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Tuna management and UNCLOS : implementation of UNCLOS through the Forum Fisheries Agency Aqorau, Transform 1990

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TUNA MANAGEMENT AND UNCLOS: IMPLEMENTATION OF UNCLOS T H R O U G H T H E FORUM FISHERIES AGENCY By TRANSFORM A Q O R A U LL.B The University of Papua New Guinea, 1987 L L . M The University of British Columbia, 1990 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAWS in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (FACULTY OF LAW) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard. T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 1990 (g) Transform Aqorau, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Regional organisations have often played a cataiytical role in developing regional ocean regimes that directly pertain to the peculiar needs and circumstances of a given region. As a response to the challenges imposed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the island States of the South Pacific region established the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency, with the specific mandate to assist them manage the enormous tuna resource of the region. The thesis seeks to ascertain the extent to which those needs have been satisfied. The thesis begins with the hypothesis that the Forum Fisheries Agency has in fact fulfilled those needs. The analysis is based on inferences which are drawn from the functions and responsibilities of the Forum Fisheries Agency, and certain significant legal developments it has helped spawn. The thesis does not engage in a cost/benefit evaluation of the Forum Fisheries Agency because that is an issue best left to the purview of individual member States to determine. Two conclusions are drawn from the analysis. First, the Forum Fisheries Agency has met the needs of the island States. Secondly, through the Forum Fisheries Agency, the island States are implementing the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. iii T A B L E OF CONTENTS Page T A B L E S vi FIGURES vii INTRODUCTION , i.x C H A P T E R I: T H E S O U T H PACIFIC REGION 1 A. Culture 2 B. Geography 5 C. Economy 9 D. Politics 14 E. Tuna Resource 17 F. Rationale for Regional Cooperation 21 C H A P T E R II: T H E EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC Z O N E (EEZ) 25 A. South Pacific States (SPSs) Interests in the EEZ 26 B. History of the EEZ 30 C. Legal Status of the EEZ 41 (1) General Scope of Authority 42 (2) Determination of Allowable Catch 45 (3) Promotion of Optimum Utilization 47 (4) Highly Migratory Species (HMSs) 50 D. Impact of the EEZ Regime on SPSs 52 C H A P T E R III: MANAGEMENT OF T U N A IN T H E S O U T H PACIFIC 55 A. Management Goals of SPSs 58 B. International Law of Fisheries 62 (1) Coastal States Do Not Have Sovereign Rights Over HMSs 65 (2) Coastal States Have Sovereign Rights Over HMSs 67 i v (3) International Law 68 C. Scientific Research in the South Pacific 72 D. Management of Tuna Through Access Agreements 75 (1) Nauru Agreement 77 (2) Implementing Arrangements 80 (2.1) Regional Register 80 (2.2) Minimum Terms and Conditions 83 (3) Bilateral Access Agreements 85 (4) Multilateral Access Agreements 87 (4.1) Multilateral Fisheries Treaty 87 (4.2) Driftnet Fishing Convention 90 E. Management by Domestic Legislation 93 C H A P T E R IV: MECHANISMS FOR REGIME BUILDING IN T H E S O U T H PACIFIC 96 A. Nature of Regional Cooperation in the South Pacific 97 B. South Pacific Commission (SPC) 98 (1) Structure of the SPC 100 (2) The South Pacific Conference 100 (3) Committee of Representatives of Governments and Administration (CRGA) 102 (4) The Secretariat 103 (5) Tuna and Billfish Assessment Programme 105 C. The Growth of Endogenous Organizations 106 (1) Pacific Islanders Producers Association (PIPA) 108 D. The South Pacific Forum (SPF) 109 (1) The Forum Secretariat (FS) 112 (2) Functions of the Committee 113 (3) Functions of the Secretariat 114 (4) Major Activities of the SPF 116 E. The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (SPNFZ) 119 F. The Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific (SPREP) 123 G. Contemporary Perspectives 125 C H A P T E R V: T H E FORUM FISHERIES AGENCY (FFA) 127 A. History of the FFA 128 B. Role of the FFA in Developing a Regional Tuna Management Regime 138 (1) The Preamble 138 (2) The Forum Fisheries Committee (FFC) 142 (3) Functions of the Forum Fisheries Committee (FFC) 143 (4) Functions of the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) 145 V C. Major Legal Developments 147 (1) Access Negotiations 148 (2) Harmonization and Coordination 149 (3) Enforcement and Surveillance 151 D. Meeting the Needs of South Pacific States (SPSs) 153 (1) FFA and Article 56 of UNCLOS 154 (2) FFA and Article 61 of UNCLOS 156 (3) F F A and Article 62 of UNCLOS 158 (4) F F A and Customary International Law 159 CONCLUSION 163 BIBLIOGRAPHY 167 APPENDIXES 173 vi LIST OF TABLES Page 1. T A B L E 1 - INDEPENDENT STATES 8 2. T A B L E 2 - T O T A L CATCHES OF T U N A AND T U N A - L I K E SPECIES IN T H E WESTERN PACIFIC 19 3. T A B L E 3 - T O T A L CATCHES IN T H E WESTERN PACIFIC BY SPECIES 20 4. T A B L E 4 - A N N E X I HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES 57 v n LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 - SPS's EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONES ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The completion and production of this thesis would not have been realised without the generous assistance and contribution of certain individuals and organisations. It would be so indiscreet of me not to acknowledge with sincere appreciation the contribution of the following individuals and organisations. Professor Ian Townsend-Gault, Director, Asian Legal Studies Program, UBC, and Adjunct Professor Richard Kyle Paisley, who read the manuscript and provided me with clarity of direction. Mr. Alban Kome and Ms. Dorothy Prince whose respective recommendations enhanced the credibility of my application to undertake graduate studies in Canada. Mr. Phillip Muller, Dr. David Doulman and Ms. Judith Swan of the Forum Fisheries Agency who were a source of encouragement and enlightenment. The International Centre for Ocean Development who provided the necessary financial support throughout the duration of my study in Canada. My friends and colleagues in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the people of the Solomon Islands to whom this work is dedicated. The inspiration for this work comes from them: the weaknesses and flaws are mine and mine alone. Finally, I wish to express my wholehearted and sincere gratitude to my beloved wife, Annette Muiliku Laura for her encouragement and forbearance. I can do no more than reaffirm my everloving commitment and love. INTRODUCTION The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) has had an enormous impact on the island States of the South Pacific (SPSs). It has enabled them to claim territorial waters up to a limit of 12 nautical miles, claim a contiguous zone extending 24 nautical miles, and arguably more significant, it has allowed them to exercise sovereign rights over the living and non-living resources, particularly highly migratory species (HMS) such as tuna, in an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) stretching over an area of 200 nautical miles. The emergence of UNCLOS was particularly significant in that no less than 10 SPSs promulgated their liberation from the ties of colonial subjugation during the period between the first Conference to discuss the new regime in 1970 and its signing on 10 December, 1982, at Montego Bay, Jamaica. This enabled them to claim large areas of ocean space, and exercise sovereign rights in respect of managing, conserving, exploiting and exploring the living and non-living resources therein. Thus, at least for the SPSs, the concept of self-government and extended maritime jurisdiction was intrinsically interwoven virtually from the outset of nationhood. UNCLOS transformed international law governing and regulating fisheries by creating a regime encompassing all facets of the oceans. It contains various provisions and obligations governing, amongst other things, the limits of national jurisdiction over ocean space, access to the seas, navigation, protection of the marine environment, exploitation of living and non-living resources and conservation and marine scientific research. However, as far as the SPSs are concerned, its most important-innovation is the recognition that coastal States have, within their EEZs, sovereign rights for purposes of managing and conserving and «x exploring and exploiting the living and non-living resources therein. Unfortunately, as a legacy of the colonial powers' negligence towards fisheries development and management, practically all SPSs were not in a position to assume their new responsibilities and obligations. The area that had come under their national jurisdiction was indeed large, and, in consequence, their inability to enforce their sovereign rights and manage the fisheries resources therein would effectively have rendered their declarations of EEZs somewhat meaningless. This weakness was recognised at the outset. Therefore, in order to offset their individual vulnerability and susceptability to economic exploitation by large capital intensive distant water fishing operations from distant water fishing nations (DWFNs), SPSs decided to establish the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) to assist them manage tuna in their EEZs. After some initial ideological differences amongst themselves the FFA was formally established in 1979. Its formation is significant because it represents a cross-fertilization between SPSs who at the time were newly independent nations and an emerging order of the ocean, which amongst other things enabled them to expand their territorial and jurisdictional limits. In other words, FFA was formed in response to UNCLOS. F F A has been operating now for 10 years, and hence it is opportune to appraise its operations in order to ascertain whether it has satisfied the region's needs which prompted its formation. However, the needs of SPSs as defined in this discussion relate specifically to those that arose as a result of UNCLOS, namely, the need for fisheries information, legislation, enforcement mechanisms and surveillance measures, etcetera. In the course of this research, it became apparent that in meeting those needs, FFA was not only assisting them with a service they were not able to provide themselves, but more importantly, they were implicitly implementing UNCLOS. i x i In this regard the basic premise of this thesis is that the FFA is indeed meeting the needs of SPSs, and moreover, in the course of doing so, UNCLOS is also being implemented simultaneously. This hypothesis may be supported by inferences drawn from FFA's functions and the various legal developments it has helped spawn which arguably point to the onset of a regional law of the sea. This work may be described as an ends/means analysis wherein F F A is the means in which the ends, namely the management of tuna, is achieved. The conditioning factors necessitating the formation of FFA are, of course, the need for information, the exercise of legal power, enforcement and the administrative costs involved in managing the fishery, etcetera. Chapter I offers a brief description of the region, its geography, the economy, politics, the importance of the tuna resource, and advances reasons why the region shows a strong compulsion towards working and doing things in unison. It is intended to give a wider appreciation of the underlying forces that enable the SPSs, in spite of the enormous diversity of the region, to work together. Chapter II discusses and analyses the evolution of the EEZ. It examines the relevant provisions of UNCLOS, discusses their ambiguities, points out their limitations, and articulates how these different interpretations have been reconciled. Chapter III outlines the management of tuna in the region. Amongst other things, it discusses the various institutional mechanisms for tuna management, both bilateral and multilateral, examines their shortcomings and advocates essential changes to current arrangements. Chapter IV discusses the various mechanisms for regime building in the region, and Chapter V exa-mines the formation of FFA, describes its major achievements and articulates how it has met the needs of the SPSs. 1 C H A P T E R I T H E S O U T H PACIFIC REGION The South Pacific region1 encompasses a wide area of the Pacific Ocean. Although the region2 is not geographically defined, for purposes of this discussion, it is generally taken to include those melanesian, micronesian, and Polynesian islands which are members of the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA). As such, the region is composed of the following self-governing States and entities; the Cook Islands, Fiji, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa as well as Australia and New Zealand. The region covers an area approximately 30 million square kilometres (kms.)3 of which only 2 percent or 551,000 square kms. is land. The South Pacific States (SPSs) are heavily 1. For a genera] discussion on the South Pacific see, Freeman, W., Otis (ed.), Geography of the Pacific. John Wiley Si Sons, Inc., London, 1966; King F.P. , (ed.), Oceania and Beyond: Essays on the Pacific  Since 1945. Greenwood Press, Westport Connecticut, London, 1976. 2. The term "South Pacific" is a misnomer because it implies a geographic region south of the equator. This is not so because many island States located north of the equator are invariably referred to as being in the South Pacific. L . Alexander, in "Marine Regionalism in the Southeast Asian Seas", (Eastwest Environment and Policy Institute Research Rep. No. 11, 1982), defines a region as, an area of the earth's surface differentiated from other features that are not present outside the region. The distinguishing criteria for the region may be physical in nature, or represent demographic, economic, political or other elements. Two major bases for defining the South Pacific as a region are the political and environmental concerns that are shared by the governments of South Pacific States (SPSs). See, Morgan, "Marine Regions and Regionalism in Southeast Asia", 8 Marine Policy 299, 301-02, 1984. The SPSs lie mainly in the area bounded by latitudes 23 degrees north and 27 degrees south and longitudes 130 degrees east and 125 degrees west. Exceptions to this are New Zealand, which lies in the Southern temperate zone. The  New Encyclopedia Britannica. Vol. 25, 15th edition, 1990 (hereinafter called Britannica). 3. Although the Pacific Ocean makes up nearly one third of the earth's surface, the SPSs discussed in this thesis add up to a little less than 500,000 square kilometres (1,300,000 square miles) of land area. 2 characterized by diverse landforms4 and marked inequalities and contrasts in physical size, economic prospects and political status.5 The following discussion provides a background to the region served by the F F A , and sets the context in which regional cooperation has evolved, and continues to develop. It discusses the various cultural, geographic, economic and political traits of the region. These factors are crucial to understanding and appreciating the context in which regional cooperation has evolved in the South Pacific. A. C U L T U R E Anthropologists have generally classified the region into three ethnogeographic groups; viz., melanesia, micronesia and Polynesia.6 Melanesia,7 (which includes Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji) is by far 4. The SPSs may be classified as either continental or oceanic. The former are associated with the ancient continental platforms of Asia and Australia, now partially submerged. Oceanic islands, located eastward in the deeper Pacific basin, are differentiated as high volcanic-based islands or low coral islands and atolls. A coral island may be single, or two or more coral islets may be part of an atoll if connected by a reef ringing a lagoon. The "high-low" distinction is misleading as the two types occur in many combinations, and some coral islands have been elevated considerably by changes in the ocean level. Britannica, supra note 2 at p. 243. 5. See Neemia, Uentabo Fakaofo, Cooperation and Conflict: Costs. Benefits and National Interests in  Pacific Cooperation. Institute of Pacific Studies (IPS) of the University of the South Pacific, (USP), Suva, 1986, p. 2. (Hereinafter referred to as Neemia). 6. For a general discussion of the cultural traits of the South Pacific region see, Crocombe, R., The South  Pacific: A n Introduction. (4th ed.), Longman Paul Limited, Auckland, New Zealand, 1987; Oliver L . Douglas, The Pacific Islands (revised ed.), DoubleDay &i Company Inc., N.Y. , 1961. 7. Melanesia is taken from the Greek words melas meaning "black" and nesos, meaning "island". Melanesians are predominantly dark-skinned. For general information on everything from linguistics to archaeology and history of melanesia see, May R.J. & Nelson, Hank (eds.), Melanesia Beyond Diversity. 2 Vol. , (1982). For an excelle'nt summary, in the light of findings in early history and linguistics Bee, Chowning Ann, A n Introduction to the Peoples and Culture of Melanesia. 2nd ed. (1977). 3 the largest culture area accounting for 98 percent of the land area and approximately 84 percent of the population. Polynesia,8 (which consists of the Cook Islands, Niue, Tonga, Tuvalu and Western Samoa) constitutes 1.4 percent of the land area and 10 percent of the population Micronesia,9 (comprising of Kiribati, Nauru, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Marshall Islands and Palau) constitutes only 0.6 percent of the total land area and 6 percent of the region's population.1 0 However, it is suffice to mention that some territories, although geographically are part of the region, are because of their political status, generally excluded from the category of independent States and territories that constitute the South Pacific region. These territories include New Caledonia, Tahiti, Hawaii, and Irian Jaya. The categorization of the region into these ethnic groups is arbitrary, because within each culture area one can ascertain some marked differences and clear similarities.11 Melanesia is the area of greatest social and cultural heterogenuity.12 Polynesia on the other hand, is often described as the most 8. Polynesia is taken from the word poly meaning "many". For a treatment on the development of Polynesian cultures, see Soloman Irving, Ancient Polynesian Society (1970); Jennings D . Jesse (ed.), The  Prehistory of Polynesia (1979); and Hooper Antony it Huntsman Judith, (eds.), Transformations of  Polynesian Culture (1985). 9. Micronesia is so named because of the smaller size of the islands and atolls. For a general overview of micronesian culture, see Alkire H . William, A n Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Micronesia. (2nd ed.) (1977). 10. For a general discussion of the SPSs see, Norman and Ngaire Douglas, Pacific Islands Yearbook (16th ed.), Angus and Robertson Publishers, Sydney, 1989. 11. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 2. 12. Melanesian societies are, because of their great diversity, less easily characterized. They were in less concerned with social rank based on birth than with prestige gained through manipulation of resources. Root-crop agriculture (principally yams, sweet potatoes and taro) was practised as in many parts of micronesia and Polynesia, and the resources of the sea were widely exploited. Ancestor worship and a rich ceremonial life were combined to produce a wealth of religious practices; they marked life crisis situations and incorporated both venerative and propritiative behaviour. In many areas, complicated and highly ritualistic trading relationships were developed and there were usually differences between 4 culturally homogenous of the three culture areas, but again there are some quite marked local variations.13 For instance, although Polynesian societies are hierarchical, the degree of social order and status varies from one society to another.14 Micronesia is less diverse than melanesia, but more so than Polynesia.15 What significance then does the cultural heterogenuity of the region play in regional cooperation? Neemia argues that, "notwithstanding the apparent superficiality of the regions ethnic categorization, the division of the region into melanesia, micronesia and Polynesia, is becoming increasingly significant as a framework for action amongst participants in regional cooperation".16 Moreover, Neemia contends that such factors as geography, economic prospects, resource endowment and political development seem to coincide with and to reinforce the culture area groups.17 situations and incorporated both venerative and propritiative behaviour. In many areas, complicated and highly ritualistic trading relationships were developed and there were usually differences between coastal and inland societies. Personal adornment was often elaborate; warring raids, in which heads were taken and cannibalism was sometimes practised, were common. Melanesia's domesticated animals were those found elsewhere in the Pacific region, but pigs were vastly more important in the pursuit of personal prestige, Britannica. supra note 2 at p. 259. 13. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 3. High stratified social structures are typical of the aboriginal cultures of Polynesia and micronesia. Hereditary chieftainship was closely related to supernatural beliefs that incorporated concepts of power (mana) and avoidance (tapu). Features of these two cultural areas include an elaborate mythology, specialist craftsmen; distinctive artistic styles produced in part by isolation; pandemic and sometimes savage warfare; strong bonds of kinship and a related emphasis on genealogies; and, in places, strong trading or tributary relationships between island communities. Britannica. supra note 2 at p. 259. 14. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 3. 15. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 3. 16. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 4. 17. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 4; The polarization of regional politics in terms of ethnic categorization sometimes permeates in the election/designation of heads of regional organizations. A classic example is the recent appointment of the Secretary General of the South Pacific Commission (SPC), following the resignation of the previous Secretary General who was Polynesian. His immediate predecessor was a melanesian, and therefore, there was a strong lobby during the period immediately preceding the appointment of the Secretary General, that the new appointee should be a micronesian. 5 B. Geography 1ft Fairbairn describes the geography of the region as heavily characterized by the "smallness of most SPSs, the paucity of exploitable resources, the highly scattered nature of many island groups and distance from the large metropolitan countries (and from each other)". Distance affects the migration and activities of man as well as limits the spread of plants and animals.19 The region is spread over an area of 30 million square kms. of sea (approximately the size of the African continent).20 SPSs show diverse physical characteristics. Only a small part of the sea area, equal to 551,000 square kms. is land of which Papua New Guinea accounts for 462,000 square kms. (see Table I). Among the smaller SPSs, Solomon Islands is the largest with 28,500 square kms., followed by Fiji, with 18,300 square kms. The smallest is Tuvalu with 26 square kms. 2 1 There is also a disproportionate disparity in the distribution of natural resources. The melanesian SPSs are generally volcanic and are distinguished by the fact that they are archipelagic States which allowed them to claim a larger area of 18. Fairbairn, I.J. Teo, "Economic Forces: Constraints and Potentials", Foreign Forces in Pacific Politics. Vol. 4, (IPS), (USP), Suva, 1983, p. 230 (hereinafter referred to as Fairbairn). 19. For a general discussion of the geography of the South Pacific region, see, Frederica, M . , Bunge and Cook, W., Melinda (eds.), Oceania: A Regional Study (2nd ed.), Ill American University (Washington, D.C. ) , 1985; for a discussion of SPSs environments physical characteristics see, Wiens J . Harold, Atoll  Environment and Ecology. (1962). 20. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 2. 21. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 231. 6 ocean space than they would otherwise have been able to under normal circumstances.22 They have larger populations, and are well endowed with minerals, good soil and a wide range of natural resources including those of the sea.23 By contrast, the micronesian and Polynesian SPSs generally have smaller populations, smaller land area, and resource poor soil 2 4 which are not capable of sustaining extensive agricultural activities. However, there are also broad similarities and common problems, which are discussed below. The region is characterized by a high rate of growth.25 The current rate of population increase is estimated to be approximately 2.5 percent per annum.2 6 This implies that within the next 30 years most SPSs population would have doubled.27 The high rate of growth is heavily influenced by Solomon Islands with a growth rate of 3.4 percent, and by Papua New Guinea, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, the Federated 22. U N C L O S Article 46: For the purposes of this Convention: (a) "archipelagic State" means a State constituted wholly by one or more archipelagoes and may include other islands; (b) "archipelago" means a group of islands, including parts of islands, inter-connecting waters and other natural features which are so closely inter-related that such islands, waters and other natural features form an intrinsic geographical, economic and political entity, or which historically have been regarded as such. 23. See, Annex 3. Corporate Plan for the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) 1990-1999. (hereinafter referred to as Corporate Plan.) 24. Pacific Islands soils develop through the action of temperature, rainfall, and organic matter on the original rock materials. This process is further influenced by factors of time and land relief. Coral island soiU are the least mature and are deficient in organic materials and low in fertility. The mineral-bearing soils of the continental islands are more complex and, are richer than those of the volcanic based high islands. The most productive soils on high islands occur in the lower valley slopes, alluvial floodplains, and deltas, in some instances are further enriched by volcanic ash deposits of recent age. Tropical temperatures and rainfall have produced laterite soils from which nutrients have been leached. Britannica, supra note 2 at p. 249. 25. Fairbairn, supra note 18, at p. 232. 26. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 232. 27. For a classic demographic study see, McArthur Norma, Island Populations of the Pacific. (1967 reprinted 1983). 7 States of Micronesia (FSM), and the Marshall Islands, all of which average over 2 percent per annum. 2 8 Tonga, Western Samoa, Niue and the Cook Islands would show comparative rates had heavy out-migration to New Zealand and Australia not occurred.2 9 The high birth rates, combined with low mortality rates are attributed to the application of modern medical practises, technology and improved health facilities.3 0 A significant feature of their demographic structure is the high proportion of children reflecting high birth rates over a sustained period.31 Fairbairn estimates that approximately 45 percent of the region's population is in the age group 0-15 years.32 He further contends that such a youthful age structure will inevitably create pressure on education, health and related facilities and pose serious problems for employment.33 28. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 232. 29 Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 232. 30. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 232. 31. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 232. 32. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 232. 33. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 232. 8 TABLE 1 - INDEPENDENT STATES — O CO r»- rs. fs. r- o IS) .— ,— 0"\ r-. «— o f O CM f — \o © s s o o s o 00 § 8 o « 8 O T3 »X5 w» O \G >Si o o> «£ £ — 00 U r -21^ o. «o a. <o ai *-> a> +•* C U C 1~ co « CD C 00 t_> ON O *— C *-> CO o ao E E E ^ o o% o c* O CTi L- »— «*-c c C Q . <C a. T> a ; a> «-» 01 •»-» * o — TD •*- •o — C l» C U C i -ao —• CO — CO c ao o <— u at p a> «-» t " o <o o ••-» a; «-» — T-u . t / i X u . 2 5.= 5 O « 55 i >ources: William Sutherland, "Regional Cooperation and Fisheries Management in the South Pacific", L L M Thesis, University of Hull, 1985, Table 1, page 5; South Pacific Commission 1981. Statistical Summary. Noumea (1984), pp. 5-7; Brittanica Book of the Year. 1989. 9 C. Economy The economies of SPSs are generally small relative to the economies of other developing areas in the world. Their economies vary in size from Tuvalu's gross domestic product (GDP) of slightly less than AUSS2.2 million to Papua New Guinea's GDP of AUS$1,551 million. 3 4 Fairbairn has stated that with the exception of Papua New Guinea, the difference among SPSs economies is indeed striking. 3 5 The highest GDP is that of Fiji, followed by the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. The remaining countries fall within the range of AUS$2.2 million to AUSS50 million. 3 6 Notwithstanding these differences, there are also broad similarities and common problems. All SPSs have a narrow production base with very high export concentration as to markets and products. They experience external and internal shocks which generate high amplitude fluctuations in exports, GDP, consumption, revenue receipt, current account of balance of payments, money base, money supply and external reserves. Consequently, imbalances which they introduce call for adjustment measures which are painful politically and economically. Moreover, they have very open economies, (except for Papua New Guinea, the Solomon 34. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 3. 35. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 233. 36. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 3. 37. Pacific Islanders, as producers of agricultural, marine, and mineral commodities, face problems of market demand, labour supply, management skills, and transport that restrict them to an insignificant role in world export trade. Neither do the small, scattered populations present an attractive consumer market to overseas entrepreneurs. The combination of limited exportable products, heavy dependence on food imports, high cost of fuel in ports, and overreliance on foreign aid makes each island State's economy extremely vulnerable, Britannica, supra note 2 at p. 251. 10 Islands and Fiji, the ratios to GDP of their imports and exports of goods and services are relatively large. External price movements or exchange rate variations have rapid impact on domestic prices); and a relatively high degree of capital mobility in spite of the exchange control guidelines which most SPSs have in place. SPSs are vulnerable to natural disasters particularly through hurricanes. Their domestic markets are small and fragmented. The benefits of economies of scale are rarely enjoyed and distances from the main external markets are large making cost per unit of transportation, production and marketing high. Transport services to the rest of the world particularly for the smaller countries are poor and expensive as the main sea and air trunk routes increasingly exclude them. They suffer from severe shortages of skilled and professional labour, thus resulting in low productivity, (a function of inadequate training programmes, relatively poor management capability and insufficient investments in modern and appropriate technology). Generally, the public sector, including public sector corporations, tend to be the largest employer (wages and salaries in the public sector are generally high and set the pace for the rest of the economy). Furthermore, the mobilisation of domestic resources for development face difficulties emanating from low per capita income, narrow tax bases, negative interest rate structure, and relatively undeveloped financial systems. Per capita aid to the region is among the highest in the world, (aid has not always flowed into sectors which could maximise returns to the countries). All SPSs have relatively difficult land tenurial problems and generally economic growth rates have on the average been low (they have consistently been lower than growth targets in their development plans). The natural environment in the region is very fragile, consequently, environmental degradation in the wake of bad management of the resources of the land and sea 11 and of other human activities have become a very serious problem in parts of the region. This is exacerbated by the fact that they have relatively poor national planning and project appraisal and evaluation capability.38 In terms of dependence on metropolitan countries for development and budgetary assistance, export markets and sources of imports, Neemia stated that this dependence has reached an extent that for most SPSs, the sustenance and growth of the local economy are predominantly influenced by decisions taken externally over which they have little control.39 Nonetheless, they are deeply committed to the objective of economic development as a means of promoting the material and social welfare of their people.40 However, almost without exception, they are severely handicapped by the lack of financial and technical expertise for developing what physical and human resources are available.41 Their Development Plans generally have the following objectives which are common to all of them. This is to promote economic growth, generate employment and improve the standard of living for the population; ensure the equitable distribution of the fruits of development; maintain external and internal financial stability; strengthen national identity; achieve economic independence and self-reliance; promote economic diversification into sectors such as those served by the F F A ; emphasize the preservation of their environmental and cultural heritage; and 38. Corporate Plan, supra note 23 at p. 61; For a discussion on Economic Trends and Trade Development in the South Pacific region, see paper presented by Samuel Osifelo, Project Office (RTA), Forum Secretariat, at the 1988 Ocean Resources Management In-Service Course. Also see Keynote Address by Savenaca Siwafibau to the 17th Meeting of the Forum Fisheries Committee, 25 September, 1989, F F A Report 89/89. 39. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 4. 40. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 234. 41. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 234. 12 develop harmonious relationship with other countries in the pursuit of common interests.42 However, their economic performance have invariably fallen short of planned target, which is probably caused by the difficult economic and physical characteristics described above. Fairbairn, once again states that their development programmes are characterized by heavy dependence on external factors - "foreign aid and loans, private investment, management, technical skills, markets, terms of trade and personal cash remittances".43 Their economic structure is predominantly based on agriculture and fisheries.44 In terms of their economic structure, they may be divided into three broad categories. Category A consists of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji. They have the largest populations, are made up of large volcanic islands, they are endowed with natural resources such as minerals, forestry and fish, they all have large industrial and manufacturing activities, they actively promote manufacturing, and given sound national economic management, political stability and capital investments, these countries are capable of achieving economic independence, self-reliance and steady long term growth.45 SPSs in category B are Tonga, Western Samoa and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). They are also heavily dependent on external trade and finance. Their imports exceed their exports and in Tonga remittances are currently running at more than 300 percent of exports and 50 percent of imports. Similar ratios of 42. Corporate Plan, supra note 23 at p. 62. 43. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. 44. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. 45. Corporate Plan, supra note 23 at p. 61. 13 remittances and official aid to exports and imports are current in Western Samoa. They have good soil, but natural resources are comparatively limited. Fishing is important to them. They have prospects for agricultural diversification and for widening and deepening their subsistance sectors.47 The prospects for finding minerals are limited, although the presence of minerals under the seabed as in other SPSs, are yet to be determined.48 The SPSs in category C are the Cook Islands, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Niue and the Marshall Islands. They are made up of atolls. They are relatively resource poor and land is not plentiful and the quality is poor. Minerals are not found and the level of economic activity in their money sectors are determined by the external prices of copper and other minor crops, the inflow of remittances and aid, rent upon the use of fishing rights within their EEZs and overseas investments by financial institutions.49 The characteristics outlined above portrays the economic constraints confronting SPSs. Fairbairn has argued that the major development constraint is the physical size,5 0 which limits the range and variety of materials available for development.51 Small populations limit the size of the domestic market thus restricting industrialization and the scope for realizing significant economies through large scale operations.52 Another major constraint pertains to the shortage 46. Corporate Plan, supra note 23 at p. 61. 47. Corporate Plan, supra note 23 at p. 61. 48. Corporate Plan, supra note 23 at p. 61. 49. Corporate Plan, supra note 23 at p. 61. 50. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 234. 51. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. 52. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. 14 of capital funds for development. Fairbairn states that this is caused by the low rates of savings associated with low levels of per head incomes and generally underdeveloped financial institutions capable of mobilizing savings and making them available for investment.53 Consequently, there has been an increasing tendency in recent years towards receiving foreign aid and overseas borrowing to meet the need to raise more developmental funds for expanding development programmes.54 This problem is exacerbated by the general shortage of staff at all levels - the professional, technical, administrative and entrepreneurial, which has perpetuated dependence on expatriates. It is submitted that the economic factors described above are important in order to appreciate the rationale for regional cooperation in the region. They are common to all facets of SPSs economic goals and aspirations, including the fisheries sector. Indeed, as articulated below, the formation of FFA not only coincided with the evolution and acceptance by the international community of the E E Z , but more significantly the economic characteristics of SPSs inevitably dictated the collective action that culminated in its formation. D. Politics The factors articulated in the preceding section are enough to consume considerable time by governments in developed European, North American or other developed countries which have been dealing extensively with economic issues over 53. 54. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. 15 the years. However, in the Pacific region, the following factor provides additional overlay: for many SPSs, political autonomy only came during the 1970s. They were left with a situation of newly formed bureaucracies and little expertise, particularly on fisheries matters.66 The administration which was invariably based on the European model, emphasised agriculture rather than fisheries training.5 7 The historical development of the region has been influenced by both the cultural backgrounds of the melanesian, micronesian and Polynesian peoples, and by the different institutions brought about by three major colonial traditions: British, United States and French. 5 8 The present political map of the region is a product of the colonial divisions of the last and early part of the present 59 centuries. The region has a diversity of political systems and structures which include a Kingdom (Tonga), a State in which only chiefs can vote or be elected (Western Samoa), a government installed by a military coup (Fiji), a Republic (Vanuatu), and an Associated State (Cook Islands).60 Of the sixteen member States of FFA, there are eleven constitutionally independent States, two self-governing States in Association6 1 with New Zealand, two self-governing States in association with the 55. Swan J. , "Highly Migratory Species - The South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency", Implementation of the  Law of the Sea Convention Through International Institutions (23rd Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute) at p. 1. 56. Swan J. , ibid at p. 2. 57. Swan J., ibid at p. 3. 58. Australian Foreign Affairs Review, (hereinafter referred to as A F A R ) , Vol . 54, 1983 at p. 379. 59. A F A R , ibid, at p. 379; for a discussion of politics in the South Pacific see, Larmour, Peter ii Qalo Ropate, Decentralization in the South Pacific: Local, Provincial and State Government in Twenty  Countries, (1985). 60. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 6. 61. The concept of "free association" or "associated State" was set forth in the United Nations General 16 United States of America (USA), and one state which is still mandated under USA trusteeship. Neemia has pointed out that notwithstanding these differences in political form and constitutional status there are no major differences in political ideology, not only between SPSs, but also between them and metropolitan countries with dependencies in the region.62 Furthermore, irrespective of their differences in policies and political status, they have demonstrated their interest in regional cooperation through participation in a range of regional meetings and organizations63 including the South Pacific Forum (SPF), the South Pacific Commission (SPC), the Forum Secretariat, the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA), the Pacific Forum Line (PFL), and the University of the South Pacific (USP).6 4 However, each entity is politically unique, having its own national problems. For example, in Papua New Guinea, it is unifying a profoundly diverse heterogenous society; in Fiji, the major political issue is one of racial balance Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 1541 of December 15, 1960, which establishes the principles to be utilized in determining when entities governed by other countries had reached the status of self-government and thus were no longer "colonies". The resolution defines "free association" as an association between two entities that is "the result of a free and voluntary choice ... through informed and democratic process". U N G A R E S . 