s c r i b i n g these p e r c e p t i o n s t o o t h e r j o u r n a l w r i t e r s i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s . However, t h i s study suggests a number of i s s u e s w h i c h have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t u t o r t r a i n e r s ,  teacher  e d u c a t o r s and r e s e a r c h e r s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T u t o r T r a i n e r s and Teacher The  Educators  study suggests a number of i s s u e s w h i c h may  be u s e f u l  f o r t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s and t u t o r t r a i n e r s t o c o n s i d e r i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r approaches t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . These i s s u e s may  be p a r t i c u l a r l y apt f o r those working w i t h p r a c t i c u m -  180  j o u r n a l s and o t h e r p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d First,  construction  include consideration  journals.  o f t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g prompt s h o u l d  of the f o l l o w i n g  issues:  1. What i m p l i c i t a t t i t u d e s t o l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h r e f l e c t i o n does t h e prompt convey: r e m e d i a l o r g r o w t h - o r i e n t e d ? A growtho r i e n t e d approach may d i s c o u r a g e ' t h e tendency  for journal  w r i t e r s t o f o c u s on weaknesses. 2. Does t h e prompt make e x p l i c i t t h e c o n t e n t a r e a s deemed by t h e e d u c a t o r t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e f l e c t i o n ? T u t o r s i n t h i s s t u d y argued t h a t they s h o u l d be f r e e t o r e f l e c t on whatever a s p e c t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e they f e l t were w o r t h w h i l e . However, i f e d u c a t o r s have s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t a r e a s w h i c h  they  want s t u d e n t s t o focus on, t h e prompt s h o u l d be e x p l i c i t about what t h o s e a r e a s a r e . 3.  Does t h e prompt make t h e purpose o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  c l e a r ? A c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e purpose o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g appears 4.  t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r a c t i c e . A r e t h e r e o t h e r purposes  f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g which are  unacknowledged but which may a f f e c t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ? Nonr e f l e c t i v e purposes,  s t a t e d o r u n s t a t e d , may encourage non-  reflective writing. 5 . How can j o u r n a l w r i t e r s be encouraged  to find internal  m o t i v a t i o n f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g ? I t may be t h a t a t a s k prompt w h i c h p r o v i d e s f l e x i b i l i t y and which encourages  journal  writers  t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r own j o u r n a l w r i t i n g can i n c r e a s e i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n . Wedman e t a l . '  (1990).  suggest t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d  181 l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e the d i f f e r e n c e between r o u t i n e r e f l e c t i v e t h o u g h t s . The the a b i l i t y  and  t r a i n e r i n t h i s study a l s o f e l t  that  t o a s s e s s l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n would a i d t u t o r s i n  r e a c h i n g h i g h e r l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n and i n t e r n a l motivation  encourage them t o f i n d  for journal writing.  Second, i t must be assumed t h a t j o u r n a l s do not  provide  a c c e s s f o r the t r a i n e r t o a l l the r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g t h a t  the  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k engenders. I f a purpose of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s t o i n some way  measure l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n of  w r i t e r s , j o u r n a l w r i t i n g may  journal  not be a u s e f u l t a s k . Any  t o measure the u s e f u l n e s s of the t a s k s h o u l d  attempt  include  c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t e r s . I f , however, the g o a l encourage j o u r n a l w r i t e r s t o r e f l e c t on and e x p e r i e n c e s , j o u r n a l w r i t i n g may  l e a r n from t h e i r  be a v e r y u s e f u l t a s k  though a l l the b e n e f i t s of the t a s k may  i s to  even  not be a p p a r e n t t o  the  trainer. Third,  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g may  b e s t be. approached as a p r o c e s s  r a t h e r than as the c r e a t i o n of p r o d u c t s . Anderson (1993) notes t h a t he does not mark j o u r n a l s  f o r s y n t a c t i c and  usage problems  because he r e g a r d s j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as w r i t i n g t h a t i s " i n process"  (p. 305).  to surface  features  T h i s study suggests t h a t Anderson's approach of j o u r n a l s i s e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e  i s s u e s of c o n t e n t and  l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n . Y i n g e r  for  (1990; c i t e d  i n Copeland et a l . , 1993)  describes  r e f l e c t i o n as  conversation  (p. 349).  