1541, 15 U N G A O R SUPP. (No. 16), U N D O C . A4684 (1961). In a relationship of "free association", there must be respect for the individuality and the cultural characteristics of the area and its people. The most essential element is that the people of each of the freely associated states must ... unilaterally have "the freedom to modify the status of that territory through the expression of their will by democratic means". Finally, the people have the right to develop their own constitution without any outside interference. In the usual context, "freely associated" states are self-governing, except in matters related to external affairs and defence. Biliana Cicin-Sain it Robert W. Knecht, The Emergence of a Regional Ocean Regime in the South Pacific, Ecology Law Quarterly. Vol . 16, No. 1, 1989, p. 179. 62. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 6. 63. A F A R , supra note 58 at p. 379. 64. The University of the South Pacific was established in 1968 by SPSs with the aim of serving the education needs of SPSs. It is based in Suva. While growth and maturation has not been without difficulty, it is playing an important role in educating the population of the region, Neemia, supra note 5, at pp. 38, 83-87, 106-08. 17 between indigenous Fijians, and Indians; in Western Samoa, it is the power rivalry between factions of matai (chiefs), and in Vanuatu, it is the colonial legacies of the Anglo-French condominium.65 Their political status may appear superficial and insignificant. However, Neemia has pointed out that in a "collective arrangement such as regional cooperation, these differences in political emphasis and constitutional status among actors have the potential to crystallize into different interests".66 In setting the context in which F F A was formed, and in order to appreciate the mandate it has, it would be pertinent to discuss the status of the tuna stock in the region, and its significance to SPSs development plans. The creation of the 200 nautical mile EEZ opened up a new dimension on SPSs economic goals.67 It enabled them to exercise strategic control of the major part of the Pacific Ocean with its rich stock of tuna and other fish varieties and potential in mining manganese nodules and energy generation.68 The interest they took in the EEZ concept is discussed below, but for present purposes, it is suffice to mention that they have all subscribed to the concept by declaring their own E. Tuna Resource of the South Pacific Region EEZs. 65. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 6. 66. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 6. 67. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. 68. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. 18 In a Consultancy Report on the status of tuna in the region, Shepard, M , and Clerk, L., reported that the region has one of the richest tuna grounds in the world (see Tables 2 and 3). The main species of tuna found in the region are yellowfin (tunnus albacares), skipjack (katsuwonus pelamis), albacore (tunnus alalunga), and bigeye (tunnus obesus). It has been estimated that the region currently provides one quarter of the world's tuna catch in terms of weight and over one half of the world catch of skipjack.70 Moreover, skipjack catches in the region between 1980 and 1985 accounted for an average of 64 percent of the world's annual catches.71 The tuna fishery is the region's most valuable commercial fishery. It has been estimated that the unprocessed value of tuna caught in the region is approximately worth US$600 to US$700 million annually.73 According to statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), an average of 20 percent of world catches of the main tuna species was caught in the region between 1977 and 1985 - an average of 326,662 metric tonnes annually.74 69. Shepard, M . , and Clerk, L . , "South Pacific Fisheries Development Assistance Needs", Consultancy Report prepared for F A O and U N D P , 1984, p. 5. (Hereinafter referred to as Shepard ii Clerk.) 70. See Waugh, Geoffrey, "Trends in the Western Pacific, Eastern Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Ocean Fisheries", F F A Report No. 88/27 at p. 3; Also, see Kelly, R., Christopher, "Law of the Sea: The Jurisdictional Dispute over High Migratory Species of Tuna", Columbia Journal of Transnational Law. Vol . 26, No. 3, 1988 at p. 478. 71. See generally, F A O Yearbook of Fisheries. Statistics, and Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission. Recent  Trends in the Tuna Fisheries in the Western Pacific and South East Asia, 1987. 72. See, Togolo, Mary-Cath, "Domestic and Distant-Water Fishing Industry", in The Development of the  Tuna Industry in the Pacific Islands Region: An Analysis of Options. Doulman, J. David, (ed.) Eastwest Center, Hawaii, 1987 at p. 55. 73. 74. Togolo, ibid, at p. 55. Togolo, ibid, at p. 55. 19 Table 2: Tota l Catches of Tuna and Tuna-l ike Species in the Western Pac i f i c - '000 Tonnes Western Percent Central Percent Years World Pacific of Western of Catch Tonnes World Pacific World Tonnes 1980 2633 1371 1981 2647 1307 1982 2788 1354 1983 2739 1599 1984 3078 1727 1985 3111 1690 52.1 792 30.1 49.1 849 32.1 48.6 87.9 31.5 54.4 977 33.3 56.1 1104 35.9 54.3 Sources: F A Q Yearbook of Fishery Statistics and Indo-Pacific Fishery  Commission. Recent Trends in the Tuna Fisheries in the Western  Pacific and South East Asia. 1987; Waugh, G., "Trends in the Western Pacific, Eastern Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Ocean Fisheries", F F A Report No. 88/27. 20 Table 3: Total Catches in the Western Pacific by Species - '000 Tonnes 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 % of World C a t c h S k i p j a c k 495 412 449 634 730 716 71 Y e l l o w f i n 210 219 209 248 241 242 36 A l b a c o r e 97 81 82 56 62 65 35 Bigeye 46 36 36 33 33 35 18 N o r t h e r n B l u e f i n 14 25 23 15 7 7 18 Southern B l u e f i n 14 11 7 5 3 3 8 Coastal T u n a 177 172 175 222 214 185 80 B i l l f i s h e s 58 44 38 40 39 38 45 Seerfishes 172 189 195 205 235 192 65 U n i d e n t i f i e d 102 118 140 142 163 207 66 T O T A L 1385 1307 1354 1600 1727 1690 54 Source: I n d o - P a c i f i c Fisheries C o m m i s s i o n . H o w e v e r , more than 90 percent of al l tuna species caught i n the region is p r i m a r i l y f i s h e d by large, capi ta l intensive, distant water f i s h i n g fleets ( D W F F ) f r o m distant water f i s h i n g nations ( D W F N s ) such as Japan, South K o r e a , T a i w a n a n d the U S A . 7 5 O n e commentator has suggested that the West C e n t r a l P a c i f i c region, w h i c h contains vast and current ly u n d e r u t i l i z e d stocks, holds great promise f o r f u t u r e e x p l o r a t i o n . 7 6 T h e greatest challenge to SPSs is the management of these species of tuna. T h e factors f o r m i n g management pr inc iples i n the region is discussed below. A t this juncture it is s u f f i c e to mention that these principles i n c l u d e : (a) the m a x i m i s a t i o n of benefits to them; (b) the exploi ta t ion of the 75. Kelly, R. Christopher, supra note 70 at p. 478. 76. See, Doulman, J. David, The Tuna Industry in the Pacific Islands Region: Opportunities for Foreign  Investment, Pacific Islands Development Program, (1985). 21 tuna fishery by DWFNs; (c) the collection and analysis of scientific data and conclusions; and (d) SPSs medium to long-term plans to develop national fishing industries.77 F. Rationale for Regional Cooperation in the South Paci f ic Region SPSs have demonstrated a very strong political will to tackle common problems by cooperating with one another. In a region with limited resources the tackling of problems through regional cooperation makes sense.78 Thus, they have established regional organisations in several areas. In the area of family health, nutrition, and telecommunications, they established the South Pacific Commission (SPC); in education, there is the University of the South Pacific (USP); in economic and political affairs, they have the Forum Secretariat (formerly SPEC); in regional transportation, they have the Pacific Forum Line (PFL); and in fisheries management, they have the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA). A detailed discussion of the mechanisms for decision making in the region is given below. Some of the reasons for regional cooperation has been discussed in the preceding section of this Chapter. However, an important factor appertains to the large ocean space that has come under their national jurisdiction, coupled with the heavy financial burden of managing the resources therein.79 The large area of sea 77. Swan, J. , supra note 55 at p. 3. 78. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. 79. Tsamenyi, F., Martin, "The South Pacific States and Sovereignty over Highly Migratory Species", Marine  Policy. Vol. 10, January 1986 at p. SO. 22 under their national jurisdiction imposes tremendous constraints on the management of tuna in their EEZs and the effective enforcement of management regulations within the EEZ. Tsamenyi attributes the rationale for regional cooperation to the fact that most SPSs are developing countries. Therefore, in order to obtain maximum benefits from the exploration of the fisheries resources in their EEZS, there is the need to protect the EEZ against foreign fishermen.80 Thus, they are compelled to formulate effective surveillance measures, consolidate enforcement mechanisms, and establish research facilities to increase their capacity to manage the resources within their EEZ. These measures are expensive to formulate and implement, and moreover, they invariably require the availability of highly trained and skilled manpower.81 Regional fisheries cooperation is also dictated by shared comparative disadvantages; smallness, relative isolation and apparent lack of industrial fishing capacity. Doulman stated that this makes them vulnerable to the sophisticated tactics of DWFNs who had major objections to SPSs and other coastal States extended jurisdiction. This made them potentially vulnerable to economic exploitation, and therefore it was in their own interest and in the interest of the region as a whole, to form a unified bloc. 8 3 Another important reason for regional cooperation relates to the importance of tuna. Tuna is a highly migratory species of fish. Therefore, it presents 80. Tsamenyi, M . , ibid, at p. 30. 81. Tsamenyi, M . , ibid at p. 31. 82. Doulman, J. David, "In Pursuit of Fisheries Cooperation: The South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency" 10 University of Hawaii Law Review. No. 1, 1988 at p. 139. 83. Doulman, D . , ibid, at p. 139. 23 management problems for individual SPSs. What happens to them in one portion of stock range dramatically affects the stock throughout the entire region. They have realised the need to cooperate to avoid overexploitation.85 Because of its highly migratory patterns, any coastal State, let alone the small island States of the region would face considerable difficulties to manage it unilaterally. It was in the interest of the region that they formed a management system based on regional cooperation to meet the requirements of the resource. In this regard, the author believes that SPSs deserve to be congratulated for their foresight in establishing F F A for the purposes of assisting them manage the resource. Finally, regional cooperation may be seen as their response to the implementation of decisions taken at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. Indeed, Article 638 6 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) calls for cooperation among neighbouring coastal States over shared stocks.87 The foregoing discussion endeavours to provide a brief conspectus of the more significant characteristics of the region. From the discussion it may be inferred that the South Pacific region is surrounded by a vast span of ocean. 84. Kent, George, The Politics of Pacific Islands Fisheries, Westview Press, Colorado, 1980, at p. 166. 85. Van Dyke, Jon and Heft el, Susan, "Tuna Management in the Pacific: A n Analysis of the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency", 3 University of Hawaii Law Review. No. 1, 1981 at p. 6. For a further discussion see Knight G . , Managing the Sea's Living Resources. Legal and Political Aspects of High Seas  Fisheries (1977; Saila S. ic Norton V . , Tuna: Status. Trends and Alternative Management  Arrangements. (1974). 86. See U N . D O C . A / C O N F . 62/122 (1982) hereinafter referred to as U N C L O S : Article 63(1) states: [Wjhere the same stock or stocks of associated species occur within the E E Z of two or more coastal States, these states shall seek, either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional organisations, to agree upon measures necessary to coordinate and ensure the conservation and development of such stocks without prejudice to the other provisions of this Part. 87. Kearney, R . E . , "The Law of the Sea A: Regional Fisheries Policy", Ocean Development and International  Law. Vol . 5, 1978, pp. 249-286. 24 Nonetheless, in spite of the region's diversity, SPSs all share similar inherent economic and social problems. The sea, undoubtedly, has played a significant role in the lives of the peoples of the South Pacific. Traditionally, they have invariably depended on the sea as the primary source of nutrition, and recreation. As more SPSs evolve from a subsistence based economy to a cash oriented economy, the resources of the sea have acquired a substantially new connotation. The adoption of UNCLOS, and in particular, the acceptance of a so-called E E Z , no doubt has had a significant impact on them. The author has no hesitation in pointing out that much of UNCLOS, if not all of it, has had an effect on the peoples of the South Pacific in one way or another. UNCLOS emerged at the right time for them. As noted above, being small in size and without any significant economic or military power, UNCLOS has served as the weapon with which they manage the vast and rich tuna resource in the region. Although the full extent of the implications of UNCLOS for the region is beyond the scope of this discussion, it is suffice to mention that nowhere in the world is UNCLOS more important and relevant by much of what it is as it is in the South Pacific. 8 8 Nearly every part of UNCLOS is of relevance to the South Pacific. It is submitted that in this respect UNCLOS has had a significant impact in their development. 88. Narokobi S.N. Camillus, The ' U N Convention on the Law of the Sea - Impact on the South Pacific Region. 1989 (unpublished) at p. 17. 25 C H A P T E R II T H E EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE (EEZ) The EEZ is a zone extending 200 nautical miles from the baseline, within which coastal States enjoy extensive rights in relation to natural resources and other jurisdictional rights, and third States enjoy the freedoms of navigation, overflight by aircraft and the laying of cables and pipelines.90 The following discussion articulates SPSs interests in the EEZ. It traces the historical development of the EEZ, and discusses the relevant provisions of UNCLOS dealing with conservation, utilization, and tuna therein. The discussion will examine the pertinent provisions of UNCLOS by attempting to look at the actual wording of the provision, discuss any limits or ambiguities that might exist therein, define any legal problems with the provision, and point out how these have been interpreted. 89. The E E Z is defined under Article 55 of U N C L O S as an [a]rea beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention. 90. Churchill, R.R. & Lowe, A . V . , The Law of the Sea, Manchester University Press, 1983 at p. 125 (hereinafter referred to as Churchill <k Lowe). 26 A. SPSs Interest in the EEZ It will be recalled that most SPSs have limited landbased resources. Thus the creation of the EEZ and its subsequent acceptance by the international community provided major opportunities for them to increase the benefits they accrue from fish and other offshore resources.91 In his report, Shepard92 stated, that most SPSs are already receiving financial and other types of compensation from foreign fleets fishing in their zones. A number of them are working with DWFNs in cooperative ventures aimed at increasing local fishing and processing capacities. Their moves towards claiming EEZs may be traced to the seventh meeting of the SPF in Nauru, in 1976. At that meeting, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, the Prime Minister of Fiji, presented a Discussion Paper pointing out amongst other things, that the concept of extended jurisdiction had been accepted internationally.94 Fiji was among the few SPSs who participated actively at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, and therefore, was well placed to provide other 91. Narokobi, supra note 88 at p. 7. 92. Shepard, M . , "Cooperation Among Forum Member and Observer Island States Regarding Access of Foreign Fishing Vessels to their 200 Mile Zones", paragraph 10, (a copy is with F F A ) , 1980. 93. Shepard, ibid., at paragraph 10. 94. Harris, D.J . , Cases and Materials on International Law, Sweet ii Maxwell, London, 1979 at p. 377 states: "It is clear that the international community is prepared to allow coastal States a 200 mile E E Z . A consensus to this effect quickly emerged at U N C L O S III and provision is accordingly made for such a zone in the I C N T . By early 1977, 27 coastal States from all political groupings made claims to 200 mile E E Z s , mostly after the start of U N C L O S III. Indicative of the speed of events is the fact that the U K which had fought a "war" over Iceland's claim to a 200 mile zone just 12 months previously, claimed its own 200 mile E E Z as of January 1, 1977. 27 SPSs with meticulous details pertaining to the deliberations of the Conference. The SPF declared, inter alia, that its members stand to benefit from the creation of the 200 mile E E Z . 9 5 They recognized that bringing the resources of the E E Z under their control would open up the way to major economic opportunities. At the eighth SPF meeting in Port Moresby in August 1977, the SPF declared96 their intention to undertake as late as possible, by 31 March, 1978, the legislative and administrative actions necessary to establish extended fisheries jurisdiction to the fullest extent possible under international law and to apply within their zones, principles and measures for the exploration, exploitation, management and conservation of the living resources.97 Implicit in the declaration was the recognition at the time, that in the continued absence of a comprehensive international convention on the law of the sea, and in view of the action taken by a large number of countries, including DWFNs, exploiting HMS in the region, they should move quickly to establish EEZs, and should take steps to coordinate their policies and activities if they are to secure maximum benefits from their resources for their peoples.98 It is interesting to note that even as early as 1977, they already recognized their vulnerability to DWFNs. This is clearly manifested in the call to "coordinate" their policies and activities. It appears as if the coordination of their policies was a condition upon which maximum returns from their resources would be realised. 95. For the text of the SPF Communique see A F A R , Vol. 45, 1976. 96. SPF, "Declaration on Law of the Sea and a Regional Fisheries Agency", (hereinafter referred to as the Port Moresby Declaration), Port Moresby, August 31, 1977. See A F A R , Vol. 48, December 1977 at p. 632. 97. Port Moresby Declaration, ibid., at para. 4. 98. Port Moresby Declaration, ibid., at para. 3. Source: David J. Doulman, (ed.) Tuna Issues and Perspectives in the Pacific Islands Region, (1987), Eastwest Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. 29 T e i w a k i , argues that the case f o r the creation of the 200 mile E E Z was based on "pol i t i ca l a n d economic grounds than on any c lear ly f o r m u l a t e d legal p r i n c i p l e or past j u r i d i c a l f o u n d a t i o n " . M o r e o v e r , he states, " for the d e v e l o p i n g countries , the SPSs i n c l u d e d , the declarations of extended m a r i t i m e j u r i s d i c t i o n became something of a symbol of economic independence , a means of c losing the gap between the r icher a n d the poorer nations, representing a move towards the creat ion of a new economic o r d e r " . 1 0 0 Whatever their motivat ions may have been, there is absolutely no doubt that they have benefi t ted f r o m the E E Z . A s N a r o k o b i , 1 0 1 pointed out, there is no other part of U N C L O S w h i c h is of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e to them than Part V w h i c h establishes the regime of the E E Z . Most SPSs, apart f r o m A u s t r a l i a , N e w Z e a l a n d a n d P a p u a N e w G u i n e a , have gained f a r more economical ly f r o m f u l l y u t i l i z i n g the regime of the 200 mile E E Z than any other part of U N C L O S . Some have very lit t le else as their natural resource except f o r f isheries f o u n d w i t h i n their waters i n c l u d i n g the 200 mile E E Z . 1 0 2 Indeed, as Shepard and C l e r k , i n their report on South P a c i f i c Fisheries D e v e l o p m e n t Assistance Needs, s t a t e ; 1 0 3 99. Teiwaki, R., Management of Marine Resources in Kiribati, University of the South Pacific (USP), 1988 at p. 73 (hereinafter referred to as Teiwaki). 100. Teiwaiki, ibid., at p. 73. 101. Narokobi, supra note 88 at p. 7. 102. Narokobi, supra note 88 at p. 7. 103. Shepard & Clerk, supra note 69 at pp. 5-6. 30 "Clearly, tuna represents the region's most valuable renewable resource, and, in the long term, probably its most valuable asset overall. At present, the very substantial benefits flowing from the resource accrue mainly to distant water fishing nations. The harnessing of this resource for the benefit of the island countries represents perhaps their greatest opportunity to achieve economic self-sufficiency. For some, it may represent the only hope of ever achieving this goal. The recent changes in the Law of the Sea, granting coastal States sovereign rights for the exploitation of the resources within 200-mile zones, and the fact that the interlocking zones of the island nations cover the great majority of the South Pacific's ocean surface, provide excellent opportunities for the island States to gain substantial increased benefits from the tuna resources off their shores in the future." B. History of the EEZ The concept of the EEZ is a new development in international law. Until the acceptance of the notion of the EEZ, international law assumed international waters were res communis: totally free and belonging to any nation. 1 0 4 Nations which had the technology and capital to support long distance fishing expeditions were free to exploit the resources of seas105 adjacent to other States.106 The reason 104. Cass, Deborah, "The Quiet Revolution: The Development of the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Implications for Foreign Fishing Access in the Pacific", Melbourne University Law Review. Vol. 16, No. 1, 1987 at p. 85. 105. This principle was first codified in the Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas (1958 Convention on the High Seas), opened for signature April 29, 1958, 17 U.S .T . 138, T.I-A.S. No. 5969, 450 U.N.T .S . 82, reprinted in 1 International and United States Documents on Oceans  Law and Policy 6 [hereinafter 1958 Convention on the High Seas]. Article 2 of the 1958 Convention on the High Seas provides: The high seas being open to all nations, no [s]tate may validly purport to subject any part of them to its sovereignty. Freedom of the high seas is exercised under the conditions laid down by these articles and by other rules of international law. It comprises inter alia, both for coastal and non-coastal [sjtates: (1) Freedom of navigation; (2) Freedom of fishing; 31 for this was until the middle of the century, all waters beyond the territorial sea were regarded as high seas over which no State could exercise jurisdiction.1 0 7 However, the growth in fishing technology and the realisation of the finiteness of the fisheries resources brought about a new kind of relationship between the coastal State and its adjacent sea areas.108 While international ocean politics has in the past tended to emphasize the protection of security, navigation and trade, since World War II, it has shifted its emphasis to the protection of ocean wealth and economic interests in the ocean.1 0 9 While its historical roots are said to lie in the Truman Proclamations of September 28, 1945,110 its more immediate and direct origins lie in the preparations for U N C L O S . 1 1 1 Nonetheless, a brief discussion of the initial claims of exclusive (3) Freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines; (4) Freedom to fly over the high seas. These freedoms, and others are recognized by the general principles of international law, shall be exercised by all (sjtates with reasonable regard to the interest of other [s]tates in their exercise of the freedom of the high seas. 106. Belsky, M . H . , "Management of Large Marine Ecosystems: Developing a New Role of Customary International Law", 22 San Diego Law Review. 733, 1985, p. 744. According to Belsky, the history of the law of the sea has been to strike a balance between a broad interpretation of the freedom of the seas and a narrower interpretation of the notion of adjacent State sovereignty. The result has been to tip the balance almost completely toward the view that freedom of the high seas was immutable and included the right to overfish. 107. For a discussion on the development of the modern law of fisheries see Fleischer C . A . , "The New Regime of Maritime Fisheries" Recueil Pes Cours. Vol. 11, 1988, at p. 119. 108. Fleischer, C . A . , ibid, at pp. 120-121. 109. Dahmani, M . , The Fisheries Regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987 at p. 14. 110. Presidential Proclamation No. 2667, Concerning Policy of the United States with Respect to the Natural Resources of the Subsoil and the Sea-bed of the Continental Shelf, 59 Stat. 884 (1945) and Presidential Proclamation No. 2668, Concerning the Policy of the United States with Respect to Coastal Fisheries in Certain Areas of the High Seas. 111. Churchill & Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 125. 32 jurisdiction would be in order.1 1 2 As stated above, the first unmistakable unilateral claim to an extended ocean resource jurisdiction was embodied in the Truman Proclamation. The United States claimed the natural resources of the subsoil and seabed of its continental shelf, primarily to ensure a stable investment climate for American oil companies.113 In addition, the United States also claimed fishery conservation jurisdiction over the superjacent waters in order to protect New England fisheries.1 1 4 The principle of unilaterally claimed sovereignty over offshore resources became generally accepted in international law, 1 1 5 and thereafter, was expressed in various types of claims initially developed in South America. However, it is important to note that these claims were not identical. While in most cases the pertinent proclamations did not encompass the high seas and the airspace above it, most Latin American States combined the assertion of rights to the continental shelf with wide, though indefinite claims to the sea above it . 1 1 6 What is clear is that two things were developing. One was the claim to continental shelves by the principal marine powers which at the time was deemed to be the 112. For a survey of the historical background bearing on claims to an E E Z , see Johnston, D . , and Gold, E . , The Economic Zone in the Law of the Sea: Survey. Analysis and Appraisal of Current Trends (1973). 113. Hudson, Carolyn, "Fishery and Economic Zones as Customary International Law", San Diego Law  Review, vol. 17, 1980 at p. 664. In that Proclamation the government of the United States declared the natural resources of the subsoil and sea-bed of the continental shelf - described as an extension of the land-mass of the coastal nation and thus naturally appurtenant to it - beneath the high seas but contiguous to the coasts of the United States to be subject to its jurisdiction and control. Lauterpacht H. , (ed.), International Law - A Treatise by Qppenheim L . . Longmans, 1955 at p. 631. 114. Hudson, ibid., at p. 664. See Presidential Proclamation 2668. supra note 110. 115. Hudson, ibid, at p. 664: Also see Lauterpacht, H . , International Law 64 (E. Lauterpacht ed. 1970). The Truman Proclamations received international sanction in the "Convention on the Continental Shelf", 499 U N T S 311. 116. Garcia-Amador, "The Latin American Contribution to the Development of the Law of the Sea", 68 American Journal of International Law. 33 (1974). Lauterpacht, supra note 113 at p. 632. 33 only legitimate extension of territorial jurisdiction. The other was the claim by most Latin American States of territorial jurisdiction over the continental shelf as well as the water column above it. The Truman Proclamation was followed by Chile's claim of national sovereignty over the continental shelf off its coast and islands and over the seas above the shelf to a distance of 200 miles.1 1 7 Generally, claims to 200 mile EEZs were primarily motivated by a genuine concern for conservation, and by other economic considerations.118 Chile's claim was motivated by at least three factors: (a) Chilean business interests were seeking a measure to protect their new offshore whaling operations; (b) Chilean legal specialists thought that a 200 mile claim was consistent with the security zone adopted in the 1939 Declaration of Panama; and (c) the distinction in the claim between the continental shelf and the superjacent waters was added to strengthen Chile's assertion that the claim followed the precedent set by the United States in the Truman Declaration.1 1 9 Chile's claims, 117. Presidential Declaration concerning Continental Shelf, June 23, 1947; U N Legislative Series, Laws and Regulations on the Regime of the High Seas, U N Doc. S T / L E G / S E R V . B / 1 A T 6 (1951). 118. The principle 200-mile claimants, Chile, Equador and Peru, supported their unilateral assertions with a new theory of the relation of man and earth to the sea, the "Dioma Theory". "Modern biologists and ecologists have called the sum of non-biotic factors, mainly climatological and hydrological, which are capable of creating a particular situation, that will permit an aggregate of vegetable and animal beings to live within an "eco-system". Within an "eco-system" many living communities, including man, may co-exist in a perfect chain, or succession, constituting a whole which is called a "bioma". Therefore, the term "bioma" designates the whole of the complex of living communities of a region, which under the influence of the climate and in the course of centuries, becomes constantly more homogenous until, in its final phase, it becomes a definite type ... [Thus] a perfect unity and inter-dependence exists between the communities that live in the sea, which supports their life, and the coastal population which requires both to survive .... These "bioma" are proper to each region ... and it is, therefore, a prime duty of every coastal State to insure that they are not destroyed in the only way that this is possible, which is by the depredations of man". Rieff Henry, The United States and the Law of the Sea. University of Minnesota Press, 1959, at pp. 308-309. 119. Hollick, L . Ann. , "The Origins x>f 200 Mile Offshore Zones", The American Journal of International Law, vol. 71, 1977 at pp. 496-499. 34 however, were subject to protest120 and were not thought to be lawful. 1 2 1 Nonetheless, a number of Latin American countries soon followed the precedent established by Chile, albeit, as Hollick points out for different although their respective offshore interests differed from those of Chile's. Hollick points out that although Peru, and Ecuador had not coastal waters within the Antartic region that would require international regulation, and moreover, regardless of the fact that their own fishermen, rarely operated beyond twenty five miles from shore, they nonetheless wanted to protect their fishing fleets.124 The presence of American tuna vessels fishing off their shores was also growing. Peru adopted a 200 mile policy 1 2 5 shortly after Chile. Ecuador formally declared a 200 mile zone in 1951.126 A number of Latin American countries subsequently followed the 1951 Declaration of Santiago, including the Montevideo Declaration 1 2 7 120. See Kurt , L . Josef, "Continental Shelf and International Law: Confusion and Abuse", American Journal  of International Law. Vol. 7, 1956, p. 828; at p. 880 Kurz states: "These claims cannot be based on a pre-existing norm of international law, neither on the so-called principle of contiguity which is not a norm of international law; nor, as Mouton tried to do, on the freedom of the exploitation of the high seas, since here an exclusive right is claimed". 121. Reiff, Henry, supra note 118 at p. 308, "The United States contested this "bioma" theory when it was put into the record at the Santiago Conference in 1955. The relationship of coastal communities to the sea is, aside from the limited number of people who depend for sustenance on the sea food they catch, one of economic rather than biological character. The products enter into trade and are for the most part consumed elsewhere. The "eco-systems and biomas" are essentially localised manifestations of major world-wide meteorological and oceanographic forces. The stocks of fish, such as tuna, roam wide over the oceans: they do not respect the limits of the "biomas". Ibid at p. 308. reasons. 122 Ecuador and Peru, were both disposed towards offshore claims, 122. Hollick, supra note 119 at p. 499. 123. Hollick, supra note 119 at p. 499. 124. Hollick, supra note 119 at p. 499. 125. Presidential Decree No. 781 of August 1, 1947.. U N D o c . S T / L E G / S E R . B / 1 . 126. Maritime Hunting and Fishing Law (Decree No. 003, February 22, 1951). 127. The Montevideo Declaration does list amongst its criteria the right to establish the limits of sovereignty 35 on the Law of the Sea in 1970, and the Declaration of Santa Domingo on the Patrimonial Sea in 1972.128 Notwithstanding the opinion of Kunz pertaining to the legality of these initial claims, Hudson, in tracing the evolution of economic zones concludes that the four prerequisites of a general practice accepted as customary international law is satisfied. 1 2 9 It is the opinion of the author that although the unilateral claims of the Latin American countries may have been inspired by diverse national interests, they were nonetheless perpetrated by an awareness of the significance of the resources in adjacent waters.130 According to Cass, 1 3 1 the next significant development towards recognizing coastal State sovereignty beyond the territorial sea occurred at the 1958 United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea with the introduction of the continental and jurisdiction in its 200 mile zone. The use of the word "sovereignty" would tend to support O'Connell's statement. In contrast, the Santa Domingo Declaration talks in terms only of "sovereign rights". In any event both claims were part of a general movement towards the recognition of the coastal States rights over the resources in the waters superjacent to its continental shelf. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 86. 128. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 86. 129. Hudson, supra note 113 at p. 689; Kunz's views are supported by Lauterpacht, supra note 113 at pp. 632-633: "The reasons which have inspired the conception of the freedom of the sea and which assisted in its development are not, it is asserted, in conflict with the recognition of the rights of the coastal State to exclusive exploitation of the natural resources of the sea-bed and the sub-soil of the continental shelf. The direct proximity of the coastal State; the fact that the continental shelf constitutes a natural prolongation of its territory and that the mineral deposits of the shelf and of the mainland may form a common pool; the special interest of the coastal State in the exploitation of the resources of the continental shelf; the circumstances that it is, geographically, in the best position to do so; and its legitimate reluctance to permit other states to establish themselves, for that purpose, in the direct proximity of its coast - all these factors, it is said, substantiate the reasonableness of the claim of the coastal State to these areas". 130. O'Connell, D .P . , The International Law of the Sea. Vol. 1, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1982 (hereinafter referred to as O'Connell) at p. 553. According to O'Connell, the Santiago Declaration postulated the duty to ensure necessary food supplies and hence to conserve and protect natural resources. Ibid, at p. 533. 131. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 85. 36 shelf regime.1 3 3 While the Continental Shelf Convention 1 3 4 did not provide the coastal State with any rights in the water column above the shelf area, it nonetheless created the significant precedent of extending coastal State sovereignty beyond contemporary limits. However, the foregoing statement is qualified to the extent that prior to the conclusion of the Continental Shelf Convention, there had been numerous cases in which States exploited through their nationals the resources of the surface of the seabed. The Continental Shelf Convention merely codified customary international law that recognised amongst other things, that a "State may acquire, for sedentary fisheries and for other purposes, sovereignty and property in the surface of the sea-bed, provided that in doing so, it in no way interferes with freedom of navigation"1 3 5 In other words, the Continental Shelf Convention did not initiate the process. It merely codified an existing norm of law. An important development occurred with the Fisheries Jurisdiction Case -United Kingdom v. Iceland in 19 7 4. 1 3 6 A brief background to the case would be in order. The background to the case was a longstanding dispute between the two countries over the rights of British trawlers to fish in Icelandic waters. In 1958, following the Geneva Conference, Iceland declared a 12 mile exclusive fishing zone. The United Kingdom protested and protected British trawlers as they fished 133. The motivation behind the early continental shelf proclamations was the provision of a legal regime for offshore oil activities. As it happened, however, the geographical concept of the continental shelf had first been adverted to by jurists for the purpose of rationalizing claims to exclusive fisheries jurisdiction, upon the argument that the continental shelf generates fishing resources which for that reason are linked with the land. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 498. 134. Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf. 1968. United Nations Treaty Series (UNTS). 311. 135. Lauterpacht, supra note 113 at p. 628. 136. United Kingdom v. Iceland, ICJ Reports, 1974. 37 on the high seas within Iceland's fishing zone. In 1961, through an exchange of notes the United Kingdom agreed to recognize Iceland's zone on the condition that the phasing out of Britain's fishing interests be gradual and that notice be given if the zone was to be further extended.187 Iceland responded in 1971 by extending the zone to 50 nautical miles. The United Kingdom repeatedly protested the extension. Iceland, however, continued to ignore the protests and in 1972, enacted legislation to enforce the new zone. 1 3 8 The United Kingdom again protested and in April 1972, filed an application with the International Court of Justice (ICJ) basing jurisdiction on the exchange of notes. The pertinent portion of the ICJ's judgment to the present discussion are as follows: the ICJ found that two trends in international law had emerged since 1958, (a) the acceptance of a 12 nautical mile territorial sea, and (b) the concept that the coastal State has preferential rights in adjacent waters particularly if the coastal State is dependent on those waters, but these rights were not to be exercised to the exclusion of historic rights.1 3 9 The ICJ's judgment1 4 0 is significant in terms of the development of the EEZ concept because for the first time the ICJ recognized that coastal States had the right to exercise some form of control (although only preferential) over the fishing 137. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 86. 138. Harris, supra note 94 at p. 369. 139. See, Brownlie, I., Principles of Public International Law. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1979 at pp. 237-255. 140. In the Fisheries Jurisdiction cases, where the ICJ was faced with determining the validity of Iceland's extension of its fishing limits from 12 to 50 miles, the ICJ held that under customary international law, a coastal State particularly dependent on fishing for its economic livelihood in certain circumstances enjoyed preferential rights of access to the high seas fishery resources in the waters adjacent to its coasts. This finding by the ICJ has been criticised because of the lack of evidence and the imprecision of the alleged rule, and in practice no coastal State, either before or since the Court's judgment has sought to rely on it. Churchill Si Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 202. 38 resources of the area adjacent to its territorial sea.141 It was also significant that this decision was made despite the failure of the Second Law of the Sea Conference in 1960 to agree to an extension of the territorial sea to the 12 mile l imit . 1 4 2 By the time the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea convened in 1974, the concept of the EEZ had attracted the interest and support of most developing nations and was beginning to obtain the support of developed nations such as Canada and Norway. 1 4 3 It is also important to note that the number of countries who were now participating in the process to further define international law of the sea had substantially increased. This was largely due to the rapid decolonisation of former colonies. The new actors had an enormous impact on the future shape and direction of discussions pertaining to the law of the sea, because their interests differed from the traditional maritime powers. Kenya , 1 4 4 was primarily responsible for advancing the concept of an EEZ in any international fora when it put forward the EEZ concept to the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee in January 1971, and to the U N Sea Bed Committee in 19 7 2.1 4 5 Kenya's proposal also coincided with Latin American countries' 141. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 86. 142. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 86. 143. Churchill it Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 125. 144. Rembe S. Nasila, Africa and the International Law of the Sea: A Study of the Contribution of the  African States to the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. Sijthoff Sc Noordhoff International Publishers, 1980, at p. 116. 145. The Kenyan delegate who is regarded as the architect of this concept, stated in the plenary session of U N C L O S III that: 39 development of the concept of the patrimonial sea. 1 4 6 The two line of approaches had effectively merged, and by the time the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea culminated in the conclusion of UNCLOS, most coastal States had declared an adjacent fishery zone, albeit the form and content of that zone varied between States.147 At the Conference a number of different solutions were proposed. These reflected the different political and economic interests of States.148 The Latin American countries favoured seabed and fisheries jurisdiction combined to 200 nautical miles. The African states on the other hand sought to stress the. "economic" nature of the E E Z . 1 4 9 Australia and New Zealand advocated a limited fisheries management zone, 1 5 0 and DWFNs, such as the United States and Japan, argued that as they were best equipped to ensure that maximum yield was taken, [Tjhoee ideas [of the exclusive economic zone] had originated within the Asian-African Legal Consultations Committee meeting in Colombo in 1970 and in Lagos in 1971. They had further developed in the Declaration of Santo Domingo of 1972, which was similar to the conclusions of the Yaounde Seminar and also recognized the existence of a continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. Rembe, ibid, at p. 118. 146. See, Declaration of Santa Domingo. June 1972. U N Leg. Serv. B/16, p. 599. Although this Declaration is the first Latin American declaration to refer to the patrimonial sea, it is the culmination of a series of earlier Latin American proclamations moving towards this concept. Churchill St Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 141. 147. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 86. 148. The politics of U N C L O S and the negotiating process produced new alliances and groupings. It was not unusual for a State to belong to more than one interest group because it could have more than one vital law of the sea interest and affiliation due to factors such as: the configuration of its coast; the length of its coastline and the width of its continental shelf; its proximity to the coasts of neighbouring countries; whether the sea or sea-bed adjacent to it were rich in living or non-living resources; the size of its commercial and military fleet; its relations with its neighbours; and its military alliances. Nordquist, H . M . , United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982: A Commentary, Vol . 1, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1985 at pp. 68-69. 149. 150. Rembe, supra note 144 at pp. 119-127. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 560. 40 they should be free to continue fishing in the traditional manner. The SPSs having been informed of the economic potential of the E E Z were quite clear with their position. They were amongst the majority of States which spoke in favour of some form of an E E Z . 1 5 2 They were vehemently interested in an EEZ wherein the coastal State would have national jurisdiction and control over the living and non-living resources, marine research and pollution and were agreeable to the laying of submarine cables.153 The EEZ has been described as a multifunctional zone. 1 5 4 As Churchill and Lowe pointed out, the EEZ is a reflection of the aspiration of the developing countries for economic development and the desire to gain greater control over the economic resources off their coasts, particularly fish stocks which in many cases were exploited by DWFNs. 1 5 5 As of October 1984, out of some 104 independent coastal States, over three quarters (106 States) claimed limits of 12 nautical miles, 92 claimed 200 miles and a further 7 claimed jurisdiction up to median lines short of 200 miles. 1 6 6 Although UNCLOS has not entered into force, it is generally agreed that because of the widespread acceptance of the regime internationally,1 5 7 151. O'Connell, supra note 130 at pp. 560-561. 152. Nordquist, supra note 148 at p. 79. The members of the Oceania Group were Australia, Fiji , New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga and the Trust Territories of the Pacific. This Group represented the interests of the island States in the South Pacific. Its position was often shared by other States which possessed islands. The common interest of the group was to ensure that islands were not precluded from establishing EEZs and continental shelves, ibid, at p. 79. 153. Teiwaki, supra note 99 at p. 71. 154. For a discussion of the E E Z as a multifunctional zone see, Kwiatkowska, Barbara, The 200 Mile  Exclusive Economic Zone in the New Law of the Sea, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1989 at pp. 1-44. 155. Churchill Si Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 126. 156. F A O , Legislation on Coastal State Requirements for Foreign Fishing, F A O Legislative Series No. 21, Rome, 1984 at p. 1. 157. Krueger B.R. St Nordquist, H . M . , "The Evolution of the 200-Mile Exclusive Economic Zone: State 41 it has crystallized into customary international law. It is the opinion of the author that the history of the EEZ is now academic. It has become universally accepted even by developed nations who initially opposed the concept. SPSs contributed to the widespread practice, and its subsequent crystallization into customary international law by respectively declaring EEZs. They recognized the economic potential of an EEZ. They also knew that the region was rich with tuna. Moreover, they knew that most of the tuna was harvested by DWFNs. In order to benefit from the enormous tuna resources in the region, SPSs had to gain control over the waters the tuna inhabited. The innovation of the EEZ has been a significant gain by them. It is a gain that has also cost them substantially in terms of their human and financial resources. They recognized their vulnerability and limitations which consequently led to the formation of FFA. C. The Legal Status of the EEZ The legal status of the EEZ is primarily governed by customary international law and reflected in Part V of UNCLOS. The pertinent provisions governing the rights and duties of coastal States concerning tuna, are Articles 56, 61, 62 and 64. The discussion that follows examines the wording of the provisions, Practice in the Pacific Basin", Virginia Journal of International Law. Vol. 19, 1978 at pp. 32-400. The authors said, "Although the ICNT is a long way from official agreement, its provisions on the E E Z are influencing State practice. In the Pacific Basin, there is strong evidence that nations, either individually or in regional cooperation, are tempering their interests with the steel of collective international trend." Ibid at p. 372. 158. Hudson, supra note 113 at p. 686. 42 highlights any limits or ambiguities therein and defines any legal problems with the provisions. 1. General Scope of Authority It is generally accepted that Article 56(l)(a) is the basic Article on coastal State rights and duties in the EEZ with respect to the various uses of the living and non-living resources found therein.1 5 9 Article 56(l)(a) provides: [I]n the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State has sovereign rights for purposes of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed, and of the seabed and its subsoil .... Two points need to be noted about the general provisions of Article 56(l)(a). First, Article 56(l)(a) accords the coastal State "sovereign rights" and not "sovereignty".160 The coastal State has sovereign rights for four primary purposes, namely, exploring, exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources of the EEZ. According to O'Connell, this implies that the coastal State has preference, but not necessarily a monopoly over the living resources.161 He argues that the term "sovereign rights" underscores the limited authority of the coastal State.162 Cass explains that the wording was deliberate. She refers to Juda's comments in an article on the compatibility of national claims and UNCLOS, that 159. See, Burke T . W . , "U.S. Fishery Management and the New Law of the Sea", 76 American Journal of  International Law. 1982 at pp. 24-55, in particular pp. 41-44, for a discussion on tuna. 160. O'Connell, supra note ISO at p. 563. 161. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 563. 162. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 563. 43 many States had claimed "sovereignty" over their zones. UNCLOS, therefore, sets a limit on coastal States rights while still according them control sufficient to carry out the duties set out in the provision. 1 6 4 It is important to note, however, that this limit was actually established in 1958 under the Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf. Dhamani states that coastal States sovereign rights over the living resources are not exclusive.165 In this respect the EEZ is a preferential fishery zone. 1 6 6 Secondly, the nature of coastal States rights and obligations in the EEZ implies that the EEZ is a transitional zone between the freedom of the high seas and the sovereignty of the territorial sea. Consequently, some writers have labelled the E E Z as a zone sui generis.167 Amongst other rights that coastal States have in the EEZ, which are worth mentioning briefly are, the right to erect artificial islands, installations and structures168 and other facilities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production and exploration of energy from the water, currents and winds, 1 6 9 scientific research170 and jurisdiction with respect to the 163. Juda, L . , "The E E Z : Compatibility of National Claims and the U N Convention on the Law of the Sea", 16 Ocean Development and International Law. 1986 at p. 44. 164. Juda, ibid, at p. 44. 165. Dhamani, supra note 109 at p. 35. 166. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 563. 167. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 88. 168. U N C L O S , Article 56(l)(b)(i). 169. U N C L O S , Article 56(l)(a). 170. U N C L O S , Article 56(l)(b)(ii). 44 marine environment, including pollution control and abatement. These are generally regarded as secondary purposes over which coastal States may exercise sovereign rights. These rights are to be exercised with due regard to the rights and duties of other States,173 and are specifically subjected to the freedoms of navigation and overflight, and of the laying of submarine cables and pipelines and other internationally lawful uses of the sea pertaining to navigation and 1 7 4 communication. The management and conservation of the living resources in the EEZ are ultimately subject to coastal State authority.175 Tuna is also subject to coastal State authority with an additional obligation to cooperate with other States,176 a point which will be subsequently discussed. SPSs claim that they have sovereign rights for purposes of managing, conserving, exploiting and exploring tuna and other living resources in their respective EEZs . 1 7 7 This is recognized by DWFNs, such as Japan, USSR, South Korea, Taiwan and more recently the United States, all of whom either have or have had bilateral access agreements with one or more SPS, or in the case of the United States, a multilateral access agreement. SPSs are emphatic on the issue of coastal States sovereign rights over the resources in the 171. U N C L O S , Article 56(l)(b)(iii). 172. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 562. 173. U N C L O S , Article 56(2). 174. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 563. 175. See, Burke, T . William, "The Law of the Sea Convention Provisions on Access of Fisheries Subject to National Jurisdiction", 63 Oregon Law Review, at pp. 73-120. 176. Fleischer, supra note 107 at p. 150. 177. Swan, supra note 55 at p. 2. 45 EEZ, and the FFA Convention leaves no doubt as to their position on tuna. Article III(l) of the FFA Convention states: [T]he Parties to this Convention recognize that the coastal State has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the living resources, including highly migratory species, within its exclusive economic zone .... 2. Determination of Allowable Catch The responsibilities pertaining to the management and conservation of the living resources within the EEZ, are of greater significance and interest to SPSs. The main feature of conservation and management requirements, is stipulated under Article 61 of U N C L O S . 1 7 9 Under Article 61, the coastal State "[s]hall determine the allowable catch of the living resources in its EEZ". In addition, coastal States are required to adopt proper conservation and management measures.180 It should do this by taking into account the best scientific evidence to ensure that the living resources of the EEZ are not endangered by overexploitation. Burke 1 8 1 outlines this process as comprising five stages: (a) determining the total allowable catch; 1 8 2 (b) calculating the restrictions on harvesting capacity; 178. Slade, Neroni, "Forum Fisheries Agency and the Next Decade: The Legal Aspects", Paper presented to  the Conference on Management and Development Strategies in South Pacific Fisheries. F F C 17/TM3/3.7. 179. For a discussion of the definition of "conservation" and "management", see Sutherland, William, "Management, Conservation and Cooperation in E E Z Fishing: The Law of the Sea and the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency", Ocean Development & International Law, Vol. 18, 1987 at pp. 613-640. 180. Churchill & Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 206. 181. Burke, supra note 175 at p. 77. 182. The Department of Fisheries of the F A O defines "allowable catch" as, that catch which, if taken in any 46 (c) making a decision as to how much the coastal State can harvest; (d) deciding what other nations may have access to harvesting and on what terms; and (e) negotiating arrangements on the basis of these decisions. It is submitted that although this is a convenient structure in which to consider these issues, it is by no means conclusive.1 8 3 The coastal State must maintain or restore populations of harvested fisheries at levels which produce "maximum sustainable yield" (MSY). 1 8 4 The MSY is the level of fishing a stock at which the maximum tonnage of fish can be harvested without depleting the stock.185 Although the MSY is primarily based on scientific and biological data, the coastal State must take into account, such factors as economic needs of coastal fishing communities, the special requirements for developing States, fishing patterns, and generally recommended international minimum standards.186 It is quite clear from the wording of Article 61, that the determination of the allowable catch is discretionary, particularly in regard to how it can be made. 1 8 7 However, it does contain certain qualifications which allow the coastal State to make the determination at its own discretion.1 8 8 The first of these one year will best enable the objectives of [fisheries] management (e.g. the optimum long term yield) to be achieved. [Definition provided by the Department of Fisheries of F A O , mimeographed documents submitted to U N C L O S III, Geneva Session, Doc. G E . 76.640 93.] 183. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 91. 184. U N C L O S Article 61(3) & (4). 186. See, Joseph, James, "International Tuna Management Revisited", Global Fisheries Perspectives for the  1980s. Rothschild, B.J. , (ed.) (hereinafter referred to as Global Fisheries). 186. For a discussion of problems of M S Y in management, see Gulland, "Goals and Objectives of Fishery Management", F A O Fisheries Technical Paper No. 166 U N D O C . FIRS/T166 (1977). 187. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 91. 188. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 91. 47 qualifications is seen in Article 61(2), which obliges the coastal State to use the "[b]est scientific evidence available to it" . 1 8 9 Cass, 1 9 0 noted that two problems arise here. Firstly, the use of the term "best" presupposes that the coastal State is not obliged to ascertain the most precise scientific data, but only the best it can manage, and secondly, the phrase "available to it" implies that the coastal State does not necessarily have a duty to ascertain the data. 1 9 1 The second qualification pertains to the determination of the M S Y . 1 9 2 As outlined above, the MSY is determined by recourse to scientific and biological parameters, including relevant economic and environmental factors. The inclusion of broad delineations, both economic and environmental, presupposes that the coastal State may have recourse to other factors to qualify its determination of the M S Y . 1 9 3 The inference that may be drawn from the language of Article 61, is that the determination of the MSY, to an extent, is discretionary. 3. Promotion of Optimum Utilization The coastal State is required to promote the objective of optimum 189. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 562. 190. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 91. 191. Burke, supra note 175 at pp. 84-85. 192. For a discussion of the impact of this in an area of major significance, see Troadec, "Practices and Prospects for Fisheries Development and Management. The Case of Northwest African Fisheries", in Global Fisheries, supra note 184 at p. 97. 193. Burke, supra note 175 at p. 82. Burke contends that the term "environmental" may be taken to include all major features of the situation for which the coastal State initiates management measures. It would be inconsistent with the basic authority of the coastal States as established in Article 56, to read this phrase restrictively and exclude social and political concerns from management. Ibid, at p. 82. 48 utilization of the living resources in the EEZ. To achieve this, the coastal State is required to determine the allowable catch of the living resources within its EEZ and its own capacity to harvest the allowable catch. 1 9 5 The coastal State may set the allowable catch at a level equal to its capacity to harvest, even if such level is below the level which would ensure optimum utilization of fishery resources,196 thus cutting off access to foreign nations to any surplus which the coastal State cannot harvest.197 If the allowable catch is set at levels above which the coastal State have the capacity to harvest, it must grant access to other States to harvest the available surplus.1 9 8 Article 62(3) requires coastal States in giving access to other States in its EEZ, to take into account all relevant factors, including inter alia, the significance of the living resources of the area to its economy, and the rights and needs of land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States in the region. A few comments must be made about the provision. Firstly, Article 62 does not stipulate any criteria as to how the harvesting capacity should be determined.1 9 9 Consequently, this raises a series of questions; how far will the coastal State determine its actual capacity at some future time and limit the surplus that will be available to other States? Should the coastal States' capacity be viewed as excluding any joint fisheries venture? How far will the flag of 194. U N C L O S Article 62(1). 195. U N C L O S Article 62(2). 196. Burke, supra note 175 at p. 88. 197. Dhamani, supra note 109 at p. 51. 198. U N C L O S Article 62(2). 199. Clingan, A . T . , " A n Overview of Second Committee Negotiations in the Law of the Sea Conference, Oregon Law Review. Vol. 63, 1984 at p. 57. 49 convenience fishing vessels count in the total harvesting capacity of a coastal State?20 Secondly, as Dhamani argues, whether or not Article 62 obliges coastal States to give other States access to the surplus of the allowable catch must be examined in the light of three considerations:201 (a) Article 62 speaks of "surplus" to the harvesting capacity of the coastal State as determined by that coastal State itself and not "surplus" to the actual harvesting capacity of the coastal State determined by reference to objective criteria. 2 0 2 Thus, Dhamani points out, in order for the coastal State to deny the existence of such surplus and consequently access by other States, "it can subjectively equate its harvesting capacity with the entire allowable catch which it is capable to set at levels which may best suit its own economic interests".203 (b) Access by third States to the surplus is not automatic. It is conditional upon reaching "[agreement or other arrangements".204 The terms and conditions of which may not be altogether satisfactory or acceptable to the third State seeking access to the surplus resources of the E E Z . 2 0 5 The words "[s]hall seek through agreement or other arrangements" do not seem to suggest that an obligation to enter into agreement is cast upon the coastal State,206 but represents only a requirement that the coastal State should negotiate to its satisfaction "access agreements" with other States wishing to fish for the surplus.207 200. Dhamani, supra note 109 at p. S3. 201. Dhamani, supra note 109 at p. 54. 202. Burke, supra note 175 at p. 90. 203. Dhamani, supra note 109 at p. 55. 204. U N C L O S Article 62(2). 205. Dhamani, supra note 109 at p. 55. 206. Churchill ii Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 207. 207. For a contrary view, see Phillips, "The Exclusive Economic Zone as a Concept in International Law", 50 (c) The provisions of Article 62(2) do not give any indication as to the nature of "access agreements".208 Many solutions may be envisaged. For example, direct licensing, joint ventures, cooperation agreements or an international agreement with a number of States to allocate between themselves the surplus.2 0 9 Moreover, the wording of the first paragraph once again indicates the discretionary nature of the obligation on coastal States. The coastal State is only required to "promote" the "objective" of optimum utilization. It is submitted that there is no compulsion upon the coastal State to achieve a quantifiable standard.2 1 0 This is reflected in the use of the word "optimum" rather than "maximum".211 4. Highly Migratory Species Tuna is a HMS, which are singled out by UNCLOS because they pose a peculiar conservation and management problem. The pertinent provision of UNCLOS governing HMS is Article 64(1). In respect of HMS, Article 64(1) provides that "[cjoastal States whose nationals fish in the region for HMS should cooperate either directly or through appropriate international organizations with a view to ensuring conservation and the objective of optimum utilization of such species, throughout the region both within and beyond the EEZ". Article 64(2) International Comparative Law Quarterly. Vol. 26, at pp. 602-603. 208. Swan, J., "Tuna Management in the South Pacific", The Law of the Sea: What Lies Ahead?". Clingan, A . T . (jnr.), (ed.), Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the LOS Institute at p. 185. 209. Dhamani, supra note 109 at p. 55. 210. Burke, supra note 175 at p. 90. 211. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 92. 51 provides that the international management set out in paragraph one of Article 64, is "[i]n addition" to the coastal States normal management rights and duties when these species are found in its EEZ. Article 64 has presented the most problems for the region. 2 1 2 There is considerable disagreement over the meaning of Article 64. 2 1 3 As Cass 2 1 4 points out, does it override the earlier provisions which give coastal States exclusive authority, or is it an additional obligation to cooperation which does not take away from their sovereign rights under Article 56. A more elaborate discussion of this point is given below. At this stage, it is suffice to mention that the only area of potential difficulty arising out of this provision is whether or not the coastal States authority over HMS extends beyond the EEZ. It appears from the provision that in order to discharge its obligation to conserve and manage these stock, the coastal State would have to exercise authority within the high seas beyond the E E Z . 2 1 5 The analysis of the various provisions above reveals that the decision to allocate surplus to third parties rests entirely with the coastal State. Cass 2 1 6 points out that this is because the determinative factors, such as the allowable catch, harvesting capacity, and optimum utilization can all be determined according to the best interests of the coastal State. Moreover, the determinative factors are all within coastal State authority. The subsequent criteria to be used to decide which State can have access are also within coastal State control. 2 1 7 Hence, stocks such as 212. Tsamenyi, supra note 79 at p. 32. 213. Kelly, supra note 70 at p. 481. 214. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 94. 215. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 95. 216. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 95. 217. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 95. 52 HMS, although accorded special attention, still fall within the general authority of the coastal State outlined in the major Articles. 2 1 8 D . Impact of the EEZ Regime on SPSs In response to the Port Moresby Declaration on the Law of the Sea, a number of SPSs moved quickly to enact legislation declaring 200 mile EEZs . 2 1 9 Others, limited themselves to declaring 200 miles exclusive jurisdiction over fisheries. Papua New Guinea couched its claim in terms of "offshore seas", seemingly closer to a fishery zone than an EEZ. Marshall Islands and Palau declared three zones: (a) a three mile territorial sea; (b) a 12 nautical mile exclusive fisheries zone, with the same sovereign rights over living resources as in the territorial sea; and (c) a 200 nautical mile extended fishery zone. In the latter zone, exclusive management, conservation and regulatory authority is claimed over all living resources to the extent recognized by international law. Since the adoption of UNCLOS in 1982, two further SPSs have enacted new 218. Cass, supra note 104 at p. 95. 219. Cook Islands - Territorial Sea and Economic Zone At , 1977; Fij i . Marine Spaces Act, 1977; New  Zealand. Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act, 1977; Niue. Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act, 1978; Solomon Islands and Tonga enacted legislation (Solomon Islands. Delimitation of Marine Waters Act, 1978; Tonga, Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act, 1978). 220. Australia. Fisheries Amendment Act, 1978; Federated States of Micronesia, (FSM), Fishery Zone Jurisdiction of F S M ; Kiribati. Proclamation under the Fisheries Ordinance 1977; Marshall Islands. Marine Resources Jurisdiction Act, 1978; Nauru. Marine Resources Act, 1978; Palua, Public Law No. 6-7-14; Solomon Islands. Fishery Limits Ordinance, 1977; Tuvalu, Proclamation under the Fisheries Ordinance, 1978. 53 legislation transforming their exclusive fisheries zones into EEZs. The speed with which they moved to enact appropriate legislation reflects their commitment and belief in the notion that they stood to benefit from UNCLOS. The extension of the coastal State jurisdiction by means of 200 mile E E Z s 2 2 2 from what had previously been narrow coastal State limits to encompass areas which had formerly been high seas - areas containing the major proportion of the ocean's resources and being the site of most ocean activities represents a major change in the regulation of and access to ocean activities.2 2 3 The impact of the EEZ regime on SPSs was enormous. The EEZ enabled them to claim sovereign rights over the living resources, particularly tuna contained therein. As stated above, the development of the tuna resources has substantially enhanced their prospect for economic self-reliance. However, as Fairbairn points out, the EEZ regime created the need for the development of an effective mechanism for regional cooperation, the need to delimit their respective EEZ boundaries, and moreover, it created the need to raise the necessary capital and technical expertise required for development.224 They were now confronted with management and conservation issues which most of them had had no previous experience dealing with. In order to exercise their sovereign rights, they had to have adequate scientific and biological information about the tuna stock in their EEZ, they had to undertake surveillance measures to preclude illegal fishing and moreover, they had to develop local 221. Kiribati, Marine Zones (Declaration) Act, 1983; and Tuvalu, Marine Zones (Declaration) Act, 1984. 222. Krueger & Nordquist, supra note 156 at pp. 355-372. 223. Churchill & Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 138. 224. Fairbairn, supra note 18 at p. 235. 54 expertise. For DWFNs who traditionally fished in the South Pacific region, the major impact of the EEZ has been to increase the cost of catching tuna, in what were previously high seas.226 DWFNs either lost access to former fishing grounds, or had to pay access fees to obtain access.226 In summary, the EEZ regime has had the effect of transferring significant fish stocks from international common ownership to national ownership by coastal States. As shall be seen in the subsequent part of the paper, the aforementioned factors all contributed to the formation of FFA. 225. Churchill & Lowe, supra note 90 at pp. 138-139. 226. Philipson, P.W., (ed.), The Development of Marine Products Exports: A Pacific Outlook, the Marketing  of Marine Products from the South Pacific (IPS), (USP), Suva, 1989, at p. 6. 55 C H A P T E R III MANAGEMENT OF TUNA IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC As indicated above, Article 56 of UNCLOS confers on coastal States sovereign rights to exploit and explore and manage and conserve the tuna stock in the EEZ. However, needless to say, this was a particularly onerous task for SPSs. They did not have the capability and mechanism to collect pertinent information regarding the fishery on which the sovereign rights, espoused thereunder could be exercised. Moreover, unlike most other species of fish, tuna is highly mobile and truly oceanic. It migrates throughout the vast ocean, transcending both international political boundaries and high seas.227 And therefore because of their highly migratory nature, tuna poses peculiar management problems for coastal States.228 However, in the case of the South Pacific, four circumstances make it particularly difficult to structure a management regime and achieve agreement on it. These are: (1) the wide range of stock migration; (2) the complexity of stock composition and migration patterns; (3) the large number of SPSs and DWFN participants; and (4) the fact that many stock components spend considerable time in the waters of the high seas.229 Accordingly, tuna is classified as a highly 227. Joseph J., "The Management of Highly Migratory Species", Marine Policy, Oct. 1977 at pp. 275-282. 228. Van Dyke, Jon it Hefler Susan, supra note 85 at p. 6. 229. Copes, Pariival, "Tuna Fisheries in the Pacific Islands Region", in Tuna Issues and Perspectives in the  Pacific Islands Region. Doulman J. David, (ed.) Bastwest Center, Hawaii, 1987 at p. 3. 56 migratory species (HMS) under Annex I of UNCLOS (see Table 4). 3 0 The discussion in this chapter purports to provide a general overview of the institutional arrangements SPSs have formulated to manage tuna in the region. Amongst other things, the international law governing the exploitation of tuna is discussed. Furthermore, the discussion also involves highlighting the strengths of the institutional arrangements now in place, and identifying their inherent weaknesses. 230. Gullard, "Some Problems of tire Management of Shared Stocks", F A Q Fisheries Technical Paper No. 206,  U N D O D C . F I R M / T 2 0 6 (EN), 1980 at pp. 8-20. 57 T A B L E 4: Annex I. Highly Migratory Species 1. Albacore tuna: Thunnus alalunga. 2. Bluefin tuna: Thunnus thvnnus. 3. Bigeye tuna: Thunnus obesus. 4. Skipjack tuna: Katsuwonus pelamis. 5. Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus. 7. Little tuna Euthynnus alletteratus: Euthvnnus affinis. 8. Southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccovii. 9. Frigate mackerel: Auxis thazard: Auxis rochei. 10. Pomfrets: Family Bramidae. 11. Marlins: Tetrapturus angustirostris: Tetrapturus belone: Tetrapturus pfluegeri; Tetrapturus albidus: Tetrapturus audax: Tetrapturus georgei: Makaira mazara: Makaira indica: Makaira nigricans. 12. Sail-fishes: Istiophorus platvoterus: Istiophorus albicans. 13. Swordfish: Xiphias gladius. 14. Sauries: Scomberesox saurus: Cololabis saira: Cololabis adocetus:  Scomberesox saurus scombroides. 15. Dolphin: Coryphaena hippurus Coryphaena eauiselis. 16. Oceanic sharks: Hexanchus grieus: Cetorhinus maximus: Family Alopiidae:  Rhincodon tvpus: Family Carcharhinidae: Family Sphvrnidae: Family Isurida. 17. Cetaceans: Family Phvseteridae: Family Balaenopteridae: Family Balaenidae: Family Eschrichtiidae: Family Monodontidae: Family Ziphiidae; Family Delphinidae Source: U N Convention on the Law of the Sea B159. 58 A. Management Goals of SPSs As a starting point on the discussion of the objectives of tuna management in the region, perhaps it would be useful and helpful to refer to the report on fisheries management by the Working Party of the F A O Advisory Committee on Marine Research which basically summarizes traditional objectives.231 As in other activities, the establishment of a clearly defined objective or set of objectives, is an essential starting point for fishery management. The declared objectives will govern the detailed nature, scope and content of the management schemes that are adopted, including the requirements for data and research, and they provide the yardstick against which the success or failure of management can be assessed. There has been considerable debate regarding the appropriate definition of a fishery management objective. Discussions on an appropriate objective have intensified with the changing legal regime. Before these changes in effective ownership, marine fisheries were international, based, with few exceptions, on common property resources. The fisheries of the different countries taking part in the overall fishery activity were governed by different social, economic and political climates. As a consequence, and not surprisingly, the objectives of fishery management which became most acceptable to the international fishery community, and which were embodied in international fishery management conventions, were ones defined on the basis of criteria relating to the biological properties of the exploited resources and the catches attainable from them. The most widely used objective was maximum sustainable yield or some variant of it. The merit and attractiveness of maximum sustainable yield was its apparently unambiguous definition, its focus on the maximizing of fish production for food and industrial purposes, and the fact that it could be estimated - at least to a reasonable approximation - with the scientific tools available. It was frequently the upper bound for a range of advocated strategies and 231. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Report of the A C M R R Working Party on the Scientific Basis  of Determining Management Measures. 24 (FAO Fisheries Report No. 236, 1980), quoted in Burke, W . T . , supra note 159 at pp. 24-25. 59 thus a basis for compromise. When the simplified context of MSY calculations is altered to allow for species interactions, climatic trends, and alternative definitions of benefits, it is no longer a simple matter to define and calculate MSY. Biologically based objectives such as maximum sustainable yield may result in a management system which "works" and achieves benefits to the community in the form of higher sustained fish supplies than would probably be attained in the absence of management, but the biological objectives in themselves do not satisfy specific important socio-economic concerns in fishery management. As has been pointed out by fishery economists for many years, management based on a biological objective such as MSY will inevitably result in over-capacity in the fishery and the dissipation of the potential economic benefits which might be achieved if "optimization" involved socio-economic objectives with biological constraints. Economists argue that an objective, aimed at maximizing economic yield would be more appropriate than the biologically based one. The result of doing so might be some sacrifice of average physical yield from the particular stock in question, and in the level of direct employment in that fishery, in return for more long-term stability in the fishery and an increase in the contributions made by the fishery to the economies of the participating countries. Many other objectives have been advocated on some fisheries management situations. These include maximization of employment or achieving a target income distribution and maintaining high catch rates for recreational' fisheries. SPS's concerns over the management and development of the tuna resource fall into three major areas.232 Firstly, they wish to develop national tuna fishing and processing industries.233 Secondly, they wish to control foreign fishing in their waters and extract maximum benefits therefrom.2 3 4 Thirdly, they are confronted with the need to coordinate their policies in the exploitation of tuna with other States in the region and to develop cooperative relationships with DWFNs over the 232. Clark L . G . , and Slayter, A . J . , "Economic Development and Management of Fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zones of Pacific Island States", in The Developing Order of the Oceans. Krueger B. Robert and Riesenfeld, A . Stepan, Law of the Sea Institute, 18th Annual Conference, 1984, at p. 609. 233. Doulman, J. David ic Kearney E . Robert, Domestic Tuna Industries, in The Development of the Tuna  Industry in the Pacific Islands Region: A n Analysis of Options, supra note 72 at pp. 3-31; see also Kearney, R . E . , "Fishery Potentials in the Tropical and Western Pacific", SPC Fisheries Newsletter, No. 24, January-March 1983, at pp. 24-28. 234. Clark and Slayter, supra note 232 at p. 610. 60 management of the resources. Whilst it is the first of the three goals, that is, the desire to develop their domestic tuna industry which has immediate priority in the medium term, for purposes of this discussion, their fisheries management objectives shall be taken to encompass the need to control foreign fishing operations in their EEZs and to procure maximum financial benefits from the tuna resource. The management of tuna in the region is generally based on scientific, legal, social and economic considerations.236 Indeed as one commentator asserts, the management of a fishery consists of manipulation of the system to achieve objectives such as the MSY, maximum economic yield (MEY), protection of certain species from exploitation, and knowledge of the fishery, all of which are required for effective management of a fishery. 2 3 7 Ideally SPSs want to develop their own tuna industry. The reasons for this are logical. Nationally-owned tuna industries would provide much needed employment opportunities for islanders, substantially increase foreign exchange earnings, and moreover, they may enjoy the multiplier effects and the spin-off benefits generally associated with local fishing industries. However, in order to achieve this objective, they must contend with certain inherent problems that underlies any development plans towards accomplishing this objective. At the outset they must be prepared to cushion the effects of fluctuations in the abundance of the tuna resource.238 This stems from the fact that although the 235. Clark and Slayter, supra note 232 at p. 610. 236. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 184. 237. Joseph, James, Some Observations on Fisheries Management in the South Pacific Ocean, a paper presented to the Conference on Management and Development Strategies in South Pacific Fisheries, Honiara, 1989, F F C 17/TM3/3.17, at p.2. 238. Kearney; R .E . , supra note 233 at p. 27. 61 area of ocean water under their control as a result of the 200 nautical mile EEZ has increased substantially, the size of the tuna stock remains unchanged. Consequently, some of them may effectively find it difficult to maintain a fleet all year round. The problem however, may be more particularly acute for smaller SPSs because of their lack of coastal ecology which support smaller fish on which surface swimming tuna fish. Secondly, the development of a local tuna industry requires the construction of large expensive vessels which very few of them can afford. 2 3 9 Moreover, this is aggravated by the fact that most of them do not have adequate docking and shipping facilities, which automatically limits any plans to develop local tuna industries.2 4 0 An additional problem they also face is the cost and availability of fuel . 2 4 1 Fuel is expensive and difficult to obtain in precisely the quantities needed to supply a small number of vessels which are refuelled on an irregular basis.2 4 2 With the exception of the Solomon Islands and Fiji, most SPSs at least at this stage do not have a sizeable local tuna industry. Nonetheless, a few of them are already making plans to develop local tuna industries.243 It is arguable therefore, that based on this trend their tuna management goals may be necessarily transformed in the future. Consequently, in view of this trend, they will need to review and redefine their management objectives to reflect their economic development plans. Furthermore, they may want to decide whether they should 239. Kearney, R .E . , supra note 233 at p. 28. 240. Kearney, R .E . , supra note 233 at p. 28. 241. Pint i , W.S., "Fuel Use in Tuna Fishing", A Study Funded by Forum Fisheries Agency, Forum  Secretariat and E S C A P / U N D P Pacific Energy Development Programme. F F A Report 89/52. 242. Pint i , W.S. ibid, at p. 3. 243. Kearney, R .E . , supra note 233 at p. 26. 62 coordinate their efforts in this regard or whether they should pursue the matter according to their respective national interests. The author believes however, that this is a subject that they should now be seriously considering. B. International Law of Fisheries The international law regulating fisheries falls into two very distinct phases.244 The first is the period up to the middle of 1970s, which was characterized by generally narrow coastal State maritime zones and a considerable amount of international cooperation in fisheries management through a number of international fishery commissions.245 The second phase is the period since the mid-1970s when broad coastal State zones in the form of 200 mile EEZs, inspired by the work of UNCLOS and embracing most commercially exploitable fish stocks, have become the norm, while the role of international fishery commissions has been significantly reduced. 2 4 6 This discussion basically focuses on the international law pertaining to the regulation of fisheries, particularly HMS in the E E Z . 2 4 7 Under Article 56(l)(a) of UNCLOS, coastal States have sovereign rights in the EEZ, for purposes of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources whether living or non-living of the waters superjacent to the 244. Churchill, Si Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 198. 