R e f l e c t i o n s engendered by  of p r a c t i c e "  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g may  be i n c r e a s e d  "an  through o p p o r t u n i t i e s  ongoing  for  182  f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n on i s s u e s w r i t t e n about i n j o u r n a l s . s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t one way  to increase  The  the p o t e n t i a l of  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f o r i n i t i a t i n g r e f l e c t i v e thought i s t o  use  j o u r n a l s as the focus of d i s c u s s i o n . J o u r n a l w r i t e r s expand on i d e a s t h e y have begun to develop i n j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a r e s u l t of r e f o c u s i n g  on the i s s u e s . Q u e s t i o n s . d e s i g n e d t o push j o u r n a l  w r i t e r s t o h i g h e r l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i o n may  increase  the 1995;  b e n e f i t s of the t a s k . Some r e s e a r c h e r s (Hatton & Smith, Hoover, 1994)  suggest t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i v e approaches t o  r e f l e c t i o n encourage s t u d e n t s t o p r o b l e m a t i z e t h e i r p r a c t i c e . Implications The First,  f o r Research  s t u d y attempted t o f i l l  two  gaps i n the  l i t e r a t u r e on t u t o r t r a i n i n g and  scarce.  literature.  journal writing i s  T h i s study h e l p s t o b u i l d a f o u n d a t i o n f o r  r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . Second, the study c o n t r i b u t e s  further to  the  l i t e r a t u r e of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n by e x a m i n i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g from the • p e r s p e c t i v e s Yinger' and journals  Clark  (1985)  i s t h a t they are  of j o u r n a l w r i t e r s ' . a s s e r t t h a t an apt metaphor f o r  "a window" (p. 28)  on the t h i n k i n g  of  j o u r n a l w r i t e r s . T h i s study p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t of Y i n g e r and  C l a r k ' s a s s e r t i o n . However, i t a l s o s u g g e s t s  the window i s i m p e r f e c t i n a number of ways. F i r s t ,  that  the window  i s o f t e n s m a l l compared t o the s i z e of the room. I n f a c t , t h r o u g h the window i t i s i m p o s s i b l e  t o t e l l whether the room i s  l a r g e o r s m a l l . For example, i n t h i s study, one r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l w r i t e r s had  of the most  a l a r g e window; h i s  journals  183 gave a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of the t h i n k i n g he d i d as r e s u l t of the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k . The j o u r n a l w r i t e r had  other highly  a  reflective  a l a r g e window on an even l a r g e r room.  j o u r n a l s r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the  Her  reflective  t h i n k i n g the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k engendered. Second,  journal  w r i t e r s o f t e n obscure the window. Sometimes they p u l l  the  c u r t a i n t o a c h i e v e p r i v a c y . T h i s may  be because t h e y  unready t o share t h e i r t h i n k i n g or because they f e e l t h e i r t h i n k i n g may things  put  are sharing  them at r i s k . Other times t h e y d i s p l a y  i n the window t h a t serve t o obscure t h i n g s b e h i n d .  example, they w r i t e t o p l e a s e the t e a c h e r and  thereby  w r i t i n g about problems. On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , they  For  avoid  inadvertently  h i d e a c l e a r v i e w of the room. T h e i r t h i n k i n g i s masked by their rhetorical  choices.  R e s e a r c h e r s have used j o u r n a l s t o measure j o u r n a l w r i t e r s ' p r o c l i v i t y and  a b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r a c t i c e . T h i s s t u d y  c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n any measure of r e f l e c t i v i t y based s o l e l y the e v i d e n c e of j o u r n a l s . I t - s u g g e s t s . t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i o n j o u r n a l w r i t e r s may  be needed i f r e s e a r c h e r s a r e t o a c c e s s  r e f l e c t i o n s of j o u r n a l w r i t e r s engendered by the writing  on  with the  journal  task.  Y i n g e r and  Clark  (1985) acknowledge t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  " i s an i m p e r f e c t i n s t r u m e n t f o r l e a r n i n g about human thought" (p. 28). However, they a s s e r t t h a t u s i n g  journals to understand  the t h i n k i n g of j o u r n a l w r i t e r s i n v o l v e s  l i t t l e danger of  serious  e r r o r . T h i s may  be t r u e i n most c a s e s . However, I  184 a s s e r t t h a t u s i n g j o u r n a l s t o understand the e f f e c t s of  journal  w r i t i n g on r e f l e c t i v i t y can l e a d t o s e r i o u s e r r o r . P u b l i c a t i o n of s t u d i e s w h i c h assume t h a t j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e  an  accurate  measure of the r e f l e c t i o n s engendered by the t a s k may  lead  p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o abandon the use of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as a  task  f o r e n c o u r a g i n g r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e . T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e t h a t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g can be much more u s e f u l f o r e n c o u r a g i n g r e f l e c t i o n than j o u r n a l s themselves i n d i c a t e . R e s e a r c h e r s must b e . c a r e f u l  i n how  j o u r n a l s so as not t o m i s l e a d  they p r e s e n t d a t a about  readers.  The  j o u r n a l s f o r measuring r e f l e c t i o n must be The  l i m i t a t i o n s of acknowledged.  s t u d y a l s o suggests some areas f o r f u r t h e r  research.  