245. Churchill, Si Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 199.. 246. Churchill, Si Lowe, supra note 90 at p. 199. 247. For a more elaborate discussion on the subject see, Burke, W . T . , Highly Migratory Species (HMS) in the Law of the Sea, 14 Ocean Development and International Law, pp. 273-314. 63 seabed and the subsoil. Furthermore coastal States also have sovereign rights with regards to the economic exploitation and exploration of the EEZ in respect to the production of energy from the water, currents and winds. Article 56(1 )(a) is quite explicit to the extent that coastal States sovereign rights are specifically for purposes of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the area, including all living resources except those subject to the regime of the continental shelf. 2 4 9 Burke therefore asserts that the express exclusion of certain category of living resources from the usual authority of the coastal State within the EEZ is strong evidence that otherwise the domain of the coastal State is complete in covering all • living resources in the E E Z . 2 5 0 In so far as this is applied to HMSs, Burke contends that: "Accordingly, HMS, including those labelled and defined in the treaty, are subject to coastal authority in the EEZ exactly as are all other species except that coastal States are, in addition, obliged by Article 64 to cooperate with States fishing in the region with a view  to ensuring conservation and promoting the objective optimum  utilization of such species throughout the region, both within and beyond the E E Z . " 2 5 1 (emphasis added). The principle that coastal States have sovereign rights over all living resources, including HMS, in their EEZ is recognized by all coastal States, except 248. Burke, W . T . , "Impacts of the U N Convention on the Law of the Sea on Tuna Regulation", F A O  Legislative Study. No. 26, 1982 at p . l . " U N C L O S provides that the coastal State has sovereign rights in an E E Z extending 200 nautical miles over all living resources of the seabed and subsoil and the superjacent waters. The sovereign rights are for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources of the area. The rights pertain to the living resources of the area with one exception - the seabed and subsoil rights are to be exercised in accordance with the provisions of the continental shelf. This means that any conditions or restrictions affecting sovereign rights in the E E Z are not applicable to seabed and subsoil resources", Burke, ibid, at pp. 1-2. 249. Burke, W . T . , ibid, at p. 2. 250. Burke, W . T . , supra note 247 at p. 275. 251. Burke, W . T . , supra note 247 at p. 275. 64 the Bahamas, and the United States of America (US). The rationale for the US position is based on the premise that tuna is highly migratory and is not a resident resource of the E E Z . 2 6 4 They are only found within any EEZ temporarily and may migrate far out into the ocean waters beyond. Therefore, the coastal State does not have the ability to manage and conserve tuna unilaterally, nor does it have paramount interest in their development. 252. See, Bahamas Fisheries Resources (Jurisdiction and Conservation) Act, 1977, reproduced in United  Nations Legislative Series: National Legislation and Treaties Relating to the Law of the sea. S T / L E G / S E R . B / 1 9 . Section 2(b) any fishing for such stocks; "fishery resources" means [f]ish of any kind found in the sea (other than species of tuna which  in the course of their life cycle, spawn and migrate over great distances in waters of the ocean) and includes living organisms belonging to sedentary species, that is to say, organisms which, at the harvest able stage, either are immobile or under the seabed or are unable to move except in constant physical contact with the seabed or the subsoil of the continental shelf, (emphasis added). 253. See Public Law 94-265. Sec. 103. High Migratory Species: [T]he exclusive fishery management authority of the United States shall not include, nor shall be construed to highly migratory species of fish, reprinted in Moore, J .N. , International and United States Documents on Oceans Law and Policy. Vol . 4, William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 1986. 254. Wolfe, E . E . , "The International Implications of Extended Maritime Jurisdiction in the Pacific", Paper presented to the 21st Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, August 4, 1987. He argues that "Tuna is a highly migratory species, moving and swimming through and across the waters of numerous coastal States. Because of their highly migratory nature it is impossible for coastal States to adopt conservation and management measures unilaterally. The conservation and management of highly migratory species may only be done through international cooperation". 65 1. Coastal States do not have Sovereign Rights over H M S The US bases its arguments on three legal points. The first argument is based on Article 63(2) of UNCLOS. It provides: "(2) [w]here the same stock or stock of associated species occur both within the EEZ and in the area beyond and adjacent to the zone, the coastal State and the States fishing for such stocks in the adjacent area shall seek, either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional organizations, to agree upon the measures necessary for the conservation of these stocks in the adjacent area." The US contend that the separate provisions on high seas/economic zone stocks establishes that these species are not within the purview of coastal State authority in the E E Z . 2 6 6 Therefore, the reference to Article 56 (the basic Article on coastal authority in the zone) and Articles 61 and 62 (the basic general Articles on living resources) cannot be construed to include H M S . 2 6 7 The second argument is based on Article 64(1) of UNCLOS. It provides: "... [t]hat the coastal State and other States whose nationals fish in the region for highly migratory species listed in Annex I shall cooperate directly or through appropriate international organizations with a view to ensuring conservation and promoting the objective of optimum utilization of such species throughout the region, both within and beyond the exclusive economic zone. In regions for which no appropriate international organization exists, the coastal States and other States whose nationals harvest these species in the region shall cooperate to establish such an organization and participate in its work. The US argue that Article 64(1) imposes an obligation on coastal States in 255. Tsamenyi, supra note 79 at p. 35. 256. Tsamenyi, supra note 79 at p. 35. 257. Tsamenyi, supra note 79 at p. 35. 66 whose waters (i.e. the EEZ) the tuna swim through, and DWFNs who fish for tuna, to cooperate internationally or regionally through appropriate regional organizations.258 Moreover, the US also argue that Article 64(1) is evidence that the obligation to cooperate in the management of tuna reflects customary international law. 2 5 9 Therefore, the coastal State cannot purport to manage tuna unilaterally. 2 6 0 Thirdly, the US argue that Article 56(2)261 of UNCLOS obliges coastal States to have due regard to the rights and duties of other States, therefore coastal States do not have an unfettered discretion over living marine resources in the EEZ. The US adopted a hardline policy which was expressed through two elaborate domestic legislation, namely, the Fishermen's Protective Act (FPA) of 1954 and the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (FCMA) of 1976. The 258. Wolfe, E . E . , supra note 254 at p. 4. 259. A statement by an official of the US State Department explains the US position, quoted in Burke, B u p r a note 247 at p. 304. "The rationale behind the US approach is straightforward. Tuna is not a resident resource of the E E Z . They are only found within any E E Z temporarily and may migrate far out into the ocean waters beyond. Therefore, the coastal State does not have the ability to manage and conserve tuna nor does it have a paramount interest in their development. Although many coastal States claim jurisdiction over tuna within 200 nautical miles, none exercise conservation and management authority through purely domestic measures. Only through international agreements have States actually managed effectively the highly migratory tuna species. In fact, the US has led other nations in developing a regime of tuna management through international agreement such as the recent Eastern Pacific Ocean Tuna Fishing Agreement, signed by Costa Rica, Panama and the US. Accordingly, customary international law precludes the coastal State from establishing sovereign rights over tuna. In the US view, this is evidenced by Article 64 of U N C L O S which requires cooperation between coastal States and D W F N s to manage tuna, both within and outside the E E Z , on a regional basis, through an international organization » 260. Accordingly, the US define HMS restrictively. Under Section 3(14) of the Fishery Conservation and Management Act ( F C M A ) of 1976 [16 USC 1801-Public Law 94-265] HMS is defined as "|s]pecies of tuna, which in the course of their life cycle, spawn and migrate over great distances in waters of the ocean." 261. U N C L O S Article 56(2) states: "In exercising its rights and performing its duties under this Convention in the Exclusive Economic Zorre, the coastal State shall have due regard to the rights and duties of other States and shall act in a manner compatible with the provisions of this Convention". 67 FPA makes provision to compensate US tuna fishermen whose vessels are seized for fishing illegally in the EEZs of other coastal States. The FCMA reinforces the US position by providing for the imposition of an embargo on the importation of fisheries products from any country that seizes a US fishing vessel taking tuna without a licence. 2. Coastal States have Sovereign Rights over HMS The arguments generally advanced in support of the proposition that coastal States have sovereign rights over tuna in the E E Z is based on Articles 56, 61 and 62 of UNCLOS. These contain the basic Articles on fisheries.2 6 2 The general proposition is, these Articles respectively give coastal States sovereign rights to manage, conserve, exploit and explore the living resources of the E E Z . 2 6 3 It is argued that no distinction is ascertainable in the Articles, either expressly or implicitly to infer that the reference to "living resources" in the EEZ necessarily excludes tuna. The wording in Article 56(1) is quite explicit on this point in that it does not differentiate between the species of living resources. Article 61 empowers the coastal State to determine the allowable catch and maintain the MSY. Moreover, Article 62 empowers the coastal State to promote catch quotas, and adopt enforcement procedures. The powers of the coastal State under Articles 61 and 62 both originate from the sovereign rights that arise under Article 56(1). 262. Oda Shigera, "Fisheries Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea", American Journal  of International Law. Vol . 77, 1983, pp. 706-739. 263. Dahmani, supra, note 109 at p. 34. 68 3. International Law The popular interpretation and one that has the support of distinguished lawyers on ocean matters is that the coastal State has sovereign rights over tuna in the E E Z . 2 6 4 In this regard, Burke argues that so far as UNCLOS is concerned, it is quite clear in providing that the coastal State has sovereign rights within its EEZ over all "living resources" and that includes tuna as well as other HMS listed in Annex 1.265 Further, it is submitted that it is difficult to accept the US position in the face of the apparently unambiguous language of Article 62(2), that Article 64(1) is "in addition to this Part".2 6 6 Burke contends that this form of cross reference is unique and should be understood as meaning "instead of" or "exclusive of" . 2 6 7 Moreover, while this cross reference does not appear elsewhere in UNCLOS, this does not suffice to reverse the otherwise apparent meaning of "in addition to" which obviously assumes the applicability of other provisions of Part v . 2 6 8 Incidentally, Annex I species also include cetaceans, but these are clearly subject to the limitation of Article 65. Therefore, the argument based on Article 64(1) has no legal merit, because it is difficult to read Article 64(1) as excluding tuna from the ambit of any coastal State authority. 264. Burke, W . T . , supra note 247 at p. 281; Oda, supra note 262. 265. Burke, W . T . , " C L O S and Fishing Practises of Non-Signatories with Special Reference to the US.", Paper presented at the Conference on Customary International Law Governing Pacific Ocean Activities after the Law of the Sea Convention, 1984, Eastwest Center, Hawaii, p. 23. 266. Burke, W . T . , supra note 159 at p. 41. 267. Burke, W . T . , supra note 159 at p. 41. 268. Burke, W . T . , supra note 159 at p. 42. 69 It is submitted that Article 64(1) contains some language which has not yet crystallised into customary international law, because it has not been incorporated in domestic law, nor considered to be obligatory in international practice.269 In this connection, Swan articulates the following considerations pertaining to the language of Article 64(1) which need to be addressed; (a) the term "region" is liable to be accorded different interpretations. It could refer to a geographic region (e.g. South Pacific), or that part of the region where most or all of the fishing activity takes place (e.g. Nauru Group); (b) the nature of "cooperation" is not stipulated. Neither is there an express duty to ensure conservation or achieve the objective of optimum utilization. Article 64(1) only speaks of "cooperation" with "a view to" ensuring conservation and promoting the objective of optimum utilization. It is submitted that the language merely suggests that a minimum standard of cooperation would be acceptable; (c) Article 64(1) states that cooperation is to take place either "directly", which means bilateral cooperation or through "appropriate international organizations". There is nothing in the language of Article 64(1) to suggest that coastal States are required to be members of the organization. The following sentence requires the fishing countries to "participate in the work" of such an organization, which could be interpreted to refer to participation and not membership;270 (d) the reference to the high seas in Article 64(1) should be read in conjunction with the preferential status accorded the coastal State under Article 116; and; (e) there is no duty for all coastal States to agree on conservation measures, since this ultimately remains within the coastal States prerogative under Articles 56, 61 and 62.271 269. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 186. 270. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 186. 271. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 186. 70 However, Burke concedes that whilst Article 64(1) does require some form of cooperation and therefore limits coastal States action with regards to tuna, what this limitation amounts to in practice is that the coastal State cannot simply promulgate the allowable catch and domestic harvesting capacity and terms and conditions of access and specific allocation to fishing States as it is permitted to do for other species of fish in the E E Z . 2 7 2 Nonetheless, nothing in the language of Articles 56, 61 and 62, especially in the light of the provision in Article 64(2) that Article 64(1) applies "in addition to other provisions of Part V, displaces or affect the sovereignty of coastal States over tuna".2 7 3 International law therefore, duly recognizes coastal States competence to manage tuna in their respective EEZs. 2 7 4 Burke further contends that whilst it is true that Article 63's duty to "seek to agree" applies to measures necessary for conservation outside the EEZ, whereas Article 64(1) calls for "cooperation within and beyond the zone", the duty to cooperate is not incompatible with sovereign rights nor with the recognition that results, or the unilateral action required if cooperation breaks down are in the coastal States' hands.2 7 5 Consequently, the US interpretation of international law concerning the management of tuna is not legally tenable. Additionally, O'Connell 2 7 6 argues that Annex I lists the species and envisages cooperation between coastal States and other States whose nationals 272. Burke, W.T. , supra note 159 at p. 42. 273. Burke, W.T. , supra note 159 at p. 42. 274. Burke, W.T. , supra note 175 at p. 108; Burke, W.T. , "Extended Fisheries Jurisdiction and the New Law of the Sea", in Global Fisheries supra note 185 at p.7. 275. Burke, W.T. , supra note 175 at p. 77. 276. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 569. 71 fish in the region with a view to ensuring conservation and promoting the objective of optimum utilization of such species both within and beyond the EEZ. However, this gives coastal States no automatic right of access to migratory species within another State's E E Z . 2 7 7 SPSs position on the question of sovereign rights over HMSs in the EEZ is unambiguous. They recognize through legislation and practice that they have sovereign rights over all living resources, including HMS in the E E Z . 2 7 8 It is submitted that in practice, the US already recognise their sovereign rights over tuna. 2 7 9 This is because since 15 June, 1988, US fishing vessels have been fishing in their EEZs pursuant to a multilateral fisheries treaty, premised amongst other things on the recognition of their sovereign rights over the fisheries resources including HMS. There are currently moves within the US Congress to amend US legislation to bring it into conformity with the international community.2 8 0 It is hereby suggested that should the US Congress ratify these proposed amendments, it 277. O'Connell, supra note 130 at p. 569. 278. F A O Legislative Study, supra note 156 at p. 1. Cook Islands, Section 12 (Part II) of the Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act No. 16 of 1977; Fiji , Part III, Marine Spaces Act No. 18 of 1977; F S M , Section 101 2(e) Fishery Zones Jurisdiction Title 52; Kiribati, Section 8(l)(2)(3), Marine Zones (Declaration) Act No. 7 of 1983; Marshall Islands Section 8.408(i)(ii)(iii) and Section 8.409, Marshall Islands Marine Resources Jurisdiction Act of 1978; Nauru, Section 7*l)(2)(a) ii (b) and Section 7(3), Marine Resources Act 1978; Niue, Section 12 Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act, 1978; Palau, Section 6 National Limits of Jurisdiction; Public Law No. 6-7-14 as amended by Public Law No. 6-65-8; P N G , Section 15, Fisheries Act No. 31 of 1974; Solomon Islands, Section 7, The Fisheries Act of 1972; Tuvalu, Section 5, Tuvalu Fisheries Ordinance 1978; Vanuatu Section 10 Maritime Zone Act No. 23 of 1981; Western Samoa, Section 4, The Fisheries Protection Act No. 2 of 1972. 279. Van Dyke, Jon and Nicol, Carolyn, "US Tuna Policy: A Reluctant Acceptance of the International Norm", in Tuna Issues and Perspectives in the Pacific Islands Region, supra note 229 at pp. 105-122. 280. The U.S. House of Representatives passed Bill No. 396-21 on February 6, 1990, that purports to extend US fishery management to tuna prohibit driftnet fishing in US waters and require negotiation of an international ban on driftnet fishing. The proponents of the Bill argue that international regulation of tuna has failed to conserve the species. They argue that all States except the US and Bahamas already regulate tuna harvesting within their waters. Solomon Star, February 16, 1990 at p. 5. 72 would remove one of the biggest obstacles and thorn in US and SPSs political relations. The US's willingness to accomodate changes to its originally hardline position is indeed worthy of commendation from South Pacific States. C. Scientific Research in the South Pacific In order to make management decisions over the fishery, it is necessary to have sound and comprehensive scientific information on the fishery. Unfortunately, practically all SPSs either lack the capacity or have a limited capacity to undertake scientific research on the fishery. Consequently, all the scientific information they need to know about the fishery is undertaken by the South Pacific Commission, one of the principal organizations involved in scientific research in the region. The history and organizational structure of the SPC is given below. The scientific analysis carried out by the SPC, is complemented by F F A which is also discussed below. The discussion in this section basically focuses on the role of the SPC in offshore fisheries research in the region. The SPC's first major study of the tuna stock in the region was carried out in the early 1970s. The study was undertaken in response to the increase in the pole and line fleet in the early 1970s which arose out of the demand for skipjack. 2 8 1 It undertook the study in response to the lack of profound knowledge pertaining to the skipjack resource, and also the increase in fishing effort. The study, known as the Skipjack Survey and Assessment Programme (SSAP), involved tagging the tuna to ascertain the quantity of the stock. The results of the survey 281. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 185. 73 concluded that the standing stock of skipjack was indeed large and that the turnover was very high. 2 8 2 The results of the survey indicated that the standing stock of skipjack in the region is of the order of 3,000,000 tonnes.283 The conclusion of this survey implied that catches across the area could be multiplied at least several times over the catches during the study period. 2 8 4 The SSAP was succeeded in 1981 by the Tuna and Billfish Assessment Programme (TBAP). 2 8 5 The TBAP has eight current priorities but its major preoccupation is : 2 8 6 1. Collection and valuation of fisheries data and maintenance of regional oceanic fisheries assessment data base. Priorities 2 and 3 jointly constitute its second emphasis: 2. Assessment of interaction between fisheries for oceanic species. 3. Assessment and monitoring of the levels of stocks of commercially important tuna and billfish species. The TBAP's objectives are to "conduct scientific research on stocks of tunas and billfish supporting fisheries in the region and on the environmental factors which affect them, in order to help South Pacific States develop, manage and rationally exploit the renewable ocean resources of the region." 2 8 7 Its priority activities "include assessment of interaction between fisheries for economic species, 282. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 185. 283. Kearney, R .E . , supra note 233 at p. 24. 284. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 185. 285. Herr, R . A . and Curtin, T . B . , "Review of Possible Alternative Institutional Arrangements for the South Pacific Commissions Tuna and Billfish Assessment Programme", ( S P C / C R G A 4 / W P . 7 , 14 August, 1985). 286. Aikman, C . C . , Island Nations of the South Pacific and Jurisdiction over Highly Migratory Species, 17 Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, 1987, at p. 115. 287. "Pacific Impact", Quarterly Review of the South Pacific Commission. Vol . 2, No. 2, 1988 at p. 40. 74 assessing and monitoring the levels of exploitation of stocks of commercially important tuna and billfish species, studies on the biology and ecology of commercially important tuna, billfish and bait species, provision of fisheries observers and advice on developing of observer programmes and monitoring the use of fish aggravating devices (FADS)". 2 8 8 In support of its investigations on fishery interactions, the TBAP has embarked on a major large-scale tagging project that will add substantially to existing knowledge of the yellowfin and skipjack stocks in the region. 2 8 9 This involves tagging the tuna to ascertain their migratory patterns. The Tuna Tagging Project was conducted in response to the need to understand the interaction between the different methods of fishing, namely pole and line, longlining and purse seining on the fishery. The skipjack fishery is highly concentrated in the western equatorial area. There are concerns that interactions between different fleets fishing in that area could lead to catch rates that are less than optimal. 2 9 0 The SPC also has a regional statistical tuna database, which collects data from local fleets and from a standard regional logsheet used by all foreign fleets.291 However, its limitations result from gaps in collection of data from the high seas and from the fact that some States have been less effective in submitting data than others.2 9 2 The SPC has also broadened cooperation between the TBAP and DWFNs such as Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, and with neighbouring coastal States such 288. "Pacific Impact", ibid, at p. 40. 289. "Island Business", February 1990, at p. 40. 290. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 187. 291. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 187. 292. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 187. 75 as Indonesia, and the Philippines. In order to facilitate this cooperation, an SPC Standing Committee on Tropical Tuna was established with this broader membership. Notwithstanding the gaps that currently exist in the collection of data, the role of the SPC in collecting, researching and analysing the fishery is crucial to the management of tuna. Most SPSs do not have the capacity to undertake the research and analysis done by the South Pacific Commission. Hence in order for SPSs to manage the fishery, they must have access to basic information on the fishery, in particular an estimate of the stock and yield for the targetted species, the biological and economic impact of a fisheries operation on the fishery and information on the degree of control required over the fishery. Most of them no doubt have benefitted from the scientific work carried out by the SPC at little financial cost to them. While an understanding of the interaction of the various species of tuna in the region is imperative to the implementation of their future development plans, the success of the TBAP is largely dependent on the kind of support they accord it. Consequently, in their own national and regional interest, they must continue to render the TBAP high priority, and accord it the necessary contributions required to make it an effective and efficacious programme. D. Management of Tuna Through Access Agreements The management of tuna by South Pacific States is generally effectuated by access agreements.294 The access agreements normally spell out the terms and 293. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 187. 294. Swan, J., "Fisheries Access Agreements", South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency. F F A Report 87/31 at p. 76 conditions under which they grant access to DWFNs to fish in their EEZs. Generally, SPSs enter into an umbrella agreement with DWFNs. This is a diplomatic arrangement which usually articulates the intention of the two governments to enter into fisheries relations, and recognises amongst other things, their sovereign rights to the fisheries resources.295 Access into SPSs waters is then activated by the conclusion of an access agreement usually with a commercial fishing association registered in the D W F N . 2 9 6 In order to have a wider appreciation of the forces behind the establishment of management regimes in the region, it would be necessary to discuss the initiatives adopted by the Nauru Group. 2 9 7 Shortly after the formation of FFA, a splinter group which generally has the greatest potential stake in the region's tuna fishery, formed a sub-regional alliance based primarily on economic factors.298 The common denominator at that time underlying the seven countries2 9 9 that formed the subregional group was that they all had bilateral fishing access agreements with Japan. In other words, most of the tuna fishery is generally found in the waters of these seven countries. The term "Nauru Group" is taken from the fact that the Agreement establishing the group was signed in Nauru. Hence, the Nauru Group. The group recognized that by harmonizing their 1. 295. Clerk and Slayter, supra note 232 at p. 612. 296. Ibid. 297. Doulman, J. David, "Fisheries Cooperation: The Case of the Nauru Group" in Tuna Issues and  Perspectives in the Pacific Islands Region, supra note 229 at pp. 257-277. 298. Doulman, ibid, at p. 257. 299. The members of the Nauru Group are, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands. 77 relations with DWFNs and cooperating on all matters pertaining to tuna, they could derive maximum financial returns from the exploitation of the tuna 300 resources. The formation of the Nauru Group was construed as potentially weakening regional solidarity and in fact it initially instilled fears of disintegrating FFA. In the author's opinion these fears were perpetrated by individuals who underestimated and did not have confidence in the resolve of Pacific Islanders, who knew what was more appropriate for them. However, the initial fears instigated by the formation of the Nauru Group did not materialize. On the contrary, the Nauru Group has been actively instrumental in devising arrangements for tuna management which have been endorsed by the SPF, and are applied universally throughout the region. It is submitted that in this regard the Nauru Group has been the leading force behind FFA, constantly working within the framework of F F A and utilising their various experiences with DWFNs to the advantage of the region as a whole. Nauru Agreement Concerning Cooperation in the Management of Fisheries of Common Interest (Nauru Agreement) In 1981, the Nauru Group concluded the Nauru Agreement (see Appendix I) which obliges member States to adopt common courses of action with respect to their shared tuna resources so long as the cooperation benefits them without derogating their sovereign rights.3 0 1 The Nauru Agreement is divided into 11 300. Doulman, supra note 297 at p. 257. 301. Doulman, supra note 297 at p. 257. 78 Articles. It specifically defines the areas of fisheries cooperation and harmonization that member States should pursue, but the conclusion of implementing arrangements is required to give the Nauru Agreement effect. 3 0 2 Article I of the Agreement stipulates its purpose: [T]he Parties shall seek, without derogation of their sovereign rights, to coordinate and harmonize the management of fisheries with regard to common stocks within the fisheries zones for the benefits of their peoples. In this regard, the Parties undertake to seek to establish a "coordinated approach" for the purpose of regulating foreign fishing vessels and the scope of that cooperation is specified in Articles II and III.303 The broad principles behind those Articles is to establish "minimum uniform terms and conditions" for access by foreign fishing vessels and to standardize licensing procedures.304 The most important aspect about the Agreement is that it links directly with FFA. For instance, the Preamble of the Agreement, pays "regard to the objectives of the FFA Convention, and in particular the promotion of regional cooperation and coordination of fisheries policies and the need for urgent implementation of these objectives through regional or sub-regional arrangements".305 Furthermore, Article VII states that "[njothing contained in this Agreement shall be construed as a derogation of any of the rights and obligations undertaken by any of the Parties under the F F A Convention or any international agreement in effect on the date on which this Agreement enters into force". In fact, State Parties may not only seek 302. Doulman, supra note 297 at p. 261. 303. Sutherland, W . M . , "Coastal State Cooperation in Fisheries: Emergent Regional Custom in the South Pacific", International Journal of Estuarine <fc Coastal Law. Vol. 1, No. 1, February 1986 at p. 20. 304. Sutherland, ibid, at p. 20. 305. Sutherland, ibid, at p. 20. 79 "the assistance of FFA in establishing procedures and administrative arrangements for the exchange and analysis of various types of statistical and technical data" 3 0 6 but also the "secretarial services" of FFA for the purpose of "implementing and coordinating the provisions of the Agreement".307 Articles VI and VII provide for fisheries surveillance and enforcement issues, and Articles VIII to XI cover a range of legal and technical issues, among them the relationship between the Nauru Agreement and other regional agreements and the conclusion of implementing 308 arrangements. It is submitted that the Nauru Agreement is important in its own right. However, it is significant in that SPSs have utilized it to develop regimes that are unique, and arguably represent a progressive development of international law where none had previously existed.309 UNCLOS called for regional or subregional cooperation in the management of HMS, but it did not specify the modus operandi of cooperation. In this regard, SPSs have been innovative in the area of regional cooperation in fisheries management. Obviously, the main strength of the Nauru Agreement is its direct linkages with FFA. This has enabled the implementing arrangements discussed below to have wider application. In this regard, the Nauru Group must continue to provide the region with leadership in fisheries management, particularly tuna to ensure that maximum benefits are continually derived from the resource. 306. Sutherland, ibid, at p. 20. 307. Sutherland, ibid, at p. 20. 308. Doulman, supra note 297 at p. 258. 309. Sutherland, supra note 303 at p. 28. 80 2. Implementing Arrangements The Nauru Group's first implementing arrangement was concluded in 1982. It has five Articles which cover two important areas: (1) the Regional Register of Fishing Vessels; and (2) licensing terms and conditions of DWFNs. The implementing arrangements were formulated by the Nauru Group in recognition of the need to have some leverage against DWFNs who were playing them off against each other. In 1983, the SPF endorsed the implementing arrangements and are consequently used by all SPSs. 2.1 Regional Register No foreign fishing vessel is licensed to fish in the region unless it has "good standing" 3 1 0 on the regional register. While the Forum Fisheries Committee (FFC) is responsible for general policy and administrative guidance for the operations of the regional register, its day-to-day operation is the responsibility of the FFA Director. 3 1 1 The director confers "good standing" upon receipt of appropriately 310. Good Standing is implicitly and negatively defined in the following way: (see Procedures para. S). Good Standing may be withdrawn if: (a) the owner, charter, operator, master or other person responsible for the operation of that vessel (hereinafter referred to as the "Vessel Operator") has been convicted of a serious offence against the fisheries laws or regulations of any of the participating countries and has not complied fully with the judgement of the convicting court; (b) evidence exists that the Vessel Operator has committed a serious offence against the fisheries laws or regulations of any of the participating countries and that such evidence would have been sufficient to secure a conviction for that offence had it been possible to bring the vessel operator to trial; or (c) the Vessel Operator has failed to comply with the requirements for registration. 311. Sutherland, supra note 303 at p. 24. 81 completed application forms and notifies both the applicant and all the participating States accordingly.312 The regional register acts as a pool of information pertaining to foreign fishing vessels. If a vessel has been involved in a serious offence, a member State may request good standing to be withdrawn. However, before making such a request, the alleged infringement must be fully investigated by the State making the request and every effort must be made to obtain an explanation from the vessel operator concerned.313 The request for withdrawal of good standing must be made to the F F A Director with supporting documentation, including evidence of the alleged offence, any responses to that evidence by the vessel operator, and record of efforts taken by the State concerned to obtain satisfaction.314 In order for a request for withdrawal of good standing to be effectuated, it must have the consent of at least 10 or more participating countries with no dissenting responses.315 In view of SPSs limited capacity to enforce their sovereign rights, the regional register has become an effective enforcement device. A vessel that has good standing withdrawn from it is effectively banned from fishing in the entire 312. Procedures for the Establishment and Operation of the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency Regional Register of Fishing Vessels (hereinafter referred to as Procedures) at para. 1.1. 313. Procedures, ibid, para 6.1. 314. The criteria for the withdrawal of good standing require that the evidence gives reasonable cause to believe that the operator has committed a serious offence against the fisheries laws or regulations. This would be satisfied by a statement setting out the reasons why the evidence gives reasonable cause to believe that the operator has committed a serious offence. Secondly, the State must show that it has not been possible to bring the operator to trial. This could be met by showing that an attempt had been made to bring the operator to trial. Applicable legal procedures should be exhausted, and if there are no applicable legal procedures, informing the operator that blacklisting procedures will commence unless he submits to legal process should be adequate. (Notes on Procedures for Withdrawal of Good Standing: Rules and Criteria.) 315. Procedures, ibid., para 7. 82 region. As of July 1989, there were 2300 foreign fishing vessels registered in the regional register. So far no foreign fishing vessel has had her good standing withdrawn from the regional register. Although there have been instances in the past where SPSs have threatened to invoke the blacklisting procedures. It is suggested that this is a measure of the regional register's success in curtailing incidents of illegal fishing. A possible source of difficulty, however, pertains to the criteria for withdrawal of good standing. Apart from failure to meet registration requirements, good standing may be withdrawn in consequence of the commital of a serious offence. 3 1 6 However, serious offence is not defined nor are there any guidelines as to what they might be. 3 1 7 This apparently leaves the scope for disagreement wide open. The author is of the opinion that the time is opportune for a review of the guidelines for withdrawal of good standing. As they are, the procedures are cumbersome, and unfortunately, not conducive to the procurement of withdrawal of good standing. It may be argued, however, that since the consequences of blacklisting are severe and grave for the vessel operator, the quantum of proof should of necessity be of a high standard. The counter-argument to that is the application for withdrawal of good standing is in itself evidence that the State seeking the withdrawal of good standing already has the necessary evidence required to procure a satisfaction of its application. In other words, there must have been an act committed by the vessel operator constituting a serious offence against that State's fisheries laws otherwise the State would not have submitted an application in the first place. 316. Procedures, ibid., para 7. 317. Sutherland, supra note 303 at p. 26. 83 2.2 Minimum Terms and Conditions The minimum terms and conditions of access encompasses the following areas; each foreign fishing vessels must apply for and possess a valid licence or permit; each foreign fishing vessels must have good standing on the Regional Register; an access fee must be paid; there must be compliance with applicable coastal State laws; flag State enforcement measures must be agreed; gear must be properly stowed when not fishing; an agent must be appointed to receive and respond to process; there must be standardised identification of foreign fishing vessels; there must be a standardised radio frequency for receiving transmissions and true and complete information must be required all the time. Reporting requirements must be met, including: (a) timely reporting of entry, exit, periodic reporting while in the zone, before entry into port and other as appropriate; (b) standardised logbook form to be maintained on a daily basis, which must be produced at the direction of authorised officers and mailed to the coastal State; (c) complete catch and effort data must be supplied for each trip; and (d) additional information as the parties may determine must be supplied. Enforcement and observer requirements must be met, including: (a) duty of vessels to take on board enforcement officers/observers in accordance with coastal State law; and (b) rights of enforcement officers/observers and duties owed them by the master and crew. The minimum terms and conditions described above are based on Article 62(4) of UNCLOS. It is arguable based on the adoption of the minimum terms and 84 conditions that the region has contributed and continues to contribute significantly to State practice based on Article 62(4), which points to the evolution of at least regional customary international law. The advantage of the minimum terms and conditions pertain to their widespread regional application. It has assisted them maintain control over the movement of licensed foreign fishing vessels in their EEZs. Moreover, more significantly, by shifting the burden of reporting their entry and exit to and from the EEZ to DWFN, and by imposing an obligation to report on their daily positions, catches, etcetera, they have effectively reduced the administrative and financial costs of reconnaissancing their EEZs for foreign fishing vessels. Although, there have been some shortcomings with the system, it is submitted that given the precarious nature of the fishing industry it is inevitable that operational problems would be experienced. At any rate these problems do not impinge on the basic objectives of the minimum terms and conditions. They merely pertain to such matters as the late submission of catch report forms which arguably could be alleviated over time. It is also arguable that through data computerised from daily log sheets, the timely reporting of entry and exit, the completion of catch and data effort, checks on this by surveillance and enforcement through observers, economic assessments may be made on the optimum return for access.318 The minimum terms and conditions not only act as a self-enforcement mechanism. More importantly, it provides them with much needed information on which they may base future management decisions. In this regard, they must continue to work towards improving the minimum terms and conditions. An area that could possibly be explored is by increasing the scope of the minimum terms and conditions to 318. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 188. 85 encompass "fishing gear" in view of the advances and diversification in fishing technology. 3. Bilateral Access Agreements Many SPSs have bilateral access agreements with DWFNs such as Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Philippines and the Soviet Union. These access agreements are premised on coastal States sovereign rights over the resource and usually contain provision acknowledging such rights.3 1 8 The agreements generally have provision relating to economic and technical cooperation and assistance. The minimum terms and conditions discussed above are also incorporated into the agreements. Although most agreements do not normally specify the total allowable catch (TAC), due to the scientific considerations noted above, limitations are expressed in terms of vessel numbers and duration of the agreement.320 The minimum terms and conditions of access help SPSs maintain a measure of control over foreign fishing vessels in their EEZs. Through the timely reporting of entry, exit and the prerequisite to report periodically while in the EEZ, they are able to keep abreast with the number of vessels that actually enter and fish in their respective EEZs. The catch and effort data which Distant Water Fishing Nations are required to submit to them also helps them determine the quantity of tuna stock in their EEZs. Because their EEZs are contiguous, over a sustained period of time the data deduced from the catch and effort data, may reveal the 319. Overview of Fishing Activities of Distant Water Fishing Nations in EEzs of F F A Member Countries, 1983 to 1988, F F A Report No. 89/26. 320. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 187. 86 impact of the various fishing effort, gear and vessel type on the fishery. It could also reveal the overall impact of fishing effort on the fishery. They may subsequently use these statistics to impose TACs, and determine appropriate conservation measures whensoever necessary. SPSs objective in managing foreign fleets by access agreement is quite explicit - they wish to maximise the overall net gains to their countries from the operations of foreign fishing vessels. As Swan argues, they have "adopted one of the most positive attitudes anywhere in the world to non-reciprocal access rights for foreign fishing vessels in their waters, in pursuit of such benefits as access fees, technology transfers, development assistance, employment and information which well managed fishing operations can provide."3 2 2 An interesting question, however, naturally arises concerning the future of bilateral agreements, due partially to regional cooperation which is fostered through F F A , and the multilateral Fisheries treaty with the USA. Should they pursue their long term interests through bilateral access agreements or through multilateral access agreements? The advantage of bilateral access agreements pertains to the fact that the minimum terms and conditions can be tailored to domestic needs, and other economic benefits may be pursued to meet domestic requirements. The author believes that this is a matter which lies within the purview of individual SPSs to determine. 322. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 189. 87 4. Multilateral Access Agreements Tuna is also managed on a multilateral basis in the region. There are currently two multilateral agreements, namely the Fisheries Treaty between the governments of certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the United States of America (the Multilateral Fisheries Treaty [MFT]), and the Convention for the Prohibition of Fishing with Long Driftnets in the South Pacific (the Convention). The MFT is currently in force, whereas the Convention at the time of writing is not in force. The following discussion basically outlines the important provisions of the MFT and the Convention for management purposes. 4.1 Multilateral Fisheries Treaty The M F T was signed in April 2, 1987 and entered into force on June 15, 1988. It sets out the minimum terms and conditions under which the US flag vessels may fish in the waters of SPSs EEZs. It also eliminates the prospects of seizures of US vessels and potential retaliatory actions by the US under the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (FCMA). 3 2 2 The US Tuna Industry pays at least US$2 million annually in return for fishing licences. In the first year of operation, the industry paid US$1.75 million in licence fees. In addition, it provides US$250,000 in technical assistance annually. The US$1.75 million translates to 35 licences at US$50,000 each. This was the number of vessels 322. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 190. 88 licensed in the first year. In the successive years, up to five additional licences may be purchased for US$60,000 each. These are the minimum amounts. After the first year of operation, however, licence fees will be indexed to the average price of yellowfin and bigeye tuna. However, the annual base price of a licence will not drop below US$50,000 per vessel. The US government provides US$10 million annually for five years in economic support funds. US$1 million (Economic Development Fund [EDF]), is in the form of projects submitted by them through the F F A , and approved by the US Agency for International Development (USAID). 15 percent of the remaining US$9 million is distributed equitably amongst them and 85 percent is apportioned in proportion to where the fish is caught. The M F T contains provisions which are important for management and conservation purposes. US flag vessels are obliged to comply with their national laws. Moreover, the MFT stipulates control measures pertaining to species, the method of fishing, 3 2 8 and the areas US fishing vessels may or may not f ish . 3 2 6 The minimum terms and conditions discussed above are also incorporated in the MFT. US fishing vessels are obliged to furnish them with information pertaining to the position of the vessel, and the catch on board the vessel. These have to be done; 323. M F T Annex I(2)(4): National laws, is defined as [a]ny provision of a law, however, described, of a Pacific Island party which governs the fishing activities of foreign fishing vessels. (The laws are identified in Schedule 1) which is not inconsistent with the requirements of the M F T and shall be taken to exclude any provision which imposes a requirement which is also imposed by the M F T (Annex I(l)(l)(a)). 324. M F T Annex I(3)(S) states; [t]he vessel shall not be used for directed fishing for southern bluefin tuna, or for fish for any kinds of fish other than tunas, except that other kinds of fish may be caught as an incidental by-catch. 325. M F T Annex I(3)(6) states; [t)he vessel shall not be used for fishing by any method, except the purse seine method. 326. M F T Annex I(3)(7) states; [t]he vessel shall not be UBed for fishing in any Closed Area. Annex I(3)(9) states; the vessel shall not be used in any Limited Area, except in accordance with the requirements set out in Schedule 3, which are applicable to that Limited Area. 89 (a) before departure from Port for the purpose of beginning a fishing trip; (b) each Wednesday while within the Licensing Area or a Closed Area ; 3 2 8 and (c) before entry into port for purposes of unloading fish from any trip involving fishing in the Licensing Area. 3 2 9 The aforementioned information is then sent to the Administrator for tabulation. US fishing vessels are also obliged to inform then with regards to the position of, and catch on board the vessel; (a) at the time of entry into and of departure from waters, which are subject to their jurisdiction, 3 3 0 (b) at least 24 hours prior to the estimated time of entry into any of their ports;3 3 1 and (c) where it is required under their national law. 3 3 2 The US fishing vessels are also required to complete entries of their catch on the catch report form (CRF). These are subsequently returned to the Administrator for analysis. In addition, the MFT makes provision for the placement of observers on board US fishing vessels.333 The observers have full access to the use of facilities necessary to carry out his duties. This also includes access to the bridge, fish on board, the vessels records including its log and documentation, and any other information relating to fisheries in the Licensing Area. The information obtained from the reporting, observer and port sampling requirement will assist in the long term management of 327. M F T Annex I(4)(10). 328. M F T Annex I(4)(10)(a). 329. M F T Annex I(4)(10)(b). 330. M F T Annex I(4)(10)(c). 331. M F T Annex I(4)(ll)(a). 332. M F T Annex I(4)(ll)(b). 333. M F T Annex I(4)(ll)(c). 90 the resource. The MFT is a unique access arrangement which represents a novel development under international law. For purposes of management, the information supplied by US fishing vessels will enhance their pool of information regarding the fishery. The MFT is also unique because it has helped to avert the tuna dispute between the US and SPSs.3 3 4 The main question that remains however, is what will happen after the five year term of the MFT lapses? Will the US revert to their previous position on tuna? There is nothing currently wrong with the MFT, and despite initial operational problems which would be expected from a treaty as complex and sophisticated as the MFT, the MFT is operating smoothly. The author believes that they must continue to support the MFT, and in the interest of long term management of tuna, they should seek an extension of the M F T . The region is benefitting from the project funds, and technical assistance under the MFT, and therefore, it would be in their interest to seek its continuation. 4.2 The Convention The Convention was adopted by SPSs on November 29, 1989. It will enter into force on the date of receipt of the fourth instrument of ratification or accession. The Convention was concluded as a result of their profound concern 3 3 5 334. McLean, O. William and Sucharitul, Sampong, "Fisheries Management and Development in the E E Z : The North, South, and Southwest Pacific Experience", Notre Dame Law Review. Vol. 63, No. 4 at p. 530. 335. The SPSs concerns was affirmed in the Tarawa Declaration adopted at the 20th SPF in July 1989. The Tarawa Declaration affirms that driftnet fishing is not consistent with international legal requirements for high seas fisheries conservation and management and environmental protection and preservation. It recalls the relevant provisions of U N C L O S , in particular, articles 63, 64, 87, 116, 117, 118 and 119, which regulate the fishing of stocks straddling the EEZs and adjacent high seas areas of HMS and which provides for the freedom of the high seas and the conservation and management of the living resources of 91 at the damage being done by pelagic driftnet fishing vessels to the albacore tuna resource and to the environment and economy of the region. 3 3 6 The Convention purports to prohibit the use of long driftnets in the South Pacific by obliging States Parties to prohibit its nationals and vessels documented under its laws from engaging in driftnet fishing within the region. 3 3 7 States Parties are obliged not to assist or encourage the use of driftnets in the region.3 3 8 Other measures which States Parties may resort to include, inter alia, prohibiting the use of driftnets within areas under its jurisdiction; 3 3 9 prohibit the transhipment of driftnet catches within areas under its jurisdiction; 3 4 0 prohibit the landing of driftnet catches within its territory;3 4 1 prohibit the processing of driftnet catches in facilities under its jurisdiction; 3 4 2 and restrict port access and port servicing facilities for driftnet fishing vessels.343 The Convention calls on States Parties and DWFNs and other entities and organizations to cooperate in the development of conservation and management measures for the southern albacore tuna within the South Pacific. 3 4 4 the high seas. Simmonds, K.R. , Report of the Secretary-General (of the United Nations), UN DOC.A/44/650 , New Directions in the Law of the Sea, at p. 27. 336. Eisenbud, Robert, "Problems and Prospects for the Pelagic Driftnet", Boston College Environmental  Affairs Law Review. Vol . 12, No. 3, 1985 at p. 477. 337. Convention Article 1. 338. Convention Article 2. 339. Convention Article 3(l)(a). 340. Convention Article 3(l)(b)(i). 341. Convention Article 3(l)(b)(ii). 342. Convention Article 3(7)(2)(a). 343. Convention Article 3(2)(2)(b)." 344. Convention Article 3(2)(2)(d). 92 In order to enhance the objectives of the Convention, two additional Protocols namely, Protocol I and Protocol II, plus an associated instrument were also adopted simultaneously.345 The Protocols and the associated instrument346 are intended for any State whose nationals or fishing vessels documented under their laws use driftnets in the South Pacific. The parties to the Protocols are obliged to undertake to prohibit their nationals and vessels from using driftnets in the South Pacific. It is submitted that management by precluding the use of a certain method of fishing which inflicts a rapid decline of the stock, will ensure the continual harvesting of the stock by SPSs at sustainable levels of yield. The underlying intent of the Convention is to ban the use of pelagic driftnets in the region. However, the weakness of the Convention pertains to the fact that unless the countries principally involved in driftnet fishing namely, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, become parties to the Convention and Protocols, it would be rather difficult to enforce the various provisions of the Convention. Nonetheless, the author is of the conviction that the Convention duly represents the region's strong political will to prohibit the use of a technology which is overwhelmingly devastating to the living marine resources of the region. SPSs concern at the use of pelagic driftnets is largely economic. The inherently discriminate nature of pelagic driftnets threaten the sustainable yield of the albacore stock which features in the fisheries development plans of certain SPSs. Unless it is stopped, these countries development plans would almost certainly be incapacitated. The Convention also reflects their belief that their opposition to 345. Convention Article 8. 346. The Associated Instrument is a draft exchange of letters between the Director of F F A and the Chairman of the Taiwanese Deepsea Tuna Boat Owners and Exporters Association. This was done to circumvent the diplomatic tangle some SPSs have with regards to the status of Taiwan. 93 pelagic driftnet fishing may be more effective if they confront it collectively as a region. For these reasons, the author strongly advocates that the three main users of pelagic driftnets should accede to the Convention and Protocols. E. Management by Domestic Legislation Domestic legislation generally provides a foundation for all fisheries activity in the region. 3 4 7 The basic elements of their fisheries legislation348 include, licensing, foreign fishing operations, reporting, enforcement, prohibited acts, seizures and judicial process. As Swan states, these are continually being consolidated, particularly those provisions that pertain to foreign fishing operations to enhance the current scope of management.349 The review and reform of fisheries legislation basically has three approaches;350 viz, (a) strengthening existing framework provisions, (b) including provisions which allow scope for future international or national developments; and (c) strengthening evidentiary provisions, including new technological developments. As the basis of fisheries activity it is imperative that domestic legislation be continually improved to confront the challenges of tuna management. In the SPSs, the framework areas of unrevised fisheries legislation which are being 347. Swan, supra note 55 at p. 8. 348. See, "Regional Compendium of Fisheries Legislation (Western Pacific Region)", Vol . 1 & Vol. 2, F A O  Legislative Study. No. 35, Rome 1984. 349. Swan, supra note 55 at p. 8. 350. Swan, supra note 55 at p. 8. 94 strengthened are, in general, as follows; (a) Interpretation, which is imperative for sound enforcement is sometimes uneven. Such terms as fish, fishing and fishing gear must have precise and comprehensive definition. (b) Licensing provisions should be flexible enough to cover a number of fisheries-related activities which, if they are not a current concern, may become so in future, including: fishing by commercial national vessels, foreign fishing vessels, test fishing and marine scientific research. (c) Reporting requirements are crucial to management and enforcement and minimum standards are emerging with flexibility to strengthen the provisions. (d) The right of observers and enforcement officers and the duties owed them by the master and crew are being detailed. (e) Seizure provisions are being expanded to include such non-traditional concepts as responsibility for the seized vessel as it returns to port and immobilising the vessel. In addition to the above, they are incorporating provisions to allow scope for future developments as follows; 3 5 2 multilateral fisheries agreements or arrangements; licensing by an administrator on a regional or sub-regional basis; reciprocal enforcement; regional (non-national) observers; coastal State benefits from marine scientific research; regulation of transfer of technology; admissibility of evidence from outside the jurisdiction, and requiring that certain provisions must be included in bilateral or multilateral agreements or S53 arrangements. It is submitted that as the foundation of fisheries activity, it is imperative that they enact legislation that is flexible enough to accommodate changes that are 351. See, generally, Moore Gerald, "Principles of Fisheries Legislation Under the New Law of the Sea", Fisheries Advisory Programme Circular No. 5, F A O , Rome, 1986. 352. Swan, supra note 55 at pp. 8-9. 353. Swan, supra note 55 at p. 9. 95 continually being made to the tuna industry. It is also submitted that in this regard fisheries legislation in the region are continually being improved. It will be recalled that this was one particular area that was problematic for SPSs. However, through FFA, harmonisation of fisheries legislation is being achieved. Although progress is still slow, it is arguable that the common provisions that are being legislated will, if not already, point to the development of a regional practice that could evolve into customary international law. 96 C H A P T E R IV MECHANISMS FOR REGIME BUILDING IN T H E S O U T H PACIFIC In order to appreciate South Pacific States response to the various challenges concerning the management of the regions ocean resources, it would be necessary to discuss the different political mechanisms that exist in the region. The discussion in this chapter therefore, purports to explore the history and role of two principal organisations, namely, the South Pacific Commission (SPC), and the South Pacific Forum (SPF); 3 5 5 which have been instrumental in developing regimes primarily aimed at protecting the ocean environment and marine resources of the region. The discussion will also make reference to regional arrangements that have so far been implemented under the auspices of these two regional organisations. 354. The SPSs that are members of the SPC excluding Australia and New Zealand are: American Samoa, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Fi j i , Guam, Kiribati, Palau, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Nauru, Niue, Solomon Islands, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna, Marshall Islands, Northern Marianas, Western Samoa and French Polynesia. Pacific  Impact Quarterly Review of the South Pacific Commission supra note 287 at p. 38. 355. The SPSs that are members of the SPF, excluding Australia and New Zealand, are: Cook Islands, Fiji , Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa. Banks, A . , (ed.), Political Handbook of  the World. 1988. 97 A. Nature of Regional Cooperation in the South Pacific It will be recalled that SPSs are generally small, and experience certain disadvantages relative to other geographic regions in the world. Crocombe,3 5 6 said that the attainment of self-government and political autonomy loosened ties with former colonial powers, but the geographical units so created are the smallest in the world. They are too small to effectively undertake a whole range of functions which would be normal in larger nations.357 Functions which require a large population base were formerly undertaken by metropolitan powers. As a consequence of these disadvantages SPSs were compelled to explore the advantages of regional cooperation.358 Neemia 3 5 9 describes the nature of regional cooperation amongst SPSs as functional. In other words, regional cooperation is undertaken in specific functional areas.360 As stated above, these are in the areas of education, mineral and petroleum exploration, fisheries management and conservation, shipping, trade and civil aviation. However, this does not purport to be an exhaustive list of areas they are cooperating regionally in. On the contrary, the functional areas are in fact increasing as they endeavour to formulate common platforms to tackle 356. Crocombe, supra note 6 at p. 167. 357. Crocombe, supra note 6 at p. 167. 358. Crocombe, supra note 6 at p. 167. 359. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 15. 360. See, Fry, G . , "South Pacific Regionalism: The Development of an Indigenous Commitment", (unpublished M . A . thesis), Australian National University [ANU], 1979; Herr, R., "Regionalism in the South Seas: The Impact of the South Pacific Commission, 1947-1974", (unpublished dissertation, Duke University, 1976). 98 analogous issues that affect them. 6 1 It is arguable that there will be an increase in the range of activities they would want to cooperate in, as results of cooperation in other areas become apparent to them. The author believes however that this would not necessarily connote an increase in the number of regional organizations in the region. What is going to happen is a gradual increase in the number and diversity of activities under the umbrella of the two organisations. However, like all other regions, they are finding that regional cooperation, while an ideal they support, can be a difficult and trying process when it comes to coping with practical issues where interests and objectives can legitimately differ. B. The South Pacific Commission (SPC) The first major regional organisation of significance established in the region is the South Pacific Commission (SPC). It is often referred to euphemistically as the "colonial club" because it was initially established by the six metropolitan powers, namely, Australia, France, New Zealand, Netherlands,362 361. Fairbairn, I.J.T., "The Exploitation and Development of Pacific Islands Resources", SPC Occasional  Paper No. 4. 1977 at p. 8. He said, "regional cooperation In the development of the region's resources is embodied in the work of a variety of regional and subregional organisations, not to mention a profusion of international aid and related organisations. The case for a regional approach in many areas of resource development is well known. SPSs share many common problems in the resource field including, a shortage of capital and technical expertise. They have, in common, such forms of resource exploitation as fisheries development, production of basic foodstuffs, conservation of resources, trade promotion and basic research and survey work on resource potential. All share in the exploitation of certain migratory species. A joint effort in selected areas of resource development therefore makes good sense in terms of pooling resources and development experience, and achieving cost savings by economies of scale and by the initiation of regional resource management and conservation. In certain cases, as for example, tuna fishing, a lack of cooperation would result in a situation close to chaos and potentially, an enormous loss of income to the region", Fairbairn, ibid at pp. 8-9. 362. The Netherlands withdrew from the SPC in 1962 following the relinquishment of her colonial responsibilities over Dutch New Guinea, which is now known as Irian Jaya, or West Irian. 99 United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (USA), ' who had administrative and colonial responsibility over one or more SPS. Prior to World War II, there was little opportunity for cooperation and consultation between SPSs. 3 6 3 There was also little opportunity for cooperation and consultation between SPSs and the metropolitan powers. This isolation apparently arose as a result of inadequate transportation and communication. It was also a result of their colonial status. In fact these differences and difficulties were compounded and reinforced by the colonial powers.364 However, subsequently after the end of World War II, the U K , who had more colonies in the region, was unable to fulfill some of her colonial obligations.3 6 5 Consequently, Australia and New Zealand proposed the establishment of an organisation whose specific objective would be to assist SPSs in their economic and social development.366 The promulgation of the proposal was actually preceded by a series of studies undertaken by W.D. Forsyth of the Australian Ministry of External Affairs . 3 6 7 In one of these studies, Forsyth proposed the establishment of a South Pacific Commission with- a "special interest in the economic and social welfare, and health of the inhabitants of the islands of the tropical South Pacific, but with no responsibility for their military security or direct administration".368 363. A F A R , Vol . 43, 1972 at p. 42. 364. A F A R , ibid at p. 42.. 365. U K was in the process of reconstructing her economy following the devastation of World War II, and therefore, was seen to be neglecting her colonies in the South Pacific. 366. A F A R , supra note 363 at p. 42. 367. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 18. 368. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 18. 100 In August 1947, the governments of Australia, France, New Zealand, Netherlands, U K and the USA signed the Canberra Agreement,3 6 9 establishing the SPC. The underlying intention of the SPC was to promote the "economic and social welfare and advancement of the peoples of the non-self governing territories in the South Pacific region administered by them".3 7 0 The membership of the SPC has grown since 1947 to include 22 independent States and self-governing territories. 1. Structure of the South Pacific Commission The following discussion focuses on the general structure of the SPC and its role in managing the ocean resources of the region. The SPC is made up of three entities. These are the South Pacific Conference, the Committee of Representatives of Governments and Administration (CRGA), and the Secretariat. 2. The South Pacific Conference The South Pacific Conference (hereinafter referred to as "the Conference") is the most important of the three organs of SPC. The Conference is the decision making body of SPC. It is usually constituted by Ministers of governments of member States. It meets annually to discuss policy matters affecting the social and economic development of its members, and its decisions are always taken by 369. The S P C Agreement is known as the Canberra Agreement because it was signed in Canberra, Australia (hereinafter referred to as the Canberra Agreement) reprinted in Neemia, supra note S at pp. 131-138. 370. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 20. 101 consensus. The functions of the Conferences are laid down in Article IV of the Canberra Agreement. These include, inter alia; the responsibility to consider the recommendations of the C R G A ; to discuss matters of common interest and make recommendations to member governments; to examine the draft work programme of the Secretariat in the light of comments made by the C R G A , and in the light of governments and administrations financial contributions; to consider the administration of the Secretariat, adopt the administrative budget, work programme, general budget and designated principal officers. However, as noted below, the apparent lack of authority on the part of some delegations to make prompt decisions inhibits the authoritative role of the Conference. 3 7 1 Nonetheless, the Conference is the only opportunity for all the independent States, and non-self-governing territories including the metropolitan powers to meet and discuss social and economic issues affecting the region. In this regard, SPSs should continue to render their support to the Conference. Moreover, the Conference is also open to observers, and in this way, it is submitted that the various international organisations, individuals and entities who contribute in one way or the other to the affairs of the SPC are able to keep abreast with developments in the region. 371. Report of the Eighteenth South Pacific Conference, Noumea, New Caledonia, 7-12th October, 1978 at p. 27. Para. 30 states: Aware of the unavoidable necessity for delegations at times to refer certain matters to their respective capitals, the Conference noted the apparent lack of authority on the part of some delegations to make prompt decisions, and therefore, resolved that delegations to future Conferences be led by high-level representatives with the necessary authority to make prompt decisions on behalf of member Governments and Administrations. 102 3. Committee of Representatives of Governments and Administration (CRGA) Following an "in-house" review of the South Pacific Commission for broader participation by member governments in 1983, the C R G A was formed to replace the Committee of Representatives of Participating Governments and the Planning and Evaluation Committee.372 All member countries of the SPC irrespective of political status, have equal voice and voting power in the C R G A . 3 7 3 It consists of senior government representatives of member governments. It normally meets three to four months prior to the meeting of the Conference. Its functions include, considering and recommending the administrative budget, evaluating the effectiveness of the preceding year's work programme, examining the draft work programme and budget, and agreeing on a suitable and relevant theme of economic, social and cultural importance to the region for the Conference meetings. Its functions may be described as facilitating the communication vacuum that sometimes exist between the Conference and the member governments. It may also be perceived as linking the Conference and the Secretariat, acting as the intermediary between the two organs. Because its meetings precede the meetings of the Conference, it functions as a filter, scrutinising the activities and programme reports of the Secretariat before they are endorsed by the Conference. 372. Report of the Twenty-Third South Pacific Conference, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, 1-7 October, 1983 at p. 66. In introducing the Review, the Secretary-General recalled that there exists a genuine and strong wish in the region to have organisations become more cost-effective and realistic. He recognised the constitutional difficulties that some governments might have in accepting the concept of equal status and participation as suggested in the proposed revision of the Canberra Agreement, as contained in the Review, and pointed out that the idea was not a new one but has been voiced at previous SPC Conferences. 373. Report of the 23rd South Pacific Conference, ibid at pp. 18-22. 103 4. The Secretariat The Secretariat is the administrative organ of the South Pacific Commission. As such, it is responsible for implementing the work programme approved by the Conference. 3 7 4 The Secretariat is under the overall supervision of a Secretary-General (SG) who is chief executive of the SPC. The SG is appointed by the Conference. He is assisted by a Director of Programmes (DP) who is also designated by the Conference. The SG and the DP are obliged in the performance of their duties, not to seek or receive instructions from any government or other authority external to the SPC. 3 7 6 In other words, they cannot be perceived as acting in favour of any government. The Secretariat's functions are specified in Article IX of the Canberra Agreement. These are to provide technical assistance and training to governments and administrators within the scope of the S P C 3 7 6 in the field of; rural development;3 7 7 rural technology and environment;378 socio-economic and statistical development services;379 youth and community development;380 adhoc 374. Canberra Agreement, Article VIII. 375. Canberra Agreement Article VIII(25). 376. Canberra Agreement Article IX(28). 377. Canberra Agreement Article IX(28)(i). 378. Canberra Agreement Article IX(28)(ii). 379. Canberra Agreement Article IX(28)(iii). 380. Canberra Agreement Article LX(28)(iv). 104 expert consultancies; cultural exchanges; assessment and development of marine resources and research;383 grants-in-aid for unspecified projects of pressing regional, sub-regional and small Pacific Island countries needs;384 and information dissemination relating to developments.385 It may also include in its work programme, projects pertaining to such areas as food and materials, marine resources, rural management and technology, community services, socio-economic statistical services, education services, information services, regional consultation, awards, grants and ecological and cultural conservation and exchange. Apparently, some SPSs are heavily dependent on the services provided by the Secretariat. The services it provides generally complements their respective national programmes. However, they are not intended to usurp national programmes. It is submitted that the region will nonetheless continue to depend on its services. SPSs have generally benefitted particularly from the various technical programmes at little financial cost to themselves, since a large portion of the Secretariat's financial budget is received from the metropolitan powers. These services are not only provided comparatively cheaply, but they also significantly reduce the administrative burden which they would otherwise have to bear. In this regard, the author believes that SPSs must continue to render their support to it, 381. Canberra Agreement Article IX(28)(v). 382. Canberra Agreement Article IX(28)(vi). 383. Canberra Agreement Article IX(28)(vii). 384. Canberra Agreement Article IX(28)(viii). 385. Canberra Agreement Article IX(28)(ix). 386. Report of the 23rd South Pacific Conference, supra note 372 at p. 70. 105 and the role it plays in promoting social and economic development in the region. 5. Tuna and Billfish Assessment Programme (TBAP) As indicated above the South Pacific Commission administers the TBAP which is a vital component of their continuing endeavour to obtain more comprehensive information about the status of the tuna stock in the region. 8 8 7 The information obtained from the various programmes and projects undertaken under the TBAP is vital for their developmental plans. Most of them are aspiring to develop their own domestic tuna industries. Therefore, an understanding of the present status of the tuna stock, and the impact of various fish gear used on the fishery is crucial in determining the viability of their respective future development plans. Consequently, they must continue to render their support to the programmes and projects undertaken under the auspices of the TBAP to produce the desired efficacy. However, although the SPC has undertaken a considerable amount of scientific work and research on the tuna stock, there is more work that still needs to be done. For instance, some important areas that still require attention are transit reporting, collection of high seas data, and research and cooperation pertaining to the establishment and cooperation of regional or 387. Report of the 23rd South Pacific Conference, ibid at p. 72. The Secretary-General reported that "the Skipjack Survey and Assessment Program has been hailed as one of the Commission's most successful programmes. This has been affirmed by the Apia meeting of the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA). I wish to draw your attention however, to the fact that the T B A P is due for completion in 1984. Governments therefore, may need to consider future requirements and whether the Commission has an on-going role to play in this field. I must emphasise that whatever decisions is made on future activities in fisheries, as with all other departments of S P C involvement, (it) must be in concert with the theme of this In-House Review with regard to achieving and maintaining a cost-effective organisation, working within the limits of the available resources in the region". 106 international organizations. It is suggested that an important area SPC should also endeavour to concentrate its research effort is on the potential effects of the "green house" phenomena on the fishery. The possible adverse impact of the green house effect could have devastating consequences for their economic plans. Moreover, worse still, it could possibly lead to the collapse of the fishery which would be disastrous for them. C. The Growth of Endogenous Organisations The SPC served reasonably well until 1965 when SPSs became dissatisfied with its orientation.389 Richard Herr, in a 1976 study of the region summarized the changes as follows: 3 9 0 Island leaders sought with increasing clarity of vision to replace trusteeship with collegial cooperation, non-politicism with political commitment, and technical expertise with direct financial assistance. Underlying this development was a conscious acceptance of the organisation's regionalism value but with a twist not to the likes of some metropoles. In the second half of the 1960's a belief emerged from some quarters of the Pacific that the European states were interlopers within the region and therefore even their continued presence in the [South Pacific Commission] was open to question. Notwithstanding its success in promoting economic and social programmes in the region, the SPC remained an organisation primarily dominated by metropolitan powers. As more SPSs became independent and actively involved in its affairs, they became frustrated with the dominance of the metropolitan powers. 388. Swan, supra note 208 at p. 184. 389. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 179. 390. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 179. 107 Because of the nature of its composition, political discussions were stifled and discouraged. Neemia stated,391 as more SPSs became independent there was a growing expectation amongst them that other territories, particularly those under French colonial subjugation, and US trusteeship would also be given political autonomy. However, the metropolitan powers were not interested. They were more intent to maintain the status quo - that the SPC should only concentrate on matters pertaining to the social development of the region. 3 9 2 Their frustration was best summarized by the Prime Minister of Fiji, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara. He said: SPC was a child of its era - the colonial era. Its Constitution and methods were devised with the intention that it would advise and help administering governments in the discharge of their responsibilities which they have accepted. It was auxilliary. Limitations were therefore imposed on its scope.3 9 3 It is the author's opinion that it was inevitable that they would eventually become frustrated with the SPC. The attitude of the metropolitan countries was perceived by them as domineering and dictatorial, with crucial decisions often being made in Washington, Paris, London, Wellington and Canberra. Moreover, it was only a matter of time before their interests and those of the metropolitan countries diverged. They wanted to play a larger and more dominant role in their own affairs and in the affairs of the region. And they could not achieve this while they remained subservient to the metropolitan powers. Inevitably their frustrations and contempt for the SPC culminated in the formation of new regional institutions in which management powers and control 391. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 24. 392. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 24. 393. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 24. 108 were vested i n SPSs. N e e m i a stated, that i s land leaders perce ived this as a way of asserting control over key economic areas such as trade, s h i p p i n g , tourism, c i v i l a v i a t i o n a n d subsequently, f i s h e r i e s . 3 9 4 T h e y also wanted a f o r u m where they c o u l d have f r a n k a n d open discussions on p o l i t i c a l issues pertinent to i s land interests. 1. Pacific Islands Producers Association (PIPA) In 1965, the f i rs t of the endogenous regional organisations, the P I P A was f o r m e d by F i j i , T o n g a and Western S a m o a . 3 9 5 It has been suggested that the establishment of P I P A was p r i m a r i l y motivated by the desire of is land leaders to assert their r ight to control regional a f f a i r s . 3 9 6 Whilst this may have been generally true, the c o m m o n m o t i v a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g the establishment of P I P A was i n fact the p r o v i s i o n of a commerc ia l pressure group. It was established s p e c i f i c a l l y by the banana export ing countries to negotiate better terms w i t h N e w Z e a l a n d . 3 9 7 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , P I P A only had a l i f e span of eight years. It d i d not create any substantial impact , even though its membership increased f r o m three to f i v e i n 1968 w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of the C o o k Islands a n d N i u e , a n d to six i n 1973, wi th the a d d i t i o n of the G i l b e r t and E l l i c e Islands. Its terms of reference were increased to 394. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 24. 395. Sain-Cicin, and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 179. 396. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 25. 397. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 25. 109 include the establishment of joint ventures, the improvement of regional transport and of fishing and handicraft industries. Although it only achieved mediocre success, Neemia argues that its establishment reflected the SPCs inaction despite its stated economic objectives.398 Faced with the problem of limited finances, PIPA was unable to achieve the desired efficacy its members contemplated. Nonetheless, its establishment demonstrated their resolve to embark on initiatives the SPC was unable to undertake. Neemia, 3 9 9 pointed out that two important lessons in regional cooperation were derived from the experience with PIPA; "firstly, that continuing membership to island countries would mean a severely limited budget and an association of the weak; and secondly, it was essential to have working relations with other international organisations, including receiving aid from such organisations to enable regional organisations to carry out their work programmes". D. The South Pacific Forum (SPF) The most important development that emanated from their frustrations with the SPC, was the formation of the SPF. In 1971, under the leadership of Prime Minister, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara of F i j i , 4 0 0 the independent and self-governing nations in the region formed the SPF. This was the most significant regional development at that time. 4 0 1 The concept of a SPF was initiated by Ratu Sir 398. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 25. 399. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 25. 400. Fiji had become independent just at the time the South Pacific Forum was formed. 401. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 180. 110 Kamisese Mara, during informal consultation among island leaders during the eleventh South Pacific Conference. It was contemplated that the SPF would provide the venue where matters of common political and economic interests would be discussed. Something which they were not able to do under the SPC. 4 0 2 Representatives from seven SPSs (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Nauru, New Zealand, Tonga and Western Samoa)403 formed the SPF. The SPF is a rather unusual group. It neither has a formal structure, nor a permanent base. The SPF meets annually in different capitals throughout the region, and the assembled heads of government would discuss the issues of the moment and, where possible, adopt coordinated positions. There are no established procedures, no formal process or function, no public records kept, and no observers are allowed in these meetings. Brief communiques issued after each meeting provides the only official information regarding what transpired.4 0 4 However, irrespective of its informality, the SPF is the most important organisation in the region. There is no higher authority in the region than the SPF. Since it is an assembly of the heads of governments its mandate is authoritative. Its most important characteristic is its ability to make decisions spontaneously. This is in contrast to the SPC, whereby delegates normally refer matters to their respective governments for a decision. In describing its characteristics, the former Director of SPEC, Dr. Gabriel Gris said: 402. 403. 404. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 26. These were the only countries who were independent in 1971. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 180. I l l The most remarkable feature of the SPF is that it has no formal charter or rules to hamper the conduct of its affairs. It is self-regulating.4 0 5 On its success, he said that: The SPF has demonstrated its value by tackling political, economic and social problems facing the region. For instance, on the political front, it has not hesitated to condemn nuclear testing and the dumping of nuclear wastes ... it has and still faces difficult questions of colonialism and independence (Vanuatu in 1980 and New Caledonia) .... In the economic and trade fields, a regional trade and economic cooperation agreement which provides for much improved access of island goods and commodities into Australia and New Zealand; it has set up the Pacific Forum Line and dealt with specific problems ranging from energy to communications.406 The SPF, whose membership has now grown to fifteen, has evolved into a remarkably effective political association in the region, as measured by the regional organisations and activities it has spawned.407 These include the Forum Secretariat (formerly the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Corporation (SPF)) which is discussed below, the Pacific Forum Lines (PFL), which is also discussed below, the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA), which is subsequently discussed in Chapter Five, and its Ocean Resources Management Training Programme (ORMP) 4 0 8 at the University of the South Pacific (USP). Other important measures of the SPF's success, are the four regional treaties it has spearheaded. Two of 405. Gris, Gabriel, "Ten Years of Regional Cooperation: The Forum Way", Pacific Perspective. Vol. 11, No. 1, 1981, at pp. 28-33. 406. Gri«, ibid., p. 27. 407. Sain-Cicin and Knecht supra note 61 at p. 180. 408. The Ocean Resources Management Programme at the University of the South Pacific was established in 1986 under the auspices of the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency and the University of the South Pacific with major funding from the Canadian International Development Agency. The Programme provides training and policy and technical assistance to island government leaders on marine resources management. 112 them have been described above. The other two are described below. 1. The Forum Secretariat (FS) The FS was established shortly after the SPF was formed to act as its administrative arm. It was contemplated at the time that the FS would facilitate regional cooperation in such matters as trade, economic development, transport and telecommunications. In recent years the SPF has increased the scope of the FS's areas of responsibility to include tourism, energy, aviation and fisheries. The FS was established by Agreement.409 Its purpose as noted above is to facilitate continuing cooperation between SPSs on trade, economic development, transport, tourism and other related matters. The need for an administrative body such as the FS emanates from the pressing need to have a clearing house for all the SPFs recommendations. As such, the FS has an important role to play in coordinating the implementation of the recommendations of the SPF and forging regional cooperation amongst the SPSs. The FS is constituted by a Secretariat which is based in Suva, Fiji, and the FS Committee. The Secretariat consists of the Director who is responsible for the overall administration of the Secretariat, two Deputy Directors, and such other professional and support staff as are necessary to facilitate its functions. The FS Committee consists of one representative of each member State of the SPF. The representative is usually a senior government official from a member State. The following discussion briefly articulates the various functions of the Committee and 409. Agreement Establishing the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation. Suva, 17 April, 1973 (hereinafter referred to as the S P E C Agreement) reprinted in Neemia, supra note 5 at pp. 138-143. 113 the Secretariat. 2. Functions of the Committee The Committee meets at least twice a year to review the work of the Secretariat.410 Its main area of concern pertains to the overall administration of the Secretariat, while the SPF makes all policy decisions for the Secretariat. As such the Committee has several functions to play. These include; the preparation, in consultation with the Director, of the annual budget for submission to the S P F ; 4 1 1 the recommendation of any pertinent amendments to the Annex to the Agreement to the SPF; 4 1 2 the approval of the annual or interim report of the Director on the operation of the FS and to transmit such report to member governments;418 making recommendations to member governments;414 laying down staff establishment and salary scales;416 and giving general directions to the F S . 4 1 6 410. S P E C Agreement Article V . 411. S P E C Agreement Article V(2)(a). 412. S P E C Agreement Article V(2)(b). 413. S P E C Agreement Article v(2)(c). 414. S P E C Agreement Article V(2)(d). 415. S P E C Agreement Article V(2)(e). 416. S P E C Agreement Article V(2)(f). 114 3. Functions of the Secretariat As noted above, the Secretariat was established with the intention of facilitating the administrative arrangements for SPF meetings, and more importantly, to supervise and assist SPSs implement recommendations emanating from the SPF. As such the Secretariat plays a significant role in forging regional cooperation. The functions of the Secretariat are laid out in Article VII of the SPEC Agreement. Its functions include, amongst other things; the preparation of studies in order to identify opportunities for modification of present trade patterns in the South Pacific region, and between the region and other countries, having in mind the objectives of regional trade expansion;417 carrying out necessary investigations in connection with development of free trade among SPSs; 4 1 8 preparation of studies for the development of plans and policies in an effort to promote cooperation in the region, and investigating the scope for regional development planning aimed, inter alia, at a rationalisation of manufacturing and processing industries and the achievement of economies of scale in certain regional enterprises;419 establishing an advisory service on sources of technical assistance, aid and investment finance, both official and private; 4 2 0 acting as a clearing house for information on trade, production and economic development in the 417. S P E C Agreement Article VII(l)(a). 418. S P E C Agreement Article VII(l)(b). 419. S P E C Agreement Article VII(l)(c). 420. S P E C Agreement Article VII(l)(d). 115 region and in areas outside the region which are of interest to SPSs'; 4 2 1 preparing studies, reports and working papers;422 establishing means for the collection, dissemination and exchange of information and statistics;423 and cooperating and coordinating its work with that of other international and regional organisations.424 It is submitted that the SPC and the FS complement each other. Although there have been calls to amalgamate the two organisations into a single regional organisation (SRO), so far no practical steps have been taken to achieve this objective. The main reason for calling for their amalgamation is the generally held belief that the organisations duplicate each other's functions. However, the author believes that there are strong reasons for the continuation of the present status quo. Some of the smaller island countries particularly depend heavily on a great number of services being provided by the SPC and the FS separately, so a merger could in fact cause a major split amongst the island nations of the region. A split to the solidarity and unity of the region would be unfortunate and of no advantage to the region, since their strength lies in being together and not apart and divided. 4 2 5 The question of having a SRO holds immense significance because underlying it all it raises the fundamental question that lies at the heart of all Pacific Islanders - the question of the relationship between all Pacific peoples.426 421. S P E C Agreement Article VII(l)(e). 422. S P E C Agreement Article VII(l)(f). 423. S P E C Agreement Article VII(l)(g). 424. S P E C Agreement Article VII(l)(h). 425. Report of the 23rd South Pacific Conference, supra note 273 at p. 70. 426. Report of the 23rd South Pacific Conference, ibid at p. 34. 116 However, the author believes that island leaders most cautiously consider the question in the light of the relationship between the Pacific peoples, and also in view of the need to accommodate the generosity and commitment of external allies and friends in a spirit of mutual partnership for the future progress of the region and its peoples. Although their functions may be duplicated in certain respects, the author is of the opinion that their overall mandate is explicitly delineated. In fact, there is increasing cooperation and consultation between the two organisations, as evidenced by the annual meeting of heads of regional organisations. _ The main-advantage of the FS as noted above is that its directions originate from the highest and supreme policy making body in the region. Therefore, it may lay claim to having the most potent mandate. This advantage that it has obviously gives the FS more political credibility. 4. Major Activities The SPF has evolved into a formidable organisation. The increase over the years in its membership has correspondingly increased the scope of the FSs major activities. In pertainment to trade, the FSs activities have encompassed trade promotion and development of export-oriented industries. A study conducted by the FS on trade relations and industrial development in the region culminated in the conclusion of the South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement (SPARTECA), with Australia and New Zealand. SPARTECA was intended to stimulate trade between SPSs and Australia and New Zealand, which were invariably in favour of the two latter States. Under SPARTECA, certain 117 items and commodities enjoy preferential access to Australian and New Zealand markets. One of the major achievements of the FS was the establishment of the South Pacific Trade Commission (SPTC). The SPTC provides South Pacific States with information pertaining to Australian and New Zealand markets, and promotes the flow of island products to Australian and New Zealand markets. The SPTC not only services the South Pacific States. More importantly, it provides potential investors from Australia and New Zealand with pertinent information regarding foreign investment regulations and other conditions for foreign investment. As mentioned above, the FS has increased its area of responsibility. In the area of telecommunications, the FS acts as coordinating agency for telecommunications work for the United Nations (UN) and other agencies. The FS also acts as regional coordinator for energy matters. Recently, the FS was given the responsibility to coordinate the development and implementation of regional aid projects. In 1987, the SPF decided that a Pacific Regional Advisory Service (RAS) should be established under the auspices of the FS. The main functions of the RAS are to maintain a systematic register of skilled personnel in the region which would be able to meet requests from SPSs and facilitate transfers of such personnel. Recently, the RAS has been increased to encompass national court judges. The SPF, through the FS has established ancillary bodies to cater for specific functional areas that require specialized attention. One such body is the Pacific Forum Line (PFL) which provides a regional shipping service to SPSs. They generally face local difficulties and disadvantages. Neemia, pointed out that the great distances from their export markets and sources of supply meant high freight costs and irregular shipping which in turn affected standards of living 118 resulting in high prices and chronic shortages of consumer goods. The objectives of the PFL are laid down in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). These are: To operate a regular and viable shipping service in order to encourage the economic development of the region, recognizing the desirability of containing escalating freight costs; to coordinate the establishment of regular fully rationalised shipping services among ports of the members and among other ports; to provide a shipping service to meet the special requirements of particular areas of essential services on non-commercial routes; to promote and develop trade, particularly export trade of the South Pacific region. The SPF's profound interest in the development of fisheries in the region is represented by the establishment of FFA. This is discussed in detail below. Moreover, a classical illustration to exemplify the SPF's earnest commitment to the rational use and development of the fisheries resources may be inferred from the conclusion of the MFT with the US, and the Convention to Prohibit the Use of Long Driftnets which are discussed above. The SPF has also played an important role in protecting the region's environment as evidenced by the conclusion of two regional environmental protection treaties. These two areas were originally under the purview of the SPC, and hence when the SPF began to slowly supplant the SPCs role in these areas, it led to a conflict between the two organisations. The SPC however, was unable to address the question of coastal States sovereign rights over HMS, because of US membership in the SPC. And moreover, the SPC could not condemn French nuclear testing in the region because France is a powerful member of the SPC. On the other hand, the SPF had political credibility to discuss these issues, and more significantly, it is capable of initiating specific action to alleviate these issues. 427. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 29. 119 E. The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty "No region on earth has experienced the negative effects of nuclear arms to a greater extent than the Pacific basin. The Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered the only wartime use of atomic weapons. Since then the [South Pacific] region has been used repeatedly for nuclear testing. From 1956 to 1983, the United States, France and Britain together tested 213 atmospheric or underground nuclear tests in the Pacific [0]cean. After persistent and loud regional protests, Japan and the United States have shelved plans for dumping and storing low level radioactive materials in the Pacific Ocean. Guam is the permanent and, so far only, central Pacific base for both large nuclear stockpiles and nuclear-armed planes, ships and submarines. Nuclear powered and armed American and other foreign ships crisscross the region. American military ships are accepted at all countries in the South Pacific except Vanuatu and New Zealand. Unarmed US missiles are shot and tracked from Vandenberg Air Force [B]ase in California to Kwajalein [A]toll in the Marshall Islands. The Soviet Union has used an area near the Cook Islands for missile tests ... China uses the international waters east of the Solomon Islands.428 The idea of a nuclear-free zone in the region was first introduced by Australia at the 14th meeting of the SPF held in Canberra in 198 3. 4 2 8 The decision to negotiate a nuclear-free zone treaty was endorsed at the 15th meeting of the SPF held in Tuvalu in 1984. The 15th SPF decided that such a treaty should be concluded at the earliest possible opportunity. The completed South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone (SPNFZ) Treaty was signed at Ratotonga, Cook Islands, on August 6, 1985.430 The Treaty entered into force on December 11, 1986 when 428. Neater, "The Origin and Development of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty", 3-4 (June 1987) quoted in Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 194. 429. Beeby, C , and Fyfe, N. , "The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty", Victoria University of  Wellington Law Review. Vol. 17, No. 1, 1987 at p. 33. 430. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone (SPNFZ) Treaty, August 6, 1985, reprinted in International Legal  Materials. Vol . X X I V , No. 5, September 1985, at pp. 1440-1463. 120 Australia became the eighth Pacific nation to ratify it. In many ways, the Treaty reflects their aspiration to enjoy peaceful development, free from the threat of environmental pollution; their acknowledgement of existing relevant treaties; their willingness to undertake commitments not to acquire or test nuclear explosions and moreover, their wish that nobody should test, use or station such explosives in the region. Arguable, the Treaty represents the culmination of strong anti-nuclear feelings that had been present in the region since the 1970s.*31 The Treaty prohibits the testing, manufacture, acquisition and stationing of nuclear weapons in the territory of the parties, as well as the dumping of nuclear wastes at sea by parties.432 For purposes of testing, manufacture, acquisition and stationing of nuclear weapons, the Treaty defines "territory" to encompass the land, internal waters, territorial seas, archipelagic waters, seabed and subsoil beneath the land of signing nations.433 In contrast, the Treaty defines the nuclear free zone more expansively to include the broader 200-mile zones of the parties and the very extensive areas of the high seas.434 However, it is important to note that the Treaty specifically states that nothing in the Treaty is meant to infringe on the freedom of navigation or overflight. 4 3 5 The administration of the Treaty is spelt out in Article 8. The parties are to "establish a control system for the purpose of verifying compliance with their obligations under this Treaty". The control system, which is administered by the 431. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 194. 432. S P N F Z Treaty Articles 3, 5, 6-7. 433. S P N F Z Treaty Article 1(b). 434. S P N F Z Treaty Article 1(a). 435. S P N F Z Treaty Article 2(2). 121 Director of the FS, consists of reports, exchanges of information, consultations, the application of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and a complaints procedure. To enhance their resolve in a nuclear free Pacific, three Protocols were prepared in association with the Treaty. The Protocols require the nuclear powers (China, France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR) to commit to abide by the Treaty's provisions in their territories in the region; not to contribute to violations of the Treaty or to threaten the use of nuclear weapons against the parties; and to refrain from testing nuclear devices in the nuclear free zone. 4 3 6 However, it is also important to note that the Treaty and the Protocols do not disturb existing security arrangements and each party has the right to make its own decision about the visits or passage through its territory of foreign ships and aircraft. 4 3 7 Hitherto, only the USSR and China have signed the Protocols appropriate to them. In fact, the USSR even went a step further and stated that the transportation of nuclear weapons within the zone is inconsistent with the spirit and intent of the Treaty. 4 3 8 The USA, U K and France have refused to sign the Protocols. The US cites amongst other things that the Treaty could undermine its nuclear deterrent capability, disrupt the balance of power in the world, and encourage strategically sensitive areas such as Western Europe, to create their own nuclear free zones.439 France inevitably will not sign given its strong desire to 436. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 196. 437. S P N F Z Treaty Article 2(2). 438. Teiwaki, supra note 99 at p. 150. 439. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 196. 122 maintain its nuclear testing programme in French Polynesia. The U K stated that it was not necessary for her to sign. Some countries, notably Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, felt that the Treaty was not tough enough because it allowed nuclear ships to continue docking at individual island nations. These countries argue that by allowing the transit of aircraft and vessels carrying nuclear weapons, the fundamental purpose of the Treaty, that is, to remove the threat of nuclear war from the region is defeated.440 Nonetheless, with regard to the prohibition against peaceful nuclear explosions and the ban on dumping of radioactive wastes, the Treaty is stronger than the 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco, which created a nuclear free zone in Latin America. 4 4 1 Arguably, the importance of the Treaty lies in what it represents for the region, and particularly what can be achieved through the SPF. However, that does not imply that the negotiations were easy. Some SPSs enjoy closer and intimate political and economic relations with the super powers than others. Hence, they were sometimes reluctant to compromise their cordial diplomatic relations with the super powers. What emerges, however, is evidence of a fervent conviction to protect the environment that in most cases sustains their economic needs. They have always been traditionally dependent on the environment for sustaining their economic and physical needs. The conclusion of the Treaty therefore is explicit recognition of the vulnerability of their environment to the 440. Neemia, Uentabo Fakaofo, "Some International Issues in the South Pacific", Pacific Perspective. Vol. 14, No. 1, at p. 9. 441. Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America, February 14, 1967, 22 U.S.T. 762 T.I .A.S. No. 7137, 634 U N T S 281. The S P N F Z Treaty differs from this Treaty in several respects. First, the S P N F Z Treaty bans all nuclear explosions while the Treaty of Tlatelolco allows detonation for peaceful purposes. Second, the S P N F Z Treaty prohibits storage and dumping of nuclear wastes in the region while the Treaty of Tlatelolco does not. Finally, the S P N F Z Treaty does not allow member States to permit nuclear weapons on their territory whereas the Treaty of Tlatelolco does. 123 exploits of radioactive wastes which would have catastrophic consequences for their survival, and their fervent conviction to protect their environment within the framework of the international legal order governing uses of the ocean. F. The Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region (SPREP Convention) Underlying the SPREP Convention are the concerns of SPSs about the state of the environment and the fears that the vast Pacific Ocean will be an attractive site for the dumping of civilization's noxious wastes.442 Another major concern involves the potential impacts of nuclear activities, especially those emanating from continued testing of nuclear weapons in the region. 4 4 3 In addition to the SPREP Convention, there are two Protocols - one involving pollution emergencies and the other dealing with the prevention of pollution by dumping. 4 4 4 The Convention and the Protocols were opened for signature at Noumea, New Caledonia in November 1986.445 The SPREP Convention obliges parties to take appropriate steps either 442. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 190. 443. For a brief history of the events leading to the conclusion of the S P R E P Convention, see Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at pp. 190-191; South Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation & Social  Commission for Asia and the South Pacific. United Nations Environment Programme, Action Plan for  Managing the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific. (UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, No. 29, 1983). 444. S P R E P Convention reprinted in 26 I .L .M. at p. 38 (I.L.M. Background/Content Summary of the Convention). 445. South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme, Report of the High Level Conference to Adopt a  Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region 124 jointly or individually to prevent, reduce, and control pollution emanating from vessel discharges, land-based sources, storage of toxic and hazardous wastes arid nuclear testing in the region. 4 4 6 Also, parties are obliged to prevent environmental damage, specifically coastal erosion caused by coastal engineering, mining activities, sand removal and dredging.4 4 7 The first Protocol - the Protocol Concerning Cooperation in Combatting Pollution Emergencies in the South Pacific Region - mandates the adoption of national emergency plans to be coordinated with the appropriate bilateral and subregional contingency plans. 4 4 8 The second. Protocol - the Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the South Pacific by Dumping - creates a regional agreement and establishes lists of substances, the dumping of which is prohibited (Annex 1), and list of substances requiring special or general permits (Annexes 2 and 3).4 4 9 The SPREP Convention Area is defined as comprising the 200-mile zones of twenty-two self-governing island nations (including Australia's east coast and eastward islands) and island territories, as well as those areas of the high seas that are enclosed by these 200 mile zones. The administration of the SPREP Convention and the Protocols, for the most part, is assigned to the SPC, with a lesser role to the Director of the FS . 4 5 0 Amendments to the SPREP Convention and its Protocols can be made with the approval of two-thirds of the parties.451 The Convention will enter into force 30 446. S P R E P Convention, Articles 6-12. 447. S P R E P Convention, Article 13. 448. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 191. 449. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 191. 450. S P R E P Convention Articles. 21, 29, 33. 451. S P R E P Convention Article 24. 125 days after the deposit of at least 10 instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.452 As of July 1989, this had not yet occurred. However, the SPREP Convention was not able to address the question of nuclear testing in the Pacific, because France is a powerful member of the SPC. Nonetheless, it represents the SPSs anxiety about the potential dangers posed to the environment resulting from the uncontrolled use of the environment. In the author's opinion, this is the most important aspect of the SPREP Convention and the Protocols. However, the success of the SPREP Convention and the Protocols would depend largely on the willingness of SPSs to implement the various legal provisions thereof. G. Contemporary Perspectives It has been observed that regional cooperation has resulted in palpable gains for SPSs. The SPC provides them with a fora to discuss social and technical issues affecting them. The South Pacific Forum, on the other hand, provides them the fora to discuss political and economic issues of the day, which they are not able to discuss in the SPC. Both organisations have played a significant role in their endeavour to achieve economic growth, and more particularly in those spheres of economic concern with regards to marine oriented activities. In the author's opinion, they would not have achieved the success they have so far enjoyed without regional cooperation. As stated earlier, this trend will no doubt continue to expand. 452. S P R E P Convention Article 31. 126 Despite the shortcomings of both organisations, all SPSs have benefitted tremendously from their programmes at little financial cost to them. While some SPSs have threatened to withdraw from the South Pacific Commission, over the issue of the SRO, no one has yet to take the first step towards withdrawal. And probably no one will withdraw. The disadvantages to them of withdrawing are such that it is most unlikely that any one will withdraw from either organisation. 127 C H A P T E R V T H E FORUM FISHERIES AGENCY (FFA) Hitherto, the discussion has endeavoured to situate the region in terms of UNCLOS by attempting to show that UNCLOS has had a radical impact on the development of South Pacific States. The discussion has also attempted to justify the formation of FFA. It is submitted that with the benefit of the discussions articulated above one is now well placed to fully appreciate and comprehend the various political and economic forces necessitating the formation of FFA. At this juncture, the author would like to mention that certain writer(s) who availed themselves to the opportunity to write on FFA soon after its inception were audacious enough to suggest that FFA was merely a weak service agency rather than anything approaching a management agency.454 Contrary to those fallacious beliefs, it is contended that the SPSs can boast of an achievement with regards to the management of the tuna resource that is unprecedented and perhaps even unmatched in any region in the world. An explanation of the reasons for this dogmatic belief in the fallibility of those writer(s) statements is given below. However, if an observation may be made at this juncture, perhaps it would be suffice to mention that those statements incidentally emanate from nationals of countries who initially opposed the concept of the EEZ, and in particular, were not 454. Kent, supra note 84 at p. 170. 128 allowed to participate as members of FFA. Naturally, these writer(s) have had a propensity to depict FFA as an ineffective and weak organisation that falls short of the necessary prerequisites of international law for such organisations.455 Needless to say, as argued above, that is a view that only two countries in the world subscribe to, and lacks the support of the international community.'456 The following discussion sets out to show why FFA has indeed met the needs and aspirations of SPSs. In order to explore the various reasons why FFA has been successful, it would be necessary by way of background to review its history, examine its role in developing management regimes, outline its functions, and identify the legal developments that are pertinent to the development and crystallisation of certain provisions of UNCLOS into customary international law. A. History of the FFA It is interesting to note that most South Pacific States obtained political independence almost simultaneously while negotiations for U N C L O S 4 5 7 were undertaken. None of them, except for Australia and New Zealand, were independent during negotiations for the four Geneva Conventions. However, SPSs were well represented at the negotiations for UNCLOS. Indeed, as Sain-Cicin Biliana argues, "as a result of this confluence of circumstances, the concepts of self-government and extended maritime jurisdiction were intertwined virtually 455. Van Dyke, Jon and Heftel, Susan, supra note 85 at p. 38. 456. Sutherland, supra note 179 at p. 613. His article, amongst other things, examines and dismisses the criticism that the F F A does not fully meet the requirements of emerging international law. 457. 10 SPSs obtained political independence between 1960 and 1982. 129 from the beginning". In Chapter I, the importance of the known fisheries resources of the South Pacific was highlighted. The importance of the fisheries resources not only to the total fisheries production but also to the economy of the region as a whole was indicated. As a HMS, it is in their best interest to ensure that the tuna resource is not exploited in such a way as to endanger the stock. The need for a regional fisheries body was indicated in Chapters I, II and III. Nonetheless, it would still be worthwhile to mention succintly some of the reasons for a regional fisheries body. Kearney, 4 5 9 writing in 1978, gave the reasons as follows; the need for regional fishery statistics; the highly migratory nature of tuna; the mobility of the fleets harvesting the resources; the variable distribution of the resources; the dependence of the resources of the region on common spawning or nursery grounds; the interaction between surface and longline fisheries; common interest of developing countries in the region; added power of a common interest block; minimizing research effort; and the need to ensure access to the fishing grounds. The establishment of FFA was intertwined with the international acceptance of the concept of the EEZ. The idea to establish a regional fisheries agency was first mooted at the seventh South Pacific Forum meeting in Nauru in July, 19 76.4 6 0 The idea originated from discussion papers presented by Papua New Guinea and Fiji. Papua New Guinea's paper concentrated on environmental 488. Sain-Cicin and Knecht, supra note 61 at p. 184. During the 1970s, Fi j i exercised strong leadership role in the region and in U N C L O S . Even today, the United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea is Ambassador Satya Naudau, Fiji's representative to the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. 459. Kearney, R .E . , supra note 87 at pp. 263-267. 460. Gubon, Florian, "History and "Role of the Forum Fisheries Agency" in Tuna Issues and Perspectives in  the Pacific Islands Region, supra note 229 at p. 246. 130 conservation in the region, linking the fisheries question to the broader conservation issue.461 The paper emphasised the role of SPSs as sovereign nations and the need for regional cooperation and coordination of activities related to the marine environment and its resources.462 Fiji's paper, entitled "Law of the Sea", centered on "substantive issues arising from the Law of the Sea Conference then in progress, and proposed that a meeting of SPF members be held for a broad investigation of regional fisheries cooperation".463 The seventh SPF meeting agreed that, given the stage which the Law of the Sea Conference had reached, it would be desirable for them to meet at government level. 4 6 4 The objectives of the subsequent meeting which was held in Suva in October 1976 was to consider the timing and terms of the creation of 200-mile zones; the problems and opportunities associated with them; the conservation of marine resources; the possible creation of a South Pacific fisheries agency; and the prospects for joint action and regional 461. Gubon, ibid at p. 245. "South Pacific Regional Fisheries Organisation - Coastal State Jurisdiction with Regard to Highly Migratory Species in the 200-Mile Fishing Zone", Working Paper prepared by Papua New Guinea at request of the meeting of S P E C Countries - Suva, May 9-11, 1976, S P E C (78) F A - I N F . A . (hereinafter called P N G Discussion Paper). 462. Gubon, ibid at p. 246. Para. 2 of the P N G Discussion Paper states: The question is what powers may be exercised by a coastal State with regard to the living resources of its 200-mile tone with confidence that its action will be consistent with the rights of States at international law. This is an area in which international law is passing through a phase of rapid development. The three main elements in this process are: first, the growing realisation that stocks of living resources are finite and must be carefully conserved and managed so as to avoid over-exploitation; secondly, the desire of coastal States, especially developing coastal States, to see the resources of their 200-mile zones, used by their own fishermen rather than by distant water fishermen; thirdly, the attempt being made at the 3rd U N Conference on the Law of the Sea to resolve the question of extended fisheries jurisdiction in a comprehensive Law of the Sea treaty, an attempt which is by no means certain of success, but which has already triggered action by many individual coastal States to legislate over fisheries within a 200-mile tone. 463. Doulman, supra note 82 at p. 139. 464. "Nauru Declaration", 27 July, 1976, Summary of Proceedings of the Seventh Meeting of the South Pacific  Forum. (Appendix 4) (hereinafter called Nauru Declaration) at p. 39. 131 cooperation in matters such as surveillance and policing. The Suva meeting4 6 6 reviewed developments at the Law of the Sea Conference, particularly those issues that had special relevance to the South Pacific. The meeting's declaration underlined their common concern to achieve a new and comprehensive international Convention on the Law of the Sea which would take account of the interests of the region. 4 6 7 The meeting4 6 8 affirmed, amongst other things, that UNCLOS must confirm the sovereign rights of coastal States over resources in their 200-mile E E Z ; 4 6 9 took note of the broad consensus of views at the Conference on the Law of the Sea in support of the 200-mile E E Z ; 4 7 0 declared their intention to establish 200-mile EEZs at appropriate times and after consultation with one another;471 decided to harmonise fisheries policies in the region, and adopt a coordinated approach in their negotiations with DWFNs; 4 7 2 decided in principle to establish a South Pacific fisheries agency to promote the conservation and rationale utilisation of the stocks in the region; 4 7 3 and requested the Director of SPEC to prepare proposals for the next session of the SPF. 4 7 4 465. Nauru Declaration, ibid at p. 39. 466. The meeting was held at the S P E C Headquarters in Suva from 13-14 October, 1976. 467. A F A R , Vol. 47, 1976 at p. 55. 468. "The Declaration on Law of the Sea Questions" is reproduced in A F A R , ibid at p. 556 (hereinafter called Declaration on LOS). 469. Declaration on L O S , ibid at p. 556. 470. Declaration on L O S , ibid at p. 556. 471. Declaration on L O S , ibid at p. 556. 472. Declaration on L O S , ibid at p. 556. 473. Declaration on L O S , ibid at p. 556. 474. Declaration on L O S , ibid at p. 556. 132 An important observation needs to be noted here. Contrary to the view that F F A was supposedly intended to be a management body, it is quite clear from the Suva meeting that its proposed role was to promote the conservation and utilisation of the tuna resource of the region. The dichotomy between SPSs over the anticipated role of FFA was perpetrated arguably by the participation of DWFNs such as the USA, and Chile, who wanted a broad based organisation. This was also exacerbated in some ways by the fact that some SPSs enjoy more intimate political relations with certain DWFNs than others, and thus wanted to see the participation of DWFNs in a regional fisheries agency. The first signs of disagreement over the nature and role of the proposed regional fisheries agency emerged at the eighth SPF meeting, held in Port Moresby, 29 August, 19 7 7.4 7 6 As noted above, it became apparent at that meeting that the SPSs were divided over the issue of membership in the proposed agency, and its anticipated role. 4 7 6 Western Samoa and Tonga supported DWFN membership in the agency. They argued that in order to solve the problems they faced, outside assistance was required. 4 7 8 Western Samoa even went as far as questioning the exclusion of France and the USA. The lack of clear consensus is evidenced by the fact that two different organisations were proposed at the meeting. The first of 475. See "South Pacific Forum Communique Adopted on 31st August, 1977", reprinted in A F A R , Vol . . 48, 1977, at p. 466. 476. See Memorandum to S P E C Director From F D O , Dated 14 July, 1983; "Evolution of Positions on a Wider Based Regional Fisheries Body", (hereinafter called Memorandum) (copy with F F A ) . 477. Memorandum, ibid at p. 2. 478. Memorandum, ibid at p. 3. Western Samoa was concerned about the financial aspects of the agency, and felt that the agency could not function without the participation of D W F N s . Western Samoa was also concerned about the need to control potential illegal fishing from US fishing vessels based in Pago Pago. Obviously none of the SPSs wanted French involvement in a regional fisheries agency, because they really did not have any fishing interests in the South Pacific. 133 these two would be based on complementary interests with DWFNs from outside the region participating as members. It was proposed that a broad based organisation devoted primarily to conservation would fulfill the mandate of Article 64 of the Informal Composite Negotiating Text (ICNT). 4 7 9 The second type of organisation envisaged was one where all members, essentially members of the SPF would join together out of their common interest in having coordinated policies with which to face DWFNs. 4 8 0 The disagreement over membership in the agency is not surprising because not all SPSs share the same interest in the fishery, particularly the tuna resource. As indicated above, the tuna stock is more abundant in the equatorial waters of the south west Pacific, and inevitably those countries vehemently opposed the participation of DWFNs in the agency. In the author's opinion, those that supported the inclusion of DWFNs could not perceive the conflict of interest that could potentially be generated by the inclusion of DWFNs. 4 8 1 Moreover, they had nothing to lose to DWFNs. The attitude of those opposed to a broad based agency 479. Kent, supra note 84 at p. 167. In a preparatory report to a subsequent meeting held in Suva in June 1978, the Director of S P E C pointed out that two rather different types of organisations were contemplated: One would aim primarily at ensuring conservation and promoting optimum utilisation of the living resources throughout the sea in which they occur .... The other would aim primarily at ensuring maximum benefits for the peoples of the coastal countries in the region and for the region as a whole. T o be fully effective, the first type of organisation would need participation by all countries in whose waters the resources occur at various stages of their life cycle as well as by all countries that exploit them. The second type of organisation, on the contrary, would comprise only those countries in the South Pacific with a common interest as coastal States. Ibid at p. 167. 