These i n c l u d e : Strategies for increasing internal motivation  of  w r i t e r s . I n t h i s study, l a c k of i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n  journal  was  seen as  an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r l e a d i n g t o lower r e f l e c t i v i t y i n t u t o r journals. Various strategies for increasing i n t e r n a l were s u g g e s t e d . These i n c l u d e d r e d u c i n g  motivation  the c o n t r o l p r o v i d e d  the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g prompt, c h a l l e n g i n g assumptions of  by  tutors  t h r o u g h feedback or d i s c u s s i o n and g i v i n g t u t o r s the r o l e of evaluating  t h e i r own  journals for r e f l e c t i v i t y .  e t h n o g r a p h i c approach and did  l i m i t e d time d u r a t i o n of t h i s  not a l l o w f o r an assessment of the u s e f u l n e s s  various  The  approaches. S t u d i e s  of  study  these  of the e f f e c t s of t h e s e approaches  would c o n t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n v a l u a b l e  to p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  185 The  e f f e c t s of various  c o l l a b o r a t i v e approaches as f o l l o w  up t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . T h i s study shows t h a t t u t o r s can f u r t h e r t h e i r t h i n k i n g about j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s s u e s by t a l k i n g about t h e i r t h i n k i n g a f t e r they have completed t h e i r j o u r n a l s . My interviews  w i t h t u t o r s gave them t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y .  s t u d i e s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study suggest t h a t sharing  Previous tutors'  o f t h e i r i d e a s about t u t o r i n g w i t h each o t h e r would be  b e n e f i c i a l . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e a b i l i t y o f p e e r s t o push j o u r n a l w r i t e r s t o h i g h e r l e v e l s o f r e f l e c t i o n would d e v e l o p the u n d e r s t a n d i n g s g a i n e d through t h i s s t u d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e co-worker r e l a t i o n s h i p among t u t o r s i n t h i s s t u d y may a f f e c t t u t o r s ' a b i l i t y o r p r o c l i v i t y t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h one a n o t h e r . As f e l l o w s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g may r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y t o c o l l a b o r a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . - Thus, s t u d i e s examining t h e e f f e c t s o f c o l l a b o r a t i n g f o r f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out with' b o t h t u t o r s and t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g . The  r o l e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n e n c o u r a g i n g r e f l e c t i o n on  non-practice-oriented  i s s u e s . I n t h i s study, t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l  v a l u e o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g appeared t o encourage t u t o r s t o r e f l e c t f u r t h e r on t h e i r p r a c t i c e . J o u r n a l s  which a r e not  f o c u s e d on p r a c t i c e may not i n i t i a t e as much f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n as was e v i d e n t i n t h e study. S t u d i e s examining t h e p e r c e p t i o n s and  t h i n k i n g around j o u r n a l w r i t i n g o f w r i t e r s o f o t h e r t y p e s  of r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l s such as academic j o u r n a l s would s e r v e t o c l a r i f y t h e importance o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n  o f on-going p r a c t i c e  i n i n i t i a t i n g f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  issues.  186 Conclusion T h i s c o l l a b o r a t i v e study of t u t o r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k and the r o l e of j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n e n c o u r a g i n g r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e was i m p o r t a n t t o me, but i t a l s o p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d the outcomes of the j o u r n a l w r i t i n g task i n the learning•centre. through the opportunity  The t u t o r t r a i n e r  benefited  t o r e f l e c t on h i s purposes i n u s i n g t h e  j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k and h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t types of t u t o r r e f l e c t i o n s i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . Tutors benefited  through i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and t h r o u g h f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r t h i n k i n g on j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s s u e s . I have a t t e m p t e d t o w r i t e t h i s t h e s i s i n such a way  that  p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o g a i n from t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by h a v i n g a c c e s s t o the r e s u l t s of t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e t r a i n e r and t h e t u t o r s not o n l y in providing.the  d a t a f o r the study, but a l s o i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  the a n a l y s i s o f t h a t d a t a s t r e n g t h e n e d the s t u d y . contributions  Their  t o the a n a l y s i s s e r v e d t o h i g h l i g h t i s s u e s  which  I o t h e r w i s e might have o v e r l o o k e d o r which I might have seen as l e s s important. This experience underlines  f o r me t h e  i m p o r t a n c e of a c o l l a b o r a t i v e approach i n r e s e a r c h t o e x p l o r e p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  purporting  187  References Anderson, J . (1993). J o u r n a l w r i t i n g : The promise and t h e r e a l i t y . Journal  of Reading,  3 5 ( 4 ) , 304-309.  