480. Kent, supra note 84 at p. 167. 481. Neemia, supra note 5 at p. 35 states, "The SPSs which favoured the US stand argued that the inclusion of U S A would oblige it to control its fishing fleets in the South Pacific. However, several speculations might be made about this assumption. Firstly, the exploitation of H M S , particularly tuna, may not be as important to the pro-US countries given the concentration of the species in waters of the nations which opposed the US stand. Secondly, there was the possibility of New Zealand's influence over its two associated States (Cook Islands and Niue). Thirdly, countries such as Western Samoa and Niue had little expectation of major benefits from licence fees or royalties, given the relatively small sire of their fisheries zone. 134 was best summarized by then Prime Minister of Solomon Islands, Sir Peter Kenilorea. He said, 4 8 2 "We do not interfere in the coal mines of America - why should America be able to interfere in the fisheries of the independent Pacific Forum countries? ... we will not sign the Convention unless there is provision to safeguard the immediate concerns of the South Pacific nations. We should have complete say over our fisheries. The eighth SPF nonetheless, adopted a Declaration on the Law of the Sea and the Regional Fisheries Agency, 4 8 3 wherein they did amongst other things: Decide to establish a South Pacific Regional Fisheries Agency and all countries in the South Pacific with coastal State interests in the region who support the sovereign rights of the coastal State to conserve and manage living resources including highly migratory species in its 200-mile zone.4 The SPF requested the Director of SPEC to convene not later than the end of November 1977, a meeting of officials of all interested coastal States in the region to prepare a draft convention establishing a South Pacific Regional Fisheries Agency. 4 8 5 Significantly, the SPF also stipulated the parameters of the proposed agency's functions,486which included amongst other things, the collection, analysis and evaluation of statistical and economic information relating to the conservation and utilisation of living resources to assist member governments in the 482. New Pacific Magazine. April 1979 at p. 9. 483. Port Moresby Declaration, supra note 96 at p. 632. 484. Port Moresby Declaration, ibid, at para. 7. 485. Port Moresby Declaration, ibid, at para. 8. 486. Port Moresby Declaration, ibid.at para. 8(1); the other guidelines include, assistance if requested in negotiations with DWFNs and other extra-regional interests; the facilitation, without detriment of the sovereign rights of coastal countries, of a regional approach to management and to licensing including agreement on generally applicable policies and measures, pooling of information and standardisation of procedures and forms; the facilitation of collaboration among coastal countries and of cooperation by others in surveillance and enforcement; and execution of agreed administrative activities. 135 development of policies aimed at securing maximum benefits for their peoples. In retrospect, perhaps, the controversy surrounding membership of the agency could have been circumvented, if the invitation to participate at the Suva meeting to draft the convention was confined to SPSs. Unfortunately, the reason why the invitation was open to "all interested coastal States in the region", which obviously included DWFNs, is not apparent. However, one possible explanation is that particular Distant Water Fishing Nations, like the US and Chile had territories in the region, and hence their participation was in respect of their territories. But, what became obvious, however, was these countries were, not pushing for the interests of their territories. They were only advancing their own interests as DWFNs. A meeting to prepare a draft convention, and to agree on the guidelines for the activities of the agency was held in Suva from 18 to 25 November, 1977.487 As mentioned above, it was also attended by the three metropolitan powers in the area (United States, United Kingdom and France) and Chile (in respect of Easter Island). Observer status was granted to Canada, Japan, and the Republic of Korea as well as to several interested regional bodies. Although substantial progress was made at the meeting with provisional agreement being reached on the text of the draft articles of the convention, there were some outstanding issues including the question of the criteria for membership still unresolved.4 8 8 The draft convention was presented to the ninth SPF which was held in 487. See, "South Pacific Regional Fisheries Agency", A F A R , Vol . 48, December 1977, at p. 632. 488. South Pacific Regional Fisheries Agency, ibid at p. 632. While most draft articles received the provisional approval of the meeting, there were some outstanding issues still to be negotiated, including the question of the criteria for membership. The meeting was of the view that the outstanding issues could be resolved and a Convention adopted at a plenipotentiary conference. It accordingly authorised S P E C to make arrangements for such a conference at the earliest possible date, ibid at p. 632. 136 Niue from 16 to 20 September, 1978. Not surprisingly, it rejected the draft. After a full consideration of their reasons for wanting a fisheries organisation, the SPF "decided that the organisation envisaged in the draft convention was not the organisation which SPF countries wanted in the immediate future". 4 8 9 The SPF accordingly "decided to set up forthwith a South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency comprising SPF countries and to examine the more broadly based organisation proposed in the draft convention. Kent noted that the SPF felt that the draft convention proposed a broadly based Article 64 type organisation, which would be primarily concerned with fisheries conservation.490 An article 64 type body was fundamentally different from that originally contemplated by the Nauru Declaration and the Port Moresby Declaration.4 9 1 The Niue SPF meeting was consequently reminded that it had originally agreed in Port Moresby to establish an organisation that would enable them to group together to present a united front in their negotiations with DWFNs. 4 9 2 After intensive debate, the leaders were able to arrive at an agreement. On the question of the organisation's role, the meeting resolved "that it should be limited to assisting member governments in exercising their sovereign fisheries management rights".4 9 3 On the question of membership, "the case was made that the proposed organisation must not include DWFNs, and that the United States, in 489. Press Communique Issued by the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation (SPEC) on the Ninth South Pacific Forum at Niue. For a copy of text see A F A R , Vol. 49, October 1978, at p. 497. 490. Kent, supra note 84 at p. 167. 491. Kent, supra note 84 at p. 167. 492. Kent, supra note 84 at p. 167. 493. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 246. 137 particular, should not be permitted to participate". The underlying problem was the US tuna policy. 4 9 6 The differences in opinion over the nature of the agency, arguably epitomizes the different interests they had with DWFNs. It represents the changing needs and character of the region due to the emergence of independent nations in the South Pacific, who more than anything else fervently wanted to exert more control over the use of their natural resources. As independent nations they wanted to have a larger role to play in the affairs of the region, rather than be dictated by the whims of large metropolitan countries outside the region who were merely interested in satisfying their own economic and political self-interests! Subsequently, after the rejection of the draft convention at the Niue SPF, a revised text was prepared and presented to the tenth SPF which was held in Honiara from 7 to 10 July, 1979. It unanimously adopted the draft convention, which according to Gubon, was based on the Nauru Declaration and the Port Moresby Declaration.4 9 6 By adopting the Forum Fisheries Agency Convention, (hereinafter called FFA Convention, see Appendix II), SPSs recognized the need for immediate and continuing advice concerning the living resources in the region and the ways and means of securing maximum benefits from them as well as for an effective instrument to coordinate policies in the field of fisheries management. F F A consists of a Secretariat, and the Forum Fisheries Committee (FFC) whose functions and responsibilities are discussed below. To oversee the functions of the Secretariat, a Director is appointed by the FFC who is responsible for hiring 404. 495. 496. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 246. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 246. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 246. 138 such professional staff as are necessary to expedite its functions and responsibilities. B. The Role of the FFA in Developing A Regional Tuna Management Regime The mechanisms for tuna management in the South Pacific are indicated in Chapter III. In order to explore the role of F F A in developing management regimes in the region, recourse must be made to the pertinent provisions of the F F A Convention. The F F A Convention establishes F F A , stipulates the parameters of its functions and objectives, lays out the format for policy formulation and implementation, and sets out the obligation of member States to assist F F A achieve its stated objectives. The pertinent provisions of the FFA Convention to this discussion are the Preamble, which explicitly expresses their concerns and objectives. Article IV, which establishes the Forum Fisheries Committee (hereinafter called FFC), Article V, which defines the scope of FFC's functions and responsibilities, and finally Article VII, which articulates the functions of FFA. 1. The Preamble An appreciation of the Preamble is essential to a broader comprehension of their underlying concerns and objectives towards the conservation and management of the tuna resource. As noted in the preceding discussion, the extension of 139 national jurisdiction up to 200 nautical miles, dramatically increased their management and conservation obligations. Their concerns and objectives over their newly acquired EEZs is stipulated quite explicitly in the Preamble. They had, amongst other things; a "common interest" in the conservation and utilisation of the living marine resources, in particular tuna; a desire to "promote regional cooperation" and coordination in fisheries policies; a desire to "secure maximum benefits" from the living marine resources; and to "facilitate" the collection of, analysis, evaluation and dissemination of relevant statistical, scientific and economic information. They recognized at the outset that the conservation and rational utilization of living resources, particularly tuna, was of paramount importance. They also recognized that in order to secure maximum benefits from the resource they would need to cooperate and coordinate their fisheries policies, which effectively meant increasing their participation in the fishery. As Kearney noted, 4 9 7 they had to increase their participation in the fisheries of the region so as to control the direction of the ongoing development of these fisheries, otherwise, not to take on these control functions would render declarations of EEZs meaningless. It is submitted that one can perceive their objectives in establishing FFA by reading through the Preamble. It is quite explicit from the Preamble that they clearly intended to promote regional cooperation and coordination of fisheries policies through FFA. There is also no doubt that they intended to secure maximum benefits from the living marine resources through the services facilitated by F F A . Therefore, Kent's view that the FFA is a "weak service agency" rather than "anything approaching a management agency" is misguided because FFA was 497. Kearney, R .E . , supra note 87 at p. 280. 140 never contemplated to be a management agency. It is also clear from the Preamble that they did not intend to confer on FFA any management responsibilities. Their common interest in the optimum utilization of the living marine resources, in particular tuna, emanated from the fact that it represented a new hope of achieving economic self-reliance. However, most of the tuna harvested in the South Pacific, at least prior to their proclamation of EEZs, were carried out by DWFNs. In order to effectively negotiate access agreements with DWFNs, they needed to know; 4 9 9 the quantity and quality of their fisheries resources; how much fishing could be permitted while sustaining stocks; who had traditionally fished their stocks; and the market value of their fish. In other words, not only did they have to determine the allowable catch as stipulated under Article 61 of UNCLOS, but they also had to adopt laws and regulations stipulated under Article 62 of UNCLOS relating, inter alia, to licensing of fishermen, fishing vessels and equipment, including the payment of fees and other forms of remuneration, determining the species which may be caught, and fixing quotas of catch, and regulating seasons and areas of fishing. They maintained that a regional organisation such as F F A would help them obtain the above information. They also believed that such organisation would help them develop the necessary institutional arrangements they would require to deal with DWFNs. This information would in turn help them exercise management functions competently, both individually and as a group. 5 0 0 498. 499. 500. Sutherland, supra note 179 at p. 613. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 249. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 250. 141 In this regard, Doulman has stated that, the major gains for them have been in the distant water tuna fishery where F F A has provided members with negotiating support in concluding access agreements with DWFNs. 5 0 1 Furthermore, he said, "by helping redress the information imbalance in access negotiations, they have obtained higher financial returns from their tuna resources and have induced DWFNs to curb their presentation of misleading information about their fishing operations and marketing arrangements".502 2. The Forum Fisheries Committee FFC is to FFA, what the SPF is to the region. FFC is established under Article IV of the FFA Convention. It consists of member countries, and is primarily responsible for directing the activities of F F A . 5 0 3 On the question of the FFC's composition, Gubon states that although Article IV does not specify the composition of the FFC, it may be inferred from the words "each party shall have one vote", 5 0 4 that each member is entitled to have at least one representative.505 The work of F F C is not restricted exclusively to SPSs. Article IV(5) of the F F A Convention provides that the Forum Secretariat "[m]ay participate in the work of the Committee". "[S]tates, territories and other international organisations may also 501. Doulman, supra note 82 at p. 138. 502. Doulman, supra note 82 at p. 138. 503. Doulman, supra note 82 at p. 141. 504. F F A Convention Article IV(2). 505. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 249. 142 participate as observers in accordance with such criteria as the Committee may determine". In recent years the number of international organisations who have participated in the work of FFC has increased. Undoubtedly, this is a measure of FFA's success and the achievements it has accomplished. It also reflects the respect and confidence international organisations have of FFA. The international organisations include, the International Centre for Ocean Development (ICOD), Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation (CFTC), European Economic Community (EEC), Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). FFC meetings are formally conducted. However, decisions are normally arrived at by consensus. As Doulman states, FFC meetings are "characterised by frank and open discussions, lacking the political intrigue and lobbying that is usually associated with regional and international organisations".506 Much of FFA's success is attributed to this "uncomplicated and direct approach by FFC that enables F F A to carry out its mandate effectively".5 0 7 However, as a regional organisation, an inherent conflict of interest naturally exists within FFA's role as a regional facilitator of regional activities and in assisting SPSs with the promotion of national objectives.508 This conflict of interest is more apparent where commercial fisheries considerations are involved. However, these conflicts have rarely divided their solidarity as a regional bloc. 506. Doulman, supra note 82 at p. 142. 507. Doulman, supra note 82 at p. 142. 508. See F F A Doc., "Identification of Issues for Consideration and Direction for the Second Decade: F F A Perspective", F F C 17/TM3/4.1. 143 They have shown themselves to be a solid and resolute region. Whilst some countries believe that what might be good for the region generally might disadvantage them individually, so far no country has withdrawn its support for regional arrangements carried out under the auspices of FFA. The author believes that they must continue to render their unequivocal support to FFA, through FFC. F F C must also continue to provide clear and unambiguous guidelines to FFA. 3. Functions of the Forum Fisheries Committee As the body responsible for laying down policies for FFA, F F C no doubt has an extremely important function to play in fisheries development in the region. The functions of FFC are stipulated in Article V of the F F A Convention. Gubon, 5 0 9 has described the functions of FFC in the following terms; to provide detailed policy and administrative guidance and direction to the F F A ; to provide a forum for parties to consult on matters of fisheries concerns; and carry out other functions necessary to give effect to the FFA Convention. Moreover, FFC is obliged to promote regional cooperation in; harmonizing policies with respect to fisheries management; maintaining relations with DWFNs; surveillance and enforcement; onshore fish processing; fish marketing; and cooperating with respect to fishing access to the EEZs of other member States. Arguably, FFC has achieved a certain degree of success in promoting regional cooperation in respect to harmonizing fisheries policies, as evidenced by the adoption of the Regional Register, and the standardised minimum terms and 509. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 249. 144 conditions. This may also be said with respect to maintaining relations with DWFNs and surveillance and enforcement. With the aforementioned developments having reached a certain degree of maturity, FFC is now shifting its endeavours to onshore fish processing and fish marketing. However, a major area that is often ignored is the promotion of intra-regional cooperation. Although FFC is rather slow in pushing for intra-regional cooperation, particularly with respect to access to their respective EEZs, it is an area that is growing increasingly important. Some SPSs, like Fiji and, to a certain extent Tuvalu, have developed local tuna industries. However, they are often handicapped by the lack of a sizeable tuna fishery, and are invariably compelled to buy fish from the Solomon Islands or as in the case of Tuvalu, enter into commercial arrangements with the Solomon Islands to fish in Solomon Islands Fishery Limits. In this connection, FFC will have to define the nature and scope of intra-regional cooperation. It will have to spell out whether the minimum terms and conditions will apply to locally incorporated fishing vessels. Moreover, an important issue that FFC will have to decide is, should they treat local fishing vessels on an equal level with fishing vessels from DWFNs, and should the same level of access fees apply? In view of these developments F F C will need to delineate the parameters of intra-regional cooperation. In addition to promoting regional cooperation, FFC; (a) approves the Directors' report which normally details the activities undertaken by FFA in the preceding year and the financial expenses incurred; and (b) discusses and approves the FFA's proposed work programme for the next fiscal year. 5 1 0 FFC meetings rotate among member States in alphabetical order. The chairmanship of 510. Doulman, supra note 82 at p. 142. 145 the F F C also rotates from country to country.5 1 1 From the foregoing discussion, it is clear that through FFC, SPSs continue to play a role in monitoring and directing FFA's activities. What this implies is that F F A is not a management body, because it is clearly subject to the direction of F F C . It may be argued that the relationship between FFC and FFA reflects the Nauru Declaration and the Port Moresby Declaration, to the extent that they wanted an organisation where they would be able to maintain control. This means that F F A programmes and activities may be changed according to the dictates of their fishery needs. 4. Functions of the Forum Fisheries Agency In light of the foregoing discussion it is apparent that F F A is not charged with any management functions. The management of the tuna fishery is obviously the unfettered discretion of individual SPSs. However, FFA's function is to assist them arrive at those management decisions. As such, subject to the directions of the FFC, the main functions of FFA are; 5 1 2 to collect, analyse, evaluate and disseminate to members statistical and biological information concerning the region's living marine resources, particularly HMSs; collect and disseminate to members information about management procedures, legislation and agreements adopted by other countries, both within and beyond the region; collect and disseminate to members information about fish prices and shipping, processing and 511. Doulman, supra note 82 at p. 142. 512. F F A Convention Article VII. 146 marketing of fish and fish products; provide to members, as requested technical advice and information, assistance in developing fisheries policies and negotiations, issuing fishing licenses, collecting fees or maintaining surveillance and enforcement; seek to establish working programmes with pertinent regional and international organisations and undertake other functions determined by FFC. An analysis of FFA's functions reveals that F F A has a "facilitative role" in developing management regimes in the South Pacific. Whilst there is no evidence to show that F F A is vested with management powers, it is clear that FFA's primary responsibility is to carry out certain functions that are necessary for them to manage the tuna resource. It will be recalled that individually, they lacked the capability to execute these functions. FFA may be described as filling the vacuum that existed in terms of the lack of pertinent information regarding the fishery. However, the ultimate management decision making body is the individual SPS. F F A merely provides them with the necessary information they require to effectuate the management of the fishery. It is submitted that without the bulk of information and other functions performed by FFA, they would not be in a position to exercise management powers competently. However, they are also obliged to furnish F F A with any available and appropriate information 5 1 3 including those pertaining to catch and effort statistics, relevant laws, regulations and international agreements and relevant biological and statistical data. Their relationship with FFA is therefore, crucial to its success. So far they have been able to forge an intimate working relationship. FFA is dependent on information and other data that is supplied by them. Conversely, they are also dependent on FFA's analysis of that information to make 513. F F A Convention Article IX. 147 management decisions regarding the fishery. Gubon 6 1 4 has commented, "that FFA's effort to collect, analyse and evaluate scientific and other fisheries information and to disseminate it to them have been admirable given FFA's constraints". Although FFA has been unable to provide complete information, they have been able to obtain a clear perception of the quantity and quality of fisheries resources within the region and to negotiate better financial deals in access negotiations with DWFNs. 6 1 5 SPSs and FFA must continue to work closely together to ensure its continual success. C. Major Legal Developments The F F A work programme derived its mandate at the eleventh SPF in Tarawa in 1980 and was endorsed at the twelfth SPF in Vanuatu in 1981. The F F A work programme which is known as the Regional Research Development Programme (RRDP), delineates the activities that are undertaken by FFA and SPC. There are eleven programmes under the RRDP. These are; resource assessment; harmonisation and coordination of fisheries regimes; regional surveillance and enforcement; current information systems; tuna fishing development; economic analysis; identification of fishing patterns; fisheries and administrative training; fishing vessel register; delineation of fishing and related zones and evaluation of fisheries support services and facilities. All the programmes, except for resource assessment, is undertaken by FFA. In order to evaluate the success of FFA, the 514. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 249. 515. Gubon, supra note 460 at p. 249. 148 major legal developments in the region are articulated in this section. For purposes of this discussion, the legal developments fall into two areas of the RRDP. These are harmonisation and coordination of fisheries regimes and regional surveillance and enforcement. 1. Access Negotiations An extremely vital and significant component of FFA's legal activities is the provision of expert legal advice to SPSs in their access negotiations with Distant Water Fishing Nations. This was an area SPSs were severely handicapped particularly in negotiations with DWFNs. FFA's legal services not only entails advising them during the actual negotiation process, it also involves advising them on the provisions of access agreements, their weaknesses and strengths and how they could be improved to bring greater financial returns. The legal services provided by the FFA have often strengthened their negotiating positions. F F A was instrumental in providing expert legal advice in their negotiations with the US to conclude the MFT. FFA was also instrumental in providing legal advice in the recently concluded Convention to Ban the Use of Long Driftnets in the South Pacific. The services provided by F F A in their fisheries negotiations is highly commendable. However, whilst these services have been highly commendable, and have attracted tangible benefits, the author believes that SPSs must endeavour to build their own legal expertise. The legal services are supposed to have initially provided a service they lacked. There is a need however, for them to establish their own legal advisory service. The reasons for this are obvious. They cannot 149 develop a perpetual dependence on FFA for its legal services. They must attempt to achieve progress in this area. Needless to say, however, this a matter for individual SPSs to decide. FFA's provision of technical advice and assistance in access arrangements with DWFNs has grown over the years. Negotiations it assisted were: Australia/Japan; Cook Islands/South Korea; Cook Islands/Taiwan; FSM/Japan; FSM, Kiribati, Palau/American Tuna Association (ATA); Kiribati/Japan; Kiribati/Korea; Kiribati/USSR; Marshall Islands/Japan; Palau/Japan; PNG/Japan; PNG/Taiwan; Vanuatu/USSR; Cook Islands, New Zealand, Niue, Tuvalu, W. Samoa/ATA; F F A members/USA and FFA members/Japan. It is submitted that since access agreements provide them with the main means of managing tuna, it is essential in their long term interest to develop national legal expertise to complement those provided by FFA. 2. Harmonisation and Coordination This area of FFA's work programme deals with the harmonisation of access agreements, fisheries, legislation and reporting systems discussed above. This has been one of its most successful programmes. The objective of harmonising and coordinating access agreements in the region is to maximise the benefits from their fisheries resources. In the executive summary of the achievements of FFA in its first decade of operation,5 1 6 it is noted that: 516. Bugotu, Francis, Sitan Peter, Si Tikai, Teekabu, " A Review of the Achievements of the Forum Fisheries Agency in its First Decade of Operations", Consultancy Report prepared for the Seventeenth Meeting of  the F F C . F F A Report, No, 89/59, at p. 8 (hereinafter referred to as Consultancy Report). 150 During the review, this programme undoubtedly stood out as being one of the most important activities that the F F A has undertaken. It has achieved excellent performance during the past ten years. Most of the FFA member countries have proclaimed 200 mile EEZs, and therefore access to the resources in the zones of the region is an extremely important issue. Under this programme, many member countries have made significant financial gains. As stated above, the minimum terms and conditions are incorporated in SPSs access agreements. Recently, FFA coordinated the development of a fisheries K1 7 prosecution manual. It was developed with the objective of describing every element of fishing and providing procedural and legal advice on fisheries prosecution.518 As indicated above, FFA has also been promoting harmonisation in fisheries legislation. It is submitted that the concept of minimum terms and conditions is indeed a new innovation in the law of the sea. Its success is measured by the reduction in the incidents of illegal fishing in the region. Nonetheless, there is scope to improve the present minimum terms and conditions. In a review of the minimum terms and conditions,5 1 9 it has been suggested that to improve the effectiveness of the Regional Register, vessels less than 20 gross registered tonnes (GRT) licensed by SPSs should be required to register.520 Moreover, an update mechanism should be devised so that vessels that are decommissioned or sunk are removed from the register5 2 1 and vessels that use driftnet fishing gear lose good standing on the 517. Swan, J., "Report on Legal Development in F F A Member Countries, 1988/89", prepared for Pacific  Island Law Officers Meeting. Canberra, 9-12 August, 1989, F F A Report, No. 89/67, at p. 7. 518. Swan, J., ibid at p. 7. 519. F F A , "Review of the Minimum Terms and Conditions for Fisheries Access by D W F N s " , F F A Report, 89/63, at p. 2. 520. F F A Report, ibid at p. 2. 521. F F A Report, ibid at p. 2. 151 Regional Register. As a region, SPSs have learnt that by coordinating their fisheries policies and harmonizing their fisheries legislation they have been able to deal effectively with DWFNs. Moreover, they have also been able to administer their access agreements in a cost-effective manner. Whilst some of the minimum terms and conditions warrant a review, it is the author's belief that they have nonetheless, been able to consolidate their fisheries relations with DWFNs. Inevitably, shortcomings will naturally be experienced given the precarious nature of the tuna fishery and industry. However, the author is of the opinion that this does not diminish the overall advantage they have enjoyed since adopting the minimum terms and conditions. FFA's role in coordinating and harmonizing fisheries legislation and access agreements will continue to develop. As fisheries activities increase in the region, SPSs will be confronted with the need to adapt to the changes and challenges, not only from DWFNs, but also from their own involvement in the fishery. Hence, they must continue to render their support to FFA. As coordinator of fisheries development in the region, FFA's success would depend entirely on the support it receives. 3. Enforcement and Surveillance The enforcement of fisheries legislation and access agreements was one of the main problems they confronted. However, through the Regional Register noted 522. F F A Report, ibid at p. 2. 152 above, and various minimum terms and conditions of access indicated above, they are now capable of enforcing their various fisheries management rights. This is complemented by a fisheries surveillance programme administered by FFA. Surveillance is carried out by regional observers who are placed on board foreign fishing vessels. There are also periodic surveillance flights undertaken by the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). However, it has been noted 5 2 3 that the primary problems associated with the surveillance programme is the lack of information which takes a number of forms. First, is the lack of information among senior bureaucrats regarding the role of fisheries surveillance.524 Second, is the limited information exchange between SPSs and F F A on DWFNs vessel positions.526 Third, is the limited communication and information exchange between SPSs and the R N Z A F and R A A F . Surveillance and enforcement is a major facet of fisheries management. The size of the area that must be covered is indeed exorbitant. Inevitably practical problems such as the lack of information will be experienced. A major problem however, pertains to finance. The surveillance programme is expensive to maintain, and therefore, the author believes that they must delineate the parameters of the surveillance programme in terms of the economics of maintaining the programme at an appropriate level. It is suggested that some issues that the ought to define are, should the surveillance programme encompass the EEZs of all SPSs or should surveillance be heavily concentrated in those countries 523. See, "The Difficulties in Regional Fisheries Surveillance", Memorandum from Fisheries Surveillance Advisor to F F A Director (copy with F F A ) (hereinafter called Surveillance Memorandum). 524. Surveillance Memorandum, ibid at p. 1. 525. Surveillance Memorandum, ibid at p. 1. 153 where most of the tuna resource is found? There is no doubt that the surveillance programme assists in monitoring incidents of illegal fishing in the region. However, F F A is not in a position to determine the fate of the programme. What is required by F F A are clear guidelines on what sort of surveillance mechanism is appropriate for the region. Obviously, the most cost effective system would be desirable. It is suggested that F F A facilitate discussions between SPSs and DWFNs to identify mutually acceptable mechanisms for surveillance. New systems are currently being developed, and perhaps an appropriate technology may be developed for the region. D. Meeting the Needs of South Pacific States In assessing the palpable gains accruing to them, it is invariably tempting to enumerate the benefits in terms of tangible gains acquired as opposed to the financial costs of being a member of a regional organisation. One is of course tempted to enumerate the benefits in terms of what may be perceived by the eye and felt by the hands. Moreover, in terms of their fisheries needs, one would also be inclined to determine the benefits of being an integral part of a regional organisation by pointing to tangible things such as fishermen's outboard engine, or fibreglass canoes, or new fishing equipment brought in as part of a rural fisheries project promoted by the regional organisation. The danger of perceiving benefits through the medium described above is the propensity to conclude that one's membership does in fact produce credible gains. In the author's view, the task of defining palpable gains in terms of value for money is by no means an easy task and it is not the intention of this discussion to enumerate the benefits of FFA in 154 those terms. F F A was born out of trends that evolved during negotiations for UNCLOS. Therefore, their needs and demands did not originate spontaneously. They eventually evolved specifically out of the acceptance by the international community of a new regime governing the various uses of the ocean. It is suggested that if the regulations governing the uses of the ocean had not been transformed by UNCLOS, they would not have had to respond to the changes that evolved out of UNCLOS and consequently they may not have had to establish an organisation such as FFA. Therefore, their needs as defined by this discussion are a function of the radical changes created by UNCLOS. The parameters of this evaluation is therefore confined to the needs that were created by UNCLOS. 1. FFA and Article 56 of UNCLOS The greatest challenge SPSs faced when they declared their EEZs was the exercise of their sovereign rights for purposes of managing, conserving and exploring and exploiting the tuna resources within the EEZ. It is submitted that perhaps the biggest gain they have enjoyed through FFA is the assertion of their sovereign management rights over the living resources particularly tuna in their E E Z . They were emphatic over the issue of sovereign rights over tuna. This was clearly demonstrated by the exclusion of DWFNs from FFA particularly the US because of her inconsistent policy on tuna. The evidence to support this assertion may be inferred from the recognition by Distant Water Fishing Nations of their sovereign rights over tuna in their EEZs. Al l DWFNs who fish in the region negotiated access agreements with individual 155 SPSs. This also includes the US who initially refused to recognize their sovereign rights over tuna. Moreover, all access agreements are premised on SPSs sovereign rights over tuna. They have indeed made substantial progress in this area of UNCLOS. The role of FFA in collecting, evaluating information, and coordinating the minimum terms and conditions, has helped them maintain control over the tuna resource. In this regard, the functions exercised by FFA are crucial to them. As a facilitator for fisheries development, many of them would not be able to make management decisions regarding the tuna without its services. The recognition of their sovereign rights in the EEZ has brought about greater financial returns through access agreements. It is suggested that legally they may claim that through FFA, their proclamation of EEZs and the sovereign rights therein, have not been rendered meaningless by their inability to enforce their sovereign rights. As a region, they have proven, by coordinating and harmonising their fisheries policies and legislation, they can achieve palpable gains. Furthermore, they have demonstrated greater regional unity through F F A . This is clearly evidenced by the multilateral access agreement they now have with the US. The author believes that they are now more confident and resolute in dealing with DWFNs. Undoubtedly, FFA has provided the means through which SPSs have been able to build up their confidence. With the information supplied by F F A , and its various other services, they need not feel misled by DWFNs. However, as indicated above, the author is of the opinion that South Pacific States must also endeavour to train their nationals to complement the functions and services provided by FFA. • They should not neglect the development of their national manpower. While they may rely on the services provided by FFA, they 156 must also train their nationals to build on the services provided by FFA. Occasionally, FFA programmes are not carried out effectively because of the lack of qualified national personnel(s) to continue the implementation of F F A programmes at the national level. It is suggested that economically, the recognition by DWFNs of SPSs sovereign rights over tuna has brought increased financial returns. These have not only been expressed in terms of direct finance in return for access. But, they have also benefitted from technical and development assistance which DWFNs provide under access arrangements. Thus they have also been able to benefit economically through the services of FFA. 2. FFA and Article 61 of UNCLOS It is argued that FFA has assisted them meet their obligations under Article 61 of UNCLOS. As indicated above, Article 61 obliges coastal States to determine the allowable catch of the living resources in its EEZ. It is submitted that its role in collecting, analysing and evaluating statistical and biological information with respect to tuna has enabled them to determine the allowable catch of tuna in their EEZs. While most of them do not normally specify the allowable catch in their access agreements, this does not necessarily connote that they are not able to determine the allowable catch. Present studies on the status of tuna in the region indicate that the stock is being harvested at sustainable levels. However, with the information available to them through FFA, they may, if the need arises, adopt conservation and management measures to ensure maintenance of the tuna stock. 157 Whether or not they adopt these measures is entirely their discretion. What is important however, is they are now able to exercise these measures. Without F F A , they would not be in a position to determine the allowable catch and thereby prescribe the allowable catch. In practise, however, most of them do not specify the allowable catch in their access agreements. While at present this may not seem to be a problem in the short term, it would be in their long term economic interest to endeavour to initiate conservation measures with respect to the exploitation of the tuna. This may be done in one of several ways; either by specifying the allowable catch, limiting effort, reducing the number of vessels, limiting the number of fishing days or restricting the type of fishing gear. While F F A is in a position to assist them promote the conservation of tuna, the ultimate decision to do so or not to do so rests entirely on them. They should now seriously consider shifting their collective effort towards conserving the tuna stock. The author is of the opinion that the amount of effort has increased over the years, and therefore, in view of this fact, the need to at least begin contemplating adopting conservation measures may be warranted. Although there is currently no evidence to indicate that the tuna stock is being depleted at non-sustainable levels, it would nonetheless be in their long term economic interest to consider rationalising the exploitation of the tuna stock. The upsurge in fishing effort is not only coming externally from DWFNs. They are also developing their internal tuna industries. Inevitably, they will be competing with DWFNs for the same fishery. They will then be confronted with the need to promote the concept of allowable catch to conserve the tuna at sustainable levels. 