B a r t l e t t , L. (1990). Teacher development  through r e f l e c t i v e  t e a c h i n g . I n J.C. R i c h a r d s and D. Nunan ( E d s . ) , language  teacher  education  (pp. 202-214).  Second  Cambridge:  Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y . B o l i n , F.S. (1988) . H e l p i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t h i n k t e a c h i n g . Journal  of Teacher Education,  about  48-54.  Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . What i s r e f l e c t i o n i n l e a r n i n g . I n D. Boud, R. Keogh, & D. Walker R e f l e c t i o n : Turning  experience  into  learning  (Eds.), (pp. 7-17).  New York: N i c h o l s . 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International  11, 565-575.  (1987). T e a c h i n g s t u d e n t  t e a c h e r s t o r e f l e c t . Harvard"Educational  Review,  57(1),  23-48. Z u l i c h , J . , Bean, T. W.,  & H e r r i c k , J . (1992). C h a r t i n g s t a g e s  of p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r development  and r e f l e c t i o n i n a  m u l t i c u l t u r a l community through d i a l o g u e j o u r n a l Teaching  and Teacher  Education,  8 ( 4 ) , 345-3,60.  analysis.  T H E  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  194  Appendix 1: S u b j e c t Consent Form Department of Language Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604) 822-5788 Fax: (604) 822-3154 Courier Address: 2034 Lr. Mall Road U B C , Vancouver, B . C . Canada V6T 1Z2  I am c u r r e n t l y d o i n g r e s e a r c h f o r my t h e s i s toward my M a s t e r o f A r t s degree i n Language E d u c a t i o n . I n my r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , e n t i t l e d " S t a f f J o u r n a l W r i t i n g i n a L e a r n i n g C e n t r e " , I am e x a m i n i n g t h e use o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r s t a f f i n t h e L e a r n i n g C e n t r e . My r e s e a r c h i s b e i n g s u p e r v i s e d by P r o f . M a r g a r e t E a r l y , a f a c u l t y member i n t h e Department o f Language E d u c a t i o n . I would l i k e y o u r p e r m i s s i o n t o use i n f o r m a t i o n about y o u i n my r e s e a r c h . I f y o u agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r e s e a r c h , I w i l l i n t e r v i e w y o u f o r 2 0 m i n u t e s a week f o r t h e r e s t o f t h i s semester. I n t h e i n t e r v i e w s , I w i l l ask you about y o u r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , about y o u r s k i l l s and about y o u r e x p e r i e n c e s as a worker and as a s t u d e n t . I w i l l a n a l y z e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y o u g i v e me and d i s c u s s my a n a l y s i s w i t h y o u . Our d i s c u s s i o n s w i l l take about 5 hours o f y o u r time d u r i n g and i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e semester. I w i l l a l s o o b s e r v e you . p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t u t o r t r a i n i n g . The i n f o r m a t i o n I g a t h e r i n d o i n g my r e s e a r c h w i l l be h e l d i n s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . I w i l l use pseudonyms f o r y o u , t h e C o l l e g e and any s t u d e n t s you mention.. You may change y o u r mind and w i t h d r a w from t h e r e s e a r c h a t any time b e f o r e , d u r i n g o r a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g without penalty. You w i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o check anything- I say about y o u and w i t h d r a w t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n from-the r e s e a r c h f o r any r e a s o n . A f t e r I have c o l l e c t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n analyzing the information c o l l e c t e d . I t h i n k you w i l l f i n d t h i s an i n t e r e s t i n g p r o c e s s t h a t g i v e s y o u v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e s e a r c h . You w i l l a l s o be g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o read and c r i t i q u e my t h e s i s . I f y o u d e c i d e not t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r e s e a r c h , y o u r employment s t a t u s a t t h e c o l l e g e w i l l be u n a f f e c t e d . You w i l l c o n t i n u e t o w r i t e j o u r n a l s because they a r e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f y o u r employment, but y o u r j o u r n a l s w i l l n o t be r e l e a s e d t o me. and I w i l l n o t i n t e r v i e w o r o b s e r v e you,. I f y o u have any q u e s t i o n s about t h e r e s e a r c h I am d o i n g , p l e a s e c a l l . me. a t 873-4725 o r my r e s e a r c h s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f . M a r g a r e t E a r l y , a t 822-5231. • • '  195  Your s i g n a t u r e below s i g n i f i e s y o u r g i v i n g p e r m i s s i o n f o r me t o have a c c e s s t o y o u r j o u r n a l s and t o i n t e r v i e w and o b s e r v e you i n the L e a r n i n g C e n t r e . Thank you,  Julia  Robinson  I, , g i v e my p e r m i s s i o n f o r J u l i a R o b i n s o n t o have a c c e s s t o my L e a r n i n g C e n t r e j o u r n a l s and t o i n t e r v i e w and o b s e r v e me as d e s c r i b e d above. I have r e c e i v e d a copy o f t h i s consent form (two pages) f o r my own r e c o r d s .  signature  date  

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