158 3. F F A and Artic le 62 of U N C L O S An important aspect of FFA's functions builds on Article 62 of UNCLOS. This is evidenced by the coordinating role FFA plays in harmonising fisheries legislation in the region. It is submitted that while the immediate management objective of most of them is to control foreign fishing in their EEZs, they have nonetheless developed legislation which are based on Article 62. Arguably, therefore, they have not only implemented Article 62 through legislation and regional State practice, but moreover, have even gone a step further by developing their own laws where no appropriate regulations currently exist under UNCLOS. For instance a classical illustration of their innovation towards developing the law of the sea may be inferred from the inception of the Regional Register. Article 62 provides that coastal States shall through "agreements or other appropriate arrangements" give other States access to the tuna stock. It is submitted that FFA's role in providing advice and other services in access agreement negotiations has arguably assisted them comply with the obligations stipulated thereunder. Arguably, it has also helped them contribute towards regional State practice with regards to Article 62, which points to the evolution of a regional customary international law. Undoubtedly, F F A has played a significant role in facilitating State practice in the region. The region encompasses the largest area of sea in the world, and therefore, it is submitted that the practice of coastal States in the region and DWFNs who fish in the region, is important in determining whether or not a norm has crystallised into customary international law. Furthermore, FFA has not only facilitated compliance with Article 62 through access agreements, but 159 more importantly, it has assisted them draft and enact fisheries legislation incorporating the laws and regulations stipulated under Article 62(4). As indicated above, Article 62 is one of the basic articles governing fisheries in the EEZ. In view of FFA's services, it is the opinion of the author that it has assisted them meet the various obligations stipulated under Article 62. As a result of its services, they have strengthened their position in access negotiations with DWFNs; enjoy increased revenue as a result of this strengthened position, improved their information base for decision making; have access to professional staff to supplement national capacity in fisheries management and development; and have alleviated the administrative burden on individual SPSs in areas such as the administration of multilateral access arrangements.526 It is submitted that FFA has been able to achieve success because of the vigorous support it has so far received from them. In order to maintain its success, it would no doubt continue to depend on their political good-will and the relations it has established with other international organisations. FFA is a dynamic organisation. Its work programme depends entirely on what they need. As indicated above, they must continue to follow the development of F F A with keen interest, and provide it with the financial and other support necessary to ensure its continual success. 4. FFA and Customary International Law It is arguable that through time the various measures they have adopted 526. Consultancy Report, supra note 516 at p. 8. 160 m a y assume a character approach ing customary in te rna t iona l law. In this regard, S u t h e r l a n d 6 2 7 states that, "when set a longside the legis lat ive innova t ions and other instances of coopera t ion , what emerges is a pat tern o f State pract ice w h i c h points to the onset of a reg ional custom s i g n i f i c a n t in legal consequences". However , whether or not the legislat ive innovat ions have c rys ta l l i zed into customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law is indeed debatable. What is cer ta in however , is that state p rac t i ce in the region does point to the onset o f a reg iona l cus tom that a l ready has s i g n i f i c a n t legal consequences. A t this stage perhaps it may be d o u b t f u l to c o n c l u d e that the legislat ive innovat ions and instances of coopera t ion in the region have a c h i e v e d customary in ternat iona l law status, because it has not acqui red g loba l u n i v e r s a l i t y in its app l ica t ion . T h e legis lat ive i n n o v a t i o n s are presently c o n f i n e d to the region. R e c e n t l y , however , there have been d ia logue between F F A a n d South East A s i a n countr ies and L a t i n A m e r i c a n countr ies . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the d iscuss ions have focussed on the adopt ion by South East A s i a n a n d L a t i n A m e r i c a n count r i es o f the R e g i o n a l Register , and the m i n i m u m terms a n d condi t ions . It is a r g u a b l e that i f adopted by those regions, it w o u l d cer ta in ly enhance the universa l a p p l i c a t i o n o f their legis lat ive innovat ions . A l t h o u g h it m a y not be possible at this stage to c o n c l u d e that there is a l r e a d y a peremptory n o r m of customary in te rna t iona l law, g iven that the t r a d i t i o n a l test to determine whether or not a n o r m does in fac t exist may not be s a t i s f i e d . It is s u f f i c e to ment ion that the legal deve lopments in the region do represent an emerg ing trend w h i c h over t ime c o u l d t r a n s f o r m into rules with s i g n i f i c a n t legal imp l ica t ions not on ly for the South P a c i f i c , but for other regions as wel l . 527. Sutherland, supra note 303 at p. 28. 161 It is submitted that through FFA, they have arguably contributed towards transforming UNCLOS into customary international law, in particular, the provisions pertaining to fisheries management. Notwithstanding the fact that contents of their respective fisheries legislation are not entirely congruous in all respects with UNCLOS, they are all based on the premise of coastal States sovereign rights over tuna, and the various rights and duties articulated under UNCLOS. Incidentally, none of the fisheries legislation digress significantly from U N C L O S to render them inconsistent and incompatible with UNCLOS. FFA has undoubtedly played a catalytic role in assisting them develop their management capacities. From a legal point of view, "FFA has been instrumental in the development of an emergent regional custom which, with time and sufficient State practice, could come to represent a progressive development of the law". 5 2 8 Contrary to the skeptical views expressed by certain writers, FFA has emerged as a significant facilitator for fisheries development in the region. It seems that no discussion of international fisheries regulation is complete without at least some reference to F F A , and its work in the region. Unfortunately, what these skeptics underestimated was the resolve of Pacific Islanders in what they fervently believed was right for them, and their strong commitment to regional cooperation. It is submitted that F F A and the region's contribution to the evolution of the Law of the Sea, is the development of a unique institutionalised system of fisheries management which they have been able to use effectively against DWFNs. No doubt as changes evolve in the fishery, they will correspondingly be required to respond to them accordingly, and naturally they will obviously depend on FFA to facilitate their response(s). In this connection, the author is of the opinion that the 528. Sutherland, supra note 303 at p. 28. 162 future figure of FFA rests entirely on their national needs. Nonetheless, SPSs and F F A have had ten years of significant legal achievements on which the future of F F A is solidly based. The lessons learnt from FFA and the various institutional arrangements it has helped spawn are relevant for other regions in the world. In view of the biological nature of the tuna resource, the South Pacific region must endeavour to build on the successes of FFA with other regions who also have an interest in the resource. 163 C O N C L U S I O N The formation of FFA is not a virtue in itself. It is justified only to the extent that it is the best option the region could have taken at the time. What makes the region unique, however, are three important factors. Firstly, the extremely small size of SPSs compared to other countries in other regions, and their ultra high level of economic dependence. Secondly, their recent transition, as a regional group, to a high degree of political and constitutional autonomy, and thirdly, their strong compulsion to the concept of a regional identity to offset individual weakness.529 The basis of the formation of FFA was economic. As indicated above, they are small, poor and vulnerable. But as Crocombe5 3 0 argues, their territorial limits include some significant assets - the region has the largest area of ocean with the richest source of tuna in the world and seabed resources. The region also has the highest voting power (relative to population size) in international agencies. It is argued that these and other resources lose much of their value unless coordinated and wielded in unison. The emergence of UNCLOS and the concomitant developments associated therewith, at the time when most island nations were obtaining political independence from their colonial subjugators meant that the concept of self-529. Hughes, Tony, "Independence for Sale", in Foreign Forces in Pacific Politics, supra note 18 at p. 250. 530. Crocombe, R., "Regional Cooperation: Overcoming the Counter-Pulls", in Foreign Forces in Pacific  Politics, supra note 18 at p. 178. 164 determination and extended maritime jurisdiction at least for them were intertwined virtually from the outset. However, their inherent economic, geographic and political difficulties indicated above also meant that the extension of maritime jurisdiction would only add to the burdensome problems they already faced. The formation of FFA and the regional legal developments it has fostered points to the onset of a regional law of the sea. Writing on the roles of regional law of the sea, Janis 5 3 1 said, "in an uncomplicated way, regional law of the sea may be no more at times than the coordination and promotion of legal claims of nations within a region. For reasons of similar historical background, shared geographical situations, or mutual political, economic or security concerns, States within a region may be in much more of an accord with each other than they are with nations outside the area. By banding together in making international legal claims, regional States not only iron out differences among themselves for the sake of harmony, but for the purpose of facing the world together - acting more effectively as a unit". This is precisely what FFA has done. It has brought about a greater sense of unity amongst SPSs. Moreover, they have been more effective in dealing with DWFNs as evidenced by the conclusion of the MFT with the US, and the recent conclusion of the Convention to ban driftnet fishing. They have developed an ocean regime built on UNCLOS, and where UNCLOS is silent, they have been innovative in developing regimes such as the regional register. Other regions are also endeavouring to formulate similar arrangements. The success of F F A would not have been possible without the fervent support of SPSs, and it is the author's opinion that the level of support demonstrated over the last ten years must 531. Janis, "The Roles of Regional Law of the Sea", San Diego Law Review. Vol . 12, 1975 at p. 554. 165 continue to be rendered. Needless to say, FFA's success is also attributed to its small size, flexibility, clear mandate from the SPF and its responsiveness to SPSs solicitations for assistance. The region is a fairly cohesive group without destructive rivalries. More important, however, is the fact that they all share the perceptions of common interest in the tuna resources and therefore, they were able to agree on the guiding principles of FFA and on its institutional structure. Recently, there have been calls for SPSs to reconsider their decision to exclude DWFNs from FFA. The common postulation is, the circumstances that led them to exclude DWFNs from F F A have dramatically transformed and therefore, there is no reason to continue to limit FFA to SPSs. While there are merits in admitting DWFNs to F F A , as there has always been from the very beginning, the interests of SPSs and DWFNs have not yet merged to the extent where they will be able to work together. SPSs still remain coastal States with substantial interest in controlling DWFNs operations in their EEZs, and obtaining maximum financial returns from these operations. Whereas DWFNs interests are, to obtain access to SPSs waters at the least possible financial cost. It has been suggested that unless DWFNs are members of F F A , it would never fulfill the mandate of an Article 64 type organisation. As argued above, however, FFA was never contemplated to be an Article 64 type organisation, and therefore, that argument no longer has any substantive relevance. The full value of their membership in F F A is for individual SPSs to determine. This discussion has endeavoured to articulate FFAs benefits only in terms of the legal developments it has fostered and coordinated. The needs of SPSs relevant to this discussion were those that arose out of the emergence of the EEZ, and the pertinent provisions, of UNCLOS pertaining to the management of tuna therein. In this regard, one can clearly ascertain the crystallisation of an ocean 166 management" regime""that "arguably points to the" onset of regional customary international law. Through FFA, SPSs have enhanced their management capabilities. They are able to deal with DWFNs, make management decisions regarding tuna, and moreover, it has brought about greater financial returns. It is doubtful if they would have enjoyed these benefits without FFA. Furthermore, it is also doubtful if they would have achieved the immense success they have accomplished with an organisation other than the type which they established. For a relatively young region with political novices to have achieved within a short span of time the remarkable successes so accomplished is indeed overwhelming. However, Pacific Islanders are unique, and so is the region within which they live. coo As Kent said, "approaches for dealing with concrete situations within each of the territories should be formulated by the people of those territories. Outside individuals and agencies may be consulted, but solutions to the problems of development ultimately should be designed by the people of the Pacific themselves. Only solutions which are essentially their own can be true solutions to their problems". F F A is a dynamic institution. Its services and directions may be transformed in accordance with the dictates and needs of SPSs. The past 10 years has been a period of construction and consolidation. The course it will take over the next 10 years will depend on where SPSs will want to chart its directions. This will require deep thought. The author believes however, that FFA will continue to play an important role in fisheries development in the region. SPSs have worked together in the past. They continue to work together in the present, and undoubtedly will continue to work in concert with one another in the future. 532. Kent, supra note 84 at p. 172. 167 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Aikman, C.C., "Island Nations of the South Pacific and Jurisdiction Over Highly Migratory Species", 17 Victoria University Law Review, 1987, pp. 101-124. Akehurst, M , A Modern Introduction to International Law (Sixth Edition), London, 1987. Brownlie, I., Principles of Public International Law, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1966. Burke, W.T., "Highly Migratory Species in the Law of the Sea", 14 Ocean Development and International Law, pp. 273-314. Burke, W.T., Fisheries Regulations Under Extended Jurisdiction and International Law, Rome, F A O of the U N Legislative Study No. 26, 1982. Burke, W.T., "Coastal State Fishery Regulation Under International Law: A Comment on the La Bretagne Award of July 17, 1986, (the arbitration between Canada and France)", San Diego Law Review, Vol. 25, 1988. Burke, W.T., "The Law of the Sea Convention Provisions on Access of Fisheries Subject to National Jurisdiction", Oregon Law Review, Vol. 63, 1984. Burke, W.T., "U.S. Fishery Management and the New Law of the Sea", 76 American Journal of International Law, Vol. 76, 1982. Burke, W.T., and McDougal, The Public Order of the Oceans: A Contemporary International Law of the Sea, Yale University Press, 1962. Cass, D., "The Quiet Revolution: The Development of the Exclusive Economic Zone and Implications for Foreign Access in the Pacific", Melbourne University Law Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1987. Caron, D.D., "International Sanctions, Ocean Management and the Law of the Sea: A Study of the Denial of Access to Fisheries", Ecology Law Quarterly, Vol. 16, 1989. Child, T., and Haley, J.T., "Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Fishery Conservation and Management Act: The Need for Balance", Washington Law Review, Vol. 56, 1989. Churchill, R.R., and Lowe, A.V., The Law of the Sea, Manchester University Press, 1983. 168 -T.--- - -• • ; : : j „ Crocombe, R., "Regional Cooperation: Overcoming the Counter-pulls" in Foreign Forces in Pacific Politics, Suva, 1983. Crocombe, R., The South Pacific: An Introduction, Longman Paul, 1987. Cycon, D.E., "Managing Fisheries in Developing Nations: A Plea for Appropriate Development", Natural Resources Journal, Vol. 26, 1986. Dahmani, M , The Fisheries Regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987. Doulman, J.D., "In Pursuit of Fisheries Cooperation: The South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency", 10 University of Hawaii Law Review, No. 1, 1988. Doulman, J.D., (ed.), The Development of the Tuna Industry in the Pacific Islands Region: An Analysis of Options, Eastwest Center, 1987. Doulman, J.D., (ed.), Tuna Issues and Perspectives in the Pacific Islands Region, Eastwest Center, 1987. Doulman, J.D., "The Kiribati-Soviet Union Fishing Agreement", Pacific Viewpoint, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1987. Douglas Norman & Ngaire, Pacific Islands Yearbook, (16th Edition), Angus Robertson & Publishers, 1989. Eisenbud, R., "Problems and Prospects for the Pelagic Driftnet", Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1985. Fleischer, C.A., The New Regime of Maritime Fisheries, Recueil Des Cours, Vol. I, 1988. Frederica, M.B. and Cooke, W.M, (eds.), Oceania: A Regional Study, (2nd Edition), III American University (Washington, D.C.), 1985. Freeman, W.O. (ed.), Geography of the Pacific, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., London, 1966. Glantz, M.H., Man, State and Fisheries: An Inquiry Into Some Societal Constraints That Affect Fisheries Management, Ocean Development and International Law, 1986. Greig, D.W., International Law, (2nd Edition), Butterworths, London, 1976. Harris, D.J., Cases and Materials on International Law, (2nd Edition), Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1979. Hollick, L.A., The Origins of 200 Mile Offshore Zones, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 71, 1977. 169 Hooves, D.C., A Case Against International Management of Highly Migratory Fishery Resources: The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, Vol. 11, 1984. Hudson, C , Fishery and Economic Zones as Customary International Law, San Diego Law Review, Vo.. 17, 1980. Jones, G.K., Freedom of Fishing in Decline: The Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 and the Implications for Japan, California Western International Law Journal, Vol. 11, No.l, 1981. Joseph, J., Some Observations on Fisheries Management in the South Pacific Ocean, FFC17/TM3/3.17, 1989. Kearney, R.E., The Law of the Sea and Regional Fisheries Policy, Ocean Development and International Law, Vol. 5, 1978. . Kelly, C.R., Law of the Sea: The Jurisdictional Dispute Over Highly Migratory Species of Tuna, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1988. Kengalu, A . M , Embargo: The Jeanette Diana Affair, Robert Brown and Associates, 1988. Kent, G., The Politics of Pacific Islands Fisheries, Westview Press/Boulder, Colorado, 1980. Kinot, J.W., The Law of the Sea: Anadromous and Catadromous fish stocks, sedentary species, and highly migratory species, Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce, Vol. 11, 1984. Koers, W.A., The Enforcement of Fisheries Agreements on the High Seas: A Comparative Analysis of International State Practice, Law of the Sea Institute, 1970. Kunatuba, P., Inshore Fisheries Development and Management: The South Pacific Experience: An Overview, South Pacific Commission, 1988. Kurz, L.J., Continental Shelf and International Law: Confusion and Abuse, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 7, 1956. MacLean, W.O., and Sucharitkul, S., Fisheries Management and Development in the EEZ: The North, South and Southwest Pacific Experience, Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 63, 1988. Macrae, D . M , Approaches to the Resolution of Atlantic and Pacific Ocean Problems, Ecology Law Quarterly, Vol. 16, 1989. 170 Macrae, M L . , The Fisheries Conservation and Management Act: The States Role in Domestic and International Fishery Management, Dickinson Law Review, Vol. 88, 1984. McNair, Lord, The Law of Treaties, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1961. Moore, J.N., International and United States Documents on Oceans Law and Policy, William S. Hein & Co., Inc., Vol. 3 & Vol. 4, 1986. Moore, G., Principles of Fisheries Legislation Under the New Law of the Sea, Fisheries Law Advisory Programme Circular No. 5, F A O , Rome, 1986. Neemia, V.F., Cooperation and Conflict: Costs, Benefits and National Interests in Pacific Regional Cooperation, Suva, 1986. Nordquist, M.H., & Krueger, R.B., The Evolution of the 200 Mile Exclusive Economic Zone in the Pacific Basin, Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1978. Nordquist, M.H., & Simmonds, K.R., New Directions in the Law of the Sea Documents, Vol. IX, Oceania Publications, Inc., 1980. O'Connell, D.P., The International Law of the Sea, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1982. Oda, S., Fisheries Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 77, 1983. Oda, S., International Control of Sea Resources, (2nd Edition), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1989. Oda, S., The International Law of the Ocean Development: Basic Documents, Sijthoff, 1975. Oppenheim, L., International Law: A Treatise, (8th Edition), London, 1955. Philipson, P.W., (ed.), The Marketing of Marine Products from the South Pacific, Suva, 1989. Politics in the Pacific Islands, Foreign Forces in Pacific Politics, Suva, 1983. Ramp, F.L., Regional Law of the Sea: A Proposal for the Pacific, Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1978. Rasmussen, N.P., Tuna War: Fishery Jurisdiction in International Law, University of Illinois, Nos. 3-4, 1981. Redigo, I.D., Fisheries Management in the Gulf of Mexico: Impact of Two Tuna Exception to the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976, Louisiana Law Review, Vol. 42, 1982. 171 Reiff, H., The United States and the Treaty Law of the Sea, University of Minnesota Press, 1959. Rembe, N.S., Africa and the International Law of the Sea: A Study of the Contribution of the African States to the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, Sijthoff & Noordhoff Publishers, 1980. Scheiber, H.N., Pacific Ocean Resources, Science and Law of the Sea: Wilbert Chapurau and the Pacific Fisheries, 1945-70, Ecology Law Quarterly, Vol. 13, 1986. Slade N., Forum Fisheries Agency and the Next Decade: The Legal Aspects, FFC 17/TM3/3.7, 1989. Slayter, A.J. & Clerk, L.G., Economic Development and Management of Fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zones of Pacific Island States in the Developing Order of the Oceans, Krueger, R.B., & Riesenfeld, S.A. (ed.), 1984. Sutherland, M.W., Coastal State Cooperation in Fisheries: Emergent Regional Custom in the South Pacific, International Journal of Estuarine and Coastal Law, Vol. 1(1), 1986. Sutherland, M.W., Management, Conservation and Cooperation in the EEZ Fishing: The Law of the Sea Convention and the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency, Ocean Development and International Law, Vol. 18, 1987. Swan, J., Highly Migratory Species - The South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency: Implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention Through International Institutions, 23rd Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, 1988. Swan, J., Foreign Fishing: The Legal Regime in Small Jurisdictions, FFA Report, No. 89/4. Swan, J., Report on Legal Development in F F A Member Countries, 1988/89, F F A Report No. 89/67. Teiwaki, R., Management of Marine Resources in Kiribati, Suva, 1988. Tsamenyi, B.M., The Jeanette Diana Dispute [Regina v. Jose Francisco Silva Finette and C&F Fishing Limited], Ocean Development and International Law, Vol. 16, 1986. Tsamenyi, B.M., The South Pacific States, the U.S.A. and sovereignty over highly migratory species, Marine Policy, Vol. 10, January 1986. Tsamenyi, B.M., The Treaty- on Fisheries Between the Governments of Certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the United States of 172 America: The Final Chapter in United States Tuna Policy, Brooklyn Journal of International Law, Vol. 25(2), 1989. Van Dyke, J., & Heftel, S., Tuna Management in the Pacific: An Analysis of the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency, University of Hawaii Law Review, Vol. 3, 1981. Woodworth, D.C., U.S. Tuna: A Proposal for Resource Management in the American Pacific Islands, University of Hawaii Law Review, Vol. 10, 1988. SOURCE: David 0. Doulman^ (ed,) Tuna, Issues and Perspectives ~ the Pacific Isjands R^Vgrv, Q987)., Eastwest Center Honolulu, Hawaii, : ^ APPENDIX Appendix 1. The Nauru Agreement NAURU AGREEMENT CONCERNING CO-OPERATION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES OF C O M M O N INTEREST The Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Kiribati, the Mar-shall Islands, the Republic of Nauru, the Republic of Palau, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands: TAKING into account the work of the Third United Nations Confer-ence on the Law of the Sea; NOTING that in accordance with the relevant principles of international law each of the Parties has established an exclusive economic zone or fisheries zone (hereinafter respectively called "the Fisheries Zones") which may extend 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which their respective territorial seas are measured and within which they respectively and separately exercise sovereign rights for the purposes of exploring, exploiting, conserving and managing all living marine resources; HAVING REGARD to the objectives of the South Pacific Forum Fish-eries Agency Convention and in particular the promotion of regional co-operation and co-ordination of fisheries policies and the need for the urgent implementation of these objectives through regional or sub-regional arrangements; CONSCIOUS of the exploitation of the common stocks of fish, both within the Fisheries Zones and in the water adjacent thereto, by the distant water fishing nations; MINDFUL of their dependence, as developing island states, upon the rational development and optimum utilisation of the living resources occurring within the Fisheries Zones and in particular, the common stocks of the fish therein; RECOGNISING that only by co-operation In the management of the Fisheries Zones may their peoples be assured of receiving the maxi-mum benefits from such resources; and DESIROUS of establishing, without prejudice to the sovereign rights of each Party, arrangements by which this may be achieved; HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS: 273 274 David }. Doulman ARTICLE I The Parties shall seek, without any derogation of their respective sover-eign rights, to co-ordinate and harmonise the management of fisheries with regard to common stocks within the Fisheries Zones, for the benefit of their peoples. ARTICLE II The Parties shall seek to establish a co-ordinated approach to the fish-ing of the common stocks in the Fisheries Zones by foreign fishing ves-sels and in particular: (a) shall establish principles for the granting of priority to applications by fishing vessels of the Parties to fish within the Fisheries Zones over other foreign fishing vessels; (b) shall establish, as a minimum, uniform terms and conditions un-der which the Parties may licence foreign fishing vessels to fish within the Fisheries Zones regarding: (i) the requirement that each foreign fishing vessel apply for and possess a licence or permit; (ii) the placement of observers on foreign fishing vessels; (iii) the requirement that a standardized form of log book be main-tained on a day-to-day basis which shall be produced at the direction of the competent authorities; (iv) the timely reporting to the competent authorities of required information concerning the entry, exit and other movement and activities of foreign fishing vessels within the Fisheries Zones; and (v) standardized Identification of foreign fishing vessels; (c) seek to establish other uniform terms and conditions under which the Parties may licence foreign fishing vessels to fish within the Fish-eries Zones, including:! (i) the payment of an access fee, which shall be calculated In ac-cordance with principles established by the Parties; (ii) the requirement to supply to the competent authorities com-plete catch and effort data for each voyage; (Hi) the requirement to supply to the competent authorities such additional information as the Parties may determine to be necessary; (iv) the requirement that the flag State of organisations having authority over a foreign fishing vessel take such measures as Nauru Group 275 are necessary to ensure compliance by such vessel with the rele-vant fisheries law of the Parties; and (v) such other terms and conditions as the Parties may from time to time consider necessary. ARTICLE III The Parties shall seek to standardize their respective licensing proce-dures and in particular: (a) seek to establish and adopt uniform measures and procedures relat-ing to the licensing of foreign fishing vessels, including application formats,, licensing formats and other relevant documents; and (b) explore the possibility of establishing, without prejudice to the respective sovereign rights of the Parties, a centralised licensing sys-tem of foreign fishing vessels. ARTICLE IV The Parties shall seek the assistance of the South Pacific Forum Fisher-ies Agency in establishing procedures and administrative arrangements for the exchange and analysis of: (a) statistical data concerning catch and effort by Ashing vessels In the Fisheries Zones relating to the common stocks of fish; and (b) information relating to vessel specifications and fleet composition. ARTICLE V 1. The Parties shall seek the assistance of the South Pacific Forum Fish-eries Agency in providing secretariat services for implementing and co-ordinating the provisions of this Agreement. 2. An annual meeting of the Parties shall be convened preceding or following the regular session of the Forum Fisheries Committee in order to promote the implementation of this Agreement. Additional meetings may be convened at the request of three or more Parties. Such requests shall be communicated to the Director of the Forum Fisheries Agency who will Inform the other Parties. 3. With the concurrence of the Parties, members of the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency, not Parties to this Agreement, may attend, as observers, the meetings referred to In this Article. ARTICLE VI The Parties shall, where appropriate, co-operate and co-ordinate the monitoring and surveillance of foreign fishing activities by: 276 David ). Doulman (a) arranging for the rapid exchange of information collected through national surveillance activities; (b) exploring the feasibility of joint surveillance; and (c) developing other appropriate measures. ARTICLE VII The Parties shall seek to develop co-operative and co-ordinated proce-dures to facilitate the enforcement of their fisheries laws and shall in particular examine the various means by which a regime of reciprocal enforcement may be established. ARTICLE VIII Nothing contained in this Agreement shall be construed as a deroga-tion of any of the rights and obligations undertaken by any of the Par-ties under the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency Convention or any other international agreement in effect on the date on which this Agree-ment enters into force. ARTICLE IX The Parties shall conclude arrangements where necessary to facilitate the implementation of the terms and to attain the objectives of this Agreement. The Parties concluding such arrangements shall lodge copies with the depositary of this Agreement. ARTICLE X 1. This Agreement shall be open for signature by the States named in the preamble hereto and shall be subject to ratification. 2. This Agreement shall enter into force thirty days following receipt by the depositary of the fifth instrument of ratification. Thereafter it shall enter into force for any signing or acceding State thirty days after receipt by the depositary of an instrument of ratification or accession. 3. This Agreement shall be deposited with the Government of Solo-mon Islands which shall be responsible for its registration with the United Nations. ; 4. Following entry into force, this Agreement shall be open for acces-sion by other States with the concurrence of all of the Parties to this Agreement. 5. Reservations to this Agreement shall not be permitted. Nauru Croup 277 ARTICLE XI 1. This Agreement is a binding international agreement concluded among States and is governed by international law. 2. Any Party may withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notice to the depositary. Withdrawal shall take effect one year after receipt of such notice. 3. Any amendments to this Agreement proposed by a Party shall only be adopted by unanimous decision of the Parties. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorised by their respective Governments, have signed the Agreement. DONE at Nauru this eleventh day of February One Thousand Nine Hundred and Eighty Two. For the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia in For the Government of the Republic of Kiribati For the Government of the Marshall Islands For the Government of the Republic of Nauru For the Government of the Republic of Palau i • i For the Government of Papua New Guinea For the Government of Solomon Islands SOURCE; George Kent, The Politics of Pacific Island  s (1980), Hestview Press, Boulder, Colorado. APPENDIX iij The Forum | Fisheries Agency Convention (Adopted by the South Pacific Forum at Honiara, Solomon Islands in July 1979.) T H E G O V E R N M E N T S COMPRISING T H E SOUTH PACIFIC F O R U M Noting the Declaration on Law of the Sea and a Regional Fisheries Agency adopted at the 8th South Pacific Forum held In Port Moresby in August 1977; Recognising their common Interest in the conservation and optimum utilisation of the living marine resources of the South Pacific region and In particular of the highly migratory species; Desiring to promote regional co-operation and co-ordination In respect of fisheries policies! Bearing In mind recent developments In the law of the seaj Concerned to secure the maximum benefits from the living marine resources of the region for the peoples and for the region as a whole and In particular the developing countries; and Desiring to facilitate the collection, analysis, evaluation and dissemination of relevant statistical scientific and economic Information about the living marine resources of the region, and In particular the highly migratory species; H A V E A G R E E D AS FOLLOWS: Article I  Agency 1. There is hereby established a South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency. 2. The Agency shall consist of a Forum Fisheries Committee and a Secretariat. 3. The seat of the Agency shall be at Honiara, Solomon Islands. - 171 -T H E POLITICS OP PACIFIC ISLANDS FISHERIES Article II  Membership Membership of the Agency shall be open to: (a) members of the South Pacific Forum; (b) other states or territories in the region on the recommendation of the Committee and with the approval of the Forum. Article m 1 Recognition of Coastal States' Rights | J 1. The Parties to this Convention recognise that the coastal state : has sovereign rights, for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, ; conserving and managing the living marine resources, Including highly ; • migratory species, within its exclusvie economic zone or fishing zone i;. which may extend 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the :'•! breadth of its territorial sea Is measured. i 2. Without prejudice to Paragraph (1) of this Article the Parties j j recognise that effective co-operation for the conservation and optimum ; utilisation of the highly migratory species of the region will require the 11 establishment of additional International machinery to provide for ' 1 co-operation between all coastal states In the region and all states | involved in the harvesting of such resources. Article IV  Committee 1. The Committee shall hold a regular session at least once every year. A special session shall be held at any time at the request of at least four Parties. The Committee shall endeavour to take decisions by consensus. 2. Where consensus Is not possible each Party shall have one vote and decisions shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting. 3. T h e Committee shall adopt such rules of procedure and other Internal administrative regulations as It considers necessary. 4. The Committee may establish such sub-committees, Including technical and budget sub-committees as It may consider necessary. 5. The South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) may participate In the work of the Committee. States, territories and other International organisations may participate as observers in accordance with such criteria as the Committee may determine. - 174 -FORUM FISHERIES AGENCY CONVENTION Article V  Functions of the Commtttee 1. The functions of the Committee shall be as follows: (a) to provide detailed policy and administrative guidance and direction to the Agency; (b) to provide a forum for Parties to consult together on matters of common concern in the field of fisheries; (c) to carry out such other functions as may be necessary to give effect to this Convention. 2. ' In particular the Committee shall promote Intra-regional co-ordination and co-operation in the following fields: (a) harmonisation of policies with respect to fisheries management; (b) co-operation in respect of relations with distant water fishing countries;-' (c) co-operation in surveillance and enforcement; (d) co-operation In respect of onshore fbh processing; (e) co-operation In marketing; (f) co-operation In respect of access to the 200 mile zones of other Parties. Article VI  Director, Staff and Budget 1. The Committee shall appoint a Director of the Agency on such conditions as It may determine. 2. The Committee may appoint a Deputy Director of the Agency on such conditions as It may determine. 3. The Director may appoint other staff in accordance with such rules and conditions as the Committee may determine. 4. The Director shall submit to the Committee for approval: (a) an annual report on the activities of the Agency for the preceding year; (b) a draft work programme and budget for the succeeding year. 5. The approved report, budget and work programme shall be submitted to the Forum. 6. The budget shall be financed by contributions according to the shares set out in the Annex to this Convention. The Annex shall be subject to review from time to time by the Committee. 7. The Committee shall adopt financial regulations for the admi-nistration of the finances of the Agency. Such regulations may authorise the Agency to accept contributions from private or public sources. 6. All questions concerning the budget of the Agency, Including contributions to the budget, shall be determined by the Committee. 9. In advance of the Committee's approval of the budget, the Agency - 175 -THE POLITICS OF PACIFIC ISLANDS FISHERIES •-"IML t 0 ! ^ U r e x P e n d i t u r « "P *° « "mil not exceeding two-thirds of the preceding year's approved budgetary expenditure. Article VII  Functions of the Agency Subject to direction by the Committee the Agency shall: (a) collect, analyse, evaluate and disseminate to Parties relevant statistical and biological Information with respect to the living marine resources of the region and In particular the highly migratory species; (b) collect and disseminate to Parties relevant Information concerning management procedures, legislation and agreements adopted by other countries both within and beyond the region; (c) collect and disseminate to Parties relevant information on prices, shipping, processing and marketing of fish and fish products; (d) •provide, on request, to any Party technical advice and information, assistance in the development of fisheries policies and negotiations, and assistance In the Issue of licences, the collection of fees or in matters pertaining to surveillance and enforcement; (e) seek to establish working arrangements with relevant regional and International organisations, particularly the South Pacific Commission; and (f) such other functions the Committee may decide. Article VIP,  Legal Status, Privileges and Immunities 1. The Agency shall ;have legal personality and in particular the capacity to contract, to acquire and dispose of movable and immovable property and to sue and be sued. 2. The Agency shall be Immune from suit and other legal process and Its property shall be Inviolable. 3. Subject to approval; by the Committee the Agency shall promptly conclude an agreement with the Government of the Solomon Islands providing for such privileges and immunities as may be necessary for the proper discharge of the functions of the Agency. - 176 -FORUM FISHERIES AGENCY CONVENTION Article IX  Information The Parties shall provide the Agency with available and appropriate information Including: (a) catch and effort statistics In respect of fishing operations In waters under their jurisdiction or conducted by vessels under their jurisdiction (b) relevant laws, regulations and International agreements; (c) relevant biological and statistical data; and (d) action with respect to decisions taken by the Committee. Article X Signature, Accession, Entry Into Force 1. This Convention shall be open for signature by members of the South Pacific Forum. 2. This Convention is not subject to ratification and shall enter into force 30 days following the eighth signature. Thereafter it shall enter into force for any signing or acceding state thirty days after signature or the receipt by the depositary of an Instrument of accession. 3. This Convention shall be deposited with the Coverment of the Solomon Islands (herein referred to as the depositary) who shall be responsible for its registration with the United Nations. 4. States or territories admitted to membership of the Agency In accordance with Article n(b) shall deposit an Instrument of accession with the depositary. 5. Reservations to this Convention shall not be permitted. Article XI  Withdrawal and Amendment 1. Any Party may withdraw from this Convention by giving written notice to the depositary. Withdrawal shall take effect one year after receipt of such notice. 2. Any party may propose amendments to the Convention for consideration by the Committee. The text of any amendment shall be adopted by a unanimous decision. The Committee may determine the procedures for entry Into force of amendments to this Convention. - 177 -

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